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Sample records for cs sr ra

  1. Transfer of 226Ra, 85Sr and 137Cs from milk to milk products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.S.; Nashawati, A.; Amin, Y.; Al-Akel, B.

    2006-01-01

    Transfer of 226 Ra, 85 Sr and 137 Cs from cow and sheep milk to various Syrian dairy products has been evaluated. Dairy products include Kashkivan cheese, braided cheese, Haloom cheese, Sircassian cheese, liquid cheese, native cheese, cottage, thick yogurt, butter and milk cream. The results showed that the percentage of 226 Ra, 85 Sr and 137 Cs transferred from cow milk to milk cream (P t = food processing retention factor x processing efficiency x 100%) has reached 32%, 16% and 7%, respectively. Butter and liquid cheese were found to have the lowest percentage of transferred 226 Ra, 85 Sr and 137 Cs. Most of the obtained P t values of the studied radionuclides in thick yogurt were relatively low in spite of the high processing efficiencies of thick yogurt. Moreover, the transfer, P t , of the studied radionuclides from cow milk to the prepared cheese was higher than those values determined for sheep milk. This is due to differences in chemical compositions of each type of milk. On the other hand, the treatment of Native cheese, most commonly consumed cheese in Syria, with different concentrations of NaCl solutions showed that 137 Cs was completely removed from cheese soaking in 5% NaCl solution (soaking time of 48 hours), while 40% of 226 Ra and 80% of 85 Sr were also decontaminated using 0-2.5% NaCl solutions and soaking time of 48 hours. Based on the obtained results, industrialization processes of the dairy products that resulted the removal of radionuclides have been identified. (author)

  2. Determinations of 90Sr, 137Cs, 226Ra, 228Ra, 210Pb, 210Po contents in chinese diet and estimations of internal doses due to these radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Hongda; Wang Shouliang; Meng Wei; Wang Daoping; Zheng Xiujun; Liu Qingfen; Liu Peng

    1993-01-01

    As a part of Chinese Total Diet Survey taken place in 1990, the authors report the determined results on 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 210 Pb and 210 Pb and 210 Po contents in various foods of Chinese total diet. Based on obtained dietary composition and the determined contents, the Annual Intakes (AI) and Committed Dose Equivalents (CDE) for the public by ingestion were estimated. It is shown that the total CDE for 6 radionuclides is about 0.24 mSv/a. The food categories and nuclides whose relative contributions to the total are dominant were vegetables, aquatic products and cereal, and 210 Pb, 210 Po, 228 Ra, respectively. The results have updated the data from 1982 survey and have complemented important information for water consumption. The regional difference of dietary compositions and resultant internal doses are discussed as well

  3. Study on transfer coefficients of 90Sr, 137Cs, natural U, 226Ra and 239Pu in terrestrial food chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Suyun; Qi Yong; Li Shuqin; Zhou Caiyun; Zhang Jingjuan; Li Jikai; Li Xuequn

    1995-01-01

    The aim of study was to provide values of transfer parameter of 90 Sr, 137 Cs, Natural U, 226 Ra and 239 Pu in terrestrial food chains, more applicable for Chinese socio-natural conditions. Data of radionuclides contents in agricultural crops and in associated soils, in sheep tissues and in associated grasses were collected in couples. The transfer coefficients in terrestrial food chains (soil-crops, grasses-sheep tissues) were calculated. On basis of statistical analysis, the representative values and 95% ranges of transfer coefficient for 5 radionuclides in 7 kind of agricultural products for southern moist areas and north dry areas were given. Regression analysis showed that relation between the transfer coefficients and the radionuclide contents in their associated soils present a negative correlation, it could be described with a equation: Y = aX -b

  4. Contamination of terrestrial ecosystem components with 90Sr, 137Cs, and 226Ra caused by the deterioration of the multibarrier protection of radioactive waste storages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latynova, N. E.

    2010-03-01

    The spatial-temporal features of the radioactive contamination of terrestrial ecosystem components caused by the deterioration of the multibarrier protection of regional radioactive waste storages of the State Research Center of the Russian Federation-Leipunskii Institute of Physics and Power Engineering at the input of radionuclides into the soil and ground water were studied. The composition of the radioactive contamination was determined, and the hydrological and geochemical processes resulting in the formation of large radioactive sources were described. The natural features of the radioactive waste storage areas favoring the entry of 90Sr, 137Cs, and 226Ra into the soils and their inclusion in the biological turnover were characterized. The directions of the horizontal migration of 90Sr, 137Cs, and 226Ra and the sites of their accumulation within the superaquatic and aquatic landscapes of a near-terrace depression were studied; the factors of the 90Sr accumulation in plants and cockles were calculated. The results of the studies expand the theoretical concepts of the mechanisms, processes, and factors controlling the behavior of radionuclides at the deterioration of the multibarrier protection of radioactive waste storages. The presented experimental data can be used for solving practical problems related to environmental protection in the areas of industrial nuclear complexes.

  5. Determinations of [sup 90]Sr, [sup 137]Cs, [sup 226]Ra, [sup 228]Ra, [sup 210]Pb, [sup 210]Po contents in chinese diet and estimations of internal doses due to these radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hongda, Zhu; Shouliang, Wang; Wei, Meng; Daoping, Wang; Xiujun, Zheng; Qingfen, Liu; Peng, Liu [Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Tianjin, TJ (China). Inst. of Radiomedicine

    1993-03-01

    As a part of Chinese Total Diet Survey taken place in 1990, the authors report the determined results on [sup 90]Sr, [sup 137]Cs, [sup 226]Ra, [sup 228]Ra, [sup 210]Pb and [sup 210]Pb and [sup 210]Po contents in various foods of Chinese total diet. Based on obtained dietary composition and the determined contents, the Annual Intakes (AI) and Committed Dose Equivalents (CDE) for the public by ingestion were estimated. It is shown that the total CDE for 6 radionuclides is about 0.24 mSv/a. The food categories and nuclides whose relative contributions to the total are dominant were vegetables, aquatic products and cereal, and [sup 210]Pb, [sup 210]Po, [sup 228]Ra, respectively. The results have updated the data from 1982 survey and have complemented important information for water consumption. The regional difference of dietary compositions and resultant internal doses are discussed as well.

  6. Transfer of some artificial (226Sr and 137Cs) and natural (40K and 226Ra) radionuclides from milk to its products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M. S.; Nashawati, A.; Amin, Y.; Al-Akel, B.

    2005-01-01

    Transfer of some artificial radionuclides ( 137 Cs and 85 Sr) and natural radionuclides ( 226 Ra and 40 K) from milk (cheep and cows) to its products processed according to local manufacturing procedures (home made cheese, kashkawan cheese, shelal cheese, haloom cheese, kareshah cheese, sharkasiah cheese, liquid cheese, yogurt, butter and keshdah) has been studied. The results showed that the retention percent of radium 226 in milk products has reached %100 in the home made cheese and %72 for strontium 85 in the shelal cheese and %40 for cesium 137 in yogurt and %46 for potassium 40 also in yogurt. In addition, most of the retention percent ratios of the studied radionuclides in yogurt were relatively low (about %25 and % 40 in the yogurt processed from the milk of the cows and cheep respectively) with a high processing efficiency, so that making yogurt from the contaminated milk is the best way to reduce the contamination ratio and to make use of the contaminated milk. Furthermore, home made cheese was processed with salty solutions of different concentrations and the results showed that about %90 of cesium and potassium has transferred to the salty solution of %5 soaked for 48 hours, while %40 of the radium and %80 of strontium were removed from the contaminated cheese after 48 hours soaking in a salty solution of %2.5. However, the results of the present work can be used for processing of contaminated milk with artificial radionuclides in order to be utilized. (Authors)

  7. Report on intercomparison IAEA/SOIL-6 of the determination of Cs-137, Pu-239, Ra-226, and Sr-90 in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pszonicki, L.; Hanna, A.N.; Suschny, O.

    1984-04-01

    The report presents results of a laboratory intercomparison of the determination of the activity level of cesium-137, plutonium-239, radium-226 and strontium-90 in a provided soil sample organized by the IAEA's Analytical Quality Control Service. Twenty-seven laboratories from 16 countries returned results based on 77 laboratory means (295 individual determinations). The aim of the interlaboratory comparison was to offer to the laboratories engaged in soil investigation an opportunity to control their analytical performance and to establish the concentration level of some radionuclides in a batch of analyzed soil for certification purposes. All radionuclides were determined by typical commonly used methods: cesium-137 by direct gamma spectroscopy, plutonium-239 by alpha spectroscopy after separation and electrodeposition, radium-226 by direct determination without or with separation or by determination of radon, and strontium-90 by measurement of its daughter yttrium-90. In general, the results can be accepted as satisfactory at such low level of activity (pCi/kg). The relative confidence intervals of the medians of 137 Cs and 239 Pu are below +-10% and of 226 Ra and 90 Sr below +-20%

  8. Experimental studies of the migration of radionuclides of the elements Cs, Sr, Ra, Mo, I, and C in the caprock of the Gorleben candidate repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klotz, D.; Lang, H.; Moser, H.

    1988-01-01

    The studies were mainly concerned with investigations of the sorption of radioactive Cs and C using three sandy and three cohesive samples with the help of batch and continuous-flow column tests. The results show that the sorption behaviour of Cs-134 can be described with the help of an exponential isotherm. Differences in sorption and desorption behaviour as well as the dependence of the results on the volume/mass ratios applied in the batch tests are explained in this way. Accordingly, the transportation of the Cs in continuous-column tests reveals a delay increase proportional to an increase of path length. The tests using C-14 are strongly inhibited by a rapid exchange of the applied C-14 labelled carbonate ions with the CO 2 of the supernatant gaseous phase. This notwithstanding, it could be shown that the carbonate ions are only slightly delayed, and that substantial quantities of the radioactive carbon applied are held back with the examined sediments. (orig./HP) [de

  9. Measurement of concentrations of 7Be, 90Sr, 134,137Cs, 210Pb and 226Ra in the tropospheric and lower stratospheric air in 1997 and 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kownacka, L.; Jaworowski, Z.; Zajac, B.

    1999-01-01

    In this report the results of the vertical distribution of atmospheric particulates concentrations of fission products and natural radionuclides 7 Be, 210 Pb, 226 Ra are presented for 1997 and 1998. The measurements have been carried out over north-eastern part of Poland. The samples of aerosols were collected with airplane samplers at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 km altitudes, and with a stationary sampler near the ground level. Concentrations of radiocesium in both stratospheric and ground level air were in 1997 and 1998 lower then before the Chernobyl accident. In the troposphere in 1998 concentration increased by a factor of 6 due to a nuclear incident in Spain. (author)

  10. Report on Three IAEA Intercomparisons: 1) Determination of Potassium and Cs-137 in Animal Blood Serum (A-1); 2) Determination of Sr-90 and Ra-226 in Animal Bone Ash (A-3); 3) Determination of Sr-90, Cs-137, Na, K, Cs, Ca, Sr and Ba in Milk Powder (A-7)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1973-12-01

    The samples were made from fresh animal blood by separating the blood particles from the serum, stirring and subsequent spray drying. No spiking with active or inactive materials was made. Each participating laboratory received a 500 g sub-sample of the material. In the case of {sup 137}Cs-analysis, two of the laboratories submitted two different sets of results which were obtained by different analytical methods. Results were presented in separate tables for both elements.

  11. SR-XRF imaging of Cs highly accumulated in vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, Izumi; Oda, Nahoko; Terada, Yasuko

    2011-01-01

    Accumulation of Cs in vegetables was studied with regard to the remediation of radioactive Cs from a nuclear plant accident in Fukushima. It was found that Brassica oleracea var. capitata, Brassica campestris var. perviridis, and Lactuca sativa accumulated Cs to a level of more than 10000 ppm (dry weight) when they were cultivated in 1 mM Cs solution. Two-dimensional distributions of Cs were revealed by SR-XRF imaging showing a homogeneous distribution of Cs in the plant bodies. (author)

  12. Cs-137 and Sr-90 level in diary products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petukhov, V.L.; Dukhanov, Y.A.; Sevryuk, I.Z.; Patrashkov, S.A.; Korotkevich, O.S.; Gorb, T.S.; Petukhov, I.V.

    2003-01-01

    About 70% of radioactive substances fell on the territory of the Byelorussian Republic after the Chernobyl Atom Power Station Disaster. Cs-137 and Sr-90 accumulation dynamics was studied in milk of the cows from the highest polluted Braginsky area. 408 milk samples of Black and White cows were investigated. In 1995 average Cs-137 and Sr-90 levels were 61.00 and 3.73 Bk/dm 3 respectively. Cs-137 and Sr-90 levels exceeded Byelorussian Republic upper limits RDU - 96 in 10 and 50% of milk samples respectively. After 5 years (by 2000) Cs-137 and Sr-90 levels had become almost 3 and 2 times less (21.70 Bk/dm 3 and 1.72 Bk/dm 3 respectively). Cs-137 and Sr-90 levels exceeded RDU - 96 in 1.5 and 5.5% of milk samples respectively. In the same periods Cs-137 and Sr-90 levels were 7 and 2 times higher than the similar indexes in the relatively clean Novosibirsk area. Thus, radioactive element levels in milk of Black and White cows of the Byelorussian Republic decreased significantly for the past years. (authors)

  13. Experimental probe into adsorption of Sr, Cs in the Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Guangyu; Bai Qingzhong

    1987-12-01

    There are some obstacles in researching on the adsorption patterns of Sr and Cs in soil. One of them is that it is difficult to compare and to consult between various results and data for different types and sizes of soil. For this reason, it is neccesary to do further research into adsorption patterns of Sr and Cs in single particles of soil. By using scanning electromicroscope, the microcosmic phenomena of nuclides adsorption is observed, and a possible mechanism is proposed. A certain amount of diluvial soil from Shanxi Province and a certain amount of alluvial soil from western Beijing suburban were chosen as detected samples. After determining the distributions of adsorbed Sr and Cs in varied mineral particles, it is pointed out that the defference of chemical components of various size soils effects Kd value of Sr and Cs obviously. The method for calculating Kd value of mixing samples according to the particle distribution coefficients are derived under the condition of surface adsorption as main. The authors expound that it is favourable for accuracy to select and control the particle sizes in static adsorptional experiment

  14. Radioactivity precipitation Sr-90 and Cs-137 in Plock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flakiewicz, W.; Majkowska, I.; Bonkowski, J.

    1986-01-01

    Methods of research and results for beta-activity measurements of precipitation in 1977-1983 with regard to Sr-90, Cs-137 - are presented. Climatic changes caused by big industrial plant, conditions of pollution propagation in atmosphere, parameters of pollution load of Plock region are described. 11 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs. (author)

  15. 90Sr and 137Cs content in fishes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patin, S.A.; Petrov, A.A.

    1978-01-01

    Numerous data are presented and discussed on concentrations of 90 Sr in bones and 137 Cs in muscular tissues of main food fishes fished out in different regions of the ocean, seas, lakes and rivers. They are indicative of the absence of appreciable hygienic hazards for man from eating food fishes

  16. Determination of Sr-90 and Cs-137 in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    The comparison between the Ca concentration in the soil and the transfer factors involved indicates a clear dependence of Sr-90 soil-to-plant transport from the soil's Ca-content with the concentration level of 0.1 g Ca/kg soil appearing to be the limit level. Soil concentrations of Cs-137 determined to-date indicate a very even deposition density of Cs-137. The transfer factors of plant/soil in Chile differ but negligeably from those in Europe. (DG) [de

  17. Determination of Cs-137, Sr-89 and Sr-90 and gamma spectroscopy of water samples from the Danube River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschurlovits, M.

    1980-01-01

    Radioactivity concentration of Cs-137, Sr-90, Sr-89, Co-60 and K-40 from the Danube water in the period of 1977-1979. A few systematic changes in the radioactivity concentrations were observed and presented. (author)

  18. Transfer of 226Ra and 137Cs from tea leaves to drinking tea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fathivand, A. A.; Amidi, J.; Heravi, G. H.

    2006-01-01

    Two of the important radionuclides which are entered to environment and human diet are radium-226 ( 226 Ra) and cesium-137( 137 Cs). It is clear that the methods for preparation of foods such as peeling, washing, cooking or frying can affect the dose which is received by human due the to consumption of foodstuffs. An experiment has been performed at the environmental monitoring section of National Radiation Protection Department, aiming to measure the transfer of 226 Ra and 137 Cs from the tea leaves to drinking part of tea. Materials and Methods:Tea samples were pulverized to obtain a homogenous matrix which was weighed and placed In 1000 cm 3 Marinelli beaker. After making tea, the liquid tea and tea-discard were analyzed separately. Measurement of 226 Ra and 137 Cs was performed by gamma spectrometry system using a high purity germanium detector with 40% relative efficiency. The detector was shielded by 10 cm lead all sides with cadmium -copper as liners. Results: It was found that the activity concentration transferred from tea leaves to drinking tea for 137 Cs and 226 Ra are less than 2% and 17% respectively. Conclusion: On the basis of these measurements it seems that no significant levels of radioactivity of 226 Ra and 137 Cs can be found in drinking part of tea. The low concentration of the mentioned radionuclides in drinking tea is mostly due to tea dust and can be removed by its washing before preparing tea

  19. Leaching of 60Co, 137Cs and 226Ra in lysimeter experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerzabek, M.H.; Mueck, K.; Steger, F.; Algader, S.M.

    1996-10-01

    The present report describes the first results obtained from lysimeter experiments started in 1990. The lysimeter plant consists of twelve soil monoliths from four different sites (three replicates each). Since 1990 the following agricultural crops were grown: endive, corn, winter wheat, mustard, sugar beet and potato. Gravitational water ranged from 3.9 % to 18.3 % of precipitation plus irrigation water, calculated as half years average values excluding the first six months of operation. The two Cambisols on sediments exhibited a mean percentage of approx. 10 %. The Dystric Cambisol on silicate rock and the Gleysol showed average values of 20 %. In 1990 the top layers (20 cm) were contaminated with three radionuclides. The leaching of the contaminants 60 Co, 137 Cs and 226 Ra differed distinctly between the elements. The lowest leaching rates were observed for 137 Cs, followed by 60 Co. The 226 Ra-concentrations in the gravitational water were clearly highest of all. However, the comparison of the 226 Ra/ 22 2 8 Ra ratios in deep soil layers and in gravitational water showed that the 226 Ra measured in the leachate originates from the natural contents in the subsoil and not from the artificial 226 Ra contamination of the topsoil. The mobility of the artificial radionuclides decreased therefore in the following order: 60 Co > ( 226 Ra) > 137 Cs. (author)

  20. Uptake and activity concentration of 137Cs and 90Sr in Salix viminalis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, K.; Fircks, Y. von; Sennerby-Forsse, L.

    1999-01-01

    In order to gain a better understanding of the uptake, internal distribution of 137 Cs and 90 Sr and the effects of K-fertilisation of uptake of 137 Cs in Salix plantations, a K-fertilisation experiment including 137 Cs, 90 Sr and 40 K was performed. Previous studies with K-fertilization in Sweden have mainly dealt with the flow of 137 Cs between soil to plant in annual crops. The aim of this study was study the transfer of 137 Cs, 90 Sr and 40 K from soil to plants and to test the following hypothesis: that accumulation of 137 Cs and 90 Sr differs between plant organs, that there is a seasonal variation in uptake and concentration of 137 Cs and 90 Sr and that the availability of K is related to the uptake of 137 Cs. (au)

  1. Dose-response relationships for bone tumors in beagles exposed to 226Ra and 90Sr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raabe, O.G.; Parks, N.J.; Book, S.A.

    1981-01-01

    385 dogs were exposed to 90 Sr in food from mid-gestation to 540 days of age. 243 young adult dogs were given eight fortnightly injections of 226 Ra. Comparison was made with available mouse and human 226 Ra bone tumor data. The major findings were: a) the occurrence of bone tumor related deaths was much less for 90 Sr than for 226 Ra exposed dogs. b) RBE for bone tumors from 90 Sr-Y varied as a function of average dose rate to bone. c) people require 10 times as long as mice and 3.6 times as long as dogs to develop 226 Ra-induced bone tumors at a given skeletal dose rate. d) based on the results, a practical threshold for bone cancer from 226 Ra was estimated to exist at cumulative doses of about 50-110 rad for dogs, mice and people. (author)

  2. The adsorption of Sr(II) and Cs(I) ions by irradiated Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yiming Tan; Jundong Feng; Liang Qiu; Zhentian Zhao; Xiaohong Zhang; Haiqian Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Adsorption behavior and mechanism of Sr(II) and Cs(I) in single and binary solutions using irradiated Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated. The effects of several environmental factors on Sr(II) and Cs(I) adsorption to irradiated Saccharomyces cerevisiae was determined. The equilibrium experimental data were simulated by different kinetic models and isotherm models. The combined effect of Sr(II) and Cs(I) on Saccharomyces cerevisiae is generally antagonistic. SEM and EDS analyses indicate that crystals formed on the cell surface are precipitate of Sr(II) and Cs(I), respectively. (author)

  3. 90Sr and 137Cs determination in milk and foodstuff samples in North and Middle Moravia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartuskova, M.; Lusnak, J.; Rada, J.; Beckova, V.

    2008-01-01

    Activities of radionuclides Sr-90 and Cs-137 in milk and parts of foodstuff have been determined in National Radiation Protection Institute for many years. Sr-90 activity in those samples determinate branch Ostrava by radiochemical procedure - precipitation with oxalic acid and measuring with using gas-flow proportional detector. Gamma spectrometry with HPGe detector is using for 137 Cs determination. (authors)

  4. The characteristics of intake Cs-137 and Sr-90 with food by Ozersk's inhabitants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dronova, M.

    2000-01-01

    This work is based on a questionnaire of production plant 'MAYAK' workers eating habits. Cs-137 and Sr-90 were chosen as experimental radionuclides. Cs-137 is distributed in organisms equally. It is considered to be a source of genetic damage after entry into the human body. This radionuclide is almost completely absorbed as it passes into the bowels after peroral entry. In the blood Cs-137 is distributed almost evenly between organs and tissues. It was established that Cs-137 accumulates in muscle, kidney, heart, spleen, lungs, and liver to a higher degree. Although the half-life of Cs-137 exceeds Sr-90, Cs-137 leaves the body more rapidly. The radiation dose of Cs-137 per unit of intake is less than for Sr-90. In addition, Cs-137 is absorbed by plants to a lesser degree than Sr-90. Taking into account that a considerable part of the daily diet consists of vegetables, it should be noted that different radionuclides get into plants in different amounts and different ways. Cs-137 concentrates in cereal, beans, oil plants, potatoes. beets and tomatoes. Meat and milk are also a main source of Cs-137 in a person's diet. Sr-90 contributes to radiation dose for bone and marrow, almost all Sr-90 is taken up by organisms through milk, greens, and cereal. (authors)

  5. The selective separation of Cs and Sr ion on the inorganic ion-exchanger zeolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hun Hwee; Min, Byeog Heon [Hoseo University, Taegu (Korea)

    1998-04-01

    This study shows the selective separation of Cs and Sr ion on the inorganic ion-exchanger zeolites such as clinoptilolite, Y-type CBV760, CBV780 and A-type 3A. The selective separation of Cs and Sr on these zeolites was examined using batch and continuous column experiments. For the selective separation of Cs and Sr from a synthetic wastewater, adsorption rate of Cs increased in the order, clinoptilolite> 3A>> CBV760> CBV780, adsorption rate of Sr increased in the other, 3A>> clinoptilolite> CBV760> CBV780. For the clinoptilolite, the adsorption rate of Cs reached about 96 {approx} 98% within 3h. The adsorption rate of Sr on 3A reached about 99% within 3h. (author). 40 refs., 27 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Distribution of 137Cs and 226Ra in the sediments of Aswan High Dam lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, S.S.; Unfried, E.; Grass, F.

    1994-01-01

    Sediment samples of the High Dam lake were investigated for their 137 Cs, 226 Ra, 228 Th, and 40 K content, using low-level γ-spectroscopy. The results show that at the beginning of the lake (500 km from the High Dam), where sediments consist mostly of sand, the level of 137 Cs is very low (0.1 Bq*kg -1 ). The maximum value (22.3 Bq*kg -1 ) was found 40 km from the wall of the High Dam, where the composition of the sediments is nearly 50% clays. The distribution of the natural nuclides 226 Ra, 228 Th and 40 K shows a different trend. (author) 9 refs.; 9 figs.; 1 tab

  7. SPECIFICITY OF ACCUMULATION OF VARIOUS RADIONUCLIDES (137Cs и 90Sr IN SPINACH (Spinacia oleracea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Soldatenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the specificity of accumulation of 137Cs and 90Sr by plants and limits of accumulation by plant fruits plays a key role at breeding of vegetable crops, which make demand for ecological safety of the product. The article is concerned with the study of varietal sources of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. aimed at development of ecological safety product on the territory polluted by radionuclides.The specificity of accumulation of radionuclides 137Cs and 90Sr was studied in 54 varieties of spinach at industrial contaminated and polluted lands. Experimental tests were conducted in the Moscow and Bryansk regions in 2012 and 2014. The absolute value of radionuclide 90Sr was higher than absolute value of radionuclide 137Cs in all studied zones. It was found that the hazard rate of 90Sr is higher because the level of pollution of product reaches up to 76% from maximum permissible concentration (MPC, while the level of product pollution by 137Cs is 26,4% from MPC. The spinach genotype differentiation for 90Sr in the most environments is lower than differentiation for 137Cs. The histograms of distribution 90Sr and 137Cs showed that samples amount in the groups of accumulation for both radionuclides are equal. Statistically significant data for radionuclides 137Cs and 90Sr in spinach were not obtained. The evaluation of spinach for low content of radionuclides should be conducted separately for each radionuclide on various backgrounds.

  8. Sorption behaviour of Cs, Sr radionuclides in the presence of various anions and surfactants in solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davydov, Yu.P.; Toropov, I.G.; Vasilevskaya, T.V.

    1997-01-01

    The state of 137 Cs and 90 Sr radionuclides was studied in solutions of different compositions to develop appropriate methodology and technology for treatment of spent decontamination solutions. Complex physico-chemical methods were used for this study. Particular attention was paid to the sorption of 137 Cs and 90 Sr on different natural and synthetic inorganic sorbents, as the most specific and selective sorbents for separation of these radionuclides from different solutions. Sorption of CS and Sr on different fractions of soil was also studied in connection with development of rehabilitation methods for contaminated territories. (author). 2 refs, 20 tabs

  9. On 99Tc, 137Cs and 90Sr in the Kara Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlgaard, H.

    1995-01-01

    Technetium-99 in the Arctic seas originate mainly from European reprocessing plants whereas 137 Cs and 90 Sr have many sources. It appears that for 137 Cs, re-mobilisation from the Irish Sea of sedimented activity from earlier discharges and the outflow of Baltic water contaminated with Chernobyl activity, are more important sources to the present contamination of the Kara Sea than new European discharges. As opposed to 137 Cs and 99 Tc, 90 Sr is correlated with low salinity waters. It is argued, that this is due to runoff of global atmospheric fallout 90 Sr from land. 7 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  10. Uptake and distributions of 90Sr and 137Cs in rice plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukada, Hirofumi; Takeda, Akira; Hasegawa, Hidenao

    2008-01-01

    Polished rice is a staple food in Asian countries and ingestion of polished rice is one of the most important pathways of radionuclides into humans. Inedible parts of rice plants are returned to the soil as fertilizer and are used as an ingredient of feed for livestock. Strontium-90 and 137 Cs are important radionuclides for the assessment of radiation exposure to the public because of their high fission yield, long-half lives and transferability in the environment. The purpose of the present study is to obtain information on the distributions of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in rice plant components for better understanding of the fate of the radionuclides in an agricultural environment. Rice plants were cultivated in an experimental field and collected at harvest time. The concentrations of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in the soil were 5.6 and 4.4 Bq kg -1 , respectively. Rice plant samples were separated into polished rice, rice bran, hull, straw and root parts, and then the concentrations of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in the samples were determined. The concentrations of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in polished rice were 0.012 and 0.0048 Bq kg -1 dry weight, respectively. The concentrations of 90 Sr and 137 Cs varied by two and one orders of magnitudes in rice plant components, respectively. The edible component, polished rice, accounted for 32% of the total dry weight. In the entire rice plants, only 0.5% of the total 90 Sr and 10% of the total 137 Cs were found in polished rice. Contents of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in the above ground parts were 0.84 and 0.021 Bq m -2 , respectively. For each cropping, the percentages of 90 Sr and 137 Cs uptake from the upper soil layer to the aboveground biomass of rice plants were calculated as 0.094 and 0.0030% of their soil inventories, respectively. (author)

  11. Luminescence properties of undoped CsCaCl3 and CsSrCl3 crystalline scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Yutaka; Saeki, Keiichiro; Koshimizu, Masanori; Asai, Keisuke; Yanagida, Takayuki

    2015-01-01

    Intrinsic luminescence properties of undoped CsCaCl 3 and CsSrCl 3 crystalline scintillators were studied. The crystal samples were grown by a vertical Bridgman method. Photoluminescence spectra of the crystals showed Auger-free luminescence (AFL) at 310 nm and self-trapped emission (STE) at 400 nm for CsCaCl 3 and 465 nm for CsSrCl 3 , when vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light at 84 nm and 160 nm excited the crystals. X-ray excited radioluminescence spectra of the crystals showed some emission bands in the 280-600 nm wavelength range, which are owing to AFL, STE, and other origins such as lattice defects and impurities. Scintillation light yield was 400-300 ph/MeV, and the principal scintillation decay time about 2.5 ns and 12 ns for CsCaCl 3 and 1.8 ns and 13 ns for CsSrCl 3 . (author)

  12. The review of separation technology for fission nuclides 90Sr and 137Cs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Huaming; Li Xingliang; Luo Shunzhong; Peng Shuming; Lei Jiarong

    2010-01-01

    The progress of separation technologies for fission nuclides 90 Sr and 137 Cs, including precipitation method, liquid-liquid extraction process and ion exchanging operation, are mainly reviewed. Crown ether (DtBuCH18C6) and calixarene-crown ether (BOBCalixC6) can be highly selective for 90 Sr and 137 Cs respectively in acidic waste; Ionic liquids extraction and supercritical fluid extraction can be applied for separation 90 Sr and 137 Cs from high level waste. Crystalline silicotitiate (CST) and metal sulfide (KMS-1) have highly selectivity for 90 Sr and 137 Cs separately in basic condition. The prospects of disposal technology for high level waste are also discussed in this review. (authors)

  13. Accumulation of 90Sr and 137Cs by fruit bodies of mushrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozhevnikova, T.L.; Mishenkov, N.N.; Martyushova, L.N.; Krivolutskii, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    The dimensions of accumulation of 90 Sr and 137 Cs by mushrooms depends on the stores of forest litter: The greater they are, the higher the concentration. As the nuclides migrate from the forest litter, the dimensions of their accumulation decrease: In the tenth year of the investigation the concentration of 90 Sr in mushrooms had diminished by 1.5-3 times; and 137 Cs, by as much as 30 times. The fruit bodies of mushrooms accumulate 2.5-5 times more 137 Cs, and in individual cases up to 40 times more, than 90 Sr. The maximum amount of 90 Sr and 137 Cs is accumulated by annulated boletus; the minimum amount, by rough boletus

  14. Parameters of Cs 137 and Sr 90 transition from soil into salad crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarevich, T.M.; Barashenko, V.V.

    2010-01-01

    Transition coefficients of Cs 137 and Sr 90 from soil into plants for potherb of bulb onion (Allium cepa), parsley (Petroselinum crispum), dill (Anethum graveolens), celery (Apium graveolens) and coriander (Coriandrum sativum) have been defined. (authors)

  15. Intercomparison of methods for determining 90Sr and 137Cs in plant samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sha Lianmao; Zhao Min; Tian Guizhi

    1986-01-01

    The results of intercomparison of methods for determining 90 Sr and 137 Cs in plant samples are reported. Nine laboratories participated in the intercomparison. The samples used in intercomparison were reed and tea powders. The analytical results of 90 Sr in reed and 137 Cs in tea from different laboratories show good comparability and follow the normal-distribution. Some results reported of 137 Cs in reed are apparently lower than others. The results of 90 Sr in tea from different laboratories have poor comparability. The results obtained by HDEHP rapid extraction chromatograph appear to be too high, and it's cause is discussed. The 95% confidence intervals of content of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in reed and tea samples are given

  16. Coprecipitation of 137Cs and 85Sr microquantities with complex compound [M(18-crown-6)]BPH4 (M=Na+, Cs+) from neutral and alkaline solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konovalova, N.A.; Rumer, I.A.; Kulyukhin, S.A.

    2009-01-01

    The paper reports the possibility of joint separation of 137 Cs and 85 Sr from neutral and alkaline aqueous solutions by their coprecipitation with the solid phase of complex compounds [M(18-crown-6)]BPh 4 (M=Na + , Cs + ), as well as to study the coprecipitation of 137 Cs and 85 Sr with the solid phase CsBPh 4 . It is found that complex compounds [M(18-crown-6)]BPh 4 (M=Na + , Cs + ) increased the degree of 85 Sr separation from solutions virtually two- to threefold vs. CsBPh 4 . Chloride and nitrate were found to have hardly any impact on the coprecipitation of 137 Cs and 85 Sr with [M(18-crown-6)]BPh 4 (M = Na + , Cs + ). (orig.)

  17. Contents of 90Sr, 137Cs and 144Ce in tea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sha Lianmao; Qiu Yundian; Wang Zhihui; Wang Fenghua

    1996-01-01

    The determination results of 90 Sr, 137 Cs and 144 Ce contents in 18 kinds of tea goods are reported. The tea samples were pretreated by ashing and analyzed by combined radiochemical procedure. the results showed the average contents of 90 Sr, 137 Cs and 144 Ce in tea goods available in 1985 are 17, 2.2 and 0.8 Bq/kg respectively

  18. Sorption kinetics of Cs and Sr in sediments of a Savannah River Site reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, J.A.

    1997-07-01

    Laboratory measurements of the sorption and desorption of 134 Cs and 85 Sr to sediments were conducted. These sediments were sampled from the profundal zone of Par Pond at the Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina. The isotopes 134 Cs and 85 Sr were used to trace the sorption properties of the main contaminants found in the reservoir which are 137 Cs and 90 Sr respectively. The sorption behavior of these two elements was studied using spiked sediment/water slurries of a known mass to volume ratio. The results reveal that Sr undergoes significant reversible sorption while a fraction of Cs irreversibly sorbs to the sediment. The calculated distribution coefficient Kd at equilibrium was (3 ± 0.6) x 10 3 for 134 Cs after 60 d and (1 ± 0.2) x 10 3 for 85 Sr after 7 d at pH ∼ 6 and slurry ratio of 1:1000 g/ml. The K d for 134 Cs ranged from 2 x 10 2 to 3 x 10 4 depending on pH and conductivity. The 85 Sr reached equilibrium in a few days, while 134 Cs reached an apparent equilibrium in 1--2 months. The K d for 134 Cs was a function of the slurry ratio, pH, conductivity, and contact time. These factors were interrelated since the sediments released ions to the slurry mixture which decreased the pH and increased the conductivity. A sorption isotherm measured for 134 Cs was linear at water concentrations from 60 mBq/ml to 20 Bq/ml. A kinetic model was proposed to describe the basic sorption of 134 Cs to Par Pond sediments under homogeneous laboratory conditions

  19. Cs+ and Sr2+ adsorption selectivity of zeolites in relation to radioactive decontamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.W. Munthali

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Zeolites are used as adsorbents of cationic elements in the radioactive decontamination process of water, soil and others. We determined Cs+ and Sr2+ adsorption selectivity of some zeolites to know effective zeolite species for the decontamination of radioactive Cs and Sr. A 30 mL mixed solution containing up to 15 mg L−1 of non-radioactive Cs+ or Sr+ and up to 0.50 M of Na+ or K+ was mixed with 0.5 g of Linde-type A, Na-P1, faujasite X, faujasite Y and mordenite. Among the zeolites, mordenite had the highest Cs+ adsorption selectivity, and the selectivity had no correlation to the cation exchange capacity (CEC of the zeolites. In contrast, Sr2+ adsorption selectivity of the zeolites positively correlated with the CEC of the zeolites; Linde-type A with the highest CEC showed the highest adsorption selectivity, and its adsorption rate was more than 99.9% even in the presence of 0.5 M K+. A simulated soil decontamination experiment of Cs from a Cs-retaining vermiculite by using mordenite and that of Sr from a Sr-retaining vermiculite by using Linde-type A showed decontamination rates of more than 90%.

  20. Comparison of transfer factors of Sr-85 and Cs-134 for soils and crops of Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skarlou, V.; Papanicolaou, E. P.; Nobeli, C.

    1994-01-01

    The transfer of Sr-85 and Cs-134 from soil to plant (CR) was studied in two successive and similar in design glasshouse experiments. Six plant species (wheat, alfalfa, radish, string bean, cucumber, lettuce - only for Sr-85 - and endives - only for Cs-134), were grown in pots on eight Greek soils differing significantly in their physical and chemical properties. After the necessary measurements and analyses, big differences were detected in the transfer factors of both radionuclides with the soil types. The CRs of Sr-85 were higher than those of Cs-134 and for the tested crops and soils ranged between 0.3 and 36.5 for Sr-85 and between < 0.01 and 1.72 for Cs-134. The CRs of grains and seeds were much lower than those of leafy material for Sr-85 while the difference was not so high for Cs-134. The correlation between CRs and pH, negative in all cases, was significant or highly significant for all tested crops or plant parts (for Sr-85 r-bar = - 0.89, for Cs-134 r-bar = - 0.82). The values of CRs indicated a trend for negative correlation with other soil properties (cation exchange capacity-CEC, clay %). From exchangeable cations, exchangeable (Ca + Mg) as well as exchangeable bases, expressed as percentages of CEC, gave a significant or highly significant correlation with CRs of both radionuclides. (author)

  1. A survey of 90Sr and 137Cs activity levels of retail foods in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abukawa, J.; Tsubuku, C.; Hayano, K.; Hirano, K.

    1998-01-01

    A comprehensive survey was conducted on 90 Sr and 137 Cs activity levels in retail foods purchased from retail markets all over Japan during the period 1989-1994, and the annual effective dose equivalent due to dietary ingestion was estimated. The concentrations of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in the food samples were determined using γ-ray spectrometry and the radiochemical method. The following were clarified by this study: (1) The 90 Sr and 137 Cs activity concentration levels were below 1 Bq kg -1 for almost all food samples except for the dried foods. (2) The activity concentration levels of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in foods of animal origin were different from those of plant origin. Generally, the former had higher 137 Cs and lower 90 Sr activity concentrations than the latter. (3) The mean and maximum values of the annual effective dose equivalent from a dietary intake of 90 Sr and 137 Cs by the consumption of retail foods were estimated to be as low as 1·3 and 4·1 μSv, respectively. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  2. Sr-90, Cs-137 and Ce-144 in commercial tea from several areas in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sha Lianmao; Qiu Yundian; Wang Zhihui; Wang Fenghua

    1993-01-01

    18 kinds of tea, most of which are famous products, were collected in 1985 from 10 provinces of China. More than 1 kg of manufactured tea was collected from each sampling location and ashed in a stainless steel pan by a rapid ashing apparatus made in China Institute for Radiation Protection. A 10 g aliquot of the ashed sample was subjected to radiochemical analysis for 90 Sr. 117 Cs and 144 Ce. Strontium, Cesium and Cerium carriers were added to the samples. The chemical yield of Sr, Cs and Ce were determined by weighting. After the radiochemical separation the mounted precipitates were counted for activity using a thin window methane gas-flow proportional counter normally for 100 min. Statistical error due to counting in generally was 90 Sr, 2.2 +- 0.9 Bq/kg for 137 Cs and 0.8 +- 0.2 Bq/kg for 144 Ce. Among these data, the content of 144 Ce in each tea sample is the lowest for its shorter lift. Higher values of 90 Sr concentration occurred in each tea sample than that of 137 Cs. This seems to be due to the fact that 137 Cs is tightly bound by soil than 90 Sr and the extent to which 90 Sr is absorbed from the soil by plants is greater than 137 Cs. (2 figs., 1 tab.)

  3. The effect of phytohormones on the 133Cs and 88Sr accumulation in oilseed rape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Mengluo; Xu Changhe; Li Xinlei; Wang Dan

    2011-01-01

    The effect of uptake and distribution of 133 Cs and 88 Sr in the common plant-India mustard (Brassica napus L.) by exogenous phytohormones (Gibberelin-A 3 GA 3 , Salicylates, SA, 3-indole acetic acid, IAA) treatments were studied by using hydroponic experiment. The results shown as follows: the biomass of above-ground and that of roots of oilseed rape were obviously higher than that of contrary (non-hormone), and the accumulation of 133 Cs and 88 Sr increased as well, under the three phytohormones treatments. The distribution sequence of 133 Cs and 88 Sr in oilseed rape was roots>above-grounds, and the contents was 1 3 3 Cs> 88 Sr. The accumulation ability of phytohormones was GA>SA>IAA, the accumulation of 133 Cs or 88 Sr increased with the phytohormone concentration. The treatment of mid-level of Gibberelin-A 3 (500 mg/L) and Salicylates acid (500 μmol/L) increased the biomass, enrichment and the translocation factors under the low concentration of 133 Cs and 88 Sr stress (1 mmol/L). Therefore, the phyto-extraction efficiency was enhanced in oilseed rape by using exogenous phytohormones. (authors)

  4. Foliar uptake of 134Cs and 85Sr in strawberry as function by leaf age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortunati, P.; Brambilla, M.; Speroni, F.; Carini, F.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper a study of the foliar uptake and translocation of 134 Cs and 85 Sr in a herbaceous fruit plant is presented. In particular, absorption, translocation and loss of these radionuclides in strawberry plants have been studied in relation to the age of contaminated leaves. Strawberry plants were contaminated by distributing droplets of an aqueous solution containing 134 CsCl and 85 SrCl 2 on the surface of two leaves per plant. One half of the plants was contaminated through two young leaves, a second half through two old leaves. Sets of plants were collected 1 day, 7 days and 15 days after contamination. One half of them was rinsed with double distilled water before gamma analysis. Rinsing contaminated leaves removes on average 55% of the applied 134 Cs and 45% of 85 Sr. The activity removed decreases during the 15 days of the experimental study, both for 134 Cs and for 85 Sr, suggesting an increase in foliar absorption during this period. The activity removed does not differ between old and young leaves. 'External loss' is lower for young than old contaminated leaves. 'Internal loss' through translocation occurs mainly for 134 Cs. Translocation coefficients from contaminated leaves to fruits are two orders of magnitude higher for 134 Cs (4.0%), than for 85 Sr (0.05%). Leaf to fruit translocation coefficients for 134 Cs are higher from young leaves (5.8%), than from old leaves (2.3%)

  5. 137Cs and 9Sr uptake by sunflower cultivated under hydroponic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soudek, Petr; Valenova, Sarka; Vavrikova, Zuzana; Vanek, Tomas

    2006-01-01

    The 9 Sr and 137 Cs uptake by the plant Helianthus annuus L. was studied during cultivation in a hydroponic medium. The accumulation of radioactivity in plants was measured after 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 days of cultivation. About 12% of 137 Cs and 20% of 9 Sr accumulated during the experiments. We did not find any differences between the uptake of radioactive and stable caesium and strontium isotopes. Radioactivity distribution within the plant was determined by autoradiography. 137 Cs was present mainly in nodal segments, leaf veins and young leaves. High activity of 9 Sr was localized in leaf veins, stem, central root and stomata. The influence of stable elements or analogues on the transfer behaviour was investigated. The percentage of non-active caesium and strontium concentration in plants decreased with the increasing initial concentration of Cs or Sr in the medium. The percentage of 9 Sr activity in plants decreased with increasing initial activity of the nuclide in the medium, but the activity of 137 Cs in plants increased. The influence of K + and NH 4 + on the uptake of 137 Cs and the influence of Ca 2+ on the uptake of 9 Sr was tested. The highest accumulation of 137 Cs (24-27% of the initial activity of 137 Cs) was found in the presence of 10 mM potassium and 12 mM ammonium ions. Accumulation of about 22% of initial activity of 9 Sr was determined in plants grown on the medium with 8 mM calcium ions

  6. Comparative kinetics of 47Ca, 85Sr and 226Ra in the freshwater turtle, Trachemys scripta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinton, T.G.; Whicker, F.W.; Ibrahim, S.A.; Pinder, J.E. III

    1992-01-01

    The kinetics of 47 Ca, 85 Sr and 226 Ra were compared in the yellow-bellied slider, a common freshwater turtle of the southeastern USA. The absorption and elimination processes were examined as a function of stable dietary Ca, season, age and sex of the animals. Turtles were gavaged with radionuclides and serial whole-body analyses were performed on the live animals for up to 480 days. Only in the juvenile age class did reduced dietary Ca cause a significant increase in 85 Sr absorption. The absorption of 85 Sr and 226 Ra in the adult male, adult female and hatchling groups was unaffected by dietary Ca. Mean absorption was greater than that which has been reported for other organisms and significantly differed among isotopes. The high absorption values were not restricted to immatures, but continued into maturity. Elimination rates were not affected by the dietary treatment, nor were isotopic differences in elimination observed. Annual mean elimination rate constants pooled among animal groups, were 0.22 ± 0.07 for 85 Sr and 0.26 ± 0.18 for 226 Ra. Retention was strongly affected by season with the greatest elimination occurring in the summer and declining to levels that were not distinguishable from zero in the winter. Elimination rate constants for hatchlings were greater than for the other age groups. (author)

  7. 137Cs and 90Sr in dairy and farm milk in Finnish Lapland 1960-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostiainen, E.; Rissanen, K.

    2003-01-01

    The decrease rates of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in milk were studied in the years following the atmospheric nuclear weapon testings and after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. The highest 90 Sr and 137 Cs concentrations in the 1960's in Finnish milk were recorded in Lapland even though the deposition of 90 Sr and 137 Cs did not significantly differ between other localities in Finland, and they were not greater in northern Finland. This was mainly due to the high proportion of peat soils and nutrient deficiency of the pastures in Lapland. 137 Cs deposition after the Chernobyl accident in 1986 in Lapland was less than 1 kBq m-2, and 90 Sr deposition was so low that there was no detectable increase in the 90 Sr concentration in milk. The ecological half-lives were estimated for the decrease in the concentrations of 137 Cs and 90 Sr after the end of nuclear weapon testings period and the Chernobyl fallout during short and longer time intervals. (orig.)

  8. Cancer risk due to Cs-137 and Sr-90 dietary intake after the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toader, M; Vasilache, R A [Institute of Hygiene and Public Health, Bucharest (Romania)

    1997-09-01

    The most important radionuclides carried by the radioactive plume over Romania were I{sup 131}, Cs{sup 134}, Cs{sup 137} and Sr{sup 90}. As in many other countries, in the first days, I{sup 131} had the main contribution to the irradiation dose released to the population. After its decay, and the decay of the other short-lived radionuclides, Cs{sup 137} and Sr{sup 90} remained the most important contaminants. The principal route of intake for these two radionuclides is considered to be the ingestion of contaminated foods. Assessments of radiation doses to people living in the Bucharest area have utilized data obtained from measurement of Cs{sup 137} and Sr{sup 90} content in dietary intake samples for a number of subjects of different ages and sexes. This paper summarizes the results of some of our measurements performed since April 1986 until March 1995. 7 refs, 8 figs.

  9. Cancer risk due to Cs-137 and Sr-90 dietary intake after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toader, M.; Vasilache, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    The most important radionuclides carried by the radioactive plume over Romania were I 131 , Cs 134 , Cs 137 and Sr 90 . As in many other countries, in the first days, I 131 had the main contribution to the irradiation dose released to the population. After its decay, and the decay of the other short-lived radionuclides, Cs 137 and Sr 90 remained the most important contaminants. The principal route of intake for these two radionuclides is considered to be the ingestion of contaminated foods. Assessments of radiation doses to people living in the Bucharest area have utilized data obtained from measurement of Cs 137 and Sr 90 content in dietary intake samples for a number of subjects of different ages and sexes. This paper summarizes the results of some of our measurements performed since April 1986 until March 1995. 7 refs, 8 figs

  10. Sorption Characteristics of 137Cs and 90Sr into Rembang and Sumedang Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Setiawan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand the sorption behavior of 137Cs and 90Sr into soil sample from Rembang and Subang, it is important to estimate the effect of contact time, ionic strength and concentration of metal ion in the solution. For this reason, the interaction of 137Cs and 90Sr with soil sample has been examined. The study performed at trace concentration (~10-8 M of CsCl and SrCl2, and batch method was used. NaCl has been selected as a representative of the ionic strength with 0.1; 0.5 and 1.0 M concentrations. Concentration of 10-8~10-4 M CsCl and SrCl2 were used for study the effect of Cs and Sr concentrations in solution. Apparent distribution coefficient was used to predict the sorption behavior. The sorption equilibrium of 137Cs and 90Sr into soil was attained after 5 days contacted with Kd value around 3300-4200 mL/g, where Kd was defined as the ratio of number of radionuclide activity absorbed in solid phase per-unit mass to the number of radionuclide activity remains is solution per-unit volume. Presence of NaCl as background salt in the solution affected Kd values due to competition among metal ions into soil samples. Increase of Cs or Sr concentration in solution made Kd value decreased drastically. This information is expected could provide an important input for the planning and design of radioactive waste disposal system in Java Island in the future.

  11. Distributions of 137Cs and 90Sr in the soil of Uljin, South Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Ji Yeon; Kim, Wan; Maeng, Seong Jin; Lee, Sang Hoon

    2016-01-01

    For the purpose of baseline data collection and enhancement of environmental monitoring the distribution studies of 137 Cs and 90 Sr in the soil of Uljin province was performed and the relation between surface soil activities and soil properties (pH, TOC and median of the surface soil) was analyzed. For 14 spots within 10 km from the NPP surface soil samples were collected and soils for depth profile were sampled for 3 spots in April 2011. Using γ-ray spectrometry with HPGe detector, the concentrations of 137 Cs were determined and the concentrations of 90 Sr were measured by counting β-activity of 90 Y (in equilibrium with 90 Sr) in a gas flow proportional counter. The concentration ranges of 137 Cs and 90 Sr were <0.479-39.6 Bq (kg-dry)-1 (avg. 7.51 Bq·(kg-dry)-1) and 0.209-1.85 Bq·(kg-dry)-1 (avg. 0.74 Bq·(kg-dry)-1) which were similar to the reported values from other regions in Korea. The activity ratio of 137 Cs to 90 Sr in surface soils was around 9.67, which is much bigger than the initial value of 1.75 for worldwide fallouts because of faster downward movement of 90 Sr after fall-out than that of 137 Cs. For depth profile studies soils were collected down to 40 cm depth for the locations of Deokgu, Hujeong and Maehwa. The 137 Cs concentration distribution of the first two showed maximum values at top soils and decreased rapidly in exponential manner, while 90 Sr showed two local maximum values for soils near top and about 30 cm depth. Through linear fittings between the 137 Cs and 90 Sr concentrations of surface soil and pH, TOC and median of the surface soil, the only probable relationship obtained was between 137 Cs and TOC (determination coefficient R2=0.6). The concentration ranges of 137 Cs and 90 Sr in Uljin were similar to the reported values from other regions in Korea. The only probable relationship obtained between activities and soil properties was between 137 Cs and TOC

  12. Distributions of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in the soil of Uljin, South Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ji Yeon; Kim, Wan; Maeng, Seong Jin; Lee, Sang Hoon [Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    For the purpose of baseline data collection and enhancement of environmental monitoring the distribution studies of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in the soil of Uljin province was performed and the relation between surface soil activities and soil properties (pH, TOC and median of the surface soil) was analyzed. For 14 spots within 10 km from the NPP surface soil samples were collected and soils for depth profile were sampled for 3 spots in April 2011. Using γ-ray spectrometry with HPGe detector, the concentrations of {sup 137}Cs were determined and the concentrations of {sup 90}Sr were measured by counting β-activity of {sup 90}Y (in equilibrium with {sup 90}Sr) in a gas flow proportional counter. The concentration ranges of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr were <0.479-39.6 Bq (kg-dry)-1 (avg. 7.51 Bq·(kg-dry)-1) and 0.209-1.85 Bq·(kg-dry)-1 (avg. 0.74 Bq·(kg-dry)-1) which were similar to the reported values from other regions in Korea. The activity ratio of {sup 137}Cs to {sup 90}Sr in surface soils was around 9.67, which is much bigger than the initial value of 1.75 for worldwide fallouts because of faster downward movement of {sup 90}Sr after fall-out than that of {sup 137}Cs. For depth profile studies soils were collected down to 40 cm depth for the locations of Deokgu, Hujeong and Maehwa. The {sup 137}Cs concentration distribution of the first two showed maximum values at top soils and decreased rapidly in exponential manner, while {sup 90}Sr showed two local maximum values for soils near top and about 30 cm depth. Through linear fittings between the {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr concentrations of surface soil and pH, TOC and median of the surface soil, the only probable relationship obtained was between {sup 137}Cs and TOC (determination coefficient R2=0.6). The concentration ranges of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in Uljin were similar to the reported values from other regions in Korea. The only probable relationship obtained between activities and soil properties

  13. Incorporating Cs and Sr into blast furnace slag inorganic polymers and their effect on matrix properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandevenne, Niels; Iacobescu, Remus Ion; Pontikes, Yiannis; Carleer, Robert; Thijssen, Elsy; Gijbels, Katrijn; Schreurs, Sonja; Schroeyers, Wouter

    2018-05-01

    Minimizing harmful effects to the environment in waste-management practices requires continuous innovation. This is especially important in the field of radioactive waste management. Alternatives to the commonly used ordinary Portland cement matrices are being increasingly studied for improved immobilisation purposes. The development of inorganic polymers (IP) from industrial residues has been successfully studied for the immobilisation of caesium (Cs+) and strontium (Sr2+). However, knowledge of the effect of these introduced elements on the IP-matrix is scarce, especially considering that studied effects are dependent on the IP-precursor characteristics and the form in which the Cs+ and Sr2+ are introduced. In this study, IPs containing varying amounts of CsNO3 and Sr(NO3)2 were developed to study the effect of the introduced elements on the IP-characteristics. IP-samples were developed from ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) and 6 M NaOH activating solution. Cs+ and Sr2+ were added to account for 0.5, 1 and 2 wt% of the total IP-mass. Throughout the entire study, Cs+-addition showed no significant effects on the studied parameters. Calorimetric results showed that Sr2+ severely affects reaction kinetics, consuming hydroxide ions necessary for the alkali activation reaction. Sr2+-addition also caused a severe decrease in compressive strength, increased calcium leaching, and decreased sodium and hydroxide leaching. Micro-chemical analyses showed that Cs+ is almost fully incorporated in the formed IP-matrix, while Sr2+ mainly precipitates as Sr(OH)2 in concentrated regions throughout the IP-structure. The findings presented in this paper give insights on the effect of contaminant elements on the immobilising matrix.

  14. Assessment of 137Cs and 90Sr Fluxes in the Barents Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matishov, Gennady; Usiagina, Irina; Kasatkina, Nadezhda; Ilin, Gennadii

    2014-05-01

    On the basis of published and own data the annual balance of radionuclide income/outcome was assessed for 137Cs and 90Sr in the Barents Sea for the period from 1950s to the presnt. The scheme of the isotope balance calculation in the Barents Sea included the following processes:atmospheric fallout; river run-off; liquid radioactive wastes releases, income from the Norwegian and the White Seas; outflow to the adjacent areas through the Novaya Zemlya straits and the transects Svalbard-Franz Josef Land and Franz Josef Land-Novaya Zemlya; radioactive decay. According to the multiyear dynamics, the inflow of 137Cs and 90Sr to the Barents Sea was significantly preconditioned by currents from the Norwegian Sea. Three peaks of 137Cs and 90Sr isotope concentrations were registered for the surface waters on the western border of the Barents Sea. The first one was observed in the mid-1960s and was conditioned by testing of nuclear weapons. The increase of isotope concentrations in 1975 and 1980 was preconditioned by the discharge of atomic waste by the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing plant. Nowadays, after the sewage disposal plant was built, the annual discharge of nuclear waste from Sellafield plant is low. The Norwegian Sea was a major source of 137Cs and 90Sr isotope income into the Barents Sea for the period of 1960-2014. Currently, the transborder transfer of 90Sr and 137Cs from the Norwegian Sea into the Barents Sea constitutes about 99% of income for each element. Atmospheric precipitation had a major impact in the 1950-1960s after the testing of the nuclear weapons, and in 1986 after the accident at Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station. In 1963, the atmospheric precipitation of 137Cs reached 1050 TBq; and that of 90Sr, 630 TBq. In 1986, a significant amount of 137Cs inflow (up to 1010 TBq/year) was registered. The 137Cs isotope income exceeded the 90Sr income in the 1960s-1980s, and equal amounts penetrated into the Barents Sea from the Norwegian Sea in the 1990s. Before

  15. Study on the mechanisms of solidification for Cs+ and Sr2+ in alkali-activated slag cement waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Sheng; Shen Xiaodong; Lu Linchao; Wu Xuequan; Wen Yinghui

    1994-09-01

    The mechanisms of adsorption and chemical immobilization in Alkali-Activated Slag Cement (AASC) waste forms were quantitatively studied for Cs + and Sr 2+ . Experimental results show that, hardened AASC paste with zeolite and silica fume possesses strong adsorption ability and anti-desorption ability for Cs + and Sr 2+ . The results and analyzed by XRD show that CS + and SR 2+ could be incorporated into the lattice of C-S-H by replacing Ca 2+ in C-S-H. The d 111 values of C-S-H increase with increasing CsNO 3 and Sr(NO 3 ) 2 dosages in a limited and regular step. After washed out by deionized water in a ultrasonic washer, samples were analyzed by SEM-EDS and a lot of Cs + and Sr 2+ were detected. This means that the hydration products of AASC have a high retaining ability for Cs + and Sr 2+ . (3 tabs., 8 figs.)

  16. Analysis of the direct contamination pathway of 85Sr, 103Ru and 134Cs in soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yim, K. M.; Park, D. W.; Park, H. K.; Choi, Y. H.; Choi, S. D.; Lee, C. M.

    2001-01-01

    A solution containing 85 Sr, 103 Cs was sprayed to the aerial part of the soybean plant in a greenhouse at 6 different times before harvest and the direct contamination pathway of the radionuclide analyzed. Plant interception factor showed little difference among radionuclides. The maximum value was 0.93, which was observed at the middle growth stage. Translocation factors 85 Sr, 103 Cs in the soybean seed at harvest were in the range of 4.5x10 -5 ∼2.5x10 -3 , 6.0x10 -5 ∼2.3x10 -4 and 4.5x10 -3 ∼3.0x10 -1 , respectively. They were highest at the 3rd application for 85 Sr and 134 Cs and at the 2nd application for 103 Ru. Translocation factors of 85 Sr and 103 Ru in the soybean shell tended to increase with decreasing time interval between application and harvest but that of 134 Cs was highest at the 2nd application. The fractions of the initial deposition that remained in the soybeam plant at harvest were in the range of 0.14 ∼15.2% for 85 Sr and 103 Ru, 9.9∼41.9% for 134 Cs. These results can be utilized for predicting the radionuclide concentration in mature soybean plant and deciding counter-measures when an accidental deposition of the radionuclides occurs during the growing season of soybean

  17. On the geochemistry of 'Chernobyl' Cs-137 and Sr-90 in the Black Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batrakov, G.F.; Chudinovskikh, T.V.; Zemlyanoi, A.D.; Eremeev, V.N.

    1998-01-01

    The following correlations for Cs 137 and Sr 90 were found. For Cs-137, the relation of its concentration in suspended matter to that in the dissolved component is 2.4 centre dot 10 5 in the Dnieper waters and 0.0037 centre dot 10 5 in the North-West shelf waters; for Sr-90 - 0.44 centre dot 10 3 and 2.8 centre dot 10 3 , respectively. The relation of the concentration of dissolved Cs-137 in the sea and in the Dnieper waters is 4.3, and for Sr-90 - 0.25. It is evident that these basic correlations for Cs-137 are close to those for stable cesium. These correlations for Sr-90 differ very much from those for stable strontium. So, the situation formed for the last time in the boundary area 'the Dnieper river - the North-Western Black Sea' is close to the balanced one for Cs-137, while it is very far from that for Sr-90

  18. Leaching of Cs and Sr from sewage sludge ash buried in a landfill site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Nao; Umita, Teruyuki; Ito, Ayumi

    2014-01-01

    Radionuclide contamination from the nuclear accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant has been found in sewage sludge ash produced in eastern Japan. When such contaminated waste contains less than 8,000 Bq/kg radiocesium, it is being disposed in controlled landfill sites. In order to assess the possible spread of the radionuclides by their leaching from the landfill sites, it is important to know the leaching behavior of the radionuclides from the sewage sludge ash and factors influencing the leaching behavior. In this study, leaching experiments using stable Cs and Sr were conducted for sewage sludge ash under several conditions to investigate effects of chemical composition of leachate, pH, and solid/liquid ratio on Cs and Sr leaching behaviors. In the pH range from 6 to 12, the leaching ratio of Cs or Sr was less than 5.2 or 0.21%, respectively. Additionally, the leaching ratio of Sr decreased with increasing pH of the leachate. In contrast, the higher the pH in the leachate was, the higher the leaching ratio of Cs was. Finally, possible radionuclide leaching from contaminated sewage sludge ash and then radionuclide concentrations in an actual landfill leachate were assessed. It could be suggested that 90 Sr leaching from the landfill site had the least effect on the environment, whereas 134+137 Cs leaching needed to be taken into account for spreading radioactive materials from the landfill site to the environment. (author)

  19. Annual intake of 137Cs and 90Sr from ingestion of main foodstuffs in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chih-Jung; Lai, Shu-Ying; Huang, Ching-Chung; Lin, Yu-ming

    1996-01-01

    The radioactivities of eight main foodstuffs were investigated during 1985-1994 to evaluate the annual intake from the ingestion of 137 Cs and 90 Sr for the residents of Taiwan. The evaluation of annual intake was based on the results of radiochemical analysis of 90 Sr and gamma-ray spectrometry of 137 Cs as well as annual consumption rates of those foodstuffs in Taiwan. The annual intake 90 Sr and 137 Cs per capita is 13 and 60 Bq, respectively. Among the eight foodstuffs, fruit contributed the most to the annual intake of 90 Sr, vegetable second, rice the third and egg the least. For 137 Cs, rice contributed the most, then fruit, meat the third and flour the least. Based on the new conversion factors from ICRP 60, the annual committed effective doses of Taiwanese due to the ingestion of radionuclides 90 Sr and 137 Cs were estimated to be 3.7 x 10 -7 and 7.8 x 10 -7 Sv, respectively. (author)

  20. Ground-state hyperfine splitting for Rb, Cs, Fr, Ba+, and Ra+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginges, J. S. M.; Volotka, A. V.; Fritzsche, S.

    2017-12-01

    We have systematically investigated the ground-state hyperfine structure for alkali-metal atoms 87Rb,133Cs, and 211Fr and alkali-metal-like ions +135Ba and +225Ra, which are of particular interest for parity violation studies. The quantum electrodynamic one-loop radiative corrections have been rigorously evaluated within an extended Furry picture employing core-Hartree and Kohn-Sham atomic potentials. Moreover, the effect of the nuclear magnetization distribution on the hyperfine structure intervals has been studied in detail and its uncertainty has been estimated. Finally, the theoretical description of the hyperfine structure has been completed with full many-body calculations performed in the all-orders correlation potential method.

  1. Activity ratios of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 239+240}Pu in environmental samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossew, P. [European Commission - DG Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability (IES), I-21020 Ispra (Vatican City State, Holy See,) (Italy)], E-mail: peter.bossew@jrc.it; Lettner, H. [Institute of Physics and Biophysics, University of Salzburg, Hellbrunner Strasse 34, A-5020 Salzburg (Austria)], E-mail: herbert.lettner@sbg.ac.at; Hubmer, A.; Erlinger, C.; Gastberger, M. [Institute of Physics and Biophysics, University of Salzburg, Hellbrunner Strasse 34, A-5020 Salzburg (Austria)

    2007-09-15

    Both global and Chernobyl fallout have resulted in environmental contamination with radionuclides such as {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 239+240}Pu. In environmental samples, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239+240}Pu can be divided into the contributions of either source, if also the isotopes {sup 134}Cs and {sup 238}Pu are measurable, based on the known isotopic ratios in global and Chernobyl fallout. No analogous method is available for {sup 90}Sr. The activity ratios of Sr to Cs and Pu, respectively, are known for the actual fallout mainly from air filter measurements; but due to the high mobility of Sr in the environment, compared to Cs and Pu, these ratios generally do not hold for the inventory many years after deposition. In this paper we suggest a method to identify the mean contributions of global and Chernobyl fallout to total Sr in soil, sediment and cryoconite samples from Alpine and pre-Alpine regions of Austria, based on a statistical evaluation of Sr/Cs/Pu radionuclide activity ratios. Results are given for Sr:Cs, Sr:Pu and Cs:Pu ratios. Comparison with fallout data shows a strong depletion of Sr against Cs and Pu.

  2. Distribution coefficients for 85Sr and 137Cs in Japanese agricultural soils and their correlations with soil properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamei-Ishikawa, N.; Uchida, S.; Tagami, K.

    2008-01-01

    In this work, soil-soil solution distribution coefficients (K d ) of Sr and Cs were obtained for 112 Japanese agricultural soil samples (50 paddy soil and 62 upland soil samples) using batch sorption test. The relationships between Sr- or Cs-K d values and soil properties were discussed. Furthermore, the amount of Cs fixed in soil was estimated for 22 selected soil samples using a sequential extraction method. Then, cross effects of some soil properties for Cs fixation were evaluated. (author)

  3. 137Cs Dan 90Sr Concentration In Several Vegetables From Lahat South Sumatra Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emlinarti; Tutik-Indiyati

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of 137 Cs and 90 Sr in several vegetables, i.e beans, green peas, spinachs, gourd, nightshade, cabbages, carrots and potatoes, collected from Lahat. South Sumatra had been carried out. Analysis radiochemically were carried out, 137 Cs precipitated with ammmoniumphosphomolybdate. The samples were measured using the gamma spectrometer with the high purity germanium detector (HP-Ge). 90 Sr precipitated with fuming HNO 3 and measured using alpha/beta Low Background Counter system (LBC). Concentration of 137 Cs in the samples were varied from undetectable to (0.041 ± 0.015) Bq/kg and concentration of 90 Sr were varied from undetectable to (0.049 ± 0.017) Bq/kg. Compared with similar foodstuffs collected from several places in Lampung province, these results are relatively not different. (author)

  4. Cs 137 and Sr 90 content in the Kozloduy NPP environment; Soderzhanie 137Cs i 90Sr v obektakh okruzhayushchej sredy v rajone AEhS `Kozloduy`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karaivanova, R; Totseva, R; Badulin, V; Zlatanova, R; Fajtondzhieva, K [National Centre of Radiobiology and Radiation Protection, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1996-12-31

    The radioactivity status of soil and plant samples collected in the 12 km controlled zone surrounding Kozloduy has been investigated in the period 1990-1993. The average annual concentrations of Sr-90 and Cs-137 are compared to the values taken at 40 km distance. Cs-137 has in general higher concentrations in soil samples from the NPP close surroundings - e.g. 50-55 Bq/kg in 1992 versus 2-2.5 Bq/kg for Sr-90. Radionuclide concentrations in grass do not differ significantly from the data at 40 km distance. It is concluded that the average annual doses follow the radionuclide dynamics in the global fallout and the effect of Kozloduy operation can not be separated from the background radioactivity status. 4 refs., 21 figs.

  5. Internal contamination assessment, with regard to 90Sr, 134Cs, and 137Cs nuclei during nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayad, M.; Hanna, K.M.

    2000-01-01

    In case of nuclear reactor accident leading to the release of some radioactive isotopes in the plume, the sedimentation of its constituents on the ground causes surface contamination which consequently can be observed in the form of an internal contamination in the living biosphere. The migration of the radio nuclei from the soil to the plant root, stem, and the other edible parts is considered the main source for the contaminated foodstuffs used by the general public. In this work we have calculated the total accumulative internal dose for 9 0Sr, 1 34Cs, and 1 37Cs radio contaminants with regard to different public age groups (infant, child, and adult) due to an unexpected nuclear accident. In our calculations we have applied the protective measure inequality for the chosen standard group of foodstuffs, with respect to each age group of the public as well as the three indicated above radio nuclei. Our results indicated that the values of the calculated protective measures with regard to 9 0Sr, 1 37Cs, and 1 34Cs radio nuclei are increasing respectively for all age groups. In addition, we found that the ratio of the total protection measure values of all radio nuclei for different age groups still less than one which requires no intervention level procedures

  6. Retention of 137Cs and 90Sr by mineral sorbents surrounding vitrified nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, K.E.; Patterson, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    In June 1960, twenty-five 14-cm diameter hemispheres of vitrified nuclear waste (glass blocks) were buried in a shallow sand aquifer in the lower Perch Lake Basin, Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories, Ontario, Canada. Almost all leaching of the glass blocks occurred during the first 18 months of emplacement, and consequently the burial experiment approximated a single-injection source of 137 Cs and 90 Sr. After about 11 years, most of the 90 Sr that was released had been advected and dispersed from the site, whereas the bulk of the 137 Cs had travelled no more than 0.3 m from the blocks. Three piezometers were installed and five cores of sediment were collected at the glass block site in 1978. Mineralogically pure segregates of sand grains were prepared by hand and characterized using binocular, petrographic and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. A technique also was developed to measure very low levels of 137 Cs and 90 Sr by counting small (10-100 mg) sediment samples directly with a thin window, flow proportional counter. Results show that sand-sized grains of altered biotite (biotite-vermiculite), biotite, muscovite, hornblende and serictized feldspar are able to retain 137 Cs over a period of 18 years, and that grains of biotite-vermiculite, biotite and hematite-bearing feldspar (largely microline) can retain low levels of 90 Sr over the same period of time. The amounts of 137 Cs and 90 Sr sorbed by the mineral grains ranged from undetectable levels to approximately 380 and 35 becquerels/gram sediment, respectively. This report contains the complete series of mineral segregates ranked on a weight basis according to the amounts of retained 137 Cs and 90 Sr. Ground-water quality data indicate that none of the retention is the result of the precipitation of strontium or cesium minerals

  7. Sorption and migration characteristics of 137Cs and 90Sr in natural dispersed systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lishtvan, I.I.; Brovka, G.P.; Dedyulya, I.V.; Rovdan, E.N.

    1996-01-01

    Sorption and migration characteristics of 137 Cs and 90 Sr have been determined in fen peat, Quarts sand, kaolin and bentonite. An electrolyte effect on the radio nuclides sorption and diffusion in the given systems has been studied. Presence of stable isotopes of cesium and strontium in the porous solution has been revealed to affect 137 Cs and 90 Sr distribution and diffusion indices permitting for the effective diffusion index to increase by two orders of magnitude. 137 Cs in the peat technical contamination resulting from the Chernobyl NPP accident has been found to be mainly in an exchange form and under steady state conditions up to 75% of 137 Cs can be transformed into water-soluble state for 8-12 months under effect of stable cesium chloride (0.2 (g-eq)/l). (authors). 4 tabs., 4 refs

  8. Modelling the distribution of 90Sr and 137Cs in the Mediterranean Sea (MTPII-MATER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Cabeza, J.A.; Ortega, M.; Fernandez, V.; Tintore, J.; Monaco, A.

    1999-01-01

    Within the frame of the MTPII-MATER project (MAST), the distribution of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in the Mediterranean Sea was modelled, as these radionuclides are useful tracers of water circulation. The Mediterranean Sea was divided into 81 boxes, corresponding to 21 regions, taking into account water mass circulation, bathymetry and data availability. Transfer rates were obtained from the MOM model run under MEDMEX conditions. The model was run with realistic inputs, which included weapons global fallout, Chernobyl 137 Cs, nuclear industry and river runoff. It was observed that existing data are scarce, especially in the eastern Mediterranean. In general, model predictions agreed well with observations, showing maximum concentrations in surface waters and maxima due to global fallout ( 137 Cs and 90 Sr) and to the Chernobyl accident ( 137 Cs only). (author)

  9. The comparative kinetics of Ca, Sr, And Ra in a freshwater turtle, Trachemys scripta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinton, T.G.

    1989-01-01

    The accumulation of 45 Ca, 47 Ca, 88 Sr, and 226 Ra was studied in the yellow-bellied slider, a common freshwater turtle of the Southeastern US. The author was particularly interested in testing the hypothesis of competitive inhibition, a concept whereby decreasing the intake of a stable dietary element increases the absorption and retention of chemically similar radionuclides. He established four specific hypotheses and examined the processes of absorption and elimination as a function of stable dietary calcium (2 and 20 mg g -1 ), season (summer, fall, winter and spring), and age and sex of the animals (hatchlings, juveniles, adult males, adult females, and gravid females). Turtles were gavaged with radionuclides and the gamma-emitting isotopes were detected during serial whole-body counts performed on the live animals for up to 480 d. The analysis of the beta-emitting 45 Ca was accomplished by chemical separation procedures. Data were fit to a two-component exponential retention model by nonlinear regression. The 10-fold reduction in dietary Ca did not affect the elimination rate constants, and increased the assimilation of Sr and Ra only within juveniles. For all animals the absorption of Ca was significantly greater than Sr, and likewise, Sr was greater than Ra. Mean absorptions were generally higher than values reported for other organisms. Unlike many other organisms, absorption rates did not decline at maturity. He suspects that high Ca demands in constructing and maintaining the massive shell, necessitated by the turtle's survival strategy, may contribute to the high absorption, as well as the lack of a decline at maturity. Elimination rate constants were greatest in the summer and declined to levels that were generally not distinguishable from zero in the spring, winter, and fall seasons

  10. Radiation-Induced Neoplasms in Beagles after Administrations of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 226}Ra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, M.; Dungworth, D. L.; Bulgin, M. S.; Rosenblatt, L. S.; Richards, W. P.C.; Bustad, L. K. [Radiobiology Laboratory and Department of Veterinary Pathology, University of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1969-11-15

    The comparative carcinogenic efficiency of two bone-seeking radionuclides is under study in a colony of several hundred beagles. The toxicity of internally deposited alpha emitters ({sup 226}Ra and its daughters) and of beta irradiation ({sup 90}Sr) at comparable dosage rates indicates marked differences in site of appearance and mode of action in litters studied up to 7 years of age. Radiation carcinogenesis in beagles exposed to {sup 90}Sr daily from midgestation to adulthood (1.5 yr) is at present confined to dogs fed 4 {mu}Ci {sup 90}Sr/d or higher. The 20 cases constitute a spectrum of myeloproliferative disorders characterized by terminal anaemias, and ranging from myeloid metaplasia to granulocytic leukaemia. Continuous high-level {sup 90}Sr irradiation to bone and marrow from early life onward causes a thickened hypocellular bone ('pachyostosis'), some instances of myelofibrosis, and persistent mild leukopenia on which the final spectrum of terminal disoideis is superimposed. In contrast, up to 100 {mu}Cl {sup 226}Ra given intravenously (8 equally spaced injections at 14 to 18 months of age) to young adults is not a potent marrow cell carcinogen. The higher LET, shorter-range alpha particles are efficient in inducing bone cancers (14 cases) and skeletal lesions similar to those documented in watch-dial luminizers exposed to {sup 226}Ra in the early 1900's. The incidence of haematopoietic and skeletal neoplasms observed is dose-rate related, and the morphologic characteristics have several analogues in human cancer. The use of identically treated litters rather than individuals affords additional opportunity to study possible familial factors in the distribution of the neoplasms. Pathogenic evaluation at this juncture strongly indicates that continued bone and marrow irradiation in early life is more likely to induce haematopoietic neoplasms than is skeletal irradiation starting in young adulthood, which induces osseous neoplasms. (author)

  11. Environmental distribution of long-lived radionuclides /sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Csupka, S [Krajska Hygienicka Stanica, Bratislava (Czechoslovakia)

    1977-01-01

    Between 1963 and 1974 the content was investigated of /sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs in various parts of human environment. From food chains milk and dairy products, flour and flour products were chosen being the main sources of radioactivity produced by the above mentioned radionuclides to which the human population is exposed. In 1972 /sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs in the daily intake of food were responsible for 60 to 70% of total radioactivity in milk and flour products. On a world scale radioactive fallout continues to be the primary source of radioactive contamination with the soil in which radionuclides are accumulated being the secondary source.

  12. Assessment of dietary of 90Sr and 137Cs by the population of the GDR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziesak, H.; Kunert, M.; Kunert, J.

    1978-01-01

    Based on data pertaining to the per caput consumption of the most important classes of foodstuffs and their contents of 90 Sr and 137 Cs, calculations were made to find out the yearly ingestion of these fallout radionuclides by the adult population in 1975. The strong decline in values of ingestion to be noticed since 1964 is due to the falling 90 Sr and 137 Cs levels in most biomedia as well as to changes in nutritional habits and allows a sensible curtailment of the foodstuff monitoring programme for radionuclides to be made. (author)

  13. Effect of bedside shielding on air-kerma rates around gynecologic intracavitary brachytherapy patients containing 226Ra or 137Cs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papin, P.J.; Ramsey, M.J.; LaFontaine, R.L.; LePage, R.P.

    1990-01-01

    An anthropomorphic phantom was implanted with 226Ra or 137Cs gynecologic intracavitary brachytherapy sources. Air-kerma rate measurements were taken at 10-cm increments along a horizontal plane from the side of the bed at 50 cm, 87 cm, and 136 cm heights above the floor. Five portable lead shields were placed at the head, at the foot and along one side of the bed and readings were taken again at the corresponding heights above, below and behind the shields. The readings were normalized to 100-mg Ra equivalence, and air-kerma rate curves were drawn allowing for the comparison of 226Ra and 137Cs with and without lead shields. The data demonstrated that the air-kerma rates for 137Cs were reduced more than those for 226Ra with the use of the portable lead shields. There was four times the transmission with 226Ra than with 137Cs. The optimal placement was with the lateral bedside shields proximal to the head and foot closest to the bed, with the middle shield overlapping in back. The shields at the head and foot should extend out and overlap the bedside shields. The level of the sources should be positioned near the bottom of the shields. This information will provide the medical health physicist with an estimate of air-kerma rates for both 226Ra and 137Cs with and without shielding for evaluating personnel exposures as well as the effectiveness of current shielding in relation to radiation protection requirements in adjacent rooms or hallways

  14. Spatial distribution of natural and fallout level of 226Ra, 228Ra, 40K and 137Cs in grab sediments of Mumbai Harbour Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Ajay; Rout, Sabyasachi; Joshi, V.M.; Karpe, Rupali; Ravi, P.M.; Singhal, R.K.

    2012-01-01

    Radionuclides introduced from fall-out and nuclear installations into the marine surface water subjected to movement and mixing with tides and current, undergo horizontal dispersion, dilution and get bound to suspended particles by various physical, chemical, and biological processes. For this study, about 250 g of meshed grab sediments of eight sampling locations were transferred to a suitable cylindrical acrylic container, sealed and kept for 30 days to allow for in-growth of radon gas in order to achieve secular equilibrium between 226 Ra, 214 Pb and 214 Bi in the 238 U decay chain and between 212 Pb, 208 TI and 228 Ac in the 232 Th decay chain. The activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 40 K and 137 Cs were measured using Gamma spectrometry system

  15. Separation of Sr from Ca, Ba and Ra by means of Ca(OH)2 and Ba(Ra)Cl2 or Ba(Ra)SO4 for the determination of radiostrontium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Q.J.; Hou, Xiaolin; Yu, Y.X.

    2002-01-01

    be completed. The new separation procedure has been successfully used for the determination of Sr-90 in samples with high Ca content, such as 451 of seawater and 2001 of drinking water. The analytical quality of the results is comparable to that of the traditional method using fuming nitric acid and BaCrO4......A simple procedure is developed to separate Sr from a large amount of Ca, which relies on the insolubility of Ca(OH)(2) in alkaline solution. Calcium is quantitatively separated from Sr and more than 95% of Sr is recovered from a sample with as much as 50 g of Ca and a Ca/Sr mole ratio of 250....... A new procedure for the separation of Sr from Ba and Ra is also investigated, which is based on the difference in solubility of the chlorides of Sr, Ba and Ra in HCl media. In 9.5 mol 1(-1) HCl or 7.5 mol 1(-1) HCl-10% acetone media, >97% of Ba and Ra can be removed by Ba(Ra)Cl-2 precipitation, and >94...

  16. Some characteristics 90Sr and 137Cs metabolism in newborn bank voles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondar'kov, M.D.; Gashchak, S.P.; Goryanaya, Yu.A.; Chesser, R.K.

    2002-01-01

    There are reported research results of features of 90 Sr and 137 Cs accumulation and excretion in organism of newborn bank voles in first weeks of the life, on example of 5 litters. Pregnant females were captured in the Chornobyl zone and maintained at laboratory conditions on 'clean' food. Already now it can be said, that amount of 90 Sr and 137 Cs out-take from mother organism with newborn babies considerably higher, than in further with milk (in any case, in first week of lactation). Parameters of 137 Cs transfer from mother to generation are always higher, than 90 Sr one. Peculiarities of radionuclide accumulation in baby's organism are conditioned by chemical properties of the radionuclide. Therefore at conditions of 'depuration' of mother organism 137 Cs contents in babies increases at beginning, then after 30-40% exceeding of initial values it begins to decrease. Everything takes place in first week of life. 90 Sr contents grows over all suckling period long and only then it begins to decrease, if does not intake with food

  17. Transfer of Cs137 and Sr90 from contaminated soil to some crops in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yassine, T.; Al-Oudat, M.; Othman, I.; Sharaneq, A.

    1998-07-01

    Transfer factors of Cs 137 and Sr 90 from contaminated soil to some common crops were investigated under field conditions for a period of three years. The results showed large variations in transfer factor values (expressed as Bq/g of dried material to Bq/g of soil) among crops. The highest values for both radionuclides were found in green vegetables up to 0.067 for 137 Cs and 3.78 for 90 Sr, whereas cereal grains had the lowest values. The transfer factor values of 90 Sr were generally much higher than that of 137 Cs for the same crop by factors ranged up to 263. The values for both radionuclides were found to be in the lower limits of that obtained in other areas. This was attributed to the effect of several parameters such as high ph, low organic matter and high exchangeable potassium and calcium in the soil. The transfer factor values of 137 Cs were decreased from the first year to the third year for most crops by factor up to 4, while this approach was not found for 90 Sr. (author)

  18. The transfer of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr from feed to rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semioshkina, N. [GSF-Institut fuer Strahlenschutz, Ingolstaedter Landstr. 1, Postfach 1129, D-85788 Neuherberg (Germany)], E-mail: semi@gsf.de; Proehl, G. [GSF-Institut fuer Strahlenschutz, Ingolstaedter Landstr. 1, Postfach 1129, D-85788 Neuherberg (Germany); Savinkov, A. [The Scientific Research Agricultural Institute of the National Biotechnology Center, Ministry for Science and Higher Education of the Republic of Kazakhstan (SRAI), 480544 Gvardeiski (Kazakhstan); Voigt, G. [Agency' s Laboratories, Seibersdorf, IAEA, 1400-Vienna (Austria)

    2007-11-15

    Radiological assessment of the impact of nuclear weapons testing on the local population in the Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS) requires comprehensive site-specific information on radionuclide behaviour in the environment. However, information on radionuclide behaviour in the conditions of the STS is rather sparse and, in particular, there are no data in the literature on parameters of radionuclide transfer from feed to rabbit products which have been identified as contributors to internal dose to the inhabitants. The transfer of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr to rabbit meat was studied under laboratory conditions in a controlled experiment with 32 locally bred rabbits maintained in the Kazakh Agricultural Research Institute. The equilibrium transfer coefficients for {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr from feed to rabbit meat were estimated to be 0.4 d kg{sup -1} and 0.15 d kg{sup -1}, respectively. The biological half-lives were estimated to be 0.1 d for {sup 137}Cs and 0.14 d for {sup 90}Sr. Whereas for {sup 137}Cs the distribution in the body is relatively homogeneous, there are large differences between the organs and tissues for {sup 90}Sr for which, as expected, the highest concentrations were found in bone.

  19. The transfer of 137Cs and 90Sr from feed to rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semioshkina, N.; Proehl, G.; Savinkov, A.; Voigt, G.

    2007-01-01

    Radiological assessment of the impact of nuclear weapons testing on the local population in the Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS) requires comprehensive site-specific information on radionuclide behaviour in the environment. However, information on radionuclide behaviour in the conditions of the STS is rather sparse and, in particular, there are no data in the literature on parameters of radionuclide transfer from feed to rabbit products which have been identified as contributors to internal dose to the inhabitants. The transfer of 137 Cs and 90 Sr to rabbit meat was studied under laboratory conditions in a controlled experiment with 32 locally bred rabbits maintained in the Kazakh Agricultural Research Institute. The equilibrium transfer coefficients for 137 Cs and 90 Sr from feed to rabbit meat were estimated to be 0.4 d kg -1 and 0.15 d kg -1 , respectively. The biological half-lives were estimated to be 0.1 d for 137 Cs and 0.14 d for 90 Sr. Whereas for 137 Cs the distribution in the body is relatively homogeneous, there are large differences between the organs and tissues for 90 Sr for which, as expected, the highest concentrations were found in bone

  20. Blastomogenic effect of Cs137, Sr90 and Ca45 in single and chronic administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapol'skaya, N.A.; Fedorova, A.V.; Borisova, V.V.

    1978-01-01

    The blastomogenic actions of 137 Cs, 90 Sr, and 45 Ca were considered in experiments on white rats, and it was found that the site and type of tumor were determined by the organotropism of the radionuclide. With chronic administration of radionuclides, the tumor rate was low as compared to single-occasion administration

  1. Distribution of ^<90>Sr and ^<137>Cs in Annual Tree Rings of Japanese Cedar, Cryptomeria Japonica D.Don.

    OpenAIRE

    千木良, みどり; 斎藤, 裕子; 木村, 幹; MIDORI, CHIGIRA; YUKO, SAITO; KAN, KIMURA; 青山学院大学理工学部; 青山学院大学理工学部; 青山学院大学理工学部; Department of Chemistry, College of Science and Engineering, Aoyama Gakuin University; Department of Chemistry, College of Science and Engineering, Aoyama Gakuin University; Department of Chemistry, College of Science and Engineering, Aoyama Gakuin University

    1988-01-01

    The contents of ^Sr and ^Cs in two samples of Japanese cedar from Takao and Tsukui districts were determined in tree rings cut into segments representing steps of 5 years of growth. ^Sr in both cedar samples and ^Cs in the Tsukui cedar sample were determined after ashing and chemical isolation, while ^Cs in the Takao sample was directly determined from the sample ash. The distribution of ^Sr fallout in tree rings suggests that ^Sr had given a rather direct effect and showed no significant tra...

  2. Distribution of 90Sr and 137Cs in annual tree rings of Japanese cedar, Cryptomeria Japonica D. Don

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chigira, Midori; Saito, Yuko; Kimura, Kan

    1988-01-01

    The contents of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in two samples of Japanese cedar from Takao and Tsukui districts were determined in tree rings cut into segments representing steps of 5 years of growth. 90 Sr in both cedar samples and 137 Cs in the Tsukui cedar sample were determined after ashing and chemical isolation, while 137 Cs in the Takao sample was directly determined from the sample ash. The distribution of 90 Sr fallout in tree rings suggests that 90 Sr had given a rather direct effect and showed no significant translocation from sapwood to heartwood, whereas 137 Cs tends to concentrate in heartwood irrespective of the effect of the fallout. Average contents of 90 Sr and 137 Cs were 22 and 9.4 pCi/kg in the Takao sample (9.61 kg air dried) and were 23 and 12 in the Tsukui (4.71 kg air dried) in 1982. (author)

  3. Depth migration of Chernobyl originated 137Cs and 90Sr in soils of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagan, L.M.; Kadatsky, V.B.

    1996-01-01

    Depth migration of 137 Cs and 90 Sr was studied in soils of reference sites that have different environmental characteristics and are situated in all four radiochemical regions of Belarus. The parameters as used were: the fraction of the nuclide inventory below a depth of 2 cm; the fraction of the nuclide inventory below a depth of 5 cm; and the thickness of the top soil layer containing 90% of the nuclide inventory. Despite the apparent differences in the nuclide migration at various sites, some common tendencies were observed. During the first 3-5 years after the accident, the 90 Sr depth migration at several watershed and terrace sites did not exceed that of 137 Cs. About 5-15% of the nuclide inventories are below the depth of 5 cm, and 90% are contained in the top 3-7 cm soil layer. However, at the floodplain reference sites, a pronounced tendency for a higher migration rate of 90 Sr was revealed. Less than 5% of the 137 Cs inventory but about 5-30% of the 90 Sr inventory are below 5 cm, and the top soil layer containing 90% of the nuclide inventory is 1-2 cm thicker for 90 Sr. (Author)

  4. Determination of distribution ratio for 60Co, 85Sr and 134Cs in loess medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Tadao; Ogawa, Hiromichi; Zhentang Li; Hui Wang; Kamiyama, Hideo.

    1994-06-01

    Distribution ratio R for 60 Co, 85 Sr and 134 Cs between loess and ground water was measured by using 16 loess samples taken from the field test site of China Institute for Radiation Protection, in which the field test of radionuclide migration had been performed. The R of each radionuclide was taken nearly constant value among 16 samples. This revealed that the site can be regarded as uniform loess medium from the view point of sorption ability. The sorption ability between the three radionuclides was the order of 134 Cs > 60 Co >> 85 Sr. The 85 Sr was an available nuclide for examining the migration phenomena, because 85 Sr might easily migrate in the loess medium due to its low sorption ability. The results of parametric check suggested that it is necessary to select the valid temperature and pH for determining the R value. The sorption of Sr on the loess was dominated by reversible ion-exchange reaction, while that of Co and Cs was dominated by irreversible one. (author)

  5. Sr90 and Cs137 content in major types of food stuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knizhnikov, V.A.; Petukhova, Eh.V.

    1980-01-01

    Tables of 90 Sr and 137 Cs content in the major types of food stuffs in different regions of the USSR from 1963 to 1973, are presented. Maximum contamination is observed in 1963 and 1964. Variations of contamination of food stuffs depending upon fallout alterations during 1963-1964 are analyzed. The increased contamination of fish products, bread, deer meat and tea is observed in these years. The dependence of contamination of certain products on the area of their production is pointed out which makes possible a wide variation of results of investigations. It is established that the less contamination of food stuffs is observed in the areas with black soil. It is stated that 137 Cs contamination of food stuffs is several times higher than 90 Sr contamination, which is probably connected with a better 137 Cs uptake by vegetation from aerial fallouts

  6. Crystal structure and thermal expansion of CsCaI3:Eu and CsSrBr3:Eu scintillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyd, Matthew; Lindsey, Adam; Patel, Maulik; Koschan, Merry; Melcher, Charles L.; Zhuravleva, Mariya

    2018-01-01

    The distorted-perovskite scintillator materials CsCaI3:Eu and CsSrBr3:Eu prepared as single crystals have shown promising potential for use in radiation detection applications requiring a high light yield and excellent energy resolution. We present a study using high temperature powder X-ray diffraction experiments to examine a deleterious high temperature phase transition. High temperature phases were identified through sequential diffraction pattern Rietveld refinement in GSAS II. We report the linear coefficients of thermal expansion for both high and low temperature phases of each compound. Thermal expansion for both compositions is greatest in the [0 0 1] direction. As a result, Bridgman growth utilizing a seed oriented with the [0 0 1] along the growth direction should be used to mitigate thermal stress.

  7. The content of K-40, Sr-90 and Cs-137 in milk in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesar, D.; Maracic, M.; Marovic, M.

    1996-01-01

    Milk is one of the most important foodstuffs. The children's diet is based on milk and quality of milk has always been a subject of concern and continuous control. investigation of radioactivity in milk in Croatia has been started in 1960. The samples of milk were collected daily in the towns Osijek, Zadar and Zagreb. In monthly samples specific Sr-90 activities were determined by radiochemical separation, and Cs-137 and K-40 by gammaspectrometric analysis. The values obtained are shown in Figures 1 and 2. The ratio of Sr-90, Cs-137 and K-40 specific activities was calculated as well as the ratio of their maximum prmissible levels. By the division of these two ratios the ratio of their effectiveness was calculated. On basis of the obtained data the following conclusions can be drawn: 1. The level of Sr-90 in milk had been increasing by 1964. in the period that followed Sr-90 was exponentially decreasing which indicated that its content in milk originated mostly from nuclear weapon tests carried out in the period 1945 to 1962. 2. The content of Cs-137 in milk in Croatia has been exponentially decreasing since 1965 in spite of a great increase in 1986. This points to the fact that Cs-137 content in milk originated mostly from nuclear weapon tests in the period 1945 to 1962, and to a lesser degree from Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986. 3. The content of K-40 in milk has not changed significantly over the investigated period, but its level was not the same at all sampling locations. 4. The ratio of the impact of investigated radionuclides on man obtained from the samples of milk in the territory of Croatia is: 90 Sr : 137 Cs : 40 K = 1 : 2 : 5. (author)

  8. Surface Decontamination Studies of Cs-137 and Sr-85 Using Polymer Gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham, L.; Nguyen, C.; Nguyen, L.

    2015-01-01

    Strippable polymer coating is one of the methods for effective surface decontamination to remove isotopes on the contaminated surface. This method is applying in nuclear facilities on the World. In this paper, we present the results obtained in our laboratory from product the polymer coating to apply to remove radioisotopes of "1"3"7Cs and "8"5Sr from surface of glass, stainless steel, mild steel, ceramic, PVC plastic. This polymer gel solution consist of water soluble polymer preferably polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), plasticizing agent (glycerine) and chelating agents, (citric acid) which can be sprayed or pasted on to contaminated surface. After some hours, these gel solutions was dried to form a strong thin film and it was easily peeled off from a contaminated surface with the radioactive isotopes and can be disposed off as radioactive solid waste. In this study infrared spectrophotometry technique was used to examine the interaction of the cesium and strontium ions with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), polymer gel and the results of the study were also presented. The results showed that decontamination efficiency of "1"3"7Cs and "8"5Sr strongly depended on property, porosity and smoothness of the contaminated surface and obtained from 95-99% on glass and stainless steel, ceramic and PVC plastic surfaces. The decontamination efficiency also depended on activity and coating thickness. Optimization of film thickness is around 0.2 mm. Decontamination efficiency of Polymer gel were compared with Decongel 1101 (product from USA) on surfaces. IR spectra studies indicated that Cs and Sr ions interacted with PVA and citric acid in Polymer gel through cacboxyl (C = O) group. Polymer gel could remove of "1"3"7Cs and "8"5Sr better than PVA gel does because of citric acid, which can form chelating complex with Cs and Sr ion. (author)

  9. Development of Composite Adsorbents for LLW Treatment and Their Adsorption Properties for Cs and Sr - 13127

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susa, Shunsuke; Mimura, Hitoshi [Dept. of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Aramaki-Aza-Aoba 6-6-01-2, Sendai, 980-8579 (Japan); Ito, Yoshiyuki; Saito, Yasuo [Nuclear Science and Engineering Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakata Shirone, Naka-gun, Ibaraki, 319-1195 (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    In this study, the composite adsorbents (KCoFC-NM (NM: natural mordenite), KCoFC-SG (SG: porous silica gel), AMP-SG and so on) were prepared by impregnation-precipitation methods. As for the distribution properties, the largest K{sub d,Cs} value of 3.8 x 10{sup 4} cm{sup 3}/g was obtained for KCoFC-SG (Davi.) composite. KCoFC-SG (NH, MB5D) and T-KCFC also had relatively large K{sub d,Cs} values above 1.0 x 10{sup 4} cm{sup 3}/g. The uptake rate of Cs{sup +} ions was examined by batch method. KCoFC-SG (NH, MB5D) and AMP-SG (Davi.) had relatively large uptake rate of Cs{sup +}, and the uptake attained equilibrium within 1 h. The maximum uptake capacity of Cs{sup +} ions was estimated to be above 0.5 mmol/g for KCoFC-NM and KCoFC-CP composites. KCoFC-X composite had a relatively large uptake capacity of Cs{sup +} ions (0.23 mmol/g > 0.17 mmol/g (T-KCFC)) and this composite also had a selectivity towards Sr{sup 2+} ions; KCoFC-X is effective adsorbent for both Cs{sup +} and Sr{sup 2+} ions. The largest value of K{sub d,Sr} was estimated to be 218 cm{sup 3}/g for titanic acid-PAN. Titanic acid-PAN had the largest uptake rate of Sr{sup 2+} ions, and the uptake attained equilibrium within 8 h. Adsorbability of other nuclides was further examined by batch method. All adsorbents had adsorbability for Rb{sup +} and RuNO{sup 3+} ions. KCoFC-SG (NH), KCoFC-CP and T-KCFC had higher selectivity towards Cs{sup +} than other adsorbents; these adsorbents had adsorbability to Cs{sup +} ions even in the presence of Ba{sup 2+}, Ca{sup 2+} and Mg{sup 2+} ions. The separation factor of K{sub d,Sr}/K{sub d,Ba} for titanic acid-PAN was about 1, indicating that the K{sub d,Sr} for titanic acid-PAN tends to decrease with Ba{sup 2+} concentration. As for the breakthrough properties, the largest 5 % breakpoint and 5 % breakthrough capacity of Cs{sup +} ions were estimated to be 47.1 cm{sup 3} and 0.07 mmol/g for the column of KCoFC-SG (NH), respectively. The order of 5 % breakthrough capacity

  10. The radiation chemistry of the Cs-7SB modifier used in Cs and Sr extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swancutt, Katy L.; Cullen, Thomas D.; Mezyk, Stephen P.; Elias, Gracy; Bauer, William F.; Peterman, Dean R.; Riddle, Catherine L.; Ball, R. Duane; Mincher, Bruce J.; Muller, James J.

    2011-01-01

    The compound 1-(2,2,3,3,-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol, also called Cs-7SB, is used as a solvent modifier in formulations containing calixarenes and crown ethers for cesium and/or strontium extraction from nuclear waste solutions. The compound solvates complexes of both metals and concentration decreases result in lowered extraction efficiency for both. The use of Cs-7SB in nuclear solvent extraction ensures that it will be exposed to high radiation doses, and thus its radiation chemical robustness is a matter of interest in the design of extraction systems employing it. The behavior of the compound in irradiated solution, both in the presence and absence of a nitric acid aqueous phase was investigated here using steady state and pulsed radiolysis techniques. The rate constants for the aqueous reactions of Cs-7SB with H, OH, NO 3 and NO 2 radicals are reported. UPLC-UV-MS results were used to identify major products of the radiolysis of Cs-7SB in contact with nitric acid, and revealed the production of hydroxylated nitro-derivatives. Reaction mechanisms are proposed and it is concluded that the aryl ether configuration of this molecule makes it especially susceptible to nitration in the presence of radiolytically-produced nitrous acid. Fluoride yields are also given under various conditions.

  11. Migration and chemical extractability of 137Cs and 90Sr in Swedish long-term experimental pastures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, S.; Strandmark, M.

    1999-01-01

    Vertical migration and chemical extractability were studied on two experimental pastures, a sandy soil and a clay soil, contaminated with 137 Cs and 90 Sr in 1961. Migration was studied by measuring the total nuclide content in soil samples to 55 cm depth, chemical extractability by sequential extraction. Both 137 Cs and 90 Sr were found at all depths in both soils, and 90 Sr had moved deeper than 137 Cs. 137 Cs was mainly found in the upper 10 cm, and no difference was seen between clay and sandy soil, due to retention in the root mat of the sandy soil. 90 Sr had moved deeper in sandy than in clay soil, the reason being the higher exchange capacity of the clay soil. Sequential extractions showed that 90 Sr was much more extractable than 137 Cs. 96-98% of 137 Cs was found in the HNO 3 and residual fractions. 137 Cs was more extractable in the sandy soil than in clay, and in the sandy soil the extractability of 137 Cs increased slightly with depth. Regarding 90 Sr, 63-75% was found in the easily exchangeable fractions, the higher figure was in clay soil. A large proportion, 18-30%, was extracted in the reducible fraction, showing that availability of 90 Sr might increase under reducing conditions. (au)

  12. Transfer factors of 137Cs and 90Sr from soil to some trees in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Oudat, M.; Al-Asfary, A. F.; Mukalati, H.; Hamwi, A.; Kanakri, S.

    2004-12-01

    The transfer factor of Cs 137 and 90 Sr from contaminated soil (Aridisol = Yermosol according to FAO - UNESCO) to some common trees (olive, apricot, grape, pine, apple and lemon) were investigated under field condition for 3 to 6 years. There were large variation in transfer factors values among tree species, and between different parts of tree. The values in fruits for 137 Cs were: 0.011 (highest) in Apricot, 0.0071 in olive, and 0.0025 in vine, and about 0.0012 in olive oil (lowest). The mean transfer factor of 137 Cs in the one year old leaves and stems, ranged between 0.011 and 0.0093 in lemon (highest) and 0.0016 and 0.0015 in pine (lowest). The transfer factor values of 90 Sr were much higher than that of 137 Cs, they were in fruits: 0.13 in apricot, 0.093 in olive, and 0.075 in vine and 0.0053 in olive oil. The transfer factors values of 90 Sr ranged in one year old leaves between 2.89 (apple) and 0.1 (pine), while they ranged in one year old stems between 1.91 (apricot) and 0.16 (pine). The transfer factor of both 137 Cs and 90 Sr decrease in most trees parts with time especially in the one year old leaves, due to aging effects. The transfer factor values of 137 Cs and 90 Sr were lower than that reported for other areas. This might be due to the physical and chemical properties of the soil, where the soil used had a loamy clay structure with high ph (7.8) and high CEC (25.9 meq/100g), exchangeable potassium (1.6 meq/100g) and calcium (14.9 meq/100g), further more, climatic condition in the area, like high light intensity, high temperature and low air humidity, can lead to decrease the uptake of both 137 Cs and 90 Sr. (Authors)

  13. Radioactive Contamination of Alluvial Soils in the Taiga Landscapes of Yakutia with 137Cs, 226Ra, and 238U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevychelov, A. P.; Sobakin, P. I.

    2017-12-01

    The concentrations and distribution of 137Cs in alluvial soils (Fluvisols) of the upper and middle reaches of the Markha River in the northwest of Yakutia and 226Ra and 238U in alluvial soils within the El'kon uranium ore deposit in the south of Yakutia have been studied. It is shown that the migration of radiocesium in the permafrost-affected soils of Yakutia owing to alluviation processes extends to more than 600 km from the source of the radioactive contamination. The migration of 137Cs with water flows is accompanied by its deposition in the buried horizons of alluvial soils during extremely high floods caused by ice jams. In the technogenic landscapes of southern Yakutia, active water migration of 238U and 226Ra from radioactive dump rocks. The leaching of 238U with surface waters from the rocks is more intense than the leaching of 226Ra. The vertical distribution patterns of 238U and 226Ra in the profiles of alluvial soils are complex. Uranium tends to accumulate in the surface humus horizon and in the buried soil horizons, whereas radium does not display any definite regularities of its distribution in the soil profiles. At present, the migration of 238U and 226Ra with river water and their accumulation in the alluvial soils extend to about 30 km from the source.

  14. Sequential separation of cs, ca and ba for 90sr assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dianu, M.; Bucur, C.

    2015-01-01

    A two-steps chemical treatment technique for strontium assessment from aqueous samples is described in this paper. The method was applied to simulated samples containing stable elements of Ni, Cs, Ca, Ba, Mn, Fe, Co and Eu. The transition elements (Ni, Mn, Fe, Co, Eu) were precipitated as hydroxides, followed by alkaline-earth metals separation (Ca, Ba) as carbonates. Finally, the Sr was purified by extraction chromatography using Triskem International Sr resin. The strength of Sr sorption in nitric acid increases with increasing acid concentration, and the optimal bonding strength is achieved in 8 M HNO3. The combination of successive precipitations with extraction chromatography for complete removal of other interferences from Sr matrix leads to good recovery and decontamination factor values. (authors)

  15. 90Sr and 137Cs in environmental samples from Dolon near the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastberger, M; Steinhäusler, F; Gerzabek, M H; Hubmer, A; Lettner, H

    2000-09-01

    The (90)Sr and (137)Cs activities of soil, plant, and milk samples from the village of Dolon, located close to the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site in Kazakhstan, were determined. The areal deposition at the nine sampling sites is in the range of sites both nuclides mainly have remained in the top 6 cm of the soil profiles; at others they were partly transported into deeper soil layers since the deposition. For most of the samples the (90)Sr yield after destruction of the soil matrix is significantly higher than after extracting with 6 M HCl indicating that (90)Sr is partly associated with fused silicates. The low mean (90)Sr activity concentrations of vegetation samples (14 Bq kg(-1) dw) and milk samples (0.05 Bq kg(-1) fw) suggest that this has favorable consequences in terms of limiting its bioavailability.

  16. Specific 137Cs and 90Sr accumulation in living soil cover plants of forest cenoses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermakova, O.O.; Kuz'mich, O.T.; Kazej, A.P.

    2000-01-01

    Observations of the radionuclide content in 38 species of living soil cover plants were carried out in Pinetum myrtillosum, pleuroziosum; Quercetum pteridiosum; Betuletum myrtillosum; Glutinoso-Alnetum filipendulosum, Glutinoso-Alnetum. Radiological monitoring for the 137 Cs and 90 Sr content in living cover plants of forest cenosis in Belarus allows 137 Cs and 90 Sr accumulation to be predicted for the plants of lower circles of forest cenosis. a obtained one can notice that the radionuclide accumulation intensity depends on the contamination density of the accumulation soil layer, forest growing conditions, species and first of all on the weather conditions of the year of observation. Unfavourable conditions (drought) lead to an increase in 137 Cs accumulation by a factor of 3-5 depending on the plant species. The maximum values was obtained in ferns which grow under all the controlled forest growing conditions. The species specific character of 137 Cs and 90 Sr accumulation is due to their ecological-physiological peculiarities. The relationship was found between the caesium-137 accumulation and macro element quantity in overground organs of living soil cover plants. (authors)

  17. Reactive transport of Sr, Cs and Tc through a column packed with fracture-filling material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, D.; Eriksen, T.

    1998-01-01

    The migration behaviour of the fission products 90 Sr, 137 Cs and 99 Tc in a granite fracture-groundwater system was studied in column experiments using crushed Stripa granite fracture-filling material (125-250 μm) as a sorbent. Based on breakthrough curves of Sr 2+ , Cs + , TcO 4 - and anthraquinonsulphonate, the distribution ratio K d (cm 3 /g) values for Sr 2+ and Cs + were estimated to be 1.5 and 2 respectively; non-sorbing behaviour of TcO 4 - under oxic conditions was observed. The diffusion of Sr 2+ in the material is shown to be a kinetic-controlling step in the desorption process that followed the initial leaching. Under reducing conditions, it was found that TcO 4 - was reduced to TcO 2 .nH 2 O(s) by the Fe(II)-containing fracture-filling material and Tc(IV) aq was rapidly sorbed by the material. This observation proves that the migration of technetium under reducing conditions in deep groundwater systems will not only be controlled by the solubility of TcO 2 . nH 2 O(s) and the speed of groundwater flow but also by the rapid sorption of Tc(IV) aq on all available mineral surfaces. (orig.)

  18. 137Cs and 90Sr distribution in edible mushrooms at the territory of the Lithuanian SSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dauskurdis, S.I.; Tamulenajte, O.P.; Nedvetskajte, T.N.

    1989-01-01

    Results of studying 90 Sr and 137 Cs content in edible mushrooms in Lithuania before and after the Chernobyl accident (1984-1986) are presented. It is shown that after accident release in 1986 mushroom contamination with cesium isotopes increased about 4 times as compared to 1985 and 90 Sr activity preserved the same level. Radioisotope accumulation in mushrooms after the Chernobyl accident is studied depending on the mechanical composition of soil, pH and Ca quantity. It is ascertained that in carbonate, alkaline, reach with Ca and K soils 90 Sr and 137 Cs mobility is reduced and their absorption by mushroom is weakened. In light by mechanical composition (sandy), depleted by Ca soil 90 Sr arrival to mushrooms is 2.4 times higher than in soils with high Ca content. The quantity of water-soluble 90 Sr is maximal in soil with low pH and minimal content of exchange Ca. Radioactive contamination of mushrooms depends on the terrain relief and type of mushrooms. It is shown that radioactive contamination of mushrooms in 1986 did not exceede the admissible standard. 7 refs.; 4 figs.; 2 tabs

  19. Experimental studies of Cs, Sr, Ni, and Eu sorption on Na-illite and the modelling of Cs sorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poinssot, C.; Baeyens, B.; Bradbury, M.H.

    1999-08-01

    A natural illite (illite du Puy) was purified and converted to the homo-ionic Na-form. The conditioned Na-illite was characterised in terms of its mineralogy, chemical inventory and physico-chemical properties. The structural formula was determined from energy dispersive spectroscopic analyses (SEM/TEM-EDS) and bulk chemistry measurements. A cation exchange capacity of 127 meq kg -1 was determined by the 22 Na isotope dilution method at neutral pH. The Na-CEC was also measured as a function of pH. The stability of Na-illite as a function of pH in the range between 3 and 6 was investigated. At low pH values partial dissolution of the illite occurs releasing the structural elements Al, Si, Mg, and K into solution. The presence of Ca and Sr in solution was interpreted as being due to desorption from cation exchange sites. All of these elements are also present at neutral pH but at considerably lower levels. Such effects cannot be avoided and must be considered in the interpretation of the sorption measurements. The main focus of the experimental work presented here is on the sorption behaviour of Cs, Sr, Ni and Eu on conditioned Na-illite as a function of NaClO 4 background electrolyte concentration (0.1 and 0.01 M), nuclide concentration and pH in the range between 3 and 11. Sorption edge data (R d versus pH) and sorption isotherms (quantity of nuclide sorbed versus equilibrium nuclide concentration) are presented for these four elements. Prior to beginning these experiments, sorption kinetics were measured. The broad based pool of sorption measurements generated from this work will provide the source data sets for subsequent modelling. So far only the Cs sorption measurements have been modelled. A two site cation exchange model was developed to describe the sorption of Cs over the whole range of experimental conditions. The two site types were termed 'frayed edge sites' (FES, high affinity/low capacity) and 'type II sites' (low affinity/high capacity). Selectivity

  20. 137Cs and 90Sr in the water of the ChNPP cooling pond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Kanivets

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Results of long-term observations on 137Cs and 90Sr concentration in water mass of the ChNPP Cooling Pond are presented. Drastic transformation of the intrinsic trend in changes with time of averaged radionuclides con-tent in water is clearly demonstrated alongside with the spatial heterogeneity of radioactive contamination of water body. The cycling character of seasonal changes of 137Cs activity concentration in water is being linked to hydrochemical, temperature and oxygen regimes of the Cooling Pond.

  1. Effect of liming on the behaviour of 90Sr and 137Cs in a lake ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Outola, Iisa; Rask, Martti

    2011-01-01

    Liming of lakes is considered one possible remedial action to reduce the accumulation of radionuclides into fish in the case of a radiological accident. These responses were tested in field conditions in a small acidified lake that was divided into two parts: one limed with CaCO 3 and the other half left as an unlimed control. The transfer of 90 Sr from water into fish decreased on average by 50% during the first year after liming. However, at the same time the 90 Sr concentration in water increased, reaching a maximum within 6 months after liming. Approximately 50% more 90 Sr was detected in water in the limed part of the lake than on control side during the first year. 90 Sr was most probably released from the sediment as the Ca concentration and pH of the water increased. As a result of these two processes, which counterbalanced each other (increased release of 90 Sr into water from sediment and decreased transfer of 90 Sr from water into fish), the 90 Sr concentration in fish did not notably differ between the limed and control sides of the lake. Liming may only be suitable as a remedial action if carried out immediately after a radiological accident, before significant amounts of radionuclides have been deposited in lake sediments. In the case of 137 Cs, the effect of liming was less pronounced. 137 Cs activity concentration in water increased in the first year by 20% and uptake by fish decreased by 20%. - Highlights: → Acidified lake was divided into two parts: one limed with CaCO 3 and the other half left as an unlimed control. → The transfer of 90 Sr from water into fish decreased by 50% during the first year after liming. → At the same time liming increased the 90 Sr concentration in the water by 50%. → The increased amount of 90 Sr in water is assumed to have originated from the lake sediments. → The 90 Sr concentration in fish remained relatively unchanged.

  2. Soil to rice transfer factors for 226Ra, 228Ra, 210Pb, 40K and 137Cs: a study on rice grown in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karunakara, N.; Rao, Chetan; Ujwal, P.; Yashodhara, I.; Kumara, Sudeep; Ravi, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    India is the second largest producer of rice (Oryza sativa L.) in the world and rice is an essential component of the diet for a majority of the population in India. However, detailed studies aimed at the evaluation of radionuclide transfer factors (F v ) for the rice grown in India are almost non-existent. This paper presents the soil to rice transfer factors for natural ( 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 40 K, and 210 Pb) and artificial ( 137 Cs) radionuclides for rice grown in natural field conditions on the West Coast of India. A rice field was developed very close to the Kaiga nuclear power plant and the water required for this field was drawn from the cooling water discharge canal of the power plant. For a comparative study of the radionuclide transfer factors, rice samples were also collected from the rice fields of nearby villages. The study showed that the 226 Ra and 228 Ra activity concentrations were below detection levels in different organs of the rice plant. The soil to un-hulled rice grain 40 K transfer factor varied in the range of 6.5 × 10 −1 to 2.9 with a mean of 0.15 × 10 1 , and of 210 Pb varied in the range of −2 to 8.1 × 10 −1 with a mean of 1.4 × 10 −1 , and of 137 Cs varied in the range of 6.6 × 10 −2 to 3.4 × 10 −1 with a mean of 2.1 × 10 −1 . The mean values of un-hulled grain to white rice processing retention factors (F r ) were 0.12 for 40 K, 0.03 for 210 Pb, and 0.14 for 137 Cs. Using these processing retention factors, the soil to white rice transfer factors were estimated and these were found to have mean values of 1.8 × 10 −1 , 4.2 × 10 −3 , and 3.0 × 10 −2 for 40 K, 210 Pb, and 137 Cs, respectively. The study has shown that the transfer of 40 K was higher for above the ground organs than for the root, but 210 Pb and 137 Cs were retained in the root and their transfer to above the ground organs of the rice plant is significantly lower. -- Highlights: ► Soil to rice (Oryza sativa L.) transfer factors for radionuclides

  3. Discrepancies in the half-lives of 90Sr, 137Cs and 252Cf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajput, M.U.; Mac Mahon, T.D.

    1990-01-01

    Recent reports have pointed out that significant discrepancies exist in published half-life data for 90 Sr, 137 Cs and 252 Cr, amongst others. These discrepancies make the estimation of evaluated half-lives for these isotopes difficult and contentious. This paper reviews the current situation, takes into account recently available data and attempts to derive recommended half-lives and associated uncertainties for the three isotopes. 37 refs, 3 tabs

  4. 137 Cs and 90 Sr in marine samples from Brazilian southern coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godoy, Jose Marcus; Carvalho, Zenildo L.; Pereira, Jose Carlos A.; Pereira, Wagner S.; Ferreira, Ana Cristina M.; Fernandes, Flavio C.; Danelon, Olga M.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper are presented the results related to monitoring program of Cs-137 and Sr-90 distribution in marine ecosystem from Brazilian southern coast. This program is performed together Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN/MCT) and the Instituto de Estudos do Mar Almirante Paulo Moreira, aiming the evaluation of artificial radionuclide contents present in marine samples. The program, have started in experimental character in 1996 and became a routine program, carried out yearly

  5. {sup 90}SR and {sup 137}CS distribution in organisms of wild small mammals (Chernobyl zone)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goryanaya, J.U.; Bondarkov, M.; Gaschak, S.; Maksimenko, A.; Barchuk, R.; Martynenko, V.; Shulga, A. [Chornobyl Center for Nuclear Safety, Radioactive Waste and Radioecology, International Radioecology Laboratory, Slavutych (Ukraine)

    2004-07-01

    The distribution of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs content in tissues of small rodent mammals has been studied in detail. It was determined that for a vole Microtus the largest ratio values of {sup 137}Cs concentration in organs to one in muscles are in skin (2.02{+-}0.45) and kidneys (1.57{+-}0.29), in other tissues they are much lower. The comparison of {sup 137}Cs specific concentration in tissues with their size (mass index) has shown that the major portion of the total radionuclide concentration in the animal body is in the bone and muscle tissues aggregate (44.1 {+-} 2.8%) and in skin (24.8 {+-} 2.5%). The total content of {sup 137}Cs in a gastrointestinal tract is about 20-25%, but nevertheless, it may be assumed that it is strongly dependent on the radioactivity of food. Preliminary data show that other species of genus Microtus can have another pattern of distribution. A more detailed research was conducted for the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus), {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs contents in tissues were calculated. {sup 137}Cs distribution corresponds with the tissues portion in the animal's body mass (% of total content): the most in muscles 38.3, gastrointestinal tract 21.3, skin 16.7; the least in eyes 0.23, spleen 0.33, heart 0.74. The comparison of the activity concentration in each tissue with the average concentration of {sup 137}Cs in the whole body presented more evident differences between the tissues. The highest radionuclide concentration is in skin (1.48), in a slightly less degree in spleen (1.22) and eyes (1.20). The {sup 90}Sr distribution in the vole body is uneven up to 83.4% of the overall content is in bone tissues, in muscle -6.8, gastrointestinal tract - 4.2, skin - 3.9, in other tissues - 0.2-0.5%. In comparison with {sup 90}Sr average activity in the body: skeleton -10.9, eyes -1.3, spleen -1.02, and their values are much higher than in other tissues and organs. (author)

  6. Accumulation of /sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs in lichens under experimental conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nifontova, M G [AN SSSR, Sverdlovsk. Inst. Ehkologii Rastenij i Zhivotnykh

    1976-01-01

    A study was made of the accumulation from aqueous media of two long-lived radionuclides---/sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs---by the thalluses of eight species of lichens of different ecological and morphological groups (soil bushy lichens and foliated forms; epiphytic bushy and foliated; epilytic foliated). Fhe efficiency of accumulation of radionuclides by the thalluses was determined from the accumulation coefficient (KN) (koehfitsient nakopleniya). There was a distinct difference in the radionuclide accumulation by the different species of lichens. Based on their radionuclide accumulation, the lichens were divided into three groups. It was shown that not only do different species of lichens differ in their accumulation of the same radionuclide, but also the thalluses of the same species are not the same in the sorption of different radionuclides. However, on an average, the bushy forms of lichens accumulated /sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs more than the leafy types. The lichens studied may be arrangd according to their accumulation of /sup 90/Sr: epiphytes > soil types > epilytes, or their /sup 137/Cs accumulation: soil types > epilytes > epiphytes.

  7. Transfer factors of 137Cs and 9Sr from soil to trees in arid regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Oudat, M.; Asfary, A.F.; Mukhalallti, H.; Al-Hamwi, A.; Kanakri, S.

    2006-01-01

    Transfer factors of 137 Cs and 9 Sr from contaminated soil (Aridisol) to olive, apricot trees and grape vines were determined under irrigated field conditions for four successive years. The transfer factors (calculated as Bq kg -1 dry plant material per Bq kg -1 dry soil) of both radionuclides varied among tree parts and were highest in olive and apricot fruits. However, the values for 9 Sr were much higher than those for 137 Cs in all plant parts. The geometric mean of the transfer factors in olives, apricots and grapes were 0.007, 0.095 and 0.0023 for 137 Cs and 0.093, 0.13 and 0.08 for 9 Sr, respectively, and were negligible in olive oil for both radionuclides. The transfer factors of both radionuclides were similar to, or in the lower limits of, those obtained in other areas of the world. This could be attributed to differences in soil characteristics: higher pH, lower organic matter, high clay content, and higher exchangeable potassium and calcium

  8. Vertical distribution of 90Sr and 137 Cs in uncultivated soil in three localities of central Bohemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlesingerova, E.; Hejnova, P.; Tecl, J.; Mirchi, R.; Setrna, L.; Macurova, L.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this work was study the vertical distribution of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in uncultivated soils. The radionuclide contents in different soil layers and the cumulative deposition of radionuclides at the study sites were to be established with a view to possible identification of their sources. The present paper investigated the vertical distribution of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in uncultivated soil samples in central Bohemia and inventory of these radionuclides at representative sampling sites. These data provide the information about the availability, movement and environmental behaviour of these important radionuclides in the study region. The cumulative deposition of 90 Sr at sites 1, 2 and 3 were found of 700, 1390 and 970 Bq/m 2 , respectively, The cumulative deposition of 137 Cs at sites 1, 2 and 3 were found of 260, 510 and 10000 Bq/m 2 , respectively. The obtained values of 9S r are about 47% lower than the value of UNSCEAR inventories, but our average value of 137 Cs (3590 Bq/m 2 ) agree with the cumulative deposition of 137 Cs from the atmospheric nuclear tests in northern 40 grad - 50 grad temperate zone according UNSCEAR inventories. The radioactive decay should have reduced the reported 90 Sr and 137 Cs inventories in the northern hemisphere to 2190 Bq/m 2 and 3580 Bq/m 2 , respectively. The concentration of 90 Sr and 137 Cs increased proportionally to the SOM content in soil, but the difference of the degree of correlation among 90 Sr and 137 CS could be explained by the fact that SOM held 137 Cs more strongly than 90 Sr. 137 Cs showed very low mobility in soil profiles in undisturbed soils, therefore, it was concentrated in the upper 10 cm of the soils. Although the concentration of 90 Sr increased with organic content through an anion exchange reaction, which is enhanced by SOM keeping high cationic exchange capacity, the retention of Sr was relatively weak in contrast to Cs. It is related with high mobility of Sr that is a member of group II in the

  9. Accumulation of Cs, Sr into leaves and grain of winter wheat under act of N, Zn, Li, Na

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grodzinsky, D.; Tkatchuk, K.; Zhmurko, N.; Bogdan, T.; Guralchuk, Zh.

    1998-01-01

    The experiments were carried out on cv Lutencens 7 winter wheat grown on grey forest soil. In order to study the influence of nitrogen on Cs and Sr accumulation, a background of P60 K60 added in autumn different doses of nitrogen (30, 60, 120 kg/ha) were applied in spring. The influence of micronutrients on Cs and Sr accumulation was studied by adding 3 kg/ha Zn and 2 kg/ha Li to the soil under ploughing on background of N60 P60 K60. Besides the foliar application with 0.05% Na 2 SO 4 was carried out. Cation content (Cs, Sn, Zn, Li, Na) in soil and plant organs was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The Cs, Sr content in control plant leaves made up 15.0 and 21.0 mg per g of dry matter at the early stages of plant development. As the plants aged, the content of those elements in the leaves decreased strongly (3-4 times). At early stages of plant development, nitrogen caused an 8.9-11% increase in the Cs content of the leaves. At the stages of heading to grain filling, the Cs content increase was only observed at a high nitrogen dose, whereas low nitrogen doses had no effected on Cs accumulation in leaves. In should be noted that nitrogen (N60 and N120) decreased the Cs content in grain by 32-33%. As for the Sr content of grain, this was 3 to 4-fold less than that of Cs. Nitrogen had no effected on the Sr content of grain. Zn and Li addition to soil as well as foliar nutrition with Na had a different effect on the Cs and Sr content of winter wheat leaves and grain. Addition of Li decreased the Cs and Sr content of old leaves by 13% and 25% respectively. Addition of Zn and Na decreased the Sr content of old leaves but had no effect on the Cs content. Zn, Na and Li reduced the Sr content in grain also, viz. by 16,11 and 7% respectively. Thus the research has demonstrated the possibility of regulating Cs and Sr accumulation in the above-ground organs of winter wheat plants

  10. Concentrations of /sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs rain and dry fallout, milk and service water in Aichi Prefecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnuma, Shoko; Kondou, Fumio; Chaya, Kunio (Aichi Prefectural Inst. of Public Health, Nagoya (Japan))

    1989-03-01

    The investigation by radioactivation analysis was carried out on the Sr-90 and Cs-137 concentrations in fallout, milk and source water and tap water from 1977 to 1987. The variation of the monthly and yearly amounts of Sr-90 and Cs-137 fallouts agreed well, and those have decreased for the last 11 years though affected by the nuclear experiments in China. The effect of the Chernobyl-4 accident on April 26, 1986 appeared conspicuously in the Cs-137 fallout, and the monthly fallout in May, 1986 was 3.50 mCi/km/sup 2/. As to the Sr-90 and Cs-137 concentrations in milk and service water, only the Cs-137 concentration in milk was correlated with the course for years before the Chernobyl-4 accident. The effect of the Chernobyl-4 accident was conspicuous in the Cs-137 concentration similarly to the case of fallout. In this case, in the measurement of service water after a half year, the data returned to the normal value, but in the case of milk, the decrease was slow. The method of investigation, the monthly and yearly fallout of Sr-90 and Cs-137, the Sr-90 and Cs-137 concentrations in milk and service water are reported. (K.I.).

  11. Separation of CsCl and SrCl_2 from a ternary CsCl-SrCl_2-LiCl via a zone refining process for waste salt minimization of pyroprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Moonsoo; Choi, Ho Gil; Yi, Kyung Woo; Hwang, Il Soon; Lee, Jong Hyeon

    2016-01-01

    The purification of LiCl salt mixture has traditionally been carried out by a melt crystallization process. To improve the throughput of zone refining, three heaters were installed in the zone refiner. The zone refining method was used to grow pure LiCl salt ingots from LiCl-CsCl-SrCl_2 salt mixture. The main investigated parameters were the heater speed and the number of passes. A change in the LiCl crystal grain size was observed according to the horizontal direction. From each zone refined salt ingot, samples were collected horizontally. To analyze the concentrations of Sr and Cs, an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer were used, respectively. The experimental results show that Sr and Cs concentrations at the initial region of the ingot were low and reached their peak at the final freezing region of the salt ingot. Concentration results of zone refined salt were compared with theoretical results yielded by the proposed model to validate its predictions. The k_e_f_f of Sr and Cs were 0.13 and 0.11, respectively. The decontamination factors of Sr and Cs were 450 and 1650, respectively. - Highlights: • The LiCl-CsCl-SrCl_2 salt ingot was purified by zone refining technique to minimize waste salt. • The concentration distribution of Cs and Sr were analyzed by mass transfer equation. • The decontamination factors of Cs and Sr were 1600 and 450 respectively in case of 60% of recovery yield.

  12. Separation of CsCl and SrCl{sub 2} from a ternary CsCl-SrCl{sub 2}-LiCl via a zone refining process for waste salt minimization of pyroprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Moonsoo [Graduate School of Energy Science and Technology, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 34134 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Ho Gil; Yi, Kyung Woo; Hwang, Il Soon [Graduate School of Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Hyeon, E-mail: jonglee@cnu.ac.kr [Graduate School of Energy Science and Technology, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 34134 (Korea, Republic of); Graduate School of Department of Advanced Materials Engineering, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 34134 (Korea, Republic of); Rapid Solidified Materials Research Center, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 34134 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    The purification of LiCl salt mixture has traditionally been carried out by a melt crystallization process. To improve the throughput of zone refining, three heaters were installed in the zone refiner. The zone refining method was used to grow pure LiCl salt ingots from LiCl-CsCl-SrCl{sub 2} salt mixture. The main investigated parameters were the heater speed and the number of passes. A change in the LiCl crystal grain size was observed according to the horizontal direction. From each zone refined salt ingot, samples were collected horizontally. To analyze the concentrations of Sr and Cs, an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer were used, respectively. The experimental results show that Sr and Cs concentrations at the initial region of the ingot were low and reached their peak at the final freezing region of the salt ingot. Concentration results of zone refined salt were compared with theoretical results yielded by the proposed model to validate its predictions. The k{sub eff} of Sr and Cs were 0.13 and 0.11, respectively. The decontamination factors of Sr and Cs were 450 and 1650, respectively. - Highlights: • The LiCl-CsCl-SrCl{sub 2} salt ingot was purified by zone refining technique to minimize waste salt. • The concentration distribution of Cs and Sr were analyzed by mass transfer equation. • The decontamination factors of Cs and Sr were 1600 and 450 respectively in case of 60% of recovery yield.

  13. Distribution of 90Sr and 137Cs in Arctic soil profiles polluted by heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puhakainen, M.; Heikkinen, T.; Steinnes, E.; Thorring, H.; Outola, I.

    2005-01-01

    Effects of industrial pollution on the behaviour of radionuclides in spruce forest ecosystems were studied along a gradient from of a copper-nickel smelter in Monchegorsk, NW Russia. A reference site was situated in Lapland, Finland, 152 km west of Monchegorsk. Most of the total 137 Cs activity in soil was in mineral (E and B) horizons, except at the reference site where the major part was still in the organic surface layer. Most of the total 90 Sr activity still remaining in the soil profile was found in the surface layer, but the relative amount decreased with increasing level of industrial pollution. Pollutants from the smelter clearly affected the chemical speciation of radionuclides. Smaller amounts of exchangeable radionuclides were present in the organic surface layer at the most polluted sites. The decline of 137 Cs with decreasing distance from the smelter correlated strongly with a similar depletion in exchangeable K and Mg. Total concentrations of 137 Cs and 90 Sr showed high correlations with exchangeable cations, particularly in the E and upper B horizon. A sudden change in behaviour of 137 Cs in the lower B horizon may be associated with changes in clay mineralogy along the soil profile caused by weathering

  14. Distribution of 127Cs and 90Sr in southern part of Pyajyanne lake and in its catchment area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saksen, R.; Rantavaara, A.; Yaakkola, T.

    1998-01-01

    Slight increase in 90 Sr content from river discharges was observed in the near-the-surface layers og the Asikkalanselk bay of the Pyajanne lake in the years directly following the Chernobyl accident; later it remained almost runchanged, whereas 137 Cs concentration is decreasing. 90 Sr was identified in the bottoms at greater depth than 137 Cs. Radionuclides transport by small rivers from water catchment zones to Asikkalanselsk was studied in 1995-1997. It is established that greater part of 137 Cs is leached into the surface waters from swamped areas. The swamped soils are also characterized by higher degree of 90 Sr washing out. The role of 137 Cs and 90 Sr surface discharges from catchment as compared to radionuclide exchange with other parts of the lake, containing greater water volumes

  15. Patterns of Cs-137 and Sr-90 distribution in conjugated landscape systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobova, E.

    2012-04-01

    The main goal of the study was to reveal spatial patterns of 137Cs and 90Sr distribution in soils and plants of conjugated landscapes and to use 137Cs as a tracer for natural migration and accumulation processes in the environment. The studies were based on presumptions that: 1) the environment consisted of interrelated bio- and geochemical fields of hierarchical structure depending on the level and age of factors responsible for spatial distribution of chemical elements; 2)distribution of technogenic radionuclides in natural landscapes depended upon the location and type of the initial source and radionuclide involvement in natural pathways controlled by the state and mobility of the typomorphic elements and water migration. Case studies were undertaken in areas subjected to contamination after the Chernobyl accident and in the estuary zones of the Yenisey and Pechora rivers. First observations in the Chernobyl remote zone in 1987-1989 demonstrated relation between the dose rate, 137Cs, 134Cs, 144Ce, 106Ru, 125Sb in soil cover and the location of the measured plot in landscape toposequence. Later study of 137Cs and 90Sr concentration and speciation confirmed different patterns of their distribution dependent upon the radioisotope, soil features and vegetation cover corresponding to the local landscape and landuse structure. Certain patterns in distribution and migration of 137Cs and 90Sr in soils and local food chain were followed in private farms situated in different landscape position [1]. Detailed study of 137Cs activity in forested site with a pronounced relief 20 and 25 years after the Chernobyl accident showed its stable polycentric structure in soils, mosses and litter which was sensitive to meso- and micro-relief features [2]. Radionuclide contamination of the lower Yenisey and Pechora studied along meridian landscape transects proved both areas be subjected to global 137Cs pollution while the Yenisey floodplain received additional regional contamination

  16. Sr2+ and Cs+ ion exchange properties of KLn(PO3)4: Ln = Ce and Eu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samatha, B.; Achary, S.N.; Tyagi, A.K.; Ramkumar, Jayshree; Chandramouleeswaran, S.

    2014-01-01

    With the aim to study the potential of layered phosphates as ion exchangers two stoichiometric compositions as KLn(PO 3 ) 4 with Ln = Ce and Eu were prepared by solid state reaction and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction method. The Cs + and Sr 2+ exchange properties of both materials were investigated using standard solutions of Sr 2 + or Cs + in low acidic aqueous medium

  17. Measuring 137Cs, 40K and decay products of 226Ra and 232Th in samples of different nature by a multidetector spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antovic, N.M.; Popovic, V.; Vukotic, P.

    2011-01-01

    A coincidence method for measuring 137 Cs, 40 K, 226 Ra and 232 Th decay products activity in soil, vegetation and fish samples, was applied to the six-crystal gamma-coincidence spectrometer PRIPYAT-2M. In this way, some problems appeared in simultaneous measurement of 137 Cs, 226 Ra and 232 Th by NaI(Tl) detectors and the PRIPYAT-2M spectrometer were solved. The obtained results were agreeable with the HPGe spectrometer ones. (author)

  18. 137Cs and 90Sr in Milk from the Zagreb Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franulovic, I.; Kolar, M.; Petrinec, B.

    2013-01-01

    The Radiation Protection Unit of the Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health in Zagreb is currently carrying out a program of radioactivity measurements and monitoring of the human environment in Croatia. Among other radionuclides this includes radiostrontium and radiocaesium in milk, which is a very sensitive indicator of the presence of fission products in the environment. Milk is also a very important foodstuff in the dietary habits of the Croatian population and represents a major source of potential radioactive contamination. This paper presents the results of the monitoring of 137Cs and 90Sr activity concentrations in milk for the year 2011. Activity concentrations of 90Sr ranged from 26.9 Bqm -3 to 59.5 Bqm -3 with a mean activity concentration of 50.6 Bqm -3 . The mean activity concentration for 137Cs was 199 Bqm -3 with a range from 21.1 Bqm -3 to 1940 Bqm -3 . The effective doses received from milk consumption were estimated for the adult population of the Zagreb region. The effective dose received from 90Sr uptake by milk consumption was 110 nSv. During 11 months of the year 2011, with the exception of August, the effective dose received from 137Cs uptake was 37.3 nSv, while the dose for 137Cs in August was 163 nSv. The effective dose for August was higher than the effective dose for the remaining 11 months. Continuous control and monitoring of radioactivity in food and the environment are needed to protect the population from the negative effects of ionizing radiation.(author)

  19. Distribution of {sup 90} Sr and {sup 137} Cs in vertical soil sections of the Chernobyl exclusion zone.; Raspredelenie form nakhozhdeniya {sup 90} Sr i {sup 137} Cs po vertikal`nym pochvennym razrezam Zony otchuzhdeniya ChAEhS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bondarenko, G N; Kononenko, L.V. [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev (Ukraine). Inst. Geokhimii i Fiziki Mineralov

    1994-12-31

    Water-soluble, exchangeable and acid-soluble (IM HCI) forms of {sup 90} Sr and {sup 137} Cs were determined in 15 layer-by-layer (1 cm) samples of podzolis and peaty soils from the Chernobyl exclusion zone taken in 1991 and 1992. Positions of centers of {sup 137} Cs and {sup 90} Sr supply as well as their water-soluble and exchangeable forms were estimated. The data obtained testify to deceleration of vertical migration of {sup 137} Cs in soils till the early 90th. The conclusion is made on evolution of dominating mechanisms of vertical migration of radionuclides. It consists in a decrease of the lessivage significance.

  20. Bio-geochemical behavior of 90Sr, 137Cs and 60Co in tropical soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasserman, M.A.; Gonzales Viana, A.; Bartoly, F.; Carvalho Conti, C. de; Janvrot Vivone, R.; Perez, V.; Wasserman, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    One manner to assess the bio-geochemical behavior of radionuclides in soils is the integration of experimental methods results obtained in the laboratory with results obtained in field experiments. In this work was used an alternative sequential chemical extraction protocol to evaluate mobility of radionuclides as a function of some physico-chemical conditions operationally defined: Slightly acidic phase: CH 3 COOH + CH 3 COONa 1:1, pH 4.7, shacked at room temperature; Easily reducible phase: NH 2 OH.HCl (0.1 M), pH 2, shacked at room temperature;Oxidizable phase: H 2 O 2 (30%) + HNO 3 , pH 2, CH 3 COONH 4 (1 M);shacked at room temperature; Alkaline phase: NaOH (0.1 M), pH 12, shacked at room temperature; Resistant phase: Aqua regia heated to 50 deg C / 30 min. The results obtained experimentally indicate the vulnerability of some Brazilian soils due to the higher radionuclide transfer to plant. Although it seems clear that it is difficult to identify which soil property will determine a given TF, the results of geochemical partition for 137 Cs, 90 Sr and 60 Co obtained in slightly acidic phase were very consistent with the TF data for reference plants or with some of the soil properties recognized in the specialized literature as related with mechanisms of sorption of Cs (e.g. exchangeable K, organic matter and iron oxides content), Co (e.g. manganese oxide) and Sr (pH and exchangeable Ca). The 137 Cs distribution in soil showed that Fe oxides are the main sink for this element in all type of soil and 16 years after contamination the 137 Cs the TF remains almost the same in Goiania soil. The 60 Co distribution in soil showed that Mn oxides are the main sink for this element in all type of soils and in the Nitisol, 5 years after contamination, the 60 Co was not detected as bioavailable (in the slightly acidic phase) neither detected in plant or were detectable with values very close to the detection limit. In the Nitisol, it is possible that reduction in 137 Cs

  1. 137Cs and 90Sr IN lizards of Semipalatinsk test site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panitskiy, А V; Lukashenko, S N; Kadyrova, N Zh

    2017-01-01

    The paper provides research results of 137 Cs and 90 Sr radionuclides concentrations in bodies of Lacertidae family lizards, inhabiting different parts of Semipalatinsk Test Site, and the parameters of these radionuclides' transfer into lizards' bodies. It shows that high activity concentration of radionuclides in lizards' bodies can be noticed if they live directly at locally contaminated areas. Since the distance from contaminated spots exceeds home range of the studied animals, no increased values of radionuclides' activity were found in the animal bodies. At some individual radioactively contaminated spots, very high activity concentrations of 90 Sr radionuclide up to 7.8 × 10 5  Bq kg -1 were found in lizards. So under certain conditions, lizards can significantly contribute to radionuclides redistribution in the natural environment. Mean concentration ratios (CR) of radionuclides were as follows: 137 Cs-6.2 × 10 -3 , 90 Sr-1.1 × 10 -2 . Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The mobility of 137Cs and 90Sr in agricultural soils in the Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salbu, B.; Oughton, D.H.; Ratnikov, A.V.; Zhigareva, T.L.; Kruglov, S.V.; Petrov, K.V.; Grebenshakikova, N.V.; Firsakova, S.K.; Astasheva, N.P.; Loshchilov, N.A.

    1994-01-01

    Results are presented from studies concerning the behavior of the Chernobyl-derived radionuclides 137 Cs and 90 Sr in soil-plant agricultural systems in the Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia during 1991. The sites, representing ploughed and natural pastures, were located at varying distances between 50 and 650 km and varying directions from the Chernobyl reactor site. The 137 Cs activity concentrations in the upper 0-5 cm soil layer ranged from 25-1,000 kBq m -2 and were higher in natural pastures as compared to ploughed pastures. For 90 Sr, activity levels ranged from 1.4-40 kBq m -2 , and the highest 90 Sr deposition was observed in the Gomel Region, Belarus. The highest 90 Sr: 137 Cs ratio was also observed in the Gomel soils, i.e., 15% as compared to between 0.72 and 7.4% in the other soils. The mobility of radionuclides was studied by means of sequential extraction. For all soils, between 60 and 95% of the 137 Cs was found to be strongly bound to soil components. In the Russian and Ukrainian soils, between 40 and 98% of the 90 Sr was found in the easily extractable fractions, and the distribution of 137 Cs and 90 Sr followed that of the naturally occurring stable isotopes of cesium and strontium. However, in the Gomel soils, between 20 and 50% of the 90 Sr was easily extractable and the distribution of 90 Sr within the extraction fractions did not follow that observed for stable strontium. These results are though to reflect the association of 90 Sr with fuel particles deposited in the Gomel Region. The mobility of 90 Sr is expected to increase with time (as the particles weather) in these soils. 24 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs

  3. The uptake of Cs and Sr from soil to radish (Raphanus sativus L.)- potential for phytoextraction and remediation of contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Dan; Wen, Fangping; Xu, Changhe; Tang, Yunlai; Luo, Xuegang

    2012-01-01

    The 133 Cs and 88 Sr uptake by plant Raphanus sativus L. was studied during cultivation in outdoor potted-soil. The distribution, accumulation of 133 Cs, 88 Sr and the antioxidant responses in plants were measured after 30 and 60 days of cultivation. The results showed that the uptake capacity of radish for 88 Sr was far higher than that for 133 Cs when the concentration of 88 Sr was as the same as that of 133 Cs in the soil (The concentration of 88 Sr or 133 Cs in the soil was from 2.5 mg kg −1 to 40 mg kg −1 ). The highest 88 Sr accumulation was 239.18 μg g −1 dw, otherwise, the highest 133 Cs accumulation was 151.74 μg g −1 dw (The concentration of 88 Sr in the soil was 40 mg kg −1 ), and the lowest 88 Sr accumulation was 131.03 μg g −1 dw, otherwise, the lowest 133 Cs accumulation was 12.85 μg g −1 dw (The concentration of 88 Sr in the soil is 5 mg kg −1 ). The 88 Sr and 133 Cs TF values were 1.16–1.72 and 0.24–0.60, respectively. There was little influence of high concentration of 88 Sr on the total biomass of plants, so the radish is one of the ideal phytoremediation plant for Sr polluted soils. The important physiological reasons that radish had good tolerance to 88 Sr stress were that the MDA content was higher under the 88 Sr stress than that under the 133 Cs stress, and the activities of POD and CAT were lower under the 88 Sr stress than that under 133 Cs stress. - Highlights: ► Radish is a kind of native plant with high biomass and fast growth. Its uptake capacity of radish for 88 Sr was far higher than that for 133 Cs when the concentration of 88 Sr was the same as that of 133 Cs in the soil. ► The TF values of radish for 88 Sr were 1.16–1.72. ► Radish is one of the ideal phytoremediation plant for Sr polluted soils. ► The important physiological reasons that radish had good tolerance toward 88 Sr stress were that the MDA content was higher under the 88 Sr stress than under the 133 Cs stress, and the activities of POD

  4. {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in dairy and farm milk in Finnish Lapland 1960-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostiainen, E.; Rissanen, K. [STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Research and Environmental Surveillance (Finland)

    2003-06-01

    The decrease rates of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs in milk were studied in the years following the atmospheric nuclear weapon testings and after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. The highest {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs concentrations in the 1960's in Finnish milk were recorded in Lapland even though the deposition of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs did not significantly differ between other localities in Finland, and they were not greater in northern Finland. This was mainly due to the high proportion of peat soils and nutrient deficiency of the pastures in Lapland. {sup 137}Cs deposition after the Chernobyl accident in 1986 in Lapland was less than 1 kBq m-2, and {sup 90}Sr deposition was so low that there was no detectable increase in the {sup 90}Sr concentration in milk. The ecological half-lives were estimated for the decrease in the concentrations of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr after the end of nuclear weapon testings period and the Chernobyl fallout during short and longer time intervals. (orig.)

  5. Accumulation of 137Cs and 90Sr in wood and bark of various types of oak and black alder plantings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perevolotskij, A.N.; Bulavik, I.M.; Perevolotskaya, T.V.; Paskrobko, L.A.; Andrush, S.N.

    2008-01-01

    Results of the evaluation of the influence of types of habitat edaphic conditions on 137Cs and 90Sr transition coefficients and their accumulation by wood and bark of English oak (Quercus robur L.) and black alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn) were presented. There was observed the particular influence of edaphic conditions on 137Cs and 90Sr accumulation by wood and bark of English oak. Lowering of 137Cs transition coefficients for the studied elements of phytomass was noted in the conditions of soil fertility increasing. Influence of soil moistening on 137Cs transition into wood and bark of oak trees was stated only in wood-sorrel and glague types of forests. Differences in accumulation of 90Sr by wood and bark of English oak in the studied range of edaphotopes were not proved. There was not found any differences in accumulation of both radionuclides by black alder trees in the typical for them edaphic conditions

  6. Nondestructive analysis of RA reactor fuel burnup, Program for burnup calculation base on relative yield of {sup 106}Ru, {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs in the irradiated fuel; Nedestruktivno odredjivanje izgaranja goriva reaktora RA, Program za izracunavanje izgaranja na osnovu relativne zastupljenosti {sup 106}Ru, {sup 134}Cs i {sup 137}Cs u ozracenom gorivu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulovic, V F [Institute of nuclear sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Yugoslavia)

    1971-07-01

    Burnup of low enriched metal uranium fuel of the RA reactor is described by two chain reactions. Energy balance and material changes in the fuel are described by systems of differential equations. Numerical integration of these equations is base on the the reactor operation data. Neutron flux and percent of Uranium-235 or more frequently yield of epithermal neutrons in the neutron flux, is determined by iteration from the measured contents of {sup 106}Ru, {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs in the irradiated fuel. The computer program was written in FORTRAN-IV. Burnup is calculated by using the measured activities of fission products. Burnup results are absolute values. Sagorevanje maloobogacenog uranskog metalnog goriva reaktora RA je opisano dvema lancanim reakcijama. Energetski bilans i materijalne promene u gorivu su opisane sistemima diferencijalnih jednacina. Numericka integracija jednacina se vrsi na osnovu podataka u dinamici rada reaktora. Fluks reaktorskih neutrona i procenat urana-235 ili ucesce epitermalnih neutrona u fluksu, odredjuje se iterativno na osnovu izmerenog sadrzaja {sup 106}Ru, {sup 134}Cs i {sup 137}Cs u ozracenom gorivu. Program je napisan u FORTRAN-u IV u jednom bloku, bez podprograma. Izracunavanje izgaranja je zasnovano na izmerenim kolicnicima aktivnosti fisionih produkata. Rezultati izgaranja imaju apsolutni karakter (author)

  7. The adsorption of Cs+, Sr2+ and Ni2+ on bitumen: a mechanistic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loon, L.R. Van; Kopajtic, Z.

    1991-01-01

    The adsorption of radionuclides on the waste matrix is a positive effect and contributes to the retardation of released radionuclides migrating to the geo-and biosphere. For the safety assessment studies, it is important to know whether or not radionuclides do adsorb on the waste matrix. In the present work the adsorption of 134 Cs + , 85 Sr 2+ and 63 Ni 2+ on bitumen was studied as a function of the pH and ionic strength of the equilibrium solution. Bitumen emulsions with well defined surfaces were used. The surface of bitumen is negatively charged due to the deprotonation of weak acid carboxyl groups at the interface. The functional group density amounts to 1.37.10 18 groups/m 2 and their deprotonation behaviour can be well described by the 'Ionizable Surface Group' model. Cs + , Sr 2+ and Ni 2+ adsorb on the surface by three different processes, i.e. ion exchange, outer sphere complexation and inner sphere surface complexation respectively. The adsorption depends on the pH and the ionic strength of the contact solution. Under near field conditions, Cs + and Sr 2+ do not adsorb on the bitumen due to the competition with Na + , K + and Ca 2+ present in the cement pore water in contact with the bitumen. Ni 2+ adsorption can also be neglected because the formation of neutral and anionic hydroxo complexes in solution competes strongly with the adsorption reaction. Other hydrolysable radionuclides of interest are expected to behave similarly to Ni 2+ . The main conclusion of the study is that the adsorption of radionuclides under near field conditions is expected to be very low. Consequently, this process need not to be considered in safety assessment studies. (author) figs., tabs., 30 refs

  8. Comparative kinetics of sup 47 Ca, sup 85 Sr and sup 226 Ra in the freshwater turtle, Trachemys scripta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinton, T.G. (Savannah River Ecology Lab., Aiken, SC (United States) Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)); Whicker, F.W.; Ibrahim, S.A. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)); Pinder, J.E. III (Savannah River Ecology Lab., Aiken, SC (United States))

    1992-01-01

    The kinetics of {sup 47}Ca, {sup 85}Sr and {sup 226}Ra were compared in the yellow-bellied slider, a common freshwater turtle of the southeastern USA. The absorption and elimination processes were examined as a function of stable dietary Ca, season, age and sex of the animals. Turtles were gavaged with radionuclides and serial whole-body analyses were performed on the live animals for up to 480 days. Only in the juvenile age class did reduced dietary Ca cause a significant increase in {sup 85}Sr absorption. The absorption of {sup 85}Sr and {sup 226}Ra in the adult male, adult female and hatchling groups was unaffected by dietary Ca. Mean absorption was greater than that which has been reported for other organisms and significantly differed among isotopes. The high absorption values were not restricted to immatures, but continued into maturity. Elimination rates were not affected by the dietary treatment, nor were isotopic differences in elimination observed. Annual mean elimination rate constants pooled among animal groups, were 0.22 {+-} 0.07 for {sup 85}Sr and 0.26 {+-} 0.18 for {sup 226}Ra. Retention was strongly affected by season with the greatest elimination occurring in the summer and declining to levels that were not distinguishable from zero in the winter. Elimination rate constants for hatchlings were greater than for the other age groups. (author).

  9. Accumulation of 137Cs and 90Sr from contaminated soil by three grass species inoculated with mycorrhizal fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entry, J.A.; Watrud, L.S.; Reeves, M.

    1999-01-01

    The use of plants to accumulate low level radioactive waste from soil, followed by incineration of plant material to concentrate radionuclides may prove to be a viable and economical method of remediating contaminated areas. We tested the influence of arbuscular mycorrhizae on 137 Cs and 90 Sr uptake by bahia grass (Paspalum notatum), johnson grass (Sorghum halpense) and switchgrass (Panicum virginatum) for the effectiveness on three different contaminated soil types. Exposure to 137 Cs or 90 Sr over the course of the experiment did not affect above ground biomass of the three grasses. The above ground biomass of bahia, johnson and switchgrass plants accumulated from 26.3 to 71.7% of the total amount of the 137 Cs and from 23.8 to 88.7% of the total amount of the 90 Sr added to the soil after three harvests. In each of the three grass species tested, plants inoculated with Glomus mosseae or Glomus intraradices had greater aboveground plant biomass, higher concentrations of 137 Cs or 90 Sr in plant tissue, % accumulation of 137 Cs or 90 Sr from soil and plant bioconcentration ratios at each harvest than those that did not receive mycorrhizal inoculation. Johnson grass had greater aboveground plant biomass, greater accumulation of 137 Cs or 90 Sr from soil and plant higher bioconcentration ratios with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi than bahia grass and switchgrass. The greatest accumulation of 137 Cs and 90 Sr was observed in johnson grass inoculated with G. mosseae. Grasses can grow in wide geographical ranges that include a broad variety of edaphic conditions. The highly efficient removal of these radionuclides by these grass species after inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizae supports the concept that remediation of radionuclide contaminated soils using mycorrhizal plants may present a viable strategy to remediate and reclaim sites contaminated with radionuclides

  10. Behaviour of fission products 90Sr, 137Cs and 144Ce in soil-plant system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Yongyi; Qiu tongcai

    1988-11-01

    A small quantity of radioonuclides, such as fission products 90 Sr, 137 Cs and 144 Ce etc., generally may leak out from nuclear inductry system and may be disseminated on soul and plant cover. The accumulation and distribution of the radionuclides in spring wheat planted in the contaminated soil are described. The factors as nuclide chemical forms, soil agrochemical properties, growing stages of the plant and fertilizing etc., which affect the accumulation and the distribution were discussed. Possible approches were supposed to eliminate or clean the radionuclides from contaminated soil, which include planting adaptable herbage, applying some fertilizers and scraping regolith etc

  11. Aminoacids used as radioprotective substances against Cs137 and Sr90 mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danetskaya, E.V.; Ramzaev, P.V.; Troitskaya, M.N.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental study on white rats into the radioprotective action of ten essential amino acids has that valine, arginine, and histidine all effect appreciably the life span and absorbed doses of the principal radionuclides, 137 Cs and 90 Sr. When these amino acids are fed to rats, the survival rate increases and hemopoiesis tends to return to normal more rapidly; the reproductive function is unaffected. The mechanism of radioprotective action of these amino acids has been studied inadequately, but they seem to have a role to play in the metabolism of sulfur-containing compounds. The remaining amino acids have no protective action

  12. Vertical migration of 85Sr, 137Cs and 131I in various arable and undisturbed soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palagyi, S.; Palagyiova, J.

    2003-01-01

    The vertical migration of 85 Sr, 137 Cs and 131 I in some arable and undisturbed single-contaminated soils was studied by gamma-spectrometry measurements under lysimetric laboratory conditions during irrigation of the soil profiles with wet atmospheric precipitation for about one year, except 131 I. A new simple exponential compartment (box) model was derived, which makes it possible to calculate the migration rate constants and migration rates in the individual soil layers (vertical sections) as well as the total vertical migration rate constants and total vertical migration rates of radionuclides in the bulk soil horizon. The relaxation times of radionuclides in respective soil horizons can also be evaluated. (author)

  13. Competitive radiation-induced carcinogenesis: an analysis of data from beagle dogs exposed to 226Ra and 90Sr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momeni, M.H.

    1979-01-01

    The incidence of radiation-induced primary bone sarcoma and myeloproliferative diseases was studied as a function of dose rate and time in beagles that were fed diets containing 90 SrCl 2 in equilibrium with 90 Y from midgestation to 1.5 yr of age or that were administered eight intravenous injections of 226 RaCl 2 (one injection every 2 weeks for 4 months) starting at 14 months of age. Analysis of incidence of each disease in 776 beagles showed a normal probability density function with respect to time. Median incidence time and standard deviation from the mean of distribution were calculated for primary osteosarcoma at each level of administered radioactivity. The median incidence age (T) for mortality from primary osteosarcoma increased from 4.1 yr of age, 2.6 yr after final injection of radium, for beagles injected (A 0 ) with 83.6 μCi 226 Ra, to 11.5 yr of age for beagles given A 0 = 3.14 μCi 226 Ra. A similar increase in T was observed for beagles that ingested a daily diet containing 90 Sr + 90 Y, from T = 2.8 yr of age at 36 μCi 90 Sr/day to 12.6 yr at 4 μCi 90 Sr/day. Tumor yield was calculated assuming that the causes of death from competing diseases were mutually exclusive with respect to individual diseases. Incidence and cumulative incidence for each of the diseases were calculated as a function of time and maximum dose rate. These analyses were extended to beagles administered 226 Ra by a single injection or 90 Sr by injection and inhalation. Extrapolation of the observed dose effects to lower levels of administered radioactivity (comparable to maximum permissible body burden) is discussed within the framework of a competitive mortality. (author)

  14. Determination of /sup 90/Sr and /sup 228/Ra in human teeth by age groups and in other substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuzil, E F; Dysart, M E [Western Washington Univ., Bellingham (USA)

    1984-12-01

    The total /sup 90/Sr content of human teeth peaks at a value of 0.65 pCi/g calcium in the age group of 20-30 years. It is not present in those 50 years or older. Various other substances show extensive amounts of /sup 90/Sr especially in cow bones, bone meal and dry milk. The radionuclide /sup 228/Ra (daughter of /sup 232/Th) is present at a mean level of about 0.5 pCi/g Ca in all substances tested and in all age groups, but especially high in bone meal (5.60 pCi/g Ca) and calcium lactate tablets.

  15. The determination of 90Sr and 228Ra in human teeth by age groups and in other substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuzil, E.F.; Dysart, M.E.

    1984-01-01

    The total 90 Sr content of human teeth peaks at a value of 0.65 pCi/g calcium in the age group of 20-30 years. It is not present in those 50 years or older. Various other substances show extensive amounts of 90 Sr especially in cow bones, bone meal and dry milk. The radionuclide 228 Ra (daughter of 232 Th) is present at a mean level of about 0.5 pCi/g Ca in all substances tested and in all age groups, but especially high in bone meal (5.60 pCi/g Ca) and calcium lactate tablets. (author)

  16. Volume I. Environmental effects on contents of Cs-137 and Sr-90 in milk. Volume II. Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Milk, animal fodders, soils, humans, livestock, and wildlife on or near 55 dairy farms in Utah were assayed for radionuclide content. Effects of soil chemistry, water supply, plant type, farming practices, geographic location, altitude, rainfall, and other ecological differences were sought by intensive analysis. Although many analyses have not been completed, several cause-effect relationships have been defined. Wet-lands yield more 137 Cs, 131 I, or 90 Sr to milk under like conditions of fallout intensity than dry-lands. In most cases, the station with the highest yield is also practicing wet grazing. 90 Sr and 137 Cs content of milk is enhanced by sandy soils. Increased altitude and higher rainfall lead to higher yields of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in milk. Levels of 137 Cs in milk increase from south to north, and Utah can be divided into several regions, each having a characteristic level of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in milk, meat, and fodders. Poor pastures (over-grazed to the extent that stem bases are eaten and much soil is exposed) yield more 137 Cs and 90 Sr than improved pastures. Feeding green chop alfalfa or putting the animals on the meadows causes marked but temporary increases in the 90 Sr and 137 Cs content of the milk. However, the annual yield for two stations of similar ecology in the same geographic area is essentially the same. Experimental details are presented in Volume I. The appendices in Volume II are made up primarily of the data compiled at the 78 stations

  17. Immobilisation of 137Cs and 90Sr in hot-pressed clinoptilolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, A.; Jones, D.V.C.; Cole, G.B.; Valentine, T.M.; Preston, R.F.; Hawes, R.W.M.; Fones, M.D.

    1984-07-01

    It is shown that clinoptilolites from Nevada and Mudhills, California, can be vitrified by hot-pressing at 1000 to 1050 deg C for 30 min under 23 MPa pressure in graphite dies, or for 10 min under 3.5 MPa pressure in stainless steel bellows-shaped containers. Activity measurements before and after hot-pressing show that the radionuclides 137 Cs and 90 Sr are retained almost completely during the process. The hot-pressed material is shown to be extremely resistant to leaching of the nuclides, either in Soxhlet or long-term static leach tests. Gamma-irradiation increases their leachability; that of 90 Sr more than that of 137 Cs, but even so, the leach rates of both remain very low. X-ray diffraction spectra taken before and after heat-treatment for 10 days at temperatures up to 1000 deg C show no deleterious effects, and hydrothermal treatments at temperatures up to 90 deg C for 100 days, even in the presence of sodium ions in solution, are shown not to cause any changes detectable by X-ray diffraction. (author)

  18. Interlaboratory comparison of the determination of 137Cs and 90Sr in water, food and soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuks, L.; Polkowska-Motrenko, H.; Merta, A.

    2006-01-01

    Reliable measurements of radioisotope concentrations are of primary importance for the laboratories dealing with radioactivity determinations. According to the Polish regulations, since 2002 it is obligatory to organize every two years national interlaboratory comparisons (ILC) on the determination of various radionuclides in food and environmental samples. First such ILC on the determination of 137 Cs and 90 Sr in water, food and soil was organized by the National Atomic Energy Agency of Poland in 2004 with the participation of fourteen laboratories from Polish research institutes and universities. The ILC was conducted by the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology. Two types of water (surface and potable; six samples), wheat flour and soil (four samples) were spiked with 137 Cs and 90 Sr. From the results obtained in all participating laboratories it can be concluded that the procedures of assigning value and preparation of homogeneous material have been done properly and the majority of the determinations remain in good agreement with the assigned values and with the results obtained by other laboratories. Such agreement means that the performance of the laboratories is good and also that the samples are equivalent

  19. Accumulation of 137Cs and 90Sr radionuclides by leguminous plants of various species and varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhdanovich, V.P.; Podolyak, A.G.; Arastovich, T.V.; Demidovich, S.A.; Odintsova, L.E.; Ivashkova, I.I.; Polovkov, N.N.

    2005-01-01

    Decision of protein problem on territories contaminated with radionuclides as a result of the accident at the Chernobyl NPP is not possible without extension of lands under cultivation of leguminous plants (peas, lupine and soybean). All lupine varieties show high indices of radionuclides accumulation and are restrictedly acceptable for production on contaminated territories. The following varieties of yellow forage lupine are the most acceptable for cultivation on the contaminated territories: Zhemchug, Rannij, Adradzhenne, Mitan. Introduction of varieties with the low level of radionuclides accumulation (peas — Aist, Agat, Gomelskaya; soybean — Mageva, Pina, Severnaya zvezda) into agricultural production will make to possible to obtain agricultural products meeting the requirements of the “Republican permissible levels of 137Cs and 90Sr content in agricultural raw materials and forages” on arable lands with the higher density of radioactive contamination: 137Cs — 925—1110 kBq/m2 (25-30 Ci/km2) and 90Sr 15—18 kBq/m2 (0.40-0.50 Ci/km2)

  20. Determinants of radiological dose from Sr and Cs accumulated by tropical freshwater fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twining, J.R.; Markich, S.J.; Ferris, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    Recent studies of the bioaccumulation of strontium and caesium by tropical freshwater fish were in some ways consistent with temperate data. For example, biodistribution of radionuclides and the influence of chemical analogues Ca and K were in general agreement with earlier data. However, in other matters there were systematic inconsistencies when compared with the standard IAEA models. These differences gave rise to transfer (concentration) factors for both Cs and Sr that were approximately an order of magnitude below the expected values based on temperate data (e.g. 13 and 0.7 compared with 440 and 4.7 respectively). Compatible results were found for a range of tropical species studied by different investigators. In this presentation, some of the factors believed to influence bioaccumulation, and hence radiological dose, in tropical environments are discussed in relation to the above findings. These factors include: water physico-chemistry, temperature, fish size and physiology, whether or not the data were acquired from field or laboratory studies, and how the studies were carried out. Critical group exposure pathways in tropical environments and the benefits and shortcomings of applying default temperate models of Cs and Sr accumulation by freshwater fish are also discussed. (author)

  1. Transfer factors of some selected radionuclides (radioactive Cs, Sr, Mn, Co and Zn) from soil to leaf vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ban-nai, Tadaaki; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Yanagisawa, Kei

    1995-01-01

    Transfer factors of radionuclides from soil to leaf vegetables (cabbage, Chinese cabbage, komatsuna, spinach and lettuce) have been studied by radiotracer experiments using Andosol as a representative of Japanese soils. The transfer factors of radioactive Cs, Sr, Mn, Co and Zn for edible parts of vegetables (average of five vegetables) were 0.11, 0.24, 0.61, 0.05 and 0.52, respectively. These values should be used in safety assessment for Japanese agricultural environment. The transfer factors of Mn, Co and Zn for spinach were higher than those for the other vegetables. The transfer factors of Cs for different organs of the leaf vegetables were rather homogeneous. The transfer factors of Sr and Mn were higher for older (outer) leaves than younger (inner) ones. In contrast to Sr and Mn, transfer factors of Zn for younger leaves were higher than those for older ones. The distribution ratios of the elements between soil-solution and soil were in the order Sr>Mn>Cs>Co>Zn, whereas the distribution ratios of the elements between plant and soil-solution were in the order Zn>Cs>Mn>Co>Sr. These results indicate that the selectivity for Sr by plants from the soil-solution was low and that for Zn was very high. (author)

  2. Comparison of decontamination parameters for two rodents. {sup 90}SR and {sup 137}CS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bondarkov, M.; Gaschak, S.; Goryanaya, J.U.; Maksimenko, A.; Barchuk, R.; Martynenko, V.; Shulga, A.; Chesser, R.; Rodgers, B. [Chornobyl Center for Nuclear Safety, Radioactive Waste and Radioecology, International Radioecology Laboratory, Slavutych (Ukraine)

    2004-07-01

    The rate of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs content decrease in the whole body has been estimated for bank vole Clethrionomys glareolus and lab strain of mouse Mus musculus (Big Blue) over 50 and 180 days, respectively. Before the study the animals were naturally contaminated within the most contaminated area of the Chernobyl zone. The initial activity of the whole body ranged as follows: voles - 4-385 kBq for {sup 137}Cs, 0.9-7.7 kBq for {sup 90}Sr; mice - 0.62-1.19 and 0.64-2.20, respectively. Methods of beta and gamma spectrometry and a specially designed alive counting method were used in the study. The exponential decay model of the second order was applied to estimate parameters of the body decontamination from {sup 137}Cs. Both species have similar half-life periods of the fast-excreted fraction - 1.87-2.17d. However, a bank vole loses up to 96-97% of initial activity by the fast excreted fraction, while mice - only 67.4%. A slow excreted fraction of initially accumulated {sup 137}Cs has a half-life period of 55.3d and 9.6d in voles and mice, respectively. Thus, bank vole and domestic mouse have evident differences of radiocesium excretion, first of all at the early stage of decontamination. Some preliminary data for a yellow-necked mouse Apodemus flavicollis show similar parameters of decontamination as for a domestic mouse. The excretion of {sup 90}Sr was estimated using the exponential decay model of the first order. A mouse has much larger part of the excreted radionuclide - 87%, and a half-life period - 49.9d; a vole - 58% and 13.1d, respectively. The rest amount of radionuclides was considered as non-excreted over the study term. Thus, similar size representatives of two rodent taxa have different parameters of radionuclide excretion. The reason for this may be their specific physiology of accumulation and excretion. (author)

  3. Comparison of decontamination parameters for two rodents. 90SR and 137CS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondarkov, M.; Gaschak, S.; Goryanaya, J.U.; Maksimenko, A.; Barchuk, R.; Martynenko, V.; Shulga, A.; Chesser, R.; Rodgers, B.

    2004-01-01

    The rate of 90 Sr and 137 Cs content decrease in the whole body has been estimated for bank vole Clethrionomys glareolus and lab strain of mouse Mus musculus (Big Blue) over 50 and 180 days, respectively. Before the study the animals were naturally contaminated within the most contaminated area of the Chernobyl zone. The initial activity of the whole body ranged as follows: voles - 4-385 kBq for 137 Cs, 0.9-7.7 kBq for 90 Sr; mice - 0.62-1.19 and 0.64-2.20, respectively. Methods of beta and gamma spectrometry and a specially designed alive counting method were used in the study. The exponential decay model of the second order was applied to estimate parameters of the body decontamination from 137 Cs. Both species have similar half-life periods of the fast-excreted fraction - 1.87-2.17d. However, a bank vole loses up to 96-97% of initial activity by the fast excreted fraction, while mice - only 67.4%. A slow excreted fraction of initially accumulated 137 Cs has a half-life period of 55.3d and 9.6d in voles and mice, respectively. Thus, bank vole and domestic mouse have evident differences of radiocesium excretion, first of all at the early stage of decontamination. Some preliminary data for a yellow-necked mouse Apodemus flavicollis show similar parameters of decontamination as for a domestic mouse. The excretion of 90 Sr was estimated using the exponential decay model of the first order. A mouse has much larger part of the excreted radionuclide - 87%, and a half-life period - 49.9d; a vole - 58% and 13.1d, respectively. The rest amount of radionuclides was considered as non-excreted over the study term. Thus, similar size representatives of two rodent taxa have different parameters of radionuclide excretion. The reason for this may be their specific physiology of accumulation and excretion. (author)

  4. Study of radioactive sr and Cs in soil and soil /plant system at Inshas region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eissa, H.S.M.

    2008-01-01

    The radioactive fallout is considered one of the most major environmental problems that threats public health. The work presented in this thesis is carried out to investigate the level of radioactivity in different environmental samples of soils and vegetations collected from different locations around the NRC at Inshas area and the area nearby (about 30 km radius). Six different locations: Inshas, Shebeen, Abu-Zaabal, Al-Oboor in addition to two sites in the nuclear research center (old reactor and protection department sites) were chosen for the collection of the soil and plant samples. Most typical egyptian soils (sandy, sandyloam, clayey)from three different places (Al-Oboor, Abu-Zaabal, and Shebeen El-Kanatter) were selected for the experiments carried out under laboratory conditions. The plants investigated were grass, old trees and wheat. Cs 137 and Sr 90 were chosen to represent the most important long-lived radionuclides considering the human health, since these nuclides can enter human body via food chain and increase the radiation burden for many years. The following points are considered in this work: 1- Natural radionuclides concentration in different environmental samples of soil and plant especially (grasses and leaves of old trees) were determined using high resolution gamma-spectroscopic system (hyper-pure germanium detector). 2-Two groups of elements have been determined directly in two plant samples from each location (one grass, and the other old trees) together with their corresponding soils.3- Transfer factors (often used to describe the uptake of the radioisotope from soil to plant)of the log-lived radionuclides 137 Cs and 90 from soil to the wheat plant have been studied by radiotracer experiments .4- The sorption behavior of Cs and Sr radionuclides by the different soil types was investigated kinetically using batch techniques.

  5. The selective removal of 90Sr and 137Cs from liquid low-level waste at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostick, D.T.; Arnold, W.D.; Burgess, M.W.; Taylor, P.A.; Kent, T.E.

    1995-01-01

    Methods are being developed for the selective removal of the two principal radioactive contaminants, 90 Sr and 137 Cs, from liquid low-level waste generated and/or stored at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These methods are to be used in a future centralized treatment facility at ORNL. Removal of 90 Sr in the proposed treatment flashed is based on coprecipitation from strongly alkaline waste by adding stable strontium to the waste solution. Ferric sulfate, added with the stable strontium, improves the 90 Sr removal and aids in the flocculation of the strontium carbonate (SrCO 3 ) precipitate. After separation of the solids, the resultant supernate is adjusted to pH 8 for the cesium removal treatment. Upon pH adjustment, aluminum originally present in the untreated alkaline waste precipitates and sorbs an additional amount of 90 Sr. Cesium is removed from the neutralized waste by two sequential treatments with potassium cobalt hexacyanoferrate (KCCF) slurry formed by the addition of potassium ferrocyanide (K 4 Fe(CN) 6 ) and cobalt nitrate (Co(NO 3 ) 2 ) solutions. The cumulative decontamination factors (DFs) for 90 Sr and 137 Cs in benchscale studies are 4900 and 1 x 10 6 , respectively, if high speed centrifugation is used for the liquid/solid separations. Efforts are now underway to evaluate process-scale techniques to perform the liquid/solid separations required for removal of SrCO 3 and 137 Cs-bearing hexacyanoferrate solids from the treated waste solution

  6. Local-scale modelling of the releases of 137-Cs and 90-Sr from Fukushima NPP into the Pacific Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raul, Perianez

    2013-01-01

    The dispersion of 137-Cs and 90-Sr released from Fukushima nuclear power plant to the sea after the March 11th 2011 tsunami has been studied using a numerical model. The 3D dispersion model consists of an advection/diffusion equation with terms describing uptake/release reactions between water and seabed sediments. The dispersion model has been fed with daily currents provided by JCOPE2 ocean model. Seabed sediment 137-Cs computed patterns have been compared with observations. The impact of tides and of atmospheric deposition on sediment contamination has been evaluated as well. First simulations carried out for Sr-90 are described. An evaluation of the amount of this radionuclide released to the sea has been made using a numerical model for the first time. Calculated vertical profiles of this radionuclide have been compared with measured ones. Finally, the variability in 90-Sr/137-Cs activity ratios has been analysed with the model

  7. New methodological approaches to the simultaneous measurement of the 90Sr and 137Cs activity in environmental samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Zheltonozhska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Nonradiochemical method of measurement of 90Sr and137Cs activity in environmental samples is proposed. This method is based on spectrometrical investigation of electrons accompanied the decay of the 90Sr and137Cs. Accounting for the contribution to the total activity of the samples from the zones with the density of the contamination 1 - 5 Кu/km2 the 40K electrons allowed to improve the accuracy of the measurements for the samples of small rodents up to 15 - 20 % (the ratio of A (137Cs/A (90Sr was from 2 to 100, for samples of soil up to 10 - 15 % (the change of activity in these samples was ten thousand times. The results of the spectrometric measurements were confirmed by the traditional radiochemical research.

  8. Inventory and vertical migration of {sup 90}Sr fallout and {sup 137}Cs/{sup 90}Sr ratio in Spanish mainland soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herranz, M. [Department Nuclear Engineering and Fluid Mechanics, University of the Basque, Country (UPV/EHU), Alda Urquijo s/n, E-48013 Bilbao (Spain); Romero, L.M. [CIEMAT, Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, Av. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Idoeta, R. [Department Nuclear Engineering and Fluid Mechanics, University of the Basque, Country (UPV/EHU), Alda Urquijo s/n, E-48013 Bilbao (Spain); Olondo, C., E-mail: kontxi.olondo@ehu.es [Department Nuclear Engineering and Fluid Mechanics, University of the Basque, Country (UPV/EHU), Alda Urquijo s/n, E-48013 Bilbao (Spain); Valino, F. [CIEMAT, Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, Av. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Legarda, F. [Department Nuclear Engineering and Fluid Mechanics, University of the Basque, Country (UPV/EHU), Alda Urquijo s/n, E-48013 Bilbao (Spain)

    2011-11-15

    In this paper the inventory of {sup 90}Sr in 34 points distributed along the Spanish peninsular territory is presented. Obtained values range between 173 Bq/m{sup 2} and 2047 Bq/m{sup 2}. From these data set and those {sup 137}Cs data obtained in a previous work the {sup 137}Cs/{sup 90}Sr activity ratio has been established, laying this value between 0.9 and 3.6. Also the migration depth of both radionuclides has been analysed obtaining for {sup 137}Cs an average value 57% lower than that obtained for {sup 90}Sr. Additionally, this paper presents the results obtained in 11 sampling points in which the activity vertical profile has been measured. These profiles have been analysed to state the behaviour of strontium in soils and after, by using a convective-diffusive model, the parameters of the model which governs the vertical migration of {sup 90}Sr in the soil, v (apparent convection velocity) and D (apparent diffusion coefficient) have been evaluated. Mean values obtained are 0.20 cm/year and 3.67 cm{sup 2}/year, respectively. - Highlights: > Measured {sup 90}Sr activity in Spanish mainland, being within a range of [173, 2047] Bq/m{sup 2}, with a mean value of 793 Bq/m{sup 2}. > Compared the migration capacity of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in the same soils. > {sup 90}Sr shows a unique behaviour tendency in soil. > The parameters which govern the applied model have been obtained for the analysed profiles. > Analysed those parameters' values also reflects this unique tendency.

  9. Migration of 137Cs and 90Sr in undisturbed soil profiles under controlled and close-to-real conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, S.; Rosen, K.; Fernandez, V.; Juhan, H.

    2000-01-01

    Migration of 137 Cs and 90 Sr in undisturbed soil was studied in large lysimeters three and four years after contamination, as part of a larger European project studying radionuclide soil-plant interactions. The lysimeters were installed in greenhouses with climate control and contaminated with radionuclides in an aerosol mixture, simulating fallout from a nuclear accident. The soil types studied were loam, silt loam, sandy loam and loamy sand. The soils were sampled to 30-40 cm depth in 1997 and 1998. The total deposition of 137 Cs ranged from 24 to 45 MBq/m 2 , and of 90 Sr from 23 to 52 MBq/m 2 . It was shown that migration of 137 Cs was fastest in sandy loam, and of 90 Sr fastest in sandy loam and loam. The slowest migration of both nuclides was found in loamy sand. Retention within the upper 5 cm was 60% for both 137 Cs and 90 Sr in sandy loam, while in loamy sand it was 97 and 96%, respectively. In 1998, migration rates, calculated as radionuclide weighted median depth (migration centre) divided by time since deposition were 1.1 cm/year for both 137 Cs and 90 Sr in sandy loam, 0.8 and 1.0 cm/year, respectively, in loam, 0.6 and 0.8 cm/year in silt loam, and 0.4 and 0.6 cm/year for 137 Cs and 90 Sr, respectively, in loamy sand. A distinction is made between short-term migration, caused by events soon after deposition and less affected by soil type, and long-term migration, more affected by e.g. soil texture. Three to four years after deposition, effects of short-term migration is still dominant in the studied soils

  10. 90Sr and 137Cs migration from the Dnieper water to the agricultural plants of Southern Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polikarpov, G.; Kulebakina, L.

    1994-01-01

    In the Southern Ukraine, particularly in the Crimea, the Dnieper water is used for irrigation purposes. The aim of our radioecological investigations was to study the post-Chernobyl radionuclide transfer from the Dnieper water to the rice fields and their absorption by agricultural plants. The content of 90 Sr and 137 Cs was determined in the waters of the Dnieper River and canals, in the soil of rice fields, in the rice paddy fields and in lucerne and clover. 90 Sr was found to be the major radionuclide entering the rice fields. The dynamics of 90 Sr was observed in the lower Dnieper and the NCC in the period of 1986-1993. The 137 Cs contamination of rice fields is associated with atmospheric fallout occurred during April-May of 1986. The quantity of 137 Cs delivered to the Crimea with the Dnieper waters is 10-100 times less than that of 90S r. On the rice fields, radionuclides were accumulated by soils and plants. Three-years observations showed the increase of 90 Sr concentration in soils of the rice fields. The 90 Sr concentration in drains (after the rice fields) is less than before the rice fields. 137 Cs is washed out from the soils of the rice fields by irrigation water. Therefore the concentrations of 137 Cs and 90 Sr in soils under lucerne and clover are higher than in soils under rice. The concentration of these radionuclides are higher in paddy than in clover and lucerne. The potassium content in soils influences the 137 Cs accumulation by plants

  11. 137Cs and 90Sr root uptake by beans in soils with contrasting properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauras Yera, T.; Vallejo, R.; Waegeneers, N.; Madoz-Escande, C.

    1998-01-01

    Radionuclide soil to crop transfer was analysed in large undisturbed soil monoliths installed in lysimeters under controlled climatic conditions. Both the solid/liquid distribution coefficient K D (= [RN] in soil (Bq/kg)/[RN] in soil solution (Bq/l)) and the concentration factor CF (= (Bq/kg plant)/(Bq/l soil solution)) are affected by the concentration of K, Ca and Mg in soil solution. The 137 Cs concentration in soil solution varied from 400 Bq/l to 9 Bq/l in the various types of soil, the corresponding K D value ranged from 480 to 19000 l/kg. The concentration of potassium in the soil solution (m K ) varied from 25 mmol/l to 0.6 mmol/l. A negative linear relationship on the logarithmic scale was found between K D and the potassium status of the soil solution: high K levels brought about low K D 's and thus, promotion of 137 Cs in the soil solution. The plant concentration factor was also affected by the K concentration: high K contents in soil solution resulted in low CF's and vice versa. The interdependence was again linear in logarithmic coordinates. The 137 Cs root uptake crop reflected the specific scenario of each soil. The K D and CF values were also negatively related to the Ca+Mg concentration in the soil solution. Thus, K, Ca and Mg in the soil solution play an important role in the 137 Cs and 90 Sr root uptake and, in addition to the soil type and specific growing conditions, are important factors governing the transfer

  12. Evaluating 90Sr and 137Cs accumulation by structural elements of exclusion zone's vegetative communities of meadow and lea land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paskevich, S.A.; Petrov, M.F.

    2003-01-01

    Biogenic carry-over of 90 Sr and 137 Cs by structural elements of exclusion zone's meadows and lea land phytocenosis is considered. Quantitative parameters of radionuclide accumulation are evaluated in substrate and live biomass of communities growing under various ecological conditions. It was stated that accumulation levels for ground biomass of communities depends, at a significant rate, on landscape growing conditions. These values fluctuate within the range of around 100 times. For 90 Sr, significantly lower difference in carry-over values was observed totaling up to 5 times, although for single community, this radionuclide carry-over exceeds essentially 137 Cs carry-over

  13. Speciation of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs in Techa river water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osipov, D.; Andreev, S.; Pryakhin, E. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine (Russian Federation); Teien, H.C. [Norwegian University of Life Sciences - UMB, Center of Excellence in Environmental Radioactivity - CERAD (Norway)

    2014-07-01

    The concentration and speciation of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs were measured in the upper, middle and lower reaches of Techa River, South Ural, Russia in 2012 and 2013. To obtain information of the physical-chemical forms of the radionuclides (RN) in Techa River water, at site size fractionation of water was performed using filtration and ultrafiltration. Using both membrane filters (10 μm and 0.45 μm) and hollow fiber (10 kDa cutoff), following size fractionation were determined: - Particulate RN: size fraction 0.45-10 μm. Excluded by 0.45 μm membrane filter, but passing 10 μm membrane filter - Colloidal RN: size fraction 10 kDa - 0.45 μm. Excluded by hollow fibre of 10 kDa cutoff, but passing 0.45 μm membrane filter - Low molecular mass (LMM) RN: less than 10 kDa. Determined in ultra-filtrated water. Results demonstrated that the concentration of {sup 90}Sr in samples, passed through 10 μm membrane filter, is practically equal to its concentration in ultra-filtered water, both in spring and summer 2012 and 2013. This suggests that {sup 90}Sr is not associated with particulate or colloidal material in the river water, but mainly presents as LMM species, probably ions in a biologically available form. {sup 137}Cs was, however present in different size fractions and the distribution of size fractions depending upon location in river and time of sampling. In the upper part of Techa River {sup 137}Cs was mainly present as LMM species, about 70% and 100% in spring 2012 and 2013, respectively. The remaining part was present as particles larger than 0.45 μm. In the summer 2012, about 15% of the radionuclide was in LMM form and, consequently, almost equal quantities - 46% and 39% - were in colloidal and particulate forms, respectively. At station in the middle reach of Techa River, about 25% and 40% of {sup 137}Cs was present as LMM species, in spring 2012 and 2013, respectively. The remaining part was mainly present as colloidal species. At station in the lower

  14. Processing of radioactive waste solution with zeolites. I. Thermal transformation of Na, Cs and Sr type zeolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanno, T; Mimura, H; Kitamura, T [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Research Inst. of Mineral Dressing and Metallurgy

    1976-08-01

    Thermal transformation of Na, Cs and Sr type zeolites were studied by means of differential thermal analysis (DTA), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray powder diffraction. Synthetic zeolites A, X and Y, synthetic mordenite (Zeolon) and natural mordenite were used in this study. Na type zeolites of A and X recrystallized to Nepheline (NaAlSiO/sub 4/) above 1,000/sup 0/C, but the structures of zeolite Y and mordenite collapsed above about 900/sup 0/C and did not recrystallize until 1,200/sup 0/C. Cs type zeolites of A and X recrystallized to pollucite (CsAlSi/sub 2/O/sub 6/) above 1,000/sup 0/C and Cs type of zeolite Y recrystallized to it above 1,100/sup 0/C, but the structure of mordenite collapsed above 1,000/sup 0/C and did not recrystallize until 1,200/sup 0/C. On Sr type zeolites, zeolite A and X recrystallized to strontium aluminosilicate (SrAl/sub 2/Si/sub 2/O/sub 8/) above 1,100/sup 0/C and zeolite Y recrystallized to it above 1,200/sup 0/C, but the structure of mordenite collapsed above 1,000/sup 0/C. The results described above were supported by microscopic observation and the measurement of density. If this solidifications by calcination of zeolites are further studied, new informations concerning the fixation of Cs and Sr will be obtained.

  15. On-line ion chemistry for the AMS analysis of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 135,137}Cs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliades, J. [IsoTrace Laboratory, University of Toronto, 60 St. George St., Toronto, ON, M5S 1A7 (Canada); Zhao, X.-L. [Department of Physics, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Litherland, A.E. [IsoTrace Laboratory, University of Toronto, 60 St. George St., Toronto, ON, M5S 1A7 (Canada); Kieser, W.E., E-mail: liam.kieser@utoronto.ca [Department of Physics, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2013-01-15

    The analysis of {sup 90}Sr by AMS has so far required the use of very large tandem accelerators in order to separate the isobar {sup 90}Zr by the rate-of-energy-loss method. The analysis of {sup 135,137}Cs by AMS has never been attempted as the separation of the isobars {sup 135,137}Ba by the traditional method requires even higher energies, so that this approach would become prohibitively expensive for routine analysis. Following the successful demonstration of Cl{sup -}-S{sup -} separation by the Isobar Separator, the same apparatus was used to test the separation of other pairs of isobars. Surprisingly effective results were obtained with NO{sub 2} gas in the cases of SrF{sub 3}{sup -}-ZrF{sub 3}{sup -} and CsF{sub 2}{sup -}-BaF{sub 2}{sup -} separations. Reduction factors of {approx}4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} for ZrF{sub 3}{sup -}/SrF{sub 3}{sup -} and {approx}2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} for BaF{sub 2}{sup -}/CsF{sub 2}{sup -} were measured. SrF{sub 3}{sup -} and CsF{sub 2}{sup -} are both super-halogen anions and are preferentially produced in the ion source rather than ZrF{sub 3}{sup -} and BaF{sub 2}{sup -} when using the PbF{sub 2} matrix-assisted method. Reduction factors for ion source production with such targets of {approx}3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} for ZrF{sub 3}{sup -}-SrF{sub 3}{sup -} and {approx}5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} for BaF{sub 2}{sup -}-CsF{sub 2}{sup -} were found. The combined methods would suggest a theoretical detection sensitivity for {sup 90}Sr/Sr {approx}6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -16}, {sup 135}Cs/Cs {approx}7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -15} and {sup 137}Cs/Cs {approx}1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -14}, assuming 10 ppm Zr and Ba contamination in the AMS targets. In addition to the earlier Cl{sup -}-S{sup -} separation work, these measurements further illustrate the potential of on-line ion chemical methods for broadening the analytical scope of small AMS systems.

  16. Relationships between properties of Hanford area soils and the availability of 134Cs and 85Sr for uptake by cheatgrass and tumbleweed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cataldo, D.A.; Routson, R.C.; Paine, D.; G.

    1978-10-01

    The relationships between plant root absorption mechanisms and basic soil parameters which effect the concentration of Sr and Cs, and analog ions in soil solution are reviewed. Based on these relationships, studies were undertaken to determine the relative availability of Cs and Sr for uptake by plants grown on Hanford area soils, and the feasibility of developing a predictive relationship between readily measurable soil parameters and plant availability of Cs and Sr. Concentration ratios were determined for cheatgrass and tumbleweed grown on Hanford area soils representing a range in properties (Burbank, Ritzville, Lickskillet, Rupert and Warden). Concentration ratios ranged from 0.0078 to 0.066 and 3.5 to 16 for 134 Cs and 85 Sr, respectively. Soils were analyzed for physical properties, mineralogy, extractable cations and extractable 134 Cs and 85 Sr. Simple correlation analyses showed Cs and Sr uptake in cheatgrass and Sr uptake by tumbleweed to be related to cation exchange capacity, and extractable Sr, Ba and Mg. However, in the case of Cs, this correlation may be coincidental since these divalent cations are not chemical analogs of Cs. Uptake of Cs by tumbleweed showed weak correlations with extractable and exchangeable K. Factor analysis and principle components analysis did not assist in further quantitation of the relationships between plant uptake and soil parameters

  17. A comparison of the natural survival of beagle dogs injected intravenously with low levels of 239Pu, 226Ra, 228Ra, 228Th, or 90Sr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruenger, F.W.; Miller, S.C.; Lloyd, R.D.

    1991-01-01

    The natural survival, relative to properly chosen controls, of 26 beagle dogs injected once intravenously with an average of 0.58 +/- 0.04 kBq 239 Pu/kg, 23 dogs injected with 2.31 +/- 0.43 kBq 226 Ra/kg, 13 dogs injected with 1.84 +/- 0.26 kBq 228 Ra/kg, 12 dogs injected with 0.56 +/- 0.030 kBq 228 Th/kg, and 12 dogs injected with 21.13 +/- 1.74 kBq 90 Sr/kg was evaluated statistically. The amounts of these radionuclides are related directly to the estimated maximum permissible body burdens for humans suggested in ICRP II (1959). They constitute a level of exposure that initially was assumed to cause no deleterious effects in dogs. This study had two objectives: (1) identification of homogeneous control groups against which to evaluate the survival of the irradiated groups and (2) comparison of the survival characteristics and estimation of mortality or hazard rate ratios for control dogs vs dogs injected with the baseline dosages given above. It was shown, by goodness-of-fit plots, that the Cox proportional hazards model was an appropriate method of analysis. Therefore, covariates that possibly could influence survival were tested for significance. Only the effects of grand mal seizure, which is caused in epileptic dogs by an external stimulus and can be fatal if untreated, were significant (P less than 0.0001). Consequently, in the final model, death from grand mal seizure was considered as accidental. After censoring the dogs dying from grand mal seizure, it was established that the data for the control groups from previous and contemporary experiments could be pooled. The change in hazard rates relative to controls resulting from exposure to the baseline radionuclide level was modest, 1.6 times for 239 Pu (P = 0.033), 1.0(4) for 226 Ra (P = 0.86), 1.9 for 228 Ra (P = 0.035), 2.5 for 228 Th (P less than 0.001), and 0.52 for 90 Sr (P = 0.041)

  18. Sorption of Sr and Cs on rocks and minerals. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torstenfelt, B.; Andersson, K.; Allard, B.

    1981-09-01

    The sorption of Sr 90 and Cs 137 on some common Swedish rocks (granite, gneiss, and diabase) and eleven different major rock-forming minerals (quartz, orthoclase, apatite, fluorite, biotite, muscovite, hematite, magnetite, hornblende, calcite, and serpentine) has been studied, using a batch technique. A comparison with the retention obtained in column experiments has been made. The water phase in all experiments has been an artificial groundwater with a composition corresponding to Swedish natural deep groundwaters. The influence of parameters, such as pH (4-11), contact time (1 day-6 months), nuclide concentration (normally 10 -7 M, variations up to 0.1 M has been made), liquid to solid ratio, particle size (three fractions between 0.045 and 0.500 mm) has been studied. An attempt to predict the distribution coefficient for rocks, using known data for the rock-forming minerals gave too low values in all cases. (Auth.)

  19. Ecological half-lives of 9Sr and 137Cs in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proehl, G.; Ehlken, S.; Fiedler, I.; Kirchner, G.; Klemt, E.; Zibold, G.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the long-term behaviour of 9 Sr and 137 Cs in foods, feeds and a variety of environmental media. The long-term behaviour is quantified by means of the ecological half-life which integrates all processes that cause a decrease of activity in a given medium such as leaching, fixation and erosion. A large number of long-term time series of concentrations of radiocaesium and radiostrontium in these media have been identified and re-evaluated using a standardised statistical procedure to establish reference data sets of ecological half-lives. By example of undisturbed soils and marine water bodies it is shown that the ecological half-life concept is questionable if the distribution of the radionuclide of interest within the medium studied is non-uniform and if mixing and transport processes within this medium, therefore, are of considerable importance during the time period of observation

  20. Solvent extraction of Sr2+ and Cs+ based on hydrophobic protic ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Huimin; Yu, Miao; Dai, Sheng

    2007-01-01

    A series of new hydrophobic and protic alkylammonium ionic liquids with bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide or bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide as conjugated anions was synthesized in a one-pot reaction with a high yield. In essence our synthesis method involves the combination of neutralization and metathesis reactions. Some of these hydrophobic and protic ionic liquids were liquids at room temperature and therefore investigated as new extraction media for separation of Sr 2+ and Cs + from aqueous solutions. An excellent extraction efficiency was found for some of these ionic liquids using dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 and calix[4]arene-bis(tert-octylbenzo-crown-6) as extractants. The observed enhancement in the extraction efficiency can be attributed to the greater hydrophilicity of the cations of the protic ionic liquids. The application of the protic ionic liquids as new solvent systems for solvent extraction opens up a new avenue in searching for simple and efficient ionic liquids for tailored separation processes. (orig.)

  1. Retention of 60Co, 85Sr and 137Cs on inorganic ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dozol, J.F.; Eymard, S.

    1983-11-01

    The aim of the study is the treatment of radioactive wastes produced in plutonium fuel fabrication or in spent fuel reprocessing by inorganic ion exchangers for ultimate storage. This rapport, gives the distribution coefficients of 60 Co, 85 Sr, 137 Cs (in sodium nitrate medium at different concentration of sodium: .23g/l, 1 g/l, 10 g/l) obtained with different inorganic exchangers: titanium oxyde, sodium titanate, sodium zirconate, sodium niobate, sodium tantalate, titanium phosphate, zirconium phosphate, ammonium phosphotungstate in zirconium phosphate, polyantimonic acid amorphous aluminosilicate and several zeolites (ZBS 15 from OXYMIN, ZEOLON 400, ZEOLON 500, ZEOLON 900 from Norton, IE 96, A 51, 13 X from Union Carbide) [fr

  2. Mobility of Cs137 and Sr90 in organic soils and its control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rovdan, E.

    2002-01-01

    In the management of the radionuclide contaminated areas and application of a countermeasure strategy for reduction of both the external and internal doses to the population it is extremely important to know the environmental mechanisms governing the behaviour of radionuclides in soil ecosystems. The purpose of work is to investigate by means of laboratory, field experiments and mathematical modelling the mechanisms and dynamics of radionuclide transfer in the organic soil to propose measures for control their mobility. The Chernobyl radionuclides behaviour was studied for ameliorated peat-mire soil (peat deposit Pogonyanskoye, 21 km off the ChNPP). To control the mobility of radionuclides in soils the characteristics of the migration and sorption of Cs 137 and Sr 90 in sedge peat, quartz sand, bentonite, kaolin, sapropel as well as the electrolytes impact upon the radionuclide behaviour have been experimentally investigated

  3. Modification of the 137Cs, 90Sr, and 60Co transfer to wheat plantlets by NH4+ fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillén, J; Muñoz-Muñoz, G; Baeza, A; Salas, A; Mocanu, N

    2017-03-01

    Inorganic fertilizers are used as agricultural countermeasures intended to inhibit the soil to plant transfer of radionuclides after a radioactive fallout. Two NH 4 + fertilizers, diammonium phosphate (DAP) and NPK, were applied to soil contaminated with a mixture of radionuclides to analyze whether they modify the transfer of 137 Cs, 90 Sr, and 60 Co and stable elements (K, Na, Ca, and Mg) to wheat plantlets grown under controlled laboratory conditions. DAP introduced NH 4 + in the soil, which can increase 137 Cs transfer, while NPK also introduced K + , which can decrease it. The application of DAP increased the accumulation of 137 Cs in wheat plantlets with increasing application rate, so did the 137 Cs/K in plantlets. Regarding the NPK application, the 137 Cs increased in all treatments, but at maximum rate, the available K introduced by the fertilizer was probably able to partially satisfy the nutritional requirements of the wheat plantlet and the 137 Cs decreased relative to the recommended rate. The 137 Cs/K ratio in plantlet decreased with increasing NPK rates. The transfer of 90 Sr increased with increasing DAP rate and only at the maximum NPK rate. The 60 Co transfer only increased at the maximum application rates for DAP and NPK. These modifications should be considered when using these fertilizers as agricultural countermeasures.

  4. Studies on the radioactive contamination due to nuclear detonations VI. Theoretical analysis of the radioactive contamination due to Sr90 and Cs137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiwaki, Yasushi

    1961-01-01

    In view of the considerably different values of the fallout rate and the cumulative deposition of Sr 90 and Cs 137 reported from different parts of Japan, the author attempted to estimate the ranges of the fallout rate and of the cumulative deposition of Sr 90 and Cs 137 for different parts of Japan based upon the theoretical consideration

  5. Influence of cultivar specificity on Cs 137 and Sr 90 accumulation in green part and seeds of soya plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutseva, G.Z.; Goloveshkin, V.V.

    2008-01-01

    As a result of investigation carried out with soya sorts zoned in Belarus on soddy-podsolic sandy soils contaminated as a result of Chernobyl accident with Cs 137 and Sr 90 a high sort selectivity in accumulation of the radionuclides is established. (authors)

  6. Biotechnological potential of Azolla filiculoides for biosorption of Cs and Sr: Application of micro-PIXE for measurement of biosorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbanzadeh Mashkani, Saeid; Tajer Mohammad Ghazvini, Parisa

    2009-03-01

    The presence of Cs and Sr in culture medium of Azolla filiculoides caused about 27.4% and 46.3% inhibition of biomass growth, respectively, in comparison to A. filiculoides control weight which had not metals. Biosorption batch experiments were conducted to determine the Cs and Sr binding ability of native biomass and chemically modified biosorbents derived from Azolla namely ferrocyanide Azolla sorbents type 1 and type 2 (FAS1 and FAS2) and hydrogen peroxide Azolla sorbent (HAS). The best Cs and Sr removal results were obtained when A. filiculoides was treated by 2M MgCl(2) and 30ml H(2)O(2) 8mM at pH 7 for 12h and it was then washed by NaOH solution at pH 10.5 for 6h. Pretreatment of Azolla have been suggested to modify the surface characteristics which could improve biosorption process. The binding of Cs and Sr on the cell wall of Azolla was studied with micro-PIXE and FT-IR.

  7. Methods of determination of the dynamics of mobile form of Cs 137 and Sr 90 in soils within Chernobyl catastrophe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osetskaya, V.V.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper the impact of the most significant mechanisms of migration of radionuclides are considered: diffusion of free and absorbed ions, migration colloid atoms transmission etc. on the dynamics of mobile forms of Cs 137 and Sr 90 in soils

  8. Transfer Factor of Radioactive Cs and Sr from Egyptian Soils to Roots and Leafs of Wheat Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu Khadra, S.A.; Abdel Fattah, A.T.; Eissa, H.S.; Abdel Sabour, M.F.

    2009-01-01

    Transfer factors (TFs) of long lived radionuclide such as 137 Cs and 90 Sr from three different Egyptian soils type to wheat plant have been studied by radiotracer experiments. Most typical Egyptian soils (sandy, sandy loam and clayey) from three different locations (Al -Oboor, Abu- Zaabal and Shebeen cities) were selected for the experiments carried out under outdoor conditions. The plant selected was wheat because the high consumption of wheat in Egypt. In the present study radioactive strontium and caesium uptake from different types of soil was investigated .These radionuclide showed a considerable difference in their distribution within the plant .The results showed that soil type influences the transfer factors. Sandy soil resulted in the highest transfer factor for both (Cs and Sr) from soil to wheat. TFs for leafs were higher than those for roots in case of 90 Sr (for all types of soil). However, TFs of ( 137 Cs) for roots were higher than those for leafs for all soils. Grains of the wheat showed the lowest transfer factor for the Cs and Sr (for all types of soil)

  9. Crystal Growth and Scintillation Properties of Eu2+ doped Cs4CaI6 and Cs4SrI6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stand, L.; Zhuravleva, M.; Chakoumakos, B.; Johnson, J.; Loyd, M.; Wu, Y.; Koschan, M.; Melcher, C. L.

    2018-03-01

    In this work we present the crystal growth and scintillation properties of two new ternarymetal halide scintillators activated with divalent europium, Cs4CaI6 and Cs4SrI6. Single crystals of each compound were grown in evacuated quartz ampoules via the vertical Bridgman technique using a two-zone transparent furnace. Single crystal X-ray diffraction experiments showed that both crystals have a trigonal (R-3c) structure, with a density of 3.99 g/cm3 and 4.03 g/cm3. The radioluminescence and photoluminescence measurements showed typical luminescence properties due to the 5d-4f radiative transitions in Eu2+. At this early stage of development Cs4SrI6:Eu and Cs4CaI6:Eu have shown very promising scintillation properties, with light yields and energy resolutions of 62,300 ph/MeV and 3.3%, and 51,800 photons/MeV and 3.6% at 662 keV, respectively.

  10. Evolution of 137Cs and 90Sr content of the main foodstuff in Bucharest area after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toader, M.; Vasilache, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    Soon after the Chernobyl accident, the radioactive cloud, carrying the nuclides released into the atmosphere, reached Romania and, due to the rainy weather, an important fallout occurred over the Romanian territory. The most important contaminants for Romania were I 131 , Cs 134 , Cs 137 and Sr 90 . As in many other countries, in the first days, I 131 had the main contribution to the irradiation dose released to the population. After its decay, and the decay of other short-lived radionuclides, Cs 137 and Sr 90 remained the most important contaminants. The principal route of intake for these two radionuclides is considered to be the ingestion of contaminated foods. To assess the radioactive burden of foods, a long term, large scale survey was initiated at the National Institute of Hygiene and Public Health (INISP). These results were then used to assess the doses committed to cesium and strontium intake and the excedentary cancer risk for the population from Bucharest area

  11. Interconnection between precipitation density, soil contamination levels and 90Sr and 137Cs content in food stuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knizhnikov, V.A.; Petukhova, Eh.V.

    1980-01-01

    Presented are the data dynamically characterizing the density of radioactive fallout, contamination of soil and the main kinds of food stuffs with 137 Cs and 90 Sr. It is shown that 90 Sr contamination of bakery products in the country within the whole period of observation is in direct dependence on the density of atmospheric fallouts as a whole in the northern hemisphere. In the reverse, 90 Sr potato contamination primarily correlates with nuclide content in the soil. The dependence between milk contamination and fallout density has an intermediate character as compared with the above types of food stuffs. The same is true for 137 Cs, but a clear tendency to a faster decrease in the level of food stuffs contamination is observed. The importance of the soil way in food stuffs contamination and peculiarities of nuclide migration in food stuffs from various types of soil are considered

  12. Measurement of 226Ra, 228Ra, 137CS and 40K in edible parts of two types of leafy vegetables cultivated in Tehran province-Iran and resultant annual ingestion radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changizi, V.; Jafarpoor, Z.; Naseri, M.

    2010-01-01

    The sources of radioactivity in the environment have natural; terrestrial and extraterrestrial. and anthropogenic origins. Plants may get radioactive nuclides in two ways: (i) by the deposition of radioactive fallout, (ii) by absorption from the soil. Materials and Methods: The Concentrations of the natural radionuclides ( 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 40 K) and the artificial radionuclide ( 137 CS) in leek and parsley in Tehran province-Iran were determined using high-purity Ge detectors. Also the effective dose due to the ingestion of such vegetables by the population of Tehran province was studied. Results: The average value of radionuclide concentrations in parsley samples were measured 177.69 ± 12.47 mBq kg -1 fresh for 226 Ra; 349.62 ± 28.42 mBq kg -1 fresh for 228 Ra; 187364.6 mBq kg 1 fresh for 40 K. The average value of radionuclide concentrations in leek samples were measured 94.31 ± 6.46 mBq kg -1 fresh for 226 Ra; 207.47 ± 19.46 mBq kg -1 fresh for 228 Ra; 174555 ± 1704.21 mBq kg -1 fresh for 40 K. The concentrations of 137 Cs in most of Parsley and Leek samples were below the minimum detectable activity. Conclusion: The Average 226 Ra and 228 Ra activities in 29 leek and parsley samples were about 2.63 and 6.78 times the reference values, respectively. The annual effective dose resulting from the studied radionuclides for the adult population in Tehran province were found to be safe in comparison with normal background areas.

  13. Separation and immobilization of Sr and Cs contained in acidic media by using inorganic ion-exchangers. Literature survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamagishi, Isao [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-07-01

    The present study deals with the survey of inorganic ion-exchangers suitable for separation and immobilization of Sr and Cs contained in acidic high-level liquid waste. The stabilities of published waste forms and their preparation processes were evaluated from the standpoint of conversion of exchangers containing Sr and Cs into appropriate waste forms. The essential results are below. (1) For separation and immobilization of Cs, crystalline silicotitanate seems to be the most promising exchanger. Insoluble ferrocyanides and phosphates are not suitable for immobilization without additives. Mordenite is inexpensive and commercially available but it would dissolve in highly acidic media. (2) For selective separation of Sr, there is no promising exchanger up to now. It is necessary either to modify separation condition or to synthesize a novel exchanger. (3) Soluble salts, glasses and ceramics are proposed as a storage or disposal form of separated Sr and Cs. Ceramics sintered by hot-pressing are favorable waste forms of inorganic ion-exchangers but their leachabilities and thermal conductivities are largely influenced by qualities of products. Crystallinity of a sintered exchanger depends on its composition. Exchanges of low Cs contents are often converted into amorphous materials whose chemical stabilities depend on solubilities of components of exchangers. (4) A new exchanger to be synthesized is crystalline and selective toward Sr and Cs. One meq/g is enough for Sr and Cs capacities, which are restricted by thermal and transmutation effects. Composition of the exchanger should be selected from the point of a scenario of separation and disposal. The solubilities of SiO{sub 2}, TiO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2}, Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} and Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} are low in acidic media and those of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, TiO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2}, in disposal circumstances. (5) Future works are optimization of separation scheme including development of exchangers, simplification of

  14. Structural study of caesium-based britholites Sr7La2Cs(PO4)5(SiO4)F2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boughzala, K.; Gmati, N.; Bouzouita, K.; Ben Cherifa, A.; Gravereau, P.

    2010-01-01

    Several studies demonstrated the ability of britholites to retain radionuclides such as the caesium and actinides. Therefore, three compounds with formulas Sr 8 LaCs(PO 4 ) 6 F 2 , Sr 7 La 2 Cs(PO 4 ) 5 (SiO 4 )F 2 and Sr 2 La 7 Cs(SiO 4 ) 6 F 2 , were prepared by solid state reaction. However, it seems that only the mono-silicated composition was obtained in a pure state. In this present work, the X-ray diffraction and magnetic nuclear resonance have been used to investigate the structure for this composition. The results showed that in fact this phase was not pure, but it was mixed with a secondary phase, SrLaCs(PO 4 ) 2 . The refinement by the Rietveld method allowed also to precise the distribution of La 3+ and Cs + ions between the two cationic sites of the apatite. (authors)

  15. Determination of 137Cs and 90sr in Human Food and Effective Dose Assessment due to Food Consumption in the Environment of Region Uzice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsic, V.; Bogojevic, S.; Eremic-Savkovic, M.; Ilic, J.; Javorina, Lj.; Tanaskovic, I.

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides the data on activity measurements of 137Cs and 90Sr in the foodstuff characteristic for the nutrition of the population: vegetables, fruit, meat, crops, dairy products and milk in 2007, 2008 and 2011 in the environment of region Užice. This region was the most contaminated region of Serbia after the Chernobyl accident. The 137Cs activity concentrations were determined by gamma-spectrometry while 90Sr was determined after radiochemistry separations, using αβ proportional counter. Based on the presented results of the 137Cs and 90Sr activity concentration measurements, the effective doses received by the population through food intake were estimated. The annual effective doses due to 137Cs and 90Sr activity in the human food were 2.00 μSv (for 137Cs) and 1.32 μSv (for 90Sr) in 2007, 1.02 μSv (for 137Cs) and 0.45 μSv (for 90Sr) in 2008, 1.25 μSv (for 137Cs) and 1.07 μSv (for 90Sr) in 2011. They were well below recommended individual annual dose limit.(author)

  16. Microsphere zeolite materials derived from coal fly ash cenospheres as precursors to mineral-like aluminosilicate hosts for 135,137Cs and 90Sr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vereshchagina, Tatiana A.; Vereshchagin, Sergei N.; Shishkina, Nina N.; Vasilieva, Nataly G.; Solovyov, Leonid A.; Anshits, Alexander G.

    2013-01-01

    Hollow microsphere zeolite materials with a bilayered zeolite/glass crystalline shell bearing NaP1 zeolite were synthesized by the hydrothermal treatment of coal fly ash cenospheres (Si/Al = 2.7) in an alkaline medium. Cs + and/or Sr 2+ forms of zeolitized cenospheres with the different Cs + and/or Sr 2+ loading were prepared by the ion exchange from nitrate solutions. The resulted (Cs,Na)P1, (Sr,Na)P1 and (Cs,Sr,Na)P1 bearing microsphere zeolites were converted to glass ceramics by heating at 900–1000 °C. The differential scanning calorimetry and quantitative phase analysis were used to monitor the solid-phase transformation of the initial and ion exchanged zeolite materials. It was established that the final solidified forms of Cs + and/or Sr 2+ are glass–crystalline ceramic materials based on pollucite–nepheline, Sr-feldspar–nepheline and Sr-feldspar–pollucite composites including ∼60 wt.% of the major host phases (pollucite, Sr-feldspar) and 10–20 wt.% of glass. The 137 Cs leaching rate of 4.1 × 10 −7 g cm −2 day −1 was determined for the pollucite glass–ceramic according to Russian State Standard (GOST) No. 52126 P-2003 (7 day, 25 °C, distilled water)

  17. Influence of humic acid on migration of 60Co, 85Sr and 137Cs in coastal sandy soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Tadao; Ni Shiwei.

    1993-10-01

    Sorption and migration experiments were performed by both batch and column methods, to study influence of humic acid complexing on the mobility of 60 Co, 85 Sr and 137 Cs in a coastal sandy soil. The study focuses on a correlation between molecular-weight of dissolved humic acid and ability of the complexing with the radionuclides in liquid phase. Dissolved humic acid was complexed with 60 Co and 85 Sr. The interaction ability of 60 Co was independent of molecular-weight of humic acid, while that of 85 Sr depended on. The mobility of 60 Co increased under the condition with coexistence of humic acid as well as its sorption ratio decreased. The distribution profile of molecular-weight of 60 Co was kept at a constant in the solution before and after the sorption experiment, due to completing the sorption and complexation equilibrium. The mobility of 85 Sr increased under the condition with coexistence of humic acid, in spite of the sorption ratio of 85 Sr was not affected by the coexistence. Such contradiction was caused by different kinetics between the batch and column methods. The sorption ability and mobility of 137 Cs were not affected by the coexistence of the humic acid. (author)

  18. Vertical migration of 85Sr, 137Cs and 131I in various arable and undisturbed soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palagyi, S.; Palagyiova, J.

    2002-01-01

    Vertical migration of 85 Sr, 137 Cs and 131 I in some arable and undisturbed single-contaminated soils was studied by gamma-spectrometry measurements in lysimetric laboratory conditions applying irrigation of the soil profiles with wet atmospheric precipitation for about one year (except radioiodine). A new simple exponential compartment (box) model was derived, allowing us to calculate the migration rate constants and migration rates in the individual soil layers (vertical sections) as well as the total vertical migration rate constants and total vertical migration rates of radionuclides in the bulk soil horizon. The data from the time dependence of the depth activity distribution (radionuclide concentration along the vertical soil profile) were used to test the model. The migration rate constants and migration rates were found to be affected by the contaminating radionuclides as well as by the site, type and depth of the soil. The relaxation times of the radionuclides in the soil horizons were calculated. The effects on the rate parameters of the permanent grass cover and the zeolite applied onto the arable soil surfaces were also investigated

  19. Biomass selection for biosorption study of {sup 226} Ra and {sup 137} Cd radionuclides; Selecao de biomassas para o estudo da biossorcao dos radionuclideos {sup 226} Ra e {sup 137} Cs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Wilson Cervi da

    2003-07-01

    The main goal of this work was to verify the potentialities to apply the biosorption technique to synthetic and real solution containing {sup 226} Ra and {sup 137} Cs, utilizing the seaweed Sargassum sp. and the microorganisms Penicillium sp., Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Monoraphidium sp. Indeed, the screening of the most effective biomass to remove the radionuclides was also a central objective. {sup 226} Ra was selected due to its high radiotoxicity and the fact that it can be assimilated and incorporated by living organism through substitution og Mg{sup 2+} and Ca{sup 2+}, two essential nutrients. On the other hand, the selection of {sup 137} Cs, a radionuclide of medium toxicity, was due to its mobility in the environment, which increases the possibility to be assimilated by the organisms as the essential nutrients Na{sup +} and K{sup +}. (author)

  20. Determination of 137Cs, 90Sr, 40K radionuclides in food grain and commercial food grain products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solecki, J.; Kruk, M.

    2011-01-01

    Following up transfer of strontium from soil to plants requires determination of isotope in the surface layer of soil and a chosen plant. The most endangered food products are plants including commonly grown grain, which constitutes a basic feeding component for both people and animals. Indeed large amounts of 137 Cs, 90 Sr get into organisms of people and animals with the food, therefore determination of radioactivity of elements in food products and animal fodder is very essential. Choice of proper diet allows to limit the level of human organism denaturation. The aim of this paper was to study relocation of 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 40 K isotopes from soil to grain and then from grain to food products. There were investigated soil, wheat, barley, groats, flour, macaroni and breakfast flakes. Based on the obtained results there were calculated effective weighted doses [nSv] from consumption of 1 kg of a product for different age groups. (author)

  1. Determination of Sr, Ba, Rb, and Cs in biological reference materials using a radiochemical NAA group separation procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizera, J.; Randa, Z.

    2008-01-01

    Strontium, barium, rubidium, and cesium in selected, predominantly biological, reference materials (NIST 1515, 1547, 1549, 1566a, 1571, 1577b, 2704, CTA-OTL-1, and Bowen's Kale) were determined using neutron activation analysis (NAA) in two different analytical modes - instrumental NAA with epithermal neutrons (ENAA), and NAA with radiochemical group separation of Sr-Ba and Rb-Cs (RNAA). The ENAA mode was based on long-term (5 h) irradiation of samples in a Cd shielding. The RNAA procedure was based on long-term (20 h) irradiation of samples, their decomposition / dissolution by alkaline-oxidative fusion, and precipitation of Sr and Ba sulfates, and sorption of Rb and Cs onto ammonium phosphomolybdate (APM). Both methods provided element contents in the analyzed reference materials consistent with certified and/or literature values. (author)

  2. Screening of plant species for comparative uptake abilities of radioactive Co, Rb, Sr and Cs from soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouthu, S.; Arie, T.; Ambe, S.; Yamaguchi, I.

    1997-01-01

    In case of radioactive fallout, persistence of long lived nuclides in soil and subsequent transfer into the food chain through plants over a long period is the key factor. The possibility of 'phytoremediation'is suggested to reduce the radionuclides in soil. To exploit the natural potential of some plants in absorbing or accumulating certain radionuclides and depleting the soil radioactivity, thirty-two plant species were tested under laboratory conditions for their comparative ability in taking up radioactive Rb, Co, Sr and Cs. Broccoli and tomato for Co; tomato, chard, sunflower and cucumber for Rb; cucumber, sunflower and turnip (Kyona) for Sr; and tomato, chard and cucumber for Cs were found to be effective compared to other species tested. (author)

  3. Screening of plant species for comparative uptake abilities of radioactive Co, Rb, Sr and Cs from soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gouthu, S; Arie, T; Ambe, S; Yamaguchi, I [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Wako, Saitama (Japan)

    1997-08-01

    In case of radioactive fallout, persistence of long lived nuclides in soil and subsequent transfer into the food chain through plants over a long period is the key factor. The possibility of `phytoremediation`is suggested to reduce the radionuclides in soil. To exploit the natural potential of some plants in absorbing or accumulating certain radionuclides and depleting the soil radioactivity, thirty-two plant species were tested under laboratory conditions for their comparative ability in taking up radioactive Rb, Co, Sr and Cs. Broccoli and tomato for Co; tomato, chard, sunflower and cucumber for Rb; cucumber, sunflower and turnip (Kyona) for Sr; and tomato, chard and cucumber for Cs were found to be effective compared to other species tested. (author). 13 refs.

  4. Long-term monitoring and analysis of 90Sr and 137Cs concentrations in rice, wheat and soils in Japan from 1959 to 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komamura, M.; Tsumura, A.; Yamaguchi, N.; Fujiwara, H.; Kihou, N.; Kodaira, K.

    2006-01-01

    Atmospheric nuclear tests in the 1950s and thereafter had showered radioactive fallout throughout Japan. Therefore, radioactive contamination of crops cultivated in Japan was concerned. We continued to monitor concentrations of 90Sr and 137Cs in rice, wheat and soils collected annually from sixteen national and prefectural experimental farms for forty-two years, from 1959 to 2000. In 1963, when the largest annual precipitation of radioactive fallout was observed, 90Sr and 137Cs concentration in rice and wheat reached at their maximum; 0.27 Bq/kg for 90Sr and 4.2 Bq/kg for 137Cs in polished rice and 12 Bq/kg for 90Sr and 44 Bq/kg for 137Cs in wheat grain. The concentration of 90Sr and 137Cs in the plowed layer of paddy and upland soils reached maximum from 1963 to 1966. After 1966, concentrations of 90Sr and 137Cs in polished rice, wheat grain, and soils were gradually decreased although there were some minor fluctuations. The Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986 caused contamination of wheat grain by 137Cs up to 6.0 Bq/kg. However, the concentration of 137Cs in wheat grain decreased to its normal level in the following year. There was no evidence for the polished rice contamination in Japan that could be ascribed to the accident at Chernobyl. Based on the analyses of the data above, we made several interesting findings as follows: a) The accumulated amounts of 90Sr and 137Cs in fallout during cultivation period were highly correlated with those concentrations in husked rice, polished rice and wheat grain. The estimate equations derived from the correlations were accurate enough for quick prediction of contamination level of polished rice and wheat grain based on 90Sr and 137Cs contents in fallout in case of contingencies. b) The sensitive response of 90Sr and 137Cs in polished rice and wheat grain to concentrations of fallout suggested that direct absorption of 90Sr and 137Cs from radioactive fallout deposited on plant body played important role. In 1963

  5. The volumes of accumulation of Cs-137 and Sr-90 per species and variety of agricultural plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdevich, I.M.; Shmigelskaya, I.D.; Efimova, I.A.; Putyatin, Yu.V.

    2001-01-01

    The accumulation of radionuclides in various species and varieties of agricultural plants on the same conditions of soil contaminated by radionuclides and agrochemical exponents can differ hundred times. The differences in accumulation of Cs-137 and Sr-90 are less -up to 3-4 times. The article grades the basic plants cultivated on contaminated soils per volume of Cs-137 and Sr-90 as well as per crop yield. It is possible to recommend selecting the species and varieties of agricultural plants having minimal capabilities of accumulation as a simple economically justified way of reducing the contamination of agricultural produce in general. The solving of problems connected with agriculture on the contaminated territory occupies one of the leading places in the complex of actions on the consequences of Chernobyl disaster liquidation. The researches revealed that 70% of collective dose is formed by the radionuclides receipt into a human organism with food. Eventually radionuclides contents in agricultural production reduce. This process is more expressed for Cs-137 caused by protective actions realization as well as gradually fixing of Cs-137 in soils due to natural factors of decay and fixation. Sr-90 mobility and its availability to plants is not reduced, even tends to increase. Biological features of plants reveal in their different ability to absorb nutritional elements from soil. Because of that radionuclides availability and amount of their including in food chains essentially depend on the level of contra actions applied, natural conditions (soil types, granulometric structure, humidifying mode, agrochemical conditions) and features of crops. The action of Cs-137 and Sr-90 in the system soil-plant has a range of distinctive features. At same density of soil contamination Sr-90 penetration into plants much higher than Cs-137 one. The cause is in difference of radionuclides contents forms in soils. Cs-137 is strongly fixed in soil, but Sr-90 is in exchange form

  6. Diffusion of Na(I), Cs(I), Sr(II) and Eu(III) in smectite rich natural clay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasar, Sharayu; Kumar, Sumit; Bajpai, R K; Tomar, B S

    2016-01-01

    Diffusion of Na(I), Cs(I), Sr(II) and Eu(III) in smectite rich natural clay, proposed as a backfill material in the Indian geological repository, was studied using the out-diffusion method. Radiotracers (22)Na, (137)Cs, (85)Sr and (154)Eu were used; the first three are carrier-free enabling experimental work at sub-micromolar metal ion concentration, and Eu(III) tracer (154)Eu was used at sub millimolar concentration. An out-diffusion methodology, wherein a thin planar source of radioactivity placed between two clay columns diffuses out, was used to obtain the apparent diffusion coefficient (Da) values. This methodology enabled determination of diffusion coefficient even for strongly sorbing (154)Eu. Da values for (22)Na, (137)Cs, (85)Sr and (154)Eu were 2.35 (±0.14) × 10(-11), 2.65 (±0.09) × 10(-12), 3.32 (±0.15) × 10(-11) and 1.23 (±0.15) × 10(-13) m(2) s(-1), respectively. Da values were found to be in fair agreement with literature data reported for similar mineralogical sediments. Sorption of radionuclides on the clay was also determined in the present study and differences in Da values were rationalized on the basis of sorption data. Distribution ratios (Kd) for Cs(I) and Eu(III) were higher than that for Sr(II), which in turn was higher than that for Na(I). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A pilot study on the transfer of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 9}Sr to horse milk and meat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semioshkina, N. [GSF-Institut fuer Strahlenschutz, Postfach 1129, D-85788 Neuherberg (Germany)]. E-mail: semi@gsf.de; Voigt, G. [Agency' s Laboratories - Seibersdorf, IAEA, 1400-Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: g.voigt@iaea.org; Fesenko, S. [Agency' s Laboratories - Seibersdorf, IAEA, 1400-Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: s.fesenko@iaea.org; Savinkov, A. [Scientific Research Agricultural Institute of the National Biotechnology Center, Ministry for Science and Higher Education of the Republic of Kazakhstan (SRAI), 480544 Gvardeiski (Kazakhstan)]. E-mail: chebotar@srai.kz; Mukusheva, M. [National Nuclear Centre of Republic of Kazakhstan, Kurchatov 490021 (Kazakhstan)]. E-mail: mukusheva@nnc.kz

    2006-07-01

    The radiological assessment of the impact of nuclear weapon's testing on the Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS) on the local population requires comprehensive site-specific information on radionuclide behaviour in the environment. However, information on radionuclide behaviour in the conditions of the STS is rather sparse and, in particular, there are no data in the literature on parameters of radionuclide transfer from feed to horse products proofed to be important contributors to the internal dose to the local population. The transfer of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 9}Sr to horse milk and meat was studied under laboratory and field conditions: in controlled experiment with three lactating horses maintained in the Kazakh Agricultural Research Institute, and in field measurements of horse products taken from horses grazing at the Semipalatinsk Test Site. The equilibrium transfer factors from feed to horse milk and meat were estimated to be 0.012 d l{sup -1} and 0.035 d kg{sup -1} for {sup 137}Cs and 0.0022 d l{sup -1} and 0.003 d kg{sup -1} for {sup 9}Sr, respectively. The biological half-lives were approximated by a sum of two exponentials amounting to 3 (85%) and 15 (15%) days for {sup 137}Cs and 3.5 (70%) and 100 (30%) days for {sup 9}Sr. The highest {sup 137}Cs transfer has been found to be to spleen, followed by lung, heart, muscles, kidneys, intestine, and finally skin and bones. For {sup 9}Sr, the maximum activity concentration was observed in bones; contamination of other tissues is rather uniform except for liver and intestine with a factor of about 2 higher than muscles.

  8. A pilot study on the transfer of 137Cs and 9Sr to horse milk and meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semioshkina, N.; Voigt, G.; Fesenko, S.; Savinkov, A.; Mukusheva, M.

    2006-01-01

    The radiological assessment of the impact of nuclear weapon's testing on the Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS) on the local population requires comprehensive site-specific information on radionuclide behaviour in the environment. However, information on radionuclide behaviour in the conditions of the STS is rather sparse and, in particular, there are no data in the literature on parameters of radionuclide transfer from feed to horse products proofed to be important contributors to the internal dose to the local population. The transfer of 137 Cs and 9 Sr to horse milk and meat was studied under laboratory and field conditions: in controlled experiment with three lactating horses maintained in the Kazakh Agricultural Research Institute, and in field measurements of horse products taken from horses grazing at the Semipalatinsk Test Site. The equilibrium transfer factors from feed to horse milk and meat were estimated to be 0.012 d l -1 and 0.035 d kg -1 for 137 Cs and 0.0022 d l -1 and 0.003 d kg -1 for 9 Sr, respectively. The biological half-lives were approximated by a sum of two exponentials amounting to 3 (85%) and 15 (15%) days for 137 Cs and 3.5 (70%) and 100 (30%) days for 9 Sr. The highest 137 Cs transfer has been found to be to spleen, followed by lung, heart, muscles, kidneys, intestine, and finally skin and bones. For 9 Sr, the maximum activity concentration was observed in bones; contamination of other tissues is rather uniform except for liver and intestine with a factor of about 2 higher than muscles

  9. A pilot study on the transfer of 137Cs and 90Sr to horse milk and meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semioshkina, N; Voigt, G; Fesenko, S; Savinkov, A; Mukusheva, M

    2006-01-01

    The radiological assessment of the impact of nuclear weapon's testing on the Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS) on the local population requires comprehensive site-specific information on radionuclide behaviour in the environment. However, information on radionuclide behaviour in the conditions of the STS is rather sparse and, in particular, there are no data in the literature on parameters of radionuclide transfer from feed to horse products proofed to be important contributors to the internal dose to the local population. The transfer of 137Cs and 90Sr to horse milk and meat was studied under laboratory and field conditions: in controlled experiment with three lactating horses maintained in the Kazakh Agricultural Research Institute, and in field measurements of horse products taken from horses grazing at the Semipalatinsk Test Site. The equilibrium transfer factors from feed to horse milk and meat were estimated to be 0.012 dl(-1) and 0.035 dkg(-1) for (137)Cs and 0.0022 dl(-1) and 0.003 dkg(-1) for (90)Sr, respectively. The biological half-lives were approximated by a sum of two exponentials amounting to 3 (85%) and 15 (15%) days for 137Cs and 3.5 (70%) and 100 (30%) days for 90Sr. The highest 137Cs transfer has been found to be to spleen, followed by lung, heart, muscles, kidneys, intestine, and finally skin and bones. For90Sr, the maximum activity concentration was observed in bones; contamination of other tissues is rather uniform except for liver and intestine with a factor of about 2 higher than muscles.

  10. Comparative analysis of species-based specificity in Sr 90 and Cs 137 accumulation demonstrated by ligneous plant forest communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinovich, B.S.; Vlasov, V.K.; Sak, M.M.; Golushko, R.M.; Afmogenov, A.M.; Kirykhin, O.V.

    2004-01-01

    The authors provided field-proven study of Sr 90 and Cs 137 absorption activity demonstrated by Pinus silvestris L.; Piceae abies (L.) Roth.; Quercus rubra L.; Acer platanoides L.; Betula pendula Roth.; Tilia cordata Mill, under identical habitat conditions. The above plants were examined after 5-year growth period on radionuclide-contaminated soil. To a great extent, such parameters as radionuclide accumulation in experimental plants and accumulation activity were determined by the plants' bio-ecological properties. (Authors)

  11. The dynamics of Cs-137 and Sr-90 pollution of surface water systems of Belarus of Chernobyl origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datskevich, P.O.; Dolgov, V.M.; Golikov, Yu.N.; Zemskov, V.N.; Komissarov, F.D.; Khvaley, O.D.

    1995-12-31

    The Belarus water ecosystems have been the object of investigation concerning currents and reservoirs affected by the Chernobyl APS catastrophe. The radio monitoring of samples of water systems components was implemented with the use of modern methods of radiochemistry and ionizing radiations registration. The factual material of water ecosystems sites observation presented its analysis is done and the regularities, tendencies and anomalies are revealed in the Cs-137 and Sr-90 distribution, transport and accumulation for water components.

  12. Hydrothermal preparation of zeolite Li-A and ion exchange properties of Cs and Sr in salt waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S. H.; Kim, J. G.; Lee, J. H.; Kim, J. H.

    2005-01-01

    An advanced spent fuel management process that were based on Li reduction of the oxide spent fuel to a metallic form will generate a LiCl waste. Zeolite A has been reported as a promising immobilization medium for waste salt with CsCl and SrCl 2 . However, Sodium is accumulated as an ionic form (Na + -ion) in molten salt during ion exchange step between Na + -ion in zeolite A and Li + -ion in the molten salt. Therefore, zeolite Na-A need to be replaced by the Li-type zeolite for recycling the salt waste by removing the Cs and Sr ions. In this study, the hydrothermal preparation of zeolite Li-A was performed in 350ml pressure vessel by P. Norby method. The preparation characteristics of zeolite Li-A was investigated. And the ion exchange properties of Cs and Sr in molten LiCl salt were investigated under the condition of 923K using zeolite 4A and prepared zeolite Li-A

  13. Test of 134Cs, 85,89Sr leaching rate in a resemble vitrifiable cement waste form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Meiqiong; Wei Feng; Yin Qi; Fan Xianhua; Xu Shengli; Li Yongde

    2003-01-01

    A novel material--resemble vitrifiable cement for conditioning low and mediate level radioactive waste has been developed. Waste form has been characterized for their physical and chemical performance, phase composition. The cement formulation has been patented. In this experiment the cement is mixed with simulated wastes spiked with 134 Cs and 85,89 Sr by 5 min at least. The Ratio of the waste to the cement is 0.45-0.55. The mixture is packed into cylindrical molds which has the same dimension of diameter and height . The grouts are cured for a period of 28 d in a room temperature curing chamber at an atmospheric pressure. The cured waste form is then completely immersed into deionized water. According to standard GB7023-86, leaching rate of 134 Cs and 85,89 Sr are measured. The result shows that the leaching rate of the species 134 Cs and 85,89 Sr is to be on the order 10 -4 and 10 -5 on the 42 d immersion, respectively and is better than that of commercial cement

  14. New aluminium-rich alkali slag matrix with clay minerals for immobilizing simulated radioactive Sr and Cs waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Guangren; Sun, Darren Delai; Tay, Joo Hwa

    2001-01-01

    A new aluminium-rich alkali-activated slag matrix (M-AAS) with clay absorbents has been developed for immobilization of simulated radioactive Sr or Cs waste by introducing metakaolin, natural zeolite and NaOH-treated attapulgite clay minerals into alkali-activated slag matrix (AAS). The results revealed that the additions of metakaolin and clay absorbents into the cementitious matrixes would greatly enhance the distribution ratio, R d , of selective adsorption whether the matrix was OPC matrix or AAS matrix. The new immobilizing matrix M-AAS not only exhibited the strongest selective adsorption for both Sr and Cs ions, but also was characterized by lower porosity and small pore diameter so that it exhibited the lowest leaching rate. Hydration product analyses also demonstrated that (Na+Al)-substituted C-S-H(I) and self-generated zeolite were major hydration products in the M-AAS matrix, which provided this new immobilizing matrix with better selective adsorption on Sr and Cs and lower leaching rate

  15. Inter comparison of 90Sr and 137Cs contents in biologic samples and natural U in soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jianfen; Zeng Guangjian; Lu Xuequan

    2001-01-01

    The results of the 90 Sr and 137 Cs contents in biologic samples and the natural U in soil samples obtained in a joint effort by fourteen environmental radiation laboratories in the Chinese environmental protection system were analyzed and compared. Two kinds of biologic samples and one kind of soil samples were used for inter comparison. Of which, one kind of biologic samples (biologic powder samples) and the soil samples came from the IAEA samples were environmental and the reference values were known. The another kind of biologic samples were environmental tea-leaf that were taken from a tea garden near Hangzhou. The mean values obtained by all the joined laboratories was used as the reference. The inter comparison results were expressed in terms of the deviation from the reference value. It was found that the deviation of the 90 Sr and 137 Cs contents of biologic powder samples ranged from -15.4% to 26.5% and -15.0% to 0.4%, respectively. The deviation of the natural U content ranged from -25.5% to 7.3% for the soil samples. For the tea-leaf, the 90 Sr deviation was -22.7% to 19.1%, and the 137 Cs data had a relative large scatter with a ratio of the maximum and the minimum values being about 7. It was pointed out that the analysis results offered by different laboratories might have involved system errors

  16. 90Sr and 137Cs contamination of wheat produced in Japan. Survey and analysis during the years 1959 through 1995 including the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komamura, Misako; Tsumura, Akito; Kihou, Nobuharu; Kodaira, Kiyoshi

    2002-01-01

    This paper attempts to discuss the influences of global-scale radioactive fallout on wheat produced in Japan. For this purpose, a set of wheat samples was collected annually from sixteen National and Prefectural Experimental Farms during the years from 1959 to 1995. According to the graph presenting year-to-year variations in the nationwide averages of 90 Sr and 137 Cs contents (mBq/kg) in wheat kernels, the sharp peak was first marked in 1963 with 12300 for 90 Sr and 43600 for 137 Cs. In 1966, however, the nuclide contents dropped drastically to 2360 for 90 Sr and 2870 for 137 Cs respectively. In the years following, both nuclides continued to decrease slowly although there were minor fluctuations. It is noticeable that low-level 137 Cs contamination was caused in Japan's wheat in 1981, the year after the nuclear testing in China. It is also noticeable that 137 Cs contents in wheat kernels increased to 5960 in 1986 when the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident happened, although it dropped back to its normal level of 40 in the year after. The following are also discussed in this paper: Year to year variations in the ratio of 90 Sr to 137 Cs contents in wheat kernels and wheat flour. Regional differences in 90 Sr and 137 Cs contents in wheat kernels. Comparison of 90 Sr and 137 Cs contents in wheat kernels and unpolished rice. Direct and indirect pathways of 90 Sr and 137 Cs that contaminate wheat. Influence of the Chernobyl power plant accident. Suggestions about the ways of estimating the level of 137 Cs contamination in case of nuclear accidents, if any. (author)

  17. Assessment of 90Sr and 137Cs activity concentration in human tissues in Hungary following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turai, I.; Sztanyik, B.L.

    1997-01-01

    Artificial radioisotope contamination of tissue samples of Hungarian citizens has been regularly monitored by our Institute since 1978. 90 Sr concentration of both extracted deciduous teeth and rib samples showed a slight but permanent tendency to decrease since then. 137 Cs content in the body of Hungarian individuals was monitored by whole body counter from the mid of 60s for about a decade while it became lower of the minimum detection limit (MDL). It could again be detected by in vivo measurements in May 1986, however, the 137 Cs content of human beings in Hungary fell below the detection limit within two years. Thus, the monitoring could only be continued by in vitro measuring of the 137 Cs activity concentration in human soft tissue samples

  18. Management of the Cs/Sr Capsule Project at the Hanford Site. Technology Readiness Assessment Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2018-01-01

    The Federal Project Director (FPD) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL) Waste Management and D&D Division (WMD) requested a Technology Readiness Assessment (TRA) for the Management of the Cesium/Strontium Capsule Storage Project (MCSCP) at the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) on the Hanford Site in Washington State. The MCSCP CD-1 TRA was performed by a team selected in collaboration between the Office of Environmental Management (EM) Chief Engineer (EM-3.3) and RL, WMD FPD. The TRA Team included subject matter and technical experts having experience in cask storage, process engineering, and system design who were independent of the MCSCP, and the team was led by the Director of Operations and Processes from the EM Chief Engineer's Office (EM-3.32). Movement of the Cs/Sr capsules to dry storage, based on information from the conceptual design, involves (1) capsule packaging, (2) capsule transfer, and (3) capsule storage. The project has developed a conceptual process, described in 30059-R-02, "NAC Conceptual Design Report for the Management of the Cesium and Strontium Capsules Project", which identifies the five major activities in the process to complete the transfer from storage pool to pad-mounted cask storage. The process, shown schematically in Figure 1, is comprised of the following process steps: (1) loading capsules into the UCS; (2) UCS processing; (3) UCS insertion into the TSC Basket; (4) cask transport from WESF to CSA and (5) extended storage at the CSA.

  19. A preliminary study on 226Ra, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs activity concentrations in vegetables and fruits frequently consumed by inhabitants of Elazig Region, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cumhur Canbazoglu; Mahmut Dogru

    2013-01-01

    Determining radioactivity levels in foodstuffs is of great importance for the protection of human health. In addition, the literature includes few studies related to this subject in Turkey. In this study, gamma spectroscopic system was used in order to measure 226 Ra, 232 Th, 40 K and 137 Cs activity concentrations in vegetables and fruits produced in Elazig( Region. The average activity concentrations in vegetables was calculated as 0.64 ± 0.26 Bq kg -1 for 226 Ra, 0.65 ± 0.14 Bq kg -1 for 232 Th, 13.98 ± 1.22 Bq kg -1 for 40 K, and 0.54 ± 0.04 Bq kg -1 for 137 Cs. The average activity concentrations in fruits were 1.52 ± 0.34, 0.98 ± 0.23, 18.66 ± 1.13 and 0.59 ± 0.16 Bq kg -1 , respectively for 226 Ra, 232 Th, 40 K and 137 Cs. Total committed effective dose value was determined as 20 and 30.55 μSv y -1 , respectively for vegetables and fruits. The findings were compared with previous data reported for Turkey and other regions of the world. (author)

  20. Procedure for independently estimating blanks and uncertainties for measured values of 90Sr and 137Cs concentrations in the Atlantic Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupferman, S.L.; Livingston, H.D.

    1979-01-01

    A procedure has been developed for independently estimating blanks and measurement uncertainties for measured values of 90 Sr and 137 CS concentrations in the Atlantic Ocean. The procedure depends on delineation of a region in the Atlantic Ocean which has never contained measurable quantities of these fission products. Such a region is defined. A simple model, with supporting data, is used to show that reported 137 Cs inventories in deep ocean sediments could have accumulated without ever raising concentrations of 137 Cs in this tracer-free volume above minimum detectable limits. Several examples are presented to show that the use of the procedure results in a substantial improvement in the quality of 90 Sr and 137 Cs data. The method is applicable to any laboratory that has determined 9 πSr and 137 Cs concentrations in samples collected from within the tracer-free volume. 10 refs

  1. Studies on the radioactive contamination due to nuclear detonations VI. Theoretical analysis of the radioactive contamination due to Sr{sup 90} and Cs{sup 137}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishiwaki, Yasushi [Nuclear Reactor Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Nuclear Reactor Laboratoroy, Kinki University, Fuse City, Osaka Precture (Japan)

    1961-11-25

    In view of the considerably different values of the fallout rate and the cumulative deposition of Sr{sup 90} and Cs{sup 137} reported from different parts of Japan, the author attempted to estimate the ranges of the fallout rate and of the cumulative deposition of Sr{sup 90} and Cs{sup 137} for different parts of Japan based upon the theoretical consideration.

  2. Radioactive pollution of the Chernobyl cooling pond bottom sediments. II. Distribution of 137Cs, 241Am, 90Sr in a solid phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Pirnach

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The second part of complex research of the Chernobyl cooling pond bottom sediments are presented Data about vertical distribution of radioactive pollution 137Cs, 241Am, 90Sr in a solid phase of sediments are received. Distribution coefficients 137Cs and 90Sr, selectivity coefficients of their exchange with similar cations and physical-chemical forms are defined. Results of research of radionuclide chemical recovery from the sediment samples are analyzed.

  3. Radionuclides (210Pb, 226Ra, 210Po e 137Cs) in the Cananeia-Iguape coastal system: environmental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Roberto Tatsuya

    2002-01-01

    This work was developed in the Cananeia-lguape Coastal System, coast south of the State of Sao Paulo, with the aim of monitoring the levels of some natural radionuclides ( 210 Pb, 210 Po, 226 Ra ) and artificial ( 137 Cs) and to study the sedimentary dynamics of the area. For this, some studies and determinations were carried out, such as: sedimentation rates, concentration factors, bio-indicators and ingestion for the human population of some of these radionuclides. For the obtaining of the levels of these radionuclides, radiochemical and instrumental methodologies were developed and applied in reference samples of the International Agency of Atomic Energy (IAEA). After this, the methodologies were applied in samples of sediments, aquatic organisms and water of the channels collected in several points. In the sediments, the levels of ( 210 Pb, 226 Ra and 137 Cs varied from 6.1 to 167.5 Bq.kg -1 from 4.1 to 28.5 Bq.kg -1 and from MDC (0.28) to 6.1 Bq.kg -1 respectively. More significant correlations were observed among the percentage of mud (silt-clay) in the sediments and the levels of these radionuclides. These data were used for sedimentation rate studies in the points of sampling in the System. The sedimentation rates obtained with the values of unsupported ( 210 Pb and 137 Cs for the Ponta do Arrozal (T1), Ponta do Frade (T2), Valo Grande (T3) and Carapara-BOCA River (T4) were of 5.02 and 5.00 mm.a -1 , 2.30 and 3.82 mm.a -1 , 14.59 and 15.74 mm.a -1 , 3.41 and 5.00 mm.a -1 respectively. The sedimentation rates obtained with unsupported 210 Pb and the 137 Cs in the cores(T1, T2, T3 and T4) showed a good agreement. The sedimentation rates obtained along the System reflect the dynamics intern of the channels, that presents general tendency the one accentuated deposition process, with pronounced contribution of sediments of continental origin, for the drainages Mandira and Ribeira of Iguape Rivers, by the high biological production of the System as well as the

  4. Transfer factor of (90)Sr and (137)Cs to lettuce and winter wheat at different growth stage applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Attar, Lina; Al-Oudat, Mohammad; Safia, Bassam; Ghani, Basem Abdul

    2015-12-01

    The effect of clay soil contamination time on the transfer factors (Fvs) of (137)Cs and (90)Sr was investigated in four different growth stages of winter wheat and lettuce crops. The experiment was performed in an open field using lysimeters. The Fvs were the ratio of the activity concentrations of the radionuclides in crops to those in soil, both as dry weight (Bq kg(-1)). Significant difference of log-Fvs was evaluated using one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Basically, Fvs of (90)Sr were higher than those of (137)Cs, despite of the application stage or crop' variety. Higher Fvs for both radionuclides were observed for lettuce in comparison to winter wheat. Fvs of (90)Sr showed comparable trends for both crops with enhanced Fvs obtained when contamination occurred in early stages, i.e. 1.20 for lettuce and 0.88 and 0.02 for winter wheat, straw and grains, respectively. Despite the fluctuation noted in the pattern of Fvs for (137)Cs, soil contaminated at the second stage gave the highest Fvs for lettuce and grains, with geometric means of 0.21 and 0.01, respectively. However, wheat-straw showed remarkable increase in Fv for the latest contamination (ripening stage), about 0.06. It could be concluded that soil contamination at early growth stages would represent high radiological risk for the scenarios studied with an exception to (137)Cs in winter wheat-straw which reflected greater hazard at the latest application. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Measurements of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in Swedish consumption milk between 1991 1996; Maetningar av {sup 137}Cs och {sup 90}Sr i konsumtionsmjoelk mellan 1991 och 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moere, H

    1997-04-01

    The sources for the radioactivity are the nuclear weapons tests and the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Milk is sampled and measured as an important indicator of the Chernobyl load of radionuclides that cows can metabolize and that will ultimately give a dose to humans. Milk was responsible for 13-19% of the total intake of {sup 137}Cs from foodstuffs for the average person in 1994. Our milk measurement program covered 90% of all produced consumption milk in Sweden in 1995. Milk samples are taken every second month from the dairies. {sup 90}Sr is only measured on pooled yearly samples from some dairies; these dairies covered 50% of the total production of consumption milk in Sweden in 1995. The mean value per year of {sup 137}Cs for the whole country has decreased from 0.52 to 0.26 Bq/l between 1991 and 1996, which corresponds to a committed effective dose equivalent for humans of 1.1-0.50 microSv for {sup 137}Cs. For {sup 90}Sr during the 1991-1996 period the country-wide mean varied between 0.08 and 0.06 Bq/l, resulting in a committed effective dose equivalent of 0.4-0.3 microSv. 7 refs.

  6. Transfer of alkaline earth elements in mothers' milk and doses from 45Ca, 90Sr and 226Ra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, T.J.; Phipps, A.W.; Fell, T.P.; Harrison, J.D.

    2003-01-01

    An international programme of work is currently under way to develop methods for calculating doses to infants from ingestion of radionuclides present in mothers' milk. This paper considers the special case of the alkaline earth elements. Models have been developed for 45 Ca, 90 Sr and 226 Ra and the sensitivity of results to various changes in parameter values is discussed. A complication when calculating doses from intakes of radium is that the International Commission on Radiological Protection has previously recommended that doses from decay products of radium should be calculated using element-specific biokinetic models (so-called independent biokinetics). An extension of this method to the models for breastfeeding is proposed. Preliminary estimates of the doses received by the infant for a number of maternal intake scenarios show that doses to the infant can exceed the corresponding adult dose, such as for 45 Ca (ratio = 3.1) while, in other cases such as 90 Sr, the infant dose can be a significant fraction of the adult dose. (author)

  7. Coprecipitation of trace amounts of 137Cs and 85Sr with [Na(18-Crown-6]BPh4 from neutral and alkaline solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulyukhin, S.A.; Konovalova, N.A.; Rumer, I.A.; Kamenskaya, A.N.; Mikheev, N.B.

    2005-01-01

    Coprecipitation of 137 Cs and 85 Sr with [Na(18-crown-6]BPh 4 solid phase from aqueous, aqueous-ethanolic, and alkaline solutions is studied. 137 C s and 85 Sr co-crystallize with [Na(18-crown-6]BPh 4 from aqueous and aqueous-ethanolic solutions. The cocrystallization coefficients D of 137 Cs and 85 Sr from aqueous solutions are 2.6 ± 0.5 and 3.3 ± 0.3, respectively. For aqueous-ethanolic solutions, the corresponding values are 4.4 ± 0.5 and 3.4 ± 0.4. In the alkaline solutions (0.1 and 1 M NaOH), 54-74% of 137 Cs and 37-51% of 85 Sr pass into the [Na(18-crown-6)]BPh 4 solid phase, depending on the crown ether concentration in the system [ru

  8. The estimation of daily intake and organ content of Ca, Cs, I, K, Sr, Th and U in Indian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaiswal, D.D.; Dang, H.S.; Pullat, V.R.; Parameswaran, M.

    2000-01-01

    The analytical methods involving both instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation analysis (INAA and RNAA) were standardised and applied for the determination of the elements: Ca, Cs, I, K, Sr, Th and U in various kinds of biological samples. The results of the analysis of six Standard Reference Materials (NIST-USA) received from IAEA, namely, Bone Meal, Oyester Tissue, Muscle Powder, Total Diet I and II and Pine Needles are reported. The results obtained are in good agreement with the average values of those reported from six laboratories. The results of the analysis of skeletal muscle samples for the trace elements Cs and K, individual food components which form major essential components of Indian diet and a few cooked total diets are also reported for the above named seven elements. (author)

  9. Plutonium, americium, 90Sr and 137Cs in bones of red fox (Vulpes vulpes) from Eastern Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mietelski, J.W.; Tomankiewicz, E.; Gaca, P.; Blazej, S.; Kitowski, I.

    2008-01-01

    90 Sr, 238,239+240 Pu, 241 Am and 137 Cs activity concentrations are presented in the jaw bones of red fox (Vulpes vulpes) from eastern Poland. The short description of the applied radiochemical method is presented. Activity concentrations for 90 Sr ranged between 2.2±0.7 and 41.4±4.7 Bq/kg (aw = ash weight). Average results for plutonium and americium are on the level of 10 mBq/kg (aw). No clear relationship was observed among the radionuclide concentrations. The samples analyzed do not show elevated contamination levels when compared with results of bones of small animals (rodent or insectivorous mammals) determined previously, so no accumulation of bone seeking isotopes on higher step of food-chain is concluded. (author)

  10. Intake of 90Sr, 137Cs, 144Ce, 106Ru by fresh water organisms with food and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marciulioniene, D.P.; Dusauskiene-Duz, R.F.; Polikarpov, G.G.

    1978-01-01

    Investigations of the water basins of various areas of Lithuania were carried out in 1973-1975. The investigations were performed to determine the role of food and water in accumulation of 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 144 Ce, 106 --Ru under experimental conditions by fresh water organisms (molluscs, larvae, insects, fishes) as well as 90 Sr in mollusc and fish organisms under natural conditions. It was found that the intake of the above radionuclides in fresh water organisms with radioactive food was less active and in smaller quantities than that with water. The accumulation levels of the radionuclides in fresh water organisms resulted from the radioactive food, depended on the physical and chemical state of the radionuclides and on the concentration of isotopic and nonisotopic carriers in water, food and in the very organism. Dependence of the accumulation coefficient (AC) of different radionuclides in fresh water organisms on the AC value in food as well as on the diet type was not determined

  11. Accumulation and transfer of 137Cs and 90Sr in the plants of the forest ecosystem near the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukšienė, B.; Marčiulionienė, D.; Gudelienė, I.; Schönhofer, F.

    2013-01-01

    The radioecological state of the forest ecosystem in the vicinity of the Ignalina Power Plant prior to decommissioning was analysed with specific emphasis on 137 Cs and 90 Sr activity concentrations in plant species growing in two reference sampling sites (Tilze and Grikiniskes). In the period of 1996–2008 the mean contamination of plants with 137 Cs was from 45 to 119 Bq/kg and with 90 Sr – from 3 to 42 Bq/kg. Measured 137 Cs TF values for soil-root transfer mainly ranged between 1.0–1.4, except for Calamagrostis arundinacea which had a TF value of 0.1. On average, the 137 Cs TF value from root to shoot was 1.7 fold higher than for soil to root transfer. 90 Sr TF values (soil-root) were in the range of 1.2–1.8 but for Calluna vulgaris it was 0.2. The mean root to shoot TF value for 90 Sr was 7.7 fold higher. These results indicate the higher 90 Sr bioavailability than that of 137 Cs in the forested area. The Grikiniskes reference site is located nearby the Ignalina NPP, specifically the heated water outlet channel, which results in altered microclimatic conditions. These specific microclimatic conditions result in relationships between 137 Cs TF (soil-root) values and pH, moisture and organic matter content in the soil at Grikiniskes which appear to be different to those at the Tilze reference sampling site. - Highlights: ► The state of the forest ecosystem prior to decommissioning of the NPP was analysed. ► Results indicate the higher 90 Sr bioavailability than that of 137 Cs. ► Contribution of 137 Cs of different origin in plants was calculated.

  12. {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr behaviour in contaminated soils of the Chernobyl area; Etude du comportement du {sup 137}Cs et du {sup 90}Sr dans les sols contamines de la region de Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gri, N. [CEA/Fontenay-aux-Roses, Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire (IPSN), 92 (France)]|[Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France)

    2000-07-01

    The improvement of the understanding of the mechanisms which generate radionuclides retention in soils are of main importance for radioactivity transport models, especially for long time assessments. In this context, the objectives of this thesis were to identify the mechanisms responsible for {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr behaviour in non cultivated soils and to quantify their influence. We studied radiocaesium and radiostrontium availability in different soils of the Chernobyl area (chernozem, sand, gley, peat), whose contamination took several physico-chemical forms (fuel particles, condensed forms, mixed deposits). The migration profiles obtained by gamma spectrometry and liquid scintillation show that the majority of the activity is contained in the ten first centimeters of soil, except for one site. The profiles are varied and don't allow to classify the radionuclides availability according to the pedology or to the contamination type. A selective extraction protocol applied on several soil layers has been adopted as an indirect approach. Although radionuclides availability is increasing with depth, the selective extraction protocol shows that a non negligible fraction of activity remain not mobile. {sup 137}Cs is associated to interstratified clay minerals in a non reversible way and {sup 90}Sr is strongly bound to fuel particles. The existence of these retention mechanisms calls into question the use of the K{sub d} distribution coefficient in transport models because they disabled reversibility and instantaneous desorption notions. (author)

  13. Determination of concentration factors for Cs-137 and Ra-226 in the mullet species Chelon labrosus (Mugilidae) from the South Adriatic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antovic, Ivanka [Department for Biochemical and Medical Sciences, State University of Novi Pazar, Vuka Karadzica bb, 36 300 Novi Pazar (Serbia); Antovic, Nevenka M., E-mail: nenaa@rc.pmf.ac.me [Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, University of Montenegro, Dzordza Vasingtona bb, 20 000 Podgorica (Montenegro)

    2011-07-15

    Concentration factors for Cs-137 and Ra-226 transfer from seawater, and dried sediment or mud with detritus, have been determined for whole, fresh weight, Chelon labrosus individuals and selected organs. Cesium was detected in 5 of 22 fish individuals, and its activity ranged from 1.0 to 1.6 Bq kg{sup -1}. Radium was detected in all fish, and ranged from 0.4 to 2.1 Bq kg{sup -1}, with an arithmetic mean of 1.0 Bq kg{sup -1}. In regards to fish organs, cesium activity concentration was highest in muscles (maximum - 3.7 Bq kg{sup -1}), while radium was highest in skeletons (maximum - 25 Bq kg{sup -1}). Among cesium concentration factors, those for muscles were the highest (from seawater - an average of 47, from sediment - an average of 3.3, from mud with detritus - an average of 0.8). Radium concentration factors were the highest for skeleton (from seawater - an average of 130, from sediment - an average of 1.8, from mud with detritus - an average of 1.5). Additionally, annual intake of cesium and radium by human adults consuming muscles of this fish species has been estimated to provide, in aggregate, an effective dose of about 4.1 {mu}Sv y{sup -1}. - Highlights: > Radionuclide transfer from seawater, sediment and mud with detritus. > Concentration factors for Cs-137 and Ra-226 in C. labrosus whole fish and organs. > Cs-137 concentration factors are highest for C. labrosus muscles. > Ra-226 concentration factors are highest for C. labrosus skeleton.

  14. Determination of concentration factors for Cs-137 and Ra-226 in the mullet species Chelon labrosus (Mugilidae) from the South Adriatic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antovic, Ivanka; Antovic, Nevenka M.

    2011-01-01

    Concentration factors for Cs-137 and Ra-226 transfer from seawater, and dried sediment or mud with detritus, have been determined for whole, fresh weight, Chelon labrosus individuals and selected organs. Cesium was detected in 5 of 22 fish individuals, and its activity ranged from 1.0 to 1.6 Bq kg -1 . Radium was detected in all fish, and ranged from 0.4 to 2.1 Bq kg -1 , with an arithmetic mean of 1.0 Bq kg -1 . In regards to fish organs, cesium activity concentration was highest in muscles (maximum - 3.7 Bq kg -1 ), while radium was highest in skeletons (maximum - 25 Bq kg -1 ). Among cesium concentration factors, those for muscles were the highest (from seawater - an average of 47, from sediment - an average of 3.3, from mud with detritus - an average of 0.8). Radium concentration factors were the highest for skeleton (from seawater - an average of 130, from sediment - an average of 1.8, from mud with detritus - an average of 1.5). Additionally, annual intake of cesium and radium by human adults consuming muscles of this fish species has been estimated to provide, in aggregate, an effective dose of about 4.1 μSv y -1 . - Highlights: → Radionuclide transfer from seawater, sediment and mud with detritus. → Concentration factors for Cs-137 and Ra-226 in C. labrosus whole fish and organs. → Cs-137 concentration factors are highest for C. labrosus muscles. → Ra-226 concentration factors are highest for C. labrosus skeleton.

  15. Analysis of 226Ra, 232Th 40К and 137Cs in samples of soil from some areas of Republic of Macedonia by using gamma spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorovik Aleksandra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking into consideration the importance of the distribution and transfer of radio nuclides in soil, an attempt was made in this work to determine the concentration of 226Ra, 232Th 40К and 137Cs in the same. The concentrations of activity in the gamma-absorbed dose rates of the terrestrial naturally occurring radio nuclides, as follows, 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were determined in samples of soil collected from some parts of Republic of Macedonia, i.e. from three major cities in the Republic of Macedonia. The samples are taken by means of a special dosage dispenser which enables sampling of samples at a depth of 0-5 cm, 5-10cm and 10-15cm, thus disabling the sampling above these layers of soil. An identification of radio nuclides and assessment of their activity has been performed by applying gamma spectrometry. The time of counting for each sample was 65000 s. in order to obtain statistically small mistake. The spectrums were analyzed by a commercially available software GENIE-2000 received from Canberra, Austria. The activity of soil had wide range of values: 20.3 to 82.9 Bq kg-1for 226Ra, 16.1 to 82.5 Bq kg-1 for 232Th, 325 to 799.0 Bq kg-1for 40К and 9.1 to 24.3 Bq kg-1for 137Cs, respectively. The concentrations of these radio nuclides have been compared with the available data from the other countries. Natural environmental radioactivity and the associated external exposure due to gamma radiation depend primarily on the geological and geographical conditions. Namely, the specific levels of terrestrial environmental radiation are related to the type of rocks from which the soils originate. The obtained data indicate that the average value of activity of 232Th is about higher than the one of 226Ra The concentration of activity of 40К in the soil has greater value than 32Th and 226Ra in all soils. The causes for the existence of 137Cs in these soils are the nuclear explosions, waste radioactive materials and other incidents. It reaches the

  16. Determination of 90Sr, 137Cs and (239+240)Pu in waters with use of preliminary concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanov, V.M.; Kazachevskij, I.V.; Knatova, M.K.; Knyazev, B.B.; Lukashenko, S.N.; Solodukhin, V. P.; Khazhekber, S.; Gabdulin, R.M.

    2002-01-01

    A method for the simultaneous determination of artificial radionuclides ( 90 Sr, 137 Cs and (239+240) Pu) in water samples is described. The following preconcentration steps are used: co-precipitation of cesium on copper ferrocyanide; co-precipitation of plutonium on iron hydroxide; and precipitation of strontium in the carbonate form. The chemical yield is determined by using the tracers: 88 Y, 85 Sr, 134 Cs and 236 Pu or 242 Pu. The method was applied to the determination of artificial radionuclides in water sources at nuclear test sites - the former Semipalatinsk nuclear test site and the 'Azgir' and 'Lira' test sites. The volume of water samples was 0.5 - 30.0 l, and the mineralization ranged from 0.1g/l to 100 g/l. The determination limits were: < 1 mBq/l for cesium-137; 0.02 mBq/l for plutonium-(239+240); and 1.5 mBq/l for strontium-90. The chemical yield was 60 - 90%

  17. Uptake and Loss Kinetics of 57Co, 85Sr and 134Cs on Blood Cockle Anadara granosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srisuksawad, K; Prasertchiewchan, N.; Tungkitjanukij, S.; Pakkong, P.

    2005-02-01

    Adult blood cockle (A. granosa) were exposed in the laboratory to 57 Co, 85 Sr, and 134 Cs in seawater at average +- s.e. stable activities of 0.725+-0.010 Bq/ml, 0.917+-0.066 Bq/ml and 1.37+-0.105 Bq/ml, respectively. The study aims to determine key contaminant bioaccumulation, retention and loss parameters for bio-indicator organisms used in assessment of the impact of the effluent discharge from nuclear and non-nuclear facilities on coastal area. Natural coastal water conditions in dry season with a salinity of 30 ppt, at 30οC and p H 8.1+-0.1 of the study area (Bang Pa Kong river basin) were simulated as far as practicable. 19 d uptake of radiotracers showed that blood cockle did not accumulate 134 Cs and 85 Sr but considerably accumulated 57 Co. Non-linear regression model fitting of a 1-compartment exponential uptake model derived overall weight concentration factors for the whole cockle at saturation of 687.6+-6.23 ml/g for 57 Co. 22 d loss experiment showed that 57 Co is tightly bounded in blood cockle and 63.2+-15.2% retained in the whole body. Loss of 57 Co displayed 2-compartment loss kinetic. The calculated half time for the short and long components of loss model was estimated 1.4 dand 41 d, respectively

  18. A comparison between predicted and observed levels of 137Cs and 90Sr in the Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, S.P.

    1997-01-01

    A model based on compartmental analysis has been developed to simulate the dispersion of radionuclides in the Baltic Sea. The model is intended for the prediction of annual average concentrations of radionuclides in the marine environment. The quality of the model predictions has been investigated by comparing predicted levels of 137 Cs and 90 Sr in water, top sediment and biota with observed levels covering the period 1960-1992. The sources of radioactivity into the Baltic region that have been considered are fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing, fallout from the Chernobyl accident, liquid discharges to sea from the European reprocessing plants, and discharges from nuclear installations located in the Baltic Sea area. The predicted water concentrations are in good agreement with the observations for both radionuclides; the mean predictive accuracy of the model is close to unity. For the top sediment and biota concentrations the agreement is less favourable. The predicted water inventory data compare well with the observed data for the two radionuclides. The inventories of 137 Cs and 90 Sr in the Baltic Sea in 1994 have been estimated at 3200 TBq and 370 TBq, respectively. (author)

  19. Plutonium, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in selected invertebrates from some areas around Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mietelski, Jerzy W., E-mail: jerzy.mietelski@ifj.edu.p [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Maksimova, Svetlana, E-mail: soilzool@biobel.bas-net.b [Institute of Zoology, National Academy of Sciences, Akademicheskaya 27, 220072 Minsk (Belarus); Szwalko, Przemyslaw [Institute of Systematics and Evolution of Animals, Polish Academy of Sciences, Slawkowska 17, 31-016 Krakow (Poland); Wnuk, Katarzyna [Holycross Cancer Center, Department on Nuclear Medicine, Artwinskiego 3, 25-734 Kielce (Poland); Zagrodzki, Pawel [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Department of Food Chemistry and Nutrition, Medical College, Jagiellonian University, Medyczna 9, 30-688 Krakow (Poland); Blazej, Sylwia; Gaca, Pawel; Tomankiewicz, Ewa [The Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Orlov, Olexandr, E-mail: station@zt.ukrpack.ne [Poleskiy Branch of Ukrainian Scientific Research Institute of Forestry and Agro-Forest-Amelioration, Prospect Mira 38, Zhytomyr 10004 (Ukraine)

    2010-06-15

    Results are presented for {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and plutonium activity concentrations in more than 20 samples of terrestrial invertebrates, including species of beetles, ants, spiders and millipedes, collected in the highly contaminated area of the Chernobyl exclusion zone. The majority of samples were collected in Belarus, with some also collected in the Ukraine. Three other samples were collected in an area of lower contamination. Results show that seven samples exceed an activity concentration of 100 kBq/kg (ash weight - a.w.) for {sup 137}Cs. The maximum activity concentration for this isotope was 1.52 +- 0.08 MBq/kg (a.w.) determined in ants (Formica cynerea). Seven results for {sup 90}Sr exceeded 100 kBq/kg (a.w.), mostly for millipedes. Relatively high plutonium activity concentrations were found in some ants and earth-boring dung beetles. Analyses of activity ratios showed differences in transfer of radionuclides between species. To reveal the correlation structure of the multivariate data set, the Partial Least-Squares method (PLS) was used. Results of the PLS model suggest that high radiocesium activity concentrations in animal bodies can be expected mainly for relatively small creatures living on the litter surface. In contrast, high strontium activity concentrations can be expected for creatures which conduct their lives within litter, having mixed trophic habits and a moderate lifespan. No clear conclusions could be made for plutonium.

  20. Early prediction of 90Sr and 137Cs content in edible parts of crops and selection of plants with high uptake ability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Wenhu; Xu Shiming; Hou Lanxin; Shang Zhaorong

    1995-10-01

    The uptake characteristics to 90 Sr and 137 Cs of nine kinds of crops, including spring wheat, rice, soybean, vegetables etc., were studied from seedling to maturity. The change of 90 Sr content per unit of dry weight can be classified into two types--the 90 Sr content kept in the same level during the whole growing season and kept increasing with the growing period until it came to the maximum point at the time of maturity. 90 Sr and 137 Cs in the aerial part of plants were mainly distributed in leaves, but the amounts in seeds and fruits were less. The content of 90 Sr decreased but the content of 137 Cs increased from young to old leaves. So it could be concluded that early prediction of the radioactive content of edible parts according to the content of young leaves was possible. Selection of 169 species in 18 families of plants with high uptake ability of 90 Sr and 137 Cs, which grow in Qinshan region near a nuclear power plant and in Beijing region, is also reported. (8 refs., 6 figs., 16 tabs.)

  1. Quantifying sediment sources in a lowland agricultural catchment pond using {sup 137}Cs activities and radiogenic {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Gall, Marion; Evrard, Olivier [Laboratoire des Sciences et de l' Environnement, UMR 8212 (CEA/CNRS/UVSQ), Université Paris-Saclay, Domaine du CNRS, Avenue de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Foucher, Anthony [E.A 6293, Laboratoire GéoHydrosystèmes Continentaux (GéHCO), Université F. Rabelais de Tours, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France); Laceby, J. Patrick [Laboratoire des Sciences et de l' Environnement, UMR 8212 (CEA/CNRS/UVSQ), Université Paris-Saclay, Domaine du CNRS, Avenue de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Salvador-Blanes, Sébastien [E.A 6293, Laboratoire GéoHydrosystèmes Continentaux (GéHCO), Université F. Rabelais de Tours, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France); Thil, François; Dapoigny, Arnaud; Lefèvre, Irène [Laboratoire des Sciences et de l' Environnement, UMR 8212 (CEA/CNRS/UVSQ), Université Paris-Saclay, Domaine du CNRS, Avenue de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Cerdan, Olivier [Département Risques et Prévention, Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières, 3 avenue Claude Guillemin, 45060 Orléans (France); and others

    2016-10-01

    Soil erosion often supplies high sediment loads to rivers, degrading water quality and contributing to the siltation of reservoirs and lowland river channels. These impacts are exacerbated in agricultural catchments where modifications in land management and agricultural practices were shown to accelerate sediment supply. In this study, sediment sources were identified with a novel tracing approach combining cesium ({sup 137}Cs) and strontium isotopes ({sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr) in the Louroux pond, at the outlet of a lowland cultivated catchment (24 km{sup 2}, Loire River basin, France) representative of drained agricultural areas of Northwestern Europe. Surface soil (n = 36) and subsurface channel bank (n = 17) samples were collected to characterize potential sources. Deposited sediment (n = 41) was sampled across the entire surface of the pond to examine spatial variation in sediment deposits. In addition, a 1.10 m sediment core was sampled in the middle of the pond to reconstruct source variations throughout time. {sup 137}Cs was used to discriminate between surface and subsurface sources, whereas {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios discriminated between lithological sources. A distribution modeling approach quantified the relative contribution of these sources to the sampled sediment. Results indicate that surface sources contributed to the majority of pond (μ 82%, σ 1%) and core (μ 88%, σ 2%) sediment with elevated subsurface contributions modeled near specific sites close to the banks of the Louroux pond. Contributions of the lithological sources were well mixed in surface sediment across the pond (i.e., carbonate sediment contribution, μ 48%, σ 1% and non-carbonate sediment contribution, μ 52%, σ 3%) although there were significant variations of these source contributions modeled for the sediment core between 1955 and 2013. These fluctuations reflect both the progressive implementation of land consolidation schemes in the catchment and the eutrophication of

  2. Phytoremediation modelling - phytoextraction of 137Cs, 133Ba, and 90Sr from liquid media and artificially contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smrcek, S.; Masnerova, G.

    2002-01-01

    The phytoremediation model based on experiments with plants cultivated in vitro in media supplemented with radionuclide salts was investigated. The plant species Brassica napus, Sinapis alba, Helianthus annuus, Zea mays and Pisum sativum were cultivated on the Murashige-Skoog basal salt mixture enriched with salts of 137 Cs, 133 Ba, and 90 Sr in aseptic conditions. The time-dependent radioactivity decrease in the medium was determined using LSC, and the phytoextraction curves were plotted. Radioactivity in the plant roots and shoots was measured and the efficiency of phytoextraction and the distribution between the roots and shoots as a measure of radionuclide transport in the plant tissues were calculated for each of the plants used. Cultivation experiments were also performed on artificially contaminated soil. Seeds of the plants were placed into contaminated soil and cultivated for 2 months in conditions similar to those of the in vitro experiments. The extracted radioactivity and distribution between roots and shoots were determined. The in vitro experiments simulated extraction of the radionuclide salt from solution analogously to real extraction from the soil solution, while the processes occurring in the rhizosphere were eliminated. The phytoextraction efficiency in terms of the percentage of the starting radioactivity ranged from 12 to 31 % for 90 Sr, 8 to 24% for 137 Cs, and 12 to 17 % for 133 Ba in a cultivation cycle. The root/shoot radioactivity ratios demonstrate that the plant species used may be suitable for real phytoremediation. The experiments in which the plants were cultivated from seeds in artificial contaminated substrate showed that the ability of roots to extract radionuclide salts from their environment remains unchanged. The relative efficiency values were lower than for the extraction from solutions (3 to 11.5 % for 90 Sr, 1.5 to 4 % for 137 Cs, and 1 to 6.2 %, for 133 Ba), but in this process, the equilibrium between the soil particles

  3. Soil-plant transfer of Cs-137 and Sr-90 in digestate amended agricultural soils- a lysimeter scale experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmood, Khalid; Berns, Anne E.; Pütz, Thomas; Burauel, Peter; Vereecken, Harry; Zoriy, Myroslav; Flucht, Reinhold; Opitz, Thorsten; Hofmann, Diana

    2014-05-01

    Radiocesium and radiostrontium are among the most problematic soil contaminants following nuclear fallout due to their long half-lives and high fission yields. Their chemical resemblance to potassium, ammonium and calcium facilitates their plant uptake and thus enhances their chance to reach humans through the food-chain dramatically. The plant uptake of both radionuclides is affected by the type of soil, the amount of organic matter and the concentration of competitive ions. In the present lysimeter scale experiment, soil-plant transfer of Cs-137 and Sr-90 was investigated in an agricultural silty soil amended with digestate, a residue from a biogas plant. The liquid fraction of the digestate, liquor, was used to have higher nutrient competition. Digestate application was done in accordance with the field practice with an application rate of 34 Mg/ha and mixing it in top 5 cm soil, yielding a final concentration of 38 g digestate/Kg soil. The top 5 cm soil of the non-amended reference soil was also submitted to the same mixing procedure to account for the physical disturbance of the top soil layer. Six months after the amendment of the soil, the soil contamination was done with water-soluble chloride salts of both radionuclides, resulting in a contamination density of 66 MBq/m2 for Cs-137 and 18 MBq/m2 for Sr-90 in separate experiments. Our results show that digestate application led to a detectable difference in soil-plant transfer of the investigated radionuclides, effect was more pronounced for Cs-137. A clear difference was observed in plant uptake of different plants. Pest plants displayed higher uptake of both radionuclides compared to wheat. Furthermore, lower activity values were recorded in ears compared to stems for both radionuclides.

  4. Determination of environmental levels of 239240Pu, 241Am, 137Cs, and 90Sr in large volume sea water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, D.C.; Calderon, G.; Rosa, W.

    1976-06-01

    A method is reported for the determination of environmental levels of 239 240 Pu and 241 Am in approximately 60-liter size samples of seawater. 137 Cs and 90 Sr were also separated and determined from the same samples. The samples were collected at the sea surface and at various depths in the oceans through the facilities of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. Plutonium and americium were separated from the seawater by iron hydroxide scavenging then treated with a mixture of nitric, hydrochloric, and perchloric acids. A series of anion exchange separations were used to remove interferences and purify plutonium and americium; then each was electroplated on platinum disks and measured by solid state alpha particle spectrometry. The overall chemical yields averaged 62 +- 9 and 69 +- 14 percent for 236 Pu, and 243 Am tracers, respectively. Following the iron hydroxide scavenge of the transuranics, cesium was removed from the acidified seawater matrix by adsorption onto ammonium phosphomolybdate. Cesium carrier and 137 Cs isolation was effected by ion exchange and precipitations were made using chloroplatinic acid. The samples were weighed to determine overall chemical yield then beta counted. Cesium recoveries averaged 75 +- 5 percent. After cesium was removed from the seawater matrix, the samples were neutralized with sodium hydroxide and ammonium carbonate was added to precipitate 85 Sr tracer and the mixed alkaline earth carbonates. Strontium was separated as the nitrate and scavenged by chromate and hydroxide precipitations. Yttrium-90 was allowed to build up for two weeks, then milked and precipitated as the oxalate, weighed, and beta counted. The overall chemical yields of 85 Sr tracer averaged 84 +- 16 percent. The recovery of the yttrium oxalate precipitates averaged 96 +- 3 percent

  5. Studies of radioactivity of vegetables: determination of transfer factors 85Sr and 134Cs in some vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oncsik, M.B.

    1999-01-01

    The radioisotope uptake of potato and culinary dry bean was studied in field experiments on meadow soil enriched with vermiculite and humanite by artificial soil contamination. The isotope uptake from the soil was characterized by a transfer factor (TF). Based on the results of the potato experiment it was found that the TF value characterizing the 134 Cs contamination of the crop, changed between 1.31 - 0.77*10 -4 m 2 (kg dry matter) -1 on high humus content soil (treated with humanite) and on soil treated with vermiculite, while it was 22-45 % higher in plants grown on the radioactive control plots. lt was 1.69*10 -4 m 2 (kg dry matter)2 -1 in average. The TF values of 85 Sr uptake of potato are several times higher than those of experiments treated by isotope 134 Cs. The TF values fluctuated between 5.30-7.33*10 -4 m 2 (kg dry matter) -1 in soils treated with the additives, while on the plots with radioactive contamination it was 8.42*10 -4 m 2 (kg dry matter) -1 . Based on the results of 134 Cs studies of edible part of dry bean, it could be stated that after the soil contamination the TF value was 0.99*10 -4 m 2 (kg dry matter) -1 in average. According to the activity results of the experiments there was significant difference between the contamination of the plant parts. Refs. 6 (author)

  6. Long-term post-Chernobyl 90Sr and 137Cs profiles as the indicators of the large scale vertical water mixing in the Black Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, V.N.; Stokozov, N.A.; Mirzoyeva, N.Y.

    2002-01-01

    The radioactive and chemical pollutions, eutrophic elements come to the surface water layer of the Black Sea from the territory of 22 countries. The self-purification of the surface water layer essentially depends from the vertical water mixing. The atmospheric fallout in the May 1986 after Chernobyl NPP accident were main source of the 137 Cs input in the Black Sea. The 90 Sr input to the Black Sea was caused by atmospheric fallout as well as the Dnieper River and Danube River runoff during of consequent years. 90 Sr and 137 Cs are conservative elements in a marine environment and could be used as tracers of the hydrological processes, including vertical water mixing. The aim of our investigations was an assessment of the large-scale vertical water exchange in the Black Sea on base of analysis time-series 90 Sr and 137 Cs vertical profiles

  7. Stocks of 90Sr and 137Cs in biomass of birds in the territory of Chernobyl zone and size of radionuclide export with birds outside

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gashchak, S.P.; Bondar'kov, M.D.; Maklyuk, Yu.A.; Maksimenko, A.M.; Martynenko, V.I.; Chizhevskij, I.V.

    2009-01-01

    The contamination of birds varies in wide range, with an activity concentration of 90 Sr and 137 Cs differed by 2-4 orders, and on the whole the Chernobyl zone - to 5 orders of magnitude. The maximum values contamination of birds amounted to hundreds of Bq/g in the central plots of the zone. It is noted that by reducing the biological availability of radionuclides from soil transfer factor 90 Sr decreased 4,05 times, and 137 Cs - in 11,0 times compared with the results of evaluations of the first years. The activity concentration of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in the body of birds decreased in 1,6 - 7,0 and 7,9 - 29,2 times respectively.

  8. The transfer of 137Cs and 90Sr to dairy cattle fed fresh herbage collected 3.5 km from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beresford, N.A.; Gashchak, S.; Lasarev, N; Arkhipov, A.; Chyorny, Y.; Astasheva, N.; Arkhipov, N.; Mayes, R.W.; Howard, B.J.; Baglay, G.; Loginova, L.; Burov, N.

    2000-01-01

    A study conducted during summer 1993 to determine the bioavailability and transfer of 137 Cs and 90 Sr to dairy cattle from herbage collected from a pasture contaminated by particulate fallout is described. The study pasture was located 3.5 km from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. The true absorption coefficient (A t ) determined for 137 Cs (0.23) was considerably lower than previous estimates for radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake. It is likely that the low dry matter digestibility of the diet and the potential presence of 137 Cs associated with adherent soil-associated fuel particles contributed to this low bioavailability. The A t value determined for 90 Sr (0.27) did not indicate a reduced bioavailability. It is suggested that the current and previous calcium status of the animals was the controlling influence on the transfer of 90 Sr from the diet to milk

  9. Recent advances in the development of a cobalt dicarbollide based solvent extraction process for the separation of Cs and Sr from spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, Jack D.; Todd, Terry A.; Peterman, D.R.; Herbst, R.S.; Tillotson, R.D.

    2004-01-01

    As part of the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI), a chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide (CCD)/polyethylene glycol (PEG) based solvent extraction process is being developed for the separation of Cs and Sr from leached spent light water reactor (LWR) fuel. The separation of Cs and Sr would significantly reduce the short-term heat generation of spent nuclear fuel requiring geological disposal. Recent advances in the development of a CCD/PEG process will be presented. The data presented will include acid dependency data, results of batch contact testing using simulant feeds traced with 137 Cs, 90 Sr and 241 Am as well as results of testing to evaluate extractant composition. The impacts of other separation process in an advanced aqueous separation flow sheet on the effectiveness of the CCD/PEG process will be detailed. (authors)

  10. Studies on the transfer of Cs, Sr, Co, Mn and Zn from soil to plants and from medium to mushrooms by using radiotracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ban-nai, Tadaaki; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Yoshida, Satoshi; Yanagisawa, Kei

    1996-01-01

    Radiotracer experiments were carried out to study radionuclide uptake by plants and mushrooms. Transfer factors of radionuclides from soil to leaf vegetables (cabbage, Chinese cabbage, komatsuna, spinach and lettuce) have been determined by radiotracers. The transfer factors of radioactive Cs, Sr, Mn, Co and Zn for edible parts of vegetables were 0.11, 0.24, 0.61, 0.05 and 0.52, respectively. The transfer factors of Mn, Co and Zn for spinach were higher than those for the other vegetables. The transfer factors of Cs for different organs of the leaf vegetables were rather homogeneous. The transfer factors of Sr and Mn were higher for older (outer) leaves than younger (inner) ones. In contrast to Sr and Mn, transfer factors of Zn for younger leaves were higher than those for older ones. In order to study radionuclide uptake by mushrooms, cultivation experiments in flasks were carried out using radiotracers, 137 Cs, 85 Sr, 60 Co, 54 Mn and 65 Zn. Four mushroom species Hebeloma vinosophyllum, Flammulina velutipes, Agrocybe cylindracea and Coprinus phlyctidosporus were used. In addition, Medicago sativa was also tested. Mushrooms tended to accumulate Cs, although there was a large difference between mushroom species. The concentration ratio had the highest value of 21 for Cs in vinosophyllum. The value was much higher than that in the plant sample. The present findings agreed with our previous observations in which Hebeloma species collected in forests contained large amount of 137 Cs. The effects of stable elements in the medium on the accumulations were investigated. The concentration ratios of Cs, Sr and Co were not influenced highly by coexisting stable elements in the medium. However, the ratio of Mn decreased as the amount of coexisting stable elements in the medium was increased. (J.P.N.)

  11. Effects of 137Cs and 90Sr on structure and functional aspects of the microflora in agricultural used soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niedree, Bastian

    2013-01-01

    At long sight 137 Cs and 90 Sr are the main radionuclides responsible for the contamination of agricultural soils due to core melts in nuclear power plants such as Chernobyl or Fukushima. Once deposited on the soil surface, the two radionuclides remain in the upper soil layer for several decades. In the upper soil layer the highest microbial activity can be found, due to high organic matter contents, warm temperatures and gas exchange with the atmosphere. Hence, in contaminated soils microorganisms in upper soil layers (e.g. the plow layer on agricultural fields) are exceedingly exposed to radioactivity. However, no data are available how radioactive contaminations with 137 Cs or 90 Sr in a realistic order of magnitude affect the microbial community and its functions in soils. This dissertation discusses the effects of radioactive contaminations on the microbial community structure and some of its functions in soils. Therefore, typical agricultural soils, an Orthic Luvisol from field site Merzenhausen and a Gleyic Cambisol from field site Kaldenkirchen-Huelst were artificially contaminated with various concentrations of 137 Cs and 90 Sr and partly applied with radiolabeled substrates and incubated in soil microcosms under controlled laboratory conditions. The lower radionuclide concentrations corresponded to the contaminations in the Chernobyl exclusion zone, the higher concentrations were up to 50-fold that of the maximum occurring hotspots ( 137 Cs) in this zone. In three experiments the effects of the ionizing radiation on the bacterial and the fungal community structure (16S and 18S rDNA DGGE), the degradation of 14 C-labeled wheat straw or uniformly ring-labeled 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, the development of the fungal biomass (ergosterol quantification) and the chemical composition of the soil organic matter ( 13 C CP/MAS NMR) were investigated. In half of the microcosms the soils were autoclaved and reinoculated with native soil, with intention to

  12. Structures and Heats of Formation of Simple Alkaline Earth Metal Compounds II: Fluorides, Chlorides, Oxides, and Hydroxides for Ba, Sr, and Ra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliu, Monica; Hill, J Grant; Peterson, Kirk A; Dixon, David A

    2018-01-11

    Geometry parameters, vibrational frequencies, heats of formation, bond dissociation energies, cohesive energies, and selected fluoride affinities (difluorides) are predicted for the late alkaline earth (Sr, Ba, and Ra) oxides, fluorides, chlorides, and hydroxides at the coupled cluster theory CCSD(T) level. Additional corrections (scalar relativistic and pseudopotential corrections, vibrational zero-point energies, and atomic spin-orbit effects) were included to accurately calculate the total atomization energies and heats of formation following the Feller-Peterson-Dixon methodology. The calculated values are compared to the experimental data where available. In some cases, especially for Ra compounds, there are no experimental results, or the experimental energetics and geometries are not reliable or have very large error bars. All of the Sr, Ba, and Ra difluorides, dichlorides, and dihydroxides are bent structures with the OMO bond angles decreasing going down the group. The cohesive energies of bulk Be dihalides are predicted to be quite low, while those of Ra are relatively large. The fluoride affinities show that the difluorides are moderately strong Lewis acids and that such trifluorides may form under the appropriate experimental conditions.

  13. Spatial distribution of 40K, 228Ra, 226Ra, 238U and 137Cs in surface soil layer observed at small areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barisic, D.; Lulic, S.; Prohic, E.; Culinovic, M.

    1997-01-01

    The main goal of this study is to give a more detailed insight into spatial radionuclide distribution in soils. It has been necessary in order to plant the future soil sampling procedure that would assure the representative soil samples for broader areas that are usually covered by in situ gamma-spectrometry measurements or aerial gamma-ray spectrometry. The spatial distributions of natural radionuclides and 137 Cs activity in surface soil layer were studed in five regular grids, consisting of 9 points each. The distances between sampled points were 30 cm (A grid), 2.45 m (B grid), 19.5 m (C grid), 156 m (D grid) and 213 m (E grid), respectively. Soil samples were dominantly taken at agricultural ploughed fields from areas of ca. 315 cm 2 (circle of a. 20 cm diameter), from surface up to 15 cm depth. The results indicate that representative soil sample must cover the broader area to provide data that could be compared with data collected by aerial gamma-spectrometry. The average sample on each locality must be prepared from several point samples. It seems that the central point and four points, each at approximately 50-100 m N, S, E, and W from the central point, could be enough

  14. The radiological exposure of man from ingestion of Cs-137 and Sr-90 in seafood from the Baltic Sea. Pilot project: Marina-Balt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, S.P. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Oehlenschlaeger, M. [National Institute of Radiation Hygiene, Broenshoej (Denmark); Karlberg, O. [Swedish Radiation Protection Institute, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1995-04-01

    This report describes a limited radiological assessment of the collective doses to man from the intake of seafood from the Baltic Sea contaminated with the radionuclides Cs-137 and Sr-90. Information on fisheries statistics is presented. The most important source terms to radioactive contamination of Cs-137 and Sr-90 in the Baltic Sea are identified and quantified. A compartment model for the dispersion of radionuclides in European coastal waters including the Baltic Sea is described and tested by comparing model predictions with observations. Collective doses are calculated with the model for each of the source-term categories. (au) (11 tabs., 28 ills., 17 refs.).

  15. The radiological exposure of man from ingestion of Cs-137 and Sr-90 in seafood from the Baltic Sea. Pilot project: Marina-Balt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, S.P.; Oehlenschlaeger, M.; Karlberg, O.

    1995-04-01

    This report describes a limited radiological assessment of the collective doses to man from the intake of seafood from the Baltic Sea contaminated with the radionuclides Cs-137 and Sr-90. Information on fisheries statistics is presented. The most important source terms to radioactive contamination of Cs-137 and Sr-90 in the Baltic Sea are identified and quantified. A compartment model for the dispersion of radionuclides in European coastal waters including the Baltic Sea is described and tested by comparing model predictions with observations. Collective doses are calculated with the model for each of the source-term categories. (au) (11 tabs., 28 ills., 17 refs.)

  16. The fate of long - lived radionuclides 137Cs and 90Sr in the Black Sea after Chernobyl NPP accident: results of twenty - year observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokozov, N. A.; Egorov, V. N.; Polikarpov, G. G.; Mirzoeva, N. Y.; Gulin, S. B.

    2006-01-01

    The presentation summarizes studies of 1 37Cs and 9 0Sr pollution of the Black Sea Basin carried out by Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas during 1986-2005 following the Chernobyl NPP accident. Its goal was to assess inflows of 1 37Cs and 9 0Sr from the Dnieper and the Danube Rivers, outflow through the Bosphorus Strait, inventories in bottom sediments and temporary evolution of 1 37Cs and 9 0Sr inventories in the Black Sea water column. Besides, the temporary evolution of 1 37Cs and 9 0Sr profiles in the Black Sea deep-water basin was used to estimations of a large-scale vertical water mixing. It has been estimated that the atmospheric fall outs during the first days of May 1986 have deposited 1.7-2.4 PBq of 1 37Cs on the Black Sea surface (nearly 2% of total 1 37Cs release in the environment). Therefore, 1 37Cs inventory in the 0-50 m layer have increased by a factor of 6-10 and the total 1 37Cs inventory in the whole basin have increased at least by a factor of 2 in comparison with the pre-Chernobyl value - 1.4+/-0.3 PBq. 1 37Cs input from the Danube and the Dnieper Rivers was insignificant in comparison with short-term atmospheric fall outs. The results of observations and mathematical modelling are testified that in the surface layers 0-50 and 0-200 m of the Black Sea deep-water basin in 1986-2000 an exponential decreases of the 1 37Cs inventories with an effective half-lifes of 5-6 years and 9-13 years, respectively, have been observed. The process of vertical water mixing has been observed mainly in the 0-200 m layer. The contribution of Chernobyl-origin 9 0Sr from atmospheric fallout was estimated around in 0.1-0.3 PBq. Pre-accident 9 0Sr level nearly 20 Bq m - 3 was reached by 1988. At the same time, an active input of 9 0Sr from the Dnieper and Danube Rivers has been observed. The total amount of 9 0Sr delivered by the two rivers into the Black Sea was estimated to be nearly 0.1 PBq in the 1986-1995. Under conditions of insignificant river input

  17. Coefficients of leaf-fruit translocation for 60Co, 90Sr and 137Cs in bean plant (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macacini, Jose Flavio

    2000-01-01

    Due to the increasing use of nuclear fission for the generation of electrical energy, the safety aspects of power plants must be minutely appraised. In case of an accident, with liberation of radioactive material into the atmosphere, knowledge about the behavior of plant species when in contact with radionuclides is indispensable. An important route through which agricultural products are contaminated by radionuclides is leaf-fruit translocation. This phenomenon can be evaluated by simulating a fallout contamination in a controlled atmosphere using as a tracer man-made radionuclides. In order to quantity the leaf-fruit translocation coefficients for 60 Co, 90 Sr and 137 Cs in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), variety black diamond, an experiment was carried out in a greenhouse with completely randomized blocks design with six treatments and four blocks. A mixture of these three radionuclides was prepared and used to determine their translocation coefficients. The bean plants were contaminated inside a device especially designed to avoid environmental contamination. In each treatment four vases were sprinkled and one was used to estimate the initial activity of the other three vases. High-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry was used for 60 Co and 137 Cs activity determinations and chemical separation followed by beta counting of 90 Y was used for 90 Sr determinations. The number of treatments was reduced from six to four sprayings corresponding to 30, 45, 60 and 75 days after planting. This reduction was due to the attack of common and gold mosaic viroses. Symptoms were observed on the diseased bean plants 50 days after planting. It was possible, however, to verify a functional dependence between instant of tracer application and the level of physiological development of the bean plant. It was verified that the temporal relationship values for leaf-fruit translocation were similar for 60 Co and 137 Cs. For the 90 Sr, the translocation was below 2,5 mBq kg -1 /Bq

  18. RA Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This chapter includes the following: General description of the RA reactor, organization of work, responsibilities of leadership and operators team, regulations concerning operation and behaviour in the reactor building, regulations for performing experiments, regulations and instructions for inserting samples into experimental channels [sr

  19. sup(239/240)Pu, 137Cs, 90Sr, and 40K in different types of honey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunzl, K.; Kracke, W.

    1981-01-01

    Information on the concentration of radionuclides in honey is of interest because this foodstuff consumed worldwide could be a source of radionuclides to man. Besides that, honey is used as a bioindicator for several radionuclides because the bees forage for nectar, pollen or honeydew over a large area of landscape. In this connection, it is of special interest to know when, and, if so, to what extent the concentrations of radionuclides in the honey depend on the type of honey sampled by the bees. For this reason, we determined sup(239/240)Pu, 137 Cs, 90 Sr and 40 K in three important types of honey produced in the F.R.G., namely in honey from flowers, from honeydew and from heather. The data obtained in this way was used also to investigate whether significant correlations exist between these radionuclides in the various honey samples. (author)

  20. Influence of soil fungi (basidiomycetes) on the migration of Cs 134 + 137 and Sr 90 in coniferous forest soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roemmelt, R.; Hiersche, L.; Schaller, G.; Wirth, E.

    1990-01-01

    During the first three years after the Chernobyl event high Cs 134 + 137 activities in fruitbodies of basidiomycetes have been measured. A decline of activities with time has not yet been observed. The activities are considerably higher compared to agricultural products from the same area. In order to study the movement of radiocesium in coniferous forest sites, the activities in soil, fungi, and plants have been measured. Based on these results a model to describe the cesium cycling in coniferous forest ecosystems is proposed with special emphasis on the influence of soil fungi and plants on the migration of cesium. As measurements of Sr 90 in forest ecosystems are rare this nuclide has been included in the investigations. (author)

  1. To the predicted calculations of Cs-137 and Sr-90 migration in soil in the frame of the compartment model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knat'ko, B.A.; Skomorokhov, A.G.

    1994-01-01

    The method of calculation of migration of radionuclides in soil according to compartment model and based on analitical solution of the system of differential equations of the model is proposed. Calculations of the content of radionuclides in the soil layer for Cs-137 and Sr-90 for four types of soil for the periods of 0, 21, 34,46 and 73 months are carried out. Calculations were done for three upper soil layers 0-2.5, 2.5-5, 5.0-15.0 cm, which give the main contribution into transport of radionuclides into plants on meadows and pastures. Such method increases precision of calculations of cesium-137 and strontium-90 migration in comparison with the prosedure, which uses the system of finite difference equations. 6 refs., 1 fig

  2. Uncertainty analysis of 137Cs and 90Sr activity in borehole water from a waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dafauti, Sunita; Pulhani, Vandana; Datta, D.; Hegde, A.G.

    2005-01-01

    Uncertainty quantification (UQ) is the quantitative characterization and use of uncertainty in experimental applications. There are two distinct types of uncertainty variability which can be quantified in principle using classical probability theory and lack of knowledge which requires more than classical probability theory for its quantification. Fuzzy set theory was applied to quantify the second type of uncertainty associated with the measurement of activity due to 137 Cs and 90 Sr present in bore-well water samples from a waste disposal site. The upper and lower limits of concentration were computed and it may be concluded from the analysis that the alpha cut technique of fuzzy set theory is a good nonprecise estimator of these types of bounds. (author)

  3. Accumulation and transfer of 137Cs and 90Sr in the plants of the forest ecosystem near the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukšienė, B; Marčiulionienė, D; Gudelienė, I; Schönhofer, F

    2013-02-01

    The radioecological state of the forest ecosystem in the vicinity of the Ignalina Power Plant prior to decommissioning was analysed with specific emphasis on (137)Cs and (90)Sr activity concentrations in plant species growing in two reference sampling sites (Tilze and Grikiniskes). In the period of 1996-2008 the mean contamination of plants with (137)Cs was from 45 to 119 Bq/kg and with (90)Sr - from 3 to 42 Bq/kg. Measured (137)Cs TF values for soil-root transfer mainly ranged between 1.0-1.4, except for Calamagrostis arundinacea which had a TF value of 0.1. On average, the (137)Cs TF value from root to shoot was 1.7 fold higher than for soil to root transfer. (90)Sr TF values (soil-root) were in the range of 1.2-1.8 but for Calluna vulgaris it was 0.2. The mean root to shoot TF value for (90)Sr was 7.7 fold higher. These results indicate the higher (90)Sr bioavailability than that of (137)Cs in the forested area. The Grikiniskes reference site is located nearby the Ignalina NPP, specifically the heated water outlet channel, which results in altered microclimatic conditions. These specific microclimatic conditions result in relationships between (137)Cs TF (soil-root) values and pH, moisture and organic matter content in the soil at Grikiniskes which appear to be different to those at the Tilze reference sampling site. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Concentrations of Radionuclides (226Ra, 232Th, 40K, and 137Cs) in Chernozems of Volgograd Oblast Sampled in Different Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparin, B. F.; Mingareeva, E. V.; Sanzharova, N. I.; Sukhacheva, E. Yu.

    2017-12-01

    Data on the concentrations of natural (226Ra, 232Th and 40K) and artificial (137Cs) radionuclides and on the physicochemical properties of chernozems sampled in different years are presented. In 1952, upon the creation of the Penza-Kamensk state shelterbelt, three deep (up to 3 m) soil pits were examined within the former arable field under two-year-old plantations of ash and maple along the transect crossing the territory of the Beloprudskaya Experimental Station of the USSR Academy of Sciences in Volgograd oblast. The samples from these pits were included into the collection of dated soil samples of the Dokuchaev Central Soil Science Museum. Five pits were examined along the same transect in 2009: three pits under shelterbelts (analogues of the pits studied in 1952) and two pits on arable fields between the shelterbelts. In the past 57 years, certain changes took place in the soil structure, bulk density, and the content and composition of humus. The salt profile of soils changed significantly under the forests. The comparison of distribution patterns of natural soil radionuclides in 1952 and 2009 demonstrated their higher contents at the depth of 10-20 cm in 2009 (except for the western shelterbelt). Background concentrations of natural radionuclides in parent materials and relationships between their distributions and the salt profiles of soils have been determined; they are most clearly observed is the soils under shelterbelts. Insignificant contamination with 137Cs (up to 34 Bq/kg) has been found in the samples of 2009 from the upper (0-20 cm) horizon. The activity of 137Cs regularly decreases from the east to the west; the highest concentrations of this radionuclide are found in the topmost 10 cm. This allows us to suppose that 137Cs was brought with aerial dust by eastern winds, and the shelterbelts served as barriers to the wind flow.

  5. 90Sr and 137Cs in the Black Sea after the Chernobyl NPP accident: inventories, balance and tracer applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, V.N.; Povinec, P.P.; Polikarpov, G.G.; Stokozov, N.A.; Gulin, S.B.; Kulebakina, L.G.; Osvath, I.

    1999-01-01

    The paper summarizes studies of the distributions of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in the water and sediments of the Black Sea carried out during a 10-year period following the 1986 accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. Its goal is to assess the temporal evolution of radionuclide inventories and balances and to evaluate the mixing of water masses and the sedimentation processes using man-made radionuclides as tracers. Using mathematical models and field data, mixing time-scales of 5, 16 and 24 years have been estimated, respectively, for the water layers of depths 0-50, 0-100 and 0-200 m. For the Central Basin the ventilation time of the lower pycnocline is estimated at 15-25 years. 137 Cs has been used to date shelf and deep-basin sediments, providing the history of chemical and radioactive pollution and of eutrophication during the past 50 years. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  6. Evaluation of improved techniques for the removal of 90Sr and 137Cs from process wastewater and groundwater: Chabazite zeolite baseline study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostick, D.T.; Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Taylor, P.A.; McTaggart, D.R.; Burgess, M.W.; Guo, B.

    1995-04-01

    Standard waste treatment procedures for the removal of 90 Sr and 137 Cs from contaminated groundwater and process wastewaters generate large volumes of secondary contaminated wastes. Several new sorbent materials, ion exchangers, and other processes hold the promise of treating large volumes of contaminated water while minimizing the generation of secondary low-level radioactive wastes. As part of the Efficient Separations/Processes-Integrated Program (ESPIP), these new treatment techniques will be compared with standard processes to define their effectiveness for the removal of radioactive strontium (Sr) and cesium (Cs), as well as to gauge the quantity of secondary radioactive waste generated by the new processes. This report summarizes the efforts made to design standardized testing procedures to evaluate the sorption characteristics of a baseline wastewater treatment technique. Definition of the experimental procedures, as well as a summary of the benchmark sorption technique, will provide the framework with which to compare newly evolving treatment technologies. Accomplishments include selecting the feed strewn to the Process Waste Treatment Plant (PWTP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory as representative of the prototypical contaminated wastewater of many DOE sites. Samples from the PWTP feed stream were collected and analyzed for metals, anions, total Sr and Cs, radioactive Sr and Cs, alkalinity, pH, and density. The cumulative sample data were used to formulate a simulant that will be used as a standard waste surrogate for comparative testing of selected treatment methods

  7. Lysimeter experiments on root uptake of Co-60, Sr-90 and Cs-137 from soil into vine and apple trees and on the transfer into grapes and apples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steffens, W.; Foerstel, H.; Mittelstaedt, W.

    1993-01-01

    In lysimeters filled with two different soil types (Parabraunerde and Podzol) the transfer of 60 Co, 90 Sr and 137 Cs from soil into vine and apple trees was investigated over a time period of 5 years (1988-1992). The soil was contaminated in 1978, so that at the beginning of the experiment the radionuclides were already aged. Due to the low availability for root uptake, the transfer of 60 Co and 137 Cs into vine and apple trees was very low. 90 Sr was fairly available for root uptake which caused a considerable uptake and translocation into vegetative plant parts. The physiological behaviour of the radionuclides investigated determined generally a low transfer into must and apples. This was confirmed by the transfer factors variing between 0.001 and 0.029 for 60 Co, 0.01 and 0.036 for 90 Sr and 0.001 and 0.109 for 137 Cs, respectively. The corresponding values in apples were in the same order of magnitude. The influence of the soil type is shown by the higher incorporation of 60 Co, 90 Sr and 137 Cs into the single plant organs and by the higher transfer factors in must and apples grown on the podzolic soil. (orig.) [de

  8. Evaluation of small scale laboratory and pot experiments to determine realistic transfer factors for the radionuclides Sr-90, Cs-137, Co-60 and Mn-54

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steffens, W.; Fuhr, F.; Mittelstaedt, W.

    1980-01-01

    Lysimeter experiments were undertaken in a controlled experimental field to study the root uptake of Sr-90, Cs-137, Co-60 and Mn-54 under outdoor conditions. Parallel experiments were set up using the Kick - Brauckman experimental pots under greenhouse and the Neubauer cups under growth chamber conditions. The results obtained from the three types of experiments are compared. (H.K.)

  9. The behaviour peculiarities 137Cs and 90Sr in the same reservoir ecosystem components of the far zone influence of the Chernobyl APS accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khvaley, O.D.

    2000-01-01

    The distribution of the 137 Cs and 90 Sr between the main components of the lentical type water ecosystem in the far zone influence of the Chernobyl NPP was investigated. The water, water suspensions, bottom sediments and aquatic vegetation were investigated in 1990-1997. The date on the change of the radioactivity situation for this time were obtained. (authors)

  10. Detection of low activities 90Sr and 137Cs in surface, subsoil and sewage waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babenko, V.; Isaev, A.; Kazymyrova, G.; Rudyk, O.; Khristenko, U.

    2004-01-01

    In this article the methodic of detection of volumetric activity of radionuclide 90 Sr in surface, subsoil and sewage waters on the basis of measurement of counting samples using beta-spectrometers SEB-01, produced by RPE 'Atom Komplex Prylad' (RPE 'AKP') and mathematical proceeding of spectra by software packages AKWin. At that, the time of receiving of result shortens, comparing to method of radiochemistry, from 14 days to 3 days. Activity measurement range of beta-spectrometers SEB-01 is 0.1-10 4 Bq/l, that by corresponding radionuclides concentration, allows providing control of water objects according to national norms of Ukraine (2 Bq/l). (authors)

  11. Areal distribution of 60Co, 137Cs, and 90Sr in streambed gravels of White Oak Creek Watershed, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerling, T.E.; Spalding, B.P.

    1981-01-01

    The concentrations of 90 Sr, 60 Co, and 137 Cs in streambed gravels from contaminated drainages in White Oak Creek Watershed were determined. Methods to determine the relative contributions of various sources to the total discharge from the watershed were developed. Principal sources of 90 Sr were: ORNL plant effluents (50%), leaching from solid waste disposal area (SWDA) 4 (30%), and leaching from SWDA 5 (10%). Minor sources included SWDA 3, the Molten Salt Reactor Facility, and intermediate-level liquid waste pit 1 with each representing 4% or less of the total basin discharge. The cooling water effluent from the High-Flux Isotope Reactor was the dominant source of 60 Co contamination in the watershed. ORNL plant effluents accounted for almost all the 137 Cs discharge from White Oak Creek basin. Downstream radionuclide concentrations were constant until significant dilution by other tributaries occurred. Any future activities giving rise to additional contamination can now be identified. Distribution coefficients between streambed gravels and streamwater for 85 Sr, 60 Co, and 137 Cs were 50, 560, and 8460 ml/g, respectively. An abridged radiochemical fractionation developed for 90 Sr was found to be as accurate and precise for these samples as the standard 90 Sr method above levels of 2 dpm/g

  12. Modeling of 137Cs and 90Sr behavior in the soil-plant system within the territory adjacent to 'Experimental field' technical site in the Semipalatinsk test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiridonov, S.I.; Gontarenko, I.A.; Mukusheva, M.K.

    2005-01-01

    Modelling of 137 Cs and 90 Sr behavior in the soil-plant system is presented. Models have been parameterized for the area adjacent to the 'Experimental Field' Technical Site of the Semipalatinsk Test Site. The models describe the main processes responsible for changes of 137 Cs and 90 Sr content in the soil solution and, thereby, dynamics of radionuclides intake by vegetation. Results are presented from perspective and retrospective calculations, that reflect the dynamics of 137 and 90 Sr distribution by species in soil after nuclear explosions. The importance of factors governing radionuclide accumulation in plants within Semipalatinsk test site area is assessed. The analysis of sensitivity of model output variable to change in its parameters has revealed that the key soil properties significantly influence the results of prediction of radionuclide content in plants. (author)

  13. Application of boat method in emissive flame photometry for determination of Li, Rb, Cs, Na, K, Ca, Sr, Ba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlov, N.A.; Pobedonostsev, V.A.; Savel'ev, Yu.A.

    1976-01-01

    Study of the flame temperature and dependence of adsorbance on the C/O ratio over the boat for the carbide forming elements and the effect of material, thickness, and the height of the boat on the vaporization of alkaline and alkaline earth metals is described. For a boat (70x8, and 0.3 mm thickness), made from Cu, brass, and Ni, the fall in temperature over the boat was 70, 130, 250, and 340 0 , respectively, for air-C 2 H 2 and 50, 100, 210, and 280 0 for N 2 O-C 2 H 2 flame. Introduction of the boat increases the C/O ratio in the analytical zone of the flame, probably caused by a creation of a shaded space, immediately above the boat. Smaller amounts of atmospheric O enter into the space, when compared with the flame in the absence of the boat. The increase in the C/O ratio decreases the absorbance, which in turn, is caused by the fall in temperature and formation of carbides. Time lag between heating of the boat and the initiation of vaporization of the sample and the duration of evaporation impulse were measured. Solutions of CsCl, containing 1 μg Cs/ml were used at 852.1 nm. The boats, previously treated with 0.1% polystyrene in C 6 H 6 , to give a hydrophobic surface and an uniform salt layer distribution, containing the sample were dried under an ir lamp and introduced into the flame. The dependence of Cs emission on the thickness of the different materials (Ni, Cu, Ta) and heights of boats in the air-C 2 H 2 flame is illustrated. The duration of the emission impulse decreases linearly with the decrease of thickness of the boat for all materials tested. Limits of detection of Na, K, Li, Rb, Cs, Ca, Sr, and Ba were determined by using the equilibrium and the boat methods, the latter being some 1-2 orders lower than the former

  14. Arsenic and other oxyanion-forming trace elements in an alluvial basin aquifer: Evaluating sources and mobilization by isotopic tracers (Sr, B, S, O, H, Ra)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinson, David S., E-mail: dsv3@duke.edu [Duke University, Division of Earth and Ocean Sciences, Box 90227, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); McIntosh, Jennifer C. [University of Arizona, Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, 1133 E. James E. Rogers Way, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Dwyer, Gary S.; Vengosh, Avner [Duke University, Division of Earth and Ocean Sciences, Box 90227, Durham, NC 27708 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    oxyanion-forming trace element concentrations (B, V, Cr, Se, Mo, Sb), and F{sup -} concentrations are associated with a group of waters exhibiting lower {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios (0.71012-0.71503), suggesting that sediments derived from Tertiary felsic volcanic rocks are a significant source of these trace elements in groundwater. {delta}{sup 34}S{sub SO4} (2.0-13.4 per mille) and {delta}{sup 11}B (-6.7 per mille to 18.2 per mille) variations suggest that rain-derived B and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} plus marine gypsum derived from Paleozoic sedimentary rocks and B derived from felsic volcanic rocks explain the observed values. In addition to the sources of these elemental and isotopic signatures, down-gradient hydrogeochemical modification associated with silicate weathering and perhaps cation exchange are recorded by the decreasing Ca/Na ratio. Very low levels of {sup 226}Ra in groundwater relative to U throughout the basin-fill aquifer are consistent with the oxic, neutral to high-pH conditions in which mobility of U is strongly favored relative to Ra. Used in combination, multiple isotopic and geochemical tracers can provide valuable information for understanding the relative importance of sediment source and hydrogeochemical processes for observed levels of As and other naturally-occurring trace elements. These tracers, in particular {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr with its sensitivity to aquifer sediment source, can be applied to other alluvial basin-fill aquifers in the southwestern USA where multiple sediment types contribute varying amounts of As and other oxyanion-forming trace elements to groundwater.

  15. Oskarshamn site investigation. Batch experiments of I, Cs, Sr, Ni, Eu, U and Np sorption onto soil from the Laxemar area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holgersson, Stellan (Dept. of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Nuclear Chemistry, Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2009-04-15

    Soil and groundwater samples from the Laxemar area have been collected and characterised, as have previously been reported. Batch experiments with sorption of radiotracers of I, Cs, Sr, Ni, Eu, U and Np have been made with eight selected soil samples and one natural groundwater. The solid/liquid ratio in the experiments was 1/48 and sampling were made at 3 hours, 1 day, 7 days, 14 days, 40 days and finally 130 days. Phase separation was made by centrifugation field > 20 kG. Experiments were made in an inert-gas glove-box (O{sub 2} < 1 ppm). The same type of batch sorption experiments was also made with a synthetic groundwater. The recipe for the synthetic groundwater was based on the analyses of the natural groundwater, except for dissolved organic matter, which were omitted. A separate series of supporting experiments, without radionuclide tracers, were made for the measurement of the evolution of pH and Eh. Another series of supporting experiments were made for a number of chemical analyses, where samples were taken at 14 and 130 days only: anion and cation chromatography, alkalinity titrations, total organic carbon (TOC), inorganic carbon, pH and Eh measurements, ICP-MS and -OES analyses of background radiotracer elements and a number of other elements. The general trend of the batch sorption results show specific surface corrected distribution coefficients, R{sub a} (m) that increase with time, but the trend is a levelling out to limiting values. Iodine sorption is generally below the lower detection limit and very few data could be collected for this tracer. Eu generally shows the strongest sorption and some measurements at the later samplings are above the upper detection limit. Results from the batch experiments with peat and natural groundwater at 130 days give R{sub a} values that ranges from 5x10-5 (Sr) to 3x10-4 m (Cs). The order of increasing sorption is: Sr, Ni, Np, Eu, U and Cs. For synthetic groundwater Eu and U sorption is stronger, at least

  16. Oskarshamn site investigation. Batch experiments of I, Cs, Sr, Ni, Eu, U and Np sorption onto soil from the Laxemar area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holgersson, Stellan

    2009-04-01

    Soil and groundwater samples from the Laxemar area have been collected and characterised, as have previously been reported. Batch experiments with sorption of radiotracers of I, Cs, Sr, Ni, Eu, U and Np have been made with eight selected soil samples and one natural groundwater. The solid/liquid ratio in the experiments was 1/48 and sampling were made at 3 hours, 1 day, 7 days, 14 days, 40 days and finally 130 days. Phase separation was made by centrifugation field > 20 kG. Experiments were made in an inert-gas glove-box (O 2 a (m) that increase with time, but the trend is a levelling out to limiting values. Iodine sorption is generally below the lower detection limit and very few data could be collected for this tracer. Eu generally shows the strongest sorption and some measurements at the later samplings are above the upper detection limit. Results from the batch experiments with peat and natural groundwater at 130 days give R a values that ranges from 5x10 -5 (Sr) to 3x10 -4 m (Cs). The order of increasing sorption is: Sr, Ni, Np, Eu, U and Cs. For synthetic groundwater Eu and U sorption is stronger, at least initially, compared with the natural groundwater, but for Cs the sorption is weaker over the whole sampling period. Results from the batch experiments with gyttja and natural groundwater at 130 days give R a values that ranges from 3x10 -5 (Sr) to 1x10 -2 m (Eu). The order of increasing sorption is: Sr, Cs, U, Ni, Np and Eu. For synthetic groundwater the sorption of U is stronger and comparable with Eu. Results from the batch experiments with clay gyttja, type I and natural groundwater at 130 days give R a values that ranges from 1x10 -5 (Sr) to > 1x10 -3 m (Eu). The order of increasing sorption is: Sr, Cs, Ni, U, Np and Eu. For synthetic groundwater the sorption of U is stronger, at least initially, comparable with Eu. For Np, on the other hand, the sorption is weaker and comparable with Sr over the whole sampling period. Results from the batch experiments

  17. Recording of ecological half-lives of 90Sr and 137Cs in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proehl, G.; Fiedler, I.; Ehlken, S.

    2004-01-01

    Within this project, the long-term behaviour of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in foods, feeds and a variety of environmental was analysed. The long-term behaviour is quantified by means of the ecological half-life which integrates all processes that cause a decrease of activity in a given medium as leaching, fixation and erosion. The following results were achieved: - For plant and animal food products, the ecological half-lives are in the range of 4 to 6 and 10 to 20 years for cesium and strontium respectively. The ecological half-lives for the period 1965 to 1985 are slightly shorter than those derived from monitoring measurements performed after 1987, due to the ongoing deposition in the post weapons' fallout period. - According to the German radioecological model that is applied during licensing of nuclear installations to assess radiation exposures to the general due to planned releases, the ecological half-lives for plant food products are 26 and 13 a for cesium and strontium respectively. In radioecological model that is used within the decision support system RODOS, the ecological half-lives are 8 years for Cesium and 14 years for strontium, which agrees well with the finding of this study. - For roe deer, deer, wild boar and forest plants (including mushrooms), under Middle European conditions, the ecological half-lives are about 12 years for cesium. However, in Ukraine, the cesium levels in forest products are much more persistent; in some cases the decrease of activity is only caused by the radioactive decay. - The variability of the long-term behaviour of 137Cs and 90Sr in freshwater ecosystems is much more pronounced than for terrestrial systems. It depends strongly on the sitespecific characteristics. The observed ecological half-lives for 137Cs and 90Sr cover a wide range from several days to several years. - The data to derive ecological half-lives of cesium in soil is relatively poor. For the upper soil layer of 0-10 cm, ecological half-lives were derived

  18. Parametric study of the sorption of Cs(I) and Sr(II) on mixture of bentonite and magnetite using SCM + IEXM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipska, H.; Stamberg, K.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The behaviour and subsequent fate of released radionuclides in bentonite barrier surrounding the degraded canister is influenced mainly by sorption. We studied sorption processes in such system experimentally and we modelled and simulated them using surface-complexation (SCM) and ion exchange (IExM) models. Our experimental system consisted of: (1) synthetic granitic water with a given ionic strength (0.1 or 0.01 NaNO 3 ), (2) radionuclides studied (10 -6 mol/l CsCl or SrCl 2 .6H 2 O spiked with 137 Cs or 85 Sr), (3) bentonite pre-treated with the aim to remove carbonates, and magnetite as a representative of corrosion products of steel canister. The alkali-metric and acidimetric titrations under exclusion of CO 2 and the percentage of sorption as a function of pH under oxic conditions at room temperature for bentonite, magnetite and their mixtures under different conditions were determined. The resulting data were modelled and appropriate mathematical description was found: SCM non-electrostatic so called Chemical Model (CEM) for the description of sorption on edge sites and ion exchange model (IExM) for sorption on layer sites. Component Additivity Approach (CA) composed of weighted combination of models describing sorption on bentonite and magnetite was verified. In the course of evaluation procedures, the protonation constants, total concentrations of edge sites and layer sites, cation exchange constants and sorption constants for present Cs and Sr forms were obtained by fitting corresponding experimental data. Consequently, CEM+IExM models and the calculated model parameters were used for predictive (simulation) calculations and parametric study of the sorption of Cs(I) and Sr(II) on bentonite, magnetite and their mixtures. The parametric study covered the influence of pH, solid to liquid ratio, bentonite to magnetite ratio, initial concentrations of Cs and Sr, pCO 2 and ionic strength on the values of selectivity coefficients

  19. The concentration of Cs, Sr and other elements in water samples collected in a paddy field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ban-nai, Tadaaki; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi; Yanai-Kudo, Masumi; Hasegawa, Hidenao; Torikai, Yuji

    2000-01-01

    To research elemental concentrations in soil water in a paddy field, samples of the soil water were collected with porous Teflon resin tubes which were buried in the field. The soil water collections were made at various depth, 2.5, 12.5, 25 and 35 cm from the surface in the paddy field, located in Rokkasho, Aomori, once every two weeks during the rice cultivation period, from May to October in 1998. The paddy field was irrigated from May 7th to July 20th, dried from July 20th to August 5th, then again irrigated until September 16th. Drastic changes of the alkaline earth metal elements, Fe and Mn in soil water samples were seen at the beginning and end of the midsummer drainage. The concentrations of Cs, Fe, Mn and NH 4 in soil water samples showed a similar variation pattern to that of alkaline earth metal elements in the waterlogged period. The change of redox potential was considered a possible cause for the concentration variation for these substances. (author)

  20. The transfer factor of dairy milk from fallout of nuclear explosions to the activity concentration in milk with respect to 137Cs and 90Sr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moere, H.

    1979-06-01

    In the 1977 UNSCEAR report a model has been used to describe the transfer of fallout from nuclear explosions to the activity in milk. Swedish data on milk was fitted to this model by regression analysis. Out data consist of regular countrywide measurements since 1962 for 137 Cs and 1966 for 90 Sr in milk. Fallout measurements of 137 Cs have been made since 1962. To get a better fit, the fallout data has been supplemented with fallout data of 90 Sr derived from data of fallout on the northern hemisphere for the years 1957 - 61. The transfer factors which describe the transfer from fallout to activity in milk were found to be for the countrywide mean values of 137 Cs 8.1 Bqyear/gK/kBq/m 2 and of 90 Sr 5.1 Bqyear/gCa/kBq/m 2 . The transfer factors for 137 Cs for Stockholm, Malmoe and Gothenburg were 5.9, 4.4 and 8.7 Bqyear/gK/kBq/m 2 . These values agree closely to the values found in a survey made by the Institute in 1972. They also seem to agree with the values from Denmark and Norway in the 1977 UNSCEAR report. (author)

  1. METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS 90SR AND 137CS IN-VIVO MEASUREMENTS OF SMALL ANIMALS AND OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL MEDIA DEVELOPED FOR THE CONDITIONS OF THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    To perform in vivo simultaneous measurements of the {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs content in the bodies of animals living in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (ChEZ), an appropriate method and equipment were developed and installed in a mobile gamma beta spectrometry laboratory. This technique was designed for animals of relatively small sizes (up to 50 g). The {sup 90}Sr content is measured by a beta spectrometer with a 0.1 mm thick scintillation plastic detector. The spectrum processing takes into account the fact that the measured object is 'thick-layered' and contains a comparable quantity of {sup 137}Cs, which is a characteristic condition of the ChEZ. The {sup 137}Cs content is measured by a NaI scintillation detector that is part of the combined gamma beta spectrometry system. For environmental research performed in the ChEZ, the advantages of this method and equipment (rapid measurements, capability to measure live animals directly in their habitat, and the capability of simultaneous {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs measurements) far outweigh the existing limitations (considerations must be made for background radiation and the animal size, skeletal shape and body mass). The accuracy of these in vivo measurements is shown to be consistent with standard spectrometric and radiochemical methods. Apart from the in vivo measurements, the proposed methodology, after a very simple upgrade that is also described in the article, works even more accurately with samples of other media, such as soil and plants.

  2. Methodology and levels of {sup 137} Cs, {sup 90} Sr and {sup 239} {sup +} {sup 240} Pu in marine sediments from the Brazilian Southern Coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueira, R.C.L. [Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul - CETEC/UNICSUL - Sao Paulo/SP (Brazil); Tessler, M.G.; Mahiques, M.M. de [Instituto Oceanografico da Univesidade de Sao Paulo - IOUSP - Sao Paulo/SP (Brazil); Cunha, I.I.L. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN/CNEN-SP -Sao Paulo/SP (Brazil)]. e-mail: figueira@curiango.ipen.br

    2004-07-01

    Methodologies for analysis of {sup 137} Cs, {sup 90} Sr and {sup 239} {sup +} {sup 240} Pu were developed and applied to sediment samples collected along the Brazilian coast. This paper presents the instrumental steps for {sup 137} Cs analysis and the radiochemical steps necessary to analyse {sup 90} Sr and {sup 239} {sup +} {sup 240} Pu. The analytical quality control for radionuclide analysis was verified by participation in international intercomparison exercise running by IAEA as well as in reference material analysis. Further, methodologies were applied in sediments collected from 1976 to 1986 at the Brazilian southern coastal region. {sup 137}Cs levels ranged from 0.37 to 2.03 Bq kg{sup -1}, for {sup 90} Sr from MDC to 8.2 Bq kg{sup -1} and for {sup 239} {sup +} {sup 240} Pu from MDC to 227 m Bq kg{sup -1}. The minimum detectable concentration values (MDC) for {sup 90} Sr and {sup 239} {sup +} {sup 240} Pu were of 0.3 Bq kg{sup -1} and 4.2 mBq kg{sup -1}, respectively. The artificial radioactivity levels in Brazilian sediments are typical values due to fallout deposition and represent reference values for our country. (Author)

  3. Mechanisms of desorption of 134Cs and 85Sr aerosols deposited on urban surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Real, J.; Persin, F.; Camarasa-Claret, C.

    2002-01-01

    The radioactive isotopes of cesium and strontium may be deposited on urban surfaces in the case of an accidental atmospheric discharge from a nuclear facility and thus imply a health hazard. In order to handle the decontamination of these surfaces, we have carried out experiments under controlled conditions on tiles and concrete and we have studied the physical and chemical mechanisms at the solid-liquid interface. The deposition of radionuclides was carried out in the form of aerosols indicating an accidental source term. Their desorption by rainwater is low in all cases, of the order of 5-6% for cesium for any material and 29 and 12% for strontium on tile and concrete, respectively. The low desorption values of cesium may be explained by the strong bonding that occurs with the silicates constituting the tile due to virtually irreversible processes of exchange of ions and by the formation of insoluble complexes with the C-S-H gel of concrete. The strontium-tile bonds are weaker, while strontium precipitates with the carbonates of concrete in the form of SrCO 3 . In view of these characteristics, washing solutions with high concentrations of chloride and oxalate of ammonium chosen for their ion-exchanging and sequestering properties were tested on these surfaces. The desorption of cesium improved strongly since it reached 70% on tile and 90% on concrete after 24 h of contact, which is consistent with our knowledge of the bonds between this element and the surfaces. Strontium, given the greater complexity of physical and chemical forms that it may take is less well desorbed. The ammonium chloride improves the desorption (50% and 40%, for tile and concrete, respectively) but the oxalate, while it does not affect desorption on the tiles, decreases that on the concrete since by strongly etching the concrete, it causes the release of carbonate ions that precipitate with strontium

  4. RA Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-02-01

    In addition to basic characteristics of the RA reactor, organizational scheme and financial incentives, this document covers describes the state of the reactor components after 18 years of operation, problems concerned with obtaining the licence for operation with 80% fuel, problems of spent fuel storage in the storage pool of the reactor building and the need for renewal of reactor equipment, first of all instrumentation [sr

  5. Evaluation of distribution coefficients and concentration ratios of (90)Sr and (137)Cs in the Techa River and the Miass River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishkina, E A; Pryakhin, E A; Popova, I Ya; Osipov, D I; Tikhova, Yu; Andreyev, S S; Shaposhnikova, I A; Egoreichenkov, E A; Styazhkina, E V; Deryabina, L V; Tryapitsina, G A; Melnikov, V; Rudolfsen, G; Teien, H-C; Sneve, M K; Akleyev, A V

    2016-07-01

    Empirical data on the behavior of radionuclides in aquatic ecosystems are needed for radioecological modeling, which is commonly used for predicting transfer of radionuclides, estimating doses, and assessing possible adverse effects on species and communities. Preliminary studies of radioecological parameters including distribution coefficients and concentration ratios, for (90)Sr and (137)Cs were not in full agreement with the default values used in the ERICA Tool and the RESRAD BIOTA codes. The unique radiation situation in the Techa River, which was contaminated by long-lived radionuclides ((90)Sr and (137)Cs) in the middle of the last century allows improved knowledge about these parameters for river systems. Therefore, the study was focused on the evaluation of radioecological parameters (distribution coefficients and concentration ratios for (90)Sr and (137)Cs) for the Techa River and the Miass River, which is assumed as a comparison waterbody. To achieve the aim the current contamination of biotic and abiotic components of the river ecosystems was studied; distribution coefficients for (90)Sr and (137)Cs were calculated; concentration ratios of (90)Sr and (137)Cs for three fish species (roach, perch and pike), gastropods and filamentous algae were evaluated. Study results were then compared with default values available for use in the well-known computer codes ERICA Tool and RESRAD BIOTA (when site-specific data are not available). We show that the concentration ratios of (137)Cs in whole fish bodies depend on the predominant type of nutrition (carnivores and phytophagous). The results presented here are useful in the context of improving of tools for assessing concentrations of radionuclides in biota, which could rely on a wider range of ecosystem information compared with the process limited the current versions of ERICA and RESRAD codes. Further, the concentration ratios of (90)Sr are species-specific and strongly dependent on Ca(2+) concentration in

  6. Transfer factor of "9"0Sr and "1"3"7Cs to lettuce and winter wheat at different growth stage applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Attar, Lina; Al-Oudat, Mohammad; Safia, Bassam; Ghani, Basem Abdul

    2015-01-01

    The effect of clay soil contamination time on the transfer factors (F_vs) of "1"3"7Cs and "9"0Sr was investigated in four different growth stages of winter wheat and lettuce crops. The experiment was performed in an open field using lysimeters. The F_vs were the ratio of the activity concentrations of the radionuclides in crops to those in soil, both as dry weight (Bq kg"−"1). Significant difference of log-F_vs was evaluated using one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Basically, F_vs of "9"0Sr were higher than those of "1"3"7Cs, despite of the application stage or crop' variety. Higher F_vs for both radionuclides were observed for lettuce in comparison to winter wheat. F_vs of "9"0Sr showed comparable trends for both crops with enhanced F_vs obtained when contamination occurred in early stages, i.e. 1.20 for lettuce and 0.88 and 0.02 for winter wheat, straw and grains, respectively. Despite the fluctuation noted in the pattern of F_vs for "1"3"7Cs, soil contaminated at the second stage gave the highest F_vs for lettuce and grains, with geometric means of 0.21 and 0.01, respectively. However, wheat-straw showed remarkable increase in F_v for the latest contamination (ripening stage), about 0.06. It could be concluded that soil contamination at early growth stages would represent high radiological risk for the scenarios studied with an exception to "1"3"7Cs in winter wheat-straw which reflected greater hazard at the latest application. - Highlights: • Higher TFs for both radionuclides were observed for leafy plant in comparison to cereals. • Despite the growth stages & plants' variety, TFs of "9"0Sr were always higher than those of "1"3"7Cs. • TFs of "9"0Sr showed comparable trends in both crops and were higher at earlier growth stages. • Fluctuation noted in TFs for "1"3"7Cs in lettuce with higher TFs at second contamination-stage. • High TFs for "1"3"7Cs when contamination occurred at the latest growth stage of wheat vegetative.

  7. Annual deposition of Sr-90, Cs-137 and Pu-239, 240 from the 1961 - 1980 nuclear explosions: a simple model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, K.; Aoyama, M.; Katsuragi, Y.; Sugimura, Y.

    1987-01-01

    The annual deposition of Sr-90, Cs-137, Pu-239, 240, and Pu-238 were observed from 1959 to 1984 at the Meteorological Research Institute (MRI). In order to interpret the serial trends of the annual radioactive deposition at the MRI, a semi-empirical box model of atmospheric transport was developed. The model divides the atmosphere of the Northern Hemisphere into four compartments: the atmosphere above 21 km, stratosphere below 21 km, active mixing and exchange (AME) layer near the tropopause, and the troposphere. The transfer between the compartments follows the first-order kinetics. The half residence times for transfer between upper and lower stratospheric compartments, between the lower and AME layer compartments, and between the AME layer and troposphere are 0.5, 0.7 and 0.3 yrs, respectively. It is revealed that as a long-term monitoring of the annual deposition of radioactive debris in the mid-latitude area, the model quantitatively permits the calculation of stratospheric inventories and trends of annual deposition of debris injected into the stratosphere which are characterized by apparent residence times of 0.5 to 1.7 yrs. This simple model is useful to predict the annual deposition amount of radioactive debris from the thermonuclear explosion for practical purposes. (author)

  8. 241Am, 137Cs, Sr and Pb uptake by tobacco as influenced by application of Fe chelators to soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuhrmann, Mark; Lanzirotti, Antonio

    2005-01-01

    To determine the potential for phytoextraction of 241 Am and other contaminants from soil, accumulation of 241 Am, 137 Cs, Sr, Fe, Al, Pb, and Mg by tobacco was determined for soil applications of two concentrations of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), citric acid, and ascorbic acid. In tobacco receiving EDTA at 3.1 mmol/kg of soil, 241 Am content of plants averaged 15 Bq/kg (ranging up to 26 Bq/kg) while Fe concentrations became constant at 4.5 mmol/kg. Soil treatment with 18.8 mmol/kg EDTA resulted in average 241 Am concentrations of 29 Bq/kg (19 times higher than controls). Uptake of Pb was similar to 241 Am. In these samples, Fe increased to a maximum of almost 18 mmol/kg and 241 Am content increased linearly with both Fe and Al. Plants receiving ascorbic and citric acids took up smaller quantities of 241 Am, Pb, and Fe, even though these reagents were able to elute about as much Fe from the soil as EDTA. Synchrotron microbeam X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) was used to determine radial distributions of elements in roots and stems with and without EDTA treatment. SXRF maps indicate differences in behavior between Fe and Pb that are consistent with the bulk plant observations and provide insight into changes in metal content of the roots in the presence of EDTA

  9. Retention of simulated fallout nuclides in agricultural crops. 2. Deposition of Cs and Sr on grain crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, Aake; Rosen, K.; Haak, E.

    1998-01-01

    Experiments with artificial wet depositions of 134 Cs and 85 Sr at different times during the growth period were carried out. The studies are complementary to the experiences after the Chernobyl fallout and the results are compared with similar earlier Swedish works on nuclide retention in experiments and on fallout in agriculture. The aim has been to cover the nuclide transfer to grain crops after deposition at different times during the growing period. The initial interception capacity per kg d.w., TRd, seemed to depend on the surface/weight ratio of the plant parts considered. Changes in TRd-values were rapid during the early growth but slower in later stages. The reduction half-time was then often 2 weeks for vegetative parts. Considering the fraction of a deposition retained, FRd, the residence half-time had an average length of 3-4 weeks. During that time there were possibilities for cesium penetration into the plant and further transfer to ears and grain. Strontium did not seem to be transferred that way. There was no increase of cesium in the ears per unit d.w. after the initial interception. However, there was a steady increase in the total content, especially after deposition during the latter half of the growth period when about 5 % was retained of cesium, and 2 % of strontium. The retention of fallout caesium in 1964 was statistically estimated to be of about the same size in Swedish grains

  10. Radiation intake and content of 90Sr and 137Cs in the bodies of the USSR residents in 1980-1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkhudarov, R.M.; Borisov, B.K.; Knizhnikov, V.A.; Petukhova, Eh.V.; Shepeleva, E.R.

    1987-01-01

    Radiation environment in the USSR territory specified by global fallout of 90 Sr and 137 Cs is characterized by stability. Changes in the levels of food contamination, rations, body concentrations and equivalent irradiation doses lie within the limits of definition errors though there exists a tendency towards a decrease. In 1982 an equivalent irradiation dose for bone marrow was 21.4 mcZv per year and for soft tissue 2.4 mcZv. Integral coefficient of 90 Sr transfer from the fallout to the equivalent dose in the bone marrow equals 0.38 mcCr/Bc/m 2

  11. A study of internal contamination, using 137Cs and 90Sr urinary level, as indicator in the case of nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albulescu, L.; Gruia, D.

    1996-01-01

    Our laboratory has from long time a permanent monitoring programme concerning the radioactivity of the environmental factors in Bechet zone (fallout, drinking water, soil) and foodstuffs. The topical results of this programme indicates that there were not significant modifications in the 137 Cs and 90 Sr mean-levels, as indicators in case of nuclear accident, due by Chernobyl accident or by the nearby functioning of NPP in Koslodui. The purpose of this study is to determine the internal contamination of the population in Dolj-district, using the indirect test of determination of radioactivity of excretes (urinary analysis). The daily-urinary levels of 90 Sr and 137 Cs are the best indicators for the human body contamination, in the case of a nuclear accident, conclusion that can be drawn from the Fig.1 below. The variation of these indicators shows that the young people is the most exposed segment of population. (author)

  12. Studying of distribution of 137Cs, 90Sr, 239+240Pu, 241Am and 244Cm according to the organic acids fractions of the alienation zone soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odintsov, A.A.; Sazhenyuk, A.D.

    2004-01-01

    The paper deals with data of research on the distribution of the radionuclides 137Cs, 90Sr, 239+240Pu, 241Am and 244Cm of ''the Chornobyl rains'' by the fractions of the organic matters of derno-podzolic sandy, derno-meadow and peat soils sampled in the alienation zone of the Chornobyl NPP. Functioning of organic matters was carried according to Tyurin's method. It is stressed that, independently on soil type, 137Cs is connected with the mineral contituent by 80-95%. It is found out that, independently on the soil type, 50-70% 137Sr and 15-45% 241Am are associated with fulvic acid fractions. The 241Am and 244Cm distribution according to organic acids taking into account deviations while carrying out determinations is unambiguous. It is found out that in all the soils tested the main quality of 239+24Pu is connected with humic acids

  13. On accumulation of 90Sr and 137Cs by some lower plants in the vicinity of the Beloyarsky atomic power station in the Urals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nifontova, M.G.; Kulikov, N.V.

    1981-01-01

    The data are given on the content of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in thalluses of the foliose epiphytic lichen Hypogymnia physodes (L) and in a number of the most widely distributed in nature edxble fungi that grow in the forests of the sanitary-protective zone of the Beloyarsk nuclear power station in the Middle Urals: russula-Russula cyaxantha (Schw)Fr; brown cap boletus-Leccinum scabrum (Fe)S.F.Gray, milk-agaric-Lactarius resimus Fr., russula-Russula foetens (Fr.)Fr. It has been ascertained that the concentration of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in epiphytic lichens and edible agaric fungi in the vicinity of the Beloyarsk nuclear power station does not exceed the background content of these radionuclides characteristic of analogous plants in other locations outside the range of a possible effect of the nuclear power station [ru

  14. Removal of Cs+, Sr2+, and Co2+ ions from the mixture of organics and suspended solids aqueous solutions by zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Xiang Hong; Fang, Fang; Lu, Chun Hai; Zheng, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Serving as an excellent adsorbent and inorganic ion exchanger in the water purification field, zeolite 4A has in this work presented a strong capability for purifying radioactive waste, such as Sr 2+ , Cs + , and Co 2+ in water. During the processes of decontamination and decommissioning of suspended solids and organics in low-level radioactive wastewater, the purification performance of zeolite 4A has been studied. Under ambient temperature and neutral condition, zeolite 4A absorbed simulated radionuclides such as Sr 2+ , Cs + , and Co 2+ with an absorption rate of almost 90%. Additionally, in alkaline condition, the adsorption percentage even approached 98.7%. After conducting research on suspended solids and organics of zeolite 4A for the treatment of radionuclides, it was found that the suspended clay was conducive to absorption, whereas the absorption of organics in solution was determined by the species of radionuclides and organics. Therefore, zeolite 4A has considerable potential in the treatment of radioactive wastewater

  15. Diffusion of I{sup -}, Cs{sup +}, and Sr{sup 2+} in compacted bentonite - Anion exclusion and surface diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksen, T.E.; Jansson, Mats [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear Chemistry

    1996-11-01

    The diffusion of I, Cs and Sr ions in bentonite compacted to a dry density of 1.8 gr/cm{sup 3} and saturated with two groundwaters of different ionic strength have been studied experimentally using the through diffusion technique. The I{sup -} diffusivity and diffusion porosity were found to be concentration independent in the concentration range exp(-8) to exp(-2) mol/dm{sup 3}. The diffusion porosity, being only a fraction of the water porosity for normal groundwaters, is strongly ionic strength dependent due to anion exclusion. The dependence of the diffusion of Cs{sup +} and Sr{sup 2+} on the sorption intensity is accommodated by a model encompassing diffusion of the sorbed cations within the electrical double layer next to the mineral surface in addition to diffusion in the pore water. 18 refs, 12 figs.

  16. Evaluation of small scale laboratory and pot experiments to determine realistic transfer factors for the radionuclides 90Sr, 137Cs, 60Co and 54Mn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steffens, W.; Fuehr, F.; Mittelstaedt, W.

    1980-01-01

    Transfer factors for the root uptake of 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 60 Co and 54 Mn were compared using outdoor lysimeters, Kick-Brauckmann experimental pots under greenhouse conditions and Neubauer cups under growth chamber conditions. The uptake was studied in barley, potatoes, sugar beet and salad vegetables grown on either podsolic or loess soil. The transfer factors for these radionuclides under the specific conditions of the small scale Neubauer cup experiments differed greatly from those obtained from the outdoor lysimeter. In the pot experiments, the transfer factors for 90 Sr, 137 Cs and 54 Mn showed less deviation from the lysimeter results especially in crops grown on podsolic soil. For 60 Co, the transfer factors varied for the different crops grown. Transfer factors obtained in pot experiments can only be applicable to a limited extent to field conditions; factors influencing the transfer factors in pot experiments include soil volume, root density, root/shoot ratio, water supply and fertilizer application rate. (UK)

  17. Spallation reaction study for fission products in nuclear waste: Cross section measurements for {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr on proton and deuteron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H., E-mail: wanghe@ribf.riken.jp [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Otsu, H.; Sakurai, H.; Ahn, D.S. [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Aikawa, M. [Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Doornenbal, P.; Fukuda, N.; Isobe, T. [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Kawakami, S. [Department of Applied Physics, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki 889-2192 (Japan); Koyama, S. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Kubo, T.; Kubono, S.; Lorusso, G. [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Maeda, Y. [Department of Applied Physics, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki 889-2192 (Japan); Makinaga, A. [Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, North-14, West-5, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8648 (Japan); Momiyama, S. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Nakano, K. [Department of Advanced Energy Engineering Science, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Niikura, M. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Shiga, Y. [Department of Physics, Rikkyo University, 3-34-1 Nishi-Ikebukuro, Toshima, Tokyo 171-8501 (Japan); RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Söderström, P.-A. [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); and others

    2016-03-10

    We have studied spallation reactions for the fission products {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr for the purpose of nuclear waste transmutation. The spallation cross sections on the proton and deuteron were obtained in inverse kinematics for the first time using secondary beams of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr at 185 MeV/nucleon at the RIKEN Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory. The target dependence has been investigated systematically, and the cross-section differences between the proton and deuteron are found to be larger for lighter spallation products. The experimental data are compared with the PHITS calculation, which includes cascade and evaporation processes. Our results suggest that both proton- and deuteron-induced spallation reactions are promising mechanisms for the transmutation of radioactive fission products.

  18. Effects of Yamase climatic condition during the pollen mother cell developmental stage on concentrations of Cs and Sr in brown rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanai, Masumi; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Yamagami, Mutsumi; Takaku, Yuichi; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi

    2007-01-01

    Effects of the Yamase climatic condition on the concentration of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals in brown rice were examined in relation to the soil-to-plant transfer factors of 137 Cs and 90 Sr. Rice plants (Oryza sativa L cv. Yumeakari) were cultivated in an artificial climate chamber, and exposed to a simulated Yamase condition for 3 or 7 d during the pollen mother cell developmental stage. In these simulated treatments, temperature and light intensity were set to 5degC lower and 50% lower than the respective control values. Fog was generated with visibility of 70±30 m. Concentrations of alkali metals, alkaline earth metals and the other minor elements in brown rice samples were analyzed. Measured Cs and Sr concentrations were found to be unaffected by the Yamase treatments, while concentrations of Fe, Cu, Zn and Mo were increased. (author)

  19. Regularity of mortality and life span of the experimental animals under the exposure of protracted internal irradiation with radionuclides of 137Cs and 90Sr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yindik, V.M.; Serkyiz, Ya.Yi.; Lips'ka, A.Yi.; Alyistratov, O.V.; Drozd, Yi.P.; Gerasimova, T.B.; Dudchenko, T.M.

    2002-01-01

    It has been shown that exposure to protracted low intense irradiation with low doses, caused by radionuclides ( 137 Cs and 90 Sr) has negative influence on survival indices and expected life span in different groups according to age. Mortality of irradiated animals is mainly caused by development of pathological processes of tumor origin. The frequency of radiation induced tumors is the same with intact control

  20. Influence of agrochemical characteristics of 85Sr and 137Cs in soil samples from the localities around nuclear power plants in Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cipakova, A.; Mitro, A.

    1997-01-01

    Sorption of radiostrontium and radiocesium, two biologically available radionuclides in soils was studied. Experiments were carried out on the soil samples from the localities around nuclear power plants. Adsorption processes are the function of many factors. Multi-para-metrical regression analysis was used for studying of the influence of agrochemical characteristics on sorption of 85 Sr and 137 Cs in observed soil types. (authors)

  1. Effect of chemical pollution on forms of 137Cs, 90Sr and 239,240Pu in arctic soil studied by sequential extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhakainen, M; Riekkinen, I; Heikkinen, T; Jaakkola, T; Steinnes, E; Rissanen, K; Suomela, M; Thørring, H

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the forms of 137Cs, 90Sr and 239,240Pu occurring in different soil horizons using sequential extraction of samples taken from four sites located along a pollution gradient from the copper-nickel smelter at Monchegorsk in the Kola Peninsula, Russia, and from a reference site in Finnish Lapland in 1997. A selective sequential-leaching procedure was employed using a modification of the method of Tessier, Cambell and Bisson ((1979). Analytical Chemistry, 51, 844-851). For 137Cs the organic (O) and uppermost mineral (E1) layer were studied, for 90Sr and 239,240Pu only the uppermost organic layer (Of). The fraction of 137Cs occurring in readily exchangeable form in the organic layer was about 50% at the reference site and decreased as a function of pollution, being 15% at the most polluted site in the Kola Peninsula. There was a clear positive correlation in the O layer between the distance from the smelter and the percentage of 137Cs extracted in the readily exchangeable fraction (Spearman correlation rsp = 0.7805, p = 0.0001), whereas in the E1 layer no correlation was evident. The distribution of 90Sr in the Of layer was similar at all sites, with the highest amounts occurring in exchangeable form and bound to organic matter, whereas stable Sr showed a somewhat different distribution with the highest amount in the oxide fraction. Most of the 239,240Pu was bound to organic matter. Chemical pollution affected the exchangeable fraction of 239,240Pu, which was about 1% at the most polluted site and 4-6% at the other sites.

  2. First-principles study of new series of quaternary Heusler alloys CsSrCZ (Z=Si, Ge, Sn, P, As, and Sb)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouabça, A. [Condensed Matter and Sustainable Development Laboratory (LMCDD), University of Sidi Bel-Abbes, Sidi Bel-Abbes 22000 (Algeria); Rozale, H., E-mail: hrozale@yahoo.fr [Condensed Matter and Sustainable Development Laboratory (LMCDD), University of Sidi Bel-Abbes, Sidi Bel-Abbes 22000 (Algeria); Amar, A. [Condensed Matter and Sustainable Development Laboratory (LMCDD), University of Sidi Bel-Abbes, Sidi Bel-Abbes 22000 (Algeria); Wang, X.T. [School of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Chongqing Normal University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Sayade, A. [UCCS, CNRS-UMR 8181, Université d’Artois, Faculté des Sciences Jean Perrin, Rue Jean Souvraz, SP 18, 62307 Lens Cedex (France); Chahed, A. [Condensed Matter and Sustainable Development Laboratory (LMCDD), University of Sidi Bel-Abbes, Sidi Bel-Abbes 22000 (Algeria)

    2016-12-01

    The structural, electronic, magnetic, and thermal properties of new quaternary Heusler alloys CsSrCZ (Z=Si, Ge, Sn, P, As, and Sb) were investigated using the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FPLAPW) within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and GGA plus modified Becke and Johnson as the exchange correlation. The results showed that all Heusler compounds were stable in Type (I) structure. The CsSrCZ (Z=Si, Ge, Sn) compounds had a nearly HM characteristic, and CsSrCZ (Z=P, As, Sb) compounds were true half-metallic (HM) ferromagnets. The strong spin polarization of p orbital for C, Si, Ge, Sn, P, As, and Sb atoms is found to be the origin of ferromagnetic. The half-metallicity is preserved up to a lattice contraction of 3.45%, 1.69%, 1.69%, 7.16%, 7.16%, and 11.2% for all six quaternary Heusler compounds. We also investigated the thermal effects using the quasi-harmonic Debye model. - Highlights: • Electronic, magnetic, and thermodynamic properties of CsSrCZ (Z=Si, Ge, Sn, P, As, and Sb) are investigated. • Until now, there have been no reports theoretical and experimental studies on d{sup 0} half-metals with quaternary structures. • The strong spin polarization of p orbital for C, Si, Ge, Sn, P, As, and Sb atoms is found to be the origin of ferromagnetic. • The half-metallicity is preserved up to a lattice contraction.

  3. Migration of 137Cs, 90Sr, 239,240Pu and 241Am in the chain soil-soil solution-plant. The soil-soil solution link

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolik, G.A.; Ovsyannikova, S.V.; Kil'chitskaya, S.L.; Ehjsmont, E.A.; Zhukovich, N.V.; Kimlenko, I.M.; Duksina, V.V.; Rubinchik, S.Ya.

    1999-01-01

    The mobility of 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 239,240 Pu and 241 Am in the link soil-soil solution is analysed for different soil types on the basis of radionuclide distribution coefficients between solid and liquid soil phases. The distribution coefficients allow to differentiate soils in correlation with radionuclide migration rate from the solid phase to the soil solution. The reasons of different radionuclide mobility are considered

  4. Level and dynamics of internal dose from 137Cs and 90Sr formation in connection with ecological diversity of polluted agrogenoses of Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravets, A.P.; Grodzinsky, D.M.; Pavlenko, Yu.A.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of our calculations was estimation of quantitative influence of ecological diversity on levels and dynamics of internal doses formation from long-lived radionuclide such as 137 Cs and 90 Sr. Our estimations have radioecological nature that is they are based on registration of natural mechanisms of agricultural products pollution. It has been realized on the basis of three-module ecological model of assessment of radiological consequences (EMARC) of use of polluted agrocenoses

  5. Evaluation of distribution coefficients and concentration ratios of 90Sr and 137Cs in the Techa River and the Miass River

    OpenAIRE

    Shishkina, Elena A.; Pryakhin, Evgeny A.; Popova, Irina Ya.; Osipov, Denis I.; Tikhova, Yu.; Andreyev, S.S.; Shaposhnikova, I.A.; Egoreichenkov, E.A.; Styazhkina, E.V.; Deryabina, Larisa V.; Tryapitsina, Galina A.; Melnikov, Viktor S.; Rudolfsen, Geir; Teien, Hans-Christian; Sneve, Malgorzata Karpov

    2016-01-01

    Source:http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0265931X16300959 Empirical data on the behavior of radionuclides in aquatic ecosystems are needed for radioecological modeling, which is commonly used for predicting transfer of radionuclides, estimating doses, and assessing possible adverse effects on species and communities. Preliminary studies of radioecological parameters including distribution coefficients and concentration ratios, for 90Sr and 137Cs were not in full agreement w...

  6. Estimation of Th, Cs, Sr, I, Co, Fe, Zn, Ca and K in major food components using neutron activation analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, Suma; Bhati, Sharda

    2010-01-01

    The concentration of some radiologically and nutritionally important trace elements: Th, Cs, Sr, I, Co, Fe, Zn, Ca and K were determined in major food components such as cereals, pulses, vegetables, fruits, milk etc. The trace elements in food samples were determined using neutron activation analysis technique which involves instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation analysis. Whereas, the trace elements Th, Cs, K and Sr, are important in radiation protection; Fe and Zn are of importance in nutrition studies and Ca and I have dual importance, both in nutrition and radiation protection. The results of analysis show that among the food materials, higher concentrations of Th, Cs, Sr, K, Fe, Zn and Co were found in cereals and pulses. In case of Ca, the milk appears to be the main contributor towards its dietary intake. The estimated concentrations of the trace elements in food components can be employed in determining the daily dietary intake of these elements which in turn can be used for their biokinetic studies. (author)

  7. Estimate of the internal doses received by the population of Bucharest due to 137 Cs and 90 Sr intake in the first five years after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toader, Maria; Vasilache, R. A.

    1995-01-01

    The evolution of the 137 Cs and 90 Sr daily intake between April 1986 and March 1991 as well as the internal doses resulting from ingestion of contaminated food is presented for a group of adults living in Bucharest. The results indicate that the effective doses due to 137 Cs and 90 Sr dietary intake had the highest values in the first year after the Chernobyl accident, namely, 796 μSv as a result of 137 Cs dietary intake and 23 μSv as a result of the 90 Sr dietary intake. The effective doses committed annually due to the Caesium-137 dietary intake decreased very fast from 796 μSv committed in the first year after the accident to 7.3 μSv committed in the fifth year after the accident. Although the effective dose committed in the first year after the accident due to the Strontium-90 dietary intake was much smaller than the dose due to the Caesium-137 (23 μSv), the decrease was slower so that the effective dose committed in the fifth year after the accident due to the Strontium-90 dietary intake was 7.5 μSv. (authors)

  8. Concentration in activity of 137 Cs, 40 K, 232 Th, 226 Ra in waste deposits of the benefits of minerals in the State of Zacatecas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leal, B.; Mireles, F.; Quirino, L.; Davila, I.; Ramirez, F.

    2003-01-01

    The necessity to report the changes in the contained radionuclides in the terrestrial crust, or those deposited by the atomic tests around the world, becomes clear when observing the use of material of waste of those mines. With the purpose of quantifying the concentration in activity its were meet a series of waste samples in mines of the municipalities of Zacatecas, Fresnillo, Guadalupe and Veta Grande of the state of Zacatecas, Mexico. The analysis was carried out by gamma spectrometry with a HPGe detector with a resolution of 1.9 keV corresponding to an energy of 1.33 MeV calibrated in efficiency and energy by means of a certified standard multi nuclide in activity with identical geometry to that of the samples. The times of count are of 80000 seconds, with the purpose of to reduce the relative uncertainties and to define well the interest regions. The activity of 226 Ra and 232 Th is obtained through the one 214 Bi and 228 Ac respectively, the concentration was also measured in activity of the one 40 K and the 137 Cs in units of Bq kg -1 . (Author)

  9. Determination of concentration factors for Cs-137 and Ra-226 in the mullet species Chelon labrosus (Mugilidae) from the South Adriatic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antovic, Ivanka; Antovic, Nevenka M

    2011-07-01

    Concentration factors for Cs-137 and Ra-226 transfer from seawater, and dried sediment or mud with detritus, have been determined for whole, fresh weight, Chelon labrosus individuals and selected organs. Cesium was detected in 5 of 22 fish individuals, and its activity ranged from 1.0 to 1.6 Bq kg(-1). Radium was detected in all fish, and ranged from 0.4 to 2.1 Bq kg(-1), with an arithmetic mean of 1.0 Bq kg(-1). In regards to fish organs, cesium activity concentration was highest in muscles (maximum - 3.7 Bq kg(-1)), while radium was highest in skeletons (maximum - 25 Bq kg(-1)). Among cesium concentration factors, those for muscles were the highest (from seawater - an average of 47, from sediment - an average of 3.3, from mud with detritus - an average of 0.8). Radium concentration factors were the highest for skeleton (from seawater - an average of 130, from sediment - an average of 1.8, from mud with detritus - an average of 1.5). Additionally, annual intake of cesium and radium by human adults consuming muscles of this fish species has been estimated to provide, in aggregate, an effective dose of about 4.1 μSv y(-1). 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Electric conductivity of solid solutions the Cs3-2xMxPO4 (M=Ba, Sr, Ca, Mg) systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burmakin, E.I.; Stroev, S.S.; Shekhtman, G.Sh.; Antonov, B.D.

    2003-01-01

    The solid solutions in the Cs 3-2x M x PO 4 (M=Ba, Sr, Ca, Mg) system are synthesized and their thermal behavior and electric conductivity are studied. The introduction of the alkaline earth metal cations into cesium orthophosphates is accompanied by the shift of the phase transition occurring in the pure Cs 3 PO 4 at 450-620 Deg C into the low-temperature area as well as by increase in the cesium-cation conductivity at low temperatures. The electric conductivity in the area of existence of the Cs 3 PO 4 high-temperature modification slightly depends on the availability and concentration of the modifying additions, which make it possible to suppose the calcium sublattice structural disordering [ru

  11. Accumulation and distribution of 137Cs and 90Sr in the body of the wild boar (Sus scrofa) found on the territory with radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulakov, Andrey Vladimirovich

    2014-01-01

    We studied the concentration and distribution of 137 Cs and 90 Sr in the bodies of 188 wild boar (Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758) taken near the Chernobyl site. Of these, 111 animals were taken in the Alienation Zone, 41 animals were taken in the Permanent Control Zone and 36 animals were taken in the Periodic Control Zone. The samples included muscle and bone (rib) tissues and samples of heart, liver, lungs, kidneys, spleen, genitals and skin. The weight of the samples was 0.5 kg fresh weigh. The average concentration of 137 Cs in the muscles of the wild boar found in the Alienation Zone was 46 ± 10 kBq/kg, in the Permanent Control Zone – 13 ± 3.0 kBq/kg and in the Periodic Control Zone – 0.6 ± 0.1 kBq/kg. The largest concentration of 137 Cs was detected in the muscle tissue and kidneys taken animals. In some samples of muscle tissue it reached more than 660 kBq/kg. The 137 Cs concentrations were also high in heart and spleen up 64.3 kBq/kg and 67.5 kBq/kg – animals from the Alienation Zone and 10.3–10.6 kBq/kg – animals from the Permanent Control zone. The lowest concentration of 137 Cs was found in the lungs and skin of animals. The analyses of 90 Sr concentration in the organs and tissues of the wild boar showed that 90 Sr was concentrated mainly in the bone tissue. The average level of 90 Sr concentration in bone was 17.6 kBq/kg fresh weight animals from the Alienation Zone and 13.47 kBg/kg – animals from the Permanent Control zone. In muscle tissues and organs contained 90 Sr – 30.0–110.0 Bq/kg in the Alienation Zone and 11.0–30.0 Bq/kg in the Permanent Control zone

  12. Fate of 137Cs, 90Sr and 239+240Pu in soil profiles at a water recharge site in Basel, Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Johannes; Meusburger, Katrin; Waldis, Judith Kobler; Ketterer, Michael E; Zehringer, Markus

    2018-02-01

    An important process in the production of drinking water is the recharge of the withdrawn ground water with river water at protected recharge fields. While it is well known that undisturbed soils are efficiently filtering and adsorbing radionuclides, the goal of this study was to investigate their behaviour in an artificial recharge site that may receive rapid and additional input of radionuclides by river water (particularly when draining a catchment including nuclear power plants (NPP)). Soil profiles of recharge sites were drilled and analysed for radionuclides, specifically radiocesium ( 137 Cs), radiostrontium ( 90 Sr) and plutonium ( 239+240 Pu). The distribution of the analysed radionuclides were compared with an uncultivated reference soil outside the recharge site. The main activity of 137 Cs was located in the top soil (4.5-7.5 cm) and reached down to a depth of 84 cm and 48 cm for the recharge and the reference site, respectively. The found activities of 239+240 Pu originate from the global fallout after 1950. 239+240 Pu appeared to be strongly adsorbed onto soil particles. The shape of the depth profile was similar to 137 Cs, but also similar between the recharge and the reference site. In contrast, 90 Sr showed a uniform distribution over the entire depth of the recharge and reference profiles indicating that 90 Sr already entered the gravel zone and the ground water. Elevated inventories of the radionuclides were observed for the recharge site. The soil of the recharge field exhibited a threefold higher activity of 137 Cs compared to the reference soil. Also for 239+240 Pu higher inventories where observed for the recharge sites (40%). 90 Sr behaved differently, showing similar inventories between reference and recharge site. We estimate that 75-89% of the total inventory of 137 Cs in the soil at the recharge site (7.000 Bq/m 2 ) originated from the fallout of the Chernobyl accident and from emissions of Swiss NPPs. This estimate is based on the

  13. Time-dependent transfer of 54Mn, 60Co, 85Sr and 137Cs from a sandy soil to soybean plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yong-Ho; Lim, Kwang-Muk; Jun, In; Keum, Dong-Kwon; Han, Moon-Hee

    2011-01-01

    Greenhouse experiments were performed to investigate the dependence of 54 Mn, 60 Co, 85 Sr and 137 Cs transfer from sandy soil to soybean plants on the growth stage when a radioactive deposition occurs. A solution containing 54 Mn, 60 Co, 85 Sr and 137 Cs was applied onto the soil surfaces in the lysimeters at six different times -2 d before sowing and 13, 40, 61, 82 and 96 d after sowing. Soil-to-plant transfer was quantified with a transfer factor (m 2 kg -1 -dry) specified for the deposition time. The transfer factor values of 54 Mn, 60 Co, 85 Sr and 137 Cs for the seeds were in the range of 1.5×10 -3 -1.0×10 -2 , 4.7×10 -4 -3.2×10 -3 , 5.7×10 -4 -1.0×10 -2 and 3.0×10 -5 -2.7×10 -4 , respectively, for different deposition times. The corresponding values for the leaves were 6.4×10 -3 -3.2×10 -2 , 4.3×10 -4 -2.0×10 -3 , 5.1×10 -3 -5.3×10 -2 and 9.2×10 -5 -1.9×10 -4 , respectively. The values for the seeds were on the whole highest following the middle-growth-stage deposition. After the pre-sowing deposition, the transfer factor values of 54 Mn, 60 Co and 137 Cs for the seeds decreased annually so those in the fourth year were 53%, 75% and 34% of those in the first year, respectively. The present results may be useful for predicting the radionuclide concentrations in soybean plants due to their root uptake following an acute soil-deposition during the vegetation period, and for validating a relevant model. (author)

  14. Riverine transport of Cs-137 and Sr-90 into the Black Sea after Chernobyl accident (data analysis and methodological aspects of monitoring)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanivets, V.V.; Voitsekhovitch, O.V.; Khrystyk, B.F.

    1999-01-01

    Upper part of Dnieper catchment had been heavily contaminated after the Chernobyl accident and serves as a main source of the secondary input of radionuclides to the river. As a result of fast sorption of dissolved radiocesium by suspended sediments and sedimentation of contaminated particles to the bottom, practically all the 137 Cs having entered into the upper reaches of the Dnieper river after the Chernobyl accident was retained in the Dnieper reservoirs and the Dnieper-Bug estuary. Taking into account relatively high mobility of 90 Sr the extent of it's trapping by Dnieper reservoirs is significantly less comparatively to 137 Cs and accounted as some 60-70%. The Danube River catchment is characterized by less radioactive contamination, in comparison with the Dnieper catchment, and more homogeneous spatial distribution of this contamination. Suspended particles play a crucial role in 137 Cs transport by Danube to the Black Sea. Regular observations showed, that in average 60-70% of 137 Cs transport to the Black Sea is associated with suspended particles. The conditions for water selfpurification are absent on the Danube River due to the high velocity of the currents along the whole it length. Therefore, the significant portion of 137 Cs and other contaminants in particulate phase washed out from the upper part of basin can reach the Black Sea. The correct accounting of 137 Cs discharge on suspended particles by river strictly depends on representativity of samples used in calculation. Sampling procedure which had been done in uncorrect way could cause in significant underestimation of 137 Cs concentration up to 10 times. (author)

  15. Distribution of {sup 226} Ra, {sup 232} Th, {sup 40} K and {sup 137} Cs in soils of Province of Camaguey, Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, Osvaldo Brigido; Barreras Caballero, Aldo A.; Montalvan Estrada, Adelmo; Queipo Garcia, Maite [Ministerio da Ciencia, Tecnologia y Medio Ambiente, Camaguey (Cuba). Centro de Atencion a la Actividad Nuclear. Lab. de Vigilancia Radiologica Ambiental]. E-mail: sean@caonao.cmw.inf.cu; Zerquera, Juan Tomas [Centro de Proteccion y Higiene de las Radiaciones, La Habana (Cuba)

    2001-07-01

    A survey programme aimed at studying the environmental radioactivity in the Province of Camaguey in the eastern region of Cuba was undertaken. The average concentrations of {sup 226} Ra, {sup 232} Th, and {sup 40} K in the surveyed soils were 26.4, 11.5 and 210 Bq.kg{sup -1}, respectively. The man-made radionuclide found was {sup 137} Cs and its concentration was similar to those reported in regions affected only by global radioactive fallout, (7.9 Bq.kg{sup -1}). Radiological measurements carried out with a portable ionization chamber RSS-112 at the sampled sites revealed an average outdoor absorbed dose rate of 59.0 nGy.h{sup -1} due to cosmic rays and terrestrial gamma radiation. Computed dose rates obtained through the UNSCEAR(1993) dose coefficients range from 4-182 nGy.h{sup -1}, with a mean value of 27.8 nGy.h{sup -1}, due to natural terrestrial gamma radiation. Ratio of Indoor to Outdoor absorbed dose rates in air was 1.75. The average value of absorbed dose rate in air for the ionizing component of cosmic rays was 31.8 nGy.h{sup -1} at sea level. Because of the 95% of the Camaguey population lives at altitudes close to sea level (10-100 m), the absorbed dose rate in outdoor air from ionizing component of cosmic rays was estimated to be 32.3 nGy.h{sup -1}. An annual average effective dose equivalent of 510 {mu}Sv was estimated for Camaguey population due to the ionizing component of cosmic and gamma terrestrial radiation. This value is lower than the 760 {mu}Sv.year{sup -1} estimated as a world average by UNSCEAR (1993). (author)

  16. Measurements of instant-release source terms for 137Cs, 90Sr, 99Tc, 129I and 14C in used CANDU fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroes-Gascoyne, S.

    1996-01-01

    Combined gap and grain-boundary inventories of 137 Cs, 129 I, 90 Sr, 99 Tc and 14 C were measured in 15 used CANDU fuel elements by leaching crushed fuel samples. A good correlation between the combined gap and grain-boundary inventories of 137 Cs and 129 I was found, suggesting that these fission products exhibit similar behavior in CANDU fuel. The expected correlation between combined gap and grain-boundary inventories of 137 Cs and 129 I with calculated fission-gas release to the gap and grain boundaries could only be confirmed for lower power fuels ( 90 Sr were higher than expected and showed no correlation with calculated fission-gas release. No values for the combined gap and grain-boundary inventories of 99 Tc were obtained because 99 Tc in used fuel samples is very insoluble and appears to require oxidation prior to dissolution. Combined gap and grain-boundary inventories of 14 C appeared to be independent of fuel power or burnup. (orig.)

  17. Evolution of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr content of the main foodstuff in Bucharest area after the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toader, M; Vasilache, R A [Institute of Hygiene and Public Health, Bucharest (Romania)

    1997-09-01

    Soon after the Chernobyl accident, the radioactive cloud, carrying the nuclides released into the atmosphere, reached Romania and, due to the rainy weather, an important fallout occurred over the Romanian territory. The most important contaminants for Romania were I{sup 131}, Cs{sup 134}, Cs{sup 137} and Sr{sup 90}. As in many other countries, in the first days, I{sup 131} had the main contribution to the irradiation dose released to the population. After its decay, and the decay of other short-lived radionuclides, Cs{sup 137} and Sr{sup 90} remained the most important contaminants. The principal route of intake for these two radionuclides is considered to be the ingestion of contaminated foods. To assess the radioactive burden of foods, a long term, large scale survey was initiated at the National Institute of Hygiene and Public Health (INISP). These results were then used to assess the doses committed to cesium and strontium intake and the excedentary cancer risk for the population from Bucharest area. 5 refs, 8 figs.

  18. Transfer of alkaline earth elements in mothers' milk and doses from {sup 45}Ca, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 226}Ra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, T.J.; Phipps, A.W.; Fell, T.P.; Harrison, J.D

    2003-07-01

    An international programme of work is currently under way to develop methods for calculating doses to infants from ingestion of radionuclides present in mothers' milk. This paper considers the special case of the alkaline earth elements. Models have been developed for {sup 45}Ca, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 226}Ra and the sensitivity of results to various changes in parameter values is discussed. A complication when calculating doses from intakes of radium is that the International Commission on Radiological Protection has previously recommended that doses from decay products of radium should be calculated using element-specific biokinetic models (so-called independent biokinetics). An extension of this method to the models for breastfeeding is proposed. Preliminary estimates of the doses received by the infant for a number of maternal intake scenarios show that doses to the infant can exceed the corresponding adult dose, such as for {sup 45}Ca (ratio = 3.1) while, in other cases such as {sup 90}Sr, the infant dose can be a significant fraction of the adult dose. (author)

  19. The influence of interstitial water velocity on the migration of 85Sr and 137Cs in an aerated sandy soil layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Takebe, Shinichi; Yamamoto, Tadatoshi; Wadachi, Yoshiki

    1983-01-01

    The influence of interstitial water velocity on the migration of Sr-85 and Cs-137 in an aerated sandy soil layer was studied at different feed water velocities and feed times. As well known, it was found that Sr-85 migrated with interstitial water, but Cs-137 little migrated with interstitial water. The apparent migration velocity for each fraction corresponding to three concentrations (2 x 10 -2 , 1 x 10 -2 and 5 x 10 -3 μCi/g) of Sr-85 was further investigated. At constant interstitial water velocity (1cm/ min), different values were given for the apparent migration velocity of three fractions, and the fraction with thin concentration migrated faster. At constant feeding time (100hr), there was a linear relationship between apparent migration velocity of three fractions and interstitial water velocity, in the range of slow water velocity ( -2 and 5 x 10 -3 μCi/g) and interstitial water velocity, in the range of fast water velocity (> 1cm/min). (author)

  20. Effect of mycorrhizal infection on root uptake by pine seedlings and redistribution of three contrasting radio-isotopes: 85Sr, 95mTc and 137Cs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plassard, C.; Ladeyn, I.; Staunton, S.

    2004-01-01

    Mycorrhizal infection is known to improve phosphate nutrition and water supply of higher plants. It has been reported to both increase the uptake of potentially toxic pollutant elements and to protect plants against toxic effects. Little is known about the effect of mycorrhizal infection on the dynamics of radioactive pollutants in soil-plant systems. The aim of this study was to compare the root uptake and root-shoot transfer of three radio-isotopes with contrasting chemical properties ( 85 Sr, 95m Tc and 137 Cs) in mycorrhizal and control, non mycorrhizal plants. The plant studied was Pinus pinaster and the associated ecto-mycorrhizal fungus was Rhizopogon roseolus (strain R18-2). Plants were grown under anoxic conditions for 3 months then transferred to thin layers of autoclaved soil and allowed to grow for four months. After this period, the rhizotrons were dismantled, and plant tissue analysed. Biomass, nutrient content (K, P, N, Ca) and activities of each isotope in roots, shoots and stems were measured, and the degree of mycorrhizal infection assessed. The transfer factors decreased in the order Tc>Sr>Cs as expected from the degree of immobilisation by soil. No effect of mycorrhizal infection on root uptake was observed for Sr. Shoot activity concentration of Tc was decreased by mycorrhizal infection but root uptake correlated well with mycelial soil surface area. In contrast, Cs shoot activity was greater in mycorrhizal than control plants. The uptake and root to shoot distribution shall be discussed in relation to nutrient dynamics. (author)

  1. The role of pore soil solutions in redistribution of 137Cs, 90Sr, 239,240Pu and 241Am within soil-vegetative cover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovsiannikova, S.V.; Sokolik, G.A.; Kilchitskaya, S.L.; Eismont, E.A.; Zhukovich, N.V.; Kimlenko, I.M.

    1998-01-01

    The role of pore soil solutions in the migration of 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 239,240 Pu and 241 Am within soil-vegetative cover of natural ecosystems was examined. The soil solutions were found to play an important role in the redistribution of 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 239,240 Pu and 241 Am in the soil-plant systems. Obvious relationships between the distribution coefficients of radionuclides between solid and liquid phases (K d ) and the intensity of vertical migration of 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 239,240 Pu and 241 Am along the soil profiles and with intensity of their accumulation by grass vegetation of natural meadows have been obtained. It means that the distribution coefficient may be used as a criterion of the radionuclide mobility in the soil-plant system whatever its level of radioactive contamination is. The influence of the degree of soil moistening, the content of mobile radionuclide forms in the soils and some characteristics of pore soil solutions (pH, content of K + , Ca 2+ , NH 4 + , water soluble organic substances) on the concentration of radionuclide in the soil solutions and on the value of radionuclide distribution coefficient have been analysed. The results of investigation are of great importance in the evaluation of radioecological situation and in solution of problems of radioecological rehabilitation of the contaminated territories. The received data constitute a part of scientific basis for the development of a system of countermeasures to decrease the mobility and biological availability of radionuclides of high and very high radiotoxicity

  2. Interlaboratory comparison of the determination of 137Cs and 90Sr in water, food and soil: preparation and characterization of test materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuks, L.; Polkowska-Motrenko, H.

    2006-01-01

    Only reliable analytical results can serve as a basis of meaningful evaluation and protection of the environment against radioactive contaminants. So, laboratories dealing with the environmental radioactivity determinations should regularly demonstrate their ability to produce acceptable results. Since 2002, every two years organization of national interlaboratory comparisons (ILC) on the determination of different radionuclides in food and environmental samples is required by the Polish law. The aim of the paper is presentation how test materials applied in the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology (INCT, Warsaw, Poland) for the 2004 ILC on the determination of 137 Cs and 90 Sr in water, food and soil were prepared. (author)

  3. The estimation of daily intake and organ content of Cs, I, Sr, Th and U in Indian population: Application to the study of their biokinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, H.S.; Jaiswal, D.D.; Pullat, V.R.; Parameswaran, M.; Krishnamony, S.

    1998-01-01

    The analytical methods involving both instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation techniques (INAA and RNAA) are being standardised for the determination of the elements Cs, I, Sr, Th and U in various kinds of biological samples. The sampling method proposed to be adopted for the estimation of the daily dietary intake, of the above elements is described. Also reported in this paper are the preliminary results on the concentrations of these elements in the food ingredients which form important components of the diet of Indian population. (author)

  4. Spallation reaction study for fission products in nuclear waste: Cross section measurements for 137Cs, 90Sr and 107Pd on proton and deuteron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang He

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Spallation reactions for the long-lived fission products 137Cs, 90Sr and 107Pd have been studied for the purpose of nuclear waste transmutation. The cross sections on the proton- and deuteron-induced spallation were obtained in inverse kinematics at the RIKEN Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory. Both the target and energy dependences of cross sections have been investigated systematically. and the cross-section differences between the proton and deuteron are found to be larger for lighter fragments. The experimental data are compared with the SPACS semi-empirical parameterization and the PHITS calculations including both the intra-nuclear cascade and evaporation processes.

  5. Adsorption of Cs(I), Sr(II), Eu(III), Co(II) and Cd(II) by Al2O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiao, S.Y.; Egozy, Y.; Meyer, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    Adsorption of Cs(I), Sr(II), Eu(III), Co(II) and Cd(II) by Al 2 O 3 was carried out over a wide range of NaCl concentration and solution pH. In the medium pH region (pH 5 to 9), adsorption depends strongly on pH and less on salt concentration. However, in the high pH region (pH above 9), the salt dependence of the distribution coefficient becomes important. (author)

  6. Sorption and desorption of Sr-90 and Cs-137 by sediments of the Sozh-river valley and border water collections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onoshko, M.P.

    2001-01-01

    From the last literature analysis it follows, that to studying of sorption and desorption soil, some rocks and minerals properties concerning radioisotopes the steadfast attention of researchers is paid nowadays. The materials of heavy particles sorption kinetics, the action of adsorption molecules and ions from solutions on leaching products are examined. Sr-90, Cs-137, Pu-239,240 diffusion is estimated. It is found out, that sorbed and desorbed amount of radioisotopes is proportionally to their concentration in soil, and sorption (S) and distributions (Cd) factors do not depend on soil contamination density, and are determined by its physical and chemical properties, parity of firm and liquid phases. It is judged, that increase of soil absorbing properties by the increase of sorbent entering are unpromising, as sorption soil capacity is filled by Cs-137 only in thousand shares of per cent from the sorbent amount, which can be absorbed by soil. With the reference to the conditions of Belarus, experiments and natural supervision on Sr-90 and Cs-137 sorption by Fe, Mn, Si, Al, Ti hydroxides were executed. At experimental researches of electrolyte influence on radioisotope sorption by peat soils Cd amount lines were established. Sediments under certain conditions, due to desorption, become a source of the secondary contamination of natural waters up to ecologically dangerous concentration. Radioisotopes desorption ambiguity is connected to many parallel proceeding processes: exchange sorption on organic and mineral components, co-sedimentation with one-and-a-half Fe, Al and Mn hydroxides and also depends on solutions structure, cationic exchange rocks and soil capacities, concentration of competing ions. At low radioisotopes contents desorption is insignificant, at high - their extraction does not depend on reagent concentration. We carried out the experiment on studying Cs-137 and Sr-90 sorption-desorption from sediments Sozh-river valley and border water

  7. Physico-chemical characterisation and sorption measurements of Cs, Sr, Ni, Eu, Th, Sn and Se on Opalinus clay from Mont Terri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauber, Matthias; Baeyens, Bart; Bradbury, Michael H.

    2000-12-01

    Opalinus Clay is currently under investigation as a potential host rock for the disposal of high level and long-lived intermediate radioactive waste. A throughout physico-chemical characterisation was carried out on a bore core sample from the underground rock laboratory Mont Terri (Canton Jura). The results of these investigations indicate that the major characteristics (mineralogy, cation exchange capacity, cation occupancies, selectivity coefficients, chloride and sulphate inventories) were very similar to a different core sample, previously used for pore water modelling studies. It was concluded that the pore water compositions derived in the earlier studies were reliable and could be used in this work. The organic matter which dissolved from the Opalinus Clay rock was not humic or fulvic acids and the concentration remaining in the liquid phase in the sorption experiments was < 0.5 ppm C. The organic matter is therefore considered to have little or no influence on the sorption behaviour of the studied radionuclides. Redox potential measurements of the Opalinus Clay/synthetic pore water system inside the glove boxes indicated anoxic conditions. The main focus of the experimental work presented here is on the sorption behaviour of Cs (I), Sr (II), Ni (II), Eu (III), Th (IV), Sn (IV) and Se (IV) on Opalinus Clay equilibrated with synthetic pore waters at pH 6.3 and 8. Sorption isotherms were measured for Cs, Ni, Eu, Th and Se. Single point data were measured for Sr and Sn. For all radionuclides studied the sorption kinetics were measured first. The times required to complete the sorption on the Opalinus Clay varied between one day for Th and one month for Ni and Se. Within the concentration ranges under study the uptake of Cs, Ni, Eu and Se on Opalinus Clay was non-linear, whereas for Th a linear sorption behaviour was observed. For Ni, Eu and Th the sorption increased with increasing pH. For Cs a pH independent sorption behaviour was observed. The concentration

  8. Wash-off of Sr-90 and Cs-137 from two experimental plots. Model testing using Chernobyl data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konoplev, A.; Bulgakov, A.; Hoffman, O.; Thiessen, K.

    1996-09-01

    Surface water runoff from contaminated land is one of the major processes responsible for the contamination of water bodies. For example, the large area of land contaminated after the Chernobyl accident has become a continuing source of radionuclide contamination for natural waters and the aquatic ecosystem. Based on data from the Chernobyl accident, the 'Wash-off' scenario was developed to provide an opportunity to test models concerned with the movement of trace contaminants from terrestrial sources to water bodies. In particular, this scenario provides an opportunity for (1) evaluation of the movement of contaminants from soil to water, (2) calculation of the alteration and migration of contaminants in soil over different time scales, (3) increased understanding of contaminant transport at the process level, and (4) development and use of methods for estimation of key parameters. Modelers were provided with descriptions of two experimental plots near the Chernobyl NPP, one using simulated heavy rain (plot HR) and one using snow melt (plot SM). Initial information for plot HR included soil properties; hydrographs of rainfall and runoff dynamics; the time of application of rainfall; rainfall amounts, duration, and intensities; soil moisture content before the application of rainfall; regional data on average monthly precipitation and temperature; recorded information on naturally occurring precipitation between May and October 1986; and chemical forms of radionuclides in the soil of the plots prior to the experiments. Information for plot SM included the soil description and properties, snow storage in the snow melt period of 1988, chemical composition of the snow water, a hydrograph of the runoff dynamics, chemical radionuclide forms in the soil at the end of the experiment, and air and soil temperatures for the plot during the snow melt period. For each experimental plot, modelers were requested to estimate the vertical distribution of radionuclides (137 Cs and

  9. Forecasting of accumulation of Cs 137 and Sr 90 in the herbage of the main types of the Belarus Palessje meadows utilizing agrochemical soil properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podolyak, A.G.; Bogdevich, I.M.; Ivashkova, I.I.

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of long-term stationary experience it was established that the minimum accumulation of Cs 137 and Sr 90 in the herbage of the waterless valley, marshed and flood types of the Belarus Palessje meadows contaminated by Chernobyl radionuclides is seen when the optimum basic agrochemical soil properties are achieved with the application of the scientifically reasonable protective measures. It was demonstrated that in the remote period of the accident for the prognosis of radionuclides contents in natural and cultural meadows herbage it is advisable to use of transfer factors (TFa, Bq/kg : kBq/m2) based on the complex agrochemical parameters - basic saturation degree (V, %) and agrochemical cultivation soils index (Iac), which take into account several soil characteristics simultaneously. This article provides the equations of linear and multiple regressions that can be used to calculate the transfer factors for Cs 137 and Sr 90 uptake and the herbage contamination degree for the main types of meadows of the region, which will allow one to reduce the volume of forages production (hay, green bulk) that is not adequate to the established permissible levels: Republican allowable levels of the contents of cesium-137 and strontium-90 in agricultural raw material and forages. (authors)

  10. Removal of Cs{sup +}, Sr{sup 2+}, and Co{sup 2+} ions from the mixture of organics and suspended solids aqueous solutions by zeolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Xiang Hong; Fang, Fang; Lu, Chun Hai [College of Nuclear Technology and Automation Engineering, Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu (China); Zheng, Lei [Southwest University of Science and Technology, Key Laboratory of Solid Waste Treatment and Resource Recycle, Ministry of Education, Mianyang (China)

    2017-04-15

    Serving as an excellent adsorbent and inorganic ion exchanger in the water purification field, zeolite 4A has in this work presented a strong capability for purifying radioactive waste, such as Sr{sup 2+}, Cs{sup +}, and Co{sup 2+} in water. During the processes of decontamination and decommissioning of suspended solids and organics in low-level radioactive wastewater, the purification performance of zeolite 4A has been studied. Under ambient temperature and neutral condition, zeolite 4A absorbed simulated radionuclides such as Sr{sup 2+}, Cs{sup +}, and Co{sup 2+} with an absorption rate of almost 90%. Additionally, in alkaline condition, the adsorption percentage even approached 98.7%. After conducting research on suspended solids and organics of zeolite 4A for the treatment of radionuclides, it was found that the suspended clay was conducive to absorption, whereas the absorption of organics in solution was determined by the species of radionuclides and organics. Therefore, zeolite 4A has considerable potential in the treatment of radioactive wastewater.

  11. Determination of soil-to-plant transfer factors of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in the tropical environment of Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mollah, A.S.; Begum, A. [Atomic Energy Research Establishment (AERE), Savar, Dacca (Bangladesh); Ullah, S.M. [University of Dhaka (Bangladesh). Department of Soil Science

    1998-07-01

    Soil-to-plant transfer factors (TF) of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr have been determined for different plants/crops, such as rice, beans, peanuts, pineapple, cabbage, tomato, spinach and grass. They were obtained from radioisotope experiments on plants grown in pots under outdoor ambient tropical conditions for three growing seasons (1994-1996). In the case of {sup 137}Cs and concerning the above mentioned plants/crops, the average TFs were found to be 0.28, 0.25, 0.77, 0.19, 0.23, 0.28, 0.59 and 0.18, respectively. In the case of {sup 90}Sr, the average TFs were found to be 0.82, 0.51, 0.20, 0.82, 0.69, 0.59, 0.91 and 0.84, respectively. A minor seasonal variation was observed. This study provides a database of TFs for tropical environments to be used, e.g., for radiological safety assessment models. (orig.) With 1 fig., 3 tabs., 12 refs.

  12. Trace elements (Rb, Cs, Sr, Pb, Th, U) bioavailability potential and speciation in the Piracicaba river bottom sediments, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Alexandre Martins; Mortatti, Jefferson; Oliveira, Helder de; Bibian, Joao Paulo Rambelli; Moraes, Graziela Meneghel de; Probst, Jean-Luc

    2007-01-01

    It was studied the bioavailability potential of Rb, Cs, Sr, Pb, Th and U and their chemical speciation in Piracicaba river bottom sediments. This river system crosses important agricultural and urban areas of Sao Paulo state, which groups about 3 million people and receives a large load of agricultural, industrial and domestic wastes. The procedure used to estimate trace elements bioavailability potential was related to a 7-step sequential chemical extraction. This scheme was designed to dissolved and separate sample chemical phases, which can be affected by changes in physical-chemical conditions; in the following order: water soluble, exchangeable, bound to carbonates or acid fraction, bound to Mn-oxides, bound to Fe-oxides and bound to organic matter. Trace element concentrations were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES) after each extraction step. With the used extraction procedure, it was possible to identify the fraction where some trace elements could be found in order to evaluate their bioavailability potential. Rb and Cs were particularly involved with the organic fraction, while Sr revealed to be associated mainly to the exchangeable fraction (clay minerals). Pb, Th and U were mainly bound to the residual and Fe-oxide fractions. (author)

  13. Development of a Mass Transfer Model and Its Application to the Behavior of the Cs, Sr, Ba, and Oxygen ions in an Electrolytic Reduction Process for SF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Byung Heung; Kang, Dae Seung; Seo, Chung Seok; Park, Seong Won

    2005-01-01

    Isotopes of alkali and alkaline earth metals (AM and AEM) are the main contributors to the heat load and the radiotoxicity of spent fuel (SF). These components are separated from the SF and dissolved in a molten LiCl in an electrolytic reduction process. A mass transfer model is developed to describe the diffusion behavior of Cs, Sr, and Ba in the SF into the molten salt. The model is an analytical solution of Fick's second law of diffusion for a cylinder which is the shape of a cathode in the electrolytic reduction process. And the model is also applied to depict the concentration profile of the oxygen ion which is produced by the electrolysis of Li 2 O. The regressed diffusion coefficients of the model correlating the experimentally measured data are evaluated to be greater in the order of Ba, Cs, and Sr for the metal ions and the diffusion of the oxygen ion is slower than the metal ions which implies that different mechanisms govern the diffusion of the metal ions and the oxygen ions in a molten LiCl.

  14. Ingestion dose from 238U, 232Th, 226Ra, 40K and 137CS in cereals, pulses and drinking water to adult population in a high background radiation area, Odisha (India)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenka, P.; Sahoo, S. K.; Mohapatra, S.; Patra, A. C.; Dubey, J. S.; Vidyasagar, D.; Tripathi, R. M.; Puranik, V. D.

    2013-01-01

    A natural high background radiation area is located in Chhatrapur, Odisha in the eastern part of India. The inhabitants of this area are exposed to external radiation levels higher than the global average background values, due to the presence of uranium, thorium and its decay products in the monazite sands bearing placer deposits in its beaches. The concentrations of 232 Th, 238 U, 226 Ra, 40 K and 137 Cs were determined in cereals (rice and wheat), pulses and drinking water consumed by the population residing around this region and the corresponding annual ingestion dose was calculated. The annual ingestion doses from cereals, pulses and drinking water varied in the range of 109.4-936.8, 10.2-307.5 and 0.5-2.8 μSv y -1 , respectively. The estimated total annual average effective dose due to the ingestion of these radionuclides in cereals, pulses and drinking water was 530 μSv y -1 . The ingestion dose from cereals was the highest mainly due to a high consumption rate. The highest contribution of dose was found to be from 226 Ra for cereals and drinking water and 40 K was the major dose contributor from the intake of pulses. The contribution of man-made radionuclide 137 Cs to the total dose was found to be minimum. 226 Ra was found to be the largest contributor to ingestion dose from all sources. (authors)

  15. Concentration in activity of {sup 137} Cs, {sup 40} K, {sup 232} Th, {sup 226} Ra in waste deposits of the benefits of minerals in the State of Zacatecas; Concentracion en actividad de {sup 137} Cs, {sup 40} K, {sup 232} Th, {sup 226} Ra en depositos de desecho del beneficio de minerales en el Estado de Zacatecas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal, B.; Mireles, F.; Quirino, L.; Davila, I.; Ramirez, F. [UAZ, A.P. 579C, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    The necessity to report the changes in the contained radionuclides in the terrestrial crust, or those deposited by the atomic tests around the world, becomes clear when observing the use of material of waste of those mines. With the purpose of quantifying the concentration in activity its were meet a series of waste samples in mines of the municipalities of Zacatecas, Fresnillo, Guadalupe and Veta Grande of the state of Zacatecas, Mexico. The analysis was carried out by gamma spectrometry with a HPGe detector with a resolution of 1.9 keV corresponding to an energy of 1.33 MeV calibrated in efficiency and energy by means of a certified standard multi nuclide in activity with identical geometry to that of the samples. The times of count are of 80000 seconds, with the purpose of to reduce the relative uncertainties and to define well the interest regions. The activity of {sup 226} Ra and {sup 232} Th is obtained through the one {sup 214} Bi and {sup 228} Ac respectively, the concentration was also measured in activity of the one {sup 40} K and the {sup 137} Cs in units of Bq kg{sup -1}. (Author)

  16. 137Cs and 90Sr mobility in soils and transfer in soil-plant systems in the Novozybkov district affected by the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korobova, E.; Ermakov, A.; Linnik, V.

    1998-01-01

    The Chernobyl radionuclides distribution and mobility in soils and uptake by plants have been studied in seminatural and agricultural moraine and in fluvioglacial landscapes typical for the areas of the Bryansk region affected by the accident.The major part of the Chernobyl 137 Cs accumulated in the topsoil is insoluble in water, 40 to 93% of this radionuclide is strongly fixed by soil, while 70 to 90% of the 90 Sr is present in water soluble, exchangeable and weak-acid soluble forms. Radionuclide vertical migration is most pronounced in local depressions with organic and gley soils in which both radionuclides are detected to the depth of 30-40 cm.In woodlands, most of the 137 grasses. Transfer to grasses in local depressions is usually higher compared with the dry levees. Observed exclusions are assumed to be due to comparatively low mobility of 137 Cs and relatively high K content in soil. 137 Cs accumulation in potato tubers grown on sandy soddy podzolic watershed soils mainly corresponds to its total amount in soils; uptake of 90 Sr depends upon the percentage of its most mobile fraction.Pronounced relief is proved to cause different patterns in distribution and migration of radionuclides in soils and local food chains. The study showed it to be true for private farms situated in different landscape positions within the same settlement.The forest litter, topsoil and products, and flood plain pastures, especially localities in depressions are critical materials for the long-term radioecological monitoring of the contaminated landscapes of the study area and those of similar conditions. Population of the areas within the zone of contamination exceeding 15Ci/km 2 (555kBq/m 2 ) should be recommended to exclude local forest products from their diets and to avoid cattle grazing on wet flood plain meadows without remediation. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  17. Model testing of radioactive contamination by {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239,240}Pu of water and bottom sediments in the Techa River (Southern Urals, Russia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kryshev, I.I. [Scientific and Production Association ' Typhoon' , 82 Lenin Ave., Obninsk, Kaluga Region, 249038 (Russian Federation)], E-mail: ecomod@obninsk.com; Boyer, P.; Monte, L.; Brittain, J.E.; Dzyuba, N.N.; Krylov, A.L.; Kryshev, A.I.; Nosov, A.V.; Sanina, K.D.; Zheleznyak, M.I. [Scientific and Production Association ' Typhoon' , 82 Lenin Ave., Obninsk, Kaluga Region, 249038 (Russian Federation)

    2009-03-15

    This paper presents results of testing models for the radioactive contamination of river water and bottom sediments by {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239,240}Pu. The scenario for the model testing was based on data from the Techa River (Southern Urals, Russia), which was contaminated as a result of discharges of liquid radioactive waste into the river. The endpoints of the scenario were model predictions of the activity concentrations of {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239,240}Pu in water and bottom sediments along the Techa River in 1996. Calculations for the Techa scenario were performed by six participant teams from France (model CASTEAUR), Italy (model MARTE), Russia (models TRANSFER-2, CASSANDRA, GIDRO-W) and Ukraine (model RIVTOX), all using different models. As a whole, the radionuclide predictions for {sup 90}Sr in water for all considered models, {sup 137}Cs for MARTE and TRANSFER-2, and {sup 239,240}Pu for TRANSFER-2 and CASSANDRA can be considered sufficiently reliable, whereas the prediction for sediments should be considered cautiously. At the same time the CASTEAUR and RIVTOX models estimate the activity concentrations of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239,240}Pu in water more reliably than in bottom sediments. The models MARTE ({sup 239,240}Pu) and CASSANDRA ({sup 137}Cs) evaluated the activity concentrations of radionuclides in sediments with about the same agreement with observations as for water. For {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs the agreement between empirical data and model predictions was good, but not for all the observations of {sup 239,240}Pu in the river water-bottom sediment system. The modelling of {sup 239,240}Pu distribution proved difficult because, in contrast to {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr, most of models have not been previously tested or validated for plutonium.

  18. Effects of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr on structure and functional aspects of the microflora in agricultural used soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niedree, Bastian

    2013-11-01

    At long sight {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr are the main radionuclides responsible for the contamination of agricultural soils due to core melts in nuclear power plants such as Chernobyl or Fukushima. Once deposited on the soil surface, the two radionuclides remain in the upper soil layer for several decades. In the upper soil layer the highest microbial activity can be found, due to high organic matter contents, warm temperatures and gas exchange with the atmosphere. Hence, in contaminated soils microorganisms in upper soil layers (e.g. the plow layer on agricultural fields) are exceedingly exposed to radioactivity. However, no data are available how radioactive contaminations with {sup 137}Cs or {sup 90}Sr in a realistic order of magnitude affect the microbial community and its functions in soils. This dissertation discusses the effects of radioactive contaminations on the microbial community structure and some of its functions in soils. Therefore, typical agricultural soils, an Orthic Luvisol from field site Merzenhausen and a Gleyic Cambisol from field site Kaldenkirchen-Huelst were artificially contaminated with various concentrations of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr and partly applied with radiolabeled substrates and incubated in soil microcosms under controlled laboratory conditions. The lower radionuclide concentrations corresponded to the contaminations in the Chernobyl exclusion zone, the higher concentrations were up to 50-fold that of the maximum occurring hotspots ({sup 137}Cs) in this zone. In three experiments the effects of the ionizing radiation on the bacterial and the fungal community structure (16S and 18S rDNA DGGE), the degradation of {sup 14}C-labeled wheat straw or uniformly ring-labeled 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, the development of the fungal biomass (ergosterol quantification) and the chemical composition of the soil organic matter ({sup 13}C CP/MAS NMR) were investigated. In half of the microcosms the soils were autoclaved and reinoculated

  19. Soil-water distribution coefficients and plant transfer factors for {sup 134}Cs, {sup 85}Sr and {sup 65}Zn under field conditions in tropical Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Twining, J.R. E-mail: jrt@ansto.gov.au; Payne, T.E.; Itakura, T

    2004-07-01

    Measurements of soil-to-plant transfer of {sup 134}Cs, {sup 85}Sr and {sup 65}Zn from two tropical red earth soils ('Blain' and 'Tippera') to sorghum and mung crops have been undertaken in the north of Australia. The aim of the study was to identify factors that control bioaccumulation of these radionuclides in tropical regions, for which few previous data are available. Batch sorption experiments were conducted to determine the distribution coefficient (K{sub d}) of the selected radionuclides at pH values similar to natural pH values, which ranged from about 5.5 to 6.7. In addition, K{sub d} values were obtained at one pH unit above and below the soil-water equilibrium pH values to determine the effect of pH. The adsorption of Cs showed no pH dependence, but the K{sub d} values for the Tippera soils (2300-4100 ml/g) exceeded those for the Blain soils (800-1200 ml/g) at equilibrium pH. This was related to the greater clay content of the Tippera soil. Both Sr and Zn were more strongly adsorbed at higher pH values, but the K{sub d} values showed less dependence on the soil type. Strontium K{sub d}s were 30-60 ml/g whilst Zn ranged from 160 to 1630 ml/g for the two soils at equilibrium pH. With the possible exception of Sr, there was no evidence for downward movement of radionuclides through the soils during the course of the growing season. There was some evidence of surface movement of labelled soil particles. Soil-to-plant transfer factors varied slightly between the soils. The average results for sorghum were 0.1-0.3 g/g for Cs, 0.4-0.8 g/g for Sr and 18-26 g/g for Zn (dry weight) with the initial values relating to Blain and the following values to Tippera. Similar values were observed for the mung bean samples. The transfer factors for Cs and Sr were not substantially different from the typical values observed in temperate studies. However, Zn transfer factors for plants grown on both these tropical soils were greater than for soils in

  20. Prediction of 137Cs and 90Sr accumulation in milk of horses and sheep grazing the area adjacent to the 'Experimental Field' technical area of the Semipalatinsk test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gontarenko, I.A.; Spiridonov, S.I.; Mukusheva, M.K.

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes mathematical models for 137 Cs and 90 Sr behavior in body of horses and sheep grazing the area adjacent to the 'Experimental Field' Technical Area of the Semipalatinsk test site. The models were parametrized on the basis of experimental data for those breeds of animals that are currently encountered within the Semipalatinsk test area. The predictive conclusions using devised models have shown that 137 Cs and 90 Sr concentration in milk of horses and sheep grazing the Experimental field are can exceed the adopted standards during a long period of time. (author)

  1. Evaluation of 137Cs and 90Sr effect on the industrial and medical X-ray films for autoradiography using the OSIRIS software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabbagh, R.; Ghafourian, H.; Baghvand, A.; Nabi, G.R.; Riahi, H.

    2006-01-01

    Autoradiography is one of the techniques developed for screening and isolating suitable radionuclide bioaccumulator microorganisms such as cyanobacteria, algae and bacteria. In this research autoradiography is developed for a kind of industrial film and a medical X-ray film. Irradiation time estimation according to radiotracer activity and suitable film selection are the most important aims in this research. These parameters are estimated for 137 Cs and 90 Sr on the basis of the appearances of the dark black spots on the developed films. Selected film and estimated irradiation time could be used to screen the needed microorganisms in the laboratory studies. The micro-organisms isolated by this method could be used to remove radioactive pollution in environmental engineering

  2. Comparison of Radioecological Processes on Examples of Villages Polluted by 137Cs and 90Sr Appreciated on the Box Model Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matvjejeva, I.V.; Kutlakhmedov, Yu.O.; Isajenko, V.M.; Krivorot'ko, V.M.

    2006-01-01

    Results of the analysis of 137 Cs radionuclides flows as an example of village Galusia of the Volyn region and in ecosystem of village Kotsubinchiki in Ternopil region polluted by 90 Sr are considered. The analysis is made by the method of box models. The block diagrams of ecosystems were created, and the mathematical models by the method of box models are developed. It has allowed estimating ways of formation doses of an internal irradiation at the expense of products of meal for different groups of population - working people, pensioners and children, and prognosis dynamics of these doses for the next years after Chornobyl NPP accident. It was established, that doses in these villages formed by other ways, depending on radionuclide, pastures structure and levels of their pollution

  3. Identification of the neutron-rich nuclides /sup 147; 148/Ba and half- life determination of the heavy isotopes of Rb, Sr, Y, Cs, Ba and La

    CERN Document Server

    Amiel, S; Nir-El, Y; Shmid, M

    1976-01-01

    The neutron nuclides /sup 147; 148/Ba were produced in the thermal neutron induced fission of /sup 235/U. A new surface ionization integrated target ion source operating at temperatures in the region of 1800 degrees C permits the measurement of half-lives of isotopes down to about 0.1 sec due to the very fast release of atoms from the target. Isotopes of Rb, Sr, Cs, and Ba were separated by positive surface ionization and their half-lives measured using beta activity detected by a silicon surface barrier detector with a depletion depth of 300 mu . The isotopes /sup 147/Ba and /sup 148/Ba were identified for the first time and their half-lives were found to be 0.72+or-0.07 sec and 0.47+or-0.20 sec, respectively. (0 refs).

  4. The development of models for the transfer of 137Cs and 90Sr in the pasture-cow-milk pathway using fallout data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haywood, S.M.; Simmonds, J.R.; Linsley, G.S.

    1980-11-01

    Records of the measurements of fallout in the UK between the years 1958-77 have been used to develop versions of a general model for transfer in the pasture-cow-milk pathway for the radionuclides 137 Cs and 90 Sr. The revised models take account of the experimentally observed processes of fixation of caesium in soils and the plant base absorption of strontium. They predict, with reasonable accuracy, the variation of activity levels in milk over the period for which records exist. The form of the models permits examination of the relative contributions of the most important transfer mechanisms and their time dependence in the soil-plant system. The study has indicated an upper limit for the resuspension factor in UK rural environments. (author)

  5. A study of nuclear structure for 244Cm, 241Am, 238Pu, 210Po, 147Pm, 137Cs, 90Sr and 63Ni nuclei used in nuclear battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artun, Ozan

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we intend to extend the nuclear data of 244Cm, 241Am, 238Pu, 210Po, 147Pm, 137Cs, 90Sr and 63Ni nuclei used in nuclear battery technology, because, these nuclei are quite important for space investigations in radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) and for microelectronic technologies in betavoltaic batteries. Therefore, the nuclear structure properties of nuclei such as separation energies, neutron skin thicknesses, proton, charge and neutron density distributions as a function of radius, the root mean square (rms) proton, charge and neutron radii, binding energies per particle, have been investigated by Hartree-Fock with eight different Skyrme forces. The obtained results have been compared with the experimental data in literature and relativistic mean field theory (RMFT) results.

  6. Activity concentration measurements of 137Cs, 90Sr and 40K in a wild food matrix reference material (Wild Berries) CCRI(II)-S8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watjen, U.; Altzitzogloa, T.; Spasova, Y.; Ceccatelli, A.; Kis-Benedek, G.; Dikmen, H.; Gundogdu, G.; Yucel, U.; Ferreux, L.; Frechou, C.; Pierre, S.; Garcia, L.; Moreno, Y.; Oropesa, P.; La Rosa, J.; Luca, A.; Schmiedel, M.; Wershofen, H.; Szucs, L.; Vasile, M.

    2014-01-01

    In 2009, the CCRI approved a supplementary comparison to be organized by the IRMM as pilot laboratory for the activity concentrations of 137 Cs, 90 Sr and 40 K in a matrix material of dried bilberries. The organization of this comparison and the material and measurement methods used are described. The supplementary comparison reference values (SCRV) for each of the three radionuclides are given together with the degrees of equivalence of each participating laboratory with the SCRV for the specific radionuclide. The results of this supplementary comparison allow the participating NMIs/designated institutes to declare calibration and measurement capabilities (CMCs) for the given radionuclides in a similar type of food matrix, an important aspect given the relatively few supplementary comparisons for activity in matrix materials organized so far. (authors)

  7. Radioactive tracer studies of soil and litter arthropod food chains. Progress report, November 1, 1975--October 31, 1976. [/sup 134/Cs, /sup 85/Sr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crossley, D.A. Jr.

    1976-07-31

    Progress is described in radioisotope measurement of nutrient element flow in soil-litter arthropod food chains. Two models of accumulation (Goldstein-Elwood, Reichle-Crossley) were tested experimentally and found to yield equivalent predictions of /sup 134/Cs and /sup 85/Sr movement through arthropod populations. Radioisotope retention studies were used to compare trophic strategies of soil tipulids from arctic tundra and temperate forest. Arctic tipulids were found to compensate for low temperatures with enhanced assimilation and slower turnover of nutrients. Electron microprobe analysis is being used to measure elemental content of soil microarthropods. Concentrations as high as 70,000 ppm of Ca are reported for oribatid mites. Improved measurements of input-output nutrient concentrations are reported for island ecosystems on granitic outcrops, which are being subjected to experimental alteration in studies of ecosystem function.

  8. Results of study of Sr-90 and Cs-137 content in organism and effective doses of internal and external irradiation of Ukrainian population residing in different regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalmykov, L.; Gur, E.

    1996-01-01

    The authors have studied effective doses of internal and external radiation for 1992-1994 in the residents of Chernigov and Kharkov Regions of Ukraine, i.e. those who live in the zone of strict radioecologic control and in relatively ''clean'' zones, respectively. In 95% of the investigated residents of Chernigov Region Cs-137 activity in the organism was lower than 1500 Bq, maximum amount being 11 kBq. Conditioned Cs-137 effective dose of internal radiation did not exceed 250 micro Sv per year, in 96% of the investigated subjects it was less than 30 micro Sv per year. Mean amount of this radionuclide in the organisms of both adults and children aged 3-6 years residing in Kharkov Region was 90 and 6 Bq respectively, dose being 2 and 0.4 micro Sv per year. Sr-90 amount in the bone tissue decreases with the age and for the residents of Chernigov region it was 7-23 Bq/kg of bone, for the adult residents of Kharkov region it was about 3 Bq/kg of bone. Mean effective dose of internal radiation due to Sr-90 incorporation for the residents of both Kharkov and Chernigov Regions was 0.7 and 1.9 micro Sv per year. Effective dose of external radiation for the residents of Kharkov Region has not changed since the Chernobyl accident. Total effective dose of external and internal radiation in various professional groups for the residents of Chernigov region increased by 80 micro Sv per year which makes up 14% of mean population dose in Ukraine. (author). 11 refs, 5 tabs

  9. Foliar contamination of plants with aerosols of 137Cs, 85Sr, 133Ba and 123mTe: influence of rain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madoz-Escande, C.; Bonhomme, T.; Poncet-Bonnard, D.

    2004-01-01

    Different types of plants (lettuce, radish and grass sward) were contaminated by dry deposition of radioactive aerosols ( 137 Cs, 85 Sr, 133 Ba and 123m Te). Due to the rain efficiency in decreasing radiological contamination of crops, a range of rain scenarios was applied on these three types of plants. These experiments aimed at improving the prediction of the consequences on agricultural products of a nuclear accident occurring on a PWR, and also at improving the understanding of the different processes occurring between the contamination and the first harvest. For a plant species at a given stage of its growth cycle, interception of the four radionuclides was identical and varied from 68% for radish to 84% for grass. The interception of aerosols by lettuce was intermediary with 75% (at the middle of ripeness stage) or 78%(at the mature plant stage). By the use of a conceptual model, the predominance between the two processes: washing-off the leaves and absorption through the leaves cuticles that allows the translocation, was evidenced. For Cs, Sr and Ba,, for the lettuce and the radish the washing-off process on the foliar cover of lettuce and radish was the most significant during the first rain. The absorption process inside the plant became dominant only from the third rain event. Tellurium had a particular behaviour: it was non-mobile and stayed put on the leaves. The values of the washing-off and absorption coefficients were estimated. For the grass, during the washing-off, radionuclides had a tendency to accumulate in the basal parts of plant first and the root matt later. Moreover, grass cuts came in between the rains. The global transfer factor values were dependant on both the radionuclides and the plant species, nevertheless the higher value was obtained for the cesium, whatever the plant and the rain (from 0,06 m 2 .kg fresh -1 for radish to 0,1 m 2 .kg fresh -1 for whole lettuce). (author)

  10. 40K, 137Cs, 90Sr, 238,239+240Pu and 241Am in mammals' skulls from owls' pellets and owl skeletons in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaca, Paweł; Mietelski, Jerzy W; Kitowski, Ignacy; Grabowska, Sylwia; Tomankiewicz, Ewa

    2005-01-01

    Skulls of small mammals belonging to two species of rodents and three species of insectivores collected in Eastern Poland were the subject of the present investigation. The skulls were separated from owl pellets. Activities of 40K, 137Cs, 90Sr, 238,239+240Pu and 241Am were determined by means of gamma spectrometry as well as liquid scintillation spectrometry or alpha spectrometry along with relevant radiochemical procedures. A detailed description of the procedures is provided. The research was supplied with the analysis of three skeletons of owls. No measurable difference between the skulls of rodents and insectivorous animals with regard to activity of any of the examined radionuclides was found. No accumulation effect in the owl skeletons was detected. Though measured activities of 137Cs and 40K for the skulls were of the same magnitude as those found previously for large wild herbivorous animals from typical locations in Poland, those for 90Sr were even lower than previously determined. A big difference was found for activities of plutonium and americium isotopes. Their mean activities were higher by an order of magnitude when compared to the examined previously values. The maximum 239+240Pu activity was equal to 97.5+/-7.7 mBq/kg, with 65% of it originating from global fallout. Relatively high content of transuranic elements found for rodents and insectivorous mammals seems to be unrelated to their feeding habits and should rather be attributed to the living conditions. It is suggested that small mammals, together with tiny soil particles present in mid-soil living tunnels, can inhale the transuranic elements.

  11. Modeling the washoff of 90Sr and 137Cs from an experimental plot established in the vicinity of the Chernobyl reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, S.K.; Hoffman, F.O.; Thiessen, K.M.; Konoplev, A.V.

    1996-01-01

    After the Chernobyl event, a large area of land was contaminated following the deposition of radionuclides. This area became a continuing source of radionuclides to natural waters and aquatic ecosystems. In 1986, an experimental plot was constructed in a contaminated area near the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant to study the washoff of radionuclides by surface runoff. Concentrations of 137 Cs and 90 Sr were measured in the top 10 cm of the soil prior to the experiments. During two separate experiments, intense artificial rainfall was applied to the plot. A washoff scenario was prepared with site-specific information on initial soil contamination, duration and quantities of rainfall and runoff, physicochemical properties of the topsoil, and some climatological data. Modelers were asked to predict (a) the vertical distributions of the initial concentrations of 137 Cs and 90 Sr in various chemical forms in the topsoil, (b) concentrations of these radionuclides in various chemical forms in the runoff water during each experiment, and (c) the total amounts of these radionuclides in various chemical forms in the runoff water during each experiment, and (c) the total amounts of these radionuclides that were washed off during each experiment. A vertical, one-dimensional, multiphase, multispecies transport model was then developed to simulate the movement of contaminants in the topsoil during the 160-d period between the Chernobyl event and the experiments as well as the washouts of contaminants by runoff during the experiments and during the 24-h period thereafter. The model provided very good predictions of the vertical distributions of total contaminant concentrations in the top 10 cm of the soil; however, the concentrations in individual chemical forms were not predicted as accurately. The complete modeling approach and comparisons of model predictions with measurements and with predictions from other modelers are presented. 19 refs., 22 figs., 8 tabs

  12. The Comparative Kinetics of Ca, Sr, and Ra within the Yellow-Bellied Turtle. Trachemys scripta, as influenced by Dietary Calcium, Season, Age and Sex of the Animal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinton, T.G.; Pinder, J.E.; Hinton, T.G.; Whicker, F.W.

    1988-01-01

    Most of the data on assimilation and retention of radionuclides by animals is from homeothermic mammals. The assimilation and retention of radionuclides have only recently been investigated in reptiles. In both groups, interesting conjectures can be made concerning the kinetics of radionuclides in relation to temperature and to the abundance of the radioisotope chemical analogue. Temperature plays an important role in the metabolism and behavior of ectotherms and can thus affect radionuclide kinetics. The abundance of chemical analogues has been shown to decrease the assimilation and retention of radionuclides in homeotherms but such relationships have not been well documented in vertebrate ectotherms. The kinetics of Ca, Sr, and Ra in the freshwater turtle, Trachemys scripta is studied. It is ectothermic and 40% of its wet mass is comprised of a calcareous shell. What role does the shell play in calcium homeostasis, and how do the kinetics of analogous radioisotopes behave in such a calcium-rich system. T. scripta have a long life span of 20-30 years. They demonstrate reserved sexual dimorphism with females being larger, and they grow continuously, which results in large ranges in adult body size. Much of the winter is spent in hibernation. The spring is an active period related to mating, yet one in which little food is consumed. How do such oscillating changes in metabolic rate, as well as differences in body size, affect radionuclide elimination. To address such questions, radionuclide assimilation and retention as influenced by the amount of stable calcium in the turtle diet, season of the year and age and sex of the animal, are examined. The results demonstrate the complex nature of radionuclide kinetics within ectotherms and give insights into the basic biology of turtles

  13. RA Reactor; Reaktor RA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-07-01

    This chapter includes the following: General description of the RA reactor, organization of work, responsibilities of leadership and operators team, regulations concerning operation and behaviour in the reactor building, regulations for performing experiments, regulations and instructions for inserting samples into experimental channels. [Serbo-Croat] Ovo (prvo) poglavlje sadrzi sledece: Opis reaktora RA; semu organizacije rada i rukovodjenja; prava i duznosti direktora i rukovodioca pogona reaktora, propise o rezimu rada i kretanja u zgradi reaktora, propise o izvodjenju eksperimenata, propise o unosenju uzoraka u eksperimentalne kanale reaktora.

  14. RA Reactor; Reaktor RA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-02-15

    In addition to basic characteristics of the RA reactor, organizational scheme and financial incentives, this document covers describes the state of the reactor components after 18 years of operation, problems concerned with obtaining the licence for operation with 80% fuel, problems of spent fuel storage in the storage pool of the reactor building and the need for renewal of reactor equipment, first of all instrumentation. [Serbo-Croat] Pored osnovnih karakeristika reaktora RA, organizacije rada i finansijskih pokazatelja, razmatra se stanje opreme reaktora nakon 18 godina rada, pitanja dozvole za rad sa 80% obogacenim gorivom, problem skladistenja isluzenog goriva u bazenu zgrade reaktora i potreba za obnavljanjem komponenti opreme, pre svega elektronske.

  15. Mid-year status report for TTP number-sign SR-1320-02 UST: Cs extraction testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibler, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    This project was designed to perform several tasks to provide transfer of technology to PNL concerning optimization of a cesium-specific ion exchange resin, developed at WSRC. The tasks support the development of a Compact Processing Unit (CPU) for Cs-removal from a variety of waste streams at Westinghouse Hanford (WH). In a series of experiments, WSRC has studied the behavior of a small column of the resin at various, increasingly greater flow rates with the HW simulant solution to determine an optimum column loading rate. Elution studies of the resin after saturation with Cs+ will generate an elution profile from which an optimum elution medium, flow rate, and volume can be determined. Small column tests at temperatures ranging from 40 degrees C 80 degrees C are planned but have not yet begun. Further, WSRC has begun a study in which the resin is subjected to ionizing radiation in a Co-60 source. This study will determine if any flammable or hazardous compounds, that might require special process controls, are formed as a result of irradiation. it will also define the ability of the resin to maintain its selectivity and capacity in a radiation field. During this period, a literature survey of the effects of radiation on this type of resin and similar compounds was initiated. For this survey, the extensive database established by the Radiation Chemistry Data Center at the University of Notre Dame is being used

  16. {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 241}Am and {sup 239+240}Pu radionuclides speciation in soils of the former Semipalatinsk test site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabdyrakova, A.M.; Kunduzbaeva, A.Y.; Lukashenko, S.N.; Magasheva, R.Y. [Institute of radiation safety and ecology (Kazakhstan)

    2014-07-01

    The paper presents results of studies into {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr, {sup 241}Am and {sup 239+240}Pu techno-genic radionuclides speciation in soils of ecosystems at different topography of the Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS), exposed to different nuclear testing. The data were obtained for radionuclides speciation in soils of the following STS ecosystems: - grassland ecosystems within near-portal areas of tunnels - horizontal adits constructed for nuclear testing, affected by radioactive-contaminated water flows from the tunnels of Degelen Site; - steppe ecosystems, exposed to ground radioactive contamination resulted from above-ground and aerial nuclear testing of different yield, as well as simulation (hydrodynamic and hydro-nuclear) experiments at 'Experimental Field' testing site. - steppe ecosystems, exposed to ground radioactive contamination caused by testing of liquid and powdery radiological warfare weapon (RWW) at Site '4 a'; - 'Northern' and 'Western' areas of STS, where concentration level of artificial radionuclides in soil is comparable with the level of global fall-outs ('background' areas). To study the radionuclides speciation, method of sequential extraction was applied, and water-soluble, exchange, organic mobile and tightly bound forms were separated. Feature of the studied grassland ecosystems is that they are developed solely along the bed of water streams flowing from tunnels and are located at small area of 1-2 m{sup 2}. Radioactive contamination of soil is caused by radioactive contaminant sorption by sediments. Despite the significant space limitation of the ecosystems content of radionuclides speciation in soil greatly varies, particularly readily-soluble and mobile forms. The variation may be explained by high humidity which makes possible both sorption and desorption processes. If basic radionuclides contributing to radioactive contamination of grassland soils at Degelen Site are {sup

  17. Calculated activities of some isotopes in the RA reactor highly enriched fuel significant for possible environmental contamination - Operational report; Radni izvestaj - Proracun aktivnosti nekih izotopa u visokoobogacenom uranskom gorivu reaktora RA, znacajnih sa gledista moguce kontaminacije okoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulovic, V; Martinc, R; Cupac, S [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1976-12-15

    This report contains calculation basis and obtained results of activities for three groups of isotopes in the RA reactor 80% enriched fuel element. The following isotopes are included: 1) {sup 85m}Kr, {sup 87}Kr, {sup 88}Kr, {sup 131}J, {sup 132}J, {sup 133}J, {sup 134}J, {sup 135}J, {sup 133}Xe, {sup 138}Xe i {sup 138}Cs, 2) {sup 89}Sr, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 91}Sr, {sup 92}Sr, {sup 95}Zr, {sup 97}Zr, {sup 103}Ru, {sup 105}Ru, {sup 106}Ru, {sup 129m}Te, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 140}Ba, {sup 144}Ce, kao i 3) {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu i {sup 240}Pu. It was estimated that the fuel is exposed to mean neutron flux. The periodicity of reactor operation is taken into account. Calculation results are given dependent on the time of exposure. These results are to be used as source data for Ra reactor safety analyses. [Serbo-Croat] Izlozene su osnove i prikazani su rezultati izvedenog proracuna aktivnosti tri grupe izotopa u gorivnom elementu reaktora RA sa 80% obogacenim uranom - 235. Obuhvaceni su: 1) {sup 85m}Kr, {sup 87}Kr, {sup 88}Kr, {sup 131}J, {sup 132}J, {sup 133}J, {sup 134}J, {sup 135}J, {sup 133}Xe, {sup 138}Xe i {sup 138}Cs, zatim, 2) {sup 89}Sr, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 91}Sr, {sup 92}Sr, {sup 95}Zr, {sup 97}Zr, {sup 103}Ru, {sup 105}Ru, {sup 106}Ru, {sup 129m}Te, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 140}Ba, {sup 144}Ce, kao i 3) {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu i {sup 240}Pu. Pretpostavljeno je da se gorivo ozracuje na srednjem fluksu neutrona, a periodicnost rada reaktora je uvazavana. Rezultati proracuna, dati u numerickom obliku, sistematizovani su kao funkcija toka vremena ozracivanja goriva. Ovi rezultati bice korisceni kao izvorni podaci kod izrade sigurnosnih analiza za reaktor RA (author)

  18. Modeling the washoff of 90Sr and 137Cs from an experimental plot established in the vicinity of the Chernobyl reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, S K; Hoffman, F O; Thiessen, K M; Konoplev, A V

    1996-12-01

    After the Chernobyl event, a large area of land was contaminated following the deposition of radionuclides. This area became a continuing source of radionuclides to natural waters and aquatic ecosystems. In 1986, an experimental plot was constructed in a contaminated area near the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant to study the washoff of radionuclides by surface runoff. Concentrations of 137Cs and 90Sr were measured in the top 10 cm of the soil prior to the experiments. During two separate experiments, intense artificial rainfall was applied to the plot. A washoff scenario was then prepared with site-specific information on initial soil contamination, duration and quantities of rainfall and runoff, physicochemical properties of the topsoil, and some climatological data. Modelers were asked to predict (a) the vertical distributions of the initial concentrations of 137Cs and 90Sr in various chemical forms in the topsoil, (b) concentrations of these radionuclides in various chemical forms in the runoff water during each experiment, and (c) the total amounts of these radionuclides that were washed off during each experiment. Stochastically generated local rainfall data were used in a water budget model to generate annual average runoff and infiltration rates. A vertical, one-dimensional, multiphase, multispecies transport model was then developed to simulate the movement of contaminants in the topsoil during the 160-d period between the Chernobyl event and the experiments as well as the washouts of contaminants by runoff during the experiments and during the 24-h period thereafter. The model provided very good predictions of the vertical distributions of total contaminant concentrations in the top 10 cm of the soil; however, the concentrations in individual chemical forms were not predicted as accurately. Initially, the model overpredicted the washout of contaminants for the two experiments and the 24-h period thereafter. Fraction of runoff that flows as interflow and

  19. Coefficients of leaf-fruit translocation for {sup 60}Co, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs in bean plant (Phaseolus vulgaris); Coeficientes de translocacao folha-fruto de {sup 60}Co, {sup 90}Sr e {sup 137}Cs em feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macacini, Jose Flavio

    2000-01-15

    Due to the increasing use of nuclear fission for the generation of electrical energy, the safety aspects of power plants must be minutely appraised. In case of an accident, with liberation of radioactive material into the atmosphere, knowledge about the behavior of plant species when in contact with radionuclides is indispensable. An important route through which agricultural products are contaminated by radionuclides is leaf-fruit translocation. This phenomenon can be evaluated by simulating a fallout contamination in a controlled atmosphere using as a tracer man-made radionuclides. In order to quantity the leaf-fruit translocation coefficients for {sup 60}Co, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), variety black diamond, an experiment was carried out in a greenhouse with completely randomized blocks design with six treatments and four blocks. A mixture of these three radionuclides was prepared and used to determine their translocation coefficients. The bean plants were contaminated inside a device especially designed to avoid environmental contamination. In each treatment four vases were sprinkled and one was used to estimate the initial activity of the other three vases. High-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry was used for {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs activity determinations and chemical separation followed by beta counting of {sup 90}Y was used for {sup 90}Sr determinations. The number of treatments was reduced from six to four sprayings corresponding to 30, 45, 60 and 75 days after planting. This reduction was due to the attack of common and gold mosaic viroses. Symptoms were observed on the diseased bean plants 50 days after planting. It was possible, however, to verify a functional dependence between instant of tracer application and the level of physiological development of the bean plant. It was verified that the temporal relationship values for leaf-fruit translocation were similar for {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs. For the {sup 90

  20. Evaluation of improved technologies for the removal of 90Sr and 137Cs from process wastewater and groundwater: FY 1995 status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostick, D.T.; Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Burgess, M.W.; McTaggart, D.R.; Taylor, P.A.; Guo, B.

    1996-03-01

    A number of new sorbents are currently being developed for the removal of 90 Sr and 137 Cs from contaminated, caustic low-level liquid waste (LLLW). These sorbents are potentially promising for use in the cleanup of contaminated groundwater and process wastewater containing the two radionuclides. The goal of this subtask is to evaluate the new sorbents to determine whether their associated treatment technology is more selective for the decontamination of wastewater streams than that of currently available processes. Activities during fiscal year 1995 have included completing the characterization of the standard treatment technology, ion exchange on chabazite zeolite. Strontium and cesium sorption on sodium-modified zeolite was observed in the presence of elevated concentrations of wastewater components: sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium. The most significant loss of nuclide sorption was noted in the first 0- to 4-meq/L addition of the cations to a wastewater simulant. Radionuclide sorption on the pretreated zeolite was also determined under dynamic flow conditions. Resorcinol-formaldehyde (R-F) resin, which was developed at the Savannah River Site, was selected as the first new sorbent to be evaluated for wastewater treatment. Nuclide sorption on this resin was greater when the resin had been washed with ultrapure water and air dried prior to use

  1. Environmental studies on radioecological sensitivity and variability with special emphasis on the fallout nuclides 90Sr and 137Cs. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.

    1979-06-01

    Radioecological sensitivity and variability are quantities that are used to characterize the radioecological properties of environmental samples. The radioecological sensitivity is the infinite time-integrated radionuclide concentration in the environmental sample considered arising from a deposition of 1 mCi KM -2 of the radionuclide in question. This quantity makes it possible to compare various environments as to their vulnerability to a given radioactive contamination. The variability of the concentrations of a radionuclide in an environmental sample, with respect to a given parameter, is defined as the partial coefficient of variation due to this parameter. The variability with time is a useful way to assess the route of contamination of the sample and the local variability is a measure of environmental inhomogenity with respect to radioactive contamination. Radioecology sensitivity and variability were applied to the 90 Sr and 137 Cs data obtained from the environmental studies on the human foodchain carried out during the last two decades in Denmark, the Faroe Islands, and Greenland. The per caput effective dose-equivalent commitments from radioactive debris from nuclear weapons testing was estimated to be 1.6 mSv in Denmark, 4.2 mSv in the Faroe Islands, and 1.6 mSv in Greenland. (author)

  2. Decontaminating effectiveness of Ca-, Zn-, MnDTPA chelates in contamination with inner radioisotopes 137Cs, 144Ce, 131I, 90Sr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kossakowski, S.

    1987-01-01

    The studies were carried out on 240 rabbits divided into 4 groups, in which, after contamination with radioisotopes 137 Cs (A), 144 Ce (B), 131 I (C), 90 Sr (D), Ca-, Zn-, MnDTPA chelates were used in 12.5% water solutions in doses of 0.4 g/kg of body weight. The evaluation of the decontaminating effectiveness of the above DTPA compounds, taking into account veterinary-clinical and veterinary-sanitary aspects, was made after 1,2,4,6,15 days from the contamination. The results expressing the per cent values of radioactivity of the organs are presented in individual groups. From these data it can be assumed for practical veterinary purposes that Ca-, Zn-, MnDTPA chelates show an effective action with respect to the veterinary-clinical aspect in contamination with radiocerium and with respect to the veterinary-sanitary aspect in contamination with radiocerium and radioiodine; less effective action with respect to the veterinary-sanitary aspect and ineffective with respect to the veterinary-clinical aspect in contamination with radiocesium; negative one with respect to both aspects in contamination with radiostrontium. As regards the individual chelating compounds, the most effective can be recognized sodium zinc salt of DTPA. 58 refs., 4 tabs. (author)

  3. Experimental studies on the migration of radionuclides of the elements I, Sr, Cs, Co and Pd in the roof rock of the projected waste repository at Gorleben

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klotz, D.; Lang, H.; Moser, H.

    1985-07-01

    The studies were intended to provide information on the sorptive properties of 15 samples of fine-grain and medium-grain sands with regard to the radionuclides of I, Sr, Cs, Co, and Pd, and on their hydraulic properties. The samples were taken from the geologic formations in the area surrounding the projected waste repository in the Gorleben salt mine, at depth of up to 250 m down from terrain surface, and were analysed by means of column and batch experiments. Further goals were to determine the radionuclide migration as a function of flow velocity of the groundwater, and of sand compactness, as well as the effects of carrier ions and main groundwater contituents. The margins of retardation factors for the various radionuclides are given. One important result of the studies is that it could be expeimentally verified that there is the process of quasi irreversible sorption, i.e. it could be shown that desorption of radionuclides from natural, unconsolidated rock proceeds very much slowlier than sorption, so that this finding is of great significance to the safety assessment of a radioactive waste repository in geologic formations. (orig./HP) [de

  4. Pre operational levels of 137Cs and 90Sr in seawater and sea foods in Gulf of Mannar near Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayakumar, B.; Thomas, G.; Rajan, P.S.; Selvi, B.S.; Balamurugan, M.; Ravi, P.M.; Tripathy, R.M.

    2014-01-01

    The first unit of Kudankulam Nuclear Power Project (KKNPP) attained first criticality on July 13, 2013 and synchronized to the grid on October 22, 2013. The first unit achieved the full rated power of 1000 MWe on June 7, 2014. The second unit of KKNPP is under advanced stage of commissioning and hot run of the plant is expected shortly. Commercial operational of the first unit is expected soon. It is imperative to establish the pre operational levels of Fall out nuclides like 137 Cs and 90 Sr in and around Kudankulam site, especially sea waters and sea food samples as these nuclides are produced in the reactor as fission products. Nevertheless, they are retained in the fuel matrix itself as the reactors host a multiple layered barrier to prevent the escape of these radionuclides into the environment by adopting the philosophy of defense in depth. Benchmarking the levels of these nuclides in the aquatic domain will help in future comparison of the levels of these nuclides after the plants start operation in addition to generating the regional database in south eastern tip of the sea

  5. Retention and translocation of foliar applied {sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 241}Am, as compared to {sup 137}Cs and {sup 85}Sr, into bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henner, P. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, Environment and Emergency Operations Division, Department for the Study of Radionuclides Behaviour in Ecosystems, Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, IRSN/DPRE/SECRE/LRE, Cadarache Centre, Building 186, BP 3, 13115 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)]. E-mail: pascale.henner@irsn.fr; Colle, C. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, Environment and Emergency Operations Division, Department for the Study of Radionuclides Behaviour in Ecosystems, Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, IRSN/DPRE/SECRE/LRE, Cadarache Centre, Building 186, BP 3, 13115 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Morello, M. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, Environment and Emergency Operations Division, Department for the Study of Radionuclides Behaviour in Ecosystems, Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, IRSN/DPRE/SECRE/LRE, Cadarache Centre, Building 186, BP 3, 13115 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2005-07-01

    Foliar transfer of {sup 241}Am, {sup 239,240}Pu, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 85}Sr was evaluated after contamination of bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris) at the flowering development stage, by soaking their first two trifoliate leaves into contaminated solutions. Initial retentions of {sup 241}Am (27%) and {sup 239,240}Pu (37%) were higher than those of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 85}Sr (10-15%). Mean fraction of retained activity redistributed among bean organs was higher for {sup 137}Cs (20.3%) than for {sup 239,240}Pu (2.2%), {sup 241}Am (1%) or {sup 85}Sr (0.1%). Mean leaf-to-pod translocation factors (Bq kg{sup -1}dry weight pod/Bq kg{sup -1}dry weight contaminated leaves) were 5.0 x 10{sup -4} for {sup 241}Am, 2.7 x 10{sup -6} for {sup 239,240}Pu, 5.4 x 10{sup -2} for {sup 137}Cs and 3.6 x 10{sup -4} for {sup 85}Sr. Caesium was mainly recovered in pods (12.8%). Americium and strontium were uniformly redistributed among leaves, stems and pods. Plutonium showed preferential redistribution in oldest bean organs, leaves and stems, and very little redistribution in forming pods. Results for americium and plutonium were compared to those of strontium and caesium to evaluate the consistency of the attribution of behaviour of strontium to transuranium elements towards foliar transfer, based on translocation factors, as stated in two radioecological models, ECOSYS-87 and ASTRAL.

  6. The 90Sr, 137Cs, 3H and 131I content in surface water and sediments of the Danube, Olt and Arges river and in milk samples for the year 1972

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podeanu, G.; Iancu, E.

    1975-01-01

    The radioactivity of the measured radionuclides in water decreased from their discharge into the Danube to the mouth of the river. The amounts of certain radioisotopes in water samples, sediments, and milk are far below the maximum permissible concentrations. With some exceptions, the radioactivity of 137 Cs is lower than that of 90 Sr. With some exceptions, the highest values for the radionuclides studied were measured during the summer months. (orig./RW) [de

  7. Large-scale treatment of high-salt, high-pH wastewater for {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr removal, using crystalline silicotitanate resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, P.A.; Walker, J.F.; Lee, D.D.

    1998-04-01

    A full-scale demonstration of cesium removal technology has been conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This demonstration utilized a modular, mobile ion-exchange system and existing facilities for the off-gas system, secondary containment, and utilities. The ion-exchange material, crystalline silicotitanate (CST), was selected on the basis of its effectiveness in laboratory tests. The CST, which was developed through a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement between DOE and private industry, is highly selective for removing cesium from solutions containing high concentrations of other contaminants, such as sodium and potassium. Approximately 116,000 liters of supernate was processed during the demonstration with {approximately} 1,142 Ci of {sup 137}Cs removed from the supernate and loaded onto 266 liters of the CST sorbent. The supernate processed had a high salt content, about 4 M NaNO{sub 3} and a pH of 12 to 13. The CST also loaded Ba, Pb, Sr, U and Zn. Analysis of the spent sorbent has shown that it is not hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The cesium breakthrough curves for the lab and full-scale columns agreed very well, suggesting that lab-scale tests can be used to predict the performance of larger systems. The cesium breakthrough curves for runs at different flowrates show that film diffusion is significant in controlling the mass transfer process. Operational factors that increase the effect of film diffusion include the small size and high porosity of the CST sorbent, and the relatively low liquid velocity through the sorbent.

  8. Numerical Modeling of 90Sr and 137Cs Transport from a Spill in the B-Cell of the 324 Building, Hanford Site 300 Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rockhold, Mark L.; Bacon, Diana H.; Freedman, Vicky L.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Clayton, Ray E.

    2012-03-19

    To characterize the extent of contamination under the 324 Building, a pit was excavated on the north side of the building in 2010 by Washington Closure Hanford LLC (WCH). Horizontal closed-end steel access pipes were installed under the foundation of the building from this pit and were used for measuring temperatures and exposure rates under the B-Cell. The deployed sensors measured elevated temperatures of up to 61 C (142 F) and exposure rates of up to 8,900 R/hr. WCH suspended deactivation of the facility because it recognized that building safety systems and additional characterization data might be needed for remediation of the contaminated material. The characterization work included additional field sampling, laboratory measurements, and numerical flow and transport modeling. Laboratory measurements of sediment physical, hydraulic, and geochemical properties were performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and others. Geochemical modeling and subsurface flow and transport modeling also were performed by PNNL to evaluate the possible extent of contamination in the unsaturated sand and gravel sediments underlying the building. Historical records suggest that the concentrated 137Cs- and 90Sr-bearing liquid wastes that were spilled in B-Cell were likely from a glass-waste repository testing program associated with the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). Incomplete estimates of the aqueous chemical composition (no anion data provided) of the FRG waste solutions were entered into a geochemical speciation model and were charge balanced with nitrate to estimate waste composition. Additional geochemical modeling was performed to evaluate reactions of the waste stream with the concrete foundation of the building prior to the stream entering the subsurface.

  9. Large-scale treatment of high-salt, high-pH wastewater for 137Cs and 90Sr removal, using crystalline silicotitanate resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, P.A.; Walker, J.F.; Lee, D.D.

    1998-04-01

    A full-scale demonstration of cesium removal technology has been conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This demonstration utilized a modular, mobile ion-exchange system and existing facilities for the off-gas system, secondary containment, and utilities. The ion-exchange material, crystalline silicotitanate (CST), was selected on the basis of its effectiveness in laboratory tests. The CST, which was developed through a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement between DOE and private industry, is highly selective for removing cesium from solutions containing high concentrations of other contaminants, such as sodium and potassium. Approximately 116,000 liters of supernate was processed during the demonstration with ∼ 1,142 Ci of 137 Cs removed from the supernate and loaded onto 266 liters of the CST sorbent. The supernate processed had a high salt content, about 4 M NaNO 3 and a pH of 12 to 13. The CST also loaded Ba, Pb, Sr, U and Zn. Analysis of the spent sorbent has shown that it is not hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The cesium breakthrough curves for the lab and full-scale columns agreed very well, suggesting that lab-scale tests can be used to predict the performance of larger systems. The cesium breakthrough curves for runs at different flowrates show that film diffusion is significant in controlling the mass transfer process. Operational factors that increase the effect of film diffusion include the small size and high porosity of the CST sorbent, and the relatively low liquid velocity through the sorbent

  10. Appendix to Health and Safety Laboratory environmental quarterly, March 1, 1976--June 1, 1976. [Tabulated data on content of lead in surface air and /sup 7/Be, /sup 95/Zr, /sup 137/Cs, /sup 144/Ce, and /sup 90/Sr in surface air, milk, drinking water, and foods sampled in USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, E.P. Jr.

    1976-07-01

    Tabulated data are presented on: the monthly deposition of /sup 89/Sr and /sup 90/Sr at some 100 world land sites; the content of lead and /sup 7/Be, /sup 95/Zr, /sup 137/Cs, and /sup 144/Ce in samples of surface air from various world sites; and the content of /sup 90/Sr in samples of milk, drinking water, and animal and human diets collected at various locations throughout the USA. (CH)

  11. Radiation from Radioactive Cesium (137 Cs) and Strontium (90Sr) Contaminated soil during the Chernobyl Nuclear Disaster Triggers Rice Immune Response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, S.; Rakwal, R.; Agrawal, G. K.; Tamogami, S.; Kim, Y.H.; Shibato, J.; Sahoo, S. K.; Shiraishi, K.; Los, I. P.; Shevachuk, V. E.; Yonekura, M.; Iwahashi, H.

    2004-01-01

    After the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986 that exposed most of the population of the Northern hemisphere to various degrees of radiation, the public's perception of nuclear risk was completely changed. other than the obvious and much studied health impact, the agriculture and environmental impacts still pose a serious problem. Cesium-137, which has a half-life of 30.1 years, is the most important radionuclide left from Chernobyl's catastrophic explosion, and is present at high concentrations (activity, gamma-and beta-emitter) in the 0-5 cm soil layer. Strontium-90 (beta.emitter), which has a half-life of 29.1 years also constitutes a problem for plants. The effect of these radionuclides, and importantly show the radiation released therein affects plants has not been investigated in detail. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that leaves of two-week-old rice (japonica-type c, Nipponbare) seedlings (that constitutes a well-established in-vitro assay system) would respond to radiation (from the contaminated soil from Masany. Belarus, with major radionuclides, 137 Cs and 90 sr) by inducing various biochemical/molecular changes associated with the defense/stress response, including those involving mechanisms affecting the inactivation of damaging reactive oxygen specie. Rice (oryza sativa L.) is an enormously important food and monocot cereal crop research model whose draft genome sequence has recently been released. A molecular (northern analysis which provides a picture of the transcriptional changes of a particular gene), proteomics (two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) is a powerful tool in understanding which proteins are present in particular tissue under given condition), and metabolomic (determining the metabolic profiles of metabolites induced during stress) approach was employed to monitor the changes in defense(stress-related (D/S-.r) genes, proteins (using 2-DE coupled with amino acid sequencing and immunoblotting) and metabolites (in particular

  12. Radionuclides {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 241}Am and {sup 239+240}Pu in vegetation cover of the former Semipalatinsk test site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larionova, N. [Institute of Radiation Safety and Ecology (Kazakhstan); Lukashenko, S. [Institute of Radiation Safety and Ecology of the Republican State Enterprise (Kazakhstan)

    2014-07-01

    integrated picture about accumulation of artificial radionuclides {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 241}Am in plants at STS. It has been found that parameters of radionuclide accumulation in plants primarily depend on the nature of radioactive contamination of STS, in particular speciation radionuclides in soil. Certain differences are observed for individual species of plants and soils, which are characterized by different physico-chemical properties. Radionuclides have been broken down by their ability to accumulate from soil into above-ground parts of plants, a quantitative characterization of difference in accumulation is provided. A comparative analysis of the accumulation factors for the various areas of STS and generalized international data. Recommendations have been provided on the safe use of forage of natural pastures at STS. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  13. Effect of mycorrhizal infection on root uptake by pine seedlings and redistribution of three contrasting radio-isotopes: {sup 85}Sr, {sup 95m}Tc and {sup 137}Cs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plassard, C.; Ladeyn, I.; Staunton, S. [Institut National de Recherches Agronomiques (INRA), UMR Rhizosphere and Symbiose 34 - Montpellier (France)

    2004-07-01

    Mycorrhizal infection is known to improve phosphate nutrition and water supply of higher plants. It has been reported to both increase the uptake of potentially toxic pollutant elements and to protect plants against toxic effects. Little is known about the effect of mycorrhizal infection on the dynamics of radioactive pollutants in soil-plant systems. The aim of this study was to compare the root uptake and root-shoot transfer of three radio-isotopes with contrasting chemical properties ({sup 85}Sr, {sup 95m}Tc and {sup 137}Cs) in mycorrhizal and control, non mycorrhizal plants. The plant studied was Pinus pinaster and the associated ecto-mycorrhizal fungus was Rhizopogon roseolus (strain R18-2). Plants were grown under anoxic conditions for 3 months then transferred to thin layers of autoclaved soil and allowed to grow for four months. After this period, the rhizotrons were dismantled, and plant tissue analysed. Biomass, nutrient content (K, P, N, Ca) and activities of each isotope in roots, shoots and stems were measured, and the degree of mycorrhizal infection assessed. The transfer factors decreased in the order Tc>Sr>Cs as expected from the degree of immobilisation by soil. No effect of mycorrhizal infection on root uptake was observed for Sr. Shoot activity concentration of Tc was decreased by mycorrhizal infection but root uptake correlated well with mycelial soil surface area. In contrast, Cs shoot activity was greater in mycorrhizal than control plants. The uptake and root to shoot distribution shall be discussed in relation to nutrient dynamics. (author)

  14. Assessment of transferring Sr-90 and Cs-137 in products of processing of seeds raps for getting raps' oil and biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yatsino, T.S.; Mironov, V.P.

    2009-01-01

    The objects of research are soil assays, seeds of raps, straw and the stalks selected on polluted radio nuclides of territory. The work purpose is to measure specific activity of strontium and cesium in assays, to calculate factors of transition Sr 90 and Sr 137 in products of processing of seeds of raps. (authors)

  15. Mycorrhizal association of maritime pine, Pinus pinaster, with Rhizopogon roseolus has contrasting effects on the uptake from soil and root-to-shoot transfer of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 85}Sr and {sup 95m}Tc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladeyn, Ingrid; Plassard, Claude [INRA, UMR 1222, Biogeochimie du Sol et de la Rhizosphere, place Viala, 34060 Montpellier (France); Staunton, Siobhan [INRA, UMR 1222, Biogeochimie du Sol et de la Rhizosphere, place Viala, 34060 Montpellier (France)], E-mail: staunton@montpellier.inra.fr

    2008-05-15

    The beneficial role of mycorrhizal association on plant nutrition and water supply is well-known, however, very little information exists with respect to the availability of radionuclides. We have measured the effect of controlled mycorrhizal association on the root uptake from soil and accumulation in leaves of three radionuclides. The radionuclides have contrasting chemical and biological properties: Cs is strongly adsorbed on soil, has no biological role and is a close analogue of potassium; Sr is less strongly adsorbed on soil and behaves very similarly to calcium; and Tc is very mobile in soil as pertechnetate, but immobilised when reduced to Tc(IV), it is also considered to be easily assimilated by biological systems. We found that mycorrhizal association had no effect on root-to-needle transfer of Cs, but increased root uptake and that this increase could not be explained by improved potassium nutrition. In contrast, the symbiotic relation decreased Tc soil-to-needle transfer, but this resulted from complex dynamics of root uptake and rapid immobilisation of Tc in soil. No effect of mycorrhizal association on Sr, like its stable analogue Ca, was observed. The addition of a phytotoxic metal, Cu, inhibited mycorrhizal association, thus eliminating the effects observed for non-contaminated plant-fungus couples, but had no additional effect on radionuclide dynamics.

  16. Mycorrhizal association of maritime pine, Pinus pinaster, with Rhizopogon roseolus has contrasting effects on the uptake from soil and root-to-shoot transfer of 137Cs, 85Sr and 95mTc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladeyn, Ingrid; Plassard, Claude; Staunton, Siobhan

    2008-01-01

    The beneficial role of mycorrhizal association on plant nutrition and water supply is well-known, however, very little information exists with respect to the availability of radionuclides. We have measured the effect of controlled mycorrhizal association on the root uptake from soil and accumulation in leaves of three radionuclides. The radionuclides have contrasting chemical and biological properties: Cs is strongly adsorbed on soil, has no biological role and is a close analogue of potassium; Sr is less strongly adsorbed on soil and behaves very similarly to calcium; and Tc is very mobile in soil as pertechnetate, but immobilised when reduced to Tc(IV), it is also considered to be easily assimilated by biological systems. We found that mycorrhizal association had no effect on root-to-needle transfer of Cs, but increased root uptake and that this increase could not be explained by improved potassium nutrition. In contrast, the symbiotic relation decreased Tc soil-to-needle transfer, but this resulted from complex dynamics of root uptake and rapid immobilisation of Tc in soil. No effect of mycorrhizal association on Sr, like its stable analogue Ca, was observed. The addition of a phytotoxic metal, Cu, inhibited mycorrhizal association, thus eliminating the effects observed for non-contaminated plant-fungus couples, but had no additional effect on radionuclide dynamics

  17. Transfer pathways of {sup 54}Mn, {sup 57}Co, {sup 85}Sr, {sup 103}Ru and {sup 134}Cs in rice and radish plants directly contaminated at different growth stages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Y.H. E-mail: yhchoi1@kaeri.re.kr; Lim, K.M.; Yu, D.; Park, H.G.; Choi, Y.G.; Lee, C.M

    2002-03-01

    In order to study radionuclide transfer pathways related to direct contamination of plants, the above-ground parts of rice and radish plants were sprayed with a solution containing {sup 54}Mn, {sup 57}Co, {sup 85}Sr, {sup 103}Ru and {sup 134}Cs in a greenhouse at 5 or 6 different times. Showing little difference among radionuclides, the interception factor increased as plants grew to maturity. Its highest observed value was 0.94 in rice and 0.83 in radish. Weathering losses of the intercepted activity by harvest were 32-89% in rice and 32-85% in radish depending on application time and radionuclide. Half lives for weathering loss were estimated to be longer on the whole for earlier applications. The translocation factor varied with application time by factors of 6-110 for hulled rice seeds and 2-23 for radish roots depending on the radionuclide. It varied with radionuclides by factors of 6-800 depending on application time and plant species. It was highest in the plants sprayed during active seed growth for rice and during early plant growth for radish. In general, {sup 134}Cs and {sup 57}Co had the highest translocation factors followed by {sup 54}Mn, {sup 85}Sr and {sup 103}Ru. Based on the experimental results, radionuclide concentrations in the edible parts of mature plants were predicted for unit deposition.

  18. Measurements of neutron flux in the RA reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raisic, N.

    1961-12-01

    This report includes the following separate parts: Thermal neutron flux in the experimental channels od RA reactor; Epithermal neutron flux in the experimental channels od RA reactor; Fast neutron flux in the experimental channels od RA reactor; Thermal neutron flux in the thermal column and biological experimental channel; Neutronic measurements in the RA reactor cell; Temperature reactivity coefficient of the RA reactor; design of the device for measuring the activity of wire [sr

  19. Studies on the radioactive contamination due to nuclear detonations V. The radioactive contamination of human body by Sr{sup 90} and Cs{sup 137} and its correlation with the fallout rate and ground deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishiwaki, Yasushi [Nuclear Reactor Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Nuclear Reactor Laboratoroy, Kinki University, Fuse City, Osaka Precture (Japan)

    1961-11-25

    About 60 bone samples were analysed for Sr 90 during the period from January 1957 to July 1959. The highest average concentration was found to be about 1 S.U for the age group of 5 to 10 years old. However since most of the cases are more or less pathological ones after long period of hospitalization the results may not be considered to be the representative values for the average normal person. The highest concentration among the cases whose past history is known was 175 S.U. or roughly, about 2 S.U. During the period of observation occasionally we have found higher concentration than 2 S.U, in the bone samples of a few cases obtained from the crematory. However, since the past history of these cases is not known, it is not clear whether they depended on the rainwater or on the brown ice with much higher contamination than the white rice. In view of these findings it may not be to, much to assume that the concentration of Sr 90 in te bones of the average normal children might reach 2 S.U c corresponding to the cumulative ground deposition and the fallout rate. The concentration of Cs whose physical half-life is very much similar to Sr 90 was in the range of about 30 - 100 cesium unit in 1957 to early 1958. However, during the period from 1958 to early 1959 the concentration of Cs 137 in come of the organs of the human body has been reported to be about two to three times higher on the average in Tokyo than the above value in 1957.

  20. Studies on the radioactive contamination due to nuclear detonations V. The radioactive contamination of human body by Sr90 and Cs137 and its correlation with the fallout rate and ground deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiwaki, Yasushi

    1961-01-01

    About 60 bone samples were analysed for Sr 90 during the period from January 1957 to July 1959. The highest average concentration was found to be about 1 S.U for the age group of 5 to 10 years old. However since most of the cases are more or less pathological ones after long period of hospitalization the results may not be considered to be the representative values for the average normal person. The highest concentration among the cases whose past history is known was 175 S.U. or roughly, about 2 S.U. During the period of observation occasionally we have found higher concentration than 2 S.U, in the bone samples of a few cases obtained from the crematory. However, since the past history of these cases is not known, it is not clear whether they depended on the rainwater or on the brown ice with much higher contamination than the white rice. In view of these findings it may not be to, much to assume that the concentration of Sr 90 in te bones of the average normal children might reach 2 S.U c corresponding to the cumulative ground deposition and the fallout rate. The concentration of Cs whose physical half-life is very much similar to Sr 90 was in the range of about 30 - 100 cesium unit in 1957 to early 1958. However, during the period from 1958 to early 1959 the concentration of Cs 137 in come of the organs of the human body has been reported to be about two to three times higher on the average in Tokyo than the above value in 1957

  1. Synthesis, structure, and electrical conductivity of A'[A(sub 2)B(sub 3)O(sub 10)] (A'=Rb, Cs A=Sr, Ba; B=Nb, Ta)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thangadurai, Venkataraman; Schmid-Beurmann, Peter; Weppner, Werner

    2001-01-01

    New members of Dion-Jacobson (D-J)-type layered perovskites of the general formula A'[A(sub 2)B(sub 3)O(sub 10)] (A'=Rb, Cs; A=Sr, Ba; B=Nb, Ta) were prepared by solid-state reactions between the metal oxides, nitrates, and carbonates under specific conditions. The crystal structures were determined using powder X-ray diffraction data in combination with Rietveld analysis. The c-axis lattice parameter increases as the size of the alkaline earth ion increases. Both Sr and Ba compounds crystallize in a tetragonal cell, while the corresponding Ca compounds crystallize in an orthorhombic cell. The electrical conductivity of the layered perovskites was determined using AC impedance analysis and DC methods. Among the compounds with the same alkali ion and different alkaline earth ions, the Ca compound exhibits a higher electrical conductivity than the corresponding Sr and Ba compounds. DC measurements reveal that the layered perovskites exhibit both ionic and electronic conduction

  2. Fabrication and characterization of SrAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}: Eu{sup 2+} Dy{sup 3+}/CS-PCL electrospun nanocomposite scaffold for retinal tissue regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepahvandi, Azadeh; Eskandari, Mahnaz, E-mail: eskandarim@aut.ac.ir; Moztarzadeh, Fathollah

    2016-09-01

    Millions of people around the world become blind due to losing a part of the retina cells. In tissue engineering field one way to address this issue is to develop a retina tissue by scaffolds based on structure and signals received These scaffolds can play an essential role in repair and reformation of the damaged retina tissue. Here, SrAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}: Eu{sup 2+}, Dy{sup 3+} nanophosphor were prepared by sol-gel method and then coated with PEG to become biocompatible. Next 10%, 30% and 50% concentration of the coated nanophosphors were dispersed in CS-PCL copolymer and electrospuned to form SrAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}: Eu{sup 2+}, Dy{sup 3+}/CS-PCL scaffolds. The aforementioned photo –luminescence-scaffolds were studied for their optical, mechanical and morphological characteristics finally the effect of these scaffolds on the mice RPCs cells' proliferation and differentiation was observed. The 30% nanophosphor dispersion scaffold while providing adequate mechanical flexibility and integrity, and exhibiting superior proliferation rates and acceptable differentiation into retinal neural cells (particularly photo receptors retinal) is suggested as a promising choice in retinal tissue repair. - Highlights: • The 30% nanophosphor dispersion scaffold for both shorter wavelength and middle intense emission is more near to biocompatible nanophosphors. • 30% dispersed nanophosphor scaffold displays satisfactory mechanical strength and flexibility where its behavior is similar to the retina tissue. • Besides as the most effective signal in this study is the electromagnetic signals emitted by nanophosphors, we attribute the enhanced proliferation to the positive effects of the later, the emitted signals of scaffolds. • The tendency towards spherical morphology implies that emitting light may stimulate the cell signaling toward differentiation • These findings implies that mRPC grown on SrAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}: Eu{sup 2+},Dy{sup 3+}/CS-PCL scaffolds in differentiation

  3. Distribution of 137Cs, 90Sr, 239+240Pu, 241Am and 230,232Th on the fractions of natural organic species soils of ChNPP alienation zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odintsov, A.A.; Sazhenyuk, A.D.

    2003-01-01

    The experimental data determination of distribution 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 239+240 Pu, 241 Am 'Chernobyl' releases and 230 , 232 Th on the fraction of humic and fulvic acids sandy- podsolic, meadow and peaty soils taken in the exclusive zone ChNPP are presents. Soils organic matter was isolated by conventional alkali extraction (Turin's method). It was shown that, with depending of soils types 15-45 % 241 Am associate with fulvic acids. In all investigated types of soils 30 - 40 % 239+240 Pu connects with humic acids, as strong complexes. The distribution of environmental 230 , 232 Th and artificial 239+240 Pu on the fraction natural organic species is the same

  4. The estimation of 137Cs and 90Sr location in the biomass of the macrophytes from the Yenisei river (Krasnoyarsky region, Russia) and Glubokoe lake (Chernobyl accident exclusion zone, Ukraine)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zotina, T.A.; Bolsunovskiy, A.Ya.; Klenus, V.G.; Gudkov, D.I.; Belyaev, V.V.

    2008-01-01

    The distribution of cesium and strontium as well as their chemical analogs potassium and calcium in the biomass of aquatic plants collected in zone of radioactive contamination of the Yenisei River and in Glubokoe Lake, in Chernobyl accident exclusion zone, was investigated with chemical fractionation technique. Despite of the essential difference in activity concentration in the biomass of the plants from the two water bodies, the distribution of 137 Cs among the biomass fractions was similar. 90 Sr was recorded in the biomass in more mobile form, than 137 Cs. The distribution of cesium in the biomass of plants essentially differed from the distribution of it's chemical analog, potassium. The distribution of elements - analogs, 90 S and Ca, in the biomass of the plants was similar. More than half of cesium concentration in the samples of plants from the Yenisei River was associated with particles of seston, bound to the surface of the plants. The results obtained should be considered while interpret the data of radioecological monitoring and modeling of the migration of radionuclides in the water bodies.

  5. Sequential determination of natural ({sup 232}Th, {sup 238}U) and anthropogenic ({sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 241}Am, {sup 239+240}Pu) radionuclides in environmental matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michel, H.; Levent, D.; Barci, V.; Barci-Funel, G.; Hurel, C. [Laboratoire de Radiochimie, Sciences Analytiques et Environnement (LRSAE), Universite de Nice Sophia-Antipolis 06108 Nice Cedex (France)

    2008-07-01

    A new sequential method for the determination of both natural (U, Th) and anthropogenic (Sr, Cs, Pu, Am) radionuclides has been developed for application to soil and sediment samples. The procedure was optimised using a reference sediment (IAEA-368) and reference soils (IAEA-375 and IAEA-326). Reference materials were first digested using acids (leaching), 'total' acids on hot plate, and acids in microwave in order to compare the different digestion technique. Then, the separation and purification were made by anion exchange resin and selective extraction chromatography: Transuranic (TRU) and Strontium (SR) resins. Natural and anthropogenic alpha radionuclides were separated by Uranium and Tetravalent Actinide (UTEVA) resin, considering different acid elution medium. Finally, alpha and gamma semiconductor spectrometer and liquid scintillation spectrometer were used to measure radionuclide activities. The results obtained for strontium-90, cesium-137, thorium-232, uranium- 238, plutonium-239+240 and americium-241 isotopes by the proposed method for the reference materials provided excellent agreement with the recommended values and good chemical recoveries. (authors)

  6. Regulations for RA reactor operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-09-01

    Regulations for RA reactor operation are written in accordance with the legal regulations defined by the Law about radiation protection and related legal acts, as well as technical standards according to the IAEA recommendations. The contents of this book include: fundamental data about the reactor; legal regulations for reactor operation; organizational scheme for reactor operation; general and detailed instructions for operation, behaviour in the reactor building, performing experiments; operating rules for operation under steady state and accidental conditions [sr

  7. Foliar contamination of Phaseolus vulgaris with aerosols of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 85}Sr, {sup 133}Ba and {sup 123m}Te: influence of plant development stage upon contamination and rain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madoz-Escande, C. E-mail: chantal.madoz-escande@irsn.fr; Henner, P.; Bonhomme, T

    2004-07-01

    As part of a requirement to improve the assessment of the impact of radioactive fallout on consumed agricultural products, bean plants at four development stages (seedlings, preflowering, late flowering and mature plants) were contaminated by dry deposition of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 85}Sr, {sup 133}Ba and {sup 123m}Te aerosols. The influence of two rain scenarios and of the development stage upon contamination on interception, retention, and translocation to pods was studied. Interception of the four radionuclides was almost identical and varied from 30 to 60% with increasing development stage. The most important rain parameter was the time which elapsed between contamination and the first rain. Whatever the development stage, rain washed off more cesium from the leaves when it occurred 2 days after the deposit (37% at the seedling stage, for example) rather than later on (6 days, 27%), due to rapid migration of Cs in the plant. The first rain washed off nearly 40% of Ba whatever the scenario. For later stages, Sr and Ba were more washed off by heavy weekly rains than by weak twice-a-week rains, perhaps because of the Sr/Ba-contaminated material loss associated with wash off (desquamation of cuticles). Te showed little wash off (less than 5%). Wash off decreased with an older development stage for a weak rain intensity, due to the superimposition of leaves. Heavy rains removed this shelter effect. At harvest, rain effect was no longer detectable as foliar activity was similar for both rain scenarios. Translocation factors (TF) for strontium and barium increased from 6x10{sup -3} to 1x10{sup -1} with the plant development stage upon contamination, whereas those for cesium remained almost unchanged between 2x10{sup -1} and 4 x 10{sup -1}. Flowering is the most critical stage towards residual contamination in pods at harvest, with the exception of direct deposit on pods at the mature stage (TF values are one order of magnitude higher). TF value for Te was 6.5x10{sup -2

  8. Research nuclear reactor RA - Annual Report 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sotic, O.

    1989-12-01

    Annual report concerning the project 'RA research nuclear reactor' for 1989, financed by the Serbian ministry of science is divided into two parts. First part is concerned with RA reactor operation and maintenance, which is the task of the Division for reactor engineering of the Institute for multidisciplinary studies and RA reactor engineering. Second part deals with radiation protection activities at the RA reactor which is the responsibility of the Institute for radiation protection. Scientific council of the Institute for multidisciplinary studies and RA reactor engineering has stated that this report describes adequately the activity and tasks fulfilled at the RA reactor in 1989. The scope and the quality of the work done were considered successful both concerning the maintenance and reconstruction, as well as radiation protection activities [sr

  9. RA Research nuclear reactor - Annual report 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    Annual report concerning the project 'RA research nuclear reactor' for 1987, financed by the Serbian ministry of science is divided into two parts. First part is concerned with RA reactor operation and maintenance, which is the task of the Division for reactor engineering of the Institute for multidisciplinary studies and RA reactor engineering. Second part deals with radiation protection activities at the RA reactor which is the responsibility of the Institute for radiation protection. Scientific council of the Institute for multidisciplinary studies and RA reactor engineering has stated that this report describes adequately the activity and tasks fulfilled at the RA reactor in 1989. The scope and the quality of the work done were considered successful both concerning the maintenance and reconstruction, as well as radiation protection activities [sr

  10. RA Research reactor, Annual report 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sotic, O.

    1988-12-01

    Annual report concerning the project 'RA research nuclear reactor' for 1989, financed by the Serbian ministry of science is divided into two parts. First part is concerned with RA reactor operation and maintenance, which is the task of the Division for reactor engineering of the Institute for multidisciplinary studies and RA reactor engineering. Second part deals with radiation protection activities at the RA reactor which is the responsibility of the Institute for radiation protection. Scientific council of the Institute for multidisciplinary studies and RA reactor engineering has stated that this report describes adequately the activity and tasks fulfilled at the RA reactor in 1989. The scope and the quality of the work done were considered successful both concerning the maintenance and reconstruction, as well as radiation protection activities [sr

  11. Screening assessment from potential exposure to 137Cs, 60Co and 90Sr in the upper floodplain of White Oak Lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghiron, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    In 1943, Oak Ridge National Laboratory formed White Oak Lake, a small shallow retention basin for their treated and untreated liquid waste. The waste flowed into White Oak Lake, where it was retained for a period of time, and most of the radioactive contaminants settled out, accumulating in the lake bed. Currently, the lake is being maintained at a lower level than in the past. Consequently, sections of the old lake bed are presently exposed as an upper floodplain. A preliminary screening assessment was performed on the upper floodplain of White Oak Lake to identify the radionuclides of concern, quantify the potential risk to human health, and rank potential contaminants of concern. From the screening criteria applied in this assessment, 137 Cs in the external pathway and in the ingestion pathway was identified as a high priority contaminant. The external and ingestion pathways were identified as pathways of concern that need to be addressed in further investigations. Screening did not identify the inhalation pathway as a potential pathway of concern. It is recommended that when the health risk assessment is conducted, emphasis should be placed on investigating the potential exposures from 137 Cs in the external and ingestion pathways

  12. Sr-doped nanowire modification of Ca-Si-based coatings for improved osteogenic activities and reduced inflammatory reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai; Hu, Dandan; Xie, Youtao; Huang, Liping; Zheng, Xuebin

    2018-02-01

    Biomedical coatings for orthopedic implants should facilitate osseointegration and mitigate implant-induced inflammatory reactions. In our study, Ca-Si coatings with Sr-containing nanowire-like structures (NW-Sr-CS) were achieved via hydrothermal treatment. In order to identify the effect of nanowire-like topography and Sr dopant on the biological properties of Ca-Si-based coatings, the original Ca-Si coating, Ca-Si coatings modified with nanoplate (NP-CS) and similar nanowire-like structure (NW-CS) were fabricated as the control. Surface morphology, phase composition, surface area, zeta potential and ion release of these coatings were characterized. The in vitro osteogenic activities and immunomodulatory properties were evaluated with bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and RAW 264.7 cells, a mouse macrophage cell line. Compared with the CS and NP-CS coatings, the NW-CS coating possessed a larger surface area and pore volume, beneficial protein adsorption, up-regulated the expression levels of integrin β1, Vinculin and focal adhesion kinase and promoted cell spreading. Furthermore, the NW-CS coating significantly enhanced the osteogenic differentiation and mineralization as indicated by the up-regulation of ALP activity, mineralized nodule formation and osteoblastogenesis-related gene expression. With the introduction of Sr, the NW-Sr-CS coatings exerted a greater effect on the BMSC proliferation rate, calcium sensitive receptor gene expression as well as PKC and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. In addition, the Sr-doped coatings significantly up-regulated the ratio of OPG/RANKL in the BMSCs. The NW-Sr-CS coatings could modulate the polarization of macrophages towards the wound-healing M2 phenotype, reduce the mRNA expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6) and enhance anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1ra, IL-10). The Sr-doped nanowire modification may be a valuable approach to enhance osteogenic activities and reduce inflammatory reactions.

  13. A study of internal contamination levels resulting from {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs environmental pollution. The influence of different factors; Etude des niveaux de contamination interne resultant d'une pollution de l'environnement par le {sup 90}Sr et le {sup 137}Cs influence des differents parametres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garnier, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1970-07-01

    This study includes two parts. The purpose of the former one is to try and evaluate the amounts of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs dietary intakes as a function of age with a view to assessing internal exposure doses and estimating the critical age, and to study the relative significance of the several factors it depends on. The data used are both the results of dietary surveys made in 11 districts of the European community from which the evolution of the consumed amounts of 13 groups of foodstuffs, as a function of age was derived, and the mean factors of contamination pathways. The variability of some factors is very large and an attempt is made to assess their significance on the whole contamination; also, the influence of the various diets has been emphasized. The purpose of the second part is to assess, doses as a function of age in the case of protracted exposure on the basis of the aforesaid results and radiobiological factors derived from bibliographic states of the arts. An assessment is made of body burdens and mean doses (either to the skeleton or the whole body according to the radionuclides) originating either from a direct unitary exposure or from situations implying both modes of exposure. As assumed only the diets vary with the districts, thus the results reflect their significance which should be corrected, for a more accurate assessment of the dose variability, by the significance of human and transfer factors. (author) [French] Cette etude comprend deux parties. L'objet de la premiere partie est a la fois un essai d'evaluation en fonction de l'age des quantites de strontium 90 et de cesium 137 ingerees avec les aliments dans la perspective d'une application a l'estimation des doses d'irradiation interne et a la recherche de l'age critique, et une etude de l'influence relative des divers parametres dont elle depend. Les donnees utilisees sont, d'une part, les resultats des enquetes alimentaires faites en onze regions de la Communaute Europeenne dont on

  14. A study of internal contamination levels resulting from {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs environmental pollution. The influence of different factors; Etude des niveaux de contamination interne resultant d'une pollution de l'environnement par le {sup 90}Sr et le {sup 137}Cs influence des differents parametres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garnier, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1970-07-01

    This study includes two parts. The purpose of the former one is to try and evaluate the amounts of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs dietary intakes as a function of age with a view to assessing internal exposure doses and estimating the critical age, and to study the relative significance of the several factors it depends on. The data used are both the results of dietary surveys made in 11 districts of the European community from which the evolution of the consumed amounts of 13 groups of foodstuffs, as a function of age was derived, and the mean factors of contamination pathways. The variability of some factors is very large and an attempt is made to assess their significance on the whole contamination; also, the influence of the various diets has been emphasized. The purpose of the second part is to assess, doses as a function of age in the case of protracted exposure on the basis of the aforesaid results and radiobiological factors derived from bibliographic states of the arts. An assessment is made of body burdens and mean doses (either to the skeleton or the whole body according to the radionuclides) originating either from a direct unitary exposure or from situations implying both modes of exposure. As assumed only the diets vary with the districts, thus the results reflect their significance which should be corrected, for a more accurate assessment of the dose variability, by the significance of human and transfer factors. (author) [French] Cette etude comprend deux parties. L'objet de la premiere partie est a la fois un essai d'evaluation en fonction de l'age des quantites de strontium 90 et de cesium 137 ingerees avec les aliments dans la perspective d'une application a l'estimation des doses d'irradiation interne et a la recherche de l'age critique, et une etude de l'influence relative des divers parametres dont elle depend. Les donnees utilisees sont, d'une part, les resultats des enquetes alimentaires faites en

  15. Study in Vietnam on ingestion and organ content of trace elements of importance in radiological protection (Cs, I, Sr, U, Th etc.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Mong Sinh

    2000-01-01

    This report presents results of our investigation work carried out from November 1996 to April 1998 in the field of 'Study in Vietnam on ingestion and organ content of trace elements of importance in Radiological Protection'. This work related to the Co-ordinated Research Programme for Reference Asian Man Project, Phase 2. The data reported are the daily individual intake of the elements of interest for some different socio-economic groups of Vietnamese population living in Hanoi, Hochiminh city Vinh Phu and Dalat areas. The obtained results showed that the average content for four elements (Cs, I, U, Th) in Vietnamese dietary intakes slightly changes from area to area in dependence on geographical, natural and socio-economical conditions, on type and composition of foods. (author)

  16. Evaluation algorithm for Hp (10), Hp (0.07) and response matrix in mixed fields of 137Cs+90Sr/90Y for badge TLD without use of its commercial holder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez R, Jose T.; Tovar M, Victor M.; Castaneda P, Mario; Padilla, Ismael

    2008-01-01

    American standards HPS N 13.11 (1993, 2001) set up performance category tests for deep and shallow personal equivalent dose evaluated by dosimetry processors. These standards establish the parameters bias B, standard deviation S and tolerance level L, whose values indicate the deviations from the conventionally true value for the equivalent dose. On the other hand, for a right evaluation of the equivalent dose, all personal dosimetry systems have four basic components: badge, holder, reading protocol and dose evaluation algorithm. However, in Nuclear Plant Laguna Verde NPP dosimetry laboratory uses the badges Panasonic 802 A without Panasonic UD874AT holder, and instead employs a polyethylene holder bag to protect the badge from misuse. This situation disables the manufacturer algorithm designed for the combination: badge + holder. Therefore, the purpose of this work is to design a personal equivalent dose algorithm for this badge + bag, such this corrected algorithm let fulfill the HPS N 13.11 (1993) categories II, IV, V and VII. The algorithm starts from the readings of the elements: E1, E2, E3 and E4, only corrected by their element correction factor ECF. Additionally, we characterize the badge + bag by means of the response function for: 137 Cs, 85 Kr and 90 Sr/ 90 Y radiation fields. Finally, for validation of the algorithm one verifies that parameters B, S and L accomplish with the limits indicated by the standard. (author)

  17. RA research reactor - properties and experimental capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milosevic, M.; Martinc, R.

    1978-01-01

    The brief survey of the Reactor RA exploitation experience, as well as the reactor equipment state, after 18 years of operation is presented. The results of efforts spent on reactor characteristics improvement in order to ensure safe and reliable reactor operation for next 15-20 years, are described [sr

  18. Regulations and instructions for RA reactor operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This regulatory guide consists of following 4 chapters: Description of the RA reactor, organization scheme, regulations for performing experiments; Regulations for staff on duty; Instructions for operating the vacuum systems, heavy water and helium systems; and evacuation in case of accident [sr

  19. RA Reactor applications, Annex A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cupac, S.; Vukadin, Z.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: In 2000 Ra reactor was not operated. New instrumentation is not complete, without it, it is not possible to think about reactor start-up. Since 1985, when reactor operation was forbidden, there are 480 fuel elements left in 48 fuel channels in the reactor core. Heavy water was removed from the reactor core because of the repair of the heavy water pumps in 1986. The old instrumentation was removed. Eleven years after being left to its own destiny, it would be difficult to imagine that anybody would think of reactor restart without examining the state of reactor vessel and other vital reactor components. Maintaining the reactor under existing conditions without final decision about restart or permanent shutdown is destructive for this nuclear facility. The existing state that pertains for more than 10 years would have only one result, destruction of the RA reactor [sr

  20. RA Reactor applications, Annex A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cupac, S.; Vukadin, Z.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: In 1998 Ra reactor was not operated. New instrumentation is not complete, without it, it is not possible to think about reactor start-up. Since 1985, when reactor operation was forbidden, there are 480 fuel elements left in 48 fuel channels in the reactor core. Heavy water was removed from the reactor core because of the repair of the heavy water pumps in 1986. The old instrumentation was removed. Eleven years after being left to its own destiny, it would be difficult to imagine that anybody would think of reactor restart without examining the state of reactor vessel and other vital reactor components. Maintaining the reactor under existing conditions without final decision about restart or permanent shutdown is destructive for this nuclear facility. The existing state that pertains for more than 10 years would have only one result, destruction of the RA reactor [sr

  1. RA Reactor applications, Annex A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cupac, S.; Vukadin, Z.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: In 2000 Ra reactor was not operated. New instrumentation is not complete, without it, it is not possible to think about reactor start-up. Since 1985, when reactor operation was forbidden, there are 480 fuel elements left in 48 fuel channels in the reactor core. Heavy water was removed from the reactor core because of the repair of the heavy water pumps in 1986. The old instrumentation was removed. Eleven years after being left to its own destiny, it would be difficult to imagine that anybody would think of reactor restart without examining the state of reactor vessel and other vital reactor components. Maintaining the reactor under existing conditions without final decision about restart or permanent shutdown is destructive for this nuclear facility. The existing state that pertains for more than 10 years would have only one result, destruction of the RA reactor [sr

  2. Radiation protection at the RA Reactor in 1998, RA reactor annual report, Part -2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninkovic, M.; Pavlovic, R.; Mandic, M.; Pavlovic, S.; Grsic, Z.

    1998-01-01

    Radiation protection tasks which enable safe operation of the RA reactor, and are defined according the the legal regulations and IAEA safety recommendations are sorted into four categories in this report: (1) Control of the working environment, dosimetry at the RA reactor; (2) Radioactivity control in the vicinity of the reactor and meteorology measurements; (3) Collecting and treatment of fluid effluents; and (4) radioactive wastes, decontamination and actions. Each of the category is described as a separate annex of this report [sr

  3. RA Research nuclear reactor, Part II: radiation protection at the RA reactor in 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninkovic, M.; Ajdacic, N.; Zaric, M.; Vukovic, Z.

    1987-01-01

    Radiation protection tasks which enable safe operation of the RA reactor, and are defined according the the legal regulations and IAEA safety recommendations are sorted into four categories in this report: (1) Control of the working environment, dosimetry at the RA reactor and radiation protection; (2) Radioactivity control in the vicinity of the reactor and meteorology measurements; (3) Decontamination and relevant actions, collecting and treatment of fluid effluents; and and solid radioactive wastes [sr

  4. Radiation protection at the RA Reactor in 1988, Part -2, RA reactor annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninkovic, M.; Ajdacic, N.; Zaric, M.; Vukovic, Z.

    1988-01-01

    Radiation protection tasks which enable safe operation of the RA reactor, and are defined according the the legal regulations and IAEA safety recommendations are sorted into four categories in this report: (1) Control of the working environment, dosimetry at the RA reactor and radiation protection; (2) Radioactivity control in the vicinity of the reactor and meteorology measurements; (3) Decontamination and relevant actions, collecting and treatment of fluid effluents; and and solid radioactive wastes [sr

  5. Comparative concentrations of 137Cs, 90Sr, /sup 239,240/Pu, and 241Am in tissues of fish from the Marshall Islands and calculated dose commitments from their consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Wong, K.M.; Eagle, R.J.; Robison, W.L.

    1987-01-01

    Body burdens of 90 Sr, 137 Cs, and the transuranics in bottom-feeding fish from Marshall Island atolls are derived, in part, from the quantities of the radionuclides irreversibly fixed to ingested carbonate material. Radionuclide concentration factors for different species of fish are characterized by relating tissue concentrations to those in filtered seawater. For bottom-feeding fish, the values are lower at the lesser contaminated atolls than those values determined for the same species at the more contaminated atolls. These fish have the ability to lower their gut pH during feeding. When this occurs, there is a dissolution of a fraction of the ingested calcium carbonate containing radionuclides that were fixed or fused internally to the material during nuclear testing. Fractions of the radionuclides released during solution in carbonate matrix are available for passage across the gut wall. Amounts released to solution in the gut are proportional to the levels of contamination at the different atolls. Concentration factors for higher trophic level species, which do not rely on sediments or coral for their source of food, show no such trends between differentially contaminated atolls. A two-source model used to compute the internal concentrations is described. Americium-241 seems to be more biologically available than /sup 239,240/Pu to higher trophic level species from the lagoons, whereas at lower trophic levels the opposite seems to be the case. Cesium-137 is now the largest contributor of the small radiological dose to man from the marine fish pathway, with the transuranics contributing from 2 to 30% of the total dose. 22 references, 1 figure, 19 tables

  6. RA Research reactor, Annual report 1988; Istrazivacki nuklearni reaktor RA - Izvestaj za 1988. godinu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sotic, O [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1988-12-15

    Annual report concerning the project 'RA research nuclear reactor' for 1989, financed by the Serbian ministry of science is divided into two parts. First part is concerned with RA reactor operation and maintenance, which is the task of the Division for reactor engineering of the Institute for multidisciplinary studies and RA reactor engineering. Second part deals with radiation protection activities at the RA reactor which is the responsibility of the Institute for radiation protection. Scientific council of the Institute for multidisciplinary studies and RA reactor engineering has stated that this report describes adequately the activity and tasks fulfilled at the RA reactor in 1989. The scope and the quality of the work done were considered successful both concerning the maintenance and reconstruction, as well as radiation protection activities. [Serbo-Croat] Godisnji izvestaj po projektu 'Istrazivacki nuklearni reaktor RA' za 1989. godinu, koji finansira republicka zajednica za nauku SR Srbije po ugovoru br. 3705/1 sastoji se iz dva dela. Prvi deo obuhvata pogon i odrzavanje nuklearnog reaktora RA, sto predstavlja obavezu Odeljenja za reaktorski inzenjering u sastavu OOUR Instituta za multidisciplinarna istrazivanja i inzenjering RA. Drugi deo obuhvata poslove zastite od zracenja na reaktoru RA, sto predstavlja obavezu OOUR Instituta za zastitu od zracenja 'Zastita'. Naucno vece Instituta za multidisciplinarna istrazivanja i inzenjering RA ocenilo je da sadrzina ovog izvestaja odgovara izvrsenim poslovima na reaktoru RA u 1989. godini. Pozitivno se ocenjuje obim i kvalitet izvrsenih radova kako u pogledu odrzavanja i rekonstrukcije reaktora, tako i u pogledu poslova zastite od zracenja izvrsenih kod njega.

  7. Research nuclear reactor RA - Annual Report 1989; Istrazivacki nuklearni reaktor RA - Izvestaj za 1989. godinu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sotic, O [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1989-12-15

    Annual report concerning the project 'RA research nuclear reactor' for 1989, financed by the Serbian ministry of science is divided into two parts. First part is concerned with RA reactor operation and maintenance, which is the task of the Division for reactor engineering of the Institute for multidisciplinary studies and RA reactor engineering. Second part deals with radiation protection activities at the RA reactor which is the responsibility of the Institute for radiation protection. Scientific council of the Institute for multidisciplinary studies and RA reactor engineering has stated that this report describes adequately the activity and tasks fulfilled at the RA reactor in 1989. The scope and the quality of the work done were considered successful both concerning the maintenance and reconstruction, as well as radiation protection activities. [Serbo-Croat] Godisnji izvestaj po projektu 'Istrazivacki nuklearni reaktor RA' za 1989. godinu, koji finansira republicka zajednica za nauku SR Srbije po ugovoru br. 3705/1 sastoji se iz dva dela. Prvi deo obuhvata pogon i odrzavanje nuklearnog reaktora RA, sto predstavlja obavezu Odeljenja za reaktorski inzenjering u sastavu OOUR Instituta za multidisciplinarna istrazivanja i inzenjering RA. Drugi deo obuhvata poslove zastite od zracenja na reaktoru RA, sto predstavlja obavezu OOUR Instituta za zastitu od zracenja 'Zastita'. Naucno vece Instituta za multidisciplinarna istrazivanja i inzenjering RA ocenilo je da sadrzina ovog izvestaja odgovara izvrsenim poslovima na reaktoru RA u 1989. godini. Pozitivno se ocenjuje obim i kvalitet izvrsenih radova kako u pogledu odrzavanja i rekonstrukcije reaktora, tako i u pogledu poslova zastite od zracenja izvrsenih kod njega.

  8. 226 Ra in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toader, M.

    1993-01-01

    Between 1986 and 1992 the author has evaluated natural levels of 226 Ra in some foods representing the major components of the diet in Bucharest population. The estimated daily intake by an adult was 72.5 mBq 226 Ra/day or 65.9 mBq 226 Ra/g.Ca. (Author)

  9. Conceptual and numerical modelling of radionuclide transport in near-surface systems at Forsmark. SR-Site Biosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pique, Angels; Grandia, Fidel; Sena, Clara; Arcos, David; Molinero, Jorge; Duro, Lara; Bruno, Jordi

    2010-11-01

    In the framework of the SR-Site safety assessment, a conceptual and numerical modelling of radionuclide reactive transport in near-surface systems (including till and clay systems) at Forsmark has been carried out. The objective was to evaluate the retention capacity of the near-surface systems, composed of Quaternary deposits, which would be the last natural barrier for an eventual radionuclide release from the deep repository prior to reaching the biosphere. The studied radionuclides are 14 C, 129 I, 36 Cl, 94 Nb, 59 Ni, 93 Mo, 79 Se, 99 Tc, 230 Th, 90 Sr, 226 Ra, 135 Cs and U. Conceptual description and numerical simulations of radionuclide reactive transport show that cation exchange and surface complexation on illite are active processes for the retention of several radionuclides (U, Th, Ni, Cs, Sr, Ra). Surface complexation on iron hydroxide is an active process in the till system, able to effectively retain U and Ni. Another retention process of importance is the incorporation of the radionuclides into mineral phases, either by the precipitation of pure phases or solid solutions. Quantitative modelling has been useful to illustrate the incorporation of C and Sr in the carbonate solid solution in the considered model domains (till and clay), as well as the precipitation of uraninite in the clay sediments and the precipitation of native selenium and radiobarite in the till. Other mineral phases that could, a priori, retain U, Se, Nb and Tc do not precipitate in the simulations, either due to the pH-Eh conditions and/or because the dissolved concentration of the element is not high enough under the considered simulation conditions. It is important to keep in mind that changes in these parameters and in the boundary conditions could modify the predicted behaviour of these elements. The radionuclides that are most significantly retarded are Th, Ni and Cs, mainly through sorption onto illite. Therefore, if the amount of illite (or available sorption sites

  10. Conceptual and numerical modelling of radionuclide transport in near-surface systems at Forsmark. SR-Site Biosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pique, Angels; Grandia, Fidel; Sena, Clara; Arcos, David; Molinero, Jorge; Duro, Lara; Bruno, Jordi (Amphos21 Consulting S.L., Barcelona (Spain))

    2010-11-15

    In the framework of the SR-Site safety assessment, a conceptual and numerical modelling of radionuclide reactive transport in near-surface systems (including till and clay systems) at Forsmark has been carried out. The objective was to evaluate the retention capacity of the near-surface systems, composed of Quaternary deposits, which would be the last natural barrier for an eventual radionuclide release from the deep repository prior to reaching the biosphere. The studied radionuclides are 14C, 129I, 36Cl, 94Nb, 59Ni, 93Mo, 79Se, 99Tc, 230Th, 90Sr, 226Ra, 135Cs and U. Conceptual description and numerical simulations of radionuclide reactive transport show that cation exchange and surface complexation on illite are active processes for the retention of several radionuclides (U, Th, Ni, Cs, Sr, Ra). Surface complexation on iron hydroxide is an active process in the till system, able to effectively retain U and Ni. Another retention process of importance is the incorporation of the radionuclides into mineral phases, either by the precipitation of pure phases or solid solutions. Quantitative modelling has been useful to illustrate the incorporation of C and Sr in the carbonate solid solution in the considered model domains (till and clay), as well as the precipitation of uraninite in the clay sediments and the precipitation of native selenium and radiobarite in the till. Other mineral phases that could, a priori, retain U, Se, Nb and Tc do not precipitate in the simulations, either due to the pH-Eh conditions and/or because the dissolved concentration of the element is not high enough under the considered simulation conditions. It is important to keep in mind that changes in these parameters and in the boundary conditions could modify the predicted behaviour of these elements. The radionuclides that are most significantly retarded are Th, Ni and Cs, mainly through sorption onto illite. Therefore, if the amount of illite (or available sorption sites) decreases, the

  11. Measurement and Analysis of Specific Activities of 238U, 232Th,226Ra, 40K and 137Cs in Soil Samples from Phatthalung Province (Thailand) using Gamma Ray Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daoh, Murnee; Kessaratikoon, Prasong; Udomsomporn, Suchin

    2011-06-01

    Full text: Specific activity of natural (238 U , 232 T h, 226 R a and 40 K ) and anthropogenic radionuclide (137 C s) in 109 soil samples collected from 11 districts in Phathalung province have been measured and analyzed. Experimental results were obtained by using a high purity germanium (HPGe) detector and gamma spectrometry analysis system at Nuclear and Material Physics laboratory in Department of Physics Faculty of Science Thaksin University Songkhla Campus. Gamma ray radioactive standard sources 60 C o, 137 C s and 133 B a were used to calibrate the measurement system. The KCl and two reference materials (RGU-1 and RGTh-1) obtained from the International Atomic Energy Agency were also used to analyze and compute the 40 K , 238 U (or 226 R a) and 232 T h specific activity in all soil samples. The IAEA/SL-2 was also used to evaluate the specific activity of 137 C s in all soil samples. The measuring time of each sample was 10,800 seconds. It was found that specific activity ranged from 148.17 to 11276.78 Bq/kg for 40 K , 58.29 to 518.45 Bq/kg for 226 R a, 8.40 to 236.19 Bq/kg for 232 T h and 0.00 tp 12.39 Bq/kg for 137 C s with mean values of 3573.35 ± 203.89 Bq/kg, 135.89 ± 6.71 Bq/kg, 76.34 ± 5.32 Bq/kg and 1.05 ± 0.70 Bq/kg respectively. Furthermore, absorbed dose rate in air (D), radium equivalent activity (Ra e q), external hazard index (H e x), and annual effective dose rate (AEDout) of this area were also evaluated by using the mean values of specific activities of the 40 K , 226 R a and 232 T h. Moreover, the experimental results were also compared with Office of Atoms for Peace (OAP) research data, Thailand and global radioactivity measurement and evaluations. The radioactive contour maps of specific activities of natural and anthropogenic radionuclides from this study were created by using the program ArcGis Version 9.2

  12. RA Research nuclear reactor Part 1, RA Reactor operation and maintenance in 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sotic, O.; Martinc, R.; Cupac, S.; Sulem, B.; Badrljica, R.; Majstorovic, D.; Sanovic, V.

    1987-01-01

    RA research reacto was not operated due to the prohibition issued in 1984 by the Government of Serbia. Three major tasks were finished in order to fulfill the licensing regulations about safety of nuclear facilities which is the condition for obtaining permanent operation licence. These projects involved construction of the emergency cooling system, reconstruction of the existing special ventilation system, and renewal of the system for electric power supply of the reactor systems. Renewal of the RA reactor instrumentation system was initiated. Design project was done by the Russian Atomenergoeksport, and is foreseen to be completed by the end of 1988. The RA reactor safety report was finished in 1987. This annual report includes 8 annexes concerning reactor operation, activities of services and financial issues, and three special annexes: report on testing the emergency cooling system, report on renewal of the RA reactor and design specifications for reactor renewal and reconstruction [sr

  13. Optimum RA reactor fuelling scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugar, P.; Nikolic, V.

    1965-10-01

    Ideal reactor refueling scheme can be achieved only by continuous fuel elements movement in the core, which is not possible, and thus approximations are applied. One of the possible approximations is discontinuous movement of fuel elements groups in radial direction. This enables higher burnup especially if axial exchange is possible. Analysis of refueling schemes in the RA reactor core and schemes with mixing the fresh and used fuel elements show that 30% higher burnup can be achieved by applying mixing, and even 40% if reactivity due to decrease in experimental space is taken into account. Up to now, mean burnup of 4400 MWd/t has been achieved, and the proposed fueling scheme with reduction of experimental space could achieve mean burnup of 6300 MWd/t which means about 25 Mwd/t per fuel channel [sr

  14. RA Reactor applications, Annex A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinc, R.; Cupac, S.; Stanic, A.

    1990-01-01

    RA reactor was not operated during the past five years due to the renewal and reconstruction of the reactor systems, which in underway. In the period from 1986-1990, reactor was operated only 144 MWh in 1986, for the need of testing the reactor systems and possibility of irradiating 125 I. Reactor will not be operated in 1991 because of the exchange of complete instrumentation which is planned to be finished by the end of 1991. It is expected to start operation in May 1992. That is why this annex includes the plan of reactor operation for period of nine months starting from from the moment of start-up. It is planned to operate the reactor at 0.02 MW power first three months, to increase the power gradually and reach 3.5 MW after 8 months of operation. It is foreseen to operate the reactor at 4.7 MW from the tenth month on [sr

  15. Radiation protection at the RA Reactor in 1993, RA research reactor, Part

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninkovic, M.; Pavlovic, R.; Mandic, M.; Sipka, V.; Grsic, Z.

    1993-01-01

    Radiation protection tasks which enable safe operation of the RA reactor, and are defined according the the legal regulations and IAEA safety recommendations are sorted into four categories in this report: (1) Control of the working environment, dosimetry and radiation protection at the RA reactor; (2) decontamination, collecting and treatment of fluid effluents and solid wastes; (3) Radioactivity control in the vicinity of the reactor and (4)meteorology measurements; (3). Each of the category is described as a separate annex of this report [sr

  16. RA reactor operation and maintenance in 1992, Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sotic, O.; Cupac, S.; Sulem, B.; Zivotic, Z.; Majstorovic, D.; Tanaskovic, M.

    1992-01-01

    During 1992 Ra reactor was not in operation. All the activities were fulfilled according to the previously adopted plan. Basic activities were concerned with revitalisation of the RA reactor and maintenance of reactor components. All the reactor personnel was busy with reconstruction and renewal of the existing reactor systems and building of the new systems, maintenance of the reactor devices. Part of the staff was trained for relevant tasks and maintenance of reactor systems [sr

  17. Reproduction of the RA reactor fuel element fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novakovic, M.

    1961-12-01

    This document includes the following nine reports: Final report on task 08/12 - testing the Ra reactor fuel element; design concept for fabrication of RA reactor fuel element; investigation of the microstructure of the Ra reactor fuel element; Final report on task 08/13 producing binary alloys with Al, Mo, Zr, Nb and B additions; fabrication of U-Al alloy; final report on tasks 08/14 and 08/16; final report on task 08/32 diffusion bond between the fuel and the cladding of the Ra reactor fuel element; Final report on task 08/33, fabrication of the RA reactor fuel element cladding; and final report on task 08/36, diffusion of solid state metals [sr

  18. 226Ra, 228Ra and 228Ra/226Ra in surface marine sediment of Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei-Wo Yii; Zal Uyun Wan-Mahmood

    2013-01-01

    Surface sediment samples were collected at the West (east coast and west coast of Peninsular Malaysia) and East (Sabah and Sarawak) Malaysia in several expeditions within August 2003 until June 2008 for determining the level of natural radium isotopes. Activity concentrations of 226 Ra and 228 Ra in surface marine sediment at 176 sampling stations were measured. The activity concentrations of both radionuclides in Malaysia (East and West Malaysia) display varied with the range from 9 to 158 Bq/kg dry wt. and 13 to 104 Bq/kg dry wt., respectively. Meanwhile, the ratio distributions of 228 Ra/ 226 Ra were ranged from 0.62 to 3.75. This indicated that the ratios were slightly high at west coast of Peninsular Malaysia compared to other regions (east coast of Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah and Sarawak). The variation of activity concentrations of 226 Ra and 228 Ra and its ratios were also supported by the statistical analyses of one-way ANOVA and t test at 95 % confidence level, whereby there were proved that the measured values were different between the regions. These different were strictly related to their half-life, potential input sources (included their parents, 238 U and 232 Th), parent's characteristic, the geological setting/formation of the study area, environment origin and behavior. (author)

  19. The epithermal neutron-flux distribution in the reactor RA - Vinca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinkov, V.; Bikit, I.; Martinc, R.; Veskovic, M.; Slivka, J.; Vaderna, S.

    1987-01-01

    The distribution of the epithermal neutron flux in the reactor RA - Vinca has been measured by means of Zr - activation detectors. In the channel VK-8 non-homogeneous flux distribution was observed (author) [sr

  20. Measuring the radium quartet (228Ra, 226Ra, 224Ra, 223Ra) in seawater samples using gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beek, P. van; Souhaut, M.; Reyss, J.-L.

    2010-01-01

    Radium isotopes are widely used in marine studies (eg. to trace water masses, to quantify mixing processes or to study submarine groundwater discharge). While 228 Ra and 226 Ra are usually measured using gamma spectrometry, short-lived Ra isotopes ( 224 Ra and 223 Ra) are usually measured using a Radium Delayed Coincidence Counter (RaDeCC). Here we show that the four radium isotopes can be analyzed using gamma spectrometry. We report 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 224 Ra, 223 Ra activities measured using low-background gamma spectrometry in standard samples, in water samples collected in the vicinity of our laboratory (La Palme and Vaccares lagoons, France) but also in seawater samples collected in the plume of the Amazon river, off French Guyana (AMANDES project). The 223 Ra and 224 Ra activities determined in these samples using gamma spectrometry were compared to the activities determined using RaDeCC. Activities determined using the two techniques are in good agreement. Uncertainties associated with the 224 Ra activities are similar for the two techniques. RaDeCC is more sensitive for the detection of low 223 Ra activities. Gamma spectrometry thus constitutes an alternate method for the determination of short-lived Ra isotopes.

  1. Research nuclear reactor RA, Annual Report 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sotic, O.

    2002-01-01

    During 2001, activities at the RA research nuclear reactor in were performed according to the Contract about financing of the RA reactor for the period January-December 2001, signed by the Ministry of Science, technology and development of the Republic of Serbia. RA reactor was not operated since shutdown in August 1984. Although, the most of the planned reconstruction activities were finished until 1991, the most important, which was concerned with exchange of the reactor instrumentation, financed by the IAEA, was interrupted due to international sanctions imposed on the country. Since 1992, all the renewal and reconstruction activities were ceased. Continuous aging and degradation of the equipment and facilities demand decision making about the future status of the Ra reactor. Until this decision is made it is an obligation to maintain control and maintenance of ventilation system, power supply, internal transportation system, spent fuel storage, hot cells, electronic fuel surveillance system, and part of the stationary dosimetry system. In 2001, apart from the mentioned activities, actions were undertaken related to maintenance of the reactor building and installations. The most important tasks fulfilled were: protection of the roof of the ventilation system building, purchase and installing the fire protection system and twelve new battery cells in the reactor building. There were no actions concerned with improvement of the conditions for intermediate spent fuel storage. With the support of IAEA, actions were initiated for possible transport of the spent fuel tu Russia. At the end of 2001, preparations were started for possible future decommissioning of the RA reactor. After, renewal of the membership of our country in the IAEA, the Government of Yugoslavia has declared its attitude about the intention of RA reactor decommissioning at the General Conference in September 2001 [sr

  2. Measurements at the RA Reactor related to the VISA-2 project - Part 1, Start-up of the RA reactor and measurement of new RA reactor core parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markovic, H.

    1962-07-01

    The objective of the measurements was determining the neutron flux in the RA reactor core. Since the number of fuel channels is increased from 56 to 68 within the VISA-2 project, it was necessary to attain criticality of the RA reactor and measure the neutron flux properties. The 'program of RA reactor start-up' has been prepared separately and it is included in this report. Measurements were divided in two phases. First phase was measuring of the neutron flux after the criticality was achieved but at zero power. During phase two measurements were repeated at several power levels, at equilibrium xenon poisoning. This report includes experimental data of flux distributions and absolute values of the thermal and fast neutron flux in the RA reactor experimental channels and values of cadmium ratio for determining the neutron epithermal flux. Data related to calibration of regulatory rods for cold un poisoned core are included [sr

  3. RA Research nuclear reactor - Annual report 1987; Istrazivacki nuklearni reaktor RA - Izvestaj o radu za 1987. godinu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1987-12-15

    Annual report concerning the project 'RA research nuclear reactor' for 1987, financed by the Serbian ministry of science is divided into two parts. First part is concerned with RA reactor operation and maintenance, which is the task of the Division for reactor engineering of the Institute for multidisciplinary studies and RA reactor engineering. Second part deals with radiation protection activities at the RA reactor which is the responsibility of the Institute for radiation protection. Scientific council of the Institute for multidisciplinary studies and RA reactor engineering has stated that this report describes adequately the activity and tasks fulfilled at the RA reactor in 1989. The scope and the quality of the work done were considered successful both concerning the maintenance and reconstruction, as well as radiation protection activities. [Serbo-Croat] Godisnji izvestaj po projektu 'Istrazivacki nuklearni reaktor RA' za 1987. godinu, koji finansira republicka zajednica za nauku SR Srbije po ugovoru br. 3509/1 sastoji se iz dva dela. Prvi deo obuhvata pogon i odrzavanje nuklearnog reaktora RA, sto predstavlja obavezu Odeljenja za reaktorski inzenjering u sastavu OOUR Instituta za multidisciplinarna istrazivanja i inzenjering RA. Drugi deo obuhvata poslove zastite od zracenja na reaktoru RA, sto predstavlja obavezu OOUR Instituta za zastitu od zracenja 'Zastita'. Naucno vece Instituta za multidisciplinarna istrazivanja i inzenjjring RA ocenilo je da sadrzina ovog izvestaja odgovara izvrsenim poslovima na reaktoru RA u 1989. godini. Pozitivno se ocenjuje obim i kvalitet izvrsenih radova kako u pogledu odrzavanja i rekonstrukcije reaktora, tako i u pogledu poslova zastite od zracenja izvrsenih kod njega.

  4. Chernobyl 90Sr in bilberries from Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mietelski, J.W.; Vajda, N.

    1997-01-01

    As part of a detailed survey on the contamination of Polish forests 90 Sr activity concentrations were determined in bilberries. Elevated 90 Sr levels were found in several samples from north-eastern Poland. The calculated maximum 90 Sr surface contamination was 2 kBq*m -2 . The correlation between 90 Sr and 137 Cs concentrations in bilberries was good for two sets of samples originating from two geographical areas of Poland indicating the local differences in radionuclide depositions from Chernobyl fallout. (author)

  5. An evaluation of the worker exposure during the RA reactor decommissioning due to presence of contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ljubenov, V.; Simovic, R.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper a possibility to establish the relationship between the presence of the surface contamination in the RA reactor rooms and the worker exposure during the decommissioning activities is discussed. RESRAD-BUILD code and the models typical for the RA reactor has been used to determine annual doses from the supposed activities of the main expected RA reactor contaminants. Different room air exchange rates have been modelled and analysed. (author) [sr

  6. CS Informativeness Governs CS-US Associability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Ryan D.; Gallistel, C. R.; Jensen, Greg; Richards, Vanessa L.; Fairhurst, Stephen; Balsam, Peter D

    2012-01-01

    In a conditioning protocol, the onset of the conditioned stimulus (CS) provides information about when to expect reinforcement (the US). There are two sources of information from the CS in a delay conditioning paradigm in which the CS-US interval is fixed. The first depends on the informativeness, the degree to which CS onset reduces the average expected time to onset of the next US. The second depends only on how precisely a subject can represent a fixed-duration interval (the temporal Weber fraction). In three experiments with mice, we tested the differential impact of these two sources of information on rate of acquisition of conditioned responding (CS-US associability). In Experiment 1, we show that associability (the inverse of trials to acquisition) increases in proportion to informativeness. In Experiment 2, we show that fixing the duration of the US-US interval or the CS-US interval or both has no effect on associability. In Experiment 3, we equated the increase in information produced by varying the C̅/T̅ ratio with the increase produced by fixing the duration of the CS-US interval. Associability increased with increased informativeness, but, as in Experiment 2, fixing the CS-US duration had no effect on associability. These results are consistent with the view that CS-US associability depends on the increased rate of reward signaled by CS onset. The results also provide further evidence that conditioned responding is temporally controlled when it emerges. PMID:22468633

  7. 226Ra measurement by thermal ionisation mass spectrometry: Use of 226Ra and 14C for groundwater dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dever, L.

    1997-01-01

    Recent developments in thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS) and in chemical separation Ra and Ba allow to analyse 226 Ra on smaller water samples ( 3 litres). The sampling has been realised on the Chalk aquifer of the Paris basin. The water samples have been collected in the unsaturated zone using in situ filtering devices and in the unconfined and confined parts of the aquifer in the boreholes used for public water supply. 226 Ra contents vary from 0.064±0.02 dpm/kg (n=6) in the unsaturated zone to 0.119±0.069 dpm/kg (n=7) in the unconfined aquifer and 0.319±0.057 dpm/kg (n=9) in the confined aquifer. For all the samples the 226 Ra/ 238 U activity ratios are much lower than the secular equilibrium. This points out that the two isotopes have different input function in the water during the mineralisation of the solution. The good correlation (r 2 =0.9) between the 226 Ra and Sr indicates that dissolution of Chalk is the dominant mechanism of mineralisation in 226 Ra of the solution. In the Chalk the mineralisation of the water occurs in the first metres of the unsaturated zone, during the water percolation the water rock interaction takes place through dissolution and precipitation of calcite in a non steady state. According to his distribution coefficient Sr is then a better tracer of dissolution/precipitation process than Ba. Using a geochemical model based on 226 Ra/Sr and Sr/Ca ratios an 'age' of the water could be determined. With 226 Ra half life of 1620 years we obtain 'ages' varying from 150 years to 1950 years in the unconfined aquifer. For the confined part of the aquifer where the redox condition is different it is necessary to use a geochemical model based on the U concentration in the water, the 226 Ra gives in such case ages varying from 1.8ka to 12.8ka. The radiocarbon ages obtained through usual chemical and/or isotopic models are quite similar and an isochrome between 226 Ra and 14 C ages can be calculated between 0 and 8ka

  8. Determination of 226Ra and 228Ra in gypsum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godoy, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    The content of 226 Ra and 228 Ra in different samples of phosphogypsum and three samples of gypsite were determined by gamma spectroscopy. For 226 Ra the 295, 352 and 609 KeV lines and for 228 Ra the 911 and 969 KeV lines were used. The specific activities values ranged from 0.36 to 22.8 pCi/g for 226 Ra and 0.90 to 10.3 pCi/g for 228 Ra. The contribution of a sypsum roof-covering to the 222 Rn concentration in a room was estimated, based on the highest value reported. (author) [pt

  9. Research nuclear reactor RA - Annual Report 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sotic, O.

    1992-01-01

    Activities related to revitalisation of the RA reactor stared in 1986, were continued in 1991. A number of interventions on the reactor components were finished that are supposed to enable continuous and reliable operation. The last, and at the same time largest action, related to exchange of complete reactor instrumentation is underway, but it is behind the schedule in 1991 because the delivery of components from USSR is late. Production of this instruments is financed by the IAEA according to the contract signed in December 1988 with Russian Atomenergoexport. According to this contract, it has been planned that the RA reactor instrumentation should be delivered to the Vinca Institute by the end of 1990. Only 56% of the instrumentation was delivered until September 1991. Since then any delivery of components to Yugoslavia was stopped because of the temporary embargo imposed by the IAEA. In 1991 most of the existing RA reactor instrumentation was dismantled, only the part needed for basic measurements when reactor is not operated, was maintained. Construction of some support elements is almost finished by the local staff. The Institute has undertaken this activity in order to speed up the ending of the project. If all the planned instrumentation would not arrive until the end of March 1992, it would not be possible to start the RA reactor testing operation in the first part of 1993, as previously planned. In 1991, 53 staff members took part in the activities during 1991, which is considered sufficient for maintenance and repair conditions. Research reactor RA Annual report for year 1991 is divided into two main parts to cover: (1) operation and maintenance and (2) activities related to radiation protection [sr

  10. Research nuclear reactor RA - Annual Report 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sotic, O.

    1994-12-01

    Activities related to revitalisation of the RA reactor stared in 1986, were continued in 1991. A number of interventions on the reactor components were finished that are supposed to enable continuous and reliable operation. The last, and at the same time largest action, related to exchange of complete reactor instrumentation is underway, but it is behind the schedule in 1991 because the delivery of components from USSR is late. Production of this instruments is financed by the IAEA according to the contract signed in December 1988 with Russian Atomenergoexport. According to this contract, it has been planned that the RA reactor instrumentation should be delivered to the Vinca Institute by the end of 1990. Only 56% of the instrumentation was delivered until September 1991. Since then any delivery of components to Yugoslavia was stopped because of the temporary embargo imposed by the IAEA. In 1991 most of the existing RA reactor instrumentation was dismantled, only the part needed for basic measurements when reactor is not operated, was maintained. Activities related to improvement of Russian project were continued in 1994. Control and maintenance of the reactor components was done regularly and efficiently. Extensive repair of the secondary coolant loop is almost finished and will be completed in the first part of 1995 according to existing legal procedures and IAEA recommendations. Fuel inspection by the IAEA safeguards inspectors was done on a monthly basis. There have been on the average 47 employees at the RA reactor which is considered sufficient for maintenance and repair conditions. Research reactor RA Annual report for year 1991 is divided into two main parts to cover: (1) operation and maintenance and (2) activities related to radiation protection [sr

  11. Sr 90 behaviour in the soil-plant system of moors of the Gomel' range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostereva, I.V.; Kudryashov, V.P.; Shamal', N.V.; Matusevich, Zh.L.

    2005-01-01

    The wavy dependence is installed between pH of the soil of moors and rate of accumulation (RA) of Sr 90 by phytomass of plants. The direct correlation is marked between concentration of mineral materials and RA of an above - ground part of herbaceous plants. Is abnormal high values RA are observed for the green forms of semifrutexs and undershrubs. (authors)

  12. Study of Cs recovery by extraction chromatography (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshi, Harutaka; Zhang, Anyun; Uchida, Hiromi; Kuraoka, Etsushu

    2005-02-01

    In order to apply CalixR14 extractant to extraction chromatography for Cs separation, basic characteristics of CalixR14 adsorbent were studied. CalixR14 impregnated resin and CalixR14 + TBP impregnated resin were prepared. CalixR14 extractant showed no adsorption for Cs by liquid-liquid extraction and CalixR14 impregnated resin also showed no adsorption for Cs. Therefore, it is concluded that CalixR14 itself has no affinity for Cs. On the other hand, Cs was adsorbed onto CalixR14-TBP impregnated resin from a concentrated nitric acid solution. The distribution coefficients of Cs were more than 10 cm 3 /g from 2 to 6 M nitric acid. While Rb showed week adsorption, Na, K, Sr and La showed no adsorption and separation factor was over 100. A slight amount of CalixR14 and TBP was leaked from impregnated resin into the aqueous phase. Separation from simulated liquid waste was carried out by using a column packed with CalixR14-TBP adsorbent. Na, K, Sr and La were not adsorbed onto the column, however, Cs and Rb were adsorbed onto the column. Cs and Rb were eluted from the column by water. Cs and Rb were quantitatively recovered. (author)

  13. Effect of Wood Aging on Wine Mineral Composition and 87Sr/86Sr Isotopic Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Ayse D; Bruno de Sousa, Raúl; Curvelo-Garcia, António S; Ricardo-da-Silva, Jorge M; Catarino, Sofia

    2017-06-14

    The evolution of mineral composition and wine strontium isotopic ratio 87 Sr/ 86 Sr (Sr IR) during wood aging were investigated. A red wine was aged in stainless steel tanks with French oak staves (Quercus sessiliflora Salisb.), with three industrial scale replicates. Sampling was carried out after 30, 60, and 90 days of aging, and the wines were evaluated in terms of general analysis, phenolic composition, total polysaccharides, multielement composition, and Sr IR. Li, Be, Mg, Al, Sc, Ti, V, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Ge, As, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Mo, Sb, Cs, Ba, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb, Lu, Tl, and Pb elements and 87 Sr/ 86 Sr were determined by quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (Q-ICP-MS) and Na, K, Ca, and Fe by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). Two-way ANOVA was applied to assess wood aging and time effect on Sr IR and mineral composition. Wood aging resulted in significantly higher concentrations of Mg, V, Co, Ni, and Sr. At the end of the aging period, wine exhibited statistically identical Sr IR compared to control. Study suggests that wood aging does not affect 87 Sr/ 86 Sr, not precluding the use of this parameter for wine traceability purposes.

  14. RA Research reactor, Part 1, Operation and maintenance of the RA nuclear reactor for 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sotic, O.; Martinc, R.; Cupac, S.; Sulem, B.; Badrljica, R.; Majstorovic, D.; Sanovic, V.

    1986-01-01

    In order to enable future reliable operation of the RA reactor, according to new licensing regulations, three major tasks started in 1984 were fulfilled: building of the new emergency system, reconstruction of the existing ventilation system, and reconstruction of the power supply system. Simultaneously in 1985/1986 renewal of the instrumentation and reconstruction of the system for handling and storage of the spent fuel in the reactor building have started. Design projects for these tasks are almost finished and the reconstruction of both systems is expected to be finished until 1988 and mid 1989 respectively. RA reactor Safety report was finished according to the recommendations of the IAEA. Investments in 1986 were used for 8000 kg of heavy water, maintenance of reactor systems and supply of new components, reconstruction of reactor systems. This report includes 8 annexes concerning reactor operation, activities of services and financial issues [sr

  15. Nuclear Reactor RA Safety Report, Vol. 8, Auxiliary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-11-01

    This volume describes RA reactor auxiliary systems, as follows: special ventilation system, special drainage system, hot cells, systems for internal transport. Ventilation system is considered as part of the reactor safety and protection system. Its role is eliminate possible radioactive particles dispersion in the environment. Special drainage system includes pipes and reservoirs with the safety role, meaning absorption or storage of possible radioactive waste water from the reactor building. Hot cells existing in the RA reactor building are designed for production of sealed radioactive sources, including packaging and transport [sr

  16. Calculation of research reactor RA power at uncontrolled reactivity changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cupac, S.

    1978-01-01

    The safety analysis of research reactor RA involves also the calculation of reactor power at uncontrolled reactivity changes. The corresponding computer code, based on Point Kinetics Model has been made. The short review of method applied for solving kinetic equations is given and several examples illustrating the reactor behaviour at various reactivity changes are presented. The results already obtained are giving rather rough picture of reactor behaviour in considered situations. This is the consequence of using simplified feed back and reactor cooling models, as well as temperature reactivity coefficients, which do not correspond to the actual reactor RA structure (which is now only partly fulfilled with 80% enriched uranium fuel). (author) [sr

  17. 137Cs contamination of Techa river flood plain in Brodokalmak settlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chesnokov, A.V.; Govorun, A.P.; Liksonov, V.I.; Shcherbak, S.B.; Ivanitskaya, M.V.

    1999-01-01

    137 Cs contamination of the Techa river flood plain inside the Brodokalmak settlement has been mapped. The collimated scintillated detector technique was used for 137 Cs deposit measurements. The 137 Cs contamination is very heterogeneous. A comparison of this technique with the traditional sample method was performed at selected locations. The sampling data are in good agreement with in-situ data. Soil surface activity of 90 Sr was determined from the samples. It was shown that 137 Cs contamination correlates with 90 Sr contamination within the flood plain of the settlement

  18. Estuarine geochemistry of 224Ra, 226Ra, and 222Rn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsinger, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    Desorption from river borne sediments is the most likely source of the excess 226 Ra. Laboratory mixing experiments on Pee Dee River sediments show an increase in 226 Ra desorption with increasing salinities with maximum desorption occurring at or above 20 0 /oo salinity. Desorption and diffusion are the sources for 226 Ra in the estuarine systems. In Winyah Bay the 228 Ra/ 226 Ra activity ratio does not change significantly with salinity, averaging around 1.4, indicating desorption as the major source of 228 Ra. In the Yangtze River the 228 Ra/ 226 Ra activity ratio is constant (approx.1.90) until increasing linearly above 16 0 /oo. A diffusive flux from regeneration by 232 Th decay in shelf sediments is the source of the increase. In Delaware Bay 228 Ra increases faster than 226 Ra in the less than or equal to22 0 /oo water, indicating a source in addition to desorption. The increase can be balanced by a 0.33 dpm/cm 2 -year flux over the upper part of the Bay where fine grained sediments predominate. 224 Ra behavior is controlled by its 3.64 day half-life. In Winyah Bay a flux of around 0.4 dpm/cm 2 -day is necessary to support the standing crop of non-desorbed 224 Ra in the water column. In Delaware Bay the nearly constant 224 Ra in concentration over the 2.5 0 /oo to 12 0 /oo salinity range are maintained by regeneration from 228 Th in the turbidity maximum zones and diffusion from bottom sediments. Water leaving on ebb tide from a salt marsh on Delaware Bay had increases in all three radium isotopes ( 224 Ra > 228 Ra > 226 Ra) compared to water coming in on the flood tide. Excess 222 Rn concentrations in a fresh water section of the Pee Dee River show a decreasing downstream gradient. Using these gradients to determine evasion rates, stagnant film thicknesses range from 21μ to 62μ

  19. Chief Information Officer > About DoD CIO > Organization > DCIO CS

    Science.gov (United States)

    DCIO R&A DCIO CS In the News Library Contact us DCIO Cyber security DCIO CS focuses on defending cybersecurity program to include relevant cybersecurity standards, policies and procedures partnering across the cybersecurity standards, policies, and procedures with other federal agencies, coalition partners, and industry

  20. Activity concentration and population dose from 226Ra due to consumption of dietary components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagh, S.S.; Patra, A.K.; Ravi, P.M.; Sarkar, P.K.

    2012-01-01

    226 Ra (T 1/2 = 1620 years, α-energy 4.78 MeV, 4.59 MeV, γ-energy 186 keV), a product of natural uranium decay series, is abundantly observed in natural environment. Radium, along with its homologue calcium, an essential element in the plant system, is absorbed from the soil by plants and gets redistributed. within different parts of the plants. Because of the long half-life of 226 Ra, it gets accumulated in the human body for along time. The hazard due to ingestion of 226 Ra dissolved in water is reported to be about 40 times higher than that of 90 Sr. This paper deals with the concentration of 226 Ra in different dietary components and ingestion dose from 226 Ra due to consumption of dietary components. Internal radiation exposure to non-human biota due to 226 Ra is also discussed

  1. Using noble gases and 87Sr/86Sr to constrain heat sources and fluid evolution at the Los Azufres Geothermal Field, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, T.; Pinti, D. L.; Castro, M. C.; Lopez Hernandez, A.; Hall, C. M.; Shouakar-Stash, O.; Sandoval-Medina, F.

    2017-12-01

    Geothermal wells and hot springs were sampled for noble gases' volume fraction and isotopic measurements and 87Sr/86Sr in the Los Azufres Geothermal Field (LAGF), Mexico, to understand the evolution of fluid circulation following three decades of exploitation and re-injection of used brines. The LAGF, divided into the Southern Production Zone (SPZ) and the Northern Production Zone (NPZ), is hosted in a Miocene to Pliocene andesitic volcanic complex covered by Quaternary rhyolitic-dacitic units. Air contamination corrected 3He/4He ratios (Rc) normalized to the atmospheric ratio (Ra=1.384 x 10-6), show a median value of 6.58 indicating a dominant mantle helium component. Contributions of crustal helium up to 53% and 18% are observed in NPZ and SPZ, respectively. Observations based on Rc/Ra and 87Sr/86Sr ratios points to the mixing of three magmatic sources supplying mantle helium to the LAGF: (1) a pure mantle He (Rc/Ra = 8) and Sr (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7035) source; (2) a pure mantle helium (Rc/Ra = 8) with some radiogenic Sr (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7049) source possibly resulting from Quaternary rhyolitic volcanism; and (3) a fossil mantle He component (Rc/Ra = 3.8) with some radiogenic Sr (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7038), corresponding possibly to the Miocene andesite reservoir. Intrusions within the last 50 kyrs from sources (1) and (2) are likely responsible for the addition of mantle volatiles and heat to the hydrothermal system of Los Azufres. He and Ar isotopes indicate that heat flow is transported by both convection and conduction. Atmospheric noble gas elemental ratios suggest that geothermal wells located closer to the western re-injection zone are beginning to be dominated by re-injection of used brines (injectate). The area affected by boiling in LAGF has further extended to the north and west since the last noble gas sampling campaign in 2009.

  2. Research nuclear reactor RA - Annual report 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sotic, O.

    1992-12-01

    Research reactor RA Annual report for year 1992 is divided into two main parts to cover: (1) operation and maintenance and (2) activities related to radiation protection. First part includes 8 annexes describing reactor operation, activities of services for maintenance of reactor components and instrumentation, financial report and staffing. Second annex B is a paper by Z. Vukadin 'Recurrence formulas for evaluating expansion series of depletion functions' published in 'Kerntechnik' 56, (1991) No.6 (INIS record no. 23024136. Second part of the report is devoted to radiation protection issues and contains 4 annexes with data about radiation control of the working environment and reactor environment, description of decontamination activities, collection of radioactive wastes, and meteorology data [sr

  3. RA Research nuclear reactor, Part I - RA nuclear reactor operation, maintenance and utilization in 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sotic, O.; Martinc, R.; Kozomara-Maic, S.; Cupac, S.; Raickovic, N.; Radivojevic, J.; Badrljica, R.; Majstorovic, D.; Sanovic, V.

    1983-12-01

    After regular shutdown in November 1982, inspection of the fuel elements from the RA reactor core which was done from December 1982 - February 1983 has shown that there are deposits of aluminium oxides on the surface of the fuel cladding. After restart The RA reactor was operated at power levels from 1.8 - 2 MW, with 80% enriched uranium dioxide fuel elements. It was found that there was no corrosion of the fuel element cladding and that it was not possible to find the cause of surface deposition on the cladding surfaces without further operation. It was decided to purify the heavy water permanently during operation and to increase the heavy water flow by operating two pumps. This procedure was adopted in order to decrease the possibility of corrosion. The Safety committee of the Institute has approved this procedure for operating the RA reactor in 1983. The core was made of 80% enriched fuel, critical experiments were done until June 1983, and after that the operation was continued at power levels up to 2 MW [sr

  4. Real-time {sup 90}Sr Counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneko, Naomi; Kawai, Hideyuki; Kodama, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Tabata, Makoto; Ito, Hiroshi [Graduate School of Science, Chiba University, Chiba, (Japan); Han, Soorim [Graduate School of Science, Chiba University, Chiba, (Japan); National Institute of Radiological Science, Chiba, (Japan)

    2015-07-01

    Radioisotopes have been emitted around Japan due to a nuclear accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station in March 2011. A problem is the contaminated water including the atomic nucleus which relatively has a long half- life time and soluble such as {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs. Internal exposures by {sup 90}Sr are more dangerous than {sup 137}Cs's because Sr has effective half-life time of 18 years and property of accumulation in a born. We have developed real-time {sup 90}Sr counter which is sensitive beta-ray of maximum kinematic energy of 2.28 MeV from {sup 90}Sr and insensitive of beta-ray of maximum kinematic energy of 1.17 MeV and gamma-ray from {sup 90}Sr by Cherenkov detection. This counter composes of Cerenkov counter, trigger scintillation counter and veto counter. Silica aerogel for Cherenkov counter can obtain refractive index between 1.017 and 1.049 easily. And wavelength shifting fiber (WLSF) is used as a light guide for extending effective area and producing lower cost. A mechanism of the identification of {sup 90}Sr is explained in following. In case of {sup 90}Sr, when the trigger counter reacts on the beta-ray from {sup 90}Sr, aerogel emits the Cherenkov light and WLSF reacts and read the Cherenkov light. On the other hand, in case of {sup 137}Cs, the trigger counter reacts on the beta-ray, aerogel stops the beta- ray and Cherenkov light is not emitted. Therefore, aerogel has a function as a radiator and shielding material. the gamma-ray is not reacted on the lower density detector. Cosmic rays would be also reacted by the veto counter. A prototype counter whose the effective area is 30 cm x 10 cm was obtained (2.0±1.2){sup 3} of mis-identification as {sup 137}Cs/{sup 90}Sr. Detection limit in the surface contamination inspection depends on measurement time and effective area mainly. The sensitivity of wide range, 10{sup -2} - 10{sup 4} Bq/cm{sup 2}, is obtained by adjustment of detection level in circuit of this counter. A lower

  5. 226Ra, 228Ra, 223Ra, and 224Ra in coastal waters with application to coastal dynamics and groundwater input

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, W.S.

    1997-01-01

    Four radium isotopes offer promise in unraveling the complex dynamics of coastal ocean circulation and groundwater input. Each isotope is produced by decay of a thorium parent bound to sediment. The activities of these thorium isotopes and the sediment-water distribution coefficient for radium provide an estimate of the source function of each Ra isotope to the water. In salt marshes that receive little surface water input, Ra activities which exceed coastal ocean values must originate within the marsh. In North Inlet, South Carolina, the activities of 226 Ra exported from the marsh far exceed the activities generated within the marsh. To supply the exported activities, substantial groundwater input is required. In the coastal region itself, 226 Ra activities exceed the amount that can be supplied from rivers. Here also, substantial groundwater input is required. Within the coastal ocean, 223 Ra and 224 Ra may be used to determine mixing rates with offshore waters. Shore-perpendicular profiles of 223 Ra and 224 Ra show consistent trends which may be modeled as eddy diffusion coefficients of 350-540 m 2 s -1 . These coefficients allow an assessment of cross-shelf transport and provide further insight on the importance of groundwater to coastal regions. (author)

  6. RA reactor operation and maintenance in 1996, Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sotic, O.; Cupac, S.; Sulem, B.; Zivotic, Z.; Mikic, N.; Tanaskovic, M.

    1996-01-01

    During the previous period RA reactor was not operated because the Committee of Serbian ministry for health and social care has cancelled the operation licence in August 1984. The reason was the non existing emergency cooling system and lack of appropriate filters in the special ventilation system. The planned major tasks were fulfilled: building of the new emergency cooling system, reconstruction of the existing ventilation system, and renewal of the reactor power supply system. The existing RA reactor instrumentation was dismantled. Renewal of the reactor instrumentation was started but but it is behind the schedule because the delivery of components from USSR was stopped for political reasons. Since the RA reactor is shutdown since 1984, it is high time for decision making of its future status. Possible solutions for the future status of the RA reactor discussed in this report are: renewal of reactor components for the reactor restart, conservation of the reactor (temporary shutdown) or permanent reactor shutdown. Control and maintenance of the reactor instrumentation and devices was done regularly but dependent on the availability of the spare parts and financial means. Training of the existing personnel and was done regularly, but the new staff has no practical training since the reactor is not operated. Lack of financial support influenced strongly the status of RA reactor [sr

  7. Radiation protection at the RA Reactor in 1985, Part -4, decontamination and treatment of solid radioactive materials for the needs of RA reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plecas, I.; Vukovic, Z.; Blagojevic, R.; Kostadinovic, A.

    1985-01-01

    This report describes the activity of the decontamination and treatment team for the needs of the RA reactor, its equipment, working conditions, methods for decontamination, means of decontamination, type and quantity of decontaminated surfaces, number of decontaminated objects, quantity of collected radioactive solid wastes, their packaging, transport to the storage place and topography od radiation field in the storage during 1985 [sr

  8. Improving CS regulations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nesse, R.J.; Scheer, R.M.; Marasco, A.L.; Furey, R.

    1980-10-01

    President Carter issued Executive Order 12044 (3/28/78) that required all Federal agencies to distinguish between significant and insignificant regulations, and to determine whether a regulation will result in major impacts. This study gathered information on the impact of the order and the guidelines on the Office of Conservation and Solar Energy (CS) regulatory practices, investigated problems encountered by the CS staff when implementing the order and guidelines, and recommended solutions to resolve these problems. Major tasks accomplished and discussed are: (1) legislation, Executive Orders, and DOE Memoranda concerning Federal administrative procedures relevant to the development and analysis of regulations within CS reviewed; (2) relevant DOE Orders and Memoranda analyzed and key DOE and CS staff interviewed in order to accurately describe the current CS regulatory process; (3) DOE staff from the Office of the General Counsel, the Office of Policy and Evaluation, the Office of the Environment, and the Office of the Secretary interviewed to explore issues and problems encountered with current CS regulatory practices; (4) the regulatory processes at five other Federal agencies reviewed in order to see how other agencies have approached the regulatory process, dealt with specific regulatory problems, and responded to the Executive Order; and (5) based on the results of the preceding four tasks, recommendations for potential solutions to the CS regulatory problems developed. (MCW)

  9. RA reactor operation and maintenance; Pogon i odrzavanje reaktora RA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zecevic, V [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Reaktor RA, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1963-02-15

    This volume includes the final report on RA reactor operation and utilization of the experimental facilities in 1962, detailed analysis of the system for heavy water distillation and calibration of the system for measuring the activity of the air.

  10. Features of contamination with 137Cs, 90Sr of higher water plants of reservoirs in different types in the exclusion zone of the Chernobyl NPP; Особенности загрязнения 137Cs, 90 Sr высшей водной растительности водоемов различных типов зоны отчуждения Чернобыльской АЭС

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalinichenko, S. A.; Nenashev, R. A. [Polesye State Radiation Ecological Reserve (Belarus)

    2012-07-01

    In the conditions of the Republic of Belarus the realized research of peculiar features of accumulation of 137Cs and 90Sr by the higher water plants made it possible to establish features of their behavior in reservoirs the exclusion zone of Chernobyl NPP. There were analysed levels of the content of radioactive nuclides in the higher water plants, positioned quotients of concentrating and discrimination. There were investigated the processes of seasonal dynamics depending on reservoir phylum. In the course of experiments there were establish the kinds concentrators of radioactive substances and antagonists. The most susceptible to changes of pH environment was strontium. Its transition into biological objects substantially increased in accordance with the increasing of acidity.

  11. CS Bond formation by

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-02-02

    Feb 2, 2017 ... a thiol substituent at position-2 of the quinazoline ring. ... coupling reactions represent great contribution to the recent growth of organic synthesis.2 ... Difficulties in C-S ...... Experimental Advances (Amsterdam: Elsevier) 19; (b).

  12. RA reactor operation and maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zecevic, V.

    1963-02-01

    This volume includes the final report on RA reactor operation and utilization of the experimental facilities in 1962, detailed analysis of the system for heavy water distillation and calibration of the system for measuring the activity of the air

  13. Evaluation and testing of HUMASORB-CS trademark for the removal of radionuclides from groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, N.R.; Todd, T.A.; Wood, D.J.

    1998-01-01

    An independent experiment to demonstrate the combined removal of the radionuclides, 85 Sr and 137 Cs from groundwater has been conducted with the sorbent, HUMASORB-CS. Arctech, Inc. manufactures this humic acid-based sorbent material. This sorbent material is reported to have potential for remediation of contaminated groundwater present at DOE sites. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the removal efficiency and the capacity of the sorbent. Two ion-exchange columns were assembled at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) to evaluate the sorbent technology. Initial 137 Cs breakthrough in both columns was observed after 22.0 and 30.2 bed volumes, respectively. Strontium-85 removal was slightly more efficient than 137 Cs removal. Initial 85 Sr breakthrough in both columns was observed after 29.4 and 22.7 bed volumes, respectively. Calcium, which is of concern, is the major constituent within the feed solution. Calcium is attributed to loading interference in addition to other alkaline and alkaline earth metals such as stable Sr, Mg, Na, K, and Ba. Interfering ions fill exchange sites that greatly reduce the sorbents efficiency to sorb targeted ions such as radioactive Cs and Sr. Despite high concentrations of Ca in the feed solution, Ca was not sorbed by HUMASORB-CS. Results indicate HUMASORB-CS does not sorb sodium or potassium. Sodium and potassium concentrations were consistently observed at 100% breakthrough throughout the test

  14. Automated measurement of 224Ra and 226Ra in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimova, N.; Burnett, W.C.; Horwitz, E.P.; Lane-Smith, D.

    2007-01-01

    We present a new simple approach for automated, non-destructive measurement of the alpha-emitting radium isotopes ( 223 Ra, 224 Ra, and 226 Ra) in water based on the emanation of their respective radon daughters ( 219 Rn, 220 Rn, and 222 Rn). The method combines the high adsorption uptake of MnO 2 Resin for radium (K d =2.4x10 4 ml/g) over a wide pH range with the simplicity of the activity registration using a commercial radon-in-air analyzer (RAD7, DURRIDGE Company, Inc). Radium is first adsorbed onto the MnO 2 Resin by passing a water sample through the resin packed in a gas-tight glass cartridge. The same cartridge is then connected to the radon analyzer via a simple tubing system to circulate air through the resin and a drying system. The efficiency of the proposed system is determined by running standards prepared in the same manner. Our results indicate that the efficiency for 226 Ra is >22% if both 218 Po and 214 Po counts are collected. This is comparable with typical efficiencies for alpha spectrometry but with much less sample preparation. We estimate that an MDA of 0.8 pCi/L for 226 Ra may be obtained with this new approach using a 1 L water sample and less than 4 h of counting

  15. Measuring the radium quartet ({sup 228}Ra, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 224}Ra, {sup 223}Ra) in seawater samples using gamma spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beek, P. van, E-mail: vanbeek@legos.obs-mip.f [LEGOS, Laboratoire d' Etudes en Geophysique et Oceanographie Spatiales (CNRS/CNES/IRD/UPS), Observatoire Midi Pyrenees, 14 Avenue Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse (France); Souhaut, M. [LEGOS, Laboratoire d' Etudes en Geophysique et Oceanographie Spatiales (CNRS/CNES/IRD/UPS), Observatoire Midi Pyrenees, 14 Avenue Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse (France); Reyss, J.-L. [LSCE, Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement (CNRS/CEA/UVSQ), Avenue de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2010-07-15

    Radium isotopes are widely used in marine studies (eg. to trace water masses, to quantify mixing processes or to study submarine groundwater discharge). While {sup 228}Ra and {sup 226}Ra are usually measured using gamma spectrometry, short-lived Ra isotopes ({sup 224}Ra and {sup 223}Ra) are usually measured using a Radium Delayed Coincidence Counter (RaDeCC). Here we show that the four radium isotopes can be analyzed using gamma spectrometry. We report {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 224}Ra, {sup 223}Ra activities measured using low-background gamma spectrometry in standard samples, in water samples collected in the vicinity of our laboratory (La Palme and Vaccares lagoons, France) but also in seawater samples collected in the plume of the Amazon river, off French Guyana (AMANDES project). The {sup 223}Ra and {sup 224}Ra activities determined in these samples using gamma spectrometry were compared to the activities determined using RaDeCC. Activities determined using the two techniques are in good agreement. Uncertainties associated with the {sup 224}Ra activities are similar for the two techniques. RaDeCC is more sensitive for the detection of low {sup 223}Ra activities. Gamma spectrometry thus constitutes an alternate method for the determination of short-lived Ra isotopes.

  16. 90Sr and 137Cs in total diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Under the commission of Science and Technology Agency, Japan Chemical Analysis Center has analyzed total diet samples collected from 30 prefectures, and determined the content of strontium-90 and cesium-137 in these samples. Each prefectural public health laboratory and institute have collected 2 times a year all the daily regular diet consumed for five persons, namely three meals and other eating between meals. These samples were collected at Japan Chemical Analysis Center after carbonation without smoke rising. At Japan Chemical Analysis Center, these samples were ashed in an electric muffle furnace. And the ash to which both some carriers and hydrochloric acid were added, was destroyed under heating. The nuclides were dissolved into hydrochloric acid and filtrated, after it was added with nitric acid and heated to dryness. The filtrate was radiochemically analyzed for strontium-90 and cesium-137. (author)

  17. 90Sr and 137Cs in powdered milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Japan Chemical Analysis Center has analyzed the contents of strontium-90 and cesium-137 in powdered milk under the commission of Science and Technology Agency. The samples were purchased on the open market in Tokyo from the powdered milk producers. The analysis of strontium-90 and cesium-137 content was radiochemically carried out using the method applied for the analysis of fresh milk. (author)

  18. From patients with arthralgia, pre-RA and recently diagnosed RA: What is the current status of understanding RA pathogenesis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Molendijk (Marlieke); J.M.W. Hazes (Mieke); E.W. Lubberts (Erik)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractIt is believed that therapy for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the most effective and beneficial within a short time frame around RA diagnosis. This insight has caused a shift from research in patients with established RA to patients at risk of developing RA and recently diagnosed

  19. Plutonium isotopes/137Cs activity ratios for soil in Montenegro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antovic, N. M.; Vukotic, P.; Svrkota, N.; Andrukhovich, S.K.

    2011-01-01

    Plutonium isotopes/ 137 Cs activity ratios were determined for six soil samples from Montenegro, using the results of alpha-spectrometric measurements of 239+240 Pu and 238 Pu, as well as gamma-spectrometric cesium measurements. An average 239+240 Pu/ 137 Cs activity ratio is found to be 0.02, as the 238 Pu/ 137 Cs and 238 Pu/ 239+240 Pu one - 0.0006 and 0.03, respectively. It follows from the results that the source of plutonium in Montenegro soil is nuclear weapon testing during the fifties and sixties of the twentieth century. On the other hand, there is a contribution of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant to the soil contamination with 137 Cs isotope. [sr

  20. Concentration factors of 226 Ra in the mullet species Liza aurata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antovic, I.; Antovic, N.M.

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of measured 226 Ra activity concentrations in whole individuals of the mullet species Liza aurata, its muscles and skeleton, concentration factors for transfer of radium from water and sediment to this mullet species from the South Adriatic Sea, have been determined. (author) [sr

  1. Regulations for RA reactor operation; Propisi nuklearnog reaktora 'RA'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1980-09-15

    Regulations for RA reactor operation are written in accordance with the legal regulations defined by the Law about radiation protection and related legal acts, as well as technical standards according to the IAEA recommendations. The contents of this book include: fundamental data about the reactor; legal regulations for reactor operation; organizational scheme for reactor operation; general and detailed instructions for operation, behaviour in the reactor building, performing experiments; operating rules for operation under steady state and accidental conditions. [Serbo-Croat] Propisi o radu nuklearnog reaktora RA pisani su tako da svi zakonski propisi definisani 'Zakonom o zastiti od jonizujuceg zracenja' i pratecim propisima (devet pravilnika) kao i tehnicke norme prema preporukama MAAE budu postovani u punoj meri pri radu reaktora. Sadrzaj ove knjige obuhvata: osnovne podatke o reaktoru; zakonske propise; organizaciju rada reaktora RA; opste propise o rezimu rada, kretanju u zgradi reaktora, izvodjenju eksperimenata; pogonske propise za rad u normalnom rezimu i u slucaju udesa.

  2. Optimization of 90Sr/89Sr measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Legarda F.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the key points in the double measurement method for the measurement of both, 89Sr and 90Sr, by using a proportional counter is the choice of the times at which the measurements should be done. In this paper, the formulae to calculate the 89Sr and 90Sr detection limits in conditions of radioactive equilibrium between 90Y and 90Sr are derived, and an analysis of them as a function of the time between the two measurements is done. The choice for the time of the second measurement is going to depend on the desired quality of the results to be obtained.

  3. RA reactor operation and maintenance in 1989, Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sotic, O.; Martinc, R.; Cupac, S.; Sulem, B.; Zivotic, Z.; Majstorovic, D.; Sanovic, V.

    1989-01-01

    During the previous period RA reactor was not operated because the Committee of Serbian ministry for health and social care has cancelled the operation licence in July 1984. The reason was the non existing emergency cooling system and lack of appropriate filters in the special ventilation system. The following major tasks were fulfilled: building of the new emergency cooling system, reconstruction of the existing ventilation system, and renewal of the power supply system. Project concerned with renewal of RA reactor complete instrumentation was started at the end of 1988. Contract was signed between the IAEA and Soviet Atomenergoexport for supplying the new instrumentation for the RA reactor. Project concerned with increase of the storage space and the efficiency of handling the spent fuel elements has started in 1988. In 1989, device for water purification designed by the reactor staff started operation and spent fuel handling equipment is being mounted. Training of the existing personnel and was done regularly, but the new staff has no practical training since the reactor is not operated. Lack of financial support influenced strongly the status of RA reactor [sr

  4. RA research reactor, Part 1, Operation and maintenance of the RA nuclear reactor for 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sotic, O.; Martinc, R.; Cupac, S.; Sulem, B.; Badrljica, R.; Majstorovic, D.; Sanovic, V.

    1985-01-01

    According to the plan, RA reactor was to be in operation in mid September 1985. But, since the building of the emergency cooling system, nor the reconstruction of the existing special ventilation system were not finished until the end of August reactor was not operated during 1985. During the previous four years reactor operation was limited by the temporary operating license issued by the Committee of Serbian ministry for health and social care, which was cancelled in August 1984. The reason was the non existing emergency cooling system and lack of appropriate filters in the special ventilation system. This temporary license has limited the reactor power to 2 MW from 1981-1984. Control and maintenance of the reactor instrumentation and tools was done regularly but dependent on the availability of the spare parts. In order to enable future reliable operation of the RA reactor, according to new licensing regulations, during 1984, three major tasks have started: building of the new emergency system, reconstruction of the existing ventilation system, and renewal of the reactor instrumentation. IAEA has approved the amount of 1,300,000 US dollars for the renewal of the instrumentation [sr

  5. Nuclear Reactor RA Safety Report, Vol. 9, Radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-11-01

    Instrumentation for Radiation protection existing at the RA reactor is dating mostly from the period 1957-1959 when the reactor has been built. With some minor exception it was produced in USSR. Radiation protection system was constructed based on specific design project, somewhat modified original USSR project which has been indispensable because of some modification of the building design. During the past 27 years no renewal of the instrumentation was done, only maintenance was performed. Instrumentation consists of old electronic devices which caused difficulties and even prevented regular maintenance because of lack of spare parts. Instrumentation for radiation protection at the RA reactor is classified as follows: centralized dosimetry system; stationary dosimetry instrumentation, movable and personal dosimetry systems. Apart from the scheme of dosimetry instrumentation this volume includes description of radiation protection procedures; protection devices; radiation doses and dose limit data; program for environmental radioactivity control; medical control procedures [sr

  6. Determination of Sr-90, Cs-137, Na, K, Cs, Ca, Sr and Ba in Milk Powder (A-7)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    The samples were made from fresh skim milk by spray drying. The homogeneity was achieved by stirring the original liquid milk and the powder itself. No spiking with active or inactive materials was made. Each participating laboratory received 800 g sub-samples of the material. 26 participants submitted a total of 99 laboratory means and 365 results of individual determinations. Some of the laboratories submitted two different sets of results for the same radionuclides or stable elements which were obtained either by different analysts. The results are presented separately for all the radionuclides and stable elements (except cesium)

  7. Treatment of liquids of exchange resins washing from RA6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, F.L.; Menghini, J.; Rodriguez, D.S.

    2012-01-01

    In this work nanometric magnetite nanoparticles have been synthesized by hydrochemical co-precipitation method to achieve the adsorption and extraction of the contaminant species present in the water coming from the regeneration of exchange resins in Research Reactor RA6. It has been possible to obtain a mean nanoparticle size of 16 nm, necessary to increase the specific surface area of the material and thus, its adsorbent capability. The synthesis parameters and adsorption conditions made it possible to achieve a treatment efficiency superior to 80% for Cs-137 (author)

  8. Research nuclear reactor RA - Annual Report 1990 with the comparative evaluation for the period 1986-1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sotic, O.

    1990-12-01

    Annual report concerning the project 'RA research nuclear reactor' for 1990, financed by the Serbian ministry of science is divided into two parts. First part is concerned with RA reactor operation and maintenance, which is the task of the Division for reactor engineering of the Institute for multidisciplinary studies and RA reactor engineering. Second part deals with radiation protection activities at the RA reactor which is the responsibility of the Institute for radiation protection. Scientific council of the Institute for multidisciplinary studies and RA reactor engineering has stated that this report describes adequately the activity and tasks fulfilled at the RA reactor in 1989. The scope and the quality of the work done were considered successful both concerning the maintenance and reconstruction, as well as radiation protection activities [sr

  9. Nuclear Reactor RA Safety Report, Vol. 14, Safety protection measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-11-01

    Nuclear reactor accidents can be caused by three type of errors: failure of reactor components including (1) control and measuring instrumentation, (2) errors in operation procedure, (3) natural disasters. Safety during reactor operation are secured during its design and construction and later during operation. Both construction and administrative procedures are applied to attain safe operation. Technical safety features include fission product barriers, fuel elements cladding, primary reactor components (reactor vessel, primary cooling pipes, heat exchanger in the pump), reactor building. Safety system is the system for safe reactor shutdown and auxiliary safety system. RA reactor operating regulations and instructions are administrative acts applied to avoid possible human error caused accidents [sr

  10. Independent CO2 loop for cooling the samples irradiated in the RA reactor vertical experimental channels, Task 2.50.05

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stojic, M.; Pavicevic, M.

    1964-01-01

    This report contains the following volumes V and VI of the Project 'Independent CO 2 loop for cooling the samples irradiated in RA reactor vertical experimental channels': Design project of the dosimetry control system in the independent CO 2 loop for cooling the samples irradiated in the RA reactor vertical experimental channels, and Safety report for the Independent CO 2 loop for cooling the samples irradiated in the RA reactor vertical experimental channels [sr

  11. Waste forms based on Cs-loaded silicotitanates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balmer, M.L.; Bunker, B.C.

    1995-04-01

    Silicotitanate ion exchange materials are being considered for removal of radioactive Cs and Sr from tank wastes at the Hanford site. The phase evolution as a function of heat treatment temperature for several sol gel derived compositions within the Cs 2 O-SiO 2 -TiO 2 system was investigated, in order to determine if an adequate waste form can be achieved by direct thermal conversion. The Cs leach rates and Cs loss during heat treatment of select materials were measured. Some compositions which contain large amounts of Ti melt to form a glass with reasonably low aqueous leach rates. A new Cs-silicotitanate material with a structure isomorphous to pollucite was discovered. This material forms at low temperatures (700--800 C) where Cs volatility is negligible. The silicotitanate-pollucite exhibits extremely low leach rates (1.42 g/m 2 day ) at 90 C, and has been identified as a promising waste form for Cs containment

  12. Geological and physicochemical controls of the spatial distribution of partition coefficients for radionuclides (Sr-90, Cs-137, Co-60, Pu-239,240 and Am-241) at a site of nuclear reactors and radioactive waste disposal (St. Petersburg region, Russian Federation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumynin, Vyacheslav G; Nikulenkov, Anton M

    2016-10-01

    The paper presents a study of the sorption properties of sediments of different geological ages and lithological types, governing radionuclide retention in the subsurface (up to 160 m beneath the surface) within the area of potential influence of the Northwestern Center of Atomic Energy (NWCAE), St. Petersburg region, RF. The focus of this work is mostly on the sedimentary rocks of two types, i.e., weakly cemented sandstone and lithified clay formations of Cambrian and Vendian series. The first lithological unit is associated with a groundwater reservoir (Lomonosov aquifer), and the second one, with both a relative aquitard in the upper part of the Vendian formation (Kotlin clay) and a regional aquifer (Gdov aquifer) in the lower part of the formation. The main mechanisms responsible for the variability of the sorption distribution coefficient (Kd, defined as the ratio of the concentration of solute on solid phase to its concentration in solution at equilibrium) was identified for radionuclides such as Sr-90, Cs-137, Co-60, Pu-239,240, and Am-241. It was shown that the main factors contributing to the chemical heterogeneity of the Cambrian sandstone were related to the presence of secondary minerals (iron and magnesium oxides and hydroxides produced by the weathering process) in trace amounts, forming correlated layer structures. The statistical analysis of nonlinear isotherms confirmed this conclusion. For the Vendian formation, a determinate trend was established in the Kd change over depth as a result of temporal trends in the sedimentation process and pore-water chemistry. The geostatistical characteristics and the spatial correlation models for describing linear sorption of different radionuclides are not identical, and the exhibition of chemical heterogeneity of sedimentary rock of a particular lithological type depends on radionuclide chemistry. Moreover, variogram analysis for some Kd data sets (both in Cambrian and Vendian formations) demonstrates the

  13. Study of the specific activity concentrations of 40K, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 232}Th in vegetables and their respective covering tissues (peels)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, J.M.; Garcêz, R.W.D., E-mail: marqueslopez@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Silva, A.X. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escola Politécnica

    2017-07-01

    This work presents an analysis of specific concentrations of {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 232}Th in some vegetables that are part of the diet of the population of the state of Rio de Janeiro. Furthermore, was analyzed the concentrations of radionuclides in the same coating tissue that compose the vegetables. It can notice an increase of the specific concentration of {sup 40}K in the peels of vegetables that have little or no contact with the ground. Among the samples examined, only the pumpkin showed measurable amount of {sup 137}Cs both saves and in the skin. (author)

  14. Study of the specific activity concentrations of 40K, 226Ra, 228Ra and 232Th in vegetables and their respective covering tissues (peels)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, J.M.; Garcêz, R.W.D.; Silva, A.X.

    2017-01-01

    This work presents an analysis of specific concentrations of 40 K, 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 232 Th in some vegetables that are part of the diet of the population of the state of Rio de Janeiro. Furthermore, was analyzed the concentrations of radionuclides in the same coating tissue that compose the vegetables. It can notice an increase of the specific concentration of 40 K in the peels of vegetables that have little or no contact with the ground. Among the samples examined, only the pumpkin showed measurable amount of 137 Cs both saves and in the skin. (author)

  15. Data and uncertainty assessment for radionuclide Kd partitioning coefficients in granitic rock for use in SR-Can calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, James; Neretnieks, Ivars; Malmstroem, Maria

    2006-10-01

    SKB is currently preparing licence applications related to the proposed deep repository for spent nuclear fuel as well as the encapsulation plant required for canister fabrication. The present report is one of several specific data reports that form the data input to an interim safety report (SR-Can) for the encapsulation plant licence application. This report concerns the derivation and recommendation of generic K d data (i.e. linear partitioning coefficients) for safety assessment modelling of far-field radionuclide transport in fractured granitic rock. The data are derived for typical Swedish groundwater conditions and rock types distinctive of those found on the Simpevarp peninsula and Forsmark. Data have been derived for 8 main elements (Cs, Sr, Ra, Ni, Th, U, Np, Am) and various oxidation states. The data have also been supplied with tentative correction factors to account for artefacts that have not been previously considered in detail in previous compilations. For the main reviewed solutes the data are given in terms of a best estimate K d value assumed to be the median of the aggregate set of selected data. A range corresponding to the 25-75% inter-quartile range is also specified and probable ranges of uncertainty are estimated in the form of an upper and lower limit to the expected variability. Data for an additional 19 elements that have not been reviewed are taken from a previous compilation by Carbol and Engkvist

  16. Results of environmental radiation monitoring and meteorology measurements (material prepared for obtaining the licence for RA reactor experimental operation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-10-01

    According to the demands for obtaining the licence for restarting the Ra reactor and the experimental operation this document includes the radiation monitoring measured data in the working space and environment of the RA reactor, i.e. Boris Kidric Institute. The meteorology measured data are included as well. All the measurements are performed according to the radiation protection program applied actually from the first reactor start-up at the end of 1959 [sr

  17. Chemical dosimetry at the RA reactor; Hemijska dozimetrija reaktora RA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gal, O [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1961-12-15

    This report presents the results of measurements of absorbed doses axial and radial distribution in the vertical experimental channels of the RA reactor. Measurements were done in channels VK-5, VK-7, VK-9 and GF-36. Results were compared to the results of calorimetry measurements and measured neutron flux values performed by other laboratories. Fricke and oxalate dosemeters were used in addition to the cobalt indicators.

  18. Radium isotope (223Ra, 224Ra, 226Ra and 228Ra) distribution near Brazil's largest port, Paranaguá Bay, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Thais H.; Oliveira, Joselene de; Sanders, Christian J.; Carvalho, Franciane; Sanders, Luciana M.; Machado, Eunice C.; Sá, Fabian

    2016-01-01

    This work investigates the 223 Ra, 224 Ra, 226 Ra and 228 Ra isotope distribution in river, estuarine waters and sediments of the Paranaguá Estuarine Complex (PEC). The stratification of the Ra isotopes along water columns indicate differing natural sources. In sediments, the radium isotope activities was inversely proportional to the particle size. The highest concentrations of 223 Ra, 224 Ra, 226 Ra and 228 Ra in the water column were found in the bottom more saline waters and towards the inner of the estuary. These relatively high concentrations towards the bottom of the estuary may be attributed to the influence of tidally driven groundwater source and desorption from particles at the maximum turbidity zone. The apparent river water ages from the radium isotope ratios, 223 Ra/ 224 Ra and 223 Ra/ 228 Ra, indicate that the principal rivers that flow into the estuary have residence times from between 6 and 11 days. - Highlights: • Radium isotope concentrations were evaluated along a large estuarine system. • The radioactivity level in river, estuary and sediments was within a normal range. • Spatial distributions of site specific radionuclides have differing activities and sources.

  19. Strontium (Sr) separation from seawater using titanate adsorbents: Effects of seawater matrix ions on Sr sorption behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Jungho; Hong, Hye-jin; Ryu, Taegong; Park, In-Su

    2017-04-01

    Strontium (Sr) which has many industrial applications such as ferrite magnet, ceramic, and fire works exists in seawater with the concentration of approximately 7 mg/L. In previous report estimating economic potential on recovery of various elements from seawater in terms of their commercial values and concentrations in seawater, Sr locates upper than approximate break-even line, which implies Sr recovery from seawater can be potentially profitable. Recently, Sr separation from seawater has received great attention in the environmental aspect after Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident which released much amount of radioactive Sr and Cs. Accordingly, the efficient separation of radioactive elements released to seawater has become critical as an important technological need as well as their removal from radioactive wastes. So far, it has been introduced to separate Sr from aqueous media by various methods including solvent extraction, adsorption by solid materials, and ion exchange. Among them, the adsorption technique using solid adsorbents is of great interest for selectively separating Sr from seawater with respect to low concentration level of Sr. In this study, we synthesized titanate nanotube (TiNT) by simple hydrothermal reaction, characterized its physicochemical properties, and systematically evaluated Sr sorption behavior under various reaction conditions corresponding to seawater environment. The synthesized TiNT exhibited the fibril-type nanotube structure with high specific surface area of 260 m2/g. The adsorption of Sr on TiNT rapidly occurred following pseudo-second-order kinetic model, and was in good agreement with Langmuir isotherm model, indicating maximum adsorption capacity of 97 mg/g. Based on Sr uptake and Na release with stoichiometric balance, sorption mechanism of Sr on TiNT was found to be ion-exchange between Na in TiNT lattice and Sr in solution phase, which was also confirmed by XRD and Raman analysis. Among competitive ions, Ca

  20. Geographical distribution of 90Sr contamination in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaca, P.; Mietelski, J.W.; Skwarzec, B.

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents results on determination of 90 Sr in bilberry and cowberry leaves (Vaccinium myrtillus and Vaccinium vitis-idaea) and the use of these plants as bio-monitors of radiostrontium contamination in Poland. Radiostrontium was determined by mean of liquid scintillation spectrometry preceded by radiochemical separation using Sr-resin and 85 Sr tracer. The approximate map of 90 Sr contamination of Poland is presented. The activity ratio between 90 Sr and obtained earlier data for 137 Cs in the same samples is discussed. The enhancement of radiostrontium content observed in northeastern Poland seems to be the trace of hot-particles fallout from initial Chernobyl cloud, which passed over Polish territory toward Scandinavia. (orig.)

  1. Molecular CsF 5 and CsF 2 +

    KAUST Repository

    Rogachev, Andrey Yu.; Miao, Mao-sheng; Merino, Gabriel; Hoffmann, Roald

    2015-01-01

    D5h star-like CsF5, formally isoelectronic with known XeF5− ion, is computed to be a local minimum on the potential energy surface of CsF5, surrounded by reasonably large activation energies for its exothermic decomposition to CsF+2 F2, or to CsF3 (three isomeric forms)+F2, or for rearrangement to a significantly more stable isomer, a classical Cs+ complex of F5−. Similarly the CsF2+ ion is computed to be metastable in two isomeric forms. In the more symmetrical structures of these molecules there is definite involvement in bonding of the formally core 5p levels of Cs.

  2. Molecular CsF 5 and CsF 2 +

    KAUST Repository

    Rogachev, Andrey Yu.

    2015-06-03

    D5h star-like CsF5, formally isoelectronic with known XeF5− ion, is computed to be a local minimum on the potential energy surface of CsF5, surrounded by reasonably large activation energies for its exothermic decomposition to CsF+2 F2, or to CsF3 (three isomeric forms)+F2, or for rearrangement to a significantly more stable isomer, a classical Cs+ complex of F5−. Similarly the CsF2+ ion is computed to be metastable in two isomeric forms. In the more symmetrical structures of these molecules there is definite involvement in bonding of the formally core 5p levels of Cs.

  3. 228Ra in monazite processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, A.C.; Pillai, K.C.

    1979-01-01

    The treatment of monazite, adopted by the Indian Rare Earths plant is based on alkali digestion by caustic soda and acid leaching by hydrochloric acid. The paper deals with the distribution of 228 Ra, the daughter product of 232 Th in the effluents and outlines the treatment procedures adopted to reduce its levels. The activity gets distributed into the soluble and insoluble fractions in the effluent depending on its acidic/alkaline nature. The scheme for further deactivation of the effluent was based on lime treatment. It is observed that more than 95% removal of Ra is achievable by the treatment. The procedures leading to the proposed final treatment and disposal of effluent are schematically represented. Some environmental data are presented to show the impact of effluent releases in river, water and sediments. (B.G.W.)

  4. Lightcurve of NEA 1993 RA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaduvescu, Ovidiu; Aznar Macias, Amadeo

    2018-01-01

    The near-Earth asteroid (NEA) 1993 RA was observed with the 2.5-m Isaac Newton Telescope (INT) in full Moon conditions for 8h total during three successive nights (2017 Oct 3-6). The composite lightcurve could be fit by a 3-order period P = 5.64 ± 0.01 h with amplitude of 0.13 mag; other solutions are possible.

  5. Nuclear Reactor RA Safety Report, Vol. 4, Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-11-01

    RA research reactor is thermal heavy water moderated and cooled reactor. Metal uranium 2% enriched fuel elements were used at the beginning of its operation. Since 1976, 80% enriched uranium oxide dispersed in aluminium fuel elements were gradually introduced into the core and are the only ones presently used. Reactor core is cylindrical, having diameter 40 cm and 123 cm high. Reaktor core is made up of 82 fuel elements in aluminium channels, lattice is square, lattice pitch 13 cm. Reactor vessel is cylindrical made of 8 mm thick aluminium, inside diameter 140 cm and 5.5 m high surrounded with neutron reflector and biological shield. There is no containment, the reactor building is playing the shielding role. Three pumps enable circulation of heavy water in the primary cooling circuit. Degradation of heavy water is prevented by helium cover gas. Control rods with cadmium regulate the reactor operation. There are eleven absorption rods, seven are used for long term reactivity compensation, two for automatic power regulation and two for safety shutdown. Total anti reactivity of the rods amounts to 24%. RA reactor is equipped with a number of experimental channels, 45 vertical (9 in the core), 34 in the graphite reflector and two in the water biological shield; and six horizontal channels regularly distributed in the core. This volume include detailed description of systems and components of the RA reactor, reactor core parameters, thermal hydraulics of the core, fuel elements, fuel elements handling equipment, fuel management, and experimental devices [sr

  6. RA reactor operation and maintenance in 1994, Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sotic, O.; Cupac, S.; Sulem, B.; Zivotic, Z.; Mikic, N.; Tanaskovic, M.

    1994-01-01

    During the previous period RA reactor was not operated because the Committee of Serbian ministry for health and social care has cancelled the operation licence in August 1984. The reason was the non existing emergency cooling system and lack of appropriate filters in the special ventilation system. The planned major tasks were fulfilled: building of the new emergency cooling system, reconstruction of the existing ventilation system, and renewal of the reactor power supply system. The existing RA reactor instrumentation was dismantled, only the part needed for basic measurements when reactor is not operated, was maintained. Renewal of the reactor instrumentation was started but but it is behind the schedule because the delivery of components from USSR was stopped for political reasons. The spent fuel elements used from the very beginning of reactor operation are stored in the existing pools. Project concerned with increase of the storage space and the efficiency of handling the spent fuel elements has started in 1988 and was fulfilled in 1990. Control and maintenance of the reactor instrumentation and tools was done regularly but dependent on the availability of the spare parts. Training of the existing personnel and was done regularly, but the new staff has no practical training since the reactor is not operated. Lack of financial support influenced strongly the status of RA reactor [sr

  7. RA Research reactor, Annual report 1971

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milosevic, D. et al.

    1971-12-01

    During 1971, the RA Reactor was operated at nominal power of 6.5 MW for 190 days, and 50 days at lower power levels. Total production mounted to 31606 MWh which is 5.3% higher than planned, and the highest annual level since the reactor started operation. Reactor was used for irradiation and experiments according to the demand of 425 users, of which 370 from the Institute and 55 external users. This report contains detailed data about reactor power and experiments performed in 1971. Discrepancies from the action plan, meaning higher production was achieved in June and December due to special demand of the users. Total number of interruptions was lower than during all the previous years, and were caused mainly due to power cuts during reactor operation. There was no longer interruption caused by failures of the equipment. There was only on scram shutdown during this year caused by a false signal of the reactor control instrumentation. Shorter interruptions resulted from breaking of connectors in the technical water pipe system caused by soil sliding near the pumping station on the Danube. Total personnel exposure dose was lower than during previous years. There was no accident nor any event that could be called accidental. Decontamination od surfaces was less than during previous years. It was concluded that the successful operation in 1971 resulted from efficient work during past years. But, some of the activities were interrupted due to undefined policy concerned with operation of the RA reactor and financial issues. This involves study of the possibility to use highly enriched fuel that would increase the useful neutron flux and the reactor compatibility with similar reactors for the future ten years. Another project that has been interrupted is construction of the emergency core cooling system which is important for the reactor safety. Financial problems have influenced not only the reactor operation but the number of employees, which could cause negative

  8. 137Cs in man organism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marej, A.N.; Barkhudarov, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    Considered are the levels of 137 Cs content in the organism of adult urban population of the USSR and the main regularities of their alterations during 1962-1974. The non-uniform distribution of levels of 137 Cs buildup in adult population is shown to be connected with soil and geographic conditions. Food stuffs of local production have a noticeable effect on the levels of 137 Cs buildup in the organism of urban population. Calculation methods are used to study 137 Cs administration in a human organism. No significant difference is found between the indexes of 137 Cs content in the organism of rural and urban population. Presented are the levels of 137 Cs content in the organisms of inhabitants of such regions as Far North and Byelorussian-Ukrainian woodlands. Given are the reasons for the increased content of 137 Cs in the organism of rural population of these zones

  9. Project RA Research nuclear reactor - Annual report 1993 with comparative review for the period 1991 - 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    Research reactor RA Annual report for year 1993 is divided into two main parts to cover: (1) operation and maintenance and (2) activities related to radiation protection. First part includes 8 annexes describing reactor operation, activities of services for maintenance of reactor components and instrumentation, financial report and staffing. The ninth separate annex deals with the feasibility of RA reactor applications. Second part of the report is devoted to radiation protection issues and contains 4 annexes with data about radiation control of the working environment and reactor environment, description of decontamination activities, collection of radioactive wastes, and meteorology data [sr

  10. Decommissioning strategy for the 'RA' research nuclear reactor at the 'Vinca' Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matausek, M.V.

    2000-01-01

    Adopting the global strategy for decommissioning of the research reactor RA at the Vinca Institute and preliminary planning of particular activities is necessary independently on the decision of the future status of this reactor, namely even in the case that it is decided to complete the modernization and to use the reactor again. In this paper the global decommissioning strategy for the RA reactor is proposed, as well as the optimal time schedule of particular activities, based on the relevant experiences from other countries (author) [sr

  11. RA research nuclear reactor - Annual report 1985; Istrazivacki nuklearni reaktor RA - Izvestaj za 1985. godinu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-12-01

    Research reactor RA Annual report for year 1985 is divided into two main parts to cover: (1) operation and maintenance and (2) activities related to radiation protection. [Serbo-Croat] Godisnji izvestaj po projektu 'Istrazivacki nuklearni reaktor RA' za 1985 godinu sastoji se od dva dela: prvi deo obuhvata pogon i odzavanje reaktora RA, a drugi poslove zastite od zracenja na reaktoru RA.

  12. RA Research reactor, Annual report 1986; Istrazivacki nuklearni reaktor RA - Izvestaj za 1986. godinu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sotic, O [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1986-12-01

    Research reactor RA Annual report for year 1985 is divided into two main parts to cover: (1) operation and maintenance and (2) activities related to radiation protection. [Serbo-Croat] Godisnji izvestaj po projektu 'Istrazivacki nuklearni reaktor RA' za 1986 godinu sastoji se od dva dela: prvi deo obuhvata pogon i odzavanje reaktora RA, a drugi poslove zastite od zracenja na reaktoru RA.

  13. Theoretical study of the Cs isotope exchange reaction of CsI + Cs' → Cs + ICs' (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Takanori; Hashimoto, Masashi; Yokoyama, Keiichi

    2015-12-01

    To discuss the exchange reaction of Cs isotope by CsI + Cs' → Cs + ICs', the structure and chemical properties of Cs 2 I intermediate and potential energy surface of the entrance reaction are calculated using M06/def2-TZVPPD density functional calculation. The calculation shows that the reaction to the intermediate has no barrier and the two Cs-I bonds of Cs 2 I are chemically equivalent. These results suggest that the rate of the Cs exchange reaction of CsI + Cs' → Cs + ICs' is as high as the collision rate. (author)

  14. Frameworks in CS1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we argue that introducing object-oriented frameworks as subject already in the CS1 curriculum is important if we are to train the programmers of tomorrow to become just as much software reusers as software producers. We present a simple, graphical, framework that we have successfull...... point for introducing graphical user interface frameworks such as Java Swing and AWT as the students are not overwhelmed by all the details of such frameworks right away but given a conceptual road-map and practical experience that allow them to cope with the complexity....

  15. CS Seminar Videos

    OpenAIRE

    Ong, Derek; Tona, Glen; Gibb, Kyle; Parbadia, Sivani

    2013-01-01

    Main site for our project can be found at this URL: http://vtechworks.lib.vt.edu/handle/10919/19036. From here you can find videos of all the CS seminars and distinguished lectures given this semester. Each video has its own abstract and description. The files attached in this section are a final report in both raw Word Document and archival PDF formats and a presentation in both raw Powerpoint and archival PDF formats. Computer Science seminars are a very educational and interesting as...

  16. Frameworks in CS1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard

    2002-01-01

    point for introducing graphical user interface frameworks such as Java Swing and AWT as the students are not overwhelmed by all the details of such frameworks right away but given a conceptual road-map and practical experience that allow them to cope with the complexity.......In this paper we argue that introducing object-oriented frameworks as subject already in the CS1 curriculum is important if we are to train the programmers of tomorrow to become just as much software reusers as software producers. We present a simple, graphical, framework that we have successfully...

  17. Measurements of neutron flux in the RA reactor; Merenje karakteristika neutronskog fluksa u reaktoru RA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raisic, N [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1961-12-15

    This report includes the following separate parts: Thermal neutron flux in the experimental channels od RA reactor; Epithermal neutron flux in the experimental channels od RA reactor; Fast neutron flux in the experimental channels od RA reactor; Thermal neutron flux in the thermal column and biological experimental channel; Neutronic measurements in the RA reactor cell; Temperature reactivity coefficient of the RA reactor; design of the device for measuring the activity of wire. [Serbo-Croat] Ovaj izvestaj sadrzi sledece referate: Fluks termalnih neutrona u eksperimentalnim kanalima reaktora RA; Fluks epitermalnih neutrona u eksperimentalnim kanalima reaktora RA; Fluks brzih neutrona u eksperimentalnim kanalima reaktora RA; Fluks termalnih neurona u termalnoj koloni i bioloskom eksperimentalnom kanalu; Neutronska merenja u elementarnoj celiji reaktora RA; Temperaturni koeficijent reaktivnosti reaktora RA; Projekat uredjaja za merenje radioaktivnosti zice.

  18. RA reactor building and installations; Zgrada 'RA' i instalacije

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badrljica, R; Sanovic, V; Skoric, M [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1985-08-15

    RA reactor building is made of reinforced concrete and bricks. It is closed facility with a limited number of controlled openings, doors and windows. The site of the building is 100 m above the sea level, 20 m above the mean Danube level and 8 m above the level of the neighbouring stream Mlaka. The building consists of three parts: central prismatic part, annex - surrounding the central part and the sanitary corridor. The biggest space is the reactor hall. In addition to the detailed description and drawings of the reactor building this documents includes design specifications of: electrical installation, water supply system, sewage system, ventilation and heating, gas and compressed air systems. A separate chapter is devoted to fire protection. Zgrada reaktora RA izgradjena je od armiranog betona i opeke, kao zatvoreni objekat ogranicenog broja kontolisanih otvora, sa ogranicenim brojem vrata i prozora. Plato na kojem je zgrada izgradjena nalazi se na 100 m nadmorske visine, na 20 m iznad srednjeg vodostaja Dunava i 8 m iznad nivoa obliznjeg potoka Mlaka. Zgrada se sastoji iz tri dela: sredisnjeg prizmaticnog dela, aneksa - prstenastog okvira sredisnog dela i sanitarnog propusnika. Pojedinacno najveci prostor zauzima reaktorska hala. Pored detaljnog opisa i plana zgrade, ovaj dokument sadrzi projekat elektricne instalacije, projekat vodovoda i kanalizacije, ventilacije i grejanja, instalacije gasa i komprimovanog vazduha. Posebno poglavlje posveceno je protivpozarnoj zastiti.

  19. Research nuclear reactor RA - Annual Report 1990 with the comparative evaluation for the period 1986-1990; Istrazivacki nuklearni reaktor RA - Izvestaj za 1990. godinu uz uporedni pregled za period 1986 - 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sotic, O [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1990-12-15

    Annual report concerning the project 'RA research nuclear reactor' for 1990, financed by the Serbian ministry of science is divided into two parts. First part is concerned with RA reactor operation and maintenance, which is the task of the Division for reactor engineering of the Institute for multidisciplinary studies and RA reactor engineering. Second part deals with radiation protection activities at the RA reactor which is the responsibility of the Institute for radiation protection. Scientific council of the Institute for multidisciplinary studies and RA reactor engineering has stated that this report describes adequately the activity and tasks fulfilled at the RA reactor in 1989. The scope and the quality of the work done were considered successful both concerning the maintenance and reconstruction, as well as radiation protection activities. [Serbo-Croat] Godisnji izvestaj po projektu 'Istrazivacki nuklearni reaktor RA' za 1990. godinu, koji finansira republicka zajednica za nauku SR Srbije po ugovoru br. 3705/1 sastoji se iz dva dela. Prvi deo obuhvata pogon i odrzavanje nuklearnog reaktora RA, sto predstavlja obavezu Odeljenja za reaktorski inzenjering u sastavu OOUR Instituta za multidisciplinarna istrazivanja i inzenjering RA. Drugi deo obuhvata poslove zastite od zracenja na reaktoru RA, sto predstavlja obavezu OOUR Instituta za zastitu od zracenja 'Zastita'. Naucno vece Instituta za multidisciplinarna istrazivanja i inzenjjring RA ocenilo je da sadrzina ovog izvestaja odgovara izvrsenim poslovima na reaktoru RA u 1989. godini. Pozitivno se ocenjuje obim i kvalitet izvrsenih radova kako u pogledu odrzavanja i rekonstrukcije reaktora, tako i u pogledu poslova zastite od zracenja izvrsenih kod njega.

  20. Determination of Cs-134 and Cs-137 rain water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, M.F.; Mazzilli, B.

    1988-01-01

    In order to setting an environmental monitoring program at IPEN, was developed a fast and simple methodology for concentration of Cs-134 and Cs-137 in rain water. This procedure consists in the precipitation of cesium and others cathions of its family (NH 4 + , K + and Rb + ) by ammonium molybdophosphate. The measures of the desintegration rates of Cs-134 and Cs-137 was done by gamma spectrometry in a Ge(Li) detector. After setting up the ideal experimental conditions, the procedure was used to analyze four samples of rain water. (author) [pt

  1. The effective and environmental half-life of 137Cs at Coral Islands at the former US nuclear test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robison, William L.; Conrado, Cynthia L.; Bogen, Kenneth T.; Stoker, A. Carol

    2003-01-01

    The United States (US) conducted nuclear weapons testing from 1946 to 1958 at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls in the northern Marshall Islands. Based on previous detailed dose assessments for Bikini, Enewetak, Rongelap, and Utirik Atolls over a period of 28 years, cesium-137 ( 137 Cs) at Bikini Atoll contributes about 85-89% of the total estimated dose through the terrestrial food chain as a result of uptake of 137 Cs by food crops. The estimated integral 30, 50, and 70-year doses were based on the radiological decay of 137 Cs (30-year half-life) and other radionuclides. However, there is a continuing inventory of 137 Cs and 90 Sr in the fresh water portion of the groundwater at all contaminated atolls even though the turnover rate of the fresh groundwater is about 5 years. This is evidence that a portion of the soluble fraction of 137 Cs and 90 Sr inventory in the soil is lost by transport to groundwater when rainfall is heavy enough to cause recharge of the lens, resulting in loss of 137 Cs from the soil column and root zone of the plants. This loss is in addition to that caused by radioactive decay. The effective rate of loss was determined by two methods: (1) indirectly, from time-dependent studies of the 137 Cs concentration in leaves of Pisonia grandis, Guettarda specosia, Tournefortia argentea (also called Messerschmidia), Scaevola taccada, and fruit from Pandanus and coconut trees (Cocos nucifera L.), and (2) more directly, by evaluating the 137 Cs/ 90 Sr ratios at Bikini Atoll. The mean (and its lower and upper 95% confidence limits) for effective half-life and for environmental-loss half-life (ELH) based on all the trees studied on Rongelap, Bikini, and Enewetak Atolls are 8.5 years (8.0 years, 9.8 years), and 12 years (11 years, 15 years), respectively. The ELH based on the 137 Cs/ 90 Sr ratios in soil in 1987 relative to the 137 Cs/ 90 Sr ratios at the time of deposition in 1954 is less than 17 years. The magnitude of the decrease below 17 years depends on

  2. The effective and environmental half-life of 137Cs at Coral Islands at the former US nuclear test site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, William L; Conrado, Cynthia L; Bogen, Kenneth T; Stoker, A Carol

    2003-01-01

    The United States (US) conducted nuclear weapons testing from 1946 to 1958 at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls in the northern Marshall Islands. Based on previous detailed dose assessments for Bikini, Enewetak, Rongelap, and Utirik Atolls over a period of 28 years, cesium-137 (137Cs) at Bikini Atoll contributes about 85-89% of the total estimated dose through the terrestrial food chain as a result of uptake of 137Cs by food crops. The estimated integral 30, 50, and 70-year doses were based on the radiological decay of 137Cs (30-year half-life) and other radionuclides. However, there is a continuing inventory of 137Cs and 90Sr in the fresh water portion of the groundwater at all contaminated atolls even though the turnover rate of the fresh groundwater is about 5 years. This is evidence that a portion of the soluble fraction of 137Cs and 90Sr inventory in the soil is lost by transport to groundwater when rainfall is heavy enough to cause recharge of the lens, resulting in loss of 137Cs from the soil column and root zone of the plants. This loss is in addition to that caused by radioactive decay. The effective rate of loss was determined by two methods: (1) indirectly, from time-dependent studies of the 137Cs concentration in leaves of Pisonia grandis, Guettarda specosia, Tournefortia argentea (also called Messerschmidia), Scaevola taccada, and fruit from Pandanus and coconut trees (Cocos nucifera L.), and (2) more directly, by evaluating the 137Cs/90Sr ratios at Bikini Atoll. The mean (and its lower and upper 95% confidence limits) for effective half-life and for environmental-loss half-life (ELH) based on all the trees studied on Rongelap, Bikini, and Enewetak Atolls are 8.5 years (8.0 years, 9.8 years), and 12 years (11 years, 15 years), respectively. The ELH based on the 137Cs/90Sr ratios in soil in 1987 relative to the 137Cs/90Sr ratios at the time of deposition in 1954 is less than 17 years. The magnitude of the decrease below 17 years depends on the ELH for 90Sr

  3. Biomass selection for biosorption study of 226 Ra and 137 Cd radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Wilson Cervi da

    2003-01-01

    The main goal of this work was to verify the potentialities to apply the biosorption technique to synthetic and real solution containing 226 Ra and 137 Cs, utilizing the seaweed Sargassum sp. and the microorganisms Penicillium sp., Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Monoraphidium sp. Indeed, the screening of the most effective biomass to remove the radionuclides was also a central objective. 226 Ra was selected due to its high radiotoxicity and the fact that it can be assimilated and incorporate