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Sample records for csi calorimeter crystals

  1. The Mu2e undoped CsI crystal calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanov, N.; Baranov, V.; Budagov, J.; Cervelli, F.; Colao, F.; Cordelli, M.; Corradi, G.; Davydov, Y. I.; Di Falco, S.; Diociaiuti, E.; Donati, S.; Donghia, R.; Echenard, B.; Giovannella, S.; Glagolev, V.; Grancagnolo, F.; Happacher, F.; Hitlin, D. G.; Martini, M.; Miscetti, S.; Miyashita, T.; Morescalchi, L.; Murat, P.; Pedreschi, E.; Pezzullo, G.; Porter, F.; Raffaelli, F.; Ricci, M.; Saputi, A.; Sarra, I.; Spinella, F.; Tassielli, G.; Tereshchenko, V.; Usubov, Z.; Zhu, R. Y.

    2018-02-01

    The Mu2e experiment at Fermilab will search for Charged Lepton Flavor Violating conversion of a muon to an electron in an atomic field. The Mu2e detector is composed of a tracker, an electromagnetic calorimeter and an external system, surrounding the solenoid, to veto cosmic rays. The calorimeter plays an important role to provide: a) excellent particle identification capabilities; b) a fast trigger filter; c) an easier tracker track reconstruction. Two disks, located downstream of the tracker, contain 674 pure CsI crystals each. Each crystal is read out by two arrays of UV-extended SiPMs. The choice of the crystals and SiPMs has been finalized after a thorough test campaign. A first small scale prototype consisting of 51 crystals and 102 SiPM arrays has been exposed to an electron beam at the BTF (Beam Test Facility) in Frascati. Although the readout electronics were not final, results show that the current design is able to meet the timing and energy resolution required by the Mu2e experiment.

  2. CsI calorimeter of the CMD-3 detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aulchenko, V.M.; Bondar, A.E.; Erofeev, A.L.; Kovalenko, O.A.; Kozyrev, A.N.; Kuzmin, A.S.; Logashenko, I.B.; Razuvaev, G.P.; Ruban, A.A.; Shebalin, V.E.; Shwartz, B.A.; Talyshev, A.A.; Titov, V.M.; Yudin, Yu.V.; Epifanov, D.A.

    2015-01-01

    The VEPP-2000 e + e − collider has been operated at Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics since 2010. The experiments are performed with two detectors CMD-3 and SND. The calorimetry at the CMD-3 detector is based on three subsystems, two coaxial barrel calorimeters—Liquid Xenon Calorimeter and crystal CsI calorimeter, and endcap calorimeter with BGO crystals. This paper describes the CsI calorimeter of the CMD-3 detector. The calorimeter design, its electronics and calibration procedures are discussed

  3. Radiation hardness test of un-doped CsI crystals and Silicon Photomultipliers for the Mu2e calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccaro, S.; Cemmi, A.; Cordelli, M.; Diociaiuti, E.; Donghia, R.; Giovannella, S.; Loreti, S.; Miscetti, S.; Pillon, M.; Sarra, I.

    2017-11-01

    The Mu2e calorimeter is composed by 1400 un-doped CsI crystals coupled to large area UV extended Silicon Photomultipliers arranged in two annular disks. This calorimeter has to provide precise information on energy, timing and position. It should also be fast enough to handle the high rate background and it must operate and survive in a high radiation environment. Simulation studies estimated that, in the hottest regions, each crystal will absorb a dose of 300 Gy and will be exposed to a neutron fluency of 6 × 1011 n/cm2 in 3 years of running. Test of un-doped CsI crystals irradiated up to 900 Gy and to a neutron fluency up to 9 × 1011 n/cm2 have been performed at CALLIOPE and FNG ENEA facilities in Italy. We present our study on the variation of light yield (LY) and longitudinal response uniformity (LRU) of these crystals after irradiation. The ionization dose does not modify LRU while a 20% reduction in LY is observed at 900 Gy. Similarly, the neutron flux causes an acceptable LY deterioration (≤ 15%). A neutron irradiation test on different types of SIPMs (two different array models from Hamamatsu and one from FBK) have also been carried out by measuring the variation of the leakage current and the charge response to an ultraviolet led. We concluded that, in the experiment, we will need to cool down the SIPMs to 0 °C reduce the leakage current to an acceptable level.

  4. The Status of GLAST CsI Calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chekhtman, A.

    2003-09-18

    GLAST is a gamma-ray observatory for celestial sources in the energy range from 20 MeV to 300 GeV. This is NASA project with launch anticipated in 2006. The principal instrument of the GLAST mission is the Large Area Telescope (LAT), consisting of an Anti Coincidence Detector (ACD), a silicon-strip detector Tracker (TKR) and a hodoscopic CsI Calorimeter (CAL). It consists of 16 identical modules arranged in a 4 x 4 array. Each module has horizontal dimensions 38 x 38 cm{sup 2} and active thickness 8.5 radiation length. It contains 96 CsI (Tl) crystals arranged in 8 layers with 12 crystals per layer. The scintillation light is measured by PIN photodiodes mounted on both ends of each crystal. The sum of signals at the two ends of the crystal provides the energy measurement. The difference in these signals provides the position measurement along the crystal. The calorimeter was designed to meet the goals of good energy resolution (better than 10% for photon energies 100 MeV-100 GeV), position resolution of {approx} 1 mm for photon energies > 1 GeV, and a rejection factor of > 100 for charged cosmic rays, under limitations on calorimeter weight (95 kg per module) and power consumption (6 W per module). The Monte Carlo simulation and prototype beam test results confirm that proposed design meets the requirements. Calorimeter production is planned to start in 2003.

  5. CsI Calorimeter for a Compton-Pair Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, Eric J.

    We propose to build and test a hodoscopic CsI(Tl) scintillating-crystal calorimeter for a medium-energy γ-ray Compton and pair telescope. The design and technical approach for this calorimeter relies deeply on heritage from the Fermi LAT CsI Calorimeter, but it dramatically improves the low-energy performance of that design by reading out the scintillation light with silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs), making the technology developed for Fermi applicable in the Compton regime. While such a hodoscopic calorimeter is useful for an entire class of medium-energy γ-ray telescope designs, we propose to build it explicitly to support beam tests and balloon flight of the Proto-ComPair telescope, the development and construction of which was funded in a four-year APRA program beginning in 2015 ("ComPair: Steps to a Medium Energy γ-ray Mission" with PI J. McEnery of GSFC). That award did not include funding for its CsI calorimeter subsystem, and this proposal is intended to cover that gap. ComPair is a MIDEX-class instrument concept to perform a high-sensitivity survey of the γ-ray sky from 0.5 MeV to 500 MeV. ComPair is designed to provide a dramatic increase in sensitivity relative to previous instruments in this energy range (predominantly INTEGRAL/SPI and Compton COMPTEL), with the same transformative sensitivity increase - and corresponding scientific return- that the Fermi Large Area Telescope provided relative to Compton EGRET. To enable transformative science over a broad range of MeV energies and with a wide field of view, ComPair is a combined Compton telescope and pair telescope employing a silicon-strip tracker (for Compton scattering and pair conversion and tracking) and a solid-state CdZnTe calorimeter (for Compton absorption) and CsI calorimeter (for pair calorimetry), surrounded by a plastic scintillator anti-coincidence detector. Under the current proposal, we will complete the detailed design, assembly, and test of the CsI calorimeter for the risk

  6. Development of the CsI Calorimeter Subsystem for AMEGO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, J. Eric; Woolf, Richard; Johnson, W. Neil; Phlips, Bernard

    2018-01-01

    We report on the development of the thallium-doped cesium iodide (CsI:Tl) calorimeter subsystem for the All-Sky Medium-Energy Gamma-ray Observatory (AMEGO). The CsI calorimeter is one of the three main subsystems that comprise the AMEGO instrument suite; the others include the double-sided silicon strip detector (DSSD) tracker/converter and a cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) calorimeter. Similar to the LAT instrument on Fermi, the hodoscopic calorimeter consists of orthogonally layered CsI bars. Unlike the LAT, which uses PIN photodiodes, the scintillation light readout from each end of the CsI bar is done with recently developed large-area silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) arrays. We currently have an APRA program to develop the calorimeter technology for a larger, future space-based gamma-ray observatory. Under this program, we are building and testing a prototype calorimeter consisting of 24 CsI bars (16.7 mm x 16.7 mm x 100 mm) arranged in 4 layers with 6 bars per layer. The ends of each bar are read out with a 2 x 2 array of 6 mm x 6 mm SensL J series SiPMs. Signal readout and processing is done with the IDEAS SIPHRA (IDE3380) ASIC. Performance testing of this prototype will be done with laboratory sources, a beam test, and a balloon flight in conjunction with the other subsystems led by NASA GSFC. Additionally, we will test 16.7 mm x 16.7 mm x 450 mm CsI bars with SiPM readout to understand the performance of longer bars in advance of the developing the full instrument.Acknowledgement: This work was sponsored by the Chief of Naval Research (CNR) and NASA-APRA (NNH15ZDA001N-APRA).

  7. The CMS crystal calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Lustermann, W

    2004-01-01

    The measurement of the energy of electrons and photons with very high accuracy is of primary importance far the study of many physics processes at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), in particular for the search of the Higgs Boson. The CMS experiment will use a crystal calorimeter with pointing geometry, almost covering 4p, as it offers a very good energy resolution. It is divided into a barrel composed of 61200 lead tungstate crystals, two end-caps with 14648 crystals and a pre-shower detector in front of the end-cap. The challenges of the calorimeter design arise from the high radiation environment, the 4 Tesla magnetic eld, the high bunch crossing rate of 40 MHz and the large dynamic range, requiring the development of fast, radiation hard crystals, photo-detectors and readout electronics. An overview of the construction and design of the calorimeter will be presented, with emphasis on some of the details required to meet the demanding performance goals. 19 Refs.

  8. Quality Assurance on Undoped CsI Crystals for the Mu2e Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanov, N.; Baranov, V.; Budagov, J.; Davydov, Yu. I.; Glagolev, V.; Tereshchenko, V.; Usubov, Z.; Cervelli, F.; Di Falco, S.; Donati, S.; Morescalchi, L.; Pedreschi, E.; Pezzullo, G.; Raffaelli, F.; Spinella, F.; Colao, F.; Cordelli, M.; Corradi, G.; Diociaiuti, E.; Donghia, R.; Giovannella, S.; Happacher, F.; Martini, M.; Miscetti, S.; Ricci, M.; Saputi, A.; Sarra, I.; Echenard, B.; Hitlin, D. G.; Hu, C.; Miyashita, T.; Porter, F.; Zhang, L.; Zhu, R.-Y.; Grancagnolo, F.; Tassielli, G.; Murat, P.

    2018-02-01

    The Mu2e experiment is constructing a calorimeter consisting of 1,348 undoped CsI crystals in two disks. Each crystal has a dimension of 34 x 34 x 200 mm, and is readout by a large area silicon PMT array. A series of technical specifications was defined according to physics requirements. Preproduction CsI crystals were procured from three firms: Amcrys, Saint-Gobain and Shanghai Institute of Ceramics. We report the quality assurance on crystal's scintillation properties and their radiation hardness against ionization dose and neutrons. With a fast decay time of 30 ns and a light output of more than 100 p.e./MeV measured with a bi-alkali PMT, undoped CsI crystals provide a cost-effective solution for the Mu2e experiment.

  9. CsI calorimeter with 3-D position resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schopper, F.; Andritschke, R.; Shaw, H.; Nefzger, C.; Zoglauer, A.; Schoenfelder, V.; Kanbach, G.

    2000-01-01

    New γ-ray calorimeter have been developed for the MEGA Compton camera. They consist of arrays of small CsI(Tl) scintillator bars read out by Silicon PIN-diodes and low noise, self-triggering frontend electronics. The length of the bars (the thickness of the calorimeter) can be varied for different applications to fit the stopping power needed and the light loss tolerable. In this paper we present calibration results from 2 cm long bars with diodes on one side, and 8 cm long bars with diodes on two opposite sides. Double-sided readout gives 3-D information of interactions which will be used to overcome the limited position resolution in Anger-cameras at high energies. Simpler detection devices like Anger-cameras might finally resolve only the centre of gravity. As events from γ-rays with energies of MeV do extend over several cm, it is a prerequisite for an imaging device to resolve the interaction structure in detail. Combining CsI(Tl) scintillators, Silicon PIN-photodiodes and frontend electronics inside the housing results in a cheap rugged design. While the development in our institute is mainly done for the Compton camera prototype, many other applications are conceivable

  10. CsI calorimeter with 3-D position resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Schopper, Herwig Franz; Shaw, H; Nefzger, C; Zoglauer, A; Schönfelder, V; Kanbach, G

    2000-01-01

    New gamma-ray calorimeter have been developed for the MEGA Compton camera. They consist of arrays of small CsI(Tl) scintillator bars read out by Silicon PIN-diodes and low noise, self-triggering frontend electronics. The length of the bars (the thickness of the calorimeter) can be varied for different applications to fit the stopping power needed and the light loss tolerable. In this paper we present calibration results from 2 cm long bars with diodes on one side, and 8 cm long bars with diodes on two opposite sides. Double-sided readout gives 3-D information of interactions which will be used to overcome the limited position resolution in Anger-cameras at high energies. Simpler detection devices like Anger-cameras might finally resolve only the centre of gravity. As events from gamma-rays with energies of MeV do extend over several cm, it is a prerequisite for an imaging device to resolve the interaction structure in detail. Combining CsI(Tl) scintillators, Silicon PIN-photodiodes and frontend electronics in...

  11. Study of a pure CsI crystal readout by APD for Belle II end cap ECL upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Y., E-mail: jin@hep.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Physics, the University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Aihara, H. [Department of Physics, the University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Borshchev, O.V. [Enikolopov Institute of Synthetic Polymeric Materials of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Profsoyuznaya st. 70, Moscow 117393 (Russian Federation); Epifanov, D.A. [Department of Physics, the University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Ponomarenko, S.A.; Surin, N.M. [Enikolopov Institute of Synthetic Polymeric Materials of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Profsoyuznaya st. 70, Moscow 117393 (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-11

    A scintillation counter consisting of a pure CsI crystal and avalanche photodiodes (Hamamatsu APD S8664-55 and S8664-1010) has been studied for the upgrade of the end cap electromagnetic calorimeter of Belle II detector. An essential increase of the light output was achieved with wavelength shifters based on nanostructured organosilicon luminophores. - Highlights: • A scintillation counter consisting of a pure CsI crystal and avalanche photodiodes has been studied. • The equivalent noise charge and equivalent noise energy of the counter have been measured. • An essential increase of the light output was achieved with wavelength shifters.

  12. Longitudinal uniformity, time performances and irradiation test of pure CsI crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelucci, M. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Atanova, O. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Baccaro, S.; Cemmi, A. [ENEA UTTMAT-IRR, Casaccia R.C., Roma (Italy); Cordelli, M. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Donghia, R., E-mail: raffaella.donghia@lnf.infn.it [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitá Roma Tre, Roma (Italy); Giovannella, S.; Happacher, F.; Miscetti, S.; Sarra, I.; Soleti, S.R. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy)

    2016-07-11

    To study an alternative to BaF{sub 2}, as the crystal choice for the Mu2e calorimeter, 13 pure CsI crystals from Opto Materials and ISMA producers have been characterized by determining their light yield (LY) and longitudinal response uniformity (LRU), when read with a UV extended PMT. The crystals show a LY of ~100 p.e./MeV (~150 p.e./MeV) when wrapped with Tyvek and coupled to the PMT without (with) optical grease. The LRU is well represented by a linear slope that is on average δ~ −0.6%/cm. The timing performances of the Opto Materials crystal, read with a UV extended MPPC, have been evaluated with minimum ionizing particles. A timing resolution of ~330 ps (~ 440 ps) is achieved when connecting the photosensor to the MPPC with (without) optical grease. The crystal radiation hardness to a ionization dose has also been studied for one pure CsI crystal from SICCAS. After exposing it to a dose of 900 Gy, a decrease of 33% in the LY is observed while the LRU remains unchanged.

  13. Design and Status of the Mu2e Crystal Calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atanov, N.; et al.

    2018-01-08

    The Mu2e experiment at Fermilab searches for the charged-lepton flavour violating (CLFV) conversion of a negative muon into an electron in the field of an aluminum nucleus, with a distinctive signature of a mono-energetic electron of energy slightly below the muon rest mass (104.967 MeV). The Mu2e goal is to improve by four orders of magnitude the search sensitivity with respect to the previous experiments. Any observation of a CLFV signal will be a clear indication of new physics. The Mu2e detector is composed of a tracker, an electro- magnetic calorimeter and an external veto for cosmic rays surrounding the solenoid. The calorimeter plays an important role in providing particle identification capabilities, a fast online trigger filter, a seed for track reconstruction while working in vacuum, in the presence of 1 T axial magnetic field and in an harsh radiation environment. The calorimeter requirements are to provide a large acceptance for 100 MeV electrons and reach at these energies: (a) a time resolution better than 0.5 ns; (b) an energy resolution < 10% and (c) a position resolution of 1 cm. The calorimeter design consists of two disks, each one made of 674 undoped CsI crystals read by two large area arrays of UV-extended SiPMs. We report here the construction and test of the Module-0 prototype. The Module-0 has been exposed to an electron beam in the energy range around 100 MeV at the Beam Test Facility in Frascati. Preliminary results of timing and energy resolution at normal incidence are shown. A discussion of the technical aspects of the calorimeter engineering is also reported in this paper.

  14. CsI electromagnetic calorimeter development for a low or medium energy e+e- collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, M.E.

    1993-10-01

    Design considerations for an electromagnetic Csl calorimeter suitable for use at low and medium energy, high-luminosity e + e - storage rings are presented, together with results of a test of an array of Csl(Tl) crystals in an e - /π - beam (120 to 400 MeV) at TRIUMF. The crystal array used in the test was designed to explore longitudinal and transverse crystal segmentation, and a redundant wavelength-shifter and photodiode readout system. Energy resolution of (1.69 ± 0.08)%/√E and (1.83 ± 0.05)%/√E was obtained for two different crystal tower configurations. Position resolution of 6.5 (9.0) mm was obtained at 300 (120)MeV for four 4x4 cm 2 , 4 rl. Csl crystals

  15. Design, status and test of the Mu2e crystal calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martini, Matteo; et al.

    2016-06-17

    The Mu2e experiment at Fermilab searches for the charged-lepton flavor violating neutrino-less conversion of a negative muon into an electron in the field of a aluminum nucleus. The dynamic of such a process is well modeled by a two-body decay, resulting in a monoenergetic electron with an energy slightly below the muon rest mass (104.967 MeV). The calorimeter of this experiment plays an important role to provide excellent particle identification capabilities and an online trigger filter while aiding the track reconstruction capabilities. The baseline calorimeter configuration consists of two disks each made with about 700 undoped CsI crystals read out by two large area UV-extended Silicon Photomultipliers. These crystals match the requirements for stability of response, high resolution and radiation hardness. In this paper we present the final calorimeter design.

  16. LYSO crystal calorimeter readout with silicon photomultipliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berra, A., E-mail: alessandro.berra@gmail.com [Università degli Studi dell' Insubria (Italy); INFN sezione di Milano Bicocca (Italy); Bonvicini, V. [INFN sezione di Trieste (Italy); Cecchi, C.; Germani, S. [INFN sezione di Perugia (Italy); Guffanti, D. [Università degli Studi dell' Insubria (Italy); Lietti, D. [Università degli Studi dell' Insubria (Italy); INFN sezione di Milano Bicocca (Italy); Lubrano, P.; Manoni, E. [INFN sezione di Perugia (Italy); Prest, M. [Università degli Studi dell' Insubria (Italy); INFN sezione di Milano Bicocca (Italy); Rossi, A. [INFN sezione di Perugia (Italy); Vallazza, E. [INFN sezione di Trieste (Italy)

    2014-11-01

    Large area Silicon PhotoMultipliers (SiPMs) are the new frontier of the development of readout systems for scintillating detectors. A SiPM consists of a matrix of parallel-connected silicon micropixels operating in limited Geiger–Muller avalanche mode, and thus working as independent photon counters with a very high gain (∼10{sup 6}). This contribution presents the performance in terms of linearity and energy resolution of an electromagnetic homogeneous calorimeter composed of 9∼18X{sub 0} LYSO crystals. The crystals were readout by 36 4×4 mm{sup 2} SiPMs (4 for each crystal) produced by FBK-irst. This calorimeter was tested at the Beam Test Facility at the INFN laboratories in Frascati with a single- and multi-particle electron beam in the 100–500 MeV energy range.

  17. Performance study of single undoped CsI crystals for the Mu2e experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donghia, R.

    2016-01-01

    The Mu2e experiment at Fermilab aims to measure the neutrinoless muon-to-electron conversion, which is a charged-lepton flavor-violating process. The goal of the experiment is to reach a single event sensitivity of 2.5 × 10"−"1"7, to set an upper limit on the muon conversion rate at 6.7 × 10"−"1"7 in a three-year run. For this purpose, the Mu2e detector is designed to identify electrons from muon conversion and reduce the background to a negligible level. It consists of a low-mass straw tracker and a pure CsI crystal calorimeter. In this paper, the performance of undoped CsI single crystal is reported. Crystals from many vendors have been characterized by determining their Light Yield (LY) and Longitudinal Response Uniformity (LRU), when read with a UV extended PMT, and their time resolution when coupled to a silicon photomultiplier. The crystals show a LY of ∼ 100 photoelectrons per MeV when wrapped with Tyvek and coupled to the PMT without optical grease. The LRU is well represented by a linear slope that is on average 0.6%/cm. Both measurements have been performed using a "2"2Na source. The timing performance has been evaluated exploiting cosmic rays, with MPPC readout. A timing resolution lower than 400 ps has been achieved (at ∼ 20 MeV, which is the energy released by a minimum ionizing particle in the crystal).

  18. The New APD Based Readout for the Crystal Barrel Calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, M; Honisch, Ch; Steinacher, M

    2015-01-01

    The CBELSA/TAPS experiment at ELSA measures double polarization observables in meson photoproduction off protons and neutrons. To be able to measure purely neutral reactions off polarized neutrons with high efficiency, the main calorimeter has to be integrated into the first level trigger. This requires to exchange the existing PIN photo diode by a new avalanche photo diode (APD) readout. The newly developed readout electronics will provide an energy resolution compatible to the previous set-up and a fast trigger signal down to 10 MeV energy deposit per crystal. After the successful final tests with a 3x3 CsI crystal matrix in Bonn at ELSA and in Mainz at MAMI all front-end electronics were produced in fall 2013. Automated test routines for the front-end electronics were developed and the characterization measurements of all APDs were successfully accomplished in Bonn. The project is supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (SFB/TR16) and Schweizerischer Nationalfonds

  19. Experimental study on the CsI (Tl) crystal anti-compton detector in CDEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shukui; Yue Qian; Tang Changjian

    2012-01-01

    CDEX (China Dark matter Experiment) Collaboration will carry out direct search for dark matter with Ultra-Low Energy Threshold High Purity germanium (ULE-HPGe) detector at CJPL (China Jinping deep underground Laboratory). Before underground research, some experiments of the CsI (Tl) crystal Anti-Compton detector have been done on the ground, including light guide choice, wrapping material choice, height uniformity of CsI (Tl) crystal, side uniformity of CsI (Tl) crystal and the test results of all the crystals. Through the preliminary work on the ground, we have got some knowledge of the anti-compton detector and prepared for the underground experiment. (authors)

  20. Design, status and perspective of the Mu2e crystal calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pezzullo, G. [INFN sezione di Pisa (Italy); Atanov, N. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russia); Baranov, V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russia); Budagov, J. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russia); Cervelli, F. [INFN sezione di Pisa (Italy); Colao, F. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (Italy); Diociaiuti, E. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (Italy); Cordelli, M. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (Italy); Dane, E. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (Italy); Davydov, Yu. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russia); Donati, S. [Univ. of Pisa (Italy); INFN sezione di Pisa (Italy); Donghia, R. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (Italy); Di Falco, S. [INFN sezione di Pisa (Italy); Echenard, B. [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States). Departement of Physics; Morescalchi, L. [INFN sezione di Pisa (Italy); Giovannella, S. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (Italy); Glagolev, V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russia); Grancagnolo, F. [INFN sezione di Lecce (Italy); Happacher, F. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (Italy); Hitlin, D. [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States). Departement of Physics; Martini, M. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (Italy); Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Miscetti, S. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (Italy); Miyashita, T. [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States). Departement of Physics; Murat, P. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Pedreschi, E. [INFN sezione di Pisa (Italy); Porter, F. [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States). Departement of Physics; Raffaelli, F. [INFN sezione di Pisa (Italy); Ricci, M. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (Italy); Saputi, A. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (Italy); Sarra, I. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (Italy); Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Spinella, F. [INFN sezione di Pisa (Italy); Tassielli, G. [INFN sezione di Lecce (Italy); Tereshchenko, V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russia); Zhu, R. Y. [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2018-01-09

    The Mu2e experiment at Fermilab will search for the charged lepton flavor violating process of neutrino-less $\\mu \\to e$ coherent conversion in the field of an aluminum nucleus. Mu2e will reach a single event sensitivity of about $2.5\\cdot 10^{-17}$ that corresponds to four orders of magnitude improvements with respect to the current best limit. The detector system consists of a straw tube tracker and a crystal calorimeter made of undoped CsI coupled with Silicon Photomultipliers. The calorimeter was designed to be operable in a harsh environment where about 10 krad/year will be delivered in the hottest region and work in presence of 1 T magnetic field. The calorimeter role is to perform $\\mu$/e separation to suppress cosmic muons mimiking the signal, while providing a high level trigger and a seeding the track search in the tracker. Here, in this paper we present the calorimeter design and the latest R&D results.

  1. Recent developments in crystal calorimeters (featuring the CMS PbWO4 electromagnetic calorimeter)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gascon-Shotkin, S.

    2003-01-01

    In the mass range of 110-150 GeV the favored process for Higgs boson detection via p-p collisions is via its decay into two photons, which demands a very high-resolution electromagnetic calorimeter. This physics goal plus the Large Hadron Calorimeter (LHC)-imposed design constraints of 25ns bunch spacing and a hostile radiation environment have led the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) collaboration to the choice of lead tungstate (PbWO 4 ) crystals. These factors plus the presence of a 4T magnetic field and the relatively low room-temperature scintillation photon yield of PbWO 4 make photo detection a real challenge, which CMS has met via the choice of devices providing gain amplification: Avalanche photodiodes (APD) in the central barrel region and vacuum phototriodes (VPT) in the forward and backward endcap regions. In the past year the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter has entered the construction phase. We review progress in the areas of crystals, barrel and endcap photo detection devices, plans for detector calibration as well as the status of assembly and quality control. We also invoke relevant developments in other crystal calorimeters currently in operation or under development. Crystal calorimeters remain the medium of choice for precision energy and position measurements in high energy physics

  2. A high speed digitizing photomultiplier tube base for the KTeV CsI calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitmore, J.

    1994-11-01

    A circuit has been designed to digitize PMT signals over an 18-bit dynamic range with 8-bits of resolution. The crucial element of the circuit is the custom charge integrating and encoding (QIE) ASIC. This chip is designed to operate at rates up to 53 MHz, and, in conjunction with an 8-bit FADC, generates 12-bit floating point output. Bench tests of a 17-bit version of the digital base demonstrated excellent noise performance, linearity and pedestal and gain stability. Twenty-five channels of digitizing PMT bases have been built and used for readout of a CsI array in a test beam at CERN. Performance of these devices in a beam environment is discussed

  3. Energy calibration of the barrel calorimeter of the CMD-3 detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anisenkov, A.V.; Aulchenko, V.M.; Bashtovoy, N.S.; Bondar, A.E.; Grebenuk, A.A.; Epifanov, D.A.; Epshteyn, L.B.; Erofeev, A.L.; Kovalenko, O.A.; Kozyrev, A.N.; Kuzmin, A.S.; Mikhailov, K.Yu.; Logashenko, I.B.; Razuvaev, G.P.; Ruban, A.A.; Shebalin, V.E.; Shwartz, B.A.; Talyshev, A.A.; Titov, V.M.; Yudin, Yu.V.

    2017-01-01

    The VEPP-2000 e + e − collider has been operated in the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics since 2010. Experiments are carried out with two detectors CMD-3 and SND. The calorimetry at the CMD-3 detector is based on three subsystems, two coaxial barrel calorimeters—Liquid Xenon calorimeter and crystal CsI calorimeter, and end cap calorimeter with BGO crystals. This paper describes the procedures of the energy calibration of the combined barrel calorimeter of the CMD-3 detector.

  4. On the ionization scintillation calorimeter based on KMgF3 crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzulutskov, A.F.

    1990-01-01

    The development of the ionization scintillation calorimeter, using KMgF 3 crystals and high efficiency photocathodes, is proposed. Some characteristics of such calorimeter are compared with those of the high pressure gas one. 6 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  5. Performance of an electromagnetic calorimeter with lead-tungstate crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohara, R.; Sugitate, T.; Sugita, N.; Tsuchimoto, Y.; Toyoda, D.; Homma, K.; Yamazaki, H.

    2003-01-01

    The performance of an electromagnetic calorimeter with lead-tungstate (PWO) crystals was tested by using 1 GeV photons. The calorimeter consisted of nine crystals of 20 x 20 x 200 mm in size arranged in a 3 x 3 array. The energy resolution was obtained to be σ E /E = (2.50 ± 0.75%) / √E + (1.25 ± 0.34%) with a photomultiplier tube (PMT) reading all signals. Another setup, reading the central cell with an avalanche photo diode (APD) and the surrounding 8 cells with the PMT, was also studied, however, its energy resolution was not scaled with the stochastic function and we found the resolution of about 10% around 1 GeV. (author)

  6. CCALT: A crystal calorimeter for the KLOE-2 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordelli, M; Happacher, F; Martini, M; Miscetti, S; Sarra, I [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Schioppa, M; Stucci, S, E-mail: fabio.happacher@lnf.infn.it [INFN and Department of Physics, University of Calabria, Cosenza (Italy)

    2011-04-01

    The angular coverage extension of the KLOE-2 electromagnetic calorimeter, from a polar angle of 20{sup 0} down to 10{sup 0}, will increase the multiphoton detection capability of the experiment enhancing the search reach for rare kaon, {eta} and {eta}' prompt decay channels. The basic layout of the calorimeter extension consists of two small barrels of LYSO crystals readout with APD photosensors aiming to achieve a timing resolution between 300 and 500 ps for 20 MeV photons. The first test of a (5.5x6x13) cm{sup 3} prototype for such a detector wa s carried out at the Beam Test Facility of Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati of INFN. We present here the results ofthis test.

  7. Optical properties of CsI single crystals irradiated with neutrons at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, M.; Atobe, K.; Itatani, N.; Ozawa, K.

    1998-01-01

    Optical properties of the irradiation-induced-defects in neutron-irradiated CsI single crystals have been investigated. The nominally pure CsI crystals are irradiated by reactor fast neutrons (E>0.1 MeV) with a fluence of 1.4 x 10 15 n/cm 2 at 20 K and by γ-rays from 60 Co source to a dose of 1.5 x 10 4 Gy at liquid nitrogen temperature (LNT). After the irradiations, isochronal annealings are performed to investigate the thermal behavior of the defects. The glow peaks of the thermoluminescence (TL) in each sample irradiated with neutrons at 20 K and with γ-rays at LNT are observed at about 100, 160 and 220 K. In the neutron-irradiated samples at 20 K, the emission band at 338 nm is observed at LNT. It is supposed that this emission band occurs by an excitation of γ-rays from 134 Cs, which is radioactivated by thermal neutrons among the reactor radiations. It is confirmed that the temperature dependence of the 338 nm band is similar with that of the emission band due to the self-trapped exciton which is introduced into the non-irradiated samples illuminated by higher energy photons. (orig.)

  8. Optical properties of CsI single crystals irradiated with neutrons at low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, M. [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst.; Nakagawa, M. [Faculty of Education, Kagawa Univ., Takamatsu, Kagawa (Japan); Atobe, K. [Faculty of Science, Naruto Univ. of Education, Naruto, Tokushima (Japan); Itatani, N.; Ozawa, K. [Horiba Ltd., Minamiku, Kyoto (Japan)

    1998-05-01

    Optical properties of the irradiation-induced-defects in neutron-irradiated CsI single crystals have been investigated. The nominally pure CsI crystals are irradiated by reactor fast neutrons (E>0.1 MeV) with a fluence of 1.4 x 10{sup 15} n/cm{sup 2} at 20 K and by {gamma}-rays from {sup 60}Co source to a dose of 1.5 x 10{sup 4} Gy at liquid nitrogen temperature (LNT). After the irradiations, isochronal annealings are performed to investigate the thermal behavior of the defects. The glow peaks of the thermoluminescence (TL) in each sample irradiated with neutrons at 20 K and with {gamma}-rays at LNT are observed at about 100, 160 and 220 K. In the neutron-irradiated samples at 20 K, the emission band at 338 nm is observed at LNT. It is supposed that this emission band occurs by an excitation of {gamma}-rays from {sup 134}Cs, which is radioactivated by thermal neutrons among the reactor radiations. It is confirmed that the temperature dependence of the 338 nm band is similar with that of the emission band due to the self-trapped exciton which is introduced into the non-irradiated samples illuminated by higher energy photons. (orig.) 13 refs.

  9. Radiation Hardness Study of CsI(Tl) Crystals for Belle II Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Matvienko, D V; Sedov, E V; Shwartz, B A

    2017-01-01

    The Belle II calorimeter (at least, its barrel part) consists of CsI(Tl) scintillation crystals which have been used at the Belle experiment. We perform the radiation hardness study of some typical Belle crystals and conclude their light output reductions are acceptable for Belle II experiment where the absorption dose can reach 10 krad during the detector operation. CsI(Tl) crystals have high stablity and low maintenance cost and are considered as possible option for the calorimeter of the future Super-Charm-Tau factory (SCT) in Novosibirsk. Our study demonstrates sufficiently high radiation hardness of CsI(Tl) crystals for SCT conditions.

  10. Radiation hardness qualification of PbWO4 scintillation crystals for the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Adzic, P.; Andelin, D.; Anicin, I.; Antunovic, Z.; Arcidiacono, R.; Arenton, M.W.; Auffray, E.; Argiro, S.; Askew, A.; Baccaro, S.; Baffioni, S.; Balazs, M.; Bandurin, D.; Barney, D.; Barone, L.M.; Bartoloni, A.; Baty, C.; Beauceron, S.; Bell, K.W.; Bernet, C.; Besancon, M.; Betev, B.; Beuselinck, R.; Biino, C.; Blaha, J.; Bloch, P.; Borisevitch, A.; Bornheim, A.; Bourotte, J.; Brown, R.M.; Buehler, M.; Busson, P.; Camanzi, B.; Camporesi, T.; Cartiglia, N.; Cavallari, F.; Cecilia, A.; Chang, P.; Chang, Y.H.; Charlot, C.; Chen, E.A.; Chen, W.T.; Chen, Z.; Chipaux, R.; Choudhary, B.C.; Choudhury, R.K.; Cockerill, D.J.A.; Conetti, S.; Cooper, S.I.; Cossutti, F.; Cox, B.; Cussans, D.G.; Dafinei, I.; Da Silva Di Calafiori, D.R.; Daskalakis, G.; David, A.; Deiters, K.; Dejardin, M.; De Benedetti, A.; Della Ricca, G.; Del Re, D.; Denegri, D.; Depasse, P.; Descamps, J.; Diemoz, M.; Di Marco, E.; Dissertori, G.; Dittmar, M.; Djambazov, L.; Djordjevic, M.; Dobrzynski, L.; Dolgopolov, A.; Drndarevic, S.; Drobychev, G.; Dutta, D.; Dzelalija, M.; Elliott-Peisert, A.; El Mamouni, H.; Evangelou, I.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J.L.; Fay, J.; Fedorov, A.; Ferri, F.; Franci, D.; Franzoni, G.; Freudenreich, K.; Funk, W.; Ganjour, S.; Gascon, S.; Gataullin, M.; Gentit, F.X.; Ghezzi, A.; Givernaud, A.; Gninenko, S.; Go, A.; Gobbo, B.; Godinovic, N.; Golubev, N.; Govoni, P.; Grant, N.; Gras, P.; Haguenauer, M.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Hansen, M.; Haupt, J.; Heath, H.F.; Heltsley, B.; Cornell U., LNS.; Hintz, W.; Hirosky, R.; Hobson, P.R.; Honma, A.; Hou, G.W.S.; Hsiung, Y.; Huhtinen, M.; Ille, B.; Ingram, Q.; Inyakin, A.; Jarry, P.; Jessop, C.; Jovanovic, D.; Kaadze, K.; Kachanov, V.; Kailas, S.; Kataria, S.K.; Kennedy, B.W.; Kokkas, P.; Kolberg, T.; Korjik, M.; Krasnikov, N.; Krpic, D.; Kubota, Y.; Kuo, C.M.; Kyberd, P.; Kyriakis, A.; Lebeau, M.; Lecomte, P.; Lecoq, P.; Ledovskoy, A.; Lethuillier, M.; Lin, S.W.; Lin, W.; Litvine, V.; Locci, E.; Longo, E.; Loukas, D.; Luckey, P.D.; Lustermann, W.; Ma, Y.; Malberti, M.; Malcles, J.; Maletic, D.; Manthos, N.; Maravin, Y.; Marchica, C.; Marinelli, N.; Markou, A.; Markou, C.; Marone, M.; Matveev, V.; Mavrommatis, C.; Meridiani, P.; Milenovic, P.; Mine, P.; Missevitch, O.; Mohanty, A.K.; Moortgat, F.; Musella, P.; Musienko, Y.; Nardulli, A.; Nash, J.; Nedelec, P.; Negri, P.; Newman, H.B.; Nikitenko, A.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Obertino, M.M.; Organtini, G.; Orimoto, T.; Paganoni, M.; Paganini, P.; Palma, A.; Pant, L.; Papadakis, A.; Papadakis, I.; Papadopoulos, I.; Paramatti, R.; Parracho, P.; Pastrone, N.; Patterson, J.R.; Pauss, F.; Peigneux, J.P.; Petrakou, E.; Phillips, D.G.; Piroue, P.; Ptochos, F.; Puljak, I.; Pullia, A.; Punz, T.; Puzovic, J.; Ragazzi, S.; Rahatlou, S.; Rander, J.; Razis, P.A.; Redaelli, N.; Renker, D.; Reucroft, S.; Ribeiro, P.; Rogan, C.; Ronquest, M.; Rosowsky, A.; Rovelli, C.; Rumerio, P.; Rusack, R.; Rusakov, S.V.; Ryan, M.J.; Sala, L.; Salerno, R.; Schneegans, M.; Seez, C.; Sharp, P.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.H.; Shiu, J.G.; Shivpuri, R.K.; Shukla, P.; Siamitros, C.; Sillou, D.; Silva, J.; Silva, P.; Singovsky, A.; Sirois, Y.; Sirunyan, A.; Smith, V.J.; Stockli, F.; Swain, J.; Tabarelli de Fatis, T.; Takahashi, M.; Tancini, V.; Teller, O.; Theofilatos, K.; Thiebaux, C.; Timciuc, V.; Timlin, C.; Titov, Maxim P.; Topkar, A.; Triantis, F.A.; Troshin, S.; Tyurin, N.; Ueno, K.; Uzunian, A.; Varela, J.; Verrecchia, P.; Veverka, J.; Virdee, T.; Wang, M.; Wardrope, D.; Weber, M.; Weng, J.; Williams, J.H.; Yang, Y.; Yaselli, I.; Yohay, R.; Zabi, A.; Zelepoukine, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.Y.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, R.Y.

    2010-01-01

    Ensuring the radiation hardness of PbWO4 crystals was one of the main priorities during the construction of the electromagnetic calorimeter of the CMS experiment at CERN. The production on an industrial scale of radiation hard crystals and their certification over a period of several years represented a difficult challenge both for CMS and for the crystal suppliers. The present article reviews the related scientific and technological problems encountered.

  11. Simulation studies of crystal-photodetector assemblies for the Turkish accelerator center particle factory electromagnetic calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocak, F., E-mail: fkocak@uludag.edu.tr

    2015-07-01

    The Turkish Accelerator Center Particle Factory detector will be constructed for the detection of the produced particles from the collision of a 1 GeV electron beam against a 3.6 GeV positron beam. PbWO{sub 4} and CsI(Tl) crystals are considered for the construction of the electromagnetic calorimeter part of the detector. The generated optical photons in these crystals are detected by avalanche or PIN photodiodes. Geant4 simulation code has been used to estimate the energy resolution of the calorimeter for these crystal–photodiode assemblies.

  12. Precision machining and polishing of scintillating crystals for large calorimeters and hodoscopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuest, C.R.; Fuchs, B.A.

    1993-05-01

    New machining and polishing techniques have been developed for large barium fluoride scintillating crystals that provide crystalline surfaces without sub-surface damage or deformation as verified by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Rutherford Back-scattering (RBS) analyses. Surface roughness of about 10--20 angstroms and sub-micron mechanical tolerances have been demonstrated on large crystal samples. Mass production techniques have also been developed for machining and polishing up to five 50 cm long crystals at one time. We present this technology along with surface studies of barium fluoride crystals polished with this technique. This technology is applicable for a number of new crystal detectors proposed at Colliders including the Barium Fluoride Electromagnetic Calorimeter at SSC, the Crystal Clear Collaboration's cerium fluoride calorimeter at LHC, and the KTeV and PHENIX scintillating hodoscopes at Fermilab, and RHIC, respectively. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has an active program of study on barium fluoride scintillating crystals for the Barium Fluoride Electromagnetic Calorimeter Collaboration and cerium fluoride and lead fluoride for the Crystal Clear Collaboration. This program has resulted in a number of significant improvements in the mechanical processing, polishing and coating of fluoride crystals. Techniques have been developed using diamond-loaded pitch lapping that can produce 15 angstrom RMS surface finishes over large areas. Also, special polishing fixtures have been designed based on mounting technology developed for the 1.1 m diameter optics used in LLNL's Nova Laser. These fixtures allow as many as five 25--50 cm long crystals to be polished and lapped at the same time with tolerances satisfying the stringent requirements of crystal calorimeters. We also discuss results on coating barium fluoride with UV reflective layers of magnesium fluoride and aluminum

  13. Monitoring light source for CMS lead tungstate crystal calorimeter at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang Liang Ying; Zhu, R Y; Liu, D T

    2001-01-01

    Light monitoring will serve as an intercalibration for Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) lead tungstate crystals in situ at the Large Hadronic Collider, which is crucial for maintaining crystal calorimeter's subpercent constant term in the energy resolution. This paper presents the design of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter monitoring light source and high-level distribution system. The correlations between variations of the light output and the transmittance for the CMS choice of yttrium-doped PbWO/sub 4/ crystals were investigated and were used to study monitoring linearity and sensitivity as a function of wavelength. The monitoring wavelength was determined so that a good linearity as well as adequate sensitivity can be achieved. The performance of a custom manufactured tunable laser system is presented. Issues related to monitoring precision are discussed. (12 refs).

  14. Cosmic ray calibration of the PbWO4 crystal electromagnetic calorimeter of CMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzoni, G.

    2006-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid experiment at the CERN LHC features a high precision PbWO4 crystal electromagnetic calorimeter. Each crystal is first precalibrated with a radioactive source and by means of optical measurements. After the assembly, each supermodule (1700 crystals) is exposed to comics rays.The comparison between intercalibration obtained from cosmic muons and electrons from test beam was performed at the end of 2004 for an initial set of 130 channels and showed that a precalibration with a statistical precision of 1 to 2% can be achieved within approximately one week. An important aspect of the comics muons analysis is that it is entirely based on the calorimeter data, without using any external tracking device.We will present the setup and results from the 2004 test as well as recent data recorded on many supermodule

  15. Precision machining and polishing of scintillating crystals for large calorimeters and hodoscopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuest, C.R.; Fuchs, B.A.; Holdener, F.R.; Heck, J.L. Jr.

    1994-04-01

    New machining and polishing techniques have been developed for large scintillating crystal arrays such as the Barium Fluoride Electromagnetic Calorimeter for the GEM Detector at SSCL, the Crystal Clear Collaboration's cerium fluoride or lead tungstenate calorimeter at the proposed LHC and CERN, the PHENIX Detector at RHIC (barium fluoride), and the cesium iodide Calorimeter for the BaBar Detector at PEP-2 B Factory at SLAC. The machining and polishing methods to be presented in this paper provide crystalline surfaces without sub-surface damage or deformation as verified by Rutherford Back-scattering (RBS) analysis. Surface roughness of about 10--20 angstroms and sub-micron mechanical tolerances have been demonstrated on large barium fluoride crystal samples. Mass production techniques have also been developed for machining the proper angled surfaces and polishing up to five 50 cm long crystals at one time. These techniques utilize kinematic mount technology developed at LLNL to allow precision machining and polishing of complex surfaces. They will present this technology along with detailed surface studies of barium fluoride and cerium fluoride crystals polished with this technique

  16. Response of the GLAST LAT calorimeter to relativistic heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lott, B.; Piron, F.; Blank, B.; Bogaert, G.; Bregeon, J.; Canchel, G.; Chekhtman, A.; D'Avezac, P.; Dumora, D.; Giovinazzo, J.; Grove, J.E.; Hellstroem, M.; Jacholkowska, A.; Johnson, W.N.; Nuss, E.; Reposeur, Th.; Smith, D.A.; Suemmerer, K.

    2006-01-01

    The CsI calorimeter of the Gamma-Ray Large-Area Space Telescope (GLAST) will be calibrated in flight with cosmic-ray heavy ions. In order to determine the response of the calorimeter to relativistic heavy ions lighter than Fe, an experiment was carried out at the GSI heavy ion facility using the Fragment Separator (FRS). The measured response exhibits an unexpected feature for light ions, opposite to that observed at low incident energy: for a given deposited energy, the observed signal is greater for these ions than for protons (or more generally Z=1 minimum ionizing particles). Pulse shapes are found to be almost identical for carbon ions and Z=1 particles, with a significant slow scintillation component, which constitutes another departure from the low-energy behavior. Data on the energy resolution for the individual CsI crystals and on the loss of ions due to nuclear reactions in the calorimeter are also presented

  17. The Mu2e crystal calorimeter and improvements in the $\\mu^-\\mbox{N} \\to e^-\\mbox{N}$ search sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pezzullo, Gianantonio [Univ. of Pisa (Italy)

    2016-01-01

    The Mu2e experiment will search for Charged Lepton Flavor Violation (CLFV) looking at the conversion of a muon into an electron in the field of an aluminum nucleus. About $7\\cdot 10^{17}$ muons, provided by a dedicated muon beam line in construction at the Fermi National Accelarator Laboratory (Fermilab), will be stopped in 3 years in the Aluminum target. The corresponding single event sensitivity will be $2.5\\cdot 10^{-17}$. The Standard Model of particle physics, even extendend to include the finite neutrino masses, predicts the ratio Rμe between muon conversions and muon nuclear captures to be $\\sim 10^{- 52}$. Several extensions of the Standard Model predict Rμe to be in the range of $10^{-14} - 10^{-18}$. % The current best experimental limit, set by the SINDRUM II experiment is $7 \\cdot 10^{-13}$ @ $90\\%$ CL. The Mu2e experiment plans to improve this experimental limit by four order of magnitude to test many of the possible extensions of the Standard Model. To reach this ambitious goal, the Mu2e experiment is expected to use an intense pulsed muon beam, and rely on a detector system composed of a straw tube tracker and a calorimeter made of pure CsI crystals. The calorimeter plays a central role in the Mu2e measurement, providing particle identification capabilities that are necessary for rejecting two of the most dangerous background sources that can mimic the μ⁻N → e⁻N conversion electron: cosmic muons and $\\bar{p}$ induced background. The calorimeter information allows also to improve the tracking performance. Thanks to a calorimeter-seeded track finder algorithm, it is possible to increase the track reconstruction efficiency, and make it more robust with respect to the occupancy level. Expected performances of the calorimeter have been studied in a beam test at the Beam Test Facility in Frascati (Rome, Italy). A reduced scale calorimeter prototype has been exposed to an electron beam, with energy varying from 80 to 140

  18. The LYSO crystal calorimeter for the Mu2e experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pezzullo, G; Cervelli, F; Budagov, J; Davydov, Yu; Glagolev, V; Carosi, R; Cheng, C; Echenard, B; Hitlin, D; Ongmonkolkul, P; Porter, F; Cordelli, M; Corradi, G; Giovannella, S; Happacher, F; Luca, A; Martini, M; Miscetti, S; Saputi, A; Murat, P

    2014-01-01

    The Mu2e experiment at Fermilab searches the neutrino-less conversion of the muon into electron in the field of an Aluminum nucleus. If such a process will be observed, it will be a proof of the charged-lepton-flavor-violation (cLFV), otherwise Mu2e will set an upper limit of R μe < 6 × 10 −17 @ 90% C.L. (which represents an improvement by 3–4 order of magnitude over the existing limit). The Mu2e detector apparatus consists of a magnetic spectrometer, devoted to the measurement of the electrons momentum, and an electromagnetic calorimeter (EMC) which provides an independent measurement of the electron energy, time and position, used for validating or rejecting candidate tracks selected by the tracking system. In this paper, we describe the baseline project of the EMC and present results in terms of performances and R and D

  19. Impact of one-dimensional photonic crystal back reflector in thin-film c-Si solar cells on efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Tahmineh

    2018-05-01

    In this work, the effect of one-dimensional photonic crystal on optical absorption, which is implemented at the back side of thin-film crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cells, is extensively discussed. The proposed structure acts as a Bragg reflector which reflects back light to the active layer as well as nanograting which couples the incident light to enhance optical absorption. To understand the optical mechanisms responsible for the enhancement of optical absorption, quantum efficiency and current density for all structures are calculated and the effect of influential parameters, such as grating period is investigated. The results confirm that our proposed structure have a great deal for substantial efficiency enhancement in a broad range from 400 to 1100 nm.

  20. Performance of ACCOS, an automatic crystal quality control system for the PWO crystals of the CMS calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Auffray, Etiennette; Freire, M; Lecoq, P; Le Goff, J M; Marcos, R; Drobychev, G Yu; Missevitch, O V; Oskine, A; Zouevski, R F; Peigneux, J P; Schneegans, M

    2001-01-01

    Nearly 80000 PWO crystals for the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter will arrive at CERN/Geneva and INFN-ENEA/Rome between now and year 2004. The stringent specifications on their dimensions and optical quality have to be verified prior to their formal acceptation. Automatic systems for measuring the critical parameters of each crystal and recording them in a database have been designed and constructed. The first machine is now in stable operation at CERN. In this note, the performance of each instrument, based on the measurements on ~1000 pre-production crystals, is analysed in terms of stability and compared to the results of conventional benches. (9 refs).

  1. Polarimetry concept based on heavy crystal hadron calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshelashvili, I.; Müller, F.; Mchedlishvili, D.; JEDI Collaboration

    2017-11-01

    In the ongoing JEDI (Jülich Electric Dipole moment Investigations) project, the essential point will be to measure a tiny beam polarization change over an extended period of time. The particle scarcity in the polarized deuteron or proton beams and the required slow extraction rate puts tough experimental constrains on the polarimetry. For the EDM measurements, a dedicated high precision polarimeter is required. To fulfill specifications, a fast, dense, high resolution (energy and time), and radioactive hard novel crystal scintillating material is required. LYSO crystals are supposed to be used as an ideal scintillating material for this kind of detector. The LYSO crystal PMT and SiPM readout, with a FADC based system is under development. The first proton and deuteron beam test of the prototypes are presented here. In this paper, the new polarimetry concept and preliminary results from first proton and deuteron beam time are presented.

  2. Scintillation response of CsI: Tl crystal under neutron, gamma, alpha particles and beta excitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Maria da Conceicao Costa; Madi Filho, Tufic; Lopes, Valdir Maciel; Berretta, Jose Roberto; Cardenas, Jose Patricio Nahuel, E-mail: macoper@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Among the converters of X and gamma radiation in light photons, known as scintillators, the one which is the most efficient emits photons with a wavelength near 400 nm. Particularly, among them, the cesium iodine doped with thallium (CsI:Tl) crystal is that which matches better between the light emission spectrum (peak at 540 nm) and the quantum sensitivity curve of the photodiodes and CCD (Charge Coupled Device). This explains the renewed interest in using this crystal as scintillator. Although the CsI:Tl crystal is commercially available, its local development would give the possibility to obtain it in different geometric configurations and coupling. Moreover, there is a special interest in studying new conditions that will alter the properties of this crystal in order to achieve a optimal level of its functional characteristics. Having an efficient national scintillator with low cost is a strategic opportunity to study the response of a detector applied to different types of radiation. The crystal of cesium iodide activated with thallium (CsI:Tl) has a high gamma detection efficiency per unit volume. In this paper, the CsI:Tl crystal, grown by the vertical Bridgman technique in evacuated silica ampoules and with the purpose of use as radiation detectors, is described. To evaluate the scintillator, measures of the thallium distribution in the crystal volume were taken, with overall efficiency score. The scintillator response was studied through gamma radiation from sources of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co, {sup 22}Na, {sup 54}Mn, {sup 131}I and {sup 99m}Tc; the beta radiation from source of {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y, alpha particles from {sup 241}Am source and the scintillator response to neutrons from Am/Be source. The energetic resolution for {sup 137}Cs gamma rays (662 keV) was 10%. The results showed the validity of using the CsI:Tl crystal developed in our laboratory, in many applications in the area of radiation detectors. (author)

  3. Monitoring light source for CMS lead tungstate crystal calorimeter at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang Li Yuan; Zhu Ren Yuan; Liu Dun Can

    2000-01-01

    Light monitoring will serve as an inter calibration for CMS lead tungstate crystals in situ at LHC, which is crucial for maintaining crystal calorimeter's sub percent constant term in the energy resolution. This paper presents the design of the CMS ECAL monitoring light source and high level distribution system. The correlations between variations of the light output and the transmittance for the CMS choice of Y doped PbWO//4 crystals were investigated, and were used to study monitoring linearity and sensitivity as a function of the wavelength. The monitoring wavelength was determined so that a good linearity as well as adequate sensitivity can be achieved. The performance of a custom manufactured tunable laser system is presented. Issues related to monitoring precision are discussed. 29 Refs.

  4. An FPGA-based Sampling-ADC readout for the crystal barrel calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muellers, Johannes [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Bonn (Germany); Marciniewski, Pawel [Angstroemlaboratoriet, Uppsala (Sweden); Collaboration: CBELSA/TAPS-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The CBELSA/TAPS experiment at the electron accelerator ELSA (Bonn) investigates the photoproduction of mesons off protons and neutrons. The Crystal Barrel Calorimeter has been upgraded replacing its photodiode readout by APDs, which allows the integration of the calorimeter into the first level trigger. Since the possible DAQ rate is currently limited by the digitization stage (LeCroy QDC1885F) to ∼ 2 kHz, the implementation of a new Sampling-ADC (SADC) readout is the second important step in the upgrade of the detector system. Based on the 64-channel PANDA-SADC, the design was modified, adapting it to the needs of the CBELSA/TAPS experiment. The CB-SADC offers 64 channels in one NIM module with up to 14 bit rate at 125 MHz, accompanied by a modular analog input stage and power supply. Data processing and reduction are realized with Kintex7 FPGAs. Readout is possible via gigabit ethernet links. Using an FPGA provides a multitude of possibilities for online feature extraction, such as the determination of the energy deposited in the crystal, TDC capabilities and pile-up detection and recovery. The SADC development is discussed, and first measurements performed in comparison to the presently used LeCroy QDC are presented.

  5. Performance of a PbWO sub 4 crystal calorimeter for 0.2-1.0 GeV electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Shimizu, H; Hashimoto, T; Abe, K; Asano, Y; Kinashi, T; Matsumoto, T; Matsumura, T; Okuno, H; Yoshida, H Y

    2000-01-01

    The performance of a calorimeter prototype of PbWO sub 4 crystals has been tested by using 0.2-1.0 GeV electrons. The calorimeter comprises nine crystals, each 20 mmx20 mmx200 mm, arranged in a 3x3 matrix. A phototube was connected to each crystal to collect the signal. The energy resolution is obtained to be (sigma/E) sup 2 =((0.014+-0.001)/E) sup 2 +((0.025+-0.001)/sq root E) sup 2 +(0.000+-0.027) sup 2 at 13 deg. C, where E is the energy given in GeV. The position of the incident electron beam has been measured every 2 mm step. The position resolution at the center of the crystal is obtained to be sq root((2.6+-0.1)/sq root E) sup 2 +(0.4+-0.6) sup 2 mm.

  6. Studies of lead tungstate crystal matrices in high energy beams for the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Alexeev, G; Baillon, Paul; Barney, D; Bassompierre, Gabriel; Bateman, E; Bell, K W; Benhammou, Ya; Bloch, P; Bomestar, D; Borgia, B; Bourotte, J; Burge, S R; Cameron, W; Chipaux, Rémi; Cockerill, D J A; Connolly, J; Dafinei, I; Denes, P; Depasse, P; Deiters, K; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; El-Mamouni, H; Faure, J L; Felcini, Marta; Finger, M H; Flügel, T; Gautheron, F; Givernaud, Alain; Gninenko, S N; Godinovic, N; Graham, D J; Guillaud, J P; Guschin, E; Haguenauer, Maurice; Hillemanns, H; Hofer, H; Ille, B; Jääskeläinen, S; Katchanov, V A; Kennedy, B W; Kirn, T; Korzhik, M V; Lassila-Perini, K M; Lebeau, M; Lebrun, P; Lecoq, P; Lecoeur, Gérard; Lecomte, P; Leonardi, E; Locci, E; Loos, R; Ma, D; Martin, F; Mendiburu, J P; Musienko, Yu V; Nédélec, P; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newbold, D; Newman, H; Oukhanov, M; Pacciani, L; Peigneux, J P; Pirro, S; Popov, S; Puljak, I; Purves, C; Renker, D; Rondeaux, F; Rosso, E; Rusack, R W; Rykaczewski, H; Schmitz, D; Schneegans, M; Schwenke, J; Seez, Christopher J; Semeniouk, I N; Shagin, P M; Shevchenko, S; Shi, X; Sillou, D; Simohand, D; Singovsky, A V; Soric, I; Smith, B; Stephenson, R; Verrecchia, P; Vialle, J P; Virdee, Tejinder S; Zhu, R Y

    1997-01-01

    Using matrices of lead tungstate crystals energy resolutions better than 0.6% at 100 GeV have been achieved in the test beam in 1995. It has been demonstrated that a lead tungstate electromagnetic calorimeter read out by avalanche photodiodes can consistently achieve the excellent energy resolutions necessary to justify its construction in the CMS detector. The performance achieved has been understood in terms of the properties of the crystals and photodetectors.

  7. A new avalanche photo diode based readout for the crystal barrel calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urban, Martin [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Nussallee 14-16, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Collaboration: CBELSA/TAPS-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The CBELSA/TAPS experiment at ELSA has proven successful in the measurement of double polarization observables in meson photoproduction off protons and neutrons. To be able to measure purely neutral reactions on a polarized neutron target with high efficiency, the main calorimeter consisting of 1320 CsI(Tl) crystals has to be integrated into the first level trigger. Key requirement to achieve this goal is an exchange of the existing PIN photo diode by a new avalanche photo diode (APD) readout. The main advantage of the new readout system is that it will provide timing information which allows a fast trigger signal. The energy resolution will remain compatible to the previous system. Besides the development of automated test routines for the front end electronics, the characterization of all APDs was successfully accomplished in Bonn. After tests with a 3 x 3 CsI(Tl) crystal matrix at the tagged photon beam facilities at ELSA and MAMI the first half of the Crystal Barrel was upgraded in 2014. This talk shows the result of the latest test measurements including the gain stabilization of the new APD readout electronics and presents the progress of the ongoing upgrade.

  8. An FPGA-based sampling-ADC readout for the crystal barrel calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muellers, Johannes [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Bonn (Germany); Marciniewski, Pawel [Angstroemlaboratoriet, Uppsala (Sweden); Collaboration: CBELSA/TAPS-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The CBELSA/TAPS experiment at the electron accelerator ELSA (Bonn) investigates the photoproduction of mesons off protons and neutrons. Presently the readout of the CsI(Tl)-crystals of the Crystal Barrel calorimeter is being upgraded from a PIN-diode readout to an APD readout to create a fast signal for first-level-triggering. This will increase the trigger efficiency especially for final states with only neutral particles substantially. To increase the possible data readout rate, which is currently limited by the digitization stage (LeCroy QDC 1885F) to ∼ 2 kHz, the implementation of a new Sampling-ADC (SADC) readout is being prepared. Based on the 64-channel PANDA-SADC, the CB-SADC design was modified and adapted to the needs of the CBELSA/TAPS experiment. It offers 64 channels in one NIM module, together with modular analog or FPGA-based digital shaping. The data transfer will be realized by two standard gigabit links. Using an FPGA together with SADCs provides a multitude of possibilities for online feature extraction, such as the determination of the energy deposited in the crystal, TDC capabilities and pile-up detection and recovery.

  9. The CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter: Results on Crystal Measurements, Quality Control and Data Management in the Rome Regional Center

    CERN Document Server

    Costantini, S

    2004-01-01

    The barrel of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter is currently under construction and will contain 61200 PbWO4 crystals. Half of them are being fully characterized for dimensions, optical properties and light yield in the INFN-ENEA Regional Center near Rome. We describe the setup of an automatic quality control system for the crystal measurements and the present results on their qualification, as well as the REDACLE project, which has been developed to control and ease the production process. As it will not be possible to precalibrate the whole calorimeter,the crystal measurements and quality checks performed at the Regional Center will be crucial to provide a basis for fast in-situ calibration with particles. REDACLE is at the same time a fast database and a data management system, where the database and the workflow structures are decoupled, in order to obtain the best flexibility.

  10. Development of an event builder for the new SADC-readout of the crystal barrel calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultes, Jan; Muellers, Johannes [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Bonn (Germany); Collaboration: CBELSA/TAPS-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The CBELSA/TAPS experiment at the electron accelerator ELSA in Bonn investigates the photoproduction of mesons off nucleons. Presently the readout of the CsI(Tl)-crystals of the Crystal Barrel calorimeter is being upgraded from a PIN-diode readout to an APD readout to create a fast signal for first-level-triggering. Furthermore, an entirely new setup consisting of Sampling-ADCs (SADC) with FPGA-based readout is being prepared to increase the possible data rate achievable. The SADC is capable of sampling pulses from the detector with 80 MHz, extracting features by FPGA-logic and transferring this data via UDP. To improve package-handling, a server-client structure will be provided. It is foreseen to receive packages from each of the 48 SADC units (32 channels each), detect and handle possible package losses, distribute the received information further via TCP and control the SADC-behaviour. In addition and to assist the FPGA firmware development, a tool to monitor outgoing pulses and to extract important features, such as the deposited energy, timing information and pile-up detection to cross-check the information given by the FPGA is being developed.

  11. CSI : Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letwin, S.

    2005-01-01

    This presentation emphasized the need for northern gas supply at a time when conventional natural gas supplies are decreasing and demand is growing. It highlighted the unique qualifications of Enbridge Inc. in creating an infrastructure to move the supply to where it is in most demand. Enbridge has substantial northern experience and has a unique approach for the construction of the Alaskan Gas Pipeline which entails cooperation, stability and innovation (CSI). Enbridge's role in the joint venture with AltaGas and Inuvialuit Petroleum was discussed along with its role in the construction of the first Canadian pipeline in 1985. The 540 mile pipeline was buried in permafrost. A large percentage of Enbridge employees are of indigenous descent. Enbridge recognizes that the amount of capital investment and the associated risk needed for the Alaska Gas Pipeline will necessitate a partnership of producers, pipeline companies, Native organizations, the State of Alaska, market participants and other interested parties. 9 figs

  12. Study of the optical monitoring system of the scintillating crystal involved in the electromagnetic calorimeter of CMS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geleoc, M.

    1998-01-01

    The prospect of the experimental discovery of the Higgs boson is one of the motivations to build the large hadron collider (LHC). Proton beams will collide and the emitted particles will be detected by ATLAS and CMS equipment. In each detector the electromagnetic calorimeter will allow the characterisation of the 2 photons coming from one of the disintegration channels of the Higgs boson. CMS collaboration has chosen an homogeneous calorimeter fitted with PbWO 4 crystals. Each crystal with its photodetector and its electronic device forms one detection channel. The resolution of the detection channels should not deteriorate all along the operating time. The optical monitoring system of the crystals logs then controls the response of each detection channel in order to allow an accurate calibration of the calorimeter. The optical properties, the resistance to irradiation of PbWO 4 crystals and the modelling of light collection are investigated in this work. The description of the different components of the optical monitoring system highlights the technical difficulties we had to challenge. An experimental testing bench has been set up to study the coupling between the scintillation signal and the signal that feeds the monitoring system, this coupling has been studied under irradiation in the conditions of CMS operating. (A.C.)

  13. Search for and selection of novel heavy scintillator crystals for calorimeter design for future high-energy colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrere, D.

    1993-01-01

    The discovery of some particles (Higgs, top,..) foreseen by theoretical models should be achieved at future colliders allowing to reach an energy scale of about 1 TeV. Efficient detectors must be designed to handle the very high luminosity of the LHC collider at CERN. In the intermediate mass region, M Z -2M Z , the diphoton decay mode of a Higgs boson produced inclusively or in association with W boson or a toponium gives good chance of observation. A very high resolution calorimeter with photon angle reconstruction and pion identification capability should detect a Higgs signal with high probability. So a homogeneous crystal calorimeter seems to be suitable. Because of the high luminosity and the high radiation level, a search for a new heavy scintillator has been undertaken. It must have a good radiation hardness (>0.5 MRad in a year) and a fast luminescence decay time (<30 ns). Among 50 crystals or glasses of specific chemical composition tested in transmission, luminescence, decay time, γ/neutrons radiation and light yield, cerium fluoride seems best suited for LHC. The necessity to have a good photon resolution in the intermediate Higgs mass region led us to optimise by Monte Carlo simulations the geometry of the calorimeter, the uniformisation of the light collection and crystal intercalibration parameters. (orig.)

  14. CaloCube: a novel calorimeter for high-energy cosmic rays in space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rappoldi A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available CaloCube is an R&D project borne to develop a novel calorimeter design, optimized for high-energy cosmic ray measurements in space. A small prototype made of CsI(Tl elements has been built and tested on particle beams. A final version, made of 5×5×18 crystals and with dual readout (two photodiodes for each crystal, to cover the full required dynamic range, is under construction and will be tested at CERN SPS in Summer 2016. The dual readout compensation technique were developed and the feasibility to extract Čerenkov signals from CsI crystals verified.

  15. Prospects for a precision timing upgrade of the CMS PbWO crystal electromagnetic calorimeter for the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Massironi, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    The upgrade of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) crystal electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL), which will operate at the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC), will achieve a timing resolution of around 30 ps for high energy photons and electrons. In this talk we will discuss the benefits of precision timing for the ECAL event reconstruction at HL-LHC. Simulation studies focused on the timing properties of PbWO$_4$ crystals, as well as the impact of the photosensors and the readout electronics on the timing performance, will be presented. Test beam studies intended to measure the timing performance of the PbWO$_4$ crystals with different photosensors and readout electronics will be shown.

  16. Prospects for a precision timing upgrade of the CMS PbWO crystal electromagnetic calorimeter for the HL-LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massironi, A.

    2018-04-01

    The upgrade of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) crystal electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL), which will operate at the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC), will achieve a timing resolution of around 30 ps for high energy photons and electrons. In this talk we will discuss the benefits of precision timing for the ECAL event reconstruction at HL-LHC. Simulation studies focused on the timing properties of PbWO4 crystals, as well as the impact of the photosensors and the readout electronics on the timing performance, will be presented. Test beam studies intended to measure the timing performance of the PbWO4 crystals with different photosensors and readout electronics will be shown.

  17. Studies on an automated gain stabilisation for the new APD read-out of the crystal barrel calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauli, Peter [HISKP Bonn (Germany); Collaboration: CBELSA/TAPS-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    For the investigation of the nucleon spectrum it is not enough to measure only cross sections because of the large overlap of resonances. To disentangle these resonances, a partial wave analysis is needed. To find unambiguous solutions it is necessary to measure (double) polarisation observables. The CBELSA/TAPS experiment is an important tool to measure these observables in meson photoproduction off nucleons. To achieve a high efficiency in purely neutral reactions it is important to implement the main calorimeter into the first level trigger. To do so it is necessary to replace the current PIN photo diodes with new avalanche photo diodes (APDs). The new read-out is able to provide a timing signal that is fast enough to use it as a trigger while it does not impair the energy resolution of the calorimeter compared to the previous system. A drawback of APDs is their temperature dependency. To provide a stable gain throughout varying running conditions it is vital to monitor the temperature change and correct it if necessary. The poster shows an approach to ensure temperature stability where the temperature is monitored via a temperature sensitive NTC thermistor and the gain is adjusted via changes of the high voltage supply of the APDs. This method proved successful while it is easy to implement in all 1320 CsI(Tl) crystals of the calorimeter.

  18. Test results from a prototype lead tungstate crystal calorimeter with vacuum phototriode readout for the CMS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apollonio, M; Barber, G; Bell, K; Britton, D; Brooke, J; Brown, R; Bourotte, J; Camanzi, B; Cockerill, D; Davies, G; Devitsin, E; Gninenko, S; Golubev, N; Goussev, Y; Grafstroem, P; Haguenauer, M; Head, R; Heath, H; Hobson, P; Inyakin, A; Katchanov, V; Kirsanov, M; Lintern, L; Lodge, A; Mcleod, E; Nash, S; Newbold, D; Ukhanov, M; Postoev, V; Patalakha, D; Presland, A; Probert, M; Seez, C; Semeniouk, I; Seliverstov, D; Smith, B; Sproston, M; Tapper, R; Tchuiko, B

    2002-05-21

    Tests of a prototype for the electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) of the compact muon solenoid experiment (CMS) at the large hadron collider are described. The basic unit for the endcap ECAL in CMS is a 'supercrystal' of 25 lead tungstate crystals. Results are presented from tests of the first full-sized supercrystal in electron beams and in a 3 T magnetic field. The supercrystal was exposed to electron beams with energies from 25 to 180 GeV. An energy resolution ({sigma}{sub E}/E) of (0.48{+-}0.01)% was measured at 180 GeV.

  19. A high resolution electromagnetic calorimeter based on lead-tungstate crystals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aleksandrov, D. V.; Burachas, S.F.; Ippolitov, M.S.; Mareš, Jiří A.; Polák, Karel

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 550, - (2005), s. 169-184 ISSN 0168-9002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : PbWO 3 * high resolution electromagnetic calorimeter Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.224, year: 2005

  20. The construction of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter: automatic measurements of the physics parameters of PWO crystals

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Crystal properties (dimensions, optical transmission, light yield) are automatically measured. The pictures show different measurement stations of the automatic machine. Crystals are measured on trays containing five crystals each.

  1. PANDA electromagnetic calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenov, P.A.; Kharlov, Yu.V.; Uzunian, A.V.; Chernichenko, S.K.; Derevschikov, A.A.; Davidenko, A.M.; Goncharenko, Y.M.; Kachanov, V.A.; Konstantinov, A.S.; Kormilitsin, V.A.; Matulenko, Yu.A.; Meschanin, A.P.; Melnick, Y.M.; Minaev, N.G.; Mochalov, V.V.; Morozov, D.A.; Novotny, R.W.; Ryazantsev, A.A.; Soldatov, A.P.; Soloviev, L.F.

    2009-01-01

    PANDA is a challenging experimental setup to be implemented at the high-energy storage ring (HESR) at the international facility FAIR, GSI (Germany). PANDA physics program relies heavily on the capability to measure photons with excellent energy, position and timing resolution. For this purpose PANDA proposed to employ electromagnetic calorimeters using two different technologies: compact crystal calorimeter cooled to -25 deg. C around target and lead-scintillator sandwich calorimeter with optical fibers light collection (so-called shashlyk calorimeter) in the forward region. Institute for High Energy Physics (IHEP) PANDA group reports on two types of measurements performed at IHEP, Protvino: radiation hardness of the PWO crystals at -25 deg. C and testbeam studies of the energy and position resolution of the shashlyk calorimeter prototype in the energy range up to 19 GeV.

  2. Barrel calorimeter of the CMD-3 detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shebalin, V. E., E-mail: V.E.Shebalin@inp.nsk.su; Anisenkov, A. V.; Aulchenko, V. M.; Bashtovoy, N. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation); Epifanov, D. A. [University of Tokyo, Department of Physics (Japan); Epshteyn, L. B.; Grebenuk, A. A.; Ignatov, F. V.; Erofeev, A. L.; Kovalenko, O. A.; Kozyrev, A. N.; Kuzmin, A. S.; Logashenko, I. B.; Mikhailov, K. Yu.; Razuvaev, G. P.; Ruban, A. A.; Shwartz, B. A.; Talyshev, A. A.; Titov, V. M.; Yudin, Yu. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    The structure of the barrel calorimeter of the CMD-3 detector is presented in this work. The procedure of energy calibration of the calorimeter and the method of photon energy restoration are described. The distinctive feature of this barrel calorimeter is its combined structure; it is composed of two coaxial subsystems: a liquid xenon calorimeter and a crystalline CsI calorimeter. The calorimeter spatial resolution of the photon conversion point is about 2 mm, which corresponds to an angular resolution of ∼6 mrad. The energy resolution of the calorimeter is about 8% for photons with energy of 200 MeV and 4% for photons with energy of 1 GeV.

  3. Barrel calorimeter of the CMD-3 detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shebalin, V. E.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Aulchenko, V. M.; Bashtovoy, N. S.; Epifanov, D. A.; Epshteyn, L. B.; Grebenuk, A. A.; Ignatov, F. V.; Erofeev, A. L.; Kovalenko, O. A.; Kozyrev, A. N.; Kuzmin, A. S.; Logashenko, I. B.; Mikhailov, K. Yu.; Razuvaev, G. P.; Ruban, A. A.; Shwartz, B. A.; Talyshev, A. A.; Titov, V. M.; Yudin, Yu. V.

    2015-01-01

    The structure of the barrel calorimeter of the CMD-3 detector is presented in this work. The procedure of energy calibration of the calorimeter and the method of photon energy restoration are described. The distinctive feature of this barrel calorimeter is its combined structure; it is composed of two coaxial subsystems: a liquid xenon calorimeter and a crystalline CsI calorimeter. The calorimeter spatial resolution of the photon conversion point is about 2 mm, which corresponds to an angular resolution of ∼6 mrad. The energy resolution of the calorimeter is about 8% for photons with energy of 200 MeV and 4% for photons with energy of 1 GeV

  4. CSI cardiac prevent 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Ramakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The CSI Cardiac Prevent 2015 was held at Hotel Taj Palace, New Delhi, on September 25-27, 2015. The major challenge was to create interest among cardiologists and physicians on preventive cardiology, a neglected area. The theme of the conference was "Innovations in Heart Disease Prevention.′′ This conference included "CSI at WHF Roadmap Workshop, Inauguration Ceremony, scientific program, plenary sessions, Nursing/Dietician track, Industry Exhibition, Social Events," Great India blood pressure Survey, and CSI Smart Heart App. A total of 848 delegates/faculties attended this conference against a total of 1140 people registered for the meeting.

  5. Prospects for a precision timing upgrade of the CMS PbWO$_{4}$ crystal electromagnetic calorimeter for the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Marzocchi, Badder

    2017-01-01

    The upgrade of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) crystal electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL), which will operate at the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC), will achieve a timing resolution of around 30 ps for high energy photons and electrons. In this talk we will discuss the benefits of precision timing for the ECAL event reconstruction at HL-LHC. Simulation studies on the timing properties of PbWO crystals, as well as the impact of the photosensors and the readout electronics on the timing performance, will be presented. Test beam studies on the timing performance of PbWO$_{4}$ crystals with various photosensors and readout electronics will be shown.

  6. CSI cardiac prevent 2015

    OpenAIRE

    S Ramakrishnan; Manisha Kaushik

    2015-01-01

    The CSI Cardiac Prevent 2015 was held at Hotel Taj Palace, New Delhi, on September 25-27, 2015. The major challenge was to create interest among cardiologists and physicians on preventive cardiology, a neglected area. The theme of the conference was "Innovations in Heart Disease Prevention.′′ This conference included "CSI at WHF Roadmap Workshop, Inauguration Ceremony, scientific program, plenary sessions, Nursing/Dietician track, Industry Exhibition, Social Events," Great India blood pressur...

  7. On-line induced absorption measurement on PbWO.sub.4./sub., YAlO.sub.3./sub.:Ce and CsI scintillating crystals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šulc, M.; Nikl, Martin; Vognar, M.; Blažek, K.; Nejezchleb, K.; Boháček, Pavel; Nitsch, Karel; Kobayashi, M.; Usuki, Y.; Shen, D.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 38, - (2004), s. 393-396 ISSN 1350-4487 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/01/0753 Grant - others:NATO SfP(XX) 973510-Scintillators Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : radiation damage * PbWO 4 scintillator * YAlO 3 :Ce * CsI Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.664, year: 2004

  8. Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wefel, John P.

    1998-01-01

    This is the final report for NASA grant NAGW-4577, "Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC)". This grant covered a joint project between LSU and the University of Maryland for a Concept Study of a new type of fully active calorimeter to be used to measure the energy spectra of very high energy cosmic rays, particularly Hydrogen and Helium, to beyond 1014 eV. This very high energy region has been studied with emulsion chamber techniques, but never investigated with electronic calorimeters. Technology had advanced to the point that a fully active calorimeter based upon Bismuth Germanate (BGO) scintillating crystals appeared feasible for balloon flight (and eventually space) experiments.

  9. The TiO2 Refraction Film for CsI Scintillator

    OpenAIRE

    C. C. Chen; C. W. Hun; C. J. Wang; C. Y. Chen; J. S. Lin; K. J. Huang

    2015-01-01

    Cesium iodide (CsI) melt was injected into anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template and was solidified to CsI column. The controllable AAO channel size (10~500 nm) can makes CsI column size from 10 to 500 nm in diameter. In order to have a shorter light irradiate from each singe CsI column top to bottom the AAO template was coated a TiO2 nano-film. The TiO2 film acts a refraction film and makes X-ray has a shorter irradiation path in the CsI crystal making a stronger the photo-electron signal. Wh...

  10. Predicting the performance of the CMS precision PbWO$_4$ electromagnetic calorimeter in the HL-LHC era from test beam results on irradiated crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Zghiche, Amina

    2017-01-01

    The harsh radiation environment in which detectors will have to operate during the High Luminosity phase of the LHC (HL-LHC) represents a crucial challenge for many calorimeter technologies. In the CMS forward calorimeters, ionizing doses and hadron fluences will reach up to 300 kGy (at a dose rate of 30 Gy/h) and ${\\bf 2\\times 10^{14} cm^{-2}}$, respectively, at the pseudorapidity region of {\\bf $\\vert\\eta\\vert$}= 2.6. To evaluate the evolution of the CMS ECAL performance in such conditions, a set of \\PWO crystals, which had previously been exposed to 24 GeV protons up to integrated fluences between ${\\bf 2.1\\times 10^{13} cm^{-2}}$ and ${\\bf 1.3\\times 10^{14} cm^{-2}}$, has been studied in beam tests. A degradation of the energy resolution and a non-linear response to electron showers are observed in damaged crystals. Direct measurements of the light output from the crystals show the amplitude decreasing and pulse becoming faster as the fluence increases. The evolution of the performance of the PbWO$_4$ cry...

  11. Carbon fiber structure for B.G.O. crystals of an electromagnetic calorimeter for energies around and above 2 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anamateros, E.; Germenia, C.; Napoleone, T.

    1991-01-01

    This document describes a project to construct with composite material an Electromagnetic Calorimeter for a large, solid angle crystal ball for energies around and above 2 GeV, with thin walls (0.36 mm) and a complex figure like a 'Rugby Ball'. The contract was between the National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) of Frascati, Genova, Catania, and Roma, and ITALCOMPOSITI - a joint venture between Agusta Group (50%) and ENI (50%) to research, produce and market advanced prepreg materials and composite structural components for aerospace, defense, energy, and transport applications. The contract concerns the design and the realization of the structure, which consists of 24 baskets containing 480 crystals of B.G.O. weighing about 4 Kg, each with full alveolus, including electronic systems

  12. Electromagnetic calorimeter on liquid krypton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazzotti, M.; Bianco, G.L.; Lanni, F.; Maggi, B.; Palombo, F.; Sala, A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on use of noble condensed gases as calorimeter media that is attractive due to the possibility to get not only good energy resolution (like in NaI and CsI calorimeters) but better space resolution for photons. Longitudinal segmentation can provide information for particle identification by dE/dx and also e/π-separation based on longitudinal structure of the shower. The best material for this aim is of course liquid Zenon, but it is impossible to get the necessary amount of it in reasonable time. Therefore, the authors have stopped their choice on the next candidate-liquid Krypton (LKr). Its sufficient amount can be obtained before to the beginning of the experiment

  13. The adsorption of Sr(II) and Cs(I) ions by irradiated Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yiming Tan; Jundong Feng; Liang Qiu; Zhentian Zhao; Xiaohong Zhang; Haiqian Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Adsorption behavior and mechanism of Sr(II) and Cs(I) in single and binary solutions using irradiated Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated. The effects of several environmental factors on Sr(II) and Cs(I) adsorption to irradiated Saccharomyces cerevisiae was determined. The equilibrium experimental data were simulated by different kinetic models and isotherm models. The combined effect of Sr(II) and Cs(I) on Saccharomyces cerevisiae is generally antagonistic. SEM and EDS analyses indicate that crystals formed on the cell surface are precipitate of Sr(II) and Cs(I), respectively. (author)

  14. Study of cosmic ray nuclei detection by an image calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casolino, M.; Sparvoli, R.; Morselli, A.; Picozza, P. [Rome Univ. `Tor Vergata` (Italy)]|[INFN, Sezione Univ. `Tor Vergata` Rome (Italy); Ozerov, Yu.V.; Zemskov, V.M.; Zverev, V.G.; Galper, A.M. [Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Carlson, P. [Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Fuglesang, C. [ESA-EAC, Cologne (Germany)

    1995-09-01

    It is shown that a cosmic gamma-ray telescope made of a multilayer silicon tracker and a imaging CsI calorimeter, is capable of identifying cosmic ray nuclei. The telescope charge resolution is estimated around 4% independently of charge. Simulation methods are used to determine the telescope properties for nuclei detection.

  15. Structural transformation of CsI thin film photocathodes under exposure to air and UV irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Tremsin, A S; Siegmund, O H W

    2000-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy has been employed to study the structure of polycrystalline CsI thin films and its transformation under exposure to humid air and UV irradiation. The catastrophic degradation of CsI thin film photocathode performance is shown to be associated with the film dissolving followed by its re-crystallization. This results in the formation of large lumps of CsI crystal on the substrate surface, so that the film becomes discontinuous and its performance as a photocathode is permanently degraded. No change in the surface morphology and the film crystalline structure was observed after the samples were UV irradiated.

  16. An FPGA-based slowcontrol module and a baseline shifting extension card for the sampling-ADC readout of the crystal barrel calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urff, Georg; Poller, Timo [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Bonn (Germany); Collaboration: CBELSA/TAPS-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    At the electron accelerator ELSA (Bonn) the CBELSA/TAPS experiment investigates the photoproduction of mesons off protons and neutrons. The CsI(Tl)-crystals of the Crystal Barrel calorimeter are being upgraded from a PIN-diode readout to an APD readout. In the context of this upgrade, an FPGA-based Sampling-ADC (SADC) is presently being developed (HK 304). A Slow-control Module for the SADC with TCP/Telnet access has been developed on the basis of a Spartan6 FPGA. Control and monitoring of the SADC's power supply as well as control of parameters of the analog and digital data processing in the SADC is realized via PMBus/I{sup 2}C. The prototype as well as an overview of its functionality will be presented. In order to fully utilize the dynamic input range of the SADCs, an interfacing extension board was designed. It receives the differential signal generated by previous amplification stages and adds an individual DC offset voltage to each channel supplied by a digital-to-analog converter. The circuit and the used techniques as well as simulations and measurements are presented.

  17. Proposal for the award of a contract for the supply of 26 000 lead-tungstate scintillation crystals for the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a contract for the supply of 26 000 lead-tungstate scintillation crystals for the barrel part of the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL). Following a CERN market survey (MS-2727/EP/CMS) carried out among seven firms in four Member States and two firms in two non-Member States, the Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule in Z rich (ETHZ) published on 15 February 2001 an open call for tenders and, in addition, invited tenders from four firms in two non-Member States, including the two firms identified in the CERN market survey. By the closing date, the ETHZ had received one bid from a firm in a CERN Member State and three bids from three firms in two non-Member States. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract to be placed by CERN, on behalf of the ETHZ, with the lowest bidder, SCIONIX (NL), for the supply of 26 000 lead-tungstate crystals for the barrel part of the CMS ECAL for a total amount of 9 392 000 US dollars (16 060 320 Swiss francs)...

  18. Study of the optical monitoring system of the scintillating crystal involved in the electromagnetic calorimeter of CMS experiment; Etude du systeme de suivi optique des cristaux scintillants du calorimetre electromagnetique de l`experience CMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geleoc, M

    1998-09-04

    The prospect of the experimental discovery of the Higgs boson is one of the motivations to build the large hadron collider (LHC). Proton beams will collide and the emitted particles will be detected by ATLAS and CMS equipment. In each detector the electromagnetic calorimeter will allow the characterisation of the 2 photons coming from one of the disintegration channels of the Higgs boson. CMS collaboration has chosen an homogeneous calorimeter fitted with PbWO{sub 4} crystals. Each crystal with its photodetector and its electronic device forms one detection channel. The resolution of the detection channels should not deteriorate all along the operating time. The optical monitoring system of the crystals logs then controls the response of each detection channel in order to allow an accurate calibration of the calorimeter. The optical properties, the resistance to irradiation of PbWO{sub 4} crystals and the modelling of light collection are investigated in this work. The description of the different components of the optical monitoring system highlights the technical difficulties we had to challenge. An experimental testing bench has been set up to study the coupling between the scintillation signal and the signal that feeds the monitoring system, this coupling has been studied under irradiation in the conditions of CMS operating. (A.C.) 94 refs.

  19. Beam tests of lead tungstate crystal matrices and a silicon strip preshower detector for the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Auffray, Etiennette; Barney, D; Bassompierre, Gabriel; Benhammou, Ya; Blick, A M; Bloch, P; Bonamy, P; Bourotte, J; Buiron, L; Cavallari, F; Chipaux, Rémi; Cockerill, D J A; Dafinei, I; Davies, G; Depasse, P; Deiters, K; Diemoz, M; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Donskov, S V; Mamouni, H E; Ercoli, C; Faure, J L; Felcini, Marta; Gautheron, F; Géléoc, M; Givernaud, Alain; Gninenko, S N; Godinovic, N; Graham, D J; Guillaud, J P; Guschin, E; Haguenauer, Maurice; Hillemanns, H; Hofer, H; Ille, B; Inyakin, A V; Jääskeläinen, S; Katchanov, V A; Kirn, T; Kloukinas, Kostas C; Korzhik, M V; Lassila-Perini, K M; Lebrun, P; Lecoq, P; Lecoeur, Gérard; Lecomte, P; Leonardi, E; Locci, E; Loos, R; Longo, E; MacKay, C K; Martin, E; Mendiburu, J P; Musienko, Yu V; Nédélec, P; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Organtini, G; Paoletti, S; Pansart, J P; Peigneux, J P; Puljak, I; Qian, S; Reid, E; Renker, D; Rosowsky, A; Rosso, E; Rusack, R W; Rykaczewski, H; Schneegans, M; Seez, Christopher J; Semeniouk, I N; Shagin, P M; Sillou, D; Singovsky, A V; Sougonyaev, V; Soric, I; Verrecchia, P; Vialle, J P; Virdee, Tejinder S; Zhu, R Y

    1998-01-01

    Tests of lead tungstate crystal matrices carried out in high-energy electron beams in 1996, using new crystals, new APDs and an improved test set-up, confirm that an energy resolution of better than 0 .6% at 100 GeV can be obtained when the longitudinal uniformity of the struck crystal is adequate. Light loss measurements under low dose irradiation are reported. It is shown that there is no loss of energy resolution after irradiation and that the calibration change due to light loss can be tracked with a precision monitoring system. Finally, successuful tests with a preshower device, equipped wi th silicon strip detector readout, are described.

  20. Studies on a modular high-energy photon spectrometer of pure CsI scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopyto, D.

    1994-04-01

    Aim of the present thesis is the optimization of components for the construction of a high-energy photon spectrometer of pure CsI for the detection of the neutral pseudoscalar mesons π 0 , η, and η' at COSY. These mesons are distinguished by their decay into two γ quanta and can therefore be detected by means of a photon spectrometer. A concept of a 2-arm shower counter of pure CsI is presented. Conclusions on the energy resolution of such a calorimeter shall yield a test module, which is constructed of 5.5 CsI(pure) pyramide trunk, each of which possesses a length of 30 cm and an angular acceptance of 6 .6 . The geometry of the moduls is formed in such a way that its extension to a 2-arm shower counter is possible at any time. Hitherto 14 by teflon foils wrapped up crystals for the test module were tested. Their energy resolution varies at 0.66 MeV between 20 and 25 % FWHM. Furthermore a method was found, which allows to trim the position dependence to the required values. So for the position dependence of a crystal even a value of 1.1 % could be reached. The energy resolution amounted thereby to 22 % FWHM. A measurement of the energy resolution with 20 MeV protons yielded a value of 7 %. For the energy calibration of the single detector elements in a dynamic range between 1 MeV and 12 GeV with low-energy γ sources the charge response function of the photoelectron multiplier to be applied in the test module was determined in dependence on the light intensity. The measurement resulted that the photomultiplier at 40 MeV (related to a CsI(pure) reference crystal with an about twofold so high efficiency of the detectable light in comparison to the long pyramide trunks) deviates by 4 % and at 300 MeV by 38 % from the linear behaviour, while it at 500 MeV shows a deviation of 50 %

  1. The Prism Plastic Calorimeter (PPC)

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This proposal supports two goals: \\\\ \\\\ First goal:~~Demonstrate that current, widely used plastic technologies allow to design Prism Plastic Calorimeter~(PPC) towers with a new ``liquid crystal'' type plastic called Vectra. It will be shown that this technique meets the requirements for a LHC calorimeter with warm liquids: safety, hermeticity, hadronic compensation, resolution and time response. \\\\ \\\\ Second goal:~~Describe how one can design a warm liquid calorimeter integrated into a LHC detector and to list the advantages of the PPC: low price, minimum of mechanical structures, minimum of dead space, easiness of mechanical assembly, accessibility to the electronics, possibility to recirculate the liquid. The absorber and the electronic being outside of the liquid and easily accessible, one has maximum flexibility to define them. \\\\ \\\\ The R&D program, we define here aims at showing the feasibility of these new ideas by building nine towers of twenty gaps and exposing them to electron and hadron beams.

  2. Plutonium assay calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, R.B.

    1978-01-01

    Three calorimeters were developed for the IAEA: a small-sample portable calorimeter, a bulk calorimeter for up to 2 kg Pu in cans and capable of measuring up to 25 watts, and a calorimeter for 4-m long LWR Pu-recycle fuel roads. Design parameters and performance capability are given, and the instruments are compared with those developed for NRC

  3. Components Qualification for a Possible use in the Mu2e Calorimeter Waveform Digitizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Falco, S. [INFN, Pisa; Donati, S. [INFN, Pisa; Morescalchi, L. [INFN, Pisa; Pedreschi, E. [INFN, Pisa; Pezzullo, G. [INFN, Pisa; Spinella, F. [INFN, Pisa

    2017-03-30

    The Mu2e experiment at Fermilab searches for the charged flavor violating conversion of a muon into an electron in the Coulomb field of a nucleus. The detector consists of a straw tube tracker and a CSI crystal electromagnetic calorimeter, both housed in a superconducting solenoid. Both the front-end and the digital electronics, located inside the cryostat, will be operated in vacuum under a 1 T magnetic field, having to sustain the high flux of neutrons and ionizing particles coming from the muons stopping target. These harsh experimental conditions make the design of the calorimeter waveform digitizer quite challenging. All the selected commercial devices must be tested individually and qualified for radiation hardness and operation in high magnetic field. At the moment the expected particles flux and spectra at the digitizers location are not completely simulated and we are using initial rough estimates to select the components for the first prototype. We are gaining experience in the qualification procedures using the selected components but the choice will be frozen only when dose and neutron flux simulations will be completed. The experimental results of the first qualification campaign are presented.

  4. Energy Resolution Performance of the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Adzic, Petar; Almeida, Carlos; Almeida, Nuno; Anagnostou, Georgios; Anfreville, Marc; Anicin, Ivan; Antunovic, Zeljko; Auffray, Etiennette; Baccaro, Stefania; Baffioni, Stephanie; Barney, David; Barone, Luciano; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Bell, Ken W; Benetta, Robert; Bercher, Michel; Berthon, Ursula; Betev, Botjo; Beuselinck, Raymond; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Biino, Cristina; Bimbot, Stephane; Blaha, Jan; Bloch, Philippe; Blyth, Simon; Bordalo, Paula; Bornheim, Adolf; Bourotte, Jean; Britton1, D; Brown, Robert M; Brunelière, Renaud; Busson, Philippe; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Cavallari, Francesca; Cerutti, Muriel; Chamont, David; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Charlot, Claude; Chatterji, Sudeep; Chen, E Augustine; Chipaux, Rémi; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Cockerill, David J A; Collard, Caroline; Combaret, Christophe; Cossutti, Fabio; Costantini, Silvia; Da Silva, J C; Dafinei, Ioan; Daskalakis, Georgios; Davatz, Giovanna; Debraine, Alain; Decotigny, David; De Min, Alberto; Deiters, Konrad; Dejardin, Marc; Della Negra, Rodolphe; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Depasse, Pierre; Descamp, J; Dewhirst, Guy; Dhawan, Satish; Diemoz, Marcella; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Djambazov, Lubomir; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Drndarevic, Snezana; Dupanloup, Michel; Dzelalija, Mile; Ehlers, Jan; El-Mamouni, H; Peisert, Anna; Evangelou, Ioannis; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Fay, Jean; Ferri, Federico; Flower, Paul S; Franzoni, Giovanni; Funk, Wolfgang; Gaillac, Anne-Marie; Gargiulo, Corrado; Gascon-Shotkin, S; Geerebaert, Yannick; Gentit, François-Xavier; Ghezzi, Alessio; Gilly, Jean; Giolo-Nicollerat, Anne-Sylvie; Givernaud, Alain; Gninenko, Sergei; Go, Apollo; Godinovic, Nikola; Golubev, Nikolai; Golutvin, Igor; Gómez-Reino, Robert; Govoni, Pietro; Grahl1, J; Gras1, P; Greenhalgh, Justin; Guillaud, Jean-Paul; Haguenauer, Maurice; Hamel-de-Montechenault, G; Hansen, Magnus; Heath, Helen F; AHill, J; Hobson, Peter R; Holmes, Daniel; Holzner, André; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Ille, Bernard; Ingram, Quentin; Jain, Adarsh; Jarry, Patrick; Jauffret, C; Jha, Manoj; Karar, Akli; Kataria, Sushil Kumar; Katchanov, V A; Kennedy, Bruce W; Kloukinas, Kostas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Korjik, M; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Krpic, Dragomir; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Lebeau, Michel; Lecomte, Pierre; Lecoq, Paul; Lemaire, Marie-Claude; Lethuillier, Morgan; Lin, Willis; Lintern, A L; Lister, Alison; Litvin, V; Locci, Elizabeth; Lodge, Anthony B; Longo, Egidio; Loukas, Demetrios; Luckey, D; Lustermann, Werner; Lynch, Clare; MacKay, Catherine Kirsty; Malberti, Martina; Maletic, Dimitrije; Mandjavidze, Irakli; Manthos, Nikolaos; Markou, Athanasios; Mathez, Hervé; Mathieu, Antoine; Matveev, Viktor; Maurelli, Georges; Menichetti, Ezio; Meridiani, Paolo; Milenovic, Predrag; Milleret, Gérard; Miné, Philippe; Mur, Michel; Musienko, Yuri; Nardulli, Alessandro; Nash, Jordan; Neal, Homer; Nédélec, Patrick; Negri, Pietro; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Newman26, H B; Nikitenko, Alexander; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Ofierzynski, Radoslaw Adrian; Organtini, Giovanni; Paganini, Pascal; Paganoni, Marco; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paramatti, Riccardo; Pastrone, Nadia; Pauss, Felicitas; Poilleux, Patrick; Puljak, Ivica; Pullia, Antonino; Puzovic, Jovan; Ragazzi, Stefano; Ramos, Sergio; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rander, John; Ranjan, Kirti; Ravat, Olivier; Raymond, M; Razis, Panos A; Redaelli, Nicola; Renker, Dieter; Reucroft, Steve; Reymond, Jean-Marc; Reynaud, Michel; Reynaud, Serge; Romanteau, Thierry; Rondeaux, Françoise; Rosowsky, André; Rovelli, Chiara; Rumerio, Paolo; Rusack, Roger; Rusakov, Sergey V; Ryan, Matthew John; Rykaczewski, Hans; Sakhelashvili, Tariel; Salerno, Roberto; Santos, Marcelino; Seez, Christopher; Semeniouk, Igor; Sharif, Omar; Sharp, Peter; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Shevchenko, Sergey; Shivpuri, Ram Krishen; Sidiropoulos, Georgios; Sillou, Daniel; Singovsky, Alexander; Sirois, Yves; Sirunyan, Albert M; Smith, Brian; Smith, Vincent J; Sproston, Martin; Suter, Henry; Swain, John; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Takahashi, Maiko; Tapper, Robert J; Tcheremoukhine, Alexandre; Teixeira, Isabel; Teixeira, Joao Paulo; Teller, Olivier; Timlin, Claire; ATriantis, F; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Ueno, Koji; Uzunian, Andrey; Varela, Joao; Vaz-Cardoso, N; Verrecchia, Patrice; Vichoudis, Paschalis; Vigano, S; Viertel, Gert; Virdee, Tejinder; Vlassov, E; Wang, Minzu; Weinstein, Alan; Williams, Jennifer C; Yaselli, Ignacio; Zabi, Alexandre; Zamiatin, Nikolai; Zelepoukine, Serguei; Zeller, Michael E; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Yawei; Zhu, Kejun; Zhu, Ren-Yuan

    2006-01-01

    The energy resolution performance of the CMS lead tungstate crystal electromagnetic calorimeter is presented. Measurements were made with an electron beam using a fully equipped supermodule of the calorimeter barrel. Results are given both for electrons incident on the centre of crystals and for electrons distributed uniformly over the calorimeter surface. The electron energy is reconstructed in matrices of 3 times 3 or 5 times 5 crystals centred on the crystal containing the maximum energy. Corrections for variations in the shower containment are applied in the case of uniform incidence. The resolution measured is consistent with the design goals.

  5. ELECTROMAGNETIC CALORIMETER (ECAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Bloch

    ECAL crystal calorimeter (EB + EE) The Barrel and Endcaps ECAL calorimeters have been used routinely in global runs. The CRAFT data have confirmed that ECAL performance is the same with or without magnetic field. The CRUZET and CRAFT runs have allowed experience to be gained with ECAL operation in many areas, in particular for the trigger and the calibration sequence using gap events (laser events and LED pulsing). More details can be found in the Commissioning/DPG report in this bulletin.   The last components remaining to be installed and commissioned are the specific Endcap Trigger modules (TCC-48). Most of the modules have been delivered to LLR and half of them are already at CERN. In parallel, large progress has been made on the validation of the TCC-48 firmware. Preshower (ES) The Preshower project has also made impressive progress during Autumn. All the elements required to complete the detector assembly are at hand. Ladder assembly, test and calibration with cosmic rays at the operating ...

  6. Contribution to the study of the readout of the electromagnetic calorimeter crystals in the CMS experiment at LHC; Contribution a l`etude de la lecture des cristaux du calorimetre electromagnetique de l`experience CMS au LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Franck [Universite Claude Bernard Lyon-1, 69 - Lyon (France)

    1998-07-03

    The search for neutral Higgs boson through its decay into two photons provides a very promising signal for a mass between 90 and 150 GeV. It requires an electromagnetic calorimeter of very high resolution. The CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) electromagnetic calorimeter must be made up of more than 80,000 lead tungstate crystals. In the central part (the barrel), the scintillation light readout is performed by means of avalanche photodiodes, a silicon photo-sensor with internal gain which is a relative novelty in high energy physics. Concerning the readout electronics, the energy available in the centre-of-mass (14 TeV) as well as the collision frequency (40 MHz) of LHC impose constraints with respect to the signal treatment up to the acquisition. The retained solution consists in pairing two avalanche photodiodes, the parameters of which (gain, temperature dependence, dark current, etc) must be controlled, and coupling them to a low noise preamplifier of high dynamical range (5 MeV - 2 TeV) followed by a four-slopes linear compressor and a analog-digital sampling converter of 12 bits, 40 MHz. The thesis presents the prototypes of different electromagnetic calorimeters tested in the high energy beam. An energy resolution of 0.6% at 100 GeV was obtained with a conventional readout circuitry, while the integrated associated circuits were radiation resistant 73 refs., 100 figs., 19 tabs.

  7. Installing the ATLAS calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    The eight toroid magnets can be seen surrounding the calorimeter that is later moved into the middle of the detector. This calorimeter will measure the energies of particles produced when protons collide in the centre of the detector.

  8. OPAL detector electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    1988-01-01

    Half of the electromagnetic calorimeter of the OPAL detector is seen in this photo. This calorimeter consists of 4720 blocks of lead glass. It was used to detect and measure the energy of photons, electrons and positrons by absorbing them.

  9. Peltier ac calorimeter

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, D. H.; Moon, I. K.; Jeong, Y. H.

    2001-01-01

    A new ac calorimeter, utilizing the Peltier effect of a thermocouple junction as an ac power source, is described. This Peltier ac calorimeter allows to measure the absolute value of heat capacity of small solid samples with sub-milligrams of mass. The calorimeter can also be used as a dynamic one with a dynamic range of several decades at low frequencies.

  10. Quartz fiber calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akchurin, N.; Doulas, S.; Ganel, O.; Gershtein, Y.; Gavrilov, V.; Kolosov, V.; Kuleshov, S.; Litvinsev, D.; Merlo, J.-P.; Onel, Y.; Osborne, D.; Rosowsky, A.; Stolin, V.; Sulak, L.; Sullivan, J.; Ulyanov, A.; Wigmans, R.; Winn, D.

    1996-01-01

    A calorimeter with optical quartz fibers embedded into an absorber matrix was proposed for the small angle region of the CMS detector at LHC (CERN). This type of calorimeter is expected to be radiation hard and to produce extremely fast signal. Some results from beam tests of the quartz fiber calorimeter prototype are presented. (orig.)

  11. ELECTROMAGNETIC CALORIMETER (ECAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Bloch

    ECAL Barrel (EB) The cabling of the ECAL Barrel services on YB0 was completed early December 2007. The team has now commissioned the complete Barrel. To run all the supermodules in parallel, it is necessary to remove the heat from the service cables on YB0. The corresponding thermal screens are being installed and, for the time being, a max¬imum of 25 supermodules has been run concurrently. EB is read out regularly with a local DAQ as well as with the central DAQ and trigger. The calorimeter trigger has also been commissioned, allowing us to trigger on cosmic muons. ECAL Endcaps (EE) The Endcaps crystal production will be completed before the end of March 2008, as planned. The gluing of the VPTs (Vacuum Photo Triodes) on the crystals and the assembly of Supercrystals (sets of 25 crystals) are proceeding at the pace of 16 Supercrystals (400 channels) per week. Two thirds of the Supercrystals needed for the complete EE have been produced. Their mounting on the Dee backplates (including the connectio...

  12. Study of characteristics of gamma-irradiated materials for calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britvich, G.I.; Vasil'chenko, V.G.; Peresypkin, A.I.

    1992-01-01

    The radiation resistance of some structural materials proposed for use in electromagnetic calorimeters is studied. Particular attention is given to the spectral, dose, and other postradiation characteristics of pure heavy fluorides and their solid solutions: The promise of the use of CdF 2 and CdI 2 crystals in calorimeters is noted. 19 refs., 5 figs

  13. Improved reconstruction for IDEAL spiral CSI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rie Beck; Mariager, Christian; Laustsen, Christoffer

    2017-01-01

    In this study we demonstrate how reconstruction for IDEAL spiral CSI (spectroscopic imaging scheme developed for hyperpolarized dynamic metabolic MR imaging) can be improved by using regularization with a sparsity constraint. By exploiting sparsity of the spectral domain, IDEAL spiral CSI can...

  14. The BaBar electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Lewandowski, B

    2002-01-01

    The BaBar electromagnetic calorimeter is a hermetic, total-absorption array of CsI(Tl)-crystals, operated at the asymmetric e sup - e sup + -collider PEP-II at SLAC. The design and the status of the performance as of February 2002 is presented.

  15. The electromagnetic calorimeter of the CMS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diemoza, M.

    2003-01-01

    The Electromagnetic Calorimeter of the CMS experiment is made of about 80000 Lead Tungstate scintillating crystals. This project aims to achieve an extreme precision in photons and electrons energy measurement. General motivations, main technical challenges and key points in energy resolution will be discussed in the following

  16. Micro Calorimeter for Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santhanagopalan, Shriram [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-01

    As battery technology forges ahead and consumer demand for safer, more affordable, high-performance batteries grows, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has added a patented Micro Calorimeter to its existing family of R&D 100 Award-winning Isothermal Battery Calorimeters (IBCs). The Micro Calorimeter examines the thermal signature of battery chemistries early on in the design cycle using popular coin cell and small pouch cell designs, which are simple to fabricate and study.

  17. LHCb calorimeter electronics. Photon identification. Calorimeter calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machefert, F.

    2011-01-01

    LHCb is one of the four large experiments installed on the LHC accelerator ring. The aim of the detector is to precisely measure CP violation observables and rare decays in the B meson sector. The calorimeter system of LHCb is made of four sub-systems: the scintillating pad detector, the pre-shower, the electromagnetic (ECAL) and hadronic (HCAL) calorimeters. It is essential to reconstruct B decays, to efficiently trigger on interesting events and to identify electrons and photons. After a review of the LHCb detector sub-systems, the first part of this document describes the calorimeter electronics. First, the front-end electronics in charge of measuring the ECAL and HCAL signals from the photomultipliers is presented, then the following section is an overview of the control card of the four calorimeters. The chapters three and four concern the test software of this electronics and the technological choices making it tolerant to radiations in the LHCb cavern environment. The measurements performed to ensure this tolerance are also given. The second part of this document concerns both the identification of the photons with LHCb and the calibration of the calorimeters. The photon identification method is presented and the performances given. Finally, the absolute energy calibration of the PRS and ECAL, based on the data stored in 2010 is explained. (author)

  18. AIDA: concerted calorimeter development

    CERN Multimedia

    Felix Sefkow

    2013-01-01

    AIDA – the EU-funded project bringing together more than 80 institutes worldwide – aims at developing new detector solutions for future accelerators. Among the highlights reported at AIDA’s recent annual meeting in Frascati was the completion of an impressive calorimeter test beam programme, conducted by the CALICE collaboration over the past two years at CERN’s PS and SPS beam lines.   The CALICE tungsten calorimeter prototype under test at CERN. This cubic-metre hadron calorimeter prototype has almost 500,000 individually read-out electronics channels – more than all the calorimeters of ATLAS and CMS put together. Calorimeter development in AIDA is mainly motivated by experiments at possible future electron-positron colliders, namely ILC or CLIC. The physics requirements of such future machines demand extremely high-performance calorimetry. This is best achieved using a finely segmented system that reconstructs events using the so-called pa...

  19. Contribution to the study of electromagnetic calorimeter with PbWO{sub 4} crystals in the CMS experiment at LHC; Contribution a l`etude du calorimetre electromagnetique a cristaux de PbWO{sub 4} de l`experience CMS au LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benhammou, Y [Lyon-1 Univ., 69 (France)

    1997-01-13

    The Higgs bosons can be observed in the [90-130] GeV mass range in the channel h -> {gamma}{gamma} if a high resolution electromagnetic calorimeter is used. The needed performances are met in the Pb W O{sub 4} crystals. This thesis is devoted to the study of the first Pb W O{sub 4} crystals (23 cm length) and their associated electronic equipment. Of crucial importance it was found to be the behaviour of these crystals under long radiation exposure. The understanding of the radiation effects, the crystal growth procedure mastering and the realization of a green light monitoring system of high performance were successful results obtained in the study described in this thesis. A rather high energy (0.6 % at 100 GeV) and position resolution was achieved by using a APD readout. In addition, the prototype of a final readout chain of large dynamic range and low consumption was built with very encouraging results. Concerning the APDs it was established that increasing the active surface and reduction of exceeding noise factor F improves significantly the stochastic term in the energy resolution. Besides, a complete readout chain comprising current preamplifiers, a linear compressing (multi-slope) system and a fast ADC (40 MHz), were found necessary to met the requirements imposed on the high performing Pb W O{sub 4} calorimeter. Research and development works based on the pioneering studies described in this thesis devoted to the crystal calorimeters are underway 77 refs.

  20. International workshop on calorimeter simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filges, D.; Cloth, P.

    1988-10-01

    The aim of the Juelich workshop was to provide an overview of the state of calorimeter simulation and the methods used. This resulted in 29 contributions to the following topics: Code systems relevant to calorimeter simulation, vectorization and code speed-up, simulation of calorimeter experiments, special applications of calorimeter simulation. This report presents the viewgraphs of the given talks. (orig./HSI)

  1. Intercalibration of the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter Using Jet Trigger Events

    CERN Document Server

    Futyan, David

    2004-01-01

    This note describes a strategy for rapidly obtaining electromagnetic calorimeter crystal intercalibration at LHC start-up in the absence of test beam precalibration of the complete detector. In the case of the CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) Electromagnetic Calorimeter, the limit on the precision to which crystals can be intercalibrated in phi using fully simulated jet trigger events, and assuming complete ignorance of the distribution of material in front of the calorimeter, is determined as a function of the pseudorapidity eta. The value of the limit has been found to be close to 1.5% in the barrel and between 3.0% and 1.0% for the fiducial region of the endcaps. The precision is limited by the inhomogeneity of tracker material. With increasing knowledge of the material distribution in the tracker, the attainable precision of the method will increase, with the potential of providing rapid and repeated calibration of the calorimeter.

  2. Langley's CSI evolutionary model: Phase O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belvin, W. Keith; Elliott, Kenny B.; Horta, Lucas G.; Bailey, Jim P.; Bruner, Anne M.; Sulla, Jeffrey L.; Won, John; Ugoletti, Roberto M.

    1991-01-01

    A testbed for the development of Controls Structures Interaction (CSI) technology to improve space science platform pointing is described. The evolutionary nature of the testbed will permit the study of global line-of-sight pointing in phases 0 and 1, whereas, multipayload pointing systems will be studied beginning with phase 2. The design, capabilities, and typical dynamic behavior of the phase 0 version of the CSI evolutionary model (CEM) is documented for investigator both internal and external to NASA. The model description includes line-of-sight pointing measurement, testbed structure, actuators, sensors, and real time computers, as well as finite element and state space models of major components.

  3. Calorimeters for biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, Donald J.; Hansen, Lee D.

    2006-01-01

    The isothermal and temperature scanning calorimeters manufactured by Calorimetry Sciences Corporation are briefly described. Applications of calorimetry to determine thermodynamics and kinetics of reactions of interest in biotechnology are described with illustrative examples

  4. GSPEL - Calorimeter Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Testing performance claims on heat transfer componentsThe Calorimeter Lab, located in the Ground Systems Power and Energy Lab (GSPEL), is one of the largest in the...

  5. New heavy scintillating materials for precise heterogeneous EM-calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britvich, G.I.; Britvich, I.G.; Vasil'chenko, V.G.; Lishin, V.A.; Obraztsov, V.F.; Polyakov, V.A.; Solovjev, A.S.; Ryzhikov, V.D.

    2001-01-01

    This investigation shows some optical and scintillation properties of new scintillating media, based on heavy composite materials and an inorganic crystal CsI:Br, intended for the creation of precise heterogeneous EM-calorimeters with the energy resolution σ/E congruent with 4-5% E-radical. The possibility to use cheap heavy scintillating plates based on optical ceramics as active media in heterogeneous EM-calorimeters is considered

  6. The ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Michel Mathieu, a technician for the ATLAS collaboration, is cabling the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter's first end-cap, before insertion into its cryostat. Millions of wires are connected to the electromagnetic calorimeter on this end-cap that must be carefully fed out from the detector so that data can be read out. Every element on the detector will be attached to one of these wires so that a full digital map of the end-cap can be recreated.

  7. Proportional wire calorimeters at ISABELLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, J.A.J.

    1979-01-01

    Gas calorimeters have recently increased in popularity because they provide a simple method of achieving a high degree of calorimeter segmentation with only a modest loss in energy resolution compared with liquid argon or scintillator calorimeters. High radiation levels at ISABELLE will result in gas calorimeter lifetimes similar to those of MWPCs, although the intermediate speed of these devices may cause some resolution degradation due to signal pileup. Schemes for calibration and monitoring gas calorimeters in situ must be evolved and will presumably utilize a combination of pulsers, imbedded 55 Fe sources, etc. Most of the recent development work on gas calorimeters has been centered on electromagnetic (em) calorimetry for large detectors at CESR and PEP. Data on the performance of gas calorimeters are given and compared with the liquid argon results of Hitlin et al. The hadronic gas calorimeter results of Anderson et al. are shown along with typical energy resolution results from various scintillator and liquid argon steel calorimeters

  8. Geometric alignment of the CMD-3 endcap electromagnetic calorimeter using events of two-quantum annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhmetshin, R.R.; Grigoriev, D.N.; Kazanin, V.F.; Kuzmenko, A.E.; Timofeev, A.V.

    2017-01-01

    Since 2010 the electromagnetic endcap calorimeter based on BGO crystals is used in experiments as one of the systems of the CMD-3 detector. The spacial resolution is one of crucial parameters of the calorimeter. Inaccurate knowledge of the real calorimeter position can limit the resolution. In this work the alignment of the center of the calorimeter with respect to the tracking system of the CMD-3 detector has been performed using events of two-quantum annihilation. The alignment technique that has been used to determine the position of the calorimeter is described. Finally, the improvement in spacial resolution of the calorimeter after applying the correction for the real calorimeter position is shown.

  9. CMS lead tungstate crystals

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2000-01-01

    These crystals are made from lead tungstate, a crystal that is as clear as glass yet with nearly four times the density. They have been produced in Russia to be used as scintillators in the electromagnetic calorimeter on the CMS experiment, part of the LHC project at CERN. When an electron, positron or photon passes through the calorimeter it will cause a cascade of particles that will then be absorbed by these scintillating crystals, allowing the particle's energy to be measured.

  10. Magnetically Coupled Calorimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandler, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Calorimeters that utilize the temperature sensitivity of magnetism have been under development for over 20 years. They have targeted a variety of different applications that require very high resolution spectroscopy. I will describe the properties of this sensor technology that distinguish it from other low temperature detectors and emphasize the types of application to which they appear best suited. I will review what has been learned so far about the best materials, geometries, and read-out amplifiers and our understanding of the measured performance and theoretical limits. I will introduce some of the applications where magnetic calorimeters are being used and also where they are in development for future experiments. So far, most magnetic calorimeter research has concentrated on the use of paramagnets to provide temperature sensitivity; recent studies have also focused on magnetically coupled calorimeters that utilize the diamagnetic response of superconductors. I will present some of the highlights of this research, and contrast the properties of the two magnetically coupled calorimeter types.

  11. The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Henriques Correia, Ana Maria

    2015-01-01

    TileCal is the Hadronic calorimeter covering the most central region of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. It uses iron plates as absorber and plastic scintillating tiles as the active material. Scintillation light produced in the tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibres to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The resulting electronic signals from the approximately 10000 PMTs are measured and digitised every 25 ns before being transferred to off-detector data-acquisition systems. This contribution will review in a first part the performances of the calorimeter during run 1, obtained from calibration data, and from studies of the response of particles from collisions. In a second part it will present the solutions being investigated for the ongoing and future upgrades of the calorimeter electronics.

  12. The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriques, A.

    2015-01-01

    TileCal is the Hadronic calorimeter covering the most central region of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. It uses iron plates as absorber and plastic scintillating tiles as the active material. Scintillation light produced in the tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibres to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The resulting electronic signals from the approximately 10000 PMTs are measured and digitised every 25 ns before being transferred to off-detector data-acquisition systems. This contribution will review in a first part the performances of the calorimeter during run 1, obtained from calibration data, and from studies of the response of particles from collisions. In a second part it will present the solutions being investigated for the ongoing and future upgrades of the calorimeter electronics. (authors)

  13. Decay-time measurements on 'pure' CsI scintillators prepared by different methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keszthelyi-Landori, S.; Foeldvari, I.; Voszka, R.; Fodor, Z.; Seres, Z.

    1990-05-01

    The discovery of the fast decay time of the pure CsI and the various results of the measured samples led to the investigation of decay time of CsI crystals prepared by different methods. Carefully grown or prepared pure CsI behaves as fast scintillators with well or totally suppressed slow decay component. The estimated fast/slow or fast/total ratio is related to the preparation method and to the remaining built-in contamination of the samples. The fast decay of pure CsI consists of two components with decay times of ≅1 and ≅10 ns - with an intensity ratio of 0.3 and 0.65 for gamma and for alpha radiation, respectively. This new ≅1 ns component and the ≅0.8 fast/total ratio may achieve an important role in many applications where fast timing properties are needed, substituting BaF 2 . (author) 18 refs.; 8 figs.; 3 tabs

  14. ALICE Zero Degree Calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    De Marco, N

    2013-01-01

    Two identical sets of calorimeters are located on both sides with respect to the beam Interaction Point (IP), 112.5 m away from it. Each set of detectors consists of a neutron (ZN) and a proton (ZP) Zero Degree Calorimeter (ZDC), positioned on remotely controlled platforms. The ZN is placed at zero degree with respect to the LHC beam axis, between the two beam pipes, while the ZP is positioned externally to the outgoing beam pipe. The spectator protons are separated from the ion beams by means of the dipole magnet D1.

  15. SLD liquid argon calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vella, E.

    1992-10-01

    The liquid argon calorimeter (LAC) of the SLD detector is a parallel plate -- liquid argon sampling calorimeter, used to measure particle energies in Z 0 decays at the Stanford Linear Collider. The LAC module design is based on a unique projective tower structure, in which lead plates and segmented lead tiles serve both as absorbers and electrodes. The LAC front end electronics incorporates several novel features, including extensive multiplexing and optical fiber readout, which take advantage of the low SLC beam crossing frequency. The operational performance of the LAC during the recently completed SLD physics run (which recorded over 10,000 Z 0 events) is discussed

  16. Modeling of Reaction Calorimeter

    OpenAIRE

    Farzad, Reza

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to model the reaction calorimeter in order to calculate the heat of absorption which is the most important parameter in this work. Reaction calorimeter is an apparatus which is used in measuring the heat of absorption of CO2 as well as the total pressure in vapor phase based on vapor-liquid equilibrium state. Mixture of monoethanolamine (MEA) and water was used as a solvent to absorb the CO2.Project was divided in to three parts in order to make the programming...

  17. A digital calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitschke, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    The paper describes a calorimeter which is used to determine the particle flux of an accelerator. It incorporates as its principal feature a Peltier module which is operated in a constant current pulse mode. Via a feedback arrangement, the Peltier module thermally compensates the heat generated by the particle beam by supplying discrete 'cooling quanta'. The number of 'quanta' generated per unit time is measured with a frequency counter and is proportional to the beam power. The calorimeter can be calibrated via internal resistors which dissipate a precisely known amount of power in the target. (orig.)

  18. The SDC central calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proudfoot, J.

    1992-01-01

    An overview of the calorimeter being designed and constructed by Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC) for use at the Superconducting SuperCollider is presented. The collaboration have chosen to build a sampling calorimeter using scintillating tile with wavelength-shifter fiber readout as the detector medium, and absorber media of lead and iron for the electromagnetic and hadronic compartments. This choice was based on a substantial amount of R D and Monte Carlo simulation calculations, which showed that it both met the necessary experimental specifications in addition to being a cost effect design.

  19. The SDC central calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proudfoot, J.; The SDC Collaboration

    1992-11-01

    An overview of the calorimeter being designed and constructed by Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC) for use at the Superconducting SuperCollider is presented. The collaboration have chosen to build a sampling calorimeter using scintillating tile with wavelength-shifter fiber readout as the detector medium, and absorber media of lead and iron for the electromagnetic and hadronic compartments. This choice was based on a substantial amount of R&D and Monte Carlo simulation calculations, which showed that it both met the necessary experimental specifications in addition to being a cost effect design.

  20. MAC calorimeters and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MAC Collaboration.

    1982-03-01

    The MAC detector at PEP features a large solid-angle electromagnetic/hadronic calorimeter system, augmented by magnetic charged-particle tracking, muon analysis and scintillator triggering. Its implementation in the context of electron-positron annihilation physics is described, with emphasis on the utilization of calorimetry

  1. CMS Central Hadron Calorimeter

    OpenAIRE

    Budd, Howard S.

    2001-01-01

    We present a description of the CMS central hadron calorimeter. We describe the production of the 1996 CMS hadron testbeam module. We show the results of the quality control tests of the testbeam module. We present some results of the 1995 CMS hadron testbeam.

  2. Gas calorimeter workshop: proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Gas calorimeters combining functions of energy measurement and fine tracking have become more and more popular in the past few years. They help identify muons, gammas, electrons, and hadrons within dense tracks from transverse and longitudinal shower development. Fine segmentation capability using pads and strips on the cathodes have made gas-sampling calorimeters very attractive for colliding-beam detectors where a large multiplicity of particles are detected in a projected geometry. Linearity, energy resolution, shower position resolution, multishower resolution, and calibration questions were discussed in detail at the workshop. Ease of energy calibration by monitoring radioactive sources, good gain uniformity, and gain stability obtained were among the topics of the speakers. There was a discussion session on the operation mode of wire chambers. Gas calorimeters have been used successfully at CERN, Cornell, Fermilab, and SLAC for experiments. Some of the results from those large-scale devices were reported. Future usage of gas-sampling calorimeters for colliding-beam experiments at Fermilab and CERN were discussed. Wire chambers using extruded conductive plastic tubes have made construction easy of pads and strips which can conveniently read out induced signals from the cathode. The results of extensive studies on such devices were discussed. Separate entries were prepared for the data base for the 17 papers presented

  3. An Inexpensive Solution Calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Emma; Mindel, Sam; Robertson, Giles; Hughes, D. E. Peter

    2008-01-01

    We describe the construction of a simple solution calorimeter, using a miniature bead thermistor as a temperature-sensing element. This has a response time of a few seconds and made it possible to carry out a thermometric reaction in under a minute, which led to minimal heat losses. Small temperature changes of 1 K associated with enthalpies of…

  4. Calorimeter for thermal sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shai, I.; Shaham, Ch.; Barnea, I.

    1978-12-01

    A calorimeter was built, enabling the thermal power of radioactive sources to be measured in the range of 50 to 120 mW. The system was calibrated with an electrical heater. The calibration curves serve to determine the power of radioactive sources with a reasonable accuracy

  5. Automatic low-temperature calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malyshev, V.M.; Mil'ner, G.A.; Shibakin, V.F.; Sorkin, E.L.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes a low-temperature adiabatic calorimeter with a range of 1.5-500K. The system for maintaining adiabatic conditions is implemented by two resitance thermometers, whose sensitivity at low temperatures is several orders higher than that of thermocouples. The calorimeter cryostat is installed in an STG-40 portable Dewar flask. The calorimeter is controlled by an Elektronika-60 microcomputer. Standard platinum and germanium thermometers were placed inside of the calorimeter to calibrate the thermometers of the calorimeter and the shield, and the specific heats of specimens of OSCh 11-4 copper and KTP-8 paste were measured to demonstrate the possibilities of the described calorimeter. Experience with the calorimeter has shown that a thorough study of the dependence of heat capacity on temperature (over 100 points for one specimen) can be performed in one or two dats

  6. Dual-Readout Calorimetry with Lead Tungstate Crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Akchurin, N.

    2007-01-01

    Results are presented of beam tests in which a small electromagnetic calorimeter consisting of lead tungstate crystals was exposed to 50 GeV electrons and pions. This calorimeter was backed up by the DREAM Dual-Readout calorimeter, which measures the scintillation and \\v{C}erenkov light produced in the shower development, using two different media. The signals from the crystal calorimeter were analyzed in great detail in an attempt to determine the contributions from these two types of light ...

  7. Luminescent properties of BaCl2-Eu microcrystals embedded in a CsI matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pushak, A.; Vistovskyy, V.; Voloshinovskii, A.; Savchyn, P.; Antonyak, O.; Demkiv, T.; Dacyuk, Yu.; Myagkota, S.; Gektin, A.

    2013-01-01

    The spectral-luminescent properties of CsI-BaCl 2 (1 mol%)-Eu(0.02 mol%) crystalline system are studied. Europium ion doped BaCl 2 microcrystals embedded in a CsI matrix are revealed on CsI-BaCl 2 (1 mol%)-Eu(0.02 mol%) freshly cleaved surface by the scanning electron microscopy. The size of microcrystals is shown to be within 0.5–5 microns. The luminescent parameters of the BaCl 2 -Eu 2+ microcrystals are shown to be similar to ones of a single crystal analogue. The 4f → 5d absorption transitions in europium ions and the reabsorption of the intrinsic emission of the CsI host are the main excitation mechanisms of europium luminescence in the BaCl 2 microcrystals. -- Highlights: ► The formation of chloride BaCl 2 :Eu microcrystals in the case of BaCl 2 doped CsI crystal has been revealed. ► The observed size of microcrystals at BaCl 2 concentration of 1% is about 0.5–5 μm. ► Majority of Eu 2+ ions in CsI-BaCl 2 -EuCl 3 crystalline system enters into BaCl 2 microcrystals. ► The luminescent parameters of the BaCl 2 :Eu 2+ microcrystals and its bulk analogue are similar

  8. Radiation damage in undoped CsI and CsI(Tl)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woody, C.L.; Kierstead, J.A.; Levy, P.W.; Stoll, S.

    1992-01-01

    Radiation damage has been studied in undoped CsI and CsI(TI) crystals using 60 Co gamma radiation for doses up to ∼ 4.2 x 10 6 . Samples from various manufacturers were measured ranging in size from 2.54 cm long cylinders to a 30 cm long block. Measurements were made on the change in optical transmission and scintillation light output as a function of dose. Although some samples showed a small change in transmission, a significant change in light output was observed for all samples. Recovery from damage was also studied as a function of time and exposure to UV light. A short lived phosphorescence was observed in undoped CsI, similar to the phosphorescence seen in CsI(TI)

  9. CsI and some new photocathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.F.; Kwan, S.; Peskov, V.

    1993-06-01

    A discussion of the possible sources of discrepancies in the measurements of the quantum efficiency of CsI photocathodes is presented. We propose that the major causes for disagreements in QE are due to the QE dependence on the current density extracted from the photocathode, on the electric field, and on the temperature of the photocathode. Preliminary results on TMAE enhanced GaAs and Si, plus TMAE protected CsTe and SbCs photocathodes, operated in gas, are also presented

  10. ELECTROMAGNETIC CALORIMETER (ECAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    Roger Rusack

    Occupancy of the trigger primitives during a global run: the observed pattern is consistent with the polar angle dependence of the transverse energy equivalent of the electronic noise in the endcaps.   Progress on ECAL since the last CMS week has been mostly on three major fronts: we have continued with the installation and commissioning of the preshower detectors; the endcap calorimeter trigger has been installed and tested; and there have been many changes to the calorimeter detector control and safety systems. Both Preshower (ES) endcaps were installed in CMS on schedule, just before Easter. There followed a campaign of "first commissioning" to ensure that all services were correctly connected (electrical, optical, cooling, etc.). Apart from some optical ribbons that had to be replaced the process went rather smoothly, finishing on 23rd April. All power supplies are installed and operational. The cooling system (two branches of the joint Tracker-Preshower system) is fully fun...

  11. NA48 prototype calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    1990-01-01

    This is a calorimeter, a detector which measures the energy of particles. When in use, it is filled with liquid krypton at -152°C. Electrons and photons passing through interact with the krypton, creating a shower of charged particles which are collected on the copper ribbons. The ribbons are aligned to an accuracy of a tenth of a millimetre. The folding at each end allows them to be kept absolutely flat. Each shower of particles also creates a signal in scintillating material embedded in the support disks. These flashes of light are transmitted to electronics by the optical fibres along the side of the detector. They give the time at which the interaction occurred. The photo shows the calorimeter at NA48, a CERN experiment which is trying to understand the lack of anti-matter in the Universe today.

  12. UA2 central calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    The UA2 central calorimeter measured the energy of individual particles created in proton-antiproton collisions. Accurate calibration allowed the W and Z masses to be measured with a precision of about 1%. The calorimeter had 24 slices like this one, each weighing 4 tons. The slices were arranged like orange segments around the collision point. Incoming particles produced showers of secondary particles in the layers of heavy material. These showers passed through the layers of plastic scintillator, generating light which was taken by light guides (green) to the data collection electronics. The amount of light was proportional to the energy of the original particle. The inner 23 cm of lead and plastic sandwiches measured electrons and photons; the outer 80 cm of iron and plastic sandwiches measured strongly interacting hadrons. The detector was calibrated by injecting light through optical fibres or by placing a radioactive source in the tube on the bottom edge.

  13. Harwell Graphite Calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linacre, J.K.

    1970-01-01

    The calorimeter is of the steady state temperature difference type. It contains a graphite sample supported axially in a graphite outer jacket, the assembly being contained in a thin stainless steel outer can. The temperature of the jacket and the temperature difference between sample and jacket are measured by chromel-alumel thermocouples. The instrument is calibrated by means of an electric heater of low mass positioned on the axis of the sample. The resistance of the heater is known and both current through the heater and the potential across it may be measured. The instrument is filled with nitrogen at a pressure of one half atmosphere at room temperature. The calorimeter has been designed for prolonged operation at temperatures up to 600°C, and dose rates up to 1 Wg -1 , and instruments have been in use for periods in excess of one year

  14. The CMS Outer Hadron Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Acharya, Bannaje Sripathi; Banerjee, Sunanda; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhandari, Virender; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Chendvankar, Sanjay; Deshpande, Pandurang Vishnu; Dugad, Shashikant; Ganguli, Som N; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Kalmani, Suresh Devendrappa; Kaur, Manjit; Kohli, Jatinder Mohan; Krishnaswamy, Marthi Ramaswamy; Kumar, Arun; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mondal, Naba Kumar; Nagaraj, P; Narasimham, Vemuri Syamala; Patil, Mandakini Ravindra; Reddy, L V; Satyanarayana, B; Sharma, Seema; Singh, B; Singh, Jas Bir; Sudhakar, Katta; Tonwar, Suresh C; Verma, Piyush

    2006-01-01

    The CMS hadron calorimeter is a sampling calorimeter with brass absorber and plastic scintillator tiles with wavelength shifting fibres for carrying the light to the readout device. The barrel hadron calorimeter is complemented with a outer calorimeter to ensure high energy shower containment in CMS and thus working as a tail catcher. Fabrication, testing and calibrations of the outer hadron calorimeter are carried out keeping in mind its importance in the energy measurement of jets in view of linearity and resolution. It will provide a net improvement in missing $\\et$ measurements at LHC energies. The outer hadron calorimeter has a very good signal to background ratio even for a minimum ionising particle and can hence be used in coincidence with the Resistive Plate Chambers of the CMS detector for the muon trigger.

  15. Precision titration mini-calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensor, D.; Kullberg, L.; Choppin, G.

    1977-01-01

    The design and test of a small volume calorimeter of high precision and simple design is described. The calorimeter operates with solution sample volumes in the range of 3 to 5 ml. The results of experiments on the entropy changes for two standard reactions: (1) reaction of tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane with hydrochloric acid and (2) reaction between mercury(II) and bromide ions are reported to confirm the accuracy and overall performance of the calorimeter

  16. The CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter: Construction, Commissioning and Calibration

    CERN Document Server

    ORIMOTO,Toyoko J.

    2009-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector at the Large Hadron Colider (LHC) is ready for first collisions. The Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL) of CMS, a high resolution detector comprised of nearly 76000 lead tungstate crystals, will play a crucial role in the coming physics searches undertaken by CMS. The design and performance of the CMS ECAL with test beams, cosmic rays, and first single beam data will be presented. In addition, the status of the calorimeter and plans for calibration with first collisions will be discussed. European Physical Society Europhysics Conference on High Energy Physics July 16-22, 2009 Krakow, Poland ∗Speaker.

  17. The CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter: Construction, Commissioning and Calibration

    CERN Document Server

    Orimoto, Toyoko

    2009-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector at the Large Hadron Colider (LHC) is ready for first collisions. The Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL) of CMS, a high resolution detector comprised of nearly 76000 lead tungstate crystals, will play a crucial role in the coming physics searches undertaken by CMS. The design and performance of the CMS ECAL with test beams, cosmic rays, and first single beam data will be presented. In addition, the status of the calorimeter and plans for calibration with first collisions will be discussed.

  18. In-Situ Calibration of the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Futyan, D I

    2003-01-01

    The in-situ intercalibration of the lead tungstate crystals of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter will be performed using 3 techniques: An energy flow method will be used at startup to intercalibrate to a precision of around 2% within about 3 hours. The energy/momentum measurement of isolated electrons from W decay will then be used to obtain the design goal precision of 0.5% within about 2 months. Global intercalibration of different regions of the calorimeter and the determination of the absolute energy scale will be performed using energetic electrons from Z->ee events.

  19. R&D proposal the prism plastic calorimeter:PPC

    CERN Document Server

    Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Marchand, P; Nédélec, P; Salin, P; CERN. Geneva. Detector Research and Development Committee

    1990-01-01

    This proposal supports two goals: First Goal_Demonstrate that current, widely used plastic technologies allow to design Prism Plastic Calorimeter (PPC) towers with a new "liquid crystal" type plastic called Vectra. It will be shown that this technique meets the requirements for a LHC calorimeter with warm liquids: safety, hermeticity, hadronic compensation, resolution and time response. Second Goal_ Describe how one can design a warm liquid calorimeter integrated into a LHC detector,and list the advantages of the PPC: low price, minimum of mechanical structures, minimum amount of dead space, easiness of mechanical assembly, accessibility to the electronics, possibility to recirculate the liquid. The absorber and the electronics being outside the liquid and easily accessible, one has maximum flexibility to define them. The R&D program we define here aims at showing the feasibility of these new ideas by building nine towers of twenty gaps and exposing them to electron and hadron beams.

  20. Periodic position dependence of the energy measured in the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Descamps, Julien

    2006-01-01

    A uniform energy measurement response of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter ECAL is essential for precision physics at the LHC. The ECAL barrel calorimeter consists of 61200 lead tungstate crystals arranged in a quasi-projective geometry. The energy of photons reaching the ECAL will be reconstructed by summing the channels corresponding to matrices of 3x3 or 5x5 crystals centred on the crystal with the largest energy deposit. The energy measured using such matrices of fixed size has been studied using electron test beam data taken in 2004. The variation of the energy containment with the incident electron impact position on the central crystal leads to a degradation of the energy resolution. A method using only the calorimeter information is presented to correct for the position dependent response. After correction, the energy resolution performance for uniform impact distributions of the electrons on the front face of a crystal approaches that obtained for maximal containment with a central impact. The univ...

  1. ELECTROMAGNET CALORIMETER (ECAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    R. Rusack

    Installation is under way of the last piece of the electromagnetic calorimeter. This is the preshower (ES) that sits in front of the two endcap calorimeters. The construction of the ES was completed in December and went through a detailed set of tests in December and January. The two preshower detectors have a total of 4300 silicon sensors with 137,000 strips. After final assembly and system testing in January, only two of the strips were found to be defective. Once CMS was fully opened a new support structure (‘Gazprom’) was put into place underneath the beam pipe, to support the Surkov platform, on which the preshower installation takes place. In the early hours of 26th February the first two Dees, which form the ‘ES+’ endcap,  were transported to P5 , a journey that took two and a half hours. The Dees, still inside environmental protection boxes, were then lowered  underground and moved to the ‘+’ end of CMS. Installation start...

  2. HADRON CALORIMETER (HCAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Skuja

    Central Calorimeter (HB/HE/HO) Photodetectors The main activity of the HCAL group during the present shutdown is the replacement of a small fraction of the Central Calorimeter (HB/HE/HO) photodetectors -- the Hybrid Photo-Detectors (HPDs). During the MTCC of 2006 it was established that all HPDs exhibit a low rate of discharge generating large random pulses. This behaviour persists at the full CMS field. However, at relatively low fields (0.5 Tesla) this discharge rate increases dramatically and becomes very large for a fraction of the HPDs. The HO HPDs which sit in the gap of the return yoke are thus adversly affected. These discharge pulses have been labelled "HPD noise" (which must be distinguished from low level electronic noise which manifests itself as pedestal noise for all HPD readout channels). Additional intermediate level noise can be generated by ion-feedback arising from thermal and field emission electrons. Ion feedback noise never exceeds the equivalent of few 10s of GeV, the...

  3. The LHCb hadron calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhelyadin, R.I.

    2002-01-01

    The Hadron Calorimeter (HCAL) is designed for the LHCb experiment. The main purpose of the detector is to provide data for the L0 hadron trigger. The HCAL is designed as consisting of two symmetric movable parts of about 500 ton in total getting in touch in operation position without non-instrumented zones. The lateral dimensions of an active area are X=8.4 m width, Y=6.8 m height, and is distanced from the interaction point at Z=13.33 m. Both halves are assembled from stacked up modules. An internal structure consisting of thin iron plates interspaced with scintillating tiles has been chosen. Attention is paid to optimize the detector according to the requirements of the experiment, reducing the spending needed for its construction. Different construction technologies are being discussed. The calorimeter properties have been extensively studied with a variety of prototype on the accelerator beam. The calibration with a radioactive source and module-0 construction experience is discussed

  4. CMS hadronic forward calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merlo, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    Tests of quartz fiber prototypes, based on the detection of Cherenkov light from showering particles, demonstrate a detector possessing all of the desirable characteristics for a forward calorimeter. A prototype for the CMS experiment consists of 0.3 mm diameter fibers embedded in a copper matrix. The response to high energy (10-375 GeV) electrons, pions, protons and muons, the light yield, energy and position resolutions, and signal uniformity and linearity, are discussed. The signal generation mechanism gives this type of detector unique properties, especially for the detection of hadronic showers: Narrow, shallow shower profiles, hermeticity and extremely fast signals. The implications for measurements in the high-rate, high-radiation LHC environment are discussed. (orig.)

  5. Nemo-3 calorimeter electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernaudin, P.; Cheikali, C.; Lavigne, B.; Richard, A.; Lebris, J.

    2000-11-01

    The calorimeter electronics of the NEMO-3 double beta decay experiment fulfills three functions: -energy measurement of the electrons by measuring the charge of the pulses, - time measurement, - fast first level triggering. The electronics of the 1940 Scintillator-PM modules is implemented as 40 '9U x 400 mm VME' boards of up to 51 channels. For each channel the analog signals conditioning is implemented as one SMD daughter board. Each board performs 12 bit charge measurements with 0.35 pC charge resolution, 12 bit time measurements with 50 ps time resolution and a fast analog multiplicity level for triggering. The total handling and conversion time for all the channels is less than 100 μs. The electronics will be presented as well as the test system. (authors)

  6. D0 calorimeter electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schamberger, R.D.

    1991-01-01

    A detailed description of the electronics used to readout the signals from the D0 Uranium-Liquid Argon Calorimeter is presented. The three major components of the readout system are the charge sensitive preamps, the shaping and sample and hold circuits, and the Analog to Digital converters. The very low noise preamps achieve an input noise equivalent to 2000e's + 3000e's per nanofarad of input capacitance. The coherent noise in the system is very low, less than 1/20 of an ADC count which is equivalent to about 200 KeV of energy incident on the detector. The ADC system contains a 12 bit, 5 μsecond successive approximation digitizer. We maintain a 15 bit dynamic range by automatically amplifying small signals after they are held, but before digitization. The ADC also contains pedestal and limit memory, to allow (on a channel by channel basis) offset subtraction, and suppression of small signals, symmetrically around zero signal. (orig.)

  7. Cerenkov fiber sampling calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrington, K.; Kefford, D.; Kennedy, J.; Pisani, R.; Sanzeni, C.; Segall, K.; Wall, D.; Winn, D.R.; Carey, R.; Dye, S.; Miller, J.; Sulak, L.; Worstell, W.; Efremenko, Y.; Kamyshkov, Y.; Savin, A.; Shmakov, K.; Tarkovsky, E.

    1994-01-01

    Clear optical fibers were used as a Cerenkov sampling media in Pb (electromagnetic) and Cu (hadron) absorbers in spaghetti calorimeters, for high rate and high radiation dose experiments, such as the forward region of high energy colliders. The fiber axes were aligned close to the direction of the incident particles (1 degree--7 degree). The 7 λ deep hadron tower contained 2.8% by volume 1.5 mm diameter core clear plastic fibers. The 27 radiation length deep electromagnetic towers had packing fractions of 6.8% and 7.2% of 1 mm diameter core quartz fibers as the active Cerenkov sampling medium. The energy resolution on electrons and pions, energy response, pulse shapes and angular studies are presented

  8. Progress status for the Mu2e calorimeter system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pezzullo, Gianantonio; Cervelli, F; Budagov, J; Davydov, Yu; Glagolev, V; Carosi, R; Cheng, C; Echenard, B; Hitlin, D; Martini, M; Ongmonkolkul, P; Porter, F; Cordelli, M; Corradi, G; Giovannella, S; Happacher, F; Luca, A; Miscetti, S; Saputi, A; Murat, P

    2015-01-01

    The Mu2e experiment at FNAL aims to measure the charged-lepton flavor violating neutrinoless conversion of a negative muon into an electron. The conversion results in a monochromatic electron with an energy slightly below the muon rest mass (104.97 MeV). The calorimeter should confirm that the candidates reconstructed by the extremely precise tracker system are indeed conversion electrons while performing a powerful μ/e particle identification. Moreover, it should also provide a high level trigger for the experiment independently from the tracker system. The calorimeter should also be able to keep functionality in an environment where the background delivers a dose of ∼ 10 krad/year in the hottest area and to work in the presence of 1 T axial magnetic field. These requirements translate in the design of a calorimeter with large acceptance, good energy resolution O(5%) and a reasonable position (time) resolution of ∼ < 1 cm (<0.5ns). The baseline version of the calorimeter is composed by two disks of inner (outer) radius of 351 (660) mm filled by 1860 hexagonal BaF 2 crystals of 20 cm length. Each crystal is readout by two large area APD's. In this paper, we summarize the experimental tests done so far as well as the simulation studies in the Mu2e environment

  9. MIMO channel capacity with full CSI at Low SNR

    KAUST Repository

    Tall, Abdoulaye

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we characterize the ergodic capacity of Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) Rayleigh fading channels with full channel state information (CSI) at both the transmitter (CSI-T) and the receiver (CSI-R) at asymptotically low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). A simple analytical expression of the capacity is derived for any number of transmit and receive antennas. This characterization clearly shows the substantial gain in terms of capacity over the no CSI-T case and gives a good insight on the effect of the number of antennas used. In addition, an On-Off transmission scheme is proposed and is shown to be asymptotically capacity-achieving. © 2012 IEEE.

  10. Electromagnetic shower detector-calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appel, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    A brief review of the state-of-the-art of electromagnetic calorimeters is presented. The choice of detector based on the experimental requirements in cost, spatial resolution, energy resolution, and hadron rejection is discussed

  11. ELECTROMAGNETIC CALORIMETER (ECAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Bloch

    Crystals and Bare Supermodules Thanks to an unprecedented delivery rate, in excess of 1200 crystals per month during the last three months, the last Barrel crystals will be delivered at the end of February. The penultimate bare supermodule is under assembly; the last should be assembled in April. The first batch of Endcap crystals from the mass production has been received from China as well as two pre-series of 100 crystals from Russia. Electronics The assembly and test of off-detector electronics crates (each crate containing three triplets, each triplet comprising Data Concentrator Cards (DCC), Clock & Control System card (CCS) and Trigger & Clock Controllers (TCCs) module – i.e. enough to serve three supermodules) is progressing fast. Several crates have already been installed in the USC at point 5. The production of the specific Endcap electronics is also well advanced. For example, the test of the Front-End cards was recently completed. Electronics integration In early Autu...

  12. New approach to the readout system for a very large bismuth germanate calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumner, R.

    1982-01-01

    This note presents a possible solution to the problem of data acquisition and control for a very large array of BGO crystals. The array is a total energy calorimeter, which is a part of a detector being designed for LEPC. After a brief description of the environment, we present a working definition of the calorimeter, followed by a statement of the desirable characteristics of the readout system. After a discussion of some alternatives, a complete system is described

  13. Characteristics of Pb{sup 2+} doped CsI matrix under gamma and neutron excitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Maria da Conceição Costa; Madi Filho, Tufic; Berretta, José Roberto; Tomaz, Lucas Faustino; Pinto, Marlene Cristina, E-mail: macoper@ipen.br, E-mail: tmfilho@ipen.br, E-mail: jrretta@ipen.br, E-mail: lucasfaus@gmail.com, E-mail: tynapinto@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in finding new fast scintillating material or improve the characteristics of known scintillators for the demand of high energy physics, industrial and nuclear medical applications. Ions divalent lead Pb{sup 2+} built in some crystal structures are efficient emission centers and their applications in scintillators was and still is the reason of an intensive study of emission properties of different compounds containing these ions. The aggregation of impurities in CsI is poorly studied. The problem of impurity aggregation in CsI is of interest from point of view of the luminescent properties modification of this scintillation material. In this context, the crystals of Pb{sup 2+} doped CsI matrix were grown by the vertical Bridgman technique and subjected to annealing in vacuum of 10{sup -6} mbar and continuous temperature of 350°C, for 24 hours, and then they were employed. To evaluate the response of the CsI:Pb scintillator crystal to gamma radiation, radioactive sources of {sup 137}Cs (662 keV), {sup 60}Co (1173 keV and 1333 keV), {sup 22}Na (511 keV and 1275 keV) and {sup 13}3Ba (355 keV) was used. The operating voltage of the photomultiplier was 2700 V for the detection of gamma rays and the accumulation time in the counting process was 600 s. The crystals used in gamma spectroscopy were cut with dimensions of 20 mm in diameter and 20 mm in height. The scintillator response to neutron radiation from a radioactive source of Am/Be with energy range of 1 MeV to 12 MeV was available. The activity of the AmBe source was 1Ci Am. The fluency was 2.6 x 10{sup 6} neutrons / second. The operating voltage of the photomultiplier tube was 1300 V. The accumulation time in the counting process was 600 s. The scintillator crystals were cut with dimensions of 20 mm diameter and 10 mm height. With the results obtained, it may be observed that the crystals are sensitive to these radiations. (author)

  14. Scintillating plate calorimeter optical design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeil, R.; Fazely, A.; Gunasingha, R.; Imlay, R.; Lim, J.

    1990-01-01

    A major technical challenge facing the builder of a general purpose detector for the SSC is to achieve an optimum design for the calorimeter. Because of its fast response and good energy resolution, scintillating plate sampling calorimeters should be considered as a possible technology option. The work of the Scintillating Plate Calorimeter Collaboration is focused on compensating plate calorimeters. Based on experimental and simulation studies, it is expected that a sampling calorimeter with alternating layers of high-Z absorber (Pb, W, DU, etc.) and plastic scintillator can be made compensating (e/h = 1.00) by suitable choice of the ratio of absorber/scintillator thickness. Two conceptual designs have been pursued by this subsystem collaboration. One is based on lead as the absorber, with read/out of the scintillator plates via wavelength shifter fibers. The other design is based on depleted uranium as the absorber with wavelength shifter (WLS) plate readout. Progress on designs for the optical readout of a compensating scintillator plate calorimeter are presented. These designs include readout of the scintillator plates via wavelength shifter plates or fiber readout. Results from radiation damage studies of the optical components are presented

  15. crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yi; Huang, Yisheng; Zhang, Lizhen; Lin, Zhoubin; Sun, Shijia; Wang, Guofu

    2014-07-01

    A Nd3+:Na2La4(WO4)7 crystal with dimensions of ϕ 17 × 30 mm3 was grown by the Czochralski method. The thermal expansion coefficients of Nd3+:Na2La4(WO4)7 crystal are 1.32 × 10-5 K-1 along c-axis and 1.23 × 10-5 K-1 along a-axis, respectively. The spectroscopic characteristics of Nd3+:Na2La4(WO4)7 crystal were investigated. The Judd-Ofelt theory was applied to calculate the spectral parameters. The absorption cross sections at 805 nm are 2.17 × 10-20 cm2 with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 15 nm for π-polarization, and 2.29 × 10-20 cm2 with a FWHM of 14 nm for σ-polarization. The emission cross sections are 3.19 × 10-20 cm2 for σ-polarization and 2.67 × 10-20 cm2 for π-polarization at 1,064 nm. The fluorescence quantum efficiency is 67 %. The quasi-cw laser of Nd3+:Na2La4(WO4)7 crystal was performed. The maximum output power is 80 mW. The slope efficiency is 7.12 %. The results suggest Nd3+:Na2La4(WO4)7 crystal as a promising laser crystal fit for laser diode pumping.

  16. Liquid Argon Calorimeter performance at High Rates

    CERN Document Server

    Seifert, F; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The expected increase of luminosity at HL-LHC by a factor of ten with respect to LHC luminosities has serious consequences for the signal reconstruction, radiation hardness requirements and operations of the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeters in the endcap, respectively forward region. Small modules of each type of calorimeter have been built and exposed to a high intensity proton beam of 50 GeV at IHEP/Protvino. The beam is extracted via the bent crystal technique, offering the unique opportunity to cover intensities ranging from $10^6$ p/s up to $3\\cdot10^{11}$ p/s. This exceeds the deposited energy per time expected at HL-LHC by more than a factor of 100. The correlation between beam intensity and the read-out signal has been studied. The data show clear indications of pulse shape distortion due to the high ionization build-up, in agreement with MC expectations. This is also confirmed from the dependence of the HV currents on beam intensity.

  17. ELECTROMAGNETIC CALORIMETER (ECAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Bloch

    ECAL Barrel (EB) The main task during this fall was the connection of services of the ECAL Barrel Supermodules installed in the vacuum-tank. This work has been completed. The team is now commissioning the Supermodules using the final services (cables and optical fibers, HV and LV power supplies, cooling plant) and final electronics in the service cavern. The pace of commissioning has been limited by the availability of the cooling plant. At the time of writing, about 2/3 of the Supermodules had been signed off. ECAL Endcaps (EE) The Endcaps crystal production is proceeding fast. At the end of October, more than 10000 crystals (two thirds of the total quantity) had beem delivered. The Endcaps crystal production will be completed at the end of March 2008, as planned. The crystals testing and the gluing of the VPTs (Vacuum Photo Triodes) on the crystals follow the plan. The assembly of Supercrystals (a set of 25 crystals) is now a routine operation. All the Supercrystals for Dee1 and two thirds of those ne...

  18. HADRON CALORIMETER (HCAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Spalding

    2011-01-01

    All the HCAL calorimeters are ready for data-taking in 2011 and participated fully in the cosmic running and initial beam operations in the last few weeks. Several improvements were made during the winter technical stop, including replacement of the light-guide sleeves in HF, improvements to the low voltage power connections, and separation of HF from HB and HE in the DAQ partitions. During the 2010 running a form of anomalous noise in the HF was identified as being caused by scintillation when charged particles pass through a portion of the air light-guide sleeve. This portion was constructed from a non-conductive mirror-like material called “HEM”. To suppress these anomalous signals, during the recent winter technical stop all sleeves in the detector were replaced with sleeves made of Tyvek. The detector has been recommissioned with all channels fully operational. Recalibration of the detector will be required due to the differing reflectivity of the new sleeves compared with the HEM sl...

  19. HADRON CALORIMETER (HCAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Green

    The organization of CMS HCAL contains four “geographic” efforts, HB, HO, HE and HF. In addition there are presently five “common” HCAL activities. These ef¬forts are concentrated on electronics, on controls (DCS), on physics objects (JetMet), on Installation and Commissioning (I&C), and on Test Beam (TB) and Cosmic Challenge (MTCC) data taking. HCAL has begun planning to re-organize to be synchronized with the overall CMS management structure. HF The full production of the wedges is completed for some time. The 2004 test beam work has established the radioactive source calibration system for HF works at the 5 % level or better and a note is completed. The calibration of the complete HF is complete. HF is now in the UX cavern and will be hooked up and read out as soon as the services are available. HE The two HE calorimeters are installed and an initial calibration has been established. In the MTCC the HE was read out and muon data was observed. Event b...

  20. HADRON CALORIMETER (HCAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Spalding and A. Skuja

    2010-01-01

    Splash and Collision Data HCAL recorded the beam-on-collimator (splash) and the first collision data in November and December 2009, and provided triggers to CMS with the forward calorimeter, HF. Splash events were used to improve the energy inter-calibration of the HB and HE channels, with the basic assumption that the energy deposited in the detector by the large flux of muons that passed through in splash events was a smooth function in eta and phi. The new HB and HE calibration coefficients were applied prior to the collision data taking. For HO, a similar analysis is being finalized. Splash events were also used to determine the relative timing between channels in HB and HE, and new delay settings were calculated based on splashes from one beam, applied and verified with the splash events from the other beam. During Fall 2009, the HF technical trigger was improved in order to be effectively used as one of the main CMS triggers during the collision data taking. Collisions were successfully recorded by all...

  1. HADRON CALORIMETER (HCAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    by J. Spalding and A. Skuja

    2010-01-01

    Operations and Maintenance All HCAL sub-detectors participated throughout the recent data taking with 7 TeV collisions. A timing scan of HF was performed to optimize the timing across the detectors and to set the overall time position of the ~10-ns wide signals within the 25-ns integration time slice. This position was chosen to ensure that the trigger primitives in physics events are generated synchronously at the desired bunch crossing, while also providing discrimination between the calorimeter signals and anomalous signals due to interactions within the photomultiplier tubes. This timing discrimination is now used in the standard filter algorithms for anomalous signals. For HB and HE, once the statistics needed to assess the timing of a sufficient number of channels was accumulated, it was verified that the time settings determined with cosmic, splash events and initial collision data were appropriate for the 7 TeV collision data taking. A further fine-tuning of the HB and HE time settings will be perfo...

  2. Calorimeter Process Variable Archiving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huffman, David

    2002-01-01

    These steps were taken to maintain weekly archives: (1) Friday morning you stop the archiver and wait for it to finish writing data (the lock file will be removed from the directory); (2) move the current archive information to a PC via FTP; (3) remove all previous archive information in the previous directory; (4) move the current archive into the previous directory; (5) start a new archive; (6) burn a CDROM of the archive; and (7) copy the current archive to a specific directory. There are 2 ways to check if the Calorimeter Archiver is running, either through the WEB based front end or directly from a command line. Once the archiver is running it can be monitored from a WEB page. This only works with a browser launched from the online machine running the archiver. Each time the browser is reloaded there should be an update reported in the last write check field. You might have to wait a few minutes to see the update. Calorimetry currently takes readings every (300 sec.) 5 minutes. The second method to verify the archiver is running is to issue a command from a Linux cluster machine.

  3. HADRON CALORIMETER (HCAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Skuja

    During the last 3 months commissioning of HCAL has continued for HO and HE+. We have also started the commissioning of the first wedge of HB+. Progress continues to be made by our Trigger/DAQ, DCS and DPG colleagues. HF will be used to obtain a Luminosity measurement for CMS. A first test of the modifications to the HF electronics was made in the August CMS global run. In addition to installation and commissioning of various parts of HCAL, we also completed a very successful summer Test Beam period which saw measurements of the combined HE/EE/ES calorimeter system in the H2 test beam. Installation and Commissioning a. HB commissioning This week, part of the final water-cooling system for HB was commissioned. Eighteen HB- wedges and two pilot wedges on HB+ have been connected to the water circuit on YB0. On Sept 6, 2007 cabling and commissioning was started for the first HB readout box (RBX) using temporary set of cables. We have connected RBX-17 to the Low Voltage PS and the HCAL Detector Control Sy...

  4. HADRON CALORIMETER (HCAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Skuja

    Since the beginning of 2007, HCAL has made significant progress in the installation and commissioning of both hardware and software. A large fraction of the physical Hadron Calorimeter modules have been installed in UX5. In fact, the only missing pieces are HE- and part of HO. The HB+/- were installed in the cryostat in March. HB scintillator layer-17 was installed above ground before the HB were lowered. The HB- scintillator layer-0 was installed immediately after completion of EB- installation. HF/HCAL Commissioning The commissioning and checkout of the HCAL readout electronics is also proceeding at a rapid pace in Bldg. 904 and USC55. All sixteen crates of HCAL VME readout electronics have been commissioned and certified for service. Fifteen are currently operating in the S2 level of USC55. The last crate is being used for firmware development in the Electronics Integration Facility in 904. All installed crates are interfaced to their VME computers and receive synchronous control from the fully-equipp...

  5. HADRON CALORIMETER (HCAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Spalding

    2011-01-01

    Throughout the entire proton-proton run of 2011, all HCAL calorimeters operated very efficiently. Over 99% of HCAL readout and trigger channels were alive. However, during the year we did face two hardware problems. One major operation problem was the occasional loss of data from a single RBX caused by single event upsets (SEUs). The rate of RBX data loss was on average one incident per 10 pb–1 of integrated luminosity. This led to approximately 1% of CMS data loss. In order to mitigate this problem, HCAL has introduced an automatic reset of the RBX. With this reset, full operation was restored within about one minute. The final hardware correction of the problem will be possible only during a long shutdown (LS1) in 2013-’14. Another hardware problem that developed in 2011 was the failure of QPLL (quartz phase lock loops) chips. This led to the loss of phase of the readout clock with respect to the LHC clock. As a consequence, in two sections in HCAL (10 degree in φ on HB and 1...

  6. HADRON CALORIMETER (HCAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Skuja

    HCAL installation and commissioning is approaching completion. Work continues on commissioning of HE-, HF- and the minus wheels of HO. We expect that all commissioning will be completed by mid-March. HCAL commissioning is interleaved with integration of HCAL and the Global Calorimeter Trigger (GCT). HCAL is attempting to take data using the HPD self-trigger as part of the GCT trigger path. Initial attempts in mid-February have not succeeded. Work continues on HCAL and the GCT. HPD lifetimes at 4 Tesla are being measured in Princeton. After more than a month of testing in a 4 Tesla field there are no sur¬prises. As the lifetime measurements proceed, the HPD response at intermediate fields of 1 Tesla will be verified and analyzed. Work also continues on HCAL calibration and DCS/DSS at Point 5. More details for some of the subsystems are presented in what follows. HE HE plus The cooling system of HE+ is functional now. The HE+ final connections to the LV system are complete. LV and HV tests to ev...

  7. The CPLEAR Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Adler, R; Bal, F; Behnke, O; Bloch, P; Damianoglou, D; Dechelette, Paul; Dröge, M; Eckart, B; Felder, C; Fetscher, W; Fidecaro, Maria; Garreta, D; Gerber, H J; Gumplinger, P; Guyon, D; Johner, H U; Löfstedt, B; Kern, J; Kokkas, P; Krause, H; Mall, U; Marin, C P; Nanni, F; Pagels, B; Pavlopoulos, P; Petit, P; Polivka, G; Rheme, C; Ruf, T; Santoni, C; Schaller, L A; Schopper, A; Tauscher, Ludwig; Tschopp, H; Weber, P; Wendler, H; Witzig, C; Wolter, M

    1997-01-01

    A large-acceptance lead/gas sampling electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) was constructed for the CPLEAR experiment to detect photons from decays of $\\pi^0$s with momentum $p_{\\pi^0} \\le 800$ MeV$/c$. The main purpose of the ECAL is to determine the decay vertex of neutral-kaon decays $\\ko \\rightarrow \\pi^0\\pi^0 \\rightarrow 4 \\gamma$ and $\\ko \\rightarrow \\pi^0\\pi^0\\pi^0 \\rightarrow 6 \\gamma$. This requires a position-sensitive photon detector with high spatial granularity in $r$-, $\\varphi$-, and $z$-coordinates. The ECAL --- a barrel without end-caps located inside a magnetic field of 0.44 T --- consists of 18 identical concentric layers. Each layer of $1/3$ radiation length (X${_0}$) contains a converter plate followed by small cross-section high-gain tubes of 2640 mm active length which are sandwiched by passive pick-up strip plates. The ECAL, with a total of $6$ X${_0}$, has an energy resolution of $\\sigma (E)/E \\approx 13\\% / \\sqrt{E(\\mathrm{GeV})}$ and a position resolution of 4.5 mm for the shower foot. ...

  8. Effect of non-magnetic intermediate layer on film structure, magnetic properties, and noise characteristics of FeCSi soft magnetic multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Hiroyasu; Morikawa, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Koji; Shono, Keiji

    2004-01-01

    The film structures, magnetic properties, and noise characteristics of soft magnetic multilayers with alternately stacked FeCSi soft magnetic layers and non-magnetic intermediate layers were investigated. The FeCSi layers in an as-deposited multilayer with C or Ta intermediate layers had the same nano-sized fine crystalline grains and low media noise as an as-deposited FeCSi monolayer. Amorphous C intermediate layers suppressed the amplitude of spike noise especially well. In contrast, FeCSi layers in an as-deposited multilayer with Cr or Ti intermediate layers were composed of coarse crystalline grains, which increased the media noise. The crystallographic match at the interface between the layers in a multilayer could explain these phenomena. The similarity of the atomic arrangement at the interface between layers and the crystallographic match of less than a few percent for the distance between atoms crystallized FeCSi layers with nano-sized fine crystalline grains into ones with coarse crystalline grains during deposition

  9. ELECTROMAGNETIC CALORIMETER (ECAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Bloch

    Crystals and Bare Supermodules The last Barrel crystal was delivered on March 9th and the last (36th) Bare Supermodule was completed by April 20th. Endcaps crystal production is ramping up at both producers and the delivery rate exceeds already 1050 crystals per month. The quality of the Endcaps crystals is similar to that of the Barrel. Electronics The production of the on-detector electronics (Barrel + Endcaps) is complete. Already 10 out of the 12 crates of the Barrel Off-detector modules have been commissioned and installed in the CMS service cavern, and the integration with the global DAQ is progressing fast. The last 2 crates will be completed in August, after reception of the last Trigger Modules TCC68. The installation of the High Voltage is also progressing well, taking into account that some HV supplies are still used in the various assembly and test centres of ECAL. A large fraction of the low voltage supplies has been delivered and tested. Electronics integration As explained in the Febru...

  10. Thermal dynamics of bomb calorimeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Richard E

    2015-12-01

    The thermal dynamics of bomb calorimeters are modeled using a lumped heat transfer analysis in which heat is released in a pressure vessel/bomb immersed in a stirred water bath that is surrounded by a static air space bounded by an insulated (static) jacket, a constant/controlled temperature jacket (isoperibol), or a changing temperature (adiabatic) jacket. The temperature history of the water bath for each of these boundary conditions (methods) is well described by the two-term solution for the calorimeter response to a heat impulse (combustion), allowing the heat transfer coefficients and thermal capacities of the bomb and water bath to be determined parametrically. The validated heat transfer model provides an expression for direct calculation of the heat released in an arbitrary process inside a bomb calorimeter using the temperature history of the water bath for each of the boundary conditions (methods). This result makes possible the direct calculation of the heat of combustion of a sample in an isoperibol calorimeter from the recorded temperature history without the need for semi-empirical temperature corrections to account for non-adiabatic behavior. Another useful result is that the maximum temperature rise of the water bath in the static jacket method is proportional to the total heat generated, and the empirical proportionality constant, which is determined by calibration, accounts for all of the heat losses and thermal lags of the calorimeter.

  11. The ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achenbach, R; Andrei, V; Adragna, P; Apostologlou, P; Barnett, B M; Brawn, I P; Davis, A O; Edwards, J P; Asman, B; Bohm, C; Ay, C; Bauss, B; Bendel, M; Dahlhoff, A; Eckweiler, S; Booth, J R A; Thomas, P Bright; Charlton, D G; Collins, N J; Curtis, C J

    2008-01-01

    The ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger uses reduced-granularity information from all the ATLAS calorimeters to search for high transverse-energy electrons, photons, τ leptons and jets, as well as high missing and total transverse energy. The calorimeter trigger electronics has a fixed latency of about 1 μs, using programmable custom-built digital electronics. This paper describes the Calorimeter Trigger hardware, as installed in the ATLAS electronics cavern

  12. The ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achenbach, R; Andrei, V [Kirchhoff-Institut fuer Physik, University of Heidelberg, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Adragna, P [Physics Department, Queen Mary, University of London, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Apostologlou, P; Barnett, B M; Brawn, I P; Davis, A O; Edwards, J P [STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Asman, B; Bohm, C [Fysikum, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Ay, C; Bauss, B; Bendel, M; Dahlhoff, A; Eckweiler, S [Institut fuer Physik, University of Mainz, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Booth, J R A; Thomas, P Bright; Charlton, D G; Collins, N J; Curtis, C J [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)], E-mail: e.eisenhandler@qmul.ac.uk (and others)

    2008-03-15

    The ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger uses reduced-granularity information from all the ATLAS calorimeters to search for high transverse-energy electrons, photons, {tau} leptons and jets, as well as high missing and total transverse energy. The calorimeter trigger electronics has a fixed latency of about 1 {mu}s, using programmable custom-built digital electronics. This paper describes the Calorimeter Trigger hardware, as installed in the ATLAS electronics cavern.

  13. The CHORUS calorimeter: test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buontempo, S.; Capone, A.; Cocco, A.G.; De Pedis, D.; Di Capua, E.; Dore, U.; Ereditato, A.; Ferroni, M.; Fiorillo, G.; Loverre, P.F.; Luppi, C.; Macina, D.; Mazzoni, M.A.; Migliozzi, P.; Palladino, V.; Piredda, G.; Riccardi, F.; Righini, P.P.; Saitta, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Strolin, P.; Zucchelli, P.

    1995-01-01

    In the framework of the CHORUS experiment for the search of ν μ ν τ oscillations at CERN, we have built the high resolution calorimeter, intended for the measurement of the energy of hadronic showers produced in neutrino interactions. The calorimeter consists of three parts. The first two are made of lead and plastic scintillating fibers in the volume ratio 4 : 1, such as to achieve compensation. The third is a sandwich of lead plates and scintillator strips in the same volume ratio. The techniques used for the construction of the calorimeter are described, as well as its performance in shower and muon detection. We used electron, pion and muon beams in the energy range 2-100 GeV for this purpose. (orig.)

  14. Overview of the Calorimeter Readout Upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    Straessner, Arno; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The ATLAS and CMS calorimeter electronics will be upgraded for the HL-LHC data taking phase to cope with higher event pile-up and to allow improved trigger strategies. This presentations gives an overview of the ongoing developments for the CMS barrel calorimeters and the ATLAS LAr and Tile calorimeters.

  15. Polystyrene calorimeter for electron beam dose measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, A.

    1995-01-01

    Calorimeters from polystrene have been constructed for dose measurement at 4-10 MeV electron accelerators. These calorimeters have been used successfully for a few years, and polystyrene calorimeters for use at energies down to 1 MeV and being tested. Advantage of polystyrene as the absorbing...

  16. Some possible improvements in scintillation calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, E.

    1985-03-01

    Two ideas for improvements of scintillation calorimeters will be presented: a) improved readout of scintillating, totally active electromagnetic calorimeters with combinations of silicon photodiodes and fluorescent panel collectors, b) use of time structure analysis on calorimetry, both for higher rate applications and improved resolution for hadron calorimeters. (orig.)

  17. Prototype study of a BGO electromagnetic calorimeter for the experiment L3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Mamouni, H.

    1986-01-01

    The L3 experiment detector at LEP is equipped with an original electromagnetic calorimeter. Such a calorimeter is made of a new calorimetric material, viz, Bismuth Germanate Oxyde (BGO). Furthermore, the scintillation light is read by means of large-area photodiodes. The latter choice for the photodiodes is dictated by the presence of a magnetic field. This thesis deals with the study in the 1-50 GeV energy range of the performances of a prototype for this new calorimeter. A great deal of efforts is devoted to ameliorate the energy resolution by improving the signal/noise ratio, the BGO crystals quality, the wrapping, the mechanical structure, etc... The goodness and the quality of the obtained results (concerning the linearity, the energy resolution and the position resolution) make it possible to reach in the near future the stage of the construction of a definitive calorimeter [fr

  18. A crystal barrel

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The production of crystals for the barrel of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter has been completed. This is an important milestone for the experiment, which received the last of its 62,960 crystals on 9 March. The members of the team responsible for the crystal acceptance testing at CERN display the last crystal for the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter barrel. From left to right: Igor Tarasov, Etiennette Auffray and Hervé Cornet.One of the six machines specially developed to measure 67 different parameters on each crystal. Igor Tarasov is seen inserting the last batch of crystals into the machine. The last of the 62,960 CMS barrel crystals arrived at CERN on 9 March. Once removed from its polystyrene protection, this delicate crystal, like thousands of its predecessors, will be inserted into the last of the 36 supermodules of the barrel electromagnetic calorimeter in a few days' time. This marks the end of an important chapter in an almost 15-year-long journey by the CMS crystals team, some of whose member...

  19. ELECTROMAGNETIC CALORIMETER (ECAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    Philippe Bloch

    ECAL Barrel (EB) Great progress has been achieved during the last few months on Barrel commissioning. All 36 supermodules have been run concurrently during the CRUZET in early May. The EB readout has reached the expected performance and is included regularly with central DAQ.  ECAL has been used as a source of triggers during cosmic runs. ECAL Endcaps (EE) Important milestones have been recently achieved: The Endcaps crystal production was completed in mid March. The gluing of the VPTs (Vacuum Photo Triodes) on the crystals, the assembly of Supercrystals (a set of 25 crystals) and their mounting on the Dee backplates (including the connection of the laser monitoring fibers) were finished during May. The mechanical assembly of the four endcap Dees is therefore completed. The assembly of the services and electronics on the backside of the Dees’ back-plates is also proceeding at a fast speed. The laying of the high voltage cables, the inner moderator, the optical fibers for the LED stabilit...

  20. The new ATLAS Fast Calorimeter Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00223142; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Current and future need for large scale simulated samples motivate the development of reliable fast simulation techniques. The new Fast Calorimeter Simulation is an improved parameterized response of single particles in the ATLAS calorimeter that aims to accurately emulate the key features of the detailed calorimeter response as simulated with Geant4, yet approximately ten times faster. Principal component analysis and machine learning techniques are used to improve the performance and decrease the memory need compared to the current version of the ATLAS Fast Calorimeter Simulation. A prototype of this new Fast Calorimeter Simulation is in development and its integration into the ATLAS simulation infrastructure is ongoing.

  1. The new ATLAS Fast Calorimeter Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaarschmidt, J.; ATLAS Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    Current and future need for large scale simulated samples motivate the development of reliable fast simulation techniques. The new Fast Calorimeter Simulation is an improved parameterized response of single particles in the ATLAS calorimeter that aims to accurately emulate the key features of the detailed calorimeter response as simulated with Geant4, yet approximately ten times faster. Principal component analysis and machine learning techniques are used to improve the performance and decrease the memory need compared to the current version of the ATLAS Fast Calorimeter Simulation. A prototype of this new Fast Calorimeter Simulation is in development and its integration into the ATLAS simulation infrastructure is ongoing.

  2. Software studies of GLD calorimeter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    a reconstruction code in a GEANT4-based simulator, and evaluate the performance with single π0's. In the GLD, an option for the hadron calorimeter, the so-called digital calorime- ter, is still under consideration. It has a huge number of small active cells, signals from which are read out as 1-bit digital value (or at most few ...

  3. COE1 Calorimeter Operations Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santi, Peter Angelo [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-12-15

    The purpose of this manual is to describe the operations of the COE1 calorimeter which is used to measure the thermal power generated by the radioactive decay of plutonium-bearing materials for the purposes of assaying the amount of plutonium within the material.

  4. Concerning background from calorimeter ports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Digiacomo, N.J.

    1985-01-01

    Any detector system viewing a port or slit in a calorimeter wall will see, in addition to the primary particles of interest, a background of charged and neutral particles and photons generated by scattering from the port walls and by leakage from incompletely contained primary particle showers in the calorimeter near the port. The signal to noise ratio attainable outside the port is a complex function of the primary source spectrum, the calorimeter and port design and, of course, the nature and acceptance of the detector system that views the port. Rather than making general statements about the overall suitability (or lack thereof) of calorimeter ports, we offer here a specific example based on the external spectrometer and slit of the NA34 experiment. This combination of slit and spectrometer is designed for fixed-target work, so that the primary particle momentum spectrum contains higher momentum particles than expected in a heavy ion colliding beam environment. The results are, nevertheless, quite relevant for the collider case

  5. Fast Calorimeter Simulation in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Schaarschmidt, Jana; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Producing the very large samples of simulated events required by many physics and performance studies with the ATLAS detector using the full GEANT4 detector simulation is highly CPU intensive. Fast simulation tools are a useful way of reducing CPU requirements when detailed detector simulations are not needed. During the LHC Run-1, a fast calorimeter simulation (FastCaloSim) was successfully used in ATLAS. FastCaloSim provides a simulation of the particle energy response at the calorimeter read-out cell level, taking into account the detailed particle shower shapes and the correlations between the energy depositions in the various calorimeter layers. It is interfaced to the standard ATLAS digitization and reconstruction software, and it can be tuned to data more easily than GEANT4. It is 500 times faster than full simulation in the calorimeter system. Now an improved version of FastCaloSim is in development, incorporating the experience with the version used during Run-1. The new FastCaloSim makes use of mach...

  6. ELECTRONICS FOR CALORIMETERS AT LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radeka, V.

    2001-01-01

    Some principal design features of front-end electronics for calorimeters in experiments at the LHC will be highlighted. Some concerns arising in the transition from the research and development and design phase to the construction will be discussed. Future challenges will be indicated

  7. An instant dose obtainable in situ calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, H.; Mento, D.

    1984-01-01

    The development of a computer-linked water calorimeter is described. The advantages of this system are twofold: (i) instant dose determination is possible; and (ii) the calorimeter operation is much simpler than conventional null balance techniques. The entire calorimeter measurement procedure from the set-up to the dose determination for 10 runs was finished in approximately 2 1/2 h. A smaller calorimeter which could be kept in the treatment room for equilibrium, should permit further reduction of the time. The use of a smaller, portable computer would allow local data taking and analysis, eliminating the need for modems, phone lines and long cables. This would lead to a completely self-contained set-up at the treatment room. Although the technique is described for a polystyrene-water calorimeter, it should be equally applicable for a water calorimeter as well as a conventional isolated calorimeter. (author)

  8. ELECTROMAGNETIC CALORIMETER (ECAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    Dave Barney

    2010-01-01

    The operation of ECAL during the whole proton-proton period was very successful, with little down time. During this period we witnessed the first expected signs of radiation damage, both in the preshower detector, where we measured a small but clear increase in the current drawn by the silicon sensors (due to bulk damage) and in the endcap crystals, with the first evidence of a decreasing crystal transparency. The extent of the damage is in general as expected from simulations. However, a small fraction of the preshower sensors also show signs of unexpected surface damage. This is under investigation.
 The running period was very smooth overall but not without glitches. Among these occurrences we had a few high voltage problems in the endcaps, a low voltage connector at the preshower failed, a few unnoticed DCS alarms and our fair share of DAQ "out-of-sync". All problems were followed-up and mitigated where possible. Lessons learnt will be very useful for the long running period ahead of ...

  9. ATDM LANL FleCSI: Topology and Execution Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergen, Benjamin Karl [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-06

    FleCSI is a compile-time configurable C++ framework designed to support multi-physics application development. As such, FleCSI attempts to provide a very general set of infrastructure design patterns that can be specialized and extended to suit the needs of a broad variety of solver and data requirements. This means that FleCSI is potentially useful to many different ECP projects. Current support includes multidimensional mesh topology, mesh geometry, and mesh adjacency information, n-dimensional hashed-tree data structures, graph partitioning interfaces, and dependency closures (to identify data dependencies between distributed-memory address spaces). FleCSI introduces a functional programming model with control, execution, and data abstractions that are consistent with state-of-the-art task-based runtimes such as Legion and Charm++. The model also provides support for fine-grained, data-parallel execution with backend support for runtimes such as OpenMP and C++17. The FleCSI abstraction layer provides the developer with insulation from the underlying runtimes, while allowing support for multiple runtime systems, including conventional models like asynchronous MPI. The intent is to give developers a concrete set of user-friendly programming tools that can be used now, while allowing flexibility in choosing runtime implementations and optimizations that can be applied to architectures and runtimes that arise in the future. This project is essential to the ECP Ristra Next-Generation Code project, part of ASC ATDM, because it provides a hierarchically parallel programming model that is consistent with the design of modern system architectures, but which allows for the straightforward expression of algorithmic parallelism in a portably performant manner.

  10. Design studies on the 4π γ-ray calorimeter for the ETF experiment at HIRFL-CSR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Ke; Xu, Hu-Shan; Sun, Zhi-Yu; Su, Guang-Hui; Wang, Jian-Song; Zheng, Chuan; Li, Song-Lin; Hu, Zheng-Guo; Chen, Rou-Fu; Xiao, Zhi-Gang; Hu, Qiang; Zhang, Xue-Ying; Yu, Yu-Hong; Chen, Jun-Ling

    2011-01-01

    A high detection efficiency calorimeter which is used to detect γ-rays with energies from 1 MeV up to 10 MeV as well as light charged particles has been proposed. Design of the geometry, results of the crystal tests and Monte Carlo simulations are presented in this paper. The simulation results confirm that the calorimeter can obtain high detection efficiency and good energy resolution with the current designed geometry. And the calorimeter is competent for the future External Target Facility (ETF) experiments.

  11. ''Massless gaps'' for solenoid + calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marraffino, J.; Wu, W.; Beretvas, A.; Green, D.; Denisenko, K.; Para, A.

    1991-11-01

    The necessary existence of material in front of the first active element in a calorimeter will degrade the performance of that device. The question is by what factor. The follow up question is what can be done to minimize the damage. These questions are usually of primary importance for liquid argon calorimetry because of the necessity of containment dewars. However, the problem is universal. For example, the Solenoid Detector Collaboration, SDC, has proposed a superconducting coil which would be placed in front of the EM calorimeter. Although much effort has been made to minimize the depth of material in the coil, still the resolution and linearity must be optimized if the SDC goal of precision electromagnetic (EM) calorimetry is to be realized

  12. Next Generation CALICE Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    OpenAIRE

    Grondin, Denis; Jeans, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents mechanical R&D for the CALICE Silicon-tungsten electromagnetic calorimeter. After the physics ECAL prototype, tested in 2006 (DESY-CERN), 2007 (CERN), 2008 (FNAL) and before the design of different 'modules 0' (barrel and endcap) for a final detector, a technological ECAL prototype, called the EUDET module, is under design in order to have a close to full scale technological solution which could be used for the final detector, taking into account future industrialisation o...

  13. Next Generation CALICE Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    OpenAIRE

    Grondin, Denis; Jeans, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents mechanical R&D for the CALICE Silicon-tungsten electromagnetic calorimeter. After the physics ECAL prototype, tested in 2006 (DESY-CERN), 2007 (CERN), 2008 (FNAL) and before the design of different "modules 0" (barrel and endcap) for a final detector, a technological ECAL prototype, called the EUDET module, is under design in order to have a close to full scale technological solution which could be used for the final detector, taking into account future industrialisation o...

  14. The KLOE fiber electromagnetic calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incagli, Marco

    1998-01-01

    The construction and equipment of the KLOE electromagnetic calorimeter has ended in March 1997. In parallel to the construction, all modules have been tested at the Cosmic Ray Test Stand (CRTS) facility, in Frascati National Laboratories (Rome). The construction technique, based on scintillating fibers alternated to very thin (0.5 mm) grooved lead planes, is described and the main results both from the CRTS and from a preliminary Test Beam with low energy electrons and muons are reported in this note

  15. The T.M. Calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mas, P.; Goer, J. de

    1970-01-01

    The T.M. calorimeter is the isothermal type. It consists only of a sample of graphite and a jacket of stainless steel filled with nitrogen. The chromel-alumel thermocouples which measure the temperature difference between the sample and the jacket also serve to suspend the sample. The jacket is kept at a constant temperature: i.e. that of the water in the swimming pool

  16. Electromagnetic Calorimeter for HADES Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Ramos P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL is being developed to complement dilepton spectrometer HADES. ECAL will enable the HADES@FAIR experiment to measure data on neutral meson production in heavy ion collisions at the energy range of 2-10 AGeV on the beam of future accelerator SIS100@FAIR. We will report results of the last beam test with quasi-monoenergetic photons carried out in MAMI facility at Johannes Gutenberg Universität Mainz.

  17. Performance of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Heelan, Louise; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile hadronic calorimeter (TileCal) provides highly-segmented energy measurements of incoming particles. It is a key detector for the measurement of hadrons, jets, tau leptons and missing transverse energy. It is also useful for identification and reconstruction of muons due to good signal to noise ratio. The calorimeter consists of thin steel plates and 460,000 scintillating tiles configured into 5000 cells, each viewed by two photomultipliers. The calorimeter response and its readout electronics is monitored to better than 1% using radioactive source, laser and charge injection systems. The calibration and performance of the calorimeter have been established through test beam measurements, cosmic ray muons and the large sample of proton-proton collisions acquired in 2011 and 2012. Results on the calorimeter performance are presented, including the absolute energy scale, timing, noise and associated stabilities. The results demonstrate that the Tile Calorimeter has performed well within the design ...

  18. Calorimeter detector consisting of a KMgF3 scintillator and parallel-plate avalanche chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzulutskov, A.F.; Turchanovich, L.K.; Vasil'chenko, V.G.

    1989-01-01

    Scintillations of a KMgF 3 crystal have been detected in the parallel-plate avalanche chamber with a TEA gaseous photocathode, the scintillation signal is shown to be much higher than the direct ionization one. The characteristic properties of the calorimeters on the basis of such structure with electrical and optical readout are discussed. 10 refs.; 4 figs

  19. ELECTROMAGNETIC CALORIMETER (ECAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    T. Tabarelli and D. Barney

    2011-01-01

    ECAL operations have been rather smooth during the past months, with few hardware problems, stable trigger rates etc. The downtimes attributed to ECAL have, however, increased recently, due to some crashes of the DAQ on the ECAL side. The frequency of problems has increased with luminosity and seems to occur more in the EE than in the EB. There are some indications suggesting these problems may be due to Single Event Upsets – radiation-induced modifications to the front-end electronics. Although this is not yet confirmed, measures are already being taken to reduce the time taken to recover from such problems in order to minimise downtime. No such problems have (yet) been seen in the ES. There has been enormous progress in improving the quality of the corrections required to take into account transparency variations of the ECAL crystals with radiation, through a detailed calibration of the response of the laser diagnostic line. The special LHC runs taken recently – 25-ns operation and h...

  20. ELECTROMAGNETIC CALORIMETER (ECAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Petyt

    2013-01-01

    In a break with tradition, the ECAL general meetings during the April CMS Week were devoted to a series of brainstorming sessions, focusing on a small number of hot-topic items. These included sessions on ECAL upgrades, analysis of 2012 detector performance and resolution, software development plans and a review of the ECAL calibration sequence. These sessions were well attended and extremely productive, and have helped to define and guide the direction of the ECAL effort planned for LS1. The area of ECAL upgrades has been particularly active over the past several months. A note summarising the test-beam performance of crystal matrices, irradiated with proton fluences representative of the end of Phase 1 LHC running, has been prepared and is being reviewed by ECAL. This important note provides data to tune and validate the simulation of ECAL ageing that has been implemented in CMSSW. This simulation is being used by the ECAL group and others to evaluate the physics performance of the ECAL at the end of Pha...

  1. ELECTROMAGNETIC CALORIMETER (ECAL)

    CERN Document Server

    D. Barney

    2012-01-01

      There are no major concerns for the ECAL running and operation in 2012. The necessary ameliorations to the system were planned in December, and reviewed in a dedicated workshop at the end of January. Many interventions have taken place, mainly on the Trigger and DAQ side in order to bring all software into line with central developments (e.g. SLC5, XDAQ11 and use of SVN). In addition, steps are being taken to improve the recovery time of the system from “single event upsets (SEU)”, which are suspected to be the cause of some downtimes in 2011 (and, if so, would be more frequent in 2012 due to higher luminosities). A new blue laser, for crystal transparency monitoring, is currently being commissioned in Caltech and will be installed at P5 in March. We have optimised the ECAL zero-suppression settings applied online in preparation for the LHC running with high pile-up conditions. The algorithm to reduce the rate of anomalous signals  (“spikes”) fir...

  2. ELECTROMAGNETIC CALORIMETER (ECAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Bloch

    ECAL Barrel The integration of the last Supermodule was completed early July. The insertion of the second half Barrel (EB+) was performed in the second half of July. The Barrel ECAL (36 Supermodules comprising 61200 channels) is now complete, and its cabling campaign has just started. Each Supermodule has been tested after insertion. The number of dead or partially-dead channels amounts to only 28 (0.05% of the total), a performance showing the excellence of the quality control during the whole construction process. The Barrel Off-detector electronics is installed in the CMS Service cavern (with the exception of a few Trigger modules), ready to be connected to the Supermodules after cabling. The ECAL DAQ has been integrated with the CMS DAQ system: at the end of August one supermodule was included in a CMS global run, allowing us to record cosmic muons in both ECAL and DTs. ECAL Endcaps The Endcaps crystal production is proceeding at full speed, and the delivery rate (summing both producers) exceeds ...

  3. Upgrading ATLAS Fast Calorimeter Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Heath, Matthew Peter; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Producing the very large samples of simulated events required by many physics and performance studies with the ATLAS detector using the full GEANT4 detector simulation is highly CPU intensive. Fast simulation tools are a useful way of reducing CPU requirements when detailed detector simulations are not needed. During the LHC Run-1, a fast calorimeter simulation (FastCaloSim) was successfully used in ATLAS. FastCaloSim provides a simulation of the particle energy response at the calorimeter read-out cell level, taking into account the detailed particle shower shapes and the correlations between the energy depositions in the various calorimeter layers. It is interfaced to the standard ATLAS digitization and reconstruction software, and it can be tuned to data more easily than Geant4. Now an improved version of FastCaloSim is in development, incorporating the experience with the version used during Run-1. The new FastCaloSim aims to overcome some limitations of the first version by improving the description of s...

  4. Structure design and enviromental test of BGO calorimeter for satellite DAMPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yiming; Feng, Changqing; Zhang, Yunlong; Chen, Dengyi; Chang, Jin

    2016-07-01

    The Dark Matter Particle Explorer, DAMPE, is a new designed satellite developed for the new Innovation 2020 program of Chinese Academy of Sciences. As the most important payload of China's first scientific satellite for detecting dark matter, the primary purposes of BGO calorimeter is to measure the energy of incident high energy electrons and gamma rays (5GeV-10TeV) and to identify hadron and electronics. BGO calorimeter also provides an important background discriminator by measuring the energy deposition due to the particle shower that produced by the e^{±}, γ and imaging their shower development profile. Structure design of BGO calorimeter is described in this paper. The new designed BGO calorimeter consists of 308 BGO crystals coupled with photomultiplier tubes on its two ends. The envelop size of the BGO calorimeter is 907.5mm×907.5mm×494.5mm,and the weight of which is 1051.4Kg. The most important purpose of mechanical design is how to package so heavy crystals into a detector as required arrangement and to make sure reliability and safety. This paper describes the results of vibration tests using the Flight Module of the BGO Calorimeter for the DAMPE satellite. During the vibration tests, no degradation of the mechanical assembly was observed. After random or sinusoidal vibrations, there was no significant changes of the frequency signatures observed during the modal surveys. The comparison of results of cosmic ray tests before and after the vibration shows no change in the performance of the BGO calorimeter.

  5. Central hadron calorimeter of UA1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corden, M.J.; Dowell, J.D.; Edwards, M.J.

    1983-12-01

    An iron-scintillator sampling calorimeter is described, which measures hadronic energy in proton-antiproton interactions at the CERN 540 GeV SPS collider. Construction details are given of the instrumentation of the magnet pieces of the UA1 experiment and of the methods used to measure the calorimeter response and resolution. The system of lasers and quartz fibres, which allows long term monitoring of the calorimeter response, is also described. (author)

  6. Rugged calorimeter with a fast rise time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMurtry, W.M.; Dolce, S.R.

    1980-01-01

    An intrinsic 1-mil-thick gold foil calorimeter has been developed which rises to 95% of the energy deposited in less than 2 microseconds. This calorimeter is very rugged, and can withstand rough handling without damage. The time constant is long, in the millisecond range, because of its unique construction. Use of this calorimeter has produced 100% data recovery, and agreement with true deposition to less than 10%

  7. Central hadron calorimeter of UA1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corden, M.J.; Dowell, J.D.; Edwards, M.J.; Ellis, N.N.; Garvey, J.; Grant, D.; Homer, R.J.; Kenyon, I.R.; McMahon, T.J.; Schanz, G.; Sumorok, K.C.T.O.; Watkins, P.M.; Wilson, J.A.; Barnes, G.; Bowcock, T.J.V.; Eisenhandler, E.; Gibson, W.R.; Honma, A.K.; Kalmus, P.I.P.; Keeler, R.K.; Pritchard, T.W.; Salvi, G.A.P.; Thompson, G.; Arnison, G.T.J.; Astbury, A.; Cash, A.R.; Grayer, G.H.; Haynes, W.J.; Hill, D.L.; Moore, D.R.; Nandi, A.K.; Percival, M.D.; Roberts, J.H.C.; Scott, W.G.; Shah, T.P.; Stanhope, R.J.; White, D.E.A.

    1985-01-01

    An iron-scintillator sampling calorimeter is described, which measures hadronic energy in proton-antiproton interactions at the CERN 540 GeV SPS collider. Construction details are given of the instrumentation of the magnet pieces of the UA1 experiment and of the methods used to measure the calorimeter response and resolution. The system of lasers and quartz fibres, which allows long term monitoring of the calorimeter response, is also described. (orig.)

  8. Signal processing for liquid ionization calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleland, W.E.; Stern, E.G.

    1992-01-01

    We present the results of a study of the effects of thermal and pileup noise in liquid ionization calorimeters operating in a high luminosity calorimeters operating in a high luminosity environment. The method of optimal filtering of multiply-sampled signals which may be used to improve the timing and amplitude resolution of calorimeter signals is described, and its implications for signal shaping functions are examined. The dependence of the time and amplitude resolution on the relative strength of the pileup and thermal noise, which varies with such parameters as luminosity, rapidity and calorimeter cell size, is examined

  9. Family reunion for the UA2 calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    Abha Eli Phoboo

    2015-01-01

    After many years in CERN’s Microcosm exhibition, the last surviving UA2 central calorimeter module has been moved to Hall 175, the technical development laboratory of the ATLAS Tile Hadronic Calorimeter (Tilecal). The UA2 and ATLAS calorimeters are cousins, as both were designed by Otto Gildemeister. Now side by side, the calorimeters illustrate the progress made in sampling organic scintillator calorimeters over the past 35 years.   The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter prototypes (left) and the UA2 central calorimeter (right) in Hall 175. (Image: Mario Campanelli/ATLAS.) From 1981 to 1990, the UA2 experiment was one of the two detectors on CERN’s flagship accelerator, the SPS. At the heart of the UA2 detector was the central calorimeter. It was made up of 24 slices – each weighing four tonnes – arranged like orange segments around the collision point. These calorimeter slices played a central role in the research carried out by UA2 for the discovery of W bosons...

  10. Secondary Emission Calorimeter Sensor Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winn, David R.; Onel, Yasar

    2012-12-01

    In a Secondary Emission electron(SEe) detector module, Secondary Emission electrons (SEe) are generated from an SE surface/cathode, when charged hadronic or electromagnetic particles, particularly shower particles, penetrate an SE sampling module placed between absorber materials (Fe, Cu, Pb, W etc) in calorimeters. The SE cathode is a thin (10-50 nm thick) film (simple metal-oxides, or other higher yield materials) on the surface of a metal plate, which serves as the entrance “window” to a compact vacuum vessel (metal or metal-ceramic); this SE film cathode is analogous to a photocathode, and the SEe are similar to p.e., which are then amplified by dynodes, also is in a PMT. SE sensor modules can make use of electrochemically etched/machined or laser-cut metal mesh dynode sheets, as large as ~30 cm square, to amplify the Secondary Emission Electrons (SEe), much like those that compact metal mesh or mesh dynode PMT's use to amplify p.e.'s. The construction requirements easier than a PMT, since the entire final assembly can be done in air; there are no critical controlled thin film depositions, cesiation or other oxygen-excluded processes or other required vacuum activation, and consequently bake-out can be a refractory temperatures; the module is sealed by normal vacuum techniques (welding or brazing or other high temperature joinings), with a simple final heated vacuum pump-out and tip-off. The modules envisioned are compact, high gain, high speed, exceptionally radiation damage resistant, rugged, and cost effective, and can be fabricated in arbitrary tileable shapes. The SE sensor module anodes can be segmented transversely to sizes appropriate to reconstruct electromagnetic cores with high precision. The GEANT4 and existing calorimeter data estimated calorimeter response performance is between 35-50 Secondary Emission electrons per GeV, in a 1 cm thick Cu absorber calorimeter, with a gain per SEe > 105 per SEe, and an e/pi<1.2. The calorimeter pulse width is

  11. The ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters: integration, installation and commissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tikhonov, Yu.

    2008-01-01

    The ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter system consists of an electromagnetic barrel calorimeter and two end-caps with electromagnetic, hadronic and forward calorimeters positioned in three cryostats. Since May 2006 the LAr barrel calorimeter records regular calibration runs and takes cosmic muon data together with tile hadronic calorimeter in the ATLAS cavern. The cosmic runs with end-cap calorimeters started in April 2007. First results of these combined runs are presented

  12. Chemical Shift Imaging (CSI) by precise object displacement

    OpenAIRE

    Leclerc, Sebastien; Trausch, Gregory; Cordier, Benoit; Grandclaude, Denis; Retournard, Alain; Fraissard, Jacques; Canet, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    International audience; A mechanical device (NMR lift) has been built for displacing vertically an object (typically a NMR sample tube) inside the NMR probe with an accuracy of 1 Μm. A series of single pulse experiments are performed for incremented vertical positions of the sample. With a sufficiently spatially selective rf field, one obtains chemical shift information along the displacement direction (one dimensional Chemical Shift Imaging – CSI). Knowing the vertical radio-frequency (rf) f...

  13. Design, Performance, and Calibration of CMS Hadron Endcap Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Baiatian, G; Emeliantchik, Igor; Massolov, V; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Stefanovich, R; Damgov, Jordan; Dimitrov, Lubomir; Genchev, Vladimir; Piperov, Stefan; Vankov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Bencze, Gyorgy; Laszlo, Andras; Pal, Andras; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zálán, Peter; Fenyvesi, Andras; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Kaur, Manjit; Kohli, Jatinder Mohan; Kumar, Arun; Singh, Jas Bir; Acharya, Bannaje Sripathi; Banerjee, Sunanda; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Chendvankar, Sanjay; Dugad, Shashikant; Kalmani, Suresh Devendrappa; Katta, S; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mondal, Naba Kumar; Nagaraj, P; Patil, Mandakini Ravindra; Reddy, L; Satyanarayana, B; Sharma, Seema; Sudhakar, Katta; Verma, Piyush; Hashemi, Majid; Mohammadi-Najafabadi, M; Paktinat, S; Babich, Kanstantsin; Golutvin, Igor; Kalagin, Vladimir; Kamenev, Alexey; Konoplianikov, V; Kosarev, Ivan; Moissenz, K; Moissenz, P; Oleynik, Danila; Petrosian, A; Rogalev, Evgueni; Semenov, Roman; Sergeyev, S; Shmatov, Sergey; Smirnov, Vitaly; Vishnevskiy, Alexander; Volodko, Anton; Zarubin, Anatoli; Druzhkin, Dmitry; Ivanov, Alexander; Kudinov, Vladimir; Orlov, Alexandre; Smetannikov, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Gershtein, Yuri; Ilyina, N; Kaftanov, Vitali; Kisselevich, I; Kolossov, V; Krokhotin, Andrey; Kuleshov, Sergey; Litvintsev, Dmitri; Ulyanov, A; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Demianov, A; Gribushin, Andrey; Kodolova, Olga; Petrushanko, Sergey; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Teplov, V; Vardanyan, Irina; Yershov, A; Abramov, Victor; Goncharov, Petr; Kalinin, Alexey; Khmelnikov, Alexander; Korablev, Andrey; Korneev, Yury; Krinitsyn, Alexander; Kryshkin, V; Lukanin, Vladimir; Pikalov, Vladimir; Ryazanov, Anton; Talov, Vladimir; Turchanovich, L; Volkov, Alexey; Camporesi, Tiziano; de Visser, Theo; Vlassov, E; Aydin, Sezgin; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Kayis-Topaksu, A; Koylu, S; Kurt, Pelin; Onengüt, G; Ozkurt, Halil; Polatoz, A; Sogut, Kenan; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Mehmet; Yetkin, Taylan; Cankoc, K; Esendemir, Akif; Gamsizkan, Halil; Güler, M; Ozkan, Cigdem; Sekmen, Sezen; Serin-Zeyrek, M; Sever, Ramazan; Yazgan, Efe; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Deliomeroglu, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Isiksal, Engin; Kaya, Mithat; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Grynev, B; Lyubynskiy, Vadym; Senchyshyn, Vitaliy; Hauptman, John M; Abdullin, Salavat; Elias, John E; Elvira, D; Freeman, Jim; Green, Dan; Los, Serguei; ODell, V; Ronzhin, Anatoly; Suzuki, Ichiro; Vidal, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Arcidy, M; Hazen, Eric; Heering, Arjan Hendrix; Lawlor, C; Lazic, Dragoslav; Machado, Emanuel; Rohlf, James; Varela, F; Wu, Shouxiang; Baden, Drew; Bard, Robert; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Grassi, Tullio; Jarvis, Chad; Kellogg, Richard G; Kunori, Shuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Skuja, Andris; Podrasky, V; Sanzeni, Christopher; Winn, Dave; Akgun, Ugur; Ayan, S; Duru, Firdevs; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Miller, Michael; Norbeck, Edwin; Olson, Jonathan; Onel, Yasar; Schmidt, Ianos; Akchurin, Nural; Carrell, Kenneth Wayne; Gusum, K; Kim, Heejong; Spezziga, Mario; Thomas, Ray; Wigmans, Richard; Baarmand, Marc M; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Ralich, Robert; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Kramer, Laird; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Cushman, Priscilla; Ma, Yousi; Sherwood, Brian; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Reidy, Jim; Sanders, David A; Karmgard, Daniel John; Ruchti, Randy; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Tully, Christopher; Bodek, Arie; De Barbaro, Pawel; Budd, Howard; Chung, Yeon Sei; Haelen, T; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Barnes, Virgil E; Laasanen, Alvin T

    2008-01-01

    Detailed measurements have been made with the CMS hadron calorimeter endcaps (HE) in response to beams of muons, electrons, and pions. Readout of HE with custom electronics and hybrid photodiodes (HPDs) shows no change of performance compared to readout with commercial electronics and photomultipliers. When combined with lead-tungstenate crystals, an energy resolution of 8\\% is achieved with 300 GeV/c pions. A laser calibration system is used to set the timing and monitor operation of the complete electronics chain. Data taken with radioactive sources in comparison with test beam pions provides an absolute initial calibration of HE to approximately 4\\% to 5\\%.

  14. Influence of air exposure on CsI photocathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Yuguang, E-mail: ygxie@mail.ihep.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS and University of Science and Technology of China, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Aiwu; Liu, Yingbiao [State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS and University of Science and Technology of China, Beijing 100049 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Liu, Hongbang [Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Guangxi University, Naning 530004 (China); Hu, Tao; Zhou, Li; Cai, Xiao; Fang, Jian; Yu, Boxiang [State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS and University of Science and Technology of China, Beijing 100049 (China); Ge, Yongshuai [State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS and University of Science and Technology of China, Beijing 100049 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Lue, Qiwen [Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China); Sun, Xilei; Sun, Lijun; Xue, Zheng [State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS and University of Science and Technology of China, Beijing 100049 (China); Xie, Yigang; Zheng, Yangheng [Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Lue, Junguang [State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS and University of Science and Technology of China, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2012-10-11

    We investigate the influence of air exposure on the quantum efficiency (QE) and surface morphology of CsI photocathodes (PCs), at relative humidities (RH) higher than 80% down to nearly 3% (both at room temperature) and a 60 Degree-Sign C baking condition. By atomic force microscopy (AFM) surface analysis, it is clearly seen that RH >60% speeds up water film formation and CsI dissolution on the surface of the photocathode at the minute scale, while both grain size and QE change slowly at RH <30% at the hour scale. In the baking environment, the peak QE decreases less than 1.5% (absolute) within one week, and a stainless steel substrate and electron beam evaporation technique tend to effectively weaken the influence of air. With an Au-coated FR-4 substrate, the QE degradation is found to strongly depend on wavelength in the range of 120-210 nm. According to spectra of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), an excess of cesium was observed and the chemical reaction between water and CsI when exposed to humid air is proved. It is found that carbon, and not H{sub 2}O or O{sub 2}, is the main pollutant in the baking condition.

  15. Performance of a dual readout calorimeter with a BGO electromagnetic section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudio, Gabriella

    2011-01-01

    The dual readout technique has been tested on a hybrid calorimeter. The electromagnetic section of this instrument consists of 100 BGO crystals and the hadronic section is made out scintillating and Cherenkov fibers embedded in a copper matrix (DREAM). The electromagnetic fraction of hadronic showers is evaluated on an event-by-event basis from the relative amounts of Cherenkov and scintillation lights produced in the shower development. The performance of such a calorimeter in terms of energy resolution is presented. Effects of side leakage on detector performance are also studied.

  16. High precision, low disturbance calibration of the High Voltage system of the CMS Barrel Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Fasanella, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    The CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter utilizes scintillating lead tungstate crystals, with avalanche photodiodes (APD) as photo-detectors in the barrel part. 1224 HV channels bias groups of 50 APD pairs, each at a voltage of about 380 V. The APD gain dependence on the voltage is 3pct/V. A stability of better than 60 mV is needed to have negligible impact on the calorimeter energy resolution. Until 2015 manual calibrations were performed yearly. A new calibration system was deployed recently, which satisfies the requirement of low disturbance and high precision. The system is discussed in detail and first operational experience is presented.

  17. High precision, low disturbance calibration of the High Voltage system of the CMS Barrel Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Marzocchi, Badder

    2017-01-01

    The CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter is made of scintillating lead tungstate crystals, using avalanche photodiodes (APD) as photo-detectors in the barrel part. The high voltage system, consisting of 1224 channels, biases groups of 50 APD pairs, each at a voltage of about 380 V. The APD gain dependence on the voltage is 3pct/V. A stability of better than 60 mV is needed to have negligible impact on the calorimeter energy resolution. Until 2015 manual calibrations were performed yearly. A new calibration system was deployed recently, which satisfies the requirement of low disturbance and high precision. The system is discussed in detail and first operational experience is presented.

  18. Results of L3 BGO calorimeter calibration using an RFQ accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Chaturvedi, U K; Gataullin, M; Gratta, Giorgio; Kirkby, D; Lu, W; Newman, H; Shvorob, A V; Tully, C; Zhu, R

    2000-01-01

    A novel calibration system based on a radiofrequency-quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator has been installed in the L3 experiment. Radiative capture of 1.85 MeV protons from the RFQ accelerator in a lithium target produces a flux of 17.6 MeV photons which are used to calibrate 11000 crystals of the L3 BGO calorimeter. In this paper we present results of the RFQ run taken in November 1997. A calibration precision of 0.6% was reached in the barrel of the L3 BGO calorimeter, and 0.7% in the BGO endcaps. (8 refs).

  19. High precision, low disturbance calibration of the High Voltage system of the CMS Barrel Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Fasanella, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    The CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter utilizes scintillating lead tungstate crystals, with avalanche photodiodes (APD) as photo-detectors in the barrel part. 1224 HV channels bias groups of 50 APD pairs, each at a voltage of about 380 V. The APD gain dependence on the voltage is 3pct/V. A stability of better than 60 mV is needed to have negligible impact on the calorimeter energy resolution. Until 2015 manual calibrations were performed yearly. A new calibration system was deployed recently, which satisfies the requirement of low disturbance and high precision. The system is discussed in detail and first operational experience is presented.

  20. Status of the ATLAS hadronic tile calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitner, R.

    2005-01-01

    Short status of the Tile Calorimeter project is given. Major achievements in the mechanical construction of the detector modules, their instrumentation, cylinders assembly, as well as the principles of the detector front-end electronics, are described. The ideas of Tile Calorimeter module calibration are presented

  1. An overview of CMS central hadron calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Katta, S

    2002-01-01

    The central hadron calorimeter for CMS detector is a sampling calorimeter with active medium as scintillator plates interleaved with brass absorber plates. It covers the central pseudorapidity region (¿ eta ¿<3.0). The design and construction aspects are reported. The status of construction and assembly of various subdetectors of HCAL are presented. (5 refs).

  2. Cone calorimeter tests of wood composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. White; Kuma Sumathipala

    2013-01-01

    The cone calorimeter is widely used for the determination of the heat release rate (HRR) of building products and other materials. As part of an effort to increase the availability of cone calorimeter data on wood products, the U.S. Forest Products Laboratory and the American Wood Council conducted this study on composite wood products in cooperation with the Composite...

  3. Mounting LHCb hadron calorimeter scintillating tiles

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    Scintillating tiles are carefully mounted in the hadronic calorimeter for the LHCb detector. These calorimeters measure the energy of particles that interact via the strong force, called hadrons. The detectors are made in a sandwich-like structure where these scintillator tiles are placed between metal sheets.

  4. Assembly of the CMS hadronic calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    The hadronic calorimeter is assembled on the end-cap of the CMS detector in the assembly hall. Hadronic calorimeters measure the energy of particles that interact via the strong force, called hadrons. The detectors are made in a sandwich-like structure where these scintillator tiles are placed between metal sheets.

  5. The Scintillator Tile Hadronic Calorimeter Prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusinov, V.

    2006-01-01

    A high granularity scintillator hadronic calorimeter prototype is described. The calorimeter is based on a novel photodetector - Silicon Photo-Multiplier (SiPM). The main parameters of SiPM are discussed as well as readout cell construction and optimization. The experience with a small prototype production and testing is described. A new 8 k channel prototype is being manufactured now

  6. Several versions of forward gas ionization calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babintsev, V.V.; Kholodenko, A.G.; Rodnov, Yu.V.

    1994-01-01

    The properties of several versions of a gas ionization calorimeter are analyzed by means of the simulation with the GEANT code. The jet energy and coordinate resolutions are evaluated. Some versions of the forward calorimeter meet the ATLAS requirements. 13 refs., 15 figs., 7 tabs

  7. LHCb: Physics with the LHCb calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    Barsuk, S

    2007-01-01

    The LHCb calorimeter comprises the scintillator pad detector (SPD), preshower (PS), electromagnetic Shashlyk type (ECAL) and hadronichadronic Tile (HCAL) calorimeters, arranged in pseudo-projective geometry. All the four detectors follow the general principle of reading the light from scintillator tiles with wave length shifting fibers, and transporting the light towards photomultipliers (25 ns R/O).

  8. Calorimeter triggers for hard collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landshoff, P.V.; Polkinghorne, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    We discuss the use of a forward calorimeter to trigger on hard hadron-hadron collisions. We give a derivation in the covariant parton model of the Ochs-Stodolsky scaling law for single-hard-scattering processes, and investigate the conditions when instead a multiple- scattering mechanism might dominate. With a proton beam, this mechanism results in six transverse jets, with a total average multiplicity about twice that seen in ordinary events. We estimate that its cross section is likely to be experimentally accessible at avalues of the beam energy in the region of 100 GeV/c

  9. The STAR endcap electromagnetic calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allgower, C.E.; Anderson, B.D.; Baldwin, A.R.; Balewski, J.; Belt-Tonjes, M.; Bland, L.C.; Brown, R.L.; Cadman, R.V.; Christie, W.; Cyliax, I.; Dunin, V.; Efimov, L.; Eppley, G.; Gagliardi, C.A.; Gagunashvili, N.; Hallman, T.; Hunt, W.; Jacobs, W.W.; Klyachko, A.; Krueger, K.; Kulikov, A.; Ogawa, A.; Panebratsev, Y.; Planinic, M.; Puskar-Pasewicz, J.; Rakness, G.; Razin, S.; Rogachevski, O.; Shimansky, S.; Solberg, K.A.; Sowinski, J.; Spinka, H.; Stephenson, E.J.; Tikhomirov, V.; Tokarev, M.; Tribble, R.E.; Underwood, D.; Vander Molen, A.M.; Vigdor, S.E.; Watson, J.W.; Westfall, G.; Wissink, S.W.; Yokosawa, A.; Yurevich, V.; Zhang, W.-M.; Zubarev, A.

    2003-01-01

    The STAR endcap electromagnetic calorimeter will provide full azimuthal coverage for high-p T photons, electrons and electromagnetically decaying mesons over the pseudorapidity range 1.086≤η≤2.00. It includes a scintillating-strip shower-maximum detector to provide π 0 /γ discrimination and preshower and postshower layers to aid in distinguishing between electrons and charged hadrons. The triggering capabilities and coverage it offers are crucial for much of the spin physics program to be carried out in polarized proton-proton collisions

  10. The STAR endcap electromagnetic calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allgower, C.E.; Anderson, B.D.; Baldwin, A.R.; Balewski, J.; Belt-Tonjes, M.; Bland, L.C.; Brown, R.L.; Cadman, R.V.; Christie, W.; Cyliax, I.; Dunin, V.; Efimov, L.; Eppley, G.; Gagliardi, C.A.; Gagunashvili, N.; Hallman, T.; Hunt, W.; Jacobs, W.W.; Klyachko, A.; Krueger, K.; Kulikov, A.; Ogawa, A.; Panebratsev, Y.; Planinic, M.; Puskar-Pasewicz, J.; Rakness, G.; Razin, S.; Rogachevski, O.; Shimansky, S.; Solberg, K.A.; Sowinski, J.; Spinka, H.; Stephenson, E.J.; Tikhomirov, V.; Tokarev, M.; Tribble, R.E.; Underwood, D.; Vander Molen, A.M.; Vigdor, S.E. E-mail: vigdor@iucf.indiana.edu; Watson, J.W.; Westfall, G.; Wissink, S.W.; Yokosawa, A.; Yurevich, V.; Zhang, W.-M.; Zubarev, A

    2003-03-01

    The STAR endcap electromagnetic calorimeter will provide full azimuthal coverage for high-p{sub T} photons, electrons and electromagnetically decaying mesons over the pseudorapidity range 1.086{<=}{eta}{<=}2.00. It includes a scintillating-strip shower-maximum detector to provide {pi}{sup 0}/{gamma} discrimination and preshower and postshower layers to aid in distinguishing between electrons and charged hadrons. The triggering capabilities and coverage it offers are crucial for much of the spin physics program to be carried out in polarized proton-proton collisions.

  11. ATLAS Tile calorimeter calibration and monitoring systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment and provides important information for reconstruction of hadrons, jets, hadronic decays of tau leptons and missing transverse energy. This sampling calorimeter uses steel plates as absorber and scintillating tiles as active medium. The light produced by the passage of charged particles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibres to photomultiplier tubes, located in the outer part of the calorimeter. The readout is segmented into about 5000 cells (longitudinally and transversally), each of them being read out by two photomultiplier in parallel. To calibrate and monitor the stability and performance of each part of the readout chain during the data taking, a set of calibration systems is used. The calibration system comprises Cesium radioactive sources, laser, charge injection elements and an integrator based readout system. Combined information from all systems allows to monitor and equalise the calorimeter r...

  12. Upgrading the Fast Calorimeter Simulation in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Schaarschmidt, Jana; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The tremendous need for simulated samples now and even more so in the future, encourage the development of fast simulation techniques. The Fast Calorimeter Simulation is a faster though less accurate alternative to the full calorimeter simulation with Geant4. It is based on parametrizing the longitudunal and lateral energy deposits of single particles in the ATLAS calorimeter. Principal component analysis and machine learning techniques are used to improve the performance and decrease the memory need compared to the current version of the ATLAS Fast Calorimeter Simulation. The parametrizations are expanded to cover very high energies and very forward detector regions, to increase the applicability of the tool. A prototype of this upgraded Fast Calorimeter Simulation has been developed and first validations with single particles show substantial improvements over the previous version.

  13. ATLAS Tile calorimeter calibration and monitoring systems

    CERN Document Server

    Marjanovic, Marija; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment. This sampling calorimeter uses steel plates as absorber and scintillating tiles as active medium. The light produced by the passage of charged particles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibers to photo-multiplier tubes (PMTs), located in the outer part of the calorimeter. The readout is segmented into about 5000 cells, each one being read out by two PMTs in parallel. To calibrate and monitor the stability and performance of the full readout chain during the data taking, a set of calibration sub-systems is used. The TileCal calibration system comprises Cesium radioactive sources, laser, charge injection elements, and an integrator based readout system. Combined information from all systems allows to monitor and to equalize the calorimeter response at each stage of the signal evolution, from scintillation light to digitization. Calibration runs are monitored from a data quality perspective and u...

  14. The large hadron collider beauty experiment calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martens, A.; LHCb Collaboration; Martens, A.

    2010-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider beauty experiment (LHCb), one of the four largest experiments at the LHC at CERN, is dedicated to precision studies of CP violation and other rare effects, in particular in the b and c quark sectors. It aims at precisely measuring the Standard Model parameters and searching for effects inconsistent with this picture. The LHCb calorimeter system comprises a scintillating pad detector, a pre-shower (PS), electromagnetic (ECAL) and hadronic calorimeters, all of these employing the principle of transporting the light from scintillating layers with wavelength shifting fibers to photomultipliers. The fast response of the calorimeters ensures their key role in the LHCb trigger, which has to cope with the LHC collision rate of 40MHz. After discussing the design and expected performance of the LHCb calorimeter system, one addresses the time and energy calibration issues. The results obtained with the calorimeter system from the first LHC data will be shown.

  15. ATLAS Tile calorimeter calibration and monitoring systems

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00445232; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment and provides important information for reconstruction of hadrons, jets, hadronic decays of tau leptons and missing transverse energy. This sampling calorimeter uses steel plates as absorber and scintillating tiles as active medium. The light produced by the passage of charged particles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibres to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs), located on the outside of the calorimeter. The readout is segmented into about 5000 cells (longitudinally and transversally), each of them being read out by two PMTs in parallel. To calibrate and monitor the stability and performance of each part of the readout chain during the data taking, a set of calibration systems is used. The TileCal calibration system comprises Cesium radioactive sources, laser and charge injection elements and it allows to monitor and equalize the calorimeter response at each stage of the signal production, from scin...

  16. ATLAS Tile calorimeter calibration and monitoring systems

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00445232; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment and provides important information for reconstruction of hadrons, jets, hadronic decays of tau leptons and missing transverse energy. This sampling calorimeter uses steel plates as absorber and scintillating tiles as active medium. The light produced by the passage of charged particles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibres to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs), located on the outside of the calorimeter. The readout is segmented into about 5000 cells (longitudinally and transversally), each of them being read out by two PMTs in parallel. To calibrate and monitor the stability and performance of each part of the readout chain during the data taking, a set of calibration systems is used. The TileCal calibration system comprises cesium radioactive sources, Laser and charge injection elements, and allows for monitoring and equalization of the calorimeter response at each stage of the signal production, ...

  17. Last crystals for the CMS chandelier

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    In March, the last crystals for CMS’s electromagnetic calorimeter arrived from Russia and China. Like dedicated jewellers crafting an immense chandelier, the CMS ECAL collaborators are working extremely hard to install all the crystals before the start-up of the LHC. One of the last CMS end-cap crystals, complete with identification bar code. Lead tungstate crystals mounted onto one section of the CMS ECAL end caps. Nearly 10 years after the first production crystal arrived at CERN in September 1998, the very last shipment has arrived. These final crystals will be used to complete the end-caps of the electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) at CMS. All in all, there are more than 75,000 crystals in the ECAL. The huge quantity of CMS lead tungstate crystals used in the ECAL corresponds to the highest volume ever produced for a single experiment. The excellent quality of the crystals, both in ter...

  18. On Line Stator Resistance Tuning of DTC Control CSI Fed IM Drives

    OpenAIRE

    PANNEER SELVAM

    2012-01-01

    Current source inverter (CSI) fed drives are employed in high power applications. The conventional CSI drives suffer from drawbacks such as harmonic resonance, unstable operation at low speed ranges, and torque pulsation. CSI fed drives with Direct Torque Control (DTC) has drawn the attention of the motor drives designers because its implementation requires no position sensor. Crucial to the success of this scheme is the estimation of electromagnetic torque and stator flux linkages using the ...

  19. Design, Performance, and Calibration of CMS Hadron-Barrel Calorimeter Wedges

    CERN Document Server

    Baiatian, G; Emeliantchik, Igor; Massolov, V; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Stefanovich, R; Damgov, Jordan; Dimitrov, Lubomir; Genchev, Vladimir; Piperov, Stefan; Vankov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Bencze, Gyorgy; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zálán, Peter; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Kaur, Manjit; Kohli, Jatinder Mohan; Kumar, Arun; Singh, Jas Bir; Acharya, Bannaje Sripathi; Banerjee, Sunanda; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Chendvankar, Sanjay; Dugad, Shashikant; Kalmani, Suresh Devendrappa; Katta, S; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mondal, Naba Kumar; Nagaraj, P; Patil, Mandakini Ravindra; Reddy, L; Satyanarayana, B; Sudhakar, Katta; Verma, Piyush; Paktinat, S; Golutvin, Igor; Kalagin, Vladimir; Kosarev, Ivan; Mescheryakov, G; Sergeyev, S; Smirnov, Vitaly; Volodko, Anton; Zarubin, Anatoli; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Gershtein, Yuri; Kaftanov, Vitali; Kisselevich, I; Kolossov, V; Krokhotin, Andrey; Kuleshov, Sergey; Litvintsev, Dmitri; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Ulyanov, A; Demianov, A; Gribushin, Andrey; Kodolova, Olga; Petrushanko, Sergey; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Vardanyan, Irina; Yershov, A; Abramov, Victor; Goncharov, Petr; Khmelnikov, Alexander; Korablev, Andrey; Korneev, Yury; Krinitsyn, Alexander; Kryshkin, V; Lukanin, Vladimir; Pikalov, Vladimir; Ryazanov, Anton; Talov, Vladimir; Turchanovich, L; Volkov, Alexey; Camporesi, Tiziano; De Visser, Theo; Vlassov, E; Aydin, Sezgin; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Kayis-Topaksu, A; Kuzucu-Polatoz, A; Onengüt, G; Ozdes-Koca, N; Cankocak, Kerem; Ozok, Ferhat; Serin-Zeyrek, M; Sever, Ramazan; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Isiksal, Engin; Kaya, Mithat; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Grinev, B; Lubinsky, V; Senchishin, V; Anderson, E Walter; Hauptman, John M; Elias, John E; Elvira, D; Freeman, Jim; Green, Dan; Lazic, Dragoslav; Los, Serguei; O'Dell, Vivian; Ronzhin, Anatoly; Suzuki, Ichiro; Vidal, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Antchev, Georgy; Hazen, Eric; Lawlor, C; Machado, Emanuel; Posch, C; Rohlf, James; Wu, Shouxiang; Adams, Mark Raymond; Burchesky, Kyle; Qiang, W; Abdullin, Salavat; Baden, Drew; Bard, Robert; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Grassi, Tullio; Jarvis, Chad; Kellogg, Richard G; Kunori, Shuichi; Skuja, Andris; Podrasky, V; Sanzeni, Christopher; Winn, Dave; Akgun, Ugur; Ayan, S; Duru, Firdevs; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Miller, Michael; Norbeck, Edwin; Olson, Jonathan; Onel, Yasar; Schmidt, Ianos; Akchurin, Nural; Carrell, Kenneth Wayne; Gumu, K; Thomas, Ray; Baarmand, Marc M; Ralich, Robert; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Cushman, Priscilla; Heering, Arjan Hendrix; Sherwood, Brian; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Reidy, Jim; Sanders, David A; Karmgard, Daniel John; Ruchti, Randy; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Mans, Jeremy; Tully, Christopher; De Barbaro, Pawel; Bodek, Arie; Budd, Howard; Chung, Yeon Sei; Haelen, T; Imboden, Matthias; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Barnes, Virgil E; Laasanen, Alvin T; Pompos, Arnold

    2007-01-01

    Extensive measurements have been made with pions, electrons and muons on four production wedges of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) hadron barrel (HB) calorimeter in the H2 beam line at CERN with particle momenta varying from 20 to 300 GeV/c. Data were taken both with and without a prototype electromagnetic lead tungstate crystal calorimeter (EB) in front of the hadron calorimeter. The time structure of the events was measured with the full chain of preproduction front-end electronics running at 34 MHz. Moving-wire radioactive source data were also collected for all scintillator layers in the HB. These measurements set the absolute calibration of the HB prior to first pp collisions to approximately 4%.

  20. Construction and beam test of a small compact electromagnetic PbWO4 calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feller, R.P.; Gendner, N.; Holm, U.; Johnson, K.F.; Meyer-Larsen, A.; Thies, S.

    2002-01-01

    A compact homogenous electromagnetic calorimeter with an energy resolution of better than 5%/√E/GeV, made out of lanthanum-doped lead tungstate crystals from Bogoroditsk, Russia, has been built for use in the ZEUS detector. The whole calorimeter, composed of 4x4 crystals, each of dimensions 23.8x23.8x200 mm 3 , light guides and photomultipliers, fits into a space of 12x12x27 cm 3 . Beam tests with electrons up to 100 GeV showed an energy resolution of better than 4.9%/√E/GeV, a linearity of better than 1% and a position resolution of 1.1 mm. The influence of temperature variations and recovery of an irradiated crystal on the total energy signal could be corrected to better than 1%. EGS4 simulations reproduce the results very well

  1. Fast calorimeter simulation in LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    Fast calorimeter simulation in LHCb In HEP experiments CPU resources required by MC simulations are constantly growing and become a very large fraction of the total computing power (greater than 75%). At the same time the pace of performance improvements from technology is slowing down, so the only solution is a more efficient use of resources. Efforts are ongoing in the LHC experiments to provide multiple options for simulating events in a faster way when higher statistics is needed. A key of the success for this strategy is the possibility of enabling fast simulation options in a common framework with minimal action by the final user. In this talk we will describe the solution adopted in Gauss, the LHCb simulation software framework, to selectively exclude particles from being simulated by the Geant4 toolkit and to insert the corresponding hits generated in a faster way. The approach, integrated within the Geant4 toolkit, has been applied to the LHCb calorimeter but it could also be used for other subdetec...

  2. A LYSO calorimeter for the SuperB factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eigen, G.; Zhou, Z. [University of Bergen, Institute of Physics (Norway); Chao, D.; Cheng, C.H.; Echenard, B.; Flood, K.T.; Hitlin, D.G.; Porter, F.C.; Zhu, R.Y. [California Institute of Technology (United States); De Nardo, G.; Sciacca, C. [Università di Napoli Federico II (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli (Italy); Bizzarri, M.; Cecchi, C. [Università degli Studi di Perugia (Italy); INFN Sezione di Perugia (Italy); Germani, S.; Lubrano, P.; Manoni, E.; Papi, A.; Scolieri, G. [INFN Sezione di Perugia (Italy); Rossi, A., E-mail: alessandro.rossi@pg.infn.it [Università degli Studi di Perugia (Italy); INFN Sezione di Perugia (Italy); Bocci, V. [INFN Sezione di Roma (Italy); and others

    2013-08-01

    The SuperB project is an asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup −} accelerator of 10{sup 36}cm{sup −2}s{sup −1} design luminosity, capable of collecting a data sample of 50–75ab{sup −1} in five years running. The SuperB electromagnetic calorimeter (EMC) provides energy and direction measurement of photons and electrons, and is used for identification of electrons versus other charged particles. In particular we present its design, geometry study and related simulations, as well as R and D on LYSO crystals and developments on readout electronics. A matrix of 25 crystals has been tested at the Beam Test Facility of Frascati (BTF) in May 2011 at energies between 200 MeV and 500 MeV. Results from this test are presented.

  3. Intercalibration of the ZEUS high resolution and backing calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramowicz, H.; Czyrkowski, H.; Derlicki, A.; Krzyzanowski, M.; Kudla, I.; Kusmierz, W.; Nowak, R.J.; Pawlak, J.M.; Rajca, A.; Stopczynski, A.; Walczak, R.; Zarnecki, A.F.; Kowalski, T.Z.

    1991-07-01

    We have studied the combined performance of two calorimeters, the high resolution uranium-scintillator prototype of the ZEUS forward calorimeter (FCAL), followed by a prototype of the coarser ZEUS backing calorimeter (BAC), made out of thick iron plates interleaved with planes of aluminium proportional chambers. The test results, obtained in an exposure of the calorimeter system to a hadron test beam at the CERN-SPS, show that the backing calorimeter does fulfil its role of recognizing the energy leaking out of the FCAL calorimeter. The measurement of this energy is feasible, if an appropriate calibration of the BAC calorimeter is performed. (orig.)

  4. Intercalibration of the ZEUS high resolution and backing calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramowicz, H.; Czyrkowski, H.; Derlicki, A.; Krzyzanowski, M.; Kudla, I.; Kusmierz, W.; Nowak, R.J.; Pawlak, J.M.; Rajca, A.; Stopczynski, A.; Walczak, R.; Zarnecki, A.F.; Kowalski, T.Z.

    1992-01-01

    We have studied the combined performance of two calorimeters, the high resolution uranium-scintillator prototype of the ZEUS forward calorimeter (FCAL), followed by a prototype of the coarser ZEUS backing calorimeter (BAC), made out of thick iron plates interleaved with planes of aluminium proportional chambers. The test results, obtained in an exposure of the calorimeter system to a hadron test beam at the CERN SPS, show that the backing calorimeter does fulfil its role of recognizing the energy leaking out of the FCAL calorimeter. The measurement of this energy is feasible, if an appropriate calibration of the BAC calorimeter is performed. (orig.)

  5. Large capacity water and air bath calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, S.J.; Kasperski, P.W.; Renz, D.P.; Wetzel, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    EG and G Mound Applied Technologies has developed an 11 in. x 17 in. sample size water bath and an 11 in. x 17 in. sample size air bath calorimeter which both function under servo control mode of operation. The water bath calorimeter has four air bath preconditioners to increase sample throughput and the air bath calorimeter has two air bath preconditioners. The large capacity calorimeters and preconditioners were unique to Mound design which brought about unique design challenges. Both large capacity systems calculate the optimum set temperature for each preconditioner which is available to the operator. Each system is controlled by a personal computer under DOS which allows the operator to download data to commercial software packages when the calorimeter is idle. Qualification testing yielded a one standard deviation of 0.6% for 0.2W to 3.0W Pu-238 heat standard range in the water bath calorimeter and a one standard deviation of 0.3% for the 6.0W to 20.0W Pu-238 heat standard range in the air bath calorimeter

  6. Non-compensation of the ATLAS barrel combined calorimeter prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kul'chitskij, Yu.A.; Kuz'min, M.V.

    1998-01-01

    The e / π ratio for the ATLAS Barrel Combined Calorimeter Prototype, composed from electromagnetic LArg calorimeter and hadronic Tile calorimeter was investigated. Response of Combined Calorimeter on pions and electrons in the energy region of 20-300 GeV was studied. Found e / h = 1.37 ± 0.01 ± 0.02 is in good agreement with the results from previous Combined Calorimeter tests but has more precisions

  7. First results from the SLD silicon calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berridge, S.C.; Bugg, W.M.; Kroeger, R.S.; Weidemann, A.W.; White, S.L.

    1992-07-01

    The small-angle calorimeters of the SLD were successfully operated during the recent SLC engineering run. The Luminosity Monitor and Small-Angle Tagger (LMSAT) covers the angular region between 28 and 68 milliradians from the beam axis, while the Medium-Angle Silicon Calorimeter (MASC) covers the 68--190 milliradian region. Both are silicon-tungsten sampling calorimeters; the LMSAT employs 23 layers of 0.86 X 0 sampling, while the MASC has 10 layers of 1.74 X 0 sampling. We present results from the first run of the SLC with the SLD on beamline

  8. Data acquisition system for LHCb calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Gang; Gong Guanghua; Shao Beibei

    2007-01-01

    LHCb Calorimeter system is mainly used to identify and measure the energy of the photon, electron, hadron produced by the collision of proton. TELL1 is a common data acquisition platform based on FPGA for LHCb experiment. It is used to adopt custom data acquisition and process method for every detector and provide the data standard for the CPU matrix. This paper provides a novel DAQ and data process model in VHDL for Calorimeter. According to this model. We have built an effective Calorimeter DAQ system, which would be used in LHCb Experiment. (authors)

  9. Calorimeter prediction based on multiple exponentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.K.; Bracken, D.S.

    2002-01-01

    Calorimetry allows very precise measurements of nuclear material to be carried out, but it also requires relatively long measurement times to do so. The ability to accurately predict the equilibrium response of a calorimeter would significantly reduce the amount of time required for calorimetric assays. An algorithm has been developed that is effective at predicting the equilibrium response. This multi-exponential prediction algorithm is based on an iterative technique using commercial fitting routines that fit a constant plus a variable number of exponential terms to calorimeter data. Details of the implementation and the results of trials on a large number of calorimeter data sets will be presented

  10. ALICE Zero Degree Calorimeter (ZDC), General Pictures.

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The ZDC Calorimeter for spectator neutrons is made by 44 slabs of W-alloy; each slab has 44 grooves where quartz fibres are placed. The charged particles of the hadronic shower generated by the neutrons make Cerenkov light in the fibres and the light is collected by photomultipliers. Photos from 1 to 9 show the front-face of the calorimeter. Photo n. 10 shows the rear of the calorimeter where the fibres are divided in several groups to go to the different PMs.

  11. Calibration and performance of the CHORUS calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buontempo, S.; Capone, A.; Cocco, A.G.; De Pedis, D.; Di Capua, E.; Dore, U.; Ereditato, A.; Ferroni, M.; Fiorillo, G.; Loverre, P.F.; Luppi, C.; Macina, D.; Marchetti-Stasi, F.; Mazzoni, M.A.; Migliozzi, P.; Palladino, V.; Piredda, G.; Ricciardi, S.; Righini, P.P.; Saitta, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Strolin, P.; Zucchelli, P.

    1995-01-01

    A high resolution calorimeter has been built for CHORUS, an experiment which searches for ν μ →ν τ oscillation in the CERN neutrino beam. Aim of the calorimeter is to measure the energy and direction of hadronic showers produced in interactions of the neutrinos in a nuclear emulsion target and to track through-going muons. It is a longitudinally segmented sampling device made of lead and scintillating fibers or strips. This detector has been exposed to beams of pions and electrons of defined momentum for calibration. The method used for energy calibration and results on the calorimeter performance are reported. (orig.)

  12. CMS Calorimeter Trigger Phase I upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klabbers, P; Gorski, T; Bachtis, M; Dasu, S; Fobes, R; Grothe, M; Ross, I; Smith, W H; Compton, K; Farmahini-Farahani, A; Gregerson, A; Seemuth, D; Schulte, M

    2012-01-01

    We present a design for the Phase-1 upgrade of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) calorimeter trigger system composed of FPGAs and Multi-GBit/sec links that adhere to the μTCA crate Telecom standard. The upgrade calorimeter trigger will implement algorithms that create collections of isolated and non-isolated electromagnetic objects, isolated and non-isolated tau objects and jet objects. The algorithms are organized in several steps with progressive data reduction. These include a particle cluster finder that reconstructs overlapping clusters of 2x2 calorimeter towers and applies electron identification, a cluster overlap filter, particle isolation determination, jet reconstruction, particle separation and sorting.

  13. MARK II end cap calorimeter electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jared, R.C.; Haggerty, J.S.; Herrup, D.A.; Kirsten, F.A.; Lee, K.L.; Olson, S.R.; Wood, D.R.

    1985-10-01

    An end cap calorimeter system has been added to the MARK II detector in preparation for its use at the SLAC Linear Collider. The calorimeter uses 8744 rectangular proportional counter tubes. This paper describes the design features of the data acquisition electronics that has been installed on the calorimeter. The design and use of computer-based test stands for the amplification and signal-shaping components is also covered. A portion of the complete system has been tested in a beam at SLAC. In these initial tests, using only the calibration provided by the test stands, a resolution of 18%/√E was achieved

  14. The D0 calorimeter trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guida, J.

    1992-12-01

    The D0 calorimeter trigger system consists of many levels to make physics motivated trigger decisions. The Level-1 trigger uses hardware techniques to reduce the trigger rate from ∼ 100kHz to 200Hz. It forms sums of electromagnetic and hadronic energy, globally and in towers, along with finding the missing transverse energy. A minimum energy is set on these energy sums to pass the event. The Level-2 trigger is a set of software filters, operating in a parallel-processing microvax farm which further reduces the trigger rate to a few Hertz. These filters will reject events which lack electron candidates, jet candidates, or missing transverse energy in the event. The performance of these triggers during the early running of the D0 detector will also be discussed

  15. Tritium calorimeter setup and operation

    CERN Document Server

    Rodgers, D E

    2002-01-01

    The LBNL tritium calorimeter is a stable instrument capable of measuring tritium with a sensitivity of 25 Ci. Measurement times range from 8-hr to 7-days depending on the thermal conductivity and mass of the material being measured. The instrument allows accurate tritium measurements without requiring that the sample be opened and subsampled, thus reducing personnel exposure and radioactive waste generation. The sensitivity limit is primarily due to response shifts caused by temperature fluctuation in the water bath. The fluctuations are most likely a combination of insufficient insulation from ambient air and precision limitations in the temperature controller. The sensitivity could probably be reduced to below 5 Ci if the following improvements were made: (1) Extend the external insulation to cover the entire bath and increase the top insulation. (2) Improve the seal between the air space above the bath and the outside air to reduce evaporation. This will limit the response drift as the water level drops. (...

  16. Liquid Krypton Calorimeter Calibration Software

    CERN Document Server

    Hughes, Christina Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    Calibration of the liquid krypton calorimeter (LKr) of the NA62 experiment is managed by a set of standalone programs, or an online calibration driver. These programs are similar to those used by NA48, but have been updated to utilize classes and translated to C++ while maintaining a common functionality. A set of classes developed to handle communication with hardware was used to develop the three standalone programs as well as the main driver program for online calibration between bursts. The main calibration driver has been designed to respond to run control commands and receive burst data, both transmitted via DIM. In order to facilitate the process of reading in calibration parameters, a serializable class has been introduced, allowing the replacement of standard text files with XML configuration files.

  17. CSI flight experiment projects of the Naval Research Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Shalom

    1993-02-01

    The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) is involved in an active program of CSI flight experiments. The first CSI flight experiment of the Naval Research Laboratory, the Low Power Atmospheric Compensation Experiment (LACE) dynamics experiment, has successfully measured vibrations of an orbiting satellite with a ground-based laser radar. The observations, made on January 7, 8 and 10, 1991, represent the first ever measurements of this type. In the tests, a narrowband heterodyne CO2 laser radar, operating at a wavelength of 10.6 microns, detected vibration induced differential-Doppler signatures of the LACE satellite. Power spectral densities of forced oscillations and modal frequencies and damping rates of free-damped vibrations were obtained and compared with finite element structural models of the LACE system. Another manifested flight experiment is the Advanced Controls Technology Experiment (ACTEX) designed to demonstrate active and passive damping with piezo-electric (PZT) sensors and actuators. This experiment was developed under the management of the Air Force Phillips Laboratory with integration of the experiment at NRL. It is to ride as a secondary, or 'piggyback,' experiment on a future Navy satellite.

  18. Are starburst galaxies proton calorimeters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xilu; Fields, Brian D.

    2018-03-01

    Several starburst galaxies have been observed in the GeV and TeV bands. In these dense environments, gamma-ray emission should be dominated by cosmic ray (CR) interactions with the interstellar medium (pcrpism → π0 → γγ). Indeed, starbursts may act as proton `calorimeters' where a substantial fraction of CR energy input is emitted in gamma-rays. Here, we build a one-zone, `thick-target' model implementing calorimetry and placing a firm upper bound on gamma-ray emission from CR interactions. The model assumes that CRs are accelerated by supernovae (SNe), and all suffer nuclear interactions rather than escape. Our model has only two free parameters: the CR proton acceleration energy per SN ɛcr, and the proton injection spectral index s. We calculate the pionic gamma-ray emission from 10 MeV to 10 TeV, and derive thick-target parameters for six galaxies with Fermi, H.E.S.S., and/or VERITAS data. Our model provides good fits for the M82 and NGC 253, and yields ɛcr and s values suggesting that SN CR acceleration is similar in starbursts and in our Galaxy. We find that these starbursts are indeed nearly if not fully proton calorimeters. For NGC 4945 and NGC 1068, the models are consistent with calorimetry but are less well-constrained due to the lack of TeV data. However, the Circinus galaxy and the ultra-luminous infrared galaxy Arp 220 exceed our pionic upper-limit; possible explanations are discussed.

  19. A highly segmented and compact liquid argon calorimeter for the LHC the TGT calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Berger, C; Geulig, H; Pierschel, G; Siedling, R; Tutas, J; Wlochal, M; Wotschack, J; Cheplakov, A P; Eremeev, R V; Feshchenko, A; Gavrishchuk, O P; Kazarinov, Yu M; Khrenov, Yu V; Kukhtin, V V; Ladygin, E; Obudovskij, V; Shalyugin, A N; Tolmachev, V T; Volodko, A G; Geweniger, C; Hanke, P; Kluge, E E; Krause, J; Putzer, A; Tittel, K; Wunsch, M; Bán, J; Bruncko, Dusan; Kriván, F; Kurca, T; Murín, P; Sándor, L; Spalek, J; Aderholz, Michael; Brettel, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Fent, J; Huber, J; Hajduk, L; Jakobs, K; Kiesling, C; Oberlack, H; Schacht, P; Stiegler, U; Bogolyubsky, M Yu; Chekulaev, S V; Kiryunin, A E; Kurchaninov, L L; Levitsky, M S; Maximov, V V; Minaenko, A A; Moiseev, A M; Semenov, P A; CERN. Geneva. Detector Research and Development Committee

    1992-01-01

    The development of a fast, highly granular and compact electromagnetic liquid argon calorimeter is proposed as an R&D project for an LHC calorimeter with full rapidity coverage. The proposed ``Thin Gap Turbine'' (TGT) calorimeter offers uniform energy response and constant energy resolution independent of the production angle of the impinging particle and of its impact position at the calorimeter. An important aspect of the project is the development of electronics for fast signal processing matched to the short charge collection time in the TGT read-out cell. The system aspects of the integration of a high degree of signal processing into the liquid argon would be investigated.

  20. Perception-Induced Effects of Corporate Social Irresponsibility (CSiR) for Stereotypical and Admired Firms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voliotis, Seraphim; Vlachos, Pavlos A; Epitropaki, Olga

    2016-01-01

    How do stakeholders react to Corporate Social Irresponsibility (CSiR)? What are the emotional mechanisms and behavioral outcomes following CSiR perception? The psychology of CSR literature has yet to address these important questions and has largely considered CSR and CSiR as the opposite poles of the same continuum. In contrast, we view CSR and CSiR as distinct constructs and theorize about the cognitive (perceptual), emotional, and behavioral effects of CSiR activity on observers (i.e., primary and secondary stakeholders) building on theories of intergroup perception. Specifically, building on the Stereotype Content Model (SCM; Fiske et al., 2002) and the BIAS map (i.e., Behaviors from Intergroup Affect and Stereotypes; Cuddy et al., 2007)-which extends the SCM by predicting behavioral responses-we make predictions on potential stakeholder reactions to CSiR focusing on two practice-relevant cases: (a) a typical for-profit firm that engages in a CSiR activity, (b) an atypical admired firm that engages in CSiR activity.

  1. The Communication Styles Inventory (CSI): a six-dimensional behavioral model of communication styles and its relation with personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, R.E.; Bakker-Pieper, A.; Konings, F.E.; Schouten, B.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a six-dimensional model of communication styles is proposed and operationalized using the Communication Styles Inventory (CSI). The CSI distinguishes between six domain-level communicative behavior scales, Expressiveness, Preciseness, Verbal Aggressiveness, Questioningness,

  2. What's new with the CMS hadron calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Hagopian, V

    2002-01-01

    The CMS Hadron Calorimeter is designed to measure hadron jets, single hadrons and single mu 's. The central barrel and the two end caps, made of brass and scintillators cover the ¿ eta ¿ range of 0.0 to 3.0. The two forward calorimeters made of iron and quartz fibers extend the ¿ eta ¿ range to 5.0. Scintillators are also placed outside of the magnet coil, within the muon system to measure the energy leakage from the central barrel. The construction of the calorimeter is about 50% complete. Several design changes were made to simplify the calorimeter and reduce the cost. The longitudinal segmentation of the central barrel and end caps was reduced by one unit. The quartz fiber diameter was doubled from 300 to 600 microns. Improvements were made to the hybrid photodetectors (HPD) and various other components. The special purpose ADC (QIE) and other electronics are in prototype stage. (3 refs).

  3. Upgrading the Atlas Tile Calorimeter Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Popeneciu, G; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    Tile Calorimeter is the central hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. Around 2024, after the upgrade of the LHC the peak luminosity will increase by a factor of 5 compared to the design value, thus requiring an upgrade of the Tile Calorimeter readout electronics. Except the photomultipliers tubes (PMTs), most of the on- and off-detector electronics will be replaced, with the aim of digitizing all PMT pulses at the front-end level and sending them with 10 Gb/s optical links to the back-end electronics. One demonstrator prototype module is planned to be inserted in Tile Calorimeter in 2015 that will include hybrid electronic components able to probe the new design.

  4. Modeling response variation for radiometric calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, R.L. II.

    1986-01-01

    Radiometric calorimeters are widely used in the DOE complex for accountability measurements of plutonium and tritium. Proper characterization of response variation for these instruments is, therefore, vital for accurate assessment of measurement control as well as for propagation of error calculations. This is not difficult for instruments used to measure items within a narrow range of power values; however, when a single instrument is used to measure items over a wide range of power values, improper estimates of uncertainty can result since traditional error models for radiometric calorimeters assume that uncertainty is not a function of sample power. This paper describes methods which can be used to accurately estimate random response variation for calorimeters used to measure items over a wide range of sample powers. The model is applicable to the two most common modes of calorimeter operation: heater replacement and servo control. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  5. The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) hadron calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagopian, Vasken

    1999-01-01

    The Hadron Calorimeter of the CMS detector for the CERN LHC accelerator is designed to measure hadron jets as well as single hadrons. It has six segments. The central barrel made of brass and scintillators covers the vertical bar η vertical bar range of about 0 to 1.3. Two End Caps, also made of brass and scintillators extends the vertical bar η vertical bar range to 3.0. Two Forward calorimeters made of iron and quartz fibers cover the range 3.0 to 5.0. Since the barrel portion of the calorimeter is only 6.5 interaction lengths, the outer barrel will sample, by scintillators, outside the magnet coil and cryostat. Progress has been made on all subsystems and prototypes have been built. We now have a better understanding of magnetic field effects on calorimeters

  6. CDF End Plug calorimeter Upgrade Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apollinari, G.; de Barbaro, P.; Mishina, M.

    1994-01-01

    We report on the status of the CDF End Plug Upgrade Project. In this project, the CDF calorimeters in the end plug and the forward regions will be replaced by a single scintillator based calorimeter. After an extensive R ampersand D effort on the tile/fiber calorimetry, we have now advanced to a construction phase. We review the results of the R ampersand D leading to the final design of the calorimeters and the development of tooling devised for this project. The quality control program of the production of the electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters is described. A shower maximum detector for the measurement of the shower centroid and the shower profile of electrons, γ and π 0 has been designed. Its performance requirements, R ampersand D results and mechanical design are discussed

  7. Performance of the ATLAS hadronic Tile calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00304670; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC is the central hadronic calorimeter designed for energy reconstruction of hadrons, jets, tau-particles and missing transverse energy. TileCal is a scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter and it covers the region of pseudorapidity < 1.7. The scintillation light produced in the scintillator tiles is transmitted to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). Signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. Each stage of the signal production from scintillation light to the signal reconstruction is monitored and calibrated. Results on the calorimeter operation and performance are presented, including the calibration, stability, absolute energy scale, uniformity and time resolution. These results show that the TileCal performance is within the design requirements and has given essential contribution to reconstructed objects and physics results.

  8. Performance of the ATLAS Zero Degree Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Leite, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS Zero Degree Calorimeter (ZDC) at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is a set of two sampling calorimeters modules symmetrically located at 140m from the ATLAS interaction point. The ZDC covers a pseudorapidity range of |eta| > 8.3 and it is both longitudinally and transversely segmented, thus providing energy and position information of the incident particles. The ZDC is installed between the two LHC beam pipes, in a configuration such that only the neutral particles produced at the interaction region can reach this calorimeter. The ZDC uses Tungsten plates as absorber material and rods made of quartz interspersed in the absorber as active media. The energetic charged particles crossing the quartz rods produces Cherenkov light which is then detected by photomultipliers and sent to the front end electronics for processing, in a total of 120 individual electronic channels. The Tungsten plates and quartz rods are arranged in a way to segment the calorimeters in 4 longitudinal sections. The first section (...

  9. Dual-readout calorimetry with scintillating crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinci, D

    2009-01-01

    The dual-readout approach, which allows an event-by-event measurement of the electromagnetic shower fraction, was originally demonstrated with the DREAM sampling calorimeter. This approach can be extended to homogeneous detectors like crystals if Cherenkov and scintillation light can be separated. In this paper we present several methods we developed for distinguishing the two components in PWO and BGO based calorimeters and the results obtained.

  10. Temporal resolution limit estimation of x-ray streak cameras using a CsI photocathode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiang; Gu, Li; Zong, Fangke; Zhang, Jingjin; Yang, Qinlao, E-mail: qlyang@szu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Devices and Systems of Ministry of Education and Guangdong Province, Institute of Optoelectronics, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China)

    2015-08-28

    A Monte Carlo model is developed and implemented to calculate the characteristics of x-ray induced secondary electron (SE) emission from a CsI photocathode used in an x-ray streak camera. Time distributions of emitted SEs are investigated with an incident x-ray energy range from 1 to 30 keV and a CsI thickness range from 100 to 1000 nm. Simulation results indicate that SE time distribution curves have little dependence on the incident x-ray energy and CsI thickness. The calculated time dispersion within the CsI photocathode is about 70 fs, which should be the temporal resolution limit of x-ray streak cameras that use CsI as the photocathode material.

  11. Sampling calorimeters in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, H.A.; Smith, S.D.

    1980-01-01

    Attention is given to sampling calorimeters - those instruments in which part of the shower is sampled in an active medium sandwiched between absorbing layers. A very cursory overview is presented of some fundamental aspects of sampling calorimeters. First the properties of shower development are described for both the electromagnetic and hadronic cases. Then examples of various readout schemes are discussed. Finally, some currently promising new ideas in calorimetry are described

  12. Heavy ion studies with CMS HF calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damgov, I.; Genchev, V.; Kolosov, V.A.; Lokhtin, I.P.; Petrushanko, S.V.; Sarycheva, L.I.; Teplov, S.Yu.; Shmatov, S.V.; Zarubin, P.I.

    2001-01-01

    The capability of the very forward (HF) calorimeter of the CMS detector at LHC to be applied to specific studies with heavy ion beams is discussed. The simulated responses of the HF calorimeter to nucleus-nucleus collisions are used for the analysis of different problems: reconstruction of the total energy flow in the forward rapidity region, accuracy of determination of the impact parameter of collision, study of fluctuations of the hadronic-to-electromagnetic energy ratio, fast inelastic event selection

  13. The new RD52 (DREAM) fiber calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wigmans, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Simultaneous detection of the Cerenkov light and scintillation light produced in hadron showers makes it possible to measure the electromagnetic shower fraction event by event and thus eliminate the detrimental effects of fluctuations in this fraction on the performance of calorimeters. In the RD52 (DREAM) project, the possibilities of this dual-readout calorimetry are investigated and optimized. In this talk, the first test results of prototype modules for the new full-scale fiber calorimeter are presented.

  14. The performance of the ZEUS calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crittenden, J.A.

    1994-12-01

    The ZEUS experiment has now completed its third year of operation at the electron-proton collider HERA. The uranium/scintillator sampling calorimeter surrounding the inner tracking detectors has proven an essential component for the online triggering algorithms, for offline event-type identification, for kinematic variable reconstruction, and for a ariety of physics analyses. This paper summarizes the experimental context, the operating characteristics, the calibration techniques, and the performance of the calorimeter during its first three years of operation. (orig.)

  15. The electromagnetic calorimeter of the NOMAD experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Autiero, D; Baldo-Ceolin, M; Barichello, G; Bianchi-Bonaiti, V; Bobisut, F; Cardini, A; Cattaneo, P W; Cavasinni, V; Conta, C; Del Prete, T; De Santo, A; Di Lella, L; Ferrari, R; Flaminio, V; Fraternali, M; Gibin, D; Gninenko, S N; Guglielmi, A; Iacopini, E; Kovzelev, A V; La Rotonda, L; Lanza, A; Laveder, M; Lazzeroni, C; Livan, M; Mezzetto, M; Orestano, D; Pastore, F; Pennacchio, E; Petti, R; Polesello, G; Renzoni, G; Rimoldi, A; Roda, C; Sconza, A; Sobczynski, C; Valdata-Nappi, M; Vascon, M; Vercesi, V; Visentin, L; Volkov, S A [Pisa Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Pisa (Italy); [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova and INFN, Sezione di Padova, Padova (Italy); [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica, Universita di Pavia and INFN, Sezione di Pavia, Pavia (Italy); [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Firenze and INFN, Sezione di Firenze, Firenze (Italy); [Institute of Nuclear Research, INR, Moscow (Russian Federation); [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita della Calabria and INFN, Gruppo Collegato di Cosenza, Cosenza (Italy)

    1996-05-01

    A description is given of the NOMAD electromagnetic calorimeter, consisting of 875 lead-glass counters read out by two-stage photomultipliers and a low noise electronic chain. The detector operates in a 0.4 T magnetic field transverse to the counter axis. The paper discusses the design criteria, the lead-glass characteristics, the properties of the read out chain and provides a summary of the calorimeter performance. (orig.).

  16. Radiation-Hard Quartz Cerenkov Calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akgun, U.; Onel, Y.

    2006-01-01

    New generation hadron colliders are going to reach unprecedented energies and radiation levels. Quartz has been identified as a radiation-hard material that can be used for Cerenkov calorimeters of the future experiments. We report from the radiation hardness tests performed on quartz fibers, as well as the characteristics of the quartz fiber and plate Cerenkov calorimeters that have been built, designed, and proposed for the CMS experiment

  17. The high resolution spaghetti hadron calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenni, P.; Sonderegger, P.; Paar, H.P.; Wigmans, R.

    1987-01-01

    It is proposed to build a prototype for a hadron calorimeter with scintillating plastic fibres as active material. The absorber material is lead. Provided that these components are used in the appropriate volume ratio, excellent performance may be expected, e.g. an energy resolution of 30%/√E for jet detection. The proposed design offers additional advantages compared to the classical sandwich calorimeter structures in terms of granularity, hermiticity, uniformity, compactness, readout, radiation resistivity, stability and calibration. 22 refs.; 7 figs

  18. A neutron calorimeter as a fusion diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proctor, A.E.; Harker, Y.D.; Neischmidt, E.B.

    1986-01-01

    A calorimeter is described which is applicable as a fusion neutron diagnostic. The advantages of the device are discussed, including: low sensitivity to thermal neutrons, no heat loss to surroundings, large dynamic range, small mass resulting in fair time resolution, and small physical size. The heat generation is provided by neutron induced fissions in a foil of 238 U and a calorimeter is isothermal. The effects, advantages and disadvantages of other target materials are discussed. Also discussed are time resolution and calibration

  19. The NA48 liquid krypton calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Gorini, B

    1997-01-01

    The NA48 collaboration goal is to measure the CP violation parameter Re(ɛl/ɛ) at the level of 2 × 10−4. The neutral Kaon decays will be reconstructed by an electromagnetic liquid Krypton calorimeter with fine granularity and a volume almost totally sensible, to obtain excellent position and energy resolution, as well as time resolution. A description of the detector, results from tests of a prototype and the status of the final calorimeter are reported.

  20. The electromagnetic calorimeter of the NOMAD experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autiero, D.; Baldo-Ceolin, M.; Barichello, G.; Bianchi-Bonaiti, V.; Bobisut, F.; Cardini, A.; Cattaneo, P.W.; Cavasinni, V.; Conta, C.; Del Prete, T.; De Santo, A.; Di Lella, L.; Ferrari, R.; Flaminio, V.; Fraternali, M.; Gibin, D.; Gninenko, S.N.; Guglielmi, A.; Iacopini, E.; Kovzelev, A.V.; La Rotonda, L.; Lanza, A.; Laveder, M.; Lazzeroni, C.; Livan, M.; Mezzetto, M.; Orestano, D.; Pastore, F.; Pennacchio, E.; Petti, R.; Polesello, G.; Renzoni, G.; Rimoldi, A.; Roda, C.; Sconza, A.; Sobczynski, C.; Valdata-Nappi, M.; Vascon, M.; Vercesi, V.; Visentin, L.; Volkov, S.A.

    1996-01-01

    A description is given of the NOMAD electromagnetic calorimeter, consisting of 875 lead-glass counters read out by two-stage photomultipliers and a low noise electronic chain. The detector operates in a 0.4 T magnetic field transverse to the counter axis. The paper discusses the design criteria, the lead-glass characteristics, the properties of the read out chain and provides a summary of the calorimeter performance. (orig.)

  1. ATLAS Tile Calorimeter calibration and monitoring systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-González, Arely

    2018-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment and provides important information for reconstruction of hadrons, jets, hadronic decays of tau leptons and missing transverse energy. This sampling calorimeter uses steel plates as absorber and scintillating tiles as active medium. The light produced by the passage of charged particles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibres to photomultiplier tubes, located in the outer part of the calorimeter. Neutral particles may also produce a signal after interacting with the material and producing charged particles. The readout is segmented into about 5000 cells, each of them being read out by two photomultipliers in parallel. To calibrate and monitor the stability and performance of each part of the readout chain during the data taking, a set of calibration systems is used. This comprises Cesium radioactive sources, Laser, charge injection elements and an integrator based readout system. Information from all systems allows to monitor and equalise the calorimeter response at each stage of the signal production, from scintillation light to digitisation. Calibration runs are monitored from a data quality perspective and used as a cross-check for physics runs. The data quality efficiency achieved during 2016 was 98.9%. These calibration and stability of the calorimeter reported here show that the TileCal performance is within the design requirements and has given essential contribution to reconstructed objects and physics results.

  2. Performance of the ATLAS hadronic Tile calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Van Daalen, Tal Roelof; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Performance of the ATLAS hadronic Tile calorimeter The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC is the central hadronic calorimeter designed for the reconstruction of hadrons, jets, tau-particles and missing transverse energy. TileCal is a scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter and it covers the region of pseudorapidity < 1.7. The scintillation light produced in the scintillator tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibers to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The analog signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized every 25 ns by sampling the signal. About 10000 channels of the front-end electronics measure the signals of the calorimeter with energies ranging from ~30 MeV to ~2 TeV. Each step of the signal reconstruction from scintillation light to the digital pulse reconstruction is monitored and calibrated. The performance of the calorimeter has been studied in-situ employing cosmic ray muons and a large sample of proton-proton collisions acquired during the operations...

  3. Transportable high sensitivity small sample radiometric calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetzel, J.R.; Biddle, R.S.; Cordova, B.S.; Sampson, T.E.; Dye, H.R.; McDow, J.G.

    1998-01-01

    A new small-sample, high-sensitivity transportable radiometric calorimeter, which can be operated in different modes, contains an electrical calibration method, and can be used to develop secondary standards, will be described in this presentation. The data taken from preliminary tests will be presented to indicate the precision and accuracy of the instrument. The calorimeter and temperature-controlled bath, at present, require only a 30-in. by 20-in. tabletop area. The calorimeter is operated from a laptop computer system using unique measurement module capable of monitoring all necessary calorimeter signals. The calorimeter can be operated in the normal calorimeter equilibration mode, as a comparison instrument, using twin chambers and an external electrical calibration method. The sample chamber is 0.75 in (1.9 cm) in diameter by 2.5 in. (6.35 cm) long. This size will accommodate most 238 Pu heat standards manufactured in the past. The power range runs from 0.001 W to <20 W. The high end is only limited by sample size

  4. ATLAS: last few metresfor the Calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    On Friday 4th November, the ATLAS Barrel Calorimeter was moved from its assembly point at the side of the ATLAS cavern to the centre of the toroidal magnet system. The detector was finally aligned, to the precision of within a millimetre, on Wednesday 9th November. The ATLAS installation team, led by Tommi Nyman, after having positioned the Barrel Calorimeter in its final location in the ATLAS experimental cavern UX15. The Barrel Calorimeter which will absorb and measure the energy of photons, electrons and hadrons at the core of the ATLAS detector is 8.6 meters in diameter, 6.8 meters long, and weighs over 1600 Tonnes. It consists of two concentric cylindrical detector elements. The innermost comprises aluminium pressure vessels containing the liquid argon electromagnetic calorimeter and the solenoid magnet. The outermost is an assembly of 64 hadron tile calorimeter sectors. Assembled 18 meters away from its final position, the Barrel Calorimeter was relocated with the help of a railway, which allows the ...

  5. Last Few Metres for the Barrel Calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    Nyman, T.

    On Friday 4th November, the ATLAS Barrel Calorimeter was moved from its assembly point at the side of the ATLAS cavern to the centre of the toroidal magnet system. The detector was finally aligned, to the precision of within a millimetre, on Wednesday 9th November. The ATLAS installation team, led by Tommi Nyman, after having positioned the Barrel Calorimeter in its final location in the ATLAS experimental cavern UX15. The Barrel Calorimeter which will absorb and measure the energy of photons, electrons and hadrons at the core of the ATLAS detector is 8.6 meters in diameter, 6.8 meters long, and weighs over 1600 Tonnes. It consists of two concentric cylindrical detector elements. The innermost comprises aluminium pressure vessels containing the liquid argon electromagnetic calorimeter and the solenoid magnet. The outermost is an assembly of 64 hadron tile calorimeter sectors. Assembled 18 meters away from its final position, the Barrel Calorimeter was relocated with the help of a railway, which allows ...

  6. Sampling calorimeters in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, H.A.; Smith, S.D.

    1981-01-01

    At our current understanding of elementary particle physics, the fundamental constituents are the photon, quarks, gluons and leptons with a few highly forecasted heavy bosons. Calorimeters are essential for detecting all of these particles. Quarks and gluons fragment into many particles - at high energies, so many particles that one may not want to measure each one separately. This group of both charged and neutral particles can only be measured by calorimeters. The energy of an electron needs to be measured by a calorimeter and muon identification is enhanced by the recognition of a minimum ionizing particle passing through the calorimeter. Sampling calorimeters - those instruments in which part of the shower is sampled in an active medium sandwiched between absorbing layers - are reviewed. What follows is a very cursory overview of some fundamental aspects of sampling calorimeters. First, the properties of shower development are described for both the electromagnetic and hadronic cases. Then, examples of various readout schemes are discussed. Finally, some currently promising new ideas in calorimetry are described. 21 references

  7. Performance of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrynevich, A.

    2017-06-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central scintillator-steel sampling hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC . Jointly with other calorimeters it is designed for energy reconstruction of hadrons, jets, tau-particles and missing transverse energy. The scintillation light produced in the scintillator tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibers to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The analog signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. The TileCal frontend electronics reads out the signals produced by about 10000 channels measuring energies ranging from ~30 MeV to ~2 TeV . Each stage of the signal production from scintillation light to the signal reconstruction is monitored and calibrated. The performance of the calorimeter has been established with cosmic ray muons and the large sample of the proton-proton collisions. The response of high momentum isolated muons is used to study the energy response at the electromagnetic scale, isolated hadrons are used as a probe of the hadronic response and its modelling by the Monte Carlo simulations. The calorimeter time resolution is studied with multijet events. Results on the calorimeter operation and performance are presented, including the calibration, stability, absolute energy scale, uniformity and time resolution. These results show that the TileCal performance is within the design requirements and has given essential contribution to reconstructed objects and physics results.

  8. Manufacturing of a graphite calorimeter at Yazd Radiation Processing Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziaie, F.

    2004-01-01

    In this work, a few quasi-adiabatic graphite calorimeters of different dimensions are described. The calorimeters have been manufactured by ourselves and studied for accurate absorbed dose measurements in 10 MeV electron beam. In order to prove the accuracy and reliability of dose measurements with the use of self designed graphite calorimeters (SCD), an inter comparison study was performed on these calorimeters and Risoe graphite calorimeters (SC,standard calorimeter) at different doses by using Rhodothron accelerator. The comparison shows conclusively of the optimal size, the results agreeing with those obtained with the Sc within 1%. (author)

  9. Background suppression by pulse shape discrimination in the CALIFA calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiss, Benjamin; Gernhaeuser, Roman; Klenze, Philipp; Remmels, Patrick; Winkel, Max [Technische Universtaet Muenchen (Germany); Collaboration: R3B-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The 4π-calorimeter CALIFA is one of the major detectors of the R{sup 3}B-experiment at the upcoming Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt. This calorimeter with 2464 CsI(Tl) crystals and 96 Phoswich detectors (LaBr{sub 3}(Ce) and LaCl{sub 3}(Ce)) plays a major role in the realization of kinematically complete measurements. General demands on CALIFA are a high efficiency, good energy resolution of about 5 % at 1 MeV γ energies and a large dynamic range, allowing a simultaneous measurement of γ-rays at E > 100 keV and scattered protons up to E < 700 MeV. Due to the very high energies of the light charged particles at the relativistic beam energies, especially in the forward direction of CALIFA, a significant fraction triggers nuclear reactions in the detector material. This talk presents the methods of the background suppression by pulse shape discrimination based on an experiment with protons at kinetic energies up to E = 480 MeV at the TRIUMF Laboratory in Vancouver, Canada.

  10. The spaghetti calorimeter. Research, development, application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheel, C V

    1994-12-22

    The Spaghetti Calorimeter (SPACAL) is a detector intended primarily for the energy measurement of high-energy particles, but also provides spatial information and particle identification. It is a sampling calorimeter composed of plastic scintillating fibers, oriented in the direction of the particle, embedded in lead. The scintillation light is read out by photomultipliers, which are coupled to bunches of fibers through light guides, each forming a tower. It was developed as an electromagnetic (e.m.) and compensating hadronic calorimeter for use in future multi-TeV collider experiments. The largest prototype was installed for an alternative application as an hadronic calorimeter in the WA89 experiment, where it is used for the detection of neutrons resulting from {Sigma} decays. The basic concepts behind calorimetry are discussed in detail. Several prototypes were tested in beams of electrons and pions with energies up to 150 GeV. Resonable e.m. energy resolution, at {sigma}/E=12.9%/{radical}E[GeV]+1.23%, was measured. Excellent hadronic energy resolution was found, at 30.6%/{radical}E[GeV]+1.0%, but the calorimeter was found to be slightly undercompensating with e/h=1.15. The position of the shower barycenter for both electrons and pions was easily found according to the relative energy deposits in the calorimeter towers. The calorimeter was also found to be able to provide effective discrimination between electrons and hadrons. The performance of SPACAL in the WA89 experiment at the Omega spectrometer at CERN was studied with the reconstruction of beam {Sigma}{sup -}particles via its decay {Sigma}{sup -}{yields}n{pi}{sup -}. Details of the calibration of SPACAL with electrons and protons are presented. (orig.).

  11. The spaghetti calorimeter. Research, development, application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheel, C.V.

    1994-01-01

    The Spaghetti Calorimeter (SPACAL) is a detector intended primarily for the energy measurement of high-energy particles, but also provides spatial information and particle identification. It is a sampling calorimeter composed of plastic scintillating fibers, oriented in the direction of the particle, embedded in lead. The scintillation light is read out by photomultipliers, which are coupled to bunches of fibers through light guides, each forming a tower. It was developed as an electromagnetic (e.m.) and compensating hadronic calorimeter for use in future multi-TeV collider experiments. The largest prototype was installed for an alternative application as an hadronic calorimeter in the WA89 experiment, where it is used for the detection of neutrons resulting from Σ decays. The basic concepts behind calorimetry are discussed in detail. Several prototypes were tested in beams of electrons and pions with energies up to 150 GeV. Resonable e.m. energy resolution, at σ/E=12.9%/√E[GeV]+1.23%, was measured. Excellent hadronic energy resolution was found, at 30.6%/√E[GeV]+1.0%, but the calorimeter was found to be slightly undercompensating with e/h=1.15. The position of the shower barycenter for both electrons and pions was easily found according to the relative energy deposits in the calorimeter towers. The calorimeter was also found to be able to provide effective discrimination between electrons and hadrons. The performance of SPACAL in the WA89 experiment at the Omega spectrometer at CERN was studied with the reconstruction of beam Σ - particles via its decay Σ - →nπ - . Details of the calibration of SPACAL with electrons and protons are presented. (orig.)

  12. A new ultrasensitive scanning calorimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikov, V V; Brandts, J M; Lin, L N; Brandts, J F

    1997-08-01

    A new ultrasensitive differential scanning calorimeter is described, having a number of novel features arising from integration between hardware and software. It is capable of high performance in either a scanning or isothermal mode of operation. Upscanning is carried out adiabatically while downscanning is nonadiabatic. By using software-controlled signals sent continuously to appropriate hardware devices, it is possible to improve adiabaticity and constancy of scan rate through use of empirical prerun information stored in memory rather than by using feedback systems which respond in real time and generate thermal noise. Also, instrument response time is software-selectable, maximizing performance for both slow- and fast-transient systems. While these and other sophisticated functionalities have been introduced into the instrument to improve performance and data analysis, they are virtually invisible and add no additional complexities into operation of the instrument. Noise and baseline repeatability are an order of magnitude better than published raw data from other instruments so that high-quality results can be obtained on protein solutions, for example, using as little as 50 microg of protein in the sample cell.

  13. Tritium calorimeter setup and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, David E.

    2002-01-01

    The LBNL tritium calorimeter is a stable instrument capable of measuring tritium with a sensitivity of 25 Ci. Measurement times range from 8-hr to 7-days depending on the thermal conductivity and mass of the material being measured. The instrument allows accurate tritium measurements without requiring that the sample be opened and subsampled, thus reducing personnel exposure and radioactive waste generation. The sensitivity limit is primarily due to response shifts caused by temperature fluctuation in the water bath. The fluctuations are most likely a combination of insufficient insulation from ambient air and precision limitations in the temperature controller. The sensitivity could probably be reduced to below 5 Ci if the following improvements were made: (1) Extend the external insulation to cover the entire bath and increase the top insulation. (2) Improve the seal between the air space above the bath and the outside air to reduce evaporation. This will limit the response drift as the water level drops. (3) Install an improved temperature controller, preferably with a built in chiller, capable of temperature control to ±0.001 C

  14. Relay Precoder Optimization in MIMO-Relay Networks With Imperfect CSI

    KAUST Repository

    Pandarakkottilil, Ubaidulla

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, we consider robust joint designs of relay precoder and destination receive filters in a nonregenerative multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) relay network. The network consists of multiple source-destination node pairs assisted by a MIMO-relay node. The channel state information (CSI) available at the relay node is assumed to be imperfect. We consider robust designs for two models of CSI error. The first model is a stochastic error (SE) model, where the probability distribution of the CSI error is Gaussian. This model is applicable when the imperfect CSI is mainly due to errors in channel estimation. For this model, we propose robust minimum sum mean square error (SMSE), MSE-balancing, and relay transmit power minimizing precoder designs. The next model for the CSI error is a norm-bounded error (NBE) model, where the CSI error can be specified by an uncertainty set. This model is applicable when the CSI error is dominated by quantization errors. In this case, we adopt a worst-case design approach. For this model, we propose a robust precoder design that minimizes total relay transmit power under constraints on MSEs at the destination nodes. We show that the proposed robust design problems can be reformulated as convex optimization problems that can be solved efficiently using interior-point methods. We demonstrate the robust performance of the proposed design through simulations. © 2011 IEEE.

  15. Building a crystal palace

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The end-caps of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) take shape as the first quadrant was completed on Wednesday 3 October. 1831 crystals, organised into five by five blocks named ‘supercrystals’, make up the first quadrant of Dee 1.With the 61,200-crystal barrel of its electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) complete, CMS is now building the endcaps, on the tenth anniversary of their initial design. Crystals for the endcaps were the last to be made, so the race is now on to have them all in place and ready for the turn-on of the LHC next year. Assembly of the first of eight quadrants began in June and crystal mounting was completed on Wednesday 3 October. Each crystal is transparent, has a volume just larger than a CERN coffee cup yet weighs a huge 1.5kg. 1831 of these lead tungstate crystals went into the first quadrant from a total 14,648 in the endcaps. The lead and tungsten account for 86% of each crystal’s weight, but as project leader Dave Cockerill expl...

  16. Proton magnetic resonance chemical shift imaging (1H CSI)-directed stereotactic biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, B.-C.; Kim, B.-C.; Kang, J.-K.; Choi, B.-G.; Kim, E.-N.; Baik, H.-M.; Choe, B.-Y.; Naruse, S.

    2001-01-01

    Introduction. To add metabolic information during stereotactic biopsy target selection, the authors adopted proton chemical shift imaging ( 1 H CSI)-directed stereotactic biopsy. Currently, proton single voxel spectroscopy (SVS) technique has been reported in stereotactic biopsy. We performed 1 H CSI in combination with a stereotactic headframe and selected targets according to local metabolic information, and evaluated the pathological results. Patients and Method. The 1 H CSI-directed stereotactic biopsy was performed in four patients. 1 H CSI and conventional Gd-enhancement stereotactic MRI were performed simultaneously after the fitting of a stereotactic frame. After reconstructing the metabolic maps of N-acetylaspartate (NAA)/phosphocreatine (Cr), phosphocholine (Cho)/Cr, and Lactate/Cr ratios, focal areas of increased Cho/Cr ratio and Lac/Cr ratios were selected as target sites in the stereotactic MR images. Result. 1 H CSI is possible with the stereotactic headframe in place. No difficulty was experienced performing 1 H CSI or making a diagnosis. Pathological samples taken from areas of increased Cho/Cr ratios and decreased NAA/Cr ratios provided information upon increased cellularity, mitoses and cellular atypism, and facilitated diagnosis. Pathological samples taken from areas of increased Lac/ Cr ratio snowed predominant feature of necrosis. Conclusion. 1 H CSI was feasible with the stereotactic headframe in place. The final pathological results obtained were concordant with the local metabolic information from 1 H CSI. We believe that 1 H CSI-directed stereotactic biopsy has the potential to significantly improve the accuracy of stereotactic biopsy targeting. (author)

  17. Hadron showers in a highly granular calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, Benjamin

    2010-11-15

    A future electron-positron collider like the planned International Linear Collider (ILC) needs excellent detectors to exploit the full physics potential. Different detector concepts have been evaluated for the ILC and two concepts on the particle-flow approach were validated. To make particle-flow work, a new type of imaging calorimeters is necessary in combination with a high performance tracking system, to be able to track the single particles through the full detector system. These calorimeters require an unprecedented level of both longitudinal and lateral granularity. Several calorimeter technologies promise to reach the required readout segmentation and are currently studied. This thesis addresses one of these: The analogue hadron calorimeter technology. It combines work on the technological aspects of a highly granular calorimeter with the study of hadron shower physics. The analogue hadron calorimeter technology joins a classical scintillator-steel sandwich design with a modern photo-sensor technology, the silicon photomultiplier (SiPM). The SiPM is a millimetre sized, magnetic field insensitive, and low cost photo-sensor, that opens new possibilities in calorimeter design. This thesis outlines the working principle and characteristics of these devices. The requirements for an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) to read the SiPM are discussed; the performance of a prototype chip for SiPM readout, the SPIROC, is quantified. Also the SiPM specific reconstruction of a multi-thousand channel prototype calorimeter, the CALICE AHCAL, is explained; the systematic uncertainty of the calibration method is derived. The AHCAL does not only offer a test of the calorimeter technology, it also allows to record hadron showers with an unprecedented level of details. Test-beam measurements have been performed with the AHCAL and provide a unique sample for the development of novel analysis techniques and the validation of hadron shower simulations. A method to

  18. Hadron showers in a highly granular calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, Benjamin

    2010-11-01

    A future electron-positron collider like the planned International Linear Collider (ILC) needs excellent detectors to exploit the full physics potential. Different detector concepts have been evaluated for the ILC and two concepts on the particle-flow approach were validated. To make particle-flow work, a new type of imaging calorimeters is necessary in combination with a high performance tracking system, to be able to track the single particles through the full detector system. These calorimeters require an unprecedented level of both longitudinal and lateral granularity. Several calorimeter technologies promise to reach the required readout segmentation and are currently studied. This thesis addresses one of these: The analogue hadron calorimeter technology. It combines work on the technological aspects of a highly granular calorimeter with the study of hadron shower physics. The analogue hadron calorimeter technology joins a classical scintillator-steel sandwich design with a modern photo-sensor technology, the silicon photomultiplier (SiPM). The SiPM is a millimetre sized, magnetic field insensitive, and low cost photo-sensor, that opens new possibilities in calorimeter design. This thesis outlines the working principle and characteristics of these devices. The requirements for an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) to read the SiPM are discussed; the performance of a prototype chip for SiPM readout, the SPIROC, is quantified. Also the SiPM specific reconstruction of a multi-thousand channel prototype calorimeter, the CALICE AHCAL, is explained; the systematic uncertainty of the calibration method is derived. The AHCAL does not only offer a test of the calorimeter technology, it also allows to record hadron showers with an unprecedented level of details. Test-beam measurements have been performed with the AHCAL and provide a unique sample for the development of novel analysis techniques and the validation of hadron shower simulations. A method to

  19. The H1 liquid argon calorimeter system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrieu, B.; Babayev, A.; Ban, J.

    1993-06-01

    The liquid argon calorimeter of the H1 detector presently taking data at the HERA ep - collider at DESY, Hamburg, is described here. The main physics requirements and the most salient design features relevant to this calorimeter are given. The aim to have smooth and hermetic calorimetric coverage over the polar angular range 4 ≤ θ ≤ 154 is achieved by a single liquid argon cryostat containing calorimeter stacks structured in wheels and octants for easy handling. The absorber materials used are lead in the electromagnetic part and stainless steel in the hadronic part. The read-out system is pipelined to reduce the dead time induced by the high trigger rate expected at the HERA collider where consecutive bunches are separated in time by 96 ns. The main elements of the calorimeter, such as the cryostat, with its associated cryogenics, the stack modules, the read-out, calibration and trigger electronics as well as the data acquisition system are described. Performance results from data taken in calibration runs with full size H1 calorimeter stacks at a CERN test beam, as well as results from data collected with the complete H1 detector using cosmic rays during the initial phase of ep operations are presented. The observed energy resolutions and linearities are well in agreement with the requirements. (orig.)

  20. A water flow calorimeter calibration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullrich, F.T.

    1983-01-01

    Neutral beam systems are instrumented by several water flow calorimeter systems, and some means is needed to verify the accuracy of such systems and diagnose their failures. This report describes a calibration system for these calorimeters. The calibrator consists of two 24 kilowatt circulation water heaters, with associated controls and instrumentation. The unit can supply power from 0 to 48 kW in five coarse steps and one fine range. Energy is controlled by varying the power and the time of operation of the heaters. The power is measured by means of precision power transducers, and the energy is measured by integrating the power with respect to time. The accuracy of the energy measurement is better than 0.5% when the power supplied is near full scale, and the energy resolution is better than 1 kilojoule. The maximum energy delivered is approximately 50 megajoules. The calorimetry loop to be calibrated is opened, and the calibrator is put in series with the calorimeter heat source. The calorimeter is then operated in its normal fashion, with the calibrator used as the heat source. The calibrator can also be used in a stand alone mode to calibrate calorimeter sensors removed from systems

  1. LHCb Calorimeter modules arrive at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Two of the three components of the LHCb Calorimeter system have started to arrive from Russia. Members of the LHCb Calorimeter group with the ECAL and HCAL modules that have just arrived at CERN. The first two of the 56 Hadron Calorimeter (HCAL) modules and 1200 of the 3300 modules of the Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL) have reached CERN from Russia. The third part of the system, the Preshower detector, is still being prepared in Russia. The calorimeter system identifies and triggers on high-energy particles, namely electrons, hadrons and photons by measuring their positions and energies. The HCAL is going to be a pure trigger device. The ECAL will also be used in the triggering, but in addition it will reconstruct neutral pions and photons from B meson decays. One of the major aims of the LHCb experiment is to study CP violation through B meson decays including Bs mesons with high statistics in different decay modes. CP violation (violation of charge and parity) is necessary to explain why the Universe...

  2. Performance of the ATLAS hadronic Tile calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Bartos, Pavol; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Performance of the ATLAS hadronic Tile calorimeter The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC is the central hadronic calorimeter designed for energy reconstruction of hadrons, jets, tau-particles and missing transverse energy. TileCal is a scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter and it covers the region of pseudorapidity < 1.7. The scintillation light produced in the scintillator tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibers to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The analog signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. The TileCal frontend electronics reads out the signals produced by about 10000 channels measuring energies ranging from ~30 MeV to ~2 TeV. Each stage of the signal production from scintillation light to the signal reconstruction is monitored and calibrated. The performance of the calorimeter have been studied in-situ employing cosmic ray muons and a large sample of proton-proton collisions acquired during the operations o...

  3. ATLAS Tile calorimeter calibration and monitoring systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomont, Arthur; ATLAS Collaboration

    2017-11-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment and provides important information for reconstruction of hadrons, jets, hadronic decays of tau leptons and missing transverse energy. This sampling calorimeter uses steel plates as absorber and scintillating tiles as active medium. The light produced by the passage of charged particles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibres to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs), located on the outside of the calorimeter. The readout is segmented into about 5000 cells (longitudinally and transversally), each of them being read out by two PMTs in parallel. To calibrate and monitor the stability and performance of each part of the readout chain during the data taking, a set of calibration systems is used. The TileCal calibration system comprises cesium radioactive sources, Laser and charge injection elements, and allows for monitoring and equalization of the calorimeter response at each stage of the signal production, from scintillation light to digitization. Based on LHC Run 1 experience, several calibration systems were improved for Run 2. The lessons learned, the modifications, and the current LHC Run 2 performance are discussed.

  4. The Dynamic Characteristic Analysis of Mini Gamma Calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setiyanto

    2004-01-01

    The gamma calorimeter is a facility to measure the gamma heating in the nuclear reactor. The dimensions of the conventional calorimeters are in general too large, that is an inconvenience if those calorimeters will be applied in the high temperature reactor as a nuclear power plant. To avoid that inconvenience, it is necessary to propose the innovation on the feature of the existing calorimeter. The basic idea of the innovation is to create the small type of calorimeter without the absorbed material. The last analysis was realized to determine of the static calorimeter characteristic or sensitivities as a function of the dimension and the material of gas isolations. Based on those results, the analyses is reasonably to be continued to determine the dynamic characteristic or period of calorimeter. The analysis was performed using the finite difference method, two dimension simplified. It can be concluded that the mini gamma calorimeter proposed is reasonable to be made. (author)

  5. To the calculation of energy resolution of ionization calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchajkin, V.V.; Lagutin, A.A.

    1976-01-01

    The question of energy resolution of the ionization calorimeter is considered analytically. A method is discussed for calculating the probability characteristics (mean value and dispersion) of energy losses of an electron-photon shower by ionization in the calorimeter volume

  6. Performance of a shashlik calorimeter at LEP II

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrari, P; Klovning, A; Maeland, O A; Stugu, B; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Giordano, V; Guerzoni, M; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Verardi, M G; Camporesi, T; Bozzo, M; Cereseto, R; Barreira, G; Espirito-Santo, M C; Maio, A; Onofre, A; Peralta, L; Pimenta, M; Tomé, B; Carling, H; Falk, E; Hedberg, V; Jarlskog, G; Kronkvist, I J; Bonesini, M; Chignoli, F; Gumenyuk, S A; Leoni, R; Mazza, R; Negri, P; Paganoni, M; Petrovykh, L P; Terranova, F; Dharmasiri, D R; Nossum, B; Read, A L; Skaali, T B; Castellani, L; Pegoraro, M; Fenyuk, A; Guz, Yu; Karyukhin, A N; Konoplyannikov, A K; Obraztsov, V F; Shalanda, N A; Vlasov, E; Zaitsev, A; Bigi, M; Cassio, V; Gamba, D; Migliore, E; Romero, A; Simonetti, L; Torassa, E; Trapani, P P; Bari, M D; Della Ricca, G; Lanceri, L; Poropat, P; Prest, M; Vallazza, E

    1999-01-01

    The small angle tile calorimeter (STIC) is a sampling lead- scintillator calorimeter, built with "shashlik" technique. Results are presented from extensive studies of the detector performance at LEP. (5 refs).

  7. Detailed GEANT description of the SDC central calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glagolev, V.V.; Li, W.

    1994-01-01

    This article represents the very detailed simulation model of the SDC central calorimeters and some results which were obtained using that model. The central calorimeters structure was coded on the GEANT 3.15 base in the frame of the SDCSIM environment. The SDCSIM is the general shell for simulation of the SDC set-up. The calorimeters geometry has been coded according to the FNAL and ANL engineering drawings and engineering data file. SDC central calorimeters detailed description is extremely useful for different simulation tasks, for fast simulation program parameters tuning, for different geometry especially studying (local response nonuniformity from bulkheads in the e.m. calorimeter and from coil supports and many others) and for the interpretation of the experimental data from the calorimeters. This simulation model is very useful for tasks of the test beam modules calorimeter calibration and for calorimeter in situ calibration. 3 refs., 8 figs

  8. Calorimeter based detectors for high energy hadron colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marx, M.D.; Rijssenbeek, M.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: the central calorimeter; and installation; commissioning; and calorimeter beam tests; the central drift chamber; cosmic ray and beam tests; chamber installation and commissioning; and software development; and SSC activities: the EMPACT project

  9. STATUS OF THE ATLAS LIQUID ARGON CALORIMETER AND ITS PERFORMANCE

    CERN Document Server

    Berillari, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The liquid argon (LAr) calorimeters are used in ATLAS for all electromagnetic and for hadron calorimetry. The LAr calorimeter system consists of an electromagnetic barrel calorimeter and two endcaps with electromagnetic, hadronic and forward calorimeters. The latest status of the detector as well as problems and solutions addressed during the last years will be presented. Aspects of operation of a large detector over a long time period will be summarized and selected topics showing the performance of the detector will be shown.

  10. Feasibility of a Mound-designed transportable calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duff, M.F.; Fellers, C.L.

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of operating a Mound twin resistance bridge calorimeter outside a temperature-controlled water bath was demonstrated. An existing calorimeter was retrofit with two additional jackets through which water was transferred from an external reservoir. Comparison of test results collected before and after the retrofit indicated that the calorimeter performance was not degraded by this modification. Similarly designed calorimeters have potential applications in laboratories where equipment space is limited for inspectors who are required to transport their assay instrumentation

  11. Laser calibration of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Di Gregorio, Giulia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    High performance stability of the ATLAS Tile calorimeter is achieved with a set of calibration procedures. One step of the calibrtion procedure is based on measurements of the response stability to laser excitation of the photomultipliers (PMTs) that are used to readout the calorimeter cells. A facility to study in lab the PMT stability response is operating in the PISA-INFN laboratories since 2015. Goals of the test in lab are to study the time evolution of the PMT response to reproduce and to understand the origin of the resonse drifts seen with the PMT mounted on the Tile calorimeter in its normal operation during LHC run I and run II. A new statistical approach was developed to measure the drift of the absolute gain. This approach was applied to both the ATLAS laser calibration data and to the data collected in the Pisa local laboratory. The preliminary results from these two studies are shown.

  12. Optics robustness of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Costa Batalha Pedro, Rute; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    TileCal, the central hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS detector is composed of plastic scintillators interleaved by iron plates, and wavelength shifting optical fibres. The optical properties of these components are known to suffer from natural ageing and degrade due to exposure to radiation. The calorimeter was designed for 10 years of LHC operating at the design luminosity of $10^{34}$ cm$^{-1}$s$^{-1}$. Irradiation tests of scintillators and fibres shown that their light yield decrease about 10 for the maximum dose expected after the 10 years of LHC operation. The robustness of the TileCal optics components is evaluated using the calibration systems of the calorimeter: Cs-137 gamma source, laser light, and integrated photomultiplier signals of particles from collisions. It is observed that the loss of light yield increases with exposure to radiation as expected. The decrease in the light yield during the years 2015-2017 corresponding to the LHC Run 2 will be reported.

  13. Vacuum-jacketed hydrofluoric acid solution calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robie, R.A.

    1965-01-01

    A vacuum-jacketed metal calorimeter for determining heats of solution in aqueous HF was constructed. The reaction vessel was made of copper and was heavily gold plated. The calorimeter has a cooling constant of 0.6 cal-deg -1-min-1, approximately 1/4 that of the air-jacketed calorimeters most commonly used with HF. It reaches equilibrium within 10 min after turning off the heater current. Measurements of the heat of solution of reagent grade KCl(-100 mesh dried 2 h at 200??C) at a mole ratio of 1 KCl to 200 H2O gave ??H = 4198??11 cal at 25??C. ?? 1965 The American Institute of Physics.

  14. ATLAS Tile calorimeter calibration and monitoring systems

    CERN Document Server

    Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment and provides important information for reconstruction of hadrons, jets, hadronic decays of tau leptons and missing transverse energy. This sampling calorimeter uses steel plates as absorber and scintillating tiles as active medium. The light produced by the passage of charged particles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibres to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). PMT signals are then digitized at 40 MHz and stored on detector and are only transferred off detector once the first level trigger acceptance has been confirmed. The readout is segmented into about 5000 cells (longitudinally and transversally), each of them being read out by two PMTs in parallel. To calibrate and monitor the stability and performance of each part of the readout chain, a set of calibration systems is used. The TileCal calibration system comprises Cesium radioactive sources, laser, charge injection elements and an integrator b...

  15. Laser Calibration of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Di Gregorio, Giulia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    High performance stability of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter is achieved with a set of calibration procedures. One step of the calibration procedure is based on measurements of the response stability to laser excitation of the PMTs that are used to readout the calorimeter cells. A facility to study in lab the PMT stability response is operating in the PISA-INFN laboratories since 2015. Goals of the tests in lab are to study the time evolution of the PMT response to reproduce and to understand the origin of the response drifts seen with the PMT mounted on the Tile calorimeter in its normal operating during LHC run I and run II. A new statistical approach was developed to measure drift of the absolute gain. This approach was applied to both the ATLAS laser calibration data and to data collected in the Pisa local laboratory. The preliminary results from these two studies are shown.

  16. A LYSO Calorimeter for the SuperB Factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cecchi, Claudia; Germani, Stefano; Manoni, Elisa; Rossi, Alessandro; Bizzarri, Marco [Universita di Perugia e INFN Sezione di Perugia Via A. Pascoli, 06123 Perugia (Italy); Bocci, Valerio; Chiodi, Giacomo; Recchia, Luigi [Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' e INFN Sezione di Roma1 P.zzle Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Lubrano, Pasquale; Lebeau, Michel; Papi, Andrea, E-mail: claudia.cecchi@pg.infn.it [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, INFN Sezione di Perugia, Via A. Pascoli, 06123 Perugia (Italy)

    2011-04-01

    The SuperB project is an asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} accelerator of 10{sup 36} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} luminosity, capable of collecting a data sample of 50-75 ab{sup -1} in five years of running. The SuperB electromagnetic calorimeter (EMC), that will be described in this paper, provides energy and direction measurement of photons and electrons, and is used for identification of electrons versus other charged particles. In particular we will present its design, geometry study and related simulations, as well as R and D on LYSO crystals, a project for the mechanical structure and development on readout and electronics. A matrix of 6 crystals has been tested this year June 2010 at the Beam Test Facility of Frascati (BTF) at energies between 200 MeV and 500 MeV, and a beam test with the complete prototype of 25 crystals is foreseen at CERN in October 2010 to cover the energy range between 500 MeV and 7 GeV.

  17. Analyses of CsI aerosol deposition tests in WIND project with ART and VICTORIA codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuchi, Y.; Shibazaki, H.; Kudo, T.

    2000-01-01

    Deposition behavior of cesium iodide (CsI) was analyzed with ART and VICTORIA-92 codes for a test of the aerosol re-vaporization test series performed in WIND project at JAERI. In the test analyzed, CsI aerosol was injected into piping of test section where metaboric acid (HBO 2 ) was placed in advance on the floor area. It was confirmed in the present analysis that similar results on the CsI deposition were obtained between ART and VICTORIA when influences of chemical interactions were negligibly small. The analysis with VICTORIA agreed satisfactorily with the test results in analytical cases that cesium metaborate (CsBO 2 ) was injected into the test section instead of CsI to simulate the pre-existence of HBO 2 effect. (author)

  18. Investigating CSI: portrayals of DNA testing on a forensic crime show and their potential effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, Barbara L; Jankowski, Natalie; Brewer, Paul R

    2012-01-01

    The popularity of forensic crime shows such as CSI has fueled debate about their potential social impact. This study considers CSI's potential effects on public understandings regarding DNA testing in the context of judicial processes, the policy debates surrounding crime laboratory procedures, and the forensic science profession, as well as an effect not discussed in previous accounts: namely, the show's potential impact on public understandings of DNA and genetics more generally. To develop a theoretical foundation for research on the "CSI effect," it draws on cultivation theory, social cognitive theory, and audience reception studies. It then uses content analysis and textual analysis to illuminate how the show depicts DNA testing. The results demonstrate that CSI tends to depict DNA testing as routine, swift, useful, and reliable and that it echoes broader discourses about genetics. At times, however, the show suggests more complex ways of thinking about DNA testing and genetics.

  19. Heat enhancement of radiation resistivity of evaporated CsI, KI and KBr photocathodes

    CERN Document Server

    Tremsin, A S

    2000-01-01

    The photoemissive stability of as-deposited and heat-treated CsI, KI and KBr evaporated thin films under UV radiation is examined in this paper. After the deposition, some photocathodes were annealed for several hours at 90 deg. C in vacuum and their performance was then compared to the performance of non-heated samples. We observed that the post-evaporation thermal treatment not only increases the photoyield of CsI and KI photocathodes in the spectral range of 115-190 nm, but also reduces CsI, KI and KBr photocurrent degradation that occurs after UV irradiation. KBr evaporated layers appeared to be more radiation-resistant than CsI and KI layers. Post-deposition heat treatment did not result in any significant variation of KBr UV sensitivity.

  20. Minimax robust power split in AF relays based on uncertain long-term CSI

    KAUST Repository

    Nisar, Muhammad Danish; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2011-01-01

    An optimal power control among source and relay nodes in presence of channel state information (CSI) is vital for an efficient amplify and forward (AF) based cooperative communication system. In this work, we study the optimal power split (power

  1. Opportunistic Energy-Aware Amplify-and-Forward Cooperative Systems with Imperfect CSI

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Osama; Bedeer, Ebrahim; Ahmed, Mohamed Hossam; Dobre, Octavia; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2015-01-01

    an energyefficient relay assisted communication system based on estimated channel state information (CSI). It employs amplify-andforward relaying and switches between different communication schemes, which are known as direct-transmission, two-hop and cooperative

  2. Achievable Rates of Cognitive Radio Networks Using Multi-Layer Coding with Limited CSI

    KAUST Repository

    Sboui, Lokman; Rezki, Zouheir; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    In a Cognitive Radio (CR) framework, the channel state information (CSI) feedback to the secondary transmitter (SU Tx) can be limited or unavailable. Thus, the statistical model is adopted in order to determine the system performance using

  3. Performance Analysis of Communications under Energy Harvesting Constraints with noisy CSI

    KAUST Repository

    Znaidi, Mohamed Ridha; Rezki, Zouheir; Tembine, Hamidou; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    to environmental changes. In this work, we consider the problem of power allocation taking into account the energy arrivals over time and the degree of channel state information (CSI) available at the transmitter, to maximize the throughput. Differently from

  4. Enhanced quantum efficiency for CsI grown on a graphite-based substrate coating

    CERN Document Server

    Friese, J; Homolka, J; Kastenmüller, A; Maier-Komor, P; Peter, M; Zeitelhack, K; Kienle, P; Körner, H J

    1999-01-01

    Quantum efficiencies (QE) in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) wavelength region have been measured for solid CsI layers on various substrates. The CsI films were deposited applying electron beam evaporation. The QE measurements were performed utilizing synchrotron radiation as well as light from a deuterium lamp. A GaAsP diode with a sensitivity calibration traceable to a primary radiation standard was used for normalization. For CsI layers grown on resin-stabilized graphite films a significant enhancement of QE was observed. Substrates suitable for gas detector applications and aging properties were investigated. The procedures to prepare and reproduce high quantum efficient CsI layers are described.

  5. Sensors for the CMS High Granularity Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Maier, Andreas Alexander

    2017-01-01

    The CMS experiment is currently developing high granularity calorimeter endcapsfor its HL-LHC upgrade. The design foresees silicon sensors as the active material for the high radiation region close to the beampipe. Regions of lower radiation are additionally equipped with plastic scintillator tiles. This technology is similar to the calorimeter prototypes developed in the framework of the Linear Collider by the CALICE collaboration. The current status of the silicon sensor development is presented. Results of single diode measurements are shown as well as tests of full 6-inch hexagonal sensor wafers. A short summary of test beam results concludes the article.

  6. Nonuniformities in organic liquid ionization calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenzel, W.A.

    1989-06-01

    Hermeticity and uniformity in SSC calorimeter designs are compromised by structure and modularity. Some of the consequences of the cryogenic needs of liquid argon calorimetry are relatively well known. If the active medium is an organic liquid (TMP, TMS, etc.), a large number of independent liquid volumes is needed for safety and for rapid liquid exchange to eliminate local contamination. Modular construction ordinarily simplifies fabrication, assembly, handling and preliminary testing at the price of additional walls, other dead regions and many nonuniformities. Here we examine ways of minimizing the impact of some generic nonuniformities on the quality of calorimeter performance. 6 refs., 7 figs

  7. Rad Hard Active Media For Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Norbeck, E; Möller, A; Onel, Y

    2006-01-01

    Zero-degree calorimeters have limited space and extreme levels of radiation. A simple, low cost, radiation hard design uses tungstenmetal as the absorber and a suitable liquid as the ˇCerenkov radiator. In other applications a PPAC (Parallel Plate Avalanche Counter) operatingwith a suitable atmosphericpressure gas is an attractive active material for a calorimeter. It can be made radiation hard and has sufficient gain in the gas that no electronic components are needed near the detector. It works well even with the highest concentration of shower particles. For this pressure range, R134A (used in auto air conditioners) has many desirable features.

  8. Fast shower simulation in the ATLAS calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Barberio, E; Butler, B; Cheung, S L; Dell'Acqua, A; Di Simone, A; Ehrenfeld, W; Gallas, M V; Glazov, A; Marshall, Z; Müller, J; Placakyte, R; Rimoldi, A; Savard, P; Tsulaia, V; Waugh, A; Young, C C

    2008-01-01

    The time to simulate pp collisions in the ATLAS detector is largely dominated by the showering of electromagnetic particles in the heavy parts of the detector, especially the electromagnetic barrel and endcap calorimeters. Two procedures have been developed to accelerate the processing time of electromagnetic particles in these regions: (1) a fast shower parameterisation and (2) a frozen shower library. Both work by generating the response of the calorimeter to electrons and positrons with Geant 4, and then reintroduce the response into the simulation at runtime.

  9. Commissioning of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Cooke, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    Since the first modules of the ATLAS LAr calorimeters were read out in situ in 2006, commissioning studies have been performed. These studies include the testing of the electronics calibration system, surveys for dead or problematic channels, investigations of the quality of the physics pulse shape prediction , and tests of energy and time reconstruction with cosmic or single beam induced signals. The results of these commissioning studies indicate the LAr calorimeters are prepared for LHC collisions and positioned to meet the physics objectives of the ATLAS experiment.

  10. Radiation damage effects on calorimeter compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, T.A.; Handler, T.

    1990-01-01

    An important consideration in the design of a detector that is to be used at the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) is the response of the calorimeter to electromagnetic and hadronic particles and the equality of those responses for different types of particles at equal incident energies, i.e. compensation. However, as the simulations that are reported show, the compensation characteristics of a calorimeter can be seriously compromised over a relatively short period of time due to the large radiation levels that are expected in the SSC environment. 6 refs., 3 figs

  11. Comparison between calorimeter and HLNC errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, A.S.; De Ridder, P.; Laszlo, G.

    1991-01-01

    This paper summarizes an error analysis that compares systematic and random errors of total plutonium mass estimated for high-level neutron coincidence counter (HLNC) and calorimeter measurements. This task was part of an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) study on the comparison of the two instruments to determine if HLNC measurement errors met IAEA standards and if the calorimeter gave ''significantly'' better precision. Our analysis was based on propagation of error models that contained all known sources of errors including uncertainties associated with plutonium isotopic measurements. 5 refs., 2 tabs

  12. Corporate Social Irresponsibility (CSI): Everything you say, or not say, can be held against you

    OpenAIRE

    Jonsson, Veronica; Stéen, Josefine

    2016-01-01

    Corporate social irresponsibility (CSI), as an opposite of corporate social responsibility (CSR), refers to corporation’s failure to act responsibly. To address the actions connected to CSR and CSI, corporations need to overcome the challenges of communicating to their stakeholders and to be transparent. Stakeholders have become more skeptical regarding if the corporations are actually living up to the communicated standards. In other words, if corporations are ‘doing as they say’ and if they...

  13. TOTAL NUCLEAR-REACTION PROBABILITY OF 270 TO 390 N-14 IONS IN SI AND CSI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WARNER, RE; CARPENTER, CL; FETTER, JM; WAITE, WF; WILSCHUT, HW; HOOGDUIN, JM

    A magnetic spectrograph and position-sensitive detectors were used to measure the total nuclear reaction probability eta(R) for alpha + CsI at 116 MeV, N-14 + CsI at 265 and 385 MeV, and N-14 + Si at 271 and 390 MeV. From these eta(R)'s, average reaction cross sections sigma(R) were deduced for

  14. Role of the substrate reflectance and surface-bulk treatments in CsI quantum efficiency

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, B K; Nitti, M A; Valentini, A

    2003-01-01

    We have experimentally investigated the following aspects related to the quantum efficiency of CsI photocathodes: the type of substrate, the film thickness and the effect of a 'bulk treatment' during the film growth. We discovered that, using a high reflectivity aluminium substrate, the photoemission of very thin CsI film is enhanced. Our study also revealed that photocathodes become less sensitive to moisture when a negative bias voltage is applied to the substrate during the film deposition process.

  15. Comparison of the Heat Release Rate from the Mass Loss Calorimeter to the Cone Calorimeter for Wood-based Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura E. Hasburgh; Robert H. White; Mark A. Dietenberger; Charles R. Boardman

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing demand for material properties to be used as inputs in fi re behavior models designed to address building fire safety. This comparative study evaluates using the mass loss calorimeter as an alternative to the cone calorimeter for obtaining heat release rates of wood-based materials. For this study, a modified mass loss calorimeter utilized an...

  16. CSI Frequency Domain Fingerprint-Based Passive Indoor Human Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Han

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Passive indoor personnel detection technology is now a hot topic. Existing methods have been greatly influenced by environmental changes, and there are problems with the accuracy and robustness of detection. Passive personnel detection based on Wi-Fi not only solves the above problems, but also has the advantages of being low cost and easy to implement, and can be better applied to elderly care and safety monitoring. In this paper, we propose a passive indoor personnel detection method based on Wi-Fi, which we call FDF-PIHD (Frequency Domain Fingerprint-based Passive Indoor Human Detection. Through this method, fine-grained physical layer Channel State Information (CSI can be extracted to generate feature fingerprints so as to help determine the state in the scene by matching online fingerprints with offline fingerprints. In order to improve accuracy, we combine the detection results of three receiving antennas to obtain the final test result. The experimental results show that the detection rates of our proposed scheme all reach above 90%, no matter whether the scene is human-free, stationary or a moving human presence. In addition, it can not only detect whether there is a target indoors, but also determine the current state of the target.

  17. Study of a novel electromagnetic liquid argon calorimeter - the TGT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, C. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). 1. Physikalisches Inst.; Braunschweig, W. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). 1. Physikalisches Inst.; Geulig, E. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). 1. Physikalisches Inst.; Schoentag, M. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). 1. Physikalisches Inst.; Siedling, R. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). 1. Physikalisches Inst.; Wlochal, M. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). 1. Physikalisches Inst.; Putzer, A. [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland); Wotschack, J. [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland); Cheplakov, A. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Feshchenko, A. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Kazarinov, M. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Kukhtin, V. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Ladygin, E. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Obudovskij, V. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Geweniger, C. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Hochenergiephysik; Hanke, P. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Hochenergiephysik; Kluge, E.E. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Hochenergiephysik; Krause, J. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Hochenergiephysik; Schmidt, M. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Hochenergiephysik; Stenzel, H. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Hochenergiephysik; Tittel, K. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Hochenergiephysik; Wunsch, M. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Hochenergiephysik; Zerwas, D. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Hochenergiephysik; Bruncko, D. [Slovenska Akademia Vied, Kosice (Slovakia). Ustav Experimentalnej Fyziky; Jusko, A. [Slovenska Akademia Vied, Kosice (Slovakia). Ustav Experimentalnej Fyziky; Kocper, B.; RD33 Collaboration

    1994-11-01

    The concept and the basic design of a fast, highly granular and compact electromagnetic liquid argon calorimeter are described. This novel calorimeter offers uniform energy response and constant energy resolution independent of the production angle of an impinging particle and of its impact position at the calorimeter. An example of a calorimeter with full rapidity coverage in an application in a collider detector is given. An important aspect of the concept is the electronics for fast signal processing matched to the short charge collection time. We report on the experience with the realization of a prototype calorimeter module and on its performance in a testbeam exposure. (orig.)

  18. Study of a novel electromagnetic liquid argon calorimeter TGT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, C.; Braunschweig, W.; Geulig, E.

    1994-01-01

    The concept and the basic design of a fast, highly granular and compact electromagnetic liquid argon calorimeter are described. This novel calorimeter offers uniform energy response and constant energy resolution independent of the production angle of an impinging particle and of its impact position at the calorimeter. An example of a calorimeter with full rapidity coverage in an application in a collider detector is given. An important aspect of the concept is the electronics for fast signal processing matched to the short charge collection time. We report on the experience with the realization of a prototype calorimeter module and on its performance in a test beam exposure. 15 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Study of a novel electromagnetic liquid argon calorimeter - the TGT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, C.; Braunschweig, W.; Geulig, E. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). 1. Physikalisches Inst.] [and others

    1995-04-21

    The concept and the basic design of a fast, highly granular and compact electromagnetic liquid argon calorimeter are described. This novel calorimeter offers uniform energy response and constant energy resolution independent of the production angle of an impinging particle and of its impact position at the calorimeter. An example of a calorimeter with full rapidity coverage in an application in a collider detector is given. An important aspect of the concept is the electronics for fast signal processing matched to the short charge collection time. We report on the experience with the realization of a prototype calorimeter module and on its performance in a testbeam exposure. ((orig.)).

  20. Study of a novel electromagnetic liquid argon calorimeter - the TGT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, C.; Braunschweig, W.; Geulig, E.

    1995-01-01

    The concept and the basic design of a fast, highly granular and compact electromagnetic liquid argon calorimeter are described. This novel calorimeter offers uniform energy response and constant energy resolution independent of the production angle of an impinging particle and of its impact position at the calorimeter. An example of a calorimeter with full rapidity coverage in an application in a collider detector is given. An important aspect of the concept is the electronics for fast signal processing matched to the short charge collection time. We report on the experience with the realization of a prototype calorimeter module and on its performance in a testbeam exposure. ((orig.))

  1. Monte Carlo simulation of a gas-sampled hadron calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, C Y; Kunori, S; Rapp, P; Talaga, R; Steinberg, P; Tylka, A J; Wang, Z M

    1988-02-15

    A prototype of the OPAL barrel hadron calorimeter, which is a gas-sampled calorimeter using plastic streamer tubes, was exposed to pions at energies between 1 and 7 GeV. The response of the detector was simulated using the CERN GEANT3 Monte Carlo program. By using the observed high energy muon signals to deduce details of the streamer formation, the Monte Carlo program was able to reproduce the observed calorimeter response. The behavior of the hadron calorimeter when placed behind a lead glass electromagnetic calorimeter was also investigated.

  2. The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter gets into shape!

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The last of the 64 modules for one of the ATLAS Hadron tile calorimeter barrels has just arrived at CERN. This arrival puts an end to two and a half years work assembling and testing all the modules in the Institut de Física d'Altes Energies (IFAE), in Barcelona.

  3. Upgrading the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Oreglia, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS detector hadron calorimeter electronics are being redesigned to address issues associated with the High Luminosity mode of LHC running in Phase-2. We describe the issues and solutions and also discuss a demonstrator unit to be installed on the detector in 2014.

  4. ATLAS: First rehearsal for the tile calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The dry run assembly of the first barrel of the ATLAS tile hadron calorimeter has been successfully completed. It is now being dismantled again so that it can be lowered into the ATLAS cavern where it will be reassembled in October 2004.

  5. Pion showers in highly granular calorimeters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    New results on properties of hadron showers created by pion beam at 8–80 GeV in high granular electromagnetic and hadron calorimeters are presented. Data were used for the first time to investigate the separation of the neutral and charged hadron showers. The result is important to verify the prediction of the PFA ...

  6. Evolution of the dual-readout calorimeter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... a calorimeter system of a relatively simple construction and moderate costs, however with excellent properties, built upon experience gained with the extensively beam-tested DREAM (Dual REAdout. Module) prototype. The main idea of multiple readout calorimetry is to indepen- dently measure for each hadronic shower ...

  7. Performance of a uranium liquid argon calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuts, P.M.

    1987-01-01

    The author presents results on the performance of a uranium and liquid argon colorimeter in the NW test beam at Fermilab. This study describes the calorimeter, and discusses its performance with electrons, pions and muons from 10 GeV to 150 GeV. The performance parameters measure response, linearity, resolution, compensation, and e/π separation

  8. SLD liquid argon calorimeter prototype test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubois, R.; Eigen, G.; Au, Y.

    1985-10-01

    The results of the SLD test beam program for the selection of a calorimeter radiator composition within a liquid argon system are described, with emphasis on the study of the use of uranium to obtain equalization of pion and electron responses

  9. Homogeneous scintillating LKr/Xe calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, M.; Mullins, M.; Pelly, D.; Shotkin, S.; Sumorok, K.; Akyuz, D.; Chen, E.; Gaudreau, M.P.J.; Bolozdynya, A.; Tchernyshev, V.; Goritchev, P.; Khovansky, V.; Koutchenkov, A.; Kovalenko, A.; Lebedenko, V.; Vinogradov, V.; Gusev, L.; Sheinkman, V.; Krasnokutsky, R.N.; Shuvalov, R.S.; Fedyakin, N.N.; Sushkov, V.; Akopyan, M.; Doke, T.; Kikuchi, J.; Hitachi, A.; Kashiwagi, T.; Masuda, K.; Shibamura, E.; Ishida, N.; Sugimoto, S.

    1993-01-01

    Recent R and D work on full length scintillating homogeneous liquid xenon/krypton (LXe/Kr) cells has established the essential properties for precision EM calorimeters: In-situ calibration using α's, radiation hardness as well as the uniformity required for δE/E≅0.5% for e/γ's above 50 GeV. (orig.)

  10. Commissioning of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Cooke, Mark S

    2009-01-01

    A selection of ATLAS liquid argon (LAr) calorimeter commissioning studies are presented. These include a coherent noise study, a measurement of the quality of the physics pulse shape prediction, and energy and time reconstruction analyses with cosmic and single beam signals.

  11. PEP-4 geiger-mode hexagonal calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenzel, W.A.

    1982-01-01

    The design and performance of the calorimeter are briefly described. Design aspects include illustrations of the active volume of the detector, edge connections, module assembly and analog electronics. Performance data for cosmic rays and radiation sources, including efficiency and channel sensitivity are discussed

  12. Calibration of the ZEUS forward calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraemer, M.

    1990-10-01

    The physics at the ep-collider HERA requires high resolution calorimetry calibrated with an accuracy of better than 2%. The ZEUS detector meets these conditions by means of a compensating uranium scintillator sandwich calorimeter with an energy resolution of σ/E = 35%/√E + σ cal , where σ cal is the calibration error. One of the tools to minimize σ cal is the calibration with the signals of the radioactivity of the Uranium plates (UNO). Taking UNO data every 8 hours keeps the calibration stable within ≅ 1%. The muon calibration is done employing an algorithm, that determines the most probable energy loss with a precision of ≅ 1%. The channel-to-channel fluctuations of the ratio μ/UNO for a forward calorimeter (FCAL) prototype show a spread of 5.2% for the electromagnetic calorimeter and ≅ 2.5% for the hadronic sections. Improvements in the construction of the FCAL modules decreased these fluctuations to 2.0% and ≅ 1.8% respectively. The influence of the cracks between the calorimeter modules amounts to ≅ 1.7% on average for the ZEUS geometry, if a 2 mm thick Pb-sheet is introduced between the modules. We conclude that we are able to keep σ cal below 2%. (orig.)

  13. The new ATLAS Fast Calorimeter Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00223142; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Many physics and performance studies with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider require very large samples of simulated events, and producing these using the full GEANT4 detector simulation is highly CPU intensive. Often, a very detailed detector simulation is not needed, and in these cases fast simulation tools can be used to reduce the calorimeter simulation time by a few orders of magnitude. The new ATLAS Fast Calorimeter Simulation (FastCaloSim) is an improved parametrisation compared to the one used in the LHC Run-1. It provides a simulation of the particle energy response at the calorimeter read-out cell level, taking into account the detailed particle shower shapes and the correlations between the energy depositions in the various calorimeter layers. It is interfaced to the standard ATLAS digitization and reconstruction software, and can be tuned to data more easily than with GEANT4. The new FastCaloSim incorporates developments in geometry and physics lists of the last five years and benefit...

  14. The new ATLAS Fast Calorimeter Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00176100; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The physics and performance studies of the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider re- quire a large number of simulated events. A GEANT4 based detailed simulation of the ATLAS calorimeter systems is highly CPU intensive and such resolution is often unnecessary. To reduce the calorimeter simulation time by a few orders of magnitude, fast simulation tools have been developed. The Fast Calorimeter Simulation (FastCaloSim) provides a parameterised simulation of the particle energy response at the calorimeter read-out cell level. In Run 1, about 13 billion events were simulated in ATLAS, out of which 50% were produced using fast simulation. For Run 2, a new parameterisation is being developed to improve the original version: it incorporates developments in geometry and physics lists during the last five years and benefits from the knowledge acquired from the Run 1 data. The algorithm uses machine learning techniques to improve the parameterisations and to optimise the amount of information to be stored in the...

  15. CALICE silicon-tungsten electromagnetic calorimeter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A highly granular electromagnetic calorimeter prototype based on tungsten absorber and sampling units equipped with silicon pads as sensitive devices for signal collection is under construction. The full prototype will have in total 30 layers and be read out by about 10000 Si cells of 1 × 1 cm2. A first module consisting of 14 ...

  16. Performance of the ATLAS hadronic Tile calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Mlynarikova, Michaela; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC is the central hadronic calorimeter designed for reconstruction of hadrons, jets, tau-particles and missing transverse energy. TileCal is a scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter and it covers the region of pseudorapidity < 1.7. The scintillation light produced in the scintillator tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibers to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The analog signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. The TileCal frontend electronics reads out the signals produced by about 10000 channels measuring energies ranging from ~30 MeV to ~2 TeV. Each stage of the signal production from scintillation light to the signal reconstruction is monitored and calibrated. The performance of the calorimeter has been studied in-situ employing cosmic ray muons and a large sample of proton-proton collisions acquired during the operations of the LHC. Prompt isolated muons of high momentum fro...

  17. Performance of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Hrynevich, Aliaksei; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central scintillator-steel sampling hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. Jointly with other calorimeters it is designed for energy reconstruction of hadrons, jets, tau-particles and missing transverse energy. The scintillation light produced in the scintillator tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibers to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The analog signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. The TileCal frontend electronics reads out the signals produced by about 10000 channels measuring energies ranging from ~30 MeV to ~2 TeV. Each stage of the signal production from scintillation light to the signal reconstruction is monitored and calibrated. The performance of the calorimeter has been established with cosmic ray muons and the large sample of the proton-proton collisions. The response of high momentum isolated muons is used to study the energy response at the electromagnetic scale, isolated hadr...

  18. Performance of the ATLAS hadronic Tile calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Mlynarikova, Michaela; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC is the central hadronic calorimeter designed for reconstruction of hadrons, jets, tau-particles and missing transverse energy. TileCal is a scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter and it covers the region of pseudorapidity < 1.7. The scintillation light produced in the scintillator tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibers to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The analog signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. The TileCal frontend electronics reads out the signals produced by about 10000 channels measuring energies ranging from ~30 MeV to ~2 TeV. Each stage of the signal production from scintillation light to the signal reconstruction is monitored and calibrated. The performance of the calorimeter has been studied in-situ employing cosmic ray muons and a large sample of proton-proton collisions acquired during the operations of the LHC. Prompt isolated muons of high momentum from elec...

  19. Upgrading the ATLAS Fast Calorimeter Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Hubacek, Zdenek; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Many physics and performance studies with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider require very large samples of simulated events, and producing these using the full GEANT4 detector simulation is highly CPU intensive. Often, a very detailed detector simulation is not needed, and in these cases fast simulation tools can be used to reduce the calorimeter simulation time by a few orders of magnitude. In ATLAS, a fast simulation of the calorimeter systems was developed, called Fast Calorimeter Simulation (FastCaloSim). It provides a parametrized simulation of the particle energy response at the calorimeter read-out cell level. It is interfaced to the standard ATLAS digitization and reconstruction software, and can be tuned to data more easily than with GEANT4. The original version of FastCaloSim has been very important in the LHC Run-1, with several billion events simulated. An improved parametrisation is being developed, to eventually address shortcomings of the original version. It incorporates developme...

  20. The new ATLAS Fast Calorimeter Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Dias, Flavia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    A very large number of simulated events is required for physics and performance studies with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. Producing these with the full GEANT4 detector simulation is highly CPU intensive. As a very detailed detector simulation is not always required, fast simulation tools have been developed to reduce the calorimeter simulation time by a few orders of magnitude. The fast simulation of ATLAS for the calorimeter systems used in Run 1, called Fast Calorimeter Simulation (FastCaloSim), provides a parameterized simulation of the particle energy response at the calorimeter read-out cell level. It is then interfaced to the ATLAS digitization and reconstruction software. In Run 1, about 13 billion events were simulated in ATLAS, out of which 50% were produced using fast simulation. For Run 2, a new parameterisation is being developed to improve the original version: It incorporates developments in geometry and physics lists of the last five years and benefits from knowledge acquire...

  1. Differential calorimeter and temperature controller for stored energy measurements in irradiated alkali halides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado Martinez, L.

    1977-01-01

    The design and performance of a simple temperature-controlled differential calorimeter are presented. This system allows to measure radiation-induced stored energy in insulators, above room temperature with a differential thermal analysis method. With platelets of KC1 single crystals, the base lines obtained for T 2 T 1 (with T 2 : irradiated sample temperature and T 1 : reference sample temperature) show a smooth drift less of 0,2 degree centigree in the interval from 25 to 400 degree centigree. The discrepancy between two consecutive base lines is less than ± 0,02 degree centigree which implies a calorimeter sensitivity of about ±0,004 cal/g. This sensitivity allows to measure stored energy release in samples with a color center concentration low enough to be directly measured with a spectrophotometer so that a search for correlations among the features of the stored energy spectrum and the color center annealing can be made. (Author) 13 refs

  2. Single crystalline LuAG fibers for homogeneous dual-readout calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauwels, K; Gundacker, S; Lecoq, P; Lucchini, M; Auffray, E; Dujardin, C; Lebbou, K; Moretti, F; Xu, X; Petrosyan, A G

    2013-01-01

    For the next generation of calorimeters, designed to improve the energy resolution of hadrons and jets measurements, there is a need for highly granular detectors requiring peculiar geometries. Heavy inorganic scintillators allow compact homogeneous calorimeter designs with excellent energy resolution and dual-readout abilities. These scintillators are however not usually suited for geometries with a high aspect ratio because of the important losses observed during the light propagation. Elongated single crystals (fibers) of Lutetium Aluminium garnet (LuAG, Lu 3 Al 5 O 12 ) were successfully grown with the micropulling-down technique. We present here the results obtained with the recent fiber production and we discuss how the light propagation could be enhanced to reach attenuation lengths in the fibers better than 0.5 m

  3. The pipelined readout for the ZEUS calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hervas, L.

    1991-01-01

    The electron-proton storage ring complex HERA under construction at DESY in Hamburg is the first machine of a new generation of colliders. Since physics to be studied at HERA (covered in chapter 2) base on the precise measurement of kinematic variables over a very large range of energies, a foremost emphasis is set in calorimetry. After long studies and an ambitious test program, the ZEUS collaboration has built a high resolution depleted uranium-scintillator calorimeter with photomultiplier readout, the state of the art in detectors of this type. In chapter 3 the principles of calorimetry are reviewed and the construction of the ZEUS calorimeter is described. Mainly due to the large dynamic range and the short bunch crossing times a novel concept for the readout in an analog pipelined fashion had to be designed. This concept is explained in chapter 4. The solid state implementation of the pipeline required two integrated circuits which were developed specially for the ZEUS calorimeter in collaboration with an electronics research institute and produced by industry. The design and construction of these devices and the detailed testing which has been performed for properties critical in the readout is covered in chapters 5 and 6. The whole pipelined readout is a complicated setup with many steps and collaborating systems. Its implementation and the information to operate it are covered in chapter 7. Finally the concepts presented and the applications discussed have been installed and tested on a test beam calibration experiment. There, the modules of the calorimeter have been calibrated. Chapter 8 presents results from these measurements which show excellent performance of the electronics as well as optimal properties of the calorimeter modules. (orig./HSI)

  4. High resolution crystal calorimetry at LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneegans, M.; Ferrere, D.; Lebeau, M.; Vivargent, M.

    1991-01-01

    The search for Higgs bosons above Lep200 reach could be one of the main tasks of the future pp and ee colliders. In the intermediate mass region, and in particular in the range 80-140 GeV/c 2 , only the 2-photon decay mode of a Higgs produced inclusively or in association with a W, gives a good chance of observation. A 'dedicated' very high resolution calorimeter with photon angle reconstruction and pion identification capability should detect a Higgs signal with high probability. A crystal calorimeter can be considered as a conservative approach to such a detector, since a large design and operation experience already exists. The extensive R and D needed for finding a dense, fast and radiation hard crystal, is under way. Guide-lines for designing an optimum calorimeter for LHC are discussed and preliminary configurations are given. (author) 7 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  5. The design of the data acquisition system for a very large bismuth germanate calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakken, J.; Isaila, M.; Piroue, P.; Stickland, D.; Sumner, R.

    1984-02-01

    LEPC, the Large Electron Positron Collider being built at CERN, will be ready for experiments in 1988. A large array of bismuth germanate crystals will be part of one of the first experiments to be installed. Particles (including photons) resulting from the collisions will be identified and measured in the surrounding detector. At the center of this composite detector is a tracking device to observe the trajectories of all particles. Beyond this is the bismuth germanate array; it will measure the energy of electrons and photons from a few MeV to 100 GeV. This is surrounded by the hadron calorimeter. The bismuth germanate calorimeter will consist of about 12,000 individual bismuth germanate crystals. Each crystal will have an independent readout system. This system uses silicon photodiodes, each with its own ADC, to measure the scintillation light from each crystal. The ADC is implemented in software in a single chip microcomputer, using a modification of successive approximation, which produces a very wide dynamic range. The microcomputer also provides data buffering and several other housekeeping functions. The initial design of the readout system, presented in this paper, evolved from an attempt to minimize the size requirements and the number of cables needed, and to meet the dynamic range requirement in a practical way.

  6. The design of the data acquisition system for a very large bismuth germanate calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakken, J.; Isaila, M.; Piroue, P.; Stickland, D.; Sumner, R.

    1984-01-01

    LEPC, the Large Electron Positron Collider being built at CERN, will be ready for experiments in 1988. A large array of bismuth germanate crystals will be part of one of the first experiments to be installed. Particles (including photons) resulting from the collisions will be identified and measured in the surrounding detector. At the center of this composite detector is a tracking device to observe the trajectories of all particles. Beyond this is the bismuth germanate array; it will measure the energy of electrons and photons from a few MeV to 100 GeV. This is surrounded by the hadron calorimeter. The bismuth germanate calorimeter will consist of about 12,000 individual bismuth germanate crystals. Each crystal will have an independent readout system. This system uses silicon photodiodes, each with its own ADC, to measure the scintillation light from each crystal. The ADC is implemented in software in a single chip microcomputer, using a modification of successive approximation, which produces a very wide dynamic range. The microcomputer also provides data buffering and several other housekeeping functions. The initial design of the readout system, presented in this paper, evolved from an attempt to minimize the size requirements and the number of cables needed, and to meet the dynamic range requirement in a practical way

  7. H{sub 2}-Ar dilution for improved c-Si quantum dots in P-doped SiN{sub x}:H thin film matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jia [Shaanxi Engineering Lab for Advanced Energy Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710119 (China); Zhang, Weijia, E-mail: zwjghx@126.com [Center of Condensed Matter and Material Physics, School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing, 100191 (China); Liu, Shengzhong, E-mail: szliu@dicp.ac.cn [Shaanxi Engineering Lab for Advanced Energy Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710119 (China); State key Laboratory of Catalysis, iChEM, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Dalian National Laboratory for Clean Energy, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Phosphorous-doped SiN{sub x}:H thin films containing c-Si QDs were prepared by PECVD in H{sub 2}-Ar mixed dilution under low temperature. • QD density and QD size can be controlled by tuning H{sub 2}/Ar flow ratio. • The sample prepared at the H{sub 2}/Ar flow ratio of 100/100 possesses both wide band gap and excellent conductivity. • Detail discussion has been presented for illustrating the influence of H{sub 2}/Ar mixed dilution on the crystallization process and P-doping. - Abstract: Phosphorus-doped hydrogenated silicon nitride (SiN{sub x}:H) thin films containing crystalline silicon quantum dot (c-Si QD) was prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) using hydrogen-argon mixed dilution. The effects of H{sub 2}/Ar flow ratio on the structural, electrical and optical characteristics of as-grown P-doped SiN{sub x}:H thin films were systematically investigated. Experimental results show that crystallization is promoted by increasing the H{sub 2}/Ar flow ratio in dilution, while the N/Si atomic ratio is higher for thin film deposited with argon-rich dilution. As the H{sub 2}/Ar flow ratio varies from 100/100 to 200/0, the samples exhibit excellent conductivity owing to the large volume fraction of c-Si QDs and effective P-doping. By adjusting the H{sub 2}/Ar ratio to 100/100, P-doped SiN{sub x}:H thin film containing tiny and densely distributed c-Si QDs can be obtained. It simultaneously possesses wide optical band gap and high dark conductivity. Finally, detailed discussion has been made to analyze the influence of H{sub 2}-Ar mixed dilution on the properties of P-doped SiN{sub x}:H thin films.

  8. Energy Resolution of the Barrel of the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Adzic, Petar; Almeida, Carlos; Almeida, Nuno; Anagnostou, Georgios; Anfreville, Marc; Anicin, Ivan; Antunovic, Zeljko; Auffray, Etiennette; Baccaro, Stefania; Baffioni, Stephanie; Baillon, Paul; Barney, David; Barone, Luciano; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Bell, Ken W; Benetta, Robert; Bercher, Michel; Berthon, Ursula; Betev, Botjo; Beuselinck, Raymond; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Bialas, Wojciech; Biino, Cristina; Bimbot, Stephane; Blaha, Jan; Bloch, Philippe; Blyth, Simon; Bordalo, Paula; Bornheim, Adolf; Bourotte, Jean; Britton, David; Brown, Robert M; Brunelière, Renaud; Busson, Philippe; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Cavallari, Francesca; Cerutti, Muriel; Chamont, David; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Charlot, Claude; Chatterji, Sudeep; Chen, E Augustine; Chipaux, Rémi; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Cockerill, David J A; Collard, Caroline; Combaret, Christophe; Cossutti, Fabio; Da Silva, J C; Dafinei, Ioan; Daskalakis, Georgios; Davatz, Giovanna; Decotigny, David; De Min, Alberto; Deiters, Konrad; Dejardin, Marc; Del Re, Daniele; Della Negra, Rodolphe; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Depasse, Pierre; Descamp, J; Dewhirst, Guy; Dhawan, Satish; Diemoz, Marcella; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Djambazov, Lubomir; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Drndarevic, Snezana; Dupanloup, Michel; Dzelalija, Mile; Ehlers, Jan; El-Mamouni, H; Peisert, Anna; Evangelou, Ioannis; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Fay, Jean; Ferri, Federico; Flower, Paul S; Franzoni, Giovanni; Funk, Wolfgang; Gaillac, Anne-Marie; Gargiulo, Corrado; Gascon-Shotkin, S; Geerebaert, Yannick; Gentit, François-Xavier; Ghezzi, Alessio; Gilly, Jean; Giolo-Nicollerat, Anne-Sylvie; Givernaud, Alain; Gninenko, Sergei; Go, Apollo; Godinovic, Nikola; Golubev, Nikolai; Golutvin, Igor; Gómez-Reino, Robert; Govoni, Pietro; Grahl, James; Gras, Philippe; Greenhalgh, Justin; Guillaud, Jean-Paul; Haguenauer, Maurice; Hamel De Montechenault, G; Hansen, Magnus; Heath, Helen F; Hill, Jack; Hobson, Peter R; Holmes, Daniel; Holzner, André; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Ille, Bernard; Ingram, Quentin; Jain, Adarsh; Jarry, Patrick; Jauffret, C; Jha, Manoj; Karar, M A; Kataria, Sushil Kumar; Katchanov, V A; Kennedy, Bruce W; Kloukinas, Kostas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Korjik, M; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Krpic, Dragomir; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Lebeau, Michel; Lecomte, Pierre; Lecoq, Paul; Lemaire, Marie-Claude; Lethuillier, Morgan; Lin, Willis; Lintern, A L; Lister, Alison; Litvin, V; Locci, Elizabeth; Lodge, Anthony B; Longo, Egidio; Loukas, Demetrios; Luckey, D; Lustermann, Werner; Lynch, Clare; MacKay, Catherine Kirsty; Malberti, Martina; Maletic, Dimitrije; Mandjavidze, Irakli; Manthos, Nikolaos; Markou, Athanasios; Mathez, Hervé; Mathieu, Antoine; Matveev, Viktor; Maurelli, Georges; Menichetti, Ezio; Meridiani, Paolo; Milenovic, Predrag; Milleret, Gérard; Miné, Philippe; Mur, Michel; Musienko, Yuri; Nardulli, Alessandro; Nash, Jordan; Neal, Homer; Nédélec, Patrick; Negri, Pietro; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Newman, Harvey B; Nikitenko, Alexander; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Ofierzynski, Radoslaw Adrian; Organtini, Giovanni; Paganini, Pascal; Paganoni, Marco; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paramatti, Riccardo; Pastrone, Nadia; Pauss, Felicitas; Puljak, Ivica; Pullia, Antonino; Puzovic, Jovan; Ragazzi, Stefano; Ramos, Sergio; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rander, John; Ranjan, Kirti; Ravat, Olivier; Raymond, M; Razis, Panos A; Redaelli, Nicola; Renker, Dieter; Reucroft, Steve; Reymond, Jean-Marc; Reynaud, Michel; Reynaud, Serge; Romanteau, Thierry; Rondeaux, Françoise; Rosowsky, André; Rovelli, Chiara; Rumerio, Paolo; Rusack, Roger; Rusakov, Sergey V; Ryan, Matthew John; Rykaczewski, Hans; Sakhelashvili, Tariel; Salerno, Roberto; Santos, Marcelino; Seez, Christopher; Semeniouk, Igor; Sharif, Omar; Sharp, Peter; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Shevchenko, Sergey; Shivpuri, Ram Krishen; Sidiropoulos, Georgios; Sillou, Daniel; Singovsky, Alexander; Sirois, Y; Sirunyan, Albert M; Smith, Brian; Smith, Vincent J; Sproston, Martin; Suter, Henry; Swain, John; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Takahashi, Maiko; Tapper, Robert J; Tcheremoukhine, Alexandre; Teixeira, Isabel; Teixeira, Joao Paulo; Teller, Olivier; Timlin, Claire; Triantis, F A; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Ueno, Koji; Uzunian, Andrey; Varela, Joao; Vaz-Cardoso, N; Verrecchia, Patrice; Vichoudis, Paschalis; Vigano, S; Viertel, Gert; Virdee, Tejinder; Vlassov, E; Wang, Minzu; Weinstein, Alan; Williams, Jennifer C; Yaselli, Ignacio; Zabi, Alexandre; Zamiatin, Nikolai; Zelepoukine, Serguei; Zeller, Michael E; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Jia-Wen; Zhang, Yawei; Zhu, Kejun; Zhu, Ren-Yuan

    2007-01-01

    The energy resolution of the barrel part of the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter has been studied using electrons of 20 to 250 GeV in a test beam. The incident electron's energy was reconstructed by summing the energy measured in arrays of 3x3 or 5x5 channels. There was no significant amount of correlated noise observed within these arrays. For electrons incident at the centre of the studied 3x3 arrays of crystals, the mean stochastic term was measured to be 2.8% and the mean constant term to be 0.3%. The amount of the incident electron's energy which is contained within the array depends on its position of incidence. The variation of the containment with position is corrected for using the distribution of the measured energy within the array. For uniform illumination of a crystal with 120 GeV electrons a resolution of 0.5% was achieved. The energy resolution meets the design goal for the detector.

  9. Modeling of ultrafast THz interactions in molecular crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pernille Klarskov; Clark, Stewart J.; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present a numerical study of terahertz pulses interacting with crystals of cesium iodide. We model the molecular dynamics of the cesium iodide crystals with the Density Functional Theory software CASTEP, where ultrafast terahertz pulses are implemented to the CASTEP software...... to interact with molecular crystals. We investigate the molecular dynamics of cesium iodide crystals when interacting with realistic terahertz pulses of field strengths from 0 to 50 MV/cm. We find nonlinearities in the response of the CsI crystals at field strengths higher than 10 MV/cm....

  10. X-Ray Calorimeter Arrays for Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbourne, Caroline A.

    2009-01-01

    High-resolution x-ray spectroscopy is a powerful tool for studying the evolving universe. The grating spectrometers on the XMM and Chandra satellites started a new era in x-ray astronomy, but there remains a need for instrumentation that can provide higher spectral resolution with high throughput in the Fe-K band (around 6 keV) and can enable imaging spectroscopy of extended sources, such as supernova remnants and galaxy clusters. The instrumentation needed is a broad-band imaging spectrometer - basically an x-ray camera that can distinguish tens of thousands of x-ray colors. The potential benefits to astrophysics of using a low-temperature calorimeter to determine the energy of an incident x-ray photon via measurement of a small change in temperature was first articulated by S. H. Moseley over two decades ago. In the time since, technological progress has been steady, though full realization in an orbiting x-ray telescope is still awaited. A low-temperature calorimeter can be characterized by the type of thermometer it uses, and three types presently dominate the field. The first two types are temperature-sensitive resistors - semiconductors in the metal-insulator transition and superconductors operated in the superconducting-normal transition. The third type uses a paramagnetic thermometer. These types can be considered the three generations of x-ray calorimeters; by now each has demonstrated a resolving power of 2000 at 6 keV, but only a semiconductor calorimeter system has been developed to spaceflight readiness. The Soft X-ray Spectrometer on Astro-H, expected to launch in 2013, will use an array of silicon thermistors with I-IgTe x-ray absorbers that will operate at 50 mK. Both the semiconductor and superconductor calorimeters have been implemented in small arrays, kilo-pixel arrays of the superconducting calorimeters are just now being produced, and it is anticipated that much larger arrays will require the non-dissipative advantage of magnetic thermometers.

  11. Radiation Damage in Scintillating Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu Ren Yuan

    1998-01-01

    Crystal Calorimetry in future high energy physics experiments faces a new challenge to maintain its precision in a hostile radiation environment. This paper discusses the effects of radiation damage in scintillating crystals, and concludes that the predominant radiation damage effect in crystal scintillators is the radiation induced absorption, or color center formation, not the loss of the scintillation light yield. The importance of maintaining crystal's light response uniformity and the feasibility to build a precision crystal calorimeter under radiation are elaborated. The mechanism of the radiation damage in scintillating crystals is also discussed. While the damage in alkali halides is found to be caused by the oxygen or hydroxyl contamination, it is the structure defects, such as oxygen vacancies, cause damage in oxides. Material analysis methods used to reach these conclusions are presented in details.

  12. Tuning the colors of c-Si solar cells by exploiting plasmonic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peharz, G.; Grosschädl, B.; Prietl, C.; Waldhauser, W.; Wenzl, F. P.

    2016-09-01

    The color of a crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cell is mainly determined by its anti-reflective coating. This is a lambda/4 coating made from a transparent dielectric material. The thickness of the anti-reflective coating is optimized for maximal photocurrent generation, resulting in the typical blue or black colors of c-Si solar cells. However, for building-integrated photovoltaic (BiPV) applications the color of the solar cells is demanded to be tunable - ideally by a cheap and flexible coating process on standard (low cost) c-Si solar cells. Such a coating can be realized by applying plasmonic coloring which is a rapidly growing technology for high-quality color filtering and rendering for different fields of application (displays, imaging,…). In this contribution, we present results of an approach for tuning the color of standard industrial c-Si solar cells that is based on coating them with metallic nano-particles. In particular, thin films (green and brownish/red. The position of the resonance peak in the reflection spectrum was found to be almost independent from the angle of incidence. This low angular sensitivity is a clear advantage compared to alternative color tuning methods, for which additional dielectric thin films are deposited on c-Si solar cells.

  13. Visualization of a City Sustainability Index (CSI: Towards Transdisciplinary Approaches Involving Multiple Stakeholders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichiro Mori

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a visualized 3-D model of a City Sustainability Index (CSI based on our original concept of city sustainability in which a sustainable city is defined as one that maximizes socio-economic benefits while meeting constraint conditions of the environment and socio-economic equity on a permanent basis. The CSI is based on constraint and maximization indicators. Constraint indicators assess whether a city meets the necessary minimum conditions for city sustainability. Maximization indicators measure the benefits that a city generates in socio-economic aspects. When used in the policy-making process, the choice of constraint indicators should be implemented using a top-down approach. In contrast, a bottom-up approach is more suitable for defining maximization indicators because this technique involves multiple stakeholders (in a transdisciplinary approach. Using different materials of various colors, shapes, sizes, we designed and constructed the visualized physical model of the CSI to help people evaluate and compare the performance of different cities in terms of sustainability. The visualized model of the CSI can convey complicated information in a simple and straightforward manner to diverse stakeholders so that the sustainability analysis can be understood intuitively by ordinary citizens as well as experts. Thus, the CSI model helps stakeholders to develop critical thinking about city sustainability and enables policymakers to make informed decisions for sustainability through a transdisciplinary approach.

  14. Sources of compensation in hadronic calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, M.S.; Gabriel, T.A.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Wilson, R.

    1988-12-01

    Monte Carlo simulations are presented using the CALOR code system to study the design of a large hybrid hadron calorimeter system employing a warm liquid active medium (tetramethylsilane, Si(CH 3 ) 4 ) and uranium plates in addition to a conventional Fe/plastic system. In the system described here, the uranium provides partial compensation by suppressing the electromagnetic cascade produced by incident electrons due to sampling inefficiencies. The results of the simulations also indicate that significant compensation is achieved (given small enough saturation) due to low energy recoil protons produced in collisions with low energy (1--20 MeV) cascade and fission neutrons in the active medium. Both compensation mechanisms are important to help balance the response of a calorimeter to incident electrons and hadrons, that is, to achieve a ratio of pulse heights (e/h ∼ 1) which will lead to the best energy resolution. 17 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Precision timing with liquid ionization calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benary, O.; Cannon, S.; Cleland, W.; Ferguson, I.; Finley, C.; Gordeev, A.; Gordon, H.; Kistenev, E.; Kroon, P.; Letchouk, M.; Lissauer, D.; Ma, H.; Makowiecki, D.; Maslennikov, A.; McCorkle, S.; Onoprienko, D.; Onuchin, A.; Oren, Y.; Panin, V.; Parsons, J.; Rabel, J.; Radeka, V.; Rogers, L.; Rahm, D.; Rescia, S.; Rutherfoord, J.; Seman, M.; Smith, M.; Sondericker, J. III; Steiner, R.; Stephani, D.; Stern, E.; Stumer, I.; Takai, H.; Themann, H.; Tikhonov, Y.

    1993-01-01

    We present timing measurements performed with a liquid krypton electromagnetic accordion calorimeter, measured in an electron beam over an energy range of 5-20 GeV. A novel discriminator with an amplitude-independent timing response was used to extract the inherently accurate timing information from the calorimeter. As expected, the timing resolution σ τ is observed to vary inversely with the signal amplitude, which is proportional to the deposited energy E. We measure a resolution of σ τ =4.15±0.06 GeV ns/E for a sum of 5x5 towers with dimensions 2.7x2.5 cm 2 each. From this we deduce that the timing resolution for an individual tower is approximately 0.8 GeV ns/E. (orig.)

  16. Work on a ATLAS tile calorimeter Barrel

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2000-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter is designed as one barrel and two extended barrel hadron parts. The calorimeter consists of a cylindrical structure with inner and outer radius of 2280 and 4230 mm respectively. The barrel part is 5640 mm in length along the beam axis, while each of the extended barrel cylinders is 2910 mm long. Each detector cylinder is built of 64 independent wedges along the azimuthal direction. Between the barrel and the extended barrels there is a gap of about 600 mm, which is needed for the Inner Detector and the Liquid Argon cables, electronics and services. The barrel covers the region -1.0

  17. The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Performance at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Molander, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. The TileCal pays a major role in detecting hadrons, jets, hadronic decays of tau leptons and measuring the missing transverse energy. Due to the very good signal to noise ratio it assists the muon spectrometer in the identification and reconstruction of muons, which are also a tool for the in situ energy scale validation. The results presented here stem from the data collection in dedicated calibration runs, in cosmic rays data-taking and in LHC collisions along 3 years of operation. The uniformity, stability and precision of the energy scale, the time measurement capabilities and the robustness of the performance against pile-up are exposed through the usage of hadronic and muon final states and confirm the design expectations.

  18. LHCb: Upgrade of the LHCb calorimeter electronics

    CERN Multimedia

    Mauricio Ferre, J

    2013-01-01

    The LHCb collaboration foresees a major upgrade of the detector for the high luminosity run that should take place after 2018. Apart from the increase of the instantaneous luminosity at the interaction point of the experiment, one of the major ingredients of this upgrade is a full readout at 40MHz of the sub-detectors and the acquisition of the data by a large farm of PC. The trigger will be done by this farm and should increase the overall trigger efficiency with respect to the current detector, especially in hadronic B meson decays. A general overview of the modifications foreseen to the calorimeter system and the integration of the electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters in this new scheme will be described.

  19. Hermeticity of three cryogenic calorimeter geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strovink, M.; Wormersley, W.J.; Forden, G.E.

    1989-04-01

    We calculate the effect of cracks and dead material on resolution in three simplified cryogenic calorimeter geometries, using a crude approximation that neglects transverse shower spreading and considers only a small set of incident angles. For each dead region, we estimate the average unseen energy using a shower parametrization, and relate it to resolution broadening using a simple approximation that agrees with experimental data. Making reasonable and consistent assumptions on cryostat wall thicknesses, we find that the effects of cracks and dead material dominate the expected resolution in the region where separate ''barrel'' and ''end'' cryostats meet. This is particularly true for one geometry in which the end calorimeter caps the barrel and also protrudes into the hole within it. We also find that carefully designed auxiliary ''crack filler'' detectors can substantially reduce the loss of resolution in these areas. 6 figs

  20. The ATLAS Electromagnetic Calorimeter Calibration Workshop

    CERN Multimedia

    Hong Ma; Isabelle Wingerter

    The ATLAS Electromagnetic Calorimeter Calibration Workshop took place at LAPP-Annecy from the 1st to the 3rd of October; 45 people attended the workshop. A detailed program was setup before the workshop. The agenda was organised around very focused presentations where questions were raised to allow arguments to be exchanged and answers to be proposed. The main topics were: Electronics calibration Handling of problematic channels Cluster level corrections for electrons and photons Absolute energy scale Streams for calibration samples Calibration constants processing Learning from commissioning Forty-five people attended the workshop. The workshop was on the whole lively and fruitful. Based on years of experience with test beam analysis and Monte Carlo simulation, and the recent operation of the detector in the commissioning, the methods to calibrate the electromagnetic calorimeter are well known. Some of the procedures are being exercised in the commisssioning, which have demonstrated the c...

  1. Instrumented module of the ATLAS tile calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1998-01-01

    The ATLAS tile calorimeter consists of steel absorber plates interspersed with plastic scintillator tiles. Interactions of high-energy hadrons in the plates transform the incident energy into a 'hadronic shower'. When shower particles traverse the scintillating tiles, the latter emit an amount of light proportional to the incident energy. This light is transmitted along readout fibres to a photomultiplier, where a detectable electrical signal is produced. These pictures show one of 64 modules or 'wedges' of the barrel part of the tile calorimeter, which are arranged to form a cylinder around the beam axis. The wedge has been instrumented with scintillators and readout fibres. Photos 03, 06: Checking the routing of the readout fibres into the girder that houses the photomultipliers. Photo 04: A view of the fibre bundles inside the girder.

  2. The new ATLAS Fast Calorimeter Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Jacka, Petr; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    With the huge amount of data collected with ATLAS, there is a need to produce a large number of simulated events. These productions are very CPU and time consuming when using the full GEANT4 simulation. FastCaloSim is a program to quickly simulate the ATLAS calorimeter response, based on a parameterization of the GEANT4 energy deposits of several kinds of particles in a grid of energy and eta. A new version of FastCaloSim is under development and its integration into the ATLAS simulation infrastructure is ongoing. The use of machine learning techniques improves the performance and decreases the memory usage. Dedicated parameterizations for the forward calorimeters are being studied. First results of the new FastCaloSim show substantial improvements of the description of energy and shower shape variables, including the variables for jet substructure.

  3. The dry heat exchanger calorimeter system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renz, D.P.; Wetzel, J.R.; James, S.J.; Kasperski, P.W.; Duff, M.F.

    1991-01-01

    A radiometric isothermal heat flow calorimeter and preconditioner system that uses air instead of water as the heat exchange medium has been developed at Mound. The dry heat exchanger calorimeter is 42 inches high by 18 inches in diameter and the preconditioner is a 22 inch cube, making it extremely compact compared to existing units. The new system is ideally suited for transportable, stand-alone, or glovebox applications. Preliminary tests of the system have produced sample measurements with standard deviations less than 0.25% and sample errors less than 0.50%. These tests have shown that the dry heat exchanger system will yield acceptance data with an accuracy comparable to those of Mound water bath systems now in use. 4 figs., 1 tab

  4. Muon Detection Based on a Hadronic Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Ciodaro, T; Abreu, R; Achenbach, R; Adragna, P; Aharrouche, M; Aielli, G; Al-Shabibi, A; Aleksandrov, I; Alexandrov, E; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Amorim, A; Amram, N; Andrei, V; Anduaga, X; Angelaszek, D; Anjos, N; Annovi, A; Antonelli, S; Anulli, F; Apolle, R; Aracena, I; Ask, S; Åsman, B; Avolio, G; Baak, M; Backes, M; Backlund, S; Badescu, E; Baines, J; Ballestrero, S; Banerjee, S; Bansil, H S; Barnett, B M; Bartoldus, R; Bartsch, V; Batraneanu, S; Battaglia, A; Bauss, B; Beauchemin, P; Beck, H P; Bee, C; Begel, M; Behera, P K; Bell, P; Bell, W H; Bellagamba, L; Bellomo, M; Ben Ami, S; Bendel, M; Benhammou, Y; Benslama, K; Berge, D; Bernius, C; Berry, T; Bianco, M; Biglietti, M; Blair, R E; Bogaerts, A; Bohm, C; Boisvert, V; Bold, T; Bondioli, M; Borer, C; Boscherini, D; Bosman, M; Bossini, E; Boveia, A; Bracinik, J; Brandt, A G; Brawn, I P; Brelier, B; Brenner, R; Bressler, S; Brock, R; Brooks, W K; Brown, G; Brunet, S; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Bucci, F; Buda, S; Burckhart-Chromek, D; Buscher, V; Buttinger, W; Calvet, S; Camarri, P; Campanelli, M; Canale, V; Canelli, F; Capasso, L; Caprini, M; Caracinha, D; Caramarcu, C; Cardarelli, R; Carlino, G; Casadei, D; Casado, M P; Cattani, G; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chapleau, B; Childers, J T; Chiodini, G; Christidi, I; Ciapetti, G; Cimino, D; Ciobotaru, M; Coccaro, A; Cogan, J; Collins, N J; Conde Muino, P; Conidi, C; Conventi, F; Corradi, M; Corso-Radu, A; Coura Torres, R; Cranmer, K; Crescioli, F; Crone, G; Crupi, R; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cummings, J T; Curtis, C J; Czyczula, Z; Dam, M; Damazio, D; Dao, V; Darlea, G L; Davis, A O; De Asmundis, R; De Pedis, D; De Santo, A; de Seixas, J M; Degenhardt, J; Della Pietra, M; Della Volpe, D; Demers, S; Demirkoz, B; Di Ciaccio, A; Di Mattia, A; Di Nardo, R; Di Simone, A; Diaz, M A; Dietzsch, T A; Dionisi, C; Dobson, E; Dobson, M; dos Anjos, A; Dotti, A; Dova, M T; Drake, G; Dufour, M-A; Dumitru, I; Eckweiler, S; Ehrenfeld, W; Eifert, T; Eisenhandler, E; Ellis, K V; Ellis, N; Emeliyanov, D; Enoque Ferreira de Lima, D; Ermoline, Y; Ernst, J; Etzion, E; Falciano, S; Farrington, S; Farthouat, P; Faulkner , P J W; Fedorko, W; Fellmann, D; Feng, E; Ferrag, S; Ferrari, R; Ferrer, M L; Fiorini, L; Fischer, G; Flowerdew, M J; Fonseca Martin, T; Francis, D; Fratina, S; French, S T; Front, D; Fukunaga, C; Gadomski, S; Garelli, N; Garitaonandia Elejabarrieta, H; Gaudio, G; Gee, C N P; George, S; Giagu, S; Giannetti, P; Gillman, A R; Giorgi, M; Giunta, M; Giusti, P; Goebel, M; Gonçalo, R; Gonzalez Silva, L; Göringer, C; Gorini, B; Gorini, E; Grabowska-Bold, I; Green, B; Groll, M; Guida, A; Guler, H; Haas, S; Hadavand, H; Hadley, D R; Haller, J; Hamilton, A; Hanke, P; Hansen, J R; Hasegawa, S; Hasegawa, Y; Hauser, R; Hayakawa, T; Hayden, D; Head, S; Heim, S; Hellman, S; Henke, M; Hershenhorn, A; Hidvégi, A; Hillert, S; Hillier, S J; Hirayama, S; Hod, N; Hoffmann, D; Hong, T M; Hryn'ova, T; Huston, J; Iacobucci, G; Igonkina, O; Ikeno, M; Ilchenko, Y; Ishikawa, A; Ishino, M; Iwasaki, H; Izzo, V; Jez, P; Jimenez Otero, S; Johansen, M; Johns, K; Jones, G; Joos, M; Kadlecik, P; Kajomovitz, E; Kanaya, N; Kanega, F; Kanno, T; Kapliy, A; Kaushik, V; Kawagoe, K; Kawamoto, T; Kazarov, A; Kehoe, R; Kessoku, K; Khomich, A; Khoriauli, G; Kieft, G; Kirk, J; Klemetti, M; Klofver, P; Klous, S; Kluge, E-E; Kobayashi, T; Koeneke, K; Koletsou, I; Koll, J D; Kolos, S; Kono, T; Konoplich, R; Konstantinidis, N; Korcyl, K; Kordas, K; Kotov, V; Kowalewski, R V; Krasznahorkay, A; Kraus, J; Kreisel, A; Kubota, T; Kugel, A; Kunkle, J; Kurashige, H; Kuze, M; Kwee, R; Laforge, B; Landon, M; Lane, J; Lankford, A J; Laranjeira Lima, S M; Larner, A; Leahu, L; Lehmann Miotto, G; Lei, X; Lellouch, D; Levinson, L; Li, S; Liberti, B; Lilley, J N; Linnemann, J T; Lipeles, E; Lohse, T; Losada, M; Lowe, A; Luci, C; Luminari, L; Lundberg, J; Lupu, N; Machado Miguéns, J; Mackeprang, R; Maettig, S; Magnoni, L; Maiani, C; Maltrana, D; Mangeard, P-S; Männer, R; Mapelli, L; Marchese, F; Marino, C; Martin, B; Martin, B T; Martin, T; Martyniuk, A; Marzano, F; Masik, J; Mastrandrea, P; Matsushita, T; McCarn, A; Mechnich, J; Medinnis, M; Meier, K; Melachrinos, C; Mendoza Nava, L M; Merola, L; Messina, A; Meyer, C P; Middleton, R P; Mikenberg, G; Mills, C M; Mincer, A; Mineev, M; Misiejuk, A; Moa, T; Moenig, K; Monk, J; Monticelli, F; Mora Herrera, C; Morettini, P; Morris, J D; Müller, F; Munwes, Y; Murillo Garcia, R; Nagano, K; Nagasaka, Y; Navarro, G A; Negri, A; Nelson, S; Nemethy, P; Neubauer, M S; Neusiedl, A; Newman, P; Nisati, A; Nomoto, H; Nozaki, M; Nozicka, M; Nurse, E; Ochando, C; Ochi, A; Oda, S; Oh, A; Ohm, C; Okumura, Y; Olivito, D; Omachi, C; Osculati, B; Oshita, H; Ospanov, R; Owen, M A; Özcan, V E; Ozone, K; Padilla, C; Panes, B; Panikashvili, N; Paramonov, A; Parodi, F; Pasqualucci, E; Pastore, F; Patricelli, S; Pauly, T; Perera, V J O; Perez, E; Petcu, M; Petersen, B A; Petersen, J; Petrolo, E; Phan, A; Piegaia, R; Pilkington, A; Pinder, A; Poddar, S; Polini, A; Pope, B G; Potter, C T; Primavera, M; Prokoshin, F; Ptacek, E; Qian, W; Quinonez, F; Rajagopalan, S; Ramos Dos Santos Neves, R; Reinherz-Aronis, E; Reinsch, A; Renkel, P; Rescigno, M; Rieke, S; Riu, I; Robertson, S H; Robinson, M; Rodriguez, D; Roich, A; Romeo, G; Romero, R; Roos, L; Ruiz Martinez, A; Ryabov, Y; Ryan, P; Saavedra, A; Safai Tehrani, F; Sakamoto, H; Salamanna, G; Salamon, A; Saland, J; Salnikov, A; Salvatore, F; Sankey, D P C; Santamarina, C; Santonico, R; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E; Sasaki, O; Savu, D; Scannicchio, D A; Schäfer, U; Scharf, V L; Scheirich, D; Schiavi, C; Schlereth, J; Schmitt, K; Schroder, C; Schroer, N; Schultz-Coulon, H-C; Schwienhorst, R; Sekhniaidze, G; Sfyrla, A; Shamim, M; Sherman, D; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shooltz, D; Sidoti, A; Silbert, O; Silverstein, S; Sinev, N; Siragusa, G; Sivoklokov, S; Sjoen, R; Sjölin, J; Slagle, K; Sloper, J E; Smith, B C; Soffer, A; Soloviev, I; Spagnolo, S; Spiwoks, R; Staley, R J; Stamen, R; Stancu, S; Steinberg, P; Stelzer, J; Stockton, M C; Straessner, A; Strauss, E A; Strom, D; Su, D; Sugaya, Y; Sugimoto, T; Sushkov, S; Sutton, M R; Suzuki, Y; Taffard, A; Taiblum, N; Takahashi, Y; Takeda, H; Takeshita, T; Tamsett, M; Tan, C L A; Tanaka, S; Tapprogge, S; Tarem, S; Tarem, Z; Taylor, C; Teixeira-Dias, P; Thomas, J P; Thompson, P D; Thomson, M A; Tokushuku, K; Tollefson, K; Tomoto, M; Topfel, C; Torrence, E; Touchard, F; Traynor, D; Tremblet, L; Tricoli, A; Tripiana, M; Triplett, N; True, P; Tsiakiris, M; Tsuno, S; Tuggle, J; Ünel, G; Urquijo, P; Urrejola, P; Usai, G; Vachon, B; Vallecorsa, S; Valsan, L; Vandelli, W; Vari, R; Vaz Gil Lopes, L; Veneziano, S; Ventura, A; Venturi, N; Vercesi, V; Vermeulen, J C; Volpi, G; Vorwerk, V; Wagner, P; Wang, M; Warburton, A; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, M; Weber, P; Weidberg, A R; Wengler, T; Werner, P; Werth, M; Wessels, M; White, M; Whiteson, D; Wickens, F J; Wiedenmann, W; Wielers, M; Winklmeier, F; Woods, K S; Wu, S-L; Wu, X; Xaplanteris Karampatsos, L; Xella, S; Yakovlev, A; Yamazaki, Y; Yang, U; Yasu, Y; Yuan, L; Zaitsev, A; Zanello, L; Zhang, H; Zhang, J; Zhao, L; Zobernig, H; zur Nedden, M

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile hadronic calorimeter (TileCal) provides highly-segmented energy measurements of incoming particles. The information from TileCal's last segmentation layer can assist in muon tagging and it is being considered for a near future upgrade of the level-one trigger, mainly for rejecting triggers due to cavern background at the barrel region. A muon receiver for the TileCal muon signals is being designed in order to interface with the ATLAS level-one trigger. This paper addresses the preliminary studies concerning the muon discrimination capability for the muon receiver. Monte Carlo simulations for single muons from the interaction point were used to study the effectiveness of hadronic calorimeter information on muon detection.

  5. Upgrading the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrió Fernando

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This work summarizes the status of the on-detector and off-detector electronics developments for the Phase 2 Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter at the LHC scheduled around 2022. A demonstrator prototype for a slice of the calorimeter including most of the new electronics is planned to be installed in ATLAS in the middle of 2014 during the first Long Shutdown. For the on-detector readout, three different front-end boards (FEB alternatives are being studied: a new version of the 3-in-1 card, the QIE chip and a dedicated ASIC called FATALIC. The Main Board will provide communication and control to the FEBs and the Daughter Board will transmit the digitized data to the off-detector electronics in the counting room, where the super Read-Out Driver (sROD will perform processing tasks on them and will be the interface to the trigger levels 0, 1 and 2.

  6. Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Carrio, F; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    This presentation summarizes the status of the on-detector and off-detector electronics developments for the Phase II Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter at the LHC scheduled around 2024. A demonstrator prototype for a slice of the calorimeter including most of the new electronics is planned to be installed in ATLAS in middle 2014 during the Long Shutdown. For the on-detector readout, three different front-end boards (FEB) alternatives are being studied: a new version of the 3-in-1 card, the QIE chip and a dedicated ASIC called FATALIC. The MainBoard will provide communication and control to the FEBs and the DaughterBoard will transmit the digitized data to the off-detector electronics in the counting room, where the sROD will perform processing tasks on them.

  7. Upgrading the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Carrio, F

    2013-01-01

    This work summarizes the status of the on-detector and off-detector electronics developments for the Phase II Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter at the LHC scheduled around 2022. A demonstrator prototype for a slice of the calorimeter including most of the new electronics is planned to be installed in ATLAS in middle 2014 during the Long Shutdown. For the on-detector readout, three different front-end boards (FEB) alternatives are being studied: a new version of the 3-in-1 card, the QIE chip and a dedicated ASIC called FATALIC. The MainBoard will provide communication and control to the FEBs and the DaughterBoard will transmit the digitized data to the off-detector electronics in the counting room, where the sROD will perform processing tasks on them.

  8. Measurements with the Chalk River Calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, A.W.

    1970-01-01

    The Chalk River calorimeters were designed to measure the absorbed dose rate in reactors in materials such as graphite, polyethylene and beryllium in the range 0.01-1 Wg -1 . To eliminate heaters in the sample they were made to operate adiabatically, or more accurately quasi-adiabatically since there is no heater on the jacket. Both the sample and jacket temperatures are recorded from the time of insertion in the reactor flux and the absorbed dose rate is calculated from these data. The advantages of this type of calorimeter are the ease of construction and the absence of a sample heater. The disadvantage is that dose rates below ~ 10 mWg -1 cannot be determined accurately

  9. The new UA1 calorimeter trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenhandler, E.

    1988-01-01

    The new UA1 first-level calorimeter trigger processor is described, with emphasis on the fast two-dimensional electromagnetic cluster-finding that is its most novel feature. This processor is about five times more powerful than its predecessor, and makes extensive use of pipelining techniques. It allows multiple combinations of triggers on electromagnetic showers, hadronic jets and energy sums, including a total-energy veto of multiple interactions and a full vector sum of missing transverse energy. (author)

  10. The ZEUS second level calorimeter trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong, S.J. de.

    1990-01-01

    ZEUS is a detector for the HERA ep collider, consisting of several large components. The most important being the inner tracking detectors, which are positioned nearest to the interaction point, the calorimeter surrounding the inner tracking detectors and the muon detectors on the outside of the experimental setup. Each component will deliver a vast amount of information. In order to keep this information manageable, data is preprocessed and condensed per component and then combined to obtain the final global trigger result. The main subject of this thesis is the second level calorimeter trigger processor of the ZEUS detector. In order to be able to reject the unwanted events passing the first level, the topological event signature will have to be used at the second level. The most demanding task of the second level is the recognition of local energy depositions corresponding to isolated electrons and hadron jets. Also part of the work performed by the first level will be repeated with a higher level of accuracy. Additional information not available to the first level trigger will be processed and will be made available to the global second level trigger decision module. For the second level calorimeter trigger processor a special VME module, containing two transputers, has been developed. The second level calorimeter trigger algorithm described in this thesis was tested with simulated events, that were tracked through a computer simulation of the ZEUS detector. A part of this thesis is therefore devoted to the description of the various Monte Carlo models and the justification of the way in which they were used. (author). 132 refs.; 76 figs.; 18 tabs

  11. Isothermal calorimeter for reactor radiation dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radak, B; Markovic, V [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Odeljenje za radijacionu hemiju, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1961-12-15

    An isothermal calorimeter with thermistors for measuring absorbed dose rates from 10{sup 4}-5-6.10{sup 5} rad/h in reactor experimental holes has been designed. A kinetics method for determining the equilibrium temperature difference has been developed, and its application in isothermal calorimetry proved. The expected accuracy in measurements within {+-} 2-5% has been proved by measurements carried out in the reactor. Some data obtained by measurements in the reactor RA are presented (author)

  12. Homogeneous scintillating LKr/Xe calorimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, M.; Mullins, M.; Pelly, D.; Shotkin, S.; Sumorok, K. (Lab. for Nuclear Science, MIT, Cambridge, MA (United States)); Akyuz, D.; Chen, E.; Gaudreau, M.P.J. (Plasma Fusion Center, MIT, Cambridge, MA (United States)); Bolozdynya, A.; Tchernyshev, V.; Goritchev, P.; Khovansky, V.; Koutchenkov, A.; Kovalenko, A.; Lebedenko, V.; Vinogradov, V.; Gusev, L.; Sheinkman, V. (ITEP, Moscow (Russia)); Krasnokutsky, R.N.; Shuvalov, R.S.; Fedyakin, N.N.; Sushkov, V. (IHEP, Serpukhov (Russia)); Akopyan, M. (Inst. for Nuclear Research, Moscow (Russia)); Doke, T.; Kikuchi, J.; Hitachi, A.; Kashiwagi, T. (Science and Eng. Res. Lab., Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan)); Masuda, K.; Shibamura, E. (Saitama Coll. of Health (Japan)); Ishida, N. (Seikei Univ. (Japan)); Sugimoto, S. (INS, Univ. Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-03-20

    Recent R and D work on full length scintillating homogeneous liquid xenon/krypton (LXe/Kr) cells has established the essential properties for precision EM calorimeters: In-situ calibration using [alpha]'s, radiation hardness as well as the uniformity required for [delta]E/E[approx equal]0.5% for e/[gamma]'s above 50 GeV. (orig.).

  13. The CDF central and endwall hadron calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertolucci, S.; Cordelli, M.; Eposito, B.; Curatolo, M.; Giromini, P.; Miscetti, S.; Sansoni, A.; Barnes, V.E.; Di Virgilio, A.; Garfinkel, A.F.; Kuhlmann, S.E.; Laasanen, A.T.

    1988-01-01

    The CDF central and endwall hadron calorimeter covers the polar region between 30 0 and 150 0 and a full 2π in azimuth. It consists of 48 steel-scintillator central modules with 2.5 cm sampling and 48 steel-scintillator endwall modules with 5.0 cm sampling. A general description of the detector is given. Calibration techniques and performance are discussed. Some results of the test beam studies are shown. (orig.)

  14. Measurement of ultrasound power using a calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgado, G.; Miqueleti, S.; Costa-Felix, R. P. B.

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents a comparison between the ultrasound power of a 1 MHz therapy equipment on the water using a calorimeter and a radiation force balance. For a range of 5 to 10 W, the results presented a normalized error less than 1, disclosing compatibility of the results from the developed system and the radiation force balance. The calorimetric method might be used as a faster and cheaper means for the verification of the ultrasonic power emitted by an equipment for physiotherapeutic treatment.

  15. Prototype calorimeters for the NA3 experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    The NA3 Experiment was set-up on the North Area of the SPS by the CERN/ Ecole Polytechnique/College de France/ Orsay/Saclay Collaboration, to study high transverse momentum leptons and hadrons from hadron collisions. The calorimeters measured the energy of hadrons (prototype on the right) and leptons (prototype on the left). They used a new type of plastic scintillator (plexipop). (see CERN Courier of November 1975) energy (prototype on the right)

  16. Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrió, F

    2015-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. The TileCal readout consists of about 10000 channels. The bulk of its upgrade will occur for the High Luminosity LHC phase (Phase-II) where the peak luminosity will increase 5 times compared to the design luminosity (10 34 cm −2 s −1 ) but with maintained energy (i.e. 7+7 TeV). An additional increase of the average luminosity with a factor of 2 can be achieved by luminosity levelling. This upgrade is expected to happen around 2024. The TileCal upgrade aims at replacing the majority of the on- and off- detector electronics to the extent that all calorimeter signals will be digitized and sent to the off-detector electronics in the counting room. To achieve the required reliability, redundancy has been introduced at different levels. Three different options are presently being investigated for the front-end electronic upgrade. Extensive test beam studies will determine which option will be selected. 10 Gbps optical links are used to read out all digitized data to the counting room while 5 Gbps down-links are used for synchronization, configuration and detector control. For the off-detector electronics a pre-processor (sROD) is being developed, which takes care of the initial trigger processing while temporarily storing the main data flow in pipeline and derandomizer memories. One demonstrator prototype module with the new calorimeter module electronics, but still compatible with the present system, is planned to be inserted in ATLAS this year

  17. Performance test of a TMS calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wild, B.

    1986-10-01

    Performance tests of a first calorimeter module using the room temperature liquid tetramethylsilane (TMS) as active element are described in detail. As absorber planed carbon steel slabs had been used. The charge yield is 70% of that in a very pure sample of the liquid. A long term stability of the signal with a lifetime of half a year has been realized. Experiences are described and the results explained in detail. (orig.) [de

  18. Pion showers in highly granular calorimeters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cvach, Jaroslav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 4 (2012), s. 859-862 ISSN 0304-4289. [International Symposium on Lepton-Photon Interactions at High Energies /25./. Mumbai, 22.08.2011-27.08.2011] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA09042 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : International Linear Collider * particle flow algorithm * calorimeter resolution Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 0.562, year: 2012

  19. Electron Reconstruction in the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Meschi, Emilio; Seez, Christopher; Vikas, Pratibha

    2001-01-01

    This note describes the reconstruction of electrons using the electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) alone. This represents the first step in the High Level Trigger reconstruction and selection chain. By making "super-clusters" (i.e. clusters of clusters) much of the energy radiated by bremsstrahlung in the tracker material can be recovered. Representative performance figures for energy and position resolution in the barrel are given.

  20. A no-load RF calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernoff, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    The described device can be used to measure the output of any dc powered RF source. No dummy load is required for the measurements. The device is, therefore, called the 'no-load calorimeter' (NLC). The NLC measures the power actually fed to the antenna or another useful load. It is believed that the NLC can compete successfully with directional coupler type systems in measuring the output of high-power RF sources.

  1. Analytical heat transfer modeling of a new radiation calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obame Ndong, Elysée [Department of Industrial Engineering and Maintenance, University of Sciences and Technology of Masuku (USTM), BP 941 Franceville (Gabon); Grenoble Electrical Engineering Laboratory (G2Elab), University Grenoble Alpes and CNRS, G2Elab, F38000 Grenoble (France); Gallot-Lavallée, Olivier [Grenoble Electrical Engineering Laboratory (G2Elab), University Grenoble Alpes and CNRS, G2Elab, F38000 Grenoble (France); Aitken, Frédéric, E-mail: frederic.aitken@g2elab.grenoble-inp.fr [Grenoble Electrical Engineering Laboratory (G2Elab), University Grenoble Alpes and CNRS, G2Elab, F38000 Grenoble (France)

    2016-06-10

    Highlights: • Design of a new calorimeter for measuring heat power loss in electrical components. • The calorimeter can operate in a temperature range from −50 °C to 150 °C. • An analytical model of heat transfers for this new calorimeter is presented. • The theoretical sensibility of the new apparatus is estimated at ±1 mW. - Abstract: This paper deals with an analytical modeling of heat transfers simulating a new radiation calorimeter operating in a temperature range from −50 °C to 150 °C. The aim of this modeling is the evaluation of the feasibility and performance of the calorimeter by assessing the measurement of power losses of some electrical devices by radiation, the influence of the geometry and materials. Finally a theoretical sensibility of the new apparatus is estimated at ±1 mW. From these results the calorimeter has been successfully implemented and patented.

  2. Design, Construction and Commissioning of the Digital Hadron Calorimeter - DHCAL

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, C; Bilki, B.; Butler, J.; Corriveau, F.; Cundiff, T.; Drake, G.; Francis, K.; Furst, B.; Guarino, V.; Haberichter, B.; Hazen, E.; Hoff, J.; Holm, S.; Kreps, A.; DeLurgio, P.; Matijas, Z.; Monte, L.Dal; Mucia, N.; Norbeck, E.; Northacker, D.; Onel, Y.; Pollack, B.; Repond, J.; Schlereth, J.; Skrzecz, F.; Smith, J.R.; Trojand, D.; Underwood, D.; Velasco, M.; Walendziak, J.; Wood, K.; Wu, S.; Xia, L.; Zhang, Q.; Zhao, A.

    2016-01-01

    A novel hadron calorimeter is being developed for future lepton colliding beam detectors. The calorimeter is optimized for the application of Particle Flow Algorithms (PFAs) to the measurement of hadronic jets and features a very finely segmented readout with 1 x 1 cm2 cells. The active media of the calorimeter are Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) with a digital, i.e. one-bit, readout. To first order the energy of incident particles in this calorimeter is reconstructed as being proportional to the number of pads with a signal over a given threshold. A large-scale prototype calorimeter with approximately 500,000 readout channels has been built and underwent extensive testing in the Fermilab and CERN test beams. This paper reports on the design, construction, and commissioning of this prototype calorimeter.

  3. Some hadron calorimeter properties relevant to storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corden, M.J.; Dowell, J.D.; Edwards, M.; Ellis, N.; Garvey, J.; Grant, D.; Homer, R.J.; Kenyon, I.R.; McMahon, T.; Schanz, G.; Sumorok, K.C.T.O.; Watkins, P.M.; Wilson, J.A.; Eisenhandler, E.; Gibson, W.R.; Kalmus, P.I.P.; Thompson, G.; Arnison, G.; Astbury, A.; Grayer, G.; Haynes, W.J.; Hill, D.; Nandi, A.K.; Roberts, C.; Shah, T.P.

    1982-01-01

    At wide angles in a storage ring environment, a substantial part of the energy seen by a hadron calorimeter can be in the form of very low momentum particles such as jet fragments or resonance cascade decay products. Data are presented on the deviations from Gaussian resolution and linear response for such low momentum particles. The differing responses to incident e - , μ - , π +- , K +- , p and anti p at momenta below 10 GeV/c are also compared. In addition, the authors discuss the significance of angle effects for a 4π calorimeter, and the problems of combining data from calorimeters with different physical characteristics. Experimental data are presented on the difference in hadron response between a fine grain (electromagnetic) lead calorimeter and a coarser (hadron) iron calorimeter, and on the dependence of the response on the energy sharing between the two calorimeters. (Auth.)

  4. Analytical heat transfer modeling of a new radiation calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obame Ndong, Elysée; Gallot-Lavallée, Olivier; Aitken, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Design of a new calorimeter for measuring heat power loss in electrical components. • The calorimeter can operate in a temperature range from −50 °C to 150 °C. • An analytical model of heat transfers for this new calorimeter is presented. • The theoretical sensibility of the new apparatus is estimated at ±1 mW. - Abstract: This paper deals with an analytical modeling of heat transfers simulating a new radiation calorimeter operating in a temperature range from −50 °C to 150 °C. The aim of this modeling is the evaluation of the feasibility and performance of the calorimeter by assessing the measurement of power losses of some electrical devices by radiation, the influence of the geometry and materials. Finally a theoretical sensibility of the new apparatus is estimated at ±1 mW. From these results the calorimeter has been successfully implemented and patented.

  5. Run 1 Performance of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Heelan, Louise; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile hadronic calorimeter (TileCal) provides highly-segmented energy measurements of incoming particles. It is a key detector for the measurement of hadrons, jets, tau leptons and missing transverse energy. It is also useful for identification and reconstruction of muons due to good signal to noise ratio. The calorimeter consists of thin steel plates and 460,000 scintillating tiles configured into 5000 cells, each viewed by two photomultipliers. The calorimeter response and its readout electronics is monitored to better than 1% using radioactive source, laser and charge injection systems. The calibration and performance of the calorimeter have been established through test beam measurements, cosmic ray muons and the large sample of proton-proton collisions acquired in 2011 and 2012. Results on the calorimeter performance are presented, including the absolute energy scale, timing, noise and associated stabilities. The results demonstrate that the Tile Calorimeter has performed well within the design ...

  6. The new ATLAS Fast Calorimeter Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Hasib, Ahmed; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Producing the very large samples of simulated events required by many physics and performance studies with the ATLAS detector using the full GEANT4 detector simulation is highly CPU intensive. Fast simulation tools are a useful way of reducing CPU requirements when detailed detector simulations are not needed. During the LHC Run-1, a fast calorimeter simulation (FastCaloSim) was successfully used in ATLAS. FastCaloSim provides a simulation of the particle energy response at the calorimeter read-out cell level, taking into account the detailed particle shower shapes and the correlations between the energy depositions in the various calorimeter layers. It is interfaced to the standard ATLAS digitization and reconstruction software, and it can be tuned to data more easily than GEANT4. Now an improved version of FastCaloSim is in development, incorporating the experience with the version used during Run-1. The new FastCaloSim makes use of statistical techniques such as principal component analysis, and a neural n...

  7. Beam tests of the ZEUS barrel calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, A; Bienz, T; Caldwell, A; Chen, L; Derrick, M; Gialas, I; Hamri, A; Imlay, R; Kartik, S; Kim, H J; Kinnel, T; Kreutzmann, H; Li, C G; Lim, J N; Loveless, R; Lu, B; Mallik, U; McLean, K W; McNeil, R; Metcalf, W; Musgrave, B; Oh, B Y; Park, S; Parsons, J A; Reeder, D; Repond, J; Ritz, S; Roco, M T.P.; Sandler, P H; Sciulli, F; Smith, W H; Talaga, R L; Tzanakos, G; Wai, L; Wang, M Z; Whitmore, J; Wu, J; Yang, S [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States) Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States) Nevis Labs., Irvington-on-Hudson, NY (United States) Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States) Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States) Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States) Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States) Virginia Polytechnic Inst., and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States) Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1993-11-15

    A fully compensating uranium-scintillator calorimeter was constructed for the ZEUS detector at HERA. Several of the barrel calorimeter modules were subjected to beam tests at Fermilab before shipping them to DESY for installation. The calibrations of the modules used beams of electrons and hadrons, measuring the uniformity of the response, and checking the resolution. The runs also provided opportunity to test a large fraction of the actual ZEUS calorimeter readout system in an integrated beam environment more than one year before HERA turn on. The experiment utilized two computer controlled mechanical structures, one of which was capable of holding up to four modules in order to study shower containment, and a magnetic spectrometer with a high resolution beam tracking system. During two running periods, beams of 6 to 110 GeV containing e, [mu], [pi], and anti p were used. The results show energy resolutions of 35%/[radical]E for hadrons and 19%/[radical]E for electrons, uniformities at the 1% level, energy nonlinearity less than 1%, and equal response for electrons and hadrons. (orig.)

  8. An absorbed dose calorimeter for IMRT dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duane, S.; Aldehaybes, M.; Bailey, M.; Lee, N.D.; Thomas, C.G.; Palmans, H.

    2012-01-01

    A new calorimeter for dosimetry in small and complex fields has been built. The device is intended for the direct determination of absorbed dose to water in moderately small fields and in composite fields such as IMRT treatments, and as a transfer instrument calibrated against existing absorbed dose standards in conventional reference conditions. The geometry, materials and mode of operation have been chosen to minimize detector perturbations when used in a water phantom, to give a reasonably isotropic response and to minimize the effects of heat transfer when the calorimeter is used in non-reference conditions in a water phantom. The size of the core is meant to meet the needs of measurement in IMRT treatments and is comparable to the size of the air cavity in a type NE2611 ionization chamber. The calorimeter may also be used for small field dosimetry. Initial measurements in reference conditions and in an IMRT head and neck plan, collapsed to gantry angle zero, have been made to estimate the thermal characteristics of the device, and to assess its performance in use. The standard deviation (estimated repeatability) of the reference absorbed dose measurements was 0.02 Gy (0.6%). (authors)

  9. Upgrading the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Souza, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. The TileCal readout consists of about 10000 channels. Its main upgrade will occur for the High Luminosity LHC phase (phase 2) where the peak luminosity will increase 5-fold compared to the design luminosity (10exp34 cm−2s−1) but with maintained energy (i.e. 7+7 TeV). An additional increase of the average luminosity with a factor of 2 can be achieved by luminosity leveling. This upgrade will probably happen around 2023. The upgrade aims at replacing the majority of the on- and off-detector electronics so that all calorimeter signals are directly digitized and sent to the off-detector electronics in the counting room. To achieve the required reliability, redundancy has been introduced at different levels. The smallest independent on-detector electronics module has been reduced from 45 channels to 6, greatly reducing the consequences of a failure in the on-detector electronics. The size of t...

  10. Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, Robert; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the main hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. TileCal readout consists of about 10000 channels. The bulk of its upgrade will occur for the High Luminosity LHC operation (Phase 2 around 2023) where the peak luminosity will increase 5x compared to the design luminosity (10^{34} cm^{-2}s^{-1}) but with maintained energy (i.e. 7+7 TeV). The TileCal upgrade aims to replace the majority of the on- and off-detector electronics so that all calorimeter signals can be digitized and directly sent to the off-detector electronics in the counting room. This will reduce pile-up problems and allow more complex trigger algorithms. To achieve the required reliability, redundancy has been introduced at different levels. Three different options are presently being investigated for the front-end electronic upgrade. Extensive test beam studies will determine which option will be selected. 10 Gbps optical links are used to read out all digitized data to t...

  11. Upgrading the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Oreglia, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter covering the most central region of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. The TileCal readout consists of about 10000 channels. The main upgrade will occur for the High Luminosity LHC phase (phase 2) which is scheduled around 2022. The upgrade aims at replacing the majority of the on- and off- detector electronics so that all calorimeter signals are directly digitized and sent to the off-detector electronics in the counting room. An ambitious upgrade development program is pursued studying different electronics options. Three different options are presently being investigated for the front-end electronic upgrade. Which one to use will be decided after extensive test beam studies. High speed optical links are used to read out all digitized data to the counting room. For the off-detector electronics a new back-end architecture is being developed, including the initial trigger processing and pipeline memories. A demonstrator prototype read-out for a slice of the ...

  12. Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Moreno, P; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. The TileCal readout consists of about 10000 channels. The bulk of its upgrade will occur for the High Luminosity LHC phase (phase 2) where the peak luminosity will increase 5x compared to the design luminosity (10^34 cm−2s−1) but with maintained energy (i.e. 7+7 TeV). An additional increase of the average luminosity with a factor of 2 can be achieved by luminosity leveling. This upgrade is expected to happen around 2023. The TileCal upgrade aims at replacing the majority of the on- and off-detector electronics to the extent that all calorimeter signals will be digitized and sent to the off-detector electronics in the counting room. To achieve the required reliability, redundancy has been introduced at different levels. Three different options are presently being investigated for the front-end electronic upgrade. Extensive test beam studies will determine which option will be selected. 10 ...

  13. Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Moreno, P; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. The TileCal readout consists of about 10000 channels. The bulk of its upgrade will occur for the High Luminosity LHC phase (Phase 2) where the peak luminosity will increase 5$\\times$ compared to the design luminosity ($10^{34} cm^{-2}s^{-1}$) but with maintained energy (i.e. 7+7 TeV). The TileCal upgrade aims at replacing the majority of the on- and off-detector electronics to the extent that all calorimeter signals will be digitized and sent to the off-detector electronics in the counting room. To achieve the required reliability, redundancy has been introduced at different levels. Three different options are presently being investigated for the front-end electronic upgrade. Extensive test beam studies will determine which option will be selected. 10 Gbps optical links are used to read out all digitized data to the counting room while 5 Gbps down-links are used for synchronization, c...

  14. Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Carrio, F

    2015-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. The TileCal readout consists of about 10000 channels. The bulk of its upgrade will occur for the High Luminosity LHC phase (P hase - II ) where the pea k luminosity will increase 5 times compared to the design luminosity (10 34 cm −2 s −1 ) but with maintained energy (i.e. 7+7 TeV). An additional increase of the average luminosity with a factor of 2 can be achieved by luminosity levelling. This upgrade is expe cted to happen around 202 4 . The TileCal upgrade aims at replacing the majority of the on - and off - detector electronics to the extent that all calorimeter signals will be digitized and sent to the off - detector electronics in the counting room. To achieve th e required reliability, redundancy has been introduced at different levels. Three different options are presently being investiga...

  15. Upgrading the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Carrio, F; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter covering the most central region of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. The TileCal readout consists of about 10000 channels. Its main upgrade will occur for the High Luminosity LHC phase (phase 2) where the luminosity will have increased 5-fold compared to the design luminosity (1034 cm−2s−1) but with maintained energy (i.e. 7+7 TeV). An additional luminosity increase by a factor of 2 can be achieved by luminosity leveling. This upgrade will probably happen around 2022. The upgrade aims at replacing the majority of the on- and off- detector electronics so that all calorimeter signals are directly digitized and sent to the off-detector electronics in the counting room. To achieve the required reliability, redundancy has been introduced at different levels. An ambitious upgrade development program is pursued studying different electronics options. Three different options are presently being investigated for the front-end electronic upgrade. Which one to u...

  16. The New ATLAS Fast Calorimeter Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Heath, Matthew Peter; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Producing the large samples of simulated events required by many physics and performance studies with the ATLAS detector using the full GEANT4 detector simulation is highly CPU intensive. Fast simulation tools are a useful way of reducing the CPU requirements when detailed detector simulations are not needed. During Run-1 of the LHC, a fast calorimeter simulation (FastCaloSim) was successfully used in ATLAS. FastCaloSim provides a simulation of the particle energy response at the calorimeter read-out cell level, taking into account the detailed particle shower shapes and the correlations between the energy depositions in the various calorimeter layers. It is interfaced to the standard ATLAS digitisation and reconstruction software, and it can be tuned to data more easily than Geant4. Now an improved version of FastCaloSim is in development, incorporating the experience with the version used during Run-1. The new FastCaloSim aims to overcome some limitations of the first version by improving the description of...

  17. Fast shower simulation in the ATLAS calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barberio, E; Boudreau, J; Mueller, J; Tsulaia, V; Butler, B; Young, C C; Cheung, S L; Savard, P; Dell'Acqua, A; Simone, A D; Gallas, M V; Ehrenfeld, W; Glazov, A; Placakyte, R; Marshall, Z; Rimoldi, A; Waugh, A

    2008-01-01

    The time to simulate pp collisions in the ATLAS detector is largely dominated by the showering of electromagnetic particles in the heavy parts of the detector, especially the electromagnetic barrel and endcap calorimeters. Two procedures have been developed to accelerate the processing time of electromagnetic particles in these regions: (1) a fast shower parameterisation and (2) a frozen shower library. Both work by generating the response of the calorimeter to electrons and positrons with Geant 4, and then reintroduce the response into the simulation at runtime. In the fast shower parameterisation technique, a parameterisation is tuned to single electrons and used later by simulation. In the frozen shower technique, actual showers from low-energy particles are used in the simulation. Full Geant 4 simulation is used to develop showers down to ∼ 1GeV, at which point the shower is terminated by substituting a frozen shower. Judicious use of both techniques over the entire electromagnetic portion of the ATLAS calorimeter produces an important improvement of CPU time. We discuss the algorithms and their performance in this paper

  18. Performance of the ATLAS Tile calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Bertoli, Gabriele; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC is the central hadronic calorimeter designed for energy reconstruction of hadrons, jets, tau­particles and missing transverse energy. TileCal is a scintillator­steel sampling calorimeter and it covers the region of pseudorapidity < 1.7. The scintillation light produced in the tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibers to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The analog signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. The TileCal front­end electronics read out the signals produced by about 10000 channels measuring energies ranging from ~30 MeV to ~2 TeV. The read­out system is responsible for reconstructing the data in real­time. The digitized signals are reconstructed with the Optimal Filtering algorithm, which computes for each channel the signal amplitude, time and quality factor at the required high rate. Each stage of the signal production from scintillation light to the signal reconstruc...

  19. First Half Of CMS Hadron Calorimeter Completed

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    CMS HCAL electronics coordinator John Elias from Fermilab inspecting the assembled first half of the calorimeter. The first half barrel of the CMS hadron calorimeter was completed last month and assembly work on the elements of the second half commenced just last week. This is not a simple task considering the fact that the constructed half-barrel consists of eighteen 30 tonne segments each made with 0.15 mm tolerance. But through the work of everyone on the CMS hadron calorimeter team it is all moving forward. In the LHC, detection of particles produced in collisions of two proton beams requires measurement of their energy. To do this, the particle energy has to be changed into a form that can be easily measured. This is achieved by stopping the initial particles in a dense medium, where they create a shower of secondary particles. While particles that interact through electromagnetic forces (electrons and positrons) create relatively small showers, the size of showers created by hadrons, particles that i...

  20. Secrecy performance analysis of SIMO underlay cognitive radio systems with outdated CSI

    KAUST Repository

    Lei, Hongjiang; Zhang, Jianming; Park, Kihong; Ansari, Imran Shafique; Pan, Gaofeng; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the secrecy outage performance of a single-input multiple-output underlay cognitive radio network (CRN) with outdated channel state information (CSI). The confidential messages are transmitted from transmitter to the destination, while a multi-antenna eavesdropper exists. The maximal ratio combining and selection combining schemes are utilised at the receivers to improve the quality of the received signal-to-noise ratio. The exact and asymptotic closed-form expressions of secrecy outage probability are derived, and simulation results are provided to verify the authors' proposed analytical results. The results reveal that imperfect CSI of main channels deteriorates the secrecy outage performance while that of eavesdropping and interfering channels has contrary effect, and only a unity diversity order can be obtained in underlay CRNs with imperfect CSI.

  1. Performance Analysis of Communications under Energy Harvesting Constraints with noisy CSI

    KAUST Repository

    Znaidi, Mohamed Ridha Ali

    2016-01-06

    In energy harvesting communications, the transmitters have to adapt transmission to availability of energy harvested during the course of communication. The performance of the transmission depends on the channel conditions which vary randomly due to environmental changes. In this work, we consider the problem of power allocation taking into account the energy arrivals over time and the degree of channel state information (CSI) available at the transmitter, to maximize the throughput. Differently from previous work, the CSI at the transmitter is not perfect and may include estimation errors. We solve this problem with respect to the Energy Harvesting constraints. We determine the optimal power in the case where the channel is assumed to be perfectly known at the receiver. Also, we obtain the power policy when the transmitter has no CSI. Furthermore, we analyze the asymptotic average throughput in a system where the average recharge rate goes asymptotically to zero and when it is very high.

  2. Study of the Quantum Efficiency of CsI Photocathodes Exposed to Oxygen and Water Vapour

    CERN Document Server

    Di Mauro, A; Piuz, François; Schyns, E M; Van Beelen, J B; Williams, T D

    2000-01-01

    The operation of CsI photocathodes in gaseous detectors requires special attention to the purity of the applied gas mixtures.We have studied the influence of oxygen and water vapour contaminations on the performance of CsI photocathodes for theALICE HMPID RICH prototype. Measurements were done through comparison of Cherenkov rings obtained from beamtests. Increased levels of oxygen and water vapour did not show any effect on the performance. The results of this studyfound a direct application in the way of storing CsI photocathodes over long periods nad in particular in the shipment of theHMPID prototype from CERN to the STAR experiment at BNL. (Abstract only available,full text to follow)

  3. Preparation of reflective CsI photocathodes with reproducible high quantum efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier-Komor, P.; Bauer, B. B.; Friese, J.; Gernhäuser, R.; Kienle, P.; Körner, H. J.; Montermann, G.; Zeitelhack, K.

    1995-02-01

    CsI as a solid UV-photocathode material has many promising applications in fast gaseous photon detectors. They are proposed in large area Ring Imaging CHerenkov (RICH) devices in forthcoming experiments at various high-energy particle accelerators. A high photon-to-electron conversion efficiency is a basic requirement for the successful operation of these devices. High reproducible quantum efficiencies could be achieved with CsI layers prepared by electron beam evaporation from a water-cooled copper crucible. CsI films were deposited in the thickness range of 30 to 500 μg/cm 2. Absorption coefficients and quantum efficiencies were measured in the wavelength region of 150 nm to 250 nm. The influence of various evaporation parameters on the quantum efficiency were investigated.

  4. Preparation of reflective CsI photocathodes with reproducible high quantum efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier-Komor, P. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department; Bauer, B.B. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department; Friese, J. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department; Gernhaeuser, R. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department; Kienle, P. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department; Koerner, H.J. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department; Montermann, G. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department; Zeitelhack, K. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department

    1995-08-01

    CsI as a solid UV-photocathode material has many promising applications in fast gaseous photon detectors. They are proposed in large area Ring Imaging CHerenkov (RICH) devices in forthcoming experiments at various high-energy particle accelerators. A high photon-to-electron conversion efficiency is a basic requirement for the successful operation of these devices. High reproducible quantum efficiencies could be achieved with CsI layers prepared by electron beam evaporation from a water-cooled copper crucible. CsI films were deposited in the thickness range of 30 to 500 {mu}g/cm{sup 2}. Absorption coefficients and quantum efficiencies were measured in the wavelength region of 150 nm to 250 nm. The influence of various evaporation parameters on the quantum efficiency were investigated. (orig.).

  5. Secrecy performance analysis of SIMO underlay cognitive radio systems with outdated CSI

    KAUST Repository

    Lei, Hongjiang

    2017-06-13

    This study investigates the secrecy outage performance of a single-input multiple-output underlay cognitive radio network (CRN) with outdated channel state information (CSI). The confidential messages are transmitted from transmitter to the destination, while a multi-antenna eavesdropper exists. The maximal ratio combining and selection combining schemes are utilised at the receivers to improve the quality of the received signal-to-noise ratio. The exact and asymptotic closed-form expressions of secrecy outage probability are derived, and simulation results are provided to verify the authors\\' proposed analytical results. The results reveal that imperfect CSI of main channels deteriorates the secrecy outage performance while that of eavesdropping and interfering channels has contrary effect, and only a unity diversity order can be obtained in underlay CRNs with imperfect CSI.

  6. Behind the Nature of Titanium Oxide Excellent Surface Passivation and Carrier Selectivity of c-Si

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plakhotnyuk, Maksym; Crovetto, Andrea; Hansen, Ole

    We present an expanded study of the passivation properties of titanium dioxide (TiO2) on p-type crystalline silicon (c-Si). We report a low surface recombination velocity (16 cm/s) for TiO2 passivation layers with a thin tunnelling oxide interlayer (SiO2 or Al2O3) on p-type crystalline silicon (c-Si......), and post-deposition annealing temperature were investigated. We have observed that that SiO2 and Al2O3 interlayers enhance the TiO2 passivation of c-Si. TiO2 thin film passivation layers alone result in lower effective carrier lifetime. Further annealing at 200  ̊C in N2 gas enhances the surface...

  7. Influence of bias voltage on the stability of CsI photocathodes exposed to air

    CERN Document Server

    Nitti, M A; Nappi, E; Singh, B K; Valentini, A

    2002-01-01

    We describe a possible correlation between the bias voltage applied to the substrate during the growth of CsI photocathodes and the variation of quantum efficiency (QE) after one day exposure to humid air. It was found that fresh samples are much less sensitive to humid air when a high negative bias voltage was applied during film growth. A model based on surface film interaction with water molecules is presented for the observed effect. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements have been performed to examine, respectively, the bulk structure and the surface of fresh and exposed CsI samples. Also reported are transmittance measurements for fresh and aged CsI samples in the wavelength range 190-850 nm.

  8. Performance of the upgraded small angle tile calorimeter at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Alvsvaag, S J; Barreira, G; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Bigi, M; Bonesini, M; Bozzo, M; Camporesi, T; Carling, H; Cassio, V; Castellani, L; Cereseto, R; Chignoli, F; Della Ricca, G; Dharmasiri, D R; Espirito-Santo, M C; Falk, E; Fenyuk, A; Ferrari, P; Gamba, D; Giordano, V; Guz, Yu; Guerzoni, M; Gumenyuk, S A; Hedberg, V; Jarlskog, G; Karyukhin, A N; Klovning, A; Konoplyannikov, A K; Kronkvist, I J; Lanceri, L; Leoni, R; Maeland, O A; Maio, A; Mazza, R; Migliore, E; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Nossum, B; Obraztsov, V F; Onofre, A; Paganoni, M; Pegoraro, M; Peralta, L; Petrovykh, L P; Pimenta, M; Poropat, P; Prest, M; Read, A L; Romero, A; Shalanda, N A; Simonetti, L; Skaali, T B; Stugu, B; Terranova, F; Tomé, B; Torassa, E; Trapani, P P; Verardi, M G; Vallazza, E; Vlasov, E; Zaitsev, A

    1998-01-01

    The small angle tile calorimeter (STIC) provides calorimetric coverage in the very forward region of the DELPHI experiment at the CERN LEP collider. The structure of the calorimeters, built with so- called "shashlik" technique, $9 allows the insertion of tracking detectors within the sampling structure, in order to make it possible to determine the direction of the showering particle. Presented here are some results demonstrating the performance of the $9 calorimeter and of these tracking detectors at LEP. (5 refs).

  9. Design and construction of the ZEUS barrel calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repond, J.

    1990-01-01

    The mechanical design and construction techniques of the barrel calorimeter for the ZEUS detector are presented. The calorimeter uses alternate layers of depleted uranium and scintillator with one radiation length sampling. The unit cell has e/h = 1 which yields an optimal energy resolution for hadronic jets. We discuss the placing of the structural components and cracks between modules. Details of the construction and assembly effort needed to realize the total calorimeter are reported. 4 figs., 1 tab

  10. Review of sustainability indices and indicators: Towards a new City Sustainability Index (CSI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Koichiro; Christodoulou, Aris

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss conceptual requirements for a City Sustainability Index (CSI) and to review existing major sustainability indices/indicators in terms of the requirements. The following indices are reviewed: Ecological Footprint (EF), Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI), Dashboard of Sustainability (DS), Welfare Index, Genuine Progress Indicator (GPI), Index of Sustainable Economic Welfare, City Development Index, emergy/exergy, Human Development Index (HDI), Environmental Vulnerability Index (EVI), Environmental Policy Index (EPI), Living Planet Index (LPI), Environmentally-adjusted Domestic Product (EDP), Genuine Saving (GS), and some applications of composite indices or/and multivariate indicators to local or regional context as case studies. The key conceptual requirements for an adequate CSI are: (i) to consider environmental, economic and social aspects (the triple bottom line of sustainability) from the viewpoint of strong sustainability; (ii) to capture external impacts (leakage effects) of city on other areas beyond the city boundaries particularly in terms of environmental aspects; (iii) to create indices/indicators originally for the purpose of assessing city sustainability; and (iv) to be able to assess world cities in both developed and developing countries using common axes of evaluation. Based on the review, we conclude that it is necessary to create a new CSI that enables us to assess and compare cities' sustainability performance in order to understand the global impact of cities on the environment and human life as compared with their economic contribution. In the future, the CSI will be able to provide local authorities with guidance toward sustainable paths. - Highlights: ► We derive the four key requirements for a new City Sustainability Index (CSI) system. ► First, the triple bottom line must be considered in terms of strong sustainability. ► Second, environmental leakage effects beyond city boundaries should

  11. Performance of the SLD Warm Iron Calorimeter prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callegari, G.; Piemontese, L.; De Sangro, R.; Peruzzi, I.; Piccolo, M.; Busza, W.; Friedman, J.; Johnson, A.; Kendall, H.; Kistiakowsky, V.

    1986-03-01

    A prototype hadron calorimeter, of similar design to the Warm Iron Calorimeter (WIC) planned for the SLD experiment, has been built and its performance has been studied in a test beam. The WIC is an iron sampling calorimeter whose active elements are plastic streamer tubes similar to those used for the Mont-Blanc proton decay experiment. The construction and operation of the tubes will be briefly described together with their use in an iron calorimeter - muon tracker. Efficiency, resolution and linearity have been measured in a hadron/muon beam up to 11 GeV. The measured values correspond to the SLD design goals

  12. Calorimeters for diagnosis of laser-fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunn, S.R.

    1976-01-01

    A variety of calorimeters have been developed for measuring ions, x-rays, and scattered radiation emanating from laser-pulse-imploded fusion targets. The ion and x-ray calorimeters use metal or glass absorbers to reflect or transmit most of the scattered laser radiation; the versions using metal absorbers also incorporate a differential construction to compensate for the fraction of the scattered laser radiation that is absorbed. The scattered-radiation calorimeters use colored glass to absorb the radiation and a transparent glass shield to remove ions and x rays. Most of the calorimeters use commercial semiconductor thermoelectric modules as the temperature sensors

  13. The ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter--status and expected performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schacht, Peter

    2004-01-01

    For the ATLAS detector at the LHC, the liquid argon technique is exploited for the electromagnetic calorimetry in the central part and for the electromagnetic and hadronic calorimetry in the forward and backward regions. The construction of the calorimeter is well advanced with full cold tests of the barrel calorimeter and first endcap calorimeter only months away. The status of the project is discussed as well as the related results from beam test studies of the various calorimeter subdetectors. The results show that the expected performance meets the ATLAS requirements as specified in the ATLAS Technical Design Report

  14. Properties of CsI and CsI-TMAE photocathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.F.; Kwan, S.; Peskov, V.; Hoeneisen, B.

    1992-06-01

    The importance of heating the CsI or CsI-TMAE photocathodes during preparation, as well as the importance of the gas environment on the quantum efficiency is presented. The dependence of the aging characteristics of these photocathodes on the operating temperature, on the presence of gas, and on the charge amplification of the chamber is also discussed. For CsI photocathodes charges in excess of 2x10 14 e - /mm 2 can be collected with little degradation of performance. A timing resolution of 0.55 ns is also achieved for single photoelectrons suggesting a possible time-of-flight detector

  15. Uplink Contention-based CSI Feedback with Prioritized Layers for a Multi-Carrier System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaneko, Megumi; Hayashi, Kazunori; Popovski, Petar

    2012-01-01

    , several works have considered contention-based CSI feedback in the UL control channel. We propose such a feedback scheme for a generic MC system, based on the idea of variable collision protection, where the probability that a feedback information experiences a collision depends on its importance......Optimized resource allocation of the Downlink (DL) in wireless systems utilizing Multi-Carrier (MC) transmission requires Channel State Information (CSI) feedback for each user/subchannel to the Base Station (BS), consuming a high amount of Uplink (UL) radio resources. To alleviate this problem...

  16. An analysis of the sectorial influence of CSI300 stocks within the directed network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Yong; Chen, Huan; Meng, Lei

    2014-02-01

    This paper uses the Partial Correlation Planar maximally filtered Graph (PCPG) method to construct a directed network for the constituent stocks underlying the China Securities Index 300 (CSI300). We also analyse the impact of individual stocks. We find that the CSI300 market is a scale-free network with a relatively small power law exponent. The volatility of the stock prices has significant impact on other stocks. In the sectorial network, the industrial sector is the most influential one over other sectors, the financial sector only has a modest influence, while the telecommunication services sector’s influence is marginal. In addition, such inter-sector influence displays quarterly stability.

  17. Highly efficient holograms based on c-Si metasurfaces in the visible range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Augusto; Li, Juntao; da Mota, Achiles F; Wang, Yin; Neto, Luiz G; do Carmo, João P; Teixeira, Fernando L; Martins, Emiliano R; Borges, Ben-Hur V

    2018-04-16

    This paper reports on the first hologram in transmission mode based on a c-Si metasurface in the visible range. The hologram shows high fidelity and high efficiency, with measured transmission and diffraction efficiencies of ~65% and ~40%, respectively. Although originally designed to achieve full phase control in the range [0-2π] at 532 nm, these holograms have also performed well at 444.9 nm and 635 nm. The high tolerance to both fabrication and wavelength variations demonstrate that holograms based on c-Si metasurfaces are quite attractive for diffractive optics applications, and particularly for full-color holograms.

  18. Generation of CsI cluster ions for mass calibration in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lou, X.; Dongen, van J.L.J.; Meijer, E.W.

    2010-01-01

    A simple method was developed for the generation of cesium iodide (CsI) cluster ions up to m/z over 20,000 in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS). Calibration ions in both positive and negative ion modes can readily be generated from a single MALDI spot of CsI(3)

  19. Upgraded photon calorimeter with integrating readout for the Hall A Compton polarimeter at Jefferson Lab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friend, M.; Parno, D.; Benmokhtar, F.; Camsonne, A.; Dalton, M.M.; Franklin, G.B.; Mamyan, V.; Michaels, R.; Nanda, S.; Nelyubin, V.; Paschke, K.; Quinn, B.; Rakhman, A.; Souder, P.; Tobias, A.

    2012-01-01

    The photon arm of the Compton polarimeter in Hall A of Jefferson Lab has been upgraded to allow for electron beam polarization measurements with better than 1% accuracy. The data acquisition (DAQ) system now includes an integrating mode, which eliminates several systematic uncertainties inherent in the original counting-DAQ setup. The photon calorimeter has been replaced with a Ce-doped Gd 2 SiO 5 crystal, which has a bright output and fast response, and works well for measurements using the new integrating method at electron beam energies from 1 to 6 GeV.

  20. The uranium liquid argon calorimeter of the D0 experiment: Experience in realizing a large system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guryn, W.

    1991-01-01

    The major aspects in realizing the calorimeter system of the D OE experiment are discussed. They include: technologies developed for calorimeter production, schedule, and experience with module production

  1. CaloCube: an innovative homogeneous calorimeter for the next-generation space experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacini, L.; Adriani, O.; Agnesi, A.; Albergo, S.; Auditore, L.; Basti, A.; Berti, E.; Bigongiari, G.; Bonechi, L.; Bonechi, S.; Bongi, M.; Bonvicini, V.; Bottai, S.; Brogi, P.; Cappello, G.; Carotenuto, G.; Castellini, G.; Cattaneo, P. W.; Chiari, M.; Daddi, N.; DAlessandro, R.; Detti, S.; Fasoli, M.; Finetti, N.; Lenzi, P.; Maestro, P.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Miritello, M.; Mori, N.; Orzan, G.; Olmi, M.; Papini, P.; Pellegriti, M. G.; Pirzio, F.; Rappoldi, A.; Ricciarini, S.; Spillantini, P.; Starodubtsev, O.; Stolzi, F.; Suh, J. E.; Sulaj, A.; Tiberio, A.; Tricomi, A.; Trifirò, A.; Trimarchi, M.; Vannuccini, E.; Vedda, A.; Zampa, G.; Zampa, N.

    2017-11-01

    The direct measurement of the cosmic-ray spectrum, up to the knee region, is one of the instrumental challenges for next generation space experiments. The main issue for these measurements is a steeply falling spectrum with increasing energy, so the physics performance of the space calorimeters are primarily determined by their geometrical acceptance and energy resolution. CaloCube is a three-year R&D project, approved and financed by INFN in 2014, aiming to optimize the design of a space-born calorimeter. The peculiarity of the design of CaloCube is its capability of detecting particles coming from any direction, and not only those on its upper surface. To ensure that the quality of the measurement does not depend on the arrival direction of the particles, the calorimeter will be designed as homogeneous and isotropic as possible. In addition, to achieve a high discrimination power for hadrons and nuclei with respect to electrons, the sensitive elements of the calorimeter need to have a fine 3-D sampling capability. In order to optimize the detector performances with respect to the total mass of the apparatus, which is the most important constraint for a space launch, a comparative study of different scintillating materials has been performed using detailed Monte Carlo simulation based on the FLUKA package. In parallel to simulation studies, a prototype consisting in 14 layers of 3 x 3 CsI(Tl) crystals per layer has been assembled and tested with particle beams. An overview of the obtained results during the first two years of the project will be presented and the future of the detector will be discussed too.

  2. Radiation hardness of undoped BGO crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, S.K.; Peng, K.C.; Huang, H.C.; Wang, C.H.; Chang, Y.H.; Hou, W.S.; Ueno, K.; Chou, F.I.; Wei, Y.Y.

    1997-01-01

    We measured the radiation hardness of undoped BGO crystals from two different manufacturers. Such crystals are proposed to be used in a small-angle calorimeter of the BELLE detector of the KEK B-factory. Transparency and scintillation light output of the crystals were monitored to see the effect of radiation damage. The crystals show considerable radiation hardness up to 10.2 Mrad equivalent dose, which is much higher than the maximum expected dosage of 500 krad per year of running at BELLE. (orig.)

  3. Calibration of Tilecal hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batkova, L.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of a precise calibration of a calorimeter is to get the best response relationship between the calorimeter and the energy of incident particles. Different types of particles interact through various types of interactions with the environment. Therefore, calorimeters are optimized to detect one type of particle (electromagnetic particles and hadrons). Within current high energy physics experiments, where the detectors reached gigantic proportions, calorimeters hold two important features: - serve to measure power showers by complete absorption method; - reconstruct a direction of showers of particles after their interaction with the environment of calorimeter. To deterioration of the resolving power of the hadronic calorimeter contributes incompensation of its response to hadrons and electromagnetic particles (e, μ). They record more energy from electrons as from pions of the same nominal power. During building of experiment of the ATLAS the prototypes of Tile calorimeter were calibrated using Cs and then were tested by means of calibration particle beams (e, μ, π). The work is aimed to evaluation of the response of the muon beam calibration experiment ATLAS. The scope of the work is to determine correction factors for the calibration constants obtained from the primary calibration of the calorimeter by cesium for end Tilecal calorimeter modules. Tile calorimeter modules consist of three layers A, BC and D. A correction factor for calibration constant for A layer was determined by electron beam firing angle less than 20 grad. Muons are used to determine correction factors for the remaining two layers of the end calorimeter module, where the electrons of given energy do not penetrate. (author)

  4. R&D proposal to DRDC fast EM calorimeter with excellent photon angular resolution and energy resolution using scintillating noble liquids

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, M; Sumorok, K; Zhang, X; Gaudreau, M P J; Akimov, D Y; Bolozdynya, A I; Churakov, D; Chernyshov, V; Koutchenkov, A; Kovalenko, A; Kuzichev, V F; Lamkov, V A; Lebedenko, V; Gusev, L; Safronov, G A; Sheinkman, V A; Smirnov, G; Krasnokutsky, R N; Shuvalov, R S; Fedyakin, N N; Sushkov, V V; Akopyan, M V; Gougas, Andreas; Pevsner, A; CERN. Geneva. Detector Research and Development Committee

    1993-01-01

    Recent test beam data have shown fast and large signals for LKr, mixed with >1% LXe. Excellent uniformity in LKr and LXe was achieved over a 37 cm long cell. CsI cathode works well inside LKr/LXe with O(1%) resolution at 5 MeV. Precision calibration in-situ has been demonstrated. Scintillating LKr/LXe detectors are sufficiently radiation hard for LHC environment. These new developments simplify the construction of prototype LKr calorimeter, to demonstrate the superior e/gamma energy resolution and the determination of photon direction using longitudinal and transverse segmentations, which are vital for the detection of the multi-photon states. The constant term in the energy resolution is small, the electronics noise is negligible due to the large signal size. The overall pion/electron suppression is expected to be better than 10-4.

  5. The BGO Calorimeter of BGO-OD Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bantes, B; Bayadilov, D; Bella, A; Bielefeldt, P; Bieling, J; Bleckwenn, M; Dutz, H; Elsner, D; Freyermuth, O; Beck, R; Becker, M; Böse, S; Braghieri, A; Brinkmann, K-Th; Friedrich, S; Burdeynyi, D; Curciarello, F; Leo, V De; Salvo, R Di; Fantini, A

    2015-01-01

    The BGO Rugby Ball is a large solid angle electromagnetic calorimeter now installed in the ELSA Facility in Bonn. The BGO is operating in the BGO-OD experiment aiming to study meson photoproduction off proton and neutron induced by a Bremsstrahlung polarized gamma beam of energies from 0.2 to 3.2 GeV and an intensity of 5 × 10 7 photons per second. The scintillating material characteristics and the photomultiplier read-out make this detector particularly suited for the detection of medium energy photons and electrons with very good energy resolution. The detector has been equipped with a new electronics read-out system, consisting of 30 sampling ADC Wie-Ne-R modules which perform the off-line reconstruction of the signal start-time allowing for a good timing resolution. Performances in linearity, resolution and time response have been carefully tested at the Beam Test Facility of the INFN National Laboratories in Frascati by using a matrix of 7 BGO crystals coupled to photomultipliers and equipped with the Wie-Ne-R sampling ADCs

  6. Fine-mesh photodetectors for CMS Endcap Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Bajanov, N A; Gusev, Yu I; Klechneva, T Yu; Kovalev, A I; Levtchenko, L A; Moroz, F V; Seliverstov, D M; Kachanov, V A; Golubev, N A; Frolov, V A; Lukyanov, V N; Mamaeva, G A; Prilutskaya, D M

    2000-01-01

    The behaviour of fine-mesh vacuum phototriodes (VPTs) with the external diameters of 21 and 35 mm has been investigated in an axial magnetic field up to 4 T in view of their applications as readout devices for CMS Endcap Electromagnetic Calorimeter. The measured VPT parameters are: the photocathode's sensitivity and its homogeneity, the gain in zero and 4 T magnetic field at tilt angles corresponding to the pseudorapidity range of CMS ECAL Endcap 1.48-3.0 as a function of fine-mesh cell dimensions, excess noise factor and the stability of the photocathode response under the illumination by light emission diodes (LED) and the irradiation by 14 MeV neutrons. Phototriodes with 100 lines per mm fine-mesh and 25 mm external diameter are found to be the best candidates for coupling with rear PbWO/sub 4/ crystals by dimensions of 30*30 mm, proposed to be used in CMS ECAL Endcaps. VPTs provide a gain of the order (6-8) in a 4 T magnetic field and an excess noise factor of 2-2.5 under illumination of a full photocatho...

  7. An automatic device for the quality control of large-scale crystal's production

    CERN Document Server

    Baccaro, S; Castellani, M; Cecilia, A; Dafinei, I; Diemoz, M; Guerra, S; Longo, E; Montecchi, M; Organtini, G; Pellegrini, F

    2001-01-01

    In 1999, the construction of the electromagnetic calorimeter of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment started. Half of the barrel calorimeter made of 61200 lead tungstate (PWO) crystals will be assembled and tested in the Regional Centre of INFN-ENEA in Rome, Italy. Before assembling, all 30600 PWO crystals will be qualified for scintillation and radiation hardness characteristics by a specially built Automatic Crystal Control System. The measuring techniques for crystal qualification and performances of the automatic system will be discussed in this work. (11 refs).

  8. Detection of Potential Induced Degradation in c-Si PV Panels Using Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oprea, Matei-lon; Spataru, Sergiu; Sera, Dezso

    2016-01-01

    This work, for the first time, investigates an Impedance Spectroscopy (IS) based method for detecting potential-induced degradation (PID) in crystalline silicon photovoltaic (c-Si PV) panels. The method has been experimentally tested on a set of panels that were confirmed to be affected by PID...

  9. IBC c-Si solar cells based on ion-implanted poly-silicon passivating contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, G.; Ingenito, A.; Isabella, O.; Zeman, M.

    2016-01-01

    Ion-implanted poly-crystalline silicon (poly-Si), in combination with a tunnel oxide layer, is investigated as a carrier-selective passivating contact in c-Si solar cells based on an interdigitated back contact (IBC) architecture. The optimized poly-Si passivating contacts enable low interface

  10. Achievable Rates of Cognitive Radio Networks Using Multi-Layer Coding with Limited CSI

    KAUST Repository

    Sboui, Lokman

    2016-03-01

    In a Cognitive Radio (CR) framework, the channel state information (CSI) feedback to the secondary transmitter (SU Tx) can be limited or unavailable. Thus, the statistical model is adopted in order to determine the system performance using the outage concept. In this paper, we adopt a new approach using multi-layer-coding (MLC) strategy, i.e., broadcast approach, to enhance spectrum sharing over fading channels. First, we consider a scenario where the secondary transmitter has no CSI of both the link between SU Tx and the primary receiver (cross-link) and its own link. We show that using MLC improves the cognitive rate compared to the rate provided by a singlelayer- coding (SLC). In addition, we observe numerically that 2-Layer coding achieves most of the gain for Rayleigh fading. Second, we analyze a scenario where SU Tx is provided by partial CSI about its link through quantized CSI. We compute its achievable rate adopting the MLC and highlight the improvement over SLC. Finally, we study the case in which the cross-link is perfect, i.e., a cooperative primary user setting, and compare the performance with the previous cases. We present asymptotic analysis at high power regime and show that the cooperation enhances considerably the cognitive rate at high values of the secondary power budget.

  11. CSI Web Adventures: A Forensics Virtual Apprenticeship for Teaching Science and Inspiring STEM Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Leslie; Chang, Ching-I; Hoyt, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    CSI: The Experience, a traveling museum exhibit and a companion web adventure, was created through a grant from the National Science Foundation as a potential model for informal learning. The website was designed to enrich and complement the exhibit by modeling the forensic process. Substantive science, real-world lab techniques, and higher-level…

  12. Children and Crime Scenes: Have Schools Fallen Victim to the CSI Effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskriett, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Whilst there continues to be debate regarding the influence of the "CSI effect" upon the criminal justice system, there appears to be a general consensus that the popularisation of work within the field, particularly through a number of "procedural cop shows", has fuelled an explosion in the number of young people choosing to pursue a career in…

  13. CSI-EPT in Presence of RF-Shield for MR-Coils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arduino, Alessandro; Zilberti, Luca; Chiampi, Mario; Bottauscio, Oriano

    2017-07-01

    Contrast source inversion electric properties tomography (CSI-EPT) is a recently developed technique for the electric properties tomography that recovers the electric properties distribution starting from measurements performed by magnetic resonance imaging scanners. This method is an optimal control approach based on the contrast source inversion technique, which distinguishes itself from other electric properties tomography techniques for its capability to recover also the local specific absorption rate distribution, essential for online dosimetry. Up to now, CSI-EPT has only been described in terms of integral equations, limiting its applicability to homogeneous unbounded background. In order to extend the method to the presence of a shield in the domain-as in the recurring case of shielded radio frequency coils-a more general formulation of CSI-EPT, based on a functional viewpoint, is introduced here. Two different implementations of CSI-EPT are proposed for a 2-D transverse magnetic model problem, one dealing with an unbounded domain and one considering the presence of a perfectly conductive shield. The two implementations are applied on the same virtual measurements obtained by numerically simulating a shielded radio frequency coil. The results are compared in terms of both electric properties recovery and local specific absorption rate estimate, in order to investigate the requirement of an accurate modeling of the underlying physical problem.

  14. Atomic-layer deposited passivation schemes for c-Si solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Loo, B.W.H.; Macco, B.; Melskens, J.; Verheijen, M.A.; Kessels, W.M.M.E.

    2016-01-01

    A review of recent developments in the field of passivation of c-Si surfaces is presented, with a particular focus on materials that can be prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD). Besides Al2O3, various other novel passivation schemes have recently been developed, such as Ga2O3, Ta2O5,

  15. Simulated UO{sub 2} fuel containing CsI by spark plasma sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wangle, T. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU), Postfach 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Břehová 7, Praha 1, 115 19 (Czech Republic); Tyrpekl, V. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU), Postfach 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Cologna, M., E-mail: marco.cologna@ec.europa.eu [European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU), Postfach 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Somers, J. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU), Postfach 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    Herein, an innovative preparation procedure has been deployed enabling, for the first time, the incorporation of volatile fission product simulant into highly dense nuclear fuel pellets. Highly volatile fission products were embedded in a dense UO{sub 2} matrix in the form of CsI by simply mixing starting materials and consolidation in a Spark Plasma Sintering step at 1000 °C with a 5 min dwell time. CsI particles were evenly distributed throughout the pellet and were located at the grain boundaries. The sintering rate is dependent on the O/U ratio of the powder. Addition of CsI also acts as a sintering aid, reducing the temperature of maximum densification. - Highlights: • A new method was developed to incorporation of volatile fission products simulants into dense nuclear fuel pellets. • CsI doped UO{sub 2} pellets were synthetized for the first time, by Spark Plasma Sintering. • The sintering rate in Spark Plasma Sintering is dependent on the O/U ratio of UO{sub 2+x}.

  16. The CSI Academy: Encouraging Diverse Students to Consider Science Careers and Science Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Karen; Turner, John F.; Emigh, James

    2011-01-01

    The CSI academies employed a multi-layered, collaborative approach to encourage diverse students to consider STEM careers, including science teaching. The academies recruited a diverse group of high school students. This was due, in large part, to the creation of a unique selection process that identified students with unrealized potential. The…

  17. Exploring K-3 Teachers' Implementation of Comprehension Strategy Instruction (CSI) Using Expectancy-Value Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Laura S.

    2011-01-01

    This research investigated factors that influence the implementation levels of evidence-based comprehension strategy instruction (CSI) among K-3 teachers. An explanatory design was chosen to gather and probe the data. Quantitative data were gathered via a mailed survey distributed through a representative sample of the 40 school districts (through…

  18. Distributed cognitive two-way relay beamformer designs under perfect and imperfect CSI

    KAUST Repository

    Pandarakkottilil, Ubaidulla

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, we present distributed two-way relay beamformer designs for a cognitive radio network (CRN) in which a pair of cognitive (or secondary) transceiver nodes communicate with each other assisted by a set of cognitive two-way relay nodes. The secondary nodes share the spectrum with a licensed primary user (PU) node, and each node is assumed to be equipped with a single transmit/receive antenna. The interference to the PU resulting from the transmission from the cognitive nodes is kept below a specified limit. First, we consider relay beamformer designs assuming the availability of perfect channel state information (CSI). For this case, a mean-square error (MSE)-constrained beamformer that minimizes the total relay transmit power, and an MSE-balancing beamformer with a constraint on the total relay transmit power are proposed. Next, we consider relay beamformer designs assuming that the available CSI is imperfect. For this case too, we consider the same problems as those in the case of perfect CSI, and propose beamformer designs that are robust to the errors in the CSI. We show that the proposed designs can be reformulated as convex optimization problems that can be solved efficiently. Through numerical simulations, we illustrate the performance of the proposed designs. © 2011 IEEE.

  19. Non-Cartesian Parallel Imaging Reconstruction of Undersampled IDEAL Spiral 13C CSI Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rie Beck; Hanson, Lars G.; Ardenkjær-Larsen, Jan Henrik

    scan times based on spatial information inherent to each coil element. In this work, we explored the combination of non-cartesian parallel imaging reconstruction and spatially undersampled IDEAL spiral CSI1 acquisition for efficient encoding of multiple chemical shifts within a large FOV with high...

  20. Iterative Equalization and Interference Alignment for Multiuser MIMO HetNets with Imperfect CSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Castanheira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider a scenario, where several small-cells work under the same coverage area and spectrum of a macrocell. The signals stemming from the small-cell (macrocell users if not carefully dealt with will generate harmful interference into the macrocell (small-cell. To tackle this problem interference alignment and iterative equalization techniques are considered. By using IA all interference generated by the small-cell (macrocell users is aligned along a low dimensional subspace, at the macrocell (small-cells. This reduces considerably the amount of resources allocated, to enable the coexistence of the two systems. However, perfect IA requires the availability of error-free channel state information (CSI at the transmitters. Due to CSI errors one can have substantial performance degradation due to imperfect alignments. Since in this work the IA precoders are based on imperfect CSI, an efficient iterative space-frequency equalization is designed at the receiver side to cope with the residual aligned interference. The results demonstrate that iterative equalization is robust to imperfect CSI and removes efficiently the interference generated by the poorly aligned interference. Close to matched filter bound performance is achieved, with a very few number of iterations.

  1. Sequential C-Si Bond Formations from Diphenylsilane: Application to Silanediol Peptide Isostere Precursors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lone; Skrydstrup, Troels

    2008-01-01

    and the first new carbon-silicon bond. The next step is the reduction of this hydridosilane with lithium metal providing a silyl lithium reagent, which undergoes a highly diastereoselective addition to an optically active tert-butanesulfinimine, thus generating the second C-Si bond. This method allows...

  2. Two-way CSI-assisted AF relaying with HPA nonlinearity

    KAUST Repository

    Qi, Jian; Aissa, Sonia; Alouiniz, Mohamed-Slim

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate half-duplex two-way dual-hop channel state information (CSI)-assisted amplify-andforward (AF) relaying in the presence of high-power amplifier (HPA) nonlinearity at relays. The expression for the end-toend signal

  3. A hidden bias in a common calorimeter calibration scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lincoln, Don; Morrow, Greg; Kasper, Peter

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, a common calorimeter calibration scheme is explored and a hidden bias found. Since this bias mimics a non-linearity in response in the calorimeter, it must be understood and removed from the calibration before true non-linearities are investigated. The effect and its removal are explored and understood through straightforward calculus and algebra. ((orig.))

  4. Moving one of the ATLAS end-cap calorimeters

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni

    2007-01-01

    One of the end-cap calorimeters for the ATLAS experiment is moved using a set of rails. This calorimeter will measure the energy of particles that are produced close to the axis of the beam when two protons collide. It is kept cool inside a cryostat to allow the detector to work at maximum efficiency.

  5. ATLAS Tile Calorimeter central barrel assembly and installation.

    CERN Multimedia

    nikolai topilin

    2009-01-01

    These photos belong to the self-published book by Nikolai Topilin "ATLAS Hadron Calorimeter Assembly". The book is a collection of souvenirs from the years of assembly and installation of the Tile Hadron Calorimeter, which extended from November 2002 until May 2006.

  6. First experimental tests of a lead glass drift calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra, A.D.; Bellazzini, R.; Conti, M.; Massai, M.M.; Schwartz, G.; Habel, R.; Mulera, T.; Perez-Mendez, V.

    1985-10-01

    We are building a drift collection calorimeter, which has a combined radiator and electric field shaping structure made of fused lead glass tubing, treated in a H 2 reducing atmosphere. We describe the construction detail of the calorimeter and the experimental measurements on several prototypes with radioative sources and minimum ionizing particles. 9 refs., 11 figs

  7. Calibration of film dosimeters by means of absorbed dose calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaev, S.M.; Vanyushkin, B.M.; Kon'kov, N.G.

    1980-01-01

    Methods of graduating film dosimeters by means of calorimeters of absorbed doses, are considered. Graduating of film dosimeters at the energies of accelerated electrons from 4 to 10 MeV can be carried out by means of quasiadiabatic calorimeter of local absorption, the absorber thickness of which should not exceed 5-10% of Rsub(e) value, where Rsub(e) - free electron path of the given energy. In this case film is located inside the calorimeter. For graduating films with thickness not less than (0.1-0.2)Rsub(e) it is suggested to use calorimeter of full absorption; then the graduated dosimeters are located in front of the calorimeter. Graduation of films at small energies of electrons is exercised by means of a package of films, approximately Rsub(e) thick. A design of quasiadiabatic calorimeter, intended for graduating dosimeters within the energy range of electron beam from 4 to 10 MeV, is considered. The quasiadiabatic calorimeter is a thin graphite tablet with heater and thermocouple, surrounded by foam plastic thermostating case. Electricity quantity, accumulated during the radiation field pass, is measured in the case of using the quasiadiabatic calorimeter for film graduating. The results of graduating film dosimeters, obtained using film package with Rsub(e) thickness, are presented. The obtained results coincide within 5% limits with the data known beforehand [ru

  8. The ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter: Construction, Integration, Commissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksa, Martin

    2006-01-01

    The ATLAS liquid argon (LAr) calorimeter system consists of an electromagnetic barrel calorimeter and two end caps with electromagnetic, hadronic and forward calorimeters. The liquid argon sampling technique, with an accordion geometry was chosen for the barrel electromagnetic calorimeter (EMB) and adapted to the end cap (EMEC). The hadronic end cap calorimeter (HEC) uses a copper-liquid argon sampling technique with flat plate geometry and is subdivided in depth in two wheels per end-cap. Finally, the forward calorimeter (FCAL) is composed of three modules employing cylindrical electrodes with thin liquid argon gaps.The construction of the full calorimeter system is complete since mid-2004. Production modules constructed in the home institutes were integrated into wheels at CERN in 2003-2004, and inserted into the three cryostats. They passed their first complete cold test before the lowering into the ATLAS cavern. Results of quality checks (e.g. electrical, mechanical, ...) performed on all the 190304 read-out channels after cool down will be reported. End 2004 the ATLAS barrel electromagnetic (EM) calorimeter was installed in the ATLAS cavern and since summer 2005 the front-end electronics are being connected and tested. Results of this first commissioning phase will be shown to demonstrate the high standards of quality control for our detectors

  9. The optical instrumentation of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abdallah, J.; Adragna, P.; Alexa, C.; Lokajíček, Miloš; Němeček, Stanislav; Přibyl, Lukáš

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, Jan (2013), P01005 ISSN 1748-0221 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : calorimeters * calorimeter methods * scintillators * scintillation and light emission processes * solid, gas and liquid scintillators Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.526, year: 2013

  10. A Customizable GeantV Calorimeter Application

    CERN Document Server

    Schmitz, Ryan; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Novak, Mihaly; CERN. Geneva. EP Department

    2017-01-01

    A customizable calorimeter application was written in GeantV. This application includes a GeantV-native detector construction file as well as GeantV-native physics models and new data collection structures. Including these features makes this one of the first examples of a completely standalone GeantV application. A comparison to Geant4 was made which showed the consistency of the GeantV-native physics models included in this example. Finally, the workflow improvements made by the creation of this application are described.

  11. ATLAS detector performance in Run1: Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Burghgrave, B; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    ATLAS operated with an excellent efficiency during the Run 1 data taking period, recording respectively in 2011 and 2012 an integrated luminosity of 5.3 fb-1 at √s = 7 TeV and 21.6 fb-1 at √s = 8TeV. The Liquid Argon and Tile Calorimeter contributed to this effort by operating with a good data quality efficiency, improving over the whole Run 1. This poster presents the Run 1 overall status and performance, LS1 works and Preparations for Run 2.

  12. Neutron calorimeter as a fusion diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proctor, A.E.; Nieschmidt, E.B.

    1986-01-01

    A calorimeter is described which is applicable as a fusion neutron diagnostic. The device has the following distinct advantages: low sensitivity to thermal neutrons, large dynamic range, small mass resulting in fair time resolution, small physical size, independent calibration, little shielding required, no heat loss to surroundings, and low cost. The heat generation is provided by neutron induced fissions in a foil of 235 U or 238 U. The effects, advantages, and disadvantages of these target materials are discussed. The expected time resolution and dynamic range are estimated for both target materials

  13. Readiness of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter for LHC Collisions

    CERN Document Server

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Sankey, D.P.C.; Sanny, B.; Sansoni, A.; Santamarina Rios, C; Santi, L.; Santoni, C.; Santonico, R.; Santos, D.; Santos, J.; Saraiva, J.G.; Sarangi, T.; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E.; Sarri, F.; Sasaki, O.; Sasaki, T.; Sasao, N.; Satsounkevitch, I.; Sauvage, G.; Savard, P.; Savine, A.Y.; Savinov, V.; Sawyer, L.; Saxon, D.H.; Says, L.P.; Sbarra, C.; Sbrizzi, A.; Scannicchio, D.A.; Schaarschmidt, J.; Schacht, P.; Schäfer, U.; Schaetzel, S.; Schaffer, A.C.; Schaile, D.; Schamberger, R.D.; Schamov, A.G.; Schegelsky, V.A.; Scheirich, D.; Schernau, M.; Scherzer, M.I.; Schiavi, C.; Schieck, J.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenker, S.; Schlereth, J.L.; Schmid, P.; Schmidt, M.P.; Schmieden, K.; Schmitt, C.; Schmitz, M.; Schott, M.; Schouten, D.; Schovancova, J.; Schram, M.; Schreiner, A.; Schroeder, C.; Schroer, N.; Schroers, M.; Schuler, G.; Schultes, J.; Schultz-Coulon, H-C; Schumacher, J.; Schumacher, M.; Schumm, B.A.; Schune, Ph; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwartzman, A.; Schwemling, Ph; Schwienhorst, R.; Schwierz, R.; Schwindling, J.; Scott, W.G.; Searcy, J.; Sedykh, E.; Segura, E.; Seidel, S.C.; Seiden, A.; Seifert, F.; Seixas, J.M.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Seliverstov, D.M.; Sellden, B.; Seman, M.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Serfon, C.; Serin, L.; Seuster, R.; Severini, H.; Sevior, M.E.; Sfyrla, A.; Shamim, M.; Shan, L.Y.; Shank, J.T.; Shao, Q.T.; Shapiro, M.; Shatalov, P.B.; Shaver, L.; Shaw, C.; Shaw, K.; Sherman, D.; Sherwood, P.; Shibata, A.; Shimojima, M.; Shin, T.; Shmeleva, A.; Shochet, M.J.; Shupe, M.A.; Sicho, P.; Sidoti, A.; Siebel, A.; Siegert, F.; Siegrist, J.; Sijacki, Dj; Silbert, O.; Silva, J.; Silver, Y.; Silverstein, D.; Silverstein, S.B.; Simak, V.; Simic, Lj; Simion, S.; Simmons, B.; Simonyan, M.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N.B.; Sipica, V.; Siragusa, G.; Sisakyan, A.N.; Sivoklokov, S.Yu.; Sjoelin, J.; Sjursen, T.B.; Skubic, P.; Skvorodnev, N.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Sliwa, K.; Sloper, J.; Sluka, T.; Smakhtin, V.; Smirnov, S.Yu.; Smirnov, Y.; Smirnova, L.N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, B.C.; Smith, D.; Smith, K.M.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A.A.; Snow, S.W.; Snow, J.; Snuverink, J.; Snyder, S.; Soares, M.; Sobie, R.; Sodomka, J.; Soffer, A.; Solans, C.A.; Solar, M.; Solfaroli-Camillocci, E.; Solodkov, A.A.; Solovyanov, O.V.; Soluk, R.; Sondericker, J.; Sopko, V.; Sopko, B.; Sosebee, M.; Sosnovtsev, V.V.; Sospedra-Suay, L.; Soukharev, A.; Spagnolo, S.; Spanò, F.; Speckmayer, P.; Spencer, E.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spila, F.; Spiwoks, R.; Spousta, M.; Spreitzer, T.; Spurlock, B.; St Denis, R D; Stahl, T.; Stamen, R.; Stancu, S.N.; Stanecka, E.; Stanek, R.W.; Stanescu, C.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E.A.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Stastny, J.; Staude, A.; Stavina, P.; Stavropoulos, G.; Steinbach, P.; Steinberg, P.; Stekl, I.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H.J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stevenson, K.; Stewart, G.; Stockton, M.C.; Stoerig, K.; Stoicea, G.; Stonjek, S.; Strachota, P.; Stradling, A.; Straessner, A.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D.M.; Strong, J.A.; Stroynowski, R.; Strube, J.; Stugu, B.; Stumer, I.; Soh, D.A.; Su, D.; Suchkov, S.I.; Sugaya, Y.; Sugimoto, T.; Suhr, C.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V.V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, X.; Sundermann, J.E.; Suruliz, K.; Sushkov, S.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M.R.; Suzuki, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Sviridov, Yu M; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Szymocha, T.; Sánchez, J.; Ta, D.; Tackmann, K.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taga, A.; Takahashi, Y.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A.; Tamsett, M.C.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, S.; Tappern, G.P.; Tapprogge, S.; Tardif, D.; Tarem, S.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, G.F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tassi, E.; Taylor, C.; Taylor, F.E.; Taylor, G.N.; Taylor, R.P.; Taylor, W.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Ten Kate, H; Teng, P.K.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terwort, M.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R.J.; Tevlin, C.M.; Thadome, J.; Thananuwong, R.; Thioye, M.; Thoma, S.; Thomas, J.P.; Thomas, T.L.; Thompson, E.N.; Thompson, P.D.; Thompson, P.D.; Thompson, R.J.; Thompson, A.S.; Thomson, E.; Thun, R.P.; Tic, T.; Tikhomirov, V.O.; Tikhonov, Y.A.; Timmermans, C.J.W.P.; Tipton, P.; Tique-Aires-Viegas, F.J.; Tisserant, S.; Tobias, J.; Toczek, B.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Toggerson, B.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokushuku, K.; Tollefson, K.; Tomasek, L.; Tomasek, M.; Tomasz, F.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, D.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Tong, G.; Tonoyan, A.; Topfel, C.; Topilin, N.D.; Torrence, E.; Torró Pastor, E; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D.R.; Tovey, S.N.; Trefzger, T.; Tremblet, L.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I.M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Trinh, T.N.; Tripiana, M.F.; Triplett, N.; Trivedi, A.; Trocmé, B.; Troncon, C.; Trzupek, A.; Tsarouchas, C.; Tseng, J.C-L.; Tsiafis, I.; Tsiakiris, M.; Tsiareshka, P.V.; Tsionou, D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E.G.; Tsukerman, I.I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsung, J-W; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Turala, M.; Turecek, D.; Turk Cakir, I; Turlay, E.; Tuts, P.M.; Twomey, M.S.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Tzanakos, G.; Uchida, K.; Ueda, I.; Uhlenbrock, M.; Uhrmacher, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Underwood, D.G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Unno, Y.; Urbaniec, D.; Urkovsky, E.; Urquijo, P.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Uslenghi, M.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Vahsen, S.; Valenta, J.; Valente, P.; Valentinetti, S.; Valkar, S.; Valladolid Gallego, E; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J A; Van Berg, R; van der Graaf, H; van der Kraaij, E; van der Poel, E; Van Der Ster, D; van Eldik, N; van Gemmeren, P; van Kesteren, Z; van Vulpen, I; Vandelli, W.; Vandoni, G.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vannucci, F.; Varela Rodriguez, F; Vari, R.; Varnes, E.W.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K.E.; Vasilyeva, L.; Vassilakopoulos, V.I.; Vazeille, F.; Vegni, G.; Veillet, J.J.; Vellidis, C.; Veloso, F.; Veness, R.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J.C.; Vetterli, M.C.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Viehhauser, G.H.A.; Villa, M.; Villani, E.G.; Villaplana Perez, M; Villate, J.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M.G.; Vinek, E.; Vinogradov, V.B.; Viret, S.; Virzi, J.; Vitale, A.; Vitells, O.V.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaques, F; Vlachos, S.; Vlasak, M.; Vlasov, N.; Vogt, H.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, M.; Volpini, G.; von der Schmitt, H; von Loeben, J; von Radziewski, H; von Toerne, E; Vorobel, V.; Vorobiev, A.P.; Vorwerk, V.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Voss, T.T.; Vossebeld, J.H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vu Anh, T; Vudragovic, D.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Wagner, P.; Wahlen, H.; Walbersloh, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wall, R.; Wang, C.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.C.; Wang, S.M.; Ward, C.P.; Warsinsky, M.; Wastie, R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, M.F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, A.T.; Waugh, B.M.; Webel, M.; Weber, J.; Weber, M.D.; Weber, M.; Weber, M.S.; Weber, P.; Weidberg, A.R.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Wellenstein, H.; Wells, P.S.; Wen, M.; Wenaus, T.; Wendler, S.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Werth, M.; Werthenbach, U.; Wessels, M.; Whalen, K.; Wheeler-Ellis, S.J.; Whitaker, S.P.; White, A.; White, M.J.; White, S.; Whiteson, D.; Whittington, D.; Wicek, F.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, F.J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik, L.A.M.; Wildauer, A.; Wildt, M.A.; Wilhelm, I.; Wilkens, H.G.; Williams, E.; Williams, H.H.; Willis, W.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J.A.; Wilson, M.G.; Wilson, A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winklmeier, F.; Wittgen, M.; Wolter, M.W.; Wolters, H.; Wosiek, B.K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M.J.; Wraight, K.; Wright, C.; Wright, D.; Wrona, B.; Wu, S.L.; Wu, X.; Wulf, E.; Xella, S.; Xie, S.; Xie, Y.; Xu, D.; Xu, N.; Yamada, M.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamamura, T.; Yamanaka, K.; Yamaoka, J.; Yamazaki, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, U.K.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yao, W-M; Yao, Y.; Yasu, Y.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yilmaz, M.; Yoosoofmiya, R.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Young, C.; Youssef, S.P.; Yu, D.; Yu, J.; Yu, M.; Yu, X.; Yuan, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A.M.; Zajacova, Z.; Zambrano, V.; Zanello, L.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Zaytsev, A.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeller, M.; Zema, P.F.; Zemla, A.; Zendler, C.; Zenin, O.; Zenis, T.; Zenonos, Z.; Zenz, S.; Zerwas, D.; Zevi della Porta, G; Zhan, Z.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Q.; Zhang, X.; Zhao, L.; Zhao, T.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, S.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, N.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, C.G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zilka, B.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zimmermann, S.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zitoun, R.; Zivkovic, L.; Zmouchko, V.V.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; zur Nedden, M; Zutshi, V.

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter has been operating continuously since August 2006. At this time, only part of the calorimeter was readout, but since the beginning of 2008, all calorimeter cells have been connected to the ATLAS readout system in preparation for LHC collisions. This paper gives an overview of the liquid argon calorimeter performance measured in situ with random triggers, calibration data, cosmic muons, and LHC beam splash events. Results on the detector operation, timing performance, electronics noise, and gain stability are presented. High energy deposits from radiative cosmic muons and beam splash events allow to check the intrinsic constant term of the energy resolution. The uniformity of the electromagnetic barrel calorimeter response along eta (averaged over phi) is measured at the percent level using minimum ionizing cosmic muons. Finally, studies of electromagnetic showers from radiative muons have been used to cross-check the Monte Carlo simulation. The performance results obtained u...

  14. Reactor Gamma Heat Measurements with Calorimeters and Thermoluminescence Dosimeters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haack, Karsten; Majborn, Benny

    1973-01-01

    Intercomparison measurements of reactor γ-ray heating were carried out with calorimeters and thermoluminescence dosimeters. Within the measurement uncertainties the two methods yield coincident results. In the actual measurement range thermoluminescence dosimeters are less accurate than calorimet......Intercomparison measurements of reactor γ-ray heating were carried out with calorimeters and thermoluminescence dosimeters. Within the measurement uncertainties the two methods yield coincident results. In the actual measurement range thermoluminescence dosimeters are less accurate than...... calorimeters, but possess advantages such as a small probe size and the possibility of making simultaneous measurements at many different positions. Hence, thermoluminescence dosimeters may constitute a valuable supplement to calorimeters for reactor γ-ray heating measurements....

  15. Continued studies of calorimeter performance at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steward, S.A.; Tsugawa, R.T.

    1975-01-01

    Calibrations of two calorimeters used for tritium and plutonium assays were made. Data from three new standards of about 0.5, 1, and 5 W were added to the results of a previous report and analyzed together. The accuracies of both calorimeters appear to fall within the specified 0.5 percent, although the data now available for the large calorimeter is insufficient to permit a more definite conclusion. An expression of the bias correction for each calorimeter with respect to the sample power cannot be determined. The bias of the medium thermopile-type calorimeter tends to be positive, however, and that of the large resistance-bridge design appears to be negative

  16. Electromagnetic and Hadron Calorimeters in the MIPP Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigmanov, T. S.; Gustafson, H. R.; Longo, M. J.; Rajaram, D.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the MIPP experiment is to study the inclusive production of photons, pions, kaons, and nucleons produced in π, K, and p interactions on various targets using beams from the Main Injector at Fermilab. The purpose of the calorimeters is to measure the production of forward-going photons and neutrons. The electromagnetic calorimeter consists of 10 lead plates interspersed with proportional chambers followed by the hadron calorimeter with 64 steel plates interspersed with scintillator. We collected data with a variety of targets with beam energies from 5 GeV/c up to 120 GeV/c. The energy calibration of both calorimeters with electrons, pions, kaons and protons is discussed. The performance of the calorimeters was tested on a neutron sample

  17. Mechanical construction and installation of the ATLAS tile calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdallah, J [IFIC, Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, E46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Adragna, P; Bosi, F [Pisa University and INFN, Pisa (Italy); Alexa, C; Boldea, V [Institute of Atomic Physics, Bucharest (Romania); Alves, R [LIP and FCTUC University of Coimbra (Portugal); Amaral, P; Andresen, X; Behrens, A; Blocki, J [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Ananiev, A [LIP and IDMEC-IST, Lisbon (Portugal); Anderson, K [University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Antonaki, A [University of Athens, Athens (Greece); Batusov, V [JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation); Bednar, P [Comenius University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Bergeaas, E; Bohm, C [Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Biscarat, C [LPC Clermont-Ferrand, Université Blaise Pascal, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Blanch, O; Blanchot, G [Institut de Fisica d' Altes Energies, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); others, and

    2013-11-01

    This paper summarises the mechanical construction and installation of the Tile Calorimeter for the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider in CERN, Switzerland. The Tile Calorimeter is a sampling calorimeter using scintillator as the sensitive detector and steel as the absorber and covers the central region of the ATLAS experiment up to pseudorapidities ±1.7. The mechanical construction of the Tile Calorimeter occurred over a period of about 10 years beginning in 1995 with the completion of the Technical Design Report and ending in 2006 with the installation of the final module in the ATLAS cavern. During this period approximately 2600 metric tons of steel were transformed into a laminated structure to form the absorber of the sampling calorimeter. Following instrumentation and testing, which is described elsewhere, the modules were installed in the ATLAS cavern with a remarkable accuracy for a structure of this size and weight.

  18. Mechanical construction and installation of the ATLAS tile calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdallah, J; Adragna, P; Bosi, F; Alexa, C; Boldea, V; Alves, R; Amaral, P; Andresen, X; Behrens, A; Blocki, J; Ananiev, A; Anderson, K; Antonaki, A; Batusov, V; Bednar, P; Bergeaas, E; Bohm, C; Biscarat, C; Blanch, O; Blanchot, G

    2013-01-01

    This paper summarises the mechanical construction and installation of the Tile Calorimeter for the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider in CERN, Switzerland. The Tile Calorimeter is a sampling calorimeter using scintillator as the sensitive detector and steel as the absorber and covers the central region of the ATLAS experiment up to pseudorapidities ±1.7. The mechanical construction of the Tile Calorimeter occurred over a period of about 10 years beginning in 1995 with the completion of the Technical Design Report and ending in 2006 with the installation of the final module in the ATLAS cavern. During this period approximately 2600 metric tons of steel were transformed into a laminated structure to form the absorber of the sampling calorimeter. Following instrumentation and testing, which is described elsewhere, the modules were installed in the ATLAS cavern with a remarkable accuracy for a structure of this size and weight

  19. Deposition of CsI aerosol in horizontal straight pipes in WIND project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, J.; Maruyama, Y.; Igarashi, M.; Hidaka, A.; Maeda, A.; Harada, Y.; Hashimoto, K.

    1996-01-01

    In the WIND Project at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, the aerosol behaviors such as deposition, revaporization and resuspension have been investigated under the severe accident conditions. The present paper describes the deposition of CsI aerosol in horizontal straight pipes. The test results showed that the aerosol deposition depended on thermo-fluid dynamic characteristics of the carrier gas. In the test with the temperature gradient of the pipe, the deposition of CsI was remarkable within the downstream side, where the temperature of the gas was higher than that of the pipe wall. It is thus supposed that the major mechanism of the deposition was thermophoresis caused by the temperature gradient within the gas phase. However, circumferential distribution of the deposited CsI was influenced by the argon flow rate. In laminar flow case, larger amount of CsI was deposited on the ceiling than the floor area. Three-dimensional thermo-fluid dynamic analysis suggested that much sharper radial temperature gradient was developed within the gas near the ceiling area due to the formation of a natural convective secondary flow. This could result in the promotion of the thermophoretic aerosol deposition. On the other hand, slight circumferential distribution was observed in case of the high flow rate, probably due to a uniform temperature field. It was also found that the close coupling of the FP behavior and the detailed thermohydraulic analyses is essential in order to accurately predict the CsI deposition in the pipe. The findings on aerosol behaviors will also be utilized for the evaluation of sodium aerosol behaviors of fast reactors. (author)

  20. Contribution to the energy calibration of GLAST-LAT's calorimeter and validation of hadronic cascade models available with GEANT4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bregeon, J.

    2005-09-01

    GLAST is the new generation of Gamma-ray telescope and should dramatically improve our knowledge of the gamma-ray sky when it is launched on September 7. 2007. Data from the beam test that was held at GANIL with low energy ions were analyzed in order to measure the light quenching factor of CsI for all kinds of ions from proton to krypton of energy between 0 and 73 MeV per nucleon. These results have been very useful to understand the light quenching for relativistic ions that was measured during the GSI beam test. The knowledge of light quenching in GLAST CsI detectors for high energy ions is required for the on-orbit calibration with cosmic rays to succeed. Hadronic background rejection is another major issue for GLAST, thus, all the algorithms rely on the GLAST official Monte-Carlo simulation, GlastRelease. Hadronic cascade data from the GSI beam test and from another beam test held at CERN on the SPS have been used to benchmark hadronic cascade simulation within the framework of GEANT4, on which GlastRelease is based. Testing the good reproduction of simple parameters in GLAST-like calorimeters for hadronic cascades generated by 1.7 GeV, 3.4 GeV, 10 GeV and 20 GeV protons or pions led us to the conclusion that at high energy the default LHEP model is good enough, whereas at low energy the Bertini intra-nuclear cascade model should be used. (author)

  1. A compact and modular x- and gamma-ray detector with a CsI scintillator and double-readout Silicon Drift Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campana, R.; Fuschino, F.; Labanti, C.; Marisaldi, M.; Amati, L.; Fiorini, M.; Uslenghi, M.; Baldazzi, G.; Bellutti, P.; Evangelista, Y.; Elmi, I.; Feroci, M.; Ficorella, F.; Frontera, F.; Picciotto, A.; Piemonte, C.; Rachevski, A.; Rashevskaya, I.; Rignanese, L. P.; Vacchi, A.; Zampa, G.; Zampa, N.; Zorzi, N.

    2016-07-01

    A future compact and modular X and gamma-ray spectrometer (XGS) has been designed and a series of proto- types have been developed and tested. The experiment envisages the use of CsI scintillator bars read out at both ends by single-cell 25 mm2 Silicon Drift Detectors. Digital algorithms are used to discriminate between events absorbed in the Silicon layer (lower energy X rays) and events absorbed in the scintillator crystal (higher energy X rays and -rays). The prototype characterization is shown and the modular design for future experiments with possible astrophysical applications (e.g. for the THESEUS mission proposed for the ESA M5 call) are discussed.

  2. Physics and Applications of Metallic Magnetic Calorimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempf, S.; Fleischmann, A.; Gastaldo, L.; Enss, C.

    2018-03-01

    Metallic magnetic calorimeters (MMCs) are calorimetric low-temperature particle detectors that are currently strongly advancing the state of the art in energy-dispersive single particle detection. They are typically operated at temperatures below 100 mK and make use of a metallic, paramagnetic temperature sensor to transduce the temperature rise of the detector upon the absorption of an energetic particle into a change of magnetic flux which is sensed by a superconducting quantum interference device. This outstanding interplay between a high-sensitivity thermometer and a near quantum-limited amplifier results in a very fast signal rise time, an excellent energy resolution, a large dynamic range, a quantum efficiency close to 100% as well as an almost ideal linear detector response. For this reason, a growing number of groups located all over the world is developing MMC arrays of various sizes which are routinely used in a variety of applications. Within this paper, we briefly review the state of the art of metallic magnetic calorimeters. This includes a discussion of the detection principle, sensor materials and detector geometries, readout concepts, the structure of modern detectors as well as the state-of-the-art detector performance.

  3. Progress on the Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger

    CERN Multimedia

    Eric Eisenhandler

    The Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger (L1Calo) has recently passed a number of major hurdles. The various electronic modules that make up the trigger are either in full production or are about to be, and preparations in the ATLAS pit are well advanced. L1Calo has three main subsystems. The PreProcessor converts analogue calorimeter signals to digital, associates the rather broad trigger pulses with the correct proton-proton bunch crossing, and does a final calibration in transverse energy before sending digital data streams to the two algorithmic trigger processors. The Cluster Processor identifies and counts electrons, photons and taus, and the Jet/Energy-sum Processor looks for jets and also sums missing and total transverse energy. Readout drivers allow the performance of the trigger to be monitored online and offline, and also send region-of-interest information to the Level-2 Trigger. The PreProcessor (Heidelberg) is the L1Calo subsystem with the largest number of electronic modules (124), and most of its fu...

  4. The ZEUS calorimeter first level trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, W.H.; Ali, I.; Behrens, B.; Fordham, C.; Foudas, C.; Goussiou, A.; Jaworski, M.; Kinnel, T.; Lackey, J.; Robl, P.; Silverstein, S.; Dawson, J.W.; Krakauer, D.A.; Talaga, R.L.; Schlereth, J.L.

    1994-10-01

    The design of the ZEUS Calorimeter First Level Trigger (CFLT) is presented. The CFLT utilizes a pipelined architecture to provide trigger data for a global first leel trigger decision 5 μsec after each beam crossing, occurring every 96 nsec. The charges from 13K phototubes are summed into 1792 trigger tower pulseheights which are digitized by flash ADC's. The digital values are linearized, stored and used for sums and pattern tests. Summary data is forwarded to the Global First Level Trigger for each crossing 2 μsec after the crossing occurred. The CFLT determines the total energy, the total transverse energy, the missing energy, and the energy and number of isolated electrons and muons. It also provides information on the electromagnetic and hadronic energy deposited in various regions of the calorimeter. The CFLT has kept the experimental trigger rate below ∼200 Hz at the highest luminosity experienced at HERA. Performance studies suggest that the CFLT will keep the trigger rate below 1 kHZ against a rate of proton-beam gas interactions on the order of the 100 kHz expected at design luminosity. (orig.)

  5. Upgrading the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Popeneciu, G; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. Around 2023, after the upgrade of the LHC (High Luminosity LHC, phase 2) the peak luminosity will increase by a factor of 5 compared to the design value (1034 cm-2 s-1), thus requiring an upgrade of the TileCal readout electronics. Except the 9852 photomultipliers (PMTs), most of the on- and off-detector electronics will be replaced, with the aim of digitizing all PMT pulses at 40 MHz at the front-end level and sending them with 10 Gbps optical links to the back-end electronics. Moreover, to increase reliability, redundancy will be introduced at different levels. Three different options are currently being investigated for the front-end electronics and extensive test beam studies are planned to select the best option. One demonstrator prototype module is also planned to be inserted in TileCal in 2014 that will include hybrid electronic components able to probe the new design, but still compatible with the presen...

  6. Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger starts firing

    CERN Multimedia

    Stephen Hillier

    2007-01-01

    L1Calo is one of the major components of ATLAS First Level trigger, along with the Muon Trigger and Central Trigger Processor. It forms all of the first-level calorimeter-based triggers, including electron, jet, tau and missing ET. The final system consists of over 250 custom designed 9U VME boards, most containing a dense array of FPGAs or ASICs. It is subdivided into a PreProcessor, which digitises the incoming trigger signals from the Liquid Argon and Tile calorimeters, and two separate processor systems, which perform the physics algorithms. All of these are highly flexible, allowing the possibility to adapt to beam conditions and luminosity. All parts of the system are read out through Read-Out Drivers, which provide monitoring data and Region of Interest (RoI) information for the Level-2 trigger. Production of the modules is now essentially complete, and enough modules exist to populate the full scale system in USA15. Installation is proceeding rapidly - approximately 90% of the final modules are insta...

  7. COTS Analog Prototype for LHCb's Calorimeter Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Abellan Beteta, Carlos; Herms i Berenguer, Atilà

    The objective of this thesis is to present a proposal for the analogue signal processing chain needed for the LHCb calorimeter upgrade improving the design used originally. The design contains several novelties: the system was designed with low noise in mind from the beginning, it is made to have good immunity to interferences stressing the fact that the board will be shared with large digital circuits, differential operational amplifiers are used in a non-standard way as a mean to obtain opposite polarity signals for the signal treatment and a way to increase the available signal in the front end electronics is proposed. The thesis starts with a brief introduction to the detector and its environment. This is followed by an explanation of the use of shapers in high energy physics detectors and the constraints that the shaper must address in the LHCb calorimeter. This leads to a chapter where the circuit design is explained starting from the analysis of the original circuit and its flaws. Once the original cir...

  8. The ZEUS calorimeter first level trigger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, S.; Ali, I.; Behrens, B.; Foudas, C.; Fordham, C.; Goussiou, A.; Jaworski, M.; Lackey, J.; Reeder, D.; Robl, P.; Smith, W. H.; Vaiciulis, A.; Wodarczyk, M.; Dawson, J.; Krakauer, D.; Talaga, R.; Schlereth, J.; Zhang, H.

    1995-02-01

    An overview of the ZEUS calorimeter first level trigger is presented. The CFLT uses a pipelined architecture to accept and analyze calorimeter data for every 96 ns beam crossing interval. PMT signals are combined by analog electronics into electromagnetic and hadronic sums for 896 trigger towers. The analog sums are then digitized and analyzed. The CFLT determines the total, transverse, and missing transverse energy, identifies isolated electrons and muons, and sums energies in programmable subregions. Calculations are performed in 96 ns steps, and new data are accepted for every beam crossing. Trigger data are forwarded to the global first level trigger (GFLT) after 2 μs, allowing a GFLT accept to be issued 5 μs after the beam crossing which produced the event. Important features of the CFLT include a 12-bit effective dynamic range, extensive use of memory lookup tables for trigger calculations, fast pattern searches for isolated leptons, and low electronics noise. During the 1993 HERA run, the CFLT reduced a 50 kHz background rate to around 100 Hz.

  9. Optimization of transition-edge calorimeter performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullom, J.N.; Beall, J.A.; Doriese, W.B.; Duncan, W.D.; Ferreira, L.; Hilton, G.C.; Irwin, K.D.; O'Neil, G.C.; Reintsema, C.D.; Vale, L.R.; Zink, B.L.

    2006-01-01

    Calorimeters that exploit the superconducting-to-normal transition are used to detect individual photons from near-infrared to γ-ray wavelengths. Across this wide range, absorption efficiency, speed, and energy resolution are key performance parameters. Here, we describe recent improvements in the resolution of X-ray and γ-ray transition-edge sensors (TESs). Using the measured dependencies of the high-frequency unexplained noise in TESs, we have optimized the design of our TES X-ray sensors and achieved FWHM energy resolutions of 2.4 eV at 5.9 keV in Constellation-X style sensors and ∼2.9 eV at 5.9 keV in larger sensors suitable for materials analysis. We have also achieved a FWHM energy resolution of 42 eV at 103 keV in a TES calorimeter optimized for the detection of hard X-rays and γ-rays

  10. Development of the new gamma-ray calorimeter for the measurement of Pigmy Dipole Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikata, Mizuki; Nakamura, Takashi; Togano, Yasuhiro; Kondo, Yosuke

    2014-09-01

    A new γ-ray calorimeter CATANA (CAlorimeter for gamma γ-ray Transition in Atomic Nuclei at high isospin Asynmetry) has been developed to measure highly excited states like the pygmy dipole resonance and the giant dipole resonance. CATANA will be used with the SAMURAI spectrometer at RIBF. The excitation energy spectrum will be reconstructed combining the invariant mass of the reaction products measured by SAMURAI and γ-ray energies from CATANA. CATANA has focused on achieving a high detection efficiency. It is calculated as 56% for 1 MeV γ-rays from beam with a velocity of β = 0.6. The CATANA array consists of 200 CsI(Na) crystals and covers angles from 10 to 120 degrees along the beam axis. In this study, we have tested prototype crystals of CATANA to evaluate their performance. A position dependence of the light input have been measured and compared with a Monte-Carlo simulation based on GEANT4. In this talk, we will report the design of CATANA and the result of the tests and the simulation.

  11. Ab initio study of the effects of thin CsI coatings on the work function of graphite cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahos, Vasilios; Booske, John H.; Morgan, Dane

    2007-10-01

    Cesium-iodide (CsI)-coated graphite cathodes are promising electron sources for high power microwave generators, but the mechanism driving the improved emission is not well understood. Therefore, an ab initio modeling investigation on the effects of thin CsI coatings on graphite has been carried out. It is demonstrated that the CsI coatings reduce the work function of the system significantly through a mechanism of induced dipoles. The results suggest that work function modification is a major contribution to the improved emission seen when CsI coatings are applied to C.

  12. Light-to-light readout system of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Denes, P; Lustermann, W; Mathez, H; Pangaud, P; Walder, J P

    2001-01-01

    For the CMS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, an 8OOOO-crysral electromagnetic calorimeter will measure electron and photon energies with high precision over a dynamic range of roughly 16 bits. The readout electronics will be located directly behind the crystals, and must survive a total dose of up to 2x10 Gy along with 5x10**1**3 n/cm**2. A readout chain consisting of a custom wide-range acquisition circuit, commercial ADC and custom optical link for each crystal is presently under construction. An overview of the design is presented, with emphasis on the large-scale fiber communication system. 11 Refs.

  13. Studies of the electromagnetic calorimeter and direct photon production at the CMS detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, E.C.

    1999-04-01

    This thesis describes work carried out on the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment for the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. Studies of the prototype of the electromagnetic calorimeter are described. The energy resolution has been evaluated for the 7 x 7 lead tungstate crystal matrix . The energy resolution achieved was: σ/E = 4.5%/√E ± 0.31%. An investigation of the response of eight prototype crystals to irradiation is also presented. This thesis describes in detail the first study of direct photon production at CMS. Event simulation and methods of reducing the background to the direct photon signal are presented. This work demonstrates that this process may he used to distinguish between different parameterisations of the gluon distribution. The sensitivity is such that a few days worth of data taking at low luminosity will be sufficient for this type of analysis at CMS. (author)

  14. Calibration and performance test of the Very-Front-End electronics for the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaha, J.

    2008-05-01

    A Very-Front-End (VFE) card is an important part of the on-detector read-out electronics of the CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) electromagnetic calorimeter that is made of ∼ 76.000 radiation hard scintillating crystals PbWO 4 and operates on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Almost 16.000 VFE cards that shape, amplify and digitize incoming signals from photodetectors generated by interacting particles. Since any maintenance of any part of the calorimeter is not possible during the 10-year lifetime of the experiment, the extensive screening program was employed throughout the whole manufacture process. As a part of readout electronics quality assurance program, the systems for burn-in and precise calibration of the VFE boards were developed and successfully used at IPN Lyon. In addition to functionality tests, all relevant electrical properties of each card were measured and analyzed in detail to obtain their full characterization and to build a database with all required parameters which will serve for the initial calibration of the whole calorimeter. In order to evaluate the calorimeter performance and also to deliver the most precise calibration constants, several fully equipped super-modules were extensively studied and calibrated during the test beam campaigns at CERN. As an important part of these tests, accurate studies of the electronics noise and relative gains, which are needed for measurement in high energy range, were carried out to optimize amplitude reconstruction procedure and thus improve the precision of the calorimeter energy determination. The heart of the thesis consists of the calibration of all VFE boards, including optimization of the laboratory calibration system and precise analysis of measured values to delivered desired calibration constants. The second half of the thesis is focused on the accurate evaluation and optimization of the read-out electronics in real data taking conditions. The results obtained in the laboratory at IPN Lyon

  15. Design, Performance, and Calibration of the CMS Hadron-Outer Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Abdullin, Salavat; Acharya, Bannaje Sripathi; Adam, Nadia; Adams, Mark Raymond; Akchurin, Nural; Akgun, Ugur; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Anderson, E Walter; Antchev, Georgy; Arcidy, M; Ayan, S; Aydin, Sezgin; Aziz, Tariq; Baarmand, Marc M; Babich, Kanstantsin; Baden, Drew; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Banerjee, Sunanda; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bard, Robert; Barnes, Virgil E; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Baiatian, G; Bencze, Gyorgy; Beri, Suman Bala; Berntzon, Lisa; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Bhatti, Anwar; Bodek, Arie; Bose, Suvadeep; Bose, Tulika; Budd, Howard; Burchesky, Kyle; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cankocak, Kerem; Carrell, Kenneth Wayne; Cerci, Salim; Chendvankar, Sanjay; Chung, Yeon Sei; Clarida, Warren; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Cushman, Priscilla; Damgov, Jordan; De Barbaro, Pawel; Debbins, Paul; Deliomeroglu, Mehmet; Demianov, A; de Visser, Theo; Deshpande, Pandurang Vishnu; Díaz, Jonathan; Dimitrov, Lubomir; Dugad, Shashikant; Dumanoglu, Isa; Duru, Firdevs; Efthymiopoulos, I; Elias, John E; Elvira, D; Emeliantchik, Igor; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Ershov, Alexander; Erturk, Sefa; Esen, Selda; Eskut, Eda; Fenyvesi, Andras; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Freeman, Jim; Ganguli, Som N; Gaultney, Vanessa; Gamsizkan, Halil; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Genchev, Vladimir; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Golutvin, Igor; Goncharov, Petr; Grassi, Tullio; Green, Dan; Gribushin, Andrey; Grinev, B; Gurtu, Atul; Murat Güler, A; Gülmez, Erhan; Gümüs, K; Haelen, T; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Halyo, Valerie; Hashemi, Majid; Hauptman, John M; Hazen, Eric; Heering, Arjan Hendrix; Heister, Arno; Hunt, Adam; Ilyina, N; Ingram, D; Isiksal, Engin; Jarvis, Chad; Jeong, Chiyoung; Johnson, Kurtis F; Jones, John; Kaftanov, Vitali; Kalagin, Vladimir; Kalinin, Alexey; Kalmani, Suresh Devendrappa; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kaur, Manjit; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Kayis-Topaksu, A; Kellogg, Richard G; Khmelnikov, Alexander; Kim, Heejong; Kisselevich, I; Kodolova, Olga; Kohli, Jatinder Mohan; Kolossov, V; Korablev, Andrey; Korneev, Yury; Kosarev, Ivan; Kramer, Laird; Krinitsyn, Alexander; Krishnaswamy, Marthi Ramaswamy; Krokhotin, Andrey; Kryshkin, V; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kumar, Arun; Kunori, Shuichi; Laasanen, Alvin T; Ladygin, Vladimir; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Laszlo, Andras; Lawlor, C; Lazic, Dragoslav; Lee, Sang Joon; Levchuk, Leonid; Linn, Stephan; Litvintsev, Dmitri; Lobolo, L; Los, Serguei; Lubinsky, V; Lukanin, Vladimir; Ma, Yousi; Machado, Emanuel; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mans, Jeremy; Marlow, Daniel; Markowitz, Pete; Martínez, German; Mazumdar, Kajari; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mescheryakov, G; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Miller, Michael; Möller, A; Mohammadi-Najafabadi, M; Moissenz, P; Mondal, Naba Kumar; Mossolov, Vladimir; Nagaraj, P; Narasimham, Vemuri Syamala; Norbeck, Edwin; Olson, Jonathan; Onel, Yasar; Onengüt, G; Ozkan, Cigdem; Ozkurt, Halil; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Ozok, Ferhat; Paktinat, S; Pal, Andras; Patil, Mandakini Ravindra; Penzo, Aldo; Petrushanko, Sergey; Petrosian, A; Pikalov, Vladimir; Piperov, Stefan; Podrasky, V; Polatoz, A; Pompos, Arnold; Popescu, Sorina; Posch, C; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Qian, Weiming; Ralich, Robert; Reddy, L; Reidy, Jim; Rogalev, Evgueni; Roh, Youn; Rohlf, James; Ronzhin, Anatoly; Ruchti, Randy; Ryazanov, Anton; Safronov, Grigory; Sanders, David A; Sanzeni, Christopher; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Satyanarayana, B; Schmidt, Ianos; Sekmen, Sezen; Semenov, Sergey; Senchishin, V; Sergeyev, S; Serin, Meltem; Sever, Ramazan; Singh, B; Singh, Jas Bir; Sirunyan, Albert M; Skuja, Andris; Sharma, Seema; Sherwood, Brian; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Sogut, Kenan; Sonmez, Nasuf; Sorokin, Pavel; Spezziga, Mario; Stefanovich, R; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Sudhakar, Katta; Sulak, Lawrence; Suzuki, Ichiro; Talov, Vladimir; Teplov, Konstantin; Thomas, Ray; Tonwar, Suresh C; Topakli, Huseyin; Tully, Christopher; Turchanovich, L; Ulyanov, A; Vanini, A; Vankov, Ivan; Vardanyan, Irina; Varela, F; Vergili, Mehmet; Verma, Piyush; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Vidal, Richard; Vishnevskiy, Alexander; Vlassov, E; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Volobouev, Igor; Volkov, Alexey; Volodko, Anton; Wang, Lei; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Wetstein, Matthew; Winn, Dave; Wigmans, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Wu, Shouxiang; Yazgan, Efe; Yetkin, Taylan; Zálán, Peter; Zarubin, Anatoli; Zeyrek, Mehmet

    2008-01-01

    The CMS hadron calorimeter is a sampling calorimeter with brass absorber and plastic scintillator tiles with wavelength shifting fibres for carrying the light to the readout device. The barrel hadron calorimeter is complemented with an outer calorimeter to ensure high energy shower containment in the calorimeter. Fabrication, testing and calibration of the outer hadron calorimeter are carried out keeping in mind its importance in the energy measurement of jets in view of linearity and resolution. It will provide a net improvement in missing $\\et$ measurements at LHC energies. The outer hadron calorimeter will also be used for the muon trigger in coincidence with other muon chambers in CMS.

  16. Implementation of linear bias corrections for calorimeters at Mound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, T.M.

    1993-01-01

    In the past, Mound has generally made relative bias corrections as part of the calibration of individual calorimeters. The correction made was the same over the entire operating range of the calorimeter, regardless of the magnitude of the range. Recently, an investigation was performed to check the relevancy of using linear bias corrections to calibrate the calorimeters. The bias is obtained by measuring calibrated plutonium and/or electrical heat standards over the operating range of the calorimeter. The bias correction is then calculated using a simple least squares fit (y = mx + b) of the bias in milliwatts over the operating range of the calorimeter in watts. The equation used is B i = B 0 + (B w * W m ), where B i is the bias at any given power in milliwatts, B 0 is the intercept (absolute bias in milliwatts), B w is the slope (relative bias in milliwatts per watt), and W m is the measured power in watts. The results of the study showed a decrease in the random error of bias corrected data for most of the calorimeters which are operated over a large wattage range (greater than an order of magnitude). The linear technique for bias correction has been fully implemented at Mound and has been included in the Technical Manual, ''A Measurement Control Program for Radiometric Calorimeters at Mound'' (MD-21900)

  17. Status of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter and its Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Barillari, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is designed to study the proton-proton collisions produced at the LHC with a centre-of-mass energy of 14 TeV. Liquid argon (LAr) sampling calorimeters are used in ATLAS for all electromagnetic calorimetry covering the pseudorapidity region |eta|<3.2, as well as for hadronic calorimetry from |eta|=1.4 to |eta|=4.8. The calorimeter system consists of an electromagnetic barrel calorimeter and two endcaps with electromagnetic (EMEC), hadronic (HEC) and forward (FCAL) calorimeters. The lead-liquid argon sampling technique with an accordion geometry was chosen for the barrel electromagnetic calorimeter (EMB) and adapted to the endcap (EMEC). This geometry allows a uniform acceptance over the whole azimuthal range without any gap. The hadronic endcap calorimeter (HEC) uses a copper-liquid argon sampling technique with plate geometry and is subdivided into two wheels in depth per end-cap. Finally, the forward calorimeter (FCAL) is composed of three modules featuring cylindrical electrodes ...

  18. The ATLAS hadronic tile calorimeter from construction toward physics

    CERN Document Server

    Adragna, P; Anderson, K; Antonaki, A; Batusov, V; Bednar, P; Binet, S; Biscarat, C; Blanchot, G; Bogush, A A; Bohm, C; Boldea, V; Bosman, M; Bromberg, C; Budagov, Yu A; Caloba, L; Calvet, D; Carvalho, J; Castelo, J; Castillo, M V; Sforza, M C; Cavasinni, V; Cerqueira, A S; Chadelas, R; Costanzo, D; Cogswell, F; Constantinescu, S; Crouau, M; Cuenca, C; Damazio, D O; Daudon, F; David, M; Davidek, T; De, K; Del Prete, T; Di Girolamo, B; Dita, S; Dolejsi, J; Dolezal, Z; Dotti, A; Downing, R; Efthymiopoulos, I; Errede, D; Errede, S; Farbin, A; Fassouliotis, D; Fedorko, I; Fenyuk, A; Ferdi, C; Ferrer, A; Flaminio, V; Fullana, E; Garde, V; Giakoumopoulou, V; Gildemeister, O; Gilewsky, V; Giangiobbe, V; Giokaris, N; Gomes, A; González, V; Grabskii, V; Grenier, P; Gris, P; Guarino, V; Guicheney, C; Sen-Gupta, A; Hakobyan, H; Haney, M; Henriques, A; Higón, E; Holmgren, S O; Hurwitz, M; Huston, J; Iglesias, C; And, K J; Junk, T; Karyukhin, A N; Khubua, J; Klereborn, J; Korolkov, I Ya; Krivkova, P; Kulchitskii, Yu A; Kurochkin, Yu; Kuzhir, P; Lambert, D; Le Compte, T; Lefèvre, R; Leitner, R; Lembesi, M; Li, J; Liablin, M; Lokajícek, M; Lomakin, Y; Amengual, J M L; Lupi, A; Maidantchik, C; Maio, A; Maliukov, S; Manousakis, A; Marques, C; Marroquim, F; Martin, F; Mazzoni, E; Montarou, G; Merritt, F S; Myagkov, A; Miller, R; Minashvili, I A; Miralles, L; Némécek, S; Nessi, M; Nodulman, L; Norniella, O; Onofre, A; Oreglia, M J; Pantea, D; Pallin, D; Pilcher, J E; Pina, J; Pinhão, J; Podlyski, F; Portell, X; Poveda, J; Price, L E; Pribyl, L; Proudfoot, J; Ramstedt, M; Reinmuth, G; Richards, R; Roda, C; Romanov, V; Rosnet, P; Roy, P; Rumiantsau, V; Russakovich, N; Salto, O; Salvachúa, B; Sanchis, E; Sanders, H; Santoni, C; Santos, J; Saraiva, J G; Sarri, F; Satsunkevich, I S; Says, L P; Schlager, G; Schlereth, J L; Seixas, J M; Selldén, B; Shevtsov, P; Shochet, M; Da Silva, P; Silva, J; Simaitis, V; Sissakian, A N; Solodkov, A; Solovyanov, O; Sosebee, M; Spanó, F; Stanek, R; Starchenko, E A; Starovoitov, P; Suk, M; Sykora, I; Tang, F; Tas, P; Teuscher, R; Tokar, S; Topilin, N; Torres, J; Tsulaia, V; Underwood, D; Usai, G; Valkár, S; Valls, J A; Vartapetian, A H; Vazeille, F; Vichou, I; Vinogradov, V; Vivarelli, I; Volpi, M; White, A; Zaitsev, A; Zenine, A; Zenis, T

    2006-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter, which constitutes the central section of the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter, is a non-compensating sampling device made of iron and scintillating tiles. The construction phase of the calorimeter is nearly complete, and most of the effort now is directed toward the final assembly and commissioning in the underground experimental hall. The layout of the calorimeter and the tasks carried out during construction are described, first with a brief reminder of the requirements that drove the calorimeter design. During the last few years a comprehensive test-beam program has been followed in order to establish the calorimeter electromagnetic energy scale, to study its uniformity, and to compare real data to Monte Carlo simulation. The test-beam setup and first results from the data are described. During the test-beam period in 2004, lasting several months, data have been acquired with a complete slice of the central ATLAS calorimeter. The data collected in the test-beam are crucial in order to study...

  19. METROLOGICAL PERFORMANCES OF BOMB CALORIMETERS AT REAL CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Maksimuk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The high-usage measurement equipment for heat of combustion of organic fuels are bomb isoperibol calorimeters with a water thermostat. The stability of work of calorimeters at real conditions is important for maintenance of reliability of measurement results. The article purpose – the analysis of stability for parameters of calorimeters to environment changes. In this work influence room temperature (Тк and heat exchange conditions on metrological characteristics of two models of calorimeters is considered with different degree of thermal protection: V-08МА and BIC 100. For calorimeters V-08МА the increase in a effective heat capacity (W on 0,1 % by growth of Tк on everyone 5 °С is established. To use value W in all interval laboratory temperatures Tк = 14–28 °С it is necessary to correct W on 2,8 J/°C on everyone 1 °С changes of Tк. Updating W is required, if the correction exceeds error in determination W. For calorimeter BIC 100 it is not revealed dependences W from Tк. BIC 100 have constant-temperature cap, high stability a temperature in thermostat and stabilized heat exchange. It is established that an standard deviation of cooling constant for all calorimeters in direct proportional to standard deviation W. 

  20. Development of a portable graphite calorimeter for photons and electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEwen, M.R.; Duane, S.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this project is to develop a calorimeter for use in both electron and photon beams. The calorimeter should be more robust than the present NPL primary standard X-ray calorimeter and is designed to be sufficiently portable to enable measurements at clinical accelerators away from NPL. Although intended for therapy-level dosimetry, the new calorimeter can also be used for high-dose measurements at industrial facilities. The system consists of a front end (the calorimeter itself), means for thermal isolation and temperature control, and a measurement system based on thermistors in a DC Wheatstone bridge. The early part of the project focused on the development of a temperature control system sensitive enough to allow measurements of temperature rises of the order of 1 mK. The control system responds to the calorimeter, phantom and air temperatures and maintains the temperature of the calorimeter to within ± 0.2 mK over several hours. Initial operation at NPL in 6, 10 and 16 MV X-ray beams show that the system is capable of measurements of 1 Gy at 2 Gy/min with a random uncertainty of ± 0.5% (1 standard deviation). (author)