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Sample records for csd conflict paradigm

  1. Toward a Complexity Paradigm for Understanding Gender Role Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enns, Carolyn Zerbe

    2008-01-01

    The well-developed body of theory and research on men's gender role conflict provides an excellent foundation for developing increasingly complex models of men's gender-related concerns. Theorists and researchers are encouraged to incorporate themes related to social structural aspects of gender as well as to examine the ways in which men's…

  2. Adaptation to emotional conflict: evidence from a novel face emotion paradigm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter E Clayson

    Full Text Available The preponderance of research on trial-by-trial recruitment of affective control (e.g., conflict adaptation relies on stimuli wherein lexical word information conflicts with facial affective stimulus properties (e.g., the face-Stroop paradigm where an emotional word is overlaid on a facial expression. Several studies, however, indicate different neural time course and properties for processing of affective lexical stimuli versus affective facial stimuli. The current investigation used a novel task to examine control processes implemented following conflicting emotional stimuli with conflict-inducing affective face stimuli in the absence of affective words. Forty-one individuals completed a task wherein the affective-valence of the eyes and mouth were either congruent (happy eyes, happy mouth or incongruent (happy eyes, angry mouth while high-density event-related potentials (ERPs were recorded. There was a significant congruency effect and significant conflict adaptation effects for error rates. Although response times (RTs showed a significant congruency effect, the effect of previous-trial congruency on current-trial RTs was only present for current congruent trials. Temporospatial principal components analysis showed a P3-like ERP source localized using FieldTrip software to the medial cingulate gyrus that was smaller on incongruent than congruent trials and was significantly influenced by the recruitment of control processes following previous-trial emotional conflict (i.e., there was significant conflict adaptation in the ERPs. Results show that a face-only paradigm may be sufficient to elicit emotional conflict and suggest a system for rapidly detecting conflicting emotional stimuli and subsequently adjusting control resources, similar to cognitive conflict detection processes, when using conflicting facial expressions without words.

  3. Contingency learning is not affected by conflict experience: Evidence from a task conflict-free, item-specific Stroop paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Yulia; Tzelgov, Joseph

    2016-02-01

    A contingency learning account of the item-specific proportion congruent effect has been described as an associative stimulus-response learning process that has nothing to do with controlling the Stroop conflict. As supportive evidence, contingency learning has been demonstrated with response conflict-free stimuli, such as neutral words. However, what gives rise to response conflict and to Stroop interference in general is task conflict. The present study investigated whether task conflict can constitute a trigger or, alternatively, a booster to the contingency learning process. This was done by employing a "task conflict-free" condition (i.e., geometric shapes) and comparing it with a "task conflict" condition (i.e., neutral words). The results showed a significant contingency learning effect in both conditions, refuting the possibility that contingency learning is triggered by the presence of a task conflict. Contingency learning was also not enhanced by the task conflict experience, indicating its complete insensitivity to Stroop conflict(s). Thus, the results showed no evidence that performance optimization as a result of contingency learning is greater under conflict, implying that contingency learning is not recruited to assist the control system to overcome conflict.

  4. Sequence stratigraphy as a scientific enterprise: the evolution and persistence of conflicting paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miall, Andrew D.; Miall, Charlene E.

    2001-08-01

    In the 1970s, seismic stratigraphy represented a new paradigm in geological thought. The development of new techniques for analyzing seismic-reflection data constituted a "crisis," as conceptualized by T.S. Kuhn, and stimulated a revolution in stratigraphy. We analyze here a specific subset of the new ideas, that pertaining to the concept of global-eustasy and the global cycle chart published by Vail et al. [Vail, P.R., Mitchum, R.M., Jr., Todd, R.G., Widmier, J.M., Thompson, S., III, Sangree, J.B., Bubb, J.N., Hatlelid, W.G., 1977. Seismic stratigraphy and global changes of sea-level. In: Payton, C.E. (Ed.), Seismic Stratigraphy—Applications to Hydrocarbon Exploration, Am. Assoc. Pet. Geol. Mem. 26, pp. 49-212.] The global-eustasy model posed two challenges to the "normal science" of stratigraphy then underway: (1) that sequence stratigraphy, as exemplified by the global cycle chart, constitutes a superior standard of geologic time to that assembled from conventional chronostratigraphic evidence, and (2) that stratigraphic processes are dominated by the effects of eustasy, to the exclusion of other allogenic mechanisms, including tectonism. While many stratigraphers now doubt the universal validity of the model of global-eustasy, what we term the global-eustasy paradigm, a group of sequence researchers led by Vail still adheres to it, and the two conceptual approaches have evolved into two conflicting paradigms. Those who assert that there are multiple processes generating stratigraphic sequences (possibly including eustatic processes) are adherents of what we term the complexity paradigm. Followers of this paradigm argue that tests of the global cycle chart amount to little more than circular reasoning. A new body of work documenting the European sequence record was published in 1998 by de Graciansky et al. These workers largely follow the global-eustasy paradigm. Citation and textual analysis of this work indicates that they have not responded to any of the

  5. The psychosocial impact of armed conflict on children. Rethinking traditional paradigms in research and intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stichick, T

    2001-10-01

    It is undeniable that the impact of war on children is a significant issue that merits continued efforts in research and intervention. It is time for a shift in paradigms; instead of focusing solely on exposure to traumatic events and defining pathology per dominant diagnostic criteria, it is essential that research turn to examining the effect of chronic stressors and exploring how certain mechanisms may be protective or act to moderate the psychosocial impact of war on children. The role of such protective mechanisms must be examined for differences by development and gender and by cultural context and the nature of the conflict situation itself. Investigations of the health and psychosocial well-being of war-affected children and the programs that serve them must attend to the restoration of basic physiologic needs, safety, structure, familial ties, and other sources of support and integration of cultural practices of healing. The coping efforts of young people and their families and the creation of more positive roles for youth also must be explored. Addressing these fundamental issues in research and programming will go a long way in fostering new opportunities for peace, healing, and the promotion of mental health and well-being for war-affected children in modern times.

  6. Conflicting paradigms in radiation protection: 20 Questions with answers from the regulator, the health physicist, the scientist, and the lawyers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strom, D.J.; Stansbury, P.S. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Porter, S.W. Jr. [Porter Consultants, Inc., Ardmore, PA (United States)

    1995-01-01

    George Orwell`s {open_quotes}doublethink{close_quotes} should be generalized to {open_quotes}polythink{close_quotes} to describe the multiplicity of views that radiation protection professionals must simultaneously accommodate. The paradigms, that is, organizing principles and beliefs, that (1) regulators, (2) operational health physicists, (3) scientists, (4) lawyers for the defendant, and (5) lawyers for the plaintiff use in their approaches to radiation protection are presented. What we believe as scientists often conflicts with what we do for purposes of radiation protection. What we need to do merely to protect humankind and the environment from harmful effects of radiation is far less than what we must do to satisfy the regulator, whose paradigm has checklists, score-keeping, and penalties. In the hands of lawyers, our work must overcome different challenges. Even if the paradigms of the operational health physicist, the scientist, and the regulator match, the odds against the lawyers paradigms also matching are astronomical. The differing paradigms are illustrated by example questions and answers. It is important for educators, trainers, and health physicists to recognize and separate the score-keeping, practice, science, and legal issues in health physics.

  7. Acetaldehyde as a drug of abuse: insight into AM281 administration on operant-conflict paradigm in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plescia, Fulvio; Brancato, Anna; Marino, Rosa A M; Cannizzaro, Carla

    2013-01-01

    Increasing evidence focuses on acetaldehyde (ACD) as the mediator of the rewarding and motivational properties of ethanol. Indeed, ACD stimulates dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens and it is self-administered under different conditions. Besides the dopaminergic transmission, the endocannabinoid system has been reported to play an important role in ethanol central effects, modulating primary alcohol rewarding effect, drug-seeking, and relapse behavior. Drug motivational properties are highlighted in operant paradigms which include response-contingent punishment, a behavioral equivalent of compulsive drug use despite adverse consequences. The aim of this study was thus to characterize ACD motivational and rewarding properties employing an operant-conflict paradigm in which rats, trained to lever press in order to get ACD solution (0.9%), undergo extinction, reinstatement and conflict sessions, according to a modified Geller-Seifter procedure. Furthermore, the role played by CB1 receptor system in modulating ACD-induced effects were investigated through the administration of CB1 receptor antagonist, AM281 (1 mg/kg, i.p.) during the extinction-, relapse-, and conflict-experiments. Our results indicate that ACD is able to induce and maintain an operant behavior, a high number of responses during extinction, an increase in the lever presses during the reinstatement phase, and a higher emission of punished responses during the conflict experiments, when compared to controls. The administration of AM281 is able to decrease ACD-seeking behavior during extinction, the number of lever presses during reinstatement and to strongly decrease the punished responses for ACD. Our data strengthen the idea that ACD may be responsible for the central effects of ethanol, and pinpoint at the CB1 system as one of the neural substrates underlying its addictive properties.

  8. Acetaldehyde as a drug of abuse: insight into AM281 administration on operant-conflict paradigm in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulvio ePlescia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence focuses on acetaldehyde (ACD as the mediator of the rewarding and motivational properties of ethanol. Indeed, ACD stimulates dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens and it is self-administered under different conditions. Besides the dopaminergic transmission, the endocannabinoid system has been reported to play an important role in ethanol central effects, modulating primary alcohol rewarding effect, drug-seeking and relapse behaviour. Drug motivational properties are highlighted in operant paradigms which include response-contingent punishment, a behavioural equivalent of compulsive drug use despite adverse consequences.The aim of this study was thus to characterize ACD motivational and rewarding properties employing an operant-conflict paradigm in which rats, trained to lever press in order to get ACD solution (0.9%, undergo extinction, reinstatement and conflict sessions, according to a modified Geller-Seifter procedur. Furthermore the role played by CB1 receptor system in modulating ACD-induced effects were investigated through the administration of CB1 receptor antagonist, AM281 (1 mg/kg, i.p. during the extinction-, relapse- and conflict experiments.Our results indicate that ACD is able to induce and maintain an operant behaviour, a high number of responses during extinction, an increase in the lever presses during the reinstatement phase, and a higher emission of punished responses during the conflict experiments, when compared to controls.The administration of AM281 is able to decrease ACD-seeking behaviour during extinction, the number of lever presses during reinstatement and to strongly decrease the punished responses for ACD. Our data strengthen the idea that ACD may be responsible for the central effects of ethanol, and pinpoint at the CB1 system as one of the neural substrates underlying its addictive properties.

  9. Neural correlates of conflict control on facial expressions with a flanker paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tongran; Xiao, Tong; Shi, Jian-Nong

    2013-01-01

    Conflict control is an important cognitive control ability and it is also crucial for human beings to execute conflict control on affective information. To address the neural correlates of cognitive control on affective conflicts, the present study recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) during a revised Eriksen Flanker Task. Participants were required to indicate the valence of the central target expression while ignoring the flanker expressions in the affective congruent condition, affective incongruent condition and neutral condition (target expressions flanked by scramble blocks). Behavioral results manifested that participants exhibited faster response speed in identifying neutral target face when it was flanked by neutral distractors than by happy distractors. Electrophysiological results showed that happy target expression induced larger N2 amplitude when flanked by sad distractors than by happy distractors and scramble blocks during the conflict monitoring processing. During the attentional control processing, happy target expression induced faster P3 response when it was flanked by happy distractors than by sad distractors, and sad target expression evoked larger P3 amplitude when it was flanked by happy distractors comparing with sad distractors. Taken together, the current findings of temporal dynamic of brain activity during cognitive control on affective conflicts shed light on the essential relationship between cognitive control and affective information processing.

  10. Neural correlates of conflict control on facial expressions with a flanker paradigm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongran Liu

    Full Text Available Conflict control is an important cognitive control ability and it is also crucial for human beings to execute conflict control on affective information. To address the neural correlates of cognitive control on affective conflicts, the present study recorded event-related potentials (ERPs during a revised Eriksen Flanker Task. Participants were required to indicate the valence of the central target expression while ignoring the flanker expressions in the affective congruent condition, affective incongruent condition and neutral condition (target expressions flanked by scramble blocks. Behavioral results manifested that participants exhibited faster response speed in identifying neutral target face when it was flanked by neutral distractors than by happy distractors. Electrophysiological results showed that happy target expression induced larger N2 amplitude when flanked by sad distractors than by happy distractors and scramble blocks during the conflict monitoring processing. During the attentional control processing, happy target expression induced faster P3 response when it was flanked by happy distractors than by sad distractors, and sad target expression evoked larger P3 amplitude when it was flanked by happy distractors comparing with sad distractors. Taken together, the current findings of temporal dynamic of brain activity during cognitive control on affective conflicts shed light on the essential relationship between cognitive control and affective information processing.

  11. A BRIEF HISTORY OF BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH ETHICS IN IRAN: CONFLICT OF PARADIGMS

    OpenAIRE

    Aramesh, Kiarash

    2014-01-01

    During the past two decades, Iran has experienced a noteworthy growth in its biomedical research sector. At the same time, ethical concerns and debates resulting from this burgeoning enterprise has led to increasing attention paid to biomedical ethics. In Iran, Biomedical research ethics and research oversight passed through major periods during the past decades, separated by a paradigm shift. Period 1, starting from the early 1970s, is characterized by research paternalism and complete relia...

  12. Neural Correlates of Conflict Control on Facial Expressions with a Flanker Paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, T.; Xiao, T; Shi, Jiannong

    2013-01-01

    results manifested that participants exhibited faster response speed in identifying neutral target face when it was flanked by neutral distractors than by happy distractors. Electrophysiological results showed that happy target expression induced larger N2 amplitude when flanked by sad distractors than...... by happy distractors and scramble blocks during the conflict monitoring processing. During the attentional control processing, happy target expression induced faster P3 response when it was flanked by happy distractors than by sad distractors, and sad target expression evoked larger P3 amplitude when...... it was flanked by happy distractors comparing with sad distractors. Taken together, the current findings of temporal dynamic of brain activity during cognitive control on affective conflicts shed light on the essential relationship between cognitive control and affective information processing....

  13. A Brief History of Biomedical Research Ethics in Iran: Conflict of Paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramesh, Kiarash

    2015-08-01

    During the past two decades, Iran has experienced a noteworthy growth in its biomedical research sector. At the same time, ethical concerns and debates resulting from this burgeoning enterprise has led to increasing attention paid to biomedical ethics. In Iran, Biomedical research ethics and research oversight passed through major periods during the past decades, separated by a paradigm shift. Period 1, starting from the early 1970s, is characterized by research paternalism and complete reliance on researchers as virtuous and caring physicians. This approach was in concordance with the paternalistic clinical practice of physicians outside of research settings during the same period. Period 2, starting from the late 1990s, was partly due to revealing of ethical flaws that occurred in biomedical research in Iran. The regulatory and funding bodies concluded that it was not sufficient to rely solely on the personal and professional virtues of researchers to safeguard human subjects' rights and welfare. The necessity for independent oversight, emphasized by international declarations, became obvious and undeniable. This paradigm shift led to the establishment of research ethics committees throughout the country, the establishment of academic research centers focusing on medical ethics (MEHR) and the compilation of the first set of national ethical guidelines on biomedical research-one of the first and most important projects conducted by and in the MEHR. Although not yet arrived, 'period 3' is on its way. It is predictable from the obvious trends toward performance of high-quality clinical research and the appearance of a highly educated new generation, especially among women. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  14. Deficits in Letter-Speech Sound Associations but Intact Visual Conflict Processing in Dyslexia: Results from a Novel ERP-Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakos, Sarolta; Landerl, Karin; Bartling, Jürgen; Schulte-Körne, Gerd; Moll, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    The reading and spelling deficits characteristic of developmental dyslexia (dyslexia) have been related to problems in phonological processing and in learning associations between letters and speech-sounds. Even when children with dyslexia have learned the letters and their corresponding speech sounds, letter-speech sound associations might still be less automatized compared to children with age-adequate literacy skills. In order to examine automaticity in letter-speech sound associations and to overcome some of the disadvantages associated with the frequently used visual-auditory oddball paradigm, we developed a novel electrophysiological letter-speech sound interference paradigm. This letter-speech sound interference paradigm was applied in a group of 9-year-old children with dyslexia (n = 36) and a group of typically developing (TD) children of similar age (n = 37). Participants had to indicate whether two letters look visually the same. In the incongruent condition (e.g., the letter pair A-a) there was a conflict between the visual information and the automatically activated phonological information; although the visual appearance of the two letters is different, they are both associated with the same speech sound. This conflict resulted in slower response times (RTs) in the incongruent than in the congruent (e.g., the letter pair A-e) condition. Furthermore, in the TD control group, the conflict resulted in fast and strong event-related potential (ERP) effects reflected in less negative N1 amplitudes and more positive conflict slow potentials (cSP) in the incongruent than in the congruent condition. However, the dyslexic group did not show any conflict-related ERP effects, implying that letter-speech sound associations are less automatized in this group. Furthermore, we examined general visual conflict processing in a control visual interference task, using false fonts. The conflict in this experiment was based purely on the visual similarity of the presented

  15. Deficits in Letter-Speech Sound Associations but Intact Visual Conflict Processing in Dyslexia: Results from a Novel ERP-Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakos, Sarolta; Landerl, Karin; Bartling, Jürgen; Schulte-Körne, Gerd; Moll, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    The reading and spelling deficits characteristic of developmental dyslexia (dyslexia) have been related to problems in phonological processing and in learning associations between letters and speech-sounds. Even when children with dyslexia have learned the letters and their corresponding speech sounds, letter-speech sound associations might still be less automatized compared to children with age-adequate literacy skills. In order to examine automaticity in letter-speech sound associations and to overcome some of the disadvantages associated with the frequently used visual-auditory oddball paradigm, we developed a novel electrophysiological letter-speech sound interference paradigm. This letter-speech sound interference paradigm was applied in a group of 9-year-old children with dyslexia (n = 36) and a group of typically developing (TD) children of similar age (n = 37). Participants had to indicate whether two letters look visually the same. In the incongruent condition (e.g., the letter pair A-a) there was a conflict between the visual information and the automatically activated phonological information; although the visual appearance of the two letters is different, they are both associated with the same speech sound. This conflict resulted in slower response times (RTs) in the incongruent than in the congruent (e.g., the letter pair A-e) condition. Furthermore, in the TD control group, the conflict resulted in fast and strong event-related potential (ERP) effects reflected in less negative N1 amplitudes and more positive conflict slow potentials (cSP) in the incongruent than in the congruent condition. However, the dyslexic group did not show any conflict-related ERP effects, implying that letter-speech sound associations are less automatized in this group. Furthermore, we examined general visual conflict processing in a control visual interference task, using false fonts. The conflict in this experiment was based purely on the visual similarity of the presented

  16. Polymorphism analysis of csd gene in six Apis mellifera subspecies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zilong; Liu, Zhiyong; Wu, Xiaobo; Yan, Weiyu; Zeng, Zhijiang

    2012-03-01

    The complementary sex determination (csd) gene is the primary gene determining the gender of honey bees (Apis spp). In this study we analyzed the polymorphism of csd gene in six Apis mellifera subspecies. The genomic region 3 of csd gene in these six A. mellifera was cloned, and identified. A total of 79 haplotypes were obtained from these six subspecies. Analysis showed that region 3 of csd gene has a high level of polymorphism in all the six A. mellifera subspecies. The A. m. anatolica subspecies has a slightly higher nucleotide diversity (π) than other subspecies, while the π values showed no significant difference among the other five subspecies. The phylogenetic tree showed that all the csd haplotypes from different A. mellifera subspecies are scattered throughout the tree, without forming six different clades. Population differentiation analysis showed that there are significant genetic differentiations among some of the subspecies. The NJ phylogenetic tree showed that the A. m. caucasica and A. m. carnica have the closest relationship, followed by A. m. ssp, A. m. ligustica, A. m. carpatica and A. m. anatolica that were gathered in the tree in turn.

  17. The conflicts and dialogues among techno-developmental, ecological, and indigenous paradigms in a globalized modernity: A case study of the U'wa people's resistance against oil development in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Taehwa

    The literature regarding indigenous eco-politics often provides only a partial explanation about interactions among indigenous peoples, environmental NGOs, and players of resource extraction activities. The dissertation argues that previous studies often fossilize indigenous people in time and space by treating them and their worldviews as static. Against this background, the dissertation draws on paradigm analysis and demonstrates how this approach can help tease out the dynamism and complexity inherent to the interactions between paradigm actors, thus helping us reanalyze indigenous peoples and their paradigms as dynamic and evolving venues for creative possibilities. Extensive literature review and field observation are utilized to examine the case study of interactions among the U'wa, environmental NGOs, Occidental Petroleum, Ecopetrol, and the Colombian government. The case study reveals that oil development activities have heralded sharp conflicts among various paradigm actors. It shows how such conflicts and ensuing dialogues among paradigm actors have led to paradigm changes over time and across scales of organization. We find that the U'wa indigenous paradigm poses a legal, political, and cultural challenge to the techno-developmental paradigm of oil development. We find further that paradigm conflicts are both opportunities and challenges for the U'wa to engage with the modern legal system of Colombia. The case study also reveals that complementarities between paradigms are useful starting points for coalitions between the U'wa and environmental NGOs. The ability to cross scales of socio-political organization enabled by modern communication technologies has helped the U'wa and environmental NGOs to successfully challenge the dominant paradigm and its resource extraction activities. However, it also shows that additional political conditions are necessary for successful coalitions between two actors. The case study demonstrates that the U

  18. Nexans advances in all CSD route for REBCO coated conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bock, J.; Ehrenberg, J.; Hoppe, B.; Isfort, D.; Klein, M.; Rikel, M. [Nexans SuperConductors, Chemiepark Knapsack, Huerth (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Development of REBCO coated conductors (CC) at Nexans SuperConductors (NSC) is focused on all chemical solution deposition (CSD) route that promises the best performance-to-price ratio in long lengths. The feasibility of all CSD approach is shown on the lab scale: using metalorganic deposition (MOD), NSC was able to produce YBCO/CeO{sub 2}/LZO/NiW CCs with J{sub c}(77 K,sf)=0.5 MA/cm{sup 2}. The major advance of NSC on a semi-industrial scale is the use of MOD route for production of high-quality La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} (LZO) coated NiW RABITS in lengths up to 12 m. With those substrates, it is possible to produce CCs with the simplest (one-buffer) architecture by depositing REBCO using other techniques (ISD at Theva, Ismaning; MOCVD at IOT, Braunschweig; HLPE at University of Cambridge, UK). The best short sample I{sub c}=280, 120 and 100 A/cm-width for HLPE, ISD, and MOCVD, respectively First long-length conductors show transport I{sub c}=40 A (10m-long, ISD). Further work is focused on optimisation of the already established mixed (MOD+PVD) approaches, understanding optimum architecture and processing conditions for the all-CSD route and developing tools for scaling those conditions to long-length production. (orig.)

  19. Molecular analysis of the chloroplast Cu/Zn-SOD gene (AhCSD2) in peanut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiurong Zhang; Qian Wan; Fengzhen Liu⁎; Kun Zhang; Aiqing Sun; Bing Luo; Li Sun; Yongshan Wan⁎⁎

    2015-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) plays a key role in response to drought stress, and differences in SOD activity changes among cultivars are important under drought conditions. We obtained the full-length DNA of the chloroplast Cu/Zn-SOD gene (AhCSD2) from 11 allotetraploid cultivars and 5 diploid wild species in peanut. BLAST search against the peanut genome showed that the AhCSD2 genes gCSD2-1 and gCSD2-2 are located at the tops of chromosome A03 (A genome) and B03 (B genome), respectively, and both contain 8 exons and 7 introns. Nucleotide sequence analyses indicated that gCSD2-2 sequences were identical among all the tested cultivars, while gCSD2-1 sequences showed allelic variations. The amino acid sequences deduced from gCSD2-1 and gCSD2-2 both contain a chloroplast transit peptide and are distinguished by 6 amino acid (aa) residue differences. The other 2 aa residue variations in the mature peptide regions give rise to three-dimensional structure changes of the protein deduced from the genes gCSD2-1 and gCSD2-2. Sequences analyses of cultivars and wild species showed that gCSD2-2 of Arachis hypogaea and gAipCSD2 (Arachis ipaensis) are identical, and despite the abundant polymorphic loci between gCSD2-1 of A. hypogaea and sequences from A genome wild species, the deduced amino acid sequence of AhCSD2-1 (A. hypogaea) is identical to that of AduCSD2 (Arachis duranensis), whereas AcoCSD2 (Arachis correntina) and AcaCSD2 (Arachis cardenasii) both have 2 aa differences in the transit peptide region compared with AhCSD2-1 (A. hypogaea). Based on the Peanut Genome Project, promoter prediction revealed many stress-related cis-acting elements within the potential promoter regions (pp-A and pp-B). pp-A contains more binding sites for drought-associated transcriptional factors than pp-B. We hypothesize that the marked changes in SOD activity in different cultivars under drought stress are tightly regulated by transcription factors through transcription and

  20. Molecular analysis of the chloroplast Cu/Zn-SOD gene(AhCSD2) in peanut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiurong; Zhang; Qian; Wan; Fengzhen; Liu; Kun; Zhang; Aiqing; Sun; Bing; Luo; Li; Sun; Yongshan; Wan

    2015-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase(SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) plays a key role in response to drought stress, and differences in SOD activity changes among cultivars are important under drought conditions. We obtained the full-length DNA of the chloroplast Cu/Zn-SOD gene(Ah CSD2)from 11 allotetraploid cultivars and 5 diploid wild species in peanut. BLAST search against the peanut genome showed that the Ah CSD2 genes g CSD2-1 and g CSD2-2 are located at the tops of chromosome A03(A genome) and B03(B genome), respectively, and both contain 8exons and 7 introns. Nucleotide sequence analyses indicated that g CSD2-2 sequences were identical among all the tested cultivars, while g CSD2-1 sequences showed allelic variations.The amino acid sequences deduced from g CSD2-1 and g CSD2-2 both contain a chloroplast transit peptide and are distinguished by 6 amino acid(aa) residue differences. The other 2aa residue variations in the mature peptide regions give rise to three-dimensional structure changes of the protein deduced from the genes g CSD2-1 and g CSD2-2. Sequences analyses of cultivars and wild species showed that g CSD2-2 of Arachis hypogaea and g Aip CSD2(Arachis ipaensis) are identical, and despite the abundant polymorphic loci between g CSD2-1 of A.hypogaea and sequences from A genome wild species, the deduced amino acid sequence of Ah CSD2-1(A. hypogaea) is identical to that of Adu CSD2(Arachis duranensis), whereas Aco CSD2(Arachis correntina) and Aca CSD2(Arachis cardenasii) both have 2 aa differences in the transit peptide region compared with Ah CSD2-1(A. hypogaea). Based on the Peanut Genome Project, promoter prediction revealed many stress-related cis-acting elements within the potential promoter regions(pp-A and pp-B). pp-A contains more binding sites for drought-associated transcriptional factors than pp-B. We hypothesize that the marked changes in SOD activity in different cultivars under drought stress are tightly regulated by transcription factors through transcription and

  1. 1D Current Source Density (CSD) Estimation in Inverse Theory: A Unified Framework for Higher-Order Spectral Regularization of Quadrature and Expansion-Type CSD Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropf, Pascal; Shmuel, Amir

    2016-07-01

    Estimation of current source density (CSD) from the low-frequency part of extracellular electric potential recordings is an unstable linear inverse problem. To make the estimation possible in an experimental setting where recordings are contaminated with noise, it is necessary to stabilize the inversion. Here we present a unified framework for zero- and higher-order singular-value-decomposition (SVD)-based spectral regularization of 1D (linear) CSD estimation from local field potentials. The framework is based on two general approaches commonly employed for solving inverse problems: quadrature and basis function expansion. We first show that both inverse CSD (iCSD) and kernel CSD (kCSD) fall into the category of basis function expansion methods. We then use these general categories to introduce two new estimation methods, quadrature CSD (qCSD), based on discretizing the CSD integral equation with a chosen quadrature rule, and representer CSD (rCSD), an even-determined basis function expansion method that uses the problem's data kernels (representers) as basis functions. To determine the best candidate methods to use in the analysis of experimental data, we compared the different methods on simulations under three regularization schemes (Tikhonov, tSVD, and dSVD), three regularization parameter selection methods (NCP, L-curve, and GCV), and seven different a priori spatial smoothness constraints on the CSD distribution. This resulted in a comparison of 531 estimation schemes. We evaluated the estimation schemes according to their source reconstruction accuracy by testing them using different simulated noise levels, lateral source diameters, and CSD depth profiles. We found that ranking schemes according to the average error over all tested conditions results in a reproducible ranking, where the top schemes are found to perform well in the majority of tested conditions. However, there is no single best estimation scheme that outperforms all others under all tested

  2. Methylphenidate and brain activity in a reward/conflict paradigm: role of the insula in task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Iliyan; Liu, Xun; Clerkin, Suzanne; Schulz, Kurt; Fan, Jin; Friston, Karl; London, Edythe D; Schwartz, Jeffrey; Newcorn, Jeffrey H

    2014-06-01

    Psychostimulants, such as methylphenidate, are thought to improve information processing in motivation-reward and attention-activation networks by enhancing the effects of more relevant signals and suppressing those of less relevant ones; however the nature of such reciprocal influences remains poorly understood. To explore this question, we tested the effect of methylphenidate on performance and associated brain activity in the Anticipation, Conflict, Reward (ACR) task. Sixteen healthy adult volunteers, ages 21-45, were scanned twice using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) as they performed the ACR task under placebo and methylphenidate conditions. A three-way repeated measures analysis of variance, with cue (reward vs. non-reward), target (congruent vs. incongruent) and medication condition (methylphenidate vs. placebo) as the factors, was used to analyze behaviors on the task. Blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signals, reflecting task-related neural activity, were evaluated using linear contrasts. Participants exhibited significantly greater accuracy in the methylphenidate condition than the placebo condition. Compared with placebo, the methylphenidate condition also was associated with lesser task-related activity in components of attention-activation systems irrespective of the reward cue, and less task-related activity in components of the reward-motivation system, particularly the insula, during reward trials irrespective of target difficulty. These results suggest that methylphenidate enhances task performance by improving efficiency of information processing in both reward-motivation and in attention-activation systems.

  3. "In-group love" and "out-group hate" as motives for individual participation in intergroup conflict: a new game paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halevy, Nir; Bornstein, Gary; Sagiv, Lilach

    2008-04-01

    What motivates individual self-sacrificial behavior in intergroup conflicts? Is it the altruistic desire to help the in-group or the aggressive drive to hurt the out-group? This article introduces a new game paradigm, the intergroup prisoner's dilemma-maximizing difference (IPD-MD) game, designed specifically to distinguish between these two motives. The game involves two groups. Each group member is given a monetary endowment and can decide how much of it to contribute. Contribution can be made to either of two pools, one that benefits the in-group at a personal cost and another that, in addition, harms the out-group. An experiment demonstrated that contributions in the IPD-MD game are made almost exclusively to the cooperative, within-group pool. Moreover, preplay intragroup communication increases intragroup cooperation, but not intergroup competition. These results are compared with those observed in the intergroup prisoner's dilemma game, in which group members' contributions are restricted to the competitive, between-group pool.

  4. Efficient Cfd/csd Coupling Methods for Aeroelastic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long; Xu, Tianhao; Xie, Jing

    2016-06-01

    A fast aeroelastic numerical simulation method using CFD/CSD coupling are developed. Generally, aeroelastic numerical simulation costs much time and significant hardware resources with CFD/CSD coupling. In this paper, dynamic grid method, full implicit scheme, parallel technology and improved coupling method are researched for efficiency simulation. An improved Delaunay graph mapping method is proposed for efficient dynamic grid deform. Hybrid grid finite volume method is used to solve unsteady flow fields. The dual time stepping method based on parallel implicit scheme is used in temporal discretization for efficiency simulation. An approximate system of linear equations is solved by the GMRES algorithm with a LU-SGS preconditioner. This method leads to a significant increase in performance over the explicit and LU-SGS implicit methods. A modification of LU-SGS is proposed to improve the parallel performance. Parallel computing overs a very effective way to improve our productivity in doing CFD/CFD coupling analysis. Improved loose coupling method is an efficiency way over the loose coupling method and tight coupling method. 3D wing's aeroelastic phenomenon is simulated by solving Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations using improved loose coupling method. The flutter boundary is calculated and agrees well with experimental data. The transonic hole is very clear in numerical simulation results.

  5. Multiple Ising models coupled to 2-d gravity: a CSD analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowick, Mark; Falcioni, Marco; Harris, Geoffrey; Marinari, Enzo

    1994-04-01

    We simulate single and multiple Ising models coupled to 2-d gravity and we measure critical slowing down (CSD) with the standard methods. We find that the Swendsen-Wang and Wolff cluster algorithms do not eliminate CSD. We interpret the result as an effect of the mesh dynamics.

  6. Unconsciously triggered conflict adaptation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon van Gaal

    Full Text Available In conflict tasks such as the Stroop, the Eriksen flanker or the Simon task, it is generally observed that the detection of conflict in the current trial reduces the impact of conflicting information in the subsequent trial; a phenomenon termed conflict adaptation. This higher-order cognitive control function has been assumed to be restricted to cases where conflict is experienced consciously. In the present experiment we manipulated the awareness of conflict-inducing stimuli in a metacontrast masking paradigm to directly test this assumption. Conflicting response tendencies were elicited either consciously (through primes that were weakly masked or unconsciously (strongly masked primes. We demonstrate trial-by-trial conflict adaptation effects after conscious as well as unconscious conflict, which could not be explained by direct stimulus/response repetitions. These findings show that unconscious information can have a longer-lasting influence on our behavior than previously thought and further stretch the functional boundaries of unconscious cognition.

  7. Structure of Csd3 from Helicobacter pylori, a cell shape-determining metallopeptidase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Doo Ri [Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyoun Sook [Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University, Seoul 151 742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jieun; Im, Ha Na; Yoon, Hye Jin; Yoon, Ji Young; Jang, Jun Young [Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Hesek, Dusan; Lee, Mijoon; Mobashery, Shahriar [University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Kim, Soon-Jong [Mokpo National University, Chonnam 534-729 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Byung Il [National Cancer Center, Gyeonggi 410-769 (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Se Won, E-mail: sewonsuh@snu.ac.kr [Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-01

    H. pylori Csd3 (HP0506), together with other peptidoglycan hydrolases, plays an important role in determining cell shape. Its crystal structure in the latent state is reported. Helicobacter pylori is associated with various gastrointestinal diseases such as gastritis, ulcers and gastric cancer. Its colonization of the human gastric mucosa requires high motility, which depends on its helical cell shape. Seven cell shape-determining genes (csd1, csd2, csd3/hdpA, ccmA, csd4, csd5 and csd6) have been identified in H. pylori. Their proteins play key roles in determining the cell shape through modifications of the cell-wall peptidoglycan by the alteration of cross-linking or by the trimming of peptidoglycan muropeptides. Among them, Csd3 (also known as HdpA) is a bifunctional enzyme. Its d, d-endopeptidase activity cleaves the d-Ala{sup 4}-mDAP{sup 3} peptide bond between cross-linked muramyl tetrapeptides and pentapeptides. It is also a d, d-carboxypeptidase that cleaves off the terminal d-Ala{sup 5} from the muramyl pentapeptide. Here, the crystal structure of this protein has been determined, revealing the organization of its three domains in a latent and inactive state. The N-terminal domain 1 and the core of domain 2 share the same fold despite a very low level of sequence identity, and their surface-charge distributions are different. The C-terminal LytM domain contains the catalytic site with a Zn{sup 2+} ion, like the similar domains of other M23 metallopeptidases. Domain 1 occludes the active site of the LytM domain. The core of domain 2 is held against the LytM domain by the C-terminal tail region that protrudes from the LytM domain.

  8. Discrepancies between multi-electrode LFP and CSD phase-patterns: A forward modeling study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikkert Hindriks

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Multi-electrode recordings of local field potentials (LFP's provide the opportunity to investigate the spatiotemporal organization of neural activity on the scale of several millimeters. In particular, the phases of oscillatory LFP's allow studying the coordination of neural oscillations in time and space and to tie it to cognitive processing. Given the computational roles of LFP phases, it is important to know how they relate to the phases of the underlying current source densities (CSD's that generate them.Although CSD's and LFP's are distinct physical quantities, they are often (implicitly identified when interpreting experimental observations.That this identification is problematic is clear from the fact that LFP phases change when switching to different electrode montages, while the underlying CSD phases remain unchanged. In this study we use a volume-conductor model to characterize discrepancies between LFP and CSD phase-patterns, to identify the contributing factors, and to assessthe effect of different electrode montages. Although we focus on cortical LFP's recorded with two-dimensional (Utah arrays, our findings are also relevant for other electrode configurations. We found that the main factors that determine the discrepancy between CSD and LFP phase-patterns are the frequency of the neural oscillations and the extent to which the laminar CSD profile is balanced. Furthermore, the presence of laminar phase-differences in cortical oscillations, as commonly observed in experiments, precludes identifying LFP phases with those of the oscillations at a given cortical depth. This observation potentially complicates the interpretation of spike-LFP coherence and spike-triggered CSD averages. With respect to reference strategies, we found that the average-reference montage leads to larger discrepancies between LFP and CSD phases as compared with the referential montage, while the Laplacian montage reduces these discrepancies.

  9. Correlation between signs of temporomandibular (TMD) and cervical spine (CSD) disorders in asthmatic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Thaís Cristina; Grossi, Débora Bevilaqua; de Oliveira, Anamaria Siriani; Bertolli, Fabiana; Holtz, Amanda; Costa, Dirceu

    2005-01-01

    Neck accessory respiratory muscles and mouth breathing suggest a direct relationship among asthma, Temporomandibular (TMD) and Cervical Spine (CSD) Disorders. This study was performed to evaluate and correlate TMD, CSD in asthmatic and non-asthmatic. Thirty asthmatic children (7.1 +/- 2.6 years old), 30 non-asthmatic predominantly mouth breathing children (Mouth Breathing Group - MBG) (8.80 +/- 1.61 years) and 30 non-asthmatic predominantly nasal breathing children (Nasal breathing Group - NBG) (9.00 +/- 1.64 years) participated in this study and they were submitted to clinical index to evaluate stomatognathic and cervical systems. Spearman correlation test and Chi-square were used. The level of significance was set at p temporomandibular joint (TMJ), TMJ sounds, pain during cervical extension and rotation, palpatory tenderness of sternocleidomastoids and paravertabrae muscles and a severe reduction in cervical range of motion were observed in AG. Both AG and MBG groups demonstrated palpatory tenderness of posterior TMJ, medial and lateral pterygoid, and trapezius muscles when compared to NBG. Results showed a positive correlation between the severity of TMD and CSD signs in asthmatic children (r = 0.48). No child was considered normal to CSD and cervical mobility. The possible shortening of neck accessory muscles of respiration and mouth breathing could explain the relationship observed between TMD, CSD signs in asthmatic children and emphasize the importance of the assessment of temporomandibular and cervical spine regions in asthmatic children.

  10. Discrepancies between Multi-Electrode LFP and CSD Phase-Patterns: A Forward Modeling Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindriks, Rikkert; Arsiwalla, Xerxes D; Panagiotaropoulos, Theofanis; Besserve, Michel; Verschure, Paul F M J; Logothetis, Nikos K; Deco, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    Multi-electrode recordings of local field potentials (LFPs) provide the opportunity to investigate the spatiotemporal organization of neural activity on the scale of several millimeters. In particular, the phases of oscillatory LFPs allow studying the coordination of neural oscillations in time and space and to tie it to cognitive processing. Given the computational roles of LFP phases, it is important to know how they relate to the phases of the underlying current source densities (CSDs) that generate them. Although CSDs and LFPs are distinct physical quantities, they are often (implicitly) identified when interpreting experimental observations. That this identification is problematic is clear from the fact that LFP phases change when switching to different electrode montages, while the underlying CSD phases remain unchanged. In this study we use a volume-conductor model to characterize discrepancies between LFP and CSD phase-patterns, to identify the contributing factors, and to assess the effect of different electrode montages. Although we focus on cortical LFPs recorded with two-dimensional (Utah) arrays, our findings are also relevant for other electrode configurations. We found that the main factors that determine the discrepancy between CSD and LFP phase-patterns are the frequency of the neural oscillations and the extent to which the laminar CSD profile is balanced. Furthermore, the presence of laminar phase-differences in cortical oscillations, as commonly observed in experiments, precludes identifying LFP phases with those of the CSD oscillations at a given cortical depth. This observation potentially complicates the interpretation of spike-LFP coherence and spike-triggered LFP averages. With respect to reference strategies, we found that the average-reference montage leads to larger discrepancies between LFP and CSD phases as compared with the referential montage, while the Laplacian montage reduces these discrepancies. We therefore advice to conduct

  11. Systematic procedure for generating operational policies to achieve target crystal size distribution (CSD) in batch cooling crystallization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul Samad, Noor Asma Fazli; Singh, Ravendra; Sin, Gürkan

    2011-01-01

    A systematic procedure to achieve a target crystal size distribution (CSD) under generated operational policies in batch cooling crystallization is presented. An analytical CSD estimator has been employed in the systematic procedure to generate the necessary operational policies to achieve the ta...

  12. ‘VALENTONES’, ‘ALCALDES DE BARRIO’ AND PARADIGMS OF CIVILITY.CONFLICTS AND ACCOMODATIONS IN SANTIAGO OF CHILE, XVIII CENTURY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Undurraga Schüler

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This work studies the polisemous universe of the practices and the speeches of violence, civility and social control that circulated in the city of Santiago throughout XVIII century. When analyzing plots of meaning of the narrations of interpersonal violence, related to the construction of a hegemonic masculinity and protected in speeches of honour, the study explores the survival of old practices of private revenge. Also, it examines the tensions and negotiations established between these and the strategies of social control undertaken by the Bourbons’ state and exerted through a microphysics of daily control, incarnated as much in the functions of the ‘Alcaldes de barrio’ like in the socialization of a civility paradigm. The latest allows putting under evaluation the fissures and the strengths of the foundations of the Bourbon’s administration.

  13. csd alleles in the red dwarf honey bee (Apis florea,Hymenoptera: Apidae) show exceptionally high nucleotide diversity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Yong Liu; Zi-Long Wang; Xiao-Bo Wu; Wei-Yu Yan; Zhi-Jiang Zeng

    2011-01-01

    The single locus complementary sex determination (sl-csd) gene is the primary gene determining the gender of honey bees (Apis spp.).While the csd gene has been well studied in the Western honey bee (Apis mellifera),and comparable data exist in both the Eastern honey bee (Apis cerana) and the giant honey bee (Apis dorsata),no studies have been conducted in the red dwarf honey bee,Apisflorea.In this study we cloned the genomic region 3 of the A.florea csd gene from 60 workers,and identified 12 csd alleles.Analysis showed that similar to A.mellifera,region 3 of the csd gene contains a RS domain at the N terminal,a proline-rich domain at the C terminal,and a hypervariable region in the middle.However,the A.florea csd gene possessed a much higher level of nucleotide diversity,compared to A.mellifera,A.cerana and Apis dorsata.We also show that similar to the other three Apis species,in A.florea,nonsynonymous mutations in the csd gene are selectively favored in young alleles.

  14. Conflict-Induced Perceptual Filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Mike; Luna-Rodriguez, Aquiles; Jacobsen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In a variety of conflict paradigms, target and distractor stimuli are defined in terms of perceptual features. Interference evoked by distractor stimuli tends to be reduced when the ratio of congruent to incongruent trials is decreased, suggesting conflict-induced perceptual filtering (i.e., adjusting the processing weights assigned to stimuli…

  15. A coupling VWM/CFD/CSD method for rotor airload prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjie Shi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A coupling fluid-structure method with a combination of viscous wake model (VWM, computational fluid dynamics (CFD and comprehensive structural dynamics (CSD modules is developed in this paper for rotor unsteady airload prediction. The hybrid VWM/CFD solver is employed to model the nonlinear aerodynamic phenomena and complicated rotor wake dynamics; the moderate deflection beam theory is implemented to predict the blade structural deformation; the loose coupling strategy based on the ‘delt method’ is used to couple the fluid and structure solvers. Several cases of Helishape 7A rotor are performed first to investigate the effect of elastic deformation on airloads. Then, two challenging forward flight conditions of UH-60A helicopter rotor are investigated, and the simulated results of wake geometry, chordwise pressure distribution and sectional normal force show excellent agreement with available test data; a comparison with traditional CFD/CSD method is also presented to illustrate the efficiency of the developed method.

  16. Progress of long coated conductors fabrication with fluorine-free CSD method at SWJTU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Y., E-mail: yzhao@swjtu.edu.cn [Key Lab of Advanced Materials Technologies, Key Lab of Magnetic Levitation Technologies and Maglev Trains (Ministry of Education), Superconductivity and New Energy Center (SNEC), Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052, NSW (Australia); Wang, W.T.; Lei, M.; Pu, M.H.; Zhang, Y. [Key Lab of Advanced Materials Technologies, Key Lab of Magnetic Levitation Technologies and Maglev Trains (Ministry of Education), Superconductivity and New Energy Center (SNEC), Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Cheng, C.H. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052, NSW (Australia)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Recent progress on the long coated conductors fabrication by F-free CSD method is presented. • Single buffer and partial-melting technology and slot-die coating methods have been developed. • Reel-to-reel facilities for continuous process have been achieved. -- Abstract: Recent progress on the fabrication of long high-T{sub c} superconducting coated conductors with a fluorine-free chemical solution deposition (CSD) method is presented. Developments including such novel methods as single buffer technology, partial-melting process on YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} (YBCO), slot-die coating and drying; reel-to-reel facilities for continuous process have been achieved in the effort on high-T{sub c} superconducting coated conductors at SWJTU, which form a comprehensive technology to fabricate long coated tapes with high performances.

  17. HART-II Acoustic Predictions using a Coupled CFD/CSD Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, D. Douglas, Jr.

    2009-01-01

    This paper documents results to date from the Rotorcraft Acoustic Characterization and Mitigation activity under the NASA Subsonic Rotary Wing Project. The primary goal of this activity is to develop a NASA rotorcraft impulsive noise prediction capability which uses first principles fluid dynamics and structural dynamics. During this effort, elastic blade motion and co-processing capabilities have been included in a recent version of the computational fluid dynamics code (CFD). The CFD code is loosely coupled to computational structural dynamics (CSD) code using new interface codes. The CFD/CSD coupled solution is then used to compute impulsive noise on a plane under the rotor using the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings solver. This code system is then applied to a range of cases from the Higher Harmonic Aeroacoustic Rotor Test II (HART-II) experiment. For all cases presented, the full experimental configuration (i.e., rotor and wind tunnel sting mount) are used in the coupled CFD/CSD solutions. Results show good correlation between measured and predicted loading and loading time derivative at the only measured radial station. A contributing factor for a typically seen loading mean-value offset between measured data and predictions data is examined. Impulsive noise predictions on the measured microphone plane under the rotor compare favorably with measured mid-frequency noise for all cases. Flow visualization of the BL and MN cases shows that vortex structures generated in the prediction method are consist with measurements. Future application of the prediction method is discussed.

  18. An Assessment of CFD/CSD Prediction State-of-the-Art by Using the HART II International Workshop Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Marilyn J.; Lim, Joon W.; vanderWall, Berend G.; Baeder, James D.; Biedron, Robert T.; Boyd, D. Douglas, Jr.; Jayaraman, Buvana; Jung, Sung N.; Min, Byung-Young

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade, there have been significant advancements in the accuracy of rotor aeroelastic simulations with the application of computational fluid dynamics methods coupled with computational structural dynamics codes (CFD/CSD). The HART II International Workshop database, which includes descent operating conditions with strong blade-vortex interactions (BVI), provides a unique opportunity to assess the ability of CFD/CSD to capture these physics. In addition to a baseline case with BVI, two additional cases with 3/rev higher harmonic blade root pitch control (HHC) are available for comparison. The collaboration during the workshop permits assessment of structured, unstructured, and hybrid overset CFD/CSD methods from across the globe on the dynamics, aerodynamics, and wake structure. Evaluation of the plethora of CFD/CSD methods indicate that the most important numerical variables associated with most accurately capturing BVI are a two-equation or detached eddy simulation (DES)-based turbulence model and a sufficiently small time step. An appropriate trade-off between grid fidelity and spatial accuracy schemes also appears to be pertinent for capturing BVI on the advancing rotor disk. Overall, the CFD/CSD methods generally fall within the same accuracy; cost-effective hybrid Navier-Stokes/Lagrangian wake methods provide accuracies within 50% the full CFD/CSD methods for most parameters of interest, except for those highly influenced by torsion. The importance of modeling the fuselage is observed, and other computational requirements are discussed.

  19. Environment-friendly type energy and coordinated community development project. Feasibility study for industrialization of the high efficiency waste-fired power generation system using CSD; Kankyo chowagata energy community keisei sokushin. Kokoritsu haikibutsu hatsuden (CSD riyo) jigyoka FS chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    For the current treatment of disused cars, valuable materials are recovered after scrapping them, and residual car shredder dust (CSD) is reclaimed. The load of land reclamation can be reduced by decreasing its volume and weight through incineration of combustibles in the CSD. Thermal energy obtained during the incineration can be converted into electric power. CSD-fired power generation plant has been planned, by which the obtained power is sold to electric power companies. It was assumed that the power generation plant is constructed at a certain city of Ibaraki Prefecture. Two cases of plant scales, i.e., 200 t/d and 400 t/d, were investigated by considering the collecting quantity of CSD fuel and the area of sites. The CSD fuel with 4,500 kcal/kg of lower calorific value contains rather high contents of chlorine and sulfur, which are around 3% and 1.6%, respectively. Therefore, the system should have measures, such as the exhaust gas treatment, dioxin treatment, and prevention of corrosion for high efficiency. It was concluded that about 300 t/d scale plant provides a feasibility. 27 refs., 21 tabs.

  20. Conflict Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, William; Koue, Glen

    1991-01-01

    Discusses general issues involved in conflict management and provides more specific examples of conflict management in libraries. Causes of conflict are considered, including organizational structure, departmentalization, performance appraisal, poor communication, and technological change; and methods of dealing with conflict are described,…

  1. Comparison of sunshine duration measurements from Campbell-Stokes sunshine recorder and CSD1 sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Grzegorz; Zając, Ireneusz

    2017-07-01

    Paper presents comparative analysis of sunshine duration measurement results obtained using Campbell-Stokes sunshine recorder (CS) and electronic sensor (CSD1). The comparison is based on data from 2009 to 2010 collected at seven weather stations (Leszno, Wrocław-Strachowice, Legnica, Opole, Zielona Góra, Jelenia Góra, Kłodzko) operated by the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management—National Research Institute (IMWM-NRI) in south-western Poland. Results obtained in Opole and Legnica stations are erroneous. In case of other stations, the relationship between daily total sunshine duration as measured by CS and CSD1 was strong. Coefficients of determination were 0.96-0.97. Mean differences in daily totals of sunshine duration were ±0.3 h. Differences of mean monthly and annual totals were both positive and negative with no pattern of occurrences. Implementation of permanent corrections is not possible. The highest consistency between both measurement devices was found during winter months.

  2. Comparison of sunshine duration measurements from Campbell-Stokes sunshine recorder and CSD1 sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Grzegorz; Zając, Ireneusz

    2016-03-01

    Paper presents comparative analysis of sunshine duration measurement results obtained using Campbell-Stokes sunshine recorder (CS) and electronic sensor (CSD1). The comparison is based on data from 2009 to 2010 collected at seven weather stations (Leszno, Wrocław-Strachowice, Legnica, Opole, Zielona Góra, Jelenia Góra, Kłodzko) operated by the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management—National Research Institute (IMWM-NRI) in south-western Poland. Results obtained in Opole and Legnica stations are erroneous. In case of other stations, the relationship between daily total sunshine duration as measured by CS and CSD1 was strong. Coefficients of determination were 0.96-0.97. Mean differences in daily totals of sunshine duration were ±0.3 h. Differences of mean monthly and annual totals were both positive and negative with no pattern of occurrences. Implementation of permanent corrections is not possible. The highest consistency between both measurement devices was found during winter months.

  3. High fidelity CFD-CSD aeroelastic analysis of slender bladed horizontal-axis wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed, M.; Lutz, Th.; Krämer, E.; Shayegan, Sh.; Ghantasala, A.; Wüchner, R.; Bletzinger, K.-U.

    2016-09-01

    The aeroelastic response of large multi-megawatt slender horizontal-axis wind turbine blades is investigated by means of a time-accurate CFD-CSD coupling approach. A loose coupling approach is implemented and used to perform the simulations. The block- structured CFD solver FLOWer is utilized to obtain the aerodynamic blade loads based on the time-accurate solution of the unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The CSD solver Carat++ is applied to acquire the blade elastic deformations based on non-linear beam elements. In this contribution, the presented coupling approach is utilized to study the aeroelastic response of the generic DTU 10MW wind turbine. Moreover, the effect of the coupled results on the wind turbine performance is discussed. The results are compared to the aeroelastic response predicted by FLOWer coupled to the MBS tool SIMPACK as well as the response predicted by SIMPACK coupled to a Blade Element Momentum code for aerodynamic predictions. A comparative study among the different modelling approaches for this coupled problem is discussed to quantify the coupling effects of the structural models on the aeroelastic response.

  4. Tassement des déchets en CSD de classe II : du site au modèle

    OpenAIRE

    Olivier, Franck

    2003-01-01

    Les CSD ( Centre de Stockage de Déchet (CSD) de classe II) deviennent des ouvrages de plus en plus techniques au sein desquels interagissent des matériaux naturels (argile, sable), artificiels (géosynthétiques) et des déchets dont le comportement est variable à la fois dans le temps et dans l'espace. Ces interactions restent relativement méconnues car, si l'on appréhende relativement bien le comportement des argiles ou des géosynthétiques en conditions dites normales, le comportement des déch...

  5. A double injection ADSA-CSD methodology for lung surfactant inhibition and reversal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Sameh M I; Policova, Zdenka; Dang, Andrew; Acosta, Edgar J; Hair, Michael L; Neumann, A Wilhelm

    2009-10-15

    This paper presents a continuation of the development of a drop shape method for film studies, ADSA-CSD (Axisymmetric Drop Shape Analysis-Constrained Sessile Drop). ADSA-CSD has certain advantages over conventional methods. The development presented here allows complete exchange of the subphase of a spread or adsorbed film. This feature allows certain studies relevant to lung surfactant research that cannot be readily performed by other means. The key feature of the design is a second capillary into the bulk of the drop to facilitate addition or removal of a secondary liquid. The development will be illustrated through studies concerning lung surfactant inhibition. After forming a sessile drop of a basic lung surfactant preparation, the bulk phase can be removed and exchanged for one containing different inhibitors. Such studies mimic the leakage of plasma and blood proteins into the alveolar spaces altering the surface activity of lung surfactant in a phenomenon called surfactant inhibition. The resistance of the lung surfactant to specific inhibitors can be readily evaluated using the method. The new method is also useful for surfactant reversal studies, i.e. the ability to restore the normal surface activity of an inhibited lung surfactant film by using special additives. Results show a distinctive difference between the inhibition when an inhibitor is mixed with and when it is injected under a preformed surfactant film. None of the inhibitors studied (serum, albumin, fibrinogen, and cholesterol) were able to penetrate a preexisting film formed by the basic preparation (BLES and protasan), while all of them can alter the surface activity of such preparation when mixed with the preparation. Preliminary results show that reversal of serum inhibition can be easily achieved and evaluated using the modified methodology.

  6. Systematic Procedure for Generating Operational Policies to Achieve Target Crystal Size Distribution (CSD) in Batch Cooling Crystallization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul Samad, Noor Asma Fazli; Singh, Ravendra; Sin, Gürkan

    Batch cooling crystallization is one of the important unit operations involving separation of solid-liquid phases. Usually the most common crystal product qualities are directly related to the crystal size distribution (CSD). However the main difficulty in batch crystallization is to obtain a uni...

  7. Ozeane: Ergebnisse der 7. Sitzung der Kommission für nachhaltige Entwicklung (CSD) der Vereinten Nationen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlimm, Jutta; Stietzel, Hans-Joachim

    1999-12-01

    The 7th session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD) was organised from 19 30 April in the UN Headquarters in New York. The Commission on Sustainable Development was established in 1992 with the aim to implement the comprehensive action programme of Agenda 21. The topics on the agenda of this year’s CSD session included: oceans, tourism as well as consumption and production patterms with a special focus on the oceans item. The 7th Session covered two weeks. It began with the so-called “High Level Segment” during the first week when 89 ministers and high-ranking government representatives stated their points of view on various themes-sometimes also in interaction with the chairman. Concerning the topic of oceans CSD 7 focussed on a few main items of special priority for the implementation of the Agenda 21, both during the preparatory “Intersessional Working Group” and in the final document. These main items are: the conservation and integrated as well as sustainable management of fisheries and marine resources, including the ecosystem of the oceans, the prevention of pollution and degradation of the marine environment through land-based and other acticities, the improvement of the scientific knowledge on oceans and the interaction between the oceans and the global climate system. The decisions of CSD 7 adressed detailed and for the major part concrete proposals for action, appeals or requests to the international organisations and the interntional community with regard to these main items. Summarizing the 7th session, it can be said that in the oceans sector CSD 7 was quite successful in fullilling the task to study the implementation of Agenda 21, to set priorities and to address actors and the necessary actions.

  8. Conflict: Organizational

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clegg, Stewart; Mikkelsen, Elisabeth Naima; Sewell, Graham

    2015-01-01

    . In contrast, anthropological treatments take a more socially and historically embedded approach to organizational conflict, focusing on how organizational actors establish negotiated orders of understanding. In a break with the social psychological and anthropological approaches, neo-Darwinians explain......This article examines four contemporary treatments of the problem of organizational conflict: social psychological, anthropological, neo-Darwinian, and neo-Machiavellian. Social psychological treatments of organizational conflict focus on the dyadic relationship between individual disputants...

  9. Cloning, Characterization and Expression Pattern Analysis of a Cytosolic Copper/Zinc Superoxide Dismutase (SaCSD1 in a Highly Salt Tolerant Mangrove (Sonneratia alba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enze Yang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mangroves are critical marine resources for their remarkable ability to tolerate seawater. Antioxidant enzymes play an especially significant role in eliminating reactive oxygen species and conferring abiotic stress tolerance. In this study, a cytosolic copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SaCSD1 cDNA of Sonneratia alba, a mangrove species with high salt tolerance, was successfully cloned and then expressed in Escherichia coli Rosetta-gami (designated as SaCSD1. SaCSD1 comprised a complete open reading frame (ORF of 459 bp which encoded a protein of 152 amino acids. Its mature protein is predicted to be 15.32 kDa and the deduced isoelectric point is 5.78. SaCSD1 has high sequence similarity (85%–90% with the superoxide dismutase (CSD of some other plant species. SaCSD1 was expressed with 30.6% yield regarding total protein content after being introduced into the pET-15b (Sma I vector for expression in Rosetta-gami and being induced with IPTG. After affinity chromatography on Ni-NTA, recombinant SaCSD1 was obtained with 3.2-fold purification and a specific activity of 2200 U/mg. SaCSD1 showed good activity as well as stability in the ranges of pH between 3 and 7 and temperature between 25 and 55 °C. The activity of recombinant SaCSD1 was stable in 0.25 M NaCl, Dimethyl Sulphoxide (DMSO, glycerol, and chloroform, and was reduced to a great extent in β-mercaptoethanol, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS, H2O2, and phenol. Moreover, the SaCSD1 protein was very susceptive to pepsin digestion. Real-time Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR assay demonstrated that SaCSD1 was expressed in leaf, stem, flower, and fruit organs, with the highest expression in fruits. Under 0.25 M and 0.5 M salt stress, the expression of SaCSD1 was down-regulated in roots, but up-regulated in leaves.

  10. Crystal Structure of a NifS Homologue CsdB from Escherichia coli (MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND INFORMATION-Biopolymer Structure)

    OpenAIRE

    Fujii, Tomomi; Hata, Yasuo

    2001-01-01

    Escherichia coli CsdB is a dimeric NifS-homologue belonging to the fold-type I family of PLPdependent enzymes, and catalyzes the decomposition of L-selenocysteine into selenium and L-alanine with specificity higher than that for a substrate of cysteine. The structure of the enzyme has been determined at 2.8 A resolution by an X-ray crystallographic method. The subunit of CsdB comprises a large domain, a small domain, and an N-terminal segment. A remarkable structural feature of CsdB is that a...

  11. Novelty P3 reductions in depression: characterization using principal components analysis (PCA) of current source density (CSD) waveforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenke, Craig E; Kayser, Jürgen; Stewart, Jonathan W; Bruder, Gerard E

    2010-01-01

    We previously reported a novelty P3 reduction in depressed patients compared to healthy controls (n=20 per group) in a novelty oddball task using a 31-channel montage. In an independent replication and extension using a 67-channel montage (n=49 per group), reference-free current source density (CSD) waveforms were simplified and quantified by a temporal, covariance-based principal components analysis (PCA) (unrestricted Varimax rotation), yielding factor solutions consistent with other oddball tasks. A factor with a loadings peak at 343 ms summarized the target P3b source as well as a secondary midline frontocentral source for novels and targets. An earlier novelty vertex source (NVS) at 241 ms was present for novels, but not targets, and was reduced in patients. Compatible CSD-PCA findings were also confirmed for the original low-density sample. Results are consistent with a reduced novelty response in clinical depression, involving the early phase of the frontocentral novelty P3.

  12. Conflict Resolution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and shift the focus more to the social impact of growth ana away from growth .... Perspectives on, and approaches towards, conflict and conflict resolution .... transformation, and changes in values and ethical approaches (such as nepotism ... education, life expectancy, employment, childbirth survival and similar indica-.

  13. Axisymmetric drop shape analysis-constrained sessile drop (ADSA-CSD): a film balance technique for high collapse pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Sameh M I; Policova, Zdenka; Acosta, Edgar J; Neumann, A Wilhelm

    2008-10-07

    Collapse pressure of insoluble monolayers is a property determined from surface pressure/area isotherms. Such isotherms are commonly measured by a Langmuir film balance or a drop shape technique using a pendant drop constellation (ADSA-PD). Here, a different embodiment of a drop shape analysis, called axisymmetric drop shape analysis-constrained sessile drop (ADSA-CSD) is used as a film balance. It is shown that ADSA-CSD has certain advantages over conventional methods. The ability to measure very low surface tension values (e.g., drop setup, and leak-proof design make the constrained sessile drop constellation a better choice than the pendant drop constellation in many situations. Results of compression isotherms are obtained on three different monolayers: octadecanol, dipalmitoyl-phosphatidyl-choline (DPPC), and dipalmitoyl-phosphatidyl-glycerol (DPPG). The collapse pressures are found to be reproducible and in agreement with previous methods. For example, the collapse pressure of DPPC is found to be 70.2 mJ/m2. Such values are not achievable with a pendant drop. The collapse pressure of octadecanol is found to be 61.3 mJ/m2, while that of DPPG is 59.0 mJ/m2. The physical reasons for these differences are discussed. The results also show a distinctive difference between the onset of collapse and the ultimate collapse pressure (ultimate strength) of these films. ADSA-CSD allows detailed study of this collapse region.

  14. Early effect of NEURAPAS® balance on current source density (CSD of human EEG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koch Klaus

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Psychiatric patients often suffer from stress, anxiety and depression. Various plant extracts are known to fight stress (valerian, anxiety (passion flower or depression (St. John's wort. NEURAPAS® balance is a mixture of these three extracts and has been designed to cover this complex of psychiatric conditions. The study was initiated to quantitatively assess the effect of this combination on brain electric activity. Method Quantitative electroencephalogram (EEG current source density (CSD recording from 16 healthy male and female human volunteers (average age 49 years was used in a randomized, placebo-controlled cross over study. Recordings were performed 0. 5, 1. 5, 3 and 4 hours after administration of the preparations under the conditions of 6 min eyes open and 5 min d2 concentration test, mathematical calculation test and memory test, respectively. All variables (electric power within 6 frequency ranges at 17 electrode positions were fed into a linear discriminant analysis (eyes open condition. In the presence of mental load these variables were used to construct brain maps of frequency changes. Results Under the condition of mental load, centro-parietal spectral power remained statistically significantly lower within alpha1, alpha2 and beta1 frequencies in the presence of verum in comparison to placebo. Discriminant analysis revealed a difference to placebo 3 and 4 hours after intake of 6 tablets of NEURAPAS® balance. Data location within the polydimensional space was projected into the area of the effects of sedative and anti-depressive reference drugs tested earlier under identical conditions. Results appeared closer to the effects of fluoxetine than to St. John's wort. Conclusions Analysis of the neurophysiological changes following the intake of NEURAPAS® balance revealed a similarity of frequency changes to those of calming and anti-depressive drugs on the EEG without impairment of cognition. Trial registration Clinical

  15. Evolving conservation paradigms for the Anthropocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariel E. Lugo

    2014-01-01

    The Anthropocene will have fundamental effects on the species composition, function, and structure of the ecosystems of the world. Land management agencies such as the USDA Forest Service will need to adapt their policies and conservation activities to avoid engaging in continuous conflict with natural processes and unfamiliar biotic assemblages. Conservation paradigms...

  16. 基于非惯性系的悬停状态旋翼CFD/CSD 耦合气动分析%CFD/CSD cpupling analysis pn aerpdynamic characteristics pf rptpr in hpver based pn npn-inertial frame

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖宇; 徐国华; 招启军

    2014-01-01

    旨在提高先进旋翼气动特性的分析精度,在旋翼高精度 CFD 分析中耦合气动弹性效应,取代传统方法中的刚性桨叶假设,并考虑悬停状态旋翼流场准定常的特性,在非惯性坐标系下建立了一套适合于悬停状态旋翼气动特性计算的 CFD/CSD 耦合分析方法。旋翼气动载荷通过求解三维 Navier-Stokes 方程求得,空间离散及通量计算采用 Jameson 中心格式,时间方向则选用五步 Runge-Kutta 迭代求解,湍流模型采用 B-L 模型;基于 Hamilton 原理建立了描述旋翼弹性运动的非线性微分方程,针对旋翼悬停状态的工作特点,采用 Raphson 迭代方法求解获得旋翼桨叶的弹性变形量。在 CFD/CSD 耦合计算中,旋翼桨叶交接面载荷及变形信息通过 CFD 与 CSD 模块进行传递,同时为提高桨叶弹性变形后贴体网格生成的效率和质量,采用基于网格点坐标转换的网格变形方法。在CFD 和 CSD 程序分别验证基础上,采用建立的旋翼 CFD/CSD 耦合分析方法计算了先进的 UH-60A 直升机旋翼的表面压强及气动载荷。计算结果表明,与刚性旋翼 CFD 模拟结果比较,本文建立的 CFD/CSD 耦合分析模型可以更准确地预估旋翼气动载荷和性能。%In order to enhance the analytical accuracy of advanced rotor aerodynamic characteristics,the aero-elastic effects are coupled into high fidelity CFD analysis method instead of rigid blade assumption.Con-sidering the quasi-steady characteristics of rotor flowfield in hover,a CFD/CSD coupling analysis model for the helicopter rotor is developed based on the non-inertia frame.Airloads are obtained through solving 3-D Navier-Stokes equations with Jameson central difference scheme used in spatial discretization,five-step Runge-Kutta method adopted in temporal integration and B-L turbulent model.Based on the Hamilton prin-ciple,nonlinear differential equations which describe the elastic

  17. CHANGES IN PARADIGMS IN SUITS REGARDING THE FAMILY IN THE WAKE OF THE NEW CODE OF CIVIL LAW: FROM ARRAIGNMENT TO MEDIATION AND THE IMPORTANCE OF JURIDICAL LANGUAGE IN A SOLUTION OF CONFLICTS

    OpenAIRE

    Bortolai, Luís Henrique; Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie.

    2015-01-01

    The implications of the Brazilian juridical order within the future code of Civil Law are analyzed. This is especially true when mediation is introduced at the start of the demand through the actions of lawyers and parties to rationalize conflicts by different mechanisms of solutions. It is important to highlight suits involving the family which are of special attention in the new code, especially with regard to arraignment without the need to present the copy of notice. The above is a polemi...

  18. FUZZY PREFERENCES IN CONFLICTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mubarak S. AL-MUTAIRI; Keith W. HIPEL; Mohamed S. KAMEL

    2008-01-01

    A systematic fuzzy approach is developed to model fuzziness and uncertainties in the preferences of decision makers involved in a conflict. This unique fuzzy preference formulation is used within the paradigm of the Graph Model for Conflict Resolution in which a given dispute is modeled in terms of decision makers, each decision maker's courses of actions or options, and each decision maker's preferences concerning the states or outcomes which could take place. In order to be able to determine the stability of each state for each decision maker and the possible equilibria or resolutions, a range of solution concepts describing potential human behavior under conflict are defined for use with fuzzy preferences. More specifically, strong and weak definitions of stability are provided for the solution concepts called Nash, general metarational, symmetric metarational, and sequential stability. To illustrate how these solution concepts can be conveniently used in practice, they are applied to a dispute over the contamination of an aquifer by a chemical company located in Elmira, Ontario, Canada.

  19. Flexibility conflict?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delsen, L.W.M.

    2002-01-01

    The chapter deals with the presupposed conflict of interests between employers and employees resulting from a decoupling of operating hours and working times. It starts from the notion that both long operating hours and flexibility are relative concepts. As there is some discretion, the ultimate

  20. conflict Liberia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. “War is hell... it has an impact on the people who take part that ... end of civil war there is a 44% likelihood of return to conflict.3 .... sample key informants, and lack of evidence based responses.15 ... economies will experience civil war, in contrast to the 1% risk for ..... Evidence,. Practice and Emerging Concepts.

  1. Plotting Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Margaret Ann; Wilkinson, John Provost

    1997-01-01

    Conflict management theory is illustrated in a series of hypothetical scenarios, typical of library situations. Each scenario is discussed in terms of a specific management theory and the theories are transposed into useful management tools by plotting each situation along relevant axes. (Author/AEF)

  2. Didaktiske paradigmer og refleksion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Torben Spanget

    2014-01-01

    this article. A possible utilitarian didactical paradigm, already indicated by Krogh as a historical paradigm prominent in our time, is also discussed. It is suggested that reflection could be seen as a normative response to the utilitarian paradigm, and not as a paradigm in its own right. It is concluded...... that reflection must be understood as an overarching cultural phenomenon and a very important qualification of all Nielsen’s paradigms, and also a possible utilitarian paradigm, because it has the potential to add dynamic elements to the more or less static didactic paradigms. Thus the semiotic analysis may...

  3. Modeling conflict : research methods, quantitative modeling, and lessons learned.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rexroth, Paul E.; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Hendrickson, Gerald A.; Kobos, Peter Holmes; McNamara, Laura A.

    2004-09-01

    This study investigates the factors that lead countries into conflict. Specifically, political, social and economic factors may offer insight as to how prone a country (or set of countries) may be for inter-country or intra-country conflict. Largely methodological in scope, this study examines the literature for quantitative models that address or attempt to model conflict both in the past, and for future insight. The analysis concentrates specifically on the system dynamics paradigm, not the political science mainstream approaches of econometrics and game theory. The application of this paradigm builds upon the most sophisticated attempt at modeling conflict as a result of system level interactions. This study presents the modeling efforts built on limited data and working literature paradigms, and recommendations for future attempts at modeling conflict.

  4. Emplacement of a Thick Mafic Extrusive Body: A CSD Solution to a Map-Generated Question

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, M.; Sloan, J. A.; Siler, D. L.; Karson, J.

    2011-12-01

    A petrological study of crystallization in thick extrusive bodies is motivated by the geologic mapping of glacially excavated volcanic crust exposed along the Vatnsdalsfjall mountain range in northwest Iceland. Vatnsdalsfjall reveals a regional flexure zone, in which ~7 Ma lava flows dip 5-10° westward toward the extinct Skagi-Hunafloi rift axis. The regional flexure is disrupted by a local bowl-shaped depression, where lava flows steepen to ~50° as they dip below a ~250 m thick, ~3 km long igneous unit known as the Hjallin lens (HL). Its lenticular shape and well-developed columnar jointing most likely led Annels (1968) to initially map the HL as a shallow-level intrusion. However, more recent field investigations by McClanahan and Wobus (2004) reveal that the HL is an extrusive body, as evidenced by a distinct basal contact that consists of a flow-banded rhyolitic ash flow tuff underlain by a sedimentary layer containing organic material. Based on preliminary petrologic and geochemical analyses, McClanahan and Wobus (2004) describe the HL as a fine-grained, aphyric basalt that is nearly uniform in mineralogy, texture, and composition. Further field work by Siler (2011) shows that the HL overlies basaltic lavas that thicken toward the center of the bowl-shaped depression, indicating that the lava flows were emplaced during subsidence. The mapped relationship of the HL to the underlying lava flows suggests that the lens is a syn- (or post-) subsidence extrusion emplaced into an existing paleotopographic low. When considered with the field relationships, the homogeneous and fine-grained character of the lens naturally presents a petrological question: Was the anomalously thick extrusive body emplaced in a single eruptive event or is the HL the product of multiple flows that erupted in rapid succession? To understand the formation the HL, we measured the crystal size distribution (CSD) of plagioclase in backscattered electron (BSE) images of 20 samples from three

  5. Analysis of the E. coli NifS CsdB protein at 2.0 A reveals the structural basis for perselenide and persulfide intermediate formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Christopher D

    2002-02-01

    The Escherichia coli NifS CsdB protein is a member of the homodimeric pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent family of enzymes. These enzymes are capable of decomposing cysteine or selenocysteine into L-alanine and sulfur or selenium, respectively. E. coli NifS CsdB has a high specificity for L-selenocysteine in comparison to l-cysteine, suggesting a role for this enzyme is selenium metabolism. The 2.0 A crystal structure of E. coli NifS CsdB reveals a high-resolution view of the active site of this enzyme in apo-, persulfide, perselenide, and selenocysteine-bound intermediates, suggesting a mechanism for the stabilization of the enzyme persulfide and perselenide intermediates during catalysis, a necessary intermediate in the formation of sulfur and selenium containing metabolites.

  6. Conceptions of Conflict in Organizational Conflict Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Elisabeth Naima; Clegg, Stewart

    2017-01-01

    Diverse and often unacknowledged assumptions underlie organizational conflict research. In this essay, we identify distinct ways of conceptualizing conflict in the theoretical domain of organizational conflict with the aim of setting a new critical agenda for reflexivity in conflict research....... In doing so, we first apply a genealogical approach to study conceptions of conflict, and we find that three distinct and essentially contested conceptions frame studies of conflict at work. Second, we employ two empirical examples of conflict to illustrate how organizational conflict research can benefit...... from a more reflexive approach and advance our understanding of conflict. In this essay, we emphasize how philosophical and political assumptions about conflict frame knowledge production within the field and we encourage future theory development to build on different notions of conflict to become...

  7. Characterization of the mechanism of protection mediated by CS-D7, a monoclonal antibody to Staphylococcus aureus iron regulated surface determinant B (IsdB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory ePancari

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We previously reported the development of a human monoclonal antibody (CS-D7, IgG1 with specificity and affinity for the iron regulated surface determinant B (IsdB of Staphylococcus aureus. CS-D7 mediates opsonophagocytic killing in vitro and protection in a murine sepsis model. In light of recent data indicating that IsdB specific T cells (CD4+, Th17, not Ab, mediate protection after vaccination with IsdB, it is important to investigate the mechanism of protection mediated by CS-D7. The mAb was examined to determine if it blocked heme binding to IsdB in vitro. The mAb was not found to have heme blocking activity, nor did it prevent bacterial growth under in vivo conditions, in an implanted growth chamber. To assess the role of the mAb Fc a point mutation was introduced at aa 297 (CS-D7●N297A. This point mutation removes Fc effector functions. In vitro analysis of the mutein confirmed that it lacked measurable binding to FcγR, and that it did not fix complement. The mutein had dramatically reduced in vitro opsonic OP activity compared to CS-D7. Nonetheless, the mutein conferred protection equivalent to the wild type mAb in the murine sepsis model. Both wild type and mutein mAbs were efficacious in FcγR deletion mice (including both FcγRII-/- mice and FcγRIII-/- mice, indicating that these receptors were not essential for mAb mediated protection in vivo. Protection mediated by CS-D7 was lost in Balb/c mice depleted of C3 with cobra venom factor (CFV, was lost in mice depleted of superoxide dismutase (SOD in P47phox deletion mice, and was absent in SCID mice. Enhanced clearance of S. aureus in the liver of CS-D7 treated mice and enhanced production of INF-γ, but not of IL17, may play a role in the mechanism of protection mediated by the mAb. CS-D7 apparently mediates survival in challenged mice through a mechanism involving complement, phagocytes, and lymphocytes, but which does not depend on interaction with FcγR, or on blocking heme

  8. The crystal structure and small-angle X-ray analysis of CsdL/TcdA reveal a new tRNA binding motif in the MoeB/E1 superfamily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Estepa, Miguel; Ardá, Ana; Savko, Martin; Round, Adam; Shepard, William E; Bruix, Marta; Coll, Miquel; Fernández, Francisco J; Jiménez-Barbero, Jesús; Vega, M Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic N6-threonylcarbamoyladenosine ('cyclic t6A', ct(6)A) is a non-thiolated hypermodification found in transfer RNAs (tRNAs) in bacteria, protists, fungi and plants. In bacteria and yeast cells ct(6)A has been shown to enhance translation fidelity and efficiency of ANN codons by improving the faithful discrimination of aminoacylated tRNAs by the ribosome. To further the understanding of ct(6)A biology we have determined the high-resolution crystal structures of CsdL/TcdA in complex with AMP and ATP, an E1-like activating enzyme from Escherichia coli, which catalyzes the ATP-dependent dehydration of t6A to form ct(6)A. CsdL/TcdA is a dimer whose structural integrity and dimer interface depend critically on strongly bound K+ and Na+ cations. By using biochemical assays and small-angle X-ray scattering we show that CsdL/TcdA can associate with tRNA with a 1:1 stoichiometry and with the proper position and orientation for the cyclization of t6A. Furthermore, we show by nuclear magnetic resonance that CsdL/TcdA engages in transient interactions with CsdA and CsdE, which, in the latter case, involve catalytically important residues. These short-lived interactions may underpin the precise channeling of sulfur atoms from cysteine to CsdL/TcdA as previously characterized. In summary, the combination of structural, biophysical and biochemical methods applied to CsdL/TcdA has afforded a more thorough understanding of how the structure of this E1-like enzyme has been fine tuned to accomplish ct(6)A synthesis on tRNAs while providing support for the notion that CsdA and CsdE are able to functionally interact with CsdL/TcdA.

  9. The Crystal Structure and Small-Angle X-Ray Analysis of CsdL/TcdA Reveal a New tRNA Binding Motif in the MoeB/E1 Superfamily

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Estepa, Miguel; Ardá, Ana; Savko, Martin; Round, Adam; Shepard, William E.; Bruix, Marta; Coll, Miquel; Fernández, Francisco J.; Jiménez-Barbero, Jesús; Vega, M. Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic N6-threonylcarbamoyladenosine (‘cyclic t6A’, ct6A) is a non-thiolated hypermodification found in transfer RNAs (tRNAs) in bacteria, protists, fungi and plants. In bacteria and yeast cells ct6A has been shown to enhance translation fidelity and efficiency of ANN codons by improving the faithful discrimination of aminoacylated tRNAs by the ribosome. To further the understanding of ct6A biology we have determined the high-resolution crystal structures of CsdL/TcdA in complex with AMP and ATP, an E1-like activating enzyme from Escherichia coli, which catalyzes the ATP-dependent dehydration of t6A to form ct6A. CsdL/TcdA is a dimer whose structural integrity and dimer interface depend critically on strongly bound K+ and Na+ cations. By using biochemical assays and small-angle X-ray scattering we show that CsdL/TcdA can associate with tRNA with a 1:1 stoichiometry and with the proper position and orientation for the cyclization of t6A. Furthermore, we show by nuclear magnetic resonance that CsdL/TcdA engages in transient interactions with CsdA and CsdE, which, in the latter case, involve catalytically important residues. These short-lived interactions may underpin the precise channeling of sulfur atoms from cysteine to CsdL/TcdA as previously characterized. In summary, the combination of structural, biophysical and biochemical methods applied to CsdL/TcdA has afforded a more thorough understanding of how the structure of this E1-like enzyme has been fine tuned to accomplish ct6A synthesis on tRNAs while providing support for the notion that CsdA and CsdE are able to functionally interact with CsdL/TcdA. PMID:25897750

  10. The crystal structure and small-angle X-ray analysis of CsdL/TcdA reveal a new tRNA binding motif in the MoeB/E1 superfamily.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel López-Estepa

    Full Text Available Cyclic N6-threonylcarbamoyladenosine ('cyclic t6A', ct(6A is a non-thiolated hypermodification found in transfer RNAs (tRNAs in bacteria, protists, fungi and plants. In bacteria and yeast cells ct(6A has been shown to enhance translation fidelity and efficiency of ANN codons by improving the faithful discrimination of aminoacylated tRNAs by the ribosome. To further the understanding of ct(6A biology we have determined the high-resolution crystal structures of CsdL/TcdA in complex with AMP and ATP, an E1-like activating enzyme from Escherichia coli, which catalyzes the ATP-dependent dehydration of t6A to form ct(6A. CsdL/TcdA is a dimer whose structural integrity and dimer interface depend critically on strongly bound K+ and Na+ cations. By using biochemical assays and small-angle X-ray scattering we show that CsdL/TcdA can associate with tRNA with a 1:1 stoichiometry and with the proper position and orientation for the cyclization of t6A. Furthermore, we show by nuclear magnetic resonance that CsdL/TcdA engages in transient interactions with CsdA and CsdE, which, in the latter case, involve catalytically important residues. These short-lived interactions may underpin the precise channeling of sulfur atoms from cysteine to CsdL/TcdA as previously characterized. In summary, the combination of structural, biophysical and biochemical methods applied to CsdL/TcdA has afforded a more thorough understanding of how the structure of this E1-like enzyme has been fine tuned to accomplish ct(6A synthesis on tRNAs while providing support for the notion that CsdA and CsdE are able to functionally interact with CsdL/TcdA.

  11. Paradigms of polyamory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano, M

    1999-01-01

    SUMMARY The paradigm theory of Thomas Kuhn is used as a framework to discuss alternative ways of intimacy. The author discusses the implications of structuring actual lesbian relationships by a paradigm of monogamy among Latin-American women. The author proposes that creating alternative paradigms of multiple relationships would be useful for many lesbians as models for alternative life patterns.

  12. Positioning Theory in Paradigms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Xiao-qiu

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of theory and paradigm to a researcher. It starts from introducing and analyzing the definition of the two terms, by using the theories in the field of intercultural communication as examples. To a good researcher, he needs not only clarifying the paradigm his research is positioned, but also integrating the theories in his paradigm.

  13. National report for CSD-16 The Netherlands: A review of sustainable development in agriculture, land and rural development, drought and desertification, and Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Andriesse; K. Boone; C. de Bont; J. Brouwers; M. Hack-Ten Broeke; G. Migchels; O. Oenema; G. van de Peet; I. Pinxterhuis; A. Smit; M. Stuiver; W. Sukkel; W. Verkerke; S. Verzandvoort; A. Visser; K. Zwart; M. Damen

    2008-01-01

    This report forms the Netherlands’ contribution to CSD-16 (2008) of the UN Commission on Sustainable Development. It comprises an overview of the Netherlands’ policies, priorities and activities with regard to sustainable development in the fields of agriculture, land and rural development, drought

  14. Introduction. Les paradigmes de la justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelui Bîlbă

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Theories of justice are marred by a permanent state of conflict because they express prejudices whose source lies in the lifeworld. One may regard these theories as interpretations of the concept of justice. Assuming a strong meaning of “theory,” one can legitimately ask if it is possible to reduce a theory of justice to its underlying paradigm. Several different paradigms coexist in modernity; the tension between them has intensified with the advent of political ideologies. The newest paradigm of justice is global justice. Yet the epistemic status of all theories of justice is ambiguous. A theory ofjustice is true to the extent that it is right, and false if it is not. This applies toRawls’ theory, as well.

  15. Structure of external aldimine of Escherichia coli CsdB, an IscS/NifS homolog: implications for its specificity toward selenocysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihara, Hisaaki; Fujii, Tomomi; Kato, Shin-Ichiro; Kurihara, Tatsuo; Hata, Yasuo; Esaki, Nobuyoshi

    2002-05-01

    Escherichia coli CsdB is a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme that catalyzes both cysteine desulfuration and selenocysteine deselenation. The enzyme has a high specific activity for L-selenocysteine relative to L-cysteine. On the other hand, its paralog, IscS, exhibits higher activity for L-cysteine, which acts as a sulfur donor during the biosynthesis of the iron-sulfur cluster and 4-thiouridine. The structure of CsdB complexed with L-propargylglycine was determined by X-ray crystallography at 2.8 A resolution. The overall polypeptide fold of the complex is similar to that of the uncomplexed enzyme, indicating that no significant structural change occurs upon formation of the complex. In the complex, propargylglycine forms a Schiff base with PLP, providing the features of the external aldimine formed in the active site. The Cys364 residue, which is essential for the activity of CsdB toward L-cysteine but not toward L-selenocysteine, is clearly visible on a loop of the extended lobe (Thr362-Arg375) in all enzyme forms studied, in contrast to the corresponding disordered loop (Ser321-Arg332) of the Thermotoga maritima NifS-like protein, which is closely related to IscS. The extended lobe of CsdB has an 11-residue deletion compared with that of the NifS-like protein. These facts suggest that the restricted flexibility of the Cys364-anchoring extended lobe in CsdB may be responsible for the ability of the enzyme to discriminate between selenium and sulfur.

  16. The Times and the Northern Ireland Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zouhaïr Abassi

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In societies in conflict the role of the media is supposed to be neutral and to report conflicts fairly and with balanced analyses. By their public debates on conflicts they are also supposed to take part in pacifying societies and in helping to bring peace. Cottle (1997, for instance, explained that even though some findings related to the British media and its reporting of the Northern Ireland conflict were relevant, he argued that they needed revision. Consequently, he proposed new paradigms of media studies. Elliott (1977 and Curtis(1996 showed that the British media concentrated on violence in general and on republican violence in particular. Moreover, they argued that the British media neglected social and political contexts in their reporting of the conflict. The aim of this paper is then to examine some aspects of how the British media cover the Northern Ireland conflict. We studied the coverage of the Northern Ireland conflict by The (London Times (1990-1995. We used a discourse analysis method to study the paper’s discourse structure in its representation of the Northern Ireland conflict.

  17. Celebritizing Conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Budabin, Alexandra Cosima

    2016-01-01

    From serving as United Nations ambassadors to appearing as spokespersons for major NGO campaigns, global celebrities have become increasingly important in international development assistance. Acting as “aid celebrities,” they are indelibly linked with humanitarian work and public engagement.2 In......, conflict, and development in Africa.......From serving as United Nations ambassadors to appearing as spokespersons for major NGO campaigns, global celebrities have become increasingly important in international development assistance. Acting as “aid celebrities,” they are indelibly linked with humanitarian work and public engagement.2...... In the policy realm, celebrity endorsement may shift attention, shape decisions, and build or erode key alliances. Meanwhile, the figure of the celebrity offers an enticing lens to refract critical issues of power, influence, and voice within neoliberal north-south relations. This essay, using emerging...

  18. Varieties of Organizational Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pondy, Louis R.

    1969-01-01

    The viewpoints and findings of the seven empirical studies of organizational conflict contained in this issue are compared and contrasted. A distinction is made between conflict within a stable organization structure and conflict aimed at changing the organization structure. (Author)

  19. Healthy Conflict Management

    OpenAIRE

    Brower, Naomi

    2012-01-01

    Without healthy conflict management skills, conflict can often escalate or intensify over time. This fact sheet gives tips on utilizing key negotiation skills to help individuals effectively address and cope with conflict and potentially build stronger relationships with others.

  20. The Influence of Crystal Size Distributions (CSD) on the Rheology of Magma: New Insights from Analogue Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, J.; Mueller, S.; Castro, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    Knowing the flow properties, or rheology, of magma is of great importance for volcanological research. It is vital for understanding eruptive and depositional features, modelling magma flow rates and distances, interpreting pre-eruptive volcanic unrest and earthquakes, and ultimately predicting volcanic hazards related to magma motion. Despite its key role in governing volcanic processes, magma rheology is extremely difficult to constrain in time and space within a natural volcanic system, because it is dependent upon so many variables. Therefore, both analogue and experimental studies of permissible yet simplified scenarios are needed to isolate different rheological influences. Despite significant progress in understanding the rheological properties of silicate melts and two-phase mixtures (e.g. melt + crystals), as well as the impact of the volume fraction (e.g. Pinkerton & Stevenson, 1992; Caricchi et al., 2007; Mueller et al., 2010) and shape (Mueller et al., 2011) of crystals on magma rheology, the effect of the crystal size distribution (CSD) is still poorly constrained. A highly disperse CSD (i.e., a great variety of different crystal sizes) leads to a much more efficient packing of crystals in a flowing magma which predominantly controls the rheological behavior of magma in a sheared particle Accounting for, or neglecting, the size distribution of crystals can therefore make a considerable difference in magma flow models. We present the results of systematic rheometric experiments using multimodal analogue particle suspensions of well-defined size fractions of micrometer-sized glass beads in silicone oil as magma-analogue material. Starting with simple bimodal distributions (i.e. particles of two distinct sizes), the complexity of the samples' particle size distribution has been successively increased and evaluated towards tetramodal distributions (four distinct size fractions). Statistical values of the given suspensions have been calculated and

  1. A case of administrative conflict: observations on the dynamic framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thienhaus, O J

    1989-01-01

    A situation is described of suddenly erupting conflict in an interdisciplinary meeting of psychiatric hospital staff. The conflict is related to the systemic impact of recent changes in psychiatric hospital practice. The observed affect and interpersonal dynamics are reviewed in the context of different conceptual frameworks. These include Maslow's hierarchy of needs model, the group focal conflict paradigm and the concept of scapegoating. The use and integration of these three approaches toward understanding affectively laden administrative conflict are discussed. Specific reference is made to the utilization of such understanding in developing leadership skills in a multi-disciplinary mental health setting.

  2. The Investment Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Mark C.

    2005-01-01

    Is marketing an expense or an investment? Most accountants will claim that marketing is an expense, and clearly that seems true when cutting the checks to fund these efforts. When it is done properly, marketing is the best investment. A key principle to Smart Marketing is the Investment Paradigm. The Investment Paradigm is understanding that every…

  3. Of Paradigms and Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Martin B.; Matthijs, Matthias

    game in town. In effect, while Hall’s approach can account for inter-paradigm change with reference to exogenous shocks, it does not allow for significant ideational change to occur intra-paradigm. In order to remedy this, we suggest that the concept of ideational power be placed more centrally...

  4. The Conflict Of Interest About Gender Paradigm In West Sumatera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Fahmi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Minangs are the world's largest matrilineal society; properties such as land and houses are inherited through female lineage. Some scholars argue that this might have caused the diaspora(Minangkabau, "merantau" of Minangkabau males throughout the Maritime Southeast Asia to become scholars or to seek fortune as merchants. However, the native Minangkabaus agreed that this matrilineal culture is indeed the result of (not the reason for diaspora. With their men travelling out of the country for unspecified time (with possibility of some of them not returning home, it is only logical to hand the land and property to those who do not have to leave it: The women. This also ensures the women's (meaning: mothers of the future generations' welfare and hence ensuring their offsprings welfare. Besides, native MinangKabaus argue that "Men can live anywhere and hence they do not need a house like women do". Abstrak: Masyarakat Minangkabau merupakan masyarakat matrilineal terbesar di dunia; di mana kepemilikan seperti tanah dan rumah diwariskan melalui garis keturunan ibu. Beberapa ilmuan masih berdebat dikarenakan diaspora (Minangkabau,  “merantau” dari lelaki Minang ke berbagai daerah di wilayah Asia tenggara sebagai usaha untuk mencari keuntungan melalui kegiatan perdagangan. Walau bagaimanapun, masyarakat asli Minangkabau sependapat bahwa, budaya matrilinial menjadi penyebab utama diaspora tersebut. Dengan bepergiannya para kaum pria untuk merantau dalam jangka waktu yang tidak dapat dipastikan (bahkan terkadang mereka tidak pulang kampung, itu lebih disebakan oleh ketiadaan kepemilikan tanah dan rumah yang telah dijelaskan di atas. Inu juga dapandang sebagai masa depan sebuah generasi. Selanjutnya ada pandangan bahwa, lelaki. dapat hidup atau tinggal di mana saja dan mereka tidak membutuhkan rumah seperti kaum perempuan yang membutuhkannya.

  5. Categorial Conflict Didactics as Paradigm of Civic Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horst Leps

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Rudolf Engelhard presents a lesson model in his article How to Deal with Party Politics at School? that dates back to the 1960s, when civic education was revived in the Federal Republic of Germany (West-Germany. In order to improve civic education at school, the former Ministers of Education of German states reached a joint decision on the new subject. This was as a reaction against the first massive scribbling of Nazi propaganda since the end of World War II. Therefore, a new subject in secondary education was introduced to serve this purpose. This subject was called Sozialkunde1 (civic education or Gemeinschaftskunde2 (social studies.

  6. Parallel Programming Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-07-01

    GOVT ACCESSION NO. 3. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER 4, TITL.: td Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Parallel Programming Paradigms...studied. 0A ITI is Jt, t’i- StCUI-eASSIICATION OFvrHIS PAGFrm".n Def. £ntered, Parallel Programming Paradigms Philip Arne Nelson Department of Computer...8416878 and by the Office of Naval Research Contracts No. N00014-86-K-0264 and No. N00014-85- K-0328. 8 ?~~ O .G 1 49 II Parallel Programming Paradigms

  7. Initial Aerodynamic and Acoustic Study of an Active Twist Rotor Using a Loosely Coupled CFD/CSD Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, David D. Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Preliminary aerodynamic and performance predictions for an active twist rotor for a HART-II type of configuration are performed using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code, OVERFLOW2, and a computational structural dynamics (CSD) code, CAMRAD -II. These codes are loosely coupled to compute a consistent set of aerodynamics and elastic blade motions. Resultant aerodynamic and blade motion data are then used in the Ffowcs-Williams Hawkins solver, PSU-WOPWOP, to compute noise on an observer plane under the rotor. Active twist of the rotor blade is achieved in CAMRAD-II by application of a periodic torsional moment couple (of equal and opposite sign) at the blade root and tip at a specified frequency and amplitude. To provide confidence in these particular active twist predictions for which no measured data is available, the rotor system geometry and computational set up examined here are identical to that used in a previous successful Higher Harmonic Control (HHC) computational study. For a single frequency equal to three times the blade passage frequency (3P), active twist is applied across a range of control phase angles at two different amplitudes. Predicted results indicate that there are control phase angles where the maximum mid-frequency noise level and the 4P non -rotating hub vibrations can be reduced, potentially, both at the same time. However, these calculated reductions are predicted to come with a performance penalty in the form of a reduction in rotor lift-to-drag ratio due to an increase in rotor profile power.

  8. Sexual conflict between parents: offspring desertion and asymmetrical parental care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Székely, Tamás

    2014-09-25

    Parental care is an immensely variable social behavior, and sexual conflict offers a powerful paradigm to understand this diversity. Conflict over care (usually considered as a type of postzygotic sexual conflict) is common, because the evolutionary interests of male and female parents are rarely identical. I investigate how sexual conflict over care may facilitate the emergence and maintenance of diverse parenting strategies and argue that researchers should combine two fundamental concepts in social behavior to understand care patterns: cooperation and conflict. Behavioral evidence of conflict over care is well established, studies have estimated specific fitness implications of conflict for males or females, and experiments have investigated specific components of conflict. However, studies are long overdue to reveal the full implications of conflict for both males and females. Manipulating (or harming) the opposite sex seems less common in postzygotic conflicts than in prezygotic conflicts because by manipulating, coercing, or harming the opposite sex, the reproductive interest of the actor is also reduced. Parental care is a complex trait, although few studies have yet considered the implications of multidimensionality for parental conflict. Future research in parental conflict will benefit from understanding the behavioral interactions between male and female parents (e.g., negotiation, learning, and coercion), the genetic and neurogenomic bases of parental behavior, and the influence of social environment on parental strategies. Empirical studies are needed to put sexual conflict in a population context and reveal feedback between mate choice, pair bonds and parenting strategies, and their demographic consequences for the population such as mortalities and sex ratios. Taken together, sexual conflict offers a fascinating avenue for understanding the causes and consequences of parenting behavior, sex roles, and breeding system evolution.

  9. The fictionalist paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paley, John

    2011-01-01

    The fictionalist paradigm is introduced, and differentiated from other paradigms, using the Lincoln & Guba template. Following an initial overview, the axioms of fictionalism are delineated by reference to standard metaphysical categories: the nature of reality, the relationship between knower and known, the possibility of generalization, the possibility of causal linkages, and the role of values in inquiry. Although a paradigm's 'basic beliefs' are arbitrary and can be assumed for any reason, in this paper the fictionalist axioms are supported with philosophical considerations, and the key differences between fictionalism, positivism, and constructivism are briefly explained. Paradigm characteristics are then derived, focusing particularly on the methodological consequences. Towards the end of the paper, various objections and misunderstandings are discussed. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Interparental Conflict and Adolescents' Romantic Relationship Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Valerie A.; Furman, Wyndol

    2010-01-01

    This study examined associations between interparental conflict and adolescents' romantic relationship conflict. High school seniors (N = 183) who lived with married parents completed questionnaires about their parents' marriage and their own romantic relationships. A subset of 88 adolescents was also observed interacting with their romantic…

  11. Metatheory Building in the Conflict Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Fathi

    2010-07-01

    conflict management. c. The integral approach can be understood as a “Theory of Everything“ presupposing that no perspective can be 100% wrong (but “partially true”. Its methodology is based on “map making” by categorizing established paradigms, methods and theories in a holistic metacontext. By means of five categories – quadrants, levels, lines, types, states (altogether AQAL: All Quadrants All Lines – the integral approach claims to consider as many aspects of reality as possible in a holistic concept. 2. Outline of an integration model: a. Possibility of an epistemological integration of the introduced methods: The five AQAL-dimensions enable the epistemological foci of the approaches by Galtung and Glasl to be revealed. A point in which both approaches may complement each other becomes apparent by combining a vertical spectrum of escalation levels (Glasl and a horizontal axis of different fields of violence (Galtung. It might be of further research interest to analyse the potential extent of a correlation to evolution oriented level schemes (Wilber, e.g., referring to development psychology or evolution theory. Are there different development levels (Wilber of direct, cultural and structural violence (Galtung? Is there a correlation between levels of development (Wilber and regression (Glasl? This paper concludes for both cases a cautious “yes.” In doing so, the consideration of the other AQAL-dimensions (types, lines, states provides further information. b. Proposal for an integral heuristic: The consideration of vertical (levels and horizontal (quadrants, types, lines AQAL-categories is also useful to integrate heuristics. However, the integral approach itself does not represent a method of heuristic and practical effect, though it is useful to adapt the AQAL-categories and to consider new tools that are highly relevant for the Peace and Conflict Studies. The heuristic integral concept is based on the vertical conflict scheme by Galtung (three

  12. From Conflict to Congruence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michlowski, Aida A.

    1999-01-01

    Conflict resolution has moved into the classroom. Peaceful conflict resolution includes negotiation, peer mediation, and arbitration. Data on conflict-resolution programs have turned up interesting objectives and outcomes. Curriculum approaches include classroom discipline, peace education, multicultural perspective, and just community. Teaching…

  13. Winnicott's paradigm outlined

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeljko Loparic

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to present a unified view of Winnicott’s contribution to psychoanalysis. Part I (Sections 1-4 starts off by recalling that, according to some important commentators, Winnicott introduced a change in paradigms in psychoanalysis. In order to show that this change can be viewed as an overall “switch in paradigms”, in the sense given by T. S. Kuhn, this paper presents an account of the Kuhn’s view of science and offers a reconstruction of Freud’s Oedipal, Triangular or “Toddler-in-the-Mother’s-Bed” Paradigm. Part II (Sections 5-13 shows that as early as the 1920’s Winnicott encountered insurmountable anomalies in the Oedipal paradigm and, for that reason, started what can be called revolutionary research for a new framework of psychoanalysis. This research led Winnicott, especially during the last period of his life, to produce an alternative dual or “Baby-on-the-Mother’s-Lap” Paradigm. This new paradigm is described in some detail, especially the paradigmatic dual mother-baby relation and Winnicott’s dominant theory of maturation. Final remarks are made regarding Winnicott’s heritage and the future of psychoanalysis.

  14. Conflict resolution in adolescent relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, M.D.

    2008-01-01

    Conflict is an inevitable feature of social relationships. When people interact, disagreements may arise. Especially in close relationships, people sometimes disagree. Although conflict might jeopardize relationships, conflict is not necessarily detrimental. The way conflicts are handled is importan

  15. Prediction of BVI Noise for an Active Twist Rotor Using a Loosely Coupled CFD/CSD Method and Comparison to Experimental Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, David E.; Wilbur, Matthew L.; Sekula, Martin K.; Boyd, David Douglas, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Numerical predictions of the acoustic characteristics of an Active Twist Rotor (ATR), using two methods to compute the rotor blade aerodynamics and elastic blade motion are compared to experimental data from a wind tunnel test in the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) in 2000. The first method, a loosely coupled iterative method, utilizes the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code OVERFLOW 2 and the Computational Structural Dynamics (CSD) code CAMRAD II. The second method utilizes the CAMRAD II free-wake model only. The harmonic active-twist control to the main rotor blade system is identified with three parameters - harmonic actuation frequency, actuation amplitude, and control phase angle. The resulting aerodynamics and blade motion data from the two methods are then used in the acoustics code PSU-WOPWOP to predict acoustic pressure on a spherical array of equally spaced observers surrounding the rotor. This spherical distribution of pressure is used to compute the sound power level representing baseline and actuated conditions. Sound power levels for three categories of noise are defined as - blade-vortex interaction sound power level (BVIPWL), low frequency sound power level (LFPWL), and overall sound power level, OAPWL. Comparisons with measured data indicate the CFD/CSD analysis successfully captures the trends in sound power levels and the effects of active-twist control at advance ratios of 0.14 and 0.17. The free-wake model predictions show inconsistent sound power levels relative to the trends in the experimental and CFD data. This paper presents the first ever comparison between CFD/CSD acoustic predictions for an active-twist rotor and experimental measurements.

  16. Three paradigms of horror

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Ognjanović

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Starting with the definition of horror as a literary genre the core story of which is based on a meeting with threatening Otherness whose influx into consensual reality and it’s tacit normality creates unrest and awakens fear in the protagonists and the audience, this paper defines the three key paradigms of the horror genre, based on the causes of fear, or rather the “monstrous” Otherness in them. Paradigm 1 concerns the “fear of one’s own self”: the root of the fear is inside, in the individual psyche, in the split, deceived, or in some other way unreliable self which is, consciously or unconsciously, harmful to others, and ultimately to itself. Paradigm 2 deals with the “Fear of others”: the root of fear is outside and is concerned with other people and other creatures which have an urge to occupy a certain human microcosm. Paradigm 3 is concerned with the “Fear of the numinous”: the root of the fear is mostly situated on the outside; however its shape is amorphous, ambivalent and unknowable. The “monster” is faceless; it touches on primary forces of the divine/demonic, and as such is situated on the very border between inside/outside. All three paradigms, with their main approaches and constitutive elements, are modulated through two basic possible treatments: the conservative and the progressive (liberal, which affords a total of six basic variations of horror. Starting from definitions given by John Carpenter, Robin Wood and his own, the author analyzes representative examples from horror literature and film for each paradigm and its variation, with a special accent on the image of Otherness and its connection to the norm, its intrusion into the status quo, anthropocentrism and the presence or absence of a happy ending. The paper demonstrates the richness of connotative potential within the horror genre and provides a basis for its taxonomy.

  17. Towards a New Paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, Rob; Larsen, Vibeke Grupe; Hacker, Jake

    2010-01-01

    for developing a new paradigm for zero-energy architecture. There has been a radical transformation in building energy consumption over the last 30 years, with an absolute reduction in heat consumption and a rapid growth in electricity consumption, reflecting wider technological and social transformations...... in the future. With this background, a new paradigm for zero-energy architecture is developed that re-flects the architectural design process. In this way, the architectural focus early in the de-sign process on functional disposition, spatial quality and built form can act as the driving force in the movement...

  18. Mapping implicit theories of interpersonal conflict: The roles of dissatisfaction and disagreement

    OpenAIRE

    Peeters, Guido

    1993-01-01

    A method and data are presented on the mapping of subjective implicit theories underlying individual perceptions of interpersonal conflict. Building on a previously established "relational information processing paradigm" an experimental questionnaire was developed requiring subjects to rate how conflictive they considered hypothetical situations in which two individuals showed varying patterns of (dis)satisfactions. Data obtained form economy freshmen revealed three major implicit theori...

  19. Conflict or Consensus?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Annika; Poulsen, Birgitte

    forms of institutional design of citizen participation processes, less attention has been paid to the role of public administrators, and their role in facilitating processes of citizen participation. Public administrators have to work with diverse groups of citizens with diverging, and often conflicting......, interests. However, many public administrators have not been adequately exposed to the rationales of conflicts and the skills in resolving conflicts. The aim of this paper is to analyse the different types of conflicts that public administrators experience in formal processes of citizen involvement. Whereas...... the literature of deliberative democracy claims that consensus is most often the result of rational deliberative processes, the claim of this paper is that conflicts is more likely a natural and integrated part of such deliberative acts. Conflicts are, thus, seen as inevitable. Also conflicts may function...

  20. Managing intercultural conflict effectively

    CERN Document Server

    Ting-Toomey, Stella

    2001-01-01

    In this volume, Ting-Toomey and Oetzel accomplish two objectives: to explain the culture-based situational conflict model, including the relationship among conflict, ethnicity, and culture; and, second, integrate theory and practice in the discussion of interpersonal conflict in culture, ethnic, and gender contexts. While the book is theoretically directed, it is also a down-to-earth practical book that contains ample examples, conflict dialogues, and critical incidents. Managing Intercultural Conflict Effectively helps to illustrate the complexity of intercultural conflict interactions and readers will gain a broad yet integrative perspective in assessing intercultural conflict situations. The book is a multidisciplinary text that draws from the research work of a variety of disciplines such as cross-cultural psychology, social psychology, sociology, marital and family studies, international management, and communication.

  1. L'Afghanistan et la paix à travers le paradigme du développement: une évaluation critique

    OpenAIRE

    Merkel, Katharina

    2011-01-01

    Peer reviewed A plethora of academic literature claims that in the post Cold War political landscape, poverty and development deficits are key in sparking civil conflict. Out of this recognition a new paradigm has emerged which underpins the idea that, by working to overcome these deficits, the risk of conflict can be essentially reduced and/or mitigated. The 'peace through development' paradigm supports the assumptio n that development and security are essentially intertwined. In this pap...

  2. Conflict Inhibitory Control Facilitates Pretense Quality in Young Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Reet, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    The present research explores the role of inhibitory control (IC) in young preschoolers' pretense ability using an ego depletion paradigm. In Experiment 1 (N = 56), children's pretense ability was assessed either before or after participating in conflict IC or control tasks, and in Experiment 2 (N = 36), pretense ability was measured after…

  3. Alternative Evaluation Research Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Michael Quinn

    This monograph is one of a continuing series initiated to provide materials for teachers, parents, school administrators, and governmental decision-makers that might encourage reexamination of a range of evaluation issues and perspectives about schools and schooling. This monograph is a description and analysis of two contrasting paradigms: one…

  4. Programming Language Paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartoníček Jan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper's goal is to briefly explain the basic theory behind programming languages and their history while taking a close look at different programming paradigms that are used today as well as describing their differences, benefits, and drawbacks

  5. Toward a Metatheoretical Integration of Developmental Paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark W. Antley

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows how a partial consilience might be achieved in the field of human development by means of principles from general systems theory. The author concurs with Sameroff (1989 that it is possible to interpret the mechanistic, organisimic, and contextualist paradigms/worldviews (Goldhaber, 2000; Pepper, 1970 in terms of general systems theory. The author selects a major developmentalist from each paradigm and interprets that scholar’s work in terms of systems principles. The following developmentalists were selected: Arnold Sameroff (contextualism, Erik Erickson (organicism, and Albert Bandura (mechanism. The systems principles employed are wholeness and order, self-stabilization, self-reorganization, hierarchical interaction, and dialectical contradiction (Sameroff, 1989. The author addresses the conflicting presuppositions of the major paradigms in order to provide for their theoretical subsuming under systems theory. Finally, the author notes areas of inconsistency that will need to be resolved in the future and calls for further scholarship to translate developmental theory in terms of general systems theory for the benefit of students, scholars, consultants and other practitioners familiar with systems theory.

  6. Toward a Metatheoretical Integration of Developmental Paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark W. Antley

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows how a partial consilience might be achieved in the field of human development by means of principles from general systems theory. The author concurs with Sameroff (1989 that it is possible to interpret the mechanistic, organisimic, and contextualist paradigms/worldviews (Goldhaber, 2000; Pepper, 1970 in terms of general systems theory. The author selects a major developmentalist from each paradigm and interprets that scholar’s work in terms of systems principles. The following developmentalists were selected: Arnold Sameroff (contextualism, Erik Erickson (organicism, and Albert Bandura (mechanism. The systems principles employed are wholeness and order, self-stabilization, self-reorganization, hierarchical interaction, and dialectical contradiction (Sameroff, 1989. The author addresses the conflicting presuppositions of the major paradigms in order to provide for their theoretical subsuming under systems theory. Finally, the author notes areas of inconsistency that will need to be resolved in the future and calls for further scholarship to translate developmental theory in terms of general systems theory for the benefit of students, scholars, consultants and other practitioners familiar with systems theory.

  7. Functional csdA is needed for effective adaptation and initiation of growth of Clostridium botulinum ATCC 3502 at suboptimal temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderholm, Henna; Derman, Yağmur; Lindström, Miia; Korkeala, Hannu

    2015-09-02

    The activity of RNA helicase csdA (cbo2802) after temperature downshift was compared to its activity at optimal growth temperature, and the effect of sense and antisense oriented insertional inactivation of cbo2802 on the growth of ATCC 3502 at suboptimal temperature was evaluated. The relative cbo2802 transcript level was significantly induced for 30min to 5h after cold shock. In contrast, a significant decrease in the relative transcript level of cbo2802 was observed within the same time frame at 37°C. Inactivation of cbo2802 led to an extensive delay in initiation of exponential growth at 20°C but not at 37°C. In addition, the mean minimum growth temperatures of the mutant strains were higher than those of the wild-type strain. During a 24-hour incubation at 37°C, all strains were motile, whereas at 20°C the mutant strains showed severely impaired motility compared to the wild-type strain. This study shows that a functional csdA is needed for effective adaptation and initiation of growth and motility of Clostridium botulinum ATCC 3502 at suboptimal temperature.

  8. Is consciousness necessary for conflict adaptation? A state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desender, Kobe; Van den Bussche, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Facing response conflict, subjects try to improve their responses by reducing the influence of the detrimental information which caused the conflict. It was speculated that this adaptation to conflict can only occur when the conflicting information is consciously perceived. In this review we give an overview of the research looking at the possibility of unconscious stimuli to provoke this conflict adaptation. In a first part we discuss adaptation to conflict on a trial-by-trial basis. When the previous trial contained conflicting information, subjects will adapt to this by reducing the influence of the conflicting information on the current trial. However, the interesting question is whether this is also possible when the conflicting information remains unconscious. In a second part we will discuss blockwise adaptation to conflict. If conflict is very frequent, subjects will adapt to this by reducing the conflicting information sustainably. Again the question is whether this is possible when the conflict was never experienced consciously. In a third part we will discuss the neural basis of conscious and unconscious conflict adaptation. We will critically discuss the research on these topics and highlight strengths and weaknesses of the used paradigms. Finally, we will give some suggestions how future research can be more conclusive in this respect.

  9. Is consciousness necessary for conflict adaptation? A state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobe eDesender

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Facing response conflict, subjects try to improve their responses by reducing the influence of the detrimental information which caused the conflict. It was speculated that this adaptation to conflict can only occur when the conflicting information is consciously perceived. In this review we give an overview of the research looking at the possibility of unconscious stimuli to provoke this conflict adaptation. In a first part we discuss adaptation to conflict on a trial-by-trial basis. When the previous trial contained conflicting information, subjects will adapt to this by reducing the influence of the conflicting information on the current trial. However, the interesting question is whether this is also possible when the conflicting information remains unconscious. In a second part we will discuss blockwise adaptation to conflict. If conflict is very frequent, subjects will adapt to this by reducing the conflicting information sustainably. Again the question is whether this is possible when the conflict was never experienced consciously. In a third part we will discuss the neural basis of conscious and unconscious conflict adaptation. We will critically discuss the research on these topics and highlight strengths and weaknesses of the used paradigms. Finally, we will give some suggestions how future research can be more conclusive in this respect.

  10. Conflict in organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesting, Peter; Smolinski, Remigiusz; Speakman, Ian

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this conceptual paper is to apply the insights of recent routine research in the area of conflict and conflict management. As a result, the authors identify four different types of conflict sources that are rooted in routines and the specific difficulties connected with their change......: the repetitive character of routine, disagreement over the “validity” of the existing routines, disagreement concerning the definition of new targets, and resistance towards change processes. Further the authors point to the inherent tendency to routinize conflict management strategies and the risks...... that are associated with this process. As a result, this paper offers new insights into the causes and structure of conflicts triggered by change processes as well as into the management of repetitive conflicts....

  11. The resilience of paradigm mixes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Farsund, Arild Aurvåg; Langhelle, Oluf

    2017-01-01

    This paper argues that a policy regime based on a paradigm mix may be resilient when challenged by changing power balances and new agendas. Controversies between the actors can be contained within the paradigm mix as it enables them to legitimize different ideational positions. Rather than engaging...... context changed. The paradigm mix proved sufficiently flexible to accommodate food security concerns and at the same time continue to take steps toward further liberalization. Indeed, the main players have not challenged the paradigm mix....

  12. Peer Conflict and Intrafamily Conflict: Are They Conceptual Bridges?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccoby, Eleanor E.

    1996-01-01

    Reviews the articles on peer and intrafamily conflict in this issue, focusing on ways in which conflict in these two different settings might be related to one another. Notes that although conflict-resolution styles may carry over to some extent from conflict among family members to conflict among peers, there are some important differences. (MDM)

  13. Exploring how Conflict Management Training Changes Workplace Conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Elisabeth Naima

    2012-01-01

    as a catalyst for the development of new sensemakings about workplace conflicts. These included increasing acknowledgement of workplace conflicts, recognition of interdependent and context embedded relationships in interpersonal conflicts, and enactment of active resistance in a subordinated occupational group...

  14. Climate shocks and conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papaioannou, Kostadis J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper offers a historical micro-level analysis of the impact of climate shocks on the incidence of civil conflict in colonial Nigeria (1912-1945). Primary historical sources on court cases, prisoners and homicides are used to capture conflict. To measure climate shocks we use the deviation f

  15. Multicultural team conflict management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Heinz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the potential problems related to conflict resolution while cooperating in multicultural teams. Special attention is paid to specific character of such teams as well as to the concept of productive conflict and the ways of resolving it. The experiences gained in the Erasmus Intenstive Programme - Effective Working in Multicultural Teams were used.

  16. Multicultural team conflict management

    OpenAIRE

    Krystyna Heinz

    2014-01-01

    The article presents the potential problems related to conflict resolution while cooperating in multicultural teams. Special attention is paid to specific character of such teams as well as to the concept of productive conflict and the ways of resolving it. The experiences gained in the Erasmus Intenstive Programme - Effective Working in Multicultural Teams were used.

  17. Conflicts as Aversive Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreisbach, Gesine; Fischer, Rico

    2012-01-01

    Theories of human action control deal with the question of how cognitive control is dynamically adjusted to task demands. The conflict monitoring theory of anterior cingulate (ACC) function suggests that the ACC monitors for response conflicts in the ongoing processing stream thereby triggering the mobilization of cognitive control. Alternatively,…

  18. High-Conflict Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Janet R.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews available research studies of high-conflict divorce and its effects on children. Factors believed to contribute to high-conflict divorce are explored, and a model of their interrelationships is proposed. Dispute resolution, intervention, and prevention programs are discussed, and implications for social policy are outlined. (SLD)

  19. Conflicts as Aversive Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreisbach, Gesine; Fischer, Rico

    2012-01-01

    Theories of human action control deal with the question of how cognitive control is dynamically adjusted to task demands. The conflict monitoring theory of anterior cingulate (ACC) function suggests that the ACC monitors for response conflicts in the ongoing processing stream thereby triggering the mobilization of cognitive control. Alternatively,…

  20. Managing Conflict during Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... managed conflict between parents increases children’s risk of behavior problems, depression, substance abuse and dependence, poor social ... doctor, a change in the parenting plan, or involvement of a new stepparent. This ... AAMFT Consumer Update "Managing Conflict During Divorce" pamphlets to market ...

  1. Conflicts in Anna Karenina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨恋

    2011-01-01

    Anna Karenina is a huge classic tragedy which is created by Tolstoy.This paper mainly talks about the conflict in the classic fictional story of Anna Karenina,which involves the conflicts between religious ethics,capitalistic new ideas,bravery and limitation,love for son and love for a lover,plus the variances between rural custom culture and urban culture.

  2. Conflicts in Anna Karenina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨恋

    2011-01-01

    Anna Karenina is a huge classic tragedy which is created by Tolstoy. This paper mainly talks about the conflict in the classic fictional story of Anna Karenina, which involves the conflicts between religious ethics, capitalistic new ideas, bravery and limitation, love for son and love for a lover, plus the variances between rural custom culture and urban culture.

  3. Flutter and dynamic analysis based on CFD/CSD coupling method%基于CFD/CSD耦合的颤振与动载荷分析方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢亮; 徐敏; 李杰; 蔡天星

    2012-01-01

    采用CFD/CSD耦合方法,建立了气动弹性仿真系统.基于系统辨识的方法,使用Volterra级数建立了降阶模型(ROM),实现了颤振边界的快速求解,分别使用CFD/CSD全耦合方法与ROM完成了AGARD 445.6标模的颤振分析,计算结果与实验相符较好.使用ROM完成了带边条平直翼的颤振分析.使用CFD/CSD耦合方法计算了此机翼在飞行动压下的气弹响应,结果表明即使在颤振边界内,仍然有可能出现极限环振荡(LCO).对此,分析了其气弹响应中的动载情况.结果表明基于CFD/CSD耦合的方法可以真实地仿真气弹响应过程,准确地分析气弹响应中的动态载荷情况.%CFD/CSD ( computational fluid dynamics/computational solid dynamics) coupling algorithm was concerned, and CFD based nonlinear aeroelastic simulation code was developed for complex aeroelastic system analysis. In order to meet the demand of rapid analysis, a reduced-order model based on Volterra series for nonlinear unsteady aerodynamics analysis was developed. The model was validated on AGARD 445. 6 wing, which is a standard aeroelastic configuration, and used in the flutter analysis of a plate wing with regula. CFD/CSD coupling method was employed to calculate the aeroelastic response under flight dynamic pressure. The result shows that even when the flight dynamic pressure is below the flutter boundary, the aeroelastic response also has the possibility to go into limit cycle oscillation ( LCO). Then the dynamic load was analyzed in this case. The result shows that CFD/CSD coupling method can credibly simulate the aeroelastic response, and give accurate information about dynamic load correspomding to such response.

  4. Structure of a NifS homologue: X-ray structure analysis of CsdB, an Escherichia coli counterpart of mammalian selenocysteine lyase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, T; Maeda, M; Mihara, H; Kurihara, T; Esaki, N; Hata, Y

    2000-02-15

    Escherichia coli CsdB, a NifS homologue with a high specificity for L-selenocysteine, is a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent dimeric enzyme that belongs to aminotransferases class V in fold-type I of PLP enzymes and catalyzes the decomposition of L-selenocysteine into selenium and L-alanine. The crystal structure of the enzyme has been determined by the X-ray crystallographic method of multiple isomorphous replacement and refined to an R-factor of 18.7% at 2.8 A resolution. The subunit structure consists of three parts: a large domain of an alpha/beta-fold containing a seven-stranded beta-sheet flanked by seven helices, a small domain containing a four-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet flanked by three alpha-helices, and an N-terminal segment containing two alpha-helices. The overall fold of the subunit is similar to those of the enzymes belonging to the fold-type I family represented by aspartate aminotransferase. However, CsdB has several structural features that are not observed in other families of the enzymes. A remarkable feature is that an alpha-helix in the lobe extending from the small domain to the large domain in one subunit of the dimer interacts with a beta-hairpin loop protruding from the large domain of the other subunit. The extended lobe and the protruded beta-hairpin loop form one side of a limb of each active site in the enzyme. The most striking structural feature of CsdB lies in the location of a putative catalytic residue; the side chain of Cys364 on the extended lobe of one subunit is close enough to interact with the gamma-atom of a modeled substrate in the active site of the subunit. Moreover, His55 from the other subunit is positioned so that it interacts with the gamma- or beta-atom of the substrate and may be involved in the catalytic reaction. This is the first report on three-dimensional structures of NifS homologues.

  5. Conflict and memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagoner, Brady; Brescó, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    This introduction to the special issue on conflict and memory aims to underscore the importance of memory (whether individual and collective) in relation to intergroup conflicts. We argue that the way in which societies reconstruct and bring the past into the present—especially, the historical past......—is crucial when it comes to the study of intergroup conflict dynamics. In this regard, we also highlight the growing importance of memory studies within the area of social sciences as well as the multiple ways of approaching memory. Drawing from this wide theoretical framework, we introduce the articles...... of this issue, eight articles that tackle the role of memory in different conflicts, whether currently under way, in progress of being resolved, in postwar settings, or in contexts conflicts expected to happen do not arise....

  6. Interpersonal Conflicts and Styles of Managing Conflicts among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    conflict, conflict management, student experience, diversity, ethnicity, gender, undergraduate studies, ... it causes disagreements, stress, social chaos, destruction and violence between groups. ... to constructive in the mode of interaction.

  7. Social capital, conflict, and adaptive collaborative governance: exploring the dialectic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia McDougall

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Previously lineal and centralized natural resource management and development paradigms have shifted toward the recognition of complexity and dynamism of social-ecological systems, and toward more adaptive, decentralized, and collaborative models. However, certain messy and surprising dynamics remain under-recognized, including the inherent interplay between conflict, social capital, and governance. In this study we consider the dynamic intersections of these three often (seemingly disparate phenomena. In particular, we consider the changes in social capital and conflict that accompanied a transition by local groups toward adaptive collaborative governance. The findings are drawn from multiyear research into community forestry in Nepal using comparative case studies. The study illustrates the complex, surprising, and dialectical relations among these three phenomena. Findings include: a demonstration of the pervasive nature of conflict and "dark side" of social capital; that collaborative efforts changed social capital, rather than simply enhancing it; and that conflict at varying scales ultimately had some constructive influences.

  8. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PARADIGM - SYNOPSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantinescu Andreea

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Even if sustainable development is a concept that gained quite recently its scientific prestige, through contribution of researchers its content has upgraded to a high degree of conceptual luggage and, through contribution from governance representatives, has gained an impressive good-practice background. Allowing the use of different methodological premises and conceptual tools, sustainable development paradigm is equipped with all the elements that would allow the opening of new horizons of knowledge. Based on the facility which can operate the concept of sustainable development, the European Union aims to develop both a more competitive economy based on environmental protection as well as a new governance of economic policy. This on one hand demonstrates the sustainable development ability to irradiate creativity towards the establishment of interdisciplinary bridges and on the other hand explains the growing interest of researchers interested in the problem of analyzing in detail this fruitful concept. Launched first as a theoretical framework to serve justify actions responsible for weighting economic growth, the concept of Sustainable Development has quickly become a topic of ethical debate circumscribed to the area of perfectibility of human nature to the necessity registry. In this regard, the philosophical content of this paradigm could not remain outside researchers concerns, who want to provide both policy makers and the general public a wide range of evidence to demonstrate the viability of this paradigm. Academia waits until maximization of the contribution of governance to achieve sustainable economic development, which consists in conjunction of this upward path with the momentum given by public policy sync, perfectly adapted for globalization era and all crises to come. However, because this concept based its structure and composition on three pillars, equally important economy, society and environment any attempt to strengthen

  9. Challenging the Innovation Paradigm

    CERN Document Server

    Sveiby, Karl Erik; Segercrantz, Beata

    2012-01-01

    Innovation is almost always seen as a "good thing". Challenging the Innovation Paradigm is a critical analysis of the innovation frenzy and contemporary innovation research. The one-sided focus on desirable effects of innovation misses many opportunities to reduce the undesirable consequences. Authors in this book show how systemic effects outside the innovating firms reduce the net benefits of innovation for individual employees, customers, as well as for society as a whole - also the innovators' own organizations. This book analyzes the dominant discourses that construct and recons

  10. ¿Qué veo yo? ¿qué vieron ellos?; Unidades Didácticas sobre Patrimonio Cultural CSD-TCP

    OpenAIRE

    Orejas Saco del Valle, Almudena; Rodríguez Ovejero, Ana Delia; Colegio Zazuar (Madrid). Departamento de Ciencias Sociales

    2013-01-01

    Ciencias Sociales, Geografía e Historia, 3º E.S.O.-- Actividad desarrollada dentro del programa de Investigación para la Conservación y Revalorización del Patrimonio Cultural (TCP) (CSD2007-0058) CONSOLIDER-INGENIO 2010.-- Contiene: guía del profesor, cuadernillo del alumno y póster. Guía de uso de la colección y Presentación y justificación.-- El video está sujeto a una licencia de Creative Commons Reconocimiento-NoComercial-CompartirIgual 4.0 Internacional.-- La colección consta de las sig...

  11. Large critical current densities and pinning forces in CSD-grown superconducting GdBa2Cu3O7-x -BaHfO3 nanocomposite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayado, Pablo; Erbe, Manuela; Kauffmann-Weiss, Sandra; Bühler, Carl; Jung, Alexandra; Hänisch, Jens; Holzapfel, Bernhard

    2017-09-01

    GdBa2Cu3O7-x -BaHfO3 (GdBCO-BHO) nanocomposite (NC) films containing 12 mol% BHO nanoparticles were prepared by chemical solution deposition (CSD) following the TFA route on SrTiO3 (STO) single crystals and buffered metallic tapes supplied by two different companies: Deutsche Nanoschicht GmbH and SuperOx. We optimized the preparation of our GdBCO-BHO solutions with acetylacetone making the film synthesis very robust and reproducible, and obtained 220 nm films with excellent superconducting properties. We show the structural, morphological and superconducting properties of the films after a careful optimization of the processing parameters (growth temperature, oxygen partial pressure and heating ramp). The films reach critical temperatures (T c) of ˜94 K, self-field critical current densities (J c) of >7 MA cm- 2 and maximum pinning force densities (F p) of ˜16 GN m- 3 at 77 K on STO and T c of ˜94.5 K and J c > 1.5 MA cm- 2 on buffered metallic tapes. The transport properties under applied magnetic fields are significantly improved with respect to the pristine GdBCO films. The GdBCO-BHO NC films on STO present epitaxial c-axis orientation with excellent out-of-plane and in-plane texture. The films are, in general, very dense with a low amount of pores and only superficial indentations. On the other hand, we present, for the first time, a systematic study of CSD-grown GdBCO-BHO NC films on buffered metallic tapes. We have used the optimized growth conditions for STO as a reference and identified some limitations on the film synthesis that should be overcome for further improvement of the films’ superconducting properties.

  12. Functional definition of the N450 event-related brain potential marker of conflict processing: a numerical stroop study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szűcs Dénes

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several conflict processing studies aimed to dissociate neuroimaging phenomena related to stimulus and response conflict processing. However, previous studies typically did not include a paradigm-independent measure of either stimulus or response conflict. Here we have combined electro-myography (EMG with event-related brain potentials (ERPs in order to determine whether a particularly robust marker of conflict processing, the N450 ERP effect usually related to the activity of the Anterior Cingulate Cortex (ACC, is related to stimulus- or to response-conflict processing. EMG provided paradigm-independent measure of response conflict. In a numerical Stroop paradigm participants compared pairs of digits and pressed a button on the side where they saw the larger digit. 50% of digit-pairs were preceded by an effective cue which provided accurate information about the required response. 50% of trials were preceded by a neutral cue which did not communicate the side of response. Results EMG showed that response conflict was significantly larger in neutrally than in effectively cued trials. The N450 was similar when response conflict was high and when it was low. Conclusions We conclude that the N450 is related to stimulus or abstract, rather than to response conflict detection/resolution. Findings may enable timing ACC conflict effects.

  13. Ethnic Conflicts and Governmental Conflict Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    manipulation by ethnic leaders. Thus, there are bidirectional relationships between hegemonic aspirations and ethnic leaders. Most of the time ethnic...perhaps the strongest and clearest statement of national identity. In essence, they serve as modern totems that bear a special relationship to the...Assessment of Interracial /Interethnic Conflict in Los Angeles,” 2002, Center for Research in Society and Politics, University of California. Serwer, Daniel

  14. Complexity, Contextualism, and Multiculturalism: Responses to the Critiques and Future Directions for the Gender Role Conflict Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, James M.

    2008-01-01

    The author reacts to three reviews by Carolyn Enns, Stephen Wester, and P. Paul and Mary Heppner on "The Counseling Psychologist" Major Contribution "Summarizing 25 Years of Research on Men's Gender Role Conflict Using the Gender Role Conflict Scale: New Research Paradigms and Clinical Implications." The reviews provide support for assessing the…

  15. Complexity, Contextualism, and Multiculturalism: Responses to the Critiques and Future Directions for the Gender Role Conflict Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, James M.

    2008-01-01

    The author reacts to three reviews by Carolyn Enns, Stephen Wester, and P. Paul and Mary Heppner on "The Counseling Psychologist" Major Contribution "Summarizing 25 Years of Research on Men's Gender Role Conflict Using the Gender Role Conflict Scale: New Research Paradigms and Clinical Implications." The reviews provide support for assessing the…

  16. Approaches to Conflict and Conflict Resolution in Toddler Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Nicole; Neilsen-Hewett, Cathrine

    2012-01-01

    The importance of conflict and its resolution for children's short- and long-term adjustment has been well established within the research literature. Conflict and conflict resolution differs according to a number of constructs, including age, gender and relationship status. The purpose of this study was to explore conflict origins, resolution…

  17. Resolving Marital Conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islami Hatixhe

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Couple relations are characterized as relations of an intimate nature dominated by constant interaction or strong interdependence and mutual influence of intense feelings between spouses. In marriages where there is conflict, there are typical examples of interaction, which result in high proportion of negative communicative acts that affect the quality of marital relationships such as: loss of confidence, the emergence of frustration, feelings of anxiety, discomfort, leading to escalation of marital conflicts. Communication as a variable has a large impact on the resolution of marital conflicts. The obtained results of our research indicate that the choice of different strategies of behavior in conflict situations among our respondents primarily depend on: the degree of persistence in the pursuit of its own interests and level of cooperation in addressing the interests of others.

  18. High-conflict divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, J R

    1994-01-01

    This article reviews available research studies of high-conflict divorce and its effects on children. Interparental conflict after divorce (defined as verbal and physical aggression, overt hostility, and distrust) and the primary parent's emotional distress are jointly predictive of more problematic parent-child relationships and greater child emotional and behavioral maladjustment. As a group, children of high-conflict divorce as defined above, especially boys, are two to four times more likely to be clinically disturbed in emotions and behavior compared with national norms. Court-ordered joint physical custody and frequent visitation arrangements in high-conflict divorce tend to be associated with poorer child outcomes, especially for girls. Types of intervention programs and social policy appropriate for these kinds of families are presented.

  19. Conflicts and Negotiations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Israel adopts a two-pronged strategy to dominate the Middle East situation Recently, Israel has had several conflicts with its Middle East neighbors. At the same time, however, it has prepared to begin direct negotiations with the Palestinians.

  20. Managing conflicts of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sade, Robert M; Akins, Cary W; Weisel, Richard D

    2015-04-01

    The more extensive conflict of interest information will permit reviewers and editors to ensure the accuracy, balance,and lack of bias of papers accepted for publication.Therefore, a brief conflict statement will be published on the cover page and a more extensive description will be published at the end of the paper to allow concerned readers to make their own judgments about the quality of the information reported.

  1. Uncorking the Future: Transitions to a New Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Jacobs

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article explores issues discussed at three recent WAAS events regarding the process of transition to a new paradigm. The prominent institutions and policies governing the present paradigm are founded upon a bedrock of ideas and values and an abstract, reductionistic mode of analytic thinking detached from people and social reality. Escape from the present blind alley and transition to a new paradigm require adoption of a different way of thinking that is human-centered, value-based, inclusive and synthetic. The multidimensional challenges confronting humanity today are the consequence of precious opportunities missed at the end of the Cold War. At the same time the awareness and energy released by these challenges has the potential for converting current challenges into unprecedented opportunities for progress at the global level. The outcome depends on our capacity to discover the complementarity underlying apparently contradictory, opposite viewpoints. Multi-culturalism is at once the source of intense frictions and conflict and the rich genetic potential from which a new paradigm can emerge. A new paradigm requires a deeper understanding of the cultural underpinnings of democracy, a rational examination of the sacred cow of national sovereignty, and explicit recognition of the social responsibility of science for the consequences of scientific discovery and technological innovation. Leadership will play a crucial role in determining the outcome – intellectual leadership at the level of ideas, scientific leadership that exhibits consciousness responsibility, transformational leadership at the level of international institutions and nation-states.

  2. Conflict, Space and Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Schoonderbeek

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Footprint 19 focuses on the more recent roles of architecture in the contemporary spaces of conflict. Departing from a spatial understanding of geopolitical, climatological and economical conflicts, the various contributions highlight the large scale and phenomenal transitions in the physical world and in society by extrapolating, through examples, the abundance of relations that can be traced between conflict, territory and architecture. Conflict areas often prove to be fertile grounds for innovation and for the emergence of new spatial forms. The issue reports on the state of perpetual global unrest in architecture through a series of articles and case studies that highlight the consequences of conflicts in the places and spaces that we inhabit. In the introduction, these are discussed as an interlinked global reality rather than as isolated incidents. In doing so, the contemporary spaces of conflict are positioned in the context of emerging global trends, conditions, and discourses in the attempt to address their indicative symptoms while reflecting on their underlying causes.

  3. The Peter Pan paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, J Craig; Larson, Janet E

    2008-01-08

    Genetic and environmental agents that disrupt organogenesis are numerous and well described. Less well established, however, is the role of delay in the developmental processes that yield functionally immature tissues at birth. Evidence is mounting that organs do not continue to develop postnatally in the context of these organogenesis insults, condemning the patient to utilize under-developed tissues for adult processes. These poorly differentiated organs may appear histologically normal at birth but with age may deteriorate revealing progressive or adult-onset pathology. The genetic and molecular underpinning of the proposed paradigm reveals the need for a comprehensive systems biology approach to evaluate the role of maternal-fetal environment on organogenesis."You may delay, but time will not" Benjamin Franklin, USA Founding Father.

  4. The Peter Pan paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larson Janet E

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Genetic and environmental agents that disrupt organogenesis are numerous and well described. Less well established, however, is the role of delay in the developmental processes that yield functionally immature tissues at birth. Evidence is mounting that organs do not continue to develop postnatally in the context of these organogenesis insults, condemning the patient to utilize under-developed tissues for adult processes. These poorly differentiated organs may appear histologically normal at birth but with age may deteriorate revealing progressive or adult-onset pathology. The genetic and molecular underpinning of the proposed paradigm reveals the need for a comprehensive systems biology approach to evaluate the role of maternal-fetal environment on organogenesis. You may delay, but time will not Benjamin Franklin USA Founding Father

  5. PARADIGM OF ACCOUNTING CHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanta Iacob

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The words and phrases swop with each other and the apparent stability of a word’s meaning sometimes change in time. This explains why the generic term of accounting is used when referring to the qualities attributed to accounting,but also when it comes to organizing financial accounting function within the entity, and when referring concretely to keeping a double record with its specific means, methods and tools specific, respectively seen as a technical accounting.Speaking about the qualities of accounting, but also about the organizational form it takes, we note that there is a manifold meaning of the word accounting, which is why the purpose of this article is to demonstrate that the paradigm shift aimed at a new set of rules and if the rules changes, then we can change the very purpose of accounting.

  6. Paradigms for parasite conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Eric R; Carlson, Colin J; Bueno, Veronica M; Burgio, Kevin R; Cizauskas, Carrie A; Clements, Christopher F; Seidel, Dana P; Harris, Nyeema C

    2016-08-01

    Parasitic species, which depend directly on host species for their survival, represent a major regulatory force in ecosystems and a significant component of Earth's biodiversity. Yet the negative impacts of parasites observed at the host level have motivated a conservation paradigm of eradication, moving us farther from attainment of taxonomically unbiased conservation goals. Despite a growing body of literature highlighting the importance of parasite-inclusive conservation, most parasite species remain understudied, underfunded, and underappreciated. We argue the protection of parasitic biodiversity requires a paradigm shift in the perception and valuation of their role as consumer species, similar to that of apex predators in the mid-20th century. Beyond recognizing parasites as vital trophic regulators, existing tools available to conservation practitioners should explicitly account for the unique threats facing dependent species. We built upon concepts from epidemiology and economics (e.g., host-density threshold and cost-benefit analysis) to devise novel metrics of margin of error and minimum investment for parasite conservation. We define margin of error as the risk of accidental host extinction from misestimating equilibrium population sizes and predicted oscillations, while minimum investment represents the cost associated with conserving the additional hosts required to maintain viable parasite populations. This framework will aid in the identification of readily conserved parasites that present minimal health risks. To establish parasite conservation, we propose an extension of population viability analysis for host-parasite assemblages to assess extinction risk. In the direst cases, ex situ breeding programs for parasites should be evaluated to maximize success without undermining host protection. Though parasitic species pose a considerable conservation challenge, adaptations to conservation tools will help protect parasite biodiversity in the face of

  7. The Consumption Paradigm in Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Ardianto, Eka

    2003-01-01

    This article elaborates consumption paradigm in marketing. In background, this paper reviews different perspectives of consumption: economic perspective and marketing perspective. In ontology, this work describes various issues regarding consumption view. In epistemology, this article demonstrates how marketers especially researches explore the consumption phenomena. In methodology, the article describes experiential marketing –one of applied consumption paradigm in marketing, which could be ...

  8. Human Hippocampus Arbitrates Approach-Avoidance Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Dominik R.; Guitart-Masip, Marc; Packard, Pau A.; Miró, Júlia; Falip, Mercè; Fuentemilla, Lluís; Dolan, Raymond J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Animal models of human anxiety often invoke a conflict between approach and avoidance [1, 2]. In these, a key behavioral assay comprises passive avoidance of potential threat and inhibition, both thought to be controlled by ventral hippocampus [2–6]. Efforts to translate these approaches to clinical contexts [7, 8] are hampered by the fact that it is not known whether humans manifest analogous approach-avoidance dispositions and, if so, whether they share a homologous neurobiological substrate [9]. Here, we developed a paradigm to investigate the role of human hippocampus in arbitrating an approach-avoidance conflict under varying levels of potential threat. Across four experiments, subjects showed analogous behavior by adapting both passive avoidance behavior and behavioral inhibition to threat level. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we observe that threat level engages the anterior hippocampus, the human homolog of rodent ventral hippocampus [10]. Testing patients with selective hippocampal lesions, we demonstrate a causal role for the hippocampus with patients showing reduced passive avoidance behavior and inhibition across all threat levels. Our data provide the first human assay for approach-avoidance conflict akin to that of animal anxiety models. The findings bridge rodent and human research on passive avoidance and behavioral inhibition and furnish a framework for addressing the neuronal underpinnings of human anxiety disorders, where our data indicate a major role for the hippocampus. PMID:24560572

  9. Sacred values and conflict over Iran's nuclear program

    OpenAIRE

    Morteza Dehghani; Scott Atran; Rumen Iliev; Sonya Sachdeva; Douglas Medin; Jeremy Ginges

    2010-01-01

    Conflict over Iran's nuclear program, which involves a US-led policy to impose sanctions on Iran, is perceived by each side as a preeminent challenge to its own national security and global peace. Yet, there is little scientific study or understanding of how material incentives and disincentives, such as economic sanctions, psychologically affect the targeted population and potentially influence behaviour. Here we explore the Iranian nuclear program within a paradigm concerned with sacred val...

  10. Pupil dilation in the Simon task as a marker of conflict processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Steenbergen, Henk; Band, Guido P H

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive demands in response conflict paradigms trigger negative affect and avoidance behavior. However, not all response conflict studies show increases in physiological indices of emotional arousal, such as pupil diameter. In contrast to earlier null-results, this study shows for the first time that small (about 0.02 mm) conflict-related pupil dilation can be observed in a Simon task when stimuli do not introduce a light reflex. Results show that response-conflict in Simon trials induces both pupil dilation and reaction-time costs. Moreover, sequential analyses reveal that pupil dilation mirrors the conflict-adaptation pattern observed in reaction time (RT). Although single-trial regression analyses indicated that pupil dilation is likely to reflect more than one process at the same time, in general our findings imply that pupil dilation can be used as an indirect marker of conflict processing.

  11. Pupil Dilation in the Simon Task as a Marker of Conflict Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henk eVan Steenbergen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive demands in response conflict paradigms trigger negative affect and avoidance behavior. However, not all response conflict studies show increases in physiological indices of emotional arousal, such as pupil diameter. In contrast to earlier null-results, this study shows for the first time that small (about 0.02 mm conflict-related pupil dilation can be observed in a Simon task when stimuli do not introduce a light reflex. Results show that response-conflict in Simon trials induces both pupil dilation and reaction-time costs. Moreover, sequential analyses reveal that pupil dilation mirrors the conflict-adaptation pattern observed in reaction time. Although single-trial regression analyses indicated that pupil dilation is likely to reflect more than one process at the same time, in general our findings imply that pupil dilation can be used as an indirect marker of conflict processing.

  12. Conflict in Cyber Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Karsten; Ringsmose, Jens

    hostility from theoretical, political, strategic and legal perspectives. In doing so, and in contrast to current literature, cyber-security is analysed through a multidimensional lens, as opposed to being treated solely as a military or criminal issues, for example. The individual chapters map out...... the different scholarly and political positions associated with various key aspects of cyber conflict and seek to answer the following questions: do existing theories provide sufficient answers to the current challenges posed by conflict in cyberspace, and, if not, could alternative approaches be developed......?; how do states and non-state actors make use of cyber-weapons when pursuing strategic and political aims?; and, how does the advent of conflict in cyberspace challenge our established legal framework? By asking important strategic questions on the theoretical, strategic, ethical and legal implications...

  13. The NPD team conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zheng; Lin, Chih-Cheng; Tanev, Stoyan

    2012-01-01

    The complexities of new product development (NPD) teams present both opportunities and challenges to organizations. Very few researches have examined the combined effect of culture and geographical dispersion on teams. Especially, the role of distance still remains an open question. This paper...... elaborates on the role of culture diversity and geographical dispersion in NPD team conflict. A simulation is conducted where organizations may be regarded as complex systems to affect the team conflict with a variety of influences. The results firstly indicate that there are two dimensions of NPD team...... conflict: stable and unstable dimensions with four elements: task characteristics, group members’ relationship, cultural diversity and geographical dispersion; secondly, there are two phenomena whereby the geographical dispersion influences the NPD team interaction, and the influence between cultural...

  14. Education in conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, I

    1999-11-01

    The provision of education is affected in many different ways by political and civil unrest and armed conflict. During armed conflict, the lack of adequate financial support for the maintenance of school buildings, supplies and teacher's salaries becomes particularly acute. Other factors include the destruction of school buildings and other infrastructures in time of war, and the targeting of teachers by acts of violence. This paper explores the impact of conflict on the educational opportunities of men and women. Interventions to address the educational needs of children are also discussed. Among these programs are the Oxfam programs in Bhutan, Sri Lanka, Nicaragua, Bosnia, and Eritrea which have provided psychosocial support and human rights education to refugee and displaced women and children through the provision of educational material and by training teachers.

  15. Attention and control of manual responses in cognitive conflict: Findings from TMS perturbation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olk, Bettina; Peschke, Claudia; Hilgetag, Claus C

    2015-07-01

    The article reviews studies that have used the perturbation approach of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) to assess the control of attention and manual response selection in conflict situations as elicited in three established paradigms: the Simon paradigm, the Flanker paradigm, and the Stroop paradigm. After describing the experimental conflict paradigms and briefly introducing TMS we review evidence for the involvement of different frontal and parietal cortical regions in the control of attention and response selection. For example, areas such as the frontal eye field (FEF) appear to significantly contribute to the encoding of spatial attributes of stimuli and areas of the parietal cortex, such as angular gyrus (AG), mediate the allocation of spatial attention and orienting. The dorsal medial frontal cortex (dMFC), supramarginal gyrus (SMG) and pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) appear to be more related to response-related aspects of the conflicts (i.e., enhancement of signals related to correct movements, transformation of spatial information action codes, resolution of response selection conflicts, respectively). The reviewed studies illustrate crucial benefits but also limitations of TMS as well as the value of the combination of TMS with other methods. We suggest topics and approaches for future studies.

  16. Trinitarian paradigm for dialogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derdziuk Andrzej

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A dialogue as a social reality consists, first and foremost, in communication between those who realize that they are called to notice and to accept the other and to treat him or her with proper respect. Such a dialogue may be motivated either by the desire to share the good or by the willingness to avoid conflict. The aforementioned approaches are marked by distinctly different attitudes, which are not only rooted in two different methodologies and have two different aims, but they also encompass two diverse procedures. More importantly, engaging in dialogue may also be motivated by realizing one’s own mission in life, i.e. acting in harmony with the spiritual nature of the human being, who is a relational being. Upon realizing his or her likeness to the Triune God, i.e. the inseparable communion of the Divine Persons, a Christian discovers that the Holy Trinity constitutes the model and source for his or her own involvement in maintaining relationships with other people.

  17. New Indivisible Planetary Science Paradigm: Consequence of Questioning Popular Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvin Herndon, J.

    2014-05-01

    Progress in science involves replacing less precise understanding with more precise understanding. In science and in science education one should always question popular ideas; ask "What's wrong with this picture?" Finding limitations, conflicts or circumstances that require special ad hoc consideration sometimes is the key to making important discoveries. For example, from thermodynamic considerations, I found that the 'standard model of solar system formation' leads to insufficiently massive planetary cores. That understanding led me to discover a new indivisible planetary science paradigm. Massive-core planets formed by condensing and raining-out from within giant gaseous protoplanets at high pressures and high temperatures, accumulating heterogeneously on the basis of volatility with liquid core-formation preceding mantle-formation; the interior states of oxidation resemble that of the Abee enstatite chondrite. Core-composition was established during condensation based upon the relative solubilities of elements, including uranium, in liquid iron in equilibrium with an atmosphere of solar composition at high pressures and high temperatures. Uranium settled to the central region and formed planetary nuclear fission reactors, producing heat and planetary magnetic fields. Earth's complete condensation included a ~300 Earth-mass gigantic gas/ice shell that compressed the rocky kernel to about 66% of Earth's present diameter. T-Tauri eruptions, associated with the thermonuclear ignition of the Sun, stripped the gases away from the Earth and the inner planets. The T-Tauri outbursts stripped a portion of Mercury's incompletely condensed protoplanet and transported it to the region between Mars and Jupiter where it fused with in-falling oxidized condensate from the outer regions of the Solar System, forming the parent matter of ordinary chondrite meteorites, the main-Belt asteroids, and veneer for the inner planets, especially Mars. With its massive gas/ice shell

  18. [Types of conflicts and conflict management among Hungarian healthcare workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csupor, Éva; Kuna, Ágnes; Pintér, Judit Nóra; Kaló, Zsuzsa; Csabai, Márta

    2017-04-01

    Efficient communication, conflict management and cooperation are the key factors of a successful patient care. This study is part of an international comparative research. The aim of this study is to unfold conflicts among healthcare workers. 73 healthcare workers were interviewed using a standardized interview protocol. The in-person interviews used the critical incident method. 30 interviews (15 doctors, 15 nurses) were analysed with the Atlas.ti 7 content analysis software. The sources, types, effects of conflicts and conflict management strategies were investigated. The content analysis unfolded the specificities of conflicts in healthcare based on personal experiences. Organizational hierarchy was a substantial source of conflict, especially among physicians, which originates from implicit rules. As a result of the avoiding conflict management the conflicts remain partly unresolved which has negative individual and group effect. Our conceptual framework helps to develop a proper intervention specific to healthcare. Orv. Hetil., 2017, 158(16), 625-632.

  19. Islamophobia, Conflict and Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inman, Sally; Mc Cormack, Pip; Walker, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses some preliminary findings of the English part of a European Commission Fundamental Rights and Citizenship funded project "Children's Voices" (2011-2013) concerned with exploring and understanding children and young people's experiences of interethnic conflict and violence in primary and secondary schools. This is a…

  20. Conflict exposure and competitiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cecchi, Francesco; Leuveld, Koen; Voors, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    We use data from a street football tournament and a series of lab-in-field experiments in postconflict Sierra Leone to examine the impact of exposure to conflict violence on competitive behavior. We find that football players who experienced more intense exposure to violence are more likely to get a

  1. Disengaging from Conflict Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Nicholas J.

    2014-01-01

    Youth in pain often show self-defeating and destructive patterns of behavior which should be seen as calls for help and positive support. Instead, deep-seated brain programs and cultural beliefs about discipline can trigger angry or avoidant behavior by adults who deal with these young people. This brief introduction to the Conflict Cycle…

  2. Conflict exposure and competitiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cecchi, Francesco; Leuveld, Koen; Voors, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    We use data from a street football tournament and a series of lab-in-field experiments in postconflict Sierra Leone to examine the impact of exposure to conflict violence on competitive behavior. We find that football players who experienced more intense exposure to violence are more likely to get a

  3. Conflict Resolution Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busselle, Tish

    This 7-day unit, intended for use with secondary students, contains a statement of rationale and objectives, lesson plans, class assignments, teacher and student bibliographies, and suggestions for instructional materials on conflict resolution between individuals, groups, and nations. Among the six objectives listed for the unit are: 1) explain…

  4. Spousal Conflicts of Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Shana R.

    2005-01-01

    Romantic relationships bud and sometimes bloom in the school district workplace. When those relationships involve a sitting member of a school board or an administrator with responsibility for managing other employees, questions about a conflict of interest will be raised. Most states have laws prohibiting a public official from taking official…

  5. Conflicts in interpretation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, G.; Hendriks, P.; Hoop, H. de; Krämer, I.; Swart, Henriëtte de; Zwarts, J.

    2007-01-01

    The leading hypothesis of this paper is that interpretation is a process of constraint satisfaction, conflict resolution, and optimization, along the lines of Optimality Theory. Support for this view is drawn from very different domains, and based on both experimental and theoretical research. We di

  6. Interpretation as conflict resolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, Henriëtte de; Zwart, J.

    Semantic interpretation is not a simple process. When we want to know what a given sentence means, more is needed than just a simple ‘adding up’ of the meanings of the component words. Not only can the words in a sentence interact and conflict with each other, but also with the linguistic and

  7. Conflict among Testing Procedures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-01

    AM4ONG TESTING PROCEDURES? Daniel F . Kohler April 1982 ( i’ 4:3 rpis tsnlb u lailtsd P-6765 8 8 O1 V 068 The Rand Paper Series Papers are issued by...TESTING PROCEDURES? Daniel F . Kohler April 1982 : i ! ,I I CONFLICT AMONG TESTING PROCEDURES? 1. Introduction "- Savin [1976] and Berndt and Savin [19771

  8. Conflict in organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesting, Peter; Smolinski, Remigiusz; Speakman, Ian

    2012-01-01

    : the repetitive character of routine, disagreement over the “validity” of the existing routines, disagreement concerning the definition of new targets, and resistance towards change processes. Further the authors point to the inherent tendency to routinize conflict management strategies and the risks...

  9. Towards reduction of Paradigm coordination models

    CERN Document Server

    Andova, Suzana; de Vink, Erik; 10.4204/EPTCS.60.1

    2011-01-01

    The coordination modelling language Paradigm addresses collaboration between components in terms of dynamic constraints. Within a Paradigm model, component dynamics are consistently specified at a detailed and a global level of abstraction. To enable automated verification of Paradigm models, a translation of Paradigm into process algebra has been defined in previous work. In this paper we investigate, guided by a client-server example, reduction of Paradigm models based on a notion of global inertness. Representation of Paradigm models as process algebraic specifications helps to establish a property-preserving equivalence relation between the original and the reduced Paradigm model. Experiments indicate that in this way larger Paradigm models can be analyzed.

  10. PARADIGM SHIFT IN ISLAMIC STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor Al-Jami'ah: Journal of Islamic Studies

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In the early 1990s, there was a heated debate among students ofIAIN (the State Institute for Islamic Studies Sunan KalijagaYogyakarta about the future of Islamic studies, focusing on the possibilityof incorporating Thomas Kuhn’s paradigm to the discourse ofIslamic studies. Kuhn explains in detail the rise and decline of scientificparadigm in his classic work, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions,firstly published in 1970. Paradigm is defined as a set of beliefs thatguides the researchers to address some important problems or issuesunder a certain theoretical framework and provides procedures how tosolve those problems. A paradigm shift is a process whereby a newway of perceiving the world comes into existence and is accepted byscholars in a given time. Kuhn proposed two conditions for paradigmshift; first, the presence of anomalies in ‘normal science’, and secondly,the presence of alternative paradigm.

  11. Conflict management, Part 1. Conflict management checklist: a diagnostic tool for assessing conflict in organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siders, C T; Aschenbrener, C A

    1999-01-01

    Complex interpersonal conflicts are inevitable in the high speed, high stakes, pressured work of health care. Poorly managed, conflict saps productivity, erodes trust, and spawns additional disputes. Well managed, conflict can enhance the self-confidence and self-esteem of the parties, build relationships, and engender creative solutions beyond expectations. Just as thoughtful differential diagnosis precedes optimum treatment in the doctor-patient relationship, management of conflict is greatly enhanced when preceded by careful assessment. In the first of two articles, the authors present a diagnostic approach, the Conflict Management Checklist, to increase self-awareness and decrease anxiety around conflict.

  12. A nifS-like gene, csdB, encodes an Escherichia coli counterpart of mammalian selenocysteine lyase. Gene cloning, purification, characterization and preliminary x-ray crystallographic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihara, H; Maeda, M; Fujii, T; Kurihara, T; Hata, Y; Esaki, N

    1999-05-21

    Selenocysteine lyase is a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the exclusive decomposition of L-selenocysteine to L-alanine and elemental selenium. An open reading frame, named csdB, from Escherichia coli encodes a putative protein that is similar to selenocysteine lyase of pig liver and cysteine desulfurase (NifS) of Azotobacter vinelandii. In this study, the csdB gene was cloned and expressed in E. coli cells. The gene product was a homodimer with the subunit Mr of 44,439, contained 1 mol of PLP as a cofactor per mol of subunit, and catalyzed the release of Se, SO2, and S from L-selenocysteine, L-cysteine sulfinic acid, and L-cysteine, respectively, to yield L-alanine; the reactivity of the substrates decreased in this order. Although the enzyme was not specific for L-selenocysteine, the high specific activity for L-selenocysteine (5.5 units/mg compared with 0.019 units/mg for L-cysteine) supports the view that the enzyme can be regarded as an E. coli counterpart of mammalian selenocysteine lyase. We crystallized CsdB, the csdB gene product, by the hanging drop vapor diffusion method. The crystals were of suitable quality for x-ray crystallography and belonged to the tetragonal space group P43212 with unit cell dimensions of a = b = 128.1 A and c = 137.0 A. Consideration of the Matthews parameter Vm (3.19 A3/Da) accounts for the presence of a single dimer in the crystallographic asymmetric unit. A native diffraction dataset up to 2.8 A resolution was collected. This is the first crystallographic analysis of a protein of NifS/selenocysteine lyase family.

  13. Armed conflict and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, Michael; Choonara, Imti

    2012-01-01

    Armed conflict has a major impact on child health throughout the world. One in six children worldwide lives in an area of armed conflict and civilians are more likely to die than soldiers as a result of the conflict. In stark contrast to the effect on children, the international arms trade results in huge profits for the large corporations involved in producing arms, weapons and munitions. Armed conflict is not inevitable but is an important health issue that should be prevented.

  14. Irrational beliefs and marital conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, A T; de Beer, Z C

    1998-02-01

    To test the hypothesis that the major irrational evaluative beliefs postulated by Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy are related to marital conflict, 15 married couples participated in a thought-listing procedure. During this procedure, three idiosyncratic scenes portraying marital conflict and three control scenes free of conflict were identified for and presented to each member of the dyad. Analysis indicated that the conflict-portraying scenes were associated with significantly more irrational evaluative beliefs and significantly fewer rational cognitions than the control scenes.

  15. Conflict prevention, conflict mitigation, and manifestations of conflict during emergency department consultations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Teresa; Bakewell, Francis; Orlich, Donika; Sherbino, Jonathan

    2014-03-01

    The objective was to determine the causes of and mitigating factors for conflict between emergency physicians and other colleagues during consultations. From March to September 2010, a total of 61 physicians (31 residents and 30 attendings from emergency medicine [EM], internal medicine, and general surgery) were interviewed about how junior learners should be taught about emergency department (ED) consultations. During these interviews, they were asked if and how conflict manifests during the ED consultation process. Two investigators reviewed the transcripts independently to generate themes related to conflict until saturation was reached. Disagreements were resolved by consensus. The trustworthiness of the analysis was ensured by generating an audit trail, which was subsequently audited by an investigator not involved with the initial analysis. This analysis was compared to previously proposed models of trust and conflict from the sociology and business literature. All participants recalled some manifestation of conflict. There were 12 negative conflict-producing themes and 10 protective conflict-mitigating themes. When comparing these themes to a previously developed model of the domains of trust, each theme mapped to domains of the model. Conflict affects the ED consultation process. Areas that lead to conflict are identified that map to previous models of trust and conflict. This work extends the current understanding about intradisciplinary conflict in the clinical realm. These new findings may improve the understanding of the nature of conflicts that occur and form the foundation for interventions that may decrease conflict during ED consultations. © 2014 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  16. Family conflicts and conflict resolution regarding food choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Maria; Brunsø, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies on family decision‐making show that not only parents but also children participate actively in and achieve influence on the decision process, for instance during food buying. When decision‐making includes several active participants, conflicts may occur, but not much research deals...... with food‐related conflicts, conflict resolutions or specific influence techniques with a focus on parents and tweens in family decision‐making. This article focuses on parents and tweens’ joint decision processes in evaluation and choice of food, specifically conflicts and conflict resolution. Assumptions...

  17. Organizational Conflict: Causes and Manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Eugene

    1979-01-01

    No group (within an organization) can be entirely harmonious, but conflict is not an altogether disruptive factor. A delicate balance is required to obtain the advantages and restrict the disadvantages of organizational conflict. The causes and forms of organizational conflict are examined. (JMD)

  18. 75 FR 80947 - Conflict Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... violence in the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo, particularly sexual- and gender-based violence... conflict free,'' the facilities used to process the conflict minerals, the country of origin of the conflict minerals, and ``the efforts to determine the mine or location of origin with the greatest...

  19. COMMUNICATIVE ASYMMETRY: SOURCE GENERATOR OF INTERPERSONAL CONFLICTS BETWEEN TEACHERS AND STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norka Arellano

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on the research Interpersonal Conflict teacher - student and its impact on work performance of the educator, working on the specific objective: establishing communicative asymmetry between teachers and students, as generating source of interpersonal conflicts; it was based on the contributions of Calderon, Jares, Gómez, Cross and Cubero. Its methodology is based in the quantitative positivist paradigm, with a descriptive character. The sample consists of 140 students and 33 teachers. The outcomes studied, identified the communicative asymmetry as a generating source of conflict, finding divergence of views between teachers and students. Strategies to the teaching for effective communication are recommended

  20. Overview of studies on the conflict method.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hondel, M. van de & Kraay, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    The conflict method is a method which observes those types of (serious) conflict behaviours by road users that are considered related to unsafe traffic behaviour. This international overview on the conflict method has collected several conflict techniques actually in use.

  1. Review of EU Conflict Management in DRC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The report present the backdrop on EU's involvement in the DRC conflict, its history, the nature of the conflict......The report present the backdrop on EU's involvement in the DRC conflict, its history, the nature of the conflict...

  2. Abacus of Frozen Conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Italy in 275 BC, the Gallic, Gothic , and Heruli invasions of the Roman Empire in the third century AD, and the Muslim conquest of Persia in 636 AD.4...war. A. THE SPIRAL MODEL The theoretical literature of interstate conflict is dominated by two conceptual models, classical Deterrence Theory...large body of literature on the causes of war, there is a stark contrast in the ways in which political scientists and historians view the concept

  3. Conflict engagement: workplace dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerardi, Debra

    2015-04-01

    This article is one in a series on conflict. It is part of an ongoing series on leadership coordinated by the American Organization of Nurse Executives (AONE), highlighting topics of interest to nurse managers and emerging nurse leaders. The AONE provides leadership, professional development, advocacy, and research to advance nursing practice and patient care, promote nursing leadership excellence, and shape public policy for health care.

  4. Health Inequities: Evaluation of Two Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashcroft, Rachelle

    2010-01-01

    Social work practice in health is shaped by underlying paradigms. To effectively target health inequities, practitioners need to consider appropriate paradigms. In this exploration of how six health paradigms shape theory and practice, the two health paradigms that most attended to health inequalities are social determinants of health and…

  5. Email Adaptation for Conflict Handling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Joyce Yi‐Hui; Panteli, Niki; Bülow, Anne Marie

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the context of email‐based communication in anestablished but fragile, inter‐organisational partnership, which wasoften overlain with conflict. Drawing upon adaptation theory, thisstudy explores how participants adapt to the use of email to handleconflict. Extensive data were...... the leanness of email in managing conflict, we found that underthe described conflict situation the very leanness of emailwas appreciated and thus, exploited by those concerned tomanage the conflict situation. Specifically, we identified 4 keyconflict‐triggered adaptation strategies, namely......, interactionavoidance, disempowering, blame‐protection, and image‐shelteringthat drove the ways in which email was adapted to maintainorganisational partnerships under conflict....

  6. Timing of cyber conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrod, Robert; Iliev, Rumen

    2014-01-28

    Nations are accumulating cyber resources in the form of stockpiles of zero-day exploits as well as other novel methods of engaging in future cyber conflict against selected targets. This paper analyzes the optimal timing for the use of such cyber resources. A simple mathematical model is offered to clarify how the timing of such a choice can depend on the stakes involved in the present situation, as well as the characteristics of the resource for exploitation. The model deals with the question of when the resource should be used given that its use today may well prevent it from being available for use later. The analysis provides concepts, theory, applications, and distinctions to promote the understanding strategy aspects of cyber conflict. Case studies include the Stuxnet attack on Iran's nuclear program, the Iranian cyber attack on the energy firm Saudi Aramco, the persistent cyber espionage carried out by the Chinese military, and an analogous case of economic coercion by China in a dispute with Japan. The effects of the rapidly expanding market for zero-day exploits are also analyzed. The goal of the paper is to promote the understanding of this domain of cyber conflict to mitigate the harm it can do, and harness the capabilities it can provide.

  7. The Elephant Vanishes: impact of human-elephant conflict on people's wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Sushrut; Barua, Maan

    2012-11-01

    Human-wildlife conflicts impact upon the wellbeing of marginalised people, worldwide. Although tangible losses from such conflicts are well documented, hidden health consequences remain under-researched. Based on preliminary clinical ethnographic inquiries and sustained fieldwork in Assam, India, this paper documents mental health antecedents and consequences including severe untreated psychiatric morbidity and substance abuse. The case studies presented make visible the hidden mental health dimensions of human-elephant conflict. The paper illustrates how health impacts of conflicts penetrate far deeper than immediate physical threat from elephants, worsens pre-existing mental illness of marginalised people, and leads to newer psychiatric and social pathologies. These conflicts are enacted and perpetuated in institutional spaces of inequality. The authors argue that both wildlife conservation and community mental health disciplines would be enhanced by coordinated intervention. The paper concludes by generating questions that are fundamental for a new interdisciplinary paradigm that bridges ecology and the clinic.

  8. Stimulus conflict triggers behavioral avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dignath, David; Eder, Andreas B

    2015-12-01

    According to a recent extension of the conflict-monitoring theory, conflict between two competing response tendencies is registered as an aversive event and triggers a motivation to avoid the source of conflict. In the present study, we tested this assumption. Over five experiments, we examined whether conflict is associated with an avoidance motivation and whether stimulus conflict or response conflict triggers an avoidance tendency. Participants first performed a color Stroop task. In a subsequent motivation test, participants responded to Stroop stimuli with approach- and avoidance-related lever movements. These results showed that Stroop-conflict stimuli increased the frequency of avoidance responses in a free-choice motivation test, and also increased the speed of avoidance relative to approach responses in a forced-choice test. High and low proportions of response conflict in the Stroop task had no effect on avoidance in the motivation test. Avoidance of conflict was, however, obtained even with new conflict stimuli that had not been presented before in a Stroop task, and when the Stroop task was replaced with an unrelated filler task. Taken together, these results suggest that stimulus conflict is sufficient to trigger avoidance.

  9. Functional imaging of decision conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochon, Jean-Baptiste; Riis, Jason; Sanfey, Alan G; Nystrom, Leigh E; Cohen, Jonathan D

    2008-03-26

    Decision conflict occurs when people feel uncertain as to which option to choose from a set of similarly attractive (or unattractive) options, with many studies demonstrating that this conflict can lead to suboptimal decision making. In this article, we investigate the neurobiological underpinnings of decision conflict, in particular, the involvement of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Previous studies have implicated the ACC in conflict monitoring during perceptual tasks, but there is considerable controversy as to whether the ACC actually indexes conflict related to choice, or merely conflict related to selection of competing motor responses. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we dissociate the decision and response phases of a decision task, and show that the ACC does indeed index conflict at the decision stage. Furthermore, we show that it does so for a complex decision task, one that requires the integration of beliefs and preferences and not just perceptual judgments.

  10. Conflict management: importance and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKibben, Laurie

    2017-01-26

    Conflict is a consistent and unavoidable issue within healthcare teams. Despite training of nurse leaders and managers around areas of conflict resolution, the problem of staff relations, stress, sickness and retention remain. Conflict arises from issues with interpersonal relationships, change and poor leadership. New members of staff entering an already established healthcare team should be supported and integrated, to encourage mutual role respect between all team members and establish positive working relationships, in order to maximise patient care. This paper explores the concept of conflict, the importance of addressing causes of conflict, effective management, and the relevance of positive approaches to conflict resolution. Good leadership, nurturing positive team dynamics and communication, encourages shared problem solving and acceptance of change. Furthermore mutual respect fosters a more positive working environment for those in healthcare teams. As conflict has direct implications for patients, positive resolution is essential, to promote safe and effective delivery of care, whilst encouraging therapeutic relationships between colleagues and managers.

  11. MUSICAL PARADIGMS OF SOCIAL HORROR IN THE APARTHEID POETRY OF DENNIS BRUTUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kontein Trinya

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The poetry of Dennis Brutus the anti-Apartheid South African freedom fighter is often an intricate combination of content and form, with its sometimes overt, sometimes covert but pervasive structure of bipartition involving multiple units of paired (often volatile and conflicting opposites. This paper shall largely explore how skilfully he casts that theme of horror against the contrasting backdrop of music, by which he further stresses the dimensions of the horrific conflicts between victims and victimizers. It is the persuasion of this paper that the binary vision of Dennis Brutus is the tacit censorious expression of his creative perspective on the social conflicts in Apartheid South Africa; unspeakable conflicts for whose imperative expression even the devices of music become a (sometimes camouflaging, sometimes accentuating technical paradigm.

  12. International trade disputes in modern regulatory paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Gordeeva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the latest trends observed in the area of contradictory relations between countries with regard to international trade, which cause changes in the paradigm of international trade disputes. It has been found out that any state of inconsistent relations between the countries is recently characterized as a «trade war». It has been analyzed the notions of «dispute», «conflict», «war» according to international regulatory documents and determined the applicability of these terms depending on a number of criteria. It has been studied the evolution of the objects of international trade disputes since the time of ancient Greece until today, and new trends based on this have been revealed with regard to use of trade policy instruments that cause disputes between countries. Several specific examples of international trade disputes and causes of their occurrence have been considered. A quantitative analysis of international trade disputes in general and in relations between the leading countries in terms of a number of the trade disputes in which they were involved has been performed.

  13. A Robot-Partner for Preschool Children Learning English Using Socio-Cognitive Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoni, Elvis; Benvenuti, Martina

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an exploratory study in which a humanoid robot (MecWilly) acted as a partner to preschool children, helping them to learn English words. In order to use the Socio-Cognitive Conflict paradigm to induce the knowledge acquisition process, we designed a playful activity in which children worked in pairs with another child or with…

  14. A Robot-Partner for Preschool Children Learning English Using Socio-Cognitive Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoni, Elvis; Benvenuti, Martina

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an exploratory study in which a humanoid robot (MecWilly) acted as a partner to preschool children, helping them to learn English words. In order to use the Socio-Cognitive Conflict paradigm to induce the knowledge acquisition process, we designed a playful activity in which children worked in pairs with another child or with…

  15. Across-Task Priming Revisited: Response and Task Conflicts Disentangled Using Ex-Gaussian Distribution Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutsopoulou, Karolina; Waszak, Florian

    2012-01-01

    The differential effects of task and response conflict in priming paradigms where associations are strengthened between a stimulus, a task, and a response have been demonstrated in recent years with neuroimaging methods. However, such effects are not easily disentangled with only measurements of behavior, such as reaction times (RTs). Here, we…

  16. MUSICAL LITERACY AND EDUCATIONAL PARADIGMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alboni Marisa Dudeque Pianovski Vieira

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents us contemporary conceptions of musical literacy and its relation to educational paradigmatic issues, thus exposing different types of paradigms and their modifications. The possibility to relate and discuss issues related to these paradigms and to the contributions from different authors to musical literacy issues, characterizing graduates, are also among the objectives of this work. The relevance of these issues is in the few existing debates on the paradigms within music education as well as within the possibility of such a study being able to provide useful material for educators. Of bibliographical and documentary nature, this study is based on the works of Schafer (1992, 1997 and Swanwick (1979, 2003, 2014. The results point to the new trend of musical literacy, with an inclusive commitment, made accessible not only to the student who aims to be a professional musician, but also to people from different social contexts.

  17. Cultural Paradigms in Management Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukasz Sulkowski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present an idea for understanding cultural processes in the organizational discourse from the perspective of four paradigms in management sciences based on the concept of G. Burrell and G. Morgan.Methodology: The author has elaborated a valuable list of structures of the scientifi c theory based on the respective paradigms and has compared cultural paradigms in management sciences. The methodology involves an analysis of classical and recent world literature. Nowadays there is no consensus on the defi nitions, types or research models of organizational culture.Originality: In the literature on the subject we can fi nd many, sometimes contradictory cultural research studies that require further analysis. Precisely because of the diversity and complexity of cultural issues in management sciences a multi-paradigmatic analysis is necessary. The paper presents a proposal for a pluralistic approach to the theory and methodology of cultural studies in management sciences.

  18. Advanced communication skills: conflict management and persuasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Marigene

    2002-11-01

    There is an increasing need in the medical school curriculum to adequately prepare students for professionalism in the workplace. This senior seminar is a four-week course designed to develop fluency in handling conflict and negotiation as well as understanding the elements of persuasive communication. Students used the Meyers-Brigg Personality Inventory as a paradigm for understanding different communication styles. The class was piloted in October and November 2001 and consisted of four modules. In module one, each student was given the Meyers-Brigg Personality Inventory to take. Discussions and exercises provided insight into the student's own communication style as well as styles the individual student might find more problematic. The second module consisted of four sessions focusing on conflict management and negotiating skills. Students were given strategies for dealing with conflict as well as specific approaches for communicating with "difficult" patients. In the subsequent sessions, students had a chance to further incorporate these strategies by (1) discussing in a small-group setting a conflict situation that they had either witnessed or experienced in order to systematically evaluate how to incorporate conflict-management approaches into their particular communication style. (2) Role-playing four conflict situations students' were likely to encounter in their professional lives. Role-plays were videotaped and individual feedback was given immediately after the role-play by the observing students, the patient-actor, and the evaluator, who had been trained to give specific feedback on the conflict strategies. (3) Watching specific videotaped role-plays as a class allowed students to see and give feedback on particularly effective strategies that their colleagues used. The third module was devoted to giving bad news and ways that different people prefer to receive bad news, using the MBTI personality types as examples. The final module outlined the

  19. Transmission pricing: paradigms and methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirmohammadi, Dariush [Pacific Gas and Electric Co., San Francisco, CA (United States); Vieira Filho, Xisto; Gorenstin, Boris [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pereira, Mario V.P. [Power System Research, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    In this paper we describe the principles of several paradigms and methodologies for pricing transmission services. The paper outlines some of the main characteristics of these paradigms and methodologies such as where they may be used for best results. Due to their popularity, power flow based MW-mile and short run marginal cost pricing methodologies will be covered in some detail. We conclude the paper with examples of the application of these two pricing methodologies for pricing transmission services in Brazil. (author) 25 refs., 2 tabs.

  20. The synthesis paradigm in genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, William R

    2014-02-01

    Experimental genetics with model organisms and mathematically explicit genetic theory are generally considered to be the major paradigms by which progress in genetics is achieved. Here I argue that this view is incomplete and that pivotal advances in genetics--and other fields of biology--are also made by synthesizing disparate threads of extant information rather than generating new information from experiments or formal theory. Because of the explosive expansion of information in numerous "-omics" data banks, and the fragmentation of genetics into numerous subdisciplines, the importance of the synthesis paradigm will likely expand with time.

  1. Bayesian test and Kuhn's paradigm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Xiaoping

    2006-01-01

    Kuhn's theory of paradigm reveals a pattern of scientific progress,in which normal science alternates with scientific revolution.But Kuhn underrated too much the function of scientific test in his pattern,because he focuses all his attention on the hypothetico-deductive schema instead of Bayesian schema.This paper employs Bayesian schema to re-examine Kuhn's theory of paradigm,to uncover its logical and rational components,and to illustrate the tensional structure of logic and belief,rationality and irrationality,in the process of scientific revolution.

  2. CNN a paradigm for complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Chua, Leon O

    1998-01-01

    Revolutionary and original, this treatise presents a new paradigm of EMERGENCE and COMPLEXITY, with applications drawn from numerous disciplines, including artificial life, biology, chemistry, computation, physics, image processing, information science, etc.CNN is an acronym for Cellular Neural Networks when used in the context of brain science, or Cellular Nonlinear Networks, when used in the context of emergence and complexity. A CNN is modeled by cells and interactions: cells are defined as dynamical systems and interactions are defined via coupling laws. The CNN paradigm is a universal Tur

  3. Design Paradigms in Car History

    OpenAIRE

    Dowlen, CMC

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research into Design Paradigms in Car History is to evaluate how production car design has changed over the last hundred and twenty-five years or so, using numerical analyses of specific cars, which act as exemplars. This evaluation should lead to a better understanding of car design history and how car designers think. Design thinking can be evidenced from how products have changed over the course of time. Design paradigms have been used to produce a structured analysis o...

  4. Explaining (Missing) Regulator Paradigm Shifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigger, Angela; Buch-Hansen, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    of competition regulation is heaving into sight. It sets out to explain this from the vantage point of a critical political economy perspective, which identifies the circumstances under which a crisis can result in a regulatory paradigm shift. Contrasting the current situation with the shift in EC/EU competition...... capitalism; the social power configuration underpinning the neoliberal order remains unaltered; no clear counter-project has surfaced; the European Commission has been (and remains) in a position to oppose radical changes; and finally, there are no signs of a wider paradigm shift in the EU's regulatory...

  5. Paradigms in Physics Education Research

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, Amy D; McKagan, Sarah B

    2013-01-01

    Physics education research (PER) includes three distinct paradigms: quantitative research, qualitative research, and question-driven research. Quantitative PER seeks reproducible, representative patterns and relationships; human behavior is seen as dictated by lawful (albeit probabilistic) relationships. Qualitative PER seeks to refine and develop theory by linking theory to cases; human action is seen as shaped by the meanings that participants make of their local environments. Question-driven physics education researchers prioritize questions over the pursuit of local meanings or abstract relationships. We illustrate each paradigm with interviews with physics education researchers and examples of published PER.

  6. Conflict resolution in healthcare management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipcamon, James D; Mainwaring, Brian A

    2004-01-01

    Conflict causes decided tension in the workplace and often produces poor professional outcomes. A manager dealing with conflict can experience a crisis of confidence and often ends up second-guessing himself or herself, regardless of how a situation has been handled. In some organizations, conflict is not viewed positively or as an opportunity for improvement. In these organizations, most individuals will see conflict as being unproductive, unpleasant, and a waste of time and energy. Yet, conflict provides employees with critical feedback on how things are going. When viewed in a positive context, even personality conflicts may provide information to the healthcare manager about what is not working in the organization. If conflict is not directed and controlled, it can have damaging effects in the workplace, stifling the growth of departments and deflating employee morale. Our job as healthcare managers is to deal with conflict so that it does not decrease productivity or detract from the provision of patient-centered care. There are 4 general sources for interpersonal conflict: personal differences, informational deficiency, role incompatibility, and environmental stress. There are 5 common responses used in dealing with conflict: forcing, accommodating, avoiding, compromising, and collaborating. Healthcare managers should become comfortable with using all of these approaches.

  7. Children in Conflict Zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, A N; Prasad, P L

    2009-04-01

    The nature of war has changed dramatically. Today's conflicts happen where people live and they take a brutal toll on children. Heavy bombardment and destruction in war creates a humanitarian crisis where there is lack of adequate food, clean water and medicine. The consequences of war can have major impact on the health of children for years to come. Traumatic events can have a profound and lasting impact on the emotional, cognitive, behavioral and physiological functioning of an individual. Depending on the circumstances, the psychosocial impacts of disasters can range from mild stress reactions to problems such as anxiety, depression, substance abuse and post traumatic stress disorders (PTSD).

  8. Extension agents and conflict narratives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bond, Jennifer Lauren

    2016-01-01

    conflict. Originality: This work contributes to a growing body of literature interested in the role of extension agents in conflict management. By applying Q methodology, this work has shown that while extension agents are involved in conflict management, their perceptions of these conflicts are subjective......Purpose: This work investigated the narratives of development extensionists in relation to natural resource conflict, in order to understand the competing discourses surrounding the wicked problems of natural resource management in Laikipia County, Kenya. Methodology: Q methodology was used...... to elicit the conflict narratives present among extension professionals. A concourse of 221 statements were devised from interviews and group discussions with key informants and a final sample of 49 statements was used for the sorting. Thirteen Q-sorts were undertaken with among rural extension...

  9. Paradigm Statements of Educational Objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Peter J.

    Five distinct format categories are used in this study to describe the form of educational objectives: clarity, range, level of abstractness, behavioralness, and observability. These form concepts are used to describe paradigm statements of three kinds of educational objectives: goals, intended learning outcomes, and behavioral evidence. Goals are…

  10. The Paradigm of Distributed Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    This presentation aims to focus on and develop the notion of distributed creativity from a cultural psychological perspective. It will start by outlining the need for a cultural psychological paradigm of creative expression and argue that this perspective is primarily concerned with what can...

  11. The emerging land management paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    Manchet: This paper was first presented by Professor Enemark at the RICS Christmas Lecture in December last year. It provides a cogent and detailed reference point for the current state of land management in developed countries, charts a course for the future and looks at how education must chang...... to meet the new paradigm....

  12. Tools for productively managing conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, Deborah

    2012-06-01

    In scientific teams as in life, conflicts arise. This paper aims to provide an introduction to tools and skills to help in managing conflicts in practice. Using a structured approach enables the concerns and interests of all involved to be identified and clarified. It also permits a better understanding of yourself and others and will help empower those in conflict to find acceptable and workable resolutions.

  13. Armed conflict and child health

    OpenAIRE

    Rieder, Michael; Choonara, Imti

    2012-01-01

    Armed conflict has a major impact on child health\\ud throughout the world. One in six children worldwide lives\\ud in an area of armed conflict and civilians are more likely\\ud to die than soldiers as a result of the conflict. In stark\\ud contrast to the effect on children, the international arms\\ud trade results in huge profits for the large corporations\\ud involved in producing arms, weapons and munitions.\\ud Armed conflict is not inevitable but is an important\\ud health issue that should be...

  14. The cultural contagion of conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand, Michele; Shteynberg, Garriy; Lee, Tiane; Lun, Janetta; Lyons, Sarah; Bell, Chris; Chiao, Joan Y.; Bruss, C. Bayan; Al Dabbagh, May; Aycan, Zeynep; Abdel-Latif, Abdel-Hamid; Dagher, Munqith; Khashan, Hilal; Soomro, Nazar

    2012-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence abounds that conflicts between two individuals can spread across networks to involve a multitude of others. We advance a cultural transmission model of intergroup conflict where conflict contagion is seen as a consequence of universal human traits (ingroup preference, outgroup hostility; i.e. parochial altruism) which give their strongest expression in particular cultural contexts. Qualitative interviews conducted in the Middle East, USA and Canada suggest that parochial altruism processes vary across cultural groups and are most likely to occur in collectivistic cultural contexts that have high ingroup loyalty. Implications for future neuroscience and computational research needed to understand the emergence of intergroup conflict are discussed. PMID:22271785

  15. Conflict and conflict resolution in Africa: Engaging the colonial factor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    economic institutions on the various African conflicts, may not provide the ... regional diversities, and rendered conflictual by gross inequities in power relations ..... 1 East Timor formerly in Indonesia, and Tibet in China appear to belong to this .... urgency concerning the conflict in Burundi, the focus was mainly on diplomatic.

  16. Environment-friendly type energy and coordinated community development project. Feasibility study for industrialization of high efficiency waste-fired power generation system using CSD and other wastes; Kankyo chowagata energy community keisei sokushin. Kokoritsu haikibutsu hatsuden (CSD nado haikibutsu riyo) jigyoka FS chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This report presents the feasibility of enterprise on power generation by thermal recycle and selling power together with volume reduction, de-harming (de-toxification) and stabilization of the shredder dust. Contents of the study include the investigation of generation amount of car shredder dust (CSD) and its properties, trial design of high efficiency power generation facilities, selection of boiler tube materials, incineration test with a melting kiln test plant, disposal and effective use of melted slag and fly ash, and environmental impact assessment. The capacity of waste disposal in the trial design contains 1,140 ton/day of shredder dust, 60 ton/day of waste plastics, sludge and waste paper, and 130 ton/day of waste oil. Melting kiln with secondary combustion chamber was adopted as the incineration type. The high temperature and high pressure waste heat boiler with an extraction condensing turbine was adopted as the waste heat recovery and power generation type. Stable combustion was confirmed from the results using a test plant. According to the consideration of cost and unit cost results for wholesale power supply, if it is postulated that income for waste disposal is 12,000 yen/ton, power generation costs in excess power selling and wholesales are 6.4 yen/kWh and 9.1 yen/kWh, respectively. 67 figs., 48 tabs.

  17. Isotopomer-selective spectra of a single intact H2O molecule in the Cs+(D2O)5H2O isotopologue: Going beyond pattern recognition to harvest the structural information encoded in vibrational spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolke, Conrad T.; Fournier, Joseph A.; Miliordos, Evangelos; Kathmann, Shawn M.; Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Johnson, Mark A.

    2016-02-01

    We report the vibrational signatures of a single H2O molecule occupying distinct sites of the hydration network in the Cs+(H2O)6 cluster. This is accomplished using isotopomer-selective IR-IR hole-burning on the Cs+(D2O)5(H2O) clusters formed by gas-phase exchange of a single, intact H2O molecule for D2O in the Cs+(D2O)6 ion. The OH stretching pattern of the Cs+(H2O)6 isotopologue is accurately recovered by superposition of the isotopomer spectra, thus establishing that the H2O incorporation is random and that the OH stretching manifold is largely due to contributions from decoupled water molecules. This behavior enables a powerful new way to extract structural information from vibrational spectra of size-selected clusters by explicitly identifying the local environments responsible for specific infrared features. The Cs+(H2O)6 structure was unambiguously assigned to the 4.1.1 isomer (a homodromic water tetramer with two additional flanking water molecules) from the fact that its computed IR spectrum matches the observed overall pattern and recovers the embedded correlations in the two OH stretching bands of the water molecule in the Cs+(D2O)5(H2O) isotopomers. The 4.1.1 isomer is the lowest in energy among other candidate networks at advanced (e.g., CCSD(T)) levels of theoretical treatment after corrections for (anharmonic) zero-point energy. With the structure in hand, we then explore the mechanical origin of the various band locations using a local electric field formalism. This approach promises to provide a transferrable scheme for the prediction of the OH stretching fundamentals displayed by water networks in close proximity to solute ions.

  18. Isotopomer-selective spectra of a single intact H2O molecule in the Cs(+)(D2O)5H2O isotopologue: Going beyond pattern recognition to harvest the structural information encoded in vibrational spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolke, Conrad T; Fournier, Joseph A; Miliordos, Evangelos; Kathmann, Shawn M; Xantheas, Sotiris S; Johnson, Mark A

    2016-02-21

    We report the vibrational signatures of a single H2O molecule occupying distinct sites of the hydration network in the Cs(+)(H2O)6 cluster. This is accomplished using isotopomer-selective IR-IR hole-burning on the Cs(+)(D2O)5(H2O) clusters formed by gas-phase exchange of a single, intact H2O molecule for D2O in the Cs(+)(D2O)6 ion. The OH stretching pattern of the Cs(+)(H2O)6 isotopologue is accurately recovered by superposition of the isotopomer spectra, thus establishing that the H2O incorporation is random and that the OH stretching manifold is largely due to contributions from decoupled water molecules. This behavior enables a powerful new way to extract structural information from vibrational spectra of size-selected clusters by explicitly identifying the local environments responsible for specific infrared features. The Cs(+)(H2O)6 structure was unambiguously assigned to the 4.1.1 isomer (a homodromic water tetramer with two additional flanking water molecules) from the fact that its computed IR spectrum matches the observed overall pattern and recovers the embedded correlations in the two OH stretching bands of the water molecule in the Cs(+)(D2O)5(H2O) isotopomers. The 4.1.1 isomer is the lowest in energy among other candidate networks at advanced (e.g., CCSD(T)) levels of theoretical treatment after corrections for (anharmonic) zero-point energy. With the structure in hand, we then explore the mechanical origin of the various band locations using a local electric field formalism. This approach promises to provide a transferrable scheme for the prediction of the OH stretching fundamentals displayed by water networks in close proximity to solute ions.

  19. Isotopomer-selective spectra of a single intact H2O molecule in the Cs+(D2O)5H2O isotopologue: Going beyond pattern recognition to harvest the structural information encoded in vibrational spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolke, Conrad T.; Fournier, Joseph A.; Miliordos, Evangelos; Kathmann, Shawn M.; Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Johnson, Mark A.

    2016-02-21

    We report the vibrational signatures of a single H2O water molecule occupying distinct sites of the hydration network in the Cs+(H2O)6 cluster. This is accomplished using isotopomer selective IR-IR hole-burning on the Cs+(D2O)5(H2O) clusters formed by gas-phase exchange of a single, intact H2O molecule for D2O in the Cs+(D2O)6 ion. The OH stretching pattern of the Cs+(H2O)6 isotopologue is accurately recovered by superposition of the isotopomer spectra, thus establishing that the H2O incorporation is random and that the OH stretching manifold is largely due to contributions from decoupled water molecules. This behavior enables a powerful new way to extract structural information from vibrational spectra of size-selected clusters by explicitly identifying the local environments responsible for specific infrared features. The Cs+(H2O)6 structure was unambiguously assigned to the 4.1.1 isomer (a homodromic water tetramer with two additional flanking water molecules) from the fact that its computed IR spectrum matches the observed overall pattern and recovers the embedded correlations in the two OH stretching bands of the water molecule in the Cs+(D2O)5(H2O) isotopomers. The 4.1.1 isomer is the lowest in energy among other candidate networks at advanced (e.g., CCSD(T)) levels of theoretical treatment after corrections for (anharmonic) zero-point energy (ZPE). With the structure in hand, we then explore the mechanical origin of the various band locations using a local electric field formalism. This approach promises to provide a transferrable scheme for the prediction of the OH stretching fundamentals displayed by water networks in close proximity to solute ions.

  20. MATERIAL ASSIMILATION IN A SHALLOW DIAPIRIC FORCEFUL INTRUSION: EVIDENCE FROM MICROSTRUCTURES AND CSD ANALYSIS IN A PORPHYRITIC INTRUSIVE BODY, “LA LÍNEA” TUNNEL, CENTRAL CORDILLERA, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayo Lorena

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The contact between the unit Porphyry Andesite and the Cajamarca Group is observed in the "Túnel de la Linea" section. The integration of petrographic, geochemical and textural (crystal size distribution, CSD analysis allows description of physical and chemical processes that took place in the contact zone in order to propose a model for the intrusion. Material assimilation produced quartz enrichment towards pluton's boundaries associated to a simple process of melt injection. The difference between host rock and hot melt rheologies causedshear stress that produced crystal breaking, folding and foliation rotation.

  1. Neurophysiological Correlates of Children’s Processing of Interparental Conflict Cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schermerhorn, Alice C; Bates, John E; Puce, Aina; Molfese, Dennis L

    2015-08-01

    This study builds on the literature on child exposure to marital conflict by testing whether mother-reported marital conflict exposure predicts a child’s P3 event-related potential (ERP) components generated in response to viewing quasi–marital conflict photos. We collected ERP data from 23 children (9–11 years of age) while presenting photos of actors pretending to be a couple depicting interpersonal anger, happiness, and neutrality. To elicit the P3 ERP, stimuli were presented using an oddball paradigm, with angry and happy photos presented on 20% of trials each and neutral photos presented on the remaining 60% of trials. Angry photos were the target in 1 block, and happy photos were the target in the other block. In the angry block, children from high-conflict homes had shorter reaction times (RTs) on happy trials than on neutral trials, and children from low-conflict homes had shorter RTs on angry trials than on happy trials. Also within the angry block, children generated larger P3s on angry trials than on happy trials, regardless of exposure to conflict. Further, children from high-conflict homes generated larger P3s on angry trials and on happy trials compared with neutral trials, but children from low-conflict homes did not. Results are discussed in terms of implications for children’s processing of displays of interpersonal emotion.

  2. Resolving environmental disputes: from conflict to consensus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sidaway, Roger

    2005-01-01

    ... The Function of Social Conflict Conflicts Spiralling out of Control Dynamic Analyses of Natural Resource Conflicts and Cooperation in Natural Resource Management Dynamic Analysis of the Conflict over the Designation of the Pentland Hills Regional Park, 1983- 1985 Dynamic Analysis of Moorland Access in the Peak District Ways of Dealing with Conflict ...

  3. Religion, Science, and Culture: An Integrated, Interconnected Paradigm of Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Amin Abdullah

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Discussing the paradigm of dialogue and integration in the Islamic science of religion is important since the practice of religious education still applies the paradigm of conflict and independence. These paradigms have a great influence on the formation of socio-religious and cultural ways of thinking. The relationship between Islamic religiousc and natural, social, as well as cultural sciences, needs patterns of integrated, interconnected relations and dialogues. Islamic Studies requires a multidisciplinary approach, that is, interdisciplinarity and transdisciplinarity. Scientific linearity, in which science is narrowly defined and mono-disciplinary, will lead to an understanding of religion and religious interpretations that has no contact with and relevance to the context in which it is studied. New types of religious thought that encourage independent discussion and dialogue on the subjective, objective and intersubjective aspects of science and religion will create the emergence of a new type of religiosity in the multicultural era. All of this requires more effort to undertake a serious reconstruction of scientific methodologies and the methodologies of scientific studies of religion.[Penerapan paradigma dialog dan integrasi dalam ilmu-ilmu keislaman masih penting untuk didiskusikan mengingat praktik pendidikan agama masih menerapkan paradigm konflik dan independen. Paradigma-paradigma ini memiliki pengaruh yang besar dalam pembentukan cara pandang keagamaan, baik sosial maupun kultural. Hubungan antara ilmu-ilmu keislaman di satu sisi dengan ilmu-ilmu alam, sosial, dan budaya di sisi lain, memerlukan pola hubungan dan dialog yang terintegrasi-interkoneksi. Studi Islam mensyaratkan pendekatan multi disiplin, baik interdisipliner maupun transdisipliner. Linearitas keilmuan yang membatasi bidang ilmu secara sempit dan mono-disiplin akan menggiring pemahaman agama dan tafsir keagamaan yang tidak terkait dan tidak relevan dengan konteks

  4. Conflict Management Strategies in Workplace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄玉霞

    2011-01-01

    As we all know, it is inevitable to be confronted with verbal aggressiveness by employees, peers, and supervisors in the workplace. In order to avoid these conflict with others in the future workplace, this paper is to discuss about the management strategies dealing with these conflicts.

  5. Social networks and intergroup conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takács, Károly

    2002-01-01

    Conflicts between groups are among the most challenging problems of mankind. They arise as groups compete for the possession of certain scarce resources. Under what conditions does such competition lead to conflict or to a peaceful coexistence? Why do individual group members, despite the likelihood

  6. Leadership Strategies for Managing Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormanski, Chuck

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the impact of conflict in small group development theory. Views conflict as a positive, normally occurring behavior and presents leadership strategies involving withdrawal, suppression, integration, compromise, and power. Examines situational contingencies and presents a rationale for strategy selection and intervention. (Author)

  7. Functional imaging of decision conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pochon, J.B.; Riis, J.; Sanfey, A.G.; Nystrom, L.E.; Cohen, J.D.

    2008-01-01

    Decision conflict occurs when people feel uncertain as to which option to choose from a set of similarly attractive ( or unattractive) options, with many studies demonstrating that this conflict can lead to suboptimal decision making. In this article, we investigate the neurobiological underpinnings

  8. Climate Change, Conflict, and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akresh, Richard

    2016-01-01

    We have good reason to predict that a warming climate will produce more conflict and violence. A growing contingent of researchers has been examining the relationship in recent years, and they've found that hotter temperatures and reduced rainfall are linked to increases in conflict at all scales, from interpersonal violence to war. Children are…

  9. International Dimensions of Internal Conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.W. Metternich; K.S. Gleditsch; H. Dorussen; A. Ruggeri

    2012-01-01

    Civil wars are by definition violent conflicts between a state and some form of non-state actors (Sambanis 2004b). Perhaps not surprisingly, most scholars have looked for features within countries to account for why such conflicts break out and how they evolve (Blattman and Miguel 2010). However, it

  10. New Approaches to Conflict Resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford Foundation, New York, NY.

    This paper addresses the future role of the Ford Foundation in helping to improve society's capacity to resolve conflicts. Part I discusses the problem. In recent years America has had many sorts of conflicts and disputes. Examples are racial equality, energy allocation, environmental protection, consumer rights, and equal educational opportunity.…

  11. Structural embeddedness and intergroup conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takacs, K

    2001-01-01

    Social structure affects the likelihood of group conflicts, although it has been disregarded by previous explanations. This study extends the intergroup public goods game model and integrates the influence of structural embeddedness and social incentives in the analysis of harmful group conflict. Th

  12. Understanding the land management paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    There is a worldwide need to build understanding of the land management paradigm and for institutional development to establish sustainable national concepts. This includes creation and adoption of a policy on land development, and an approach that combines the land administration/cadastre/land r......There is a worldwide need to build understanding of the land management paradigm and for institutional development to establish sustainable national concepts. This includes creation and adoption of a policy on land development, and an approach that combines the land administration....../cadastre/land registration function with topographic mapping. The author seeks to awaken more awareness of global trends in this area, recognising that the systems design involved is always unique....

  13. The Afrocentric Paradigm: Contours and Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazama, Ama

    2001-01-01

    Defines and describes Afrocentricity, suggesting that Afrocentricity within the academic context is best understood as a paradigm. Explains how Afrocentricity meets the definition of a paradigm, examining the affective, cognitive, and conative aspects of the Afrocentric paradigm (metaphysical and sociological) and looking at the structural and…

  14. Towards reduction of Paradigm coordination models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Andova; L.P.J. Groenewegen; E.P. de Vink (Erik Peter)

    2011-01-01

    htmlabstractThe coordination modelling language Paradigm addresses collaboration between components in terms of dynamic constraints. Within a Paradigm model, component dynamics are consistently specified at a detailed and a global level of abstraction. To enable automated verification of Paradigm mo

  15. Paradigm Lost: Reclaiming America's Educational Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spady, William G.

    The ways in which a paradigm of empowerment can be adopted in schools are explored in this book. The book is divided into two sections--the importance of being a paradigm pioneer and the Future Empowerment Paradigm--and focuses on four points: (1) The systemic inertia that keeps schools tied to a familiar, comfortable, unproductive, and…

  16. Exploring Paradigms of Crime Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soothill, Keith; Christoffersen, Mogens N.; Hussain, Azhar

    2010-01-01

    Using Danish registers for a 1980 birth cohort of 29,944 males with parental information and following up these cases for 25 years, the study considers four paradigms of crime reduction (parental child rearing, structural factors around adolescence, locality and individual resources). Focusing...... have more widespread benefits, but the assumed causal links need to be further explored. The use of population registers, under controlled conditions, provides an important window on criminal careers....

  17. Employee discipline: a changing paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raper, J L; Myaya, S N

    1993-12-01

    To increase the receptiveness of health care supervisors to a broader meaning of discipline and to simulate investigation of nontraditional methods of encouragement to employees who fail to meet minimum standards of conduct and thereby negatively affect the quality of patient care, a subjectively realistic view of the implications of the traditional punitive disciplinary paradigm is presented. Through the use of a case study, the authors present, explain, and apply the contemporary concept of discipline without punishment as first described by J. Huberman.

  18. Conflict in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carleton, T.; Hsiang, S. M.; Burke, M.

    2016-05-01

    A growing body of research illuminates the role that changes in climate have had on violent conflict and social instability in the recent past. Across a diversity of contexts, high temperatures and irregular rainfall have been causally linked to a range of conflict outcomes. These findings can be paired with climate model output to generate projections of the impact future climate change may have on conflicts such as crime and civil war. However, there are large degrees of uncertainty in such projections, arising from (i) the statistical uncertainty involved in regression analysis, (ii) divergent climate model predictions, and (iii) the unknown ability of human societies to adapt to future climate change. In this article, we review the empirical evidence of the climate-conflict relationship, provide insight into the likely extent and feasibility of adaptation to climate change as it pertains to human conflict, and discuss new methods that can be used to provide projections that capture these three sources of uncertainty.

  19. INTELLIGENT RESOLUTION OF COOPERATIVE CONFLICT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    First, the concept of cooperative conflict is presented, and the characteristic of cooperative air combat is researched. Then, four methods of conflict resolution are designed by way of the first order predicate logic, I.e., link-up, coordination, accommodation and integration, and corresponding examples are given. A 2 vs 2 air combat simulation was carried out; after conflict resolution, the loss ratio is dropped to 0.54 from the original 1.32, so the enhancement of effectiveness is notable. The present research findings are that the wide conflicts discover the essence of multi-fighter cooperation, I.e., to as fully as possible enhance the effectiveness of each fighter to attain global optimization, and that the possibility of conflict resolution shows the application prospect. The proposed method in this paper is a helpful try to the application of the Fifth Generation Computer in the new generation of C3I system.

  20. APPROACH TO TEAM CONFLICT RESOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enes Huseinagić

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This work includes research of team conflict resolution styles in sports by basketball coaches. This research was conducted at the European Junior Basketball Championship B Division held from July 23 to August 2, 2009 in Sarajevo. Research tasks were created with the goal to establish styles for resolving team conflict by coaches in basketball, to determine dominating styles and with the help of a questionnaire to analyze opinion about correlation of the offered styles and their effectiveness. The questionnaire created by Kreitner and Kinicki (1998, has given answers on these hypotheses. Sample was comprised of 14 coaches from 24 basketball teams which took part in competition. The research was conducted through the questionnaire which covered five different conflict resolution styles: bonding, reconciling, imposing, avoiding and compromise. Coaches of tested teams who have dominating styles for resolving team conflicts caused by certain reasons, have shown that hypothesis relating to coach’s different adaptational styles of conflict resolution is completely confirmed.

  1. Poverty eradication: a new paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pethe, V P

    1998-08-01

    This article offers a new paradigm for eradicating poverty in India. It was assumed incorrectly by Mahatma Gandhi that a good society without mass poverty would follow after independence. India copied Western models of development and developed giant factories, big dams, and megacities. Agriculture did not expand the number of jobs for people. The Western paradigm failed in India because of the false assumption of "trickle down" of income to the masses. The targeted programs to the poor did not directly benefit enough of the poor. Mega-industrialization led to reduced employment and higher skill needs. The model failed mainly because it was a proxy and relied on indirect ways of reaching the poor. The models failed to be adapted to conditions in India. The Swadeshi paradigm is a direct model for addressing mass poverty. Poverty is affected by immediate, intermediate, and ultimate determinants. Poverty begets social and economic problems, such as ignorance, ill health, high fertility, unemployment, and crime. In India and developing countries, mass poverty results from under use of human resources; lack of equal opportunities; and an outdated non-egalitarian social structure, an unjust global economic order, human cruelty, and erosion of ethical values. Indians are squandering their precious resources mimicking Western consumerism. Poverty leads to rapid population growth. People become productive assets with universal literacy, compulsory and free education, health services and sanitation, vocational training, and work ethics. India needs people-oriented policies with less emphasis on capital accumulation.

  2. Orphism as a scientific paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biernat Przemyslaw

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In my essay I would like to examine current interpretative paradigm, which western scholarship cast on heterogenous and ambiguous data first to create and then to modify the notion of ‘orphism’. In case of paradigms preceding the actual one, the role which ‘orphism’ played in contemporary theories and controversies centered around the question of its significance for emergence of Christianity is well known. That is why in my work I would like to focus on deconstruction of interpretative consensus, elaborated in recent years, which is to be found in such works as Martin West’s The Orphic Poems (1983, Ritual Texts for the Afterlife. Orpheus and the Bacchic Gold Tablets by Fritz Graf and Sarah Iles-Johnston (2007 or monumental Orfeo y la tradición órfica. Un reencuentro (2008 edited by Alberto Bernabé. What is significant, inasmuch as we can write the history of Athenian religion or the history of Hellenistic kings’ worship, we still cannot write the history of orphism. In formulation of all these scholars it is an ahistorical phenomenon, a hidden constant in the sphere of Greek religion, never expressed directly and entirely, but always alluded to y ancient authors. I find difficult to agree with such a statement. The aim of my inquiry is to reveal assumptions of current paradigm, which are hidden in it, but leave a distinct impression on data.

  3. CONFLICT PERSONALITY AS A PARTICIPANT OF CONFLICT DISCOURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyranyan Margarita Yuryevna

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The conflict discourse as a communicative event reveals the characteristics of its participants as linguistic personalities. In this respect, this study enables us to reveal and describe their personal and social features. Undoubtedly, the individual characteristics of participants, their cultural and ideological differences and similarities have a great impact on the interaction process in general and on the use of linguistic means in particular. To better understand the nature of conflict discourse, its causes and consequences, one should take into account that adverse behaviour depends on the personality type and the role the speaker plays in different situations. Conflict personality is referred to as an archetype, transcendental phenomenon common to everybody. The research revealed such key characteristics typical of conflict personality as: verbal (use of language units with "conflict" connotation, the "manipulation" of speech means that convey negative, conflict meaning in particular contexts and non-verbal (communicative aim, communication medium, pre- and post-supposition of the speaker and the listener, mode of behaviour. It also proved that conflict patterns of behavior may lead to confrontation and/or transfer of collaborative interaction into an adverse one.

  4. Building a Successful School Conflict Resolution Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbus, Judith

    1994-01-01

    Looks at components of conflict resolution programs in Toronto elementary schools. Describes how curriculum, peer resolution, and management work interdependently to support conflict resolution. Discusses establishing a program and lists key components of successful conflict resolution programs. (SR)

  5. Intergenerational Conflicts among Latinos in Early Adulthood: Separating Values Conflicts with Parents from Acculturation Conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Jessica; Basanez, Tatiana; Farahmand, Anahita

    2010-01-01

    An investigation of Latino and non-Latino college students sought to examine the ways in which perceived intergenerational conflicts with parents are related to acculturation, family dynamics, and psychosocial functioning. Participants reported the extent to which they experienced two types of intergenerational conflicts with parents:…

  6. Climate change, conflict and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Devin C; Butler, Colin D; Morisetti, Neil

    2015-10-01

    Future climate change is predicted to diminish essential natural resource availability in many regions and perhaps globally. The resulting scarcity of water, food and livelihoods could lead to increasingly desperate populations that challenge governments, enhancing the risk of intra- and interstate conflict. Defence establishments and some political scientists view climate change as a potential threat to peace. While the medical literature increasingly recognises climate change as a fundamental health risk, the dimension of climate change-associated conflict has so far received little attention, despite its profound health implications. Many analysts link climate change with a heightened risk of conflict via causal pathways which involve diminishing or changing resource availability. Plausible consequences include: increased frequency of civil conflict in developing countries; terrorism, asymmetric warfare, state failure; and major regional conflicts. The medical understanding of these threats is inadequate, given the scale of health implications. The medical and public health communities have often been reluctant to interpret conflict as a health issue. However, at times, medical workers have proven powerful and effective peace advocates, most notably with regard to nuclear disarmament. The public is more motivated to mitigate climate change when it is framed as a health issue. Improved medical understanding of the association between climate change and conflict could strengthen mitigation efforts and increase cooperation to cope with the climate change that is now inevitable. © The Royal Society of Medicine.

  7. Conflict and human African trypanosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrang-Ford, Lea; Lundine, Jamie; Breau, Sebastien

    2011-02-01

    Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) has reemerged in sub-Saharan Africa as a disease of major public health importance. The success of HAT elimination in sub-Saharan Africa is subject to the feasibility of controlling, eliminating, or mitigating the determinants of incidence in affected countries. Conflict has been widely recognized and cited as a contributing factor to the resurgence of HAT in many countries, as well as to continuing HAT incidence in politically unstable and resource-poor regions. Despite extensive anecdotal and qualitative recognition of the role of conflict, there has been no quantitative research of this topic at the population level in affected African countries. We characterize the qualitative and quantitative associations between HAT incidence and conflict-related processes in HAT-affected African countries over the past 30 years. HAT and conflict-related data were collected for 35 affected countries in sub-Saharan Africa for the years 1976-2004. Descriptive and univariate inferential statistics, as well as negative binomial regression modeling, are used to assess the associations between HAT and conflict. A space-time scan statistic is used to identify significant incidence clusters. Clusters of HAT incidence over the past 30 years have predominantly coincided with periods of conflict or socio-political instability. HAT cases occurred significantly more often in countries and during years with conflict, high political terror, and internationalized civil war. The results indicate a lag period between the start of conflict events and a peak in incidence of approximately 10 years. We recommend explicit consideration and quantification of socio-political measures such as conflict and terror indices in GIS (Geographic Information Systems)-based risk assessments for HAT policy and intervention.

  8. ERPs dissociate proactive and reactive control: evidence from a task-switching paradigm with informative and uninformative cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czernochowski, Daniela

    2015-03-01

    According to the dual mechanism of control (DMC) framework, cognitive control can be recruited proactively to prevent response conflict when advance preparation is feasible or is up-regulated to overcome response conflict after it is detected. This study aimed at empirically dissociating proactive and reactive control processes proposed by the DMC and identifying corresponding event-related potential (ERP) correlates. Behavioral and electrophysiological indices of cognitive control were measured during a task-switch paradigm with or without informative advance cues, in which proactive control was feasible or not. Proactive control was associated with a (right-) frontal sustained ERP modulation during the cue-target interval. In line with the successful recruitment of proactive control, informative, as compared with uninformative, cue conditions were associated with reduced behavioral and ERP correlates of conflict. ERP correlates of conflict were evident both during conflict detection upon target presentation (N(inc)) and during conflict resolution-in particular, following uninformative cues. Reactive control assumed to support conflict resolution was associated with a (left-) frontal transient preresponse ERP modulation for uninformative, but not informative, cue conditions. Together, these data suggest that complementary proactive and reactive control processes operate in concert to flexibly support goal-directed behavior in response to variable task-demands, by either preventing or resolving response conflicts, as they are detected or anticipated.

  9. The water-food-energy Nexus - Realising a new paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smajgl, Alex; Ward, John; Pluschke, Lucie

    2016-02-01

    The water-food-energy Nexus has emerged as a new perspective in debates concerned with balancing potentially conflicting sectoral imperatives of large scale development investments concerned with energy, water or food security. Current frameworks are partial as they largely represent a water-centric perspective. Our hypothesis is that a dynamic Nexus framework that attempts to equally weight sectoral objectives provides a new paradigm for diagnosis and investigation. Dynamic refers here to explicitly understanding (or a diagnosis of) the dynamic relationships and ripple effects whereas static-comparative refers to a comparison of states before and after change. This paper proposes a balanced Nexus framework and presents results from an application to the Mekong basin. The analysis identified the advantages of a sectorally balanced, dynamic Nexus approach, in particular the ability to reveal either the emergence of cross-sectoral connections, or changes in those connections, as a consequence of single sector interventions.

  10. [Paradigm shift in bancroftian filariasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyer, Gerusa; Mattos, Denise; Figueredo-Silva, José; Norões, Joaquim

    2009-01-01

    The way a particular subject is understood changes over time as a result of scientific research. In most cases, these changes are minor, with limited effect on the overall knowledge on the subject. Sometimes, however, revolutionary changes occur and not only modify the understanding of the subject but open perspectives that can trigger new interpretations and new ways for expansion of scientific knowledge. The studies of Gregor Johann Mendel were a good example. They led to discovery of the laws of inheritance which, in turn, have revolutionized biology and provided the foundation for genetics. In certain situations, changes not only alter ways of thinking, but have practical implications, also improving the quality of life for many people. In his book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Thomas Kuhn refers to discontinuities in scientific development as a 'change of paradigm', a term now used in a generic manner to describe a profound changes in our reference points. For lymphatic filariasis the old paradigm stated that Wuchereria bancrofti at the adult stage causes lymphatic vessel obstruction, triggering an inevitable immune response in predisposed individuals and leading to elephantiasis. This has been replaced by a new paradigm, which offers hope that W. bancrofti infection does not necessarily predispose to the disfiguring outward manifestation of lymphatic dysfunction. Repeated secondary bacterial infections (erysipela-like) are now recognized as the most important factor for initiation and progression of chronic lymphedema in individuals living in filariasis-endemic areas. Most inhabitants of endemic communities can prevent and minimize the acute bacterial episodes by regular use of soap and water, the simplest form of hygiene already well known to human beings.

  11. Challenging the Service Cost Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Most healthcare organizations are looking to find more efficient and cost-effective ways of delivering service as they are challenged to assume more risk in order to provide timely and cost effective care. Alternative service with an independent service organization or third party may be an easy and rewarding solution. Serious consideration should be given purchase/service cycle and into a lower cost service paradigm designed to provide excellent service tailored to a facility's specific needs. In this article, an evaluation of all service model options is provided, as well as examples including a CT acquisition, pro formas, and program development.

  12. The Paradigm of Distributed Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    This presentation aims to focus on and develop the notion of distributed creativity from a cultural psychological perspective. It will start by outlining the need for a cultural psychological paradigm of creative expression and argue that this perspective is primarily concerned with what can...... be called ‘distributed creativity’. Drawing on related literature on distributed cognition (Hutchins, 2000), I will consider here the three inter-related ways in which creative action is distributed: across people, across people and objects, and across time. This particular understanding of creativity...

  13. International Politics: A Desirable Paradigm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Aiding; Feng Shuai

    2007-01-01

    This article first traces the origin of four concepts: International Politics (IP), International Relations (IR), World Politics (WP) and Global Politics (GP) and discusses the similarities among these four paradigms. It then analyses their application both at home and abroad. Finally, it argues for the desirability of selecting the concept of IP in academic training, thus facilitating practical application of concepts. It asserts that this will not only enhance academic discussion about IP among different Chinese schools of thought, but also help blazing new ideas.

  14. Psychiatry beyond the current paradigm.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bracken, Pat

    2012-12-01

    A series of editorials in this Journal have argued that psychiatry is in the midst of a crisis. The various solutions proposed would all involve a strengthening of psychiatry\\'s identity as essentially \\'applied neuroscience\\'. Although not discounting the importance of the brain sciences and psychopharmacology, we argue that psychiatry needs to move beyond the dominance of the current, technological paradigm. This would be more in keeping with the evidence about how positive outcomes are achieved and could also serve to foster more meaningful collaboration with the growing service user movement.

  15. Information system conflicts: causes and types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Boonstra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Conflicts are an inherent part of organizational life and managers deal with confrontations and conflicts on an almost daily basis. Information Systems (IS implementations are a type of change that often leads to open or hidden conflicts. Managers and others involved can only deal with such conflicts effectively if they understand the nature and causes of information system conflicts (IS conflicts. To contribute to such an understanding, this study focuses on the analysis of IS conflicts. In so doing, it aims to identify various types of IS conflicts and to develop a framework that can be helpful in assessing these conflicts. To this end, we have conducted a meta-ethnographic study – that is, we synthesized earlier case studies in which IS conflicts are described. We purposefully selected 11 descriptions of IS conflicts and we analyzed the topics, contexts, and processes of these conflicts. Based on this analysis, we propose a two-dimensional framework of IS conflicts that leads to a categorization involving four IS conflict types: task; implementation process; structure; and value conflicts. Based on the conflicts that were studied, this paper also reveals that, in reality, many IS conflicts have a hybrid form and develop from one type to another over time.

  16. Impact of conflict in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Touré

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Since independence, few African countries have beenspared violence and armed conflict. Two West Africanresearch networks recently organised an internationalcolloquium to assess the impact and develop linkagesbetween education, peace and democracy.

  17. Conflicted Pasts and National Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    With reference to current theories of cultural memory, the book explores how memories of war and conflict are passed from generation to generation, how these complex processes have transformed and shaped collective identities, and how they still inform national "conversations"....

  18. Concept of Conflict within New Economy Environment and Its Impact on the Market Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umit Hacioglu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The success of economic transition for countries mainly requires economic and politic stability. However the conflict paradigm affects the nature of economic transition. In this process, innovations have changed product technologies which have been required by economic growth. Presently, automation in standardized production industry is used as if it will take over the wage labor. Crises brought uniformities into agenda. Computer integrated manufacturing appeared in the midst of 1990s. However, production still tended to move to other countries with cheaper labor. The study focuses on interaction between the conflict and market mechanism in the light of the knowledge-based economic development.

  19. Hypothesis Formation, Paradigms, and Openness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conrad P. Pritscher

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A part of hypothesis formation, while necessary for scientific investigation, is beyond direct observation. Powerful hypothesis formation is more than logical and is facilitated by mind­opening. As Percy Bridgeman, Nobel laureate, said, science is: “Nothing more than doing one's damnedest with one's mind, no holds barred.” This paper suggests more open schooling helps generate more open hypothesizing which helps one do one's damnedest with one's mind. It is hypothesized that a more open process of hypothesis formation may help schools and society forge new ways of living and learning so that more people more often can do their damnedest with their mind. This writing does not offer a new paradigm but rather attempts to elaborate on the notion that new paradigms are difficult to form without openness to what was previously quasi­unthinkable. More on these topics and issues is included in the author's Reopening Einstein's Thought: About What Can't Be Learned From Textbooks ­­to be published by Sense Publishers in June 2008.

  20. Conflicts Over "Conflict": Preventing Fragmentation of International Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adarsh Ramanujan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Public international law does not envisage a single source of law; nor does it contemplate a single supreme law-creating body. Conflict between various norms, whatever be their nature, is therefore an inevitability. Such conflicts are one of the many causes that affect the ability of the legal system to maintain stability and accountability. Resolving such conflicts is essential to ensure that any system does not fall under its own weight. The importance of resolving conflicts is amplified in the context of the public international law regime, which consists of a number of sub-systems, thereby resulting in a higher probability of conflicts. Equally important to the issue of resolving conflict is identifying when the solution is to be applied. After all, what good is any “ultimate answer” without identifying the “ultimate question”! In other words, one must first identify the existence of a conflict to resolve it. Very few publicists of international repute have, however, dealt with this issue, in particular, in sufficient substantive detail. Despite the limited number of opinions, there is, unfortunately, no consensus on this topic. The present comment portrays the author’s view on this issue. In this comment, the question has been analyzed with a very simple policy objective: avoiding fragmentation of international law. The author’s views are presented by way of critically examining the opinion of Joost Pauwelyn, a noted scholar in this field, who has most recently dealt with this issue in a comprehensive manner. Moulded into this crtique are three hypothetical scenarios that would allow the reader to grasp the significance of the question.

  1. A holistic approach to natural resource conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bond, Jennifer Lauren

    2014-01-01

    and institutional factors which impact on the conflict complex. The critical features of the conflict from the perspective of pastoralists and farmers in Laikipia were found to be related to trust, communication, security, governance, marginalisation and violence. By conducting a thorough conflict context analysis...... incorporating social, ecological and institutional elements, valuable insights can be gleaned, leading to a more holistic conflict management approach....

  2. Information system conflicts : causes and types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, Albert; de Vries, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Conflicts are an inherent part of organizational life and managers deal with confrontations and conflicts on an almost daily basis. IS implementations are a type of change that often leads to open or hidden conflicts. Managers and others involved can only deal with such conflicts effectively if they

  3. Handling Conflict in the Work Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Ernest W.

    1997-01-01

    Discussion of workplace conflict management examines erroneous assumptions inherent in traditional reaction patterns, considers key elements of planning for conflict prevention, and some workplace strategies to help minimize conflicts. Several approaches to conflict management, and their outcomes, are highlighted, and stages of the…

  4. Information system conflicts : causes and types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, Albert; de Vries, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Conflicts are an inherent part of organizational life and managers deal with confrontations and conflicts on an almost daily basis. IS implementations are a type of change that often leads to open or hidden conflicts. Managers and others involved can only deal with such conflicts effectively if they

  5. Sovereignty in Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Besson

    2004-09-01

    implied by constitutional pluralism, while also enhancing the legitimacy of the European polity. This can be observed in the context of difficult issues such as constitutional conflicts, legislative cooperation and, finally, multi-level constitutionalism.

  6. EVALUATIVE RESEARCH PARADIGMS IN EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS

    OpenAIRE

    Flores Barboza, José; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos

    2014-01-01

    The article focuses on the confrontation /comparison? between the naturalistic and the experimental paradigms to evaluate educational programs. It examines the theoretical framework of each paradigm and the proposed methodology to pursue an evaluation. Finally, the article addresses the possibility of a reconciliation between both paradigms. El artículo trata de la confrontación entre los paradigmas naturalista y experimental para la evaluación de programas educacionales. Examina los argum...

  7. PSYCHOLOGICAL PARADIGMS USED IN TEACHING ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin CRISTEA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, teaching as a subject of instruction, will be examined in terms of some actual psychological paradigms of communication: structural-expressive, formal-transactional, relational-systemic, and phenomenal-praxis. Reporting these paradigms, thispaper highlights the importance of psychological processes involved in teaching process. Related to various paradigms described, the author demonstrates the importance of addressing teaching from a high level participation in the elaboration of a mutual action.

  8. Understanding the land management paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    structures by identifying an ideal and historically neutral LAS model for: servicing the needs of governments, business and the public; utilising the latest technologies; servicing rights, responsibilities, restrictions and risks in relation to land; and delivering much broader information about sustainable......Land management is the process by which the resources of land are put into good effect. Land management encompasses all activities associated with the management of land and natural resources that are required to achieve sustainable development. Land Administration Systems (LAS) are institutional...... frameworks complicated by the tasks they must perform, by national cultural, political and judicial settings, and by technology. This paper facilitates an overall understanding of the land management paradigm. This paper assists sharing LAS among countries with diverse legal systems and institutional...

  9. Emerging Paradigms in Machine Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Lakhmi; Howlett, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This  book presents fundamental topics and algorithms that form the core of machine learning (ML) research, as well as emerging paradigms in intelligent system design. The  multidisciplinary nature of machine learning makes it a very fascinating and popular area for research.  The book is aiming at students, practitioners and researchers and captures the diversity and richness of the field of machine learning and intelligent systems.  Several chapters are devoted to computational learning models such as granular computing, rough sets and fuzzy sets An account of applications of well-known learning methods in biometrics, computational stylistics, multi-agent systems, spam classification including an extremely well-written survey on Bayesian networks shed light on the strengths and weaknesses of the methods. Practical studies yielding insight into challenging problems such as learning from incomplete and imbalanced data, pattern recognition of stochastic episodic events and on-line mining of non-stationary ...

  10. Understanding the land management paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    Land management is the process by which the resources of land are put into good effect. Land management encompasses all activities associated with the management of land and natural resources that are required to achieve sustainable development. Land Administration Systems (LAS) are institutional...... frameworks complicated by the tasks they must perform, by national cultural, political and judicial settings, and by technology. This paper facilitates an overall understanding of the land management paradigm. This paper assists sharing LAS among countries with diverse legal systems and institutional...... structures by identifying an ideal and historically neutral LAS model for: servicing the needs of governments, business and the public; utilising the latest technologies; servicing rights, responsibilities, restrictions and risks in relation to land; and delivering much broader information about sustainable...

  11. New Paradigms For Asteroid Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Johansen, Anders; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Gounelle, Matthieu

    2015-01-01

    Asteroids and meteorites provide key evidence on the formation of planetesimals in the Solar System. Asteroids are traditionally thought to form in a bottom-up process by coagulation within a population of initially km-scale planetesimals. However, new models challenge this idea by demonstrating that asteroids of sizes from 100 to 1000 km can form directly from the gravitational collapse of small particles which have organised themselves in dense filaments and clusters in the turbulent gas. Particles concentrate passively between eddies down to the smallest scales of the turbulent gas flow and inside large-scale pressure bumps and vortices. The streaming instability causes particles to take an active role in the concentration, by piling up in dense filaments whose friction on the gas reduces the radial drift compared to that of isolated particles. In this chapter we review new paradigms for asteroid formation and compare critically against the observed properties of asteroids as well as constraints from meteo...

  12. The Oral Paradigm and Snapchat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oren Soffer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this short essay, I argue that the ephemeral nature of emerging instant-messaging applications, such as Snapchat, applies an oral paradigm. While online discourse of computer-mediated communication shares many qualities with oral communication, the case of ephemeral applications is unique, as the oral features are already integrated in the application technology design and as orality is often implemented on highly visual products. Snapchat applies technology that fades visual contents as if they were spoken words fading in the air after utterance. Moreover, Snapchat’s promise to delete all messages from its database after they are viewed echoes a key characteristic of primary oral culture: that is, the inability (and in our case, the obligation not to store knowledge. In this, Snapchat demonstrates counter-logic to the contemporary grammar of new media, which is based on information aggregation.

  13. EXPOSING THE FALSE PARADIGM USED IN MANAGEMENT DECISION MAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malan Smith

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This article discusses Economic Value Added (EVA which is a popular shareholder value measurement. The main driving factors that influence EVA can be deduced from a modification of the Du Pont financial model. However, if these drivers are communicated to the organisation, and goals are set around achieving specific components of the drivers, the results achieved might be suboptimal. This is a direct consequence of the fact that the organisation is a system, and that EVA is an emergent property of the system. Systems theory should therefore be applied to discover the reasons for these counterintuitive outcomes in an organisation. Dilemmas (conflicts in the system are a result of the paradigm used in understanding the system. A method to examine the conflicts that occur in a system is the three-cloud technique. By applying this technique, it is possible to find the root cause of suboptimal performance in organisations: the false underlying paradigm used in the decision making process. The incorrect paradigm is to assume that a local optimal outcome is equivalent to a global optimal outcome.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie artikel bespreek Ekonomiese Toegevoegde Waarde (ETW, 'n gewilde maatstaf van aandeel-houerwaarde. Die belangrikste drywers wat ETW beinvloed, kan afgelei word uit 'n gewysigde Du Pont model. Indien doelwitte in die organisasie rondom hierdie drywers in isolasie gestel word, kan die resultate suboptimaal wees. Die suboptimale resultate is 'n direkte gevolg van die feit dat die organisasie 'n stelsel is, en dat ETW 'n stelseleienskap is. Stelselteorie moet dus toegepas word am die onderliggende redes vir hierdie suboptimale resultate te vind. Dilemmas (konflikte binne ' n stelsel is 'n direkte resultaat van die paradigma wat gebruik word om die stelsel te verstaan. ' n Metode om die konflikte in 'n stelsel te ondersoek is die drie-wolk metode. Deur hierdie metode toe te pas, is dit moontlik om die

  14. Datacubes as a Service Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Angelo Pio; Baumann, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Spatio-temporal data sets often can be represented conveniently through datacubes as a common unifying paradigm. Flexible, scalable services can be offered based on the concept of a datacube query language while hiding the technicalities, thereby allowing user-friendly visual data interaction. One of today's most influential initiatives in Big Geo Data is EarthServer which is paving the way for flexible, scalable datacube services based on innovative NewSQL technology (Fig. 1). Researchers from Europe, the US and recently Australia have teamed up to rigorously materialize the datacube paradigm for Earth Observation, ocean, meteorological, and planetary science. EarthServer has established client and server technology for such spatio-temporal datacubes strictly based on the open datacube standards, OGC WCS and WPCS. The underlying scalable array engine, rasdaman, enables direct interaction, including 3-D visualization, what-if scenarios, common EO data processing, and general analytics on regular and irregular grids. Integration of datacube and metadata retrieval, together with advanced visualization based on NASA WorldWind, are geared towards an effective, user-friendly access and analysis. Conversely, EarthServer is significantly shaping the ISO, OGC, and INSPIRE Big Data standards landscape by being specification editor. Phase 1 of EarthServer has advanced scalable array data¬base technology into 100+ TB services; in phase 2, a federation of Petabyte datacubes is being built in Europe and Australia to perform ad-hoc querying and merging. Phase 1 reviewers have attested rasdaman to "significantly transform the way that scientists in different areas of Earth Science will be able to access and use data in a way that hitherto was not possible". Altogether, these large-scale deployments prove that datacubes are a convenient model for presenting users with a simple, consolidated view on the massive amount of data files gathered - "a cube tells more than a million

  15. How can we cooperate better? The determinants of conflict solving competence in Polish pediatric nurses’ relations with parents of hospitalized children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Chrzan-Dętkoś

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Our pilot study carried out at two Polish pediatric hospital departments revealed that conflicts with parents of hospitalized children represent the main concern of pediatric nurses. The aim of this study was to examine factors determining the conflict solving competence in pediatric nurses in order to develop effective communication training programs for pediatric ward staff. Participants and procedure A total of 78 pediatric nurses completed measures of occupational and perceived stress, conflict modes and competence in solving conflicts with parents of hospitalized children. Results The key factor influencing conflict solving competence was the level of perceived stress and supervisor support. Conclusions Systemic supervised activities aimed at reducing the level of stress, e.g. Balint groups or reflective supervision, could be helpful in mastering the conflict solving competences. Also a paradigm shift from the individual patient to his/her family considered as a patient could potentially improve nurse-parent relations.

  16. How to Preempt Team Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toegel, Ginka; Barsoux, Jean-Louis

    2016-06-01

    Team conflict can add value or destroy it. Good conflict fosters respectful debate and yields mutually agreed-upon solutions that are often far superior to those first offered. Bad conflict occurs when team members simply can't get past their differences, killing productivity and stifling innovation. Destructive conflict typically stems not from differences of opinion but from a perceived incompatibility between the way certain team members think and act. The conventional approach to working through such conflict is to respond to clashes as they arise. But this approach routinely fails because it allows frustrations to build for too long, making it difficult to reset negative impressions and restore trust. In their research on team dynamics and experience working with executive teams, Toegel and Barsoux have found a proactive approach to be much more effective. In this article, they introduce a methodology that focuses on how people look, act, speak, think, and feel. Team leaders facilitate five conversations--one focused on each category--before the team gets under way, to build a shared understanding of the process, rather than the content, of work and lay the foundation for effective collaboration.

  17. Linking metacommunity paradigms to spatial coexistence mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Lauren G; Melbourne, Brett A

    2016-09-01

    Four metacommunity paradigms-usually called neutral, species sorting, mass effects, and patch dynamics, respectively-are widely used for empirical and theoretical studies of spatial community dynamics. The paradigm framework highlights key ecological mechanisms operating in metacommunities, such as dispersal limitation, competition-colonization tradeoffs, or species equivalencies. However, differences in coexistence mechanisms between the paradigms and in situations with combined influences of multiple paradigms are not well understood. Here, we create a common model for competitive metacommunities, with unique parameterizations for each metacommunity paradigm and for scenarios with multiple paradigms operating simultaneously. We derive analytical expressions for the strength of Chesson's spatial coexistence mechanisms and quantify these for each paradigm via simulation. For our model, fitness-density covariance, a concentration effect measuring the importance of intraspecific aggregation of individuals, is the dominant coexistence mechanism in all three niche-based metacommunity paradigms. Increased dispersal between patches erodes intraspecific aggregation, leading to lower coexistence strength in the mass effects paradigm compared to species sorting. Our analysis demonstrates the potential importance of aggregation of individuals (fitness-density covariance) over co-variation in abiotic environments and competition between species (the storage effect), as fitness-density covariance can be stronger than the storage effect and is the sole stabilizing mechanism in the patch dynamics paradigm. As expected, stable coexistence does not occur in the neutral paradigm, which requires species to be equal and emphasizes the role of stochasticity. We show that stochasticity also plays an important role in niche-structured metacommunities by altering coexistence strength. We conclude that Chesson's spatial coexistence mechanisms provide a flexible framework for comparing

  18. The self in conflict: Actors and agency in the mediated sequential Simon Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel M. Spapé

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Executive control refers to the ability to withstand interference in order to achieve task goals. The effect of conflict adaptation describes that after experiencing interference, subsequent conflict effects are weaker. However, changes in the source of conflict have been found to disrupt conflict adaptation. Previous studies indicated that this specificity is determined by the degree to which one source causes episodic retrieval of a previous source. A virtual reality version of the Simon task was employed to investigate whether changes in a visual representation of the self would similarly affect conflict adaptation. Participants engaged in a mediated Simon task via 3D avatar models that either mirrored the participants’ movements, or were presented statically. A retrieval cue was implemented as the identity of the avatar: switching it from a male to a female avatar was expected to disrupt the conflict adaptation effect. The results show that only in static conditions did the conflict adaptation effect depend on the avatar identity, while in dynamic conditions, changes did not cause disruption. We also explored the effect of conflict and adaptation on the degree of movement made with the task-irrelevant hand and replicated the reaction time pattern. The findings add to earlier studies of source-specific conflict adaptation by showing that a visual representation of the self in action can provide a cue that determines episodic retrieval. Furthermore, the novel paradigm is made openly available to the scientific community and is described in its significance for studies of social cognition, cognitive psychology and human-computer interaction.

  19. Institutional Repositories, Open Access, and Scholarly Communication: A Study of Conflicting Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Rowena; Chawner, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    The Open Access movement of the past decade, and institutional repositories developed by universities and academic libraries as a part of that movement, have openly challenged the traditional scholarly communication system. This article examines the growth of repositories around the world, and summarizes a growing body of evidence of the response…

  20. Institutional Repositories, Open Access, and Scholarly Communication: A Study of Conflicting Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Rowena; Chawner, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    The Open Access movement of the past decade, and institutional repositories developed by universities and academic libraries as a part of that movement, have openly challenged the traditional scholarly communication system. This article examines the growth of repositories around the world, and summarizes a growing body of evidence of the response…

  1. Revisiting peace and conflict studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagmann, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I will first draw attention to the surprising, but ultimately problematic trajectory of peace studies from the period of the Cold War to the present day. This is a trajectory from ‘peace’ as a critique of dominant geopolitics to one of ‘peace’ that has become part of the very...... the broad variety of existing units of analysis, motivations, theories and methodologies of peace and conflict studies. Thirdly, I will propose a number of suggestions for a research attitude that, in absence of a better word, I subsume under the heading of ‘critical peace and conflict research’, striving...... to understand peace and conflict as concomitantly subjective and objective, as critique and hegemony, as normative and value-free, as local and global....

  2. Conflict Management Training in China: The Value of Cooperative Conflict Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjosvold, Dean; Ding, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    Asserts the value of a theory for conflict management training and summarizes the theory of cooperative and competitive conflict and its empirical base. Outlines the theory's specific implications for conflict management training in China. (EV)

  3. The Three Paradigms of Mass Media Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, W. James; And Others

    A study examined the mass media research literature to determine if there was a dominant paradigm in the field. The mass media research published in eight communication journals from 1965 to 1989 was content analyzed to identify paradigm, orientation (focus and theory), data (type, source, and sample), methodology (type and manipulation), and…

  4. The New Paradigm Dialogs and Qualitative Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denzin, Norman K.

    2008-01-01

    This paper re-engages the paradigm wars of the 1980s, discussing their relevance in the current historical moment. It extends Egon Guba's call for dialogue across paradigm communities. Ten theses and three agenda items are advanced. (Contains 4 notes.)

  5. The cognitive paradigm and the immunological homunculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, I R

    1992-12-01

    In last month's issue of Immunology Today, Irun Cohen discussed the inadequacies of the clonal selection paradigm and proposed a cognitive paradigm in which preformed internal images guide and restrict the process of clonal activation. Here he clarifies the nature of these internal images, during on concrete examples from the image of infection and the image of self, the immunological homunculus.

  6. Towards a New Paradigm of Moral Personhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimer, Jeremy A.; Walker, Lawrence J.

    2008-01-01

    Moral psychology is between paradigms. Kohlberg's model of moral rationality has proved inadequate in explaining action; yet its augmentation--moral personality--awaits empirical embodiment. This article addresses some critical issues in developing a comprehensive empirical paradigm of moral personhood. Is a first-person or a third-person…

  7. Is This the Paradigm Shift We Need?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirvis, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Dr. Woocher's essay, states Mirvis, is seminal in the field of Jewish education. It proposes a new paradigm for Jewish education in North America. This proposed paradigm is supported by a comprehensive multi-disciplinary research drawing on literature from education, philosophy, history, sociology, psychology, and economics. The essay reflects a…

  8. Paradigm Lost: The Human Chromosome Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Lawrence; Blystone, Robert V.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses whether the discovery in 1956 that humans have a chromosome number of 46, as opposed to 47 or 48 as previously thought, fits into a paradigm shift of the Kuhnian type. Concludes that Kuhn probably would not have considered the chromosome number shift to be large enough to be a focus for one of his paradigms. (AIM)

  9. Reforming the Paradigm of American Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, B. Charles; Messner, Phillip E.

    1991-01-01

    The current crisis of U.S. public education cannot be addressed through reforms to the existing paradigm. In fact, the current paradigm is being challenged and shifted bringing in a new perception of the educational process. Because of resistance in the education profession, that change may be variously applied. (JB)

  10. Emergence and decline of scientific paradigms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bornholdt, S.; Jensen, Mogens Høgh; Sneppen, Kim

    2011-01-01

    deals with this asymmetry by constraining the ability of agents to return to already abandoned concepts. The model exhibits a fairly regular pattern of global paradigm shifts, where older paradigms are eroded and subsequently replaced by new ones. The model sets the theme for a new class of pattern...

  11. The Technological Paradigm of Psychological Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvale, Steinar

    1973-01-01

    The experiment in physics has often been pictured as an ideal for the less mature social sciences, especially by positivist philosophy of science. The thesis to be presented here is that the physical experiment as a paradigm for psychology is merely a pretext, a smoke-screen for a more fundamental and concealed technological paradigm for the study…

  12. Holism and Empiricism as Complementary Paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronick, Doreen

    1990-01-01

    In response to Poplin (EC 210 561) and Heshusius (EC 220 916), the paper stresses that holism and empiricism are not dichotomous paradigms and that learning-disabled students require instruction which recognizes individual differences, the meaning inherent in structure and pattern, and accountability consistent with the paradigm being applied. (DB)

  13. The Technological Paradigm of Psychological Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvale, Steinar

    1973-01-01

    The experiment in physics has often been pictured as an ideal for the less mature social sciences, especially by positivist philosophy of science. The thesis to be presented here is that the physical experiment as a paradigm for psychology is merely a pretext, a smoke-screen for a more fundamental and concealed technological paradigm for the study…

  14. Derfor har vi brug for paradigmer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Kirsten A. Jeppesen; Schøsler, Lene

    2016-01-01

    Based on previous studies on verbs of perception in French and Ita- lian, this study claims that the notion of paradigm is useful for the understanding of grammatical structure. Our case-study concerns the status of Modern French voir in the paradigms of presentation and of progressivity....

  15. Towards a New Paradigm of Moral Personhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimer, Jeremy A.; Walker, Lawrence J.

    2008-01-01

    Moral psychology is between paradigms. Kohlberg's model of moral rationality has proved inadequate in explaining action; yet its augmentation--moral personality--awaits empirical embodiment. This article addresses some critical issues in developing a comprehensive empirical paradigm of moral personhood. Is a first-person or a third-person…

  16. The Failure of Progressive Paradigm Reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Gerard

    2017-01-01

    The student-centred, progressive paradigm has not had sustained success in changing teacher-centred, formalistic practices in "developing" country classrooms. Does "Gestalt-switch" and paradigm reversal demonstrate that progressive theory has realigned with formalistic reality, or has it remained axiomatic in the research and…

  17. Agreeableness as a moderator of interpersonal conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen-Campbell, L A; Graziano, W G

    2001-04-01

    This multimethod research linked the Big Five personality dimensions to interpersonal conflicts. Agreeableness was the focus because this dimension is associated with motives to maintain positive interpersonal relations. Converging responses to both hypothetical conflicts and to diary records of actual daily interpersonal conflicts across a two-week period were assessed. Agreeableness was expected to moderate affective responses and tactical choices during conflicts. Patterns of daily conflict were related to self-reported reactions to hypothetical conflicts and to teacher-rated adjustment in adolescents. As predicted, Agreeableness was related to responsiveness to conflict. Agreeableness differences and use of destructive tactics in conflict were significantly related to evaluations of the individual's adjustment by knowledgeable raters. Among the Big Five dimensions, Agreeableness was most closely associated with processes and outcomes during interpersonal conflict.

  18. Modeling and Controlling Interstate Conflict

    CERN Document Server

    Marwala, Tshilidzi

    2007-01-01

    Bayesian neural networks were used to model the relationship between input parameters, Democracy, Allies, Contingency, Distance, Capability, Dependency and Major Power, and the output parameter which is either peace or conflict. The automatic relevance determination was used to rank the importance of input variables. Control theory approach was used to identify input variables that would give a peaceful outcome. It was found that using all four controllable variables Democracy, Allies, Capability and Dependency; or using only Dependency or only Capabilities avoids all the predicted conflicts.

  19. A New Paradigm for Chemical Engineering?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    businesses has been observed. There is an increasing trend within the chemical industry to focus on products and the sustainable processes that can make them. Do these changes point to a paradigm shift in chemical engineering as a discipline? Historically, two previous paradigm shifts in chemical engineering...... corresponded to major shifts in chemical engineering as a discipline, which affected not only the education of chemical engineers, but also the development of chemical engineering as a discipline. Has the time come for a new paradigm shift that will prepare the current and future chemical engineering graduates...... to tackle the complex problems facing the chemicals based industries and serve the modern society more efficiently? The lecture will review the current status of chemical engineering as a discipline, the proposals for the third paradigm, the need for such a paradigm shift and related educational issues....

  20. Context specificity of post-error and post-conflict cognitive control adjustments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E Forster

    Full Text Available There has been accumulating evidence that cognitive control can be adaptively regulated by monitoring for processing conflict as an index of online control demands. However, it is not yet known whether top-down control mechanisms respond to processing conflict in a manner specific to the operative task context or confer a more generalized benefit. While previous studies have examined the taskset-specificity of conflict adaptation effects, yielding inconsistent results, control-related performance adjustments following errors have been largely overlooked. This gap in the literature underscores recent debate as to whether post-error performance represents a strategic, control-mediated mechanism or a nonstrategic consequence of attentional orienting. In the present study, evidence of generalized control following both high conflict correct trials and errors was explored in a task-switching paradigm. Conflict adaptation effects were not found to generalize across tasksets, despite a shared response set. In contrast, post-error slowing effects were found to extend to the inactive taskset and were predictive of enhanced post-error accuracy. In addition, post-error performance adjustments were found to persist for several trials and across multiple task switches, a finding inconsistent with attentional orienting accounts of post-error slowing. These findings indicate that error-related control adjustments confer a generalized performance benefit and suggest dissociable mechanisms of post-conflict and post-error control.

  1. Selfish third parties act as peacemakers by transforming conflicts and promoting cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halevy, Nir; Halali, Eliran

    2015-06-02

    The tremendous costs of conflict have made humans resourceful not only at warfare but also at peacemaking. Although third parties have acted as peacemakers since the dawn of history, little is known about voluntary, informal third-party intervention in conflict. Here we introduce the Peacemaker Game, a novel experimental paradigm, to model and study the interdependence between disputants and third parties in conflict. In the game, two disputants choose whether to cooperate or compete and a third party chooses whether or not to intervene in the conflict. Intervention introduces side payments that transform the game disputants are playing; it also introduces risk for the third party by making it vulnerable to disputants' choices. Six experiments revealed three robust effects: (i) The mere possibility of third-party intervention significantly increases cooperation in interpersonal and intergroup conflicts; (ii) reducing the risk to third parties dramatically increases intervention rates, to everyone's benefit; and (iii) disputants' cooperation rates are consistently higher than third parties' intervention rates. These findings explain why, how, and when self-interested third parties facilitate peaceful conflict resolution.

  2. Perceptual conflict during sensorimotor integration processes - a neurophysiological study in response inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, Witold X; Beste, Christian

    2016-05-25

    A multitude of sensory inputs needs to be processed during sensorimotor integration. A crucial factor for detecting relevant information is its complexity, since information content can be conflicting at a perceptual level. This may be central to executive control processes, such as response inhibition. This EEG study aims to investigate the system neurophysiological mechanisms behind effects of perceptual conflict on response inhibition. We systematically modulated perceptual conflict by integrating a Global-local task with a Go/Nogo paradigm. The results show that conflicting perceptual information, in comparison to non-conflicting perceptual information, impairs response inhibition performance. This effect was evident regardless of whether the relevant information for response inhibition is displayed on the global, or local perceptual level. The neurophysiological data suggests that early perceptual/ attentional processing stages do not underlie these modulations. Rather, processes at the response selection level (P3), play a role in changed response inhibition performance. This conflict-related impairment of inhibitory processes is associated with activation differences in (inferior) parietal areas (BA7 and BA40) and not as commonly found in the medial prefrontal areas. This suggests that various functional neuroanatomical structures may mediate response inhibition and that the functional neuroanatomical structures involved depend on the complexity of sensory integration processes.

  3. Contestation and Reconstruction: Natural Capital and Post-Conflict Development in Borderland Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Zetter

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Though often remote and underdeveloped, borderlands are contested territories. The incorporation of borderlands into the post-conflict state highlights many important land-related paradigms, including the conversion of natural resources for economic, political, and civic purposes. This article explores the relationship between the natural resources of borderlands and their post-conflict development, management, and sustainability. Based on case study data and secondary material drawn from Croatia and Cyprus, the paper seeks to establish how the interplay of cross-border, national, and sub-national interests in post-conflict settings may contribute to the creation of new opportunities for economic development and the reconstruction of borderlands. It considers how the exploitation of natural resources may advance the agendas for the political development and incorporation of previous sites of contestation; and equally how their incorporation may constrain policies of sustainability, potentially giving rise to new conflicts. The paper sheds light on issues such as: the conversion of borderland natural capital to political capital as post-conflict states assert sovereignty claims and consolidate territorial identity; the ways in which the non-monetary value of natural capital is reconceived as commercial use value in post-conflict reconstruction; and the involvement of non-state actors and civil society in promoting environmental agendas, often as a counterbalance to state power.

  4. Decentralized Planning for Pre-Conflict and Post-Conflict ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-10-02

    Oct 2, 2012 ... of “The Cost of Armed Conflicts in Developing Countries,” indicated that ... where children (potential marriage partners) are discouraged from ..... To assess the impact made so far by the Bawku Municipal Assembly and ...

  5. Women in conflict and indigenous conflict resolution among the Issa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. This article tries to show the impacts of conflict on women, the role of women in ..... to raiding, they are not armed and are not able to defend themselves when they are ... Mothers instruct and bless their children in the following ways:.

  6. Understanding paradigms used for nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Kathryn; Olson, Joanne K

    2006-02-01

    The aims of this paper are to add clarity to the discussion about paradigms for nursing research and to consider integrative strategies for the development of nursing knowledge. Paradigms are sets of beliefs and practices, shared by communities of researchers, which regulate inquiry within disciplines. The various paradigms are characterized by ontological, epistemological and methodological differences in their approaches to conceptualizing and conducting research, and in their contribution towards disciplinary knowledge construction. Researchers may consider these differences so vast that one paradigm is incommensurable with another. Alternatively, researchers may ignore these differences and either unknowingly combine paradigms inappropriately or neglect to conduct needed research. To accomplish the task of developing nursing knowledge for use in practice, there is a need for a critical, integrated understanding of the paradigms used for nursing inquiry. We describe the evolution and influence of positivist, postpositivist, interpretive and critical theory research paradigms. Using integrative review, we compare and contrast the paradigms in terms of their philosophical underpinnings and scientific contribution. A pragmatic approach to theory development through synthesis of cumulative knowledge relevant to nursing practice is suggested. This requires that inquiry start with assessment of existing knowledge from disparate studies to identify key substantive content and gaps. Knowledge development in under-researched areas could be accomplished through integrative strategies that preserve theoretical integrity and strengthen research approaches associated with various philosophical perspectives. These strategies may include parallel studies within the same substantive domain using different paradigms; theoretical triangulation to combine findings from paradigmatically diverse studies; integrative reviews; and mixed method studies. Nurse scholars are urged to

  7. The Physical and Cognitive Paradigms in Information Retrieval Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, David

    1992-01-01

    Explores the role of paradigms in information retrieval research and discusses the nature of a paradigm and the applicability of the paradigm concept to a multidisciplinary field such as information science. The features of the physical paradigm and the cognitive paradigm are outlined, and their origins, nature, and role are examined. (55…

  8. The congruency sequence effect 3.0: a critical test of conflict adaptation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wout Duthoo

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades, the congruency sequence effect (CSE -the finding of a reduced congruency effect following incongruent trials in conflict tasks- has played a central role in advancing research on cognitive control. According to the influential conflict-monitoring account, the CSE reflects adjustments in selective attention that enhance task focus when needed, often termed conflict adaptation. However, this dominant interpretation of the CSE has been called into question by several alternative accounts that stress the role of episodic memory processes: feature binding and (stimulus-response contingency learning. To evaluate the notion of conflict adaptation in accounting for the CSE, we construed versions of three widely used experimental paradigms (the colour-word Stroop, picture-word Stroop and flanker task that effectively control for feature binding and contingency learning. Results revealed that a CSE can emerge in all three tasks. This strongly suggests a contribution of attentional control to the CSE and highlights the potential of these unprecedentedly clean paradigms for further examining cognitive control.

  9. Service Outsourcing Character Oriented Privacy Conflict Detection Method in Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changbo Ke

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing has provided services for users as a software paradigm. However, it is difficult to ensure privacy information security because of its opening, virtualization, and service outsourcing features. Therefore how to protect user privacy information has become a research focus. In this paper, firstly, we model service privacy policy and user privacy preference with description logic. Secondly, we use the pellet reasonor to verify the consistency and satisfiability, so as to detect the privacy conflict between services and user. Thirdly, we present the algorithm of detecting privacy conflict in the process of cloud service composition and prove the correctness and feasibility of this method by case study and experiment analysis. Our method can reduce the risk of user sensitive privacy information being illegally used and propagated by outsourcing services. In the meantime, the method avoids the exception in the process of service composition by the privacy conflict, and improves the trust degree of cloud service providers.

  10. Public Health Crisis in War and Conflict - Health Security in Aggregate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, John; Zelený, Tomáš; Subramaniam, Rammika; Bencko, Vladimír

    2017-03-01

    Public health status of populations is multifactorial and besides other factors it is linked to war and conflict. Public health crisis can erupt when states go to war or are invaded; health security may be reduced for affected populations. This study reviews in aggregate multiple indices of human security, human development and legitimacy of the state in order to describe a predictable global health portrait. Paradigm shift of large global powers to that non-state actors and proxies impact regional influence through scaled conflict and present major global health challenges for policy makers. Small scale conflict with large scale violence threatens health security for at-risk populations. The paper concludes that health security is directly proportional to state security.

  11. Concept of Conflict within New Economy Environment and Its Impact on the Market Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umit Hacioglu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The success of economic transition for countries mainly requires economic and politic stability. However the conflict paradigm affects the nature of economic transition. In this process, innovations have changed product technologies which have been required by economic growth. Presently, automation in standardized production industry is used as if it will take over the wage labor. Crises brought uniformities into agenda. Computer integrated manufacturing appeared in the midst of 1990s. However, production still tended to move to other countries with cheaper labor. The study focuses on interaction between the conflict and market mechanism in the light of the knowledge-based economic development.Keywords: new economy; conflict risk; globalization; financial system; market mechanism

  12. A handy new design paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bergelin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In light of technological advances, researchers have lost sight of robotic grippers/end effectors design intent. In a semi-structured environment the biomimetic approach is impractical due to the high complexity of the mechanism and control algorithms. Current industrial grippers are robust, but lack the flexibility that allows for in hand manipulation. The authors believe that underactuated grippers provide the best approach to allow for in hand manipulation along with being rugged enough for an industrial setting. Thinking of the robotic gripper and the robotic arm as one system (as opposed to two separate subsystems, one is capable of using the degrees of freedom of the robot in conjunction with that of the gripper to provide the desired motion profile without the complexity of running two subsystems. This paper will outline where recent grippers have failed and will introduce a new design paradigm for grippers along with several underactuated gripper ideas.

    This paper was presented at the IFToMM/ASME International Workshop on Underactuated Grasping (UG2010, 19 August 2010, Montréal, Canada.

  13. Human Amebiasis: Breaking the Paradigm?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Partida

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available For over 30 years it has been established that the Entamoeba histolytica protozoan included two biologically and genetically different species, one with a pathogenic phenotype called E. histolytica and the other with a non-pathogenic phenotype called Entamoeba dispar. Both of these amoebae species can infect humans. E. histolytica has been considered as a potential pathogen that can cause serious damage to the large intestine (colitis, dysentery and other extraintestinal organs, mainly the liver (amebic liver abscess, whereas E. dispar is a species that interacts with humans in a commensal relationship, causing no symptoms or any tissue damage. This paradigm, however, should be reconsidered or re-evaluated. In the present work, we report the detection and genotyping of E. dispar sequences of DNA obtained from patients with amebic liver abscesses, including the genotyping of an isolate obtained from a Brazilian patient with a clinical diagnosis of intestinal amebiasis that was previously characterized as an E. dispar species. The genetic diversity and phylogenetic analysis performed by our group has shown the existence of several different genotypes of E. dispar that can be associated to, or be potentiality responsible for intestinal or liver tissue damage, similar to that observed with E. histolytica.

  14. Human Amebiasis: Breaking the Paradigm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ximénez, Cecilia; Cerritos, Rene; Rojas, Liliana; Dolabella, Silvio; Morán, Patricia; Shibayama, Mineko; González, Enrique; Valadez, Alicia; Hernández, Eric; Valenzuela, Olivia; Limón, Angélica; Partida, Oswaldo; Silva, Edwards F

    2010-01-01

    For over 30 years it has been established that the Entamoeba histolytica protozoan included two biologically and genetically different species, one with a pathogenic phenotype called E. histolytica and the other with a non-pathogenic phenotype called Entamoeba dispar. Both of these amoebae species can infect humans. E. histolytica has been considered as a potential pathogen that can cause serious damage to the large intestine (colitis, dysentery) and other extraintestinal organs, mainly the liver (amebic liver abscess), whereas E. dispar is a species that interacts with humans in a commensal relationship, causing no symptoms or any tissue damage. This paradigm, however, should be reconsidered or re-evaluated. In the present work, we report the detection and genotyping of E. dispar sequences of DNA obtained from patients with amebic liver abscesses, including the genotyping of an isolate obtained from a Brazilian patient with a clinical diagnosis of intestinal amebiasis that was previously characterized as an E. dispar species. The genetic diversity and phylogenetic analysis performed by our group has shown the existence of several different genotypes of E. dispar that can be associated to, or be potentiality responsible for intestinal or liver tissue damage, similar to that observed with E. histolytica. PMID:20617021

  15. MDMA and the "ecstasy paradigm".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Jon C

    2014-01-01

    For nearly 30 years, there has been a steady flow of research papers highlighting the dangers of MDMA and the implications for ecstasy users. After such a long time, it would be reasonable to expect that these dangers would be obvious due to the large number of ecstasy users. The available evidence does not indicate that there are millions of ecstasy users experiencing any problems linked to their ecstasy use. The "precautionary principle" suggests that, in the absence of knowing for certain, "experts" should argue that MDMA be avoided. However, this may have been taken too far, as the dire warnings do not seem to be reducing with the lack of epidemiological evidence of clinically relevant problems. The "ecstasy paradigm" is one way of articulating this situation, in that the needs of research funders and publication bias lead to a specific set of subcultural norms around what information is acceptable in the public domain. By digging a little deeper, it is easy to find problems with the evidence base that informs the public debate around MDMA. The key question is whether it is acceptable to maintain this status quo given the therapeutic potential of MDMA.

  16. Metacognition: A new cognitive paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kankaraš Miloš

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews concept of metacognition, defined as: (a knowledge about ones own cognitive activity, (b strategies to monitor and regulate cognitive activity and behavior, and (c subjective or metacognitive experiences which comes from some changes or temporary difficulties in cognitive functioning. While describing different conceptualizations of metacognition, its development, fields of application, relation with intelligence, and its constrictions and ambiguity, we attempt to present new and emerging metacognitive paradigm, which is, for a relatively short period, succeeded to improve, expand, and redefine wide range of theoretical and practical fields in psychology, on new and original way. How do we become conscious of our own cognitive processes? What role and significance that consciousness has, what is the functional level above thinking processes and how that level, which monitor and control cognitive activity, works. Metacognition is concept that presents, as so far, the most important insight in those human mind areas, which, although very important, remained on the margin of psychological investigations until now.

  17. New Indivisible Planetary Science Paradigm

    CERN Document Server

    Herndon, J Marvin

    2013-01-01

    I present here a new, indivisible planetary science paradigm, a wholly self-consistent vision of the nature of matter in the Solar System, and dynamics and energy sources of planets. Massive-core planets formed by condensing and raining-out from within giant gaseous protoplanets at high pressures and high temperatures. Earth's complete condensation included a 300 Earth-mass gigantic gas/ice shell that compressed the rocky kernel to about 66% of Earth's present diameter. T-Tauri eruptions stripped the gases away from the inner planets and stripped a portion of Mercury's incompletely condensed protoplanet, and transported it to the region between Mars and Jupiter where it fused with in-falling oxidized condensate from the outer regions of the Solar System and formed the parent matter of ordinary chondrite meteorites, the main-Belt asteroids, and veneer for the inner planets, especially Mars. In response to decompression-driven planetary volume increases, cracks form to increase surface area and mountain ranges ...

  18. Life behind cell walls: paradigm lost, paradigm regained.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamport, D T

    2001-09-01

    This review of the living cell wall and its protein components is in two parts. The first is anecdotal. A personal account spanning over 40 years research may perhaps be an antidote to one stereotypical view of scientists as detached and humorless. The second part deals with the meaning of function, particularly as it applies to hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins. Function is a difficult word to define objectively. However, with help from such luminaries as Humpty Dumpty: "A word means what I want it to mean, neither more nor less," and Wittgenstein: "Giving examples of usage ... is the only way to talk about meaning," it is possible to construct a ziggurat representing increasingly complex levels of organization from molecular structure to ecology. Forty years ago I suggested that hydroxyproline-rich structural proteins played a key role in cell wall functioning. But because the bulk of the wall is carbohydrate, there has been an understandable resistance to paradigm change. Expansins, paradoxically, contribute greatly to this resistance because their modus operandi as cell-wall-loosening proteins is based on the idea that they break hydrogen bonds between polysaccharide chains allowing slippage. However, this view is not consistent with the recent discovery [Grobe et al. (1999) Eur. J. Biochem 263: 33-40] that beta-expansins may be proteases, as it implies that the extensin network is not a straightjacket but a substrate for expansin in muro. Such a direct role for extensins in both negative and positive regulation of cell expansion and elongation may constitute a major morphogenetic mechanism operating at all levels of plant growth and development.

  19. CLAUSEWITZ VERSUS WOLFOWITZ. IRRECONCILABLE PARADIGMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando PONZ CANTÓ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Carl Clausewitz's main book, "On War", suffered from its inception continued misinterpretations and distortions, compounded by the frequent opacity of the text itself. One of the most damaging such misinterpretations has probably been the one suggested by Paul Wolfowitz in the framework of the so-called "Wolfowitz Doctrine". The primary objective of the present note is to demystify the situation and to correct the main points of incoherence, in order to contribute to a more accurate interpretation of Clausewitz's thinking. We identify first the main characteristics of "On War" including its implicit moral dimension, and subsequently examine the main areas of incoherence in Wolfowitz's interpretation, among which the excessively ambitious definition of "minimum objectives" originated in an erroneous understanding of the concept of "Total War". As a result, we see that this latter misinterpretation frontally clashes against what is most likely Clausewitz's main thesis, i.e. War as a Rational act. War is a political act and as such is part of a dynamic in which decisions must be taken considering their likely effects, in order to reach the optimal outcome. Given that armed conflicts invariably produce damaging, undesirable losses, preventing them and limiting their scope and duration are obvious demands of rational decision-making, clearly implied in Clausewitz's work. Limitation of war is thus a desirable, appropriate, necessary and efficient objective, contrary to the Wolfowitz's misinterpretation, which needs urgent correction.

  20. Sexual conflict and life histories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wedell, N.; Kvarnemo, C.; Lessells, C.M.; Tregenza, T.

    2006-01-01

    There is burgeoning interest in the costs of mating and in how this leads to sex differences in the optimal mating rate. Here, we attempt to look beyond an exclusive focus on matings to examine the fundamental conflicts that arise out of the fact that sexual reproduction involves investment in offsp

  1. 77 FR 56273 - Conflict Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... opportunity to improve a company's existing risk management and supply chain management, stimulating... Minerals Already in the Supply Chain a. Proposed Rules b. Comments on the Proposed Rules c. Final Rule 6... Content and Supply Chain Due Diligence 1. Content of the Conflict Minerals Report a. Proposed Rules...

  2. Email Adaptation for Conflict Handling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Joyce Yi‐Hui; Panteli, Niki; Bülow, Anne Marie

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the context of email‐based communication in anestablished but fragile, inter‐organisational partnership, which wasoften overlain with conflict. Drawing upon adaptation theory, thisstudy explores how participants adapt to the use of email to handleconflict. Extensive data were ...

  3. Sexual conflict and life histories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wedell, N.; Kvarnemo, C.; Lessells, C.M.; Tregenza, T.

    2006-01-01

    There is burgeoning interest in the costs of mating and in how this leads to sex differences in the optimal mating rate. Here, we attempt to look beyond an exclusive focus on matings to examine the fundamental conflicts that arise out of the fact that sexual reproduction involves investment in

  4. Games, the Socialization of Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton-Smith, Brian

    The function of games in a society is discussed in this paper. An earlier definition of games as a concretistic way of processing information of cultural antitheses is enlarged to include a more bio-adaptive definition: the game is also a socialization of conflict. This view is compared and contrasted with those of Sigmund Freud and G. H. Mead.…

  5. The Danish Muhammad Cartoon Conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hervik, Peter

    story. It will do so by situating the conflict more firmly in its proper socio-historical context by drawing on the author’s basic research on the Danish news media’s coverage of ethnic and religious minorities since the mid 1990s. The author uses thick contextualization to analyze this very current...

  6. The paradox of intragroup conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, Franciscus Remendus Cornelis de

    2013-01-01

    During group decision making, people often experience disagreements in which they need to choose between their own viewpoint and the viewpoint of another group member, for example, when cabinet members disagree about the best decision to tackle a crisis. These intragroup conflicts often pose a parad

  7. Discussing Conflict in Contemporary China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miletic, Tania; Bretherton, Diane

    2016-01-01

    The research suggests there is a gap in the peace studies and conflict resolution literature, with little representation or understanding of Chinese perspectives. In a project to address this gap, the researchers conducted interviews individually with 30 participants identified as "emerging leaders," who came from diverse universities…

  8. Sexual conflict and life histories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wedell, N.; Kvarnemo, C.; Lessells, C.M.; Tregenza, T.

    2006-01-01

    There is burgeoning interest in the costs of mating and in how this leads to sex differences in the optimal mating rate. Here, we attempt to look beyond an exclusive focus on matings to examine the fundamental conflicts that arise out of the fact that sexual reproduction involves investment in offsp

  9. Intragroup Conflict during Study Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodycott, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Co-national groups of individuals from the same country can provide members with psychological and sociocultural support when coping with the stresses of studying abroad. This article examines intragroup task and relationship conflict that occurred in one co-national group during a 14-week short-term study abroad program. Findings reveal the…

  10. Group conflict and faculty engagement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan; Jonasson, Charlotte; Lauring, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    engagement has been argued to lead to more satisfied, more productive and healthier staff. In this study, based on a sample consisting of 489 members of multicultural university departments, we set out to investigate the relationship between trust, conflict and academic staff engagement. More specifically we...

  11. Internal Conflicts in Muslim Societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashiq Ali Shah

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of psychological theories and the social dynamics of the society help identify salient attributes and processes relevant to conflict among Muslims. The psychodynamic concept of personality and frustration-aggression hypothesis account for the socialization practices in the Muslim societies, emotional instability, unfavorable evaluation of those holding a different viewpoint and venting out one's aggression on the weaker. The tendency of the Muslims to praise their sect/tribe/religious group leads to a groupthink situation that polarizes intergroup relationships. The acts of categorization in group and out group, as postulated by the social identity theory, contribute towards the distorted perception of each other. The Islamic notions of brotherhood, unity and ethnic identity as means of personal identification and social interaction seems to have been forgotten by the Muslims. Though the Western social-psychological constructs are helpful in understanding the causes of conflict among Muslims, they are not germane to Muslim societies. The group belongingness and group favouritism is not necessarily a tool of discrimination and conflict but is an essential component of one's survival in a collectivist society. The Western theories also do not address the economic and political circumstances responsible for the multitude of conflicts among Muslims.

  12. Games, the Socialization of Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton-Smith, Brian

    The function of games in a society is discussed in this paper. An earlier definition of games as a concretistic way of processing information of cultural antitheses is enlarged to include a more bio-adaptive definition: the game is also a socialization of conflict. This view is compared and contrasted with those of Sigmund Freud and G. H. Mead.…

  13. Authority, Conflict, and Teacher Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spady, William G.

    1973-01-01

    An analysis which attempts to link all three of the sources of conflict in schools, which appear to reside in three overlapping arenas: the goals and functions of public schools, the nature of the roles that are defined by these functions, and the manner or style in which these roles are played out. (Author/JM)

  14. Ostracism Online: A social media ostracism paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Wouter; Levordashka, Ana; Ruff, Johanna R; Kraaijeveld, Steven; Lueckmann, Jan-Matthis; Williams, Kipling D

    2015-06-01

    We describe Ostracism Online, a novel, social media-based ostracism paradigm designed to (1) keep social interaction experimentally controlled, (2) provide researchers with the flexibility to manipulate the properties of the social situation to fit their research purposes, (3) be suitable for online data collection, (4) be convenient for studying subsequent within-group behavior, and (5) be ecologically valid. After collecting data online, we compared the Ostracism Online paradigm with the Cyberball paradigm (Williams & Jarvis Behavior Research Methods, 38, 174-180, 2006) on need-threat and mood questionnaire scores (van Beest & Williams Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 91, 918-928, 2006). We also examined whether ostracized targets of either paradigm would be more likely to conform to their group members than if they had been included. Using a Bayesian analysis of variance to examine the individual effects of the different paradigms and to compare these effects across paradigms, we found analogous effects on need-threat and mood. Perhaps because we examined conformity to the ostracizers (rather than neutral sources), neither paradigm showed effects of ostracism on conformity. We conclude that Ostracism Online is a cost-effective, easy to use, and ecologically valid research tool for studying the psychological and behavioral effects of ostracism.

  15. Unveiling the Hidden Curriculum in Conflict Resolution and Peace Education: Future Directions toward a Critical Conflict Education and "Conflict" Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, R. Michael

    2000-01-01

    This report offers a brief summary of a master thesis that had the purpose to study the way conflict management educators write and think about "conflict." Using a critical discourse analysis (a la Foucault) of 22 conflict resolution manuals for adults and children (U.S., Canadian, Australian), and using a selected sample of those most available…

  16. The cognitive paradigm ontology: design and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Jessica A; Laird, Angela R

    2012-01-01

    We present the basic structure of the Cognitive Paradigm Ontology (CogPO) for human behavioral experiments. While the experimental psychology and cognitive neuroscience literature may refer to certain behavioral tasks by name (e.g., the Stroop paradigm or the Sternberg paradigm) or by function (a working memory task, a visual attention task), these paradigms can vary tremendously in the stimuli that are presented to the subject, the response expected from the subject, and the instructions given to the subject. Drawing from the taxonomy developed and used by the BrainMap project ( www.brainmap.org ) for almost two decades to describe key components of published functional imaging results, we have developed an ontology capable of representing certain characteristics of the cognitive paradigms used in the fMRI and PET literature. The Cognitive Paradigm Ontology is being developed to be compliant with the Basic Formal Ontology (BFO), and to harmonize where possible with larger ontologies such as RadLex, NeuroLex, or the Ontology of Biomedical Investigations (OBI). The key components of CogPO include the representation of experimental conditions focused on the stimuli presented, the instructions given, and the responses requested. The use of alternate and even competitive terminologies can often impede scientific discoveries. Categorization of paradigms according to stimulus, response, and instruction has been shown to allow advanced data retrieval techniques by searching for similarities and contrasts across multiple paradigm levels. The goal of CogPO is to develop, evaluate, and distribute a domain ontology of cognitive paradigms for application and use in the functional neuroimaging community.

  17. The development of a scale to identify college and university science professors' science-faith paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundrick, David Ray

    The relationship between science and religion in American higher education changed significantly over the past two centuries as empiricism and naturalism became the philosophical underpinnings of the university. This philosophical shift contributed significantly to the secularization of the academy, the context in which philosophers of science during the last half-century have theorized a variety of theoretical patterns for relating science and religion. Evidence suggests that science professors operationalize various science-faith paradigms, but no instrument prior to this research had ever been created to measure the constructs. The purpose of this research was to develop a scale, with at least adequate psychometric properties (good validity and initial reliability), able to identify and discriminate among these various science-faith paradigms (in the Western Christian tradition) in practice among college and university science professors in the United States. The researcher conducted a Web-based electronic survey of a stratified random sample of science professors representing a variety of higher education institution types, science disciplines, and religious affiliation. Principal Components Analysis of the survey data produced five factors predicted by the researcher. These factors correspond to five science-faith paradigms: Conflict---Science over Religion; Conflict---Religion over Science; Compartmentalism; Complementarism; and Concordism. Analysis of items loading on each factor produced a 50-item Science-Faith Paradigm Scale (SFPS) that consists of five sub-scales, each having characteristics of good content validity, construct validity, and initial reliability (Cronbach's alpha ranging from .87 to .95). Preliminary exploratory analysis of differences in SFPS sub-scale scores based on demographic variables indicates that the SFPS is capable of discriminating among groups. This research validates the existence of five science-faith paradigms in practice in

  18. Environmental conflicts: Key issues and management implications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    growth and movement, international markets, insecure property rights and legislation .... Twyman (2005:115) identify the implications of climate change for equity and ..... Environmental conflicts and/or threats of conflicts are emerging as critical.

  19. Conflict interaction management as a cultural phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е L Ryabova

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The article provides the definition for the concept of conflict interaction culture, reveals its functions as well as the structure of its elements and components. Conflict interactions are also examined in the paper.

  20. Resolving conflicts of duty in fiduciary relationships

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Laby, Arthur B

    2004-01-01

    While duties of loyalty generally do not conflict with other duties of loyalty, and while conflicting duties of care typically only raise issues of competing resources, the fiduciary's duty of loyalty...

  1. Fuzzy Hybrid Deliberative/Reactive Paradigm (FHDRP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmadi, Hengameth

    2004-01-01

    This work aims to introduce a new concept for incorporating fuzzy sets in hybrid deliberative/reactive paradigm. After a brief review on basic issues of hybrid paradigm the definition of agent-based fuzzy hybrid paradigm, which enables the agents to proceed and extract their behavior through quantitative numerical and qualitative knowledge and to impose their decision making procedure via fuzzy rule bank, is discussed. Next an example performs a more applied platform for the developed approach and finally an overview of the corresponding agents architecture enhances agents logical framework.

  2. PARADIGM OF EDUCATION FOR THE INFORMATION SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy M. Bogachkov

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Considering total crisis in education in Informational Age, we suggest that to overcome the crisis, it is necessary to promote pedagogical science up from "pre-paradigm stage” to the "paradigm stage". For this purpose it is necessary to separate the "educational science" from "education." “Educational paradigm” in such study will be the subject of the science. The key concepts for the "pedagogical paradigm" should be the concepts of "educational practice", "class of problems" and "educational text". We offer some axioms around these concepts.

  3. Contemporary Treatment Paradigms in Keratoconus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGhee, Charles N J; Kim, Bia Z; Wilson, Peter J

    2015-10-01

    The past 20 years have witnessed an explosion in our knowledge of keratoconus, accompanied by a radical transformation of management options. A 2-hit hypothesis proposes an underlying genetic predisposition coupled with external environmental factors, including eye rubbing and atopy. The variable prevalence and natural history have been better defined including significant cone progression in middle age. Therefore, current management must include early diagnosis, regular monitoring, and treatment of environmental cofactors. Spectacles and contact lenses remain fundamental to the optical management of keratoconus. Intrastromal corneal ring segments have been increasingly used, providing improvement in the corneal shape, corrected visual acuity, and contact lens wear. However, like contact lenses, intrastromal corneal ring segments do not treat the underlying disease process. Therefore, current approaches must also consider treatments to minimize keratoconus progression. Fortunately, there is increasing evidence that corneal collagen crosslinking will halt or slow progression in most cases. Until relatively recently, penetrating keratoplasty was the preferred intervention for advanced keratoconus, with long-term success in the region of 90%; however, the greatest risk of failure remains endothelial allograft rejection. Deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty has emerged in the new millennium as a preferred approach to conserve the host endothelium and avoid rejection. Nonetheless, the overall superiority of deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty compared with penetrating keratoplasty, in terms of optical and survival benefits, is still debated. This perspective provides an overview of our current knowledge of keratoconus and current management options. A step-ladder approach to managing keratoconus is outlined to provide the practitioner with a contemporary management paradigm.

  4. Self-Employment and Conflict in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Bozzoli, Carlos; Brück, Tilman; Wald, Nina

    2011-01-01

    Many Colombians are confronted with the ongoing conflict which influences their decision making in everyday life, including their behaviour on labour markets. This study focuses on the impact of violent conflict on self-employment, enlarging the usual determinants by a set of conflict variables. In order to estimate the effect of conflict on selfemployment, we employ fixed effects estimation. Three datasets are combined for estimation: the Familias en Acción dataset delivers information about...

  5. Conflict Management: Difficult Conversations with Difficult People

    OpenAIRE

    Overton, Amy R.; Lowry, Ann C.

    2013-01-01

    Conflict occurs frequently in any workplace; health care is not an exception. The negative consequences include dysfunctional team work, decreased patient satisfaction, and increased employee turnover. Research demonstrates that training in conflict resolution skills can result in improved teamwork, productivity, and patient and employee satisfaction. Strategies to address a disruptive physician, a particularly difficult conflict situation in healthcare, are addressed.

  6. Conflict Between Economic Growth and Environmental Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czech, Bryan

    2012-01-09

    The conflict between economic growth and environmental protection may not be reconciled via technological progress. The fundamentality of the conflict ultimately boils down to laws of thermodynamics. Physicists and other scholars from the physical sciences are urgently needed for helping the public and policy makers grasp the conflict between growth and environmental protection.

  7. Conflict management: difficult conversations with difficult people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, Amy R; Lowry, Ann C

    2013-12-01

    Conflict occurs frequently in any workplace; health care is not an exception. The negative consequences include dysfunctional team work, decreased patient satisfaction, and increased employee turnover. Research demonstrates that training in conflict resolution skills can result in improved teamwork, productivity, and patient and employee satisfaction. Strategies to address a disruptive physician, a particularly difficult conflict situation in healthcare, are addressed.

  8. Sibling Conflict Resolution Skills: Assessment and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Brett W.; Roberts, Mark W.

    2009-01-01

    Sibling conflict can rise to the level of a clinical problem. In Phase 1 a lengthy behavioral role-play analog sampling child reactions to normal sibling conflicts was successfully shortened. In Phase 2 normal children who lacked sibling conflict resolution skills were randomly assigned to a Training or Measurement Only condition. Training…

  9. Observed Infant Reactions during Live Interparental Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Rocher Schudlich, Tina D.; White, Clare R.; Fleischhauer, Emily A.; Fitzgerald, Kelly A.

    2011-01-01

    Associations between interparental conflict and infant reactions were examined. Infants' history of exposure to interparental conflict and infant reactive temperament were examined as moderators. A community sample of 74 infants, aged 6-14 months, participated with their parents. Behavioral observations were made of parents' marital conflict and…

  10. Marital Conflict in Stepfamilies: Effects on Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Marilyn; Ganong, Lawrence

    1987-01-01

    Clinical research shows that children have emotional investments in stepfamilies and are negatively affected by marital conflict, which can actually be greater than between couples without stepchildren. Stepchildren's perceptions of conflict heightens their need for affection. Views of parents and children about conflict do not necessarily…

  11. Conflict in medical teams: opportunity or danger?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.L. Greer; O. Saygi; H. Aaldering; C.K.W. de Dreu

    2012-01-01

    Objectives  Intragroup conflicts often occur when people are called upon to collaborate in the accomplishment of a task. For example, when surgeons and nurses work together during an operation, conflicts may emerge because of differences in functional understanding. Whether these conflicts are benef

  12. Theorizing the Land-Violent Conflict Nexus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, Van Mathijs; Haar, Van Der G.

    2016-01-01

    While disputes over land are prominent in many situations of protracted violent conflict, questions remain about the precise relationships between land and violent conflict. Political ecology and legal anthropology have rightly questioned dominant approaches in theorizing land-related conflict

  13. Theorizing the Land - Violent Conflict Nexus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, M. van; Haar, G. van der

    2016-01-01

    While disputes over land are prominent in many situations of protracted violent conflict, questions remain about the precise relationships between land and violent conflict. Political ecology and legal anthropology have rightly questioned dominant approaches in theorizing land-related conflict that

  14. Conflict Resolution Practices of Arctic Aboriginal Peoples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Gendron; C. Hille

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the conflict resolution practices of indigenous populations in the Arctic. Among the aboriginal groups discussed are the Inuit, the Aleut, and the Saami. Having presented the conflict resolution methods, the authors discuss the types of conflicts that are current

  15. Conflict Management Styles of Turkish Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkalp, Enver; Sungur, Zerrin; Ozdemir, Aytul Ayse

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to determine Turkish managers conflict styles in different sectors, namely durable consumer goods, aviation, automotive and banking. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 130 managers conflict management styles were assessed by applying the Rahim's 1983 Organizational Conflict Inventory-II. Findings: First,…

  16. Marital Conflict in Stepfamilies: Effects on Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Marilyn; Ganong, Lawrence

    1987-01-01

    Clinical research shows that children have emotional investments in stepfamilies and are negatively affected by marital conflict, which can actually be greater than between couples without stepchildren. Stepchildren's perceptions of conflict heightens their need for affection. Views of parents and children about conflict do not necessarily…

  17. Parent-Adolescent Conflict: An Empirical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, James A.

    1987-01-01

    Compares psychoanalytic, systems, and social learning theories to determine the empirical support for each theoretical orientation in treating problematic conflict between parents and adolescents. Discusses parent-adolescent conflict, including developmental stage theory, parenting styles, peer pressures, communication skills, marital conflict,…

  18. Transforming Negative Emotions: A Case Study of Intergroup Conflict among Conflict Resolution Practitioners of Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Millicent

    2003-01-01

    Examined how conflict affected internalized oppression and conflict-handling methods utilized during a facilitated meeting that attempted to resolve or manage intergroup conflict. Data on diverse conflict-resolution practitioners and mentors at a training session on how to overcome the effects of oppression in the writing process illuminated how…

  19. Interpersonal Conflicts and Styles of Managing Conflicts among Students at Bahir Dar University, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazezew, Arega; Neka, Mulugeta

    2017-01-01

    Interpersonal conflict happens everywhere and at any time and is inherent in all societies. However, the methods of managing such conflict are quite different from one organisation to the other. The general objective of the study was to assess interpersonal conflicts and styles of managing conflicts among students at Bahir Dar University.…

  20. The safety implications of emerging software paradigms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suski, G.J.; Persons, W.L.; Johnson, G.L.

    1994-10-01

    This paper addresses some of the emerging software paradigms that may be used in developing safety-critical software applications. Paradigms considered in this paper include knowledge-based systems, neural networks, genetic algorithms, and fuzzy systems. It presents one view of the software verification and validation activities that should be associated with each paradigm. The paper begins with a discussion of the historical evolution of software verification and validation. Next, a comparison is made between the verification and validation processes used for conventional and emerging software systems. Several verification and validation issues for the emerging paradigms are discussed and some specific research topics are identified. This work is relevant for monitoring and control at nuclear power plants.

  1. a postfoundationalist research paradigm of practical theology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-07-18

    Jul 18, 2010 ... part of the research paradigm of postfoundational practical theology. ... appealing to some item of knowledge that is self-evident or indubitable' (Van Huyssteen .... individual or subjective construction, and emphasises the.

  2. Levelling in the German Verb Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, John

    1974-01-01

    Levelling processes in the history of the German verb paradigm from Old High German to the present are discussed. It is asserted that the theory of transformational generative grammar provides a proper framework for the study of linguistic change. (RM)

  3. Paradigms and pragmatism: approaches to medical statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, M J

    2000-01-01

    Until recently, the dominant philosophy of science was that due to Karl Popper, with its doctrine that the proper task of science was the formulation of hypotheses followed by attempts at refuting them. In spite of the close analogy with significance testing, these ideas do not fit well with the practice of medical statistics. The same can be said of the later philosophy of Thomas Kuhn, who maintains that science proceeds by way of revolutionary upheavals separated by periods of relatively pedestrian research which are governed by what Kuhn refers to as paradigms. Through there have been paradigm shifts in the history of statistics, a degree of continuity can also be discerned. A current paradigm shift is embodied in the spread of Bayesian ideas. It may be that a future paradigm will emphasise the pragmatic approach to statistics that is associated with the name of Daniel Schwartz.

  4. Levelling in the German Verb Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, John

    1974-01-01

    Levelling processes in the history of the German verb paradigm from Old High German to the present are discussed. It is asserted that the theory of transformational generative grammar provides a proper framework for the study of linguistic change. (RM)

  5. Major Development Communication Paradigms and Practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    info

    major paradigms of development and communication practices on graphic communication. ... media to the success of development initiatives. ...... in relation with sex. Also ..... Development communication in India: Prospect, issues and trends.

  6. The Emerging Paradigm in Black Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershaw, Terry

    1989-01-01

    Argues that traditional sociology has treated Black studies as peripheral to the study of human behavior. Proposes a paradigm that includes an emphasis on Afrocentric perspective and a methodology that combines positivist and critical methodologies. (FMW)

  7. Yakov Zeldovich and the Cosmic Web Paradigm

    CERN Document Server

    Einasto, Jaan

    2014-01-01

    I discuss the formation of the modern cosmological paradigm. In more detail I describe the early study of dark matter and cosmic web and the role of Yakov Zeldovich in the formation of the present concepts on these subjects.

  8. Yakov Zeldovich and the Cosmic Web Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einasto, Jaan

    2016-10-01

    I discuss the formation of the modern cosmological paradigm. In more detail I describe the early study of dark matter and cosmic web and the role of Yakov Zeldovich in the formation of the present concepts on these subjects.

  9. Engineering paradigms and anthropogenic global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohle, Martin

    2016-04-01

    This essay discusses 'paradigms' as means to conceive anthropogenic global change. Humankind alters earth-systems because of the number of people, the patterns of consumption of resources, and the alterations of environments. This process of anthropogenic global change is a composite consisting of societal (in the 'noosphere') and natural (in the 'bio-geosphere') features. Engineering intercedes these features; e.g. observing stratospheric ozone depletion has led to understanding it as a collateral artefact of a particular set of engineering choices. Beyond any specific use-case, engineering works have a common function; e.g. civil-engineering intersects economic activity and geosphere. People conceive their actions in the noosphere including giving purpose to their engineering. The 'noosphere' is the ensemble of social, cultural or political concepts ('shared subjective mental insights') of people. Among people's concepts are the paradigms how to shape environments, production systems and consumption patterns given their societal preferences. In that context, engineering is a means to implement a given development path. Four paradigms currently are distinguishable how to make anthropogenic global change happening. Among the 'engineering paradigms' for anthropogenic global change, 'adaptation' is a paradigm for a business-as-usual scenario and steady development paths of societies. Applying this paradigm implies to forecast the change to come, to appropriately design engineering works, and to maintain as far as possible the current production and consumption patterns. An alternative would be to adjust incrementally development paths of societies, namely to 'dovetail' anthropogenic and natural fluxes of matter and energy. To apply that paradigm research has to identify 'natural boundaries', how to modify production and consumption patterns, and how to tackle process in the noosphere to render alterations of common development paths acceptable. A further alternative

  10. Changing paradigms in the diagnosis of urolithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lulich, Jody P; Osborne, Carl A

    2009-01-01

    A paradigm shift is a fundamental change from a traditional model of thinking. This article presents four paradigm shifts in the diagnoses of urolithiasis, based on the experiences of the authors in the treatment of uroliths in dogs and cats. Case examples are provided to illustrate points regarding urine storage, ultrasonography, use of radiography to assure complete removal of uroliths, and the frequency of upper tract uroliths in cats.

  11. International business and the eclectic paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The eclectic paradigm has become the dominant theoretical basis in the study of international business, multinational corporations and internationalization since 1980. However, developments such as economic globalization and the subsequent growth of global and alliance capitalism have fundamentally......, finance, evolutionary economics, resource-based theory or strategic management? Can it be utilized to explain new developments in international business and economics? Do these require new ideas and concepts to be integrated within the eclectic paradigm? What are the new challenges to which international...

  12. Local Water Conflict and Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Roberto Rivas; Hooper, Catherine; Munk Ravnborg, Helle

    2011-01-01

    In 2007 the Danish Institute for International Studies (DIIS) launched the research programme “Competing for Water: Understanding conflict and cooperation in local water governance”. Along with partners in five developing countries (Bolivia, Mali, Nicaragua, Vietnam and Zambia), the programme aims...... to contribute to “sustainable local water governance in support of the rural poor and otherwise disadvantaged groups in developing countries by improving the knowledge among researchers and practitioners of the nature, extent and intensity of local water conflict and cooperation and their social, economic...... and political impacts, and how this may change with increased competition for water” (DIIS 2007). The country research teams developed an overview of the national water governance frameworks at an early stage of the Competing for Water programme period (Bustamante and Cossio, 2007; Djiré et al., 2007; Gómez et...

  13. Local Water Conflict and Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Roberto Rivas; Hooper, Catherine; Munk Ravnborg, Helle

    2011-01-01

    to contribute to “sustainable local water governance in support of the rural poor and otherwise disadvantaged groups in developing countries by improving the knowledge among researchers and practitioners of the nature, extent and intensity of local water conflict and cooperation and their social, economic......In 2007 the Danish Institute for International Studies (DIIS) launched the research programme “Competing for Water: Understanding conflict and cooperation in local water governance”. Along with partners in five developing countries (Bolivia, Mali, Nicaragua, Vietnam and Zambia), the programme aims...... and political impacts, and how this may change with increased competition for water” (DIIS 2007). The country research teams developed an overview of the national water governance frameworks at an early stage of the Competing for Water programme period (Bustamante and Cossio, 2007; Djiré et al., 2007; Gómez et...

  14. The Underlying Social Dynamics of Paradigm Shifts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rodriguez-Sickert

    Full Text Available We develop here a multi-agent model of the creation of knowledge (scientific progress or technological evolution within a community of researchers devoted to such endeavors. In the proposed model, agents learn in a physical-technological landscape, and weight is attached to both individual search and social influence. We find that the combination of these two forces together with random experimentation can account for both i marginal change, that is, periods of normal science or refinements on the performance of a given technology (and in which the community stays in the neighborhood of the current paradigm; and ii radical change, which takes the form of scientific paradigm shifts (or discontinuities in the structure of performance of a technology that is observed as a swift migration of the knowledge community towards the new and superior paradigm. The efficiency of the search process is heavily dependent on the weight that agents posit on social influence. The occurrence of a paradigm shift becomes more likely when each member of the community attaches a small but positive weight to the experience of his/her peers. For this parameter region, nevertheless, a conservative force is exerted by the representatives of the current paradigm. However, social influence is not strong enough to seriously hamper individual discovery, and can act so as to empower successful individual pioneers who have conquered the new and superior paradigm.

  15. Non-programmed versus programmed aging paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libertini, Giacinto

    2015-01-01

    There are two opposite paradigms to explain aging, here precisely defined as "age-related progressive mortality increase, i.e. fitness decline, in the wild". The first maintains that natural selection is unable to maintain fitness as age increases. The second asserts that, in particular ecological conditions, natural selection favors specific mechanisms for limiting the lifespan. The predictions derived from the two paradigms are quite different and often opposing. A series of empirical data and certain theoretical considerations (non-universality of aging; great inter-specific variation of aging rates; effects of caloric restriction on lifespan; damage of aging for the senescing individual but its advantage in terms of supra-individual selection; existence of fitness decline in the wild; proportion of deaths due to intrinsic mortality inversely related to extrinsic mortality, when various species are compared; impossibility of explaining the age-related fitness decline as a consequence of genes that are harmful at a certain age; age-related progressive decline of cell turnover capacities; on/off cell senescence; gradual cell senescence) are compared with the predictions of the two paradigms and their compatibility with each paradigm is considered. The result is that the abovementioned empirical data and theoretical considerations strongly contradict and falsify in many ways all theories belonging to the first paradigm. On the contrary, they are consistent or compatible with the predictions of the second paradigm.

  16. Project management: a new service delivery paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. van der Walt

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In line with international trends in governance, the South African Government’s initial focus on the development of policy frameworks, structures and systems in order to give effect to the values and principles of the Constitution, shifted to the most critical issue, namely service delivery. The Government became increasingly aware that a significant expansion in the scope and quality of service provision was not possible with traditional delivery settings and approaches. There is growing evidence that there is a need for a significant departure from conventional approaches and that a leap into a new service delivery paradigm is necessary. Increasingly this new paradigm highlights the need to further develop the government’s project management skills and applications with a view to achieving improved delivery capability. In this article the focus will be placed on the changing service delivery paradigm – from an “old” traditional model through the transition to a “new” paradigm. This paradigm is shaped by international and national trends and events in government. The contribution and advantages of project management applications for effective governance are highlighted and the article concludes with an explanation of project management organisational arrangements necessary to support the new paradigm.

  17. The Underlying Social Dynamics of Paradigm Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claro, Francisco; Fuentes, Miguel Angel

    2015-01-01

    We develop here a multi-agent model of the creation of knowledge (scientific progress or technological evolution) within a community of researchers devoted to such endeavors. In the proposed model, agents learn in a physical-technological landscape, and weight is attached to both individual search and social influence. We find that the combination of these two forces together with random experimentation can account for both i) marginal change, that is, periods of normal science or refinements on the performance of a given technology (and in which the community stays in the neighborhood of the current paradigm); and ii) radical change, which takes the form of scientific paradigm shifts (or discontinuities in the structure of performance of a technology) that is observed as a swift migration of the knowledge community towards the new and superior paradigm. The efficiency of the search process is heavily dependent on the weight that agents posit on social influence. The occurrence of a paradigm shift becomes more likely when each member of the community attaches a small but positive weight to the experience of his/her peers. For this parameter region, nevertheless, a conservative force is exerted by the representatives of the current paradigm. However, social influence is not strong enough to seriously hamper individual discovery, and can act so as to empower successful individual pioneers who have conquered the new and superior paradigm. PMID:26418255

  18. The Underlying Social Dynamics of Paradigm Shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Sickert, Carlos; Cosmelli, Diego; Claro, Francisco; Fuentes, Miguel Angel

    2015-01-01

    We develop here a multi-agent model of the creation of knowledge (scientific progress or technological evolution) within a community of researchers devoted to such endeavors. In the proposed model, agents learn in a physical-technological landscape, and weight is attached to both individual search and social influence. We find that the combination of these two forces together with random experimentation can account for both i) marginal change, that is, periods of normal science or refinements on the performance of a given technology (and in which the community stays in the neighborhood of the current paradigm); and ii) radical change, which takes the form of scientific paradigm shifts (or discontinuities in the structure of performance of a technology) that is observed as a swift migration of the knowledge community towards the new and superior paradigm. The efficiency of the search process is heavily dependent on the weight that agents posit on social influence. The occurrence of a paradigm shift becomes more likely when each member of the community attaches a small but positive weight to the experience of his/her peers. For this parameter region, nevertheless, a conservative force is exerted by the representatives of the current paradigm. However, social influence is not strong enough to seriously hamper individual discovery, and can act so as to empower successful individual pioneers who have conquered the new and superior paradigm.

  19. Poverty - A Source of Conflict,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-25

    contend that poor coun- tries are likely to attack richer ones for the spoils of war, but rather that poverty is a breeding ground for instability. He...Studies Institute v POVERTY - A SOURCE OF CONFLICT The rich get richer; the poor get poorer. As this rule has applied to individuals, it has apparently...problems. These problems resulting from poverty create a dangerous threat to the stability of the world. This does not mean that poor countries will

  20. Two-to-one colour-response mapping and the presence of semantic conflict in the Stroop task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil eHasshim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A series of recent studies have utilised the two-to-one mapping paradigm in the Stroop task. In this paradigm, the word red might be presented in blue when both red and blue share the same response key (same-response trials. This manipulation has been used to show the separate contributions of (within semantic category conflict and response conflict to Stroop interference. Such results evidencing semantic category conflict are incompatible with models of the Stroop task that are based on response conflict only. However, the nature of the same-response trials is unclear since they are also likely to involve response facilitation given that both dimensions of the stimulus provide evidence towards the same response key. In this study we explored this possibility by comparing them with three other trial types. We report strong (Bayesian evidence for no statistical difference between same-response and non-colour word neutral trials, faster responses to same-response trials than to non-response set incongruent trials, and no differences between same-response vs. congruent trials when contingency is controlled. Our results suggest that when RT is the dependent variable, same-response trials are not different from neutral trials indicating that they cannot be used reliably to determine the presence or absence of semantic category conflict. In light of these results, the interpretation of a series of recent studies might have to be reassessed.

  1. Conflicting Interpretations of Scientific Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galamba, Arthur

    2016-05-01

    Not surprisingly historical studies have suggested that there is a distance between concepts of teaching methods, their interpretations and their actual use in the classroom. This issue, however, is not always pitched to the personal level in historical studies, which may provide an alternative insight on how teachers conceptualise and engage with concepts of teaching methods. This article provides a case study on this level of conceptualisation by telling the story of Rómulo de Carvalho, an educator from mid-twentieth century Portugal, who for over 40 years engaged with the heuristic and Socratic methods. The overall argument is that concepts of teaching methods are open to different interpretations and are conceptualised within the melting pot of external social pressures and personal teaching preferences. The practice and thoughts of Carvalho about teaching methods are scrutinised to unveil his conflicting stances: Carvalho was a man able to question the tenets of heurism, but who publicly praised the heurism-like "discovery learning" method years later. The first part of the article contextualises the arrival of heurism in Portugal and how Carvalho attacked its philosophical tenets. In the second part, it dwells on his conflicting positions in relation to pupil-centred approaches. The article concludes with an appreciation of the embedded conflicting nature of the appropriation of concepts of teaching methods, and of Carvalho's contribution to the development of the philosophy of practical work in school science.

  2. Beyond territory and scarcity - exploring conflicts over natural resource management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ressources management, enviromental degradation, natural resources, conflicts, boundaries, Africa......Ressources management, enviromental degradation, natural resources, conflicts, boundaries, Africa...

  3. Conflict Resolution in Organization through Strategic Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Zafar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study reveals the conflict Resolution in organization through Strategic management. There are different causes of conflicts within Organization and impact of conflicts on organization performance. The past decade researches identify the negative relation of conflict with employee performance. The research methodology was case study approach of different National and Multinational companies. The aim of study is to alleviate conflicts in organization through strategic management for enhancing organizational performance and managing change in order to attain competitive edge in this dynamic era. This paper covers the role of strategic management in resolving and minimizing conflict that brings positive impact on organization. Conflict in the workplace just seems to be a fact of life. The fact that conflict exists, however, is not necessarily a bad thing: As long as it is resolved effectively, it can lead to personal and professional growth. Conflict in the workplace is a painful reality and a key reason for poor productivity and frustration. Conflict does not magically go away and only gets worse when ignored. So to resolve conflicts strategic management is important.

  4. CROSS CULTURAL CONFLICT RESOLUTION STYLES: DATA REVISITED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuray ALAGÖZLÜ

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The way conflicts are solved is thought to be culturally learned (Hammer, 2005; therefore, this is reflected through language use. Conflicts, as inevitable parts of communication, naturally mirror cultural differences. Intercultural conflict styles have been studied so far by various researchers. How conflicts are initiated, maintained and escalated or terminated are all culture bound (Leung, 2002 and all the related stages vary from one culture to another. In the related literature, there have been attempts to describe different conflict handling classifications. Using Hammer’s (2005 categorization that was found to be more refined and summative, conflict resolution styles of Turkish and American College students were explored using Discourse Completion Tests (DCT with eight conflict situations where the respondents were required to write verbal solutions to overcome the conflicts described in the test. Those utterances were categorized according to Directness/Indirectness Scale modified from Hammer’s (2005 “International Conflict Style Inventory (ICSI” that classifies intercultural conflict resolution styles as high/low level of directness and high/low level of emotional expressiveness. It is believed that the study provides insight into intercultural communication as there are culturally generalizable (etic and learned patterns of conflict resolution styles pertinent to different cultures (Hammer, 2009, p. 223; Ting-Toomey, 1994.

  5. Geography and Communal Conflict in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujarwoto Sujarwoto

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The determinants of communal conflicts in Indonesia have been widely documented. However, most of them ignore geographical aspects of communal conflicts. This paper examines geographical determinants of communal conflicts in Indonesia. Data comes from the 2008 Village Potential Census (Podes and official statistics which consist of communal conflict information across all Indonesia’s districts (N districts = 465. Results from spatial dependent model show that communal conflict to be spatially dependent through latent determinants, meaning that communal conflict clusters because of clustering of latent determinants within district. Rather than religious and ethnic heterogeneity, communal conflict is positively associated with poverty, economic inequality, elite capture, and weak capacity of districts to manage fiscal resources.

  6. Age affects the adjustment of cognitive control after a conflict: evidence from the bivalency effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey-Mermet, Alodie; Meier, Beat

    2015-01-01

    Age affects cognitive control. When facing a conflict, older adults are less able to activate goal-relevant information and inhibit irrelevant information. However, cognitive control also affects the events after a conflict. The purpose of this study was to determine whether age affects the adjustment of cognitive control following a conflict. To this end, we investigated the bivalency effect, that is, the performance slowing occurring after the conflict induced by bivalent stimuli (i.e., stimuli with features for two tasks). In two experiments, we tested young adults (aged 20-30) and older adults (aged 65-85) in a paradigm requiring alternations between three tasks, with bivalent stimuli occasionally occurring on one task. The young adults showed a slowing for all trials following bivalent stimuli. This indicates a widespread and long-lasting bivalency effect, replicating previous findings. In contrast, the older adults showed a more specific and shorter-lived slowing. Thus, age affects the adjustment of cognitive control following a conflict.

  7. Humanism and positivism in nursing: contradictions and conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Playle, J F

    1995-11-01

    Nursing and nurse education have been influenced by a shift towards a broadly humanistic philosophy as a basis for practice. At the same time, in attempts to develop a knowledge base and credibility as a profession, the vital importance of research has been acknowledge. Both these aspects of nursing are increasingly forming the basis for all nursing courses. However, in this paper, it is argued that the implicit adoption of notions of science based in a positivistic paradigm gives rise to conflicts with a humanistic philosophy. It is contended that nursing has inherited a 'legacy of positivism', which promotes objectivity and reductionism and which excludes subjective meaning and the personal from the research process. In part this has been due to the powerful influence of medical hegemony, which has defined the nature of legitimate knowledge and controlled nursing research through the gatekeeping function of doctors. If nursing is to make progress in the development of a knowledge base, the contradictions between humanism and positivism must be acknowledged as a barrier to an integration of the art and science of nursing. This paper suggests that what is required is a paradigm shift, a redefinition of nursing science, which not only rehumanizes the nature of research, but also refutes and challenges the notion of objectivity and the objective attitude.

  8. Attentional modulation of emotional conflict processing with flanker tasks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingyan Zhou

    Full Text Available Emotion processing has been shown to acquire priority by biasing allocation of attentional resources. Aversive images or fearful expressions are processed quickly and automatically. Many existing findings suggested that processing of emotional information was pre-attentive, largely immune from attentional control. Other studies argued that attention gated the processing of emotion. To tackle this controversy, the current study examined whether and to what degrees attention modulated processing of emotion using a stimulus-response-compatibility (SRC paradigm. We conducted two flanker experiments using color scale faces in neutral expressions or gray scale faces in emotional expressions. We found SRC effects for all three dimensions (color, gender, and emotion and SRC effects were larger when the conflicts were task relevant than when they were task irrelevant, suggesting that conflict processing of emotion was modulated by attention, similar to those of color and face identity (gender. However, task modulation on color SRC effect was significantly greater than that on gender or emotion SRC effect, indicating that processing of salient information was modulated by attention to a lesser degree than processing of non-emotional stimuli. We proposed that emotion processing can be influenced by attentional control, but at the same time salience of emotional information may bias toward bottom-up processing, rendering less top-down modulation than that on non-emotional stimuli.

  9. Attentional modulation of emotional conflict processing with flanker tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Pingyan; Liu, Xun

    2013-01-01

    Emotion processing has been shown to acquire priority by biasing allocation of attentional resources. Aversive images or fearful expressions are processed quickly and automatically. Many existing findings suggested that processing of emotional information was pre-attentive, largely immune from attentional control. Other studies argued that attention gated the processing of emotion. To tackle this controversy, the current study examined whether and to what degrees attention modulated processing of emotion using a stimulus-response-compatibility (SRC) paradigm. We conducted two flanker experiments using color scale faces in neutral expressions or gray scale faces in emotional expressions. We found SRC effects for all three dimensions (color, gender, and emotion) and SRC effects were larger when the conflicts were task relevant than when they were task irrelevant, suggesting that conflict processing of emotion was modulated by attention, similar to those of color and face identity (gender). However, task modulation on color SRC effect was significantly greater than that on gender or emotion SRC effect, indicating that processing of salient information was modulated by attention to a lesser degree than processing of non-emotional stimuli. We proposed that emotion processing can be influenced by attentional control, but at the same time salience of emotional information may bias toward bottom-up processing, rendering less top-down modulation than that on non-emotional stimuli.

  10. Making sense of all the conflict: a theoretical review and critique of conflict-related ERPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Michael J; Clayson, Peter E; Clawson, Ann

    2014-09-01

    Cognitive control theory suggests that goal-directed behavior is governed by a dynamic interplay between areas of the prefrontal cortex. Critical to cognitive control is the detection and resolution of competing stimulus or response representations (i.e., conflict). Event-related potential (ERP) research provides a window into the nature and precise temporal sequence of conflict monitoring. We critically review the research on conflict-related ERPs, including the error-related negativity (ERN), Flanker N2, Stroop N450 and conflict slow potential (conflict SP or negative slow wave [NSW]), and provide an analysis of how these ERPs inform conflict monitoring theory. Overall, there is considerable evidence that amplitude of the ERN is sensitive to the degree of response conflict, consistent with a role in conflict monitoring. It remains unclear, however, to what degree contextual, individual, affective, and motivational factors influence ERN amplitudes and how ERN amplitudes are related to regulative changes in behavior. The Flanker N2, Stroop N450, and conflict SP ERPs represent distinct conflict-monitoring processes that reflect conflict detection (N2, N450) and conflict adjustment or resolution processes (N2, conflict SP). The investigation of conflict adaptation effects (i.e., sequence or sequential trial effects) shows that the N2 and conflict SP reflect post-conflict adjustments in cognitive control, but the N450 generally does not. Conflict-related ERP research provides a promising avenue for understanding the effects of individual differences on cognitive control processes in healthy, neurologic and psychiatric populations. Comparisons between the major conflict-related ERPs and suggestions for future studies to clarify the nature of conflict-related neural processes are provided. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Active training paradigm for motor imagery BCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junhua; Zhang, Liqing

    2012-06-01

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) allows the use of brain activities for people to directly communicate with the external world or to control external devices without participation of any peripheral nerves and muscles. Motor imagery is one of the most popular modes in the research field of brain-computer interface. Although motor imagery BCI has some advantages compared with other modes of BCI, such as asynchronization, it is necessary to require training sessions before using it. The performance of trained BCI system depends on the quality of training samples or the subject engagement. In order to improve training effect and decrease training time, we proposed a new paradigm where subjects participated in training more actively than in the traditional paradigm. In the traditional paradigm, a cue (to indicate what kind of motor imagery should be imagined during the current trial) is given to the subject at the beginning of a trial or during a trial, and this cue is also used as a label for this trial. It is usually assumed that labels for trials are accurate in the traditional paradigm, although subjects may not have performed the required or correct kind of motor imagery, and trials may thus be mislabeled. And then those mislabeled trials give rise to interference during model training. In our proposed paradigm, the subject is required to reconfirm the label and can correct the label when necessary. This active training paradigm may generate better training samples with fewer inconsistent labels because it overcomes mistakes when subject's motor imagination does not match the given cues. The experiments confirm that our proposed paradigm achieves better performance; the improvement is significant according to statistical analysis.

  12. Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pad ma rin chen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A myes Bya khyung, dignified and magnificent, towers among its shorter peers behind the capital city of Reb gong. Frequently, Heaven seems to scatter white flowers on the mountain peak, making it splendidly picturesque. The mid slopes of the mountain were once covered with dense forest where countless animals thrived. Locals dared not go there alone or without weapons, in fear of being attacked by animals. However, they often did go there in small groups, as the forest was the main source of fuel for local people. At the foot of the mountain is an immense grassland full of valuable herbs and diverse flowers, which emit an overpowering fragrance. Babbling brooks flow from springs on the grassland, and quench the thirst of both people and livestock. From their ancestors, the people of Reb gong had inherited the belief that the mountain is a deity called A myes Bya khyung. This deity has the most exalted position among local deities in Reb gong. People respectfully burn juniper and offer sweet food to this deity before they themselves eat anything. While doing this, they also express their innermost feelings to the deity, and ask for whatever they want. Some religious devotees read scriptures in meditation caves on this mountain. Since early times, generations of smiling nomads had happily shared this pastureland, herding together and helping one another. Every year, they all gathered together to celebrate various sacred rituals. Marriage relationships between the tribes were also established. Consequently, other communities admired them and hoped their life would one day be as pleasant. In this way, Blon che Village was established, its reputation grew, and it became known throughout Reb gong. Years passed swiftly and social transformations occurred one after another. The number of nomads increased. Household requirements increased and greed ended that once happy life.

  13. Testing interactive effects of automatic and conflict control processes during response inhibition - A system neurophysiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, Witold X; Beste, Christian

    2017-02-01

    In everyday life successful acting often requires to inhibit automatic responses that might not be appropriate in the current situation. These response inhibition processes have been shown to become aggravated with increasing automaticity of pre-potent response tendencies. Likewise, it has been shown that inhibitory processes are complicated by a concurrent engagement in additional cognitive control processes (e.g. conflicting monitoring). Therefore, opposing processes (i.e. automaticity and cognitive control) seem to strongly impact response inhibition. However, possible interactive effects of automaticity and cognitive control for the modulation of response inhibition processes have yet not been examined. In the current study we examine this question using a novel experimental paradigm combining a Go/NoGo with a Simon task in a system neurophysiological approach combining EEG recordings with source localization analyses. The results show that response inhibition is less accurate in non-conflicting than in conflicting stimulus-response mappings. Thus it seems that conflicts and the resulting engagement in conflict monitoring processes, as reflected in the N2 amplitude, may foster response inhibition processes. This engagement in conflict monitoring processes leads to an increase in cognitive control, as reflected by an increased activity in the anterior and posterior cingulate areas, while simultaneously the automaticity of response tendencies is decreased. Most importantly, this study suggests that the quality of conflict processes in anterior cingulate areas and especially the resulting interaction of cognitive control and automaticity of pre-potent response tendencies are important factors to consider, when it comes to the modulation of response inhibition processes.

  14. 基于CFD/CSD方法的蜻蜓柔性翼气动特性分析%Analysis of aerodynamic characteristics of flexible wing of dragonfly based on CFD/CSD method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟令兵; 昂海松; 肖天航

    2014-01-01

    给出了一种基于计算流体力学/计算结构力学(CFD/CSD)的双向流固耦合方法.通过交替数字二叉树(ADT)搜索技术识别流固网格之间的宿主-受体关系.采用局部插值算法完成两套网格系统之间的数据交换,并使用Delaunay图映射方法来完成气动网格的移动.将自编的非线性结构有限元程序、接口程序与南京航空航天大学(NUAA)微型飞行器中心的流体计算程序3D2MUFS相连接,应用于蜻蜓柔性翼拍动飞行的气动计算中.计算结果表明:柔性变形使得蜻蜓翼的时均举力系数从0.31提高到0.53,时均推力系数从0.07提高到0.13,证实了柔性变形能改善扑翼的气动性能.

  15. A Mathematical Analysis of Conflict Prevention Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddalon, Jeffrey M.; Butler, Ricky W.; Munoz, Cesar A.; Dowek, Gilles

    2009-01-01

    In air traffic management, conflict prevention information refers to the guidance maneuvers, which if taken, ensure that an aircraft's path is conflict-free. These guidance maneuvers take the form of changes to track angle or ground speed. Conflict prevention information may be assembled into prevention bands that advise the crew on maneuvers that should not be taken. Unlike conflict resolution systems, which presume that the aircraft already has a conflict, conflict prevention systems show conflicts for any maneuver, giving the pilot confidence that if a maneuver is made, then no near-term conflicts will result. Because near-term conflicts can lead to safety concerns, strong verification of information correctness is required. This paper presents a mathematical framework to analyze the correctness of algorithms that produce conflict prevention information incorporating an arbitrary number of traffic aircraft and with both a near-term and intermediate-term lookahead times. The framework is illustrated with a formally verified algorithm for 2-dimensional track angle prevention bands.

  16. Intragroup conflicts and efficiency of production group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidorenkov A.V.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Analysis results of relationships of three levels of the conflict (interpersonal, microgroup and group on two types (the job and subject with indicators of subjectively perceived performance and social effectiveness of small groups and informal subgroups are provided. On selection of 42 work groups (N=334 employees it is established that performance efficiency of group according to the experts has inverse relation from all levels and types of the conflict, and by estimates of members of group — from two types of the microgroup conflict. The same type of effectiveness of informal subgroups on one indicator has inverse relation from the group conflict, and on another — from the interpersonal and microgroup conflict. Social effectiveness of group is connected with the interpersonal and group conflict, and informal subgroups are connected with the interpersonal and microgroup conflict. Levels and types of the conflict cause efficiency of group and subgroup not only separately, but also in a combination with each other. Six regression models, four of which display relationships at the same time of several levels and types of the conflict with performance effectiveness of group, and two — with social effectiveness of subgroup are revealed. Mediated and direct relationships of levels and types of the conflict with efficiency of group and subgroup are established.

  17. The organizational costs of ethical conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, William A; Weeks, William B; Campfield, Justin M

    2008-01-01

    Ethical conflicts are a common phenomenon in today's healthcare settings. As healthcare executives focus on balancing quality care and cost containment, recognizing the costs associated with ethical conflicts is only logical. In this article, we present five case vignettes to identify several general cost categories related to ethical conflicts, including operational costs, legal costs, and marketing and public relations costs. In each of these cost categories, the associated direct, indirect, and long-term costs of the ethical conflict are explored as well. Our analysis suggests that organizations have, in addition to philosophical reasons, financial incentives to focus on decreasing the occurrence of ethical conflicts. The cost categories affected by ethical conflicts are not insignificant. Such conflicts can affect staff morale and lower the organization's overall culture and profit margin. Therefore, organizations should develop mechanisms and strategies for decreasing and possibly preventing ethical conflicts. The strategies suggested in this article seek to shift the organization's focus when dealing with conflicts, from just reacting to moving upstream-that is, understanding the root causes of ethical conflicts and employing approaches designed to reduce their occurrence and associated costs. Such an effort has the potential to enhance the organization's overall culture and ultimately lead to organizational success.

  18. Paradigm formation and paradigm change in the EU’s Stability and Growth Pact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Princen, Sebastiaan; van Esch, Femke

    2016-01-01

    This article analyses whether the European Union’s (EU) Stability and Growth Pact (SGP) has been underpinned by a policy paradigm. In doing so, it seeks to contribute to the debate on the existence and importance of paradigms in policy-making. It uses a causal mapping technique to reconstruct the be

  19. ENVIRONMENTALISM AND CLASSIC PARADIGMS OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. D. Miniaeva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines an environmentalism integration process into Three classical paradigms of international relations theory (Liberalism, Realism and Marxism into Three classical paradigms of international relations theory (Liberalism, Realism and Marxism. The main purpose of this study is to reveal the result of this integration. Methods used in this article include analysis and comparison of "ecological" paradigms on selected parameters (the nature of international relations, actors, targets, tools, processes. Results of research show that the beginning of the XXI century is distinguished by the development of new types of political concepts that explain interaction of elements in modern international relations in the area of environmental protection. The reason of these changes lies in the phenomena of environmentalism integration into Three paradigms of international relations. However, we cannot say that any of the examined paradigms accumulated all features of environmentalism without their modification. Better to say, it's rather similar to adaptation of environmental ideas. Therefore, to understand modern international relations processes, it is necessary to take into account their environmental element. Purchase on Elibrary.ru > Buy nowDOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2070-7568-2014-3-4

  20. Hypothetical conflict situations with friends and peers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Danijela S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with age and sex differences in preferred strategies of conflict resolution in friendship and peer relationships. The study was conducted on the sample of 286 adolescents. Conflict resolution strategies have been investigated by the method of hypothetical conflict situations. For the purposes of this research, we have created an instrument consisting of 20 hypothetical situations, with the following subjects of conflict: breaking the agreement, non-compliance with opinion differences, provocations, dishonesty and stubbornness. Conflict resolution strategies we examined were giving in, withdrawal, competition and problem solving. The results have shown that problem solving is the dominant strategy of adolescents in conflict with friends, while in peer conflicts they more often opt for competition. Age differences are reflected in the fact that older adolescents are more likely to choose problem solving than younger, whereas younger adolescents are more likely to choose a retreat (withdrawal strategy than older. Girls are more prone to choosing problem solving than boys, who, on the other hand, tend to withdraw more than girls. Also, gender of the other person in the conflict is proved to be important - in conflict with male peers, adolescents choose competition to a greater extent and withdraw to a minor extent, compared to when they are in conflict with female peers. The results have practical implications as well. In programs for teaching constructive conflict resolution that are designed for younger adolescents there should be more emphasis on empowerment and training for assertive behaviour. In addition, when teaching about constructive conflict resolution strategies, it is important to consider the gender of adolescents as well as the gender of the person with whom they are in conflict.

  1. Conflict Resolution in Computer Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Mojarov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A conflict situation in computer systems CS is the phenomenon arising when the processes have multi-access to the shared resources and none of the involved processes can proceed because of their waiting for the certain resources locked by the other processes which, in turn, are in a similar position. The conflict situation is also called a deadlock that has quite clear impact on the CS state.To find the reduced to practice algorithms to resolve the impasses is of significant applied importance for ensuring information security of computing process and thereupon the presented article is aimed at solving a relevant problem.The gravity of situation depends on the types of processes in a deadlock, types of used resources, number of processes, and a lot of other factors.A disadvantage of the method for preventing the impasses used in many modern operating systems and based on the preliminary planning resources required for the process is obvious - waiting time can be overlong. The preventing method with the process interruption and deallocation of its resources is very specific and a little effective, when there is a set of the polytypic resources requested dynamically. The drawback of another method, to prevent a deadlock by ordering resources, consists in restriction of possible sequences of resource requests.A different way of "struggle" against deadlocks is a prevention of impasses. In the future a prediction of appearing impasses is supposed. There are known methods [1,4,5] to define and prevent conditions under which deadlocks may occur. Thus the preliminary information on what resources a running process can request is used. Before allocating a free resource to the process, a test for a state “safety” condition is provided. The state is "safe" if in the future impasses cannot occur as a result of resource allocation to the process. Otherwise the state is considered to be " hazardous ", and resource allocation is postponed. The obvious

  2. Models of conflict and cooperation

    CERN Document Server

    Gillman, Rick

    2009-01-01

    Models of Conflict and Cooperation is a comprehensive, introductory, game theory text for general undergraduate students. As a textbook, it provides a new and distinctive experience for students working to become quantitatively literate. Each chapter begins with a "dialogue" that models quantitative discourse while previewing the topics presented in the rest of the chapter. Subsequent sections develop the key ideas starting with basic models and ending with deep concepts and results. Throughout all of the sections, attention is given to promoting student engagement with the material through re

  3. CONFLICTS PREVENTION IN TEAM- WORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean de PERSON

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Building a trust atmosphere and mobilization in a team or an organizationremains the dream of every manager. This article analyses the internalmechanism of a conflict through life positions diagram in which direction anddominance diagrams appear. The first diagonal, the dominance one, revealsan animal behavior, the latter including both positive aspirations (++ quarter,and also deceptions (-- quarter.Passing over crisis situations requires from managers to outrun, through theirstyle and actions the dominance diagonal and pass to a game with reciprocalgaining (++ quarter, based on trust, that color relations between people andrelease their energy.

  4. Genetic Conflict in Human Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    1993-01-01

    Pregnancy has commonly been viewed as a cooperative interaction between a mother and her fetus. The effects of natural selection on genes expressed in fetuses, however, may be opposed by the effects of natural selection on genes expressed in mothers. In this sense, a genetic conflict can be said to exist between maternal and fetal genes. Fetal genes will be selected to increase the transfer of nutrients to their fetus, and maternal genes will be selected to limit transfers in excess of Soma m...

  5. Conflict Termination : A Selected Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Science 55, no. 1 (January 2011): 149-169. JSTOR Findley, Michael G. "Bargaining and the Interdependent Stages of Civil War Resolution." Journal of...Library print holdings begin with 1957. Also available online 1957-2010 in JSTOR ; 1999-present from Sage Journal of Peace Research. Library print...holdings begin with 2000. Also available online 1964- 2010 in JSTOR ; 1999-present from Sage Studies in Conflict and Terrorism. Library print holdings begin with 1992. Also available online 1997-present from Taylor & Francis

  6. A Paradigm for Spreadsheet Engineering Methodologies

    CERN Document Server

    Grossman, Thomas A

    2008-01-01

    Spreadsheet engineering methodologies are diverse and sometimes contradictory. It is difficult for spreadsheet developers to identify a spreadsheet engineering methodology that is appropriate for their class of spreadsheet, with its unique combination of goals, type of problem, and available time and resources. There is a lack of well-organized, proven methodologies with known costs and benefits for well-defined spreadsheet classes. It is difficult to compare and critically evaluate methodologies. We present a paradigm for organizing and interpreting spreadsheet engineering recommendations. It systematically addresses the myriad choices made when developing a spreadsheet, and explicitly considers resource constraints and other development parameters. This paradigm provides a framework for evaluation, comparison, and selection of methodologies, and a list of essential elements for developers or codifiers of new methodologies. This paradigm identifies gaps in our knowledge that merit further research.

  7. Political power, control and organizational conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Eslampanah

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available There used to be an assumption that any conflict has negative and destructive influences and we must remove it from the system. However, recent studies indicate that conflict is the result of interaction with different people having various personalities, social and cultural behaviors and this is an unavoidable issue. The existence of conflict is not necessarily a bad thing; in fact, there are many evidences, which show that organizations with no conflict may fail. In other words, people who work for business units with no conflict are most likely so disparate that they cannot fit themselves to environmental conditions. In this paper, we discuss how to handle a conflict in any organization and lead the business units to organizations that are more productive.

  8. Cyber Conflicts as a New Global Threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Kosenkov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an attempt is made to analyze the potential threats and consequences of cyber conflicts and, in particular, the risks of a global cyber conflict. The material is based on a comprehensive analysis of the nature of cyber conflict and its elements from both technical and societal points of view. The approach used in the paper considers the societal component as an essential part of cyber conflicts, allowing basics of cyber conflicts often disregarded by researchers and the public to be highlighted. Finally, the conclusion offers an opportunity to consider cyber conflict as the most advanced form of modern warfare, which imposes the most serious threat and whose effect could be comparable to weapons of mass destruction.

  9. Conflict of interest in clinical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindra B Ghooi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased focus on ethical review of research demands a number of improvements in the existing system. Although these are being implemented, some factors that have received less attention in the past could be examined. One of these is conflict of interest. Such conflicts could exist for investigators, ethics committee (EC members, and even the regulators. Guidance for identification and management of conflicts has been issued by many countries and Indian rules also speak about these conflicts. Greater clarity would help investigators and ECs manage conflicts more effectively. It is admitted that conflicts cannot be done away with, but their timely identification, disclosure, and management can reduce their impact and bring more transparency and accountability to trials in this country.

  10. AIRCRAFT CONFLICTS RESOLUTION BY COURSE MANEUVERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. Харченко

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Enhancement of requirements for air traffic efficiency at increasing of flights intensity determines the necessity of development of new optimization methods for aircraft conflict resolutions. The statement of problem of optimal conflict resolutions at Cooperative Air Traffic Management was done. The method for optimal aircraft conflict  resolution by course maneuvering has been  developed. The method using dynamic programming provides planning of aircraft conflict-free trajectory with minimum length. The decomposition of conflict resolution process on phases and stages, definition of states, controls and recursive  equations for generation of optimal course control program were done. Computer modeling of aircraft conflict resolution by developed method was done

  11. Convergence Analysis of a Domain Decomposition Paradigm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bank, R E; Vassilevski, P S

    2006-06-12

    We describe a domain decomposition algorithm for use in several variants of the parallel adaptive meshing paradigm of Bank and Holst. This algorithm has low communication, makes extensive use of existing sequential solvers, and exploits in several important ways data generated as part of the adaptive meshing paradigm. We show that for an idealized version of the algorithm, the rate of convergence is independent of both the global problem size N and the number of subdomains p used in the domain decomposition partition. Numerical examples illustrate the effectiveness of the procedure.

  12. Paradigms for Realizing Machine Learning Algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agneeswaran, Vijay Srinivas; Tonpay, Pranay; Tiwary, Jayati

    2013-12-01

    The article explains the three generations of machine learning algorithms-with all three trying to operate on big data. The first generation tools are SAS, SPSS, etc., while second generation realizations include Mahout and RapidMiner (that work over Hadoop), and the third generation paradigms include Spark and GraphLab, among others. The essence of the article is that for a number of machine learning algorithms, it is important to look beyond the Hadoop's Map-Reduce paradigm in order to make them work on big data. A number of promising contenders have emerged in the third generation that can be exploited to realize deep analytics on big data.

  13. International business and the eclectic paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The eclectic paradigm has become the dominant theoretical basis in the study of international business, multinational corporations and internationalization since 1980. However, developments such as economic globalization and the subsequent growth of global and alliance capitalism have fundamentally......, finance, evolutionary economics, resource-based theory or strategic management? Can it be utilized to explain new developments in international business and economics? Do these require new ideas and concepts to be integrated within the eclectic paradigm? What are the new challenges to which international...... business theorizing must respond?...

  14. Four Levels of Moral Conflict in ISD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartiainen, Tero

    This study introduces a literature-based classification of moral conflicts in information systems development (ISD). The classification describes what moral conflicts an IS professional confronts in ISD as a whole and includes intentional, functional, managerial, and societal levels. The internal structure of moral conflicts is exemplified by means of a philosophical and a business ethics theory. The limitations of the study are considered and practical implications for the teaching of computer ethics are discussed.

  15. Socioeconomic perspectives on violent conflict in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    M. Zulfan Tadjoeddin; Anis Chowdhury

    2009-01-01

    Focused around the greed and/or grievance theses, a large part of the economics of conflict literature concerns itself with civil war. This article provides socioeconomic perspectives on contemporary conflict in Indonesia. Three categories of violent conflict in the country are separatist violence, ethnic/sectarian violence, and routine violence. We argue that two elements of the grievance argument, namely relative deprivation and horizontal inequality, are particularly useful for analyzing t...

  16. [Conflict management in the workplace].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mola Sanna, Bruna; Igual Ayerbe, Blanca

    2010-02-01

    Our sanitary system and our health organizations have to confront the conflicts which have derived from the successive social and sanitary changes which have developed over the most recent decades. These new realities in the health fields oblige the professionals dedicated to them, the administrators of our organizations, the politicians, and society in general, as those who make use of the health services provided, to search for strategies and resources for the prevention, and transformation of those conflicts which can develop due to these situations, having as their final objective to preserve the basic principle of universal health care which is included in our Constitution. For this reason, the authors propose a profile for mediators in the health field, understanding that for mediation to really be useful, and to avoid or reduce improper litigation in our health system, values which belong to the culture of peace should be introduced into the culture of our health organizations. To that end, it is essential to count on not only professional mediators but also on an elenchus of natural mediators and informal mediators.

  17. Conflicts in libraries: a basic element?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Inoue, Mary

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The article specifically detaches the main kinds and causes of conflicts in organizations and in libraries. It presents a conceptual vision of conflict, the types of conflicts, the sources and the techniques of conflict resolution.

    El artículo separa específicamente los clases y las causas principales de conflictos en organizaciones y en bibliotecas. Presenta una visión conceptual del conflicto, de los tipos de conflictos, de las fuentes y de las técnicas de la resolución del conflicto.

  18. Conflict Resolution at Work for Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, Vivian

    2010-01-01

    A practical workplace guide to handling conflict effectively. Managing employees and encouraging them to work together toward a common goal is an essential skill that all leaders should possess. Conflict Resolution at Work For Dummies provides the tools and advice you need to restore peace, train your colleagues to get along better with others, prevent conflicts from ever starting, and maintain better productivity while boosting morale.: One of the only trade publications that takes the manager's perspective on how to address conflicts, resolve disputes, and restore peace and productivity to t

  19. Appropriateness and Effectiveness Perceptions of Conflict Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canary, Daniel J.; Spitzberg, Brian H.

    1987-01-01

    Investigates how conflict strategies and communicator gender affect two properties of communicative competence, appropriateness and effectiveness, and how these properties are associated with interpersonal attraction. (SR)

  20. Ethical conflicts in the prehospital setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, J G; Arnold, R; Siminoff, L; Wolfson, A B

    1992-10-01

    To assess the range of ethical conflicts that confront prehospital care providers. Convenience sample, from October 1989 to January 1990. An urban advanced life support emergency medical service that transports approximately 3,000 patients per month. Six hundred seven paramedic responses were analyzed by a single observer. An ethical conflict was identified when the paramedic faced a dilemma about what "ought to be done" and the paramedic's values conflicted or potentially conflicted with the patient's. Cases with potential ethical consequence were brought to experts in medical ethics and epidemiology for further analysis and classification. Ethical conflicts arose in 14.4% of paramedic responses (88 of 607 cases). Twenty-seven percent of the conflicts involved issues of informed consent, such as refusal of treatment or transport, conflicts of hospital destination, treatment of minors, and consent for research. Difficulties regarding the duty of the paramedics, usually under threatening circumstances, accounted for 19% of the dilemmas encountered. Requests for limitation of resuscitation accounted for 14%. Other circumstances that presented ethical conflicts involved questions of patient competence (17%), resource allocation (10%), confidentiality (8%), truth telling (3%), and training (1%). The data demonstrate a range of ethical conflicts in the prehospital setting and point to areas in which policy needs to be developed. The data also can be used in a prehospital ethics curriculum for paramedics and physicians. Because case sampling was not strictly random, absolute conclusions should not be drawn regarding the frequency of the dilemmas.

  1. Significance of Conflict Talk in interpersonal Relationships

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯建华; 罗丹

    2016-01-01

    Conflict talks occur in almost every field of human life such as medicine, school, court, and some other social organizations where the interaction results are of much significance to the conversationalists, or in others words, to their status in the organization and honor in the society. A lot of conflicts go unresolved. Oppositional exchanges in a conflict may be used by participants to achieve certain goals, for instance, exploring and developing verbal skills as candidates in a debate competition do, and maintaining social hierarchies within groups or organizations such as leaders giving orders in an institution. Dealing with conflict helps to promote interpersonal relationships.

  2. Intergroup conflict and rational decision making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Martínez-Tur

    Full Text Available The literature has been relatively silent about post-conflict processes. However, understanding the way humans deal with post-conflict situations is a challenge in our societies. With this in mind, we focus the present study on the rationality of cooperative decision making after an intergroup conflict, i.e., the extent to which groups take advantage of post-conflict situations to obtain benefits from collaborating with the other group involved in the conflict. Based on dual-process theories of thinking and affect heuristic, we propose that intergroup conflict hinders the rationality of cooperative decision making. We also hypothesize that this rationality improves when groups are involved in an in-group deliberative discussion. Results of a laboratory experiment support the idea that intergroup conflict -associated with indicators of the activation of negative feelings (negative affect state and heart rate- has a negative effect on the aforementioned rationality over time and on both group and individual decision making. Although intergroup conflict leads to sub-optimal decision making, rationality improves when groups and individuals subjected to intergroup conflict make decisions after an in-group deliberative discussion. Additionally, the increased rationality of the group decision making after the deliberative discussion is transferred to subsequent individual decision making.

  3. Conflict Resolution in Headquarters-Subsidiary Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Gammelgaard, Jens

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the role of regulatory fit and moral emotions, that is, contempt and anger, in influencing conflict resolution between the headquarters and subsidiary boundary spanners. We develop a theoretical framework, which integrates literature on international business and headquarters......-subsidiary relationships with regulatory focus, moral emotions, and conflict resolution. The chapter outlines the relationships between the regulatory focus of a headquarters’ boundary spanner, and his or her manner of engagement, conflict sensitivity, violation of code, moral emotions, and the way conflicts are resolved...

  4. Globalization and Conflict Management in Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ilker Gumuseli

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Globalization has brought many changes on the education systems and schools. These changes will be exemplified from thebasis of school finance, employee rights, curriculum, administration, and school-environment relations in this study. The studyalso reviews common types of conflicts experienced at schools as a result of globalization and the ways in which conflict couldbe managed. Following topics were discussed in the article: ‘Conflicts emerged from perspectives towards globalization,conflicts emerged from cross cultural differences, conflicts sourced from changes in the teaching and learning processes,conflicts sourced from the standardization efforts, conflicts sourced from the change in school-parents relations, conflictssourced from the process of finance related activities and conflicts sourced from information, communication andeducational technologies’. This article argues that schools cannot be isolated from the effects of globalization. Therefore sinceconflict is a normal occurrence in schools, school administrators should discover constructive approaches through carefuldiagnosis and an approach that transforms the conflicting situations into constructive experiences for the school and theeducation.

  5. Intergroup conflict and rational decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Tur, Vicente; Peñarroja, Vicente; Serrano, Miguel A; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Moliner, Carolina; Salvador, Alicia; Alacreu-Crespo, Adrián; Gracia, Esther; Molina, Agustín

    2014-01-01

    The literature has been relatively silent about post-conflict processes. However, understanding the way humans deal with post-conflict situations is a challenge in our societies. With this in mind, we focus the present study on the rationality of cooperative decision making after an intergroup conflict, i.e., the extent to which groups take advantage of post-conflict situations to obtain benefits from collaborating with the other group involved in the conflict. Based on dual-process theories of thinking and affect heuristic, we propose that intergroup conflict hinders the rationality of cooperative decision making. We also hypothesize that this rationality improves when groups are involved in an in-group deliberative discussion. Results of a laboratory experiment support the idea that intergroup conflict -associated with indicators of the activation of negative feelings (negative affect state and heart rate)- has a negative effect on the aforementioned rationality over time and on both group and individual decision making. Although intergroup conflict leads to sub-optimal decision making, rationality improves when groups and individuals subjected to intergroup conflict make decisions after an in-group deliberative discussion. Additionally, the increased rationality of the group decision making after the deliberative discussion is transferred to subsequent individual decision making.

  6. Conflict Transformation: a multi-dimensional task

    OpenAIRE

    Miall, Hugh

    2004-01-01

    What is the state-of-the-art in conflict transformation theory? Does a theory of conflict transformation already exist, and if so, what are its main foundations? Can practitioners rely on this theory to guide their practice? Can analysts make use of it to understand the dynamics of conflict and to assess the effects of intervention?\\ud \\ud This paper aims to identify what is distinctive about conflict transformation theory and practice, as well as to identify its key dimensions. We need such ...

  7. 06472 Abstracts Collection - XQuery Implementation Paradigms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boncz, Peter A.; Grust, Torsten; Siméon, Jerome; Keulen, van Maurice; Boncz, P.A.; Grust, T.; Siméon, J.; Keulen, van M.

    2007-01-01

    From 19.11.2006 to 22.11.2006, the Dagstuhl Seminar 06472 ``XQuery Implementation Paradigms'' was held in the International Conference and Research Center (IBFI), Schloss Dagstuhl. During the seminar, several participants presented their current research, and ongoing work and open problems were disc

  8. 06472 Abstracts Collection - XQuery Implementation Paradigms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boncz, P.A.; Grust, T.; Siméon, J.; Keulen, M. van

    2007-01-01

    From 19.11.2006 to 22.11.2006, the Dagstuhl Seminar 06472 "XQuery Implementation Paradigms" was held in the International Conference and Research Center (IBFI), Schloss Dagstuhl. During the seminar, several participants presented their current research, and ongoing work and open problems were discus

  9. Augmenting the ADDIE Paradigm for Instructional Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Xiaopeng; Branch, Robert Maribe

    2008-01-01

    The authors discuss topics appropriate for augmenting the ADDIE paradigm for instructional design. The topics selected are based on data from a study of working professionals who successfully completed an instructional design and technology certificate program and who identified related topics that they regarded as beneficial. The participants…

  10. Multi level programming Paradigm for Extreme Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petiton, S.; Sato, M.; Emad, N.; Calvin, C.; Tsuji, M.; Dandouna, M.

    2014-06-01

    Abstract: In order to propose a framework and programming paradigms for post-petascale computing, on the road to exascale computing and beyond, we introduced new languages, associated with a hierarchical multi-level programming paradigm, allowing scientific end-users and developers to program highly hierarchical architectures designed for extreme computing. In this paper, we explain the interest of such hierarchical multi-level programming paradigm for extreme computing and its well adaptation to several large computational science applications, such as for linear algebra solvers used for reactor core physic. We describe the YML language and framework allowing describing graphs of parallel components, which may be developed using PGAS-like language such as XMP, scheduled and computed on supercomputers. Then, we propose experimentations on supercomputers (such as the "K" and "Hooper" ones) of the hybrid method MERAM (Multiple Explicitly Restarted Arnoldi Method) as a case study for iterative methods manipulating sparse matrices, and the block Gauss-Jordan method as a case study for direct method manipulating dense matrices. We conclude proposing evolutions for this programming paradigm.

  11. Paradigms and pragmatic constructivism: a reply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørreklit, Hanne; Nørreklit, Lennart; Mitchell, Falconer

    2010-01-01

    to the analysis of the comment on their past paper. Findings - In addressing each of the issues in turn the authors clarify their analysis. Originality/value - The paper provides an argument for the development of a paradigm for accounting practice derived from the use of pragmatic constructivism....

  12. A new paradigm for minimax search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Plaat (Aske); J. Schaeffer; W.H.L.M. Pijls (Wim); A. de Bruin (Arie)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThis paper introduces a new paradigm for minimax game-tree search algorithms. MT is a memory-enhanced version of Pearl's Test procedure. By changing the way MT is called, a number of best-first game-tree search algorithms can be simply and elegantly constructed (including SSS*). Most of

  13. Toward an Ecological Paradigm in Adventure Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beringer, Almut

    2004-01-01

    Many forms of adventure therapy, in particular wilderness therapy, rely on challenges in the outdoors to achieve objectives of client change. While nature is drawn on as a medium for therapy and healing, some adventure therapists give nature little if any mention when it comes to explaining therapeutic success. The dominant paradigm in psychology…

  14. ACCOUNTING PARADIGMS WHICH FAVOR HISTORICAL COST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Gabriel CRISTEA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Henning Kirkegaard shows that the evolution of accounting is to shift from one paradigm to another . Business continuity perspective should guide the company into the future , without confine it exclusively in the past. Accounting in its classical form , however, can not be dissociated from the historical cost evaluation .

  15. Dark matter and the neutrino portal paradigm

    CERN Document Server

    González-Macías, Vannia; Wudka, José

    2016-01-01

    A simple extension of the Standard Model (SM) that provides an explicit realization of the dark-matter (DM) neutrino-portal paradigm is presented. The leading interactions between the dark sector, containing scalars and relic fermions, and the SM involve neutrinos. This model meets all observational constraints.

  16. Moral Developmental Science between Changing Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Monika

    2012-01-01

    This review encompasses a time-span of about 50 years of research on morality and moral development. It discusses Kohlberg's (1984) work as a milestone that constituted the cognitive developmental viewpoint of morality and that dominated research for about three decades. In this paradigm the role of reasoning and deliberation was emphasized as the…

  17. Challenging paradigms in estuarine ecology and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, M.; Whitfield, A. K.

    2011-10-01

    For many years, estuarine science has been the 'poor relation' in aquatic research - freshwater scientists ignored estuaries as they tended to get confused by salt and tides, and marine scientists were more preoccupied by large open systems. Estuaries were merely regarded by each group as either river mouths or sea inlets respectively. For the past four decades, however, estuaries (and other transitional waters) have been regarded as being ecosystems in their own right. Although often not termed as such, this has led to paradigms being generated to summarise estuarine structure and functioning and which relate to both the natural science and management of these systems. This paper defines, details and affirms these paradigms that can be grouped into those covering firstly the science (definitions, scales, linkages, productivity, tolerances and variability) and secondly the management (pressures, valuation, health and services) of estuaries. The more 'science' orientated paradigms incorporate the development and types of ecotones, the nature of stressed and variable systems (with specific reference to resilience and redundancy), the relationship between generalists and specialists produced by environmental tolerance, the relevance of scale in relation to functioning and connectivity, the sources of production and degree of productivity, the biodiversity-ecosystem functioning and the stress-subsidy debates. The more 'management' targeted paradigms include the development and effects of exogenic unmanaged pressures and endogenic managed pressures, the perception of health and the ability to manage estuaries (related to internal and external influences), and the influence of all of these on the production of ecosystem services and societal benefits.

  18. Den postmoderna stadens två paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tom

    2005-01-01

    the attention of politicians, planners and architects today is focused on the individual, not the collective. But the policy of the third way has no counterpart in an urbanism torn between two paradigms. Tom Nielsen paints the picture of what has to urban development since the welfare state...

  19. Haptics in computer music : a paradigm shift

    CERN Document Server

    Castagné, Nicolas; Florens, Jean-Loup; Luciani, Annie

    2010-01-01

    With an historical point of view combined with a bibliographic overview, the article discusses the idea that haptic force feedback transducers correspond with a paradigm shift in our real-time tools for creating music. So doing, il shows that computer music may be regarded as a major field of research and application for haptics.

  20. Reinforcing the Afrocentric Paradigm: A Theoretical Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sams, Timothy E.

    2010-01-01

    Thomas Kuhn's 1962 groundbreaking work, "The Scientific Revolution," established the process for creating, and the components of, a disciplinary paradigm. This "scientific revolution" has evolved to become the standard for determining a field's claim to disciplinary status. In 2001 and 2003, Ama Mazama, used Kuhn's model to establish the…

  1. Redesigning Higher Education: Embracing a New Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, William R.; Watson, Sunnie Lee

    2014-01-01

    Higher education is under enormous pressure to transform itself and embrace a new paradigm. Operating under an outdated model that no longer aligns with the realities of modern society, institutions of higher education are recognizing the need to drastically remake themselves or possibly cease to exist. This article explores the current landscape…

  2. An Instrumental Paradigm for Ubiquitous Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted

    2008-01-01

    will require comprehensive experimental user centred development. Originality/Value -- This research offers a new way of thinking interaction, suited for the dynamism of modern computing. Take away message -- Through a strong foundation in activity theory and ecological psychology a new paradigm for ubiquitous...

  3. Empirical Testing of an Affective Learning Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmus, Edward P., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    This investigation of a college music course examined the effectiveness of a cyclical affective learning paradigm based on the premise that student affect toward a course of instruction will dictate, in part, cognitive performance. Results suggest that teachers would be better advised to concentrate on cognitive instruction than on affect.…

  4. A Review of Process Modeling Language Paradigms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Qin-hai; GUAN Zhi-min; LI Ying; ZHAO Xi-nan

    2002-01-01

    Process representation or modeling plays an important role in business process engineering.Process modeling languages can be evaluated by the extent to which they provide constructs useful for representing and reasoning about the aspects of a process, and subsequently are chosen for a certain purpose.This paper reviews process modeling language paradigms and points out their advantages and disadvantages.

  5. A new paradigm for doing Reformed dogmatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. J. Spykman

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available When discussing Reformational Theology: A New Paradigm for Doing Dogmatics some people may call it my opus magnum. Perhaps time 'will tell. The book has only recently - early 1992 - entered the marketplace of theological ideas. How critic readers and reviewers respond will go a long way toward settling the case.

  6. A new paradigm for minimax search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Plaat (Aske); J. Schaeffer; W.H.L.M. Pijls (Wim); A. de Bruin (Arie)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThis paper introduces a new paradigm for minimax game-tree search algorithms. MT is a memory-enhanced version of Pearl's Test procedure. By changing the way MT is called, a number of best-first game-tree search algorithms can be simply and elegantly constructed (including SSS*). Most of

  7. About the Consept of Pedagogic Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Testov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paradigm concept, essential for comprehension and analysis of the science history, is used quite freely and easily in educational sphere nowadays when some authors discuss their views, theories and developments referring to a new paradigm. Consequently, in pedagogy, there is an illusion of pseudo-paradigmatic progress, which results from the lack of unified understanding of the given concept, and reorganization complexity. According to the author, paradigmatic transformation in pedagogy and education mainly depends on the fundamental changes of the scientific worldview. Though, compared to the worldview alterations, paradigmatic changes take more time and effort. So, in order to overcome this lagging behind, a lot of contradicting views appear in the modern pedagogic theory. The research methodology is based on the works by T. Coon, defining the paradigm as the complex of theoretical and methodological notions, more general than the theory, concept and attitude. In author’s opinion, turning back to the scientific interpretation of the paradigm concept can overcome the existing misunderstanding of educational experience and its prospects, and ensure the adequate perception of pedagogic reality. 

  8. In Defense of Positivist Research Paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrag, Francis

    1992-01-01

    Presents a prototypical case illustrating what positivist research means and argues that even critics of positivist research are logically committed to propositions that can be tested only through positivist research paradigms. The relationship between the nature of a community's research enterprise and its educational provisions must be causal.…

  9. From Paradigm Wars to Disputatious Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulston, Rolland G.

    1990-01-01

    Criticizes Psacharopoulos for distorting the legitimate scope of intellectual work in comparative education, reducing paradigm framing choices to functionalist/positivist orthodoxy, and unconvincingly presenting hypothesis testing as a means to solve educational problems. Suggests the benefits of multiple research perspectives on problems. (SV)

  10. Production planning development and paradigm integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Ledneva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews principles of different concepts of enterprise management including a theory of constrains, a Balanced Scorecard, lean production, Six Sigma. The authors believe that creating some mix or integration of these paradigms can bring extraordinary effect for production management. As example the modified Balanced Scorecard based on constraints and its application on Magnitorsk metallurgical enterprise in Russia is described.

  11. Redesigning Higher Education: Embracing a New Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, William R.; Watson, Sunnie Lee

    2014-01-01

    Higher education is under enormous pressure to transform itself and embrace a new paradigm. Operating under an outdated model that no longer aligns with the realities of modern society, institutions of higher education are recognizing the need to drastically remake themselves or possibly cease to exist. This article explores the current landscape…

  12. In search of a new paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lars K.

    2005-01-01

    In this review of research priorities, presented for the European Commission, food allergy is established as a disease with a considerable impact on modern society. Research paradigms have changed from establishing basic symptomatology and diagnostic methods over allergen characterization to a risk...

  13. Education paradigm in information-oriented society

    OpenAIRE

    Maksimova, E.

    2011-01-01

    The article covers the role of knowledge as a value in information-oriented society. The author defines implications of education system modernization, and characterizes personal-oriented education paradigm as most suitable for information-oriented society. The conclusion of development personal characteristics through obtaining universal knowledge is drawn.

  14. A Review of Kenya´s Post-Conflict Peace Building and Conflict Management Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owiso, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Conflict management and peacebuilding demands a deep understanding and analysis of the conflict and the circumstances surrounding it. This is because the causes may be complex, nuanced and may involve both short term and long term issues. Kenya is characterized by different forms of conflict rang...

  15. The Relationship of Interpersonal Conflict Handling Styles and Marital Conflicts Among Iranian Divorcing Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navidian, Ali; Bahari, Farshad; Kermansaravi, Fatihe

    2014-01-01

    Background: Various research studies have suggested that among other variables that couples remain married if they successfully manage their interactions (marital communication based on acceptance of individual differences, problem solving skills, forgiveness, collaborative decision making, empathy and active listening) and constructively manage conflict. Purpose: The study was aimed at examining the relation of conflict handling styles and marital conflicts among divorcing couples. Methods: As a descriptive–comparative study 60 couples out of 440 couples referred to the Crisis Intervention Center of the Isfahan Well-being Organization have selected. The tools implemented were Marital Conflicts (Barati & Sanaei, 1996) and Interpersonal Conflict Handling Styles Questionnaires (Thomas-Kilman, 1975). Their total reliabilities were, respectively, 0.74 and 0.87. Results: Findings showed that there are no significant differences among their conflict handling styles and marital conflicts. Also, there was positive correlation between avoidance and competition styles and negative one between compromise, accommodation, and cooperation styles with marital conflicts. That is, these styles reduced couples’ conflicts. Finally, wives had tendency to apply accommodation style and husbands tended to use accommodation and cooperation styles to handle their conflicts. Conclusions: It is suggested to be studied couples’ views toward their own styles to handle marital conflicts and holding training courses to orient couples with advantages and disadvantages of marital conflict handling styles. PMID:25363128

  16. Intragroup conflict and the interpersonal leadership circumplex: matching leadership behaviors to conflict types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. Homan; M. Redeker; R.E. de Vries

    2014-01-01

    Conflicts have been found to often negatively affect the functioning of teams (De Wit et al., 2012), which makes the effective management of conflicts crucial. Because of their influential positions, leaders might hold the key to successful conflict management in teams (Yukl, 2010). We will zoom in

  17. The Conflict Pyramid: A Holistic Approach to Structuring Conflict Resolution in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakvoort, Ilse

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines how the conflict pyramid, originally defined and used by Richard Cohen, can be used as a model to describe the relations between different conflict resolution education programs and activities included in the programs. The central questions posed in the paper are: How can Richard Cohen's conflict pyramid be used as a model for…

  18. Interparental Conflict in Context: Exploring Relations between Parenting Processes and Children's Conflict Appraisals

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBoard-Lucas, Renee L.; Fosco, Gregory M.; Raynor, Sarah R.; Grych, John H.

    2010-01-01

    Children's appraisals of conflict are a mechanism by which parental discord can lead to child maladjustment. The cognitive-contextual framework proposes that parent-child relationships may affect how children perceive conflict, but this idea has rarely been examined empirically. This study investigated relations between conflict appraisals,…

  19. The dissociable neural dynamics of cognitive conflict and emotional conflict control: An ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Song; Li, Yu; Kong, Xia; He, Qiaolin; Liu, Jia; Qiu, Jiang

    2016-04-21

    This study investigated differences in the neural time-course of cognitive conflict and emotional conflict control, using event-related potentials (ERPs). Although imaging studies have provided some evidence that distinct, dissociable neural systems underlie emotional and nonemotional conflict resolution, no ERP study has directly compared these two types of conflict. Therefore, the present study used a modified face-word Stroop task to explore the electrophysiological correlates of cognitive and emotional conflict control. The behavioral data showed that the difference in response time of congruency (incongruent condition minus the congruent condition) was larger in the cognitive conflict task than in the emotional conflict task, which indicated that cognitive conflict was stronger than the emotional conflict in the present tasks. Analysis of the ERP data revealed a main effect of task type on N2, which may be associated with top-down attention. The N450 results showed an interaction between cognitive and emotional conflict, which might be related to conflict detection. In addition, we found the incongruent condition elicited a larger SP than the congruent condition, which might be related to conflict resolution.

  20. Intragroup conflict and the interpersonal leadership circumplex: matching leadership behaviors to conflict types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homan, A.C.; Redeker, M.; de Vries, R.E.; Ayoko, O.B.; Ashkanasy, N.M.; Jehn, K.A.

    2014-01-01

    Conflicts have been found to often negatively affect the functioning of teams (De Wit et al., 2012), which makes the effective management of conflicts crucial. Because of their influential positions, leaders might hold the key to successful conflict management in teams (Yukl, 2010). We will zoom in

  1. Learning from Conflicting Texts: The Role of Intertextual Conflict Resolution in Between-Text Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Keiichi

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the effect of intertextual conflict resolution on learning from conflicting texts. In two experiments, participants read sets of two texts under the condition of being encouraged either to resolve a conflict between the texts' arguments (the resolution condition) or to comprehend the arguments (the comprehension…

  2. Understanding Conflict Dynamics: A Comparative Analysis of Ethno-Separatist Conflicts in India and the Philippines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reed, A.G.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis is a comparative analysis of three contemporary separatist conflicts in Asia: The Naga Insurgency, the Punjab Crisis and the Moro Rebellion. The objective of this thesis is the understanding of conflict dynamics: how and why conflicts escalate or de-escalate over time. Previous research

  3. Language Policy, Ethnic Conflict, and Conflict Resolution: Albanian in the Former Yugoslavia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The 1990s disintegration of Yugoslavia was marked by vicious ethnic conflict in several parts of the region. In this paper, I consider the role of policy towards the Albanian language in promoting and perpetuating conflict. I take three case studies from the former Yugoslavia in which conflict between ethnic Albanians and the dominant group…

  4. Chimpanzees, conflicts and cognition : The functions and mechanisms of chimpanzee conflict resolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koski, S.E.

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis I studied conflict resolution in captive chimpanzees of the Arnhem Zoo, NL. Specifically, I investigated the occurrence and functions of various post-conflict strategies. Furthermore, I addressed the likely proximate cognitive and emotional mechanisms used in post-conflict interaction

  5. Political Economy of Conflict: The Social Contract and Conflict in Pakistan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.A. Abdullah (Syed Aamer)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe main concern of this thesis is to analyze conflict in Pakistan, mainly the ethnopolitical conflict. It builds a case that conflict in Pakistan has been a product of the weakening of its social contract. This is both a qualitative and quantitative work which relies on both primary and

  6. ‘Resources to Needs’: A Paradigm for Addressing the Potentiality of the Urban Volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Robert Doyle

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Underground resources are often addressed only out of necessity, leading to conflicts between uses and missing opportunities for productive synergies. The Deep City project is exploring a paradigm of ‘resources to needs’, which considers resource potentials prior to specific urban projects or plans. Mapping is central to the project and has been explored in several cities around the world. The ‘resources to needs’ paradigm, however, has received little theoretical or philosophical attention. To think resources before needs challenges common urban normative models and the process-oriented thinking of mechanical and ecological paradigms popular today. Where current methods for mapping the underground tend to enroll elements in a particular performance or resource use, Deep City seeks to facilitate an intermediate stage in which resource potentials can coexist without any pre-existing interaction or relationship. To think about the urban volume this way, this article works with the informational motor proposed by French philosopher Michel Serres. The logics of substitution and circulation of the map and its contents helps to think an alternative form of mapping in which the map itself becomes a reservoir of potentiality for thinking the urban volume less in terms of predefined functions and processes than a mass to be collectively cultivated.

  7. CONFLICT ANALYSIS APPROACHES FOR INVESTIGATING ATTITUDES AND MISPERCEPTIONS IN THE WAR OF 1812

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takehiro INOHARA; Keith W. HIPEL; Sean WALKER

    2007-01-01

    Formal systems engineering approaches to modeling misperceptions and attitudes are employed within the framework of the graph model for conflict resolution to systematically study the War of 1812 between the United States of America and Great Britain in order to provide enhanced insights into the causes of the war. More specifically, relational definitions for preferences, movements and stability concepts are defined for describing the attitudes and associated behavior of decision makers involved in a conflict. To capture misperceptions of decision makers in the War of 1812, attitudes are studied within the structure of a hypergame. Combining attitudes and misperceptions within the paradigm of the graph model furnishes the flexible analytical tool which demonstrates that misunderstanding of attitudes by Great Britain and the United States may have contributed to the outbreak of this nasty war.

  8. Peace talks: indexical master tropes and their potential for conflict in the construction of national identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan STEFANESCU

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper employs discursive constructivism to delineate four rhetorical paradigms of nationalist discourse and to compare their potential for conflict. It proposes a four-fold typology which sees the intuitive tropes of antithesis and simile, and the counterintuitive metaphor and irony as structuring principles for national self-images. These are four modes of constructing a cultural deixis, that is, a relationship between national self and its cultural other. The paper argues that the frequency and magnitude of nationalistic conflicts may be minimized by the steady and widespread counter-enculturation of the non-conflictual discourses of analogical (simile-based, metaphoric, and ironic nationalisms. This argument is illustrated with examples from modern and recent Romanian history, but may be taken to epitomize the condition of most postcommunist European nations.

  9. Floodplain conflicts: regulation and negotiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Pardoe

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the continuing shift from engineered solutions towards more holistic methods of managing flood risk, spatial planning has become the primary focus of a conflict between land and water, water and people. In attempting to strike a balance between making space for water and making space for people, compromises are required. Through five case studies in the UK, this paper analyses the effectiveness of Planning Policy Statement 25 (PPS 25 and the processes of negotiation that it promotes. This assessment allows us to draw conclusions on the nature of the compromises this kind of negotiation can achieve and the implications of this for flood risk management. What emerges is that the beneficial impacts of decisions to develop floodplain areas are given a proper hearing and sensible conditions imposed, rather than arguments to prevent such development remaining unchallenged.

  10. Conflicts in the therapeutic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Aprea

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available How the analytical knowledge that compare human consciousness with that, even more disturbing, moving behind his fifth can be said to be “for peace”? It can be - and this will be the contribution of the proposal - the same tortuous and enigmatic of therapeutic practice, with its hesitations and his impulses, to outline a path crossing and overcoming the conflict? May, finally, peace, in the sense of feasibility of intra-and interpersonal dialectic instead of tearing and hostileconfrontation with oneself and with the other, to be a reference in some crucial pivot of ethical therapeutic work? To these questions the intervention seeks to answer retracing some of the highlights of almost three years of therapeutic work with a young woman and her family.

  11. Gender conflict and worldview defence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsche, Immo; Jonas, Eva

    2005-12-01

    Applying social identity and terror management theory assumptions to gender conflict we predicted that mortality salience (MS) would lead to an increase in pro-women attitudes in women and a decrease in these attitudes in men. After a MS versus control manipulation, 32 female and 24 male university students evaluated (fictitious) courses in psychology dealing with and supporting the promotion of women. In accordance with our prediction the results showed a significant interaction between sex and MS, indicating that men and women differed in their judgment only under MS but not in the control condition. Whereas men reacted with an increased negative evaluation of the pro-women courses following MS, women on the other hand showed an increased positive evaluation of the courses. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  12. Conflict-Directed Backjumping Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, X; 10.1613/jair.788

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, many improvements to backtracking algorithms for solving constraint satisfaction problems have been proposed. The techniques for improving backtracking algorithms can be conveniently classified as look-ahead schemes and look-back schemes. Unfortunately, look-ahead and look-back schemes are not entirely orthogonal as it has been observed empirically that the enhancement of look-ahead techniques is sometimes counterproductive to the effects of look-back techniques. In this paper, we focus on the relationship between the two most important look-ahead techniques---using a variable ordering heuristic and maintaining a level of local consistency during the backtracking search---and the look-back technique of conflict-directed backjumping (CBJ). We show that there exists a "perfect" dynamic variable ordering such that CBJ becomes redundant. We also show theoretically that as the level of local consistency that is maintained in the backtracking search is increased, the less that backjumping will be a...

  13. Understanding and Managing Conflict in a Technical Communication Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, David C.

    1993-01-01

    Defines conflict, looks at its causes, discusses the various types of organizational conflict, reviews the Myers-Briggs psychological types as they affect conflict, examines managers' typical reactions to internal and external conflict, and lists six keys to successful conflict resolution. (SR)

  14. 31 CFR 31.211 - Organizational conflicts of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Organizational conflicts of interest... ASSET RELIEF PROGRAM Conflicts of Interest § 31.211 Organizational conflicts of interest. (a) Retained... organizational conflict of interest unless the conflict has been disclosed to Treasury under this Section and...

  15. Freedom and european military conflicts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ks. Archimandryta Andrzej (Borkowski

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the period of globalization, numerous armed conflicts and wars we often appeal to freedom and human rights. When we talk of freedom in the time we live in we usually mean it to be a possibility of free choice among various things. In contemporary common understanding freedom means choice. Such a definition is far insufficient to an Orthodox Christian. Freedom is something more than a simple difference between obviousness and indecision. Our spiritual attention needs to be directed towards something much more deeper. It should be directed to a struggle in order to overcome results of our fallen nature. According to contemporary understanding freedom is identified also with a possibility to do what is pleasing to ourselves. But such understanding is equally faulty. From theological point of view the term of true freedom denotes God’s grace and therefore human freedom is connected with and dependent on the absolute freedom of God. We do believe that God is the only giver of freedom and justice and He even exceeds them. God does not determine Himself. God simply exists. In such a way God has introduced Himself to Mores in the burning bush: „Εγώ ειμί ο Ών” (I am that I am. Ultimately all the contemporary crisises have their source in an absolute external freedom, freedom of flesh – having lost the notion of sin it transforms into a merciless, tyrannical lawlessness. Distinct manifestation of it are incessant armed conflicts in Europe.

  16. Frontal Theta Dynamics during Response Conflict in Long-Term Mindfulness Meditators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Han-Gue; Malinowski, Peter; Schmidt, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Mindfulness meditators often show greater efficiency in resolving response conflicts than non-meditators. However, the neural mechanisms underlying the improved behavioral efficiency are unclear. Here, we investigated frontal theta dynamics—a neural mechanism involved in cognitive control processes—in long-term mindfulness meditators. The dynamics of EEG theta oscillations (4–8 Hz) recorded over the medial frontal cortex (MFC) were examined in terms of their power (MFC theta power) and their functional connectivity with other brain areas (the MFC-centered theta network). Using a flanker-type paradigm, EEG data were obtained from 22 long-term mindfulness meditators and compared to those from 23 matched controls without meditation experience. Meditators showed more efficient cognitive control after conflicts, evidenced by fewer error responses irrespective of response timing. Furthermore, meditators exhibited enhanced conflict modulations of the MFC-centered theta network shortly before the response, in particular for the functional connection between the MFC and the motor cortex. In contrast, MFC theta power was comparable between groups. These results suggest that the higher behavioral efficiency after conflicts in mindfulness meditators could be a function of increased engagement to control the motor system in association with the MFC-centered theta network. PMID:28638334

  17. The couple that smokes together: Dyadic marijuana use and relationship functioning during conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Cory A; Testa, Maria; Schlauch, Robert C; Leonard, Kenneth E

    2016-09-01

    Self-reported marijuana use has been associated with poor relationship functioning and decreased stability over time. The present study examined the behavioral interactions of couples with concordant and discordant patterns of marijuana use during conflict, using individual self-reports and observation by independent coders. Heavy drinking community couples (N = 149) participated in a conflict resolution paradigm. Interactions were recorded and coded by naïve coders. Approximately 30% of the sample reported past year marijuana use. Actor-Partner Interdependence Models and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) were used to evaluate the individual and interactive effects of dyadic marijuana use on maladaptive relationship functioning. A Robust Actor × Partner Marijuana Use interaction was detected for a range of behavioral outcomes, assessed by both self-report and direct observation, including relationship satisfaction, anger experience, patterns of demand and withdrawal during conflict, constructive behaviors, and overall relationship quality. Specifically, couples in which both partners used or abstained from marijuana displayed more adaptive relationship functioning across indicators relative to couples in which only 1 partner identified as a marijuana user. This pattern was particularly strong for couples in which the female partner used marijuana and the male partner did not. Couples with discordant, rather than concordant, marijuana use displayed distinct conflict resolution behaviors that were consistent with the long-term negative relationship outcomes that have been observed in previous studies. (PsycINFO Database Record

  18. Conflict and love: predicting newlywed marital outcomes from two interaction contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graber, Elana C; Laurenceau, Jean-Philippe; Miga, Erin; Chango, Joanna; Coan, James

    2011-08-01

    Research on marital interaction has focused primarily on couples in conflict contexts to understand better processes associated with concurrent and longitudinal outcomes such as marital stability and quality. Although this work has consistently revealed particular emotions (e.g., contempt) or behavioral sequences (e.g., demand/withdraw) predictive of later marital distress, it largely has neglected to take positive contexts into consideration. The present longitudinal study begins to address this gap in the literature by directly comparing newlywed behaviors from a conflict-resolution interaction with those from a love-paradigm interaction to predict relationship satisfaction and divorce proneness approximately 15 months later. Results showed that actor and partner negative (contempt) and positive (affection) emotions elicited in both positive (i.e., love) and negative (i.e., conflict) interaction contexts emerged as unique predictors of relationship quality and stability for both husbands and wives. Moreover, using a linear growth model, the temporal course of positive emotion during the love context, but not the conflict context, was predictive of later relationship satisfaction. Implications for future marital research and intervention are discussed.

  19. Frontal Theta Dynamics during Response Conflict in Long-Term Mindfulness Meditators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Han-Gue; Malinowski, Peter; Schmidt, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Mindfulness meditators often show greater efficiency in resolving response conflicts than non-meditators. However, the neural mechanisms underlying the improved behavioral efficiency are unclear. Here, we investigated frontal theta dynamics-a neural mechanism involved in cognitive control processes-in long-term mindfulness meditators. The dynamics of EEG theta oscillations (4-8 Hz) recorded over the medial frontal cortex (MFC) were examined in terms of their power (MFC theta power) and their functional connectivity with other brain areas (the MFC-centered theta network). Using a flanker-type paradigm, EEG data were obtained from 22 long-term mindfulness meditators and compared to those from 23 matched controls without meditation experience. Meditators showed more efficient cognitive control after conflicts, evidenced by fewer error responses irrespective of response timing. Furthermore, meditators exhibited enhanced conflict modulations of the MFC-centered theta network shortly before the response, in particular for the functional connection between the MFC and the motor cortex. In contrast, MFC theta power was comparable between groups. These results suggest that the higher behavioral efficiency after conflicts in mindfulness meditators could be a function of increased engagement to control the motor system in association with the MFC-centered theta network.

  20. Teaching Communication and Conflict as a Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Christina G.

    2017-01-01

    Courses: Communication and Conflict. Objectives: Through the use of a game-based framework, students will build intrinsic motivation to engage with course material and course content, and will engage their critical-thinking, problem-solving, and communication skills in relation to conflict management over the length of the course. A list of…

  1. HERITAGE, CONFLICT AND THE DYNAMICS OF MEMORY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laarse, van der R.; ICOMOS-UK / ICOM-UK Christmas Lecture 2014, London (2014-12-03)

    2014-01-01

    ICOMOS-UK Christmas Lecture 2014: 3rd December 2014: HERITAGE, CONFLICT AND THE DYNAMICS OF MEMORY, Professor Rob van der LaarseThe world is increasingly full of conflicts: how do these colour our perceptions of places associated with historical events not just immediately but over decades if not

  2. Sex Determination, Sex Ratios, and Genetic Conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werren, John H.; Beukeboom, Leo W.

    1998-01-01

    Genetic mechanisms of sex determination are unexpectedly diverse and change rapidly during evolution. We review the role of genetic conflict as the driving force behind this diversity and turnover. Genetic conflict occurs when different components of a genetic system are subject to selection in

  3. Microfinance for Post-Conflict Peacebuilding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-21

    15. SUBJECT TERMS Microfinance, Microenterprise , Conflict Transformation, Stability Operations, Provincial Reconstruction Teams, Village...Project DATE: 21 March 2012 WORD COUNT: 7,002 PAGES: 32 KEY TERMS: Microenterprise , Conflict Transformation, Stability Operations, Provincial...Operations. Microfinance Institutions are essentially banks for the poor which provide small amounts of credit for microenterprises . From the early 1970s

  4. Conflict Resolution between Mexican Origin Adolescent Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killoren, Sarah E.; Thayer, Shawna M.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated correlates of adolescents' sibling conflict resolution strategies in 246, two-parent Mexican origin families. Specifically, we examined links between siblings' conflict resolution strategies and sibling dyad characteristics, siblings' cultural orientations and values, and sibling relationship qualities. Data were gathered during…

  5. The Development of Community Conflict Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laue, James H.

    1981-01-01

    Conflict intervention employs an outside party to influence the outcome of a conflict by applying negotiation, conciliation, mediation, and arbitration. Originally used in labor-management disputes, these techniques have been applied in family and neighborhood disputes, in provider-consumer disputes, and in environmental and international…

  6. HERITAGE, CONFLICT AND THE DYNAMICS OF MEMORY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laarse, van der R.

    2014-01-01

    ICOMOS-UK Christmas Lecture 2014: 3rd December 2014: HERITAGE, CONFLICT AND THE DYNAMICS OF MEMORY, Professor Rob van der Laarse The world is increasingly full of conflicts: how do these colour our perceptions of places associated with historical events not just immediately but over decades if not c

  7. Japanese Children's Reasoning about Conflicts with Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Hiroyuki

    2009-01-01

    Ninety-five Japanese children (aged 6-12) were interviewed using hypothetical stories to examine their reasoning about parent-child conflicts. Participants were most likely to reject parental authority and to support child's discretion in conflict situations where the parent interfered in the child's personal choice and gave the child commands…

  8. Egocentrism drives misunderstanding in conflict and negotiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chambers, J.R.; de Dreu, C.K.W.

    2014-01-01

    A key barrier to conflict resolution is that parties exaggerate the degree to which the other side's interests oppose their own side's interests. Here we examine egocentrism as a fundamental source of such biased conflict perceptions. We propose that parties rely on their own interests and

  9. Regional International Organizations as Conflict Managers: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the roles of regional international organizations in conflict management. With ... organizations have assumed increasingly varied, and in some cases primary roles in conflict ... communications, financial resources and chain command. The result ... North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) issued a declaration on terrorism.

  10. Conflict management and participation in community forestry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skutsch, M.M.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper consideration is first given to how community forestry practitioners have commonly understood the term participation, and why the concept of conflict does not seem to have overlapped with notions of participation. Failure to perceive conflict as inherent in participation is shown to ha

  11. The Inharmonious Conflicts in Robert Frost's Poetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨苗

    2015-01-01

    Robert Frost is one of the most distinguished poets,most of his poems are about the inharmonious relationship between nature and men,Conflicts are like a“thread”appearing in his poems.Frost’s true philosophy on men and life contributes to his wisdom and artistic poems.Frost tries to illustrate the conflict between nature and men in philosophy concern.

  12. Sex Determination, Sex Ratios, and Genetic Conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werren, John H.; Beukeboom, Leo W.

    1998-01-01

    Genetic mechanisms of sex determination are unexpectedly diverse and change rapidly during evolution. We review the role of genetic conflict as the driving force behind this diversity and turnover. Genetic conflict occurs when different components of a genetic system are subject to selection in oppo

  13. Marital Conflict and Disruption of Children's Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Buckhalt, Joseph, A.; Mize, Jacquelyn; Acebo, Christine

    2006-01-01

    Marital conflict was examined as a predictor of the quality and quantity of sleep in a sample of healthy 8 to 9 year-olds. Parents and children reported on marital conflict, the quantity and quality of children's sleep were examined through an actigraph worn for 7 consecutive nights, and child sleepiness was derived from child and mother reports.…

  14. Colombia : Essays on Conflict, Peace, and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Solimano, Andres

    2000-01-01

    A purpose of this book is to present recent World Bank analytical work on the causes of violence and conflict in Colombia, highlighting pilot lending programs oriented to promote peace and development. The Bank's international experiences in post-conflict situations in different countries and their relevance for Colombia are also examined in this volume. The identification of socio-economi...

  15. HERITAGE, CONFLICT AND THE DYNAMICS OF MEMORY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laarse, van der R.; ICOMOS-UK / ICOM-UK Christmas Lecture 2014, London (2014-12-03)

    2014-01-01

    ICOMOS-UK Christmas Lecture 2014: 3rd December 2014: HERITAGE, CONFLICT AND THE DYNAMICS OF MEMORY, Professor Rob van der LaarseThe world is increasingly full of conflicts: how do these colour our perceptions of places associated with historical events not just immediately but over decades if not ce

  16. Conflict management and participation in community forestry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skutsch, Margaret

    2000-01-01

    In this paper consideration is first given to how community forestry practitioners have commonly understood the term participation, and why the concept of conflict does not seem to have overlapped with notions of participation. Failure to perceive conflict as inherent in participation is shown to

  17. HERITAGE, CONFLICT AND THE DYNAMICS OF MEMORY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laarse, van der R.; ICOMOS-UK / ICOM-UK Christmas Lecture 2014, London (2014-12-03)

    2014-01-01

    ICOMOS-UK Christmas Lecture 2014: 3rd December 2014: HERITAGE, CONFLICT AND THE DYNAMICS OF MEMORY, Professor Rob van der LaarseThe world is increasingly full of conflicts: how do these colour our perceptions of places associated with historical events not just immediately but over decades if not ce

  18. Conflict Handling Styles and Project Manager Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    hostile conflict among its functional departments and also to stimulate differences and capitalize on them by productive ,-, .-,• , ,,,,m w w m m ~ml m m...Conflict: A Model for Diagnosis and Intervention," Psycological Reports. 44: 1323-1344 (June 1979). 31. Steers, Richard M. "Problems in the Measurement of

  19. Conflicts in A Streetcar Named Desire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    禹雪含

    2014-01-01

    A conflict is a disagreement, struggle, controversy or fight which usually provides the plot for a story. It is the promi-nent element of a work and the basis for everything else included in the work of literature. In the drama A Streetcar Named Desire of Tennessee Williams, several kinds of conflicts are proficiently and artistically revealed. This paper touches on different kinds of conflicts, including those between fantasy and reality, female and male, desire and death, the exterior and inner world, the south and the north. Conflicts are of great literary importance in this play. Firstly, they function to propel the plot and create an over-arching tension. Secondly, they are used to represent themes which are applied to greater contexts. Thirdly, conflicts go through the whole play and make it a united whole.

  20. Authentic moral conflicts and students' moral development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Wei-li

    2006-01-01

    This research deals with the different psychological processes people undergo when they experience firsthand authentic moral conflicts.It also discusses the value of authentic moral conflicts in students' moral development,and reasons for the ineffectiveness of moral education in China.The main reason for the unsatisfactory effects of moral education in China over a period of time lies in the predominance of virtual moral education.In authentic situations,the proper arrangement of moral conflicts requires careful analysis of values hidden in the prearranged or generated moral conflicts so as to utilize,guide,and control them properly.Such arrangement of moral conflicts should be adapted to students' life experience for deepening their understanding of the moral aspects of life.Also,special attention should be attached to students' varied requirements,thus leaving enough options and space for their independent participation in activities of moral education.