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Sample records for cs-137 pela alga

  1. Concentration factors for Cs-137 in marine algae from Japanese coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tateda, Yutaka; Koyanagi, Taku.

    1994-01-01

    Concentration factors (CF: Bq·kg -1 in wet algae/Bq·kg -1 in filtered seawater) for Cs-137 in Japanese coastal algae, were investigated during 1984-1990. Cs-137/Cs (stable) atom ratios were also examined to clarify the distribution equilibrium of Cs-137 in marine algae and sea water. The CFs in marine algae were within the range of 5.4-92, and the geometric mean of CF was 28±2 (standard error) in Japanese coastal species. The CFs in edible species were within the range of 5.4-67, and the geometric means of CF was 26±4 (standard error). The values of Cs-137/Cs atom ratios in marine algae and sea water indicated that Cs-137 reached an equilibrium state in partition between algae and sea water. Therefore, the CF value obtained in the present study can be regarded as an equilibrated value. Our results showed that hte CF for Cs-137 in Japanese coastal algae were consistent with the Japanese guideline CFs, but were smaller than the recommended value by IAEA. (author)

  2. Cs-137 accumulation and elimination by Gracilaria caudata alga and Abudefduf saxatilis fish. Compartmental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattiolo-Marchese, Sandra Regina

    1998-01-01

    From the ecological point of view, 137 Cs is a critical radionuclide because its physical half-life is long (30 years), and it has a high fission yield. Besides, it presents similar characteristics to sodium and potassium, fundamental elements for the living organisms, in great concentration in all cells. This work has as aim to study the 137 Cs accumulation and elimination by the alga Gracilaria caudata and by the fish Abudefduf saxatilis as well as to obtain the transfer constants of the 137 Cs from the water into the organisms. The concentration factor found for the fish was 5.6 +- 0.2 and for the alga, 13.0 +- 0,6. With 7 and 22 days, the fish and alga respectively had already eliminated half of the accumulated radionuclide. The 137 Cs ingestion efficiency by the fish was also studied and it was verified that the fish assimilated only 47.6 % of the cesium content in the food; and within of 4 days it had eliminated more than half of ingested cesium. A compartmental model was proposed to explain the distribution of cesium in the compartments (water - alga and water - fish). Data obtained from the experiments of 137 Cs accumulation and elimination were applied in the Ana Comp Program. This program permits the compartmental analysis, and quantifies the cesium distribution from the sea-water to the organisms, and vice versa, through the transfer constants (k). The Ana Comp Program also allowed to calculate the dose that one would receive by the consumption of fish contaminated by cesium. Levels of 137 Cs from the global fallout in environmental samples, from Sao Sebastiao, northern coast of Sao Paulo, (where the 'Centro de Biologia Marinha da Universidade de Sao Paulo - CEBIMar - USP' is located), were verified. (author)

  3. Cs-137 migration in soil near NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silant'ev, A.N.; Shkuratova, I.G.; Khatskevich, R.N.

    1984-01-01

    A convective-diffusion model has been employed for describing Cs-137 migration in soil. The migration parameters were determined by comparing the calculated vertical distribution profiles with the experimental ones. The migration parameters dependence on the soil state has been studied. Cs-137 penetration rate was found to be function of the soil type, surface state, soil wetness and orography. The obtained values are presented. A method is suggested for revealing the soil surface contamination by Cs-137 produced during NPP operation with distinguishing it from the global contamination background. For this purpose Cs-137 content in the upper 5 mm soil layer is estimated [ru

  4. Potential value of Cs-137 capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomster, C.H.; Brown, D.R.; Bruno, G.A.; Hazelton, R.F.; Hendrickson, P.L.; Lezberg, A.J.; Tingey, G.L.; Wilfert, G.L.

    1985-04-01

    We determined the value of Cs-137 compared to Co-60 as a source for the irradiation of fruit (apples and cherries), pork and medical supplies. Cs-137, in the WESF capsule form, had a value of approximately $0.40/Ci as a substitute for Co-60 priced at approximately $1.00/Ci. The comparison was based on the available curies emitted from the surface of each capsule. We developed preliminary designs for fourteen irradiation facilities; seven were based on Co-60 and seven were based on Cs-137. These designs provided the basis for estimating capital and operating costs which, in turn, provided the basis for determining the value of Cs-137 relative to Co-60 in these applications. We evaluated the effect of the size of the irradiation facility on the value of Cs-137. The cost of irradiation is low compared to the value of the product. Irradiation of apples for disinfestation costs $.01 to .02 per pound. Irradiation for trichina-safe pork costs $.02 per pound. Irradiation of medical supplies for sterilization costs $.07 to .12 per pound. The cost of the irradiation source, either Co-60 or Cs-137, contributed only a minor amount to the total cost of irradiation, about 5% for the fruit and hog cases and about 20% for the medical supply cases. We analyzed the sensitivity of the irradiation costs and Cs-137 value to several key assumptions.

  5. Potential value of Cs-137 capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloomster, C.H.; Brown, D.R.; Bruno, G.A.; Hazelton, R.F.; Hendrickson, P.L.; Lezberg, A.J.; Tingey, G.L.; Wilfert, G.L.

    1985-04-01

    We determined the value of Cs-137 compared to Co-60 as a source for the irradiation of fruit (apples and cherries), pork and medical supplies. Cs-137, in the WESF capsule form, had a value of approximately $0.40/Ci as a substitute for Co-60 priced at approximately $1.00/Ci. The comparison was based on the available curies emitted from the surface of each capsule. We developed preliminary designs for fourteen irradiation facilities; seven were based on Co-60 and seven were based on Cs-137. These designs provided the basis for estimating capital and operating costs which, in turn, provided the basis for determining the value of Cs-137 relative to Co-60 in these applications. We evaluated the effect of the size of the irradiation facility on the value of Cs-137. The cost of irradiation is low compared to the value of the product. Irradiation of apples for disinfestation costs $.01 to .02 per pound. Irradiation for trichina-safe pork costs $.02 per pound. Irradiation of medical supplies for sterilization costs $.07 to .12 per pound. The cost of the irradiation source, either Co-60 or Cs-137, contributed only a minor amount to the total cost of irradiation, about 5% for the fruit and hog cases and about 20% for the medical supply cases. We analyzed the sensitivity of the irradiation costs and Cs-137 value to several key assumptions

  6. Cs-137 for irradiation of sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lessel, T.

    1986-01-01

    Since 1973, the Geiselbullach sewage treatment works have been continuously operating their first system for gamma irradiation of sewage sludge. Within the framework of a German-American agreement, nine Cs-137 sources with a total activity of 56.000 Ci have been made available to the works free of charge in 1983, in order to test in practice and to demonstrate the applicability of these radiation sources in comparison to the Co-60 sources exclusively used up to then. This first study on the applicability of Cs-137 as a radiation source for sewage sludge treatment revealed no findings or effects speaking against Cs-137 as a radiation source for this purpose. (orig./RB) [de

  7. Water culture of the rice containing Cs-137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yong Ho; Keum, Dong Kwon; Lim, Kwang Muk; Jun, In; Park, Doo Won

    2008-10-01

    Pot experiments were carried out in a greenhouse in order to produce Cs-137-containing rice seeds as a source material for use in manufacturing reference rice samples of a high Cs-137 activity. Two kinds of soil were used and two pots were prepared for each kind of soil. Rice plants were water-cultured in the pots and Cs-137 was applied to the surface water to induce a Cs-137 contamination of rice seeds via a plant uptake of Cs-137. Mature rice plants were harvested and Cs-137-containing rice seeds were obtained after some treatment of the harvested plants. These produced rice seeds are going to be provided for the KRISS so as to be used in manufacturing reference rice samples for Cs-137

  8. Dynamic modelling of Cs-137 contamination in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oehlenschlaeger, M.

    1989-01-01

    The paper describes the structure of a dynamic food-chain transport model for Cs-137 in the Danish terrestrial environment. The model solves a set of linear, coupled differential equations in order to estimate the inventories and concentrations of Cs-137 in the soil, vegetation, animal tissue and animal product as a function of time based on the Cs-137 concentrations in the air after an accidental release. Meteorological conditions and seasonal variations in agricultural practice are included. (orig.)

  9. Uptake of Cs 137 from farmland 1986-1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmberg, M.

    1986-12-01

    The basic mechanisms of the accumulation of Cs 137 in grass, corn, oleiferous plants, potatoes etc are described. It is also presented as a function of time after the deposition. Transport of Cs 137 to milk, meat and bacon is described. A prognosis of Cs 137 in food products for the coming two years is made on basis of the estimated data. (G.B.)

  10. Quantitative Cs-137 distributions from airborne gamma ray data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberlercher, G.; Seiberl, W.

    1997-01-01

    The Chernobyl reactor accident caused in Austria Cs-137 activities up to 180 kBq/m 2 . The following paper explains how airborne NaJ-spectroscopy, originally designed for geological surveys, was used as an accurate method to obtain the ground activity of Cs-137 in certain regions of Austria. To retrieve the net count rate in a Cs-137 window it is necessary to subtract all background contributions from the peak, including the Compton continuum and the contribution of overlapping peaks. Therefore the measurement of Cs-137 with a NaJ detector system must take into account radioactive elements with gamma-ray lines near the peak energy of Cs-137 at 662 keV. In regions with higher concentrations of the natural radioactive elements uranium and thorium a peak near 600 keV is found, containing the 609 keV line of Bi-214 and the 585 keV line of TI-208. Additionally a Cs-134 line is located at 604 keV. Because of the poor energy resolution of NaJ detectors it is not possible to find a clear separation between these peaks and the Cs-137 peak. The following section describes the method that was used to obtain accurate quantified Cs-137 activity values. (author)

  11. Radiological Cs-137 accidents/incidents in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinisso, Mark

    1997-01-01

    Two radiological accidents/incidents in Estonia are reported. The first -21 October 1994, three brothers entered the Tammiku repository and stole a radioactive Cs-137 source and received dangerous doses of radiation. The other incident (early 1995) involved an abandoned source - a discarded metal cylinder containing Cs-137. Chronologies and factual data are considered for both events. Concise descriptions of the incidents, a medical overview of the fate of injured people and lessons learned are presented

  12. Radiological Cs-137 accidents/incidents in Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinisso, Mark [Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Tallin (Estonia)

    1997-12-31

    Two radiological accidents/incidents in Estonia are reported. The first -21 October 1994, three brothers entered the Tammiku repository and stole a radioactive Cs-137 source and received dangerous doses of radiation. The other incident (early 1995) involved an abandoned source - a discarded metal cylinder containing Cs-137. Chronologies and factual data are considered for both events. Concise descriptions of the incidents, a medical overview of the fate of injured people and lessons learned are presented

  13. Obsah Cs-137 v houbách

    OpenAIRE

    ČADOVÁ, Michaela

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to compare the presence of Cs-137 in different kinds of mushrooms in selected locations using semiconductor gamma-ray spectrometry. Research question was determined: Does Cs-137 content amount vary depending on the fungal species? The first part deals with basic knowledge of ionizing radiation, which is important for the complex understanding of thematic problems. This concerns basic radiobiological terms such as radioactivity, ionizing radiation, its biological effect...

  14. Cs-137 and Sr-90 level in diary products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petukhov, V.L.; Dukhanov, Y.A.; Sevryuk, I.Z.; Patrashkov, S.A.; Korotkevich, O.S.; Gorb, T.S.; Petukhov, I.V.

    2003-01-01

    About 70% of radioactive substances fell on the territory of the Byelorussian Republic after the Chernobyl Atom Power Station Disaster. Cs-137 and Sr-90 accumulation dynamics was studied in milk of the cows from the highest polluted Braginsky area. 408 milk samples of Black and White cows were investigated. In 1995 average Cs-137 and Sr-90 levels were 61.00 and 3.73 Bk/dm 3 respectively. Cs-137 and Sr-90 levels exceeded Byelorussian Republic upper limits RDU - 96 in 10 and 50% of milk samples respectively. After 5 years (by 2000) Cs-137 and Sr-90 levels had become almost 3 and 2 times less (21.70 Bk/dm 3 and 1.72 Bk/dm 3 respectively). Cs-137 and Sr-90 levels exceeded RDU - 96 in 1.5 and 5.5% of milk samples respectively. In the same periods Cs-137 and Sr-90 levels were 7 and 2 times higher than the similar indexes in the relatively clean Novosibirsk area. Thus, radioactive element levels in milk of Black and White cows of the Byelorussian Republic decreased significantly for the past years. (authors)

  15. Cs-137 concentrations in the muscles of Walleye Pollack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, T.; Yoshida, K.

    2003-01-01

    High concentrations of Cs-137 were detected in the muscles of Walleye Pollack (Theragra chalcogramm) collected from Kitamiyamato banks (sampling on 25 Jul. 2000), Kamui area (16 Oct. 2000) and Niigata coasts (31 Jan. 2001). The concentrations were 0.35 ± 0.01, 0.41 ± 0.01, and 0.63 ± 0.02 Bq/kg-wet, respectively. The average concentration in our past investigations was about 0.25 ± 0.01 Bq/kg-wet. Samples from other areas, the coat of Kushiro (8 May 2001), North Tishima (13 Nov. 2000) and the Sea of Okhotsk (6 May 2001), had the average concentrations. There were no such high concentrations of Cs-137 in other fish species collected from Kitamiyamato banks, Kamui area, and Niigata coasts. Fish samples with high concentrations all make the migration in the north of Japan sea. These results would indicated that samples took in Cs-137 elements from sea-water or foods on the migration route. Cs-137 concentrations in muscles of walleye pollack does not increase with the body lengths unlike other marine fishes, which enables the comparison of Cs-137 concentrations between areas without considering the body lengths. Walleye Pollac migrates in the large area in the sea of Japan and draws near other country except Japan. These habits make Walleye Pollac the excellent bio indicators to monitor oceanic radioactive pollution

  16. Determination of Sr-90 and Cs-137 in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    The comparison between the Ca concentration in the soil and the transfer factors involved indicates a clear dependence of Sr-90 soil-to-plant transport from the soil's Ca-content with the concentration level of 0.1 g Ca/kg soil appearing to be the limit level. Soil concentrations of Cs-137 determined to-date indicate a very even deposition density of Cs-137. The transfer factors of plant/soil in Chile differ but negligeably from those in Europe. (DG) [de

  17. Determination of Cs-134 and Cs-137 rain water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, M.F.; Mazzilli, B.

    1988-01-01

    In order to setting an environmental monitoring program at IPEN, was developed a fast and simple methodology for concentration of Cs-134 and Cs-137 in rain water. This procedure consists in the precipitation of cesium and others cathions of its family (NH 4 + , K + and Rb + ) by ammonium molybdophosphate. The measures of the desintegration rates of Cs-134 and Cs-137 was done by gamma spectrometry in a Ge(Li) detector. After setting up the ideal experimental conditions, the procedure was used to analyze four samples of rain water. (author) [pt

  18. Speciation of Cs-137 in fertilizers amended soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mocanu, N.; Breban, D.C.

    1999-01-01

    One of the most used agricultural countermeasures to reduce the uptake of radionuclides from soil into plants is the chemical treatment of the soil with fertilizers. The distribution of a radionuclide between different physico chemical forms is essential to characterize its behaviour and the biological impact on the environment. To assess a radionuclide bioavailability to the soil-plant transfer, the chemical forms that are most relevant are the water soluble and exchangeable ones. Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the potential modifications in time of the Cs-137 distribution in the two soil fractions, induced by the treatment with different K-based fertilizers. The two types of soil were selected taking into account their importance for the agricultural use in Romania. By the sequential extraction method the distribution of 137 Cs has been determined in the water soluble and exchangeable fractions separated from the soils after 1 day, 1 week, 1 month and 4 months, respectively. For the reference untreated soils, experimental data revealed that less than 1 percent of Cs-137 is associated to the water soluble fraction for both types of soil. Around 4 percents of the total amount of Cs-137 in the brown-reddish soil and 13 percents in the alluvial one were associated to the exchangeable fraction. The differences between the Cs-137 distribution are correlated to the higher content of dust and clay in the brown reddish soil, which are strong binders for Cs ions. The application of the two fertilizers releasing fast the K ions (KCl and potassium salt), determined from at the first moment after the contamination a reduction of the Cs-137 concentration in both fraction. The effect was most pronounced for the soluble fraction in the brown -reddish soil: with a factor of 8 in case of KCl treatment and 5 in case of potassium salt. For the others experimental cases the concentration of Cs-137 in both fractions was slightly reduced, with factors between (1

  19. Cs-137 in Norwegian Lapps in the spring of 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westerlund, E.A.; Jellum, W.; Arneberg, P.

    Measurements show that the body burden of Cs-137 in Lapps from Kautokeino diminished from 1965 to 1975 with an apparent half-life of 4-5 years. Since 1975 the reduction has been much slower. The Cs-137 content in reindeer meat has since 1966 diminished at the same rate. The reason for the lower rate of reduction since 1975 is that the fallout has received a contribution of Cs-137 from recent Chinese nuclear tests. The ratio of the average body burden of the Lapps who herd reindeer to the amount of Cs-137 in reindeer meat is 11.7 for men and 6.6 for women. The ratios for other Lapps are 8.1 and 4.7. Investigation of the seasonal variation of the body burden shows that measurements made at the end of March and beginning of April give values from which the annual dose may be calculated. The average dose from recent measurements for reindeer herders is about 25 mrad/year and about 2/3 of this for others. The Sr-90 measurements in reindeer bones are not related to health effects for the Lapps, but show how this parameter varies with time and indicates the environmental contamination by this nuclide. (JIW)

  20. Radioactivity precipitation Sr-90 and Cs-137 in Plock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flakiewicz, W.; Majkowska, I.; Bonkowski, J.

    1986-01-01

    Methods of research and results for beta-activity measurements of precipitation in 1977-1983 with regard to Sr-90, Cs-137 - are presented. Climatic changes caused by big industrial plant, conditions of pollution propagation in atmosphere, parameters of pollution load of Plock region are described. 11 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs. (author)

  1. Sorption of Cs-137 and Co-60 in Natural Zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chales Suarez, G.; Moreno Alvarez, D.; Coutin Correa, D.

    1996-01-01

    The sorption of Cs-137 and Co-60 in natural zeolites under different conditions was studied. The behaviour of samples of mineral and rock from different deposit of the country was obtained and the decontamination of radioactive waters containing both radionuclides was performed; as part of the research to determine its application in the treatment of radioactive wastes in the country

  2. Sorption of Cs-137 and Co-60 in Natural Zeolites; Sorcion de Cs-137 y Co-60 en zeolitas naturales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chales Suarez, G; Moreno Alvarez, D; Coutin Correa, D [Agencia de Energia Nuclear, La Habana (Cuba)

    1996-07-01

    The sorption of Cs-137 and Co-60 in natural zeolites under different conditions was studied. The behaviour of samples of mineral and rock from different deposit of the country was obtained and the decontamination of radioactive waters containing both radionuclides was performed; as part of the research to determine its application in the treatment of radioactive wastes in the country.

  3. Distribution of Cs137 in soils from Bahia state, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, T.

    1977-01-01

    A high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry method was developed in order to study the distribution of Cs 137 in topsoils of State of Bahia (Brazil). The results has shown concentrations varying between 0.6 and 6.0 nCi/m 2 . Correlation of the Cs 137 concentration with environmental and ohysico-chemical parameters has shown a tendency for greatest accumulation in soils with regions of greatest precipitation rates: 2.0 nCi/m 2 , on the average, for regions with 700mm to 1,000 mm/year and 2.8 nCi/m 2 , on the average, in regions with 1,700 mm to 2,000 mm/year. On the other hand, an anti-correlation between this radionuclide and both calcium and clay content, for soils of similar type and under similar climatic conditions is seen. (C.D.G.) [pt

  4. Bioaccumulation of Cs-137 and Co-57 by marine phytoplankton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heldal, H.E.; Stupakoff, I.; Fisher, N.S.

    1999-01-01

    Under controlled laboratory conditions we have examined the bioaccumulation of Cs-137 and Co-57 in three prymnesiophytes, the coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi and the non-calcareous species Isochrysis galbana and Phaeocystis globosa, and two diatoms Skeletonema costatum and Thalassiosira pseudonana. We measured uptake in growing and non-growing cells, and determined concentration factors on both volume and dry weight basis. For Co-57 uptake in non-growing cells, volume concentration factors (VCF) at equilibrium ranged from 0.2 * 10 3 for Emiliana huxleyi to 4 * 10 3 for the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana. For Cs-137 uptake in non-growing cells the VCFs were close to zero. The results suggest that, in contrast to Co, the cycling and bioaccumulation in animals of Cs in marine systems is unlikely to be affected by primary producers. (au)

  5. The measurement of Cs-137 in Latvian forest litter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riekstina, D.; Veveris, O.

    1998-01-01

    The role of forests in the distribution of cesium 137 over the Latvian territory affected by the Chernobyl accident was examined. Concentrations of this radionuclide in soil in pine, spruce, and birch forests and in non-forest areas in Rucava (affected by the accident) and in Taurene (non-polluted zone) were compared. In Rucava, the concentrations of Cs-137 fluctuated over the region of 108-724 Bq/kg in a pine forest, 205-2270 Bq/kg in a spruce forest, and 15-30 Bq/kg beyond the forest region. In Taurene, the corresponding figures were 42-157, 19-133, and 3-19 Bq/kg, respectively. The data confirm the appreciable role of coniferous forests in the absorption of Cs-137 from the air and its redistribution within the forest area. (P.A.)

  6. Long-term distribution of Cs-137 in freshwater ecosystem and the effect of bioturbation on leakage of Cs-137 from the sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquilonius, K.

    1995-06-01

    The first aim of the project was to make a literature compilation regarding Cs-137 in freshwater systems. Secondly, in order to follow up the long-term behaviour of Cs-137 in Lake Hillesjoen, sediment and water was sampled with respect to Cs-137. Finally, an experiment was done with chironomids, with the aim to assess the impact of bioturbation on the leakage of Cs-137 from the sediment, since this is one of the factors contributing to the uncertainties in radioecological models. Some aspects of long-term distribution of Cs-137 in freshwater lakes is discussed. In lake Hillesjoen the pool of Cs-137 in sediments (225 kBq/m 2 , 1993) has gradually increased since the Chernobyl accident, and now exceeds the initial deposition (100 kBq/m 2 ). The effect of bioturbation on the leakage from the sediment to the water could not be clarified in this experiment, but is discussed. 40 refs

  7. Divergence of Cs-137 sources fluence used in brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vianello, E.A.; Almeida, C.E. de

    1998-01-01

    In this work the experimental determination of correction factor for fluence divergence (kln) of linear Cs-137 sources CDCS J4, with Farmer ionization chamber model 2571 in a central and perpendicular plan to source axis, for distances range from 1 to 7 cm., has been presented. The experimental results were compared to calculating by Kondo and Randolph (1960) isotropic theory and Bielajew (1990) anisotropic theory. (Author)

  8. Standardization of 137 Cs+137m Ba by Liquid Scintillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, L.; Arcos, J.M., los; Grau Carles, A.

    1995-09-01

    A procedure for the preparation of a stable, homogeneous solution of ''137 Cs+''137m Ba, for use in liquid scintillation measurements, is described. Its count rate stability and spectral time evolution has been followed for several weeks. The solution has been standardised by the CIEMAT/NIST method in both Ultima-Gold and Insta-Gel, to a combined uncertainty lower than 0,51% (k=1)

  9. Bioremoval of Am-241 and Cs-137 from liquid radioactive wasters by bacterial consortiums; Biorremocao de Am-241 e Cs-137 de rejeitos radioativos liquidos por consorcios bacterianos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Rafael Vicente de Padua; Lima, Josenilson B. de; Gomes, Mirella C.; Borba, Tania R.; Bellini, Maria Helena; Marumo, Julio Takehiro; Sakata, Solange Kazumi, E-mail: rpadua@ipen.b, E-mail: sksakata@ipen.b, E-mail: jblima@ipen.b, E-mail: mbmarumo@ipen.b, E-mail: jtmarumo@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-10-26

    This paper evaluates the capacity of two bacterial consortiums of impacted areas in removing the Am-241 and Cs-137 from liquid radioactive wastes.The experiments indicated that the two study consortiums were able to remove 100% of the Cs-137 and Am-241 presents in the waste from 4 days of contact. These results suggest that the bio removal with the selected consortiums, can be a viable technique for the treatment of radioactive wastes containing Am-241 and Cs-137

  10. Determining of leakage rate of radionuclides Co-60 and Cs-137 in real conditioning; Odredjivanje brzine procurivanja radionuklida Co-60 i Cs-137 u realnim uslovima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plecas, I; Peric, A; Kostadinovic, A [Institut za Nuklearne Nauke Boris Kidric, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1989-07-01

    In this paper, results of examination of LEAKAGE rate of radionuclides Co-60 and Cs-137 in real condition are given. Radionuclides Co-60 and Cs-137 were immobilized by cement process and conditioned in concrete containers trying to make similar scenario for repository of radioactive waste materials as in engineering trench systems. Experiments were realized with evaporator bottom concentrate (EB) from Nuclear Power Plant Krsko in which the main radionuclides are Co-60 and Cs-137. (author)

  11. Divergence of Cs-137 sources fluence used in brachytherapy; Divergencia da fluencia de fontes de Cs-137 usadas em braquiterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vianello, E.A.; Almeida, C.E. de [Laboratorio de Ciencias Radiologicas- LCR-DBB (UERJ). R. Sao Francisco Xavier, 524- Pav. HLC, sala 136 terreo- CEP 20.550- 013. Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    1998-12-31

    In this work the experimental determination of correction factor for fluence divergence (kln) of linear Cs-137 sources CDCS J4, with Farmer ionization chamber model 2571 in a central and perpendicular plan to source axis, for distances range from 1 to 7 cm., has been presented. The experimental results were compared to calculating by Kondo and Randolph (1960) isotropic theory and Bielajew (1990) anisotropic theory. (Author)

  12. The characteristics of intake Cs-137 and Sr-90 with food by Ozersk's inhabitants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dronova, M.

    2000-01-01

    This work is based on a questionnaire of production plant 'MAYAK' workers eating habits. Cs-137 and Sr-90 were chosen as experimental radionuclides. Cs-137 is distributed in organisms equally. It is considered to be a source of genetic damage after entry into the human body. This radionuclide is almost completely absorbed as it passes into the bowels after peroral entry. In the blood Cs-137 is distributed almost evenly between organs and tissues. It was established that Cs-137 accumulates in muscle, kidney, heart, spleen, lungs, and liver to a higher degree. Although the half-life of Cs-137 exceeds Sr-90, Cs-137 leaves the body more rapidly. The radiation dose of Cs-137 per unit of intake is less than for Sr-90. In addition, Cs-137 is absorbed by plants to a lesser degree than Sr-90. Taking into account that a considerable part of the daily diet consists of vegetables, it should be noted that different radionuclides get into plants in different amounts and different ways. Cs-137 concentrates in cereal, beans, oil plants, potatoes. beets and tomatoes. Meat and milk are also a main source of Cs-137 in a person's diet. Sr-90 contributes to radiation dose for bone and marrow, almost all Sr-90 is taken up by organisms through milk, greens, and cereal. (authors)

  13. Forms and rates of release of Cs-137 in 2 peat soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livens, F.R.; Howe, M.T.; Hemingway, J.D.; Goulding, K.W.T.; Howard, B.J.; IACR Rothamsted, Harpenden; Liverpool Univ.; Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, Grange-on-Sands

    1996-01-01

    Cation exchange resin saturated with H+ and Ca2+ was used to extract Cs-137 from peat soil at two sites in Britain affected by Cs-137 deposition following the Chernobyl accident. The technique identified three classes of Cs-137, similar to those observed for K+ in soils: ''Fast'', ''Intermediate'' and ''Slow''. These classes are probably related to the selectivity for Cs-137 of the cation exchange sites on the organic matter and the clay minerals, and to the structure of the soil. With one exception, most Cs-137 was in the ''Slow'' form and was only very slowly released to the resins, if at all. However, there was enough Cs-137 in the ''Fast'' and ''Intermediate'' forms to contaminate pasture and thus grazing animals for some years. Based on the resin technique, it is estimated that contamination will persist for several decades in uplands contaminated at these activity concentrations. (Author)

  14. Bioremoval of Am-241 and Cs-137 from liquid radioactive wasters by bacterial consortiums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Rafael Vicente de Padua; Lima, Josenilson B. de; Gomes, Mirella C.; Borba, Tania R.; Bellini, Maria Helena; Marumo, Julio Takehiro; Sakata, Solange Kazumi

    2011-01-01

    This paper evaluates the capacity of two bacterial consortiums of impacted areas in removing the Am-241 and Cs-137 from liquid radioactive wastes.The experiments indicated that the two study consortiums were able to remove 100% of the Cs-137 and Am-241 presents in the waste from 4 days of contact. These results suggest that the bio removal with the selected consortiums, can be a viable technique for the treatment of radioactive wastes containing Am-241 and Cs-137

  15. Cs-137 brachytherapy sources calibration with well chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunetto, M.; Sansogne, R.; Arbiser, S.; Duran, M.P.

    2004-01-01

    This work describes the procedures and actions developed for the identification and reference air kerma rate (S k ) verification of Cs-137 sources used in gynecological brachytherapy practices. Following the IAEA TECDOC 1151 recommendations, the first stage consisted in designing the documentation required for the inventory and shipping registry of sources, along with the digital spreadsheets for calculating the decay and S k of the sources at the moment of implantation. As a second stage, the S k of sources was measured, following the low dose rate sources protocol advise, with a Standard Imaging HDR 1000 Plus well chamber calibrated at the University of Wisconsin SSDL. The documentation generated through this procedure allows identify each source clearly and uni-vocally. No significant differences were found between the S k values obtained from the well chamber calibration procedure and those reported by the manufacturer in the corresponding certificates. The highest percent difference found was 2.3%. (author) [es

  16. Cs-137 behaviour in landscape-geochemical structures of barrier complexes; Povedenie Cs-137 v landshaftno-geokhimicheskikh strukturakh bar`ernykh kompleksov

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strakh, L I; Ivashkevich, I I; Adamovich, A A [Akadehmiya Navuk Belarusi, Minsk (Belarus). Inst. Radyyabiyalogii; Zarubin, O L [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev (Ukraine). Inst. Yadernykh Issledovanij

    1999-12-31

    The Cs-137 distribution and cumulation accrues more actively in a marsh ecological systems of barrier complexes. The physical chemical and biogeochemical barriers influence on different way on these processes.

  17. 'Wash-out' of Cs-134 and Cs-137 from river sediment; 'Ispiranja' Cs-134 i Cs-137 iz recnog sedimenta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skrbic, Z; Conkic, Lj; Bikit, I; Veskovic, M; Slivka, J; Marinkov, L [Institut za Fiziku, Novi Sad Univ. (Yugoslavia)

    1988-07-01

    Natural elimination and 'wash out' period of the Cs-134 and Cs-137 from the river sediment has been investigated. Obtained results suggest the possibility to describe these processes by exponential low and determination of the corresponding half lives. (author)

  18. Accumulation of Cs 137 by needles of pinus silvestris in various types of forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golushko, R.M.

    2002-01-01

    It is researched accumulation of Cs 137 by needles of pine trees during growing old. It is shown, that needles of the one year old have more high radioactivity than needles of the two or three years old. Needles of pine trees accumulated more Cs 137 on good wet soils

  19. Dynamic behaviour of Cs-137 contamination in trees of the Briansk region, Russia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogh, C.L.; Andersson, Kasper Grann

    2001-01-01

    Seven trees were felled in the Briansk region in 1997. The trees were sectioned for sampling, both at different heights and according to year rings, and samples were analysed for content of Cs-137. I, general, the specific activity of Cs-137 was much higher in the fresh parts of the three (needle...

  20. The Concentration of Cs-137 Pollutan in Water Pumps in Several Cities of Java Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nareh, M; Warsono, A; Indiyati, T; Yurfida; Buchari

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this research is to know the concentration of Cs-137 in the water pumps. The concentration of Cs-137 pollutant in the water pumps from 10 cities in Java Island had been determined. Cs-137 in big volume of water was collected in cation exchanger and eluted with 6N HCl solution. Cs-137 in the eluen was precipitated by ammoniumphosphomolybdate (AMP), soluted using NaOH solution and finally measured using Spectrometer Gamma Canberra 35 Plus with high pure germanium detector (HPGe). The results of measurement indicate that the concentration of cs-137 in the tested water pumps are in the range of under minimum detectable (BDT) to 2,06 + 0,79 mBq/I

  1. Treatment of low and intermediate aqueous waste containing Cs-137 by chemical precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdezco, E.M.; Marcelo, E.A.; Alamares, A.L.; Junio, J.B.; Dela Cruz, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    The use of radioactive materials in various applications has been increasing since its introduction in the early sixties. The Philippine Nuclear Research Institute has established a centralized facility for treating radioactive wastes i.e. aqueous wastes with assistance from the International Atomic Energy Agency - Technical Cooperation Programme. Liquid wastes containing Cs-137 are generated from aqueous wastes containing Cs-137 by nickel ferrocyanide precipitation will be presented. The aim of this study is to investigate the efficiency treatment in removing Cs-137 from an aqueous effluent. Actual aqueous wastes known to contain Cs-137 were used in the experiments. Low cost and simple nickel ferrocyanide precipitation method with the aid of a flocculant has been selected for the separation of Cs-137 from low and intermediate aqueous waste. By varying the chemical dosage added into the aqueous waste, different decontamination factors were obtained. Hence, the optimum dosage of the chemicals that give the highest decontamination factor can be determined. (author)

  2. Hanford Isotope Project strategic business analysis Cesium-137 (Cs-137)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of this business analysis is to address the beneficial reuse of Cesium 137 (Cs-137) in order to utilize a valuable national asset and possibly save millions of tax dollars. Food irradiation is the front runner application along with other uses. This business analysis supports the objectives of the Department of Energy National Isotope Strategy distributed in August 1994 which describes the DOE plans for the production and distribution of isotope products and services. As part of the Department`s mission as stated in that document. ``The Department of Energy will also continue to produce and distribute other radioisotopes and enriched stable isotopes for medical diagnostics and therapeutics, industrial, agricultural, and other useful applications on a businesslike basis. This is consistent with the goals and objectives of the National Performance Review. The Department will endeavor to look at opportunities for private sector to co-fund or invest in new ventures. Also, the Department will seek to divest from ventures that can more profitably or reliably be operated by the private sector.``

  3. Hanford Isotope Project strategic business analysis Cesium-137 (Cs-137)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of this business analysis is to address the beneficial reuse of Cesium 137 (Cs-137) in order to utilize a valuable national asset and possibly save millions of tax dollars. Food irradiation is the front runner application along with other uses. This business analysis supports the objectives of the Department of Energy National Isotope Strategy distributed in August 1994 which describes the DOE plans for the production and distribution of isotope products and services. As part of the Department's mission as stated in that document. ''The Department of Energy will also continue to produce and distribute other radioisotopes and enriched stable isotopes for medical diagnostics and therapeutics, industrial, agricultural, and other useful applications on a businesslike basis. This is consistent with the goals and objectives of the National Performance Review. The Department will endeavor to look at opportunities for private sector to co-fund or invest in new ventures. Also, the Department will seek to divest from ventures that can more profitably or reliably be operated by the private sector.''

  4. The content of Cs 137 in mushrooms of Chernobyl NPP alienation zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarubina, N.E.; Golovach, A.I.; Golovach, L.A.

    2002-01-01

    The Cs 137 contents in S. luteus is more in 1.5 - 20 times, than in B. edulis, selected on one polygon. However this ratio has changed and Cs 137 contents in S. luteus equals to contents in B. edulis in territory of some polygons of Chernobyl NPP alienation zone in 2000 and 2001. Therefore, as indicators of Cs 137 contamination by wood ecosystems it is necessary to use two or more kinds of mushrooms differing by depth of mycelium's localization in soil

  5. Contamination of medicinal plants by Cs 137 in the Narowlya area of the Gomel' region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapegin, L.M.; Dajneko, N.M.; Timofeev, S.F.

    2008-01-01

    There have been analysed 69 samples of medicinal herbs and 8 samples of soils (the Gomel Region, Narowlya area) for measuring the contents level of Cs 137 in them. Only the samples of the ordinary pine, Helichrysum arenareum and Thymus serpyllum of the summer crop turned out corresponding to the norm on Cs 137 of RDL/MT P - 2004. The rest 23 species of the medicinal herb appeared to contain 2 - 122 times as more Cs 137 then standards of RDL/MT P - 2004. (authors)

  6. Evaluation of the processes used for the treatment of the hospitable radwastes containing Cs-137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peres, S.S.; Silva, J.J.G.

    1988-01-01

    This work presents a resume of results obtained in the treatment of radwastes containing Cs-137 from HNMD (Hospital Naval Marcilio Dias) and IRD (Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria), due to the radiological accident of Goiania. (author) [pt

  7. Anticipated transport of Cs-137 from Steel Creek following L-Area restart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, D.W.

    1982-01-01

    Heat exchanger cooling water, spent fuel storage basin effluents, and process water from P and L-Reactor Areas were discharged to Steel Creek beginning in 1954. Cs-137 was the most significant radionuclide discharged to the environs. Once the Cs-137 was discharged from P and L-Area reactors to Steel Creek, it became associated with silt and clay in the Steel Creek system. After its association with the silt and clay, the Cs-137 becomes part of the sediment transport process and undergoes continual deposition-resuspension in the stream system. This report discusses the expected fate and transport of Cs-137 currently present in the Steel Creek system after L-Reactor restart

  8. Particularities of Cs-137 accumulation by mushrooms in different zones of radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shatrova, N.E.; Zarubin, O.L.; Koval', G.N.; Shovkun, N.A.; Ogorodnik, A.F.

    1998-01-01

    The cumulation of Cs-137 by the mushrooms of 30 km zone is more intensively, than on the 'southern' trace. The biggest concentrations are discovered in local mushrooms: Suillus luteus (L.) and Paxillus involutus (Batsch:Fr.)

  9. Contamination of foodstuffs in Styria (Austria) by J-131 and Cs-137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninaus, W.; Kahr, G.; Oswald, K.; Mueller, H.

    1993-01-01

    Cs-137 activities of various foodstuffs were measured from May to December 1986. Results from different sites are compared. In the particular case of blueberry there is a time series from 1985 to 1992

  10. Cs-137 behaviour in landscape-geochemical structures of barrier complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strakh, L.I.; Ivashkevich, I.I.; Adamovich, A.A.; Zarubin, O.L.

    1998-01-01

    The Cs-137 distribution and cumulation accrues more actively in a marsh ecological systems of barrier complexes. The physical chemical and biogeochemical barriers influence on different way on these processes

  11. Parameters of Cs 137 and Sr 90 transition from soil into salad crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarevich, T.M.; Barashenko, V.V.

    2010-01-01

    Transition coefficients of Cs 137 and Sr 90 from soil into plants for potherb of bulb onion (Allium cepa), parsley (Petroselinum crispum), dill (Anethum graveolens), celery (Apium graveolens) and coriander (Coriandrum sativum) have been defined. (authors)

  12. Chitosan-ferrocyanide sorbent for Cs-137 removal from mineralized alkaline media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egorin, Andrei [Far Eastern Federal Univ., Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Institute of Chemistry FEBRAS, Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Ozyorsk Technical Institute MEPHI, Ozersk (Russian Federation); Tokar, Eduard [Far Eastern Federal Univ., Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Zemskova, Larisa [Institute of Chemistry FEBRAS, Vladivostok (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-01

    An organomineral sorbent based on mixed nickel-potassium ferrocyanide and chitosan to be used in removal of Cs-137 radionuclide from highly mineralized media with high pH has been fabricated. The synthesized sorbent was applied to remove Cs-137 from model solutions under static and dynamic conditions. The effects of contact time, pH, and presence of sodium ions and complexing agents in the process of Cs-137 removal have been investigated. The sorbent is distinguished by increased stability to the impact of alkaline media containing complexing agents, whereas the sorbent capacity in solutions with pH 11 exceeds 1000 bed volumes with the Cs-137 removal efficiency higher than 95%.

  13. Prognosis of Cs 137 dynamics in Pripyat river using mathematical modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ris, T.V.

    2010-01-01

    The analysis of measured and predicted data of Cs 137 dynamics in the water of Pripyat River are given using mathematical models developed by J. Smith (AQUASCOPE), L. Hakanson, and proposed transport model. (authors)

  14. The inflow of Cs-137 in soil with root litter and root exudates of Scots pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcheglov, Alexey; Tsvetnova, Olga; Popova, Evgenia

    2017-04-01

    In the model experiment on evaluation of Cs-137 inflow in the soil with litter of roots and woody plants root exudates on the example of soil and water cultures of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) was shown, that through 45 days after the deposit Cs-137 solution on pine needles (specific activity of solution was 3.718*106 Bk) of the radionuclide in all components of model systems has increased significantly: needles, small branches and trunk by Cs-137 surface contamination during the experiment; roots as a result of the internal distribution of the radionuclide in the plant; soil and soil solution due to the of receipt Cs-137 in the composition of root exudates and root litter. Over 99% of the total reserve of Cs-137 accumulated in the components of the soil and water systems, accounted for bodies subjected to external pollution (needles and small branches) and soil solution, haven't been subjected to surface contamination. At the same contamination of soil and soil solution by Cs-137 in the model experiment more than a> 99.9% was due to root exudates

  15. The correlation of the Cs 137 lateral and radial migration in the Sozh valley soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryabova, L.N; Kuznetsov, V.A.; Glaz, A.S.

    2002-01-01

    Radiocesium distribution in soils of four geochemical landscapes: eluvial - watershed, transeluvial - terrace slope upper part, transaccumulative - slope lower part, accumulative - flood plain is discussed. Maximum concentration of Cs 137 (2,961...3,280 Bq/kg) was noted in the soil of eluvial landscapes, with a depth of the isotope migration being 26 cm. Its accumulation is associated with the biogeochemical and sorption geochemical barriers. Fe, Ca, Pb, Mn, Ni, Cr and Cu are accumulated simultaneously with Cs 137. The maximum concentration of Cs 137 is confined to the humus horizon of buried soils in the transition landscapes and in the upper part of relict horizons (geochemical barrier), where the Cs 137, Fe, Ca and Mn penetration increases. The lower part of the buried humus horizon is impermeable for Cs 137 migration and partly permeable for Fe, Ca, Mg, that migrate in soluble forms. Cs 137 is accumulated in the humus horizon of buried soils, that occur in the lower parts of slopes and are overlain by light deposits. Radiocesium is accumulated with Al, Fe, Ti, Ca, Mg and trace elements. By the value of a coefficient R9 the buried humus horizon is divided into the upper and lower parts. In the soils of accumulative landscapes radiocesium is accumulated in the sod of the central flood plain lows. In the elevated parts the radial migration is dominant and Cs-137 is accumulated in the humus horizons. Radiocesium is accumulated under the influence of different barriers in the river channel flood plain. A system of watershed - flood plain for Cs 137 is as follows: central flood plain low (6,045...1,955 Bq/kg) > watershed (2,961...3,280) > slope upper part (1,436) > central flood plain elevation (870...4,844), river channel flood plain (381 Bq/kg). Its accumulation in the humus horizons follows the pattern: central flood plain elevation (302...429 Bq/kg) > buried soils (1,055...1,941) > slope upper part (1,628) > river channel flood plain (424) > > watershed (52

  16. The influence of soil type at Cs-137-spreading in soil depth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyrpanova, Kh.; Jordanova, I.

    1995-01-01

    The distribution of Cs-137 in soil depth up to 15 cm was examined for four types of soil - leached black earth, calcareous black earth, brown forest soil and slightly leached humus-calcareous soil. The behaviour of Cs-137 before and after Chernobyl accident depending on soil type was determined using Cs-134. Accounting for halftime effect of Cs-134 it was possible to distinguish the penetration of the Chernobyl Cs-137 from that of the older one. The same degree of penetration has been achieved: for 30 years for the old Cs-137 and only for a year for the Chernobyl one probably due to its modification. The most expressed tendency to penetrate in depth has been observed at the calcareous black earth (from Kozloduy region, with highest pH value and basis content), the least - at the brown forest soil (from Smolyan region, lowest pH value and basis content). The mineral composition and organic matter content influence the penetration process. The humus matter absorbs Cs-137. Thus it is accessible to the plants, but its penetration is limited to 2.5 cm. 9 refs., 2 tabs. (author)

  17. On the geochemistry of 'Chernobyl' Cs-137 and Sr-90 in the Black Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batrakov, G.F.; Chudinovskikh, T.V.; Zemlyanoi, A.D.; Eremeev, V.N.

    1998-01-01

    The following correlations for Cs 137 and Sr 90 were found. For Cs-137, the relation of its concentration in suspended matter to that in the dissolved component is 2.4 centre dot 10 5 in the Dnieper waters and 0.0037 centre dot 10 5 in the North-West shelf waters; for Sr-90 - 0.44 centre dot 10 3 and 2.8 centre dot 10 3 , respectively. The relation of the concentration of dissolved Cs-137 in the sea and in the Dnieper waters is 4.3, and for Sr-90 - 0.25. It is evident that these basic correlations for Cs-137 are close to those for stable cesium. These correlations for Sr-90 differ very much from those for stable strontium. So, the situation formed for the last time in the boundary area 'the Dnieper river - the North-Western Black Sea' is close to the balanced one for Cs-137, while it is very far from that for Sr-90

  18. Features of present day Cs 137 contamination of Bryansk-Belarusian Poles'e

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvasnikova, E.V.; Stukin, E.D.; Zhukova, O.M.; Germenchuk, M.G.; Zhukova, O.Mit.; Shagalova, E.D.; Bakarykava, Zh.V.; Kirienko, N.V.

    2005-01-01

    This article is devoted to estimation of changes of the area of radioactive pollution in Bryansk-Belarusian Poles'e due to intensity of landscape factors influence. Research of influence of geochemical conditions on transformation of soil pollution with Cs 137 was carried out on the catchment of small and medium size rivers: the Besed' river (Bryansk-Belarusian cesium spot), the Nesvich river (the territory of exclusion zone of Chernobyl NPP) (Belarus), the Moskovka river and the Oleshnya river (Russia) of Dnieper basin (Bryansk-Belarusian cesium spot). Investigation results have shown that soddy podsolic sandy soil under a pine forest resist Cs 137 migration, strongly fixing this radionuclide in a thin layer of the humus horizon lying under forest litter. In the processes of redistribution of Cs 137 in hydromorphous landscapes of Bryansk woodlands, vertical migration prevails above lateral one. In soils with redundant humidification Cs 137 significant transfer from the top 5-cm layer of soil occurs in comparison with automorphous soils. On arable lands there is an appreciable Cs 137 transfer in a horizontal direction and its accumulation on negative elements of relief. (authors)

  19. Analysis of cows' milk in the content of radioactive cs137 gamma-spectrometric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagidulin, Z.Z.; Isayev, R.Sh.; Guseynova, I.A.

    2010-01-01

    Full text : The most intense pollution of the environment Cs137 (after the ban of atmospheric nuclear weapons tests), was the result of the Chernobyl accident in 1986. The consequence of this accident was the accumulation of large amounts of Cs-137 in the atmosphere, which was the source of the global fallout of this isotope in the Earth's surface, including the territory of Azerbaijan. When considering livestock as one of the links of contamination by radioactive substances in food chains should be recognized that the main risk associated with the accumulation of radioactive Cs137 in the soil, plants and animal products originating ultimately in the human diet. The aim of this study was to determine the radioactive Cs137 in cow's milk. Subsequent samples of milk were purchased in stores and have been measured in the native form. Pal Sud milk produced in Azerbaijan. On Health - Russia. Savushkin product - Belarus. As a radiometric measurement setup Cs137 in cow's milk was used semiconductor gamma-ray spectrometer with a detection unit based on the detection of high-purity germanium (manufactured by Canberra) in the lead shielding.

  20. The influence of nitrogen - urea fertilization to leaves and chloride chlorocholine on the accumulation Cs-137 in spring wheat crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrynczuk, B.; Weber, R.

    1998-01-01

    In pot experiments were studied effects of using nitrogen urea solution to leaves and use chloride chlorocholine on the Cs-137 accumulation in spring wheat crops. The Cs-137 contamination was conducted from soil and through leaves. It has been found that use nitrogen fertilization as urea solution spray and in addition use chloride chlorocholine caused an increase of Cs-137 concentration in grain from the contaminated soil. Accumulation of Cs-137 in spring wheat grain is 2-4 times higher coming from the contaminated leaves in blooming phase in comparison to the grain of plants contaminated in spread phase. The urea solution fertilization used on leaves and addition chloride chlorocholine did not influence the Cs-137 accumulation in grain when the plants were contaminated in the early growing phase. The Cs-137 contamination brought on the plants after using chloride chlorocholine in subsequent growing phases passed early into spring wheat grain. (author)

  1. Instrumental analysis of low level of Cs-137 in marine samples by gamma spectrometry; Analise instrumental de baixos niveis de Cs-137 em amostras marinhas por espectrometria gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueira, Rubens C.L.; Silva, Luiz R.N.; Figueiredo, Ana M.G.; Cunha, Ieda I.L. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Supervisao de Radioquimica

    1997-12-31

    An instrumental method for low level Cs-137 analysis in marine samples is presented. The method consists in the detector calibration, as well as, determination of detector counting efficiency, accumulative counting of both background and sample and smoothing of 661.6 keV photopeak. The methodology was applied in reference samples and in sediments samples of south Brazilian coast 11 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.; e-mail: figueira at net.ipen.br

  2. Final report on COOMET.RI(II)-S2.Cs-137 (319/RU/04): Comparison measurements of radionuclide volume sources (Cs-137)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korostin, S. [All Russian Research Institute for Physical-Technical and Radio-Technical Measurements (VNIIFTRI), Mendeleevo (Russian Federation); Hernandez, T.; Oropesa, P. [Center of Isotopes - Radionuclide Metrology Department (CENTIS-DMR), Habana (Cuba); Arnold, D. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Braunschweig (Germany); Evseev, V. [National Scientific Centre ' Institute of Metrology' (NSC IM), Kharkov (Ukraine); Ivanukovich, A.; Milevskiy, V. [Belarusian State Institute of Metrology (BelGIM), Minsk (Belarus); Svec, A. [Slovak Institute of Metrology (SMU), Bratislava (Slovakia); Lapenas, A. [Latvian National Metrology Centre Ltd, Radiation Metrology and Testing Centre (RMTC), Salaspils (Latvia); Andonova, V. [Bulgarian Institute of Metrology - National Centre of Metrology (BIM-NCM), Sofia (Bulgaria); Steiner, V. [Ministry of the Environment - Radiation and Noise Division (ISR-MoE), Jerusalem (Israel)

    2010-04-15

    Measurements of the Cs-137 specific activity in artificial volume material of water density were performed in nine laboratories with HPGe spectrometry technique. Analysis of the gamma radiation absorption in measured material and in the most important for environmental monitoring substances (food, water, biological materials, soils) confirmed the Compton scattering as the main mechanism of interaction. The list of CMCs supported by the comparison is suggested. (authors)

  3. Final report on COOMET.RI(II)-S2.Cs-137 (319/RU/04): Comparison measurements of radionuclide volume sources (Cs-137)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korostin, S.; Hernandez, T.; Oropesa, P.; Arnold, D.; Evseev, V.; Ivanukovich, A.; Milevskiy, V.; Svec, A.; Lapenas, A.; Andonova, V.; Steiner, V.

    2010-01-01

    Measurements of the Cs-137 specific activity in artificial volume material of water density were performed in nine laboratories with HPGe spectrometry technique. Analysis of the gamma radiation absorption in measured material and in the most important for environmental monitoring substances (food, water, biological materials, soils) confirmed the Compton scattering as the main mechanism of interaction. The list of CMCs supported by the comparison is suggested. (authors)

  4. Applications of Cs-137 and soil trapping methods for studying slope processes in the Carpathian foothills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelmicki, Wojciech

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Areas of soil degradation and sedimentation have been delimited within a single, representative for the Carpathian Foothills, slope profile. Two methods: Cs-137 and soil trapping have been used. Soil degradation on the slope used as a pastureland is generally small, with the most intensive degradation in the mid slope. Once the slope was cultivated the process of erosion and soil wash must have been more intensive which is evidenced by high Cs-137 content within the valley bottom deposits. High Cs-137 content within forested ecosystems results from good Cs-137 trapping efficiency of forests rather than from the soil deposition.

    [es] Aplicación del Cs-137 y de métodos de trampeo de suelo para estudiar procesos de ladera en el piedemonte de los Cárpatos. Se han delimitado las áreas afectadas por erosión y sedimentación en un perfil de ladera, representativo del piedemonte de los Cárpatos. Se han empleado dos métodos: Cesio-137 y trampas de sedimentos. Se ha demostrado que la erosión del suelo en laderas utilizadas para pastos es generalmente pequeña, apareciendo las degradaciones más intensas a media ladera. Cuando la ladera estaba cultivada, los procesos de erosión debían ser más intensos, como lo evidencia el alto contenido de Cs-137 en los depósitos de fondo de valle. El elevado contenido de Cs-137 en ecosistemas forestales se debe a la eficacia de los bosques para atrapar el Cs-137, más que a la sedimentación.
    [de] Anwendung der Cs-137 und der Fangmethode zur bestimmung der Hangvorgänge im Karpatenhügelland. Entlang eines Hangprofíls innerhalb des Karpatenhügellandes sind Stellen ermitteit worden an denen, entweder Erosion oder Deposition festgestellt wurden. Das wurde aufgrund zweier fvlethoden bestimmt: anhand des radioaktiven Cs-137 und der Menge des erodierten Materials in eigens für diesen Zweck hergestellten Auffangbehältern. Es wurde festgestellt, dass aufeinem ais Weide genutzten Han die Intensit

  5. Cancer risk due to Cs-137 and Sr-90 dietary intake after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toader, M.; Vasilache, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    The most important radionuclides carried by the radioactive plume over Romania were I 131 , Cs 134 , Cs 137 and Sr 90 . As in many other countries, in the first days, I 131 had the main contribution to the irradiation dose released to the population. After its decay, and the decay of the other short-lived radionuclides, Cs 137 and Sr 90 remained the most important contaminants. The principal route of intake for these two radionuclides is considered to be the ingestion of contaminated foods. Assessments of radiation doses to people living in the Bucharest area have utilized data obtained from measurement of Cs 137 and Sr 90 content in dietary intake samples for a number of subjects of different ages and sexes. This paper summarizes the results of some of our measurements performed since April 1986 until March 1995. 7 refs, 8 figs

  6. Levels of Cs-137 and pathological shifts in the organs and tissues of dead humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lushnikov, E.F.; Koleganov, Yu.F.; Lantsov, S.I.; Mozhaev, V.K.; Solov'eva, L.P.; Fomin, S.D.

    1996-01-01

    Measurements of the levels of Cs-137, alpha- and beta-radionuclides in the organs and tissues of 30 subjects dead 6 years after the accident, assessment of the pathological shifts and relationships between these shifts and exposure was carried out at territories contaminated with radionuclides in the Bryansk and Kaluga districts, in the town of Obninsk, and in region of Russia free of radionuclides. Study of radioautographs did not show alpha- or beta-radionuclides in any of the dead subjects. Cs-137 was detected in small quantities in the organs of all cadavers (3 to 424 Bq/kg) irrespective of their residence. The extent of radioactivity varied for different organs and was unrelated to organ pathology. Moreover, Cs-137 was detected in the organs of dead newborns and two-month-old infants, whose patients lived at territories contaminated with radionuclides [ru

  7. Mineral capacity of peat soils organic matter and entry of Cs137 into perennial grasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsybulko, N.N.; Shapsheeva, T.P.; Arastovich, T.V.; Zajtsev, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    The results of the study of peat soils organic substance structure with various peat ash content are given. Contents of active organic substance and carbon of microbial biomass in peat and boggy soil with 20% peat ash content is 3.0-3.5 and 1.6-1.8 times higher correspondingly, than thus in peaty-gley soil with 70% peat ash content. At peat and boggy soil with low peat ash content Cs137 transition into hay is minimal. 14 times higher than at peaty-gley soil with 70% peat ash content. Application of fertilizers at peat and boggy soil reduces Cs137 transition factor 4.7-6.4 times if compared to peaty-gley soil (2.1-4.7 times). Close positive interconnection between Cs137 transition factors from soil into the plants and organic carbon soil contents, absolute contents of potentially mineralized carbon and mineralization degree

  8. Residual contamination from Cs-137 in the Sondrio area (Lombardy - Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimoldi, E.M.; Leonardi, L.; Cavallone, E.; Bignazzi, R.; Galimberti, A.

    2000-01-01

    The authors conducted the investigations on the contamination by Cs-137, resulting from Chernobyl's Accident, in the Sondrio area (Lombardy, Italy). Analyses were performed with NaI (T1) spectrometer. 130 samples collected from superficial earth layer (up to 15 cm) and deep earth layer (from 15 to 30 cm) of woods and meadows, pond's mud, mosses, mushrooms, wild wood fruits, forages, striated muscle from deer, chamois and roe deer, goat's and cow's milk, and running and stagnant water, were studied. Superficial earth samples always showed a higher Cs-137 concentration compared to deep earth samples, their mean activities being 68 Bq/kg (sup. wood) and 18 Bq/kg (sup. meadow). In 1 sample from superficial wood earth in Val Belsivo, the concentration was 1109 Bq/kg. The mud samples had a mean Cs-137 concentration of 96 Bq/kg. Cs-137 was always present in mosses with a mean activity of 234 Bq/kg, whereas in mushrooms contamination was continuous (mean, 63 Bq/kg). Cs-137 was absent in wild wood fruits and in forages except for one sample of bilberry (12 Bq/Kg) and one sample of forage (54 Bq/Kg). In the striated muscle samples from wild animals, chamois always showed high Cs-137 concentration (29 Bq/kg), but was intermediate in roe deer (18 Bq/kg) and lowest in deer (5 Bq/kg). In 4 deer and 4 roe deer, contamination was undetectable. Running and stagnant waters, and cow's milk were not contaminated whereas some Cs-137 activities were detected in goat milk samples (18 Bq/kg). It is concluded that residual contamination from Chernobyl's accident in the investigated areas has by now just become a scientific interest and no longer a sanitary issue, as the contamination levels detected in all the samples are clearly below the maximal admissible levels established by the European Gazettes. However, it is interesting to note that the recycling of Cs-137 is more present in wood, confirming the delicate environmental balance of this ecosystem. The routine radio

  9. Effective ecological half-lives of Cs-137 for fishes controlled by their surrounding sea-waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, T.; Yoshida, K.

    2004-01-01

    National Research Institute of Fisheries Science (NRIFS) has carried out the long term monitoring program for radioactive pollution in marine organisms caught around Japan in order to confirm the safety of marine organisms as food source. Main radionuclide in our monitoring program is Cs-137 because it has the relatively high radiotoxicity and the long term physical half-life (about 30.1 y), and tends to accumulate in the muscle. Recently, the effective ecological half-lives have been introduced to estimate the recovery time from radioactive pollution, and been applicable to various ecosystems. In this study, effective ecological half-lives of Cs-137 for some fishes were calculated from our long term monitoring data. It is known that fish species have each effective ecological half-lives. However, it has been unclear what change the effective ecological half-lives of Cs-137 for fishes. Fishes intake Cs-137 through food chain and directly from their surrounding sea-waters. Accordingly, the effective ecological half-lives of Cs-137 for some fishes would be controlled by the effective environment half-lives of Cs-137 for their surrounding sea-waters. There is difference in effective environment half-lives of Cs-137 between the open ocean and the coastal sea-waters because they have the different input sources of Cs-137. Some fishes move between the open ocean and the coastal areas, and therefore their effective ecological half-lives of Cs-137 are influenced by the effective environment half-lives of Cs-137 for sea-waters of both areas. Consequently, the differences in effective ecological half-lives of Cs-137 among fish species would depend the rate of coastal area in their lives. (author)

  10. Cs-137 sorption and desorption in relation to properties of 17 soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerpen, W.

    1988-01-01

    For Cs-137 sorption and desorption studies material of Ap and Ah horizons from 17 soils with wide varying soil properties was selected. The soils were: Podsol, Luvisol, Chernozem, Cambisol, Phaeozem, Arenosol, Gleysol and other soils. The Cs-137 sorption and desorption experiments were carried out in aqueous solution (20 g of soil) under standardized conditions for two reasons: (1) to determine the amounts of Cs-137 sorption, desorption and remains as a function of different soils and (2) to evaluate the soil parameters which govern the sorption, desorption processes. Concerning the second point the sorption values, the amount of 137 Cs desorbed within four desorption cycles and the 137 Cs remains after four desorption cycles were correlated with pH, grain size, sorption capacity (CEC), and other soil properties. It will be shown that generally Cs-137 sorption, desorption and remains depend primarily on the pH of the soil. The middle sand proved to be an indicator for the strenght of sorption, and desorption processes. Sorption and desorption studies lead to the same results as found in biotest experiments

  11. Laboratory analyses of Cs-137 uptake by sunflower, reed and poplar

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soudek, Petr; Tykva, Richard; Vaněk, Tomáš

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 55, - (2004), s. 1081-1087 ISSN 0045-6535 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS4055014; GA MŠk OC 837.10 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : radiophytoremediation * Cs-137 * potassium ions Subject RIV: DK - Soil Contamination ; De-contamination incl. Pesticides Impact factor: 2.359, year: 2004

  12. The cellular wall role of different mosses species in Cs 137 sorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobchenko, V.A.; Khramchenkova, O.M.; Perevolockij, A.N.

    2001-01-01

    In studying experiment with live and modified mosses (Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt., Dicranum polysetum Sw., Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) B.S.G. and Ptilium crista-castrensis (Hedw.) De Not.) had shown the cellular wall main role in Cs 137 sorption

  13. Cs-137 concentration in food items common to the Filipino dietary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, B. de la

    1980-01-01

    The present investigation aims to determine the level of Cs-137 in various food items common to the Filipino dietary, consisting of cereals, fish, meat, vegetables and fruits and to estimate the average dose commitment of the average Filipino adult resulting from the aforementioned radionuclide. (author)

  14. Specificity of Cs-137 redistribution in toposequence of arable soils cultivated after the Chernobyl accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobova, Elena; Romanov, Sergey; Baranchukov, Vladimir; Berezkin, Victor; Moiseenko, Fedor; Kirov, Sergey

    2017-04-01

    Investigations performed after the Chernobyl accident showed high spatial variation of radionuclide contamination of the soil cover in elementary landscape geochemical systems (ELGS) that characterize catena's structure. Our studies of Cs-137 distribution along and cross the slopes of local ridges in natural forested key site revealed a cyclic character of variation of the radionuclide surface activity along the studied transections (Korobova et al, 2008; Korobova, Romanov, 2009; 2011). We hypothesized that the observed pattern reflects a specific secondary migration of Cs-137 with water, and that this process could have taken place in any ELGS. To test this hypothesis a detailed field measurement of Cs-137 surface activity was performed in ELGS in agricultural area cultivated after the Chernobyl accident but later withdrawn from land-use. In situ measurements carried out by field gamma-spectrometry were accompanied by soil core sampling at the selected points. Soil samples were taken in increments of 2 cm down to 20 cm and of 5 cm down to 40 cm. The samples were analyzed for Cs-137 in laboratory using Canberra gamma-spectrometer with HP-Ge detector. Obtained results confirmed the fact of area cultivation down to 20 cm that was clearly traced by Cs-137 profile in soil columns. At the same time, the measurements also showed a cyclic character of Cs-137 variation in a sequence of ELGS from watershed to the local depression similar to that found in woodland key site. This proved that the observed pattern is a natural process typical for matter migration in ELGS independently of the vegetation type and ploughing. Therefore, spatial aspect is believed to be an important issue for development of adequate technique for a forecast of contamination of agricultural production and remediation of the soil cover on the local scale within the contaminated areas. References Korobova, E.M., Romanov, S.L., 2009. A Chernobyl 137Cs contamination study as an example for the spatial

  15. The HYLOCOMIUM SPLENDENS use for research of Ignalina NPP vicinity contamination by Cs 137 and Co 60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiponas, D.; Marchiulenene, D.

    2002-01-01

    The superficial distribution of Cs 137 and Co 60 and specific activity of these radionuclides in Hylocomium splendens in Ignalina NPP vicinity was investigated. The increase of Cs 137 and Co 60 specific activity in Hylocomium splendens was linked with increasing of these radionuclides activity in atmospheric deposits

  16. Temporal relations between cs-137 in catchments and lakes. Samband mellan laeckage av cs-137 fran avrinningsomraden och haltutvecklingen i sjoear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nylen, T; Andersson, T; Lundell, A

    1994-06-01

    The aim of this work is to identify lakes and catchments in the boreal zone with high transfer of radioactive cesium (Cs-137) to water. Radiocesium turnover in lakes and distribution in the surrounding catchments are reported. The turnover is calculated by means of lakes specific parameters and the relative occurrence of mires in the catchments. A high transfer can be expected in lakes with slower turnover surrounded by catchments with large parts of opem mires. Another important factor for the concentration of radiocesium in water is the resuspension at sediments which is related to the depth of the lakes.

  17. 135Cs/137Cs isotopic composition of environmental samples across Europe: Environmental transport and source term emission applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snow, Mathew S.; Snyder, Darin C.

    2016-01-01

    135 Cs/ 137 Cs isotopic analyses represent an important tool for studying the fate and transport of radiocesium in the environment; in this work the 135 Cs/ 137 Cs isotopic composition in environmental samples taken from across Europe is reported. Surface soil and vegetation samples from western Russia, Ukraine, Austria, and Hungary show consistent aged thermal fission product 135 Cs/ 137 Cs isotope ratios of 0.58 ± 0.01 (age corrected to 1/1/15), with the exception of one sample of soil-moss from Hungary which shows an elevated 135 Cs/ 137 Cs ratio of 1.78 ± 0.12. With the exception of the outlier sample from Hungary, surface soil/vegetation data are in quantitative agreement with values previously reported for soils within the Chernobyl exclusion zone, suggesting that radiocesium at these locations is primarily composed of homogenous airborne deposition from Chernobyl. Seawater samples taken from the Irish Sea show 135 Cs/ 137 Cs isotope ratios of 1.22 ± 0.11 (age corrected to 1/1/15), suggesting aged thermal fission product Cs discharged from Sellafield. The differences in 135 Cs/ 137 Cs isotope ratios between Sellafield, Chernobyl, and global nuclear weapons testing fallout indicate that 135 Cs/ 137 Cs isotope ratios can be utilized to discriminate between and track radiocesium transport from different nuclear production source terms, including major emission sources in Europe. - Highlights: • 135 Cs/ 137 Cs useful for tracking anthropogenic environmental radiocesium releases. • European surface soils/vegetation have uniform ratio consistent with Chernobyl. • 135 Cs/ 137 Cs in Irish sea represents thermal fission ratio distinct from Chernobyl. • Can distinguish between major source terms in Europe based on 135 Cs/ 137 Cs.

  18. Long term behaviour and seasonal cycling of Cs-137 in a eutrophic lake in Southern Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klemt, E.; Knaus, J.; Putyrskaya, V.; Ries, T. [Hochschule Ravensburg-Weingarten (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    Lake Vorsee is a small and shallow eutrophic lake with a swampy watershed about 25 km north of Lake Constance in southern Germany which is intensely used for fishing by local fishermen. It is completely overgrown by watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) which produces thick watery organic sediment layers when it decomposes in late autumn and winter. In 1986 the watershed of Lake Vorsee had a Cs-137 Chernobyl inventory of about 30 kBq/m{sup 2}. The Cs-137 activity concentration in the water was monitored for more than 25 years and it can be well described by a sum of two exponential functions superimposed by some seasonal cycling. To analyze the seasonal cycling of the Cs-137 activity concentration in water and in suspended matter, samples were collected with a Large Volume Water Sampler (Midiya-System) on a monthly base and measured gamma-spectrometrically by HPGe-detectors. Also the Cs-137 distribution coefficient kD was determined. Additionally, in the lake water the concentration of the competing ions K{sup +} and NH{sub 4}{sup +} was determined by ion-chromatography, total organic carbon (TOC) with a combustion catalytic oxidation / NDIR detection method as well as the dissolved O{sub 2}-concentration and the pH and temperature of the water by hand-held probes. Information on the amount of precipitation was taken from nearby weather stations. In this project the following hypothesis will be checked: In late autumn the decomposing watermilfoil produces NH{sub 4}{sup +}-ions which exchange Cs{sup +}-ions from their binding places, thereby increasing the Cs-137 activity concentration in the water. In spring the watermilfoil starts growing which leads to a larger O{sub 2}-concentration in the water and helps to disintegrate the NH{sub 4}{sup +}-ions in this way decreasing the Cs-137 concentration again. A possible influence of the other measured parameters on the seasonal cycling will also be discussed. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  19. Validation of Cs-137 measurement in food samples using gamma spectrometry system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yii Mei Wo; Kamarozaman Ishak

    2005-01-01

    Cs-137 was found to be one of major radionuclide contaminant present in foods consumed by human. In some countries, regulations required consumption foods moving in international trade to be scanned for caesium (Cs-134 and Cs-137) to ensure it does not exceeding the maximum permissible level. This is to ensure that the intake of such foods will not accumulate radionuclide until the significant level inside the human body. Gamma Spectrometry System was used to perform the measurement of caesium isotopes, because it was one of the easiest methods to be performed. This measuring method must be validated for several parameters include specificity, precision (repeatability), bias (accuracy), linearity, range, detection limit, robustness and ruggedness in order to ensure it is fit for the purpose. This paper would summarise how these parameters were fulfilled for this analytical method using several types certified reference materials. The same validated method would be considered workable on Cs-134 as well. (Author)

  20. Water equivalency evaluation of PRESAGE® dosimeters for dosimetry of Cs-137 and Ir-192 brachytherapy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorjiara, Tina; Hill, Robin; Kuncic, Zdenka; Baldock, Clive

    2010-11-01

    A major challenge in brachytherapy dosimetry is the measurement of steep dose gradients. This can be achieved with a high spatial resolution three dimensional (3D) dosimeter. PRESAGE® is a polyurethane based dosimeter which is suitable for 3D dosimetry. Since an ideal dosimeter is radiologically water equivalent, we have investigated the relative dose response of three different PRESAGE® formulations, two with a lower chloride and bromide content than original one, for Cs-137 and Ir-192 brachytherapy sources. Doses were calculated using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo package. Our results indicate that PRESAGE® dosimeters are suitable for relative dose measurement of Cs-137 and Ir-192 brachytherapy sources and the lower halogen content PRESAGE® dosimeters are more water equivalent than the original formulation.

  1. A study of some characteristics of landslides by means of fallout Cs137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto Torres, J.; Gomez Arozamena, J.; Cendrero Uceda, A.; Diaz de Teran, J.R.; Gonzalez Diez, A.; Remondo Tejerina, J.; Alcaide Orpi, J.

    2000-01-01

    A new method to study some features of landslides on slopes is been used. The method is based on the measurement of the radioactive isotope Cs-137 at different points of the soil affected by the landslide. Three different landslides, which have recently happened in the north of Spain, have been studied through this method, by taking samples from the soil at 15 point altogether. The samples are cut every 5 cm depth and measured by gamma spectrometry to determine the Cs-137 in the points under study. The results obtained show important differences in the profiles and in the caesium inventories related to the position of the points along the soil. These differences have been used to describe some features of the landslides

  2. Radioactive Cs-137 discharge from Headwater Forested Catchment in Fukushima after Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwagami, S.; Onda, Y.; Tsujimura, M.; Sakakibara, K.; Konuma, R.

    2015-12-01

    Radiocesium migration from headwater forested catchment is important perception as output from the forest which is also input to the subsequent various land use and downstream rivers after Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. In this study, Cs-137 concentration of dissolved water, suspended sediment and coarse organic matter such as leaf and branch were monitored. Discharge amount of stream water, suspended sediment and coarse organic matter were measured to investigate the discharge amount of radiocesium and composition of radiocesium discharge form through the headwater stream. Observation were conducted at stream site in four headwater catchments in Yamakiya district, located ~35 km north west of FDNPP from June 2011 (suspended sediment and coarse organic matter: August 2012) to December 2014.The Cs-137 concentration of dissolved water was around 1Bq/l at June 2011. Then declined to 0.1 Bq/l at December 2011. And in December 2014, it declined to 0.01 Bq/l order. Declining trend of Cs-137 concentration in dissolved water was expressed in double exponential model. Also temporary increase was observed in dissolved Cs-137 during the rainfall event. The Cs-137 concentration of suspended sediment and coarse organic matter were 170-49000 Bq/kg and 350-14000 Bq/kg respectably. The Cs-137 concentration of suspended sediment showed good correlation with average deposition density of catchment. The effect of decontamination works appeared in declining of Cs-137 concentration in suspended sediment. Contribution rate of Cs-137 discharge by suspended sediment was 96-99% during a year. Total annual Cs-137 discharge from the catchment were 0.02-0.3% of the deposition.

  3. The influence of domestic and industrial treatment of food on Cs 137 content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombardi, C.C.; Monte, L.

    1988-01-01

    The environmental contamination due to the Chernobyl accident offers a large amount of data concerning the radioactive contamination of human food-chain. Using those data a research is being carried out to evaluate the behaviour of some radionuclides in food subjected to technological or domestic treatment. In this paper the authors discuss the consequences on the content of Cs-137 a) of domestic cooking of alimentary ''pasta'', b) of wheat milling, c) of milk coagulation to produce cheese

  4. The content of K-40, Sr-90 and Cs-137 in milk in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesar, D.; Maracic, M.; Marovic, M.

    1996-01-01

    Milk is one of the most important foodstuffs. The children's diet is based on milk and quality of milk has always been a subject of concern and continuous control. investigation of radioactivity in milk in Croatia has been started in 1960. The samples of milk were collected daily in the towns Osijek, Zadar and Zagreb. In monthly samples specific Sr-90 activities were determined by radiochemical separation, and Cs-137 and K-40 by gammaspectrometric analysis. The values obtained are shown in Figures 1 and 2. The ratio of Sr-90, Cs-137 and K-40 specific activities was calculated as well as the ratio of their maximum prmissible levels. By the division of these two ratios the ratio of their effectiveness was calculated. On basis of the obtained data the following conclusions can be drawn: 1. The level of Sr-90 in milk had been increasing by 1964. in the period that followed Sr-90 was exponentially decreasing which indicated that its content in milk originated mostly from nuclear weapon tests carried out in the period 1945 to 1962. 2. The content of Cs-137 in milk in Croatia has been exponentially decreasing since 1965 in spite of a great increase in 1986. This points to the fact that Cs-137 content in milk originated mostly from nuclear weapon tests in the period 1945 to 1962, and to a lesser degree from Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986. 3. The content of K-40 in milk has not changed significantly over the investigated period, but its level was not the same at all sampling locations. 4. The ratio of the impact of investigated radionuclides on man obtained from the samples of milk in the territory of Croatia is: 90 Sr : 137 Cs : 40 K = 1 : 2 : 5. (author)

  5. Standardization of 137mCs+137mBa by Liquid Scintillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, L.; Los Arcos, J.M.; Grau, A.

    1995-01-01

    A procedure for the preparation of a stable, homogeneous solution of 137Cs+''137mBa, for use in liquid scintillation measurements, is described. Its count rate stability and spectral time evolution has been followed for several weeks. The solution has been standardised by the CIEMAT/NIST method in both Ultima-Gold and Insta-Gel, to a combined uncertainty lower than 0,51 % (k=l). (Author) 5 refs

  6. Biosorption of Am-241 and Cs-137 by radioactive liquid waste by coffee husk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Rafael Vicente de Padua; Sakata, Solange Kazumi; Bellini, Maria Helena; Marumo, Julio Takehiro, E-mail: jtmarumo@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Radioactive Waste Management Laboratory of Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN-CNEN/SP, has stored many types of radioactive liquid wastes, including liquid scintillators, mixed wastes from chemical analysis and spent decontamination solutions. These wastes need special attention, because the available treatment processes are often expensive and difficult to manage. Biosorption using biomass of vegetable using agricultural waste has become a very attractive technique because it involves the removal of heavy metals ions by low cost biossorbents. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential of the coffee husk to remove Am-241 and Cs-137 from radioactive liquid waste. The coffee husk was tested in two forms, treated and untreated. The chemical treatment of the coffee husk was performed with HNO{sub 3} and NaOH diluted solutions. The results showed that the coffee husk did not showed significant differences in behavior and capacity for biosorption for Am-241 and Cs-137 over time. Coffee husk showed low biosorption capacity for Cs-137, removing only 7.2 {+-} 1.0% in 4 hours of contact time. For Am-241, the maximum biosorption was 57,5 {+-} 0.6% in 1 hours. These results suggest that coffee husk in untreated form can be used in the treatment of radioactive waste liquid containing Am-241. (author)

  7. Inline Monitors for Measuring Cs-137 in the SRS Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casella, V

    2006-04-24

    The Department of Energy (DOE) selected Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) as the preferred technology for the removal of radioactive cesium from High-Level Waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Before the full-scale Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) becomes operational, a portion of dissolved saltcake waste will be processed through a Modular CSSX Unit (MCU). The MCU employs the CSSX process, a continuous process that uses a novel solvent to extract cesium from waste and concentrate it in dilute nitric acid. Of primary concern is Cs-137 which makes the solution highly radioactive. Since the MCU does not have the capacity to wait for sample results while continuing to operate, the Waste Acceptance Strategy is to perform inline analyses. Gamma-ray monitors are used to: measure the Cs-137 concentration in the decontaminated salt solution (DSS) before entering the DSS Hold Tank; measure the Cs-137 concentration in the strip effluent (SE) before entering the SE Hold Tank; and verify proper operation of the solvent extraction system by verifying material balance within the process. Since this gamma ray monitoring system application is unique, specially designed shielding was developed and software was written and acceptance tested by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel. The software is a LabView-based application that serves as a unified interface for controlling the monitor hardware and communicating with the host Distributed Control System. This paper presents the design, fabrication and implementation of this monitoring system.

  8. Biosorption of Am-241 and Cs-137 by radioactive liquid waste by coffee husk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Rafael Vicente de Padua; Sakata, Solange Kazumi; Bellini, Maria Helena; Marumo, Julio Takehiro

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive Waste Management Laboratory of Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN-CNEN/SP, has stored many types of radioactive liquid wastes, including liquid scintillators, mixed wastes from chemical analysis and spent decontamination solutions. These wastes need special attention, because the available treatment processes are often expensive and difficult to manage. Biosorption using biomass of vegetable using agricultural waste has become a very attractive technique because it involves the removal of heavy metals ions by low cost biossorbents. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential of the coffee husk to remove Am-241 and Cs-137 from radioactive liquid waste. The coffee husk was tested in two forms, treated and untreated. The chemical treatment of the coffee husk was performed with HNO 3 and NaOH diluted solutions. The results showed that the coffee husk did not showed significant differences in behavior and capacity for biosorption for Am-241 and Cs-137 over time. Coffee husk showed low biosorption capacity for Cs-137, removing only 7.2 ± 1.0% in 4 hours of contact time. For Am-241, the maximum biosorption was 57,5 ± 0.6% in 1 hours. These results suggest that coffee husk in untreated form can be used in the treatment of radioactive waste liquid containing Am-241. (author)

  9. Calibration of a Gamma Spectrometry System Used for the Determination of Cs-137 in Spanish Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreraa, M.; Romero, M. L.; Valino, F.

    2008-01-01

    The document describes the methodology used at CIEMAT in order to determine, by gamma spectrometry, the background levels of the radionuclide Cs-137 in soils of the Spanish peninsular territory. the work is a part of an extensive research project developed jointly by the University of the Basque Country (UPV-EHU) and the CIEMAT, endellite Content and migration of radiocaesium and radiostrontium in Spanish soils, which is funded by the Plan I+D of the Spanish Nuclear Security Council (CSN). The objective of the project is to establish the reference levels of man-made radionuclides in Spanish soils, with respect to which the evaluation of a possible posterior accidental release of radioactive material could be appraised. The activity concentration of the fission products Cs-137 has been determined in 34 soil cores extracted from representative Spanish soils type zones. This publication describes the experimental system employed, its calibration, the particular conditions applied to perform the measurements, as well as the experimental validation of the methodology. The activity profiles and inventories of the radioactive element so obtained are also presented. The estimation of the background Cs-137 reference levels, will provide a basis for later applications as the study of the spatial distribution in the region, the determination of the correlation between the deposited activity and the meteorological conditions, or the calculation of the specific migration parameters of the radioactive elements in Mediterranean conditions. (Author) 15 refs

  10. Procedures, manufacturing and inspection of metallic packages for containment of wastes from Cs-137; Procedimentos, fabricacao e inspecao de embalagens metalicas para contencao de rejeitos do Cs-137

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, Mucio Jose Drummond de; Moreira, Marcilio Soares [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    1997-12-31

    The participation of technicians from the Supervision of Test and Metrology of CDTN - Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear, Belo Horizonte, Brazil, is described in several steps before the manufacturing of 16 (15 units + prototype) metallic packages for containment of wastes from Cs-137. The wastes were generated in the radiological accident that took place in Goiania in 1987. Inspections performed during the manufacturing of these packages in the period of March 10.th to May 18.th, 1993 in the Metalurgica Tocantins Ltda in Goiania are also described. Manufacturing and inspection criteria were performed according to rules and procedures specified in the bid number 03/91, presented in November 1991, by the environmental state secretary (Secretaria do Desenvolvimento Urbano e Meio Ambiente - SDUMA) from Goiania State. (author) 7 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Adsorption of Cs-137 and U-238 in semi-arid soils; Adsorcion de Cs-137 y U-238 en suelos semiaridos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez T, U. O. [Instituto Tecnologico de Toluca, Av. Tecnologico s/n, 52140 Metepec, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Monroy G, F.; Anguiano A, J. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Fernandez R, E., E-mail: uohtrejo@gmail.com [Universidad Politecnica del Valle de Toluca, Carretera Toluca-Almoloya de Juarez Km. 5.6, Santiaguito Tlalcilalcali, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    Is of great importance to determine the adsorption properties of the soils where radioactive wastes are stored, fundamentally of the radioisotopes contained in these wastes, with the purpose of knowing like will be their behavior in the event of happening radionuclide migration toward the surrounding means. Therefore, in this work the adsorption properties of {sup 137}Cs{sup +} and {sup 238}UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} in soils coming from the Storage Center of Radioactive Wastes are studied. Was studied the effect of the soil type and the particle size of the soil in the adsorption properties of Cs (I) and U (Vi). 13 soil samples and six different particle sizes were analyzed. The adsorption studies were carried out by the radiotracers technique in static way. The results indicate an important adsorption affinity toward the Cs-137 and a very vulnerable affinity for the {sup 238}UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}. (author)

  12. Soil erosion determination using the Cs-137 concentration in the soil profile, in a rain fall seasonal ecosystem of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, L.R.; Garcia, O.F.; Mass, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    The soils erosion is one of the main processes of environmental degradation. Latin America presents high levels of erosion however the works that quantificate this problem are few. The application of methods agreed to the tropical countries conditions represents an important limitation in the developing of these works. A methodological option that has arisen in the last years is the application of the distribution analysis of Cs-137 concentration in the soil profile, for estimating the soil motion in a seasonal tropical ecosystem in Chamela, Jalisco, Mexico. The low concentrations of Cs-137 were determined with a gamma spectroscopy system of high resolution and low noise. It is confirmed that the redistribution of Cs-137 in the landscape depends on erosive processes. The conclusion is that in the interpretation of Cs-137 levels it is necessary to incorporate morphology analysis of declivity since this is a low scale measurement. (Author)

  13. Accumulation of Cs-137 by vegetative and reproductive parts of superior water plants in Kanev water reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan'kov, I.V.; Prityka, T.P.; Ivanova, I.Yu.; Zarubin, O.L.

    1998-01-01

    The generative part of superior water plants of some ecological groups cumulates Cs-137 in such quantity than considerably exceeds its contain in others parts of the plant, that leads to the dose increase in the reproductive organs

  14. Determination of Cs-137, Sr-89 and Sr-90 and gamma spectroscopy of water samples from the Danube River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschurlovits, M.

    1980-01-01

    Radioactivity concentration of Cs-137, Sr-90, Sr-89, Co-60 and K-40 from the Danube water in the period of 1977-1979. A few systematic changes in the radioactivity concentrations were observed and presented. (author)

  15. Fission product behaviour - in particular Cs-137 - in HTR-TRISO-coated particle fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allelein, H.J.

    1980-12-01

    This work is performed between 1977 and 1979. The main task is to determine a temperature dependent diffusion coefficient of the fission product Cs-137 in the silicon carbide interlayer of HTR particles. The raw material is laso presented as the used measuring techniques and computer codes. The results are discussed in detail and some critical remarks are made about the efficiency of the silicon carbide interlayer to retent fission products including Ag-110m, Sr-90, and Ru-106, which temperature dependent diffusion coefficient is also been determined. (orig.) [de

  16. Multiscale structure of Cs-137 soil contamination on the Bryansk Region (Russia) due to the accident at the Chernobyl NPP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnik, Vitaly; Sokolov, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    The Cs-137 contamination of the Bryansk Region occurred in the period from April 27 to May 10 into several stages. The complicated character of the soil radionuclide contamination on the Bryansk Region is caused by different nature of the radioactive fallout: dry and wet. Thus, in a number of cases Cs-137 soil pollution is directly connected with the rain intensity, which is well known, have multifractal nature. In some parts of contaminated territory the overlay of different types of fallout was observed. The radioactive contamination of the landscape is a result from nonlinear interplay of geophysical factors which intervene over a large range of scale. As a result of the fallout Cs-137 pattern can be described as a multifractal. Consequently, fields of contamination observed have an extreme spatial variability, frequently cited "hot spots" or "leopard's skin. As an estimate of background radiation levels, we relied on a dataset of air-gamma-survey of the Bryansk Region, carried out by SSC AEROGEOFIZIKA in the summer of 1993. This dataset includes geo-positioned data of Cs-137 deposition in a grid of 100x100 m with values range from 3 to 11*104 kBq/m2. Airborne gamma survey gave the smoothed values of the Cs-137 density of contamination in comparison with the data, obtained directly as a result of soil sampling. However, even in this case in the east part of the Bryansk test site we can observed the"hot spots" (by size several hundred meters) as natural phenomenon. The article presents the results of the geostatistical and multifractal analysis of the Cs-137 contamination. Scaling analysis was conducted to investigate the linkages between the spatial variability of soil Cs-137 contamination and some landscape characteristics.

  17. Revision of the dosimetric parameters of the CSM11 LDR Cs-137 source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otal, Antonio; Martínez-Fernández, Juan Manuel; Granero, Domingo

    2011-03-01

    The clinical use of brachytherapy sources requires the existence of dosimetric data with enough of quality for the proper application of treatments in clinical practice. It has been found that the published data for the low dose rate CSM11 Cs-137 source lacks of smoothness in some regions because the data are too noisy. The purpose of this study was to calculate the dosimetric data for this source in order to provide quality dosimetric improvement of the existing dosimetric data of Ballester et al . [1]. In order to obtain the dose rate distributions Monte Carlo simulations were done using the GEANT4 code. A spherical phantom 40 cm in radius with the Cs-137 source located at the centre of the phantom was used. The results from Monte Carlo simulations were applied to derive AAPM Task Group 43 dosimetric parameters: anisotropy function, radial dose function, air kerma strength and dose rate constant. The dose rate constant obtained was 1.094 ± 0.002 cGy h -1 U -1 . The new calculated data agrees within experimental uncertainties with the existing data of Ballester et al . but without the statistical noise of that study. The obtained data presently fulfills all the requirements of the TG-43U1 update and thus it can be used in clinical practice.

  18. Activity of Cs-137 in red deer and wild boar in Slovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Missik, J [Agricultural Univ. Nitra (Slovakia). Lab. of Radiometry and Radioecology; Puskeiler, L; Miklas, P [Inst. of Veterinary Hygiene and Ecology, Nitra (Slovakia). Lab. of Radiometry and Radioecology

    1996-12-31

    Results of monitoring the activity of radiocesium in game animals from various parts of Slovakia are presented. Samples of game flesh were collected by veterinary officials during hunting seasons 1988-1994. More than 80 % of samples came from following districts of Slovakia: Ziar nad Hronom, Prievidza, Martin, Rimavska Sobota, Senica, Banska Bystrica, Roznava, Poprad and Spisska Nova Ves. All measurements were carried out using gamma spectrometric system equipped with 4 high purity germanium detectors. Presented results were obtained using statistical evaluation for left-censored log-normal distribution of data sets. Overall activities of Cs-137 found in red deer and wild boards in Slovakia are considerably lower, than activities reported in game animals from some parts of Northern Moravia, Southern Bohemia and Austria. While the mean activities in red deer show a decreasing tendency, mean activities of wild boar are low, but with higher occurrence of extreme values, and hence, higher variance. The observed difference could be explained by the feeding habits of wild boar: grubbing in the ground for worms, larvae, roots, etc. can lead to presence of up to 20 % of contaminated soil in their stomach. At the same time wild boars often graze farmlands, where the activity of the Cs-137 in the top soil layer is reduced by ploughing and radiocesium on clay particles. Fraction of farmlands in the home range of the wild boars and the time of shooting could contribute to observed variations in radiocesium activity. (J.K.) 2 tabs., 3 refs.

  19. Aerial radiometric surveying of Goiania city, Brazil, after the accident with Cs-137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreto, P.M.C.; Fonseca, E.S. da

    1988-01-01

    A low altitude (40 m) aeroradiometric survey with an helicopter was carried out over Goiania city few days after the Cs-137 radiological accident was communicated to CNEN. The objective was to evaluate the extension of the contamination. All the urban area plus dwellings centers in the outskirts of the city as well as drainage systems were surveyed in two days of operation. A total of 67 million m 2 were evaluated. This survey found out only one contamination point (1.1 R/h) which was not yet identified by the ground crews. No contamination was found in the Capin Puba Creek and Meia Ponte river. Detection tests at differen heights over the main contamination points showed that Cs-137 radiation could be detected at more than 350m above them. The results demonstrated that the contamination was restricted to points in the neighbourhood of the junkyard where the source was violated. Such points were under the control of CNEN personnel. The advantages of the airbone technique was to cover a large area in short time. The non-existence of a regional contamination was an important fact to calm the population and the Government. (author) [pt

  20. Thickness measurement for the different metals by using Cs-137 gamma source with gamma transmission technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueyuek, B.; Tugrul, B.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is an experimental analysis of thickness measurement for various metals with the gamma transmission technique using Cs-137 as the radioisotope source. Lead, steel, brass, and aluminum, which are frequently used metals in industry, were chosen for the experiments. As the radioisotope source Cs-137 was preferred for the study since it has long half-life, it is mono energetic, and it penetrates the metals that were studied. Experiments were observed in the constant experimental geometry. Calibration curves for the four metal samples were plotted using the obtained results. To test the plotted calibration curves, counts for determining thickness measurement were collected for each sample and the obtained relative count values were used in conjunction with the plotted calibration curves for each sample to determine its thickness. The thicknesses of the samples have been measured with a micrometer and the results were comparatively analyzed with the measurement results obtained by the gamma transmission technique. The results of the analyses revealed that the thickness measurement values obtained with the gamma transmission technique and the thickness measurement values obtained with the conventional technique significantly converge to each other and the difference between the two values is at an acceptable level. Therefore the reliability of thickness measurements with the gamma transmission technique and the resulting calibration curves have been demonstrated.

  1. Use of Cs-137 for the calibration of the circulation model of Lithuanian coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davuliene, L.; Trinkunas, G.; Remeikis, V.; Valkunas, L.; Dick, S.

    2002-01-01

    It is well established that radioactive contamination of waters and sediments in the Lithuanian coastal area of the Baltic Sea is distributed unevenly. To describe the distribution of the radionuclides in waters of the Lithuanian coastal area of the Baltic Sea, the model based on the operational circulation model of the Bundesamt fuer Seeschffahrt und Hydrographie (BSH) for the North and Baltic seas was developed. The area under consideration contains both the Lithuanian coast of the Baltic Sea as well as the Curonian Gulf of the fresh water. The interplay between the salt and fresh water flows via the Kaipeda strait has impact on the distribution of radionuclides. For instance, Cs-137 is a typical radionuclide demonstrating this effect. It is experimentally well established that this radionuclide in the salt water is mainly in the dissolved form (about 90%) and just its minor part is concentrated in the suspended matter (about 10%). In fresh water the dissolved/suspended matter ratio for Cs-137 is totally opposite. Therefore, Cs-137 can be considered as the tracer following the fresh and salt water mixing. With samples of the radionuclide concentration in the sea area under consideration at hand, Cs-137 is used to normalize the tracer concentration simulated by the developed circulation model. The model was based on the grade of 1 nautic mile (nm), while the boundary conditions were taken from the more extended BSH model on the 6 nm grade. In order to understand the sensitivity of this local model to the initial conditions, the artificial conditions taken from the more general and coarse model were used. It has been obtained that the effect of the initial conditions is lost within 2-3 weeks. This result is independent of the coarse grain of the grade as calculations carried out on 1 nm and 0.5 nm grades show. The model was adopted for the PC Pentium III, and calculations of the salinity distribution depending on the meteorological conditions were carried out. Real

  2. Enrichment of Cs-137 in some wild plants and determination of the transfer factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molzahn, D.

    1993-01-01

    As a consequence of the nuclear weapons tests and the accident in the Chernobyl nuclear power plant some wild plants exhibit a relatively high enrichment in Cs-137. The examples cited here include heather, forest grown grass, ferns, needles and cones of spruces and firs and, obviously, also some species of mushrooms. While the transfer factors of cultivated plants range from 0.001 to 0.1 according to the literature and measurements of our own, values from 1 to 38 have been measured for heather, depending on the nature of the soil. One of the consequences of this relatively high enrichment is the enhanced cesium content in honeys produced from heather. It is intended to continue the relevant measurements in 1993. (orig.) [de

  3. Adsorption of Cs-137 and U-238 in semi-arid soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez T, U. O.; Monroy G, F.; Anguiano A, J.; Fernandez R, E.

    2013-10-01

    Is of great importance to determine the adsorption properties of the soils where radioactive wastes are stored, fundamentally of the radioisotopes contained in these wastes, with the purpose of knowing like will be their behavior in the event of happening radionuclide migration toward the surrounding means. Therefore, in this work the adsorption properties of 137 Cs + and 238 UO 2 2+ in soils coming from the Storage Center of Radioactive Wastes are studied. Was studied the effect of the soil type and the particle size of the soil in the adsorption properties of Cs (I) and U (Vi). 13 soil samples and six different particle sizes were analyzed. The adsorption studies were carried out by the radiotracers technique in static way. The results indicate an important adsorption affinity toward the Cs-137 and a very vulnerable affinity for the 238 UO 2 2+ . (author)

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF DEPOSIT DETECTION SYSTEM IN PIPELINES OF THE STEELWORKS USING CS-137 GAMMA-RAY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Won-Joon; Lee, Seung-Hee; Jeong, Hee-Dong

    2008-01-01

    The deposit is built up in the pipeline of the steelworks by the chemical reaction among COG (coke oven gas), BFG (blast furnace gas), moisture, and steel in the high temperature environment and obstructs the smooth gas flow. In this study a gamma-ray system is developed to detect the deposit accumulated in pipelines and calculate the accumulation rate with respect to the cross section area of pipes. Cs-137 is used as the gamma-ray source and the system is designed to apply to pipes of various diameters. This system also includes the DB for storage and display of the measurement results so that it can be used for the efficient management of the pipelines

  5. CS-137 transfer factors soil-plant and density of hyphae in soil of spruce forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klemt, E.; Deuss, H.; Drissner, J.; Krapf, M.; Miller, R.; Zibold, G.

    1999-01-01

    Samples of soil and plants were taken at spruce stand sites in southern Baden-Wuerttemberg. Fern always had the highest aggregated Cs-137 transfer factor (T ag ) varying between 0.01 and 0.27 m 2 kg -1 . There is a tendency for higher T ag s in soils with thicker raw humus layers, lower pH, lower cation exchange capacity (CEC) in the O h horizon, and lower clay content below the organic deposit. The density of hyphae is determined by the season and its weather conditions and it usually decreases continuously from O f to top B horizon. In analyzing our data no correlation between aggregated or horizon-specific transfer factors of different plants and density of hyphae could be found. Refs. 5 (author)

  6. Experimental observation and investigation of reactor Cs-137 isotope deactivation in biological cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vysotskii, V.I.; Tashyrev, A.B.; Kornilova, A.A.

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The problem of natural accelerated deactivation of radioactive waste (including deactivation in environmental) is studied. In the work the process of direct controlled deactivation of water mixture of selected different longlived radioactive isotopes in growing microbiological cultures has been studied. The process was connected with transmutation of long-lived active nuclei to non-radioactive isotopes during growth and metabolism of special microbiological MCT ('microbial catalyst-transmutator'). The MCT is the special granules that include: concentrated biomass of metabolically active microorganisms, sources of carbon and energy, phosphorus, nitrogen, etc., and gluing substances that keep all components in the form of granules stable in water solutions for a long period of time at any external conditions. The base of the MCT is microbe syntrophin associations of thousands different microorganism kinds that are in the state of complete symbiosis. These microorganisms appertain to different physiological groups that represent practically the whole variety of the microbe metabolism and relevantly all kinds of microbe accumulation mechanisms. The state of complete symbiosis of the syntrophin associations results on the possibility of maximal adaptation of the microorganisms' association to any external conditions change. The mechanism of nuclear transmutation in growing biological system is described in details in the book. The research has been carried out on the basis of the same distilled water that contained different long-lived reactor isotopes (e.g., Eu 154 , Eu 155 , Cs 137 , Am 241 ). In our experiments 8 identical closed glass flasks with 10 ml of the same active water in each were used. The 'microbial catalyst-transmutator' was placed in 7 glass flasks. In six different flasks different pure K, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe and P salts as single admixture were added to the active water. These chemical elements are vitally necessary

  7. Activity of Cs-137 in some foodstuffs imported to Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puskeiler, L.; Miklas, P.; Missik, J.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper the results of Cs-137 activity in some foodstuffs imported to Slovak Republic are presented. The results from two points of view: 1) sort of foodstuffs (was chosen two sort - the fish and fish products and beef, pork and bowels); 2) country of origin (three countries was chosen -Germany, Norway and the Ukraine). The above mentioned choice was based on statistical grounds, data sets with total population at least 100 was evaluated, the only exception the data set for the Ukraine. For evaluation of data sets the statistical procedures developed for left-censored data sets with assumption of lognormal distribution were used. The analyzed data sets were obtained by semiconductor gamma spectrometry in Laboratory of Radiometry and Radioecology. The results are reported in six tables with basic statistical characteristics like number of samples with >minimal detectable activity, arithmetic mean, variance and maximum value (J.K.). 6 tabs., 3 refs

  8. Activity of Cs-137 in some foodstuffs imported to Slovak Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puskeiler, L; Miklas, P [Inst. of Veterinary Hygiene and Ecology, Nitra (Slovakia). Lab. of Radiometry and Radioecology; Missik, J [Univ. of Agriculture, Nitra (Slovakia). Lab. of Radiometry and Radioecology

    1996-12-31

    In this paper the results of Cs-137 activity in some foodstuffs imported to Slovak Republic are presented. The results from two points of view: 1) sort of foodstuffs (was chosen two sort - the fish and fish products and beef, pork and bowels); 2) country of origin (three countries was chosen -Germany, Norway and the Ukraine). The above mentioned choice was based on statistical grounds, data sets with total population at least 100 was evaluated, the only exception the data set for the Ukraine. For evaluation of data sets the statistical procedures developed for left-censored data sets with assumption of lognormal distribution were used. The analyzed data sets were obtained by semiconductor gamma spectrometry in Laboratory of Radiometry and Radioecology. The results are reported in six tables with basic statistical characteristics like number of samples with >minimal detectable activity, arithmetic mean, variance and maximum value (J.K.). 6 tabs., 3 refs.

  9. Mobility of Cs137 and Sr90 in organic soils and its control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rovdan, E.

    2002-01-01

    In the management of the radionuclide contaminated areas and application of a countermeasure strategy for reduction of both the external and internal doses to the population it is extremely important to know the environmental mechanisms governing the behaviour of radionuclides in soil ecosystems. The purpose of work is to investigate by means of laboratory, field experiments and mathematical modelling the mechanisms and dynamics of radionuclide transfer in the organic soil to propose measures for control their mobility. The Chernobyl radionuclides behaviour was studied for ameliorated peat-mire soil (peat deposit Pogonyanskoye, 21 km off the ChNPP). To control the mobility of radionuclides in soils the characteristics of the migration and sorption of Cs 137 and Sr 90 in sedge peat, quartz sand, bentonite, kaolin, sapropel as well as the electrolytes impact upon the radionuclide behaviour have been experimentally investigated

  10. A homeostatic-partly dynamic model for Cs-137 in trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frissel, M. J.

    1994-01-01

    To describe the uptake of Cs-137 (hereafter only called Cs) two types of models seem most promising: the simple concentration ratio model and the homeostatic model. The first one calculates the concentration of Cs in the vegetation from the Cs concentration in the soil by applying a multiplication factor which is often called a transfer factor. There is no dynamics in the system, the transfer factor or concentration ratio is a constant, which may depend on the ecological system under study. It is often applied to annual crops. The second type of model assumes that the Cs/K ratio in the soil determines the Cs/K ratio in the vegetation. Also this model is usually static. By taking into account variations of the Cs/K ratio in the soil with time - e.g. as caused by K fertilization - it can be extended into a dynamic model. (author)

  11. Monte Carlo simulations to calculate energy doses in a cow after continuous ingestion of CS 137 and K 40; Monte-Carlo-Simulationen zur Berechnung der Energiedosis in einem Rind nach kontinuierlicher Aufnahme von CS 137 und K 40

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pichl, E. [Technische Univ. Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Medizintechnik; Rabitsch, H. [Technische Univ. Graz (Austria). Arbeitsgebiet Strahlenphysik

    2009-07-01

    Currently ICRP (International Commission on Radiological Protection) develops a new recommendation to estimate the natural radiation exposure of an agreed set of animals and reference plants. For estimating effective dose in humans and animals, the incorporated activities of natural and artificial radionuclides in body tissues and contents of the digestive system have to be known. It was the aim of this investigation to calculate energy doses caused by Cs 137 and K 40 in the reproductive organs (uterus, ovaries) of a cow. During its whole lifetime from 1986 to 1992, the cow incorporated continuously Cs 137 which was due to the fallout following the Chernobyl accident. K 40 occurs naturally in the cow's fodder. The cow was born in a highly contaminated region of Styria, Austria, and was infertile since 1990. The activities of Cs 137 and K 40 in the cow's fodder and in tissues, organs and contents of the digestive system of the carcass were measured simultaneously with the help of semiconductor detectors. To calculate the specific absorbed fractions by means of the Monte Carlo code MCNP, an appropriate simulation model for the reproductive organs and their surrounding tissues was developed. The contents of rectum and urinary bladder account for the main part of the energy dose in the reproductive organs. Comparison of our results with data from other investigations showed, that lifetime accumulation of Cs 137 and K 40 was too low to cause radiation inferred infertility. (orig.)

  12. Influence of cultivar specificity on Cs 137 and Sr 90 accumulation in green part and seeds of soya plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutseva, G.Z.; Goloveshkin, V.V.

    2008-01-01

    As a result of investigation carried out with soya sorts zoned in Belarus on soddy-podsolic sandy soils contaminated as a result of Chernobyl accident with Cs 137 and Sr 90 a high sort selectivity in accumulation of the radionuclides is established. (authors)

  13. The Cs-137 technique applied to steep Mediterranean slopes (Part I) : the effects of lithology, slope morphology and land use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Meijer, R.J.; van der Graaf, E.R.

    2004-01-01

    Concentrations in the soil of anthropogenic and natural radionuclides have been investigated in order to assess the applicability of the Cs-137 technique in an area of typical Mediterranean steep slopes. This technique can be used to estimate net soil redistribution rates but its potential in areas

  14. The contents of Cs 137 in ichthyofauna of cooling pond after removing of ChNPP from operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarubin, O.L.

    2002-01-01

    As a result of removing of ChNPP from operation, temperature and hydrological parameters of its cooling pond considerably have changed, that, in turn, has affected the earlier usual characteristic by this ecosystem and Cs 137 content in some its components

  15. Methods of determination of the dynamics of mobile form of Cs 137 and Sr 90 in soils within Chernobyl catastrophe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osetskaya, V.V.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper the impact of the most significant mechanisms of migration of radionuclides are considered: diffusion of free and absorbed ions, migration colloid atoms transmission etc. on the dynamics of mobile forms of Cs 137 and Sr 90 in soils

  16. The peculiarities of accumulation of Cs 137 by mushrooms after accident of the Chernobyl NPP in 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarubina, N.E.; Trishin, V.V.; Malyuk, I.A.; Golovach, L.A.

    2005-01-01

    The researches which have been carried out in the territory by the Kiev region, including 30-km the zone of the Chernobyl NPP showed that major factors influencing levels of the Cs 137 accumulation by mushrooms, are: density of pollution soils by these radionuclides; belonging of mushrooms to the certain ecological group; depth of localization in soil mycelium of each kind. (authors)

  17. Studies on the radioactive contamination due to nuclear detonations VI. Theoretical analysis of the radioactive contamination due to Sr90 and Cs137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiwaki, Yasushi

    1961-01-01

    In view of the considerably different values of the fallout rate and the cumulative deposition of Sr 90 and Cs 137 reported from different parts of Japan, the author attempted to estimate the ranges of the fallout rate and of the cumulative deposition of Sr 90 and Cs 137 for different parts of Japan based upon the theoretical consideration

  18. Utilization of Cs137 to generate a radiation barrier for weapons grade plutonium immobilized in borosilicate glass canisters. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardine, L.J.; Armantrout, G.A.; Collins, L.F.

    1995-01-01

    One of the ways recommended by a recent National Academy of Sciences study to dispose of excess weapons-grade plutonium is to encapsulate the plutonium in a glass in combination with high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) to generate an intense radiation dose rate field. The objective is to render the plutonium as difficult to access as the plutonium contained in existing US commercial spent light-water reactor (LWR) fuel until it can be disposed of in a permanent geological repository. A radiation dose rate from a sealed canister of 1,000 rem/h (10 Sv/h) at 1 meter for at least 30 years after fabrication was assumed in this paper to be a radiation dose comparable to spent LWR fuel. This can be achieved by encapsulating the plutonium in a borosilicate glass with an adequate amount of a single fission product in the HLWS, namely radioactive Cs 137 . One hundred thousand curies of Cs 137 will generate a dose rate of 1,000 rem/h (10 Sv/h) at 1 meter for at least 30 years when imbedded into canisters of the size proposed for the Savannah River Site's vitrified high-level wastes. The United States has a current inventory of 54 MCi of CS 137 that has been separated from defense HLWs and is in sealed capsules. This single curie inventory is sufficient to spike 50 metric tons of excess weapons-grade plutonium if plutonium can be loaded at 5.5 wt% in glass, or 540 canisters. Additional CS 137 inventories exist in the United States' HLWs from past reprocessing operations, should additional curies be required. Using only one fission product, CS 137 , rather than the multiple chemical elements and compounds in HLWs to generate a high radiation dose rate from a glass canister greatly simplifies the processing engineering retirement for encapsulating plutonium in a borosilicate glass

  19. Effect of Co-60 single escape peak on detection of Cs-137 in analysis of radionuclide from research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, M. S.; Park, S. J.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of the single escape peak of 1173 keV gamma-rays from Co-60 on the detection of Cs-137 activity is analyzed. The single escape peak of 1173 keV gamma-rays from Co-60 is located at the 662 keV, which is very close to the energy of gamma-rays from Cs-137. This single escape peak may be mistaken for the gamma-ray peak from Cs-137 activity in the case of large area of 1173 keV peak. The detection of Cs-137 is very important to the judgment of the contamination or the leakage of the material containing the fission product like reactor pool water and in the several experiments for reactor physics such as burn-up estimation. In this work, the areas of the single escape peak of the 1173 keV gamma-rays from Co-60 are measured with several full energy peak areas by using the HPGe detector. The critical limit by which we can decide whether the net count of 662 keV peak due to Co-60 would be significant or not is deduced. For this detection system, when the area of full energy peak is larger than 4.5 million, the single escape peak of 1173 keV gamma-rays from Co-60 can be regarded as the single significant peak. Therefore, it is confirmed that the detection of the Cs-137 activity is affected by the Co-60 in this case. Conservatively, for this detection system, it is recommended that the area of 1173 keV peak of Co-60 would be less than 2 million for neglecting the effect of Co-60. (authors)

  20. SU-E-T-89: Characterization of Dental Restoration Material for Cs-137 Radiation Dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratliff, S; Gustafson, B; Barry, K

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this work is to characterize the radiation-induced thermoluminescence properties of a dental restoration material and to see if the material might be feasible for use in retrospective radiation dosimetry. Retrospective, or accidental, dosimetry is the study of using nearby materials to measure radiation received by individuals. In this project we obtained samples of Ivoclar Vivadent e.max CAD material, a glass-ceramic used for making dental restorations such as full or partial crowns. The samples were machined into square chips .32 cm × .32 cm × .089 cm and annealed in the same furnace used by the dentist. The samples were exposed to a Cs-137 source using a PMMA source holder and then read in a Harshaw 3500 TLD reader. The samples were read without nitrogen gas flux using heating rates of 5 degrees C/s or 10 degrees C/s up to a maximum temperature of 400 degrees Celsius. The glow curves were analyzed using Systat PeakFIT peak-fitting software and Microsoft Excel spreadsheets. The authors gratefully thank Dr. Aaron Imdieke and the staff of River City Dental, St. Cloud, MN for the dental restoration materials and the use of their dental furnace. A sample subjected to a radiation exposure of .04 C/kg exhibits a glow curve with a prominent peak at approximately 140 degrees Celsius, which is well-modeled by the first order glow curve deconvolution formula developed by Kitis, Gomez-Ros, and Tuyn. The activation energy corresponding to this peak is approximately 1 eV. The thermoluminescent signal fades with time after exposure. Ivoclar Vivadent e.max CAD dental restoration material has the potential to be used as a material for retrospective Cs-137 radiation dosimetry. Future work could look at its thermoluminescent dosimetry properties in more detail and also at other dental restoration materials. The authors would like to thank Dr. Aaron Imdieke and the staff of River City Dental, St. Cloud, MN, for the donation of scrap dental restoration materials and

  1. Algae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Raven, John A.; Giordano, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 13 (2014), s. 590-595 ISSN 0960-9822 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : algae * life cycle * evolution Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 9.571, year: 2014

  2. The volumes of accumulation of Cs-137 and Sr-90 per species and variety of agricultural plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdevich, I.M.; Shmigelskaya, I.D.; Efimova, I.A.; Putyatin, Yu.V.

    2001-01-01

    The accumulation of radionuclides in various species and varieties of agricultural plants on the same conditions of soil contaminated by radionuclides and agrochemical exponents can differ hundred times. The differences in accumulation of Cs-137 and Sr-90 are less -up to 3-4 times. The article grades the basic plants cultivated on contaminated soils per volume of Cs-137 and Sr-90 as well as per crop yield. It is possible to recommend selecting the species and varieties of agricultural plants having minimal capabilities of accumulation as a simple economically justified way of reducing the contamination of agricultural produce in general. The solving of problems connected with agriculture on the contaminated territory occupies one of the leading places in the complex of actions on the consequences of Chernobyl disaster liquidation. The researches revealed that 70% of collective dose is formed by the radionuclides receipt into a human organism with food. Eventually radionuclides contents in agricultural production reduce. This process is more expressed for Cs-137 caused by protective actions realization as well as gradually fixing of Cs-137 in soils due to natural factors of decay and fixation. Sr-90 mobility and its availability to plants is not reduced, even tends to increase. Biological features of plants reveal in their different ability to absorb nutritional elements from soil. Because of that radionuclides availability and amount of their including in food chains essentially depend on the level of contra actions applied, natural conditions (soil types, granulometric structure, humidifying mode, agrochemical conditions) and features of crops. The action of Cs-137 and Sr-90 in the system soil-plant has a range of distinctive features. At same density of soil contamination Sr-90 penetration into plants much higher than Cs-137 one. The cause is in difference of radionuclides contents forms in soils. Cs-137 is strongly fixed in soil, but Sr-90 is in exchange form

  3. Radiation Risk due to the Presence of Cs-137 in Fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shweikani, R.; Hushari, M.

    2003-01-01

    In this work radiation doses arising from using fertilizers containing Cs-137 with activity concentration equal to the exempted level set by IAEA (BSS-115) were studied. It was assumed that the amount of fertilizers are added yearly, for 50 sequence years, to soil is about 16 kg/1000m 2 and this amount is mixed with the top 15cm of the soil. Al-Gab area was considered for this study (area 900km 2 and about 600000 inhabitant). RESRAD a computer code, which was developed by the American Agency for Environmental Protection (EPA) to calculate individual radiation dose from contaminated sites, was used. The concerned population was divided into subgroups for better assessment for individual dose. The results showed that the maximum yearly dose could be received by individual how lives and eat from the products of his land dose not exceed 11 μSv/y after 50 years of consecutive additions, and will reach a maximum value of about 16 μSv/y for 250 years. More than 90% of this dose is due to external gamma exposure

  4. Transfer of Cs137 and Sr90 from contaminated soil to some crops in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yassine, T.; Al-Oudat, M.; Othman, I.; Sharaneq, A.

    1998-07-01

    Transfer factors of Cs 137 and Sr 90 from contaminated soil to some common crops were investigated under field conditions for a period of three years. The results showed large variations in transfer factor values (expressed as Bq/g of dried material to Bq/g of soil) among crops. The highest values for both radionuclides were found in green vegetables up to 0.067 for 137 Cs and 3.78 for 90 Sr, whereas cereal grains had the lowest values. The transfer factor values of 90 Sr were generally much higher than that of 137 Cs for the same crop by factors ranged up to 263. The values for both radionuclides were found to be in the lower limits of that obtained in other areas. This was attributed to the effect of several parameters such as high ph, low organic matter and high exchangeable potassium and calcium in the soil. The transfer factor values of 137 Cs were decreased from the first year to the third year for most crops by factor up to 4, while this approach was not found for 90 Sr. (author)

  5. Radiation risk due to the presence of Cs-137 in fertilizers

    CERN Document Server

    Shweikani, R

    2003-01-01

    In this work radiation doses arising from using fertilizers containing Cs-137 with activity concentration equal to the exempted level set by IAEA (BSS-115) were studied. It was assumed that the amount of fertilizers are added yearly, for 50 sequence years and continues adding for unlimited years, to soil is about 16 kg/1000m sup 2 and this amount is mixed with the top 15 cm of the soil. Al-Gab area was considered for this study (area 900km sup 2 and about 600000 inhabitant). RESRAD a computer code, which was developed by the American Agency for Environmental Protection (EPA) to calculate individual radiation dose from contaminated sites, was used. The concerned population was divided into subgroups for better assessment for individual dose. The results showed that the maximum yearly dose could be received by individual who lives and eats from the products of his land does not exceed 11 mu Sv/y after 50 years of consecutive additions and 16 mu Sv/y after 250 years, and more than 90% of this dose is due to exte...

  6. Cs-137 in milk produced in lituania dose in infants by infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerez Vegueria, S.F.; Frometa Suarez, I.

    1997-01-01

    The Chernovil accident caused a wide dispersion of radionuclides over extended in Europe and a part of the Spetentrional hemisphere giving to radionuclides enters in teh food cahins. Our country recived a shipment of evaporated, milkproduced in Lituania to fed infants la Habana City. Taking into account the origin and the final use of the mentioned product, a study was necessary in order to determine the content of Cs-137, one of the radionuclides released in teh accident withmost persistance in the environment because its long half life /30 yeras), and the doses produced by ingestion. The analysi were performed by a gamma spectrometry system using a 7,62cm.x7,62cm. NaI(TL) detector. The content of radioactivity measured in milk was 9,48+2,37 Bq/I and the effective committment dose per caput, due the consumption in four months, was appraised to be 9,40 uSv for a collective dose of 0,22 man-Sv

  7. Co60 and Cs137 gamma radiation effects on textured bscco Superconducting fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leyva Fabelo, A.; Bouza Dominguez, J.; Cruz Inclan, Crlos M.

    2001-01-01

    Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox superconducting fibers synthesized by solid state reaction and textured by the method of zonal laser ablation were irradiated with gamma rays of 1.25 MeV and 662 keV and studied the behavior of some of its properties with the exposition dose. The measurements of dynamic magnetic susceptibility were used for the characterization of the samples. It was observed that for the dose of up to 600 kGy in the case of the Co60 and until 500 mGy for the Cs137, the fibers preserve its superconducting intragrain properties. It is an evidence of the high resistance of the material to the radiacional damage. In all the cases were verified that with the increase of the dose the Ton of the transition grows. Two possible mechanisms that play the most important role in this effect are explained in the text. The ac measurements allowed to verified the increasing behavior of the superconducting volume fraction in the sample with the exposition dose

  8. Studies of antibiotic resistant mutants of Bacteroides fragilis obtained by Cs-137 ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azghani, A.O.

    1986-01-01

    The genus Bacteroides is an obligate anaerobic bacillus normally found in the upper respiratory tract, the colon, and the genitourinary system. The project reported here was undertaken because of the high frequency of hospital infections attributed to B. fragilis, and the increased resistance of the bacteria to commonly used antibiotics. Cs-137 gamma irradiation was used to induce antibiotic resistant mutants in B. fragilis in the presence of Escherichia coli B/r membrane fragments, employed as reducing agent. Based on a dose-survival curve, an effective radiation dose of 1.54 x 10 4 R (3.99 C/Kg) was used to induce mutations to rifampicin and tetracycline resistance in the test organism. The antibiotic resistant mutants of B. fragilis were utilized to reveal the mechanism by which this group of organisms becomes resistant to select chemotherapeutic agents. Studies on tetracycline resistant mutants of B. fragilis isolated after irradiation, suggest that the resistance to this antibiotic is associated with the outer membrane permeability. The difference in inhibitory action of rifampicin on RNA polymerase activity, from rifampicin sensitive and resistant strains of B. fragilis, reveals that this enzyme is a possible suitable target for inhibition of bacterial growth in anaerobes by rifampicin

  9. Measurement of air kerma rate for Cs-137 using different ionization chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, K. T. A.

    2013-07-01

    Due to the importance of radiation doses in medical field quality assurance should be established in order to maintain a reasonable balance between the purpose of application and exposure. This study had been carried out to achieve quality control for protection based on air kerma rate. Measurements were performed by using Cs-137 for the comparison of two working ionization chambers in secondary standard dosimetry laboratory of Sudan. Spherical ionization chamber L S-01 1000 cc S/N 912 and Farmer ionization chamber 2675 A 600 cc S/N 0511, respectively. The results obtained from this study have been represented as mean and their standard deviations shown in most cases remains at 5% uncertainly. Comparison between kinetic energy released per unit mass in air rate (air kerma rate) were obtained by using spherical ionization chamber L S-01 1000 cc S/N 912 and results have been determined using inverse square law. The differences have been represented as means and standard deviations with significant P-value less than 0.05. Spherical ionization chamber gives accurate, reproducible results with acceptable uncertainty which is more suitable for calibration of radiation detectors.(Author)

  10. Calibration of a radiation survey meter using Cs-137 gamma source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, R. O.

    2005-07-01

    The survey instrument smartIon was calibrated at the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory, Sudan Atomic Energy Commission, in terms of kerma, free in air using Cs-137 gamma radiation. All the calibrations were performed using the reference instrument spherical ionization chamber LS-01. This reference instrument has been calibrated at the International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna for x-rays, 137 Cs and 60 Co gamma radiation. The air kerma calibration factors for the instrument were determined as the ratio of the dose rates obtained with the reference standard chamber LS-01 and the dose rates of the instrument under calibration. The uncertainties for the survey meter smartIon and another survey meter RADOS were obtained and the results compared with the uncertainty for the reference standard chamber. Also, the values of dose rates were obtained for various angles of the incident beam, by changing the angle by which the radiation was incident on the sensitive point of the instrument.(Author)

  11. Incidents of melting CS-137 sources in the Arcelor Mittal OlaberrIa and Arcelor Mittal Zumarraga. Waste management; Incidentes de fusion de fuentes de Cs-137 enlas plantas de Arcelor Mittal Olaberria y Arcelor Mittal Zumarraga. Gestion residuos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcaide Trenas, E.; Ortiz Ramis, T.; Garcia Cadierno, J. P.

    2013-07-01

    The October 27, 2011, Arcelor Mittal Olaberria notifies the CSN the merger of a source of Cs-137 has been detected in the installation that the flue dust is sent. A few days later the same case happens in Arcelor Mittal Zumarraga. Both plants are companies attached to the Protocol for Radiological Surveillance of Metallic Materials. Both have at the entrance of the installation of systems for detection of radioactive materials that could be among the junk. (Author)

  12. Calibration of a Gamma Spectrometry System Used for the Determination of Cs-137 in Spanish Soils; Puesta a Punto de un sistema de Expectrometria Gamma para la Determinacion de Cs-137 en Suelos Espanoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreraa, M.; Romero, M. L.; Valino, F.

    2008-07-01

    The document describes the methodology used at CIEMAT in order to determine, by gamma spectrometry, the background levels of the radionuclide Cs-137 in soils of the Spanish peninsular territory. the work is a part of an extensive research project developed jointly by the University of the Basque Country (UPV-EHU) and the CIEMAT, endellite Content and migration of radiocaesium and radiostrontium in Spanish soils, which is funded by the Plan I+D of the Spanish Nuclear Security Council (CSN). The objective of the project is to establish the reference levels of man-made radionuclides in Spanish soils, with respect to which the evaluation of a possible posterior accidental release of radioactive material could be appraised. The activity concentration of the fission products Cs-137 has been determined in 34 soil cores extracted from representative Spanish soils type zones. This publication describes the experimental system employed, its calibration, the particular conditions applied to perform the measurements, as well as the experimental validation of the methodology. The activity profiles and inventories of the radioactive element so obtained are also presented. The estimation of the background Cs-137 reference levels, will provide a basis for later applications as the study of the spatial distribution in the region, the determination of the correlation between the deposited activity and the meteorological conditions, or the calculation of the specific migration parameters of the radioactive elements in Mediterranean conditions. (Author) 15 refs.

  13. Rates of sediment reworking at the HEBBLE site based on measurements of Th-234, Cs-137 and Pb-210

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeMaster, D.J.; McKee, B.A.; Nittrouer, C.A.; Brewster, D.C.; Biscaye, P.E.

    1985-01-01

    Th-234, Cs-137 and Pb-210 measurements have been made on ten cores from the HEBBLE site on the Nova Scotian continental rise. Th-234 mixing coefficients from HEBBLE sediments show substantial lateral variability with values ranging from 1 to 33 cm 2 yr -1 . These mixing coefficients are one to two orders of magnitude greater than values from typical continental-rise and abyssal sediments because of high densities of benthic macrofauna. Th-234 data from HEBBLE cores indicate that particles at the sediment-water interface are mixed to depths of 1-5 cm on a 100-day time scale. Cs-137 and Pb-210 data indicate that on time scales of 30-100 yrs surface sediments are reworked to depths ranging from 1 to 12 cm. Based on Th-234 profiles from two HEBBLE cores collected less than 200 m apart during consecutive years, no temporal variability in mixing rate could be resolved. (Auth.)

  14. Investigation of vertical transportation of Cs-137 in the different soil types and for the different raining regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varinlioglu, Ahmet; Tugrul, A. Beril

    2018-02-01

    Cs-137 is an important fission product that is produced in the nuclear reactors. Therefore it can create risk for the environment during the accident condition of the nuclear plants. In this study, vertical transportation of Cs-137 in the soil searched for three different soil types and three different raining regimes. The experiments observed in lyzimetric conditions in the laboratory. The results of the experiments show that in every raining regime the activities of different types of soils (sand, loam and clay) were related with descending activity order. When the results of the experiments were evaluated according to the raining regime it can be seen that the relative activity for every type of soil is always towards higher to lower raining conditions.

  15. HeLa cell tumor response to 60Co, Cs-137, Cf-252 radiations and cisplatin chemotherapy in nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Y.; Feola, J.M.; Beach, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    HeLa cells were implanted into athymic nude mice from tissue culture and solid tumors established (HeLa cell tumor or HCT). Large cell numbers of 1 X 10 7 were required to obtain consistent and progressive growth, and tumor growth followed a Gompertzian mode. Irradiation studies were carried out using acute Cobalt-60 (60Co), low-dose-rate (LDR) Cs-137 and LDR Cf-252. Cf-252, a neutron-emitting radioisotope, produced an immediate tumor shrinkage and regression response after a dose of 279 cGy. Acute 60Co or LDR Cs-137 irradiation with 1000 cGy had little effect on the HCT. After a dose of 2000 cGy of 60Co radiation tumor shrinkage followed a latent period of approximately 5 days. Cisplatin had no effect on the HCT in nude mice in stationary or late exponential growth

  16. Cs-137 in milk, vegetation, soil, and water near the former Soviet Union's Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakimov, Aitbek; Yessimbekov, Zhanibek; Kakimova, Zhainagul; Bepeyeva, Aigerim; Stuart, Marilyne

    2016-03-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate Cs-137 activity concentration in soil, water, vegetation, and cow's milk at 10 locations within three regions (Abai, Ayaguz, and Urdzhar) to the southeast of the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) in Kazakhstan. Cs-137 activity concentrations, determined using a pure Ge gamma-ray spectrometer, showed that, all samples collected did not exceed the National maximum allowable limits of 10,000 Bq/kg for soil, 100 Bq/kg for cow's milk, 74 Bq/kg for vegetation, and 11 Bq/kg for water. Cs-137 is, therefore, not considered a health hazard in these regions. The highest levels of contamination were found in the Abai region, where the highest activity concentration of Cs-137 was 18.0 ± 1.0 Bq/kg in soil, 7.60 ± 0.31 Bq/kg in cow's milk, 4.00 ± 0.14 Bq/kg in the vegetation, and 3.00 ± 0.24 Bq/kg in water. The lowest levels were measured within the Urdzhar region, where 4.00 ± 0.14 Bq/kg was found in the soil, 0.30 ± 0.02 Bq/kg in the cow's milk, 1.00 ± 0.03 Bq/kg in the vegetation, and 0.20 ± 0.02 Bq/kg in the water.

  17. Comparative analysis of species-based specificity in Sr 90 and Cs 137 accumulation demonstrated by ligneous plant forest communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinovich, B.S.; Vlasov, V.K.; Sak, M.M.; Golushko, R.M.; Afmogenov, A.M.; Kirykhin, O.V.

    2004-01-01

    The authors provided field-proven study of Sr 90 and Cs 137 absorption activity demonstrated by Pinus silvestris L.; Piceae abies (L.) Roth.; Quercus rubra L.; Acer platanoides L.; Betula pendula Roth.; Tilia cordata Mill, under identical habitat conditions. The above plants were examined after 5-year growth period on radionuclide-contaminated soil. To a great extent, such parameters as radionuclide accumulation in experimental plants and accumulation activity were determined by the plants' bio-ecological properties. (Authors)

  18. Off-shore contamination by I-131 and Cs-137 from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Wagner de Souza; Kelecom, Patrick Vicent; Miyashita, Erika; Universidade Federal Fluminense; Kelecom, Alphonse

    2011-01-01

    On March 11, 2011 the biggest earthquake ever registered in Japan severed off-site power supply to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. Backup diesel generators began providing electricity to pumps circulating coolant to the reactors, but were knocked out by a large tsunami and the nuclear site lost the ability to maintain proper reactor cooling. This was the beginning of a huge nuclear accident that was assigned an INES maximum rating of 7. On March 21, Japanese authorities reported that the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) had detected radioactive materials in seawater. Radioactivity started to be measured by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency every two days in sea water from eight locations, 30km from the coastline. I-131 and Cs-137 were analyzed among other radionuclides. It is the aim of this paper to gather all this information and to discuss the evolution of the radioactive marine contamination during the first month of the accident. Results indicate for surface seawater concentrations ranging from 24.9 to 161.0 Bq/L for I-131 and 11.2 to 186.0 Bq/L for Cs-137, and for deep waters of 1.59-15.0 Bq/L (I-131) and 0.0-11.4 Bq/L (Cs-137). The I-131 concentrations in superficial waters were at or above Japanese regulatory limits in the first days, then lowered during one week to increase again above limits when TEPCO released contaminated water into the ocean, to finally reach not detectable values the last week of April. With the exception of point 4, on April 15, the Cs-137 levels were always well below regulatory limits. (author)

  19. The dynamics of Cs-137 and Sr-90 pollution of surface water systems of Belarus of Chernobyl origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datskevich, P.O.; Dolgov, V.M.; Golikov, Yu.N.; Zemskov, V.N.; Komissarov, F.D.; Khvaley, O.D.

    1995-12-31

    The Belarus water ecosystems have been the object of investigation concerning currents and reservoirs affected by the Chernobyl APS catastrophe. The radio monitoring of samples of water systems components was implemented with the use of modern methods of radiochemistry and ionizing radiations registration. The factual material of water ecosystems sites observation presented its analysis is done and the regularities, tendencies and anomalies are revealed in the Cs-137 and Sr-90 distribution, transport and accumulation for water components.

  20. Modelling of Cs-137 availability in soils subjected to contamination after the accident at the Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fesenko, S.V.; Spiridonov, S.I.; Sanzharova, N.I.; Aleksakhin, R.M.

    1996-01-01

    Results of the application of the model describing behaviour of the radionuclide in meadow ecosystems for the analysis of the factors governing of the radionuclide availability in soils are presented. The estimation of characteristics of fuel particles in near zone of the Chernobyl NPP is given. It is shown that in the first period after the accident the main factors determining Cs-137 availability in soil are property of soil and mat as well as fallout characteristics. Refs. 6, figs. 5

  1. Evaluation of Cs-134 and Cs-137 in sugar by non-destructive analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correira, Filipe Lopes de Barros; Santos Júnior, José Araújo dos; Amaral, Romilton dos Santos; Santos, Josineide Marques do Nascimento; Medeiros, Nilson Vicente da Silva; Santos Junior, Otávio Pereira dos, E-mail: filipelbck@gmail.com, E-mail: jaraujo@ufpe.br, E-mail: romilton@ufpe.br, E-mail: josineide.santos@ufpe.br, E-mail: nilson.medeiros@ufpe.br, E-mail: otavio.santos@vitoria.ifpe.edu.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (RAE/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear. Grupo de Radioecologia; Vieira, José Wilson, E-mail: jose.wilson59@uol.com.br [Instituto Federal de Pernambuco (IFPE), Recife (Brazil); Valois, Rhaiana Caminha, E-mail: rhaianavalois@hotmail.com [Colégio Militar do Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The spread of anthropogenic radioisotopes in the environment comes from nuclear tests and accidents that occurred in the past, which justifies constant monitoring, to guarantee the safety and control of the activities that involve these applications. Brazil, when exporting some food products, depending on the country of origin, a radiometric report is required, especially for sugar that has high world consumption and the possibility of contamination of the population, when radioisotope is present. Therefore, the investigation of the levels of Cs-134 and Cs-137 in sugar matrices is necessary to predict radioecological emergency situations. The National Nuclear Energy Commission, the agency that oversees nuclear applications in Brazil, With Resolution No. 102 of December 22, 2010 approved regulatory positions, including levels of action for food control, recommended to restrict the marketing of food products in Brazil. General, whose specific activity is higher than the limit of 1.0 kBq / kg for the said isotopes of cesium independently. Aiming for improvements in the analyzes that are already performed in the Laboratory of Radioecology and Environmental Control of the Department of Nuclear Energy of the Federal University of Pernambuco to assurance the quality of sugar marketed in Brazil, a standard procedure for the analysis of these radionuclides in this matrix was determined. High resolution gamma spectrometry with non-destructive analysis was used to perform the tests. Priority was given to parameters that directly influence the qualitative and quantitative analysis of these radioactive elements, such as calibration in energy and efficiency, resolution, influence of self-absorption, counting statistics directly associated with the time of analysis, influence of background radiation and geometry analysis. (author)

  2. Evaluation of Cs-134 and Cs-137 in sugar by non-destructive analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correira, Filipe Lopes de Barros; Santos Júnior, José Araújo dos; Amaral, Romilton dos Santos; Santos, Josineide Marques do Nascimento; Medeiros, Nilson Vicente da Silva; Santos Junior, Otávio Pereira dos; Valois, Rhaiana Caminha

    2017-01-01

    The spread of anthropogenic radioisotopes in the environment comes from nuclear tests and accidents that occurred in the past, which justifies constant monitoring, to guarantee the safety and control of the activities that involve these applications. Brazil, when exporting some food products, depending on the country of origin, a radiometric report is required, especially for sugar that has high world consumption and the possibility of contamination of the population, when radioisotope is present. Therefore, the investigation of the levels of Cs-134 and Cs-137 in sugar matrices is necessary to predict radioecological emergency situations. The National Nuclear Energy Commission, the agency that oversees nuclear applications in Brazil, With Resolution No. 102 of December 22, 2010 approved regulatory positions, including levels of action for food control, recommended to restrict the marketing of food products in Brazil. General, whose specific activity is higher than the limit of 1.0 kBq / kg for the said isotopes of cesium independently. Aiming for improvements in the analyzes that are already performed in the Laboratory of Radioecology and Environmental Control of the Department of Nuclear Energy of the Federal University of Pernambuco to assurance the quality of sugar marketed in Brazil, a standard procedure for the analysis of these radionuclides in this matrix was determined. High resolution gamma spectrometry with non-destructive analysis was used to perform the tests. Priority was given to parameters that directly influence the qualitative and quantitative analysis of these radioactive elements, such as calibration in energy and efficiency, resolution, influence of self-absorption, counting statistics directly associated with the time of analysis, influence of background radiation and geometry analysis. (author)

  3. Activity levels of Cs 137 and K 40 in the skin and the associated structures of a cow following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichl, E.; Rabitsch, H.

    1999-01-01

    The activity distributions of Cs 137 and potassium (K 40) have been investigated in all structures which are usually assigned to the skin of a cattle. The cow had ingested heavily contaminated forage following the Chernobyl fallout. It was found that the average activity concentrations of Cs 137 and K 40 in the skin are 33,6 Bq/kg and 18,8 Bq/kg, respectively. The activity concentration of Cs 137 in muscle tissue of the femur is ten times greater than the corresponding value in the skin, whereas the activity concentrations of K40 differ by a factor six.(author)

  4. Relationship of Genetics and Cs-137 in Asian Green Mussel (Perna viridis from Nuclear Activities in Asia-Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanwiwa Tumnoi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the relationship of genetics and Cs-137 radiation doses in Asian green mussel (Perna viridis collected from Chonburi province, Thailand. They might accumulate the radiocaesium from the nuclear power plants in the Asia-Pacific region including the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant via their routine or accidental releases. The radiation doses, estimated using ERICA Tool in the bivalves categorized into 3 different size classes including 4-6, 6-8, and 8-10 cm, were below 0.02 nGy/h. In parallel, Micronucleus test and Comet assay were used to investigate genetic responses in the mussels. They revealed minimum micronucleus frequency (MNF and %Tail DNA varying from 1.80-2.90% and 1.36-1.70%, respectively. The result indicates that neither particular accumulation of Cs-137 nor genetic responses among different size classes of the animals were observed. Furthermore, the radiation doses in the mussels were below the dose limit of 10 µGy/h. Therefore, no radiation effect caused by Cs-137 was found and it was also confirmed by minimal genetic damages. Data obtained can be used as site-specific data for radiological dose and impact assessment and as baseline data to establish the national radiation safety levels to protect Thai marine biota from any possible future nuclear accidents.

  5. Dynamics of natural rehabilitation of Cs 137 soil contamination at the late stage due to the Chernobyl NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germenchuk, M.G.; Zhukova, O.M.; Tretyakevich, S.S.; Koreniak, A.P.

    2006-01-01

    As a result of Chernobyl NPP accident, the greatest quantity of radionuclides has fallen on the territory of Belarus, therefore 23% of the territory have been contaminated with Cs 137 with a level exceeding 37 kBq/m 2 on the total area of 46.45 thousand km 2 that has led to the exclusion from an agricultural rotation 2,64 thousand km 2 of farmland. Now, external gamma-radiation on the territory of Belarus is formed due to 'Chernobyl' and 'global' (caused by tests of the nuclear weapon) radioactive losses. A contribution is also done by natural radioactivity. To-date, due to natural radionuclides decay a radiation conditions in zones of Chernobyl contamination has been stabilized and main dose formation radionuclide is Cs 137. In conformity with clause 4 of the Law 'On legal regime of territories, exposed to radioactive contamination after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident' the territory of the Republic of Belarus is divided into zones depending on radioactive contamination of soil by radionuclides and sizes of a mean-annual effective dose. The estimation of a dose of external irradiation demands establishment of interrelation between the level of soil contamination with radionuclides and created by them exposure dose power (EDP). As a quantitative size of this link, a normalized on density of contamination of soil Cs 137 EDP at 1 m height is most used which is formed by all radionuclides and is called the transition coefficient 'density of contamination of soil Cs 137 - EDP'. In the given work, empirical values of factor of transition on items of supervision of a network of the radiation monitoring, registered in National System of Environment Monitoring (NSEM) Republic of Belarus have been determined. The carried out data analysis for 1993-2003 showed, that: Value of transition factor within 10 years have changed from 0,054 μR/h/kBq·m 2 to 0,041 μR/h/kBq·m 2 (with 2,0 μR/h/Ci·km 2 to 1,5 μR/h/Ci·km 2 ). Decrease of EDP from 'Chernobyl' radioactive

  6. Reduction of Cs-137 levels in plants and fungi after potassium fertilization in a Swedish forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolova, I.

    1998-01-01

    The uptake of 137 Cs in plants in forest ecosystems are much higher than in agricultural ecosystems. One reason could be that the concentrations of mineral nutrients usually are at much lower levels in forest soils compared to soil from arable land. On the other hand there are often rather weak correlation between the concentrations of exchangeable potassium in forest soils and the levels of 137 Cs in, e. g., dwarf-shrubs. The variations of the potassium levels are rather small in forest soils. This deficit can be offset by fertilization with potassium. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of potassium fertilization on the uptake of 137 Cs in a rather nutrient poor forest ecosystem - a rocky area with a rather shallow soil layer with high organic content. The potassium was spread in May 1992 by using normal agricultural equipment in efforts to get to 200 kg of potassium chloride per hectare. Three plots about 200 m 2 each were selected on the fertilized area and used for sampling of blueberry, lingonberry and heather. One sampling was performed before the spreading and then at least once a year up to 1997. During the mushroom season, the fruit bodies of the commonest species of fungi were collected within the 3 plots. A closely located rocky area was selected as the control area. The 137 Cs levels in blueberry and lingonberry only showed a minor decrease during the 1992 vegetation period. In contrast, heather showed a marked decrease of about 50 % already the first year. In mushrooms (Lactarius rufus and Rozites caperatus) the decrease was even more pronounced. In 1997, 5 vegetation periods after the fertilization, the Cs-137 levels in blueberry, lingonberry and heather were 633, 926 and 3,22 Bq/kg, respectively, amounting to 23%, 53%, and 24% of the control levels (2767, 1741 and 13,2 Bq/kg, respectively). Even fruit bodies of the fungi showed 137 Cs levels around 30 to 50 % of that in the control area. Thus, potassium fertilization appears

  7. The role of fungi in the immobilisation and translocation of Cs137 in the organic horizons of a conifer forest in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, David.

    1995-01-01

    This project investigates the size of the microbial and fungal biomass of the Of organic horizon of a Picea sitchensis forest soil. The immobilisation of Cs 137 within the microbial and fungal biomass is determined. The translocation of Cs 137 via fungal transport within the organic layers of a Pinus sylvestris forest is also investigated in a laboratory microcosm experiment and under field conditions. The microbial biomass was determined by fumigation-incubation using three soil biocides; chloroform, gamma irradiation and a selective fungicide. All biocides gave similar results for microbial biomass which was calculated from the pooled data to be 1.42 +-0.08 g C m -2 . The selective fungicide did not selectively kill the fungal biomass, it was therefore estimated to be 1.13 +- 0.06 g C m -2 . The fungal biomass was determined independently by the agar-film technique and found to be 10.63 +- 0.8 g C m -2 . The large difference in results is due to the methods used to identify the metabolically active fungal biomass. Chloroform and irradiation treatments yielded similar results for the quantity of Cs 137 immobilised within the fungal biomass. The selective fungicide did not selectively lyse the fungal biomass. The quantity of Cs 137 immobilised within the fungal biomass was estimated to be 8% of the Cs 137 deposition to the Of layer or 25 Bq g -1 C m -2 . The importation of Cs 137 into litterbags in the forest was observed as a cumulative effect over the period of study. The agar-film technique proved unsatisfactory in determining the relationship between Cs 137 importation and fungal growth. However, a significant (P 137 content of the O1 litterbags. A poor relationship was observed for Of litterbags. A large increase in Cs 137 activity on O1 and Of litter in the lab based study was observed although confounded by inadvertent contamination. (author)

  8. Transfer Factor of Co-60 and Cs-137 from Agricultural Soil to Agricultural Plant of Rice and Beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzie, D; Cerdas, T; Susilah, S; Umbara, H

    1996-01-01

    A study to estimate transfer factor of Co-60 and Cs-137 radionuclides from agricultural soil to agricultural plant of beans and rice in Serpong Nuclear Research Center Complex has been carried out. The soil used was that from off site Serpong Nuclear Research Center Complex, the agricultural plant samples were rice with variety of Cisadane, Situgintung, Seratus Malam, and Atomita 4, and for beans were peanut with variety of AH 1781 SI (parent) and A 20 psj (daughter), soybean with variety of Kerinci (parent) and Camar (daughter), and greenbean with variety of Manyar (parent) and Camar (daughter), which obtained from PAIR-BATAN Pasar Jumat. 10 kg of soil was put on the container which layered with plastic. The soil was contaminated with Co-60 and Cs-137 with activity concentration of 10 Bq/kg. Samples were counted with gamma spectrometer. The value of transfer factor was obtained by comparing activity concentration of agricultural plant with that of agricultural soil. The results of transfer factor of Co-60 for rice and beans were 0.12 x 10-2 and 1.05 x 10-2, respectively and the transfer factor of Cs-137 for rice and beans were 0.83 x 10-2 and 2.09 x 10-2, respectively. The gamma emmitter radionuclides counted from the soil of Serpong Nuclear Research Center Complex were Th-228, U-235, Ra-226, Ac-228 and K-40, with activities concentration as background were 35.39 - 101.60; 32.14 - 74.50; 23.37 - 28.57; 20.90 - 31.28 and 5.97 - 8.13 Bq/kg, respectively

  9. Soil-plant transfer of Cs-137 and Sr-90 in digestate amended agricultural soils- a lysimeter scale experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmood, Khalid; Berns, Anne E.; Pütz, Thomas; Burauel, Peter; Vereecken, Harry; Zoriy, Myroslav; Flucht, Reinhold; Opitz, Thorsten; Hofmann, Diana

    2014-05-01

    Radiocesium and radiostrontium are among the most problematic soil contaminants following nuclear fallout due to their long half-lives and high fission yields. Their chemical resemblance to potassium, ammonium and calcium facilitates their plant uptake and thus enhances their chance to reach humans through the food-chain dramatically. The plant uptake of both radionuclides is affected by the type of soil, the amount of organic matter and the concentration of competitive ions. In the present lysimeter scale experiment, soil-plant transfer of Cs-137 and Sr-90 was investigated in an agricultural silty soil amended with digestate, a residue from a biogas plant. The liquid fraction of the digestate, liquor, was used to have higher nutrient competition. Digestate application was done in accordance with the field practice with an application rate of 34 Mg/ha and mixing it in top 5 cm soil, yielding a final concentration of 38 g digestate/Kg soil. The top 5 cm soil of the non-amended reference soil was also submitted to the same mixing procedure to account for the physical disturbance of the top soil layer. Six months after the amendment of the soil, the soil contamination was done with water-soluble chloride salts of both radionuclides, resulting in a contamination density of 66 MBq/m2 for Cs-137 and 18 MBq/m2 for Sr-90 in separate experiments. Our results show that digestate application led to a detectable difference in soil-plant transfer of the investigated radionuclides, effect was more pronounced for Cs-137. A clear difference was observed in plant uptake of different plants. Pest plants displayed higher uptake of both radionuclides compared to wheat. Furthermore, lower activity values were recorded in ears compared to stems for both radionuclides.

  10. Developing a Treatment Planning Software Based on TG-43U1 Formalism for Cs-137 LDR Brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sina, Sedigheh; Faghihi, Reza; Soleimani Meigooni, Ali; Siavashpour, Zahra; Mosleh-Shirazi, Mohammad Amin

    2013-08-01

    The old Treatment Planning Systems (TPSs) used for intracavitary brachytherapy with Cs-137 Selectron source utilize traditional dose calculation methods, considering each source as a point source. Using such methods introduces significant errors in dose estimation. As of 1995, TG-43 is used as the main dose calculation formalism in treatment TPSs. The purpose of this study is to design and establish a treatment planning software for Cs-137 Solectron brachytherapy source, based on TG-43U1 formalism by applying the effects of the applicator and dummy spacers. Two softwares used for treatment planning of Cs-137 sources in Iran (STPS and PLATO), are based on old formalisms. The purpose of this work is to establish and develop a TPS for Selectron source based on TG-43 formalism. In this planning system, the dosimetry parameters of each pellet in different places inside applicators were obtained by MCNP4c code. Then the dose distribution around every combination of active and inactive pellets was obtained by summing the doses. The accuracy of this algorithm was checked by comparing its results for special combination of active and inactive pellets with MC simulations. Finally, the uncertainty of old dose calculation formalism was investigated by comparing the results of STPS and PLATO softwares with those obtained by the new algorithm. For a typical arrangement of 10 active pellets in the applicator, the percentage difference between doses obtained by the new algorithm at 1cm distance from the tip of the applicator and those obtained by old formalisms is about 30%, while the difference between the results of MCNP and the new algorithm is less than 5%. According to the results, the old dosimetry formalisms, overestimate the dose especially towards the applicator's tip. While the TG-43U1 based software perform the calculations more accurately.

  11. Cs-137 in roe-deer and other game species in the Federal Republic of Germany, 1986-1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fielitz, U.

    1993-01-01

    The radiocesium contamination of several game species of the Federal Republic in Germany was studied between 1986 - 1987. There were large variations in Cs-137 activity concentration in game meat, depending on it's origin: the minimum measured value was 2 Bq.kg -1 , the maximum was 5400 Bq.kg -1 . The cesium-contamination of roe-deer, which is a good bioindicator, decreases significantly (P -1 , at the investigation site Fuhrberg (Lower Saxony) there were 75 of 600 (13%). (orig.) [de

  12. Deposition of plutonium isotopes and Cs-137 in sediments of the Ob delta from the beginning of the nuclear age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panteleyev, G.P.; Livingston, H.D.; Sayles, F.L.; Medkova, O.N.

    1995-01-01

    As an approach to an assessment of the transport of artificial radionuclides through the Ob river system towards the arctic Ocean, results are presented from the analyses of a series of sediment cores collected in the Ob delta and estuary in 1994. These cores, collected in areas of sediment accumulation, contain the depositional history at the Ob mouth of substances associated with sediment particles from the whole river system watershed. Several approaches to dating these sediments permitted the development of a chronology for the deposition of plutonium isotopes and Cs-137, following their first introduction to the environment a half century ago. Some preliminary results for I-129 are also presented. 6 figs

  13. Preliminary Study for Application of the New Safety Goal related with the Limitation of Cs-137 release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Mi Ro; Shin, Tae Young [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In the New Safety Goal, it is clearly stated that the Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) should be performed with the proper technical appropriateness, the detail, and the scope in accordance with the integrated risk assessment against the accident for the nuclear power plants. This requirement is known to be come from the provision for preventing the long term ground contamination due to the release of radioactive material. However, there were so many concerns that this goal is so severe that the current design, even in the case of the constructing nuclear power plants, cannot meet this criterion. Especially for the operating nuclear power plants, since there were no mitigation facilities against the severe accident at the design stages, the application of this new goal is known to be much severe that the constructing nuclear power plants and it is necessary to develop the alternative methods to strengthen the safety of the operating nuclear power plants. The purpose of this study is to review the new safety goal from the view point of severe accident analysis and probabilistic safety assessment, and to find the appropriate methods in order to meet that goal for the operating nuclear power plants. In order to strengthen the safety for domestic nuclear power plants, all of the domestic operating nuclear power plants are required to prepare the Accident Management Plan within 3 years. Also, this Accident Management Plan should meet the New Safety Goal including the requirement that the sum of the accident frequency that the release of the radioactive nuclide Cs- 137 to the environment exceeds the 100TBq should be less than 1.0E-6/RY. Since the operating nuclear power plants was not designed against the severe accident and they have the limited exclusive mitigation facilities, it is not easy to meet the New Safety Goal. So, it is necessary to develop the alternative methods to meet the New Safety Goal. In this study, the amount of Cs-137 released to the

  14. Preliminary Study for Application of the New Safety Goal related with the Limitation of Cs-137 release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Mi Ro; Shin, Tae Young

    2016-01-01

    In the New Safety Goal, it is clearly stated that the Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) should be performed with the proper technical appropriateness, the detail, and the scope in accordance with the integrated risk assessment against the accident for the nuclear power plants. This requirement is known to be come from the provision for preventing the long term ground contamination due to the release of radioactive material. However, there were so many concerns that this goal is so severe that the current design, even in the case of the constructing nuclear power plants, cannot meet this criterion. Especially for the operating nuclear power plants, since there were no mitigation facilities against the severe accident at the design stages, the application of this new goal is known to be much severe that the constructing nuclear power plants and it is necessary to develop the alternative methods to strengthen the safety of the operating nuclear power plants. The purpose of this study is to review the new safety goal from the view point of severe accident analysis and probabilistic safety assessment, and to find the appropriate methods in order to meet that goal for the operating nuclear power plants. In order to strengthen the safety for domestic nuclear power plants, all of the domestic operating nuclear power plants are required to prepare the Accident Management Plan within 3 years. Also, this Accident Management Plan should meet the New Safety Goal including the requirement that the sum of the accident frequency that the release of the radioactive nuclide Cs- 137 to the environment exceeds the 100TBq should be less than 1.0E-6/RY. Since the operating nuclear power plants was not designed against the severe accident and they have the limited exclusive mitigation facilities, it is not easy to meet the New Safety Goal. So, it is necessary to develop the alternative methods to meet the New Safety Goal. In this study, the amount of Cs-137 released to the

  15. Application of Cs-137 techniques to problems of sediment redistribution in Sungai Lui representative basin, Selangor, Malaysia (Part 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daud bin Mohamad.

    1982-11-01

    Since the beginning of the nuclear age, Cesium-137 has become a part of the world's ecosystems. Cs-137 is carried from the atmosphere to the ground by rainfall. On reaching the earth's surface, 137 Cs becomes strongly adsorbed to soil profiles and is concentrated predominantly in the surface layer, particularly in clayey soils. Systematic measurements of Cs-137 levels will therefore permit estimates to be made of the cumulative effects of soil redistribution over the past 25 years. Sediment movement in river catchments and coastal areas is a very old problem in Malaysia. In view of rapid development of urban and agricultural areas in Malaysia it was realised tha soil loss problems are particularly serious. The Sungai Lui catchment was chosen to be the investigational site. Geologically, the area comprises of granite and granitic schist. The area is mostly covered by forest (approx. 83%) and rubber (13%), padi (2%) and others (2%). The climate is considered to be typical of Peninsular Malaysia (equatorial) characterised by uniform temperature, high humidity and high rainfall. The area is mainly drained by the Lui River. Soil samples were collected from the catchment area at 4 sampling points in April 1981. The results of analyses of Cs-137 in soil samples from Sungai Lui catchment area ranged from 1.3 to 6.8 M Bq g -1 of sample and they could still be detected even up to 20 cm depth. A general pattern of Cs-137 distribution was observed in the soil profile at each site. The highest activity being in the top 3 cm layer and then decreasing up to about 6 cm. The activity increases again up to about 9 cm layer. From there onwards, it decreases. Based on these results, the estimated rate of sediment accumulation in the area was found to be about 0.47 cm/year. Since the samples were only collected from the depositional sites, further sampling especially from erosional site should therefore be carried out in order to obtain more complete data

  16. Studies on the Cs 137-transfer in the foodchain soil - plant - milk under the ecological conditions in a given environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heine, K.; Wiechen, A.

    1979-01-01

    Transfer factors of Cs 137 were determined by low-levels measurements of soil, plants and milk in the surroundings of the site of the planned nuclear reprocessing plant near Gorleben. The evaluated transfer factors for the transition soil - plant range between 0.018 and 0.115 (pCi/kg plant wet weight: pCi/kg soil dry weight). Higher values were generally found for sandy soils than for the loamy soils of the lowland near the river Elbe. Because of a possible direct contamination of the plants by fall out or wash out the determined values can be considered as the higher limits of the transfer factors. The determined Cs 137-transfer factors of the transition plant - milk range between 0.0023 and 0.057 (pCi/l: pCi/daily intake). The highest transfer factors are determined for farms the pastures of which have sandy soils. More than 2/3 of all transfer factors determined for the transition plant - milk are lower than the value 0.012 (pCi/l: pCi/daily intake) published by the Strahlenschutzkommission in 1977. As for two farms the mean values of the factors during the outdoor season are higher than this value, it probably has to be raised in the evaluation of the radiation exposure for this part of the surroundings of the nuclear plant. (orig./MG) 891 MG/orig. 892 MB [de

  17. Effect of pre-sowing gamma-irradiation (Cs-137) of alfalfa seeds on fodder and seed yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiev, Z.; Topchieva, A.; Michev, G.; Simeonova, L.; Stoyanov, S.

    1983-01-01

    The study was carried out at the experimental base of the Fodder Institute of Feeds, Pleven, with alfalfa cv. Pleven 6 in three field trials. The effect of pre-sowing gamma-irradiation (Cs-137) of air dry seeds at rates of 1000, 1300 and 1600 R on the yield produced was studied in the first trial (1980-1982). The effect of pre-sowing gamma-irradiation (Cs-137) of the seeds on seed production was studied in the second trial. Gamma-ray doses of 500, 1000 and 1500 R and three sowing rates (3, 5 and 10 kg/ha) were tested. The after effect of gamma-irradiation on the progeny was studied in the first trial (1981-1982). It was found that the treatment tested had a stimulating effect on seed production yields. Highest stimulating effect for the period of investigation, on the average, was observed with the 1500 R dose and the 3 kg/ha sowing rate. The same treatment produced highest net income. The gamma-ray doses tested had no radiation after-effect on the plant progeny. Sowing rates had a considerable effect on seed yield. In this respect the 3 kg/ha rate surpasses the 5 and 10 kg/ha rates by 6.00 and 19.64%, on the average. The 1000, 1300 and 1600 R gamma-ray doses had no stimulating effect on fodder yield

  18. Effect of Ground Surface Roughness on Atmospheric Dispersion and Dry Deposition of Cs-137 in the UAE Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sungyeop; Beeley, Philip A. [Khalifa Univ. of Science, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Kim, Sungyeop; Chang, Soonheung; Lee, Kunjai [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The site of nuclear power plant (NPP) in the UAE has several unique characteristics as a NPP on the desert environment near coastal region. Those characteristics are represented like below: · Arid ground surface · Low ground surface roughness length · Relatively simple (flat) terrain · Extremely low precipitation · Intense solar radiation and high temperature in day time · Sea breeze · Relatively high humidity of atmosphere · Etc. From the review of this desert environment in the UAE, low ground surface roughness is regarded as one of definitively different characteristics from that of other NPP sites. In this context, surface roughness is selected as independent variables for the sensitivity analyses in this research. Another important reason of this selection is that this parameters is less dependent on the day and night change than other parameters. With ground level concentration, dry deposition rate has been chosen as a dependent variable to be considered rather than wet deposition because UAE shows almost zero rainfall especially in summer. Lower ground level concentration of Cs-137 near the site and extremely lower dry deposition of Cs-137 are predicted in the UAE environment because of the lower ground surface roughness of the desert.

  19. Estimation of Cs-137 hillslope patterns of Polesje landscapes using geo-information modeling techniques (on example of the Bryansk region)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnik, Vitaly; Nenko, Kristina; Sokolov, Alexander; Saveliev, Anatoly

    2015-04-01

    In the result of Chernobyl disaster on 26 April 1986 many regions of Ukraine, Belarus and Russia were contaminated by radionuclides. Vast areas of farmlands and woodlands were contaminated in Russia. The deposited radionuclides continue to cause concern about the possible contamination of food (in particular, mushrooms and berries). But the radioactive materials are also an ideal marker for understanding of hillslope processes in natural and seminatural landscapes. Model area chosen for the research (Opolje landscapes located in the central part of the Bryansk region) is characterized by relatively low levels of Cs-137 contamination. It just 4-33 times higher than global fallout which was equal 1,75 kBq/m2 in 1986 . According the results of air gamma survey (grid size: 100 m x100 m), which was done in 1993, it was explicitly to identify that the processes of Cs-137 lateral migration took place due to nearly fourfold increase of Cs-137 in the lower slope in comparison with the surface of the watershed during a seven-year period after Chernobyl accident. Erosion processes which define Cs-137 pattern in the lowest part of hillslope depend upon such parameters as slope, hillslope forms, vegetation, land use and the roads, which intersect a streamline. GIS-modeling of Cs-137 was carried out in SAGA software. The spatial modeling resolution was equal 100x100 m according the air-gamma data. SRTM data was resampled to a grid 100x100 m. Erosion rates were the highest on the slope of southern exposure. There the processes of lateral migration are more intensive and observed within the entire slope. The main contribution in receipt of Cs-137 to floodplain on the northern slopes comes only from the lower part of the slope and gullies and ravines network. We have used geo-information modeling techniques and some kind of interpolation and statistical models to predict or understand forming of Cs-137 spatial patterns and trends in soil erosion. To study the role of some

  20. A three-dimensional stochastic model of the behavior of radionuclides in forests. Part 2. Cs-137 behavior in forest soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, Mitchell T.; Shuman, Larry J.

    1995-01-01

    Using a three-dimensional stochastic model of radionuclides in forests developed in Part 1, this work simulates the long-term behavior of Cs-137 in forest soil. It is assumed that the behavior of Cs-137 in soils is driven by its advection and dispersion due to the infiltration of the soil solution, and its sorption to the soil matrix. As Cs-137 transport through soils is affected by its uptake and release by forest vegetation, a model of radiocesium behavior in forest vegetation is presented in Part 3 of this paper. To estimate the rate of infiltration of water through the soil, models are presented to estimate the hydrological cycle of the forest including infiltration, evapotranspiration, and the root uptake of water. The state transition probabilities for the random walk model of Cs-137 transport are then estimated using the models developed to predict the distribution of water in the forest. The random walk model is then tested using a base line scenario in which Cs-137 is deposited into a coniferous forest ecosystem

  1. Estimation of average burnup of damaged fuels loaded in Fukushima Dai-ichi reactors by using the 134Cs/137Cs ratio method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, T.; Sato, S.; Yamamoto, A.

    2012-01-01

    Average burnup of damaged fuels loaded in Fukushima Dai-ichi reactors is estimated, using the 134 Cs/ 137 Cs ratio method for measured radioactivities of 134 Cs and 137 Cs in contaminated soils within the range of 100 km from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plants. As a result, the measured 134 Cs/ 137 Cs ratio from the contaminated soil is 0.996±0.07 as of March 11, 2011. Based on the 134 Cs/ 137 Cs ratio method, the estimated burnup of damaged fuels is approximately 17.2±1.5 [GWd/tHM]. It is noted that the numerical results of various calculation codes (SRAC2006/PIJ, SCALE6.0/TRITON, and MVP-BURN) are almost the same evaluation values of 134 Cs/ 137 Cs ratio with same evaluated nuclear data library (ENDF-B/VII.0). The void fraction effect in depletion calculation has a major impact on 134 Cs/ 137 Cs ratio compared with the differences between JENDL-4.0 and ENDF-B/VII.0. (authors)

  2. A Comparison of the Dosimetric Parameters of Cs-137 Brachytherapy Source in Different Tissues with Water Using Monte Carlo Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Sina

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction After the publication of Task Group number 43 dose calculation formalism by the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM, this method has been known as the most common dose calculation method in brachytherapy treatment planning. In this formalism, the water phantom is introduced as the reference dosimetry phantom, while the attenuation coefficient of the sources in the water phantom is different from that of different tissues. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the phantom materials on the TG-43 dosimetery parameters of the Cs-137 brachytherapy source using MCNP4C Monte Carlo code. Materials and Methods In this research, the Cs-137 (Model Selectron brachytherapy source was simulated in different phantoms (bone, soft tissue, muscle, fat, and the inhomogeneous phantoms of water/bone of volume 27000 cm3 using MCNP4C Monte Carlo code. *F8 tally was used to obtain the dose in a fine cubical lattice. Then the TG-43 dosimetry parameters of the brachytherapy source were obtained in water phantom and compared with those of different phantoms. Results The percentage difference between the radial dose function g(r of bone and the g(r of water phantom, at a distance of 10 cm from the source center is 20%, while such differences are 1.7%, 1.6% and 1.1% for soft tissue, muscle, and fat, respectively. The largest difference of the dose rate constant of phantoms with those of water is 4.52% for the bone phantom, while the differences for soft tissue, muscle, and fat are 1.18%, 1.27%, and 0.18%, respectively. The 2D anisotropy function of the Cs-137 source for different tissues is identical to that of water. Conclusion The results of the simulations have shown that dose calculation in water phantom would introduce errors in the dose calculation around brachytherapy sources. Therefore, it is suggested that the correction factors of different tissues be applied after dose calculation in water phantoms, in order to

  3. The radiological exposure of man from ingestion of Cs-137 and Sr-90 in seafood from the Baltic Sea. Pilot project: Marina-Balt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, S.P. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Oehlenschlaeger, M. [National Institute of Radiation Hygiene, Broenshoej (Denmark); Karlberg, O. [Swedish Radiation Protection Institute, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1995-04-01

    This report describes a limited radiological assessment of the collective doses to man from the intake of seafood from the Baltic Sea contaminated with the radionuclides Cs-137 and Sr-90. Information on fisheries statistics is presented. The most important source terms to radioactive contamination of Cs-137 and Sr-90 in the Baltic Sea are identified and quantified. A compartment model for the dispersion of radionuclides in European coastal waters including the Baltic Sea is described and tested by comparing model predictions with observations. Collective doses are calculated with the model for each of the source-term categories. (au) (11 tabs., 28 ills., 17 refs.).

  4. The radiological exposure of man from ingestion of Cs-137 and Sr-90 in seafood from the Baltic Sea. Pilot project: Marina-Balt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, S.P.; Oehlenschlaeger, M.; Karlberg, O.

    1995-04-01

    This report describes a limited radiological assessment of the collective doses to man from the intake of seafood from the Baltic Sea contaminated with the radionuclides Cs-137 and Sr-90. Information on fisheries statistics is presented. The most important source terms to radioactive contamination of Cs-137 and Sr-90 in the Baltic Sea are identified and quantified. A compartment model for the dispersion of radionuclides in European coastal waters including the Baltic Sea is described and tested by comparing model predictions with observations. Collective doses are calculated with the model for each of the source-term categories. (au) (11 tabs., 28 ills., 17 refs.)

  5. A simple method for the deconvolution of 134 Cs/137 Cs peaks in gamma-ray scintillation spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darko, E.O.; Osae, E.K.; Schandorf, C.

    1998-01-01

    A simple method for the deconvolution of 134 Cs / 137 Cs peaks in a given mixture of 134 Cs and 137 Cs using Nal(TI) gamma-ray scintillation spectrometry is described. In this method the 795 keV energy of 134 Cs is used as a reference peak to calculate the activity of the 137 Cs directly from the measured peaks. Certified reference materials were measured using the method and compared with a high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry measurements. The results showed good agreement with the certified values. The method is very simple and does not need any complicated mathematics and computer programme to de- convolute the overlapping 604.7 keV and 661.6 keV peaks of 134 Cs and 137 Cs respectively. (author). 14 refs.; 1 tab., 2 figs

  6. Cs-137 and Co-60 concentrations in water from the Savannah River and water-treatment plants downstream of SRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    In preparation for restart of L-Reactor, a comprehensive environmental sampling and analysis program was initiated in March 1983 to determine Cs-137 concentrations in off-site water downstream from Savannah River Plant (SRP). Concentrations of Co-60 also are determined in this sampling and analysis program. This report summarizes the first three months of results. Cesium-137 concentrations are reported for finished water from the Beaufort-Jasper, Port Wentworth and North Augusta water treatment plants for weekly continuous samples during April through June 1983. The very low concentrations of cesium-137 in finished water from downstream water treatment plants showed significant changes during this time. The changes in concentration occurred smoothly and correlate with changes in river flow. No changes in concentration during April through June can be attributed to L-Reactor's only cold water test which occurred June 8 and 9. No Co-60 was observed in any samples

  7. Epiphytic fruticose lichens as biomonitors for retrospective evaluation of the 134Cs/137Cs ratio in Fukushima fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramzaev, V.; Barkovsky, A.; Gromov, A.; Ivanov, S.; Kaduka, M.

    2014-01-01

    In 2011–2013, sampling of epiphytic fruticose lichens of the genera Usnea, Bryoria and Alectoria was carried out on Sakhalin and Kuril Islands (the Sakhalin region, Russia) to investigate contamination of these organisms with the Fukushima-derived 134 Cs and 137 Cs. Activities of the radionuclides were determined in all 56 samples of lichens taken for the analysis. After correction for radioactive decay (on 15 March 2011), the activity concentrations ranged from 2.1 Bq kg −1 (d.w.) to 52 Bq kg −1 for 134 Cs and from 2.3 Bq kg −1 to 52 Bq kg −1 for 137 Cs. Cesium-134 and 137 Cs activities for the whole set of lichens (n = 56) were strongly positively correlated; Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was calculated as 0.991 (P < 0.01). The activity concentrations of 134 Cs and 137 Cs in Usnea lichens from the Sakhalin and Kunashir islands declined with a factor of three in the period from 2011 to 2013. The average biological half-time for both cesium radionuclides in lichens of the genus Usnea is estimated as 1.3 y. The mean of 0.99 ± 0.10 and median of 0.99 were calculated for the decay corrected 134 Cs/ 137 Cs activities ratios in the lichens (n = 56). The radionuclides ratio in the lichens did not depend on location of sampling site, species and the time that had passed after the Fukushima accident. The regression analysis has shown the background pre-Fukushima level of 137 Cs of 0.4 ± 0.3 Bq kg −1 , whereas the ratio between the Fukushima-borne 134 Cs and 137 Cs in the lichens was estimated as 1.04. The 134 Cs/ 137 Cs activities ratio in lichens from the Sakhalin region is consistent with the ratios reported by others for the heavy contaminated areas on Honshu Island in Japan following the Fukushima accident. The activity concentrations of natural 7 Be in lichens from the Sakhalin region varied between 100 Bq kg −1 and 600 Bq kg −1 ; the activity concentrations did not exhibit temporal variations during a 2y-period of observations. The

  8. To the predicted calculations of Cs-137 and Sr-90 migration in soil in the frame of the compartment model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knat'ko, B.A.; Skomorokhov, A.G.

    1994-01-01

    The method of calculation of migration of radionuclides in soil according to compartment model and based on analitical solution of the system of differential equations of the model is proposed. Calculations of the content of radionuclides in the soil layer for Cs-137 and Sr-90 for four types of soil for the periods of 0, 21, 34,46 and 73 months are carried out. Calculations were done for three upper soil layers 0-2.5, 2.5-5, 5.0-15.0 cm, which give the main contribution into transport of radionuclides into plants on meadows and pastures. Such method increases precision of calculations of cesium-137 and strontium-90 migration in comparison with the prosedure, which uses the system of finite difference equations. 6 refs., 1 fig

  9. Measurements of Cs 137 and Cs 134 internal contamination during 1987 by the Bologna Enea PAS whole body counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melandri, C.; Castellani, C.M.; Torroni, G.; Formignani, M.

    1988-01-01

    Internal contamination data obtained during 1987 at the ENEA PAS-FIBI- AEROSOL Laboratory in Bologna, following the accident at the nuclear reactor in Chernobyl, are presented. The data are referred to person living in the Bologna area, in other Italian regions and to individuals returned from abroad, mainly from Eastern Europe countries. Trend of Cs-137 and Cs-134 internal body burden in adult men resident in Bologna are given together with values of mean daily intake by ingestion and evaluation of the commited dose equivalents up to decembre 1987. Measurement campaigns, specifically projected in order to evaluate the men/women activity differences and the distribution of the internal contamination in various Italian regions, have been performed

  10. Comparison of gridded versus observation data to initialize ARAC dispersion models for the Algeciras, Spain steel mill CS-137 release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aluzzi, F J; Pace, J C; Pobanz, B M; Vogt, P J

    1999-01-01

    On May 30, 1998 scrap metal containing radioactive Cesium-137 (Cs-137) was accidentally melted in a furnace at the Acerinox steel mill in Algeciras, Spain. Cs-137 was released from the mill's smokestack, and spread across the western Mediterranean Sea to France and Italy and beyond. The first indication of the release was radiation levels up to 1000 times background reported by Swiss, French, and Italian authorities during the following two weeks. Initially no elevated radiation levels were detected over Spain. A release of hazardous material to the atmosphere is the type of situation the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) emergency response organization was designed to address. The amount and exact time of the release were unknown, though the incident was thought to have taken place during the last week in May. Using air concentration measurements supplied by colleagues of ARAC in Spain, France, Switzerland, Italy, Sweden, Russia and the European Union, ARAC meteorologists estimated the magnitude and timing of the release (Vogt, 1999). Correctly locating the downwind footprint is the most important goal of emergency response modeling. In this study, we compare predicted results for the Algeciras event based on four wind data sources: (1) US Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System (NOGAPS) data alone, (2) surface and upper air observations alone, (3) NOGAPS data together with surface and upper air observations, and (4) forecasts from ARAC's in-house execution of the U.S. Navy Operational Regional Atmospheric Prediction System (NORAPS) (without surface or upper air observations). We compare the resulting dispersion predictions from ARAC's diagnostic dispersion modeling system to the measurements supplied by our European colleagues to determine which data source produced the best results

  11. Studies on the current Cs-137 body burden of children in Belarus - can the dose be further reduced?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, P.; Schlaeger, M.; Vogel, V.; Hille, R.; Nesterenko, A.V.; Nesterenko, V.B.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: After the Chernobyl reactor accident wide areas of Belarus have been contaminated with radioactive fallout. The verification and documentation of the long-term development of radiation doses is still going on. A population group of special concern are the children living in contaminated regions. The annual dose limit of 1 mSv/a is still exceeded in some cases, essentially due to high body burdens of Cs-137 as indicated by screening measurements with portable incorporation monitors. In this situation the evaluation of possible dose reduction measures in addition to the control of food contamination is being investigated. Special attention is given to the cure-like application of a pectin-preparation (Vitapekt), for which a dose-lowering effect is presumed by Belarusian scientists. In a placebo-controlled double-blind study, several groups of contaminated children were treated with Vitapekt for a two-week period during their stay in a sanatorium. For comparison the same number of control groups were given a placebo preparation. The Cs-137 body burden of the children was measured at the beginning and the end. First results indicate a mean relative reduction of the specific activity within the Vitapekt groups of about 35 %, whereas the specific activity of the children who received a placebo decreased only by about 15 %. It is proposed that pectins chemically bind cesium in the gastrointestinal tract and thereby increase fecal excretion. Theoretical calculations based on this assumption are qualitatively consistent with the experimentally found retention of radiocesium in the human body after a pectin treatment. (author)

  12. Relative biological effectiveness (R.B.E.) of Cf-252 vs. acute Co-60 and low dose rate Cs-137 irradiation by spleen weight loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Y.; Feola, J.M.; Magura, C.; Beach, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    R.B.E. of Cf-252 on lymphoid tissue was assessed by radiation study of spleen weight loss following acute Co-60, and low dose rate (L.D.R.) Cs-137 and Cf-252 irradiations. Acute Co-60 and L.D.R. Cs-137 dose-response followed two component exponential curves with a 1.3-fold greater effect of L.D.R. Cs-137 vs. acute Co-60 on the first slope and 1.9-fold greater effect for the 2nd slope. L.D.R. Cf-252 response was 1.3 x greater than acute Co-60 but was 1.0 vs. L.D.R. Cs-137 for the first slope indicating a similar effect of Cf-252 mixed neutron/gamma radiation to L.D.R. gamma radiation in producing spleen shrinkage. There was no effect of different sequences and schedules of mixing acute Co-60 with Cf-252 irradiation observed by endogenous CFU-S survival. The R.B.E. of 1.0 - 1.9 indicates that lymphohemopoietic in vivo, presumably well oxygenated, does not respond acutely or as sensitively as hypoxic tumor where R.B.E. is 5 - 7. (author)

  13. Basic parameters of the Cs 137 contents in some components of trophic chains of Kanevskoe reservoir after accident on Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarubin, O.L.; Pan'kov, I.V.; Volkova, E.N.; Belyaev, V.V.

    2002-01-01

    The analysis of parameters of radioactive pollution of water and biota of Kanevskoe reservoir has shown, what even in 15 years after accident on Chernobyl NPP, the distribution of Cs 137 on the basic components by this ecosystem has not achieved an equilibrium condition

  14. Studies on the levels of Cs-137 originating from the Chernobyl accident in salmonid fish, its prey organisms and environment, in some alpine lakes of northern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammar, J.; Neumann, G.; Notter, M.

    1988-01-01

    Fallout from the Chernobyl accident resulted in heavy surface contamination in areas of middle and northern Sweden. One of the most heavily affected regions was an approx. 5000 km 2 alpine district at the border to Norway. Shortly after the accident, the levels of Cs-137 and other radionuclides began to rise in two dominating fish species of the region, the brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) and the Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus L. In July 1986 a research program started with the ultimate goal of understanding the mechanisms of transport for radionuclides through the food chain to fish, and, if possible, to give a forecast of the future development of the Cs-137 contamination. It comprises measurements of mainly Cs-137, Cs-134 and K-40 in 8 lakes within the area. The measurements have been performed at five occasions during the period July 1986 until October 1987. The preliminary results concerning Cs-137 show: - A large increase in levels of bottom sediments. A decrease in levels of water. A strong decrease in levels of phytoplankton, zooplankton, Gammarus and Mysis during autumn 1986, and a stabilization during 1987. In same lakes, however, another increase was recorded during 1987. That Mysis originally has the highest levels of all food items. That the levels of brown trout and Arctic char increased steadily during 1986 and showed a tendency of stabilization or slight decrease during 1987. That brown trout generally show higher levels than Arctic char and reaches its highest levels in lakes with introduced Mysis

  15. 135Cs activity and 135Cs/137Cs atom ratio in environmental samples before and after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guosheng; Tazoe, Hirofumi; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2016-04-07

    (135)Cs/(137)Cs is a potential tracer for radiocesium source identification. However, due to the challenge to measure (135)Cs, there were no (135)Cs data available for Japanese environmental samples before the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. It was only 3 years after the accident that limited (135)Cs values could be measured in heavily contaminated environmental samples. In the present study, activities of (134)Cs, (135)Cs, and (137)Cs, along with their ratios in 67 soil and plant samples heavily and lightly contaminated by the FDNPP accident were measured by combining γ spectrometry with ICP-MS/MS. The arithmetic means of the (134)Cs/(137)Cs activity ratio (1.033 ± 0.006) and (135)Cs/(137)Cs atom ratio (0.334 ± 0.005) (decay corrected to March 11, 2011), from old leaves of plants collected immediately after the FDNPP accident, were confirmed to represent the FDNPP derived radiocesium signature. Subsequently, for the first time, trace (135)Cs amounts before the FDNPP accident were deduced according to the contribution of global and FDNPP accident-derived fallout. Apart from two soil samples with a tiny global fallout contribution, contributions of global fallout radiocesium in other soil samples were observed to be 0.338%-52.6%. The obtained (135)Cs/(137)Cs database will be useful for its application as a geochemical tracer in the future.

  16. Evaluation of small scale laboratory and pot experiments to determine realistic transfer factors for the radionuclides Sr-90, Cs-137, Co-60 and Mn-54

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steffens, W.; Fuhr, F.; Mittelstaedt, W.

    1980-01-01

    Lysimeter experiments were undertaken in a controlled experimental field to study the root uptake of Sr-90, Cs-137, Co-60 and Mn-54 under outdoor conditions. Parallel experiments were set up using the Kick - Brauckman experimental pots under greenhouse and the Neubauer cups under growth chamber conditions. The results obtained from the three types of experiments are compared. (H.K.)

  17. Pre-assessment of dose rates of 134Cs, 137Cs, and 60Co for marine biota from discharge of Haiyang Nuclear Power Plant, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jingjing; Liu, Senlin; Zhang, Yongxing; Chen, Ling; Yan, Yuan; Cheng, Weiya; Lou, Hailin; Zhang, Yongbao

    2015-01-01

    Haiyang Nuclear Power Plant to be built in China was selected as a case for the dose pre-assessment for marine biota in this study. The concentrations of Cs and Co in organisms (turbot, yellow croaker, swimming crab, abalone, sea cucumber, and sea lettuce), seawater, and bottom sediment sampled on-site were measured by neutron activation analysis, and the site-specific transfer parameters (concentration ratios and distribution coefficients) of Cs and Co were calculated. 134 Cs, 137 Cs, and 60 Co activity concentrations in the organisms and the sediment at the site were calculated with the site-specific transfer parameters and the anticipated activity concentrations in the liquid effluent of the nuclear power plant. The ERICA tool was used to estimate the dose rates of 134 Cs, 137 Cs, and 60 Co to the selected organisms based on the biological models developed. The total dose rates of 134 Cs, 137 Cs, and 60 Co to the six organisms were all <0.001 μGy h −1 . - Highlights: • Pre-assessment for biota dose rates from Haiyang Nuclear Power Plant was made. • The site-specific transfer parameters were obtained by neutron activation analysis. • The dose rates of 134 Cs, 137 Cs, and 60 Co to the organisms were <0.001 μGy h −1

  18. Five years of monitoring Cs-137 And Cs-134 in moss and soil samples in the campania region of Italy after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontana, C.; Tenero, A.Lo; Musumeci, R.G.; Valeriani, F.

    2000-01-01

    The Central Laboratory of The Italian Red Cross is part of the National Network for the Monitoring of the Environmental Radioactivity in Italy, coordinated by the National Environmental Agency (ANPA). The Central Laboratory took part in the national campaigns for the monitoring of the environmental gamma radioactivity in order to evaluate the deposition of artificial radioactivity on Italian territory after the Chernobyl accident. The distribution of the concentration of artificial radionuclide Cs-137 as reached, in North and Central Italy, the higher values: 2-185 kBq/m 2 and 0-40 kBq/m 2 . This paper presents the data of the concentration of artificial radionuclides Cs-137 and Cs-134 in mosses picked up in four different locations in the Campania Region of Italy with the help of the Department of the State Forestry Corp of S.Gregorio Matese, Vesuvio, Laviano, Piaggine from 1993 to 1998. The deposition of artificial radioactivity on the territory expected after the Chernobyl fallout was evaluated. The content of K-40 was also measured. Soil samples were also taken from the same sites. In this study Hypnum cupressiforme and Homalotecium lutescens mosses were used as bioindicators, available in all Italian ecosystems. The soil and moss samples were gathered according to a national standard procedure. These results, obtained by gamma spectrometry analyses, initially have shown values of medium concentration in mosses in the Campania Region of Cs-137 of 375 Bq/m 2 and of Cs-134 of 16 Bq/m 2 and K-40 of 150 Bq/m 2 in line with the ones of other Italian regions. The results of the average concentrations of the Cs-137 and Cs-134 in the mosses confirm a uniform distribution of post-Chernobyl radioactivity in the regional territory, in the Department of the State Forestry Corp of Vesuvio, Laviano and Piaggine. The results of Cs-137 and Cs-134 of S.Gregorio Matese are in accordance with the previous data relative to the monitoring campaign of mosses in Italy from 1992 to

  19. Measurement of dissolved Cs-137 in stream water, soil water and groundwater at Headwater Forested Catchment in Fukushima after Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwagami, Sho; Tsujimura, Maki; Onda, Yuichi; Sakakibara, Koichi; Konuma, Ryohei; Sato, Yutaro

    2016-04-01

    Radiocesium migration from headwater forested catchment is important perception as output from the forest which is also input to the subsequent various land use and downstream rivers after Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. In this study, dissolved Cs-137 concentration of stream water, soil water and groundwater were measured. Observations were conducted at headwater catchment in Yamakiya district, located 35 km northwest of FDNPP from April 2014 to November 2015. Stream water discharge was monitored and stream water samples were taken at main channel and sub channel. Stream water discharge was monitored by combination of parshallflume and v-notch weir. Stream water was sampled manually at steady state condition in 3-4 month interval and also intense few hours interval sampling were conducted during rainfall events using automated water sampler. Around the sub channel, it is found that there is a regularly saturated area at the bottom of the slope, temporary saturated area which saturate during the rainy season in summer and regularly dry area. 6 interval cameras were installed to monitor the changing situation of saturated area. Suction lysimeters were installed at three areas (regularly saturated area, temporary saturated area and dry area) for sampling soil water in depth of 0.1 m and 0.3 m. Boreholes were installed at three points along the sub channel. Three boreholes with depth of 3 m, 5 m and 10 m were installed at temporary saturated area, 20 m upstream of sub channel weir. Another three boreholes with depth of 3 m, 5 m and 10 m were installed at dry area, 40 m upstream of sub channel weir. And a borehole with depth of 20 m was installed at ridge of sub catchment, 52 m upstream of sub channel weir. Groundwater was sampled by electrically powered pump and groundwater level was monitored. Also suction-free lysimeter was installed at temporary saturated area for sampling the near surface subsurface water. Soil water samples were collected

  20. Annual deposition of Sr-90, Cs-137 and Pu-239, 240 from the 1961 - 1980 nuclear explosions: a simple model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, K.; Aoyama, M.; Katsuragi, Y.; Sugimura, Y.

    1987-01-01

    The annual deposition of Sr-90, Cs-137, Pu-239, 240, and Pu-238 were observed from 1959 to 1984 at the Meteorological Research Institute (MRI). In order to interpret the serial trends of the annual radioactive deposition at the MRI, a semi-empirical box model of atmospheric transport was developed. The model divides the atmosphere of the Northern Hemisphere into four compartments: the atmosphere above 21 km, stratosphere below 21 km, active mixing and exchange (AME) layer near the tropopause, and the troposphere. The transfer between the compartments follows the first-order kinetics. The half residence times for transfer between upper and lower stratospheric compartments, between the lower and AME layer compartments, and between the AME layer and troposphere are 0.5, 0.7 and 0.3 yrs, respectively. It is revealed that as a long-term monitoring of the annual deposition of radioactive debris in the mid-latitude area, the model quantitatively permits the calculation of stratospheric inventories and trends of annual deposition of debris injected into the stratosphere which are characterized by apparent residence times of 0.5 to 1.7 yrs. This simple model is useful to predict the annual deposition amount of radioactive debris from the thermonuclear explosion for practical purposes. (author)

  1. CONTENT OF CS-137 IN HOMEMADE PRESERVES OF MUSHROOMS PICKED IN 2014 BY LOCAL RESIDENTS IN AREAS AFFECTED BY RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION AFTER CHERNOBYL NPP ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Varfolomeeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of the study made in 2014 on evaluation of the content of Cs-137 in different homemade dried and pickled mushrooms picked by residents of most contaminated areas of the Bryansk region. The aim of the study was to evaluate actual content levels of Cs-137 in homemade preserves of dried and pickled mushrooms picked in the Bryansk region areas with high level of radioactive contamination after Chernobyl accident. Sampling was conducted in residential settlements in proximity to most visited forest areas located at different distances to residential settlements in the range from 0.3 to 5 kilometers, with different forest types, with different soil surface contamination density by Cs-137 in the range from 33 to 944 kBq/m2 (Tentative levels of surface contamination of forest soil are evaluated based on the results of gammaspectrometry measurements in soil samples. The sampling was done at voluntary consent of local residents. In the frameworks of the research in ten settlements with 6112 residents altogether 25 samples were selected (8 samples of dried and 17 of pickled mushrooms.The analyses of study results resulted in the following conclusions: specific activity in samples of different kinds of dry and pickled mushrooms picked by residents of south-west areas of the Bryansk region vary in broad range from 32 to 34000 Bq/kg. The most part of homemade preserves of dried and pickled mushrooms of the local residents exceeds normative levels of permissible mushroom contamination. Cs-137 content in pickled mushrooms is not explicitly dependent on the level of soil surface contamination whereas specific activity of dry mushrooms increases along with the level of surface contamination increase. In the process of mushroom pickling, the additional reduction of Cs-137 content is observed: from 17% to 67% which averages to 37%. Due to the gradual reduction of transfer coefficients for Cs-137 into forest mushrooms and significant

  2. Cs 137 and Sr 90 content in the Kozloduy NPP environment; Soderzhanie 137Cs i 90Sr v obektakh okruzhayushchej sredy v rajone AEhS `Kozloduy`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karaivanova, R; Totseva, R; Badulin, V; Zlatanova, R; Fajtondzhieva, K [National Centre of Radiobiology and Radiation Protection, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1996-12-31

    The radioactivity status of soil and plant samples collected in the 12 km controlled zone surrounding Kozloduy has been investigated in the period 1990-1993. The average annual concentrations of Sr-90 and Cs-137 are compared to the values taken at 40 km distance. Cs-137 has in general higher concentrations in soil samples from the NPP close surroundings - e.g. 50-55 Bq/kg in 1992 versus 2-2.5 Bq/kg for Sr-90. Radionuclide concentrations in grass do not differ significantly from the data at 40 km distance. It is concluded that the average annual doses follow the radionuclide dynamics in the global fallout and the effect of Kozloduy operation can not be separated from the background radioactivity status. 4 refs., 21 figs.

  3. Amount of deposited by river silt Cs-137 brought to the river Arbuzynka with sewerage water from South Ukrainian Atomic Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyintsukevich, N.V.; Tomyilyin, Yu.A.; Grigor'jeva, L.Yi.

    1996-01-01

    The peculiarities of radionuclide depositing in the silt of the river Arbuzynka in the place of discharge of sewerage water from South Ukrainian Atomic Power Plant have been studied. According to the finding of the observation, the main contribution to the total radioactivity of the sewerage water for the entire period of the plant operation was made by Cs-137. The greatest contamination of the river was observed in 1988 and 1993. It has been established that for the whole period of the plant operation two processes developed dynamically in the Arbuzynka, e.i. Cs-137 accumulation by the bottom deposits and its reserve receipt by the water. The process of accumulation was more dynamic

  4. Soil to plant transfer factors for Cs-137 and Pu-239+240 determined by field and glasshouse measurements in Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cawse, P.A.; Baker, S.J.

    1984-01-01

    Further data on soil to plant transfer factors is provided for Cs-137 and Pu-239+240, as an extension of results presented at the previous IUR Workshop at Wageningen in December 1982. Field crops of grass, barley and oats produced in 1982 at 11 locations in Britain were analysed for radionuclides. Analysis of soils that produced these crops showed that they contained 'background' nuclear weapons fallout concentrations of Cs-137 and plutonium which were elevated in regions with high rainfall. Analysis of basic soil properties was also made. In separate experiments, transfer factors were derived for 10 crop plants grown in pot trials under glasshouse conditions. In one trial the soil used contained low concentrations of radionuclides derived from nuclear weapons fallout. In a second trial a brown earth was used, which contained additional radionuclides from long-term deposition by nuclear fuel reprocessing. (orig.)

  5. Design and construction of a holder to the safety handling of Cs-137 to be used in cervix cancer treatments using intracavitary brachytherapy by afterloading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzales, E.; Lea, D.

    1996-01-01

    In venezuelan public hospitals where cervix cancer treatments are performed by means of Cs-137 manual afterloading systems, the handling of the sources is done with two type of holders, metallic and plastic, the plastic holders are pieces of induced serious radio-sanitary problem such as loser of the Cs-137 source and radioactive contamination in the treatment area, this has caused the interruption of the treatments in many hospitals. This interruption had a high social cost because of the thousands women waiting for intracavitary therapy. To start again with the treatments, the metallic holders were required but there were not enough funds in the budget, because of this problem in a short time IVIS'S health physics drew and made a low price source holder. (authors). 2 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Determination of Cs-134 and Cs-137 in different food-stuffs and environmental-stuffs collected from Serina area in Lombardy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimoldi, E.M.; Di Giancamillo, M.; Cavallone, E.; Brambilla, P.

    1999-01-01

    After the explosion of the reactor n°4 in the Ukrainian Nuclear Power Plant of Chernobyl, the highest radioactive contamination in Italy was observed in Lumbardy. In 1996, ten years after the Chernobyl's accident, the Authors carried out an investigation on soil samples from Serina area, in the district of Bergamo. N°158 samples have been analysed by NaI(Tl) detector (3x3), collected from surface soil and subsoil, running and stagnating waters, mosses, lichens, mushrooms, water-plants, fodder leafage, berries, pine-needles, striated muscle from cattle, sheep, chamois, roe-deer, milk and cheeses from cow and goat, chicken eggs. In all the soil samples analysed Cs-137 was detectable, and its activity was constantly higher in surface soil samples and particularly in those from woods. In May, the seasonal fallout period at our latitudes, it has been detected on Alben Mount a light fallout of Cs-134. In the samples collected on poly-phyto meadows no trace of Cs-137 has been detected, while in samples from wood's ecosystem this isotope was always detectable. Cs-137 was also present in the muds of the bottom of a small natural alpine lake and in water-plants there growing. On the basis of these data the Authors infer that mosses and lichens are the best markers of environmental contamination due to Cs-137. They suggest that it is absolutely necessary to continue to control regularly every substrate included in the food chain and of zootechnic and environmental interest with the following aims: i) to study the capacity of various ecosystems to metabolize the products derived from the Chernobyl's accident; ii) to safeguard the public health against future emergencies: iii) to keep under control foodstuff for human and animal feeding, which, because of the markets' globalization, can arrive from everywhere

  7. Intake of Cs 137 in wild boars (Sus scrofa l.) daily ration on the territory of Palesski state radiation-ecological reserve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deryabina, T.G.

    2006-01-01

    Total radiation activity according to Cs 137 in daily ration of adult wild boar's species on the territory of Palesski state radiation-ecological reserve is 15,7 kBq in autumn, 26,8 kBq in winter. Taking soil consumption, together with food, into consideration it is 21,7 kBq in autumn and 32,8 kBq in winter. (authors)

  8. Investigation of Anisotropy Caused by Cylinder Applicator on Dose Distribution around Cs-137 Brachytherapy Source using MCNP4C Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Sina

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Brachytherapy is a type of radiotherapy in which radioactive sources are used in proximity of tumors normally for treatment of malignancies in the head, prostate and cervix. Materials and Methods: The Cs-137 Selectron source is a low-dose-rate (LDR brachytherapy source used in a remote afterloading system for treatment of different cancers. This system uses active and inactive spherical sources of 2.5 mm diameter, which can be used in different configurations inside the applicator to obtain different dose distributions. In this study, first the dose distribution at different distances from the source was obtained around a single pellet inside the applicator in a water phantom using the MCNP4C Monte Carlo code. The simulations were then repeated for six active pellets in the applicator and for six point sources.  Results: The anisotropy of dose distribution due to the presence of the applicator was obtained by division of dose at each distance and angle to the dose at the same distance and angle of 90 degrees. According to the results, the doses decreased towards the applicator tips. For example, for points at the distances of 5 and 7 cm from the source and angle of 165 degrees, such discrepancies reached 5.8% and 5.1%, respectively.  By increasing the number of pellets to six, these values reached 30% for the angle of 5 degrees. Discussion and Conclusion: The results indicate that the presence of the applicator causes a significant dose decrease at the tip of the applicator compared with the dose in the transverse plane. However, the treatment planning systems consider an isotropic dose distribution around the source and this causes significant errors in treatment planning, which are not negligible, especially for a large number of sources inside the applicator.

  9. Comparative study of soil quality parameters on several landuses in the upstream of Cisadane sub-basin with Pb-210 excess and Cs-137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barokah Aliyanta

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of inventory Pb-210 excess and Cs-137 as well as soil quality parameters and estimation of the rate of erosion has been conducted in four land-uses in the upstream of Cisadane sub-basins. Soil sampling was performed with a corer to a depth of 20 cm on each land use transectly. One scrap sample and 4 cores were taken at Pine Forest, Pasir Jaya, for reference inventory purpose. Serious erosion has occurred in four land uses in the upstream of Cisadane sub-basins. The content of Pb-210 excess has positively correlated with the organic content of soil carbon (79 % C) and nitrogen content (56 % N) in the soil, whereas Cs-137 has positively correlated with 23 % C and 33 % of N in the soil. These facts give the information that the Pb-210 excess inventory is more effective than the inventory of Cs-137 as a means for studying the dynamics of carbon transport as a result of erosion and for determination of the status of soil quality. (author)

  10. Pre-assessment of dose rates of (134)Cs, (137)Cs, and (60)Co for marine biota from discharge of Haiyang Nuclear Power Plant, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingjing; Liu, Senlin; Zhang, Yongxing; Chen, Ling; Yan, Yuan; Cheng, Weiya; Lou, Hailin; Zhang, Yongbao

    2015-09-01

    Haiyang Nuclear Power Plant to be built in China was selected as a case for the dose pre-assessment for marine biota in this study. The concentrations of Cs and Co in organisms (turbot, yellow croaker, swimming crab, abalone, sea cucumber, and sea lettuce), seawater, and bottom sediment sampled on-site were measured by neutron activation analysis, and the site-specific transfer parameters (concentration ratios and distribution coefficients) of Cs and Co were calculated. (134)Cs, (137)Cs, and (60)Co activity concentrations in the organisms and the sediment at the site were calculated with the site-specific transfer parameters and the anticipated activity concentrations in the liquid effluent of the nuclear power plant. The ERICA tool was used to estimate the dose rates of (134)Cs, (137)Cs, and (60)Co to the selected organisms based on the biological models developed. The total dose rates of (134)Cs, (137)Cs, and (60)Co to the six organisms were all <0.001 μGy h(-1). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Sorption and desorption of Sr-90 and Cs-137 by sediments of the Sozh-river valley and border water collections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onoshko, M.P.

    2001-01-01

    From the last literature analysis it follows, that to studying of sorption and desorption soil, some rocks and minerals properties concerning radioisotopes the steadfast attention of researchers is paid nowadays. The materials of heavy particles sorption kinetics, the action of adsorption molecules and ions from solutions on leaching products are examined. Sr-90, Cs-137, Pu-239,240 diffusion is estimated. It is found out, that sorbed and desorbed amount of radioisotopes is proportionally to their concentration in soil, and sorption (S) and distributions (Cd) factors do not depend on soil contamination density, and are determined by its physical and chemical properties, parity of firm and liquid phases. It is judged, that increase of soil absorbing properties by the increase of sorbent entering are unpromising, as sorption soil capacity is filled by Cs-137 only in thousand shares of per cent from the sorbent amount, which can be absorbed by soil. With the reference to the conditions of Belarus, experiments and natural supervision on Sr-90 and Cs-137 sorption by Fe, Mn, Si, Al, Ti hydroxides were executed. At experimental researches of electrolyte influence on radioisotope sorption by peat soils Cd amount lines were established. Sediments under certain conditions, due to desorption, become a source of the secondary contamination of natural waters up to ecologically dangerous concentration. Radioisotopes desorption ambiguity is connected to many parallel proceeding processes: exchange sorption on organic and mineral components, co-sedimentation with one-and-a-half Fe, Al and Mn hydroxides and also depends on solutions structure, cationic exchange rocks and soil capacities, concentration of competing ions. At low radioisotopes contents desorption is insignificant, at high - their extraction does not depend on reagent concentration. We carried out the experiment on studying Cs-137 and Sr-90 sorption-desorption from sediments Sozh-river valley and border water

  12. Determination of concentration factors for Cs-137 and Ra-226 in the mullet species Chelon labrosus (Mugilidae) from the South Adriatic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antovic, Ivanka [Department for Biochemical and Medical Sciences, State University of Novi Pazar, Vuka Karadzica bb, 36 300 Novi Pazar (Serbia); Antovic, Nevenka M., E-mail: nenaa@rc.pmf.ac.me [Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, University of Montenegro, Dzordza Vasingtona bb, 20 000 Podgorica (Montenegro)

    2011-07-15

    Concentration factors for Cs-137 and Ra-226 transfer from seawater, and dried sediment or mud with detritus, have been determined for whole, fresh weight, Chelon labrosus individuals and selected organs. Cesium was detected in 5 of 22 fish individuals, and its activity ranged from 1.0 to 1.6 Bq kg{sup -1}. Radium was detected in all fish, and ranged from 0.4 to 2.1 Bq kg{sup -1}, with an arithmetic mean of 1.0 Bq kg{sup -1}. In regards to fish organs, cesium activity concentration was highest in muscles (maximum - 3.7 Bq kg{sup -1}), while radium was highest in skeletons (maximum - 25 Bq kg{sup -1}). Among cesium concentration factors, those for muscles were the highest (from seawater - an average of 47, from sediment - an average of 3.3, from mud with detritus - an average of 0.8). Radium concentration factors were the highest for skeleton (from seawater - an average of 130, from sediment - an average of 1.8, from mud with detritus - an average of 1.5). Additionally, annual intake of cesium and radium by human adults consuming muscles of this fish species has been estimated to provide, in aggregate, an effective dose of about 4.1 {mu}Sv y{sup -1}. - Highlights: > Radionuclide transfer from seawater, sediment and mud with detritus. > Concentration factors for Cs-137 and Ra-226 in C. labrosus whole fish and organs. > Cs-137 concentration factors are highest for C. labrosus muscles. > Ra-226 concentration factors are highest for C. labrosus skeleton.

  13. Determination of concentration factors for Cs-137 and Ra-226 in the mullet species Chelon labrosus (Mugilidae) from the South Adriatic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antovic, Ivanka; Antovic, Nevenka M.

    2011-01-01

    Concentration factors for Cs-137 and Ra-226 transfer from seawater, and dried sediment or mud with detritus, have been determined for whole, fresh weight, Chelon labrosus individuals and selected organs. Cesium was detected in 5 of 22 fish individuals, and its activity ranged from 1.0 to 1.6 Bq kg -1 . Radium was detected in all fish, and ranged from 0.4 to 2.1 Bq kg -1 , with an arithmetic mean of 1.0 Bq kg -1 . In regards to fish organs, cesium activity concentration was highest in muscles (maximum - 3.7 Bq kg -1 ), while radium was highest in skeletons (maximum - 25 Bq kg -1 ). Among cesium concentration factors, those for muscles were the highest (from seawater - an average of 47, from sediment - an average of 3.3, from mud with detritus - an average of 0.8). Radium concentration factors were the highest for skeleton (from seawater - an average of 130, from sediment - an average of 1.8, from mud with detritus - an average of 1.5). Additionally, annual intake of cesium and radium by human adults consuming muscles of this fish species has been estimated to provide, in aggregate, an effective dose of about 4.1 μSv y -1 . - Highlights: → Radionuclide transfer from seawater, sediment and mud with detritus. → Concentration factors for Cs-137 and Ra-226 in C. labrosus whole fish and organs. → Cs-137 concentration factors are highest for C. labrosus muscles. → Ra-226 concentration factors are highest for C. labrosus skeleton.

  14. Multiple model testing using Chernobyl fallout data of I-131 in forage and milk and Cs-137 in forage, milk, beef and grain. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehler, H.; Peterson, S.R.; Owen Hoffman, F.

    1991-03-01

    Comprehensive measurements of I-131 and Cs-137 in the environment after the Chernobyl accident provided a unique opportunity for the collection of environmental transfer data sets. These come from 13 locations in the northern hemisphere which experienced levels of contamination that spanned approximately three orders of magnitude. Data have been compiled for radionuclide concentrations in air, rain, pasture vegetation, milk, beef and grain. In addition background information has been collated for factors such as prevailing meteorological conditions, location description, and local agricultural practices. Participants were asked to predict radionuclide concentrations in forage, milk, beef and grain from radionuclide concentrations in air, the daily amounts of precipitation and other pertinent information. This was a blind test in that the locations to which the input data referred were not revealed to the participants until after they had submitted their predictions. Twenty-three models were involved in the study. This report compares observations and predictions for deposition, time- integrated concentrations in forage, milk, beef and grain, to help assess understanding of individual processes, time-dependent concentrations in forage, milk and beef. In general, predictions of time-integrated concentration of I-131 and Cs-137 in forage, milk (normalized for forage) and beef are within a factor of 10 of the observations. About 50% of the predictions of I-131 and Cs-137 in forage and just over 30% of the predictions of those nuclides in milk (normalized for forage) fall within a factor of 2 of the observations. Documentation of the measurements, models, methods of analysis and model results is presented in the appendices. (au) (75 refs.)

  15. Multiple model testing using Chernobyl fallout data of I-131 in forage and milk and Cs-137 in forage, milk, beef and grain. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-03-01

    BIOMOVS is an international study for testing and validating model predictions of the transfer of radionuclides and rare stable elements through the biosphere. The BIOMOVS A4 scenario was designed to test model prediction of the transfer of I-131 and Cs-137 from the atmosphere via pasture vegetation to milk and of the Cs-137 transfer from air to beef (via vegetation) and grain. This document is an appendix to the A4 report. It includes tables and figures of time-integrated results, a summary of a statistical analysis of time-dependent and representative figures of time-dependent results. The quantities to be predicted in this scenario were wet, dry and total deposition (Bq m -2 ) of I-131 and Cs-137, contamination of vegetation (Bq kg -1 d.w.), milk (Bq L -1 ), beef and grain (Bq kg -1 ). While with steady state models only time-integrated results for vegetation, milk and beef could be calculated, these quantities also were requested as time-series from users of dynamic models. A detailed description of the participating models is given in Appendix 3, while all collected observations are documented in Appendix 2 of the A4 report. A diskette with all observed data can be obtained from the Swedish National Institute of Radiation Protection, SSI, or from Harry Koehler, IAEA, Vienna, Austria. For time-integrated P/Os, graphs for all locations and all models and sometimes subsets of these are provided. For time-series, graphs are enclosed for the observations and some model results. These values are calculated across locations and across models for time-integrated predictions and for the P/O of entire time-series and subsets of these for the time-dependent predictions. (au)

  16. Development of a purification technology for treatment of medium- and low-activity radioactive waste of radiochemical production from Co-60 and Cs-137

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apalkov Gleb

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The technological flowchart of purification of medium- and low-activity waste from Co-60 and Cs-137 is developed and introduced. The developed purification scheme has been successfully tested using genuine medium- and low-level liquid radioactive waste of radiochemical production containing complexing and colloid forming components complexons, surfactants. The optimal conditions of the presented method of purification ensure reduction of the residual specific activity of 60Co and 137Cs radionuclides in the solution to less than 0,9 Bq per litre.

  17. Daily variation of I-131, Cs-134 and Cs-137 activity concentrations in the atmosphere in Osaka during the early phase after the FDNPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zijian Zhang; Kazuhiko Ninomiya; Naruto Takahashi; Atsushi Shinohara

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the time variations of radionuclides discharged from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plants accident, we started collecting aerosol samples in Osaka, Japan, using a high-volume sampler from March 15 to May 1, 2011. Atmospheric radioactivity concentrations of I-131, Cs-134 and Cs-137 were measured with germanium semi-conductor detectors. Only I-131 was detected in the early phase and two Cs-134.137 peaks were found in Osaka in April. Using the HYSPLIT model, we concluded that direct transportation of the air mass from the Fukushima area was responsible for such events. (author)

  18. Forecasting of accumulation of Cs 137 and Sr 90 in the herbage of the main types of the Belarus Palessje meadows utilizing agrochemical soil properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podolyak, A.G.; Bogdevich, I.M.; Ivashkova, I.I.

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of long-term stationary experience it was established that the minimum accumulation of Cs 137 and Sr 90 in the herbage of the waterless valley, marshed and flood types of the Belarus Palessje meadows contaminated by Chernobyl radionuclides is seen when the optimum basic agrochemical soil properties are achieved with the application of the scientifically reasonable protective measures. It was demonstrated that in the remote period of the accident for the prognosis of radionuclides contents in natural and cultural meadows herbage it is advisable to use of transfer factors (TFa, Bq/kg : kBq/m2) based on the complex agrochemical parameters - basic saturation degree (V, %) and agrochemical cultivation soils index (Iac), which take into account several soil characteristics simultaneously. This article provides the equations of linear and multiple regressions that can be used to calculate the transfer factors for Cs 137 and Sr 90 uptake and the herbage contamination degree for the main types of meadows of the region, which will allow one to reduce the volume of forages production (hay, green bulk) that is not adequate to the established permissible levels: Republican allowable levels of the contents of cesium-137 and strontium-90 in agricultural raw material and forages. (authors)

  19. Development of rapid universal method for determination of Cs-137 in different environmental samples by means of inorganic ion exchangers. Part of a coordinated programme on radiological and environmental protection studies in the Danube river catchment area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radicheva, M.

    1983-02-01

    Using three synthetic inorganic ion exchangers of the same type - X 2 [YFe (CN) 6 ] (when X=alkali metal, Y=transition metal) one simple and universal rapid method for determination of Cs-137 in environmental samples was developed. The investigations carried out on synthesis, next preparation and practical use in routine analysis showed that K[CoFe(CN) 6 ] (abbr.KCFC-II) is the most suitable for analysis of low level activities of Cs-137 in different environmental samples. The optimum conditions for routine use of KCFC-II in different separation schemes were found. Repeated analysis of Cs-137 in different environmental samples as well as analysis of IAEA-Reference Materials using our rapid and one classical method showed good agreement of the results. The proposed rapid method can be used in emergency situations and in routine radiation control. (author)

  20. Accurate technetium-99 determination using the combination of TEVA resin pretreatment and ICP-MS measurement and its influence on the Tc-99/Cs-137 scaling factor calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lian-Song Chen; Tsing-Hai Wang; Yi-Kong Hsieh; Li-Wei Jian; Wie-Han Chen; Chu-Fang Wang; Tsuey-Lin Tsai

    2014-01-01

    Accurate determination of technetium-99 (Tc-99) is very important because any overestimation will cause the examined radioactive wastes to be categorized into super C class, which dramatically increases the cost of waste management. Herein, we demonstrated that by adopting the analytical method comprising TEVA resin pretreatment and ICP-MS measurement, the determined Tc-99 concentrations in representative waste stream samples from the Lan-Yu low-level radioactive waste temporary storage site in Taiwan were approximately two orders of magnitude lower than those determined from the beta radiation measurement using a low background liquid scintillation counter. Two important concerns emerged from our results. First, severe interferences from other nuclides residing in the matrix considerably affect the determination of Tc-99, even when a low background liquid scintillation counter was used. Second, the currently used Tc-99/Cs-137 scaling factor should be carefully revised, or it might lead to a considerable overestimation of the Tc-99 concentration. (author)

  1. Studies on dosimetric tests applying source irradiation force of Cs-137 for using in chambers for calibration and TLD type dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Laila Lorena X.; Barbosa, Rugles Cesar; Correa, Rosangela S.

    2011-01-01

    The West Central region of Brazil does not have a basic infrastructure for research, development, training programs, and personnel dosimetry education. All of them applied to environmental, industrial and medical uses. Service deployment for irradiance of TLD, via 137 Cs irradiator J. L. SHEPHERD model 28-8A (444 activity GBq) in CRCN-CO, it is necessary to introduce procedures for calibration of the radiator and other procedures related to dosimetry and calibration. Such procedures should be repeated periodically, as necessary to introduce techniques that make the service of the CRCN-CO a template, and that meet all standards requirements for radioprotection and operation of dosimetry and calibration. The objective of this work was to evaluate the radiation field of Cs-137, and the automatic system which systematizes the calibration procedures attached to a system control target for the radiator/calibration of monitors, and portable dosimeters. (author)

  2. A Cs-137 afterloading device. Preliminary results of cell kinetic effects of low dose-rate irradiation in an experimental tumour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutgers, D.H.

    1988-01-01

    A Cs-137 afterloading technique is described which can be used in experimental tumours. Preliminary results, obtained with the human cervical carcinoma ME-180 xenografted to nude athymic mice, demonstrated that 20 Gy of low dose-rate irradiation induced an important redistribution of cells over cell cycle. The proportion of cells in G2-phase increased from 14.4% to 44.2% at 140 hours after irradiation. This method allows an accurate calculation of the dose-rate distribution in the tumour. Investigations of the cell kinetic effects of low dose-rate irradiation, at different dose-rates and different total doses, are therefore facilitated by the technique. (orig.) [de

  3. Results of study of Sr-90 and Cs-137 content in organism and effective doses of internal and external irradiation of Ukrainian population residing in different regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalmykov, L.; Gur, E.

    1996-01-01

    The authors have studied effective doses of internal and external radiation for 1992-1994 in the residents of Chernigov and Kharkov Regions of Ukraine, i.e. those who live in the zone of strict radioecologic control and in relatively ''clean'' zones, respectively. In 95% of the investigated residents of Chernigov Region Cs-137 activity in the organism was lower than 1500 Bq, maximum amount being 11 kBq. Conditioned Cs-137 effective dose of internal radiation did not exceed 250 micro Sv per year, in 96% of the investigated subjects it was less than 30 micro Sv per year. Mean amount of this radionuclide in the organisms of both adults and children aged 3-6 years residing in Kharkov Region was 90 and 6 Bq respectively, dose being 2 and 0.4 micro Sv per year. Sr-90 amount in the bone tissue decreases with the age and for the residents of Chernigov region it was 7-23 Bq/kg of bone, for the adult residents of Kharkov region it was about 3 Bq/kg of bone. Mean effective dose of internal radiation due to Sr-90 incorporation for the residents of both Kharkov and Chernigov Regions was 0.7 and 1.9 micro Sv per year. Effective dose of external radiation for the residents of Kharkov Region has not changed since the Chernobyl accident. Total effective dose of external and internal radiation in various professional groups for the residents of Chernigov region increased by 80 micro Sv per year which makes up 14% of mean population dose in Ukraine. (author). 11 refs, 5 tabs

  4. Use of radiometric (Cs-137, Pb-210), geomorphic, and stratigraphic techniques to date recent oxbow sediments in the Rio Puerco drainage Grants uranium region, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popp, C.J.; Dehn, M. (New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Tech., Socorro (United States)); Hawley, J.W.; Love, D.W. (New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources, Socorro (United States))

    1988-06-01

    In the absence of historic geochemical baseline data for the Grants uranium region, environmental changes resulting from uranium mine-mill activities can be determined only by indirect methods. A methodology for determining the age of recent sediments in streams draining the region has been established based on combined geomorphic, stratigraphic, and radiometric dating techniques. Because clay-rich sediments retain possible radionuclides and heavy metals derived from mineralization and mined sources, sample sites which contain fine-grained deposits that both predate and postdate mine-mill activity were located in abandoned-channel segments (oxbows) of major streams draining the eastern Grants uranium region. Aerial photographs (and derivative maps) taken between 1935 and 1971 provided the historical and geomorphic documentation of approximate dates of oxbow formation and ages of alluvial fills in the abandoned-channel segments. Pits were dug at these oxbow sites to determine stratigraphy and composition of the deposits. Samples collected from pit walls and auger holes below the pits were subjected to radiometric analysis by gamma ray spectrometry for the artificial radionuclide Cs-137 and the natural radionuclide Pb-210 as well as other U-238 and Th-232 daughters. Because of the dynamic nature of the system, absolute dating with Cs-137 was not possible but samples could be dated as either pre- or post-1950. The 1950 date is important because it marked the beginning of the uranium exploitation in the region. The Pb-210 dating was not possible because background Pb-210 was very high relative to fallout Pb-210.

  5. Dose from Cs-137 ingestion in Italian Region in 1998-1999. A preliminary analysis of the results of a monitoring campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bochicchio, F.; Magnoni, M.; Agnesod, G.

    2000-01-01

    A measurement programme started on 1998 in order to assess the committed effective dose for all the Italian Regions due to ingestion of Cs-137. This programme was carried out within the framework of the SICRA network, which is in ad-hoc personal computer network, set up by the Ministry of Health in order to connect the regional laboratories for the control of the environmental radioactivity and the national institutes in order to allow a fast transmission and analysis of radioactivity measurement results. The programme was jointly decided and designed by the following regional and national institutes: the regional laboratories for the control of the environmental radioactivity, most of which are Regional Agencies for the Environmental Protection (ARPA); the National Agency for the Environmental Protection (ANPA); the National Institute for Prevention and Safety in Workplaces (ISPESL), the Italian National Institute of Health (ISS), the Ministry of Environment and the Ministry of Health. The following five major components of the Italian diet, which use expected to significantly contribute to the total ingestion dose, were included in the sampling protocol: milk, meat, pasta, bread, and fish. In most cases the samples were taken in big stores in order to be representative of the local consumption. The sample collection started on October 1998 and continued in 1999. The designed Minimum Detectable Activity was 0.1 Bq/kg. Most of the measured values are below the MDA so that appropriate statistical techniques are used in order to estimate the average activity concentration and dose. Regional data of food consumption are taken from the Italian National Statistic Institute, and dose conversion factor for adults is used. A minimum of 24 samples for the period October-December 1998 was asked to each Region, however, more data were sent by some Regions. Preliminary results of activity concentration measurements on 1249 samples of 1998 are the following: in 439 cases the

  6. The dose distribution of low dose rate Cs-137 in intracavitary brachytherapy: comparison of Monte Carlo simulation, treatment planning calculation and polymer gel measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fragoso, M; Love, P A; Verhaegen, F; Nalder, C; Bidmead, A M; Leach, M; Webb, S

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the dose distribution delivered by low dose rate Cs-137 brachytherapy sources was investigated using Monte Carlo (MC) techniques and polymer gel dosimetry. The results obtained were compared with a commercial treatment planning system (TPS). The 20 mm and the 30 mm diameter Selectron vaginal applicator set (Nucletron) were used for this study. A homogeneous and a heterogeneous-with an air cavity-polymer gel phantom was used to measure the dose distribution from these sources. The same geometrical set-up was used for the MC calculations. Beyond the applicator tip, differences in dose as large as 20% were found between the MC and TPS. This is attributed to the presence of stainless steel in the applicator and source set, which are not considered by the TPS calculations. Beyond the air cavity, differences in dose of around 5% were noted, due to the TPS assuming a homogeneous water medium. The polymer gel results were in good agreement with the MC calculations for all the cases investigated

  7. Investigation of the Effects of Tissue Inhomogeneities on the Dosimetric Parameters of a Cs-137 Brachytherapy Source using the MCNP4C Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Zehtabian

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Brachytherapy is the use of small encapsulated radioactive sources in close vicinity of tumors. Various methods are used to obtain the dose distribution around brachytherapy sources. TG-43 is a dosimetry protocol proposed by the AAPM for determining dose distributions around brachytherapy sources. The goal of this study is to update this protocol for presence of bone and air inhomogenities.  Material and Methods: To update the dose rate constant parameter of the TG-43 formalism, the MCNP4C simulations were performed in phantoms composed of water-bone and water-air combinations. The values of dose at different distances from the source in both homogeneous and inhomogeneous phantoms were estimated in spherical tally cells of 0.5 mm radius using the F6 tally. Results: The percentages of dose reductions in presence of air and bone inhomogenities for the Cs-137 source were found to be 4% and 10%, respectively. Therefore, the updated dose rate constant (Λ will also decrease by the same percentages.   Discussion and Conclusion: It can be easily concluded that such dose variations are more noticeable when using lower energy sources such as Pd-103 or I-125.

  8. Determining the distribution of the absorbed dose for a body exposed to Cs-137 using the Monte Carlo method and application in a brachytherapy treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randriantsizafy, R.D.

    2014-01-01

    Brachytherapy is a means of precise and effective cancer treatment. This is due to the nearby sources of ionizing radiation. The precision and efficiency requires a good dosimetry and a good knowledge of the dose distribution in the patient. The aim is to give the right dose of ionizing radiation to destroy the tumor while reducing the dose to sensitive organs such as the bladder , liver, .... The Monte Carlo is a recognized model method for the distribution of radiation in the material. It is used in this work to determine the doses to organs during treatment planning for Cesium -137 brachytherapy. The programming language used is Python . Library outcome of this work is used in a web application BrachyPy, we designed to replace the manual processing in the Cs-137 brachytherapy planning. Model validation is done by comparing the isodose curves of the model with the isodose curves abacus NUCLETRON and the last report of the American Association of Medical Physics (AAPM) on the amendment to the algorithm TG43. [fr

  9. Determination of concentration factors for Cs-137 and Ra-226 in the mullet species Chelon labrosus (Mugilidae) from the South Adriatic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antovic, Ivanka; Antovic, Nevenka M

    2011-07-01

    Concentration factors for Cs-137 and Ra-226 transfer from seawater, and dried sediment or mud with detritus, have been determined for whole, fresh weight, Chelon labrosus individuals and selected organs. Cesium was detected in 5 of 22 fish individuals, and its activity ranged from 1.0 to 1.6 Bq kg(-1). Radium was detected in all fish, and ranged from 0.4 to 2.1 Bq kg(-1), with an arithmetic mean of 1.0 Bq kg(-1). In regards to fish organs, cesium activity concentration was highest in muscles (maximum - 3.7 Bq kg(-1)), while radium was highest in skeletons (maximum - 25 Bq kg(-1)). Among cesium concentration factors, those for muscles were the highest (from seawater - an average of 47, from sediment - an average of 3.3, from mud with detritus - an average of 0.8). Radium concentration factors were the highest for skeleton (from seawater - an average of 130, from sediment - an average of 1.8, from mud with detritus - an average of 1.5). Additionally, annual intake of cesium and radium by human adults consuming muscles of this fish species has been estimated to provide, in aggregate, an effective dose of about 4.1 μSv y(-1). 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The peculiarities of the accumulation of Cs-137 and the content of photosynthetic pigments and protein in plants of natural associations of south-east Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaponenko, V. I.; Kravchenko, V. A; Matsko, V. P.; Grushevskaya, O. M.

    1994-01-01

    The peculiarities of accumulation of Cs-137 by various components of meadow associations of Polesky State radioecological reserve (PSRER) were studied. The specific radioactivity of soil totalled 12000-290000 Bq/kg, and specific radioactivity of overground phytomass was 200-252000 Bq/kg. The inverse dependence between the specific radioactivity and the coefficient of accumulation of plants was observed, and the direct dependence between the acidity of salt extract (1H KCL) and the coefficient of accumulation. The content of photosynthetic pigments of Agropyron repens L. was less in the phase of florescence and fruitage than at the beginning of vegetation. That is said about the principal decrease of the content of chlorophyll b comparing with chlorophyll a and the both green pigments comparing with carotenoids. The fourth month's period of vegetation of plants in the conditions of increased radiation background was not observed the changing neither by the of chlorophyll a and b and carotinoids nor by the content of total protein that was testified about the high stability of pigmental system. (author)

  11. Radiosensitivity of opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) and morphine content in the dry capsules of M1 as influenced by Cs137 gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, P.; Dimitrov, J.; Georgiev, S.; Deneva, T.

    1974-01-01

    Seeds of the poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) varieties P-360, S-188 and S-230 of ssp.turcicum, Novinka 198, Hatvani and Morfin mak of ssp.eurasiaticum were irradiated with Cs 137 gamma-ray doses of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 krad at a dose-rate of 16 rad/min. The irradiated seeds were sown in the autumn of 1969 under field conditions and observed in M 1 . The following conclusions are made: (1) The lethal dose differs according to the individual poppy varieties. It is found to be above 40 krad for the varieties P-360 and S-188, 35 krad for Novinka 198 and 30 krad for S-230, Hatvani and Morfin mak. (2) In the M 1 generation the morphine content in the dry capsules shows a large variation depending on the variety and the irradiation dosis. (3) Irradiation-induced rise of the morphine content in the dry capsules of M 1 is higher in the varieties of ssp.turcicum than in the varieties of ssp.eurasiaticum. (M.Ts.)

  12. Spatial Trends and Variability of Vertical Accretion Rates in the Barataria Basin, Louisiana, U.S.A. using Pb-210 and Cs-137 radiochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrull, S.; Wilson, C.; Snedden, G.; Bentley, S. J.

    2017-12-01

    Barataria Basin on the south Louisiana coast is experiencing some of the greatest amounts of coastal land loss in the United States with rates as high as 23.1 km2 lost per year. In an attempt to help slow or reverse land loss, millions of dollars are being spent to create sediment diversions to increase the amount of available inorganic sediments to these vulnerable coastal marsh areas. A better understanding of the spatial trends and patterns of background accretion rates needs to be established in order to effectively implement such structures. Core samples from 25 Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS) sites spanning inland freshwater to coastal saline areas within the basin were extracted, and using vertical accretion rates from Cs-137 & Pb-210 radionuclide detection, mineral versus organic sediment composition, grain size distribution, and spatial trends of bulk densities, the controls on the accretion rates of the marsh soils will be constrained. Initial rates show a range from 0.31 cm/year to 1.02 cm/year with the average being 0.79 cm/year. Preliminary results suggest that location and proximity to an inorganic sediment source (i.e. river/tributary or open water) have a stronger influence on vertical accretion rates than marsh classification and salinity, with no clear relationship between vertical accretion and salinity. Down-core sediment composition and bulk density analyses observed at a number of the sites likely suggest episodic sedimentation and show different vertical accretion rates through time. Frequency and length of inundation (i.e. hydroperiod), and land/marsh classification from the CRMS data set will be further investigated to constrain the spatial variability in vertical accretion for the basin.

  13. Cs-137 geochronology, epithermal neutron activation analysis, and principal component analysis of heavy metals pollution of the Black Sea anoxic continental shelf sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duliu, O. G.; Cristache, C.; Oaie, G.; Culicov, O. A.; Frontasyeva, M. V.

    2009-04-01

    Anthropogenic Cs-137 Gamma-ray Spectroscopy assay (GrSA) performed at the National Institute of Research and Development for Physics and Nuclear Engineering - Bucharest (Romania) in correlation with Epithermal Neutrons Activation Analysis (ENAA) performed at the Joint Institute of Nuclear Researches - Dubna (Russia) were used to investigate a 50 cm core containing unconsolidated sediments collected at a depth of 600 m off Romanian town of Constantza, located in the anoxic zone of the Black Sea Continental Shelf. A digital radiography showed the presence of about 265 distinct laminae, 1 to 3 mm thick, a fact attesting a stationary sedimentary process, completely free of bioturbation. After being radiographed, the core was sliced into 45 segments whose thickness gradually increased from 0.5 to 5 cm, such that the minimum thickness corresponded to the upper part of the core. From each segment two aliquots of about 0.5 g and 50 g were extracted for subsequent ENAA and Cs-137 GrSA. The Cs-137 vertical profile evidenced two maxima, one of them was very sharp and localized at a depth of 1 cm and the other very broad, almost undistinguished at about 8 cm depth, the first one being attributed to 1986 Chernobyl accident. Based on these date, we have estimated a sedimentation ratio of about 0.5 mm/year, value taken as reference for further assessment of recent pollution history. By means of ENAA we have determined the vertical content of five presumed pollutants, e.i. Zn, As, Br, Sn and Sb and of Sc, as natural, nonpolluting element. In the first case, all five elements presented a more or less similar vertical profile consisting of an almost exponential decrease for the first 10 cm below sediment surface followed by a plateau until the core base, i.e. 50 cm below surface, dependency better described by the equation: c(z) = c0 [1+k exp (-z/Z)] (1) where: where c(z) represents the concentration vertical profile; z represents depth (in absolute value); c0 represents the plateau

  14. Cs-137 Concentration in Seawater from the Gulf of Thailand and the Andaman Sea and Radiation Doses in Marine Biota After the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumnoi, Y.; Nakkaew, N.; Khrautongkieo, C.; Udomsomporn, S.

    2014-01-01

    Shortly after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) was severely damaged in March 2011 by a large earthquake and subsequent tsunami, large amounts of radionuclides including 131 I, 134 Cs, 137 Cs and 90 Sr were released into the atmosphere and the marine environ- ment. These artificial radionuclides widely dispersed causing radioactive contaminations in several areas and concerns on the marine biota. In this study, a total of 52 seawater samples (10 stations) and 66 marine animals (9 stations) were collected from the Gulf of Thailand and the Andaman Sea between March 2012 and July 2013 for 137 Cs analysis. An ammonium molybdophosphate (AMP) method was used in conjunction with gammaspectrometry to measure 137 Cs in the seawater. 137 Cs was moreover extracted from the marine biota using a radiochemical technique followed by a measurement using low background proportional counters. The results showed 137 Cs concentrations in seawater ranging from 0.59 to 3.75 mBq/L (1.65±0.74 mBq/L). 137 Cs concentrations in benthic fish including Nemipterus hexodon and Saurida elongate were 0.06-1.23 Bq/kgww (0.24±0.26 Bq/kgww) and 0.07-0.64 Bq/kgww (0.16±0.12 Bq/kgww), respectively. Whereas, 137 Cs levels in squid (Loligo duvauceli) ranged between 0.03 and 0.15 Bq/kgww (0.08±0.04 Bq/kgww). An increase of 137 Cs concentrations in seawater and marine biota was not found when compared to those collected from the Gulf of Thailand and measured during 1989-1991. ERICA model was used to estimate radiation doses in the studied animals. Our results revealed that radiation doses of 137 Cs in N. hexodon and S. elongate were 0.7-4.2 nGy/hr (1.6±0.6 nGy/hr) and 0.7-3.4 nGy/hr (1.7±0.9 nGy/hr), respectively. While, a range of 0.7-3.2 nGy/hr (1.5±0.6 nGy/hr) was found in L. duvauceli. These radiation doses are well below the dose limit for aquatic organisms (10±Gy/hr). It can be concluded that Thai marine environment and animals have not been contaminated and not under a

  15. HI-resolution gamma spectrometry measurements of U-238, TH-232, K-40 and CS-137 concentrations in soil samples from Capao Island at CTEx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Luciano S.R.; Oliveira, Celio J.V.; Vilela, Paulo R.T.; Vital, Helio C.

    2013-01-01

    Absolute soil concentrations of U-238, Th-232, K-40 and Cs-137 samples collected from Capao Island have been measured by using Hi-Resolution Gamma HPGe Spectrometry. The area of interest encompasses an embankment in a mangrove swamp in Guaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, where nuclear, chemical and biological defense laboratories of the Brazilian Army Technology Center (CTEx) are located. In order to ensure that no significant environmental impact has resulted from neutron physics experiments performed in a graphite subcritical assembly in addition to the operation of two cesium-driven irradiating facilities, routine monitoring of those isotopes have been regularly performed. A total of eight 250 ml samples of mangrove and embankment soils were extracted from four sites of known coordinates within an area of 300 x 300 m 2 and remained stored for a minimum thirty-day period to allow equilibrium to be reached. Collection and preparation of samples were made according to previously established procedures. High purity germanium detectors were used to obtain high-resolution gamma spectra and counting times were required to exceed 30 hours in order to yield sufficient statistical accuracy. Energy and efficiency calibration curves of the counting system were determined by using the GENIE 2000 software for analysis of the gamma spectrum generated by nine standard sources with a total of 11 peak energies ranging from 0.05 to 1.3 MeV. The results, corrected for background, have been expressed as absolute specific activities. All experiments have been made in the Laboratory for Identification of Radiological Agents (LIAR) at CTEx. No trace of cesium-137 has been found and the measured levels of uranium-238, in the order of 10 Bq/kg, are close to the global mean. However, some data have been found to slightly exceed the expected normal range for thorium-232 (60% of samples) and potassium-40 (20% of samples). Since there is no handling of those isotopes in the site or others that could

  16. HI-resolution gamma spectrometry measurements of U-238, TH-232, K-40 and CS-137 concentrations in soil samples from Capao Island at CTEx

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Luciano S.R.; Oliveira, Celio J.V.; Vilela, Paulo R.T.; Vital, Helio C., E-mail: vital@ctex.eb.br [Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (DDQBN/CTEX), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Defesa Quimica, Biologica e Nuclear. Secao de Defesa Nuclear

    2013-07-01

    Absolute soil concentrations of U-238, Th-232, K-40 and Cs-137 samples collected from Capao Island have been measured by using Hi-Resolution Gamma HPGe Spectrometry. The area of interest encompasses an embankment in a mangrove swamp in Guaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, where nuclear, chemical and biological defense laboratories of the Brazilian Army Technology Center (CTEx) are located. In order to ensure that no significant environmental impact has resulted from neutron physics experiments performed in a graphite subcritical assembly in addition to the operation of two cesium-driven irradiating facilities, routine monitoring of those isotopes have been regularly performed. A total of eight 250 ml samples of mangrove and embankment soils were extracted from four sites of known coordinates within an area of 300 x 300 m{sup 2} and remained stored for a minimum thirty-day period to allow equilibrium to be reached. Collection and preparation of samples were made according to previously established procedures. High purity germanium detectors were used to obtain high-resolution gamma spectra and counting times were required to exceed 30 hours in order to yield sufficient statistical accuracy. Energy and efficiency calibration curves of the counting system were determined by using the GENIE 2000 software for analysis of the gamma spectrum generated by nine standard sources with a total of 11 peak energies ranging from 0.05 to 1.3 MeV. The results, corrected for background, have been expressed as absolute specific activities. All experiments have been made in the Laboratory for Identification of Radiological Agents (LIAR) at CTEx. No trace of cesium-137 has been found and the measured levels of uranium-238, in the order of 10 Bq/kg, are close to the global mean. However, some data have been found to slightly exceed the expected normal range for thorium-232 (60% of samples) and potassium-40 (20% of samples). Since there is no handling of those isotopes in the site or others that

  17. Collection, pre-treatment and analyses of Cs-137 and Tc-99 in marine samples at the Institute of Marine Research (IMR), Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heldal, H.E.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: The Institute of Marine Research (IMR) is an important contributor to the Norwegian marine monitoring programme RAME (Radioactivity in the Marine Environment). RAME is funded by the Ministry of the Environment and coordinated by the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA). Sample collection is performed from IMRs research vessels in the open sea areas of the North-, Norwegian- and Barents Seas and in Norwegian fjords. The samples consist of biota (fish and other marine organisms), sediments and seawater. Biota samples are frozen onboard the ship and transported to IMR where the samples are subsequently ground up, freeze dried, homogenized and aliquoted into polyethylene counting boxes of appropriate size prior to analysis. Attempts are made to collect filets from 25 fish for each sample of large fish such as cod, haddock, saithe, red-fish and Greenland halibut. For smaller fish (e.g. blue whiting, polar cod, capelin and Atlantic herring) and other organisms such as amphipods, krill, and deep-sea shrimps, a sample of 2-3 kg of each species is taken. These samples are ground up whole. Sediment samples are collected using a Smoegen boxcorer, from where both surface samples and cores are taken. The samples are frozen onboard the ship. While half-frozen, the cores are cut into slices of 1 or 2 cm thickness on board the ship, then frozen again and transported to IMR where they are treated as described above for the biota samples. Large volumes (typically 50-200 L) of seawater are needed in order to get enough material for analysis. Pre-treatment of the samples in the field is therefore an advantage. Surface samples (5 m) of seawater are collected from a shipboard pump, while a CTD-rosette multi-bottle sampler with 12 10 L samplers is used to collect seawater from depths below 5 meters. For the analysis of Cs-137, Cu 2 [Fe(CN) 6 ]-impregnated cotton filters are used for the pre-concentration. One pre-filter without impregnation, two Cu 2 [Fe(CN) 6

  18. Lizimetric investigation of vertical transportation of Cs-137 in the different soil types for the different raining conditions: a new solution proposal and application for the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varinlioglu, A.

    2000-12-01

    The aim of this Ph.D. thesis is to trace the vertical transportation of water in soil by using the Cs-137 as radiotracer. We have studied 3 different soil types clay, loamy and sandy and 3 different raining conditions. High, normal and low raining regimes that are typical especially for the Black Sea Region were selected for experimental parameters. These experiments have been realized in lizimetric conditions. As a result, the type of applications for the combinations of soil type and raining regime contain experimental originality. Humidity observation technique was also used. The result of the experiments show that in every raining regime the activities of different types of soils can be classified as sand, loam and clay in descending activity order. When the results of the experiments were evaluated according to the raining regime it can be seen that the relative activity for every type of soil is always towards higher to lower raining conditions. These results are what we already have expected and are related to the water permeability of the soil. The surface soil activities have also been measured. The surface soil activities were arranged as clayey, loamy and sandy in descending activity order for every laining regime. The surface soil activities were found to be higher in the soil types in which water could not penetrate deeper. When the relative activity values were compared with the results of the surface soil activities it was recognized that the order of soils changes upside down. This is an evident of harmony for the experimental results. For the evaluation of surface activity it can be seen that the relative activity values for every kind of soil type is always in the same order from the highest to the lowest raining regimes. As a result, it can be said that the all results have significant and have harmonies with each other. Experimental results were comparatively examined by using the s emi infinite convection dispersion model . All the conclusions

  19. Modelling of the transfer of CS-137 from air to crops, milk, beef and human body following the Chernobyl accident, in a location in Central Bohemia. Test of the model PRYMA T1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrasco, E.; Garcia-Olivares, A.; Suanez, A.; Robles, B. Simon, I.; Cancio, D.

    1994-01-01

    This work was made in the frame of the research programme on validation of models for the transfer of radionuclides in the terrestrial, urban and aquatic environments. The acronym of this programme is VAMP (Validation of Model Predictions) and is coordinated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Commission of the European Communities (CEC). The scenario was named CB and was presented by the Multiple Pathway Working group. The scenario description was at the beginning a blind test, that is without knowing the location or the measured concentrations and doses. The input information included data of contamination in Cs-137 from the Chernobyl accident in Central Europe, in air and soils and more description of the scenario (data about crops, cattele, demography, human diet, etc.). The aim of the exercise was the contrast between model results and between observed data and model predictions. In this work the results obtained by the CIEMAT-IMA group of modelers are shown and discussed

  20. On the usability of frequency distributions and source attribution of Cs-137 detections encountered in the IMS radio-nuclide network for radionuclide event screening and climate change monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, A.; Wotawa, G.; Zähringer, M.

    2009-04-01

    Under the provisions of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), airborne radioactivity is measured by means of high purity Germanium gamma ray detectors deployed in a global monitoring network. Almost 60 of the scheduled 80 stations have been put in provisional operations by the end of 2008. Each station daily sends the 24 hour samples' spectroscopic data to the Vienna based Provisional Technical Secretariat (PTS) of the CTBT Organization (CTBTO) for review for treaty-relevant nuclides. Cs-137 is one of these relevant isotopes. Its typical minimum detectable concentration is in the order of a few Bq/m3. However, this isotope is also known to occur in atmospheric trace concentrations, due to known non CTBT relevant processes and sources related to, for example, the re-suspension of cesium from historic nuclear tests and/or the Chernobyl reactor disaster, temporarily enhanced by bio-mass burning (Wotawa et al. 2006). Properly attributed cesium detections can be used as a proxy to detect Aeolian dust events (Igarashi et al, 2001) that potentially carry cesium from all aforementioned sources but are also known to play an important role for the radiative forcing in the atmosphere (shadow effect), at the surface (albedo) and the carbon dioxide cycle when interacting with oceanic phytoplankton (Mikami and Shi, 2005). In this context this paper provides a systematic attribution of recent Cs-137 detections in the PTS monitoring network in order to Characterize those stations which are regularly affected by Cs-137 Provide input for procedures that distinguish CTBT relevant detection from other sources (event screening) Explore on the capability of certain stations to use their Cs-137 detections as a proxy to detect aeolian dust events and to flag the belonging filters to be relevant for further investigations in this field (-> EGU-2009 Session CL16/AS4.6/GM10.1: Aeolian dust: initiator, player, and recorder of environmental change). References Igarashi, Y., M

  1. Risk-Based Remediation Approach for Cs-137 Contaminated Sediment/Soils at the Savannah River Site (SRS) Lower Three Runs Tail (U) - 13348 - SRNS-RP-2012-00546

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, Candice [Department of Energy- Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC (United States); Bergren, Christopher; Blas, Susan; Kupar, James [Area Completion Projects, Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, LLC (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Lower Three Runs is a large blackwater stream that runs through the eastern and southern portion of the Savannah River Site. The Lower Three Runs watershed includes two SRS facility areas: P Area (P Reactor) and R Area (R Reactor) that provided effluent discharges to Lower Three Runs. During reactor operations, effluent discharges were well above natural (pre-industrial) or present day stream discharges. The watershed contains a 2,500-acre mainstream impoundment (PAR Pond), several smaller pre-cooler ponds, and a canal system that connects the pre-cooler ponds and discharges surface water to PAR Pond. From the PAR Pond dam, Lower Three Runs flows approximately 36 kilometers braiding through bottom-land/flood-plain forests before it enters the Savannah River. About eight kilometers downstream from the PAR Pond dam, the SRS boundary narrows (termed the Lower Three Runs tail) providing a limited buffer of DOE property for the Lower Three Runs stream and associated flood-plain. Previous screening characterization efforts revealed Cs-137 contamination in the sediment/soils of the flood-plain. As a part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act stimulus package, a comprehensive characterization effort was executed on the sediment/soils of the Lower Three Runs tail flood-plain providing a comprehensive look at the contaminant signature of the area. As a follow-up to that characterization, a regulatory decision Core Team, comprised of members of the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control, Environmental Protection Agency - Region IV, and DOE, conducted negotiations on a risk-based approach to address the level of contamination found in the tail flood-plain as an early action that provided a long-term solution to exposure scenarios. For evaluation purposes, the adolescent trespasser was selected as the most likely human receptor for the Lower Three Runs tail portion because of the natural attractiveness of the area for recreational activities (i

  2. Spreading Design of Radioactivity in Sea Water, Algae and Fish Samples inthe Coastal of Muria Peninsula Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutjipto; Muryono; Sumining

    2000-01-01

    Spreading design of radioactivity in sea water, brown algae (phaeopyceae)and kerapu fish (epeniphelus) samples in the coastal of Muria peninsula areahas been studied. This research was carried out with designed beside to knowspreading each radioactivity but also spreading design in relation to thecontent of Pu-239 and Cs-137. Samples taken, preparation and analysis basedon the procedures of environmental radioactivity analysis. The instrumentused for the analysis radioactivity were alpha counter with detector ZnS, lowlevel beta counter modified P3TM-BATAN with detector GM and spectrometergamma with detector Ge(Li). Alpha radioactivity obtained of sea water, algaeand fish were the fluctuation form of the natural background. Radionuclide ofPu-239 in samples not detect, because its concentration/radioactivity stillbelow the maximum concentration detection value of Pu-239 for algae and fishwas that 1.10 Bq/g, whereas for sea water was that 0.07 Bq/mL. Result for theradioactivity which give the highest alpha radioactivity obtained on thekerapu fish was that 1.56 x 10 -3 Bq/g, beta radioactivity on sea water wasthat 1.75 x 10 2 mBq/L, gamma radioactivity of K-40 on brown algae was that3.72 x 10 -2 Bq/g and gamma radioactivity of Tl-208 on fish as mentionedabove was that 1.35 x 10 -2 Bq/g. All the peak spectrum gamma energy ofCs-137 do not detect with gamma counter, so there are not the radionuclide ofCs-137 in the samples. Spreading design of radioactivity which occur in thecoastal of Muria peninsula area for alpha radioactivity was found on kerapufish, beta radioactivities on sea water and gamma radioactivity on brownalgae and kerapu fish. (author)

  3. Ten years of investigation on radioactive contamination of the marine environment. Incorporation, by marine algae and animals, of hydrogen-3 and other radionuclides present in effluents of nuclear or industrial origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonotto, S.; Colard, J.; Koch, G.; Kirchmann, R.; Strack, S.; Luettke, A.; Carraro, G.

    1981-01-01

    Several marine plants and animals were investigated for their capability of incorporating the main radionuclides present in selected effluents. Accumulation factors are reported for 3 H, 134 Cs, 136 Cs, 137 Cs, 58 Co, 60 Co, 54 Mn, 131 I 226 Ra and 124 Sb. Marine algae, which are involved in food chains leading to man, show the highest accumulation factors. The stable element composition of the alga Acetabularia was determined by gamma-activation analysis. The preferential accumulation of particular radionuclides by marine organisms suggests that they may have a significant role in the turnover rate of elements in the marine environment. (author)

  4. Modelling of the transfer of Cs-137 from air to crops, milk, beef and human body following the Chernobyl accident in a location in Central Bohemia. Test of the model PRYMA T1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrasco, E; Garcia-Olivares, A; Suanez, A; Robles, B; Simon, I; Cancio, D

    1994-07-01

    This work was made in the frame of the research programme on validation od models for the transfer of radionuclides in the terrestrial, urban and aquatic environments. the acronym of this programme is VAMP (Validation of Model Predictions) and is co-ordinated by the International Atomic energy Agency (IAEA) and the Commission of the european Communities (CEC). The scenario was named CB and Was presented by the Multiple Pathway Working group. the scenario description was at the beginning a blind test, that is without knowing the location or the measured concentrations and doses. the input information included data of contamination in Cs-137 from the Chernobyl accident in Central Europe, in air and soils and ore, description of the scenario (data about crops, cattle, demography, human diet, etc.). the aim of the exercise was the contrast between model results and between observed data and model predictions. In this work the results obtained by the CIEMAT-IMA group of modelers are shown and discussed. (Author) 24 refs.

  5. Modelling of the transfer of Cs-137 from air to crops, milk, beef and human body following the Chernobyl accident in a location in Central Bohemia. Test of the model PRYMA T1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrasco, E.; Garcia-Olivares, A.; Suanez, A.; Robles, B.; Simon, I.; Cancio, D.

    1994-01-01

    This work was made in the frame of the research programme on validation od models for the transfer of radionuclides in the terrestrial, urban and aquatic environments. the acronym of this programme is VAMP (Validation of Model Predictions) and is co-ordinated by the International Atomic energy Agency (IAEA) and the Commission of the european Communities (CEC). The scenario was named CB and Was presented by the Multiple Pathway Working group. the scenario description was at the beginning a blind test, that is without knowing the location or the measured concentrations and doses. the input information included data of contamination in Cs-137 from the Chernobyl accident in Central Europe, in air and soils and ore, description of the scenario (data about crops, cattle, demography, human diet, etc.). the aim of the exercise was the contrast between model results and between observed data and model predictions. In this work the results obtained by the CIEMAT-IMA group of modelers are shown and discussed. (Author) 24 refs

  6. The Study of Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushforth, Samuel R.

    1977-01-01

    Included in this introduction to the study of algae are drawings of commonly encountered freshwater algae, a summary of the importance of algae, descriptions of the seven major groups of algae, and techniques for collection and study of algae. (CS)

  7. Soil algae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    Also, the importance of algae in soil formation and soil fertility improvement cannot be over ... The presence of nitrogen fixing microalgae (Nostoc azollae) in the top soil of both vegetable ..... dung, fish food and dirty water from fish ponds on.

  8. The liquid scintillation counting efficiency for 137mCs+137mBa and ''129 I; 'Eficiencias de recuento por centelleo liquido para el Cs+13 mBa y ''129 I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grau CarLes, A.; Grau Malonda, A.

    1995-07-01

    We compute the liquid scintillation counting efficiency for 137Cs+137mBa and ''129 I taking into account the scintillator chemical composition. We consider the beta transition shape factors for the for bidden beta transitions of these nuclides, and the effects of 137mBa and 129mXe half-lives on the total counting efficiency. (Author) 8 refs.

  9. Studies on the radioactive contamination due to nuclear detonations V. The radioactive contamination of human body by Sr90 and Cs137 and its correlation with the fallout rate and ground deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiwaki, Yasushi

    1961-01-01

    About 60 bone samples were analysed for Sr 90 during the period from January 1957 to July 1959. The highest average concentration was found to be about 1 S.U for the age group of 5 to 10 years old. However since most of the cases are more or less pathological ones after long period of hospitalization the results may not be considered to be the representative values for the average normal person. The highest concentration among the cases whose past history is known was 175 S.U. or roughly, about 2 S.U. During the period of observation occasionally we have found higher concentration than 2 S.U, in the bone samples of a few cases obtained from the crematory. However, since the past history of these cases is not known, it is not clear whether they depended on the rainwater or on the brown ice with much higher contamination than the white rice. In view of these findings it may not be to, much to assume that the concentration of Sr 90 in te bones of the average normal children might reach 2 S.U c corresponding to the cumulative ground deposition and the fallout rate. The concentration of Cs whose physical half-life is very much similar to Sr 90 was in the range of about 30 - 100 cesium unit in 1957 to early 1958. However, during the period from 1958 to early 1959 the concentration of Cs 137 in come of the organs of the human body has been reported to be about two to three times higher on the average in Tokyo than the above value in 1957

  10. Cs-137 in natural ecological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henrich, E.; Weisz, J.; Zapletal, M.; Friedrich, M.; Haider, W.

    1988-01-01

    A small area near the border of the two provinces Lower Austria - Upper Austria from a region with the highest Chernobyl fallout was selected for radioactivity monitoring beginning in 1986 and continuing into 1987. This is thought to be a model of a forest ecosystem. Values of cesium 137 concentration in soils, moss, spruce and pine, and in fungi are given in tables, referring to 30 Aug 1987. 2 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs. (qui)

  11. Algae Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Algae are highly efficient at producing biomass, and they can be found all over the planet. Many use sunlight and nutrients to create biomass, which contain key components—including lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates— that can be converted and upgraded to a variety of biofuels and products. A functional algal biofuels production system requires resources such as suitable land and climate, sustainable management of water resources, a supplemental carbon dioxide (CO2) supply, and other nutrients (e.g., nitrogen and phosphorus). Algae can be an attractive feedstock for many locations in the United States because their diversity allows for highpotential biomass yields in a variety of climates and environments. Depending on the strain, algae can grow by using fresh, saline, or brackish water from surface water sources, groundwater, or seawater. Additionally, they can grow in water from second-use sources such as treated industrial wastewater; municipal, agricultural, or aquaculture wastewater; or produced water generated from oil and gas drilling operations.

  12. Report on intercomparison IAEA/AG-B-1 of radionuclide measurements in marine algae sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-09-01

    This report includes results of the intercomparison exercise organized to enable analysts involved in measurements to check the analytical performance of their measuring methods on homogeneous seaweed material and also to establish reference values for radionuclides 40 K, 54 Mn, 58 Co, 60 Co, 65 Zn, 134 Cs, 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 99 Tc, 238 Pu, 239+240 Pu, 241 Am, 238 U, 230 Th, 226 Ra, 210 Pb, 210 Po, 232 Th, 228 Ra and 228 Th for the advantage of all those who need well-characterized standard material for calibration purposes. The sample of the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus from the coastal area of the Southwest Baltic near the Swedish nuclear plant at Barseback was made available for intercalibration in 47 laboratories in 26 countries. The results were obtained by gamma spectrometry, alpha spectrometry and beta counting

  13. Magnetic separation of algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Pulak; Twary, Scott N.

    2016-04-26

    Described herein are methods and systems for harvesting, collecting, separating and/or dewatering algae using iron based salts combined with a magnetic field gradient to separate algae from an aqueous solution.

  14. Blue-Green Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that taking a specific blue-green algae product (Super Blue-Green Algae, Cell Tech, Klamath Falls, OR) ... system. Premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Depression. Digestion. Heart disease. Memory. Wound healing. Other conditions. More evidence is needed ...

  15. Algae Derived Biofuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahan, Kauser [Rowan Univ., Glassboro, NJ (United States)

    2015-03-31

    One of the most promising fuel alternatives is algae biodiesel. Algae reproduce quickly, produce oils more efficiently than crop plants, and require relatively few nutrients for growth. These nutrients can potentially be derived from inexpensive waste sources such as flue gas and wastewater, providing a mutual benefit of helping to mitigate carbon dioxide waste. Algae can also be grown on land unsuitable for agricultural purposes, eliminating competition with food sources. This project focused on cultivating select algae species under various environmental conditions to optimize oil yield. Membrane studies were also conducted to transfer carbon di-oxide more efficiently. An LCA study was also conducted to investigate the energy intensive steps in algae cultivation.

  16. Biofuels and algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2011-01-01

    Bio-fuels based on micro-algae are promising, their licensing for being used in plane fuels in a mix containing 50% of fossil kerosene is expected in the coming months. In United-States research on bio-fuels has been made more important since 2006 when 2 policies were launched: 'Advanced energy initiative' and 'Twenty-in-ten', the latter aiming to develop alternative fuels. In Europe less investment has been made concerning micro-algae fuels but research programs were launched in Spain, United-Kingdom and France. In France 3 important projects were launched: SHAMASH (2006-2010) whose aim is to produce lipidic fuels from micro-algae, ALGOHUB (2008-2013) whose aim is to use micro-algae as a raw material for humane and animal food, medicine and cosmetics, SYMBIOSE (2009-2011) whose aim is the optimization of the production of methane through the anaerobic digestion of micro-algae, SALINALGUE (2010-2016) whose aim is to grow micro-algae for the production of bio-energies and bio-products. (A.C.)

  17. Temporal variations of Cs-137 in Sots Pine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nylen, T.; Plamboeck, A.H.; Boson, J.

    2008-01-01

    In this study the temporal changes in 137 Cs distribution in a Scots pine (Pinus Sylvestris L.) stand was studied during 1986 to 2006 in Northern Sweden. The Chernobyl fallout provided an excellent possibility to study the uptake and retention in conifer trees of 137 Cs, since the deposition lasted for only a few days. The average deposition of 137 Cs in the region that originates from the Chernobyl accident in 1986 was 20 ± 9 kBq M -2 . Also 137 Cs from the atmospheric nuclear weapons tests was present in the area and was only 3 ±2 kBq m -2 . Studies show that the redistribution of radioactive caesium still contribute to high activity concentrations in some compartments of the ecosystem. It has been known that certain fungi continue to produce fruit bodies with high amounts of 137 Cs. The current study adds another aspect to consider: The high activity concentration in branches and current needles during 2006 indicates an uptake of 137 Cs from the soil which could lead to concentrations in Scots Pine that has to be considered in forestry and other kind of utilization of forest products. There are for instance a few game birds such as the capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus) that feed on pine shoots. Another possible effect is on the use of pine branches in the bio fuel industry. Given an activity concentration of 1200 Bq/kg (d.w.) and a concentration factor of 10 during combustion the concentration in ashes would be 12000 bq/kg. According to the recommendations from SSI (the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority) ashes that have concentrations higher than 10 kBq/kg must be stored in special deposits. It would be of interest to investigate the uptake in stands of different ages since the pine stand that was studied was about 30 years old in 1986 and do not represent neither a mature nor a newly established stand (tk)

  18. Low-energy electron microdosimetry of CS-137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschoa, A.S.; Wrenn, M.E.

    1980-09-01

    The mass of tissue irradiated by an internal emitter depends upon the distribution of the radionuclide within the organism and the type of radiation emitted. The range (95% absorption) of low-energy electron effectively defines the sensitive volume in which the energy of the emitted electron is deposited. Accordingly, in the case of Auger electron microdosimetry of internal emitters the correct definition of the sensitive volume is of paramount importance. The amount of energy delivered by the monoenergetic electrons emitted by the decay system 137 Cs → sup(137m)Ba to spherical volumes of water-like tissue media of radii equivalent to the estimated ranges of those electrons in water is calculated and discussed as far as the variations of the estimated ranges of electrons as a function of the initial energy of emission are concerned. Although there are still many uncertainties on the actual ranges of low-energy electrons, one can state confidently that the ranges of the Auger electrons of the decay system 137 Cs → 137 sup(m) Ba → 137 Ba can be considered to be in the same order of magnitude of the diameter of a cell. The energy deposition in spherical volumes of water-like tissue media, considered equivalent to the sensitive volumes for the Auger electrons of the decay system 137 Cs → 137 sub(m) Ba → 137 Ba, range for several orders of magnitude from 10 2 to about 10 10 times higher than the energy deposition in similar media by the internal conversion electrons of this decay system. If equivalent variations of energy deposition per unit mass occur when the masses considered are cellular, and subcellular structures, then the effects into the sensitive volume should be taken into biological consideration as far as the microdosimetry of low-energy electrons (approximately equal to 10 keV) is considered, whenever there is internal localization of Auger emitters. (Author) [pt

  19. Cs-137 in Arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) on Svalbard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gwynn, Justin P.; Fuglei, Eva; Dowdall, Mark

    2007-01-01

    This study presents 137 Cs muscle activity concentrations in Arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) from Svalbard over a period of several years and discusses the transfer of 137 Cs to Arctic foxes through likely predator-prey relationships. Mean 137 Cs activity concentrations and 137 Cs T ag values (per trapping season) ranged from 0.51 ± 2.76 to 1.32 ± 2.89 Bq/kg (w.w.) and 5.1 x 10 -4 to 1.3 x 10 -3 m 2 /kg, respectively. Mean concentration ratios of 137 Cs in Arctic foxes compared to probable prey ranged from 1.0 to 7.9. On Svalbard, transfer of 137 Cs to Arctic foxes is likely to occur via both marine and terrestrial food chains. The relative contribution of marine and terrestrial food sources to the diet of Arctic foxes may vary by location and by season and may lead to either an increase or decrease in the trophic transfer of 137 Cs to Arctic foxes compared to transfer resulting from terrestrial only diets

  20. Plutonium and Cs-137 in autopsy tissues in Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popplewell, D.S.; Ham, G.J.; Dodd, N.J.; Shuttler, S.D.

    1988-01-01

    Tissues removed at autopsy from members of the general public contain significantly higher concentrations of plutonium and 137 Cs in west Cumbrians than in people from three other regions of Great Britain. Several autopsy cases from Cumbria showed unusually high values of plutonium. Subsequently it was found that the subjects had been former employees of British Nuclear Fuels. 7 refs.; 8 tabs

  1. Evaluation of modelling body burden of Cs-137

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstroem, U; Nordlinder, S

    1996-05-01

    Within the IAEA/CEC VAMP-program one working group studied the precision in dose assessment models when calculating body burden of {sup 137}Cs as a result of exposure through multiple exposure pathways. One scenario used data from southern Finland regarding contamination of various media due to the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. In this study, a time dependent multiple exposure pathway model was constructed based on compartment theory. Uncertainties in model responses due to uncertainties in input parameter values were studied. The initial predictions for body burden were good, within a factor of 2 of the observed, while the time dynamics of levels in milk and meat did not agree satisfactorily. Some results, nevertheless, showed good agreement with observations due to compensatory effects. After disclosure of additional observational data, major reasons for mispredictions were identified as lack of consideration of time dependence of fixation of {sup 137}Cs in soils, and the selection of parameter values. When correction of this was made, a close agreement between predictions and observations was obtained. This study shows that the dose contribution due to {sup 137}Cs in food products from the seminatural environment is important for long-term exposure to man. The evaluation provided a basis for improvements of crucial parts in the model. 14 refs, 18 figs, 8 tabs.

  2. Evaluation of modelling body burden of Cs-137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergstroem, U.; Nordlinder, S.

    1996-05-01

    Within the IAEA/CEC VAMP-program one working group studied the precision in dose assessment models when calculating body burden of 137 Cs as a result of exposure through multiple exposure pathways. One scenario used data from southern Finland regarding contamination of various media due to the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. In this study, a time dependent multiple exposure pathway model was constructed based on compartment theory. Uncertainties in model responses due to uncertainties in input parameter values were studied. The initial predictions for body burden were good, within a factor of 2 of the observed, while the time dynamics of levels in milk and meat did not agree satisfactorily. Some results, nevertheless, showed good agreement with observations due to compensatory effects. After disclosure of additional observational data, major reasons for mispredictions were identified as lack of consideration of time dependence of fixation of 137 Cs in soils, and the selection of parameter values. When correction of this was made, a close agreement between predictions and observations was obtained. This study shows that the dose contribution due to 137 Cs in food products from the seminatural environment is important for long-term exposure to man. The evaluation provided a basis for improvements of crucial parts in the model. 14 refs, 18 figs, 8 tabs

  3. Transport processes of Cs-137 in lake environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilton, J.; Carrick, T.R.; Lishman, J.P.; Rigg, E.; Davison, W.; Kelly, M.; Hamilton-Taylor, J.

    1992-01-01

    Radiocesium levels in the waters of the Lake District dropped after the initial deposition following the Chernobyl reactor accident. However they continued to be measurable several years after the event. Caesium 137 concentrations were measured in the sediments of Esthwaite water and Windermere to determine the input of caesium 137 from the catchment area to the lakes. Experiments were conducted to ascertain the chemical conditions such as pH value, adsorption, competing ions which might contribute to maintaining caesium levels in the lakes. (U.K.)

  4. Autoimmune process in CNS under Cs-137 inner irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisyany, N.I.; Liubich, L.D.

    1996-01-01

    Autoimmune hypothesis as to the development of radiation-induced brain injuries stands high among the concepts of the CNS post-radiation damage pathogenesis. To study the changes occurring in a living organism affected by a small-dose radiation due to incorporated radionuclides as well as to create adequate models are of critical importance in the post-Chernobyl period. The effects of chronic small-dose inner radiation on the development of autoimmune responses were evaluated by determining the level of the CNS proteins and protein-induced antibodies to the CNS components. (author)

  5. Main principles of agroecological grouping of Cs 137 polluted farmlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsybul'ko, N.N.; Misyuchik, A.A.; Shapsheeva, T.P.

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of data of radiological and soil-agrochemical inspection of soils the agroecological grouping of farmlands is conducted . Five agroecological groups of the farmlands are allocated. (authors)

  6. Method for Cs-137 separation from the decontamination solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toropov, I.G.; Efremenkov, V.M.; Toropova, V.V.; Satsukevich, V.M.; Davidov, Yu.P.

    1995-01-01

    In this work results of investigations are presented on separation of radiocaesium from the decontamination solutions containing reducing agents (thiocarbamide). The scientific basis for radiocaesium removal from the solution focuses on the state of the radionuclide and its sorption behavior in the solution with a complicated composition. Then using a combination of sorption and ultrafiltration methods it would be possible to concentrate the radionuclide in a small volume and to purify the main part of the solution. As a sorbent for radiocaesium removal from the solution, a ferrocyanide based sorbent is proposed. Use of this sorbent is justified since its high selectivity and effectiveness for radiocaesium sorption from the solutions of different composition is well known. When synthesis of the sorbent is performed directly in the treating solution, two components as a minimum should be added to it, namely K 4 Fe(CN) 6 and metal ions of Ni-II, Co-II, Cu-II, etc. The results are presented which show the possibility of radiocaesium separation from the decontamination solutions (containing 60--100 g/l of salts) using sorption and membrane separation methods without the use of metal salts. At the same time by using FE-2 in solution in the presence of cyanide ions and thiocarbamide, it is possible to avoid the addition of metal salts (Ni, Cu, etc.). Utilization of the proposed method for spent decontamination solution treatment allows a relatively easy way to reduce the concentration of radiocaesium in solution on 2--4 orders of magnitudes, and to exclude the utilization of relatively expensive metal salts

  7. Contemporary distributions of Cs-137 in Marshall Islands soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, T.; Rosenstock, L.; Greenhouse, N.A.

    1989-01-01

    Atmospheric tests of nuclear weapons ranging from tens of kT to 15 MT of TNT were conducted by the United States at two sites in the northern Marshall Islands. The test areas are now parts of the Republic of the Marshall Islands. Resolutions of health related problems or property damage resulting from the weapons tests were assumed by a Nuclear Claims Tribunal which was funded for this purpose. This paper describes the results of a survey conducted in 1988 which was designed to determine whether a potential connection exists between local fallout and the incidence of radiogenic disease among Marshallese residents of islands in the greater vicinity of the two test areas. Soil samples were collected from two southern atolls as controls, and from five northern sites to look for higher cesium-137 levels which may have been contributed by tropospheric fallout from the weapons tests

  8. Use of Cs-137 as tracer in lake sediment investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinescu, L.; Vasile, E.; Timofte, L.; Cernisov, G.; Dorcioman, R.

    1997-01-01

    137 Cs vertical profile and total inventories were determined in four lakes located in Danube Delta and surroundings and in channel Dunavat. The radiocaesium total inventory of 1800 Bq/m 2 in Matita and Merhei-Middle Part, very closed to the atmospheric fallout value and a very low sedimentation rate, suggest a relative isolation of these two lakes related to the main Danube branches. The vertical profile obtained in Merhei lake (the Southern part) shows three distinct peaks corresponding to nuclear weapons tests performed in 1954 and 1963 and to Chernobyl event in 1986. Radiocaesium total inventory of 3270 Bq/m 2 was explained by an important 137 Cs contribution from the sediment transported by the channel linking lake Merhei to Dunarea Veche (Chilia branch). For the lakes Leahova and Razim, located in the immediate vicinity of the Black Sea, the total inventories of 600 Bq/m2 suggest an important transfer of sediments from the lakes to Black Sea. 137 Cs vertical profile in Dunavat channel shows two peaks, corresponding to Chernobyl event and nuclear tests. The total inventory of 2600 Bq/m 2 is due to atmospheric fallout and to the sediments transported by the river Danube and then by channel Dunavat. The sedimentation rate of 0.7 cm/year obtained from both peaks, suggests a constant sediment accumulation in the last 33 years. Other environmental tracers were used for recent lake sediment dating. The obtained results (considered as preliminary results) were compared with 137 Cs results. The results obtained from 137 Cs, 210 Pb and 241 Am measurements demonstrated that the environmental tracers are a valuable tool in sediment origin, transport and accumulation investigation. The research is in progress. (authors)

  9. Geological and physicochemical controls of the spatial distribution of partition coefficients for radionuclides (Sr-90, Cs-137, Co-60, Pu-239,240 and Am-241) at a site of nuclear reactors and radioactive waste disposal (St. Petersburg region, Russian Federation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumynin, Vyacheslav G; Nikulenkov, Anton M

    2016-10-01

    The paper presents a study of the sorption properties of sediments of different geological ages and lithological types, governing radionuclide retention in the subsurface (up to 160 m beneath the surface) within the area of potential influence of the Northwestern Center of Atomic Energy (NWCAE), St. Petersburg region, RF. The focus of this work is mostly on the sedimentary rocks of two types, i.e., weakly cemented sandstone and lithified clay formations of Cambrian and Vendian series. The first lithological unit is associated with a groundwater reservoir (Lomonosov aquifer), and the second one, with both a relative aquitard in the upper part of the Vendian formation (Kotlin clay) and a regional aquifer (Gdov aquifer) in the lower part of the formation. The main mechanisms responsible for the variability of the sorption distribution coefficient (Kd, defined as the ratio of the concentration of solute on solid phase to its concentration in solution at equilibrium) was identified for radionuclides such as Sr-90, Cs-137, Co-60, Pu-239,240, and Am-241. It was shown that the main factors contributing to the chemical heterogeneity of the Cambrian sandstone were related to the presence of secondary minerals (iron and magnesium oxides and hydroxides produced by the weathering process) in trace amounts, forming correlated layer structures. The statistical analysis of nonlinear isotherms confirmed this conclusion. For the Vendian formation, a determinate trend was established in the Kd change over depth as a result of temporal trends in the sedimentation process and pore-water chemistry. The geostatistical characteristics and the spatial correlation models for describing linear sorption of different radionuclides are not identical, and the exhibition of chemical heterogeneity of sedimentary rock of a particular lithological type depends on radionuclide chemistry. Moreover, variogram analysis for some Kd data sets (both in Cambrian and Vendian formations) demonstrates the

  10. Genomics of Volvocine Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umen, James G.; Olson, Bradley J.S.C.

    2015-01-01

    Volvocine algae are a group of chlorophytes that together comprise a unique model for evolutionary and developmental biology. The species Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Volvox carteri represent extremes in morphological diversity within the Volvocine clade. Chlamydomonas is unicellular and reflects the ancestral state of the group, while Volvox is multicellular and has evolved numerous innovations including germ-soma differentiation, sexual dimorphism, and complex morphogenetic patterning. The Chlamydomonas genome sequence has shed light on several areas of eukaryotic cell biology, metabolism and evolution, while the Volvox genome sequence has enabled a comparison with Chlamydomonas that reveals some of the underlying changes that enabled its transition to multicellularity, but also underscores the subtlety of this transition. Many of the tools and resources are in place to further develop Volvocine algae as a model for evolutionary genomics. PMID:25883411

  11. Shewanella algae in acute gastroenteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Dey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Shewanella algae is an emerging bacteria rarely implicated as a human pathogen. Previously reported cases of S. algae have mainly been associated with direct contact with seawater. Here we report the isolation of S. algae as the sole etiological agent from a patient suffering from acute gastroenteritis with bloody diarrhoea. The bacterium was identified by automated identification system and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Our report highlights the importance of looking for the relatively rare aetiological agents in clinical samples that does not yield common pathogens. It also underscores the usefulness of automated systems in identification of rare pathogens.

  12. Transgenic algae engineered for higher performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unkefer, Pat J; Anderson, Penelope S; Knight, Thomas J

    2014-10-21

    The present disclosure relates to transgenic algae having increased growth characteristics, and methods of increasing growth characteristics of algae. In particular, the disclosure relates to transgenic algae comprising a glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase transgene and to transgenic algae comprising a glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase transgene and a glutamine synthetase.

  13. Algae biotechnology: products and processes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bux, F; Chisti, Yusuf

    2016-01-01

    This book examines the utilization of algae for the development of useful products and processes with the emphasis towards green technologies and processes, and the requirements to make these viable...

  14. Algae: America's Pathway to Independence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Custer, James

    2007-01-01

    .... Oil dependency is an unacceptable risk to U.S. national strategy. This paper advocates independence from foreign oil by converting the national transportation fleet to biodiesel derived from algae...

  15. Scenario studies for algae production

    OpenAIRE

    Slegers, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Microalgae are a promising biomass for the biobased economy to produce food, feed, fuel, chemicals and materials. So far, large-scale production of algae is limited and as a result estimates on the performance of such large systems are scarce. There is a need to estimate large-scale biomass productivity and energy consumption, while considering the uncertainty and complexity in such large-scale systems. In this thesis frameworks are developed to assess 1) the productivity during algae culti...

  16. Phthalate esters in marine algae

    OpenAIRE

    Gezgin, Tuncay; Güven, Kasim Cemal; Akçin, Göksel

    2001-01-01

    Abstract o-Phthalate esters as diethyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, di-isobutyl phthalate and diethylhexyl phthalate were identified at surface and inner part of algae collected in the Bosphorus, as Ulva lactuca, Enteromorpha linza, Cystoseria barbata, Pterocladia capillaceaeand Ceramium rubrum. The same esters were also detected in seawater samples taken from the same area. Thus parallelism in pollution was noted between the algae and the surrounding seawater,

  17. Algae-Based Carbon Sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haoyang, Cai

    2018-03-01

    Our civilization is facing a series of environmental problems, including global warming and climate change, which are caused by the accumulation of green house gases in the atmosphere. This article will briefly analyze the current global warming problem and propose a method that we apply algae cultivation to absorb carbon and use shellfish to sequestrate it. Despite the importance of decreasing CO2 emissions or developing carbon-free energy sources, carbon sequestration should be a key issue, since the amount of carbon dioxide that already exists in the atmosphere is great enough to cause global warming. Algae cultivation would be a good choice because they have high metabolism rates and provides shellfish with abundant food that contains carbon. Shellfish’s shells, which are difficult to be decomposed, are reliable storage of carbon, compared to dead organisms like trees and algae. The amount of carbon that can be sequestrated by shellfish is considerable. However, the sequestrating rate of algae and shellfish is not high enough to affect the global climate. Research on algae and shellfish cultivation, including gene technology that aims to create “super plants” and “super shellfish”, is decisive to the solution. Perhaps the baton of history will shift to gene technology, from nuclear physics that has lost appropriate international environment after the end of the Cold War. Gene technology is vital to human survival.

  18. Algae Bloom in a Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Sanabria

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to determine the likelihood of an algae bloom in a particular lake located in upstate New York. The growth of algae in this lake is caused by a high concentration of phosphorous that diffuses to the surface of the lake. Our calculations, based on Fick's Law, are used to create a mathematical model of the driving force of diffusion for phosphorous. Empirical observations are also used to predict whether the concentration of phosphorous will diffuse to the surface of this lake within a specified time and under specified conditions.

  19. Formation of algae growth constitutive relations for improved algae modeling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gharagozloo, Patricia E.; Drewry, Jessica Louise.

    2013-01-01

    This SAND report summarizes research conducted as a part of a two year Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project to improve our abilities to model algal cultivation. Algae-based biofuels have generated much excitement due to their potentially large oil yield from relatively small land use and without interfering with the food or water supply. Algae mitigate atmospheric CO2 through metabolism. Efficient production of algal biofuels could reduce dependence on foreign oil by providing a domestic renewable energy source. Important factors controlling algal productivity include temperature, nutrient concentrations, salinity, pH, and the light-to-biomass conversion rate. Computational models allow for inexpensive predictions of algae growth kinetics in these non-ideal conditions for various bioreactor sizes and geometries without the need for multiple expensive measurement setups. However, these models need to be calibrated for each algal strain. In this work, we conduct a parametric study of key marine algae strains and apply the findings to a computational model.

  20. Indigenous algae: Potential factories for biodiesel production

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maharajh, Dheepak M

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available advantages. Approximately 30% of South African environments favourable for isolating algae have been sampled. Samples were enriched, purified and assessed for lipid content, resulting in a database of indigenous algae. Positive isolates were grown under...

  1. Microscopic Gardens: A Close Look at Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Mary Ann

    1983-01-01

    Describes classroom activities using algae, including demonstration of eutrophication, examination of mating strains, and activities with Euglena. Includes on algal morphology/physiology, types of algae, and field sources for collecting these organisms. (JN)

  2. Algae. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niskern, Diana, Comp.

    The plants and plantlike organisms informally grouped together as algae show great diversity of form and size and occur in a wide variety of habitats. These extremely important photosynthesizers are also economically significant. For example, some species contaminate water supplies; others provide food for aquatic animals and for man; still others…

  3. Scenario studies for algae production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slegers, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Microalgae are a promising biomass for the biobased economy to produce food, feed, fuel, chemicals and materials. So far, large-scale production of algae is limited and as a result estimates on the performance of such large systems are scarce. There is a need to estimate large-scale biomass

  4. Macro algae as substrate for biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Henrik; Sarker, Shiplu; Gautam, Dhan Prasad

    Algae as a substrate for biogas is superior to other crops since it has a much higher yield of biomass per unit area and since algae grows in the seawater there will be no competition with food production on agricultural lands. So far, the progress in treating different groups of algae as a source...... of energy is promising. In this study 5 different algae types were tested for biogas potential and two algae were subsequent used for co-digestion with manure. Green seaweed, Ulva lactuca and brown seaweed Laminaria digitata was co-digested with cattle manure at mesophilic and thermophilic condition...

  5. Value Education on Pela Tradition (An Ethnographic Study of Ambonese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pendidikan Nilai dalam Tradisi Pela (Kajian Etnografis Masyarakat Ambon Abstract: The value that has meaning in pela tradition in Ambon society is something that has been handled as personally and can be internalized in human behaviour. The reality of pela tradition value order has been processing in institutionalized as the education direction of social values. The purpose of this qualitative research is to describe the values in the tradition of pela for educational value in Ambon community. The Exposure to the data, data explanation and understanding of discourse data tradition of pela is done in depth. The Study of pela discourse tradition with hermeneutics gives holistic-emic views of how the tradition of pela is able to package and legitimize the Ambonese community life philosophy. The results of the study describes the values in the tradition of pela include (1 the value of religion that regulates the dimensions of God in human life, (2 the value of the philosophy that is universal and will be impacted by the ending value and subjectivity, and (3 the value of ethical consequences of individual responsibility in achieving a moral obligation. Key Words: value education, culture, pela tradition Abstrak: Nilai yang memiliki arti dalam tradisi pela masyarakat Ambon adalah sesuatu yang telah diberikan sejak turun temurun secara pribadi dan dapat diinternalisasi dalam perilaku manusia. Pada kenyataannya, nilai pada tradisi pela telah dilembagakan menjadi arahan dalam pendidikan nilai-nilai sosial. Tujuan penelitian kualitatif ini adalah menggambarkan nilai-nilai yang terkandung dalam tradisi pela sebagai pendidikan nilai masyarakat Ambon. Paparan data, cara penjelasan data, dan pemahaman data wacana tradisi pela dilakukan secara mendalam. Kajian wacana tradisi pela dengan ancangan hermeneutika memberikan gambaran holistik-emik tentang bagaimana tradisi pela mampu mengemas dan melegitimasi falsafah hidup komunitas masyarakat Ambon. Hasil

  6. Bioethanol Production from Indigenous Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhuka Roy

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced rate of fossil fuel extraction is likely to deplete limited natural resources over short period of time. So search for alternative fuel is only the way to overcome this problem of upcoming energy crisis. In this aspect biofuel is a sustainable option. Agricultural lands cannot be compromised for biofuel production due to the requirement of food for the increasing population. Certain species of algae can produce ethanol during anaerobic fermentation and thus serve as a direct source for bioethanol production. The high content of complex carbohydrates entrapped in the cell wall of the microalgae makes it essential to incorporate a pre-treatment stage to release and convert these complex carbohydrates into simple sugars prior to the fermentation process. There have been researches on production of bioethanol from a particular species of algae, but this work was an attempt to produce bioethanol from easily available indigenous algae. Acid hydrolysis was carried out as pre-treatment. Gas Chromatographic analysis showed that 5 days’ fermentation by baker’s yeast had yielded 93% pure bioethanol. The fuel characterization of the bioethanol with respect to gasoline showed comparable and quite satisfactory results for its use as an alternative fuel.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i1.12182International Journal of Environment Volume-4, Issue-1, Dec-Feb 2014/15, page: 112-120  

  7. Bio diesel production from algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khola, G.; Ghazala, B.

    2011-01-01

    Algae appear to be an emerging source of biomass for bio diesel that has the potential to completely displace fossil fuel. Two thirds of earth's surface is covered with water, thus alga e would truly be renewable option of great potential for global energy needs. This study discusses specific and comparative bio diesel quantitative potential of Cladophora sp., also highlighting its biomass (after oil extraction), pH and sediments (glycerine, water and pigments) quantitative properties. Comparison of Cladophora sp., with Oedogonium sp., and Spirogyra sp., (Hossain et al., 2008) shows that Cladophora sp., produce higher quantity of bio diesel than Spirogyra sp., whereas biomass and sediments were higher than the both algal specimens in comparison to the results obtained by earlier workers. No prominent difference in pH of bio diesel was found. In Pakistan this is a first step towards bio diesel production from algae. Results indicate that Cladophora sp., provide a reasonable quantity of bio diesel, its greater biomass after oil extraction and sediments make it a better option for bio diesel production than the comparing species. (author)

  8. Standardization of 137mCs+137mBa by Liquid Scintillation; Calibracion de 137Cs+137mBa por Centelleo Liquido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, L.; Los Arcos, J.M.; Grau, A.

    1995-07-01

    A procedure for the preparation of a stable, homogeneous solution of 137Cs+''137mBa, for use in liquid scintillation measurements, is described. Its count rate stability and spectral time evolution has been followed for several weeks. The solution has been standardised by the CIEMAT/NIST method in both Ultima-Gold and Insta-Gel, to a combined uncertainty lower than 0,51 % (k=l). (Author) 5 refs.

  9. Dose response curve of induction of MN in lymphocytes for energies Cs-137; Curva dosis respuesta de induccion de micronucleos en linfocitos para las energias Cs-137

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serna Berna, A.; Alcaraz, M.; Acevedo, C.; Vicente, V.; Fuente, I. de la; Canteras, M.

    2006-07-01

    The determination of the dose-response curve is a crucial step to use the Micronucleus assay in Lymphocytes as a biological dosimeters. The most widely used fitting function is the linear-quadratic function. The coefficients are fitted by calibration data provided by irradiations of blood from healthy donors. In our case we performed the calibration curve corresponding to gamma radiation from Cesium-137 (660 keV). Doses ranged from 0 to 16 Gy. The fitting procedure used was the iteratively re weighted least square algorithm implemented in a Matlab routine. The results of the analysis of our data show that the dose-effect curve does not follow a linear-quadratic curve at high radiation doses, diminishing the quadratic parameters as dose increases. This can be interpreted as a micronucleus saturation effect beyond a certain dose level. We conclude that the MN assay with lymphocytes can be well characterized as a biological dosimeters up to a maximum dose of 4.5 Gy. (Author)

  10. Red algae and their use in papermaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yung-Bum; Lee, Youn-Woo; Lee, Chun-Han; You, Hack-Chul

    2010-04-01

    Gelidialian red algae, that contain rhizoidal filaments, except the family Gelidiellaceae were processed to make bleached pulps, which can be used as raw materials for papermaking. Red algae consist of rhizoidal filaments, cortical cells usually reddish in color, and medullary cells filled with mucilaginous carbohydrates. Red algae pulp consists of mostly rhizoidal filaments. Red algae pulp of high brightness can be produced by extracting mucilaginous carbohydrates after heating the algae in an aqueous medium and subsequently treating the extracted with bleaching chemicals. In this study, we prepared paper samples from bleached pulps obtained from two red algae species (Gelidium amansii and Gelidium corneum) and compared their properties to those of bleached wood chemical pulps. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cellulose powder from Cladophora sp. algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ek, R; Gustafsson, C; Nutt, A; Iversen, T; Nyström, C

    1998-01-01

    The surface are and crystallinity was measured on a cellulose powder made from Cladophora sp. algae. The algae cellulose powder was found to have a very high surface area (63.4 m2/g, N2 gas adsorption) and build up of cellulose with a high crystallinity (approximately 100%, solid state NMR). The high surface area was confirmed by calculations from atomic force microscope imaging of microfibrils from Cladophora sp. algae.

  12. Biosynthesis of 3-Dimethylsulfoniopropionate in Marine Algae

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rhodes, David

    2000-01-01

    ...) in marine algae, including identification of intermediates and enzymes of the pathway in the macroalgae Enteromorpha Intestinalis, and three diverse marine phytoplankton species; Tetraselmis sp...

  13. Algae-production in the desert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildebrand, H.

    1988-11-01

    The company Koor Food Ltd. (Israel) developed in co-operation with the Weizmann-Institute (Israel) a production-plant for the industrial cultivation of algae in the desert area of Elat. For almost a year now, they succeed in harvesting large amounts of algae material with the help of the intensive sun and the Red Sea water. The alga Dunaliella with the natural US -carotine, as well as the alga Spirulina with the high content of protein find their market in the food-, cosmetic- and pharma-industry. This article will give a survey of a yet here unusual project.

  14. Local Political Conflict and Pela Gandong Amidst the Religious Conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonny SB Hoedodo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Pela Gandong which is believed by Ambonese for its propitiational value is in fact failed to prevent horizontal conflict that victimized a big number of life and financial damages. However, Wayame villagem is found to survive from those conflicts, and the community of this village, comprising of Islam and Christian religious group, succeeds to maintain harmonious relation. The research aims at, first, describing the perception of Wayamae village community to Pela Gandong in the post-conflict period; second, analyzing the cultural competence of pela Gandong in conflict resolution in the era of technology. This research employed qualitative method, involving in-field data gathering based on official report, digging out information from the resource persons who were directly witnessing the conflict when it occured and other references obtained through Forum Group Discussion (FGD. An analysis was performed to seek answer concerning on how the community of Wayame village viewed Pela Gandong in post-conflict period, how it is – as a local wisdom – maintained in the middle of changing and how Pela Gandong was revitalized. Research showed that Pela Gandong was maintained by involving all elements such as customary community and the government. Pela Gandong grew as the icon of Ambonese society in settling conflicts by raising awareness that they are Eastern people, collectivistic in nature, and place kinship into priority.

  15. Cultivation of macroscopic marine algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryther, J.H.

    1982-11-01

    The red alga Gracilaria tikvahiae may be grown outdoors year-round in central Florida with yields averaging 35.5 g dry wt/m/sup 2/.day, greater than the most productive terrestrial plants. This occurs only when the plants are in a suspended culture, with vigorous aeration and an exchange of 25 or more culture volumes of enriched seawater per day, which is not cost-effective. A culture system was designed in which Gracilaria, stocked at a density of 2 kg wet wt/m/sup 2/, grows to double its biomass in one to two weeks; it is then harvested to its starting density, and anaerobically digested to methane. The biomass is soaked for 6 hours in the digester residue, storing enough nutrients for two weeks' growth in unenriched seawater. The methane is combusted for energy and the waste gas is fed to the culture to provide mixing and CO/sub 2/, eliminating the need for aeration and seawater exchange. The green alga Ulva lactuca, unlike Gracilaria, uses bicarbonate as a photosynthesis carbon source, and can grow at high pH, with little or no free CO/sub 2/. It can therefore produce higher yields than Gracilaria in low water exchange conditions. It is also more efficiently converted to methane than is Gracilaria, but cannot tolerate Florida's summer temperatures so cannot be grown year-round. Attempts are being made to locate or produce a high-temperature tolerant strain.

  16. Modeling and optimization of algae growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thornton, Anthony Richard; Weinhart, Thomas; Bokhove, Onno; Zhang, Bowen; van der Sar, Dick M.; Kumar, Kundan; Pisarenco, Maxim; Rudnaya, Maria; Savcenco, Valeriu; Rademacher, Jens; Zijlstra, Julia; Szabelska, Alicja; Zyprych, Joanna; van der Schans, Martin; Timperio, Vincent; Veerman, Frits

    2010-01-01

    The wastewater from greenhouses has a high amount of mineral contamination and an environmentally-friendly method of removal is to use algae to clean this runoff water. The algae consume the minerals as part of their growth process. In addition to cleaning the water, the created algal bio-mass has a

  17. Algae commensal community in Genlisea traps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Wołowski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The community of algae occurring in Genlisea traps and on the external traps surface in laboratory conditions were studied. A total of 29 taxa were found inside the traps, with abundant diatoms, green algae (Chlamydophyceae and four morphotypes of chrysophytes stomatocysts. One morphotype is described as new for science. There are two ways of algae getting into Genlisea traps. The majority of those recorded inside the traps, are mobile; swimming freely by flagella or moving exuding mucilage like diatoms being ablate to colonize the traps themselves. Another possibility is transport of algae by invertebrates such as mites and crustaceans. In any case algae in the Genlisea traps come from the surrounding environment. Two dominant groups of algae (Chladymonas div. and diatoms in the trap environment, show ability to hydrolyze phosphomonoseters. We suggest that algae in carnivorous plant traps can compete with plant (host for organic phosphate (phosphomonoseters. From the spectrum and ecological requirements of algal species found in the traps, environment inside the traps seems to be acidic. However, further studies are needed to test the relations between algae and carnivorous plants both in laboratory conditions and in the natural environment. All the reported taxa are described briefly and documented with 74 LM and SEM micrographs.

  18. Potential biomedical applications of marine algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui-Min David; Li, Xiao-Chun; Lee, Duu-Jong; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2017-11-01

    Functional components extracted from algal biomass are widely used as dietary and health supplements with a variety of applications in food science and technology. In contrast, the applications of algae in dermal-related products have received much less attention, despite that algae also possess high potential for the uses in anti-infection, anti-aging, skin-whitening, and skin tumor treatments. This review, therefore, focuses on integrating studies on algae pertinent to human skin care, health and therapy. The active compounds in algae related to human skin treatments are mentioned and the possible mechanisms involved are described. The main purpose of this review is to identify serviceable algae functions in skin treatments to facilitate practical applications in this high-potential area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Cars will be fed on algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peltier, G.

    2012-01-01

    The development of the first and second generations of bio-fuels has led to a rise in food prices and the carbon balance sheet is less good than expected. Great hopes have been put on unicellular algae for they can synthesize oils, sugar and even hydrogen and the competition with food production is far less harsh than with actual bio-fuels. Moreover, when you grow micro-algae, the loss of water through evaporation is less important than in the case of intensive farm cultures. In 2009 10.000 tonnes of micro-algae were produced worldwide, they were mainly used for the production of fish food and of complements for humane food (fat acids and antioxidants). Different research programs concern unicellular algae: they aim at modifying micro-algae genetically in order to give them a higher productivity or to make them produce an oil more adapted for motor fuel or more easily recoverable. (A.C.)

  20. Composting of waste algae: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; Clarke, William; Pratt, Steven

    2014-07-01

    Although composting has been successfully used at pilot scale to manage waste algae removed from eutrophied water environments and the compost product applied as a fertiliser, clear guidelines are not available for full scale algae composting. The review reports on the application of composting to stabilize waste algae, which to date has mainly been macro-algae, and identifies the peculiarities of algae as a composting feedstock, these being: relatively low carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio, which can result in nitrogen loss as NH3 and even N2O; high moisture content and low porosity, which together make aeration challenging; potentially high salinity, which can have adverse consequence for composting; and potentially have high metals and toxin content, which can affect application of the product as a fertiliser. To overcome the challenges that these peculiarities impose co-compost materials can be employed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Prospects of using algae in biofuel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. I. Maltsev

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of industry, agriculture and the transport sector is associated with the use of various energy sources. Renewable energy sources, including biofuels, are highly promising in this respect. As shown by a number of scientific studies, a promising source for biofuel production that would meet modern requirements may be algal biomass. After activation of the third generation biodiesel production it was assumed that the algae would become the most advantageous source, because it is not only able to accumulate significant amounts of lipids, but could reduce the of agricultural land involved in biofuel production and improve air quality by sequestering CO2. However, a major problem is presented by the cost of algae biomass cultivation and its processing compared to the production of biodiesel from agricultural crops. In this regard, there are several directions of increasing the efficiency of biodiesel production from algae biomass. The first direction is to increase lipid content in algae cells by means of genetic engineering. The second direction is connected with the stimulation of increased accumulation of lipids by stressing algae. The third direction involves the search for new, promising strains of algae that will be characterized by faster biomass accumulation rate, higher content of TAG and the optimal proportions of accumulated saturated and unsaturated fatty acids compared to the already known strains. Recently, a new approach in the search for biotechnologically valuable strains of algae has been formed on the basis of predictions of capacity for sufficient accumulation of lipids by clarifying the evolutionary relationships within the major taxonomic groups of algae. The outcome of these studies is the rapid cost reduction of biofuel production based on algae biomass. All this emphasizes the priority of any research aimed at both improving the process of production of biofuels from algae, and the search for new sources for

  2. Algae biodiesel - a feasibility report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Algae biofuels have been studied numerous times including the Aquatic Species program in 1978 in the U.S., smaller laboratory research projects and private programs. Results Using Molina Grima 2003 and Department of Energy figures, captial costs and operating costs of the closed systems and open systems were estimated. Cost per gallon of conservative estimates yielded $1,292.05 and $114.94 for closed and open ponds respectively. Contingency scenarios were generated in which cost per gallon of closed system biofuels would reach $17.54 under the generous conditions of 60% yield, 50% reduction in the capital costs and 50% hexane recovery. Price per gallon of open system produced fuel could reach $1.94 under generous assumptions of 30% yield and $0.2/kg CO2. Conclusions Current subsidies could allow biodiesel to be produced economically under the generous conditions specified by the model. PMID:22540986

  3. Algae biodiesel - a feasibility report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Yihe

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Algae biofuels have been studied numerous times including the Aquatic Species program in 1978 in the U.S., smaller laboratory research projects and private programs. Results Using Molina Grima 2003 and Department of Energy figures, captial costs and operating costs of the closed systems and open systems were estimated. Cost per gallon of conservative estimates yielded $1,292.05 and $114.94 for closed and open ponds respectively. Contingency scenarios were generated in which cost per gallon of closed system biofuels would reach $17.54 under the generous conditions of 60% yield, 50% reduction in the capital costs and 50% hexane recovery. Price per gallon of open system produced fuel could reach $1.94 under generous assumptions of 30% yield and $0.2/kg CO2. Conclusions Current subsidies could allow biodiesel to be produced economically under the generous conditions specified by the model.

  4. Method and apparatus for processing algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Geoffrey; Reich, Alton J.; Dykes, Jr., H. Waite; Di Salvo, Roberto

    2012-07-03

    Methods and apparatus for processing algae are described in which a hydrophilic ionic liquid is used to lyse algae cells. The lysate separates into at least two layers including a lipid-containing hydrophobic layer and an ionic liquid-containing hydrophilic layer. A salt or salt solution may be used to remove water from the ionic liquid-containing layer before the ionic liquid is reused. The used salt may also be dried and/or concentrated and reused. The method can operate at relatively low lysis, processing, and recycling temperatures, which minimizes the environmental impact of algae processing while providing reusable biofuels and other useful products.

  5. Errors When Extracting Oil from Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, E.; Treat, R.; Ichiuji, T.

    2014-12-01

    Oil is in popular demand, but the worldwide amount of oil is decreasing and prices for it are steadily increasing. Leading scientists have been working to find a solution of attaining oil in an economically and environmentally friendly way. Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have determined that "a small mixture of algae and water can be turned into crude oil in less than an hour" (Sheehan, Duhahay, Benemann, Poessler). There are various ways of growing the algae, such as closed loop and open loop methods, as well as processes of extracting oil, such as hydrothermal liquefaction and the hexane-solvent method. Our objective was to grow the algae (C. reinhardtii) and extract oil from it using NaOH and HCl, because we had easy access to those specific chemicals. After two trials of attempted algae growth, we discovered that a bacteria was killing off the algae. This led us to further contemplation on how this dead algae and bacteria are affecting our environment, and the organisms within it. Eutrophication occurs when excess nutrients stimulate rapid growth of algae in an aquatic environment. This can clog waterways and create algal blooms in blue-green algae, as well as neurotoxic red tide phytoplankton. These microscopic algae die upon consumption of the nutrients in water and are degraded by bacteria. The bacteria respires and creates an acidic environment with the spontaneous conversion of carbon dioxide to carbonic acid in water. This process of degradation is exactly what occurred in our 250 mL flask. When the phytoplankton attacked our algae, it created a hypoxic environment, which eliminated any remaining amounts of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nutrients in the water, resulting in a miniature dead zone. These dead zones can occur almost anywhere where there are algae and bacteria, such as the ocean, and make it extremely difficult for any organism to survive. This experiment helped us realize the

  6. 21 CFR 73.275 - Dried algae meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dried algae meal. 73.275 Section 73.275 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.275 Dried algae meal. (a) Identity. The color additive dried algae meal is a dried mixture of algae cells (genus Spongiococcum, separated from its culture broth...

  7. The Biology of blue-green algae

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carr, Nicholas G; Whitton, B. A

    1973-01-01

    .... Their important environmental roles, their part in nitrogen fixation and the biochemistry of phototrophic metabolism are some of the attractions of blue-geen algae to an increasing number of biologists...

  8. Diatom algae of the Guni river (Pamir)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurbonova, P.A.; Hisoriev, H.H.

    2006-01-01

    There are presented the dates of the results of diatom algae (Bacillariophyta) of the Gunt river. There was found 107 species and 9 subspecies which belong to 3 classics, 12 ordos, 13 families and 28 genus

  9. 2011 Biomass Program Platform Peer Review: Algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Joyce [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2012-02-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the 2011 U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program’s Algae Platform Review meeting.

  10. Dipeptides from the red alga Acanthopora spicifera

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.; De; Kamat, S.Y.

    An investigation of red alga Acanthophora spicifera afforded the known peptide, aurantiamide acetate and a new diastereoisomer of this dipeptide (dia-aurantiamide acetate). This is a first report of aurantiamide acetate from a marine source...

  11. The characteristics of intaking Cs-137 and Sr-90 with food by Ozyorsk's inhabitants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dronova, M.

    2001-01-01

    The problem of intaking of radioactive substances with into the human organism food is interest of specialists now. It was actually when man made radiation especially nuclear weapons tests and nuclear power systems incidents has increased the global radiation average. It's known that radionuclides containing in the food are basic source of additional exposure of people. Radionuclides can move in biological systems. (author)

  12. Comparison the efficiency of AFCF and clinoptilolit obtained through single Cs 137 contamination of pheasants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicentijevic, M.; Mitrovic, R.; Vitorovic, G.

    2009-01-01

    In practice are show effect of comparison efficiency AFCF and clinoptilolite obtained trough single 137 Cs contamination of pheasants. As experimental animals we used pheasants from the species pheasant colchicus. The total number of 2 months old pheasants, was 20. The pheasants were divided into 4 groups with 5 birds each. Every animal was simultaneously given water solution of 137 Cs (750 Bq) and radioprotector AFCF and clinoptilolite in water solution and mixed in pheasant food in the form of pellet. The level of contamination was determined by gamma - spectrometry in light meat, dark meat, liver and gizzard. The results show that the best protection effect was obtained by using AFCF than use radioprotector clinoptilolite. (author) [sr

  13. Restoration of railway areas of Brescia dock and Montirone station contaminated by Cs137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gili, M.; Olivero, L.

    1997-03-01

    ENEA (Italian National Agency for new Technologies Energy and the Environment) - Energy Department has designed and managed, on behalf of FS (Public Railways) plc. the restoration of railway areas of Brescia dock and Montirone (BS) station, contaminated by Cesium 137 due to scrap iron imported from Eastern Europe. The restoration went off according to the program in June-August 1995 with means and personnel from Italian National Agency for new Technology Energy and the Environment Saluggia (VC) Research Centre and it involved the removal of 51 tons of contaminated soil, its packaging in to 302 drums and the transport to Italian National Agency for new Technology Energy and the Environment Casaccia (RM) Centre for disposal

  14. Sr90 and Cs137 content in major types of food stuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knizhnikov, V.A.; Petukhova, Eh.V.

    1980-01-01

    Tables of 90 Sr and 137 Cs content in the major types of food stuffs in different regions of the USSR from 1963 to 1973, are presented. Maximum contamination is observed in 1963 and 1964. Variations of contamination of food stuffs depending upon fallout alterations during 1963-1964 are analyzed. The increased contamination of fish products, bread, deer meat and tea is observed in these years. The dependence of contamination of certain products on the area of their production is pointed out which makes possible a wide variation of results of investigations. It is established that the less contamination of food stuffs is observed in the areas with black soil. It is stated that 137 Cs contamination of food stuffs is several times higher than 90 Sr contamination, which is probably connected with a better 137 Cs uptake by vegetation from aerial fallouts

  15. Analytical Methods for Cs-137 and Other Radionuclides in Solvent Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennebaker, F.M.

    2002-01-01

    Accurate characterization of individual waste components is critical to ensure design and operation of effective treatment processes and compliance with waste acceptance criteria. Current elemental analysis of organic matrices consists of conversion of the organic sample to aqueous by digesting the sample, which is inadequate in many cases. Direct analysis of the organic would increase sensitivity and decrease contamination and analysis time. For this project, we evaluated an Aridus membrane-desolvation sample introduction system for the direct analysis of organic solvents by Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The desolvator-ICP-MS successfully analyzed solvent from the caustic-side solvent extraction (CSSX) process and tri-butyl phosphate (TBP) organic tank waste from F-canyon for a variety of elements. Detection limits for most elements were determined in the part per trillion (ppt) range. This technology should increase accuracy in support of SRTC activities involving CSSX and other site processes involving organic compounds

  16. Case study the Cs-137 Zea mays grown at a semi arid ecosystem the Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervantes, L.; Quintero, E.; Rojas, V.

    2006-01-01

    A study of 1 37Cs in soil and Maize plants, (Zea mays) has been performed at the confined Storage Centre for Radioactive Waste from Mexico. The site is located in a semiarid region with a vegetation characteristic of a temperature sub humid zone. Under field conditions the site was divided in four zones 20x30 m, with different soil contamination characteristics, the zones 1 to 4 in lines separated 50 cm between them. The maize plants in the lines were separated 40 cm between them. The plants were grown 'in situ' reproducing the local agricultural. The soil and plant (root, stem, leaves, and grains) samples were analysed for 1 37Cs . The specific activities were determined in a dry weight (d.w.) basis by low background gamma spectrometry with a 29.7% relative efficiency HPGe detector . The geometry used was a 500 ml Marinelli beaker and the measurement time was 60.000 s per sample, to achieve a detection limit of 1 Bq.kg - 1 for 1 37Cs. The counting errors for the measurements were usually lower than 10% The results indicate that one of the zones had a striking 1 37Cs contamination in the soil and the uptake by the grown plants showed the highest specific activities at the root. For The results from 1991 to 1994 of the yearly average values for 1 37Cs in soil samples from the four zones. A striking contamination is evident in zone 1.The transfer factors ranges for the different parts of the maize plants was from 0.001 in the grain to 0.6 in the root. Statistical analyses were based on the mean values of the determination performed from each sampling zone. Pe arson's correlation coefficients were calculated, principal components were obtained, based on the correlation matrix of the measured, or calculated from them

  17. The removal of Cs-137 from soil using washing-electrokinetic decontamination equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gyenam; Kim, Seungsoo; Kim, Geunho; Park, Hyemin; Kim, Wansuk; Park, Ukryang; Kwon, Hyeokju; Ryu, Ohha; Moon, Jeikwon

    2012-01-01

    The radioactive soil at the KAERI radioactive waste storage facility has slightly high hydro-conductivity, and was mainly contaminated with 137 Cs 30-35 years ago. Recently, a soil washing method has been applied to remove 137 Cs from radioactive soil, but it appears that the removal efficiency of 137 Cs had low and a lot of waste solution was generated. Meanwhile, an electrokinetic decontamination method provides high removal efficiency of 137 Cs and generates little waste effluent. Thus, it is suggested that an electrokinetic decontamination method is a suitable technology in consideration of the soil characteristics near South Korean nuclear facilities

  18. The removal of Cs-137 from soil using washing-electrokinetic decontamination equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Gyenam; Kim, Seungsoo; Kim, Geunho; Park, Hyemin; Kim, Wansuk; Park, Ukryang; Kwon, Hyeokju; Ryu, Ohha; Moon, Jeikwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    The radioactive soil at the KAERI radioactive waste storage facility has slightly high hydro-conductivity, and was mainly contaminated with {sup 137}Cs 30-35 years ago. Recently, a soil washing method has been applied to remove {sup 137}Cs from radioactive soil, but it appears that the removal efficiency of {sup 137}Cs had low and a lot of waste solution was generated. Meanwhile, an electrokinetic decontamination method provides high removal efficiency of {sup 137}Cs and generates little waste effluent. Thus, it is suggested that an electrokinetic decontamination method is a suitable technology in consideration of the soil characteristics near South Korean nuclear facilities.

  19. Determination of the Absolute Disintegration Rate of Cs-137 sources by the Tracer Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellstroem, S; Brune, D

    1963-07-15

    {sup 137}Cs - sources were absolutely measured by the 'tracer method', with {sup 82}Br as a tracer nuclide and with application of the 4{pi} {beta}-{gamma} coincidence technique. A self-absorption of 6 % was found in sources obtained from a solution with a carrier-content of 400 {mu}g/ml. The precision of the method for the determination of the {beta}-emission rate was estimated to {+-} 1 %. The results were compared with those of other works.

  20. Dynamic model for the transfer of CS-137 through the soil-grass-lamb foodchain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S.P.

    1994-01-01

    A dynamic radioecological model for the transfer of radiocaesium through the soil-grass-lamb foodchain was constructed on the basis of field data collected in 1990–1993 from the Nordic countries: Denmark, Faroe Islands, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. The model assumes an initial soil...... contamination of one kilobecquerel of 137Cs per square metre and simulates the transfer to grass through root uptake in addition to direct contamination from resuspended activity. The model covers two different soil types: clay-loam and organic, with significantly different transfers of radiocaesium to grass...

  1. Cs-137 in biofuel and reuse of the ash; Radiocesium i biobraenslen och aateranvaendning av askan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johanson, K. J. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Mycology and Pathology

    1999-07-01

    The activity concentration of {sup 137}Cs in sheep fescue grown in pots where ashes had been added to forest soil were studied. The added ash corresponded to 3000 kg per hectare and were either mixed into the forest soil or spread above the soil. The results were expressed as percentage of control value from sheep fescue grown on the same forest soil but without adding ash. In the first harvest the {sup 137}Cs were 60 and 33 % of the control value in the pots where fly ash respectively wet ash was mixed with the forest soil before starting the experiment. In the pots where the ash was spread on the soil 80 and 76 % of control values were found in fly ash respectively wet ash pots. In the second harvest 87 and 10 % of control values were found in fly ash respectively wet ash in the pots where ash were mixed with soil. The corresponding values in pots where the ash was spread on the soil were 31 respectively 42 %. The results show that we probably can expect at least a 50 % decrease in the {sup 137}Cs activity concentrations after adding ash particularly if the ash is spread on the soil. There will take a certain time before the optimal reduction occur and after spreading in the forest there will probably take one year before maximum reduction is obtained. In a field experiment using potassium fertilization we obtained about the same reduction in {sup 137}Cs levels in bilberry, lingonberry and heather and also in some fungal species. The reduction could be seen even after 7 vegetation periods. It thus seems that the adding of ash to forest soil should be a rather effective counter measure with expected reduction of {sup 137}Cs levels of about 50 %.

  2. Sr-90, Cs-137 and Ce-144 in commercial tea from several areas in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sha Lianmao; Qiu Yundian; Wang Zhihui; Wang Fenghua

    1993-01-01

    18 kinds of tea, most of which are famous products, were collected in 1985 from 10 provinces of China. More than 1 kg of manufactured tea was collected from each sampling location and ashed in a stainless steel pan by a rapid ashing apparatus made in China Institute for Radiation Protection. A 10 g aliquot of the ashed sample was subjected to radiochemical analysis for 90 Sr. 117 Cs and 144 Ce. Strontium, Cesium and Cerium carriers were added to the samples. The chemical yield of Sr, Cs and Ce were determined by weighting. After the radiochemical separation the mounted precipitates were counted for activity using a thin window methane gas-flow proportional counter normally for 100 min. Statistical error due to counting in generally was 90 Sr, 2.2 +- 0.9 Bq/kg for 137 Cs and 0.8 +- 0.2 Bq/kg for 144 Ce. Among these data, the content of 144 Ce in each tea sample is the lowest for its shorter lift. Higher values of 90 Sr concentration occurred in each tea sample than that of 137 Cs. This seems to be due to the fact that 137 Cs is tightly bound by soil than 90 Sr and the extent to which 90 Sr is absorbed from the soil by plants is greater than 137 Cs. (2 figs., 1 tab.)

  3. Rate-capability study for a four-gap phenolic RPC with a Cs-137 source

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Kyong Sei

    2014-01-01

    We report test results of a prototype four-gap phenolic resistive plate chamber (RPC) with high-rate gamma rays irradiated from a 200-mCi 137Cs source. The detector signals of the prototype four-gap RPC were digitized at charge thresholds of 80, 130, and 170 fC by using a 32-channel front-end-electronics board, previously developed for the current double-gap RPCs in CMS. We confirmed from the test that the cosmic muons were reliably measured with efficiencies higher than 95pct up to a gamma-background rate of 5.3 kHz cm-2. We concluded from the present R and D that use of the current four-gap phenolic RPCs is advantageous to the high-η triggers in CMS in virtue of the high rate capability.

  4. Gene expression in blood of mice with internal exposure to Cs-137

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cesium-137 is a radionuclide of concern in fallout from reactor accidents or nuclear detonations. When ingested or inhaled it can expose the entire body for an...

  5. K40 y Cs137 in bananas exported from Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loria, L. G.; Mora, P.; Badilla, M.

    1999-01-01

    Using low level gamma spectroscopy, the specific activity of K 4 0 and Cs 1 37 in banana samples is quantified during the period 1996-1998. The bananas were supplied by the export companies that operate in Costa Rica. The calculated derived intervention level (DIL) for Cs 1 37 was 4000 times greater than the specific activity measured in the fruit due to worldwide nuclear events. This result permits its free commercialization. Banana is an excellent source of potassium, since it was determined that each kg of the fruit has 3.8 g of this element. (Author) [es

  6. Acute and chronic exposure in mussel (aulacomya ater) and clam (semelle solida) with Cs137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bringas, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    Two of the most common Peruvian benthonic molluscs, have been shown to be effective concentrators of Cesium-137 and have also proven useful as indicators of that radionuclide in their natural environment, according with results in this paper. However the clam is a better indicator, when determining environmental acute release of Cesium-137 due to reactor accidents, nuclear tests, accidents in nuclear ships, submarines and radioactive material transport, and the mussel for a continuous monitoring of environmental radio contaminant levels. (author). 11 refs

  7. Cancer risk due to Cs-137 and Sr-90 dietary intake after the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toader, M; Vasilache, R A [Institute of Hygiene and Public Health, Bucharest (Romania)

    1997-09-01

    The most important radionuclides carried by the radioactive plume over Romania were I{sup 131}, Cs{sup 134}, Cs{sup 137} and Sr{sup 90}. As in many other countries, in the first days, I{sup 131} had the main contribution to the irradiation dose released to the population. After its decay, and the decay of the other short-lived radionuclides, Cs{sup 137} and Sr{sup 90} remained the most important contaminants. The principal route of intake for these two radionuclides is considered to be the ingestion of contaminated foods. Assessments of radiation doses to people living in the Bucharest area have utilized data obtained from measurement of Cs{sup 137} and Sr{sup 90} content in dietary intake samples for a number of subjects of different ages and sexes. This paper summarizes the results of some of our measurements performed since April 1986 until March 1995. 7 refs, 8 figs.

  8. Efficiency of cement - based low - weight shielding materials for Cs-137 gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satty, H. E. M.

    2014-10-01

    Due to the development of nuclear technology and use of technologies in various field of industry, medicine and research against ionizing radiation is one of the most important topics in this field. The purpose of this work is to reduce the dose rate from radioactive sources. The exposure to gamma radiation is leading to several health effects as the result of absorption by the human body. The frequently used shielding material for gamma rays is lead. In spite of its effectiveness and high mass attenuation coefficient, lower weight gamma shielding materials are required. In this effectiveness of three materials: carbon and mixture (50% carbon + 50% cement) was studied and compared to that of lead. The results were obtained in terms of the variations of the transmitted intensity. This is done using a gamma spectroscopy system.(Author)

  9. Cs-137 soil to plant transfer factors derived from pot experiments and field studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horak, O.; Gerzabek, M.H.; Mueck, K.

    1989-11-01

    Soil to plant transfer factors (TF) of 137 Cs for different crop plants were determined in pot experiments, in outdoor experiments with plastic containers of 50 l volume, and in field studies. In all cases the soil contamination with 137 Cs resulted from fallout after the Chernobyl reactor accident. Mean TF derived for outdoor plants on a fresh weight basis, ranged from 0,0017 (leaf vegetables) to 0,059 (rye straw) and showed characteristic differences depending on plant part and species. Generally, for fruits and potato tubers a lower TF was found than for vegetative plant parts. Moreover, the data were compared with those from former experiments, carried out before the Chernobyl accident. There is a good agreement for cereals (with exception of rye) fruit vegetables and fodder crops, while actual TF are substantially lower for potatoes, leaf and root vegetables, but higher for rye. A significant negative correlation was observed between the TF and the soil activity concentrations for 137 Cs. In container experiments the TF were found to be influenced mainly by the clay content of the soil. 11 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs. (Authors)

  10. Aminoacids used as radioprotective substances against Cs137 and Sr90 mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danetskaya, E.V.; Ramzaev, P.V.; Troitskaya, M.N.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental study on white rats into the radioprotective action of ten essential amino acids has that valine, arginine, and histidine all effect appreciably the life span and absorbed doses of the principal radionuclides, 137 Cs and 90 Sr. When these amino acids are fed to rats, the survival rate increases and hemopoiesis tends to return to normal more rapidly; the reproductive function is unaffected. The mechanism of radioprotective action of these amino acids has been studied inadequately, but they seem to have a role to play in the metabolism of sulfur-containing compounds. The remaining amino acids have no protective action

  11. Blastomogenic effect of Cs137, Sr90 and Ca45 in single and chronic administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapol'skaya, N.A.; Fedorova, A.V.; Borisova, V.V.

    1978-01-01

    The blastomogenic actions of 137 Cs, 90 Sr, and 45 Ca were considered in experiments on white rats, and it was found that the site and type of tumor were determined by the organotropism of the radionuclide. With chronic administration of radionuclides, the tumor rate was low as compared to single-occasion administration

  12. Cs-137 in the Hungarian environment, especially in the meat of wild animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarjam, S.; Varga, B.

    2006-01-01

    The difference of the eating habits of the examined three types of animals determines the radionuclide content of the meat. The highest radiocaesium-contamination in the meat of wild hogs was observed. Mushrooms play an important role in the food chain regarding the radionuclides. They have higher specific activity mainly one order of magnitude comparing with the plant samples in the environment. Regarding the spatial distribution the meat of wild animals shot in Zala and Somogy counties (south-west part of the country) contain more 137 Cs than the others. A correlation was observed, because these two counties have such a climate, which is favourable for mushrooms, so the possibility of the consumption by the animals is higher here. Generally, the animals living in the parts of the forest from where they have access to the arable lands were less contaminated. The specific activity of the meat also depends on the amount and seasonal distribution of precipitation of their living area. (LN)

  13. Determination of material and its thickness for Cs-137 gamma source shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tukiman

    2008-01-01

    Its has been determined the shielding material and its thickness necessarily conducted due to every material will have different half-thickness characteristics, and by the selection a suitable material and its thickness will be obtained. Half-thickness of any material is the ability of the material at a certain thickness to absorb any radiation intensity so that the intensity becomes half of its source. Sample materials to be used are concrete, wood, and lead with their thickness varied. From experiment data and theoretical computation can be concluded that lead is the suitable material for shielding with the value of HVT for gamma radiation 0,732 cm. For wood and concrete will give half-thickness of 11,0 cm and 3,164 cm respectively. (author)

  14. Effect of curing time on the fraction of Cs137 from cement-waste matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plecas, I.; Pavlovic, R.; Pavlovic, S.

    2003-01-01

    To assess the safety of disposal of radioactive waste material in cement, curing conditions and time of leaching radionuclides 137 Cs have been studied. Leaching tests in cement-waste matrix, were carried out in accordance with a method recommended by IAEA. Curing conditions and curing time prior to commencing the leaching test are critically important in leach studies since the extent of hydration of the cement materials determines how much hydration product develops and whether it is available to block the pore network, thereby reducing leaching. Results presented in this paper are examples of results obtained in a 10-year concrete testing project which will influence the design of the engineer trenches system for future central Yugoslav radioactive waste storing center. (orig.)

  15. Comparative modeling analyses of Cs-137 fate in the rivers impacted by Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheleznyak, M.; Kivva, S. [Institute of Environmental Radioactivity, Fukushima University (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    The consequences of two largest nuclear accidents of the last decades - at Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) (1986) and at Fukushima Daiichi NPP (FDNPP) (2011) clearly demonstrated that radioactive contamination of water bodies in vicinity of NPP and on the waterways from it, e.g., river- reservoir water after Chernobyl accident and rivers and coastal marine waters after Fukushima accident, in the both cases have been one of the main sources of the public concerns on the accident consequences. The higher weight of water contamination in public perception of the accidents consequences in comparison with the real fraction of doses via aquatic pathways in comparison with other dose components is a specificity of public perception of environmental contamination. This psychological phenomenon that was confirmed after these accidents provides supplementary arguments that the reliable simulation and prediction of the radionuclide dynamics in water and sediments is important part of the post-accidental radioecological research. The purpose of the research is to use the experience of the modeling activities f conducted for the past more than 25 years within the Chernobyl affected Pripyat River and Dnieper River watershed as also data of the new monitoring studies in Japan of Abukuma River (largest in the region - the watershed area is 5400 km{sup 2}), Kuchibuto River, Uta River, Niita River, Natsui River, Same River, as also of the studies on the specific of the 'water-sediment' {sup 137}Cs exchanges in this area to refine the 1-D model RIVTOX and 2-D model COASTOX for the increasing of the predictive power of the modeling technologies. The results of the modeling studies are applied for more accurate prediction of water/sediment radionuclide contamination of rivers and reservoirs in the Fukushima Prefecture and for the comparative analyses of the efficiency of the of the post -accidental measures to diminish the contamination of the water bodies. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  16. Uncertainty analysis in estimating Japanese ingestion of global fallout Cs-137 using health risk evaluation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Yoko; Morisawa, Shinsuke

    1998-01-01

    Most of model estimation of the environmental contamination includes some uncertainty associated with the parameter uncertainty in the model. In this study, the uncertainty was analyzed in a model for evaluating the ingestion of radionuclide caused by the long-term global low-level radioactive contamination by using various uncertainty analysis methods: the percentile estimate, the robustness analysis and the fuzzy estimate. The model is mainly composed of five sub-models, which include their own uncertainty; we also analyzed the uncertainty. The major findings obtained in this study include that the possibility of the discrepancy between predicted value by the model simulation and the observed data is less than 10%; the uncertainty of the predicted value is higher before 1950 and after 1980; the uncertainty of the predicted value can be reduced by decreasing the uncertainty of some environmental parameters in the model; the reliability of the model can definitively depend on the following environmental factors: direct foliar absorption coefficient, transfer factor of radionuclide from stratosphere down to troposphere, residual rate by food processing and cooking, transfer factor of radionuclide in ocean and sedimentation in ocean. (author)

  17. Quality control of Ir-192, Cs-137 and Ra-226 sources for use in brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyrzun Cortes, C.H.; Palma D, A.M.; Penaloza C, H.; Tomicic, M.

    1996-01-01

    In order to establish a certain degree of reliability in the use and managing of radioactive material in brachytherapy, a minimal quality control to each source was implemented. The purpose was to estimate the degree of radioactive leak, resistance to the mechanic traction and stress of use. Through a physical control of the radioactive material (a simple dip test and using a photon scanner or auto-radiography) the minimal conditions that guarantee safe use are established. This information is transmitted to a calibration laboratory for certification in exposure rate and/or activity. Systematic use of these tests, enables discovery of radioactive material leakage due to faults in the seal. (author)

  18. Determination of the Absolute Disintegration Rate of Cs-137 sources by the Tracer Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellstroem, S.; Brune, D.

    1963-07-01

    137 Cs - sources were absolutely measured by the 'tracer method', with 82 Br as a tracer nuclide and with application of the 4π β-γ coincidence technique. A self-absorption of 6 % was found in sources obtained from a solution with a carrier-content of 400 μg/ml. The precision of the method for the determination of the β-emission rate was estimated to ± 1 %. The results were compared with those of other works

  19. Patterns of Cs-137 and Sr-90 distribution in conjugated landscape systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobova, E.

    2012-04-01

    The main goal of the study was to reveal spatial patterns of 137Cs and 90Sr distribution in soils and plants of conjugated landscapes and to use 137Cs as a tracer for natural migration and accumulation processes in the environment. The studies were based on presumptions that: 1) the environment consisted of interrelated bio- and geochemical fields of hierarchical structure depending on the level and age of factors responsible for spatial distribution of chemical elements; 2)distribution of technogenic radionuclides in natural landscapes depended upon the location and type of the initial source and radionuclide involvement in natural pathways controlled by the state and mobility of the typomorphic elements and water migration. Case studies were undertaken in areas subjected to contamination after the Chernobyl accident and in the estuary zones of the Yenisey and Pechora rivers. First observations in the Chernobyl remote zone in 1987-1989 demonstrated relation between the dose rate, 137Cs, 134Cs, 144Ce, 106Ru, 125Sb in soil cover and the location of the measured plot in landscape toposequence. Later study of 137Cs and 90Sr concentration and speciation confirmed different patterns of their distribution dependent upon the radioisotope, soil features and vegetation cover corresponding to the local landscape and landuse structure. Certain patterns in distribution and migration of 137Cs and 90Sr in soils and local food chain were followed in private farms situated in different landscape position [1]. Detailed study of 137Cs activity in forested site with a pronounced relief 20 and 25 years after the Chernobyl accident showed its stable polycentric structure in soils, mosses and litter which was sensitive to meso- and micro-relief features [2]. Radionuclide contamination of the lower Yenisey and Pechora studied along meridian landscape transects proved both areas be subjected to global 137Cs pollution while the Yenisey floodplain received additional regional contamination transported by the river [3]. Local zones of enhanced 137Cs accumulation in soil samples and some plant species were found in island systems, and the Yenisey upper delta island in particular. Hydromica identified in samples was considered significant for 137Cs accumulation in floodplain soils. The distinct tendency of secondary redistribution of the global 137Cs fallout in soils due to wind and water transport and subsequent accumulation, 137Cs accumulation in topsoil and slightly over the permafrost table were characteristic for both catchments. Therefore 137Cs proved to be an effective isotope tracer for studying and mapping technogenic contamination and the recent processes of water and particulate mass transport on the global, regional and local scales. Obtained results may be useful for monitoring, eco-geochemical evaluation and regionalizing of the areas contaminated by artificial radionuclides. 1. Korobova E.M., Ermakov A., Linnik V., 1998. Applied Geochemistry 13, .7, 803-814. 2. E.M. Korobova, S.L. Romanov, 2009. Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems 99, 1-8. 3. E.M. Korobova, N.G. Ukraintseva, V.V. Surkov, J.E. Brown, W. Standring and A.P. Borisov, 2009. Eds: Mattia N. Gallo, Marco N. Ferrari. River Pollution Research Progress. Nova Science Publishers, Inc. N-Y, 91-156.

  20. Dermatological consequences of the Cs-137 radiological accident in Goiania, Goias State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Lia Candida Miranda de

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to analyse the occurrence of dermatosis in individuals that had been exposed to cesium 137 during the radioactive accident in Goiania, in 1987 and detect pre-cancerous dermatosis or those predictive of low immunity. The groups were evaluated according to the intensity of radiation they had been exposed to and then compared to a control group of people not exposed to radiation. The population exposed to the cesium 137 was comprised of 109 people, who were divided into Groups I and II, according to the CNEN norms. In group I, 54 people with ≤ 20 rads exposure and/or radio lesion were included; in group II, 55 people with > 20 rads exposure were included, along with the children of group I individuals. This was a historic cohort study, that is, a retrospective study that lasted 9 years, extending from September of 1987 to August, 1996. The presence of the oncoprotein p-53 was studied in the radio lesions of 10 patients. There is no evidence of an increase in the incidence of dermatosis in the exposed groups, excepts for pyoderma in patients with radio lesions. The most frequent dermatosis were: pyoderma, pityriasis versicolor, scabies, dermatophytosis and seborrhoeic dermatitis. The results obtained were not statistically significant for the evaluation of dermatosis predictive of low immunity or precancerous lesions. The oncoprotein p-53 in individuals with radio lesion showed a 80% positivity rate and risk factor estimated in 8 times, for the test. It has proved to be useful because it represents one more option in terms of propaedeutic evaluation and suggests that one should pay close and continuous attention in order to better control the evolution of these individuals. (author)

  1. Quality control of Ir-192, Cs-137 and Ra-226 sources for use in brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyrzun Cortes, C H; Palma D, A M; Penaloza C, H; Tomicic, M [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Santiago (Chile)

    1996-08-01

    In order to establish a certain degree of reliability in the use and managing of radioactive material in brachytherapy, a minimal quality control to each source was implemented. The purpose was to estimate the degree of radioactive leak, resistance to the mechanic traction and stress of use. Through a physical control of the radioactive material (a simple dip test and using a photon scanner or auto-radiography) the minimal conditions that guarantee safe use are established. This information is transmitted to a calibration laboratory for certification in exposure rate and/or activity. Systematic use of these tests, enables discovery of radioactive material leakage due to faults in the seal. (author).

  2. Sedimentological measurements in the river Ghezel Uzan using the radioactive source Cs-137 and Ba-133

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panahandeh, H.; Parvaresh, P.; Hadadi-Parsa, M.A.; Keshavarzi, C.

    1981-01-01

    A new gamma-backscattering sedimentological gauge has been designed to measure the high concentrations of suspended sediments of rivers in a stationary position for different depths at flooding times continuously for 9 hours. The instrument is capable of measuring concentrations from 5 to 95 g/l with a good accuracy and of higher concentrations as well. In comparison to common instruments based on gamma radiation absorption this one classifies for higher concentrations. (orig.) [de

  3. Template-guided interstitial implants: Cs-137 reusable sources as a substitute for Ir-192

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, J.F.; Seminoff, T.

    1987-01-01

    Template-guided implantation of rigid steel or plastic guide needles for afterloading of radioactive sources is widely used in the treatment of gynecologic, rectal, and urologic malignant neoplasms. Iridium-192 is used almost universally, despite the high cost per implant, due to its short half-life and limited need for a flexible, trimmable source. A reusable afterloading system containing cesium-137 was developed. Each source has an effective active length of 6.8 cm and is encapsulated at the distal end of a 21-cm-long stainless steel tube. The sources can be afterloaded into the same plastic guide needles normally used for Ir-192 ribbons. Physical and dosimetric aspects of these sources are compared with those of Ir-192, and radiation protection and cost effectiveness are also discussed

  4. Internal dose assessment in a case of continuous intake of Cs 137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Parada, I.; Rojo, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    In 1997 the Argentine Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) was invited to participate in the '3rd. European Intercomparison Exercise on Internal Dose Assessment'. This paper presents the solution submitted by the ARN to one of the cases proposed in the exercise. This is a real case of continuous ingestion of cesium 137 due to the environmental contamination arising from the Chernobyl accident. The subject was member of the public and the results of whole body counter measurements were provided. The monitoring period spanned from the first month after the accident to approximately 880 days later. The solution implied to estimate the total intake for the accident until the end of the monitoring period, the effective dose received by the subject in 1986 and 1987 respectively and the committed effective dose due to the total intake. For the intake assessment the code Cindy v 1.4 was used, assuming a constant rate of intake during the whole period of intake. The systemic retention model for caesium was that of the ICRP 30, with a modified biological half-life of the long-term retention. The dates of the beginning and end of the period of intake were chosen, using the same software, looking for the ones that fits better to the measurements data. This rate of intake and the same metabolic models used for the intake assessment were the input to the CINDY code to find the dose received by the subject in 1986 and 1987 respectively, as well as the committed effective dose. An alternative dose assessment was made, directly from body burden measurements, in order to compare the obtained values. In this approach, the software Origin 4.0 was used to graph the whole body activity measurements and the integrate it for the desired time intervals. Applying the corresponding Specific Effective Energy value obtained from LUPED 2.06 for the reference man, the effective doses were obtained directly from body burden. It was found that the values for the effective doses were almost the same for the two different approaches. (authors)

  5. Statistical analysis of content of Cs-137 in soils in Bansko-Razlog region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobilarov, R. G.

    2014-01-01

    Statistical analysis of the data set consisting of the activity concentrations of 137 Cs in soils in Bansko–Razlog region is carried out in order to establish the dependence of the deposition and the migration of 137 Cs on the soil type. The descriptive statistics and the test of normality show that the data set have not normal distribution. Positively skewed distribution and possible outlying values of the activity of 137 Cs in soils were observed. After reduction of the effects of outliers, the data set is divided into two parts, depending on the soil type. Test of normality of the two new data sets shows that they have a normal distribution. Ordinary kriging technique is used to characterize the spatial distribution of the activity of 137 Cs over an area covering 40 km 2 (whole Razlog valley). The result (a map of the spatial distribution of the activity concentration of 137 Cs) can be used as a reference point for future studies on the assessment of radiological risk to the population and the erosion of soils in the study area

  6. Cs-137 in aquatic organisms in the southern Lake Keurusselkae (Finland)[Radioecology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilus, E.; Klemola, S.; Vartti, V.P.; Mattila, J.; Ikaeheimonen, T.K. [STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland)

    2006-04-15

    The results of a study carried out in Lake Keurusselkae, in the Finnish Lake District, are reported. The aim of the study was to collect biota samples for the INDOFERN Project from an area that was rather highly contaminated (70 kBq m{sup -2} of {sup 137}Cs in 1986) with the Chernobyl fallout in Finland. The samples were taken from a relatively small area surrounding the island of Iso Riihisaari in the southern part of the Keurusselkae water course. In total 15 samples of aquatic plants, 6 samples of aquatic animals, 1 water sample and 2 sediment cores were taken. In August 2003, the activity concentration of {sup 137}Cs in the surface water of the southern Lake Keurusselkae was 49 Bq m{sup -3}, whereas it was 310 Bq m{sup -3} in 1988, two year after the Chernobyl accident. In the relatively shallow area surrounding the island of Iso Riihisaari, the total amount of {sup 137}Cs in sediments was 32-37 kBq m{sup -2} in 2003, but in a deeper basin close to this area the total amount of {sup 137}Cs was 130 kBq m{sup -2} in 1990. The clearly highest activity concentration and concentration factor of {sup 137}Cs was found in one sample of Water horsetail (Equisetum fluviatile), 1 430 Bq kg{sup -1} dry wt; CF 29 200, whereas in another sample of the same species the concentration was only 174 Bq kg{sup -1} dry wt. In addition, the Water lily (Nymphaea candida), Spiked water millfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum), Broad-leaved pondweed (Potamogeton natans) and Yellow water lily (Nuphar lutea) seemed to be good indicators for {sup 137}Cs. The tall freshwater clam (Anodonta sp.) seemed to be a modest accumulator of {sup 137}Cs. Contrary to our results from the coastal areas of the Baltic Sea, many aquatic plants demonstrated in fresh water similar accumulation capacity of {sup 137}Cs as fish (perch and roach), while in the sea the uptake of {sup 137}Cs in fish seemed to be more efficient than in aquatic plants. (LN)

  7. Dynamics of fluctuations of Cs-137 contents in the bottom sediment in limnetic dam reservoir Goczalkowice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwapulinski, J.; Majchrzyk, H.; Kalita, T.; Miroslawski, J.

    1986-01-01

    The results of 137 Cs studies in bottom sediment in the Goczalkowice reservoir are presented. The determined coefficients of aquatic migration, difusion in bottom sediment and water in vertical section confirm zonal nature of 137 Cs occurrance and accumulation in the reservoir. 5 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs. (author)

  8. Characterization of a Cs-137 radiation beam for dosimeter calibrations in the CRCN-CO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baptista Neto, Annibal T.; Soares, Carlos M. de A.; Silva, Teogenes A. da; Correa, Rosangela da S.

    2009-01-01

    The Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Centro Oeste (CRCN-CO) has played an important role in the environmental radiation monitoring program in Goiania city. The reduce its dependence of others monitoring laboratories, the CRCN-CO acquired a model 28 JL Shepherd and Associates irradiation system with a 137 Cs source for calibrations and frequent quality control checks of radiation dosimeters. A characterization of the irradiation system was carried out with the reference standard dosimeters that are maintained by the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN). The laboratory surrounding areas were monitored to demonstrate the adequate radiation protection conditions and parameters as the radiation field size, beam uniformity and the level of the scatter radiation were investigated. Dosimetry of the 137 Cs radiation beam in terms of air kerma rate was carried out at many source-detector distances with 4 (four) different beam lead attenuators. Results demonstrated that in spite of the radiation shutter automation is strongly recommended, the irradiation system is adequate and it complies with the requirements to be used for dosimeter irradiations and calibrations for the purpose of radiation protection. (author)

  9. Surface Decontamination Studies of Cs-137 and Sr-85 Using Polymer Gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham, L.; Nguyen, C.; Nguyen, L.

    2015-01-01

    Strippable polymer coating is one of the methods for effective surface decontamination to remove isotopes on the contaminated surface. This method is applying in nuclear facilities on the World. In this paper, we present the results obtained in our laboratory from product the polymer coating to apply to remove radioisotopes of "1"3"7Cs and "8"5Sr from surface of glass, stainless steel, mild steel, ceramic, PVC plastic. This polymer gel solution consist of water soluble polymer preferably polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), plasticizing agent (glycerine) and chelating agents, (citric acid) which can be sprayed or pasted on to contaminated surface. After some hours, these gel solutions was dried to form a strong thin film and it was easily peeled off from a contaminated surface with the radioactive isotopes and can be disposed off as radioactive solid waste. In this study infrared spectrophotometry technique was used to examine the interaction of the cesium and strontium ions with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), polymer gel and the results of the study were also presented. The results showed that decontamination efficiency of "1"3"7Cs and "8"5Sr strongly depended on property, porosity and smoothness of the contaminated surface and obtained from 95-99% on glass and stainless steel, ceramic and PVC plastic surfaces. The decontamination efficiency also depended on activity and coating thickness. Optimization of film thickness is around 0.2 mm. Decontamination efficiency of Polymer gel were compared with Decongel 1101 (product from USA) on surfaces. IR spectra studies indicated that Cs and Sr ions interacted with PVA and citric acid in Polymer gel through cacboxyl (C = O) group. Polymer gel could remove of "1"3"7Cs and "8"5Sr better than PVA gel does because of citric acid, which can form chelating complex with Cs and Sr ion. (author)

  10. The effect of Cs-137 short-range spatial variability on soil after the Chernobyl disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martynenko, Vladimir; Vakulovsky, Sergey; Linnik, Vitaly

    2014-05-01

    After the Chernobyl accident of 1986, large areas of Russia were contaminated by 137Cs. Post-depositional redistribution of 137Cs fallout across the land surface resulting from mechanical, physical, chemical, and biological processes operating in the soil system and the grain size selectivity associated with soil erosion and sediment transport processes. Therefore of uppermost importance are data on evaluating 137Cs variability at short distances, obtained at the early period after the accident. Measurements of 137Cs deposit at the territory of Russia exposed to radioactive contamination were mainly conducted with the help of air-gamma survey, and were verified by soil sampling on test plots with size 10x10 m with control soil sampling using "envelope" method of fivefold soil sampling (1 sampling at the centre and 4 along the edges of the plot under study). Presented here are evaluation data of 137Cs contamination, obtained in the Bryansk, Yaroslav and Rostov regions in 1991. Test plots were selected at the distance of 50-100 m away from a road on matted areas with undisturbed soil structure. Test routes of sampling were made perpendicularly to directions crossing basic traces of radioactive contamination. Sampling measurements were carried out at Canberra and Ortec gamma spectrometers. Each of the 5 samples of the "envelope" was measured separately, soil mixing was not applied. 137Cs value for the Bryansk Region varied from 2,6 kBq/m2 to 2294 kBq/m2, at the territories of the Yaroslav and Rostov regions 137Cs value varied from 0,44 kBq/m2 to 5,1 kBq/m2 and 0,56 kBq/m2 to 22,2 kBq/m2, respectively. Statistical analysis of 137Cs deposit at different plots is a solid argumentation in favour of nonuniform distribution in various landscapes and at a different distance from the Chernobyl NPP. Such nonuniformity of 137Cs soil contamination in the limits of 10 m of the plot is most likely to be related to initial aerosol contamination nonuniformity at the moment of deposition.

  11. Sustainable Algae Biodiesel Production in Cold Climates

    OpenAIRE

    Baliga, Rudras; Powers, Susan E.

    2010-01-01

    This life cycle assessment aims to determine the most suitable operating conditions for algae biodiesel production in cold climates to minimize energy consumption and environmental impacts. Two hypothetical photobioreactor algae production and biodiesel plants located in Upstate New York (USA) are modeled. The photobioreactor is assumed to be housed within a greenhouse that is located adjacent to a fossil fuel or biomass power plant that can supply waste heat and flue gas containing CO2 as a ...

  12. Antioxidant Activity of Hawaiian Marine Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony D. Wright

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Marine algae are known to contain a wide variety of bioactive compounds, many of which have commercial applications in pharmaceutical, medical, cosmetic, nutraceutical, food and agricultural industries. Natural antioxidants, found in many algae, are important bioactive compounds that play an important role against various diseases and ageing processes through protection of cells from oxidative damage. In this respect, relatively little is known about the bioactivity of Hawaiian algae that could be a potential natural source of such antioxidants. The total antioxidant activity of organic extracts of 37 algal samples, comprising of 30 species of Hawaiian algae from 27 different genera was determined. The activity was determined by employing the FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power assays. Of the algae tested, the extract of Turbinaria ornata was found to be the most active. Bioassay-guided fractionation of this extract led to the isolation of a variety of different carotenoids as the active principles. The major bioactive antioxidant compound was identified as the carotenoid fucoxanthin. These results show, for the first time, that numerous Hawaiian algae exhibit significant antioxidant activity, a property that could lead to their application in one of many useful healthcare or related products as well as in chemoprevention of a variety of diseases including cancer.

  13. Hyperspectral imaging of snow algae and green algae from aeroterrestrial habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzinger, Andreas; Allen, Michael C; Deheyn, Dimitri D

    2016-09-01

    Snow algae and green algae living in aeroterrestrial habitats are ideal objects to study adaptation to high light irradiation. Here, we used a detailed description of the spectral properties as a proxy for photo-acclimation/protection in snow algae (Chlamydomonas nivalis, Chlainomonas sp. and Chloromonas sp.) and charophyte green algae (Zygnema sp., Zygogonium ericetorum and Klebsormidium crenulatum). The hyperspectral microscopic mapping and imaging technique allowed us to acquire total absorption spectra of these microalgae in the waveband of 400-900nm. Particularly in Chlamydomonas nivalis and Chlainomonas sp., a high absorbance between 400-550nm was observed, due to naturally occurring secondary carotenoids; in Chloromonas sp. and in the charopyhte algae this high absorbance was missing, the latter being close relatives to land plants. To investigate if cellular water loss has an influence on the spectral properties, the cells were plasmolysed in sorbitol or desiccated at ambient air. While in snow algae, these treatments did hardly change the spectral properties, in the charopyhte algae the condensation of the cytoplasm and plastids increased the absorbance in the lower waveband of 400-500nm. These changes might be ecologically relevant and photoprotective, as aeroterrestrial algae are naturally exposed to occasional water limitation, leading to desiccation, which are conditions usually occurring together with higher irradiation. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Radiation sterilization of harmful algae in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byung Chull An; Jae-Sung Kim; Seung Sik Lee; Shyamkumar Barampuram; Eun Mi Lee; Byung Yeoup Chung

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Objective: Drinking water, water used in food production and for irrigation, water for fish farming, waste water, surface water, and recreational water have been recently recognized as a vector for the transmission of harmful micro-organisms. The human and animal harmful algae is a waterborne risk to public health and economy because the algae are ubiquitous and persistent in water and wastewater, not completely removed by physical-chemical treatment processes, and relatively resistant to chemical disinfection. Gamma and electron beam radiation technology is of growing in the water industry since it was demonstrated that gamma and electron beam radiation is very effective against harmful algae. Materials and Methods: Harmful algae (Scenedesmus quadricauda(Turpin) Brebisson 1835 (AG10003), Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck 1896 (AG30007) and Chlamydomonas sp. (AG10061)) were distributed from Korean collection for type cultures (KCTC). Strains were cultured aerobically in Allen's medium at 25□ and 300 umol/m2s for 1 week using bioreactor. We investigated the disinfection efficiency of harmful algae irradiated with gamma (0.05 to 10 kGy for 30 min) and electron beam (1 to 19 kGy for 5 sec) rays. Results and Conclusion: We investigated the disinfection efficiency of harmful algae irradiated with gamma and electron beam rays of 50 to 19000 Gy. We established the optimum sterilization condition which use the gamma and electron beam radiation. Gamma ray disinfected harmful algae at 400 Gy for 30 min. Also, electron beam disinfected at 1000 Gy for 5 sec. This alternative disinfection practice had powerful disinfection efficiency. Hence, the multi-barrier approach for drinking water treatment in which a combination of various disinfectants and filtration technologies are applied for removal and inactivation of different microbial pathogens will guarantee a lower risk of microbial contamination.

  15. Algae production for energy and foddering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Attila; Jobbagy, Peter; Durko, Emilia [University of Debrecen, Faculty of Applied Economics and Rural Development (UD-FAERD), Centre for Agricultural and Applied Economic Sciences, Debrecen (Hungary)

    2011-09-15

    This study not only presents the results of our own experiments in alga production, but also shows the expected economic results of the various uses of algae (animal feed, direct burning, pelleting, bio-diesel production), the technical characteristics of a new pelleting method based on literature, and also our own recommended alga production technology. In our opinion, the most promising alternative could be the production of alga species with high levels of oil content, which are suitable for utilization as by-products for animal feed and in the production of bio-diesel, as well as for use in waste water management and as a flue gas additive. Based on the data from our laboratory experiments, of the four species we analyzed, Chlorella vulgaris should be considered the most promising species for use in large-scale experiments. Taking expenses into account, our results demonstrate that the use of algae for burning technology purposes results in a significant loss under the current economic conditions; however, the utilization of algae for feeding and bio-diesel purposes - in spite of their innovative nature - is nearing the level needed for competitiveness. By using the alga production technology recommended by us and described in the present study in detail, with an investment of 545 to 727 thousand EUR/ha, this technology should be able to achieve approximately 0-29 thousand EUR/ha net income, depending on size. More favorable values emerge in the case of the 1-ha (larger) size, thanks to the significant savings on fixed costs (depreciation and personnel costs). (orig.)

  16. Effect of ferrate on green algae removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiňáková, Emília; Híveš, Ján; Gál, Miroslav; Fašková, Andrea

    2017-09-01

    Green algae Cladophora aegagropila, present in cooling water of thermal power plants, causes many problems and complications, especially during summer. However, algae and its metabolites are rarely eliminated by common removal methods. In this work, the elimination efficiency of electrochemically prepared potassium ferrate(VI) on algae from cooling water was investigated. The influence of experimental parameters, such as Fe(VI) dosage, application time, pH of the system, temperature and hydrodynamics of the solution on removal efficiency, was optimized. This study demonstrates that algae C. aegagropila can be effectively removed from cooling water by ferrate. Application of ferrate(VI) at the optimized dosage and under the suitable conditions (temperature, pH) leads to 100% removal of green algae Cladophora from the system. Environmentally friendly reduction products (Fe(III)) and coagulation properties favour the application of ferrate for the treatment of water contaminated with studied microorganisms compared to other methods such as chlorination and use of permanganate, where harmful products are produced.

  17. Phospholipids of New Zealand Edible Brown Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyssotski, Mikhail; Lagutin, Kirill; MacKenzie, Andrew; Mitchell, Kevin; Scott, Dawn

    2017-07-01

    Edible brown algae have attracted interest as a source of beneficial allenic carotenoid fucoxanthin, and glyco- and phospholipids enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Unlike green algae, brown algae contain no or little phosphatidylserine, possessing an unusual aminophospholipid, phosphatidyl-O-[N-(2-hydroxyethyl) glycine], PHEG, instead. When our routinely used technique of 31 P-NMR analysis of phospholipids was applied to the samples of edible New Zealand brown algae, a number of signals corresponding to unidentified phosphorus-containing compounds were observed in total lipids. NI (negative ion) ESI QToF MS spectra confirmed the presence of more familiar phospholipids, and also suggested the presence of PHEG or its isomers. The structure of PHEG was confirmed by comparison with a synthetic standard. An unusual MS fragmentation pattern that was also observed prompted us to synthesise a number of possible candidates, and was found to follow that of phosphatidylhydroxyethyl methylcarbamate, likely an extraction artefact. An unexpected outcome was the finding of ceramidephosphoinositol that has not been reported previously as occurring in brown algae. An uncommon arsenic-containing phospholipid has also been observed and quantified, and its TLC behaviour studied, along with that of the newly synthesised lipids.

  18. Radiation effects on algae and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwivedi, Rakesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    The effects of radiation on algae have been summarized in this article. Today, algae are being considered to have the great potential to fulfill the demand of food, fodder, fuel and various pharmaceutical products. Red algae are particularly rich in the content of polysaccharides present in their cell wall. For isolation of these polysaccharides, separation of cells cemented together by middle lamella is essential. The gamma rays are known to bring about biochemical changes in the cell wall and cause the breakdown of the middle lamella. These rays ate also known to speed up the starch sugar inter-conversion in the cells which is very useful for the tapping the potential of algae to be used as biofuel as well as in pharmaceutical industries. Cyanobacteria, among algae and other plants are more resistant to the radiation. In some cyanobacteria the radiation treatment is known to enhance the resistance against the antibiotics. Radiation treatment is also known to enhance the diameter of cell and size of the nitrogen fixing heterocyst. (author)

  19. Sustainable Algae Biodiesel Production in Cold Climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudras Baliga

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This life cycle assessment aims to determine the most suitable operating conditions for algae biodiesel production in cold climates to minimize energy consumption and environmental impacts. Two hypothetical photobioreactor algae production and biodiesel plants located in Upstate New York (USA are modeled. The photobioreactor is assumed to be housed within a greenhouse that is located adjacent to a fossil fuel or biomass power plant that can supply waste heat and flue gas containing CO2 as a primary source of carbon. Model results show that the biodiesel areal productivity is high (19 to 25 L of BD/m2/yr. The total life cycle energy consumption was between 15 and 23 MJ/L of algae BD and 20 MJ/L of soy BD. Energy consumption and air emissions for algae biodiesel are substantially lower than soy biodiesel when waste heat was utilized. Algae's most substantial contribution is a significant decrease in the petroleum consumed to make the fuel.

  20. Biological toxicity of lanthanide elements on algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Peidong; Zhao, Qing; Su, Dan; Li, Peijun; Stagnitti, Frank

    2010-08-01

    The biological toxicity of lanthanides on marine monocellular algae was investigated. The specific objective of this research was to establish the relationship between the abundance in the seawater of lanthanides and their biological toxicities on marine monocellular algae. The results showed that all single lanthanides had similar toxic effects on Skeletonema costatum. High concentrations of lanthanides (29.04+/-0.61 micromol L(-1)) resulted in 50% reduction in growth of algae compared to the controls (0 micromol L(-1)) after 96 h (96 h-EC50). The biological toxicity of 13 lanthanides on marine monocellular algae was unrelated with the abundance of different lanthanide elements in nature, and the "Harkins rule" was not appropriate for the lanthanides. A mixed solution that contained equivalent concentrations of each lanthanide element had the same inhibition effect on algae cells as each individual lanthanide element at the same total concentration. This phenomenon is unique compared to the groups of other elements in the periodic table. Hence, we speculate that the monocellular organisms might not be able to sufficiently differentiate between the almost chemically identical lanthanide elements. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Behaviour of technetium in marine algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonotto, S.; Kirchmann, R.; Van Baelen, J.; Hurtger, C.; Cogneau, M.; Van der Ben, D.; Verthe, C.; Bouquegneau, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Uptake and distribution of technetium were studied in several green (Acetabularia acetabulum, Boergesenia forbesii, Ulva lactuca) and brown (Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus serratus, Fucus spiralis and Fucus vesiculosus) marine algae. Technetium was supplied to the algae as Tc-95m-pertechnetate. Under laboratory conditions, the algae were capable of accumulating technetium, with the exception, however, of Boergesenia, which showed concentration factors (C.F.) comprised between 0.28 and 0.71. The concentration of technetium-99 in Fucus spiralis, collected along the Belgian coast, was measured by a radiochemical procedure. The intracellular distribution of technetium was studied by differential centrifugation in Acetabularia and by the puncturing technique in Boergesenia. The chemical forms of technetium penetrated into the cells were investigated by selective chemical extractions, molecular sieving and thin layer chromatography

  2. Freshwater algae of the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, W.D.; Giles, K.R.

    1979-06-01

    Fifty-two species of freshwater algae were identified in samples collected from the eight known natural springs of the Nevada Test Site. Although several species were widespread, 29 species were site specific. Diatoms provided the greatest variety of species at each spring. Three-fifths of all algal species encountered were diatoms. Well-developed mats of filamentous green algae (Chlorophyta) were common in many of the water tanks associated with the springs and accounted for most of the algal biomass. Major nutrients were adequate, if not abundant, in most spring waters - growth being limited primarily by light and physical habitat. There was some evidence of cesium-137 bioconcentration by algae at several of the springs

  3. Behaviour of technetium in marine algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonotto, S.; Kirchmann, R.; Baelen, J. van; Hurtgen, C.; Cogneau, M.; Ben, D. van der; Verthe, C.; Bouquegneau, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    Uptake and distribution of technetium were studied in several green (Acetabularia acetabulum, Boergesenia forbesii, Ulva lactuca) and brown (Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus serratus, Fucus spiralis and Fucus vesiculosus) marine algae. Technetium was supplied to the algae as Tc-95-pertechnetate. Under laboratory conditions, the algae were capable of accumulating technetium, with the exception, however, of Boergesenia, which showed concentration factors (C.F.) comprised between 0.28 and 0.71. The concentration of technetium-99 in Fucus spiralis, collected along the Belgian coast, was measured by a radiochemical procedure. The intracellular distribution of technetium was studied by differential centrifugation in Acetabularia and by the puncturing technique in Boergesenia. The chemical forms of technetium penetrated into the cells were investigated by selective chemical extractions, molecular sieving and thin layer chromatography. (author)

  4. Study of metal bioaccumulation by nuclear microprobe analysis of algae fossils and living algae cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, P.; Wang, J.; Li, X.; Zhu, J.; Reinert, T.; Heitmann, J.; Spemann, D.; Vogt, J.; Flagmeyer, R.-H.; Butz, T.

    2000-01-01

    Microscopic ion-beam analysis of palaeo-algae fossils and living green algae cells have been performed to study the metal bioaccumulation processes. The algae fossils, both single cellular and multicellular, are from the late Neoproterozonic (570 million years ago) ocean and perfectly preserved within a phosphorite formation. The biosorption of the rare earth element ions Nd 3+ by the green algae species euglena gracilis was investigated with a comparison between the normal cells and immobilized ones. The new Leipzig Nanoprobe, LIPSION, was used to produce a proton beam with 2 μm size and 0.5 nA beam current for this study. PIXE and RBS techniques were used for analysis and imaging. The observation of small metal rich spores (<10 μm) surrounding both of the fossils and the living cells proved the existence of some specific receptor sites which bind metal carrier ligands at the microbic surface. The bioaccumulation efficiency of neodymium by the algae cells was 10 times higher for immobilized algae cells. It confirms the fact that the algae immobilization is an useful technique to improve its metal bioaccumulation

  5. Serpins in plants and green algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, Thomas Hugh; Hejgaard, Jørn

    2008-01-01

    . Serpins have been found in diverse species of the plant kingdom and represent a distinct clade among serpins in multicellular organisms. Serpins are also found in green algae, but the evolutionary relationship between these serpins and those of plants remains unknown. Plant serpins are potent inhibitors...... of mammalian serine proteinases of the chymotrypsin family in vitro but, intriguingly, plants and green algae lack endogenous members of this proteinase family, the most common targets for animal serpins. An Arabidopsis serpin with a conserved reactive centre is now known to be capable of inhibiting...

  6. Biological synthesis of metallic nanoparticles using algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Laura; Blázquez, María Luisa; Muñoz, Jesus Angel; González, Felisa; Ballester, Antonio

    2013-09-01

    The increasing demand and limited natural resources of noble metals make its recovery from dilute industrial wastes attractive, especially when using environmentally friendly methods. Nowadays, the high impact that nanotechnology is having in both science and society offers new research possibilities. Gold and silver nanoparticles were biosynthesised by a simple method using different algae as reducing agent. The authors explored the application of dead algae in an eco-friendly procedure. The nanoparticle formation was followed by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The functional groups involved in the bioreduction were studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

  7. P-32 uptake in lentic algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strange, J.R.; Williamson, G.D.; Fletcher, D.J.

    1975-01-01

    A study of the Flat Creek Embayment of Lake Sidney Lanier near Gainesville, Georgia revealed three genera of algae, Chlorococcum, Fragillaria and Nostoc, to be prominent in this eutrophic region of the lake. The algae was grown in phosphate-rich media and subsequently labelled with P-32. All species incorporated luxury amounts of phosphorus as determined by the uptake of P-32. The results indicate that the P-32 uptake is proportional to the surface-per-volume ratio. The higher surface-per-volume ratio resulted in greater uptake of P-32

  8. Bioremediation of Heavy Metal by Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Dwivedi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Instead of using mainly bacteria, it is also possible to use mainly algae to clean wastewater because many of the pollutant sources in wastewater are also food sources for algae. Nitrates and phosphates are common components of plant fertilizers for plants. Like plants, algae need large quantities of nitrates and phosphates to support their fast cell cycles. Certain heavy metals are also important for the normal functioning of algae. These include iron (for photosynthesis, and chromium (for metabolism. Because marine environments are normally scarce in these metals, some marine algae especially have developed efficient mechanisms to gather these heavy metals from the environment and take them up. These natural processes can also be used to remove certain heavy metals from the environment. The use of algae has several advantages over normal bacteria-based bioremediation processes. One major advantage in the removal of pollutants is that this is a process that under light conditions does not need oxygen. Instead, as pollutants are taken up and digested, oxygen is added while carbon dioxide is removed. Hence, phytoremediation could potentially be coupled with carbon sequestration. Additionally, because phytoremediation does not rely on fouling processes, odors are much less a problem. Microalgae, in particular, have been recognized as suitable vectors for detoxification and have emerged as a potential low-cost alternative to physicochemical treatments. Uptake of metals by living microalgae occurs in two steps: one takes place rapidly and is essentially independent of cell metabolism – “adsorption” onto the cell surface. The other one is lengthy and relies on cell metabolism – “absorption” or “intracellular uptake.” Nonviable cells have also been successfully used in metal removal from contaminated sites. Some of the technologies in heavy metal removals, such as High Rate Algal Ponds and Algal Turf Scrubber, have been justified for

  9. Algas: cosmética y salud

    OpenAIRE

    Arenas, Patricia Marta; Guayta, Silvina L.

    1998-01-01

    El uso de las algas con fines estéticos y terapéuticos tiene su origen en tiempos muy antiguos. El auge de la utilización de “productos naturales” ha llevado a sobrevalorar las propiedades de los vegetales en general y de las algas en particular. Por tal razón, las mismas gozan de un elevado prestigio, incluso cuando las propiedades reales son en gran medida superadas por las popularmente atribuidas. De allí que surja la necesidad de abordar estudios interdisciplinarios y de naturaleza aplica...

  10. Growth acceleration and photosynthesis of the scenedesmus algae and cocconeis algae in deuterium water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Feng; Wang Wenqing

    1998-01-01

    In order to find new way to treat the radioactive tritium waste water, scenedesmus algae and cocconeis algae are cultured in medium which contains 30% (w) deuterium water. During different time, activities of photosymthesis, absorption spectrum, growth rate and low-temperature fluorescence spectrum are measured. Accelerated growth is found in the deuterium water compared to the normal water. Activities of photosynthesis show the similar result (F v /F m ) to the growth data. It is also concluded from low-temperature fluorescence spectra that algae activities in the deuterium water, which are expressed by PS I/PS II, are more sensitive than those in the normal water

  11. WASP7 BENTHIC ALGAE - MODEL THEORY AND USER'S GUIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The standard WASP7 eutrophication module includes nitrogen and phosphorus cycling, dissolved oxygen-organic matter interactions, and phytoplankton kinetics. In many shallow streams and rivers, however, the attached algae (benthic algae, or periphyton, attached to submerged substr...

  12. Accumulation of polycyclic arenes in Baltic Sea algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veldre, I.A.; Itra, A.R.; Paal' me, L.P.; Kukk, Kh.A.

    1985-01-01

    The paper presents data on the level of benzo(a)pyrene (BP) and some other polycyclic arenes in alga and phanerogam specimens from different gulfs of the Baltic Sea. Algae were shown to absorb BP from sea water. The mean concentration of BP in sea water was under 0.004 microgram/1, while in algae it ranged 0.1-21.2 micrograms/kg dry weight. Algae accumulate BP to a higher degree than phanerogams. The highest concentrations of BP were found in algae Enteromorpha while the lowest ones in Furcellaria. In annual green algae, BP level was higher in autumn, i. e. at the end of vegetation period, than in spring. Brown algae Fucus vesiculosus is recommended for monitoring polycyclic arene pollution in the area from Vormsi Island to Kaesmu and green algae Cladophora or Enteromorpha in the eastern part of the Finnish Gulf.

  13. An Overview of Algae Biofuel Production and Potential Environmental Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algae are among the most potentially significant sources of sustainable biofuels in the future of renewable energy. A feedstock with virtually unlimited applicability, algae can metabolize various waste streams (e.g., municipal wastewater, carbon dioxide from industrial flue gas)...

  14. Association of thraustochytrids and fungi with living marine algae

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.; Nagarkar, S.; Raghukumar, S.

    only in C. clavulatum, Sargassum cinereum and Padina tetrastromatica whilst mycelial fungi occurred in all. Growth experiments in the laboratory indicated that the growth of thraustochytrids was inhibited on live algae, whereas killed algae supported...

  15. How to Identify and Control Water Weeds and Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applied Biochemists, Inc., Mequon, WI.

    Included in this guide to water management are general descriptions of algae, toxic algae, weed problems in lakes, ponds, and canals, and general discussions of mechanical, biological and chemical control methods. In addition, pictures, descriptions, and recommended control methods are given for algae, 6 types of floating weeds, 18 types of…

  16. Inventory of North-West European algae initiatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruijt, J.

    2015-01-01

    In 2012 an inventory of North-West European (NWE) algae initiatives was carried out to get an impression of the market and research activities on algae production and refinery, especially for bioenergy purposes. A questionnaire was developed that would provide the EnAlgae project with information on

  17. New methodologies for integrating algae with CO2 capture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez Mireles, I.; Stel, R.W. van der; Goetheer, E.L.V.

    2014-01-01

    It is generally recognized, that algae could be an interesting option for reducing CO2 emissions. Based on light and CO2, algae can be used for the production various economically interesting products. Current algae cultivation techniques, however, still present a number of limitations. Efficient

  18. KAROTENOID PADA ALGAE: KAJIAN TENTANG BIOSINTESIS, DISTRIBUSI SERTA FUNGSI KAROTENOID

    OpenAIRE

    Merdekawati, Windu; Karwur, Ferry F.; Susanto, A. B.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRAK   Karotenoid terdistribusi pada archaea, bakteri, jamur, tumbuhan, hewan serta algae. Karotenoid dihasilkan dari komponen isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) yang mengalami proses secara bertahap untuk membentuk beragam jenis karotenoid. Terdapat dua kelompok karotenoid yaitu karoten dan xantofil dengan berbagai jenis turunannya. Struktur kimia pada karotenoid algae yaitu allene, acetylene serta acetylated carotenoids. Algae mempunyai karotenoid spesifik yang menarik untuk dipe...

  19. Composition of phytoplankton algae in Gubi Reservoir, Bauchi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on the distribution, abundance and taxonomic composition of phytoplankton algae in Gubi reservoir were carried out for 12 months (from January to December 1995). Of the 26 algal taxa identified, 14 taxa belonged to the diatoms, 8 taxa were green algae while 4 taxa belonged to the blue-green algae. Higher cell ...

  20. Can the primary algae production be measured precisely?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olesen, M.; Lundsgaard, C.

    1996-01-01

    Algae production in seawater is extremely important as a basic link in marine food chains. Evaluation of the algae quantity is based on 14CO 2 tracer techniques while natural circulation and light absorption in seawater is taken insufficiently into account. Algae production can vary by 500% in similar nourishment conditions, but varying water mixing conditions. (EG)

  1. Agricultural importance of algae | Abdel-Raouf | African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Algae are a large and diverse group of microorganisms that can carry out photosynthesis since they capture energy from sunlight. Algae play an important role in agriculture where they are used as biofertilizer and soil stabilizers. Algae, particularly the seaweeds, are used as fertilizers, resulting in less nitrogen and ...

  2. UV effects on bottom ice algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, K.; Buckley, B.

    1993-01-01

    Antarctic sea ice can be surprisingly transparent to UV radiation, particularly during spring when ozone depletion reaches a maximum. A 5% reduction in photosynthetic production was observed in laboratory experiments for UVB levels expected under the ice at this time. In situ studies modifying the UVB radiation falling onto algae were inconclusive. (author). 5 refs

  3. Analysis, numerics, and optimization of algae growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, K.; Pisarenco, M.; Rudnaya, M.; Savcenco, V.

    2010-01-01

    We extend the mathematical model for algae growth as described in [11] to include new effects. The roles of light, nutrients and acidity of the water body are taken into account. Important properties of the model such as existence and uniqueness of solution, as well as boundedness and positivity are

  4. Isolation of glycoproteins from brown algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel process for the isolation of unique anti-oxidative glycoproteins from the pH precipitated fractions of enzymatic extracts of brown algae. Two brown seaweeds viz, Fucus serratus and Fucus vesiculosus were hydrolysed by using 3 enzymes viz, Alcalase, Viscozyme...

  5. Bromophenols in Marine Algae and Their Bioactivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ming, Liu; Hansen, Poul Erik; Lin, Xiukun

    2011-01-01

    Marine algae contain various bromophenols that have been shown to possess a variety of biological activities, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer, anti-diabetic, and anti-thrombotic effects. Here, we briefly review the recent progress of these marine algal biomaterials, with respect...

  6. Selenium accumulation and metabolism in algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavon, Michela; Ertani, Andrea; Parrasia, Sofia; Vecchia, Francesca Dalla

    2017-08-01

    Selenium (Se) is an intriguing element because it is metabolically required by a variety of organisms, but it may induce toxicity at high doses. Algae primarily absorb selenium in the form of selenate or selenite using mechanisms similar to those reported in plants. However, while Se is needed by several species of microalgae, the essentiality of this element for plants has not been established yet. The study of Se uptake and accumulation strategies in micro- and macro-algae is of pivotal importance, as they represent potential vectors for Se movement in aquatic environments and Se at high levels may affect their growth causing a reduction in primary production. Some microalgae exhibit the capacity of efficiently converting Se to less harmful volatile compounds as a strategy to cope with Se toxicity. Therefore, they play a crucial role in Se-cycling through the ecosystem. On the other side, micro- or macro-algae enriched in Se may be used in Se biofortification programs aimed to improve Se content in human diet via supplementation of valuable food. Indeed, some organic forms of selenium (selenomethionine and methylselenocysteine) are known to act as anticarcinogenic compounds and exert a broad spectrum of beneficial effects in humans and other mammals. Here, we want to give an overview of the developments in the current understanding of Se uptake, accumulation and metabolism in algae, discussing potential ecotoxicological implications and nutritional aspects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Research for Developing Renewable Biofuels from Algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, Paul N. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Task A. Expansion of knowledge related to lipid production and secretion in algae A.1 Lipid biosynthesis in target algal species; Systems biology approaches are being used in combination with recent advances in Chlorella and Chlamydomonas genomics to address lipid accumulation in response to defined nutrient regimes. The UNL Algal Group continues screening additional species of Chlorella and other naturally occurring algae for those with optimal triglyceride production; Of the strains examined by the DOE's Aquatic Species Program, green algae, several species of Chlorella represent the largest group from which oleaginous candidates have been identified; A.1.1. Lipid profiling; Neutral lipid accumulation is routinely monitored by Nile red and BODIPY staining using high throughput strategies to screen for naturally occurring algae that accumulate triglyceride. These strategies complement those using spectrofluorometry to quantify lipid accumulation; Neutral lipid accumulation is routinely monitored by high performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) of lipid extracts in conjunction with; Carbon portioning experiments have been completed and the data currently are being analyzed and prepared for publication; Methods in the Black lab were developed to identify and quantify triacylglycerol (TAG), major membrane lipids [diacylglycerol trimethylhomoserine, phosphatidylethanolamine and chloroplast glycolipids], biosynthetic intermediates such as diacylglycerol, phosphatidic acid and lysophospholipids and different species of acyl-coenzyme A (acyl CoA).

  8. Taxonomic Challenges and Distribution of Gracilarioid Algae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reviews the taxonomical literature of the gracilarioid algae from Tanzania, and provides information about their ecology and distribution based on an intensive regime of local collection. Its aim was to provide names, even if on a preliminary basis, for local gracilarioid taxa. Our revision shows that species ...

  9. Washington State University Algae Biofuels Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    chen, Shulin [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Dept. of Biological Systems Engineering; McCormick, Margaret [Targeted Growth, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Sutterlin, Rusty [Inventure Renewables, Inc., Gig Harbor, WA (United States)

    2012-12-29

    The goal of this project was to advance algal technologies for the production of biofuels and biochemicals by establishing the Washington State Algae Alliance, a collaboration partnership among two private companies (Targeted Growth, Inc. (TGI), Inventure Chemicals (Inventure) Inc (now Inventure Renewables Inc) and Washington State University (WSU). This project included three major components. The first one was strain development at TGI by genetically engineering cyanobacteria to yield high levels of lipid and other specialty chemicals. The second component was developing an algal culture system at WSU to produce algal biomass as biofuel feedstock year-round in the northern states of the United States. This system included two cultivation modes, the first one was a phototrophic process and the second a heterotrophic process. The phototrophic process would be used for algae production in open ponds during warm seasons; the heterotrophic process would be used in cold seasons so that year-round production of algal lipid would be possible. In warm seasons the heterotrophic process would also produce algal seeds to be used in the phototrophic culture process. Selected strains of green algae and cyanobacteria developed by TGI were tested in the system. The third component was downstream algal biomass processing by Inventure that included efficiently harvesting the usable fuel fractions from the algae mass and effectively isolating and separating the usable components into specific fractions, and converting isolated fractions into green chemicals.

  10. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... used in food only within the following specific limitations: Category of food Maximum level of use in... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... within the following specific limitations: Category of food Maximum level of use in food (as served... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN...

  12. The ice nucleation activity of extremophilic algae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kvíderová, Jana; Hájek, J.; Worland, M. R.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 2 (2013), s. 137-148 ISSN 0143-2044 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB601630808; GA AV ČR KJB600050708 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Ice nucleation * snow algae * lichen photobionts Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.640, year: 2013

  13. Photoprotection strategies of the alga Nannochloropsis gaditana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chukhutsina, Volha U.; Fristedt, Rikard; Morosinotto, Tomas; Croce, Roberta

    2017-01-01

    Nannochloropsis spp. are algae with high potential for biotechnological applications due to their capacity to accumulate lipids. However, little is known about their photosynthetic apparatus and acclimation/photoprotective strategies. In this work, we studied the mechanisms of non-photochemical

  14. Usos industriales de las algas diatomeas.

    OpenAIRE

    Illana Esteban, Carlos

    2007-01-01

    Las diatomeas son algas microscópicas que habitan tanto en aguas dulces como marinas. Aparte de su destacado papel en la cadena trófica de los ecosistemas acuáticos, con el tiempo forman depósitos a los que el hombre ha encontrado abundantes aplicaciones prácticas.

  15. Heterotrophic bacteria associated with the green alga

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ismail, A.; Ktari, L.; Ahmed, M.; Bolhuis, H.; Bouhaouala-Zahar, B.; Stal, L.J.; Boudabbous, A.; El Bour, M.

    2018-01-01

    Heterotrophic bacteria associated with the green alga Ulva rigida, collected from the coast of Tunisia, were isolated andsubsequently identified by their 16S rRNA gene sequences and by phylogenetic analysis. The 71 isolates belong to four phyla:Proteobacteria (Alpha-and Gamma- subclasses),

  16. Kultur Damai Berbasis Tradisi Pela Dalam Perspektif Psikologi Sosial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roubrenda N. Ralahallo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Conflict and violence was the destructive reality that showed reduction and alienated of existence humanity. The essence of human being has destruction because dominance of egoism of people’s without care value of victim community. Because of that condition, the basic need to create a culture of peace as constructive reality that connected relationship between all of people is urgently. On the level individual and group, the acceptance of “the other‐self” as him/herself has destroy the wall of differences which always be source of conflict and violence. The fusion identity “we” (ingroup and “them” (outgroup has establish common ingroup identity as “us” in recategorization process that contribution to reduction negative aspect seems like prejudice, discrimination and stereotype. This research involve four subject with age 20‐30 years old, genre as masculin and feminin, and they have a comprehensive science about pela tradition. Other informant like a King of negeri, Kapitan negeri and all of people also involve in this research. Qualitative method with ethno‐phenomenology approach is use in this research with observation and interview as method and procedure to collect data. The result of this research showed that culture of peace can be found in local wisdom as pela tradition. The basic idea in this tradition is a common identity “saudara/orang basudara” which has calling as “ela”. Pscychological dynamics occur in this perspective because the word of “ela” to contain a constructive and positive meaning that arranged relation between the groups Rohomoni‐Tuhaha. Implementation of values the culture of peace has been seen in the behavioral “saudara pela” that mutual constructive, trust, respect. This fact could be found in Molluccas conflict at 1999‐2004, pela tradition can be the media reconciliation between two groups Moslem and Christian.

  17. Lesao pulmonar induzida pela ventilacao em recem-nascidos prematuros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa Gutierrez Carvalho

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A necessidade de intubação e do uso de ventilação mecânica na prematuridade está relacionada à chamada lesão pulmonar induzida pela ventilação e à consequente displasia broncopulmonar. Busca-se a melhor compreensão dos mecanismos de lesão envolvendo resposta inflamatória mediada pelas citocinas para o desenvolvimento de novas estratégias protetoras. Pesquisou-se na base de dados PubMed, incluindo artigos relevantes, os unitermos "ventilator induced lung injury preterm", "continuous positive airway pressure", "preterm" e "bronchopulmonary dysplasia". Dados e informações significativas foram compilados em tópicos, com o objetivo de formar uma visão crítica e plena acerca da lesão induzida pela ventilação e de suas consequências ao prematuro. Foi revisado o papel das citocinas pró-inflamatórias como mediadores da lesão, especialmente interleucinas 6 e 8, e fator de necrose tumoral alfa. Foram apresentadas evidências em estudos com animais e também em humanos, mostrando que breves períodos de ventilação mecânica são suficientes para a liberação dessas interleucinas inflamatórias. Também foram revisadas outras formas de ventilação mecânica e de ventilação não invasiva, como alternativas protetoras aos modos convencionais. Concluiu-se que o uso de ventilação não invasiva, a intubação com administração precoce de surfactante e a extubação rápida para CPAP nasal, além de estratégias que regulam o volume corrente evitando o volutrauma (como a ventilação com volume garantido, são medidas protetoras da lesão pulmonar induzida pela ventilação mecânica no prematuro.

  18. Objetivismo, subjetivismo e comunicação pela TV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Carlos Lopes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este texto objetiva contribuir para a discussão dos significados da objetividade e da subjetividade, como categorias aplicáveis ao estudos comunicacionais. Deseja esclarecer a diferença entre objetividade e objetivismo e entre subjetividade e subjetivismo. Discute o mesmo problema aplicado a dois livros recentes que analisaram a problemática dos fenômenos comunicacionais passados pela televisão. Conclui, ressaltando a importância das balizas enunciadas como verificadoras da natureza das interpretações usadas.

  19. Guia de receitas brasileiras: uma saborosa viagem pela literatura

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Denísia Moraes dos

    2011-01-01

    Esta dissertação tem por objetivo compreender, sob o ponto de vista da Análise Dialógica do Discurso, o processo de construção dos sentidos em Guia de receitas brasileiras ─ texto premiado na primeira edição do Concurso Cultural Viagem Nestlé pela Literatura (1999). Com o tema A literatura e a vida nos 500 anos de Brasil , essa edição desafiou alunos e professores a produzir um intertexto literário-cultural, utilizando cinco obras da literatura brasileira ─ Cronistas do Descobrim...

  20. Mediadores envolvidos na resposta febril induzida pela RANTES

    OpenAIRE

    Renes de Resende Machado

    2009-01-01

    Em estudo anterior, observamos que o Met-RANTES, antagonista de receptores CCR1 e CCR5 para quimiocinas, injetado pela via endovenosa (i.v.) reduziu a resposta febril induzida pelo lipopolissacarídeo (LPS) de E. coli, demonstrando o envolvimento da quimiocina RANTES (Regulada sob ativação, expressa e secretada por células T normais) nesta resposta. Além disso, a injeção intrahipotalâmica (i.h.) da RANTES dose-dependentemente aumentou a temperatura corporal de ratos, o qual foi caracterizado c...

  1. Biofuels from algae for sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirbas, M. Fatih

    2011-01-01

    Microalgae are photosynthetic microorganisms that can produce lipids, proteins and carbohydrates in large amounts over short periods of time. These products can be processed into both biofuels and useful chemicals. Two algae samples (Cladophora fracta and Chlorella protothecoid) were studied for biofuel production. Microalgae appear to be the only source of renewable biodiesel that is capable of meeting the global demand for transport fuels. Microalgae can be converted to biodiesel, bioethanol, bio-oil, biohydrogen and biomethane via thermochemical and biochemical methods. Industrial reactors for algal culture are open ponds, photobioreactors and closed systems. Algae can be grown almost anywhere, even on sewage or salt water, and does not require fertile land or food crops, and processing requires less energy than the algae provides. Microalgae have much faster growth-rates than terrestrial crops. the per unit area yield of oil from algae is estimated to be from 20,000 to 80,000 liters per acre, per year; this is 7-31 times greater than the next best crop, palm oil. Algal oil can be used to make biodiesel for cars, trucks, and airplanes. The lipid and fatty acid contents of microalgae vary in accordance with culture conditions. The effect of temperature on the yield of hydrogen from two algae (C. fracta and C. protothecoid) by pyrolysis and steam gasification were investigated in this study. In each run, the main components of the gas phase were CO 2 , CO, H 2 , and CH 4 .The yields of hydrogen by pyrolysis and steam gasification processes of the samples increased with temperature. The yields of gaseous products from the samples of C. fracta and C. protothecoides increased from 8.2% to 39.2% and 9.5% to 40.6% by volume, respectively, while the final pyrolysis temperature was increased from 575 to 925 K. The percent of hydrogen in gaseous products from the samples of C. fracta and C. protothecoides increased from 25.8% to 44.4% and 27.6% to 48.7% by volume

  2. Rússia: o que vivenciou e o que tem pela frente?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Zaslavskaia

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O ARTIGO constitui a versão escrita de uma apresentação feita pela autora, em 2003, em mesa-redonda organizada no âmbito do Simpósio realizado anualmente pela Escola Superior de Moscou de Estudos Econômicos e Sociais, sob o grande tema Para onde vai a Rússia? Trata-se de uma polêmica com o cientista político Vladimir Mau, atualmente reitor da referida Escola, a propósito dos resultados da transformação sistêmica que teve lugar na Rússia, a partir do início dos anos de 1990, sugerindo, a partir dos mesmos, um caminho para delineamento de um futuro distinto para o país.THE ARTICLE is a written version of the exposition done by the autor in 2003, in a Round Table organized within the symposium Whiter Russia?, that takes place annually under the auspices of the Moscow School of Social and Economic Studies. In the article she disputes with Vladimir Mau, a political scientist, now Rector of the referred School, about the results of the Russian systemic transformation of the 90's and suggests, on the basis of these results, a different path for the future development of the country.

  3. Radiokinetic study in betony marine algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo Gouvea, V. de.

    1981-01-01

    The influx and outflux kinetics of some radionuclides in algae of the Rio de Janeiro coastline, were studied in order to select bioindicators for radioactive contamination in aquatic media, due to the presence of Nuclear Power Stations. Bioassays of the concentration and loss of radionuclides such as 137 Cs, 51 Cr, 60 Co and 131 I were performed in 1000cm 3 aquarium under controlled laboratory conditions, using a single channel gamma counting system, to study the species of algae most frequently found in the region. The concentration and loss parameters for all the species and radionuclides studied were obtained from the normalized results. The loss parameters were computerwise adjusted using Powell's multiparametric method. (author)

  4. Hyperaccumulation of radioactive isotopes by marine algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Toshiaki; Hirano, Shigeki; Watabe, Teruhisa

    2003-01-01

    Hyperaccumlators are effective indicator organisms for monitoring marine pollution by heavy metals and artificial radionuclides. We found a green algae, Bryopsis maxima that hyperaccumulate a stable and radioactive isotopes such as Sr-90, Tc-99, Ba-138, Re-187, and Ra-226. B. maxima showed high concentration factors for heavy alkali earth metals like Ba and Ra, compared with other marine algae in Japan. Furthermore, this species had the highest concentrations for Tc-99 and Re-187. The accumulation and excretion patterns of Sr-85 and Tc-95m were examined by tracer experiments. The chemical states of Sr and Re in living B. maxima were analyzed by HPLC-ICP/MS, LC/MS, and X-ray absorption fine structure analysis using synchrotron radiation. (author)

  5. Algae-Derived Dietary Ingredients Nourish Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    In the 1980s, Columbia, Maryland-based Martek Biosciences Corporation worked with Ames Research Center to pioneer the use of microalgae as a source of essential omega-3 fatty acids, work that led the company to develop its highly successful Formulaid product. Now the Nutritional Products Division of Royal DSM, the company also manufactures DHAgold, a nutritional supplement for pets, livestock and farm-raised fish that uses algae to deliver docosahexaenoic acid (DHA).

  6. Selenium Uptake and Volatilization by Marine Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luxem, Katja E.; Vriens, Bas; Wagner, Bettina; Behra, Renata; Winkel, Lenny H. E.

    2015-04-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential trace nutrient for humans. An estimated one half to one billion people worldwide suffer from Se deficiency, which is due to low concentrations and bioavailability of Se in soils where crops are grown. It has been hypothesized that more than half of the atmospheric Se deposition to soils is derived from the marine system, where microorganisms methylate and volatilize Se. Based on model results from the late 1980s, the atmospheric flux of these biogenic volatile Se compounds is around 9 Gt/year, with two thirds coming from the marine biosphere. Algae, fungi, and bacteria are known to methylate Se. Although algal Se uptake, metabolism, and methylation influence the speciation and bioavailability of Se in the oceans, these processes have not been quantified under environmentally relevant conditions and are likely to differ among organisms. Therefore, we are investigating the uptake and methylation of the two main inorganic Se species (selenate and selenite) by three globally relevant microalgae: Phaeocystis globosa, the coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi, and the diatom Thalassiosira oceanica. Selenium uptake and methylation were quantified in a batch experiment, where parallel gas-tight microcosms in a climate chamber were coupled to a gas-trapping system. For E. huxleyi, selenite uptake was strongly dependent on aqueous phosphate concentrations, which agrees with prior evidence that selenite uptake by phosphate transporters is a significant Se source for marine algae. Selenate uptake was much lower than selenite uptake. The most important volatile Se compounds produced were dimethyl selenide, dimethyl diselenide, and dimethyl selenyl sulfide. Production rates of volatile Se species were larger with increasing intracellular Se concentration and in the decline phase of the alga. Similar experiments are being carried out with P. globosa and T. oceanica. Our results indicate that marine algae are important for the global cycling of Se

  7. Algae as reservoirs for coral pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Sweet

    Full Text Available Benthic algae are associated with coral death in the form of stress and disease. It's been proposed that they release exudates, which facilitate invasion of potentially pathogenic microbes at the coral-algal interface, resulting in coral disease. However, the original source of these pathogens remains unknown. This study examined the ability of benthic algae to act as reservoirs of coral pathogens by characterizing surface associated microbes associated with major Caribbean and Indo-Pacific algal species/types and by comparing them to potential pathogens of two dominant coral diseases: White Syndrome (WS in the Indo-Pacific and Yellow Band Disease (YBD in the Caribbean. Coral and algal sampling was conducted simultaneously at the same sites to avoid spatial effects. Potential pathogens were defined as those absent or rare in healthy corals, increasing in abundance in healthy tissues adjacent to a disease lesion, and dominant in disease lesions. Potentially pathogenic bacteria were detected in both WS and YBD and were also present within the majority of algal species/types (54 and 100% for WS and YBD respectively. Pathogenic ciliates were associated only with WS and not YBD lesions and these were also present in 36% of the Indo-Pacific algal species. Although potential pathogens were associated with many algal species, their presence was inconsistent among replicate algal samples and detection rates were relatively low, suggestive of low density and occurrence. At the community level, coral-associated microbes irrespective of the health of their host differed from algal-associated microbes, supporting that algae and corals have distinctive microbial communities associated with their tissue. We conclude that benthic algae are common reservoirs for a variety of different potential coral pathogens. However, algal-associated microbes alone are unlikely to cause coral death. Initial damage or stress to the coral via other competitive mechanisms is

  8. Antibody Production in Plants and Green Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusibov, Vidadi; Kushnir, Natasha; Streatfield, Stephen J

    2016-04-29

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have a wide range of modern applications, including research, diagnostic, therapeutic, and industrial uses. Market demand for mAbs is high and continues to grow. Although mammalian systems, which currently dominate the biomanufacturing industry, produce effective and safe recombinant mAbs, they have a limited manufacturing capacity and high costs. Bacteria, yeast, and insect cell systems are highly scalable and cost effective but vary in their ability to produce appropriate posttranslationally modified mAbs. Plants and green algae are emerging as promising production platforms because of their time and cost efficiencies, scalability, lack of mammalian pathogens, and eukaryotic posttranslational protein modification machinery. So far, plant- and algae-derived mAbs have been produced predominantly as candidate therapeutics for infectious diseases and cancer. These candidates have been extensively evaluated in animal models, and some have shown efficacy in clinical trials. Here, we review ongoing efforts to advance the production of mAbs in plants and algae.

  9. New records of marine algae in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Hau, Nhu; Ly, Bui Minh; Van Huynh, Tran; Trung, Vo Thanh

    2015-06-01

    In May, 2013, a scientific expedition was organized by the Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology (VAST) and the Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (FEBRAS) through the frame of the VAST-FEBRAS International Collaboration Program. The expedition went along the coast of Vietnam from Quang Ninh to Kien Giang. The objective was to collect natural resources to investigate the biological and biochemical diversity of the territorial waters of Vietnam. Among the collected algae, six taxa are new records for the Vietnam algal flora. They are the red algae Titanophora pikeana (Dickie) Feldmann from Cu Lao Xanh Island, Laurencia natalensis Kylin from Tho Chu Island, Coelothrix irregularis (Harvey) Børgesen from Con Dao Island, the green algae Caulerpa oligophylla Montagne, Caulerpa andamanensis (W.R. Taylor) Draisma, Prudhomme et Sauvage from Phu Quy Island, and Caulerpa falcifolia Harvey & Bailey from Ly Son Island. The seaweed flora of Vietnam now counts 833 marine algal taxa, including 415 Rhodophyta, 147 Phaeophyceae, 183 Chlorophyta, and 88 Cyanobacteria.

  10. Electro-coagulation-flotation process for algae removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Shanshan; Yang Jixian; Tian Jiayu; Ma Fang; Tu Gang; Du Maoan

    2010-01-01

    Algae in surface water have been a long-term issue all over the world, due to their adverse influence on drinking water treatment process as well as drinking water quality. The algae removal by electro-coagulation-flotation (ECF) technology was investigated in this paper. The results indicated that aluminum was an excellent electrode material for algae removal as compared with iron. The optimal parameters determined were: current density = 1 mA/cm 2 , pH = 4-7, water temperature = 18-36 deg. C, algae density = 0.55 x 10 9 -1.55 x 10 9 cells/L. Under the optimal conditions, 100% of algae removal was achieved with the energy consumption as low as 0.4 kWh/m 3 . The ECF performed well in acid and neutral conditions. At low initial pH of 4-7, the cell density of algae was effectively removed in the ECF, mainly through the charge neutralization mechanism; while the algae removal worsened when the pH increased (7-10), and the main mechanism shifted to sweeping flocculation and enmeshment. The mechanisms for algae removal at different pH were also confirmed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis. Furthermore, initial cell density and water temperature could also influence the algae removal. Overall, the results indicated that the ECF technology was effective for algae removal, from both the technical and economical points of view.

  11. Algae to Economically Viable Low-Carbon-Footprint Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhujade, Ramesh; Chidambaram, Mandan; Kumar, Avnish; Sapre, Ajit

    2017-06-07

    Algal oil as an alternative to fossil fuel has attracted attention since the 1940s, when it was discovered that many microalgae species can produce large amounts of lipids. Economics and energy security were the motivational factors for a spurt in algae research during the 1970s, 1990s, and early 2000s. Whenever crude prices declined, research on algae stopped. The scenario today is different. Even given low and volatile crude prices ($30-$50/barrel), interest in algae continues all over the world. Algae, with their cure-all characteristics, have the potential to provide sustainable solutions to problems in the energy-food-climate nexus. However, after years of effort, there are no signs of algae-to-biofuel technology being commercialized. This article critically reviews past work; summarizes the current status of the technology; and based on the lessons learned, provides a balanced perspective on a potential path toward commercialization of algae-to-oil technology.

  12. Interspecific variation in total phenolic content in temperate brown algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Mannino

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Marine algae synthesize secondary metabolites such as polyphenols that function as defense and protection mechanisms. Among brown algae, Fucales and Dictyotales (Phaeophyceae contain the highest levels of phenolic compounds, mainly phlorotannins, that play multiple roles. Four temperate brown algae (Cystoseira amentacea, Cystoseira compressa, Dictyopteris polypodioides and Padina pavonica were studied for total phenolic contents. Total phenolic content was determined colorimetrically with the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Significant differences in total phenolic content were observed between leathery and sheetlike algae and also within each morphological group. Among the four species, the sheet-like alga D. polypodioides, living in the upper infralittoral zone, showed the highest concentration of phenolic compounds. These results are in agreement with the hypothesis that total phenolic content in temperate brown algae is influenced by a combination of several factors, such as growth form, depth, and exposition to solar radiation.

  13. Genome Annotation and Transcriptomics of Oil-Producing Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-16

    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2015-0103 GENOME ANNOTATION AND TRANSCRIPTOMICS OF OIL-PRODUCING ALGAE Sabeeha Merchant UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LOS ANGELES Final...2010 To 12-31-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE GENOME ANNOTATION AND TRANSCRIPTOMICS OF OIL-PRODUCING ALGAE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA9550-10-1-0095 5b...NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Most algae accumulate triacylglycerols (TAGs) when they are starved for essential nutrients like N, S, P (or Si in the case of some

  14. Production and characterization of algae extract from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weston Kightlinger

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: This study showed that algae extract derived from C. reinhardtii is similar, if not superior, to commercially available yeast extract in nutrient content and effects on the growth and metabolism of E. coli and S. cerevisiae. Bacto™ yeast extract is valued at USD $0.15–0.35 per gram, if algae extract was sold at similar prices, it would serve as a high-value co-product in algae-based fuel processes.

  15. Method and apparatus for iterative lysis and extraction of algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Geoffrey; Boggs, Tabitha; Dykes, Jr., H. Waite H.; Doherty, Stephen J.

    2015-12-01

    A method and system for processing algae involves the use of an ionic liquid-containing clarified cell lysate to lyse algae cells. The resulting crude cell lysate may be clarified and subsequently used to lyse algae cells. The process may be repeated a number of times before a clarified lysate is separated into lipid and aqueous phases for further processing and/or purification of desired products.

  16. Method and apparatus for lysing and processing algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Geoffrey; Reich, Alton J.; Dykes, Jr., H. Waite H.; Di Salvo, Roberto

    2013-03-05

    Methods and apparatus for processing algae are described in which a hydrophilic ionic liquid is used to lyse algae cells at lower temperatures than existing algae processing methods. A salt or salt solution is used as a separation agent and to remove water from the ionic liquid, allowing the ionic liquid to be reused. The used salt may be dried or concentrated and reused. The relatively low lysis temperatures and recycling of the ionic liquid and salt reduce the environmental impact of the algae processing while providing biofuels and other useful products.

  17. Importance of algae oil as a source of biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirbas, Ayhan; Fatih Demirbas, M.

    2011-01-01

    Algae are the fastest-growing plants in the world. Industrial reactors for algal culture are open ponds, photobioreactors and closed systems. Algae are very important as a biomass source. Algae will some day be competitive as a source for biofuel. Different species of algae may be better suited for different types of fuel. Algae can be grown almost anywhere, even on sewage or salt water, and does not require fertile land or food crops, and processing requires less energy than the algae provides. Algae can be a replacement for oil based fuels, one that is more effective and has no disadvantages. Algae are among the fastest-growing plants in the world, and about 50% of their weight is oil. This lipid oil can be used to make biodiesel for cars, trucks, and airplanes. Microalgae have much faster growth-rates than terrestrial crops. the per unit area yield of oil from algae is estimated to be from 20,000 to 80,000 l per acre, per year; this is 7-31 times greater than the next best crop, palm oil. The lipid and fatty acid contents of microalgae vary in accordance with culture conditions. Most current research on oil extraction is focused on microalgae to produce biodiesel from algal oil. Algal-oil processes into biodiesel as easily as oil derived from land-based crops.

  18. Accumulation of 210Po by benthic marine algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouvea, R.C.; Branco, M.E.C.; Santos, P.L.

    1988-01-01

    The accumulation of polonium 210 Po by various species of benthic marine seaweeds collected from 4 different points on the coast of Rio de Janeiro, showed variations by species and algal groups. The highest value found was in red alga, Plocamium brasiliensis followed by other organisms of the same group. In the group of the brown alga, the specie Sargassum stenophylum was outstanding. The Chlorophyta presented the lowest content of 210 Po. The algae collected in open sea, revealed greater concentration factors of 210 Po than the same species living in bays. The siliceous residue remaining after mineralization of the algae did not interfere with the detection of polonium. (author)

  19. Algae Bioreactor Using Submerged Enclosures with Semi-Permeable Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent, Jonathan D (Inventor); Gormly, Sherwin J (Inventor); Embaye, Tsegereda N (Inventor); Delzeit, Lance D (Inventor); Flynn, Michael T (Inventor); Liggett, Travis A (Inventor); Buckwalter, Patrick W (Inventor); Baertsch, Robert (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Methods for producing hydrocarbons, including oil, by processing algae and/or other micro-organisms in an aquatic environment. Flexible bags (e.g., plastic) with CO.sub.2/O.sub.2 exchange membranes, suspended at a controllable depth in a first liquid (e.g., seawater), receive a second liquid (e.g., liquid effluent from a "dead zone") containing seeds for algae growth. The algae are cultivated and harvested in the bags, after most of the second liquid is removed by forward osmosis through liquid exchange membranes. The algae are removed and processed, and the bags are cleaned and reused.

  20. Economic evaluation of algae biodiesel based on meta-analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongli; Liu, Xiaowei; White, Mark A.; Colosi, Lisa M.

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study is to elucidate the economic viability of algae-to-energy systems at a large scale, by developing a meta-analysis of five previously published economic evaluations of systems producing algae biodiesel. Data from original studies were harmonised into a standardised framework using financial and technical assumptions. Results suggest that the selling price of algae biodiesel under the base case would be 5.00-10.31/gal, higher than the selected benchmarks: 3.77/gal for petroleum diesel, and 4.21/gal for commercial biodiesel (B100) from conventional vegetable oil or animal fat. However, the projected selling price of algal biodiesel (2.76-4.92/gal), following anticipated improvements, would be competitive. A scenario-based sensitivity analysis reveals that the price of algae biodiesel is most sensitive to algae biomass productivity, algae oil content, and algae cultivation cost. This indicates that the improvements in the yield, quality, and cost of algae feedstock could be the key factors to make algae-derived biodiesel economically viable.

  1. Interactions between arsenic species and marine algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, J.G.

    1978-01-01

    The arsenic concentration and speciation of marine algae varies widely, from 0.4 to 23 ng.mg/sup -1/, with significant differences in both total arsenic content and arsenic speciation occurring between algal classes. The Phaeophyceae contain more arsenic than other algal classes, and a greater proportion of the arsenic is organic. The concentration of inorganic arsenic is fairly constant in macro-algae, and may indicate a maximum level, with the excess being reduced and methylated. Phytoplankton take up As(V) readily, and incorporate a small percentage of it into the cell. The majority of the As(V) is reduced, methylated, and released to the surrounding media. The arsenic speciation in phytoplankton and Valonia also changes when As(V) is added to cultures. Arsenate and phosphate compete for uptake by algal cells. Arsenate inhibits primary production at concentrations as low as 5 ..mu..g.1/sup -1/ when the phosphate concentration is low. The inhibition is competitive. A phosphate enrichment of > 0.3 ..mu..M alleviates this inhibition; however, the As(V) stress causes an increase in the cell's phosphorus requirement. Arsenite is also toxic to phytoplankton at similar concentrations. Methylated arsenic species did not affect cell productivity, even at concentrations of 25 ..mu..g.1/sup -1/. Thus, the methylation of As(V) by the cell produces a stable, non-reactive compound which is nontoxic. The uptake and subsequent reduction and methylation of As(V) is a significant factor in determining the arsenic biogeochemistry of productive systems, and also the effect that the arsenic may have on algal productivity. Therefore, the role of marine algae in determining the arsenic speciation of marine systems cannot be ignored. (ERB)

  2. Ammonium removal using algae-bacteria consortia: the effect of ammonium concentration, algae biomass, and light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Huijun; Yuan, Qiuyan

    2018-04-01

    In this study, the effects of ammonium nitrogen concentration, algae biomass concentration, and light conditions (wavelength and intensity) on the ammonium removal efficiency of algae-bacteria consortia from wastewater were investigated. The results indicated that ammonium concentration and light intensity had a significant impact on nitrification. It was found that the highest ammonia concentration (430 mg N/L) in the influent resulted in the highest ammonia removal rate of 108 ± 3.6 mg N/L/days, which was two times higher than the influent with low ammonia concentration (40 mg N/L). At the lowest light intensity of 1000 Lux, algae biomass concentration, light wavelength, and light cycle did not show a significant effect on the performance of algal-bacterial consortium. Furthermore, the ammonia removal rate was approximately 83 ± 1.0 mg N/L/days, which was up to 40% faster than at the light intensity of 2500 Lux. It was concluded that the algae-bacteria consortia can effectively remove nitrogen from wastewater and the removal performance can be stabilized and enhanced using the low light intensity of 1000 Lux that is also a cost-effective strategy.

  3. Snow algae and lichen algae differ in their resistance to freezing temperature: An ice nucleation study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hajek, J.; Kvíderová, Jana; Worland, R.; Barták, M.; Elster, Josef; Vaczi, P.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 4 (2009), s. 37-38 ISSN 0031-8884. [International Phycological Congress /9./. 02.08.2009-08.08.2009, Tokyo] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600050702; GA AV ČR KJB601630808 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : ice nucleation * algae * freezing Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  4. Role of marine algae in organic farming

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pereira, N.; Verlecar, X.N.

    Division of Publication and Information, Indian Council of Medical Research, V. Ramalingaswami Bhawan, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi 110 029, India e - mail: encejain@yahoo.co.in Role of marine algae in organic far m ing As rightly outlined.... The Indi an Ocean, including its adjacent seas, extends over an area of about 73.44 ? 10 6 km 2 and the potential harvest of seaweeds from the Indian Ocean is about 870 thousand tonnes (wet weight) 3 . India could draw benefits from this marine...

  5. Effect of petroleum hydrocarbons on algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhadauria, S.; Sengar, R.M.S.; Mittal, S.; Bhattacharjee, S.

    1992-01-01

    Algal species (65) were isolated from oil refinery effluent. Twenty-five of these species were cultured in Benecke's medium in a growth chamber, along with controls. Retardation in algal growth, inhibition in algal photosynthesis, and discoloration was observed in petroleum enriched medium. Few forms, viz. Cyclotella sp., Cosmarium sp., and Merismopedia sp. could not survive. The lag phase lengthened by several days and slope of exponential phase was also depressed. Chlamydomonas sp., Scenedesmus sp., Ankistrodesmus sp., Nitzschia sp. and Navicula sp. were comparatively susceptible to petroleum. Depression in carbon fixation, cell numbers, and total dry algal mass was noticeable, showing toxicity to both diatoms and green algae

  6. Algae-based oral recombinant vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specht, Elizabeth A.; Mayfield, Stephen P.

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant subunit vaccines are some of the safest and most effective vaccines available, but their high cost and the requirement of advanced medical infrastructure for administration make them impractical for many developing world diseases. Plant-based vaccines have shifted that paradigm by paving the way for recombinant vaccine production at agricultural scale using an edible host. However, enthusiasm for “molecular pharming” in food crops has waned in the last decade due to difficulty in developing transgenic crop plants and concerns of contaminating the food supply. Microalgae could be poised to become the next candidate in recombinant subunit vaccine production, as they present several advantages over terrestrial crop plant-based platforms including scalable and contained growth, rapid transformation, easily obtained stable cell lines, and consistent transgene expression levels. Algae have been shown to accumulate and properly fold several vaccine antigens, and efforts are underway to create recombinant algal fusion proteins that can enhance antigenicity for effective orally delivered vaccines. These approaches have the potential to revolutionize the way subunit vaccines are made and delivered – from costly parenteral administration of purified protein, to an inexpensive oral algae tablet with effective mucosal and systemic immune reactivity. PMID:24596570

  7. Energy from algae using microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Velasquez-Orta, Sharon B.

    2009-08-15

    Bioelectricity production froma phytoplankton, Chlorella vulgaris, and a macrophyte, Ulva lactuca was examined in single chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs). MFCs were fed with the two algae (as powders), obtaining differences in energy recovery, degradation efficiency, and power densities. C. vulgaris produced more energy generation per substrate mass (2.5 kWh/kg), but U. lactuca was degraded more completely over a batch cycle (73±1% COD). Maximum power densities obtained using either single cycle or multiple cycle methods were 0.98 W/m2 (277 W/m3) using C. vulgaris, and 0.76 W/m2 (215 W/m3) using U. lactuca. Polarization curves obtained using a common method of linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) overestimated maximum power densities at a scan rate of 1 mV/s. At 0.1 mV/s, however, the LSV polarization data was in better agreement with single- and multiple-cycle polarization curves. The fingerprints of microbial communities developed in reactors had only 11% similarity to inocula and clustered according to the type of bioprocess used. These results demonstrate that algae can in principle, be used as a renewable source of electricity production in MFCs. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Energy from algae using microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Velasquez-Orta, Sharon B.; Curtis, Tom P.; Logan, Bruce E.

    2009-01-01

    Bioelectricity production froma phytoplankton, Chlorella vulgaris, and a macrophyte, Ulva lactuca was examined in single chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs). MFCs were fed with the two algae (as powders), obtaining differences in energy recovery, degradation efficiency, and power densities. C. vulgaris produced more energy generation per substrate mass (2.5 kWh/kg), but U. lactuca was degraded more completely over a batch cycle (73±1% COD). Maximum power densities obtained using either single cycle or multiple cycle methods were 0.98 W/m2 (277 W/m3) using C. vulgaris, and 0.76 W/m2 (215 W/m3) using U. lactuca. Polarization curves obtained using a common method of linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) overestimated maximum power densities at a scan rate of 1 mV/s. At 0.1 mV/s, however, the LSV polarization data was in better agreement with single- and multiple-cycle polarization curves. The fingerprints of microbial communities developed in reactors had only 11% similarity to inocula and clustered according to the type of bioprocess used. These results demonstrate that algae can in principle, be used as a renewable source of electricity production in MFCs. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Algae-based oral recombinant vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Specht

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant subunit vaccines are some of the safest and most effective vaccines available, but their high cost and the requirement of advanced medical infrastructure for administration make them impractical for many developing world diseases. Plant-based vaccines have shifted that paradigm by paving the way for recombinant vaccine production at agricultural scale using an edible host. However, enthusiasm for molecular pharming in food crops has waned in the last decade due to difficulty in developing transgenic crop plants and concerns of contaminating the food supply. Microalgae are poised to become the next candidate in recombinant subunit vaccine production, and they present several advantages over terrestrial crop plant-based platforms including scalable and contained growth, rapid transformation, easily obtained stable cell lines, and consistent transgene expression levels. Algae have been shown to accumulate and properly fold several vaccine antigens, and efforts are underway to create recombinant algal fusion proteins that can enhance antigenicity for effective orally-delivered vaccines. These approaches have the potential to revolutionize the way subunit vaccines are made and delivered – from costly parenteral administration of purified protein, to an inexpensive oral algae tablet with effective mucosal and system immune reactivity.

  10. Management of autotrophic mass cultures of micro-algae

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Toerien, DF

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Interest in the mass cultivation of micro-algae as feed and foodstuff has existed since the turn of the century (Robinson and Toerien, 1962). Experiments using algae in photosynthetic research (Warburg, 1919) also led to an appreciation...

  11. EnAlgae Decision Support Toolset: model validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kenny, Philip; Visser, de Chris; Skarka, Johannes; Sternberg, Kirstin; Schipperus, Roelof; Silkina, Alla; Ginnever, Naomi

    2015-01-01

    One of the drivers behind the EnAlgae project is recognising and addressing the need for increased availability of information about developments in applications of algae biotechnology for energy, particularly in the NW Europe area, where activity has been less intense than in other areas of the

  12. Evaluation of the activated carbon prepared from the algae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of the activated carbon prepared from the algae Gracilaria for the biosorption of Cu(II) from aqueous solutions. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... This study shows the benefit of using activated carbon from marine red algae as a low cost sorbent for the removal of copper from aqueous solution wastewater.

  13. Rare species of fungi parasiting on algae. III.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Z. Kadłubowska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The investigations csrried out on algae revealed the following species of fungi from the order of Chytridialis Hawksworth et al. (1995 parasitizing on algae: Rhizophydium subgulosum, R. ganlosporum, R. planctonicum, Entophlyctis rhizina and Harpochytrium hedinii. These species arc new to Poland. The figure of resting spore of Entophlyctis rhizina is the fint graphic documentation of this species.

  14. Rare species of fungi parasiting on algae. III.

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Z. Kadłubowska

    2014-01-01

    The investigations csrried out on algae revealed the following species of fungi from the order of Chytridialis Hawksworth et al. (1995) parasitizing on algae: Rhizophydium subgulosum, R. ganlosporum, R. planctonicum, Entophlyctis rhizina and Harpochytrium hedinii. These species arc new to Poland. The figure of resting spore of Entophlyctis rhizina is the fint graphic documentation of this species.

  15. Persistence and proliferation of some unicellular algae in drinking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drinking water systems have a complex structure and are characterised by the absence of light, the presence of disinfectants and by low levels of nutrients. Several kinds of bacteria, protozoa, algae and fungi can be found in tap water. Little is known about the ecology of algae in drinking water systems, although their ...

  16. Isolation and Characterization of Blue Green Algae from Egyptian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    meldemellawy

    2014-02-20

    Feb 20, 2014 ... aminotransferase (AMT) domains of the mycE and ndaF genes (Jungblut et al., 2006) allowing detection of microcystin and nodularin-producing cyanobacteria. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Isolation and cultivation of blue green algae. Blue green algae had been isolated from soil of Rice field in river.

  17. 21 CFR 73.185 - Haematococcus algae meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... stabilized color additive mixture. Color additive mixtures for fish feed use made with haematococcus algae... in color additive mixtures for coloring foods. (b) Specifications. Haematococcus algae meal shall... salmonid fish in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (1) The color additive is used to...

  18. Study on the effect of irradiation on algae by proteomics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jong Il; Yoon, Yo Han; Kim, Jae Hun

    2010-06-01

    Algae has been utilized as food material from long time ago, and recently newly recognized as functional materials and the source of bio-fuel. But, the study on the algae is just beginning and the study on protein expression and growth by the change of condition was not reported. In this study, the effect of radiation on the protein expression was investigated for the protection mechanisms and new genome source and furthermore, isolation of new mutant strains. To monitor the growth of algae, absorbance and FDA staining methods were developed and the content of lipid of algae species were measured. With these methods, the radiation sensitivity of algae species was determined. To investigate the proteome of algae, 2D-electrophoresis methods was applied. From the comparison of proteomes, the radiation specific expressed protein was identified as thioredoxin-h and its nucleotide sequences was defined. The expression of thioredoxin-h was further defined on the mRNA level. Also, the extract of algae species was analyzed for its antioxidant activity and polyphenolic content. The changes in antioxidant activity of extract by radiation was investigated. From the radiation experiments, mutant Spirogyra species having higher resistant against radical stress was obtained. The mutant strain has higher antioxidant activity. This results can provide the proteome date and mutation technology of algae and further contribute in the activation of fishery industry and national health enhancement

  19. Algae Cultivation for Carbon Capture and Utilization Workshop Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-05-01

    The Algae Cultivation for Carbon Capture and Utilization Workshop Summary Report summarizes a workshop hosted by the U.S. Department of Energy's Bioenergy Technologies Office on May 23–24, 2017, in Orlando, Florida. The event gathered stakeholder input through facilitated discussions focused on innovative technologies and business strategies for growing algae on waste carbon dioxide resources.

  20. Efficiency of using green algae as biological controllers against toxic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficiency of using green algae as biological controllers against toxic algal taxa in cultured ... of two green algal species as biological control of the growth of toxic blue-green algae. ... African Journal of Aquatic Science 2014, 39(4): 443–450 ...

  1. Resposta das algas perifíticas às alterações de temperatura e ao enriquecimento artificial de nutrientes em curto período de tempo - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i3.1627 Periphytic algae response to temperature changes and artificial nutrient enrichment - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i3.1627

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Rodrigues

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available O estudo visou avaliar, em um experimento de mesocosmos, a influência da temperatura e de concentrações de nutrientes na abundância das algas perifíticas (exceto Bacillariophyceae na planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná. O delineamento experimental constituiu-se de cinco tratamentos: controle (C e adição de nutrientes (P+, N+ e NP+ a 25°C, e frio (F com diminuição da temperatura a 15°C e sem adição de nutrientes. Lâminas de vidro foram utilizadas para colonização das algas perifíticas, e as amostragens foram feitas entre o 15° e o 31° dia de sucessão. Pela Análise de Correspondência Canônica, pode-se observar uma clara separação entre os tratamentos devido à temperatura e adição de nutrientes. A diminuição de temperatura afetou a abundância das classes de algas perifíticas, principalmente pela redução da densidade relativa de Cyanophyceae e aumento de Zygnemaphyceae. O enriquecimento artificial de nutrientes, principalmente P, alterou a estrutura da comunidade de algas perifíticas, em termos de densidade das classes algais. As densidades relativas das classes, em geral, aumentaram com a adição de nutrientes. O fósforo pode ser considerado direcionador na densidade das algas perifíticas, como pode ser observado pela rápida resposta após os enriquecimentos artificiais.This study set out to evaluate, via a mesocosm experiment, the influence of the temperature and concentration of nutrients (N and P in the abundance of periphytic algae (except Bacillariophyceae of the upper Paraná river floodplain. The experiment was designed using 5 treatments: a control (C, added nutrients (P+, N+, NP+ at 25°C, and without added nutrients at 15°C. Glass slides were used for periphytic algae colonization, and the samples were taken on the 15th and 31st days following colonization. Canonical Correspondence Analysis revealed a clear separation among treatment groups due to temperature and added nutrients. A decrease

  2. Recent Advances in Marine Algae Polysaccharides: Isolation, Structure, and Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shu-Ying; Huang, Xuesong; Cheong, Kit-Leong

    2017-12-13

    Marine algae have attracted a great deal of interest as excellent sources of nutrients. Polysaccharides are the main components in marine algae, hence a great deal of attention has been directed at isolation and characterization of marine algae polysaccharides because of their numerous health benefits. In this review, extraction and purification approaches and chemico-physical properties of marine algae polysaccharides (MAPs) are summarized. The biological activities, which include immunomodulatory, antitumor, antiviral, antioxidant, and hypolipidemic, are also discussed. Additionally, structure-function relationships are analyzed and summarized. MAPs' biological activities are closely correlated with their monosaccharide composition, molecular weights, linkage types, and chain conformation. In order to promote further exploitation and utilization of polysaccharides from marine algae for functional food and pharmaceutical areas, high efficiency, and low-cost polysaccharide extraction and purification methods, quality control, structure-function activity relationships, and specific mechanisms of MAPs activation need to be extensively investigated.

  3. Uptake of americium-241 by algae and bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geisy, J P; Paine, D

    1978-01-01

    Algae and bacteria are important factors in the transport and mobilization of elements in the biosphere. These factors may be involved in trophic biomagnification, resulting in a potential human hazard or environmental degradation. Although americium, one of the most toxic elements known, is not required for plant growth, it may be concentrated by algae and bacteria. Therefore, the availability of americium-241 to algae and bacteria was studied to determine their role in the ultimate fate of this element released into the environment. Both algae and bacteria concentrated americium-241 to a high degree, making them important parts of the biomagnification process. The ability to concentrate americium-241 makes algae and bacteria potentially significant factors in cycling this element in the water column. (4 graphs, numerous references, 3 tables)

  4. Investigation about Role of Algae in Kazeroon Sasan Spring Odor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Hamzeian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: As odor for potable water is unpleasant for costumers, it needs to do researches for finding the reasons of odorous water. Sasan spring that is located in, near kazeroon city, Fars, Iran, is potable water resource for Kazeroon and Booshehr city and many other villages. Water in Sasan spring has the odor problem. With regards to important   role of algae on ado r problems in this study the role of algae on   odor was investigated. Methods: After regular sampling, the TON (threshold odor number was indicated and algae species was distinguished and the number of total algae and any species  of algae was numbers by microscopic direct numbering method .as the algae mass  is related to nitrogen and phosphor concentration, results of concentration Of nitrogen and phosphor in this spring that was examined regularity by water company was investigated and compared to concentration of these component that are need for algae growing.   Results: results shows that TON was in range  of 4.477 to 6.2 that indicated  oderous limit . Regression and diagram between TON and number of total algae showed the linear relationship. The concentration of nitrogen and phosphor, showed adequate condition for algal grow. Result of determination of algae species showed high population of Oscilatoria and Microcystis species, which are known as essential case of mold odor in water resources. Investigation on geological maps in the region around the Sasan spring, show alluvium source and is effected by surface part of it’s around land. Conclusion: because of the algae was determined as the essential cause of odor   in the spring, and algal growth is related to nutrients, and because of the surface pollution can penetrate in the alluvium lands around the spring, and effect the water in spring, so nutrient control and management is the essential way for odor control in the spring.

  5. Phycobiliproteins: A Novel Green Tool from Marine Origin Blue-Green Algae and Red Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Rashmi; Parra, Roberto; Iqbal, Hafiz M N

    2017-01-01

    Marine species are comprising about a half of the whole global biodiversity; the sea offers an enormous resource for novel bioactive compounds. Several of the marine origin species show multifunctional bioactivities and characteristics that are useful for a discovery and/or reinvention of biologically active compounds. For millennia, marine species that includes cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) and red algae have been targeted to explore their enormous potential candidature status along with a wider spectrum of novel applications in bio- and non-bio sectors of the modern world. Among them, cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes, phylogenetically a primitive group of Gramnegative prokaryotes, ranging from Arctic to Antarctic regions, capable of carrying out photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation. In the recent decade, a great deal of research attention has been paid on the pronouncement of bio-functional proteins along with novel peptides, vitamins, fine chemicals, renewable fuel and bioactive compounds, e.g., phycobiliproteins from marine species, cyanobacteria and red algae. Interestingly, they are extensively commercialized for natural colorants in food and cosmetics, antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, hepatoprotective agents and fluorescent neo-glycoproteins as probes for single particle fluorescence imaging fluorescent applications in clinical and immunological analysis. However, a comprehensive knowledge and technological base for augmenting their commercial utilities are lacking. Therefore, this paper will provide an overview of the phycobiliproteins-based research literature from marine cyanobacteria and red algae. This review is also focused towards analyzing global and commercial activities with application oriented-based research. Towards the end, the information is also given on the potential biotechnological and biomedical applications of phycobiliproteins. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please

  6. Antibiotic Algae by Chemical Surface Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerschgens, Isabel P; Gademann, Karl

    2018-03-02

    Chemical cell-surface engineering is a tool for modifying and altering cellular functions. Herein, we report the introduction of an antibiotic phenotype to the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by chemically modifying its cell surface. Flow cytometry and confocal microscopy studies demonstrated that a hybrid of the antibiotic vancomycin and a 4-hydroxyproline oligomer binds reversibly to the cell wall without affecting the viability or motility of the cells. The modified cells were used to inhibit bacterial growth of Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis cultures. Delivery of the antibiotic from the microalgae to the bacterial cells was verified by microscopy. Our studies provide compelling evidence that 1) chemical surface engineering constitutes a useful tool for the introduction of new, previously unknown functionality, and 2) living microalgae can serve as new platforms for drug delivery. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. The economics of producing biodiesel from algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallagher, Brian J. [Ecotonics Environmental Scientists, 1801 Century Park East, Suite 2400, Los Angeles, CA 90067 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    Biodiesel is an alternative fuel for conventional diesel that is made from natural plant oils, animal fats, and waste cooking oils. This paper discusses the economics of producing biodiesel fuel from algae grown in open ponds. There is potential for large-scale production of biodiesel from algal farms on non-arable land; however, previous studies have failed to demonstrate an economically viable process that could be scalable to a commercialized industry. The problems include inconsistent and insufficient algal productivities, uncertain capital and operating costs, volatile market prices and unknown levels of government support. Although intensive work is being done on many technological issues, the economic studies and data are incomplete and out of date. This paper presents an updated financial analysis of the production and economic conditions that could have a profound effect on the success of this important alternative fuel production process. (author)

  8. The economics of producing biodiesel from algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, Brian J.

    2011-01-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative fuel for conventional diesel that is made from natural plant oils, animal fats, and waste cooking oils. This paper discusses the economics of producing biodiesel fuel from algae grown in open ponds. There is potential for large-scale production of biodiesel from algal farms on non-arable land; however, previous studies have failed to demonstrate an economically viable process that could be scalable to a commercialized industry. The problems include inconsistent and insufficient algal productivities, uncertain capital and operating costs, volatile market prices and unknown levels of government support. Although intensive work is being done on many technological issues, the economic studies and data are incomplete and out of date. This paper presents an updated financial analysis of the production and economic conditions that could have a profound effect on the success of this important alternative fuel production process. (author)

  9. A screening method for cardiovascular active compounds in marine algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agatonovic-Kustrin, S; Kustrin, E; Angove, M J; Morton, D W

    2018-05-18

    The interaction of bioactive compounds from ethanolic extracts of selected marine algae samples, separated on chromatographic plates, with nitric/nitrous acid was investigated. The nature of bioactive compounds in the marine algae extracts was characterised using UV absorption spectra before and after reaction with diluted nitric acid, and from the characteristic colour reaction after derivatization with anisaldehyde. It was found that diterpenes from Dictyota dichotoma, an edible brown algae, and sterols from green algae Caulerpa brachypus, bind nitric oxide and may act as a nitric oxide carrier. Although the carotenoid fucoxanthin, found in all brown marine algae also binds nitric oxide, the bonds between nitrogen and the fucoxanthin molecule are much stronger. Further studies are required to evaluate the effects of diterpenes from Dictyota dichotoma and sterols from green algae Caulerpa brachypus to see if they have beneficial cardiovascular effects. The method reported here should prove useful in screening large numbers of algae species for compounds with cardiovascular activity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Isoprenoid biosynthesis in eukaryotic phototrophs: A spotlight on algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohr M.; Schwender J.; Polle, J. E. W.

    2012-04-01

    Isoprenoids are one of the largest groups of natural compounds and have a variety of important functions in the primary metabolism of land plants and algae. In recent years, our understanding of the numerous facets of isoprenoid metabolism in land plants has been rapidly increasing, while knowledge on the metabolic network of isoprenoids in algae still lags behind. Here, current views on the biochemistry and genetics of the core isoprenoid metabolism in land plants and in the major algal phyla are compared and some of the most pressing open questions are highlighted. Based on the different evolutionary histories of the various groups of eukaryotic phototrophs, we discuss the distribution and regulation of the mevalonate (MVA) and the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathways in land plants and algae and the potential consequences of the loss of the MVA pathway in groups such as the green algae. For the prenyltransferases, serving as gatekeepers to the various branches of terpenoid biosynthesis in land plants and algae, we explore the minimal inventory necessary for the formation of primary isoprenoids and present a preliminary analysis of their occurrence and phylogeny in algae with primary and secondary plastids. The review concludes with some perspectives on genetic engineering of the isoprenoid metabolism in algae.

  11. Utilizaçao de tecnicas fotometricas para estudo do branqueamento e da quantidade de algas simbiontes em colonias coralinas

    OpenAIRE

    Clauber Bonalume

    2006-01-01

    Resumo: Corais marinhos do mundo inteiro estão ameaçados pelas alterações climáticas que vêm acontecendo nas duas últimas décadas. O aquecimento da superfície terrestre associado à intensificação do fenômeno El Niño têm causado prejuízos à saúde dos corais marinhos com intensidade, extensão e escala temporal sem precedentes. Quando expostos a situações de estresse ambiental, corais podem sofrer branqueamento, perdendo suas algas simbiontes, as zooxantelas, e morrer se não as recuperarem. Dest...

  12. The hunt for a Cs-137 cloud in Southern Europe. Aftermath of an accident in Algeciras, Spain; De jacht op een Cs-137-wolk in Zuid-Europa. Aftermath van een ongeval in Algeciras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hantke, T; Aldenkamp, F; Overwater, R; Slaper, H [Laboratorium voor Stralingsonderzoek, Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieuhygiene RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    1998-10-01

    In a scrap processing business in Algeciras in Spain a cesium source accidentally was melted along with the scrap in a blast-furnace of the steel industry Acerinox. The National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM, abbreviated in Dutch) measured the radioactive release on monitors in Bilthoven, Netherlands. Model calculations, in combination with measured data, show that there was no reason to warn Dutch tourists at Mallorca, Spain. The accident also is a test for the reliability of monitoring networks and distribution models

  13. Estimative of dilution factor for radioactive liquid effluents employing the H-3 and Cs-137 radiotracers present as pollutant; Estimativa do fator de diluicao para efluentes radioativos liquidos empregando os radiotracadores H-3 e Cs-137 presentes como poluentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nisti, Marcelo Bessa; Santos, Adir Janete Godoy dos, E-mail: mbnisti@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    It was estimated the dilution factor for liquid effluents at the discharge points of the IPEN, Sao Paulo, Brazil, employing as radiotracers the radioisotope routinely liberated for the sewage of 'Cidade Universitaria Armando de Salles Oliveira' - CUASO {sup 3}H and {sup 137}Cs, not generating either monetary or environmental cost associated to the estimation. The {sup 137}Cs was determined by gamma spectrometry and the {sup 3}H was determined liquid phase scintillation. The results showed that the dilution factor varied according to the employed radiotracer in a crescent order of {sup 3}H and {sup 137}Cs according to the characteristics of each element. The average of dilution factors obtained at the first and second liberation day were 4.3 and 7.4 respectively for the {sup 3}H and 6.2 and 13.9 for the {sup 137}Cs. The ratio of dilution factors of calculated {sup 3}H and {sup 137}Cs were coherent with the ratio verified at the twelve hydrometers distributed by the IPEN campus. The dilution factors were estimated in operational and laboratory study, in a single controlled discharge of the TR1 tank

  14. Photophysiology and cellular composition of sea ice algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lizotte, M.P.

    1989-01-01

    The productivity of sea ice algae depends on their physiological capabilities and the environmental conditions within various microhabitats. Pack ice is the dominant form of sea ice, but the photosynthetic activity of associated algae has rarely been studied. Biomass and photosynthetic rates of ice algae of the Weddell-Scotia Sea were investigated during autumn and winter, the period when ice cover grows from its minimum to maximum. Biomass-specific photosynthetic rates typically ranged from 0.3 to 3.0 μg C · μg chl -1 · h -1 higher than land-fast ice algae but similar to Antarctic phytoplankton. Primary production in the pack ice during winter may be minor compared to annual phytoplankton production, but could represent a vital seasonal contribution to the Antarctic ecosystem. Nutrient supply may limit the productivity of ice algae. In McMurdo Sound, congelation ice algae appeared to be more nutrient deficient than underlying platelet ice algae based on: lower nitrogen:carbon, chlorophyll:carbon, and protein:carbohydrate; and 14 C-photosynthate distribution to proteins and phospholipids was lower, while distribution to polysaccharides and neutral lipids was higher. Depletion of nitrate led to decreased nitrogen:carbon, chlorophyll:carbon, protein:carbohydrate, and 14 C-photosynthate to proteins. Studied were conducted during the spring bloom; therefore, nutrient limitation may only apply to dense ice algal communities. Growth limiting conditions may be alleviated when algae are released into seawater during the seasonal recession of the ice cover. To continue growth, algae must adapt to the variable light field encountered in a mixed water column. Photoadaptation was studied in surface ice communities and in bottom ice communities

  15. Photobiological hydrogen production with switchable photosystem-II designer algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, James Weifu

    2014-02-18

    A process for enhanced photobiological H.sub.2 production using transgenic alga. The process includes inducing exogenous genes in a transgenic alga by manipulating selected environmental factors. In one embodiment inducing production of an exogenous gene uncouples H.sub.2 production from existing mechanisms that would downregulate H.sub.2 production in the absence of the exogenous gene. In other embodiments inducing an exogenous gene triggers a cascade of metabolic changes that increase H.sub.2 production. In some embodiments the transgenic alga are rendered non-regenerative by inducing exogenous transgenes for proton channel polypeptides that are targeted to specific algal membranes.

  16. Dinitrogen fixation by blue-green algae from paddy fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Joseph

    1977-01-01

    Recent work using radioactive nitrogen on the blue-green algae of paddy fields has been reviewed. These algae fix dinitrogen and photoassimilate carbon evolving oxygen, thereby augmenting nitrogen and carbon status of the soil and also providing oxygen to the water-logged rice paddies. Further studies using radioactive isotopes 13 N, 24 Na and 22 Na on their nitrogen fixation, nitrogen assimilation pathways; regulation of nitrogenase, heterocysts production and sporulation and sodium transport and metabolism have been carried out and reported. The field application of blue green algae for N 2 fixation was found to increase the status of soil nitrogen and yield of paddy. (M.G.B.)

  17. Macro-economics of algae products : Output WP2A7.02

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voort, van der M.P.J.; Vulsteke, E.; Visser, de C.L.M.

    2015-01-01

    This report is part of the EnAlgae Workpackage 2, Action 7, directed at the economics of algae production. The goal of this report is to highlight potential markets for algae. Per type of algae market the market size, product alternatives, constraints and prices are highlighted. Based on these

  18. CS-137 in Austrian domestic animals: determination of transfer parameters and meat contamination by live animal measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henrich, E.

    1987-01-01

    Soon after the Chernobyl accident several programs were initiated by provincial and federal authorities to check the validity of transfer factors and biological lifetimes as given in the literature; to test the possibility of reducing the cesium content in meat and milk by chemical agents; and to determine the cesium content of meat in live animals to assist of slaughtering decisions. Details and results of these programs are presented. 1 tab., 3 figs., 9 refs. (qui)

  19. An Assessment of Cs-137, R-226 and Pa-239, 240 doses for aquatic and terrestrial reference organisms in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krajewski, P.; Suplinska, M.; Rosiak, I.

    2004-01-01

    The doses assessment for aquatic and terrestrial reference organisms was performed, based on the methodology elaborated by U.S. Department of Energy. Four organism types and their corresponding dose limits were used, and the principal exposure pathways were considered for aquatic animal, riparian animal, terrestrial plant, and terrestrial animal organism types respectively. Terrestrial rodent (apodemus flavicollis), Baltic Sea fish (cod, sprat, herring, plaice) and crustaceans (Sanduria entomon and Mytilus edulis) were taken in to special consideration. In the first screening approach the annual doses from 137Cs and 239Pu (bomb-tests-fallout and Czarnobyl origin) and 226Ra (natural radionuclide) to biota were calculated at average, minimum and maximum concentrations of these radionuclides observed in soil, water, and sediment using the default bioaccumulation factors as well as lumped parameters values recommended by DOE Standard. The concentrations of 137Cs measured in the most contaminated region in Poland (Stare Olesno 380 Bqxkg-1 d.w.) and the concentrations of 226Ra for Southern regions of Poland with elevated levels of 226Ra in soil (100 B kg-1 d.w.) were taken in the dose assessment for terrestrial animals. The concentrations of 137Cs and 239Pu and 226Ra determined in see water and bottom sediments from two sub-areas (Gdansk Basin and Bornholm Basin) were used in the dose assessment for aquatic biota. In the second ''site specific'' approach the average empirically measured concentrations of radionuclides in animal tissues were used. At the first approach the total maximal annual doses for terrestrial plants were less then one percent of the recommended dose limits ( 3600 mGyxy-1 ) and items for seawater organisms did not exceed a 40% of this limit whereas the total maximal annual doses for terrestrial animal were close to the recommended dose limit (360 mGyxy-1). It prompted to start supplementary site-specific biota dose assessment through site-specific screening and apply site-representative parameters and conditions, withe empirically derived concentration ratios: animal tissue to water, animal tissue to sediment and animal tissue to soil. In this case the calculated annual doses for seawater organisms and terrestrial animals did not exceed one percent and ten percent of the relevant limit respectively. The default animal-water bioaccumulation ratios and animal-soil lump parameter values that are provided by screening methodology can be used with caution when they are applied to dose evaluation for biota. (Author) 17 refs

  20. Simultaneous determination of soil density and moisture by gamma ray attenuation from Cs137 and Am241

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros Ferraz, E.S. de.

    1974-09-01

    The method of simultaneous bulk density and soil moisture determination by attenuation of 241 Am and 137 Cs gamma-radiation is introduced and studied with details. Theoretical considerations are made about the attenuation process in the absorbers, the form of solving the problem of two unknowns; the sensitivity of the method; the influences of the resolution time of the electronic counting equipment, and of the compton scattering in the sample. From the methodological point of view studies are made about the influence of the geometry, adjustment of counting system, choice of radiation sources, attenuation coeficients and the manner of obtaining reliable measurements. It is also presented some applications of the method, its use in soil-water movement studies, in soil profile compaction studies, and specially in swelling soils

  1. Study on behavior of Cs-137 and Pu-239, 240 in lake and marine environments on basis of sediment analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagao, Seiya

    1998-01-01

    An investigation was made on the sediment mechanisms of artificial radioactive isotopes in relation to environmental factors through utilizing the differences in deposition behaviors of 137 Cs and 239,240 Pu. Cumulus deposit samples were collected from 4 lake and 7 ocean areas of different environmental and deposit conditions; oligotrophic, mesotrophic, acidtrophic and dystrophic lakes, and coastal and hemipelagic ocean areas. After purification of these deposit samples using ionchromatography, β-ray from 137 Cs and α-ray from Pu were spectroscopically determined to plat the respective concentration as a function of the depth in core. Based on the data of mean ratio of 239,240 Pu/ 137 Cs as to the organic sulfides and residual fractions and the total deposits, it was thought that when the ratio of Pu/Cs of lake deposits was higher than the fallout value, organic materials in the lake might be involved. Pu was mostly abundant in organic fractions compared with Cs, whereas Cs was present in all the four fractions of carbonates, oxides, organic materials and aluminosilicates. (M.N.)

  2. Plants as Bio-monitor Agents: Foliar Deposition of Be-7, Pb-210, K-40 and Cs-137

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Antonio Carlos de; Brito, Lavinia C; Tanizaki, Kenny F; Lima, Rafaela; Paschoa, Anselmo S [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Laboratorio de Radioecologia e Mudancas Globais (LARAMG)-Rua Sao Francisco Xavier 524, Pavilhao Haroldo Lisboa da Cunha Subsolo, Maracana-20550-013, Rio de Janeiro-RJ (Brazil); Franco, Marcia [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Bioquimica Medica, Laboratorio de Bioquimica de Insetos, Rio de Janeiro-RJ (Brazil)

    2008-08-07

    Leaves of Eremanthus crotonoides, Allagoptera arenaria, Byrsonima sericea, Tibouchina sp, Tocoyena bullata and Clusia hilariana were collected under the same climatic in an area of restinga in the Northeast of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The activity concentrations of selected radionuclides in the leaves samples were determined. The results obtained have shown a high concentration of {sup 7}Be and {sup 40}K in E. crotonoides, {sup 210}Pb in T. bullata and {sup 137}Cs in Tibouchina sp. The high activity concentration of {sup 7}Be in E. crotonoides can be explained by the presence of trichomes in the leaves. E. crotonoides and T. bullata reveal high foliar deposition of {sup 7}Be and {sup 210}Pb, respectively, thus these species can be used as bio-monitors to evaluate the concentration and dispersion of radionuclides in environmental studies.

  3. Geostatistical mapping of Cs-137 contamination depth in building structures by integrating ISOCS measurements of different spatial supports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boden, S.; Jacques, D. [Institute for Environment, Health and Safety, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK-CEN), Boeretang 200, BE-2400, Mol (Belgium); Rogiers, B. [Dept. of Earth and Environmental Sciences, KU Leuven - University of Leuven Celestijnenlaan 200e - bus 2410, BE-3001, Leuven (Belgium)

    2013-07-01

    Reliable methods to determine the contamination depth in nuclear building structures are very much needed for minimizing the radioactive waste volume and the decontamination workload. This paper investigates the geostatistical integration of in situ gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements of different spatial supports. A case study is presented from the BR3 decommissioning project, yielding an estimated reduction of waste volume of ∼35%, and recommendations are made for future application of the proposed methodology. (authors)

  4. Application of environmental Cs-137 techniques to problems of sediment redistribution Sungai Lui Representative Basin, Selangor, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daud bin Mohamad; Moo Siew Pheng.

    1980-10-01

    Secondary standard dosimetry laboratory (UPDK), Nuclear Energy Unit, is well equipped with all necessary irradiation facilities and radiation measuring devices. The establishment of the Laboratory is partly aimed at giving calibration services for all kinds of dosemeters, personnel radiation monitoring by using film badges and TLD etc. In running the above services, safe and correct handling procedures of the mentioned facilities and devices are necessary. Furthermore, the accuracy of measurements is of great importance. This report outlined the procedures of handling the equipment, of performing experimental works as well as of getting the mentioned services from UPDK. This report is referred as a guide containing all the standard procedures aiming at a safety operation of radiation and electrical devices and finally to achieve a high degree of dosimetric accuracies. (author)

  5. Cs-137 in freshwater fish in Finland, Norway and Faroe Islands with examples of ecological half-times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxen, R. [STUK (Finland); Liland, A.; Thoerring, H. [NRPA (Norway); Joensen, H.P. [Frodskaparsetur Foeroya (Faroe Islands)

    2005-07-01

    The deposition from Chernobyl in spring 1986 was most unevenly distributed in Finland and elevated the {sup 137}Cs contents of freshwater fishes significantly. Finland can be divided into five categories on the basis of the average deposition of {sup 137}Cs in each municipality. High activity concentrations of {sup 137}Cs still occur in fish in certain Finnish lakes in the areas of the highest deposition. The observed ecological half-times of {sup 137}Cs in perch in certain Finnish lakes varied by a factor of about three. The longest halftime of {sup 137}Cs in perch was approximately 9 years and the shortest approximately 3 years, determined for the time period of 1988-2002. The Norwegian lakes differ also from each other with respect to the decrease rates of {sup 137}Cs in fish. In some cases there were clearly two components in the reduction of {sup 137}Cs. Ecological half-times of {sup 137}Cs in trout and Arctic char varied from 1.4 y to 4.7 y in 1988-1994. There is an indication of somewhat more rapid reduction of {sup 137}Cs in fish in certain Norwegian lakes compared to Finnish ones, although ecological half-times for the Norwegian and for the Finnish lakes were estimated for different time intervals in the examples, and are thus not directly comparable. (au)

  6. Wash-off of Sr-90 and Cs-137 from two experimental plots. Model testing using Chernobyl data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konoplev, A.; Bulgakov, A.; Hoffman, O.; Thiessen, K.

    1996-09-01

    Surface water runoff from contaminated land is one of the major processes responsible for the contamination of water bodies. For example, the large area of land contaminated after the Chernobyl accident has become a continuing source of radionuclide contamination for natural waters and the aquatic ecosystem. Based on data from the Chernobyl accident, the 'Wash-off' scenario was developed to provide an opportunity to test models concerned with the movement of trace contaminants from terrestrial sources to water bodies. In particular, this scenario provides an opportunity for (1) evaluation of the movement of contaminants from soil to water, (2) calculation of the alteration and migration of contaminants in soil over different time scales, (3) increased understanding of contaminant transport at the process level, and (4) development and use of methods for estimation of key parameters. Modelers were provided with descriptions of two experimental plots near the Chernobyl NPP, one using simulated heavy rain (plot HR) and one using snow melt (plot SM). Initial information for plot HR included soil properties; hydrographs of rainfall and runoff dynamics; the time of application of rainfall; rainfall amounts, duration, and intensities; soil moisture content before the application of rainfall; regional data on average monthly precipitation and temperature; recorded information on naturally occurring precipitation between May and October 1986; and chemical forms of radionuclides in the soil of the plots prior to the experiments. Information for plot SM included the soil description and properties, snow storage in the snow melt period of 1988, chemical composition of the snow water, a hydrograph of the runoff dynamics, chemical radionuclide forms in the soil at the end of the experiment, and air and soil temperatures for the plot during the snow melt period. For each experimental plot, modelers were requested to estimate the vertical distribution of radionuclides (137 Cs and 90 Sr) in the soil prior to the experiments and the percentages of exchangeable and nonexchangeable forms of each radionuclide at that time. For plot HR, modelers were requested to estimate the total concentrations of each radionuclide in surface runoff during each part of the experiment, the percentages of each radionuclide in dissolved and particulate forms for each experiment, and the total amounts of each radionuclide lost from the experimental plot during the experiments and 24 hours afterward. For plot SM, modelers were requested to estimate the total concentrations of each radionuclide in surface runoff during the periods of peak flow and minimum flow, the percentages of each radionuclide in dissolved and particulate forms for each time period, and the total amount of each radionuclide lost from the experimental plot. All predictions were to be provided as best estimates with 95% subjective confidence intervals about the best estimates. A total of five modelers from five different countries participated in the test exercise. All five submitted predictions for plot HR; two also submitted predictions for plot SM. Complete descriptions of the modelers' results are provided in the report, together with a discussion of their performance as compared to the actual measurements (test data) and the sources of uncertainty in the model predictions. In general, predictive accuracy of the models could be improved (and the uncertainty in the predictions reduced) by (1) improvement of model structure to include all relevant mechanisms; (2) better description of migration processes, e.g., the vertical transport of different chemical forms in the soil and their transformation processes; and (3) increased use and improvement of methods for physically based estimation of parameter values for the situation being modelled. In addition to the complete scenario description and the results and discussion of the model testing exercise, this report contains the test data (measured midpoints and endpoints) and descriptions of the modelling approach used by each participant in the exercise

  7. Beef contamination by Cs-134 and Cs-137 in Japan, from the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelecom, Alphonse; Cruz, Camila Oliveira da; Paulo Filho, Guilherme de Souza, E-mail: lararapls@hotmail.com, E-mail: camilabiouff@gmail.com, E-mail: akelecom@id.uff.br [Universidade Federal Fluminense (LARARA-PLS/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Radiobiologia e Radiometria Pedro Lopes dos Santos; Pereira, Wagner de S., E-mail: pereiraws@gmail.com [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (UNB), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Servico de Radioprotecao. Grupo Multidisciplinar de Radioprotecao

    2013-07-01

    The most serious earthquake ever registered in Japan occurred on March 11, 2011; it was followed by a tsunami that flowed over the Prefectures of Miyagi and Fukushima destroying roads, cities and rice fields, but also knocking several nuclear power plants. The Dai-ichi plant was seriously damaged and considerable amounts of radioactivity were release contaminating atmosphere, soil, ocean and associated fauna and flora. A major environmental monitoring program started covering the Japanese territory and the sea along the coasts of Miyagi, Fukushima and Ibaraki. Thousands of measurements were released every day by Japanese authorities, the plant operator and Universities principally looking for the presence of I-131, C{sub s}-134 and C{sub s}-137. Drinking water and aliments were seriously contaminated. We here analyze data released during one year on I-131 and C{sub s}-134,137 radioactive concentrations in cattle meat. Along this period I-131, when observed, was present only in trace amounts, but the contamination by cesium isotopes exceeded legal Japanese limit in several Japanese prefectures, and became an acute national and international economic problem. (author)

  8. Cs-137 in Marine Sediments of the Eastern Mediterranean from the Pre-Chernobyl Age to the Present

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florou, H.; Evangeliou, N.; Kritidis, P. [Demokritos National Center for Scientific Research, Institute of Nuclear Technology-Radiation Protection, Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory (ERL), Athens (Greece)

    2013-07-15

    A survey of the {sup 137}Cs inventory in sediments from the Greek marine environment is presented for the period 1984 to 2007, based on published and unpublished data of ERL. A retrospective summary of the {sup 137}Cs impact assessment is also attempted, based on data covering the period prior to and after Chernobyl up to 2007. Therefore, the sinking time and the ecological half-life of {sup 137}Cs are also estimated in some specific areas of the Eastern Mediterranean and the findings are compared to the deposition data of the first days of the Chernobyl impact. By evaluating all these findings and estimations, a {sup 137}Cs distribution pattern is proposed considering the Chernobyl impact as a case study in this area. (author)

  9. Determination of Sr-90, Cs-137, Na, K, Cs, Ca, Sr and Ba in Milk Powder (A-7)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    The samples were made from fresh skim milk by spray drying. The homogeneity was achieved by stirring the original liquid milk and the powder itself. No spiking with active or inactive materials was made. Each participating laboratory received 800 g sub-samples of the material. 26 participants submitted a total of 99 laboratory means and 365 results of individual determinations. Some of the laboratories submitted two different sets of results for the same radionuclides or stable elements which were obtained either by different analysts. The results are presented separately for all the radionuclides and stable elements (except cesium)

  10. Higher water plants in a lake contaminated with radionuclides: composition, distribution, reserves and accumulation of Cs-137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlyutin, A.P.; Babitskij, V.A.

    1996-01-01

    Species composition, specials distribution, seasonal pattern and accumulation of cesium-137 by aquatic plants had been investigated in the small not flowing meso trophic lake (Belarus) during vegetative season of 1993. Macrophyte phytomass storage is equal 10,56 t, and mass of its roots is 4.28 t of dry weight. Cesium-137 stock's in green mass and macrophytes roots are equal to 108.6 and 96.4 MBK respectively. Total accumulation of cesium-137 by macrophyte constituted 5% from its stock in the whole lake water mass

  11. Plants as Bio-monitor Agents: Foliar Deposition of Be-7, Pb-210, K-40 and Cs-137

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Antonio Carlos; Brito, Lavinia C.; Tanizaki, Kenny F.; Franco, Marcia; Lima, Rafaela; Paschoa, Anselmo S.

    2008-08-01

    Leaves of Eremanthus crotonoides, Allagoptera arenaria, Byrsonima sericea, Tibouchina sp, Tocoyena bullata and Clusia hilariana were collected under the same climatic in an area of restinga in the Northeast of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The activity concentrations of selected radionuclides in the leaves samples were determined. The results obtained have shown a high concentration of 7Be and 40K in E. crotonoides, 210Pb in T. bullata and 137Cs in Tibouchina sp. The high activity concentration of 7Be in E. crotonoides can be explained by the presence of trichomes in the leaves. E. crotonoides and T. bullata reveal high foliar deposition of 7Be and 210Pb, respectively, thus these species can be used as bio-monitors to evaluate the concentration and dispersion of radionuclides in environmental studies.

  12. Migration of Sr-20, Cs-137, and Pu-239/240 in Canyon below Los Alamos outfall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, J.M.; Mason, C.F.V.; Boak, J.M.; Longmire, P.A.

    1996-01-01

    Technical Area-21 (TA-21) of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is on a mesa bordered by two canyons DP Canyon and Los Alamos (LA) Canyon. DP Canyon is a small semiarid watershed with a well defined channel system where the stream flow is ephemeral. TA-21 has had a complex history of waste disposal as research to determine the chemical and metallurgical properties of nuclear materials occurred here from 1945-1978. Due to these operations, the TA-21 mesa top and bordering canyons have been monitored and characterized by the LANL Environmental Restoration Program. Results identify radionuclide values at outfall. 21-011 (k) which exceed Screening Action Levels, and points along DP Canyon which exceed regional background levels. The radiocontaminants considered in this study are strontium-90, cesium-137, and plutonium-239. This research examines sediment transport and speciation of radionuclide contaminant migration from a source term named SWMU 21-011 (k) down DP Canyon. Three dimensional surface plots of data from 1977-1994 are used to portray the transport and redistribution of radioactive contaminants in an alluvial stream channel. An overall decrease in contamination concentration since 1983 has been observed which could be due to more stringent laboratory controls and also to the removal of main plutonium processing laboratories to another site

  13. Migration of Sr-20, Cs-137, and Pu-239/240 in Canyon below Los Alamos outfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, J.M.; Mason, C.F.V.; Boak, J.M.; Longmire, P.A.

    1996-04-01

    Technical Area-21 (TA-21) of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is on a mesa bordered by two canyons DP Canyon and Los Alamos (LA) Canyon. DP Canyon is a small semiarid watershed with a well defined channel system where the stream flow is ephemeral. TA-21 has had a complex history of waste disposal as research to determine the chemical and metallurgical properties of nuclear materials occurred here from 1945-1978. Due to these operations, the TA-21 mesa top and bordering canyons have been monitored and characterized by the LANL Environmental Restoration Program. Results identify radionuclide values at outfall. 21-011 (k) which exceed Screening Action Levels, and points along DP Canyon which exceed regional background levels. The radiocontaminants considered in this study are strontium-90, cesium-137, and plutonium-239. This research examines sediment transport and speciation of radionuclide contaminant migration from a source term named SWMU 21-011 (k) down DP Canyon. Three dimensional surface plots of data from 1977-1994 are used to portray the transport and redistribution of radioactive contaminants in an alluvial stream channel. An overall decrease in contamination concentration since 1983 has been observed which could be due to more stringent laboratory controls and also to the removal of main plutonium processing laboratories to another site.

  14. Study of soil erosion deposition in Gorgak Basin Chahar Mahal-e Bakhtiary province using Cs-137 technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honarjoon, N.; Mahmoodi, Sh.; Charkhabi, A. H.; Ghafoorian, H.; Alimohammadi, A.

    2005-01-01

    In view of the many limitations associated with traditional approaches to documenting soil erosion and sedimentation rates, the potential for using fallout radionuclides as tracers in soil erosion investigations has been increasingly exploited. Most attention has been focused on cesium 137, and the successful use of this bomb-derived radionuclide in soil erosion studies has now been reported for many areas in the world. The main goal of this research was to study the Caesium 137 3-D distribution pattern within the key sites and to apply the obtained information for the assessment of soil redistribution. Hence, one transect on a hill slope in Gorgak basin of Chahar Mahal-e- Bakhtiary province was selected and studied. Soils were sampled along the transect and analyzed for Caesium 137. The estimated erosion rates was about 200 t/ha/yr for the top of the slope soil profile (the shoulder land form), and about 24.8 t/ha/yr for the middle of the slope soil profile (back slope land form). In the foot slope land form no erosion has been observed. Keywords: soil erosion, sedimentation, cesium-137, tracer, landforms, Chaharmahal-e-Bakhtiyari, fallout radionuclides

  15. Transfer of Chernobyl-derived 134Cs, 137Cs, 131I and 103Ru from flowers to honey and pollen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunzl, K.; Kracke, W.

    1988-01-01

    The activity concentrations of 137 Cs, 134 Cs, 131 I and 103 Ru were determined separately in honey and pollen samples collected from a single bee colony during several months after the deposition of Chernobyl fallout. The source of each honey and pollen sample was determined by pollen analysis. Although the activity concentrations in honey and pollen varied with time, the concentrations of 137 Cs and 134 Cs were, in general, higher in pollen than in honey. For 103 Ru and 131 I, these differences were comparatively small. The mean 131 I/ 137 Cs and 103 Ru/ 137 Cs ratios were about one order of magnitude higher in honey than in pollen. The mean 131 I/ 103 Ru ratio was about the same for honey and pollen. This observation, in the light of the corresponding nuclide ratios found in the deposition, suggests that 137 Cs, 134 Cs, 131 I and 103 Ru were taken up by the plant leaves and transported to nectar and pollen. The higher activity concentrations of 137 Cs and 134 Cs in pollen, relative to honey, indicate that these radionuclides behave analogously to potassium, which is also found in higher quantities in pollen. (author)

  16. Volume I. Environmental effects on contents of Cs-137 and Sr-90 in milk. Volume II. Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Milk, animal fodders, soils, humans, livestock, and wildlife on or near 55 dairy farms in Utah were assayed for radionuclide content. Effects of soil chemistry, water supply, plant type, farming practices, geographic location, altitude, rainfall, and other ecological differences were sought by intensive analysis. Although many analyses have not been completed, several cause-effect relationships have been defined. Wet-lands yield more 137 Cs, 131 I, or 90 Sr to milk under like conditions of fallout intensity than dry-lands. In most cases, the station with the highest yield is also practicing wet grazing. 90 Sr and 137 Cs content of milk is enhanced by sandy soils. Increased altitude and higher rainfall lead to higher yields of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in milk. Levels of 137 Cs in milk increase from south to north, and Utah can be divided into several regions, each having a characteristic level of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in milk, meat, and fodders. Poor pastures (over-grazed to the extent that stem bases are eaten and much soil is exposed) yield more 137 Cs and 90 Sr than improved pastures. Feeding green chop alfalfa or putting the animals on the meadows causes marked but temporary increases in the 90 Sr and 137 Cs content of the milk. However, the annual yield for two stations of similar ecology in the same geographic area is essentially the same. Experimental details are presented in Volume I. The appendices in Volume II are made up primarily of the data compiled at the 78 stations

  17. Support to triage and public risk perception considering long-term response to a Cs-137 radiological dispersive device scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Cristiane Ps; Souza, Cláudio J; Camerini, Eduardo Sn; Alves, Isabela S; Vital, Hélio C; Healy, Matthew Jf; Ramos De Andrade, Edson

    2018-01-01

    A radiological dispersive device (RDD) spreads radioactive material, complicates the treatment of physical injuries, raises cancer risk, and induces disproportionate fear. Simulating such an event enables more effective and efficient utilization of the triage and treatment resources of staff, facilities, and space. Fast simulation can give detail on events in progress or future events. The resources for triage and treatment of contaminated trauma victims can differ for pure exposure individuals, while discouraging the "worried well" from presenting in the crisis phase by media announcement would relieve pressure on hospital facilities. The proposed methodology integrates capabilities from different platforms in a convergent way composed of three phases: (a) scenario simulation, (b) data generation, and (c) risk assessment for triage focused on follow-up epidemiological assessment. Simulations typically indicate that most of the affected population does not require immediate medical assistance. Medical triage for the few severely injured and the radiological triage to diminish the contamination with radioactivity will always be the priority. For this study, however, higher priorities should be given to individuals from radiological "warm" and "hot" zones as required by risk criteria. The proposed methodology could thus help to (a) filter and reduce the number of individuals to be attended, (b) optimize the prioritization of medical care, (c) reduce or prepare for future costs, (d) effectively locate the operational triage site to avoid possible contamination on the main facility, and (e) provide the scientific data needed to develop an adequate approach to risk and its proper communication.

  18. Seasonal variation of the Cs137 contamination of the tree forage of wild hoofed animals of the Pripyat National Park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uglyanets, A.V.

    2011-01-01

    In the conditions of the Republic of Belarus there were presented the results of studies of the 137Cs contamination of the tree forage of wild hoofed animals in the Pripyat national park. The parameters of this radioisotope accumulation in the shoots of different trees, shrubs, dwarf shrubs and bushes were studied in the seasonal and edaphic aspects, and their influencing factors were specified. The 137Cs contamination of the tree forage of wild hoofed animals was determined to be dependent on the soil pollution degree, growth conditions and species composition of plants and their proportion in the phytocenosis, as well as on the edaphic conditions and a season of the year

  19. The hunt for a Cs-137 cloud in Southern Europe. Aftermath of an accident in Algeciras, Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hantke, T.; Aldenkamp, F.; Overwater, R.; Slaper, H.

    1998-01-01

    In a scrap processing business in Algeciras in Spain a cesium source accidentally was melted along with the scrap in a blast-furnace of the steel industry Acerinox. The National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM, abbreviated in Dutch) measured the radioactive release on monitors in Bilthoven, Netherlands. Model calculations, in combination with measured data, show that there was no reason to warn Dutch tourists at Mallorca, Spain. The accident also is a test for the reliability of monitoring networks and distribution models

  20. Beef contamination by Cs-134 and Cs-137 in Japan, from the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelecom, Alphonse; Cruz, Camila Oliveira da; Paulo Filho, Guilherme de Souza; Pereira, Wagner de S.

    2013-01-01

    The most serious earthquake ever registered in Japan occurred on March 11, 2011; it was followed by a tsunami that flowed over the Prefectures of Miyagi and Fukushima destroying roads, cities and rice fields, but also knocking several nuclear power plants. The Dai-ichi plant was seriously damaged and considerable amounts of radioactivity were release contaminating atmosphere, soil, ocean and associated fauna and flora. A major environmental monitoring program started covering the Japanese territory and the sea along the coasts of Miyagi, Fukushima and Ibaraki. Thousands of measurements were released every day by Japanese authorities, the plant operator and Universities principally looking for the presence of I-131, C s -134 and C s -137. Drinking water and aliments were seriously contaminated. We here analyze data released during one year on I-131 and C s -134,137 radioactive concentrations in cattle meat. Along this period I-131, when observed, was present only in trace amounts, but the contamination by cesium isotopes exceeded legal Japanese limit in several Japanese prefectures, and became an acute national and international economic problem. (author)

  1. Estimative of dilution factor for radioactive liquid effluents employing the H-3 and Cs-137 radiotracers present as pollutant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisti, Marcelo Bessa; Santos, Adir Janete Godoy dos

    2011-01-01

    It was estimated the dilution factor for liquid effluents at the discharge points of the IPEN, Sao Paulo, Brazil, employing as radiotracers the radioisotope routinely liberated for the sewage of 'Cidade Universitaria Armando de Salles Oliveira' - CUASO 3 H and 137 Cs, not generating either monetary or environmental cost associated to the estimation. The 137 Cs was determined by gamma spectrometry and the 3 H was determined liquid phase scintillation. The results showed that the dilution factor varied according to the employed radiotracer in a crescent order of 3 H and 137 Cs according to the characteristics of each element. The average of dilution factors obtained at the first and second liberation day were 4.3 and 7.4 respectively for the 3 H and 6.2 and 13.9 for the 137 Cs. The ratio of dilution factors of calculated 3 H and 137 Cs were coherent with the ratio verified at the twelve hydrometers distributed by the IPEN campus. The dilution factors were estimated in operational and laboratory study, in a single controlled discharge of the TR1 tank

  2. Analyzing Cs-137 and Cs-134 concentration in mosses samples in Campania region. Italy after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontana, C.; Aebischer, M.L.

    1996-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident caused an exceptional relapse of radioactive material. The consequent fallout it in several European countries, including Italy. Term and height of aeriform effluent radioactivity admitted into the atmosphere, the distance of place of origin and the variability of meteorologic qualifications existence (wind, rain, etc...), determined the level of contamination of radioactivity in the air with a consequent deposition of soil much variable depending on space and time. Following the Chernobyl accident the situation of artificial deposition in Italy is considerably changed. In order to obtain arrange a new map of contamination of radioactivity in the soil. All over Italian territory has been organized radioecological campaign to arrange a new zero point. (author)

  3. Plants as Bio-monitor Agents: Foliar Deposition of Be-7, Pb-210, K-40 and Cs-137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, Antonio Carlos de; Brito, Lavinia C.; Tanizaki, Kenny F.; Lima, Rafaela; Paschoa, Anselmo S.; Franco, Marcia

    2008-01-01

    Leaves of Eremanthus crotonoides, Allagoptera arenaria, Byrsonima sericea, Tibouchina sp, Tocoyena bullata and Clusia hilariana were collected under the same climatic in an area of restinga in the Northeast of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The activity concentrations of selected radionuclides in the leaves samples were determined. The results obtained have shown a high concentration of 7 Be and 40 K in E. crotonoides, 210 Pb in T. bullata and 137 Cs in Tibouchina sp. The high activity concentration of 7 Be in E. crotonoides can be explained by the presence of trichomes in the leaves. E. crotonoides and T. bullata reveal high foliar deposition of 7 Be and 210 Pb, respectively, thus these species can be used as bio-monitors to evaluate the concentration and dispersion of radionuclides in environmental studies

  4. Scenario analysis of large scale algae production in tubular photobioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slegers, P.M.; Beveren, van P.J.M.; Wijffels, R.H.; Straten, van G.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2013-01-01

    Microalgae productivity in tubular photobioreactors depends on algae species, location, tube diameter, biomass concentration, distance between tubes and for vertically stacked systems, the number of horizontal tubes per stack. A simulation model for horizontal and vertically stacked horizontal

  5. Kalaärimeeste kohus algas venitamisega / Hindrek Riikoja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Riikoja, Hindrek

    2007-01-01

    Harju maakohtus algas kohtuprotsess veterinaar- ja toiduameti endise asejuhi Vladimir Razumovski väidetava altkäemaksuvõtmise üle, kus on süüdistavaid eraisikuid ja ettevõtjaid. Lisa: Kes on kohtu all?

  6. The role of algae in agriculture: a mathematical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, P K; Misra, A K; Venturino, Ezio

    2017-06-01

    Synthetic fertilizers and livestock manure are nowadays widely used in agriculture to improve crop yield but nitrogen and phosphorous runoff resulting from their use compromises water quality and contributes to eutrophication phenomena in waterbeds within the countryside and ultimately in the ocean. Alternatively, algae could play an important role in agriculture where they can be used as biofertilizers and soil stabilizers. To examine the possible reuse of the detritus generated by dead algae as fertilizer for crops, we develop three mathematical models building upon each other. A system is proposed in which algae recover waste nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) for reuse in agricultural production. The results of our study show that in so doing, the crop yield may be increased and simultaneously the density of algae in the lake may be reduced. This could be a way to mitigate and possibly solve the environmental and economic issues nowadays facing agriculture.

  7. Modelization of tritium transfer into the organic compartments of algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonotto, S.; Gerber, G.B.; Arapis, G.; Kirchmann, R.

    1982-01-01

    Uptake of tritium oxide and its conversion into organic tritium was studied in four different types of algae with widely varying size and growth characteristics (Acetabularia acetabulum, Boergesenia forbesii, two strains of Chlamydomonas and Dunaliella bioculata). Water in the cell and the vacuales equilibrates rapidly with external tritium water. Tritium is actively incorporated into organically bound form as the organisms grow. During the stationary phase, incorporation of tritium is slow. There exists a discrimination against the incorporation of tritium into organically bound form. A model has been elaborated taking in account these different factors. It appears that transfer of organic tritium by algae growing near the sites of release would be significant only for actively growing algae. Algae growing slowly may, however, be useful as cumulative indicators of discontinuous tritium release. (author)

  8. Studies on allergenic algae of Delhi area: botanical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, A; Agarwal, M K; Shivpuri, D N

    1979-04-01

    To study distribution of algae in and around Delhi aerobiological surveys were undertaken for two consecutive years (September, 1972, to August, 1974). The surveys were accomplished by (a) slide exposure method and (b) culture plate exposure method. A total of 850 slides were exposed using Durham's gravity sampling device. Of these, 560 slides were exposed during 1973 (272 slides at two meter and 288 at ten meter height) and the rest (290 slides) were exposed during 1974 at ten meter height. A total of 858 culture plates were exposed (276 for one hour and 282 for two hours) during 1973 and the rest (300 culture plates) were exposed during 1974 at ten meter height for two hours duration only. Air was found to be rich in algae flora during the months of September to November. The dominant forms of algae present were all blue greens. This might be due to the relative greater resistance of blue green algae to unfavorable conditions.

  9. Extreme Low Light Requirement for Algae Growth Underneath Sea Ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hancke, Kasper; Lund-Hansen, Lars C.; Lamare, Maxim L.

    2018-01-01

    Microalgae colonizing the underside of sea ice in spring are a key component of the Arctic foodweb as they drive early primary production and transport of carbon from the atmosphere to the ocean interior. Onset of the spring bloom of ice algae is typically limited by the availability of light......, and the current consensus is that a few tens-of-centimeters of snow is enough to prevent sufficient solar radiation to reach underneath the sea ice. We challenge this consensus, and investigated the onset and the light requirement of an ice algae spring bloom, and the importance of snow optical properties...... for light penetration. Colonization by ice algae began in May under >1 m of first-year sea ice with approximate to 1 m thick snow cover on top, in NE Greenland. The initial growth of ice algae began at extremely low irradiance (...

  10. Composition, Occurrences and Checklist of Periphyton Algae of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    `123456789jkl''''#

    The periphyton is also an important indicator of water quality (Azim et al, 2006). Attached algae are primitive plants that get their nutrients from water passing over them. ... rung in the aquatic food chain depend directly ... influence of sea water.

  11. Planktonic algae and cyanoprokaryotes as indicators of ecosystem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Planktonic algae and cyanoprokaryotes as indicators of ecosystem quality in the Mooi River system in the North-West Province, South Africa. ... is important for maintaining the quality of potable water of Potchefstroom and surrounding areas.

  12. Chemical examination of the brown alga Stoechospermum marginatum (C. Agardh)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.; DeSouza, L.; Kamat, S.Y.

    The crude methalonic extract of marine algae Stoechospermum marginatum from west coast of India was found to have spasmolytic activity. Search for the pharmacologically active compounds led to the isolation of steroids, fatty acids and an ester...

  13. The Belmont Valley integrated algae pond system in retrospect

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-26

    Mar 26, 2013 ... ness amongst all stakeholders including the public at large, the three spheres of ...... (2011) Algae biofuel from wastewater treatment high rate algal ponds. .... and OELMÜLLER R (2002) Photosynthetic electron transport.

  14. Diterpenes from the Marine Algae of the Genus Dictyota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiayun; Li, Hong; Zhao, Zishuo; Xia, Xue; Li, Bo; Zhang, Jinrong; Yan, Xiaojun

    2018-05-11

    Species of the brown algae of the genus Dictyota are rich sources of bioactive secondary metabolites with diverse structural features. Excellent progress has been made in the discovery of diterpenes possessing broad chemical defensive activities from this genus. Most of these diterpenes exhibit significant biological activities, such as antiviral, cytotoxic and chemical defensive activities. In the present review, we summarized diterpenes isolated from the brown algae of the genus.

  15. Algae Reefs in Shark Bay, Western Australia, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Numerous algae reefs are seen in Shark Bay, Western Australia, Australia (26.0S, 113.5E) especially in the southern portions of the bay. The south end is more saline because tidal flow in and out of the bay is restricted by sediment deposited at the north and central end of the bay opposite the mouth of the Wooramel River. This extremely arid region produces little sediment runoff so that the waters are very clear, saline and rich in algae.

  16. Thermal algae in certain radioactive springs in Japan, (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mifune, Masaaki; Hirose, Hiroyuki.

    1982-01-01

    Shikano Hot Springs are located at five km to the south of Hamamura Station on the Sanin Line in Tottori Prefecture. The water temperature and the pH of the springs are 40.2 - 61.2 0 C, and 7.5 - 7.8, respectively. They belong to simple thermals. Hamamura Hot Springs are located in the neighbourhood of Hamamura Station. The highest radon content of the hot springs is 175.1 x 10 -10 Ci/l, and the great part of the springs belong to radioactive ones. From the viewpoint of the major ionic constituents, they are also classified under weak salt springs, sulfated salt springs, and simple thermals. Regarding the habitates of the algal flora, the water temperature and the pH of the springs are 28.0 - 68.0 0 C, and 6.8 - 7.4, respectively. The thermal algae found by Ikoma and Doi at Hamamura Hot Springs were two species of Cyanophyceae. By the authors, nine species and one variety of Cyanophyceae including Ikoma and Doi's two species were newly found at Shikano and Hamamura Hot Springs. Chlorophyceous alga was not found. The dominant thermal algae of these hot springs were Mastigocladus laminosus, and the other algae which mainly consist of Oscillatoriaceous algae. From these points, it seems that the thermal algae of Shikano and Hamamura Hot Springs belong to the normal type of thermal algae, and they are different from the thermal algae of Ikeda Mineral Springs and Masutomi Hot Springs which belong to strongly radioactive springs. (author)

  17. Using the marine unicellular algae in biological monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Kapkov V. I.; Shoshina E. V.; Belenikina O. A.

    2017-01-01

    The possibility of using marine unicellular algae from natural plankton community in biomonitoring of pollution by heavy metals has been investigated. Algae of different taxa from the Mediterranean Sea have been allocated to culture. In the laboratory the culture conditions – i. e. growth medium, temperature, photoperiod, level of artificial light and initial density – have been selected for every species. The impact of heavy metals (Hg, Cd, Cu, Pb) in the form of chloride salts on the growth...

  18. Micro-algae: French players discuss the matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouveret, T.

    2013-01-01

    About 75000 species of algae have been reported so far, the domains of application are huge and investment are increasing all around the world. One of the difficulties is to find the most appropriate algae to a specific application. Some development programs have failed scientifically or economically for instance the production of protein for animal food from the chlorella algae or the production of bio-fuel from C14-C18 chains, from zeaxanthine and from phycoerytrine. On the other side some research programs have led to promising industrial applications such as the production of food for fish and farm animals. Some research fields are completely innovative such as the use of micro-algae for the construction of bio-walls for buildings. Micro-algae are diverse and fragile. Photo-bioreactors have been designed to breed fragile algae like some types of chlorophycees used in bio-fuel and in cosmetics, a prototype has been tested for 15 months and its production is about 2 kg of dry matter a day. (A.C.)

  19. Radionuclides and trace metals in eastern Mediterranean Sea algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.S.; Mamish, S.; Budier, Y.

    2003-01-01

    Three types of sea alga distributed along the Syrian coast have been collected and analyzed for radioactivity and trace elements. Results have shown that 137 Cs concentrations in all the analyzed sample were relatively low (less than 1.2 Bq kg -1 dry weight) while the levels of naturally occurring radionuclides, such as 210 Po and 210 Pb, were found to be high in most samples; the highest observed value (27.43 Bq kg -1 dry weight) for 210 Po being in the red Jania longifurca alga. In addition, most brown alga species were also found to accumulate 210 Po, which indicates their selectivity to this isotope. On the other hand, brown alga (Cystoseira and Sargassum Vulgare) have shown a clear selectivity for some trace metals such as Cr, As, Cu and Co, this selectivity may encourage their use as biomonitor for pollution by trace metals. Moreover, the red alga species were found to contain the highest levels of Mg while the brown alga species were found to concentrate Fe, Mn, Na and K and nonmetals such as Cl, I and Br

  20. Combining of radionuclides with constituent materials of marine algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Ryoichi; Nakahara, Motokazu; Ishii, Toshiaki; Ueda, Taishi; Shimizu, Chiaki.

    1979-01-01

    The relations between the accumulation-elimination of radionuclides and the constituent materials of marine algae were studied to determine more precisely the mechanism of the radioactive contamination of marine organisms. This will increase the information about the behavior of radionuclides in marine organisms in relation to the environmental conditions (temperature, physico-chemical state of radioisotope, and so on) and the biological conditions (feeding habits, species, and so on). Eisenia contaminated by 137 Cs and 106 Ru- 106 Rh was fractionated by solvent extraction into 6 fractions. The largest portion of 137 Cs was in the boiling water fraction; 106 Ru- 106 Rh was most extracted by 24% KOH solution. Elution patterns by Sephadex G-100 gel-filtration of samples differed largely from each other, both among the 3 kinds of radionuclides and between the 2 species of the algae. Therefore, the accumulation of the radionuclides by the marine algae was proved to be not only due to a physical absorption to the surface of the algae but also to the biological combining of the radionuclides with the constituents of the algae. Furthermore, it was found that radionuclides which combine with a few constituents of alga are not eliminated equally. This is considered to be useful for the physiological analysis of elimination curves. (author)

  1. Algae as a Biofuel: Renewable Source for Liquid Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kant Pandey

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Biofuels produced by algae may provide a feasible alternative to fossil fuels like petroleum sourced fuels. However, looking to limited fossil fuel associated with problems, intensive efforts have been given to search for alternative biofuels like biodiesel. Algae are ubiquitous on earth, have potential to produce biofuel. However, technology of biofuel from algae facing a number of hurdles before it can compete in the fuel market and be broadly organized. Different challenges include strain identification and improvement of algal biomass, both in terms of biofuel productivity and the production of other products to improve the economics of the entire system. Algal biofuels could be made more cost effective by extracting other valuable products from algae and algal strains. Algal oil can be prepared by culture of algae on municipal and industrial wastewaters. Photobioreactors methods provide a controlled environment that can be tailored to the specific demands of high production of algae to attain a consistently good yield of biofuel. The algal biomass has been reported to yield high oil contents and have good amount of the biodiesel production capacity. In this article, it has been attempted to review to elucidate the approaches for making algal biodiesel economically competitive with respect to petrodiesel. Consequently, R & D work has been carried out for the growth, harvesting, oil extraction and conversion to biodiesel from algal sources.

  2. Biodiesel Production From Algae to Overcome the Energy Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suliman Khan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of energy sources has reached at the level that whole world is relying on it. Being the major source of energy, fuels are considered the most important. The fear of diminishing the available sources thirst towards biofuel production has increased during last decades. Considering the food problems, algae gain the most attention to be used as biofuel producers. The use of crop and food-producing plants will never be a best fit into the priorities for biofuel production as they will disturb the food needs. Different types of algae having the different production abilities. Normally algae have 20%–80% oil contents that could be converted into different types of fuels such as kerosene oil and biodiesel. The diesel production from algae is economical and easy. Different species such as tribonema, ulothrix and euglena have good potential for biodiesel production. Gene technology can be used to enhance the production of oil and biodiesel contents and stability of algae. By increasing the genetic expressions, we can find the ways to achieve the required biofuel amounts easily and continuously to overcome the fuels deficiency. The present review article focusses on the role of algae as a possible substitute for fossil fuel as an ideal biofuel reactant.

  3. Development of Green Fuels From Algae - The University of Tulsa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crunkleton, Daniel; Price, Geoffrey; Johannes, Tyler; Cremaschi, Selen

    2012-12-03

    The general public has become increasingly aware of the pitfalls encountered with the continued reliance on fossil fuels in the industrialized world. In response, the scientific community is in the process of developing non-fossil fuel technologies that can supply adequate energy while also being environmentally friendly. In this project, we concentrate on green fuels which we define as those capable of being produced from renewable and sustainable resources in a way that is compatible with the current transportation fuel infrastructure. One route to green fuels that has received relatively little attention begins with algae as a feedstock. Algae are a diverse group of aquatic, photosynthetic organisms, generally categorized as either macroalgae (i.e. seaweed) or microalgae. Microalgae constitute a spectacularly diverse group of prokaryotic and eukaryotic unicellular organisms and account for approximately 50% of global organic carbon fixation. The PI's have subdivided the proposed research program into three main research areas, all of which are essential to the development of commercially viable algae fuels compatible with current energy infrastructure. In the fuel development focus, catalytic cracking reactions of algae oils is optimized. In the species development project, genetic engineering is used to create microalgae strains that are capable of high-level hydrocarbon production. For the modeling effort, the construction of multi-scaled models of algae production was prioritized, including integrating small-scale hydrodynamic models of algae production and reactor design and large-scale design optimization models.

  4. Is the Future Really in Algae?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Having just emerged from the warmest decade on record and watching as the oceans acidify, global resources peak, the world's population continues to climb, and nearly half of all known species face extinction by the end of the century. We stand on the threshold of one of the most important transition in human history-the transition from hunting-and-gathering our energy to cultivating sustainable, carbon-neutral, environmentally-friendly energy supplies. Can we "cultivate" enerm without competing with agriculture for land, freshwater, or fertilizer? Can we develop an "ecology of technology" that optimizes our use of limited resources? Is human activity compatible with improved conditions in the world's oceans? Will our ingenuity prevail in time to make a difference for our children and the children of all species? With support from NASA ARMD and the California Energy Commission, a group of dedicated scientists and engineers are working on a project called OMEGA (Offshore Membrane Enclosures for Growing Algae), to provide practical answers to these critical questions and to leave a legacy of hope for the oceans and for the future.

  5. Detection of Cyanotoxins in Algae Dietary Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy-Lachapelle, Audrey; Solliec, Morgan; Bouchard, Maryse F; Sauvé, Sébastien

    2017-02-25

    Algae dietary supplements are marketed worldwide as natural health products. Although their proprieties have been claimed as beneficial to improve overall health, there have been several previous reports of contamination by cyanotoxins. These products generally contain non-toxic cyanobacteria, but the methods of cultivation in natural waters without appropriate quality controls allow contamination by toxin producer species present in the natural environment. In this study, we investigated the presence of total microcystins, seven individual microcystins (RR, YR, LR, LA, LY, LW, LF), anatoxin-a, dihydroanatoxin-a, epoxyanatoxin-a, cylindrospermopsin, saxitoxin, and β-methylamino-l-alanine in 18 different commercially available products containing Spirulina or Aphanizomenon flos-aquae . Total microcystins analysis was accomplished using a Lemieux oxidation and a chemical derivatization using dansyl chloride was needed for the simultaneous analysis of cylindrospermopsin, saxitoxin, and β-methylamino-l-alanine. Moreover, the use of laser diode thermal desorption (LDTD) and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) both coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) enabled high performance detection and quantitation. Out of the 18 products analyzed, 8 contained some cyanotoxins at levels exceeding the tolerable daily intake values. The presence of cyanotoxins in these algal dietary supplements reinforces the need for a better quality control as well as consumer's awareness on the potential risks associated with the consumption of these supplements.

  6. Detection of Cyanotoxins in Algae Dietary Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Roy-Lachapelle

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Algae dietary supplements are marketed worldwide as natural health products. Although their proprieties have been claimed as beneficial to improve overall health, there have been several previous reports of contamination by cyanotoxins. These products generally contain non-toxic cyanobacteria, but the methods of cultivation in natural waters without appropriate quality controls allow contamination by toxin producer species present in the natural environment. In this study, we investigated the presence of total microcystins, seven individual microcystins (RR, YR, LR, LA, LY, LW, LF, anatoxin-a, dihydroanatoxin-a, epoxyanatoxin-a, cylindrospermopsin, saxitoxin, and β-methylamino-l-alanine in 18 different commercially available products containing Spirulina or Aphanizomenon flos-aquae. Total microcystins analysis was accomplished using a Lemieux oxidation and a chemical derivatization using dansyl chloride was needed for the simultaneous analysis of cylindrospermopsin, saxitoxin, and β-methylamino-l-alanine. Moreover, the use of laser diode thermal desorption (LDTD and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC both coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS enabled high performance detection and quantitation. Out of the 18 products analyzed, 8 contained some cyanotoxins at levels exceeding the tolerable daily intake values. The presence of cyanotoxins in these algal dietary supplements reinforces the need for a better quality control as well as consumer’s awareness on the potential risks associated with the consumption of these supplements.

  7. [The effects of blue algae on health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Riel, A J H P; Schets, F M; Meulenbelt, J

    2007-08-04

    Cyanobacteria (blue algae) regularly cause recreational waters to become murky and smelly. Skin irritation and mild gastrointestinal disorders have regularly been reported following recreational activities in water suspected of being contaminated with cyanobacteria. The exact cause of these effects on health is not clear. Severe effects are not to be expected from recreational exposure to water contaminated with cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria can produce hepatotoxins, neurotoxins, cytotoxins and irritants. In Brazil lethal intoxications have occurred due to the occurrence of toxins in drinking water and in dialysis fluid. The Dutch policy is based on the Commissie Integraal Waterbeheer (Commission Integral Water Management) guidelines for recreational waters. It is not clear to what extent the other cyanotoxins occur in the Netherlands. However, several genera ofcyanobacteria capable of producing these other cyanotoxins have been found in the Netherlands. For a good risk assessment in the Netherlands, more information is needed on the effects on health of cyanobacteria. There is also a need for more data on the prevalence of different cyanobacteria and toxins in Dutch recreational waters.

  8. Lipid oxidation in base algae oil and water-in-algae oil emulsion: Impact of natural antioxidants and emulsifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bingcan; Rao, Jiajia; Ding, Yangping; McClements, David Julian; Decker, Eric Andrew

    2016-07-01

    The impact of natural hydrophilic antioxidants, metal chelators, and hydrophilic antioxidant/metal chelator mixture on the oxidative stability of base algae oil and water-in-algae oil emulsion was investigated. The results showed that green tea extract and ascorbic acid had greatest protective effect against algae oil oxidation and generated four day lag phase, whereas rosmarinic acid, grape seed extract, grape seed extract polymer, deferoxamine (DFO), and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) had no significant protective effect. Besides, there was no synergistic effect observed between natural antioxidants and ascorbic acid. The emulsifiers are critical to the physicochemical stability of water-in-algae oil emulsions. Polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR) promoted the oxidation of emulsion. Conversely, the protective effect on algae oil oxidation was appreciated when defatted soybean lecithin (PC 75) or defatted lyso-lecithin (Lyso-PC) was added. The role of hydrophilic antioxidants in emulsion was similar to that in algae oil except EDTA which demonstrated strong antioxidative effect in emulsion. The results could provide information to build up stable food products containing polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. SOIL ALGAE OF BLADE OF COIL IN DONETSK REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maltseva I.A.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available On territory of Donbass for more than 200 years the underground coal mining has produced, accompanied by the formation of the mine dumps. Finding ways to reduce their negative impact on the environment should be based on their comprehensive study. The soil algae are active participants in the syngenetic processes in industrial dumps of different origin. The purpose of this paper is to identify the species composition and dominant algae groups in dump mine SH/U5 “Western” in the western part of Donetsk.The test blade is covered with vegetation to the middle from all sides, and on the north side of 20-25 m to the top. The vegetation cover of the lower and middle tiers of all the exposures range in 70-80%. Projective vegetation cover of upper tiers of the northern, north-eastern and north-western exposures are in the range of 20-40%, other – 5-10%. We revealed some 38 algae species as a result of our research in southern, northern, western, and eastern slopes of the blade “Western”. The highest species diversity has Chlorophyta - 14 species (36.8% of the total number of species, then Cyanophyta - 9 (23,7%, Bacillariophyta - 7 (18,4%, Xantophyta - 5 (13.2%, and Eustigmatophyta - 3 (7.9%. The dominants are represented by Hantzschia amphyoxys (Ehrenberg Grunow in Cleve et Grunow, Bracteacoccus aerius, Klebsormidium flaccidum (Kützing Silva et al., Phormidium autumnale, Pinnularia borealis Ehrenberg, Planothidium lanceolatum (Brebisson in Kützing Bukhtiyarova, Xanthonema exile (Klebs Silva.It should be noted that the species composition of algae groups in different slopes of the blade was significantly different. Jacquard coefficient was calculated for algae communities varied in the range of 15,4-39,1%. The smallest number of algae species was observed on the southern slope of the blade (14 species, maximum was registered in the areas of north and west slopes. Differences in the species composition of algae were also observed in three

  10. Bacterial community changes in an industrial algae production system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulbright, Scott P; Robbins-Pianka, Adam; Berg-Lyons, Donna; Knight, Rob; Reardon, Kenneth F; Chisholm, Stephen T

    2018-04-01

    While microalgae are a promising feedstock for production of fuels and other chemicals, a challenge for the algal bioproducts industry is obtaining consistent, robust algae growth. Algal cultures include complex bacterial communities and can be difficult to manage because specific bacteria can promote or reduce algae growth. To overcome bacterial contamination, algae growers may use closed photobioreactors designed to reduce the number of contaminant organisms. Even with closed systems, bacteria are known to enter and cohabitate, but little is known about these communities. Therefore, the richness, structure, and composition of bacterial communities were characterized in closed photobioreactor cultivations of Nannochloropsis salina in F/2 medium at different scales, across nine months spanning late summer-early spring, and during a sequence of serially inoculated cultivations. Using 16S rRNA sequence data from 275 samples, bacterial communities in small, medium, and large cultures were shown to be significantly different. Larger systems contained richer bacterial communities compared to smaller systems. Relationships between bacterial communities and algae growth were complex. On one hand, blooms of a specific bacterial type were observed in three abnormal, poorly performing replicate cultivations, while on the other, notable changes in the bacterial community structures were observed in a series of serial large-scale batch cultivations that had similar growth rates. Bacteria common to the majority of samples were identified, including a single OTU within the class Saprospirae that was found in all samples. This study contributes important information for crop protection in algae systems, and demonstrates the complex ecosystems that need to be understood for consistent, successful industrial algae cultivation. This is the first study to profile bacterial communities during the scale-up process of industrial algae systems.

  11. Two-step evolution of endosymbiosis between hydra and algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Masakazu; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Nozawa, Masafumi; Ikeo, Kazuho; Gojobori, Takashi

    2016-10-01

    In the Hydra vulgaris group, only 2 of the 25 strains in the collection of the National Institute of Genetics in Japan currently show endosymbiosis with green algae. However, whether the other non-symbiotic strains also have the potential to harbor algae remains unknown. The endosymbiotic potential of non-symbiotic strains that can harbor algae may have been acquired before or during divergence of the strains. With the aim of understanding the evolutionary process of endosymbiosis in the H. vulgaris group, we examined the endosymbiotic potential of non-symbiotic strains of the H. vulgaris group by artificially introducing endosymbiotic algae. We found that 12 of the 23 non-symbiotic strains were able to harbor the algae until reaching the grand-offspring through the asexual reproduction by budding. Moreover, a phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial genome sequences showed that all the strains with endosymbiotic potential grouped into a single cluster (cluster γ). This cluster contained two strains (J7 and J10) that currently harbor algae; however, these strains were not the closest relatives. These results suggest that evolution of endosymbiosis occurred in two steps; first, endosymbiotic potential was gained once in the ancestor of the cluster γ lineage; second, strains J7 and J10 obtained algae independently after the divergence of the strains. By demonstrating the evolution of the endosymbiotic potential in non-symbiotic H. vulgaris group strains, we have clearly distinguished two evolutionary steps. The step-by-step evolutionary process provides significant insight into the evolution of endosymbiosis in cnidarians. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Two-Step Evolution of Endosymbiosis between Hydra and Algae

    KAUST Repository

    Ishikawa, Masakazu

    2016-07-09

    In the Hydra vulgaris group, only 2 of the 25 strains in the collection of the National Institute of Genetics in Japan currently show endosymbiosis with green algae. However, whether the other non-symbiotic strains also have the potential to harbor algae remains unknown. The endosymbiotic potential of non-symbiotic strains that can harbor algae may have been acquired before or during divergence of the strains. With the aim of understanding the evolutionary process of endosymbiosis in the H. vulgaris group, we examined the endosymbiotic potential of non-symbiotic strains of the H. vulgaris group by artificially introducing endosymbiotic algae. We found that 12 of the 23 non-symbiotic strains were able to harbor the algae until reaching the grand-offspring through the asexual reproduction by budding. Moreover, a phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial genome sequences showed that all the strains with endosymbiotic potential grouped into a single cluster (cluster γ). This cluster contained two strains (J7 and J10) that currently harbor algae; however, these strains were not the closest relatives. These results suggest that evolution of endosymbiosis occurred in two steps; first, endosymbiotic potential was gained once in the ancestor of the cluster γ lineage; second, strains J7 and J10 obtained algae independently after the divergence of the strains. By demonstrating the evolution of the endosymbiotic potential in non-symbiotic H. vulgaris group strains, we have clearly distinguished two evolutionary steps. The step-by-step evolutionary process provides significant insight into the evolution of endosymbiosis in cnidarians.

  13. DISTRIBUTIONAND DIVERSITY OF MACRO ALGAE COMMUNITIES IN THE AMBON BAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Litaay

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Water conditions affected by natural and anthropogenic parameters such as sedimentation and solid waste disposal can influence the growth and distribution of macro algae. Sustainable management efforts can reduce damage on the Gulf coast of Ambon due to human activities and land clearing. This study was conducted in October 2008 using the transect method with 3 replicates in five locations i.e., Tantui, Air Salobar, Hative Besar, Halong, and Lateri. The interior and exterior waters of Ambon Bay contained different habitat conditions due to  sedimentation processes. The purpose of this study was to determine the distribution and diversity of macro algae communities in the Ambon Bay. The results found 21 species of macro- algae consisting of 10 species of Rhodhophyceae, 6 species of Chlorophyceae, and 5 species of Phaeophyceae. The highest density value of seaweed in Tantui was 389.0 g/m² of Chlorophyceae of Halimeda genus. In Air Salobar and Halong, the highest density value was Rhodophyceae of Gracilaria genus of 172.0 g/m² and 155.0 g/m², respectively. For the other genus in the Tantui and Lateri regions were dominated by Ulva at 92.10 gr/m2 and Padina of 20.0 gr/m2, respectively. The highest dominance of macro algae in the Hative Besar was found Chlorophyceae of Halimeda genus of 2.93 %, in the Air Salobar of Phaeophyceae of Turbinaria genus of 1.43 %. The difference values in density and the dominance of macro algae indicated an influence of habitat and environment due to seasons, sediment, and solid waste disposal to the diversity of macro algae. Keywords: Diversity, macro algae, Ambon Bay.

  14. The effects of mutagens on some algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aranez, A.T.

    1984-01-01

    Pure cultures of Scenedesmus quadricauda (Turp.) Breb. and chlorella pyrenoidosa Chick were subjected to 0.5, 3, 6, 9 and 12 Kr gamma radiation ( 60 Co source) from the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission. Untreated cells were used as control. Dose of 0.5 Kr increased the growth rate of Scenedesmus by 3.12%, 15.27% and 20.48% during the first, third and fourth week respectively. Doses of 6, 9 and 12 decreased the growth rate by 86.33%, 70.7% and 58.2% respectively during the first week. The stimulating effect of low dose (0.5 Kr) was recovered after the fourth week while the inhibiting effect on growth by higher doses was recovered after the first week. Gamma radiation produced morphological changes in the Scenedesmus in the form of enlarged cells, cells with kidney-shape chloroplast, cells in chain, and coenobia with cells that were not in perfect alignment with each other. In chlorella, gamma radiation produced enlarged cells, cells with wrinkled surface and cells that were colourless. Ethyl methanesulfate of 0.1%, 0.4%, 0.8% and 1.25% in phosphate buffer solution was another mutagen used. Algae in distilled water and phosphate buffer were used as control. Treatment with EMS produced coenobia of Scenedesmus with cells that were twice and thrice the normal cells, cells that were rounded or oval in outline, with wavy instead of smooth margin, cells with pseudopodia-like protrusions and coenobia with abnormal number of cells. In Chlorella, EMS produced cells that were twice the size of the normal size of the normal ones, cells that were wavy in outline, abnormal in shape, and cells with no chlorophyll. Scenedesmus was more sensitive to gamma radiation and EMS than chlorella. Of the morphological changes observed, only Scenedesmus with cells around twice the size of the normal ones produced by treatment with either gamma radiation of EMS were successfully propagated. (author)

  15. A metodologia de superfície de resposta como ferramenta para a avaliação da produção de alginato e poli-hidroxibutirato pela Azotobacter vinelandii - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v32i2.1792

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Navarro da Silva

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available O alginato é um polissacarídeo normalmente extraído de paredes celulares de algas marrons e utilizado nas indústrias de alimentos, farmacêuticas e biotecnológicas. A produção é concentrada no cultivo de algas marinhas marrons, mas várias bactérias do gênero Pseudomonas e Azotobacter produzem alginato. A estrutura química dos alginatos produzidos por algas é similar a dos sintetizados pela A. vinelandii. Esta bactéria também produz polímeros intracelulares como o poli-hidroxibutirato (PHB, conhecido como bioplástico. Neste trabalho, estudou-se a produção simultânea do alginato e PHB pela A. vinelandii, utilizando-se sacarose e diferentes parâmetros de fermentação em agitador orbital rotatório. Os valores ótimos para produção destes compostos foram determinados pela MSR. O 1º experimento foi um planejamento fatorial fracionado 26-2. O 2º foi baseado nas variáveis significativas do 1º experimento, resultando em um planejamento fatorial completo 33-0. Verificou-se, do primeiro para o segundo, aumento na produtividade do PHB de 12 para 45 mg g-1 de célula h-1 e do alginato de 100 para 1.600 mg g-1 de célula h-1. A produtividade de ambos os compostos foi máxima na temperatura de incubação de 62ºC, no menor tempo de incubação (18h e na concentração de sacarose de 11 g L-1. Em ambos os experimentos, o PHB extraído apresentou pureza de 94%.

  16. Method and apparatus using an active ionic liquid for algae biofuel harvest and extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvo, Roberto Di; Reich, Alton; Dykes, Jr., H. Waite H.; Teixeira, Rodrigo

    2012-11-06

    The invention relates to use of an active ionic liquid to dissolve algae cell walls. The ionic liquid is used to, in an energy efficient manner, dissolve and/or lyse an algae cell walls, which releases algae constituents used in the creation of energy, fuel, and/or cosmetic components. The ionic liquids include ionic salts having multiple charge centers, low, very low, and ultra low melting point ionic liquids, and combinations of ionic liquids. An algae treatment system is described, which processes wet algae in a lysing reactor, separates out algae constituent products, and optionally recovers the ionic liquid in an energy efficient manner.

  17. Optimal control of algae growth by controlling CO 2 and nutrition flow using Pontryagin Maximum Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardlijah; Jamil, Ahmad; Hanafi, Lukman; Sanjaya, Suharmadi

    2017-09-01

    There are so many benefit of algae. One of them is using for renewable energy and sustainable in the future. The greater growth of algae will increasing biodiesel production and the increase of algae growth is influenced by glucose, nutrients and photosynthesis process. In this paper, the optimal control problem of the growth of algae is discussed. The objective function is to maximize the concentration of dry algae while the control is the flow of carbon dioxide and the nutrition. The solution is obtained by applying the Pontryagin Maximum Principle. and the result show that the concentration of algae increased more than 15 %.

  18. Influence of Algae Age and Population on the Response to TiO2 Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    David M. Metzler; Ayca Erdem; Chin Pao Huang

    2018-01-01

    This work shows the influence of algae age (at the time of the exposure) and the initial algae population on the response of green algae Raphidocelis subcapitata to titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs). The different algae age was obtained by changes in flow rate of continually stirred tank reactors prior to NP exposure. Increased algae age led to a decreased growth, variations in chlorophyll content, and an increased lipid peroxidation. Increased initial algae population (0.3−4.2 × 106 ...

  19. Radionuclides in macro algae at Monaco following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, E.; Ballestra, S.; Lopez, J.J.; Bulos, A.; Whitehead, N.E.; Barci-Funel, G.; Ardisson, G.

    1994-01-01

    Samples of macro algae, Codmium tomentosum (green), Corallina mediterranea (red), Sphaerococcus coronopifolius (red) and Dictyota dichotoma (brown), were collected off Monaco during 1984 and 1988 and analysed for gamma-emitting radionuclides and transuranium elements. Due to the Chernobyl accident, increased radioactivity in the atmosphere at Monaco was recorded on 30 April 1986 with maximal activity concentrations on 2-3 May. The maximal activity concentrations in sea water occurred on 5-6 May and in the algae on 11 May. The decrease of activity concentrations can be described after May 11 as a single exponential relationship, where elimination rates for different radionuclides and different species specific to the environment can be calculated. The elimination rates thus observed correspond to mean residence times between 70 and 370 days corrected for physical decay. The concentration factors were also estimated and the highest values were found for 131 I, 129 Te m , and 110 Ag m and lowest for radiocesium and 140 Ba. The red algae Sphaerococcus coronopifoius showed generally higher concentration factors than green and brown algae. Regarding transuranium elements, a theoretical contribution from the Chernobyl accident can be made but only 242 Cm was detected in the algae above previous levels before the accident, due to the relatively small fallout of transuranics. (author) 23 refs.; 9 figs.; 4 tabs

  20. Acute toxicity and associated mechanisms of four strobilurins in algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoxu; Wang, Yu; Chen, Hao; Zhang, Junli; Wang, Chengju; Li, Xuefeng; Pang, Sen

    2018-04-03

    Strobilurins have been reported highly toxic to non-target aquatic organisms but few illustrated how they cause toxic effects on algae. This study investigated the acute toxicity of Kresoxim-methy (KRE), Pyraclostrobin (PYR), Trifloxystrobin (TRI) and Picoxystrobin (PIC) on two algae and their toxicity mechanisms. Four strobilurins showed lower toxic effects on Chlorella pyrenoidsa but higher on Chlorella vulgaris. bc1 complex activities in C. vulgaris were significantly inhibited by all strobilurins, suggesting bc 1 complex might be the target of strobilurin toxicity in algae. Moreover, SOD, CAT and POD activities were significantly up-regulated by all doses of KRE, PYR and PIC. In contrast, low concentrations of TRI stimulated SOD and POD activities but highest concentration significantly inhibited those activities. Comet assays showed damaged DNA in C. vulgaris by four strobulirins, suggesting their potential genotoxic threats to algae. The results illustrated acute toxicity by strobulirins on algae and their possible toxicity mechanisms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.