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Sample records for cs contamination incident

  1. Contaminated Mexican steel incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This report documents the circumstances contributing to the inadvertent melting of cobalt 60 (Co-60) contaminated scrap metal in two Mexican steel foundries and the subsequent distribution of contaminated steel products into the United States. The report addresses mainly those actions taken by US Federal and state agencies to protect the US population from radiation risks associated with the incident. Mexico had much more serious radiation exposure and contamination problems to manage. The United States Government maintained a standing offer to provide technical and medical assistance to the Mexican Government. The report covers the tracing of the source to its origin, response actions to recover radioactive steel in the United States, and return of the contaminated materials to Mexico. The incident resulted in significant radiation exposures within Mexico, but no known significant exposure within the United States. Response to the incident required the combined efforts of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Department of Energy, Department of Transportation, Department of State, and US Customs Service (Department of Treasury) personnel at the Federal level and representatives of all 50 State Radiation Control Programs and, in some instances, local and county government personnel. The response also required a diplomatic interface with the Mexican Government and cooperation of numerous commercial establishments and members of the general public. The report describes the factual information associated with the event and may serve as information for subsequent recommendations and actions by the NRC. 8 figures

  2. Radiological Cs-137 accidents/incidents in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinisso, Mark

    1997-01-01

    Two radiological accidents/incidents in Estonia are reported. The first -21 October 1994, three brothers entered the Tammiku repository and stole a radioactive Cs-137 source and received dangerous doses of radiation. The other incident (early 1995) involved an abandoned source - a discarded metal cylinder containing Cs-137. Chronologies and factual data are considered for both events. Concise descriptions of the incidents, a medical overview of the fate of injured people and lessons learned are presented

  3. Radiological Cs-137 accidents/incidents in Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinisso, Mark [Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Tallin (Estonia)

    1997-12-31

    Two radiological accidents/incidents in Estonia are reported. The first -21 October 1994, three brothers entered the Tammiku repository and stole a radioactive Cs-137 source and received dangerous doses of radiation. The other incident (early 1995) involved an abandoned source - a discarded metal cylinder containing Cs-137. Chronologies and factual data are considered for both events. Concise descriptions of the incidents, a medical overview of the fate of injured people and lessons learned are presented

  4. Direct and indirect contamination of tree crops with Cs-134

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skarlou, V.; Nobeli, C.; Anoussis, J.; Arapis, G.; Haidouti, C.

    1996-01-01

    A long term glasshouse pot experiment was established in 1994 to study the transfer factors of Cs-134 from soil to olive and orange trees for which no relevant data are available. A calcareous-heavy textured and an acid-light textured soil were used in this experiment. Results from two year's experimentation are considered in this study. The ability of the studied plant species for Cs-134 root uptake seems to be significantly influenced by soil type. The contamination of both tree species grown on calcareous and heavy soil was very low and did not change much with the time. On the contrary, trees grown on acid and light soil showed much higher Cs-134 concentration (up to 34 times for orange and 23 for olive trees) which significantly increased with the time. Both olive and orange trees showed a similar behaviour in the studied soils. Effort was also made to study the long term consequences of the direct contamination in a field experiment where an olive tree was contaminated by dry deposition with Cs-134. Six months after contamination 5 % of the Cs-134 deposited on the leaves was measured in the first olive production. However, very small quantities (= 0.5 %) of the olive Cs-134 was detected in the unprocessed olive oil. The following year 15 % of the Cs-134 remained in the leaves while extremely low quantities of Cs-134 were detected in either olives or olive oil. (author)

  5. RADIATION CONTAMINATION INCIDENT AT ISOLDE

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    On 27 June 2000 three specialists were investigating a problem with the extraction electrode of the high-resolution separator (HRS) in Isolde. Whilst using an endoscope in order to have a closer look at the interior, they came into contact with radioactive dust and became contaminated. The level of contamination was low and the radiation dose received by the 3 persons was far below the effective dose limit given in the CERN Radiation Safety Manual and in the regulations of the Host States.According to the usual procedure, the Director General has set up a Fact-Finding Group and an Accident Board in order to advise him on the steps and decisions tobe taken following this incident and in particular to avoid a recurrence.

  6. The 134Cs uptake by sunflower (Helianthus anuus, Less) cultivated on soil contaminated with 134Cs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poppy Intan Tjahaja; Putu Sukmabuana

    2008-01-01

    One of the methods for remediation of contaminated environment is phytoremediation techniques, i.e. the environmental remediation using plants. In this research the bioavailability of sunflower plant (Helianthus anuus, Less) in radiocaesium uptake from soil was studied for being considered as a phytoremediator later. Sunflower plants were cultivated on soil contaminated with 134 Cs with the concentrations of 29,3 kBq/kg ; 117,2 kBq/kg ; 557 kBq/kg for 45 days. As control the sunflowers were also cultivated on non contaminated soil. Observation was carried out every 5 days by sampling 3 plants and soils. The plant and soil samples were dried using infra red lamp for 24 hours, and then counted using gamma spectrometer. The counting results i.e. 134 Cs concentration on soil and plant parts were then analyzed to obtain transfer factor (TF) values. The highest TF values was reached on 26 th day, i.e. 0,87; 1,89 ; 2,82 for initial soil 134 Cs concentrations of 29,3 Bq/g ; 117,2 Bq/g ; 557 Bq/g, respectively. The TF values obtained expressed the capability of plants to accumulate 134 Cs from soils. The observation to the plants growth showed that the plants grew normally on the 134 Cs contaminated soil until the concentration of 557 Bq/g. The sunflower can be considered to be phytoremediator of andosol soil contaminated with Cs radionuclides. (author)

  7. Laser Decontamination of Surfaces Contaminated with Cs+ Ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baigalmaaa, B.; Won, H. J.; Moon, J. K.; Jung, C. H.; Lee, K. W.; Hyun, J. H.

    2008-01-01

    Laser decontamination technology has been proven to be an efficient method for a surface modification of metals and concretes contaminated with radioactive isotopes. Furthermore, the generation of a secondary waste is negligible. The radioactivity of hot cells in the DFDF (Dupic Fuel Development Facility) is presumed to be very high and the predominant radionuclide is Cs-137. A series of laser decontamination studies by a fabricated Q-switched Nd:YAG laser system were performed on stainless steel specimens artificially contaminated with Cs+ ion. Decontamination characteristics of the stainless steel were analyzed by SEM and EPMA

  8. Study of contamination with 137Cs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, A.G. da.

    1987-01-01

    The methodology and results of measurements accomplished (from October 30 to November 2,87) in a victim of an accident in Goiania (Brazil) are presented. Superficial and whole-body contamination using NaI detectors and Si-Au surface screens are studied. (M.A.C.) [pt

  9. Plant remediation of soil contaminated with 137Cs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Juncheng; Zhang Jianfeng; Zhu Yongyi; Chen Jingjie; Mei Yong; Jiang Huimin

    2005-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the bio-remediation of soils contaminated with 137 Cs. The selected plants are Cucurbita moschata Duchesne, Brassica chinensis L, Chloris virgata, Beta oulgaris L. Hongye, Beta oulgaris L. Dongshengye and Beta oulgaris L. The soils samples were taken from the paddy field, 2 km from the Dayawan nuclear power plant and Qinshan nuclear power plant, respectively, and cinnamon soil from the cultivated land in Beijing. The results show that all the employed species of plant have a higher accumulation to 137 Cs with the increased grade of the radioactivity of 137 Cs. A good correlation exist with the coefficient (r 2 ) of 0.9989. When the contaminated radioactivity of 137 Cs is in the same level the uptake of Cucurbita moschata Duchesne, Brassica chinensis L. and Chloris virgata increased with the decrease of pH value ranged 5.22-7.69. The ability of bioremediation in the orders were Chloris virgata, Brassica chinensis L., Beta oulgaris L. Hongye, Cucurbita moschata Duchesne, Beta oulgaris L. and Beta oulgaris L. Dongshengye, according to the comprehensive evaluation of transfer factor, specific activity of plant in dry weight of biomass and total absorption of 137 Cs by the individual plant in the same area. (authors)

  10. Simulation of remediation alternatives for a 137Cs contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bea, S.A.; Carrera, J.; Saaltink, M.; Soler, J.M.; Ayora, C.

    2004-01-01

    We analyze remediation alternatives for a soil contaminated with 137 Cs, which sorbs strongly to clay aggregates where water flux is negligible. The mobile portion of the soil (macropores) retains little water and cesium. Some of the remediation alternatives involve infiltration of seawater enriched with KCl, to promote mobilization of Cs through exchange with K. Therefore, a fully coupled reactive transport model is used to test these alternatives. We conclude that flushing is a viable alternative, provided that some recommendations, derived from the modelling exercise are followed. These include high rate periodic infiltration and draining, as well as performing infiltration from independent cells to limit the effect of preferential flowpaths. (orig.)

  11. Los Alamos racquetball contamination incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAtee, J.L.; Stafford, R.G.; Dowdy, E.J.; Prestwood, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    Several employees of the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility were found to have low levels of radioactivity on their hands and clothing when they arrived for work one morning. The initial concern was that the stringent contamination or material controls at the facility had failed, and that one or more of the employees had either accidentally or intentionally removed plutonium from the Laboratory premises. Fortunately, however, an investigation revealed that the source of the radioactivity was radon daughters electrostatically collected upon the surface of the racquetball and transferred by physical contact to the employees during an early morning racquetball game. This paper describes the events leading to the discovery of this phenomenon. 1 figure

  12. 137Cs contamination of Techa river flood plain in Brodokalmak settlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chesnokov, A.V.; Govorun, A.P.; Liksonov, V.I.; Shcherbak, S.B.; Ivanitskaya, M.V.

    1999-01-01

    137 Cs contamination of the Techa river flood plain inside the Brodokalmak settlement has been mapped. The collimated scintillated detector technique was used for 137 Cs deposit measurements. The 137 Cs contamination is very heterogeneous. A comparison of this technique with the traditional sample method was performed at selected locations. The sampling data are in good agreement with in-situ data. Soil surface activity of 90 Sr was determined from the samples. It was shown that 137 Cs contamination correlates with 90 Sr contamination within the flood plain of the settlement

  13. Radioactive contamination incidents involving protective clothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichelt, R.A.; Clay, M.E.; Eichorst, A.J.

    1998-01-01

    The study focuses on incidents at Department of Energy facilities involving the migration of radioactive contaminants through protective clothing. The authors analyzed 68 occurrence reports for the following factors: (1) type of work, (2) working conditions, (3) type of anti-contamination material; (4) area of body or clothing contaminated; and (5) nature of spread of contamination. A majority of reports identified strenuous work activities such as maintenance, construction, or decontamination and decommissioning projects. The reports also indicated adverse working conditions that included hot and humid or cramped work environments. The type of anti-contamination clothing most often identified was cotton or water-resistant disposable clothing. Most of the reports also indicated contaminants migrating through perspiration-soaked areas, typically in the knees and forearms. On the basis of their survey, the authors recommend the use of improved engineering controls and resilient, breathable, waterproof protective clothing for work in hot, humid, or damp areas where the possibility of prolonged contact with contamination cannot be easily avoided or controlled. 1 ref., 6 figs., 1 tab

  14. Radioactive contamination incidents involving protective clothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichelt, R.; Clay, M.; Eichorst, J.

    1996-10-01

    The study focuses on incidents at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities involving the migration of radioactive contaminants through protective clothing. The authors analyzed 68 occurrence reports for the following factors: (1) type of work; (2) working conditions; (3) type of anti-contamination (anti-C) material; (4) area of body or clothing contaminated; and (5) nature of spread of contamination. A majority of reports identified strenuous work activities such as maintenance, construction, or decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) projects. The reports also indicated adverse working conditions that included hot and humid or cramped work environments. The type of anti-C clothing most often identified was cotton or water-resistant, disposable clothing. Most of the reports also indicated contaminants migrating through perspiration-soaked areas, typically in the knees and forearms. On the basis of their survey, the authors recommend the use of improved engineering controls and resilient, breathable, waterproof protective clothing for work in hot, humid, or damp areas where the possibility of prolonged contact with contamination cannot be easily avoided or controlled

  15. Radioactive contamination incidents involving protective clothing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichelt, R.; Clay, M.; Eichorst, J.

    1996-10-01

    The study focuses on incidents at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities involving the migration of radioactive contaminants through protective clothing. The authors analyzed 68 occurrence reports for the following factors: (1) type of work; (2) working conditions; (3) type of anti-contamination (anti-C) material; (4) area of body or clothing contaminated; and (5) nature of spread of contamination. A majority of reports identified strenuous work activities such as maintenance, construction, or decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) projects. The reports also indicated adverse working conditions that included hot and humid or cramped work environments. The type of anti-C clothing most often identified was cotton or water-resistant, disposable clothing. Most of the reports also indicated contaminants migrating through perspiration-soaked areas, typically in the knees and forearms. On the basis of their survey, the authors recommend the use of improved engineering controls and resilient, breathable, waterproof protective clothing for work in hot, humid, or damp areas where the possibility of prolonged contact with contamination cannot be easily avoided or controlled.

  16. Cancer incidence in Italian contaminated sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Comba

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. The incidence of cancer among residents in sites contaminated by pollutants with a possible health impact is not adequately studied. In Italy, SENTIERI Project (Epidemiological study of residents in National Priority Contaminated Sites, NPCSs was implemented to study major health outcomes for residents in 44 NPCSs. METHODS. The Italian Association of Cancer Registries (AIRTUM records cancer incidence in 23 NPCSs. For each NPCSs, the incidence of all malignant cancers combined and 35 cancer sites (coded according to ICD-10, was analysed (1996-2005. The observed cases were compared to the expected based on age (5-year period,18 classes, gender, calendar period (1996-2000; 2001-2005, geographical area (North-Centre and Centre-South and cancer sites specific rates. Standardized Incidence Ratios (SIR with 90% Confidence Intervals were computed. RESULTS. In both genders an excess was observed for overall cancer incidence (9% in men and 7% in women as well as for specific cancer sites (colon and rectum, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, lung, skin melanoma, bladder and Non Hodgkin lymphoma. Deficits were observed for gastric cancer in both genders, chronic lymphoid leukemia (men, malignant thyroid neoplasms, corpus uteri and connective and soft-tissue tumours and sarcomas (women. DISCUSSION. This report is, to our knowledge, the first one on cancer risk of residents in NPCSs. The study, although not aiming to estimate the cancer burden attributable to the environment as compared to occupation or life-style, supports the credibility of an etiologic role of environmental exposures in contaminated sites. Ongoing analyses focus on the interpretation of risk factors for excesses of specific cancer types overall and in specific NPCSs in relation to the presence of carcinogenic pollutants.

  17. Desorption of Cs+ ions with fast incident atomic and molecular ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salehpour, M.; Hunt, J.E.; Tou, L.C.; Hedin, A.; Sundqvist, B.

    1988-01-01

    Preliminary results on desorption yield measurements of secondary Cs + ions, desorbed as a result of the impact of C + , O + , CO + , O 2 + , CO 2 + and C 4 H 9 + incident ions, in the energy range of 950 keV--3.5 MeV are presented. Molecular beams are found to give high yields of secondary Cs + as a result of impact of O 2 + compared to O + incident ions, indicate no ''collective'' molecular effects. 23 refs., 1 fig

  18. Translocation, accumulation and distribution of 137Cs in spring wheat after foliage contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Zhongxue; Xu Shiming; Zhao Wenhu; Hou Lanxin; Li Xia

    1995-05-01

    The foliage absorption of 137 Cs by spring wheat and the accumulation and distribution of 137 Cs in non-contaminated parts of the plant were studied. The results showed that there was a linear relationship between the content of 137 Cs and the amount of the contamination in each part of the plant. The distribution of 137 Cs in each part of the plant was related with the phyllotaxis of the contaminated leaf, but the majority of 137 Cs in the ear was distributed in the husk. The accumulation of 137 Cs in non-contaminated leaves gradually decrease with the increasing of the relative phyllotaxy distance between non-contaminated leaves and the contaminated leaf. The order of the specific activity of 137 Cs is the leaf>the stem>the ear in the tillering. The translocation rate of 137 Cs to seeds is in direct proportion to physiological metabolic activity of the treated leaf and is also related to its phyllotaxis. (11 tabs., 4 figs.)

  19. Internal contamination assessment, with regard to 90Sr, 134Cs, and 137Cs nuclei during nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayad, M.; Hanna, K.M.

    2000-01-01

    In case of nuclear reactor accident leading to the release of some radioactive isotopes in the plume, the sedimentation of its constituents on the ground causes surface contamination which consequently can be observed in the form of an internal contamination in the living biosphere. The migration of the radio nuclei from the soil to the plant root, stem, and the other edible parts is considered the main source for the contaminated foodstuffs used by the general public. In this work we have calculated the total accumulative internal dose for 9 0Sr, 1 34Cs, and 1 37Cs radio contaminants with regard to different public age groups (infant, child, and adult) due to an unexpected nuclear accident. In our calculations we have applied the protective measure inequality for the chosen standard group of foodstuffs, with respect to each age group of the public as well as the three indicated above radio nuclei. Our results indicated that the values of the calculated protective measures with regard to 9 0Sr, 1 37Cs, and 1 34Cs radio nuclei are increasing respectively for all age groups. In addition, we found that the ratio of the total protection measure values of all radio nuclei for different age groups still less than one which requires no intervention level procedures

  20. Radioactive contamination of food in Slovenia after Chernobyl incident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milohnoja, M [Veterinary College, Ljubljana (Yugoslavia)

    1986-07-01

    This review of the situation and of measures on veterinary inspection is confined to Slovenia (the most northern republic of SFR Yugoslavia). First analysis of grass and rain-water made on 30 April 1986 showed that Slovenian agricultural superficies are contaminated with J-131 and Cs-137. A program of monitoring grass, rain-water, milk, meat of slaughter animals and game, fish, eggs and other food (vegetables) was made. The degree of contamination of milk with J-131 was very high in the first 10 days of month May, then rapidly lowered. All dairy cattle kept indoors, fed with old feeding stuff and watered with drinking water had milk with less than 60 Bq/l J-131. After 10 May the degree of contamination of milk with Cs-137 and Cs-134 began slowly to increase, but in June to decrease, so that most of the examined samples had less than 100 Bq/l Cs-137 and Cs-134. All milk (from the areas) with more than 200 Bq/l J-131 was sent to milk powder factory or to cheese-dairies. Analyses (made in July and August) of this milk powder showed that J-131 has almost 'disappeared', the content of Cs-137 and Cs-134 varied from 504 to 1150 Bq/l (i.e. 63 to 144 Bq/l in reconstituted milk); in cheese the content of Cs-137 and Cs-134 was lower than 100 Bq/kg.

  1. Radioactive contamination of food in Slovenia after Chernobyl incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milohnoja, M.

    1986-01-01

    This review of the situation and of measures on veterinary inspection is confined to Slovenia (the most northern republic of SFR Yugoslavia). First analysis of grass and rain-water made on 30 April 1986 showed that Slovenian agricultural superficies are contaminated with J-131 and Cs-137. A program of monitoring grass, rain-water, milk, meat of slaughter animals and game, fish, eggs and other food (vegetables) was made. The degree of contamination of milk with J-131 was very high in the first 10 days of month May, then rapidly lowered. All dairy cattle kept indoors, fed with old feeding stuff and watered with drinking water had milk with less than 60 Bq/l J-131. After 10 May the degree of contamination of milk with Cs-137 and Cs-134 began slowly to increase, but in June to decrease, so that most of the examined samples had less than 100 Bq/l Cs-137 and Cs-134. All milk (from the areas) with more than 200 Bq/l J-131 was sent to milk powder factory or to cheese-dairies. Analyses (made in July and August) of this milk powder showed that J-131 has almost 'disappeared', the content of Cs-137 and Cs-134 varied from 504 to 1150 Bq/l (i.e. 63 to 144 Bq/l in reconstituted milk); in cheese the content of Cs-137 and Cs-134 was lower than 100 Bq/kg

  2. Dynamic modelling of Cs-137 contamination in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oehlenschlaeger, M.

    1989-01-01

    The paper describes the structure of a dynamic food-chain transport model for Cs-137 in the Danish terrestrial environment. The model solves a set of linear, coupled differential equations in order to estimate the inventories and concentrations of Cs-137 in the soil, vegetation, animal tissue and animal product as a function of time based on the Cs-137 concentrations in the air after an accidental release. Meteorological conditions and seasonal variations in agricultural practice are included. (orig.)

  3. Measurements of Cs 137 and Cs 134 internal contamination during 1987 by the Bologna Enea PAS whole body counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melandri, C.; Castellani, C.M.; Torroni, G.; Formignani, M.

    1988-01-01

    Internal contamination data obtained during 1987 at the ENEA PAS-FIBI- AEROSOL Laboratory in Bologna, following the accident at the nuclear reactor in Chernobyl, are presented. The data are referred to person living in the Bologna area, in other Italian regions and to individuals returned from abroad, mainly from Eastern Europe countries. Trend of Cs-137 and Cs-134 internal body burden in adult men resident in Bologna are given together with values of mean daily intake by ingestion and evaluation of the commited dose equivalents up to decembre 1987. Measurement campaigns, specifically projected in order to evaluate the men/women activity differences and the distribution of the internal contamination in various Italian regions, have been performed

  4. The spread of 137Cs by resuspension of contaminated soil in the urban area of Goiania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pires do Rio, M.A.; Amaral, E.C.S.; Paretzke, H.G.

    2000-01-01

    Measurements regarding the population exposure were performed in Goiania after the radiological accident as well as studies on resuspension and redeposition of 137 Cs in urban areas, on the contribution of soil splash to the 137 Cs uptake by leafy vegetables and on the transfer of 137 Cs from soil to chicken meat and eggs. Periodical street dust sampling was used to follow-up the spreading of the radionuclide in the city. The results do not indicate a measurable spreading of this radionuclide throughout the city from the contaminated areas, but resuspension can lead to significant local contamination of agricultural products, equipment, structures, etc. (author)

  5. Uptake of radiocesium by three plants grown in 134Cs contaminated soil under pot experiment condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Jiemin; Li Hongyan; Niu Tianxin; Chen Ziyuan; Tang Shirong

    2009-01-01

    Pot experiment was conducted to investigate the accumulation dynamics of 134 Cs in shoots of Rumex acetosa, Rumex hastatus and Helianthus annuus grown in 134 Cs contaminated soil under greenhouse condition. Results showed that shoot biomass of H. annuus was significantly higher than that of R. acetosa and R. hastatus; among 3 plant species, 13 '4Cs specific activity in shoots was the highest in H. annuus after treatment for 50 days, however after treatment for 70 days, that in R. acetosa was the highest. Bioaccumulation ratio reached 1.5, 1.4 and 1.3 in R. acetosa, R. hastatus and H. annuus at the end of experiment, respectively, and the former two plants kept with trend of continuously increasing during the experiment period. Three plants were tolerant to 134 Cs contaminated slil and capable to translocate 134 Cs from soil to plants. Among them, H. annuus removed greatest 134 Cs amount in the above ground part, and R. acetosa, R. hastatus showed higher tranclocation factor of Cs than H. annuus. Three plants are promising for phytoremediation of soil contaminated with radiocesium, and also could be used for phytoremediation of radiocesium and heavy metals complex contamination, potentially. (authors)

  6. Auburn Steel Company radioactive contamination incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, F.J.; Cabasino, L.; Kelly, R.; Awai, A.; Kasyk, G.

    1986-04-01

    On February 21, 1983, workers at the Auburn Steel Company, Auburn, New York discovered that about 120 tons of steel poured that day had become contaminated with 60 Co. In addition to the steel, the air cleaning system and portions of the mill used in casting the steel were contaminated. Approximately 25 curies of 60 Co were involved. Decontamination and disposal of the contamination cost in excess of $2,200,000. This report details the discovery of the contamination, decontamination of the plant and disposal of the contamination

  7. sup 137 Cs and sup 134 Cs human internal contamination in Italy following the 1986 Chernobyl event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarroni, G.; Melandri, C.; Battisti, P.; Castellani, C.M.; Formignani, M. (ENEA, Bologna (Italy)); Rampa, E. (ENEA, Rome (Italy))

    1990-01-01

    A synthesis of the data concerning the distribution and behaviour over time until September 1989 of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs human contamination derived from the accident to Unit 4 of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station on 26 April 1986, is presented. The controls have been performed by means of two intercalibrated whole-body counters on healthy adult male and female volunteers living in different Italian regions. The main topics investigated are: the behaviour over time of the contamination in Bologna and Rome; geographic distribution in Italy in September 1987; the statistical distribution of data; the variability of the individual activity in relation to the mean activity of homogeneous groups; the intersex differences; and the effect of the element's biokinetic uncertainties on the committed effective dose equivalent evaluation. Trends are also found, mainly useful where extended contamination involves too large a fraction of the population for individual control of all the subjects concerned, thus requiring the identification of small groups of individuals representative of large population groups. (author).

  8. AFCF and clinoptilolite use in reduction of 137Cs deposition in several days' contaminated broiler chicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitrovic, B.; Vitorovic, G.; Vitorovic, D.; Dakovic, A.; Stojanovic, M.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the binding efficiency of AFCF and clinoptilolite, mixed to the feed and administered orally using gastric tube to chronically 137 Cs alimentary contaminated broiler chicks. Seventy-five male Hybro broiler chicks, between 35 and 47 days of age were divided into five groups (15 birds per group) reared in cages (five birds in a cage) and fed a standard diet. Every day during 13 days of the experimental period all chicks received orally 1 ml CsCl water solution with activity of 1310 Bq ml -1 137 Cs (gastric tube). Group 1 was the control group and received no binders. The experimental groups received the binders. Group 2 received 0.2 g of AFCF in the form of water solution (gastric tube); group 3 received 0.2% AFCF in the feed; group 4 received 2 g clinoptilolite in the form of water suspension (gastric tube) and group 5 received 2% clinoptilolite in the feed. Five chicks from each group were sacrificed on days 4, 10 and 13 of the experimental period. Using gamma spectrometric methods specific activity of 137 Cs was determined in the samples of breast meat, liver and gizzard. The results obtained showed that administering binders to the chronically contaminated broiler chicks significantly (p 137 Cs transfer and deposition in breast meat, liver and gizzard. Decreasing deposition of 137 Cs in breast meat and internal organs increased with time of contamination and binders' administration. With AFCF as a cesium binder, on day 13 of measuring the 137 Cs activity in breast meat was 80-83% lower than that in the control group, 89% in liver and 83-84% in gizzard. Natural clinoptilolite demonstrated lower binding efficiency. On day 13 of measuring the 137 Cs activity in breast meat was 53-69% lower than that in the control group, 67-60% in liver and 59-71% in gizzard

  9. Measuring techniques for the characterisation of 137Cs contaminated river banks, Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavik, O.; Moravek, J.

    2000-01-01

    In 1990, 137 Cs contaminated areas were discovered along 19 km of the banks of the rivers receiving discharged waste waters from the Bohunice NPP. The contamination was the result of uncontrolled releases of drainage water from the radioactive waste treatment unit and two accidents on the CO 2 cooled and heavy water moderated NPP-A1 unit in 1976 and 1977. In total, more than 67.000 m 2 of bank surfaces (the lower and middle parts of their slopes) have been found to be contaminated with 137 Cs at levels exceeding 1 kBq/kg of soil. This paper describes the planning for restoration of these river banks with emphasis on site characterization techniques used for these purposes. The general strategy and application of monitoring techniques for the purposes of characterisation of contaminated river banks is the main topic of the work performed in the context of the IAEA CRP on 'Site Characterisation Techniques for Environmental Restoration'. First results in developing new and more sophisticated measuring techniques, needed for the characterization of discontinuous and spot-contamination found on parts of the banks are given. The technique described is based on a dose rate measurement approach, using ratio of two detector readings at two different distances above ground and Monte-Carlo simulations of the plastic scintillation detector responses. The method will also be useful, for the final, post-remediation survey of residual spots of 137 Cs contamination. (author)

  10. Residual contamination from Cs-137 in the Sondrio area (Lombardy - Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimoldi, E.M.; Leonardi, L.; Cavallone, E.; Bignazzi, R.; Galimberti, A.

    2000-01-01

    The authors conducted the investigations on the contamination by Cs-137, resulting from Chernobyl's Accident, in the Sondrio area (Lombardy, Italy). Analyses were performed with NaI (T1) spectrometer. 130 samples collected from superficial earth layer (up to 15 cm) and deep earth layer (from 15 to 30 cm) of woods and meadows, pond's mud, mosses, mushrooms, wild wood fruits, forages, striated muscle from deer, chamois and roe deer, goat's and cow's milk, and running and stagnant water, were studied. Superficial earth samples always showed a higher Cs-137 concentration compared to deep earth samples, their mean activities being 68 Bq/kg (sup. wood) and 18 Bq/kg (sup. meadow). In 1 sample from superficial wood earth in Val Belsivo, the concentration was 1109 Bq/kg. The mud samples had a mean Cs-137 concentration of 96 Bq/kg. Cs-137 was always present in mosses with a mean activity of 234 Bq/kg, whereas in mushrooms contamination was continuous (mean, 63 Bq/kg). Cs-137 was absent in wild wood fruits and in forages except for one sample of bilberry (12 Bq/Kg) and one sample of forage (54 Bq/Kg). In the striated muscle samples from wild animals, chamois always showed high Cs-137 concentration (29 Bq/kg), but was intermediate in roe deer (18 Bq/kg) and lowest in deer (5 Bq/kg). In 4 deer and 4 roe deer, contamination was undetectable. Running and stagnant waters, and cow's milk were not contaminated whereas some Cs-137 activities were detected in goat milk samples (18 Bq/kg). It is concluded that residual contamination from Chernobyl's accident in the investigated areas has by now just become a scientific interest and no longer a sanitary issue, as the contamination levels detected in all the samples are clearly below the maximal admissible levels established by the European Gazettes. However, it is interesting to note that the recycling of Cs-137 is more present in wood, confirming the delicate environmental balance of this ecosystem. The routine radio

  11. AFCF and clinoptilolite use in reduction of (137)Cs deposition in several days' contaminated broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrovic, B; Vitorovic, G; Vitorovic, D; Dakovic, A; Stojanovic, M

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the binding efficiency of AFCF and clinoptilolite, mixed to the feed and administered orally using gastric tube to chronically (137)Cs alimentary contaminated broiler chicks. Seventy-five male Hybro broiler chicks, between 35 and 47 days of age were divided into five groups (15 birds per group) reared in cages (five birds in a cage) and fed a standard diet. Every day during 13 days of the experimental period all chicks received orally 1 ml CsCl water solution with activity of 1310 Bq ml(-1)(137)Cs (gastric tube). Group 1 was the control group and received no binders. The experimental groups received the binders. Group 2 received 0.2 g of AFCF in the form of water solution (gastric tube); group 3 received 0.2% AFCF in the feed; group 4 received 2g clinoptilolite in the form of water suspension (gastric tube) and group 5 received 2% clinoptilolite in the feed. Five chicks from each group were sacrificed on days 4, 10 and 13 of the experimental period. Using gamma spectrometric methods specific activity of (137)Cs was determined in the samples of breast meat, liver and gizzard. The results obtained showed that administering binders to the chronically contaminated broiler chicks significantly (pmeat, liver and gizzard. Decreasing deposition of (137)Cs in breast meat and internal organs increased with time of contamination and binders' administration. With AFCF as a cesium binder, on day 13 of measuring the (137)Cs activity in breast meat was 80-83% lower than that in the control group, 89% in liver and 83-84% in gizzard. Natural clinoptilolite demonstrated lower binding efficiency. On day 13 of measuring the (137)Cs activity in breast meat was 53-69% lower than that in the control group, 67-60% in liver and 59-71% in gizzard.

  12. Assessment of the mobility and bioavailability of 60 Co and 137 Cs in contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasserman, Maria Angelica; Bartoly, Flavia; Poquet, Isabel; Perez, Daniel V.

    2001-01-01

    Results of a classical sequential chemical extraction procedure for 137 Cs in an acid Oxisol showed that after 3 years of contamination radiocesium remains potentially available for transfer processes: 40% bio-available, 20% mobile under oxidizing conditions and 40% bound to Fe and Mn oxides (available under reducing conditions). At this time, the transfer factor obtained in this soil was higher than values obtained in basic Oxisol and was higher than values obtained in soils from temperate climate areas. Seven years after the contamination, the 137 Cs distribution in this acid Oxisol have been changed as consequence of changes in soil properties: 8% bioavailable, 16% mobile under oxidizing conditions, 43% bound to Fe and Mn oxides and 33% strongly bound to soil compounds. Changes in the 137 Cs distribution in this soil were followed by reductions in soil to plant transfer factor. Between 1996 and 2000, the 137 Cs distribution, 137 Cs soil to plant transfer factor and soil properties in the basic Oxisol remained almost the same. The 60 Co distribution showed that Mn oxides is the main sink for this element and four years after contamination no 60 Co was detected as bioavailable or detectable in plants. In this study the use of an alternative sequential chemical extraction protocol to evaluate 60 Co and 137 Cs mobility under a large range of physico-chemical soil properties has shown to be very consistent with soil to plant transfer factors data for maize. The knowledge of bio-geochemical behavior of radionuclides in soil system can be used for the risk assessment in the case of nuclear accident or contamination scenarios. (author)

  13. Current state 137Cs contamination of cow milk in the northern regions of Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levchuk, S.Je.; Lazarjev, M.M.; Pavlyuchenko, V.V.

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of the results of the selective monitoring of 137 Cs in cow milk in settlements, where values of the milk contamination have not met requirements of the permissible levels since the Chernobyl accident, was performed. Monitoring network, which was created at the institute, is covering the most critical settlements of Zhytomyr, Rivne and Volyn regions. The article presents data on radionuclide contamination of cow milk for the last 5 years (2011 - 2015), while observations are carried out since the 90th of the last century. Long - term data show that the current dynamics of contamination of cow milk in these settlements is comparable to the decrease of 137 Cs activity due to its physical decay

  14. Effects of low molecular weight organic acids on 137Cs release from contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang, Po Neng; Wang, Ming Kuang; Huang, Pan Ming; Wang, Jeng Jong

    2011-01-01

    Radio pollutant removal is one of several priority restoration strategies for the environment. This study assessed the effect of low molecular weight organic acid on the lability and mechanisms for release of 137 Cs from contaminated soils. The amount of 137 Cs radioactivity released from contaminated soils reacting with 0.02 M low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) specifically acetic, succinic, oxalic, tartaric, and citric acid over 48 h were 265, 370, 760, 850, and 1002 Bq kg -1 , respectively. The kinetic results indicate that 137 Cs exhibits a two-step parabolic diffusion equation and a good linear relationship, indicating that the parabolic diffusion equation describes the data quite well, as shown by low p and high r 2 values. The fast stage, which was found to occur within a short period of time (0.083-3 h), corresponds to the interaction of LMWOAs with the surface of clay minerals; meanwhile, during the slow stage, which occurs over a much longer time period (3-24 h), desorption primarily is attributed to inter-particle or intra-particle diffusion. After a fifth renewal of the LMWOAs, the total levels of 137 Cs radioactivity released by acetic, succinic, oxalic, tartaric, and citric acid were equivalent to 390, 520, 3949, 2061, and 4422 Bq kg -1 soil, respectively. H + can protonate the hydroxyl groups and oxygen atoms at the broken edges or surfaces of the minerals, thereby weakening Fe-O and Al-O bonds. After protonation of H + , organic ligands can attack the OH and OH 2 groups in the minerals easily, to form complexes with surface structure cations, such as Al and Fe. The amounts of 137 Cs released from contaminated soil treated with LMWOAs were substantially increased, indicating that the LMWOAs excreted by the roots of plants play a critical role in 137 Cs release.

  15. 137Cs contamination in tea and yerba mate in South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Gregorio, D.E.; Huck, H.; Aristegui, R.; De Lazzari, G.; Jech, A.

    2004-01-01

    Gamma-ray spectra from more than 50 samples of food products available in stores of Buenos Aires city were measured using a germanium detector. Activity concentrations of 137 Cs up to 10 Bq/kg were found in tea and yerba mate manufactured in Apostoles, Argentina. Further measurements of tea leaves, yerba mate leaves and soils, all coming from a cultivated area in that region, also show the presence of 137 Cs contamination. The results suggest that the area was fertilized with a product that originated in a region affected by the fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear plant accident

  16. 134Cs and 137Cs whole-body measurements and internal dosimetry of the population living in areas contaminated by radioactivity after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zvonova, I.A.; Jesko, T.V.; Balonov, M.I.; Danilova, I.O.; Wallstroem, E.; Alpsten, M.; Thornberg, C.; Mattsson, S.

    1995-01-01

    Six western districts of the Bryansk region, Russia, were heavily contaminated with radioactive fallout after the Chernobyl NPP accident. Annually, between 1991 and 1994, inhabitants of four settlements were studied. Whole-body 134+137 Cs contents were measured in about 500 inhabitants. No correlation between Cs whole-body content and Cs soil contamination was found; Cs accumulation in a body depends greatly on natural factors such as type of soil, on social factors such as food habits including consumption of forest products, and on countermeasures to reduce internal exposure. During 1991-1994 average whole-body content of 134+137 Cs in adult inhabitants was about 3-60 kBq, corresponding to an effective dose of 0.1-2.4 mSv.y -1 . Cs whole-body content increases equally for girls and boys up to adult age. Cs content in adults does not depend significantly on age and is usually 1.2-2 times higher in men than in women. The average annual internal effective dose varies with age significantly less than 134+137 Cs whole-body content. In children (0-5 years) the mean absorbed dose is usually 1.2-1.5 times less than in adults. (author)

  17. Radioactive Cs in the Severely Contaminated Soils Near the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneko, Makoto; Iwata, Hajime; Shiotsu, Hiroyuki; Masaki, Shota; Kawamoto, Yuji; Yamasaki, Shinya; Nakamatsu, Yuki; Imoto, Junpei; Furuki, Genki; Ochiai, Asumi [Department of Chemistry, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Nanba, Kenji [Department of Environmental Management, Faculty of Symbiotic System Science, Fukushima University, Fukushima (Japan); Ohnuki, Toshihiko [Advanced Science Research Center Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai (Japan); Ewing, Rodney C. [Department of Geological Sciences, Center for International Security and Cooperation, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Utsunomiya, Satoshi, E-mail: utsunomiya.satoshi.998@m.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2015-09-01

    Radioactive Cs isotopes ({sup 137}Cs, t{sub 1/2} = 30.07 years and {sup 134}Cs, t{sub 1/2} = 2.062 years) occur in severely contaminated soils within a few kilometer of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant at concentrations that range from 4 × 10{sup 5} to 5 × 10{sup 7} Bq/kg. In order to understand the mobility of Cs in these soils, both bulk and submicron-sized particles elutriated from four surface soils have been investigated using a variety of analytical techniques, including powder X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and analysis of the amount of radioactivity in sequential chemical extractions. Major minerals in bulk soil samples were quartz, feldspar, and minor clays. The submicron-sized particles elutriated from the same soil consist mainly of mica, vermiculite, and smectite and occasional gibbsite. Autoradiography in conjunction with SEM analysis confirmed the association of radioactive Cs mainly with the submicron-sized particles. Up to ~3 MBq/kg of {sup 137}Cs are associated with the colloidal size fraction (<1 μm), which accounts for ~78% of the total radioactivity. Sequential extraction of the bulk sample revealed that most Cs was retained in the residual fraction, confirming the high binding affinity of Cs to clays, aluminosilicate sheet structures. The chemistry of the fraction containing submicron-sized particles from the same bulk sample showed a similar distribution to that of the bulk sample, again confirming that the Cs is predominantly adsorbed onto submicron-sized sheet aluminosilicates, even in the bulk soil samples. Despite the very small particle size, aggregation of the particles prevents migration in the vertical direction, resulting in the retention of >98% of Cs within top ~5 cm of the soil. These results suggest that the mobility of the aggregates of submicron-sized sheet aluminosilicate in the surface environment is a key factor controlling the current Cs

  18. Ecological half-life of 137Cs in plants associated with a contaminated stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peles, John D.; Smith, Michael H.; Lehr Brisbin, I.

    2002-01-01

    Ecological half-life (T e ) is a useful measure for studying the long-term decline of contaminants, such as radionuclides, in natural systems. The current investigation determined levels of radiocesium ( 137 Cs) in two aquatic (Polygonum punctatum, Sagittaria latifolia) and three terrestrial (Alnus serrulata, Myrica cerifera, Salix nigra) plant species from a contaminated stream and floodplain on the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site. Current 137 Cs levels in plants were used in conjunction with historical data to determine T e of 137 Cs in each species. Median concentrations of 137 Cs were highest in S. latifolia (0.84 Bq g -1 ) and lowest in M. cerifera (0.10 Bq g -1 ). T e 's ranged from 4.85 yr in M. cerifera to 8.35 yr in S. nigra, both terrestrial species. T e 's for all aquatic (6.30 yr) and all terrestrial (5.87) species combined were very similar. The T e 's of the two aquatic primary producers (P. punctatum and S. latifolia) in the Steel Creek ecosystem were somewhat longer than T e values previously reported for some consumers from this ecosystem

  19. Comparison the efficiency of AFCF and clinoptilolit obtained through single Cs 137 contamination of pheasants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicentijevic, M.; Mitrovic, R.; Vitorovic, G.

    2009-01-01

    In practice are show effect of comparison efficiency AFCF and clinoptilolite obtained trough single 137 Cs contamination of pheasants. As experimental animals we used pheasants from the species pheasant colchicus. The total number of 2 months old pheasants, was 20. The pheasants were divided into 4 groups with 5 birds each. Every animal was simultaneously given water solution of 137 Cs (750 Bq) and radioprotector AFCF and clinoptilolite in water solution and mixed in pheasant food in the form of pellet. The level of contamination was determined by gamma - spectrometry in light meat, dark meat, liver and gizzard. The results show that the best protection effect was obtained by using AFCF than use radioprotector clinoptilolite. (author) [sr

  20. Analysis of the direct contamination pathway of 85Sr, 103Ru and 134Cs in soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yim, K. M.; Park, D. W.; Park, H. K.; Choi, Y. H.; Choi, S. D.; Lee, C. M.

    2001-01-01

    A solution containing 85 Sr, 103 Cs was sprayed to the aerial part of the soybean plant in a greenhouse at 6 different times before harvest and the direct contamination pathway of the radionuclide analyzed. Plant interception factor showed little difference among radionuclides. The maximum value was 0.93, which was observed at the middle growth stage. Translocation factors 85 Sr, 103 Cs in the soybean seed at harvest were in the range of 4.5x10 -5 ∼2.5x10 -3 , 6.0x10 -5 ∼2.3x10 -4 and 4.5x10 -3 ∼3.0x10 -1 , respectively. They were highest at the 3rd application for 85 Sr and 134 Cs and at the 2nd application for 103 Ru. Translocation factors of 85 Sr and 103 Ru in the soybean shell tended to increase with decreasing time interval between application and harvest but that of 134 Cs was highest at the 2nd application. The fractions of the initial deposition that remained in the soybeam plant at harvest were in the range of 0.14 ∼15.2% for 85 Sr and 103 Ru, 9.9∼41.9% for 134 Cs. These results can be utilized for predicting the radionuclide concentration in mature soybean plant and deciding counter-measures when an accidental deposition of the radionuclides occurs during the growing season of soybean

  1. 137Cs contamination of the Techa river flood plain near the village of Muslumovo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chesnokov, A.V.; Govorun, A.P.; Linnik, V.G.; Shcherbak, S.B.

    2000-01-01

    The results of a radiometric survey of the Techa river flood plain near the village of Muslumovo in the Chelyabinsk region of Russia are presented. The observed territory extended 16.6 km along the riverbed, with a total area of 2.5 km 2 . The collimated scintillation detector technique was applied to in situ field measurements of 137 Cs deposition on the soil. Maps of 137 Cs deposition and soil penetration depth were developed on the basis of approximately 5000 measurements. The total 137 Cs deposition within the surveyed territory has been estimated at 6.6 TBq. The means of the total 137 Cs soil depositions at half-kilometer sites on the flood plain and its distribution along the river have also been calculated. A maximum 137 Cs contamination above 7.5 MBq/m 2 is associated with a bank height up to 1 m above the usual water level. The data identify zones of intensive radionuclide sedimentation and transit zones

  2. Decontamination of Soils Contaminated with Co and Cs by Using an Acid Leaching Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung-Joon, Lee; Gye-Nam, Kim; Jei-Kwon, Moon; Kune-Woo, Lee

    2009-01-01

    Acid leaching process has been adapted for the remediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals and radionuclides. This method has been reported to be simple, and economically promising. Moreover it can be applicable for on-site and off-site remediations as well. Investigations were conducted on an acid leaching process using surrogate contaminated soils. Size sieving, agglomeration and column leaching were carried out with soils artificially contaminated with Co and Cs, respectively. Size distribution was analyzed for a determination of the particle size required to be agglomerated. Because of the low water permeability of the soils due to their fine particles, they were sieved by using a sieve with a 0.075 mm size (No. 200 mesh) for an agglomeration. The soils with a size smaller than 0.075 mm were agglomerated by using 2 % sodium silicate (Na 2 SiO 3 ), while the soils with a size larger than 0.075 mm were used directly for the column leaching test. From the preliminary test (the batch scale leaching test), 0.1 M of HCl was determined as the effective leaching agent for Co and Cs. Finally, the soils mixed with the coarse soil and the agglomerated soil were decontaminated with 0.1 M HCl within 11.3 days and the removal efficiencies of Co and Cs were 94.0 % and 82.8 %, respectively. In conclusion, an acid leaching process could be applied for a remediation of soils contaminated with radionuclides such as Co and Cs. (authors)

  3. 134Cs foliar contamination of vine: translocation to grapes and transfer to wine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carini, F.; Anguissola Scotti, I.; Montruccoli, M.; Silva, S.

    1996-01-01

    Grape vines growing in pots placed in open field were contaminated by sprinkling an aqueous solution of carrier free 134 Cs. Activity was determined in acini and must at the ripening stage. Interception and Translocation Factors (TLF) were quantified. They strictly depend on the state of growth of the crop. Wine was produced by a laboratory process and analysed as to radiocesium. Transfer parameters, F r and P e , were calculated to predict radiocesium concentration in wine: it is 0.6 times the activity found in grapes. The leaf fruit translocation seems to be the dominant process in the contamination of acini when compared to direct deposition. (author)

  4. Bioaccumulation of 137Cs by microorganisms isolated from soils contaminated with radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pipiska, M.; Hornik, M.; Augustin, J.

    2003-01-01

    With the aim to evaluate the possibility of utilisation of autochtone population of soil organisms, alone or with participation of higher plants, in the processes of bioremediation the authors quantitatively determined a number of psychrophyllic and mezophyllic germs in the soils contaminated by low-level activities of Cs-137 (0.08 - 2.8 kBq/g). Hereafter they gained isolates of clean cultures of mushrooms and actinomycetes and they determined their bioacumulative activity of Cs-137 at growing conditions. The authors found out, that a number of reproductionable psychrophyllic and mezophyllic germs are significantly lower in the soils with the highest contamination by radionuclides than in the soils with low contamination. They gained the clean cultures of 5 isolates of micromycetes and 3 isolates of actinomycetes from contaminated soil. The micromycetes demonstrated the highest values of bioaccumulation of caesium 39 nmol/g of wet biomass at the growing conditions. In actionoomycetes these values were 4.7 nmol/g (approximately in one order lower). The significant part of cesium accumulated by cell matter at growing conditions were localised in cell matter and it could not be removed by washing with 0.9 percent of NaCl solution. The determined values of bioconcentration factor BCF recalculated on dry weight of biomass were in the range from 16.04 to 26.20 in micromycetes and 3.24 in actinomycetes. From this situation arise, that autochtone population of soil micromycetes and actionomycetes, which is found in contaminated soil, can relevantly participate in the processes of binding of biologically accessible forms of Cs-137 after a creation of suitable conditions for grow. (author)

  5. CsI(Tl) with photodiodes for identifying subsurface radionuclide contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stromswold, D.C.; Meisner, J.E.; Nicaise, W.F.

    1994-10-01

    At the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, underground radioactive contamination exists as the result of leaks, spills, and intentional disposal of waste products from plutonium-production operations. Characterizing these contaminants in preparation for environmental remediation is a major effort now in progress. In this paper, a cylindrical (15 x 61 mm) CsI(Tl) scintillation detector with two side-mounted photodiodes has been developed to collect spectral gamma-ray data in subsurface contaminated formations at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. It operates inside small-diameter, thick-wall steel pipes pushed into the ground to depths up to 20 m by a cone penetrometer. The detector provides a rugged, efficient, magnetic-field-insensitive means for identifying gamma-ray-emitting contaminants (mainly 137 Cs and 60 Co). Mounting two 3 x 30-mm photodiodes end-to-end on a flat area along the detector's side provides efficient light collection over the length of the detector

  6. Transfer of Cs137 and Sr90 from contaminated soil to some crops in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yassine, T.; Al-Oudat, M.; Othman, I.; Sharaneq, A.

    1998-07-01

    Transfer factors of Cs 137 and Sr 90 from contaminated soil to some common crops were investigated under field conditions for a period of three years. The results showed large variations in transfer factor values (expressed as Bq/g of dried material to Bq/g of soil) among crops. The highest values for both radionuclides were found in green vegetables up to 0.067 for 137 Cs and 3.78 for 90 Sr, whereas cereal grains had the lowest values. The transfer factor values of 90 Sr were generally much higher than that of 137 Cs for the same crop by factors ranged up to 263. The values for both radionuclides were found to be in the lower limits of that obtained in other areas. This was attributed to the effect of several parameters such as high ph, low organic matter and high exchangeable potassium and calcium in the soil. The transfer factor values of 137 Cs were decreased from the first year to the third year for most crops by factor up to 4, while this approach was not found for 90 Sr. (author)

  7. Elimination of {sup 137}Cs from Japanese Catfish Acutely Contaminated by Labelled Food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malek, M. A. [Atomic Energy Center, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Nakahara, M. [Laboratory for Radioecology, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Isozaki, Hitachinaka City, Ibaraki-ken (Japan)

    2013-07-15

    The effective half-life of {sup 137}Cs in acutely contaminated Japanese catfish was determined. The fish were fed with fish meal incorporated with {sup 137}CsCl and then released into aquaria. To assess the {sup 137}Cs activity retained in the fish body, the whole body radioactivity of each fish was measured at regular intervals for up to 157 days. The data were plotted with relative counts on the y-axis and corresponding elapsed time on the x-axis. Relative count plotted against elapsed time was found to consist of three components, namely the first fast, second fast and the slow component. The true elimination curves of the first components were calculated by the peeling off method. The effective half-life of the fast components was determined from the slope of the true curves. The effective half-life of {sup 137}Cs for the first fast, second fast and the slow component in Japanese catfish was found to be 1.27, 5.76 and 251 days, respectively. (author)

  8. Absorption and backscatter of internal conversion electrons in the measurements of surface contamination of 137Cs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yunoki, A.; Kawada, Y.; Yamada, T.; Unno, Y.; Sato, Y.; Hino, Y.

    2013-01-01

    We measured 4π and 2π counting efficiencies for internal conversion electrons (ICEs), gross β-particles and also β-rays alone with various source conditions regarding absorber and backing foil thickness using e-X coincidence technique. Dominant differences regarding the penetration, attenuation and backscattering properties among ICEs and β-rays were revealed. Although the abundance of internal conversion electrons of 137 Cs- 137 Ba is only 9.35%, 60% of gross counts may be attributed to ICEs in worse source conditions. This information will be useful for radionuclide metrology and for surface contamination monitoring. - Highlights: • Counting efficiencies for internal conversion electrons from 137 Cs were measured, and compared with those for β-rays. • Electron-X coincidence technique was employed. • A thin NaI(Tl) scintillation detector was used for X-ray detection. • Backscattering fractions of electrons and beta particles were studied by similar experiments

  9. Possibility of growing ecologically sound biomass in Cs-contaminated soils by polymer compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovsepyan, Albert H.; Tadevosyan, Anna H.; Mairapetyan, Khachatur S.; Alexanyan, Julietta S.; Ghalachyan, Laura M. [G.S.Davtyan Institute of Hydroponics Problems, National Academy of Sciences, 0082 Yerevan (Armenia); Tavakalyan, Nina B. [Yerevan Institute ' Plastpolymer' , 0007 Yerevan (Armenia); Pyuskyulyan, Konstantin I. [Armenian Nuclear Power Plant, 0910 Metsamor (Armenia)

    2014-07-01

    As of May 2013, 30 countries worldwide are operating 436 nuclear reactors for electricity generation and 70 new nuclear plants are under construction in 14 countries. Nuclear power plants provided 12.3 % of the world's electricity production in 2011. Nuclear energy is a cost-effective and reliable energy source, producing affordable, on-demand electricity at an 89 % production rate. Nuclear energy also supports clean air, land, water and wildlife, providing the majority of our nation's emission-free energy. Safely serving as a workhorse of the country's electric grid for more than four decades, nuclear energy is essential to our everyday lives. But the other hand even normalized emissions of atomic industry entities and nuclear power engineering facilities gradually, in the course of time, cumulate in soils and then enter the agricultural production chain. Ecosystems throughout the world have been contaminated with radionuclides (RN) by aboveground nuclear testing, nuclear reactor accidents and nuclear power generation. Soil contaminated with RN pose a long-term radiation hazard to human health through exposure mainly via the food chain. Therefore, constant supervision and remediation of contaminated soils is an urgent need for any country throughout the world. Radioisotopes characteristic of nuclear fission are released into the environment and become more concentrated as they move up the food chain often becoming human health hazards. Amongst the man-made RN {sup 137}Cs exerts long-term after-effects of radionuclide caused contamination: for {sup 137}Cs the half-life is 30.1 years. A large portion of some RN, including {sup 137}Cs, would remain in the root-zone soil for many years after their deposition. This means that a radioactive deposition onto soil can lead to a root uptake lasting for many consecutive years. The ability to predict the consequences of an accidental release of RN relies mainly on the level of understanding of the mechanisms

  10. Multiscale structure of Cs-137 soil contamination on the Bryansk Region (Russia) due to the accident at the Chernobyl NPP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnik, Vitaly; Sokolov, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    The Cs-137 contamination of the Bryansk Region occurred in the period from April 27 to May 10 into several stages. The complicated character of the soil radionuclide contamination on the Bryansk Region is caused by different nature of the radioactive fallout: dry and wet. Thus, in a number of cases Cs-137 soil pollution is directly connected with the rain intensity, which is well known, have multifractal nature. In some parts of contaminated territory the overlay of different types of fallout was observed. The radioactive contamination of the landscape is a result from nonlinear interplay of geophysical factors which intervene over a large range of scale. As a result of the fallout Cs-137 pattern can be described as a multifractal. Consequently, fields of contamination observed have an extreme spatial variability, frequently cited "hot spots" or "leopard's skin. As an estimate of background radiation levels, we relied on a dataset of air-gamma-survey of the Bryansk Region, carried out by SSC AEROGEOFIZIKA in the summer of 1993. This dataset includes geo-positioned data of Cs-137 deposition in a grid of 100x100 m with values range from 3 to 11*104 kBq/m2. Airborne gamma survey gave the smoothed values of the Cs-137 density of contamination in comparison with the data, obtained directly as a result of soil sampling. However, even in this case in the east part of the Bryansk test site we can observed the"hot spots" (by size several hundred meters) as natural phenomenon. The article presents the results of the geostatistical and multifractal analysis of the Cs-137 contamination. Scaling analysis was conducted to investigate the linkages between the spatial variability of soil Cs-137 contamination and some landscape characteristics.

  11. 137Cs absorption factors (AFs) from contaminated cooking water to some vegetable and protein samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malek, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    The radionuclide in contaminated freshwater may directly gain access to the human body through two major routes: drinking and cooking food with fresh water. During cooking, the radionuclide present in the water may be transferred to the various ingredients of the cooked food. The degree of contamination of food during cooking depends both on absorption power of the individual ingredients and the level of radionuclide present in the water. The ratio of the concentration of the radionuclide absorbed in the individual ingredients to the concentration in the cooking water can be designated as 'Absorption factor' (AF). AF can be used to predict the radionuclide absorbed by the ingredients cooked with contaminated water, to assess the internal radiation dose to the consumer and radionuclide transfer from the cooking water to the ingredients. A better understanding of the variables that affect the AF in various ingredients during cooking is central to deriving the contamination level of the ingredients. 10 kinds of greens and vegetable and 3 kinds of animal protein were boiled with 37 Cs contaminated freshwater and corresponding AFs were determined in both hot and cooled condition

  12. Interconnection between precipitation density, soil contamination levels and 90Sr and 137Cs content in food stuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knizhnikov, V.A.; Petukhova, Eh.V.

    1980-01-01

    Presented are the data dynamically characterizing the density of radioactive fallout, contamination of soil and the main kinds of food stuffs with 137 Cs and 90 Sr. It is shown that 90 Sr contamination of bakery products in the country within the whole period of observation is in direct dependence on the density of atmospheric fallouts as a whole in the northern hemisphere. In the reverse, 90 Sr potato contamination primarily correlates with nuclide content in the soil. The dependence between milk contamination and fallout density has an intermediate character as compared with the above types of food stuffs. The same is true for 137 Cs, but a clear tendency to a faster decrease in the level of food stuffs contamination is observed. The importance of the soil way in food stuffs contamination and peculiarities of nuclide migration in food stuffs from various types of soil are considered

  13. Relationship between the 137Cs whole-body counting results and soil and food contamination in farms near Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takatsuji, Toshihiro; Sato, Hitoshi; Takada, Jun

    2000-01-01

    The authors measured the radioactivity in the soil and child food samples from farms near Mogilev (56--270 GBq km -2 137 Cs), Gomel (36--810 GBq km -2 137 Cs), and Klincy (59--270 GBq km -2 137 Cs), who had whole-body 137 Cs counting results measured as part of a health examination in the Chernobyl Sasakawa Health and Medical Cooperation Project. Soil contamination on the family farm seems to be the main source of human contamination because most of the people in the area live on small farms and they and their domestic animals eat crops from the farms. A clear correlation was found between the children's whole-body 137 Cs counting results and the radioactivity in their food (correlation coefficient: 0.76; confidence level of correlation: 3.2 x 10 -9 ). There were also significant correlations between the whole-body 137 Cs counting results and both the radioactivity of the soil samples (correlation coefficient: 0.22; confidence level of correlation: 0.0107) and the average contamination level of their current residence (correlation coefficient: 0.20; confidence level of correlation: 0.0174)

  14. Seasonal variation of the Cs137 contamination of the tree forage of wild hoofed animals of the Pripyat National Park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uglyanets, A.V.

    2011-01-01

    In the conditions of the Republic of Belarus there were presented the results of studies of the 137Cs contamination of the tree forage of wild hoofed animals in the Pripyat national park. The parameters of this radioisotope accumulation in the shoots of different trees, shrubs, dwarf shrubs and bushes were studied in the seasonal and edaphic aspects, and their influencing factors were specified. The 137Cs contamination of the tree forage of wild hoofed animals was determined to be dependent on the soil pollution degree, growth conditions and species composition of plants and their proportion in the phytocenosis, as well as on the edaphic conditions and a season of the year

  15. Study of Cs/sup 137/ contamination in soil and food samples of Jhangar valley, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhry, Z.S.; Khan, H.M.; Aslam, M.; Iqbal, S.; Orfi, S.D.

    2001-01-01

    Chernobyl accident has been the main source of artificial radioactive contamination throughout the world and its effects have been found in Pakistan as well. In the present study, activities of an important anthropogenic radionuclide, Cs/sup 137/ in soil and food samples of Jhangar Valley of Pakistan have been determined using PC based gamma spectrometer. Soil-375 from IAEA was used as reference material. The soil samples were collected from the agricultural fields of the selected area while food samples, grown in the selected area, were collected from the fields or from local market. After proper treatment, the samples were analyzed using a high purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The following values for average specific activity of Cs/sup 137/ were found: soil (range 1.3-46.8 Bq/kg) (12.0 Bq/kg), wheat (0.9 +- 0.05 Bq/kg), millet (1.5 +- 0.06 Bq/kg), lentils (2.0 +- 0.1 Bq/kg), potato (0.6 +- 0.03 Bq/kg) and cauliflower (0.6 +- 0.03 Bq/kg). The results have been discussed and compared with other data available in the literature. (author)

  16. Predicting the 137Cs Contamination of Freshwater Fish in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poon, C.B.; Au, S.M.

    1999-01-01

    A predictive method for estimating the 137 Cs contamination of freshwater fish in Hong Kong after an acute deposition is presented. This method applies a published aquatic model to the freshwater fish culture ponds in Hong Kong. The predicted transfer coefficient, in terms of peak concentration in fish (wet weight) per unit deposition, is found to be generally lower than those observed in some European and UK lakes after the Chernobyl accident. While the water-fish concentration factor is undoubtedly an important factor, some unique features of the local freshwater fish culture systems, such as the absence of further radioactivity input from catchment to the fish ponds after deposition, and high removal of radioactivity by sedimentation, also play significant roles. Sensitivity of model parameters and uncertainties of prediction are also studied. This predictive model can serve as a useful tool in emergency planning and in countermeasure implementation during a nuclear emergency in Hong Kong. (author)

  17. Accumulation of 137Cs and 90Sr from contaminated soil by three grass species inoculated with mycorrhizal fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entry, J.A.; Watrud, L.S.; Reeves, M.

    1999-01-01

    The use of plants to accumulate low level radioactive waste from soil, followed by incineration of plant material to concentrate radionuclides may prove to be a viable and economical method of remediating contaminated areas. We tested the influence of arbuscular mycorrhizae on 137 Cs and 90 Sr uptake by bahia grass (Paspalum notatum), johnson grass (Sorghum halpense) and switchgrass (Panicum virginatum) for the effectiveness on three different contaminated soil types. Exposure to 137 Cs or 90 Sr over the course of the experiment did not affect above ground biomass of the three grasses. The above ground biomass of bahia, johnson and switchgrass plants accumulated from 26.3 to 71.7% of the total amount of the 137 Cs and from 23.8 to 88.7% of the total amount of the 90 Sr added to the soil after three harvests. In each of the three grass species tested, plants inoculated with Glomus mosseae or Glomus intraradices had greater aboveground plant biomass, higher concentrations of 137 Cs or 90 Sr in plant tissue, % accumulation of 137 Cs or 90 Sr from soil and plant bioconcentration ratios at each harvest than those that did not receive mycorrhizal inoculation. Johnson grass had greater aboveground plant biomass, greater accumulation of 137 Cs or 90 Sr from soil and plant higher bioconcentration ratios with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi than bahia grass and switchgrass. The greatest accumulation of 137 Cs and 90 Sr was observed in johnson grass inoculated with G. mosseae. Grasses can grow in wide geographical ranges that include a broad variety of edaphic conditions. The highly efficient removal of these radionuclides by these grass species after inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizae supports the concept that remediation of radionuclide contaminated soils using mycorrhizal plants may present a viable strategy to remediate and reclaim sites contaminated with radionuclides

  18. Incidence of Salmonella contamination in broiler chickens in Saskatchewan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, K K; O'Neil, J B; Prior, M G; Dunkelgod, K E

    1983-01-01

    The incidence of Salmonella contamination in ten Saskatchewan broiler flocks varying in size from 6 200 to 14 000 was investigated from February, 1977 to April, 1979. Prior to the initial chick placement, brooding equipment, feed, water and fresh litter samples were found to be free of Salmonellae. Samples obtained from the clean and disinfected processing plant equipment before the commencement of daily operation were negative except the isolation for Salmonella anatum from the fingers of the defeathering machine in flock 4. There was no evidence of Salmonella contamination in flocks 5, 6, 8 and 10. The incidence of Salmonella was lower when cloacal swabs were taken from day old chicks fasted for 48 hours than for the same groups of chicks when carcasses were blended in nutrient broth (flocks 7 and 9). The blending of such chicks appears to be a more critical test. The serotypes isolated from eviscerated birds were the same as those isolated from used litter samples. Salmonella saintpaul was isolated from a water sample at 53 days in flock 1 and the same serotype was recovered from the intestinal contents and skin of eviscerated birds. Salmonella typhimurium was recovered from the eviscerated birds and neck samples in flock 3. In flock 4, S. saintpaul and S. anatum were isolated from 13% of the eviscerated birds sampled. Salmonella thompson, Salmonella agona and Salmonella heidelberg were recovered from 61%, 5% and 1%, respectively, of the processed carcasses sampled in flock 7.

  19. Cycling of 137Cs in soil and vegetation of a flood plain 30 years after initial contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlman, R.C.; Van Voris, P.

    1976-01-01

    Distribution of radiocesium was determined in soil and vegetation components of a flood plain contaminated by Manhattan Project operations in 1944. Thirty years after contaminated waste effluents were deposited in a temporary holding basin, practically all the soil 137 Cs was still within 60 cm of the soil surface. Maximum 137 Cs concentrations occurred in the 12- to 22-cm horizon. Concentrations throughout the flood plain were variable; maximum levels of 137 Cs exceeded 20,000 pCi/g; intermediate levels of 5,000 to 20,000 pCi/g were encountered along the watercourse, and concentrations less than 5,000 pCi/g were found along the flood plain margins. Relative concentrations in soil, roots and aboveground vegetation (expressed as ratios on a gram per gram basis) were 0.6 for root/soil, 0.03 for aboveground vegetation/soil, and 0.04 for aboveground vegetation/roots. Vegetation-soil ratios ranged from 0.001 to 0.53 for all species, and average ratios for the 30-yr postcontamination study showed that the relative 137 Cs distribution between plants and soil has not changed from distributions reported 15 yr ago. The results also indicated that ratios were higher at low soil- 137 Cs concentration. Thus, when soil and environmental conditions remain unchanged over a 30-yr period, the relative concentration of 137 Cs between plants and soil does not appear to change as a function of time

  20. Aggregated Transfer Factors For Small Mammals Collected From the Exposed Sediments Of A 137 Cs Contaminated Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paller, Michael H.; Jannika, G. Timothy; Wike, Lynn D

    2005-10-04

    {sup 137}Cs transfer factors were computed for small mammals collected from the dried sediment areas of a partially drained, contaminated reservoir. Soil {sup 137}Cs concentrations were heterogeneous on small and large spatial scales, with a geometric mean of 253.1 Bq/kg dry weight. About 50% of the variance in cotton rat Sigmodon hispidus tissue {sup 137}Cs levels was explained by variation in soil {sup 137}Cs levels. Soil to animal transfer factors (whole body dry weight) averaged 6.0 for cotton rats and 1.2 for cotton mice Peromyscus gossypinus. These values are similar to {sup 137}Cs transfer factors for herbivorous, homeothermic animals from other contaminated ecosystems. Site-specific transfer factors can significantly affect the estimation of dose. In the RESRAD-BIOTA dose model, the default transfer factor for {sup 137}Cs in terrestrial animals is 110 resulting in an estimate of radiation dose to terrestrial biota that is 16 times more than the dose calculated with the actual measured transfer factor.

  1. Transient effects in SIMS analysis of Si with Cs sup + at high incidence angles Secondary ion yield variations

    CERN Document Server

    Heide, P A W

    2002-01-01

    Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) depth profile analysis of Si wafers using 1 keV Cs sup + primary ions at large incidence angles (80 deg. ) is plagued by unusually strong transient effects (variations in both sputter and ion yields). Analysis of a native oxide terminated Si wafer with and without the aid of an O sub 2 leak, and an Ar sup + pre-sputtered wafer revealed correlations between the implanted Cs content and various secondary ion intensities consistent with that expected from a resonance charge transfer process (that assumed by the electron tunneling model). Cs concentrations were defined through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of the sputtered surface from SIMS profiles terminated within the transient region. These scaled with the surface roughening occurring under these conditions and can be explained as resulting from the associated drop in sputter rates. An O induced transient effect from the native oxide was also identified. Characterization of these effects allowed the reconstruction of ...

  2. Clean-up levels for recovery of a 137Cs contaminated site in the Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavik, O.; Moravek, J.

    2003-01-01

    The 19 km long banks of the Bohunice NPP waste water recipient (Manivier canal (0.3 m 3 /s) and Dudvah River (0.8 m 3 /s)) has been identified as contaminated by 137 Cs as a result of two accidents on the CO 2 cooled and heavy water moderated NPP-A1 unit in 1976 and 1977. Until 1992, NPP waste water had been derived through a 5 km-long canal to the Dudvah River (Q a 1.8 m 3 /s) conducting with the Vah River (150 m 3 /s) after 13 km downstream at 90 km from Vah's mouth into the Danube River. Between 1976 and 1978, when both accidents happened, construction of a flood control project on Dudvah River had just been being implemented in the length of 8 km upstream of its mouth. In the next upstream part of the River with about 5 km long river section, affected by NPP, the flood control conditions are insufficient and has, hitherto, caused permanent concern of the public. In this paper authors deals with the radiological characterization of the contaminated banks, re-consideration of the restoration project, criteria dose assessments and cleanup level developments, as well as present conditions for implementation of planned bank restoration

  3. Granulometric determinations and inhalation dose assessment for atmospheric aerosol contaminated by 137Cs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellani, C.M.; Luciani, A.; Oliviero, L.; Donato, R.

    1996-07-01

    During the redevelopment of Brescia freight-yard a measurement campaign of atmospheric aerosol was carried out: in fact a 137 Cs ground contamination, caused by the permanence of wagons carrying iron materials contaminated by this radionuclide, had been found out. During the redevelopment phases of excavation and can filling the workers were exposed to the danger of radioactive aerosol inhalation. The aim of the measurement campaign was to test the aerosol sampling and granulometric analysis methodologies with their sensitivity related to the inhalation dose assessments. The results of both aerosuspended mass and activity, evaluated by means of a portable cascade impactor, are presented. The granulometries have been interpolated with a log normal distribution using an iterative routine minimizing the square deviation between the calculated and experimental data. The results related to the dose assessments are also presented. These evaluations have been carried out using both the granulometric information obtained and the more recent models (ICRP 66) both the total concentration data and the dose coefficients referring to the standard conditions of ICRP 68 and of the Italian law (D.Lgs. 230/95). Furthermore the significance and the reliability of the dose assessments referring to the different methodologies are discussed, also in relation to the possibility of using this sampling methodologies for other radionuclides and different exposure conditions

  4. Dynamics of natural rehabilitation of Cs 137 soil contamination at the late stage due to the Chernobyl NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germenchuk, M.G.; Zhukova, O.M.; Tretyakevich, S.S.; Koreniak, A.P.

    2006-01-01

    As a result of Chernobyl NPP accident, the greatest quantity of radionuclides has fallen on the territory of Belarus, therefore 23% of the territory have been contaminated with Cs 137 with a level exceeding 37 kBq/m 2 on the total area of 46.45 thousand km 2 that has led to the exclusion from an agricultural rotation 2,64 thousand km 2 of farmland. Now, external gamma-radiation on the territory of Belarus is formed due to 'Chernobyl' and 'global' (caused by tests of the nuclear weapon) radioactive losses. A contribution is also done by natural radioactivity. To-date, due to natural radionuclides decay a radiation conditions in zones of Chernobyl contamination has been stabilized and main dose formation radionuclide is Cs 137. In conformity with clause 4 of the Law 'On legal regime of territories, exposed to radioactive contamination after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident' the territory of the Republic of Belarus is divided into zones depending on radioactive contamination of soil by radionuclides and sizes of a mean-annual effective dose. The estimation of a dose of external irradiation demands establishment of interrelation between the level of soil contamination with radionuclides and created by them exposure dose power (EDP). As a quantitative size of this link, a normalized on density of contamination of soil Cs 137 EDP at 1 m height is most used which is formed by all radionuclides and is called the transition coefficient 'density of contamination of soil Cs 137 - EDP'. In the given work, empirical values of factor of transition on items of supervision of a network of the radiation monitoring, registered in National System of Environment Monitoring (NSEM) Republic of Belarus have been determined. The carried out data analysis for 1993-2003 showed, that: Value of transition factor within 10 years have changed from 0,054 μR/h/kBq·m 2 to 0,041 μR/h/kBq·m 2 (with 2,0 μR/h/Ci·km 2 to 1,5 μR/h/Ci·km 2 ). Decrease of EDP from 'Chernobyl' radioactive

  5. Cycling of 137Cs in soil and vegetation of a flood plain 30 years after initial contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlman, R.C.; Van Voris, P.

    1975-01-01

    Distribution of radiocesium was determined in soil and vegetation components of a flood plain contaminated by Manhattan Project operations in 1944. Thirty years after contaminated waste effluents were deposited in a temporary holding basin, practically all the soil 137 Cs was still within 60 cm of the soil surface. Maximum 137 Cs concentrations occurred in the 12- to 22-cm horizon. Concentrations throughout the flood plain were variable; maximum levels of 137 Cs exceeded 20,000 pCi/g; intermediate levels of 5,000 to 20,000 pCi/g were encountered along the watercourse, and concentrations less than 5,000 pCi/g were found along the flood plain margins. Relative concentrations in soil, roots, and above-ground vegetation (expressed as ratios on a gram per gram basis) were 0.6 for root/soil, 0.05 for above-ground vegetation/soil, and 0.03 for above-ground vegetation/roots. Ratios ranged from 0.001 to 0.53 for all species, and average ratios for the 30-year post-contamination study showed that the relative 137 Cs distribution between plants and soil has not changed significantly from distributions reported 15 years ago (plant/soil ratio 0.05 vs 0.03 by Auerbach et al., 1959). The results also indicated that ratios were higher at low soil- 137 Cs concentration. Thus, when soil and environmental conditions remain unchanged over a 30-year period, the relative concentration of 137 Cs between plants and soil does not appear to change significantly as a function of time. (U.S.)

  6. The Role of Prussian Blue in Eliminating the Compositional Effects of 137Cs Internal Contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fekry, A.E.; Elwan, K.M.; Mangood, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    Seventy male albino rats of two ages: growing (2-months age, 102 + 10 g /rat) and adults (4- months age, 280 + 15 g / rat) were used in this study. The rats were fed on a balanced diet (21% crude proteins, 3% crude fats and 4% crude fibers). The treatments of oral administration of a single dose (3700 Bq/growing rat and 7400 Bq/adult rat) of 137 Cs ( 137 Cs Cl salt) and prussian blue (PB, 300 mg/kg body weight/day for 60 days) were as the following combinations: [1] without 137 Cs or PB, [2] 137 Cs only, [3] PB only, [4] PB one day before 137 Cs, [5] PB immediately after 137 Cs, [6] PB one day after 137 Cs, and [7] PB one week after 137 Cs. All of body weight, total body water (TBW), fat-free body (FFB), total body fat (TBF), fat-free dry body (FFDB), total body protein (TBP), and total body ash (TBA). The data revealed that: adult rats had a significant (P 137 Cs treatment caused decreases in final body weight; % change of body weight, TBW, FFB, FFDB, TBP, TBA. In both growing and adult rats, PB administration, only before or at the same time of irradiation, could eliminate the effects of 137 Cs-gamma irradiation on : final body weight, % change in body weight, FFB, FFDB, TBP. However, PB administration, one or seven days post treatment, eliminated 137 Cs treatments effects on TBF

  7. Beef contamination by Cs-134 and Cs-137 in Japan, from the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelecom, Alphonse; Cruz, Camila Oliveira da; Paulo Filho, Guilherme de Souza, E-mail: lararapls@hotmail.com, E-mail: camilabiouff@gmail.com, E-mail: akelecom@id.uff.br [Universidade Federal Fluminense (LARARA-PLS/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Radiobiologia e Radiometria Pedro Lopes dos Santos; Pereira, Wagner de S., E-mail: pereiraws@gmail.com [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (UNB), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Servico de Radioprotecao. Grupo Multidisciplinar de Radioprotecao

    2013-07-01

    The most serious earthquake ever registered in Japan occurred on March 11, 2011; it was followed by a tsunami that flowed over the Prefectures of Miyagi and Fukushima destroying roads, cities and rice fields, but also knocking several nuclear power plants. The Dai-ichi plant was seriously damaged and considerable amounts of radioactivity were release contaminating atmosphere, soil, ocean and associated fauna and flora. A major environmental monitoring program started covering the Japanese territory and the sea along the coasts of Miyagi, Fukushima and Ibaraki. Thousands of measurements were released every day by Japanese authorities, the plant operator and Universities principally looking for the presence of I-131, C{sub s}-134 and C{sub s}-137. Drinking water and aliments were seriously contaminated. We here analyze data released during one year on I-131 and C{sub s}-134,137 radioactive concentrations in cattle meat. Along this period I-131, when observed, was present only in trace amounts, but the contamination by cesium isotopes exceeded legal Japanese limit in several Japanese prefectures, and became an acute national and international economic problem. (author)

  8. Beef contamination by Cs-134 and Cs-137 in Japan, from the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelecom, Alphonse; Cruz, Camila Oliveira da; Paulo Filho, Guilherme de Souza; Pereira, Wagner de S.

    2013-01-01

    The most serious earthquake ever registered in Japan occurred on March 11, 2011; it was followed by a tsunami that flowed over the Prefectures of Miyagi and Fukushima destroying roads, cities and rice fields, but also knocking several nuclear power plants. The Dai-ichi plant was seriously damaged and considerable amounts of radioactivity were release contaminating atmosphere, soil, ocean and associated fauna and flora. A major environmental monitoring program started covering the Japanese territory and the sea along the coasts of Miyagi, Fukushima and Ibaraki. Thousands of measurements were released every day by Japanese authorities, the plant operator and Universities principally looking for the presence of I-131, C s -134 and C s -137. Drinking water and aliments were seriously contaminated. We here analyze data released during one year on I-131 and C s -134,137 radioactive concentrations in cattle meat. Along this period I-131, when observed, was present only in trace amounts, but the contamination by cesium isotopes exceeded legal Japanese limit in several Japanese prefectures, and became an acute national and international economic problem. (author)

  9. Screening plant species native to Taiwan for remediation of 137Cs-contaminated soil and the effects of K addition and soil amendment on the transfer of 137Cs from soil to plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, F.-I.; Chung, H.-P.; Teng, S.-P.; Sheu, S.-T.

    2005-01-01

    This study aims to screen plant species native to Taiwan that could be used to eliminate 137 Cs radionuclides from contaminated soil. Four kinds of vegetables and two kinds of plants known as green manures were used for the screening. The test plants were cultivated in 137 Cs-contaminated soil and amended soil which is a mixture of the contaminated one with a horticultural soil. The plant with the highest 137 Cs transfer factor was used for further examination on the effects of K addition on the transfer of 137 Cs from the soils to the plant. Experimental results revealed that plants cultivated in the amended soil produced more biomass than those in the contaminated soil. Rape exhibited the highest production of aboveground parts, and had the highest 137 Cs transfer factor among all the tested plants. The transfer of 137 Cs to the rape grown in the soil to which 100 ppm KCl commonly used in local fertilizers had been added, were restrained. Results of this study indicated that rape, a popular green manure in Taiwan, could remedy 137 Cs-contaminated soil

  10. AFCF and clinoptilolite use in reduction of {sup 137}Cs deposition in several days' contaminated broiler chicks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitrovic, B. [Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Radiology, 18 Bulevar JA, 11 000 Belgrade (Serbia)]. E-mail: radijacija@vet.bg.ac.yu; Vitorovic, G. [Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Radiology, 18 Bulevar JA, 11 000 Belgrade (Serbia); Vitorovic, D. [Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science, 6 Nemanjina, 11 080 Belgrade (Serbia); Dakovic, A. [Institute for Technology of Nuclear and Other Raw Materials, 86 Franche D' Epere, 11 000 Belgrade (Serbia); Stojanovic, M. [Institute for Technology of Nuclear and Other Raw Materials, 86 Franche D' Epere, 11 000 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2007-06-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate the binding efficiency of AFCF and clinoptilolite, mixed to the feed and administered orally using gastric tube to chronically {sup 137}Cs alimentary contaminated broiler chicks. Seventy-five male Hybro broiler chicks, between 35 and 47 days of age were divided into five groups (15 birds per group) reared in cages (five birds in a cage) and fed a standard diet. Every day during 13 days of the experimental period all chicks received orally 1 ml CsCl water solution with activity of 1310 Bq ml{sup -1} {sup 137}Cs (gastric tube). Group 1 was the control group and received no binders. The experimental groups received the binders. Group 2 received 0.2 g of AFCF in the form of water solution (gastric tube); group 3 received 0.2% AFCF in the feed; group 4 received 2 g clinoptilolite in the form of water suspension (gastric tube) and group 5 received 2% clinoptilolite in the feed. Five chicks from each group were sacrificed on days 4, 10 and 13 of the experimental period. Using gamma spectrometric methods specific activity of {sup 137}Cs was determined in the samples of breast meat, liver and gizzard. The results obtained showed that administering binders to the chronically contaminated broiler chicks significantly (p < 0.01) reduced {sup 137}Cs transfer and deposition in breast meat, liver and gizzard. Decreasing deposition of {sup 137}Cs in breast meat and internal organs increased with time of contamination and binders' administration. With AFCF as a cesium binder, on day 13 of measuring the {sup 137}Cs activity in breast meat was 80-83% lower than that in the control group, 89% in liver and 83-84% in gizzard. Natural clinoptilolite demonstrated lower binding efficiency. On day 13 of measuring the {sup 137}Cs activity in breast meat was 53-69% lower than that in the control group, 67-60% in liver and 59-71% in gizzard.

  11. Environmental effects of ash recycling on the incidence of 137Cs in vegetation and soil. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoegbom, Lars; Nohrstedt, Hans-Oerjan

    2000-08-01

    Recycling of wood-ash from combustion of bio-fuel could in the future become a common practice in Swedish forestry. As a consequence of the Chernobyl radioactive fallout in 1986 large areas in central Sweden became contaminated. There is a risk that addition of wood-ash originating from these contaminated areas will increase the activity of 137 Cs in a forests if added to a non-contaminated area. We report here of measurements of 137 Cs activity in different coniferous forest compartments from seven field experiments. The activity measurements were made 5-8 years after wood-ash application. The field experiments, in a north-south transect in Sweden, have received a background activity ranging 0 - 40 kBq m -2 as a consequence of the Chernobyl fallout. The applied wood-ash had an activity ranging between 0 - 4.8 kBq kg -1 depending on origin. Samples of the various compartments, taken in autumn 1999, included samples of soil, field vegetation, needles and wood (both twigs and stem wood). The soil and the field-vegetation were analysed using a NaI detector while the samples obtained from the trees were analysed on a GeLi detector. In addition, the soil samples were also analysed for K, by extraction with 1M ammonium lactate. The highest 137 Cs activity concentration was, by far, found in the soil, the activity found in the field-layer and the trees was in general lower. At six of seven sites there were no statistically significant effects of the wood-ash application on radiation, despite the fact that the wood-ash had, at least theoretically, in one case doubled the activity. However, at one site (Vindeln), with an intermediate 137 Cs deposition (10-20 kBq m -2 ) from Chernobyl, there was a statistically significant decrease in 137 Cs activity in the soil as well as in needles and twigs at the wood-ash amended plots. This occurred despite that the wood-ash had added a considerable activity (0.63 kBq m -2 ) to the site. The same ash applied to another site also

  12. 137Cs radiation burden on children from a highly contaminated area of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kortmann, B.; Wendhausen, H.; Wassermann, O.; Fischer, R.; Nielsen, P.; Shaverda, V.F.

    1996-01-01

    The radiation burden from 137 Cs sources on 22 children from a small Byelorussian village was studied from 1992 to 1994. Foodstuff, whole body burden and urinary excretion of 137 Cs were measured, intake rates, biological half-lives and doses were calculated. The median value for the 137 Cs whole body incorporation level was found to be 124 Bq, the biological half life was calculated as 68 d for girls and 50 d for boys. The internal dose caused by 137 Cs was found to be negligible in comparison to that from external sources. No deviation from normal values could be shown in simultaneously studied clinico-chemical parameters

  13. Mapping fields of 137Cs contamination in soils in the context of their stability and hierarchical spatial structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobova, E.; Romanov, S.

    2009-04-01

    Technogenic radioisotopes now dispersed in the environment are involved in natural and technogenic processes forming specific geochemical fields and serving as tracers of modern mass migration and geofield transformation. Cs-137 radioisotopes having a comparatively long life time are known for a fast fixation by the top soil layer; radiocesium activity can be measured in the surface layer in field conditions. This makes 137Cs rather convenient for the study and modeling a behavior of toxic elements in soils [1-3, 5] and for the investigation of relative stability and hierarchical fractal structures of the soil contamination of the atmospheric origin [2]. The objective of the experimental study performed on the test site in Bryansk region was to find and prove polycentric regularities in the structure of 137Cs contamination field formed after the Chernobyl accident in natural conditions. Such a character of spatial variability can be seen on the maps showing different soil parameters and chemical element distribution measured in grids [3-5]. The research was undertaken to support our idea of the regular patterns in the contamination field structure that enables to apply a mathematical theory of the field to the geochemical fields modeling on the basis of a limited number of direct measurements sufficient to reproduce the configuration and main parameters of the geochemical field structure on the level of the elementary landscape geochemical system (top-slope-bottom). Cs-137 field measurements were verified by a direct soil sampling. Soil cores dissected into subsamples with increments of 2, 5 and 10 cm, were taken to the depth of 40 cm at points with various surface activity located at different elements of relief. According to laboratory measurements 137Cs inventory in soils varied from 344 to 3448 kBq/m2 (983 kBq/m2 on the average). From 95,1% to 98,0% to of the total inventory was retained in the top 20-cm soil layer. This confirmed that field gamma spectrometry

  14. Remediation of 137Cs contaminated concrete using electrokinetic phenomena and ionic salt washes in nuclear energy contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Andrew J; Joyce, Malcolm J; Boxall, Colin

    2017-10-15

    This work describes the first known the use of electrokinetic treatments and ionic salt washes to remediate concrete contaminated with 137 Cs. A series of experiments were performed on concrete samples, contaminated with K + and 137 Cs, using a bespoke migration cell and an applied electric field (60V potential gradient and current limit of 35mA). Additionally, two samples were treated with an ionic salt wash (≤400molm -3 of KCl) alongside the electrokinetic treatment. The results show that the combined treatment produces removal efficiencies three times higher (>60%) than the electrokinetic treatment alone and that the decontamination efficiency appears to be proportional to the initial degree of contamination. Furthermore, the decontamination efficiencies are equivalent to previous electrokinetic studies that utilised hazardous chemical enhancement agents demonstrating the potential of the technique for use on nuclear licensed site. The results highlight the relationship between the initial contamination concentration within the concrete and achievable removal efficiency of electrokinetic treatment and other treatments. This information would be useful when selecting the most appropriate decontamination techniques for particular contamination scenarios. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Modeling dynamics of {sup 137}Cs in forest surface environments: Application to a contaminated forest site near Fukushima and assessment of potential impacts of soil organic matter interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ota, Masakazu, E-mail: ohta.masakazu@jaea.go.jp; Nagai, Haruyasu; Koarashi, Jun

    2016-05-01

    A process-based model for {sup 137}Cs transfer in forest surface environments was developed to assess the dynamic behavior of Fukushima-derived {sup 137}Cs in a Japanese forest. The model simulation successfully reproduced the observed data from 3 year migration of {sup 137}Cs in the organic and mineral soil layers at a contaminated forest near Fukushima. The migration of {sup 137}Cs from the organic layer to the mineral soil was explained by the direct deposition pattern on the forest floor and the turnover of litter materials in the organic layer under certain ecological conditions. Long-term predictions indicated that more than 90% of the deposited {sup 137}Cs would remain within the top 5 cm of the soil for up to 30 years after the accident, suggesting that the forest acts as an effective long-term reservoir of {sup 137}Cs with limited transfer via the groundwater pathway. The model was also used to explore the potential impacts of soil organic matter (SOM) interactions on the mobility and bioavailability of {sup 137}Cs in the soil–plant system. The simulation results for hypothetical organic soils with modified parameters of {sup 137}Cs turnover revealed that the SOM-induced reduction of {sup 137}Cs adsorption elevates the fraction of dissolved {sup 137}Cs in the soil solution, thereby increasing the soil-to-plant transfer of {sup 137}Cs without substantially altering the fractional distribution of {sup 137}Cs in the soil. Slower fixation of {sup 137}Cs on the flayed edge site of clay minerals and enhanced mobilization of the clay-fixed {sup 137}Cs in organic-rich soils also appeared to elevate the soil-to-plant transfer of {sup 137}Cs by increasing the fraction of the soil-adsorbed (exchangeable) {sup 137}Cs. A substantial proportion (approximate 30%–60%) of {sup 137}Cs in these organic-rich soils was transferred to layers deeper than 5 cm decades later. These results suggested that SOM influences the behavior of {sup 137}Cs in forests over a prolonged

  16. Dynamic behaviour of Cs-137 contamination in trees of the Briansk region, Russia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogh, C.L.; Andersson, Kasper Grann

    2001-01-01

    Seven trees were felled in the Briansk region in 1997. The trees were sectioned for sampling, both at different heights and according to year rings, and samples were analysed for content of Cs-137. I, general, the specific activity of Cs-137 was much higher in the fresh parts of the three (needle...

  17. Distribution of radioactive cesium ((134)Cs Plus(137)Cs) in a contaminated Japanese soybean cultivar during the preparation of tofu, natto, and nimame (Boiled Soybean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachinohe, Mayumi; Kimura, Keitarou; Kubo, Yuji; Tanji, Katsuo; Hamamatsu, Shioka; Hagiwara, Shoji; Nei, Daisuke; Kameya, Hiromi; Nakagawa, Rikio; Matsukura, Ushio; Todoriki, Setsuko; Kawamoto, Shinichi

    2013-06-01

    We investigated the fate of radioactive cesium ((134)Cs plus (137)Cs) during the production of tofu, natto, and nimame (boiled soybean) from a contaminated Japanese soybean cultivar harvested in FY2011. Tofu, natto, and nimame were made from soybean grains containing radioactive cesium (240 to 340 Bq/kg [dry weight]), and the radioactive cesium in the processed soybean foods and in by-product fractions such as okara, broth, and waste water was measured with a germanium semiconductor detector. The processing factor is the ratio of radioactive cesium concentration of a product before and after processing. For tofu, natto, nimame, and for the by-product okara, processing factors were 0.12, 0.40, 0.20, and 0.18, respectively; this suggested that these three soybean foods and okara, used mainly as an animal feed, can be considered safe for human and animal consumption according to the standard limit for radioactive cesium of soybean grains. Furthermore, the ratio of radioactive cesium concentrations in the cotyledon, hypocotyl, and seed coat portions of the soybean grain was found to be approximately 1:1:0.4.

  18. Fallout and drinking water contamination by I-131 and Cs-134, 137 in Japan, from the Fukushima Daiichi NPS accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelecom, Alphonse; Miyashita, Erika; Kelecom, Patrick Vicent

    2011-01-01

    The earthquake followed by a tsunami in Japan, on last March 11, seriously damaged four of the six reactors of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station (NPS). Radioactive smokes and highly contaminated water were released for weeks to the environment. Since March 12, when the plant operator TEPCO and Japan's nuclear agency (NISA) confirmed the presence of radionuclides near the NPS, a giant environmental monitoring operation was set up, covering the entire Japanese territory. Daily thousands measurements are realized. We here analyze data released during 60 days on I-131 and Cs-134,137 radioactive concentrations in drinking water and fallout for 45 prefectures. Miyagi and Fukushima, that requires a separate study, are not considered here. Drinking water contamination by I-131 was observed in 13 prefectures, including Tokyo. The most impacted one was Tochigi (maximum of 110 Bq/l, March 24). This value turned water not drinkable for infants and babies. Cs-137 was detected in drinking water in 8 prefectures, with a maximum level of 18 Bq/l in Ibaraki. These levels do not affect potability of tap water. I-131 was observed in fallout in 27 prefectures, with level reaching 93 kBq/m2 in Ibaraki and 36 kBq/m 2 in Tokyo on March 21 and 23 respectively. Fallout of Cs-137 was observed in 19 prefectures. The maximum deposition occurred again in Ibaraki (13kBq/m 2 , March 21) and in Tokyo (5.3 kBq/m2, March 22). Since mid April, only trace contamination has been observed for both radionuclides in drinking water. Sporadically medium levels of Cs-137 are still observed in fallout. (author)

  19. Fallout and drinking water contamination by I-131 and Cs-134, 137 in Japan, from the Fukushima Daiichi NPS accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelecom, Alphonse; Miyashita, Erika; Kelecom, Patrick Vicent [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The earthquake followed by a tsunami in Japan, on last March 11, seriously damaged four of the six reactors of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station (NPS). Radioactive smokes and highly contaminated water were released for weeks to the environment. Since March 12, when the plant operator TEPCO and Japan's nuclear agency (NISA) confirmed the presence of radionuclides near the NPS, a giant environmental monitoring operation was set up, covering the entire Japanese territory. Daily thousands measurements are realized. We here analyze data released during 60 days on I-131 and Cs-134,137 radioactive concentrations in drinking water and fallout for 45 prefectures. Miyagi and Fukushima, that requires a separate study, are not considered here. Drinking water contamination by I-131 was observed in 13 prefectures, including Tokyo. The most impacted one was Tochigi (maximum of 110 Bq/l, March 24). This value turned water not drinkable for infants and babies. Cs-137 was detected in drinking water in 8 prefectures, with a maximum level of 18 Bq/l in Ibaraki. These levels do not affect potability of tap water. I-131 was observed in fallout in 27 prefectures, with level reaching 93 kBq/m2 in Ibaraki and 36 kBq/m{sup 2} in Tokyo on March 21 and 23 respectively. Fallout of Cs-137 was observed in 19 prefectures. The maximum deposition occurred again in Ibaraki (13kBq/m{sup 2}, March 21) and in Tokyo (5.3 kBq/m2, March 22). Since mid April, only trace contamination has been observed for both radionuclides in drinking water. Sporadically medium levels of Cs-137 are still observed in fallout. (author)

  20. Contamination of medicinal plants by Cs 137 in the Narowlya area of the Gomel' region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapegin, L.M.; Dajneko, N.M.; Timofeev, S.F.

    2008-01-01

    There have been analysed 69 samples of medicinal herbs and 8 samples of soils (the Gomel Region, Narowlya area) for measuring the contents level of Cs 137 in them. Only the samples of the ordinary pine, Helichrysum arenareum and Thymus serpyllum of the summer crop turned out corresponding to the norm on Cs 137 of RDL/MT P - 2004. The rest 23 species of the medicinal herb appeared to contain 2 - 122 times as more Cs 137 then standards of RDL/MT P - 2004. (authors)

  1. Comparative study between radioactive contamination in milk powder by chernobyl accident [137Cs] and natural radioactivity [40K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarrete, J.M.; Martinez, T.; Cabrera, L.

    2005-01-01

    After the Chernobyl accident in 1986, Mexico imported from an European country 28,000 Tons of contaminated milk powder with the fission product 137 CS. When the contamination was detected, the alarm among the authorities and population spread out very quick and of course the product was retired at once from the foodstuff market. Nevertheless, the public panic grew up in such a manner, that even the way to manage and to dispose safely this material, considered highly dangerous, was largely discussed. Now, about two decades ago from this event, a study has been performed to compare the level of radioactivity due to both radioisotopes present in one saved sample: the artificial contaminant 137 CS, beside the natural, all around present 40 K, in order to evaluate in a more realistic way how risky was the management, possible consumption, and final disposition of this nourishment. This paper considers results obtained within an uncertainty degree equal to ±5%, and set up conclusions by comparing artificial and natural radioactivity present in that contaminated milk powder.

  2. Particularities of Cs-137 accumulation by mushrooms in different zones of radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shatrova, N.E.; Zarubin, O.L.; Koval', G.N.; Shovkun, N.A.; Ogorodnik, A.F.

    1998-01-01

    The cumulation of Cs-137 by the mushrooms of 30 km zone is more intensively, than on the 'southern' trace. The biggest concentrations are discovered in local mushrooms: Suillus luteus (L.) and Paxillus involutus (Batsch:Fr.)

  3. Contamination of foodstuffs in Styria (Austria) by J-131 and Cs-137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninaus, W.; Kahr, G.; Oswald, K.; Mueller, H.

    1993-01-01

    Cs-137 activities of various foodstuffs were measured from May to December 1986. Results from different sites are compared. In the particular case of blueberry there is a time series from 1985 to 1992

  4. The feature of an accumulation and distribution of 137Cs in wood of branches ordinary from the Chernobyl NPP contamination zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewsievich, K.M.; Schasny, A.K.; Bortnik, A.V.

    1994-01-01

    Accumulation 137 Cs in trees of average age on territories with density of soil contamination from 5 up to 90 Ci/sq.km was investigated. The measurements were conducted in different components of trunk wood on bottom, average and top parts of a tree. The appreciable redistribution of 137 Cs along trunk is not found out. The most intensive accumulation of 137 Cs occurs in bast-fibre tissue and bark, least - in a heart-wood. Data on vertical and radial Cs migration detected in 1990-1992 are indicated. During these three years relative increase of gamma-activity of trunk wood occurred. 3 refs., 1 tab

  5. Off-shore contamination by I-131 and Cs-137 from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Wagner de Souza; Kelecom, Patrick Vicent; Miyashita, Erika; Universidade Federal Fluminense; Kelecom, Alphonse

    2011-01-01

    On March 11, 2011 the biggest earthquake ever registered in Japan severed off-site power supply to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. Backup diesel generators began providing electricity to pumps circulating coolant to the reactors, but were knocked out by a large tsunami and the nuclear site lost the ability to maintain proper reactor cooling. This was the beginning of a huge nuclear accident that was assigned an INES maximum rating of 7. On March 21, Japanese authorities reported that the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) had detected radioactive materials in seawater. Radioactivity started to be measured by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency every two days in sea water from eight locations, 30km from the coastline. I-131 and Cs-137 were analyzed among other radionuclides. It is the aim of this paper to gather all this information and to discuss the evolution of the radioactive marine contamination during the first month of the accident. Results indicate for surface seawater concentrations ranging from 24.9 to 161.0 Bq/L for I-131 and 11.2 to 186.0 Bq/L for Cs-137, and for deep waters of 1.59-15.0 Bq/L (I-131) and 0.0-11.4 Bq/L (Cs-137). The I-131 concentrations in superficial waters were at or above Japanese regulatory limits in the first days, then lowered during one week to increase again above limits when TEPCO released contaminated water into the ocean, to finally reach not detectable values the last week of April. With the exception of point 4, on April 15, the Cs-137 levels were always well below regulatory limits. (author)

  6. Decontamination efficiencies of pot-type water purifiers for ¹³¹I, ¹³⁴Cs and ¹³⁷Cs in rainwater contaminated during Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shogo Higaki

    Full Text Available Rainwater was contaminated by a large release of radionuclides into the environment during the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster. It became a matter of concern for Japan when several water purification plants detected ¹³¹I contamination in the drinking water. In the present study, the decontamination efficiency of two easily obtainable commercial water purifiers were examined for rainwater contaminated with ¹³¹I, ¹³⁴Cs and ¹³⁷Cs. The water purifiers removed 94.2-97.8% of the ¹³¹I and 84.2-91.5% of the ¹³⁴Cs and ¹³⁷Cs after one filtration. Seven filtrations removed 98.2-99.6% of the ¹³¹I and over 98.0% of the ¹³⁴Cs and ¹³⁷Cs. From a practical perspective, over the fourth filtrations were not needed because of no significant improvements after the third filtration.

  7. Features of present day Cs 137 contamination of Bryansk-Belarusian Poles'e

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvasnikova, E.V.; Stukin, E.D.; Zhukova, O.M.; Germenchuk, M.G.; Zhukova, O.Mit.; Shagalova, E.D.; Bakarykava, Zh.V.; Kirienko, N.V.

    2005-01-01

    This article is devoted to estimation of changes of the area of radioactive pollution in Bryansk-Belarusian Poles'e due to intensity of landscape factors influence. Research of influence of geochemical conditions on transformation of soil pollution with Cs 137 was carried out on the catchment of small and medium size rivers: the Besed' river (Bryansk-Belarusian cesium spot), the Nesvich river (the territory of exclusion zone of Chernobyl NPP) (Belarus), the Moskovka river and the Oleshnya river (Russia) of Dnieper basin (Bryansk-Belarusian cesium spot). Investigation results have shown that soddy podsolic sandy soil under a pine forest resist Cs 137 migration, strongly fixing this radionuclide in a thin layer of the humus horizon lying under forest litter. In the processes of redistribution of Cs 137 in hydromorphous landscapes of Bryansk woodlands, vertical migration prevails above lateral one. In soils with redundant humidification Cs 137 significant transfer from the top 5-cm layer of soil occurs in comparison with automorphous soils. On arable lands there is an appreciable Cs 137 transfer in a horizontal direction and its accumulation on negative elements of relief. (authors)

  8. Dynamics of 137Cs concentration in agricultural products in areas of Russia contaminated as a result of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fesenko, S.V.; Alexakhin, R.M.; Spiridonov, S.I.; Sanzharova, N.I.

    1995-01-01

    The dynamics of 137 Cs concentration in the main types of agricultural products obtained in regions of Russia contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident in 1986, have been analysed. The rate of decline of 137 Cs contamination in agricultural products during the period under study (1987-1992) was not uniform. Reductions of the 137 Cs content of produce was most rapid during the early years after the accident, as a consequence of the intensive application of countermeasures at that time. Half-life periods for 137 Cs content in milk (the basic dose-forming product) and the decrease in products for areas in Russia subjected to the most intensive contamination amounted to 1.6 to 4.8 years, depending on the scale of countermeasures carried out. Half-life periods of decrease of 137 Cs content in other types of agricultural products (grain, potato) were within the range of 2 to 7 years. Based on the comparison of the dynamics of 137 Cs levels in agricultural products of the regions where the countermeasures scales differed, the contribution of countermeasures and of natural biogeochemical processes to the decrease of 137 Cs contamination levels of the main types of agricultural products that determine the dose from internal irradiation of local population has been estimated. (author)

  9. Evaluation of the Relationship between Current Internal 137Cs Exposure in Residents and Soil Contamination West of Chernobyl in Northern Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yuko; Okubo, Yuka; Hayashida, Naomi; Takahashi, Jumpei; Gutevich, Alexander; Chorniy, Sergiy; Kudo, Takashi; Takamura, Noboru

    2015-01-01

    After the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident, the residents living around the Chernobyl were revealed to have been internally exposed to 137Cs through the intake of contaminated local foods. To evaluate the current situation of internal 137Cs exposure and the relationship between the 137Cs soil contamination and internal exposure in residents, we investigated the 137Cs body burden in residents who were living in 10 selected cities from the northern part of the Zhitomir region, Ukraine, and collected soil samples from three family farms and wild forests of each city to measured 137Cs concentrations. The total number of study participants was 36,862, of which 68.9% of them were female. After 2010, the annual effective doses were less than 0.1 mSv in over 90% of the residents. The 137Cs body burden was significantly higher in autumn than other seasons (p Chernobyl accident, the internal exposure doses to residents living in contaminated areas of northern Ukraine is limited but still related to 137Cs soil contamination. Furthermore, the consumption of local foods is considered to be the cause of internal exposure.

  10. Effect of alkyl length of cationic surfactants on desorption of Cs from contaminated clay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bo Hyun; Park, Chan Woo; Yang, Hee Man; Seo, Bum Kyoung; Lee, Kune Woo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, So Jin [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    In this study, desorption characteristics of Cs from clay according to the hydrophobic alkyl chain length of the cationic surfactant were investigated. Alkyltrimethylammonium bromide was used as a cationic surfactant, and the length of the hydrophobic alkyl chain of the cationic surfactant was varied from –octyl to –cetyl. The adsorbed amount of the cationic surfactant on montmorillonite increased with the length of the hydrophobic alkyl chain, and intercalation of the cationic surfactant into the clay interlayer increased the interlayer distances. The Cs removal efficiency was also enhanced with increasing alkyl chain length, and the cationic surfactant with the cetyl group showed a maximum Cs removal efficiency of 99±2.9%.

  11. COULD MUSHROOMS ACT AS CONCENTRATION PATHWAYS TO INTERNAL CONTAMINA-TION OF SOME MARGINALIZED COMMUNITIES BY 137CS IN SLOVAKIA?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Miššík

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to obtain some preliminary data necessary for the assessment of the possible existence of small-area local sources of contaminated mushrooms in forested areas with comparatively low inventory of man-made 137Cs. On the study plot near Čierne-Svrčinovec (North-western Slovakia 31 samples were collected during periodic sampling in the years 2012-2013 and analysed by gamma-spectrometry. Activities 137Cs in mushrooms from entire sampling plot followed the lognormal distribution with extremely high variation and high positive skew, with projected three-sigma (99.75% range from 0.49 Bq.kg-1 to 1537 Bq.kg-1 (dry weight, d.w. and with geometrical average of 27.4 Bq.kg-1 (d.w.. Another 11 samples were collected or bought from roadside vendors living in Roma slums near villages Richnava and Kluknava (Spiš region, eastern Slovakia. Obtained edible wild mushrooms were in a good shape despite prolonged drought indicating existence of well hidden forested sites in slum surroundings. Highest activity of 137Cs in this set was recorded in Boletus edulis (263.3 ± 20.3 Bq.kg-1 (d.w.. Both geometric mean (49.0 Bq.kg-1 and expectation value (91.2 Bq.kg-1 d.w. of lognormal distribution were higher than that of the study plot on NW Slovakia. No sample exceeded the legal radiohygienic limit for radiocesium contamination. The limited extent of presented study only slightly indicates the possibility of slow changes in spatial redistribution of bioavailable 137Cs in forest ecosystem. However, available data on this subject from different sources suggest that there is no reason for massive occurrence of highly contaminated fruiting bodies in small areas surrounding settlements, where some critical groups of individuals, who are used to consume large amounts of mushrooms from limited geographical area could in such case develop significant internal contamination.

  12. {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr behaviour in contaminated soils of the Chernobyl area; Etude du comportement du {sup 137}Cs et du {sup 90}Sr dans les sols contamines de la region de Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gri, N. [CEA/Fontenay-aux-Roses, Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire (IPSN), 92 (France)]|[Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France)

    2000-07-01

    The improvement of the understanding of the mechanisms which generate radionuclides retention in soils are of main importance for radioactivity transport models, especially for long time assessments. In this context, the objectives of this thesis were to identify the mechanisms responsible for {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr behaviour in non cultivated soils and to quantify their influence. We studied radiocaesium and radiostrontium availability in different soils of the Chernobyl area (chernozem, sand, gley, peat), whose contamination took several physico-chemical forms (fuel particles, condensed forms, mixed deposits). The migration profiles obtained by gamma spectrometry and liquid scintillation show that the majority of the activity is contained in the ten first centimeters of soil, except for one site. The profiles are varied and don't allow to classify the radionuclides availability according to the pedology or to the contamination type. A selective extraction protocol applied on several soil layers has been adopted as an indirect approach. Although radionuclides availability is increasing with depth, the selective extraction protocol shows that a non negligible fraction of activity remain not mobile. {sup 137}Cs is associated to interstratified clay minerals in a non reversible way and {sup 90}Sr is strongly bound to fuel particles. The existence of these retention mechanisms calls into question the use of the K{sub d} distribution coefficient in transport models because they disabled reversibility and instantaneous desorption notions. (author)

  13. Wild mushroom contamination by 137Cs in Central Slovakia region in 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durecova, Alzbeta; Durec, F.; Auxtova, L.; Cechova, A.

    2012-01-01

    A total of 98 wild mushrooms (24 species collected at 26 sites) were analyzed for 137 Cs in 2011. The radionuclide was determined separately in the caps and the stipes of the majority of the mushrooms species. The highest activities were found in the genera Boletus, Leccinum, Lactarius and Russula whereas the lowest activities were found in Amanita. In the vast majority of mushrooms, the cap-to-stipe 137 Cs activity ratio was larger than 1. The cap-to-stipe 137 Cs activity ratio did not correlate with the cap-to-stipe 40 K activity ratio in Russula or Amanita. The cap of a Boletus pulverulentus specimen collected at Skalka pri Kremnici in August had a 137 Cs activity 190 Bq/kg fresh sample. For an individual who ate 10 kg of fresh caps of this mushroom during a year, their committed effective dose estimate is 0.025 mSv/year (adults) or 0.019 mSv/year (children aged 10). (orig.)

  14. The time-dependent effect of the biological component of 137Cs soil contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dederichs, H.; Pillath, J.; Lennartz, R.; Hill, P.; Hille, R.

    2004-01-01

    In investigations of the long-term development of the population dose in the highly contaminated regions of the Commonwealth of Independence States it was found that the external dose has not decreased as strongly as expected since 1992. Further investigations have shown that, contrary to expectations, no linear correlation can be observed between soil contamination and measured area dose rate. As a contribution towards clarifying these issues, the area dose rate and the soil contamination including the plant fraction were investigated in the Korma district, Belarus. It was found that it is necessary to cover and average over larger areas in order to determine from ground contamination the long-term development of the external dose commitment. This means that for this purpose the introduction of an ''effective'' surface contamination (sum of mineral and organic contamination components) is necessary. The phenomena observed are described in a model, which permits an analytical calculation of the contamination profile in soil taking migration and transfer effects into account. The differences observed between the measured soil contamination and the resulting external doses or the directly measured dose rate can be explained by the proposed model. Moreover, their long-term development can be calculated. The results show that a time decade after the accident the biological part of the ''effective'' soil contamination becomes dominant and cannot be neglected. (orig.)

  15. 90Sr and 137Cs contamination of wheat produced in Japan. Survey and analysis during the years 1959 through 1995 including the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komamura, Misako; Tsumura, Akito; Kihou, Nobuharu; Kodaira, Kiyoshi

    2002-01-01

    This paper attempts to discuss the influences of global-scale radioactive fallout on wheat produced in Japan. For this purpose, a set of wheat samples was collected annually from sixteen National and Prefectural Experimental Farms during the years from 1959 to 1995. According to the graph presenting year-to-year variations in the nationwide averages of 90 Sr and 137 Cs contents (mBq/kg) in wheat kernels, the sharp peak was first marked in 1963 with 12300 for 90 Sr and 43600 for 137 Cs. In 1966, however, the nuclide contents dropped drastically to 2360 for 90 Sr and 2870 for 137 Cs respectively. In the years following, both nuclides continued to decrease slowly although there were minor fluctuations. It is noticeable that low-level 137 Cs contamination was caused in Japan's wheat in 1981, the year after the nuclear testing in China. It is also noticeable that 137 Cs contents in wheat kernels increased to 5960 in 1986 when the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident happened, although it dropped back to its normal level of 40 in the year after. The following are also discussed in this paper: Year to year variations in the ratio of 90 Sr to 137 Cs contents in wheat kernels and wheat flour. Regional differences in 90 Sr and 137 Cs contents in wheat kernels. Comparison of 90 Sr and 137 Cs contents in wheat kernels and unpolished rice. Direct and indirect pathways of 90 Sr and 137 Cs that contaminate wheat. Influence of the Chernobyl power plant accident. Suggestions about the ways of estimating the level of 137 Cs contamination in case of nuclear accidents, if any. (author)

  16. Genotypic difference in "1"3"7Cs accumulation and transfer from the contaminated field in Fukushima to azuki bean (Vigna angularis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Win, Khin Thuzar; Oo, Aung Zaw; Kojima, Katsuhiro; Salem, Djedidi; Yamaya, Hiroko; Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko Dorothea; Tomooka, Norihiko; Kaga, Akito; Ohkama-Ohtsu, Naoko; Yokoyama, Tadashi

    2016-01-01

    The screening of mini-core collection of azuki bean accessions (Vigna angularis (Willd.) Ohwi & Ohashi) for comparative uptake of "1"3"7Cs in their edible portions was done in field trials on land contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. Ninety seven azuki bean accessions including their wild relatives from a Japanese gene bank, were grown in a field in the Fukushima prefecture, which is located approximately 51 km north of FDNPP. The contamination level of the soil was 3665 ± 480 Bq kg"−"1 dry weight ("1"3"7Cs, average ± SD). The soil type comprised clay loam, where the sand: silt: clay proportion was 42:21:37. There was a significant varietal difference in the biomass production, radiocaesium accumulation and transfer factor (TF) of radiocaesium from the soil to edible portion. Under identical agricultural practice, the extent of "1"3"7Cs accumulation by seeds differed between the accessions by as much as 10-fold. Inter-varietal variation was expressed at the ratio of the maximum to minimum observed "1"3"7Cs transfer factor for seeds ranged from 0.092 to 0.009. The total biomass, time to flowering and maturity, and seed yield had negative relationship to "1"3"7Cs activity concentration in seeds. The results suggest that certain variety/varieties of azuki bean which accumulated less "1"3"7Cs in edible portion with preferable agronomic traits are suitable to reduce the "1"3"7Cs accumulation in food chain on contaminated land. - Highlights: • Varietal difference in the biomass, "1"3"7Cs accumulation and transfer factor was found in azuki. • "1"3"7Cs accumulation by seeds differed between the azuki bean accessions by as much as 10 folds. • Different accumulation patterns among the azuki bean accessions depends on their growth performance.

  17. Effect of contamination on gynecological disease incidence in women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agamova, K.A.; Sotnikova, E.N.; Gladunova, Z.D.; Novikova, E.G.; Aleksandrova, L.M.

    1995-01-01

    Epithelial tissues of neck of the womb, cervical canal and endometritis in women residing on the territories with increased radiation background after the Chernobyl accident have been examined. The cytologic diagnosis method employed demonstrated a high information content. Incidence of background, precancer and inflammatory processes has been ascertained in compliance with cytological classification. Cytomorphological signs of possible radiation-induced injury of cells have been studied

  18. Phytoremediation modelling - phytoextraction of 137Cs, 133Ba, and 90Sr from liquid media and artificially contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smrcek, S.; Masnerova, G.

    2002-01-01

    The phytoremediation model based on experiments with plants cultivated in vitro in media supplemented with radionuclide salts was investigated. The plant species Brassica napus, Sinapis alba, Helianthus annuus, Zea mays and Pisum sativum were cultivated on the Murashige-Skoog basal salt mixture enriched with salts of 137 Cs, 133 Ba, and 90 Sr in aseptic conditions. The time-dependent radioactivity decrease in the medium was determined using LSC, and the phytoextraction curves were plotted. Radioactivity in the plant roots and shoots was measured and the efficiency of phytoextraction and the distribution between the roots and shoots as a measure of radionuclide transport in the plant tissues were calculated for each of the plants used. Cultivation experiments were also performed on artificially contaminated soil. Seeds of the plants were placed into contaminated soil and cultivated for 2 months in conditions similar to those of the in vitro experiments. The extracted radioactivity and distribution between roots and shoots were determined. The in vitro experiments simulated extraction of the radionuclide salt from solution analogously to real extraction from the soil solution, while the processes occurring in the rhizosphere were eliminated. The phytoextraction efficiency in terms of the percentage of the starting radioactivity ranged from 12 to 31 % for 90 Sr, 8 to 24% for 137 Cs, and 12 to 17 % for 133 Ba in a cultivation cycle. The root/shoot radioactivity ratios demonstrate that the plant species used may be suitable for real phytoremediation. The experiments in which the plants were cultivated from seeds in artificial contaminated substrate showed that the ability of roots to extract radionuclide salts from their environment remains unchanged. The relative efficiency values were lower than for the extraction from solutions (3 to 11.5 % for 90 Sr, 1.5 to 4 % for 137 Cs, and 1 to 6.2 %, for 133 Ba), but in this process, the equilibrium between the soil particles

  19. Radioactive Contamination of Alluvial Soils in the Taiga Landscapes of Yakutia with 137Cs, 226Ra, and 238U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevychelov, A. P.; Sobakin, P. I.

    2017-12-01

    The concentrations and distribution of 137Cs in alluvial soils (Fluvisols) of the upper and middle reaches of the Markha River in the northwest of Yakutia and 226Ra and 238U in alluvial soils within the El'kon uranium ore deposit in the south of Yakutia have been studied. It is shown that the migration of radiocesium in the permafrost-affected soils of Yakutia owing to alluviation processes extends to more than 600 km from the source of the radioactive contamination. The migration of 137Cs with water flows is accompanied by its deposition in the buried horizons of alluvial soils during extremely high floods caused by ice jams. In the technogenic landscapes of southern Yakutia, active water migration of 238U and 226Ra from radioactive dump rocks. The leaching of 238U with surface waters from the rocks is more intense than the leaching of 226Ra. The vertical distribution patterns of 238U and 226Ra in the profiles of alluvial soils are complex. Uranium tends to accumulate in the surface humus horizon and in the buried soil horizons, whereas radium does not display any definite regularities of its distribution in the soil profiles. At present, the migration of 238U and 226Ra with river water and their accumulation in the alluvial soils extend to about 30 km from the source.

  20. Cutaneous contamination after a uranyl nitrate skin burn: incident report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berard, P.; Chalabreysse, J.; Quesne, B.; Auriol, B.

    1994-01-01

    The authors review the circumstances of a handburn incident by a mixture of dilute nitric acid and uranyl nitrate. The burn was localised on the thumb and three fingers of the left hand. After abundant washing, external direct measurements revealed the presence of uranium on the fingers. The injured employee was maintained under observation for ten days, and therapy was performed until all the activity disappeared. External monitoring with various detectors, and measurements of the bandages and skin showed a rapid decrease of uranium fixation. All urine was collected throughout the duration of the treatment. The study shows that all the activity was retained on the burnt skin, with very little systemic uptake. Rapid peeling eliminated the cutaneous retention. Internal and external dose assessments were calculated and the committed effective dose equivalent and the committed dose equivalent for the skin and bone surfaces were low. (author)

  1. Effect of U and 137Cs chronic contamination on dopamine and serotonin metabolism in the central nervous system of the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houpert, P.; Lestaevel, P.; Amourette, C.; Dhieux, B.; Bussy, C.; Paquet, F.

    2004-01-01

    Following the Chernobyl accident, the most significant problem for the population of the former Soviet Union for the next 50-70 years will be chronic internal contamination by radionuclides. One of the few experiments carried out in this field reported that neurotransmitter metabolism in the central nervous system of the rat was disturbed after feeding with oats contaminated by 137 Cs for 1 month. The present study assessed the effect of chronic contamination by depleted U or 137 Cs on the metabolism of two neurotransmitters in cerebral areas of rats. Dopamine and serotonin were chosen because their metabolism has been shown to be disturbed after external irradiation, even at moderate doses. Dopamine, serotonin, and some of their catabolites were measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled with an electrochemical detector in five cerebral structures of rats contaminated over a 1-month period by drinking water (40 mg U·L -1 or 6500 Bq 137 Cs·L -1 ). In the striatum, hippocampus, cerebral cortex, thalamus, and cerebellum, the dopamine, serotonin, and catabolite levels were not significantly different between the control rats and rats contaminated by U or 137 Cs. These results are not in accordance with those previously described. (author)

  2. Geoinformational modelling of the land use of Polesye and Opolje landscapes in Bryansk region (Russia) under conditions of 137Cs radionuclides contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenko, Christina; Linnik, Vitaliy; Volkova, Nadezhda

    2015-04-01

    Significant part of Russian Federation was contaminated by 137Cs radionuclides due to Chernobyl disaster in 1986. South-western part of Bryansk region has suffered the most. Study area (the central part of Bryansk region, Polesye and high plains landscapes) is situated outside the officially specified zone of contamination with contamination levels under 1 Ci / km2. Nevertheless, such contamination levels (which are 20 times greater than levels of global fallout) require particular attention as it may contain a threat of the land use and the health of population, living within the territory. Radioactive contamination within the model area was formed as a result of a "dry" deposition from the atmosphere. Consequently, the initial contamination of soil by isotopes 137Cs, unlike the western part of the Bryansk region, was spread relatively equally. The main part of 137Cs (up to 90%) in natural landscapes is contained in the top 5 cm of soil, which itself creates danger of biogeochemical migration from soil to plants. In agricultural landscapes under cultivation 137Cs is uniformly spread within a 20 cm layer of soil and can also come from soil to plants grown in the fields. The area of radioactive contamination that was formed during the period of deposition (late April - early May 1986), is exposed to the processes of secondary redistribution. It is influenced by several factors as topography, vegetation type, proportion of arable soils, soil humidity, soil texture etc. In the presented study there was evaluated the impact of these factors on the secondary redistribution of 137Cs. Sustainable development of agricultural production in the contaminated territories requires managing a number of measures to reduce radiation risks to the population. Regarding this point the greatest threat may be represented by milk production, as well as picking berries and mushrooms. Planning of the sustainable use of the territory requires an evaluation of contamination levels within

  3. Restoration of railway areas of Brescia dock and Montirone station contaminated by Cs137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gili, M.; Olivero, L.

    1997-03-01

    ENEA (Italian National Agency for new Technologies Energy and the Environment) - Energy Department has designed and managed, on behalf of FS (Public Railways) plc. the restoration of railway areas of Brescia dock and Montirone (BS) station, contaminated by Cesium 137 due to scrap iron imported from Eastern Europe. The restoration went off according to the program in June-August 1995 with means and personnel from Italian National Agency for new Technology Energy and the Environment Saluggia (VC) Research Centre and it involved the removal of 51 tons of contaminated soil, its packaging in to 302 drums and the transport to Italian National Agency for new Technology Energy and the Environment Casaccia (RM) Centre for disposal

  4. Paddy-field contamination with 134Cs and 137Cs due to Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident and soil-to-rice transfer coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Satoru; Kajimoto, Tsuyoshi; Shizuma, Kiyoshi

    2013-01-01

    The transfer coefficient (TF) from soil to rice plants of 134 Cs and 137 Cs in the form of radioactive deposition from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident in March 2011 was investigated in three rice paddy fields in Minami-Soma City. Rice crops were planted in the following May and harvested at the end of September. Soil cores of 30-cm depth were sampled from rice-planted paddy fields to measure 134 Cs and 137 Cs radioactivity at 5-cm intervals. 134 Cs and 137 Cs radioactivity was also measured in rice ears (rice with chaff), straws and roots. The rice ears were subdivided into chaff, brown rice, polished rice and rice bran, and the 134 Cs and 137 Cs radioactivity concentration of each plant part was measured to calculate the respective TF from the soil. The TF of roots was highest at 0.48 ± 0.10 in the field where the 40 K concentration in the soil core was relatively low, in comparison with TF values of 0.31 and 0.38 in other fields. Similar trends could be found for the TF of whole rice plants, excluding roots. The TF of rice ears was relatively low at 0.019–0.026. The TF of chaff, rice bran, brown rice and polished rice was estimated to be 0.049, 0.10–0.16, 0.013–0.017 and 0.005–0.013, respectively. - Highlights: ► We investigated the transfer coefficient of 134 Cs and 137 Cs from soil to rice plants in Minami-Soma City due to the Fukushima accident in 2011. ► The rice ears, straws, roots, chaff, brown rice, polished rice, rice bran and soil samples have been measured by Ge-detector. ► Transfer coefficient of chaff, rice bran, brown rice, and polished rice is estimated as 0.049, ranging from 0.10 to 0.16, 0.013 to 0.017, and 0.005 to 0.013, respectively.

  5. A study on Cs decontamination characterisitcs of radioactively contaminated soil using soil washing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K. W.; Son, J. K.; Kim, K. D.; Kim, H. S.; Choi, Y. C.; Kang, K. D.; Sin, S. W.

    2002-01-01

    To decontaminate radioactively contaminated soil, various characteristics of soil were investigated, and applied for the best decontamination method and requirement. The effects of several conditions such as decontamination solutions, temperature and time was investigated. Na 2 CO 3 , which is not toxic to environment, was used as primary decontamination solution. The efficiency of decontamination was increased approximately 9% when decontamination time was increased from 30 min to 120 min. The efficiency of decontamination was increased approximately 10% when decontamination temperature was increased from 25 .deg. C to 70 .deg. C. The efficiency of decontamination was increased approximately 7% when the ratio of decontamination solution and soil was increased from 5:1 to 10:1

  6. Mixture effects of 30 environmental contaminants on incident metabolic syndrome-A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Lars; Salihovic, Samira; Lampa, Erik; Lind, P Monica

    2017-10-01

    Several cross-sectional studies have linked different environmental contaminants to the metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, mixture effects have not been investigated and no prospective studies exist regarding environmental contaminants and the MetS. To study mixture effects of contaminants on the risk of incident MetS in a prospective fashion. Our sample consisted of 452 subjects from the Prospective Study of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study (50% women, all aged 70years) free from the MetS at baseline, being followed for 10years. At baseline, 30 different environmental contaminants were measured; 6 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 3 organochlorine (OC) pesticides, one dioxin, one polybrominated diphenyl ether (all in plasma), 8 perfluoroalkyl substances (in plasma) and 11 metals (in whole blood). The MetS was defined by the ATPIII/NCEP criteria. Gradient boosted Classification and Regression Trees (CARTs) was used to evaluate potential synergistic and additive mixture effects on incident MetS. During 10-year follow-up, 92 incident cases of the MetS occurred. PCB126, PCB170, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and PCB118 levels were all associated with incident MetS in an additive fashion (OR 1.73 for a change from 10th to 90th percentile (95%CI 1.24-3.04) for PCB126, OR 0.63 (0.42-0.78) for PCB170, OR 1.44 (1.09-2.20) for HCB and OR 1.46 (1.13-2.43) for PCB118). No synergistic effects were found. A mixture of environmental contaminants, with PCB126, PCB170, HCB and PCB118 being the most important, showed associations with future development of the MetS in an additive fashion in this prospective study. Thus, mixture effects of environmental contaminants could contribute to the development of cardio-metabolic derangements. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Transfer of 137Cs in two farm ecosystems. Calculated effects of counter-measures following a postulated fallout land contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, I.; Loensjoe, H.

    1988-01-01

    Studies were performed on two farms, B and R, in southern Sweden to calculate the consequences after a postulated nuclear reactor accident involving contamination of land by 137Cs (1 MBq per m2). The activity transfer to crops and animal products during the sixth year after the fallout was calculated for situations without and with counter-measures taken. The effects of counter-measures, fertilizing with potassium, deep-ploughing and also modified crop and animal production, were supposed to have reached all parts of the agricultural systems. Steady state conditions were assumed to be prevailing in both situations. Calculations based on the present (in 1985) production on the farms and compiled for the situation without any counter-measures taken, indicate the root uptake of 137Cs in the crops during the year to be 53 MBq (B) and 280 MBq (R) corresponding to 1.0 and 1.6 MBq per hectare, respectively. Through the crops 46 MBq (B) and 187 MBq (R) are ingested by the animals. On the basis of the mean daily activity intake per animal, a total of about 5 MBq on each farm is calculated to be transferred to the animal products (milk and meat). Related to the land area this corresponds to 0.09 and 0.03 MBq per hectare on B and R respectively. The mean internal radiation dose during the year per person on the farms through home-produced food is calculated to be 0.1 mSv (B) and 0.2 mSv (R), and the mean external radiation dose to people working on the farms to be the same as that from the natural background. Calculations for the year in the situation with counter-measures taken indicate that the transferred activity of 137Cs to the crops per hectare is reduced by factors of 10 (B) and 3 (R). The corresponding transfer to animal products is by factors of 23 or 45 (B) and 3 (R), although in the latter case the size of animal production is considerably increased. The external and possibly also the internal radiation doses to people on both farms will be reduced

  8. Evaluation of the potential health-risk from the ingestion of vegetables grown on an exposed 137Cs-contaminated lake bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seel, J.F.; Whicker, F.W.; Adriano, D.C.

    1993-01-01

    The uptake of 137 Cs by several crop species grown on contaminated sediments as studied with treatments including the effect of potassium-fertilizer on contaminant transport into crops. The effect of food preparation on Cs 137 concentrations in palatable crop parts and the effect of irrigation using the on-site reservoir versus an off-site ground-water source was also studied. Sediment cores were taken prior to planting and after final harvest and were assayed for nutrients. 137 Cs analysis indicates large differences between fertilizer treatments. Some vegetables showed mean concentrations of 137 Cs up to four times higher in non-potassium fertilized plants versus plants grown with potassium. There was statistically no difference between uncooked and culinarily prepared crop parts. There was no statistical difference between crops irrigated with on-site reservoir water versus off-site ground-water. Cesium-137 soil-to-plant concentration ratios indicate high uptake of radiocesium into plants. Dose evaluations using site-specific data involving a 30-year resident of the area indicates a risk of cancer well with-in EPA Threshold Limits. This study emphasizes the high mobility of 137 Cs in ecosystems developing on sandy, nutrient-deficient substrates low in alkaline clays. Many areas near the Chernobyl nuclear facility contain soils of a similar nature. Thus, this work may be relevant to similar situations in that region

  9. CONTENT OF CS-137 IN HOMEMADE PRESERVES OF MUSHROOMS PICKED IN 2014 BY LOCAL RESIDENTS IN AREAS AFFECTED BY RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION AFTER CHERNOBYL NPP ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Varfolomeeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of the study made in 2014 on evaluation of the content of Cs-137 in different homemade dried and pickled mushrooms picked by residents of most contaminated areas of the Bryansk region. The aim of the study was to evaluate actual content levels of Cs-137 in homemade preserves of dried and pickled mushrooms picked in the Bryansk region areas with high level of radioactive contamination after Chernobyl accident. Sampling was conducted in residential settlements in proximity to most visited forest areas located at different distances to residential settlements in the range from 0.3 to 5 kilometers, with different forest types, with different soil surface contamination density by Cs-137 in the range from 33 to 944 kBq/m2 (Tentative levels of surface contamination of forest soil are evaluated based on the results of gammaspectrometry measurements in soil samples. The sampling was done at voluntary consent of local residents. In the frameworks of the research in ten settlements with 6112 residents altogether 25 samples were selected (8 samples of dried and 17 of pickled mushrooms.The analyses of study results resulted in the following conclusions: specific activity in samples of different kinds of dry and pickled mushrooms picked by residents of south-west areas of the Bryansk region vary in broad range from 32 to 34000 Bq/kg. The most part of homemade preserves of dried and pickled mushrooms of the local residents exceeds normative levels of permissible mushroom contamination. Cs-137 content in pickled mushrooms is not explicitly dependent on the level of soil surface contamination whereas specific activity of dry mushrooms increases along with the level of surface contamination increase. In the process of mushroom pickling, the additional reduction of Cs-137 content is observed: from 17% to 67% which averages to 37%. Due to the gradual reduction of transfer coefficients for Cs-137 into forest mushrooms and significant

  10. Status of 137Cs contamination in marine biota along the Pacific coast of eastern Japan derived from a dynamic biological model two years simulation following the Fukushima accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tateda, Yutaka; Tsumune, Daisuke; Tsubono, Takaki; Misumi, Kazuhiro; Yamada, Masatoshi; Kanda, Jota; Ishimaru, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Radiocesium ( 134 Cs and 137 Cs) released into the Fukushima coastal environment was transferred to marine biota inhabiting the Pacific Ocean coastal waters of eastern Japan. Though the levels in most of the edible marine species decreased overtime, radiocesium concentrations in some fishes were still remained higher than the Japanese regulatory limit for seafood products. In this study, a dynamic food chain transfer model was applied to reconstruct 137 Cs levels in olive flounder by adopting the radiocesium concentrations in small demersal fish which constitute an important fraction of the diet of the olive flounder particularly inhabiting area near Fukushima. In addition, 137 Cs levels in slime flounder were also simulated using reported radiocesium concentrations in some prey organisms. The simulated results from Onahama on the southern border of the Fukushima coastline, and at Choshi the southernmost point where the contaminated water mass was transported by the Oyashio current, were assessed in order to identify what can be explained from present information, and what remains to be clarified three years after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (1FNPP) accident. As a result, the observed 137 Cs concentrations in planktivorous fish and their predator fish could be explained by the theoretically-derived simulated levels. On the other hand, the slow 137 Cs depuration in slime flounder can be attributed to uptake from unknown sources for which the uptake fluxes were of a similar magnitude as the excretion fluxes. Since the reported 137 Cs concentrations in benthic invertebrates off Onahama were higher than the simulated values, radiocesium transfer from these benthic detritivorous invertebrates to slime flounder via ingestion was suggested as a cause for the observed slow depuration of 137 Cs in demersal fish off southern Fukushima. Furthermore, the slower depuration in the demersal fish likely required an additional source of 137 Cs, i.e. contaminated

  11. A thermodynamic study of decontamination of soils contaminated with 137Cs radionuclide as the results of accident at Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirkst, D.Eh.; Chaliyan, K.N.; Chaliyan, A.G.

    1994-01-01

    Thermodynamic characteristics of the process of soil decontamination from 137 Cs by the their washing with eluting solution, Fe(3) and ammonium being included in its composition, have been determined. The decontamination process is 137 Cs desorption as a result of destruction of cesium chelate complexes with humic acids. Fe 3+ and Fe(OH) 2+ substitution for Cs + in the soils occurs spontaneously as a thermodynamically efficient process. 3 refs.; 1 fig

  12. A study of internal contamination, using 137Cs and 90Sr urinary level, as indicator in the case of nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albulescu, L.; Gruia, D.

    1996-01-01

    Our laboratory has from long time a permanent monitoring programme concerning the radioactivity of the environmental factors in Bechet zone (fallout, drinking water, soil) and foodstuffs. The topical results of this programme indicates that there were not significant modifications in the 137 Cs and 90 Sr mean-levels, as indicators in case of nuclear accident, due by Chernobyl accident or by the nearby functioning of NPP in Koslodui. The purpose of this study is to determine the internal contamination of the population in Dolj-district, using the indirect test of determination of radioactivity of excretes (urinary analysis). The daily-urinary levels of 90 Sr and 137 Cs are the best indicators for the human body contamination, in the case of a nuclear accident, conclusion that can be drawn from the Fig.1 below. The variation of these indicators shows that the young people is the most exposed segment of population. (author)

  13. Cancer incidence in an area contaminated with radionuclides near a nuclear installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.J.

    1981-01-01

    Exposures of a large population in the Denver area to plutonium and other radionuclides in the exhaust plumes from the Rocky Flats (nuclear weapons) plant date back to 1953. Anglo cancer incidence in 1969-1971 was evaluated in census tracts with and without contamination in the Denver area (1970 pop. 1 019 130). Cancer incidence in males was 24% higher, and in females, 10% higher in the suburban area(pop. 154 170) with most contamination nearest the plant, compared to the unexposed area (pop. 423 870), also predominantly suburban, which had virtually the same age-adjusted incidence rate for all cancer as the state. Excess cases of cancer were due to more cases than expected of leukemia, lymphoma and myeloma and cancer of the lung, thyroid, breast, esophagus, stomach and colon, a pattern similar to that obs- erved in the survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The ratio of these cancers to all other cancer was 17.6% higher in males and 11.9% higher in females in the area near the plant. Cancer of the gonads (especially the testes), liver, and, in females, pancreas and brain contributed to the higher incidence of all cancer in areas near the plant. (Auth.)

  14. Surface radiological investigations at environmental research area 11, 137Cs- and 60Co-contaminated plots at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uziel, M.S.; Tiner, P.F.; Williams, J.K.

    1993-02-01

    A surface radiological investigation at the 137 Cs- and 6O Co-contaminated forest area (Chestnut Ridge east and west plots) was conducted from January 1992 through August 1992. Results of the survey revealed numerous spots and small areas of surface contamination that followed the original placement of feeders used for 6O Co- and 137 Cs-labeled seeds in a 1969--1970 study. Surface gamma exposure rates reached 380 μR/h at the east plot and 400 μR/h at the west plot, but approximately one-half and one- third, respectively, of the identified anomalies did not exceed 39 μR/h. Results of soil sample analyses demonstrated that 137 Cs and 6O Co were responsible for the elevated radiation levels. Radionuclides were found below the surface at soil sample locations, in some cases at depths below 18 in. The same pattern of subsurface contamination may be present at other elevated surface spots at both plots. These survey results show that current radiological conditions at the site remain an environmental problem. Recommendations for corrective actions are included

  15. The HYLOCOMIUM SPLENDENS use for research of Ignalina NPP vicinity contamination by Cs 137 and Co 60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiponas, D.; Marchiulenene, D.

    2002-01-01

    The superficial distribution of Cs 137 and Co 60 and specific activity of these radionuclides in Hylocomium splendens in Ignalina NPP vicinity was investigated. The increase of Cs 137 and Co 60 specific activity in Hylocomium splendens was linked with increasing of these radionuclides activity in atmospheric deposits

  16. The Etiology, Incidence, and Impact of Preservation Fluid Contamination during Liver Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriol, Isabel; Lladó, Laura; Vila, Marina; Baliellas, Carme; Tubau, Fe; Sabé, Núria; Fabregat, Joan; Carratalà, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    The role of contaminated preservation fluid in the development of infection after liver transplantation has not been fully elucidated. To assess the incidence and etiology of contaminated preservation fluid and determine its impact on the subsequent development of infection after liver transplantation, we prospectively studied 50 consecutive liver transplants, and cultured the following samples in each instance: preservation fluid (immediately before and at the end of the back-table procedure, and just before implantation), blood, and bile from the donor, and ascitic fluid from the recipient. When any culture was positive, blood cultures were obtained and targeted antimicrobial therapy was started. We found that the incidence of contaminated preservation fluid was 92% (46 of 50 cases of liver transplantation per year), but only 28% (14/50) were contaminated by recognized pathogens. Blood and bile cultures from the donor were positive in 28% and 6% respectively, whereas ascitic fluid was positive in 22%. The most frequently isolated microorganisms were coagulase-negative staphylococci. In nine cases, the microorganisms isolated from the preservation fluid concurred with those grown from the donor blood cultures, and in one case, the isolate matched with the one obtained from bile culture. No liver transplant recipient developed an infection due to the transmission of an organism isolated from the preservation fluid. Our findings indicate that contamination of the preservation fluid is frequent in liver transplantation, and it is mainly caused by saprophytic skin flora. Transmission of infection is low, particularly among those recipients given targeted antimicrobial treatment for organisms isolated in the preservation fluid.

  17. Studies on the radioactive contamination due to nuclear detonations VI. Theoretical analysis of the radioactive contamination due to Sr90 and Cs137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiwaki, Yasushi

    1961-01-01

    In view of the considerably different values of the fallout rate and the cumulative deposition of Sr 90 and Cs 137 reported from different parts of Japan, the author attempted to estimate the ranges of the fallout rate and of the cumulative deposition of Sr 90 and Cs 137 for different parts of Japan based upon the theoretical consideration

  18. Contamination of mushrooms with 137Cs on the territory of the Middle-Slovak Region in 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durecova, A.; Durec, F.; Auxtova, L.; Cechova, A.

    2011-01-01

    During the year 2011 in our laboratory were processed 64 samples of mushrooms growing in the wild. The 137 Cs has been established in most of the samples in separate headers and stamps of mushrooms. The highest activities of 137 Cs in the samples were fixed in mushrooms taken from the Skalka site at Kremnica. In the header of cyanosis mushroom (Boletus pulverulentus) subducted during October 18, 2011 from the locality Skalka-Kremnica was activity 190 Bq of 137 Cs/kg in fresh matter. (authors)

  19. Growth and {sup 137}Cs uptake of four Brassica species influenced by inoculation with a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Bacillus pumilus in three contaminated farmlands in Fukushima prefecture, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aung, Han Phyo [United Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Saiwaicho 3-5-8, Fuchu, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Djedidi, Salem; Oo, Aung Zaw [Institute of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Saiwaicho 3-5-8, Fuchu, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Aye, Yi Swe [Department of International Environmental and Agricultural Science, Graduate School of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Saiwaicho 3-5-8, Fuchu, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Yokoyama, Tadashi; Suzuki, Sohzoh [Institute of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Saiwaicho 3-5-8, Fuchu, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Sekimoto, Hitoshi [Faculty of Agriculture, Utsunomiya University, 321-8505 (Japan); Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko Dorothea, E-mail: skimura@cc.tuat.ac.jp [Institute of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Saiwaicho 3-5-8, Fuchu, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan)

    2015-07-15

    The effectiveness of the plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Bacillus pumilus regarding growth promotion and radiocesium ({sup 137}Cs) uptake was evaluated in four Brassica species grown on different {sup 137}Cs contaminated farmlands at Fukushima prefecture in Japan from June to August 2012. B. pumilus inoculation did not enhance growth in any of the plants, although it resulted in a significant increase of {sup 137}Cs concentration and higher {sup 137}Cs transfer from the soil to plants. The Brassica species exhibited different {sup 137}Cs uptake abilities in the order Komatsuna > turnip > mustard > radish. TF values of {sup 137}Cs ranged from 0.018 to 0.069 for all vegetables. Komatsuna possessed the largest root surface area and root volume, and showed a higher {sup 137}Cs concentration in plant tissue and higher {sup 137}Cs TF values (0.060) than the other vegetables. Higher {sup 137}Cs transfer to plants was prominent in soil with a high amount of organic matter and an Al-vermiculite clay mineral type. - Highlights: • PGPR inoculation did not enhance plant biomass of tested plants. • PGPR inoculation resulted in higher {sup 137}Cs concentration in plants. • Komatsuna that had larger root volume showed higher {sup 137}Cs TF from soil to plants. • Soil with high SOM and Al-vermiculite caused larger {sup 137}Cs transfer to plants.

  20. A study of internal contamination levels resulting from {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs environmental pollution. The influence of different factors; Etude des niveaux de contamination interne resultant d'une pollution de l'environnement par le {sup 90}Sr et le {sup 137}Cs influence des differents parametres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garnier, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1970-07-01

    This study includes two parts. The purpose of the former one is to try and evaluate the amounts of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs dietary intakes as a function of age with a view to assessing internal exposure doses and estimating the critical age, and to study the relative significance of the several factors it depends on. The data used are both the results of dietary surveys made in 11 districts of the European community from which the evolution of the consumed amounts of 13 groups of foodstuffs, as a function of age was derived, and the mean factors of contamination pathways. The variability of some factors is very large and an attempt is made to assess their significance on the whole contamination; also, the influence of the various diets has been emphasized. The purpose of the second part is to assess, doses as a function of age in the case of protracted exposure on the basis of the aforesaid results and radiobiological factors derived from bibliographic states of the arts. An assessment is made of body burdens and mean doses (either to the skeleton or the whole body according to the radionuclides) originating either from a direct unitary exposure or from situations implying both modes of exposure. As assumed only the diets vary with the districts, thus the results reflect their significance which should be corrected, for a more accurate assessment of the dose variability, by the significance of human and transfer factors. (author) [French] Cette etude comprend deux parties. L'objet de la premiere partie est a la fois un essai d'evaluation en fonction de l'age des quantites de strontium 90 et de cesium 137 ingerees avec les aliments dans la perspective d'une application a l'estimation des doses d'irradiation interne et a la recherche de l'age critique, et une etude de l'influence relative des divers parametres dont elle depend. Les donnees utilisees sont, d'une part, les resultats des enquetes alimentaires faites en onze regions de la Communaute Europeenne dont on

  1. A study of internal contamination levels resulting from {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs environmental pollution. The influence of different factors; Etude des niveaux de contamination interne resultant d'une pollution de l'environnement par le {sup 90}Sr et le {sup 137}Cs influence des differents parametres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garnier, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1970-07-01

    This study includes two parts. The purpose of the former one is to try and evaluate the amounts of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs dietary intakes as a function of age with a view to assessing internal exposure doses and estimating the critical age, and to study the relative significance of the several factors it depends on. The data used are both the results of dietary surveys made in 11 districts of the European community from which the evolution of the consumed amounts of 13 groups of foodstuffs, as a function of age was derived, and the mean factors of contamination pathways. The variability of some factors is very large and an attempt is made to assess their significance on the whole contamination; also, the influence of the various diets has been emphasized. The purpose of the second part is to assess, doses as a function of age in the case of protracted exposure on the basis of the aforesaid results and radiobiological factors derived from bibliographic states of the arts. An assessment is made of body burdens and mean doses (either to the skeleton or the whole body according to the radionuclides) originating either from a direct unitary exposure or from situations implying both modes of exposure. As assumed only the diets vary with the districts, thus the results reflect their significance which should be corrected, for a more accurate assessment of the dose variability, by the significance of human and transfer factors. (author) [French] Cette etude comprend deux parties. L'objet de la premiere partie est a la fois un essai d'evaluation en fonction de l'age des quantites de strontium 90 et de cesium 137 ingerees avec les aliments dans la perspective d'une application a l'estimation des doses d'irradiation interne et a la recherche de l'age critique, et une etude de l'influence relative des divers parametres dont elle depend. Les donnees utilisees sont, d'une part, les resultats des enquetes alimentaires faites en

  2. Studies on the radioactive contamination due to nuclear detonations VI. Theoretical analysis of the radioactive contamination due to Sr{sup 90} and Cs{sup 137}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishiwaki, Yasushi [Nuclear Reactor Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Nuclear Reactor Laboratoroy, Kinki University, Fuse City, Osaka Precture (Japan)

    1961-11-25

    In view of the considerably different values of the fallout rate and the cumulative deposition of Sr{sup 90} and Cs{sup 137} reported from different parts of Japan, the author attempted to estimate the ranges of the fallout rate and of the cumulative deposition of Sr{sup 90} and Cs{sup 137} for different parts of Japan based upon the theoretical consideration.

  3. Decontaminating effectiveness of Ca-, Zn-, MnDTPA chelates in contamination with inner radioisotopes 137Cs, 144Ce, 131I, 90Sr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kossakowski, S.

    1987-01-01

    The studies were carried out on 240 rabbits divided into 4 groups, in which, after contamination with radioisotopes 137 Cs (A), 144 Ce (B), 131 I (C), 90 Sr (D), Ca-, Zn-, MnDTPA chelates were used in 12.5% water solutions in doses of 0.4 g/kg of body weight. The evaluation of the decontaminating effectiveness of the above DTPA compounds, taking into account veterinary-clinical and veterinary-sanitary aspects, was made after 1,2,4,6,15 days from the contamination. The results expressing the per cent values of radioactivity of the organs are presented in individual groups. From these data it can be assumed for practical veterinary purposes that Ca-, Zn-, MnDTPA chelates show an effective action with respect to the veterinary-clinical aspect in contamination with radiocerium and with respect to the veterinary-sanitary aspect in contamination with radiocerium and radioiodine; less effective action with respect to the veterinary-sanitary aspect and ineffective with respect to the veterinary-clinical aspect in contamination with radiocesium; negative one with respect to both aspects in contamination with radiostrontium. As regards the individual chelating compounds, the most effective can be recognized sodium zinc salt of DTPA. 58 refs., 4 tabs. (author)

  4. On the possibility of internal contamination by 137Cs through ingestion of bilberries (Vaccinium Myrtillus) from some parts of Slovakia and of market origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Missik, J.; Puskeiler, L.; Miklas, P.

    2006-01-01

    Samples of bilberries (Vaccinium myrtillus) taken from mountain ranges of Vysoke Javorniky, Turzovska vrchovina, Kysucke Beskydy, Mala Fatra, surroundings of towns Banska Stiavnica and Brezno, from southeastern part of Spis region and one site at Orava region were analysed by HPGe gamma-spectrometry. The most contaminated sample came from Skalka at district Brezno with the activity of 137 Cs (37.6 ± 2.1) Bq · kg -1 . Lower activities than 1 Bq · kg -1 were detected in samples taken from sites at Orava and Kysucke Beskydy. The highest activity of 137 Cs (535.7 ± 29.8) Bq.kg-1 in berries from commercial shops at Slovakia in the year 2005 were found in frozen berries from Romania. (authors)

  5. {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co and {sup 40}K uptake by lettuce plants in two distributions of soil contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinto, Francesca [Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Seconda Universita di Napoli, via Vivaldi 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy); CIRCE, INNOVA, via Campi Flegrei 34, Pozzuoli 80078 (Italy)], E-mail: francesca.quinto@unina2.it; Sabbarese, Carlo; Visciano, Lidianna; Terrasi, Filippo; D' Onofrio, Antonio [Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Seconda Universita di Napoli, via Vivaldi 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy); CIRCE, INNOVA, via Campi Flegrei 34, Pozzuoli 80078 (Italy)

    2009-08-15

    {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co, two of the radionuclides more representative of discharges from nuclear facilities, are of interest for radiological protections because of their great mobility in biosphere and affinity with biological systems. The aim of the present work is the investigation of the possible influence of the vertical distribution of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co in soil upon their uptake by lettuce as function of plant's growth. An experiment ad hoc has been carried out in field conditions. The results show that (i) the transfer of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co from soil to lettuce is independent by their distribution in soil, (ii) the soil-plant transfer factors of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co show a similar trend vs. growth stage, (iii) the {sup 40}K transfer factor trend is different from those of anthropogenic radionuclides, and (iv) {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co specific activities are about 1 Bq/kg, in the mature vegetable with soil activity from 9 to 21 kBq/m{sup 2}.

  6. 137Cs, 60Co and 40K uptake by lettuce plants in two distributions of soil contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinto, Francesca; Sabbarese, Carlo; Visciano, Lidianna; Terrasi, Filippo; D'Onofrio, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    137 Cs and 60 Co, two of the radionuclides more representative of discharges from nuclear facilities, are of interest for radiological protections because of their great mobility in biosphere and affinity with biological systems. The aim of the present work is the investigation of the possible influence of the vertical distribution of 137 Cs and 60 Co in soil upon their uptake by lettuce as function of plant's growth. An experiment ad hoc has been carried out in field conditions. The results show that (i) the transfer of 137 Cs and 60 Co from soil to lettuce is independent by their distribution in soil, (ii) the soil-plant transfer factors of 137 Cs and 60 Co show a similar trend vs. growth stage, (iii) the 40 K transfer factor trend is different from those of anthropogenic radionuclides, and (iv) 137 Cs and 60 Co specific activities are about 1 Bq/kg, in the mature vegetable with soil activity from 9 to 21 kBq/m 2 .

  7. Evaluation of 137Cs body burden in inhabitants of Bryansk Oblast, Russian Federation, where a high incidence of thyroid cancer was observed after the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekitani, Y.; Hayashida, N.; Karevskaya, I. V.; Vasilitsova, O. A.; Kozlovsky, A.; Omiya, M.; Yamashita, S.; Takamura, N.

    2010-01-01

    To determine the current risk of internal radiation exposure after the Chernobyl accident, the 137 Cs body burden of the inhabitants of Bryansk Oblast (Russian Federation) was evaluated, from 1998 to 2008. The study population is composed of 84 666 people who visited Bryansk No. 2 Hospital. A whole-body counter was used for measurement of 137 Cs body burden. 137 Cs concentration was significantly higher in the late period during the study and showed seasonal variation, suggesting that inhabitants may have consumed contaminated forest products. However, people with high annual exposure doses were quite rare during all years of the study. In conclusion, although internal radiation exposure from 137 Cs continues to this day in Bryansk Oblast, the annual exposure dose is low in almost all inhabitants. Because of the long half-life of 137 Cs, the long term follow-up is necessary to monitor the health status and relieve the anxiety of the inhabitants around Chernobyl. (authors)

  8. Patterns and dynamics of Cs-137 soil contamination on the plot scale of the Bryansk Region (Russia): the role of processes, connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnik, Vitaly; Sokolov, Alexander; Saveliev, Anatoly

    2014-05-01

    parameters, general additive models were used. According to results of modeling using a detailed and a generalized grid it has been found (Linnik, Saveliev et.al., 2007), that in accumulation zones (depressions) 137Cs deposit was lower when Laplace operator was positive (Laplace1>0=915 kBq/m2; Laplace2>0=921 kBq/m2) than in wash-out zones, singled out by negative values of Laplace operator (Laplace1Saveliev A.A., Govorun A.P., Ivanitsky O.M., Sokolov A.V. Spatial Variability and Topographic Factors of 137Cs Soil Contamination at a Field Scale// International Journal of Ecology & Development, 2007, Vol. 8, No.7, p.8-25.

  9. Present status in {sup 137}Cs contamination in the marine biota along the Pacific coast of eastern Japan derived from a dynamic biological model simulation following the Fukushima accident - A state and problem in {sup 137}Cs contamination in the marine biota along the Pacific coast of eastern Japan derived from the dynamic biological model simulation after the Fukushima accident - A state and problem in {sup 137}Cs contamination in the marine biota along the Pacific coast of eastern Japan derived from the dynamic biological model simulation after the Fukushima accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tateda, Y.; Tsumune, D.; Tsubono, K.; Misumi, K. [Environmental Science Research Laboratory, CRIEPI, 1646, Abiko, Chiba, 270-1194 (Japan); Yamada, M. [Institute of radiation Emergency Medicine, Hirosaki University, 66-1 Hon-cho, Bunkyo, Hirosaki, Aomori, 036-8564 (Japan); Kanda, J.; Ishimaru, T. [Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, 4-5-7, Konan, Minato, Tokyo, 108-8477 (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    To understand the radioactive matter contamination of coastal biota in case of accidental release to the environment, the {sup 137}Cs levels in coastal biota around the Fukushima were reconstructed by dynamic model simulating non-equilibrated radioactive Cs transfer between seawater and organisms. Since, there is a disagreement between simulated radioactive Cs levels and observed concentrations in benthic organisms, being possibly attributable to the additional contamination source from sediment environment (Tateda et al. 2013), the {sup 137}Cs levels in organisms habituated not close to the sediment are calculated. Using the reconstructed {sup 137}Cs levels in seawater including atmospheric input and direct leakage after 1/March/2011 till 31/December/2012, {sup 137}Cs levels in sedentary organisms such as macro algae, bivalve and surface swimming plankton feeding fish e.g. as white bait were calculated along the Pacific Ocean coastal area of the Eastern Japan. The simulated temporal space distribution of the {sup 137}Cs levels in macro algae, algae feeding invertebrates, coastal bivalves, were generally agreed in the observed temporal profiles corresponding to the same food habitat organisms collected, while the magnitude of the {sup 137}Cs levels were several times lower than observed concentrations. Since the simulated reconstructed seawater levels are only verified by measured values after direct leakage, thus initial levels before the liquid release may be expected to be higher reconstructed level by simulation. The organisms are continuously exposed to initial contaminated seawater, reflecting actual seawater level increase in seawater, thus there may be possible deficit of initial source estimation in coastal surface water e.g. contribution from fine debris deposition to seaward from hydrogen explosion. In other word as shown in overall pushing up measured level compared to reconstructed level in organism, it also suggests the re-distributed {sup 137}Cs

  10. Understanding transport pathways in a river system - Monitoring sediments contaminated by an incident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, S.; Kleisinger, C.; Hillebrand, G.; Claus, E.; Schwartz, R.; Carls, I.; Winterscheid, A.; Schubert, B.

    2016-12-01

    Experiments to trace transport of sediments and suspended particulate matter on a river scale are an expensive and difficult venture, since it causes a lot of official requirements. In spring 2015, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) were released during restoration works at a bridge in the upper part of the Elbe River, near the Czech-German border. In this study, the particle-bound PCB-transport is applied as a tracer for monitoring transport pathways of suspended solids (SS) along a whole river stretch over 700 km length. The incident was monitored by concentration measurements of seven indicator PCB congeners along the inland part of the Elbe River as well as in the Elbe estuary. Data from 15 monitoring stations (settling tanks) as well as from two longitudinal campaigns (grab samples) along the river in July and August 2015 are considered. The total PCB load is calculated for all stations on the basis of monthly contaminant concentrations and daily suspended sediment concentrations. Monte-Carlo simulations assess the uncertainties of the calculated load. 1D water levels and GIS analysis were used to locate temporal storage areas for the SS. It is shown that the ratio of high versus low chlorinated PCB congeners is a suitable tracer to distinguish the PCB load of the incident from the long-term background signal. Furthermore, the reduction of total PCB load within the upper Elbe indicates that roughly 24% of the SS were transported with the water by wash load. Approximately 600 km downstream of the incident site, the PCB-marked wash load was first identified in July 2015. PCB load transported intermittently in suspension was detected roughly 400 km downstream of the incident site by August 2015. In the Elbe Estuary, PCB-marked SS were only found upstream of the steep slope of water depth (approx. 4 to 15 m) within Hamburg harbor that acts as a major sediment sink. Here, SS from the inland Elbe are mixed with lowly contaminated marine material, which may mask the

  11. Contamination of terrestrial ecosystem components with 90Sr, 137Cs, and 226Ra caused by the deterioration of the multibarrier protection of radioactive waste storages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latynova, N. E.

    2010-03-01

    The spatial-temporal features of the radioactive contamination of terrestrial ecosystem components caused by the deterioration of the multibarrier protection of regional radioactive waste storages of the State Research Center of the Russian Federation-Leipunskii Institute of Physics and Power Engineering at the input of radionuclides into the soil and ground water were studied. The composition of the radioactive contamination was determined, and the hydrological and geochemical processes resulting in the formation of large radioactive sources were described. The natural features of the radioactive waste storage areas favoring the entry of 90Sr, 137Cs, and 226Ra into the soils and their inclusion in the biological turnover were characterized. The directions of the horizontal migration of 90Sr, 137Cs, and 226Ra and the sites of their accumulation within the superaquatic and aquatic landscapes of a near-terrace depression were studied; the factors of the 90Sr accumulation in plants and cockles were calculated. The results of the studies expand the theoretical concepts of the mechanisms, processes, and factors controlling the behavior of radionuclides at the deterioration of the multibarrier protection of radioactive waste storages. The presented experimental data can be used for solving practical problems related to environmental protection in the areas of industrial nuclear complexes.

  12. Estimation of 244Cm intake by bioassay measurements following a contamination incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thein, M.; Bogard, J.S.; Eckerman, K.F.

    1990-01-01

    An employee was contaminated with radioactive material consisting primarily of 244 Cm and 246 Cm as a consequence of handling a curium nitrate solution at a reprocessing facility. In vivo gamma analysis and in vitro (urine and fecal) bioassay measurements were performed. A sample of the curium solution from the workplace was obtained to confirm that the nitrate was the chemical form and to identify the isotopes of curium present. The mass ratio of 244 Cm/ 246 Cm was determined to be 91 to 7. Observed excretion rates were consistent with available information on curium. The results of the in vivo and in vitro measurements are presented and intake estimates for the incident are developed. (author) 11 refs.; 3 figs.; 2 tabs

  13. The distribution of 137Cs in maize (Zea mays L.) and two millet species (Panicum miliaceum L. and Panicum maximum Jacq.) cultivated on the cesium-contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bystrzejewska-Nowacka, G.; Nowacka, R.

    2004-01-01

    The plant of three species (Zea mays L., Panicum miliaceum L. and Panicum maximum Jacq.) were grown on the soil contaminated with 0.3 mM CsCl solution traced with 137 Cs, in greenhouse. For all the species, the fresh-to-dry weight ratio was equal in the cesium-treated plants and in the central group after 3 weeks of culture. The shoot-to root fresh weight and dry weight ratios were decreased in maize, unchanged in Panicum miliaceum and increased in Panicum maximum, comparing to the control without cesium treatment. The shoot/soil and also root/soil transfer (TF) for 137 Cs (measured by means of Na I gamma spectrometer) were always the highest in maize, then lower in Panicum miliaceum and the lowest in Panicum maximum. All the plants seem to be hyperaccumulators of cesium. The root/soil Tf was especially high in maize, i.e. 55 (kBq kg -1 biomass)/kBq Kg -1 soil). The shoot/root concentration factor (CF) for 137 Cs was the lowest in maize, higher in Panicum miliaceum and highest in Panicum maximum. The proved ability of the investigated plants for phytoextraction of the soil cesium points to the (author). The detectability and reliin soil bioremediation. From this point of view, Panicum maximum seems to be the most useful plant because it accumulates cesium mainly in the shoot, and maize would be the least useful spices since it has the highest accumulation in root. (author)

  14. Granulometric determinations and inhalation dose assessment for atmospheric aerosol contaminated by {sup 137}Cs; Determinazioni granulometriche e valutazioni di dose da inalazione per aerosol atmosferico contaminato da {sup 137}CS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellani, C.M.; Luciani, A. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche `E. Clementel`, Bologna (Italy). Dip. Ambiente; Oliviero, L.; Donato, R. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Saluggia, Vercelli (Italy). Dip. Ambiente

    1996-07-01

    During the redevelopment of Brescia freight-yard a measurement campaign of atmospheric aerosol was carried out: in fact a {sup 137}Cs ground contamination, caused by the permanence of wagons carrying iron materials contaminated by this radionuclide, had been found out. During the redevelopment phases of excavation and can filling the workers were exposed to the danger of radioactive aerosol inhalation. The aim of the measurement campaign was to test the aerosol sampling and granulometric analysis methodologies with their sensitivity related to the inhalation dose assessments. The results of both aerosuspended mass and activity, evaluated by means of a portable cascade impactor, are presented. The granulometries have been interpolated with a log normal distribution using an iterative routine minimizing the square deviation between the calculated and experimental data. The results related to the dose assessments are also presented. These evaluations have been carried out using both the granulometric information obtained and the more recent models (ICRP 66) both the total concentration data and the dose coefficients referring to the standard conditions of ICRP 68 and of the Italian law (D.Lgs. 230/95). Furthermore the significance and the reliability of the dose assessments referring to the different methodologies are discussed, also in relation to the possibility of using this sampling methodologies for other radionuclides and different exposure conditions.

  15. Study of 137 Cs contamination in Rochedo Reservoir, Meia Ponte river (Goias State) from the radiologic accident in Goiania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Luca, Marcia Emilia M.

    1997-01-01

    Through 137 Cs concentration profiles in sediments from Rochedo Reservoir, it was possible to estimate the amount of this radionuclide (94 GBq) which has reached the Meia Ponte River system, as a consequence of the Goiania radiological accident in 1987. Based on in-situ measurements as well as on laboratory studies, the influence of N H 4 + concentration on the K d value was also investigated. The results have shown that for high N H 4 + concentrations there is a clear correlation between both parameters. It was also observed the influence on the aging effect on the 137 Cs release from the sediment, as well as of the illite content in it. (author)

  16. Modelling of Cs-137 availability in soils subjected to contamination after the accident at the Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fesenko, S.V.; Spiridonov, S.I.; Sanzharova, N.I.; Aleksakhin, R.M.

    1996-01-01

    Results of the application of the model describing behaviour of the radionuclide in meadow ecosystems for the analysis of the factors governing of the radionuclide availability in soils are presented. The estimation of characteristics of fuel particles in near zone of the Chernobyl NPP is given. It is shown that in the first period after the accident the main factors determining Cs-137 availability in soil are property of soil and mat as well as fallout characteristics. Refs. 6, figs. 5

  17. Analysis of environmental contamination resulting from catastrophic incidents: part 1. Building and sustaining capacity in laboratory networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnuson, Matthew; Ernst, Hiba; Griggs, John; Fitz-James, Schatzi; Mapp, Latisha; Mullins, Marissa; Nichols, Tonya; Shah, Sanjiv; Smith, Terry; Hedrick, Elizabeth

    2014-11-01

    Catastrophic incidents, such as natural disasters, terrorist attacks, and industrial accidents, can occur suddenly and have high impact. However, they often occur at such a low frequency and in unpredictable locations that planning for the management of the consequences of a catastrophe can be difficult. For those catastrophes that result in the release of contaminants, the ability to analyze environmental samples is critical and contributes to the resilience of affected communities. Analyses of environmental samples are needed to make appropriate decisions about the course of action to restore the area affected by the contamination. Environmental samples range from soil, water, and air to vegetation, building materials, and debris. In addition, processes used to decontaminate any of these matrices may also generate wastewater and other materials that require analyses to determine the best course for proper disposal. This paper summarizes activities and programs the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has implemented to ensure capability and capacity for the analysis of contaminated environmental samples following catastrophic incidents. USEPA's focus has been on building capability for a wide variety of contaminant classes and on ensuring national laboratory capacity for potential surges in the numbers of samples that could quickly exhaust the resources of local communities. USEPA's efforts have been designed to ensure a strong and resilient laboratory infrastructure in the United States to support communities as they respond to contamination incidents of any magnitude. The efforts include not only addressing technical issues related to the best-available methods for chemical, biological, and radiological contaminants, but also include addressing the challenges of coordination and administration of an efficient and effective response. Laboratory networks designed for responding to large scale contamination incidents can be sustained by applying

  18. Growth and (137)Cs uptake of four Brassica species influenced by inoculation with a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Bacillus pumilus in three contaminated farmlands in Fukushima prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Han Phyo; Djedidi, Salem; Oo, Aung Zaw; Aye, Yi Swe; Yokoyama, Tadashi; Suzuki, Sohzoh; Sekimoto, Hitoshi; Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko Dorothea

    2015-07-15

    The effectiveness of the plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Bacillus pumilus regarding growth promotion and radiocesium ((137)Cs) uptake was evaluated in four Brassica species grown on different (137)Cs contaminated farmlands at Fukushima prefecture in Japan from June to August 2012. B. pumilus inoculation did not enhance growth in any of the plants, although it resulted in a significant increase of (137)Cs concentration and higher (137)Cs transfer from the soil to plants. The Brassica species exhibited different (137)Cs uptake abilities in the order Komatsuna>turnip>mustard>radish. TF values of (137)Cs ranged from 0.018 to 0.069 for all vegetables. Komatsuna possessed the largest root surface area and root volume, and showed a higher (137)Cs concentration in plant tissue and higher (137)Cs TF values (0.060) than the other vegetables. Higher (137)Cs transfer to plants was prominent in soil with a high amount of organic matter and an Al-vermiculite clay mineral type. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Foliar contamination of plants with aerosols of 137Cs, 85Sr, 133Ba and 123mTe: influence of rain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madoz-Escande, C.; Bonhomme, T.; Poncet-Bonnard, D.

    2004-01-01

    Different types of plants (lettuce, radish and grass sward) were contaminated by dry deposition of radioactive aerosols ( 137 Cs, 85 Sr, 133 Ba and 123m Te). Due to the rain efficiency in decreasing radiological contamination of crops, a range of rain scenarios was applied on these three types of plants. These experiments aimed at improving the prediction of the consequences on agricultural products of a nuclear accident occurring on a PWR, and also at improving the understanding of the different processes occurring between the contamination and the first harvest. For a plant species at a given stage of its growth cycle, interception of the four radionuclides was identical and varied from 68% for radish to 84% for grass. The interception of aerosols by lettuce was intermediary with 75% (at the middle of ripeness stage) or 78%(at the mature plant stage). By the use of a conceptual model, the predominance between the two processes: washing-off the leaves and absorption through the leaves cuticles that allows the translocation, was evidenced. For Cs, Sr and Ba,, for the lettuce and the radish the washing-off process on the foliar cover of lettuce and radish was the most significant during the first rain. The absorption process inside the plant became dominant only from the third rain event. Tellurium had a particular behaviour: it was non-mobile and stayed put on the leaves. The values of the washing-off and absorption coefficients were estimated. For the grass, during the washing-off, radionuclides had a tendency to accumulate in the basal parts of plant first and the root matt later. Moreover, grass cuts came in between the rains. The global transfer factor values were dependant on both the radionuclides and the plant species, nevertheless the higher value was obtained for the cesium, whatever the plant and the rain (from 0,06 m 2 .kg fresh -1 for radish to 0,1 m 2 .kg fresh -1 for whole lettuce). (author)

  20. Current contamination by 137Cs and 90Sr of the Techa River Basin in the South Urals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravtsova, O.S.; Shutov, V.N.; Travnikova, I.G.; Bruk, G.Ya.; Kravtsova, E.M.; Gavrilov, A.P.; Mubasarov, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to conduct a preliminary assessment of the current radioactive contamination of soil, vegetation and foodstuffs in the two remaining villages closest to the Mayak site, Muslyumovo and Brodokalmak. Previous release of radioactivity from the Mayak Production Association plant in the South Urals have resulted in considerable radionuclide contamination of the Techa River, and consequent high radiation doses during the late 1940s and 1950s to residents of villages along the Techa river. The most contaminated villages close to the site were evacuated in the period 1954-1962. Nowadays the highest contamination levels in soil were found in the flood plain at 5.5 MBq m -2 for 1 37C s and 1.0 MBq m -2 for 9 0S r. The radionuclide contamination in soil of the two mentioned above villages was much lower, but exceeded that expected from global fallout. Data from 1207 measurements of 1 37C s in milk and 1180 for 9 0S r in milk for the period 1992-1999 were collated. There was no change with time in the 9 0S r or 1 37C s activity concentration in milk over the measured period. There were significantly higher 1 37C s activity concentrations in milk sampled during the stalled period in Muslyumovo compared with the grazing summer period, but no difference between that for Brodokalmak or for either settlement for 9 0S r. The highest measured activity concentrations in food products of 1 37C s and 9 0S r were found in river fish, waterfowl, poultry and milk. The measured activity concentration of 1 37C s and 9 0S r of some animal products were higher than that expected from that of soil and vegetation from fields and pasture in the villages (not including the flood plain) confirming that the highly contaminated flood plains are contributing to contamination of some animal products

  1. Characterization of freshwater bivalves as radio contamination (57Co, 110mAg, 134Cs) bio-indicators in a metallic multi pollution context (Cd, Zn)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraysse, B.

    2001-07-01

    This study concerns freshwater bio-indicators of radio-contamination, in a metallic multi-pollution context. Metals, such as cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn), are widely represented in aquatic ecosystems, and their concentrations can induce physiological effects. This chronicle exposure generates both metabolic and behaviour stress of individuals, and can also yield to detoxification mechanisms induction. The main goal of this work was to estimate the influence of metals on the radionuclides ( 57 Co, 110m Ag, 134 Cs) bioaccumulation by two different bivalve species (Corbicula fluminea et Dreissena polymorpha), by studying the contamination level, the kinetic of the radionuclide transfer and the soft-body repartition. As the exploratory feature of this study, two parts have been developed: (i) testing the problematic suitability in a really bio-monitoring situation, and (ii) analysing the metal/radionuclide interaction mechanisms under controlled and standardised conditions (laboratory). For the different experimental conditions explored (laboratory and field), radionuclide bioaccumulation by freshwater bivalves has been influenced by metal exposure. This result was obtained after assessing a decrease of the organisms contamination level by radionuclide and their accumulation rate, an increase of their depuration rate and tissue and cellular repartition changes. (author)

  2. Modeling dynamics of "1"3"7Cs in forest surface environments: Application to a contaminated forest site near Fukushima and assessment of potential impacts of soil organic matter interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ota, Masakazu; Nagai, Haruyasu; Koarashi, Jun

    2016-01-01

    A process-based model for "1"3"7Cs transfer in forest surface environments was developed to assess the dynamic behavior of Fukushima-derived "1"3"7Cs in a Japanese forest. The model simulation successfully reproduced the observed data from 3 year migration of "1"3"7Cs in the organic and mineral soil layers at a contaminated forest near Fukushima. The migration of "1"3"7Cs from the organic layer to the mineral soil was explained by the direct deposition pattern on the forest floor and the turnover of litter materials in the organic layer under certain ecological conditions. Long-term predictions indicated that more than 90% of the deposited "1"3"7Cs would remain within the top 5 cm of the soil for up to 30 years after the accident, suggesting that the forest acts as an effective long-term reservoir of "1"3"7Cs with limited transfer via the groundwater pathway. The model was also used to explore the potential impacts of soil organic matter (SOM) interactions on the mobility and bioavailability of "1"3"7Cs in the soil–plant system. The simulation results for hypothetical organic soils with modified parameters of "1"3"7Cs turnover revealed that the SOM-induced reduction of "1"3"7Cs adsorption elevates the fraction of dissolved "1"3"7Cs in the soil solution, thereby increasing the soil-to-plant transfer of "1"3"7Cs without substantially altering the fractional distribution of "1"3"7Cs in the soil. Slower fixation of "1"3"7Cs on the flayed edge site of clay minerals and enhanced mobilization of the clay-fixed "1"3"7Cs in organic-rich soils also appeared to elevate the soil-to-plant transfer of "1"3"7Cs by increasing the fraction of the soil-adsorbed (exchangeable) "1"3"7Cs. A substantial proportion (approximate 30%–60%) of "1"3"7Cs in these organic-rich soils was transferred to layers deeper than 5 cm decades later. These results suggested that SOM influences the behavior of "1"3"7Cs in forests over a prolonged period through alterations of adsorption and fixation in

  3. Analysis of environmental contamination resulting from catastrophic incidents: part 2. Building laboratory capability by selecting and developing analytical methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnuson, Matthew; Campisano, Romy; Griggs, John; Fitz-James, Schatzi; Hall, Kathy; Mapp, Latisha; Mullins, Marissa; Nichols, Tonya; Shah, Sanjiv; Silvestri, Erin; Smith, Terry; Willison, Stuart; Ernst, Hiba

    2014-11-01

    Catastrophic incidents can generate a large number of samples of analytically diverse types, including forensic, clinical, environmental, food, and others. Environmental samples include water, wastewater, soil, air, urban building and infrastructure materials, and surface residue. Such samples may arise not only from contamination from the incident but also from the multitude of activities surrounding the response to the incident, including decontamination. This document summarizes a range of activities to help build laboratory capability in preparation for sample analysis following a catastrophic incident, including selection and development of fit-for-purpose analytical methods for chemical, biological, and radiological contaminants. Fit-for-purpose methods are those which have been selected to meet project specific data quality objectives. For example, methods could be fit for screening contamination in the early phases of investigation of contamination incidents because they are rapid and easily implemented, but those same methods may not be fit for the purpose of remediating the environment to acceptable levels when a more sensitive method is required. While the exact data quality objectives defining fitness-for-purpose can vary with each incident, a governing principle of the method selection and development process for environmental remediation and recovery is based on achieving high throughput while maintaining high quality analytical results. This paper illustrates the result of applying this principle, in the form of a compendium of analytical methods for contaminants of interest. The compendium is based on experience with actual incidents, where appropriate and available. This paper also discusses efforts aimed at adaptation of existing methods to increase fitness-for-purpose and development of innovative methods when necessary. The contaminants of interest are primarily those potentially released through catastrophes resulting from malicious activity

  4. Use of total {sup 137}Cs deposition to predict contamination in feed vegetation and reindeer 25 years after Chernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuterud, Lavrans [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, P.O. Box 55, N-1332 Oesteraas (Norway); Norwegian Reindeer Husbandry Administration, P.O. Box 1104, N-9504 Alta (Norway); Thoerring, Haavard; Ytre-Eide, Martin A. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, P.O. Box 55, N-1332 Oesteraas (Norway)

    2014-07-01

    The Chernobyl fallout has so far caused contamination challenges for animal production in various areas of Norway for nearly 30 years, particularly for sheep, goats and reindeer. The persistent uptake and long-term trends of radiocaesium in forest and mountain areas still justifies maintaining the elevated permissible level for radiocaesium of 3,000 Bq/kg in reindeer meat. In comparison, Japanese authorities chose 100 Bq/kg as the permissible level for radiocaesium in Japanese foodstuffs. The slow decline in contamination levels in reindeer during the last 10-15 years have necessitated an evaluation of the remediation strategy for reindeer herding. The former seasonal differences in contamination levels in reindeer meat made 'early slaughtering' (in autumn instead of winter) an effective measure. However, such seasonal differences are no longer systematic, and differences in contamination levels in reindeer at slaughter now appear to be more strongly related to the differences in deposition levels in the areas grazed prior to slaughter. In 2011 Norwegian authorities (i.e. the Norwegian Reindeer Husbandry Administration, Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, and the Geological Survey of Norway) therefore carried out an aerial survey covering 2,500 km{sup 2} of the most contaminated grazing areas to obtain more detailed information on geographical variability in deposition levels. The area included major parts of the grazing areas of three reindeer herding companies. The usefulness of deposition maps as bases for directing animal grazing to less contaminated areas depends on how well the total deposition correlate with the contamination levels in grazed vegetation. In the case of reindeer this covers both green plants and lichens. In 2012 the aerial survey was therefore supplemented by geo-referenced deposition measurements and sampling of various plant and lichen species at totally 17 sites ranging in deposition levels from 2.6 to 190 kBq/m{sup 2

  5. Geostatistical mapping of Cs-137 contamination depth in building structures by integrating ISOCS measurements of different spatial supports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boden, S.; Jacques, D. [Institute for Environment, Health and Safety, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK-CEN), Boeretang 200, BE-2400, Mol (Belgium); Rogiers, B. [Dept. of Earth and Environmental Sciences, KU Leuven - University of Leuven Celestijnenlaan 200e - bus 2410, BE-3001, Leuven (Belgium)

    2013-07-01

    Reliable methods to determine the contamination depth in nuclear building structures are very much needed for minimizing the radioactive waste volume and the decontamination workload. This paper investigates the geostatistical integration of in situ gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements of different spatial supports. A case study is presented from the BR3 decommissioning project, yielding an estimated reduction of waste volume of ∼35%, and recommendations are made for future application of the proposed methodology. (authors)

  6. Survey of the 137Cs contamination in Belgium by in-situ gamma spectrometry, a decade after the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyttenhove, J; Pommé, S; Van Waeyenberge, B; Hardeman, F; Buysse, J; Culot, J P

    1997-10-01

    The residual radiocesium concentration, nearly 10 y after the Chernobyl accident, is measured at different sites on the Belgian territory by means of in-situ gamma-spectrometry. A possible link between the rainfall at the beginning of May 1986 and the actual cesium concentration is investigated. The radiological impact of this contamination, even in the most affected regions in the Ardennes, is very small (<6 microSv y(-1)).

  7. Foliar contamination of Phaseolus vulgaris with aerosols of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 85}Sr, {sup 133}Ba and {sup 123m}Te: influence of plant development stage upon contamination and rain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madoz-Escande, C. E-mail: chantal.madoz-escande@irsn.fr; Henner, P.; Bonhomme, T

    2004-07-01

    As part of a requirement to improve the assessment of the impact of radioactive fallout on consumed agricultural products, bean plants at four development stages (seedlings, preflowering, late flowering and mature plants) were contaminated by dry deposition of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 85}Sr, {sup 133}Ba and {sup 123m}Te aerosols. The influence of two rain scenarios and of the development stage upon contamination on interception, retention, and translocation to pods was studied. Interception of the four radionuclides was almost identical and varied from 30 to 60% with increasing development stage. The most important rain parameter was the time which elapsed between contamination and the first rain. Whatever the development stage, rain washed off more cesium from the leaves when it occurred 2 days after the deposit (37% at the seedling stage, for example) rather than later on (6 days, 27%), due to rapid migration of Cs in the plant. The first rain washed off nearly 40% of Ba whatever the scenario. For later stages, Sr and Ba were more washed off by heavy weekly rains than by weak twice-a-week rains, perhaps because of the Sr/Ba-contaminated material loss associated with wash off (desquamation of cuticles). Te showed little wash off (less than 5%). Wash off decreased with an older development stage for a weak rain intensity, due to the superimposition of leaves. Heavy rains removed this shelter effect. At harvest, rain effect was no longer detectable as foliar activity was similar for both rain scenarios. Translocation factors (TF) for strontium and barium increased from 6x10{sup -3} to 1x10{sup -1} with the plant development stage upon contamination, whereas those for cesium remained almost unchanged between 2x10{sup -1} and 4 x 10{sup -1}. Flowering is the most critical stage towards residual contamination in pods at harvest, with the exception of direct deposit on pods at the mature stage (TF values are one order of magnitude higher). TF value for Te was 6.5x10{sup -2

  8. Aquatic mosses as a monitoring tool for 137Cs contamination in streams and rivers--a field study from central southern Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hongve, D.; Brittain, J.E.; Bjoernstad, H.E.

    2002-01-01

    Mosses are frequently used as biomonitors for trace element pollution in the aquatic environment. The purpose of this study was to assess their usefulness as a tool in monitoring and in regional surveys of radioactive contamination. Specimens of the aquatic mosses, Fontinalis antipyretica and F. dalecarlica, were transplanted from non-contaminated areas to streams and rivers in the Norwegian Jotunheimen Mountains and neighbouring lowland areas that had received radioactive fallout after the Chernobyl accident. Equilibrium concentrations of 137 Cs in the exposed mosses were reached after a few weeks. Two series from 20 streams in 1994 and 1996 show linear correlations between activities in water and moss samples and biomagnification ratios of 10 4 -10 5 . We conclude that mosses are better suited for monitoring purposes than water samples, because they provide values integrated over weeks while the radioactivity in surface waters can be subject to rapid variations according to hydrological events. The activity concentrations in aquatic mosses can be easily measured with good precision even when aqueous concentrations are below the limit of detection. Use of aquatic mosses also reduces the logistic problems of transporting large volumes of water, especially in areas inaccessible by road

  9. Relevance of Radiocaesium Interception Potential (RIP) on a worldwide scale to assess soil vulnerability to 137Cs contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandebroek, Louis; Van Hees, May; Delvaux, Bruno; Spaargaren, Otto; Thiry, Yves

    2012-01-01

    The extent of radiocaesium retention in soil is important to quantify the risk of further foodchain contamination. The Radiocaesium Interception Potential (RIP –, Nature 335, 247–249) is an intrinsic soil parameter which can be used to categorize soils or minerals in terms of their capacity to selectively adsorb radiocaesium. In this study, we measured RIP for a large soil collection (88 soil samples) representative of major FAO soil reference groups on a worldwide scale and tested the possibility to predict the RIP on the basis of other easily accessible or measurable soil data. We also compared RIP values with those obtained from separate chemical extraction experiments. The range of measured RIP values (1.8–13300 mmol kg −1 ) was shown to include nearly all possible cases of agricultural soil contamination. Only Podzols, Andosols and Ferralsols were clearly characterized by a very low RIP ( −1 ). On a worldwide scale, RIP was in fact slightly related to soil reference type or other simple major physicochemical parameters such as clay percentage or organic matter. Conversely our results indicated a link between the RIP and radiocaesium extractability across very different soils. We showed that, with the proposed scale of RIP values, a simple acid extraction method can provide an operational result highly predictive of potential RIP despite very contrasting soil properties. The RIP could be estimated from the empirical equation: RIP = (−31.701 ∗ log(AER) + 58.886) 2 where AER is the fraction of acid-extractable radiocaesium. - Highlights: ► The Radiocaesium Interception Potential (RIP) is an intrinsic soil parameter. ► We measured RIP of 88 different soils representative of major FAO reference groups. ► The range of RIP (1.8–13 343 μmol g −1 ) extended over four orders of magnitude. ► Nearly all possible cases of agricultural soils contamination were represented. ► A simple acid extraction method could be used to predict potential RIP.

  10. Effect of microscopic fungi on the 137Cs accumulation by some plants growing on radionuclides contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhdanova, N.; Vasilevskaya, A.; Lashko, T.; Gerzabek, H.

    2003-01-01

    The influence of soil micromycetes (melanin-containing, dark-pigmented Cladosporium cladosporioides and light-pigmented Paecilomyces lilacinus) on 137C s accumulation by aboveground phytomass of some higher plants (sugar beet, cabbage and clover) was studied in field experiments in radionuclides contaminated soil of the Chernobyl zone with total radioactivity 37-50 kBq/kg. Abundance of these fungi was determined 1, 3 and 5 months after their introduction into the soil. P. lilacinus colonies were isolated in the beginning of the experiment in contrast to C. cladosporioides colonies that were isolated at the end of plants vegetation. The coefficients of 137C s accumulation by aboveground phytomass were higher after the introduction of light-pigmented than of dark-pigmented fungus. These coefficients were higher after the simultaneous introduction of the two fungi than after each fungus introduced separately. (author)

  11. Ochratoxin A Contamination of Red Chili Peppers from Chile, Bolivia and Peru, Countries with a High Incidence of Gallbladder Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikoma, Toshikazu; Tsuchiya, Yasuo; Asai, Takao; Okano, Kiyoshi; Ito, Naoko; Endoh, Kazuo; Yamamoto, Masaharu; Nakamura, Kazutoshi

    2015-01-01

    Our previous study detected aflatoxins in red chili peppers from Chile, Bolivia, and Peru, each of which have a high incidence of gallbladder cancer (GBC). Since the aflatoxin B1 concentration was not so high in these peppers, it is important to clarify the presence of other mycotoxins. Here we attempted to determine any associations between the concentrations of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A (OTA) in red chili peppers, and the corresponding GBC incidences. We collected red chili peppers from three areas in Peru: Trujillo (a high GBC incidence area), Cusco (an intermediate GBC incidence area), and Lima (a low GBC incidence rate), and from Chile and Bolivia. Aflatoxins and OTA were extracted with organic solvents. The concentrations of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2, and OTA were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. The values obtained were compared with the incidence of GBC in each area or country. All of the red chili peppers from the three areas showed contamination with aflatoxins below the Commission of the European Communities (EC) recommended limits (5 μg/kg), but the OTA contamination of two samples was above the EC recommended limit (15 μg/kg). The mean concentrations of OTA in the peppers from Chile (mean 355 μg/kg, range Bolivia (mean 207 μg/kg, range 0.8-628 μg/kg), which has a high incidence of GBC, were higher than that in Peru (14 μg/kg, range Bolivia, and Peru was stronger than that of aflatoxins. Our data suggest that OTA in red chili peppers may be associated with the development of GBC.

  12. Tracing and analytical results of the dioxin contamination incident in 2008 originating from the Republic of Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heres, L; Hoogenboom, R; Herbes, R; Traag, W; Urlings, B

    2010-12-01

    High levels of dioxins (PCDD/Fs) in pork were discovered in France and the Netherlands at the end of 2008. The contamination was rapidly traced back to a feed stock in the Republic of Ireland (RoI). Burning oil, used for the drying of bakery waste, appeared to be contaminated with PCBs. Consequently, very high levels up to 500 pg TEQ g⁻¹ fat were found in pork. The congener pattern clearly pointed to PCB-oil as a source, but the ratio between the non-dioxin-like indicator PCBs (PCBs 28, 52, 101, 138, 152 and 180) and PCDD/Fs was much lower than observed during the Belgian incident, thereby limiting the suitability of indicator PCBs as a marker for the presence of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs. This paper describes the tracking and tracing of the incident, the public-private cooperation, the surveillance activities and its results. A major lesson to be learned from this incident is the importance of good private food safety systems. In this incident, it was the private surveillance systems that identified the origin of contamination within 10 days after the first signal of increased dioxin levels in a product. On the other hand, retrospective analyses showed that signals were missed that could have led to an earlier detection of the incident and the source. Above all, the incident would not have occurred when food safety assurance systems had been effectively implemented in the involved feed chain. It is discussed that besides primary responsibility for effective private food safety systems, the competent authorities have to supervise whether the food safety procedures are capable of coping with these kinds of complex food safety issues, while private food companies need to implement the law, and public authorities should supervise and enforce them. Finally, it is discussed whether the health risks derived from consumption of the contaminated batches of meat may have been underestimated during the incident due to the unusually high intake of dioxins.

  13. Additional exposure of the Irish adult population to dioxins and PCBs from the diet as a consequence of the 2008 Irish dioxin food contamination incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlustos, C; Anderson, W; Flynn, A; Pratt, I

    2014-01-01

    In 2008, the discovery of elevated levels of dioxins and PCBs in a porcine fat sample taken as part of the national residues monitoring programme led to the detection of a major feed contamination incidence in the Republic of Ireland. To estimate additional exposure to dioxins and PCBs due to the contamination incident, all data associated with the contamination incident were collected and reviewed. An exposure model was devised that took into account the proportion of contaminated product reaching the final consumer during the contamination incident window and which utilised all additional information that became available after the incident occurred. Exposure estimates derived for both dioxins and PCBs showed that the body burden of the general population remained largely unaffected by the contamination incident and only approximately 10% were exposed to elevated levels of dioxins and PCBs. Whilst this proportion of the population experienced quite a significant additional load to the existing body burden, the estimated exposure values do not suggest that these would be associated with adverse health effects, based on current knowledge. The exposure period was also limited in time to approximately 3 months, following the recall of contaminated meat immediately on detection of the contamination.

  14. Model testing of radioactive contamination by {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239,240}Pu of water and bottom sediments in the Techa River (Southern Urals, Russia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kryshev, I.I. [Scientific and Production Association ' Typhoon' , 82 Lenin Ave., Obninsk, Kaluga Region, 249038 (Russian Federation)], E-mail: ecomod@obninsk.com; Boyer, P.; Monte, L.; Brittain, J.E.; Dzyuba, N.N.; Krylov, A.L.; Kryshev, A.I.; Nosov, A.V.; Sanina, K.D.; Zheleznyak, M.I. [Scientific and Production Association ' Typhoon' , 82 Lenin Ave., Obninsk, Kaluga Region, 249038 (Russian Federation)

    2009-03-15

    This paper presents results of testing models for the radioactive contamination of river water and bottom sediments by {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239,240}Pu. The scenario for the model testing was based on data from the Techa River (Southern Urals, Russia), which was contaminated as a result of discharges of liquid radioactive waste into the river. The endpoints of the scenario were model predictions of the activity concentrations of {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239,240}Pu in water and bottom sediments along the Techa River in 1996. Calculations for the Techa scenario were performed by six participant teams from France (model CASTEAUR), Italy (model MARTE), Russia (models TRANSFER-2, CASSANDRA, GIDRO-W) and Ukraine (model RIVTOX), all using different models. As a whole, the radionuclide predictions for {sup 90}Sr in water for all considered models, {sup 137}Cs for MARTE and TRANSFER-2, and {sup 239,240}Pu for TRANSFER-2 and CASSANDRA can be considered sufficiently reliable, whereas the prediction for sediments should be considered cautiously. At the same time the CASTEAUR and RIVTOX models estimate the activity concentrations of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239,240}Pu in water more reliably than in bottom sediments. The models MARTE ({sup 239,240}Pu) and CASSANDRA ({sup 137}Cs) evaluated the activity concentrations of radionuclides in sediments with about the same agreement with observations as for water. For {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs the agreement between empirical data and model predictions was good, but not for all the observations of {sup 239,240}Pu in the river water-bottom sediment system. The modelling of {sup 239,240}Pu distribution proved difficult because, in contrast to {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr, most of models have not been previously tested or validated for plutonium.

  15. The outline of Cs removal technology by dry process and the report of entrusted business of verification survey of the technology that removes Cs from contaminated wastes to civil work materials at temporary plant in the Warabidaira region in Iitate village

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honma, Kenichi; Takano, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Wataru; Sasaki, Tadashi; Takahashi, Yuji; Shinano, Takuro; Hatta, Tamao; Manpuku, Yuuzou; Usui, Jiro

    2016-01-01

    The authors have developed a heat treatment method for removed soil from land clean-up operations and incinerator ash which contain radioactive contaminants. The proposed method removes Cs by volatilization to produce reusable materials satisfying the clearance level, while reducing the volume of radioactive Cs contaminated waste by concentration. A simulative experiment using artificial soil onto which non-radioactive Cs was adsorbed showed that Cs removal rate, which was very low when the soil was heat treated with no additives or with a simple addition of CaCl_2 as a promoter chloride, could increase significantly by adding inorganic high-performance accelerators developed by the authors to the soil. Based on the findings from the experiment, verification projects were carried out jointly with the public sector, using contaminated soil sample from the field and sewage sludge ash from an incinerator. It was demonstrated in the joint projects that radioactive Cs content in the contaminated soil or sewage sludge ash was successfully reduced from the order of tens of thousands Bq/kg to below 100 Bq/kg which was the clearance level, and that the obtained product satisfied requirements in the specifications for fill soil, subbase material and many other civil work materials. As a result of verification, a temporary demonstration plant was built in the Warabidaira region in Iitate Village, Fukushima. Its operation starts in April 2016 for further verification in which the removed soil from the village and the incinerator ash from an adjacent facility are heat treated by the proposed method and recycled into civil work materials for reuse. (author)

  16. Aflatoxin contamination of red chili pepper from Bolivia and Peru, countries with high gallbladder cancer incidence rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Takao; Tsuchiya, Yasuo; Okano, Kiyoshi; Piscoya, Alejandro; Nishi, Carlos Yoshito; Ikoma, Toshikazu; Oyama, Tomizo; Ikegami, Kikuo; Yamamoto, Masaharu

    2012-01-01

    Chilean red chili peppers contaminated with aflatoxins were reported in a previous study. If the development of gallbladder cancer (GBC) in Chile is associated with a high level of consumption of aflatoxin-contaminated red chili peppers, such peppers from other countries having a high GBC incidence rate may also be contaminated with aflatoxins. We aimed to determine whether this might be the case for red chili peppers from Bolivia and Peru. A total of 7 samples (3 from Bolivia, 4 from Peru) and 3 controls (2 from China, 1 from Japan) were evaluated. Aflatoxins were extracted with acetonitrile:water (9:1, v/v) and eluted through an immuno-affinity column. The concentrations of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and then the detected aflatoxins were identified using HPLC-mass spectrometry. In some but not all of the samples from Bolivia and Peru, aflatoxin B1 or aflatoxins B1 and B2 were detected. In particular, aflatoxin B1 or total aflatoxin concentrations in a Bolivian samples were above the maximum levels for aflatoxins in spices proposed by the European Commission. Red chili peppers from Bolivia and Peru consumed by populations having high GBC incidence rates would appear to be contaminated with aflatoxins. These data suggest the possibility that a high level of consumption of aflatoxin-contaminated red chili peppers is related to the development of GBC, and the association between the two should be confirmed by a case-control study.

  17. Mesothelioma incidence in the neighbourhood of an asbestos-cement plant located in a national priority contaminated site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Fazzo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An epidemic of asbestos-related disease is ongoing in most industrialized countries, mainly attributable to past occupational exposure but partly due to environmental exposure. In this perspective, the incidence of pleural mesothelioma close to a former asbestos-cement plant in a national contaminated site was estimated. METHODS: The census-tracts interested by atmospheric dispersion of facilities in the contaminated site were identified. Two subareas with different estimated environmental asbestos impact were distinguished. An ecological study at micro-geographic level was performed. The standardized incidence ratios (SIR for study area and the two subareas, in comparison with region and municipality were computed. The standardized incidence rate ratio (IRR between the two subareas was computed. RESULTS: Mesothelioma incidence in the study area was increased: 46 cases were observed with respect to 22.23 expected (SIR: 2.02. The increase was confirmed in analysis considering only the subjects without an occupationally exposure to asbestos: 19 cases among men (SIR = 2.48; 95% CI: 1.49-3.88; 11 case among women (SIR = 1.34; 95% CI: 0.67-2.40. The IRR between the two subareas is less than one in overall population considering all age-classes and of 3 fold (IRR = 3.14, 95% CI: 0.65-9.17 in the age-classes below 55 years. CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicate an increased incidence of pleural mesothelioma in the neighbourhood of asbestos-cement plant, and a possible etiological contribution of asbestos environmental exposure in detected risks.

  18. Incidents of melting CS-137 sources in the Arcelor Mittal OlaberrIa and Arcelor Mittal Zumarraga. Waste management; Incidentes de fusion de fuentes de Cs-137 enlas plantas de Arcelor Mittal Olaberria y Arcelor Mittal Zumarraga. Gestion residuos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcaide Trenas, E.; Ortiz Ramis, T.; Garcia Cadierno, J. P.

    2013-07-01

    The October 27, 2011, Arcelor Mittal Olaberria notifies the CSN the merger of a source of Cs-137 has been detected in the installation that the flue dust is sent. A few days later the same case happens in Arcelor Mittal Zumarraga. Both plants are companies attached to the Protocol for Radiological Surveillance of Metallic Materials. Both have at the entrance of the installation of systems for detection of radioactive materials that could be among the junk. (Author)

  19. Specific features of the recent accumulation of 137Cs in tree roots of forest ecosystems within the zone of radioactive contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcheglov, Alexey; Tsvetnova, Ol'ga; Klyashtorin, Alexey; Popova, Evgenia

    2015-04-01

    Despite numerous studies of the accumulation of technogenic radionuclides in the root systems, no clear regularities of this process have been established. The tendencies found in the works of Russian and foreign researchers are rather discrepant. Some authors argue that the accumulation of radionuclides in the roots is more pronounced than that in the aboveground parts of the plants (Skovorodnikova, 2005; Romantseva, 2012; Sennerby et al., 1994; Mamikhin, 2002; Fircks et al., 2002}. Other works attest to a higher accumulation of radionuclides in the aboveground pars (Juznic et al., 1990; Chibowski, 2000; Zhianski et al., 2005), which is also typical of the stable isotopes of these elements, including 133Cs (Dong Jin Kang, YongJin Seo, Tsukasa Saito et al,2012). It is also stated that the accumulation of radionuclides in the aboveground and underground parts of plants may differ in dependence on the soil-ecological conditions and other factors (Kozhakhanov et al., 2011; Grabovskyi et al., 2013). The aim of our study was to evaluate the accumulation of 137Cs in the root systems of arboreal plants in forest ecosystems within the near zone of the Chernobyl fallout on the plots with similar soil and phytocenotic features. Pine and birch stands were studied within the 30-km-wide exclusion zone of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station in Ukraine in 1992-1993, when the density of the radioactive contamination of the upper (0-20 cm) layer with 137Cs reached 2153.8 kBq/m2), and in Bryansk oblast of Russia in 2013-2014, when the density of contamination varied from 1458.4 kBq/m2 (pine stand) to 2578.3 kBq/m2 (birch stand). The tree layer in these ecosystems was dominated by Pinus sylvestris (L.) and Betula pendula (Roth.), respectively. Quercus robur (L.), Picea abies (L.), and Sorbus aucuparia (L.) were also present. The specific activity of 137Cs was measured in the samples from the aboveground parts of model trees and their roots differentiated by size (0-3, 3-10, 10

  20. Studies on the radioactive contamination due to nuclear detonations V. The radioactive contamination of human body by Sr{sup 90} and Cs{sup 137} and its correlation with the fallout rate and ground deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishiwaki, Yasushi [Nuclear Reactor Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Nuclear Reactor Laboratoroy, Kinki University, Fuse City, Osaka Precture (Japan)

    1961-11-25

    About 60 bone samples were analysed for Sr 90 during the period from January 1957 to July 1959. The highest average concentration was found to be about 1 S.U for the age group of 5 to 10 years old. However since most of the cases are more or less pathological ones after long period of hospitalization the results may not be considered to be the representative values for the average normal person. The highest concentration among the cases whose past history is known was 175 S.U. or roughly, about 2 S.U. During the period of observation occasionally we have found higher concentration than 2 S.U, in the bone samples of a few cases obtained from the crematory. However, since the past history of these cases is not known, it is not clear whether they depended on the rainwater or on the brown ice with much higher contamination than the white rice. In view of these findings it may not be to, much to assume that the concentration of Sr 90 in te bones of the average normal children might reach 2 S.U c corresponding to the cumulative ground deposition and the fallout rate. The concentration of Cs whose physical half-life is very much similar to Sr 90 was in the range of about 30 - 100 cesium unit in 1957 to early 1958. However, during the period from 1958 to early 1959 the concentration of Cs 137 in come of the organs of the human body has been reported to be about two to three times higher on the average in Tokyo than the above value in 1957.

  1. Studies on the radioactive contamination due to nuclear detonations V. The radioactive contamination of human body by Sr90 and Cs137 and its correlation with the fallout rate and ground deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiwaki, Yasushi

    1961-01-01

    About 60 bone samples were analysed for Sr 90 during the period from January 1957 to July 1959. The highest average concentration was found to be about 1 S.U for the age group of 5 to 10 years old. However since most of the cases are more or less pathological ones after long period of hospitalization the results may not be considered to be the representative values for the average normal person. The highest concentration among the cases whose past history is known was 175 S.U. or roughly, about 2 S.U. During the period of observation occasionally we have found higher concentration than 2 S.U, in the bone samples of a few cases obtained from the crematory. However, since the past history of these cases is not known, it is not clear whether they depended on the rainwater or on the brown ice with much higher contamination than the white rice. In view of these findings it may not be to, much to assume that the concentration of Sr 90 in te bones of the average normal children might reach 2 S.U c corresponding to the cumulative ground deposition and the fallout rate. The concentration of Cs whose physical half-life is very much similar to Sr 90 was in the range of about 30 - 100 cesium unit in 1957 to early 1958. However, during the period from 1958 to early 1959 the concentration of Cs 137 in come of the organs of the human body has been reported to be about two to three times higher on the average in Tokyo than the above value in 1957

  2. Growth and "1"3"7Cs uptake and accumulation among 56 Japanese cultivars of Brassica rapa, Brassica juncea and Brassica napus grown in a contaminated field in Fukushima: Effect of inoculation with a Bacillus pumilus strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djedidi, Salem; Kojima, Katsuhiro; Ohkama-Ohtsu, Naoko; Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko Dorothea; Yokoyama, Tadashi

    2016-01-01

    Fifty six local Japanese cultivars of Brassica rapa (40 cultivars), Brassica juncea (10 cultivars) and Brassica napus (6 cultivars) were assessed for variability in growth and "1"3"7Cs uptake and accumulation in association with a Bacillus pumilus strain. Field trial was conducted at a contaminated farmland in Nihonmatsu city, in Fukushima prefecture. Inoculation resulted in different responses of the cultivars in terms of growth and radiocesium uptake and accumulation. B. pumilus induced a significant increase in shoot dry weight in 12 cultivars that reached up to 40% in one B. rapa and three B. juncea cultivars. Differences in radiocesium uptake were observed between the cultivars of each Brassica species. Generally, inoculation resulted in a significant increase in "1"3"7Cs uptake in 22 cultivars, while in seven cultivars it was significantly decreased. Regardless of plant cultivar and bacterial inoculation, the transfer of "1"3"7Cs to the plant shoots (TF) varied by a factor of up to 5 and it ranged from to 0.011 to 0.054. Five inoculated cultivars, showed enhanced shoot dry weights and decreased "1"3"7Cs accumulations, among which two B. rapa cultivars named Bitamina and Nozawana had a significantly decreased "1"3"7Cs accumulation in their shoots. Such cultivars could be utilized to minimize the entry of radiocesium into the food chain; however, verifying the consistency of their radiocesium accumulation in other soils is strongly required. Moreover, the variations in growth and radiocesium accumulation, as influenced by Bacillus inoculation, could help selecting well grown inoculated Brassica cultivars with low radiocesium accumulation in their shoots. - Highlights: • Out of 56 Brassica cultivars, inoculation significantly increased shoot dry weight in 12 cultivars. • Inoculation triggered a significant increase and decrease in "1"3"7Cs uptake, respectively in 22 and 7 cultivars. • Five cultivars had an enhanced shoot dry weight and decreased "1"3"7Cs

  3. Communicating risk: news media reportage of a significant nuclear contamination incident in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, G.P.; Macgill, S.M.

    1988-02-01

    The way the mass media reported a controversial discharge incident at British Nuclear Fuel's reprocessing plant at Sellafield in Cumbria in November 1983 is discussed. Apart from the Windscale fire in 1957 this was the most serious radiation incident at any nuclear installation in the United Kingdom. The aim of the study was to use that incident to develop a more complete understanding of the way information about risk is communicated through the news media. Two issues, in particular, are assessed. First, the accuracy of the reports of events and how factual, technical or scientific aspects of risk are portrayed through the news media. Secondly, risk evaluation is studied: what value judgements are made, what sentiments of alarm, danger and hazard are presented. (author)

  4. Secondary emission coefficient dependence on the angle of incidence of primary electrons on CsI and LiF layers. [0. 9 to 3 keV, mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabel' nikova, A E; Yasnopol' skii, N L

    1976-08-01

    The angular dependence was studied of the secondary emission coefficient sigma for CsI and LiF dielectrics which have large sigma in conditions of normal incidence of primary electrons. Measurements were taken down to the angle of 85 deg for energies of primary electrons between 0.9 and 3 keV. In the whole range of angles a nonmonotonic angular dependence sigma is observed. The dependence shows itself particularly clearly for CsI at large energies of primary electrons. Such a behaviour is due to the decrease in the depth of yield of inelastically reflected electrons and to the increase in the inelastic reflection coefficient of the substance.

  5. The uptake of Cs and Sr from soil to radish (Raphanus sativus L.)- potential for phytoextraction and remediation of contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Dan; Wen, Fangping; Xu, Changhe; Tang, Yunlai; Luo, Xuegang

    2012-01-01

    The 133 Cs and 88 Sr uptake by plant Raphanus sativus L. was studied during cultivation in outdoor potted-soil. The distribution, accumulation of 133 Cs, 88 Sr and the antioxidant responses in plants were measured after 30 and 60 days of cultivation. The results showed that the uptake capacity of radish for 88 Sr was far higher than that for 133 Cs when the concentration of 88 Sr was as the same as that of 133 Cs in the soil (The concentration of 88 Sr or 133 Cs in the soil was from 2.5 mg kg −1 to 40 mg kg −1 ). The highest 88 Sr accumulation was 239.18 μg g −1 dw, otherwise, the highest 133 Cs accumulation was 151.74 μg g −1 dw (The concentration of 88 Sr in the soil was 40 mg kg −1 ), and the lowest 88 Sr accumulation was 131.03 μg g −1 dw, otherwise, the lowest 133 Cs accumulation was 12.85 μg g −1 dw (The concentration of 88 Sr in the soil is 5 mg kg −1 ). The 88 Sr and 133 Cs TF values were 1.16–1.72 and 0.24–0.60, respectively. There was little influence of high concentration of 88 Sr on the total biomass of plants, so the radish is one of the ideal phytoremediation plant for Sr polluted soils. The important physiological reasons that radish had good tolerance to 88 Sr stress were that the MDA content was higher under the 88 Sr stress than that under the 133 Cs stress, and the activities of POD and CAT were lower under the 88 Sr stress than that under 133 Cs stress. - Highlights: ► Radish is a kind of native plant with high biomass and fast growth. Its uptake capacity of radish for 88 Sr was far higher than that for 133 Cs when the concentration of 88 Sr was the same as that of 133 Cs in the soil. ► The TF values of radish for 88 Sr were 1.16–1.72. ► Radish is one of the ideal phytoremediation plant for Sr polluted soils. ► The important physiological reasons that radish had good tolerance toward 88 Sr stress were that the MDA content was higher under the 88 Sr stress than under the 133 Cs stress, and the activities of POD

  6. HASCAL -- A system for estimating contamination and doses from incidents at worldwide nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoreen, A.L.

    1995-01-01

    The Hazard Assessment System for Consequence Analysis (HASCAL) is being developed to support the analysis of radiological incidents anywhere in the world for the Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA). HASCAL is a component of the Hazard Prediction and Assessment Capability (HPAC), which is a comprehensive nuclear, biological, and chemical hazard effects planning and forecasting modeling system that is being developed by DNA. HASCAL computes best-guess estimates of the consequences of radiological incidents. HASCAL estimates the amount of radioactivity released, its atmospheric transport and deposition, and the resulting radiological doses

  7. Evaluation of the contamination of the territory of Croatia by means of radioactive rain as a consequence of the incident in the NPP 'Lenin'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lulic, S.; Barisic, D.; Kosutic, K.; Kvastek, K.; Tuta, J.; Vertacnik, A.; Vrhovac, A.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper radioactive contamination level in Croatia by means of radioactive rain waters, that was caused by the accident of NPP 'Lenin' in Chernobyl, has been described. The displayed results represent the sum of the measured activity of radionuclides 103 Ru, 131 I, 132 Te-I, 134 Cs and 140 Ba-La. It has been constructed on the basis of measured and evaluated data and the scheme of the radioactive contamination level in Croatia by means of radioactive rain waters between April 28 to May 20th, 1986. (author)

  8. Specific features of 137Cs migration and accumulation in chernozem soils of forest ecosystems in the zone contaminated due to the Chornobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsvetnova, O.B.; Shcheglov, A.I.; Orlov, A.A.

    2005-01-01

    A number of factors influencing 137 Cs fate and biological availability in chernozem soils under the forest vegetation were assessed for various climatic zones. The migration rates of 137 Cs in the profile of chernozem soils were shown to depend primary on forest litter composition and structure. In the absence of forest litter the soil mineralogical composition and humus content become the most influential factors of caesium mobility

  9. Radiation from Radioactive Cesium (137 Cs) and Strontium (90Sr) Contaminated soil during the Chernobyl Nuclear Disaster Triggers Rice Immune Response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, S.; Rakwal, R.; Agrawal, G. K.; Tamogami, S.; Kim, Y.H.; Shibato, J.; Sahoo, S. K.; Shiraishi, K.; Los, I. P.; Shevachuk, V. E.; Yonekura, M.; Iwahashi, H.

    2004-01-01

    After the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986 that exposed most of the population of the Northern hemisphere to various degrees of radiation, the public's perception of nuclear risk was completely changed. other than the obvious and much studied health impact, the agriculture and environmental impacts still pose a serious problem. Cesium-137, which has a half-life of 30.1 years, is the most important radionuclide left from Chernobyl's catastrophic explosion, and is present at high concentrations (activity, gamma-and beta-emitter) in the 0-5 cm soil layer. Strontium-90 (beta.emitter), which has a half-life of 29.1 years also constitutes a problem for plants. The effect of these radionuclides, and importantly show the radiation released therein affects plants has not been investigated in detail. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that leaves of two-week-old rice (japonica-type c, Nipponbare) seedlings (that constitutes a well-established in-vitro assay system) would respond to radiation (from the contaminated soil from Masany. Belarus, with major radionuclides, 137 Cs and 90 sr) by inducing various biochemical/molecular changes associated with the defense/stress response, including those involving mechanisms affecting the inactivation of damaging reactive oxygen specie. Rice (oryza sativa L.) is an enormously important food and monocot cereal crop research model whose draft genome sequence has recently been released. A molecular (northern analysis which provides a picture of the transcriptional changes of a particular gene), proteomics (two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) is a powerful tool in understanding which proteins are present in particular tissue under given condition), and metabolomic (determining the metabolic profiles of metabolites induced during stress) approach was employed to monitor the changes in defense(stress-related (D/S-.r) genes, proteins (using 2-DE coupled with amino acid sequencing and immunoblotting) and metabolites (in particular

  10. Skin contamination resulting from an uranyl nitrate burn. An incident study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quesne, B.; Auriol, B.; Berard, P.; Chalabreysse, J.

    1993-01-01

    The authors describe the circumstances of a burn incident on hand by a mixture of diluted nitric acid and uranyl nitrate. The burn is located on the left hand fingers. After important washings uranium remains on the fingers. During about ten days, the worker is examined and the therapy is going on till the total radioactivity disappearance. Urine collection of twenty four hours is prescribed during the treatment. The whole activity is kept on the burnt skin. The quick desquamation is the elimination way of the skin retention. 6 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  11. Traditional insulin-use practices and the incidence of bacterial contamination and infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borders, L M; Bingham, P R; Riddle, M C

    1984-01-01

    While complex procedures are usually recommended to prevent infection at insulin injection sites, adherence to these procedures is imperfect and their value incompletely established. Among 254 adult insulin users in two clinic populations, the reported prevalence of complete performance of four traditional insulin-use practices (handwashing, vial prep, skin prep, discarding of plastic syringes after one use) was 29%, and none of the individual practices considered was performed regularly by more than two-thirds of the subjects. Even so, there was no infection at 2828 injection sites, and there was no significant bacterial contamination of insulin or syringes. These findings fail to support the view that traditional practices provide protection to insulin users against infection or bacterial growth in insulin or syringes. The authors suggest that modification of traditional teaching methods would do no harm, and that benefits could include financial savings, improved client success with self-care, and enhanced health care provider credibility.

  12. Spatial distribution of soil contamination by 137Cs and 239,240Pu in the village of Dolon near the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site: new information on traces of the radioactive plume from the 29 August 1949 nuclear test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, M; Tomita, J; Sakaguchi, A; Imanaka, T; Fukutani, S; Endo, S; Tanaka, K; Hoshi, M; Gusev, B I; Apsalikov, A N

    2008-04-01

    The village of Dolon located about 60 km northeast from the border of the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site in Kazakhstan is one of the most affected inhabited settlements as a result of nuclear tests by the former USSR. Radioactive contamination in Dolon was mainly caused by the first USSR nuclear test on 29 August 1949. As part of the efforts to reconstruct the radiation dose in Dolon, Cs and Pu in soil samples collected from 26 locations in the vicinity of and within the village were measured to determine the width and position of the center-axis of the radioactive plume that passed over the village from the 29 August 1949 nuclear test. Measured soil inventories of Cs and Pu were plotted as a function of the distance from the supposed center-axis of the plume. A clear shape similar to a Gaussian function was observed in their spatial distributions with each maximum around a center-axis. It was suggested that the plume width that contaminated Dolon was at most 10 km and the real center-axis of the radioactive plume passed 0.7-0.9 km north of the supposed centerline. A peak-like shape with the maximum near the center-axis was also observed in the spatial distribution of the Pu/Cs activity ratio, which may reflect the fractionation effect between Pu and Cs during the deposition process. These results support the recently reported results. The data obtained here will provide useful information on the efforts to estimate radiation dose in Dolon as reliably as possible. Health Phys. 94(4):328-337; 2008.

  13. Cs-137 migration in soil near NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silant'ev, A.N.; Shkuratova, I.G.; Khatskevich, R.N.

    1984-01-01

    A convective-diffusion model has been employed for describing Cs-137 migration in soil. The migration parameters were determined by comparing the calculated vertical distribution profiles with the experimental ones. The migration parameters dependence on the soil state has been studied. Cs-137 penetration rate was found to be function of the soil type, surface state, soil wetness and orography. The obtained values are presented. A method is suggested for revealing the soil surface contamination by Cs-137 produced during NPP operation with distinguishing it from the global contamination background. For this purpose Cs-137 content in the upper 5 mm soil layer is estimated [ru

  14. Spatial structure of food contamination with 137Cs and estimation of long-term internal dose loads on population of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivoruchko, K.

    1997-01-01

    An analysis of 53,207 records of 137 Cs contents in 83 types of food products obtained in 1993 in Belarus was carried out. Internal exposure by eight selected food components has been estimated. To map the non-uniformly distributed data, different types of geostatical approaches are used. The results of spatial analysis of long term internal dose loads on populations under high radiation risk could be used in decision making. (author)

  15. Determination of {sup 135}Cs and {sup 137}Cs in environmental samples: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, B.C., E-mail: ben.russell@npl.co.uk [GAU-Radioanalytical, Ocean and Earth Science, University of Southampton, National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, SO14 3ZH (United Kingdom); National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Road, Teddington, Middlesex, TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Croudace, Ian W.; Warwick, Phil E. [GAU-Radioanalytical, Ocean and Earth Science, University of Southampton, National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, SO14 3ZH (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-26

    Radionuclides of caesium are environmentally important since they are formed as significant high yield fission products ({sup 135}Cs and {sup 137}Cs) and activation products ({sup 134}Cs and {sup 136}Cs) during nuclear fission. They originate from a range of nuclear activities such as weapons testing, nuclear reprocessing and nuclear fuel cycle discharges and nuclear accidents. Whilst {sup 137}Cs, {sup 134}Cs and {sup 136}Cs are routinely measurable at high sensitivity by gamma spectrometry, routine detection of long-lived {sup 135}Cs by radiometric methods is challenging. This measurement is, however, important given its significance in long-term nuclear waste storage and disposal. Furthermore, the {sup 135}Cs/{sup 137}Cs ratio varies with reactor, weapon and fuel type, and accurate measurement of this ratio can therefore be used as a forensic tool in identifying the source(s) of nuclear contamination. The shorter-lived activation products {sup 134}Cs and {sup 136}Cs have a limited application but provide useful early information on fuel irradiation history and have importance in health physics. Detection of {sup 135}Cs (and {sup 137}Cs) is achievable by mass spectrometric techniques; most commonly inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), as well as thermal ionisation (TIMS), accelerator (AMS) and resonance ionisation (RIMS) techniques. The critical issues affecting the accuracy and detection limits achievable by this technique are effective removal of barium to eliminate isobaric interferences arising from {sup 135}Ba and {sup 137}Ba, and elimination of peak tailing of stable {sup 133}Cs on {sup 135}Cs. Isobaric interferences can be removed by chemical separation, most commonly ion exchange chromatography, and/or instrumental separation using an ICP-MS equipped with a reaction cell. The removal of the peak tailing interference is dependent on the instrument used for final measurement. This review summarizes and compares the analytical procedures

  16. Distribution coefficients of 134Cs, 60Co, 65Zn and 51Cr in different contaminated soils affected by organic waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metwally, E.

    2003-01-01

    Batch adsorption experiments were conducted with mixtures of solutes of different concentrations of some radionuclides as 1 34Sc, 6 0Co, 6 5Zn and 5 1Cr, in five different soils. The soils varied in their organic matter source and content due to prolonged irrigation with primary treated sewage effluent or untreated industrial wastewater. the distribution coefficients (K d ) were measured at different equilibrium times namely, 2, 24, 48, 72, 144 and 336 h. statistical correlation and curve fittings indicated that metal sorption into soils was influenced by the presence of clays, organic matter content and hydrous oxides of Fe and Mn. The highest log K d values were obtained in case of Cs in all investigated soils with a general mean of 1.878 0.28. Log K d for Cr exhibited a higher values than those did for at any tested soil (general mean 1.675 .33 and 1.658 0.24 for Cr and Co respectively). Zinc had the lowest log K d values, indicating that Cs is highly retained in soil than other tested elements and Zn is relatively mobile in soil than other tested elements. The investigated elements retention in soil could be arranged in the following order: Cs > Cr > Co > Zn. Soils enriched in organic matter exhibited the highest sorption caption capacity for all tested metals. Variability in the distribution coefficient due to soils and metals interactions were discussed

  17. Accumulation and distribution of 137Cs and 90Sr in the body of the wild boar (Sus scrofa) found on the territory with radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulakov, Andrey Vladimirovich

    2014-01-01

    We studied the concentration and distribution of 137 Cs and 90 Sr in the bodies of 188 wild boar (Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758) taken near the Chernobyl site. Of these, 111 animals were taken in the Alienation Zone, 41 animals were taken in the Permanent Control Zone and 36 animals were taken in the Periodic Control Zone. The samples included muscle and bone (rib) tissues and samples of heart, liver, lungs, kidneys, spleen, genitals and skin. The weight of the samples was 0.5 kg fresh weigh. The average concentration of 137 Cs in the muscles of the wild boar found in the Alienation Zone was 46 ± 10 kBq/kg, in the Permanent Control Zone – 13 ± 3.0 kBq/kg and in the Periodic Control Zone – 0.6 ± 0.1 kBq/kg. The largest concentration of 137 Cs was detected in the muscle tissue and kidneys taken animals. In some samples of muscle tissue it reached more than 660 kBq/kg. The 137 Cs concentrations were also high in heart and spleen up 64.3 kBq/kg and 67.5 kBq/kg – animals from the Alienation Zone and 10.3–10.6 kBq/kg – animals from the Permanent Control zone. The lowest concentration of 137 Cs was found in the lungs and skin of animals. The analyses of 90 Sr concentration in the organs and tissues of the wild boar showed that 90 Sr was concentrated mainly in the bone tissue. The average level of 90 Sr concentration in bone was 17.6 kBq/kg fresh weight animals from the Alienation Zone and 13.47 kBg/kg – animals from the Permanent Control zone. In muscle tissues and organs contained 90 Sr – 30.0–110.0 Bq/kg in the Alienation Zone and 11.0–30.0 Bq/kg in the Permanent Control zone

  18. 135Cs activity and 135Cs/137Cs atom ratio in environmental samples before and after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guosheng; Tazoe, Hirofumi; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2016-04-07

    (135)Cs/(137)Cs is a potential tracer for radiocesium source identification. However, due to the challenge to measure (135)Cs, there were no (135)Cs data available for Japanese environmental samples before the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. It was only 3 years after the accident that limited (135)Cs values could be measured in heavily contaminated environmental samples. In the present study, activities of (134)Cs, (135)Cs, and (137)Cs, along with their ratios in 67 soil and plant samples heavily and lightly contaminated by the FDNPP accident were measured by combining γ spectrometry with ICP-MS/MS. The arithmetic means of the (134)Cs/(137)Cs activity ratio (1.033 ± 0.006) and (135)Cs/(137)Cs atom ratio (0.334 ± 0.005) (decay corrected to March 11, 2011), from old leaves of plants collected immediately after the FDNPP accident, were confirmed to represent the FDNPP derived radiocesium signature. Subsequently, for the first time, trace (135)Cs amounts before the FDNPP accident were deduced according to the contribution of global and FDNPP accident-derived fallout. Apart from two soil samples with a tiny global fallout contribution, contributions of global fallout radiocesium in other soil samples were observed to be 0.338%-52.6%. The obtained (135)Cs/(137)Cs database will be useful for its application as a geochemical tracer in the future.

  19. Radiation background and the incidence of cataracta among the population groups of the Far North. [Radioisotopes: sup(210)Pb; sup(210)Po; sup(137)Cs; sup(90)Sr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nizhnikov, A I; Miretskij, G I; Ramzaev, P V; Troitskaya, M N [Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Radiatsionnoj Gigieny, Leningrad (USSR)

    1984-07-01

    The incidence of senile cataracta in the residents of the Far North regions and the newcomers differing in the effective equivalent dose due to all types of radiation (except radon decay products for lungs) approximately by 2 times, is studied. The data on the age and sex composition of population with initially established diagnosis of senile cataracta are presented. Lens injury is found to occur earlier in men than in women (the difference is about 5 years). Cataracta frequency increases with age. In the native population of the Far North at 65 and older, cataracta takes place by 2-3 times oftener. Investigations are continued to specify the role of the radiation factor in the integrated effect of the environment on the formation of cataracta in population.

  20. Transfer pathways of {sup 54}Mn, {sup 57}Co, {sup 85}Sr, {sup 103}Ru and {sup 134}Cs in rice and radish plants directly contaminated at different growth stages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Y.H. E-mail: yhchoi1@kaeri.re.kr; Lim, K.M.; Yu, D.; Park, H.G.; Choi, Y.G.; Lee, C.M

    2002-03-01

    In order to study radionuclide transfer pathways related to direct contamination of plants, the above-ground parts of rice and radish plants were sprayed with a solution containing {sup 54}Mn, {sup 57}Co, {sup 85}Sr, {sup 103}Ru and {sup 134}Cs in a greenhouse at 5 or 6 different times. Showing little difference among radionuclides, the interception factor increased as plants grew to maturity. Its highest observed value was 0.94 in rice and 0.83 in radish. Weathering losses of the intercepted activity by harvest were 32-89% in rice and 32-85% in radish depending on application time and radionuclide. Half lives for weathering loss were estimated to be longer on the whole for earlier applications. The translocation factor varied with application time by factors of 6-110 for hulled rice seeds and 2-23 for radish roots depending on the radionuclide. It varied with radionuclides by factors of 6-800 depending on application time and plant species. It was highest in the plants sprayed during active seed growth for rice and during early plant growth for radish. In general, {sup 134}Cs and {sup 57}Co had the highest translocation factors followed by {sup 54}Mn, {sup 85}Sr and {sup 103}Ru. Based on the experimental results, radionuclide concentrations in the edible parts of mature plants were predicted for unit deposition.

  1. Risk-Based Remediation Approach for Cs-137 Contaminated Sediment/Soils at the Savannah River Site (SRS) Lower Three Runs Tail (U) - 13348 - SRNS-RP-2012-00546

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, Candice [Department of Energy- Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC (United States); Bergren, Christopher; Blas, Susan; Kupar, James [Area Completion Projects, Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, LLC (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Lower Three Runs is a large blackwater stream that runs through the eastern and southern portion of the Savannah River Site. The Lower Three Runs watershed includes two SRS facility areas: P Area (P Reactor) and R Area (R Reactor) that provided effluent discharges to Lower Three Runs. During reactor operations, effluent discharges were well above natural (pre-industrial) or present day stream discharges. The watershed contains a 2,500-acre mainstream impoundment (PAR Pond), several smaller pre-cooler ponds, and a canal system that connects the pre-cooler ponds and discharges surface water to PAR Pond. From the PAR Pond dam, Lower Three Runs flows approximately 36 kilometers braiding through bottom-land/flood-plain forests before it enters the Savannah River. About eight kilometers downstream from the PAR Pond dam, the SRS boundary narrows (termed the Lower Three Runs tail) providing a limited buffer of DOE property for the Lower Three Runs stream and associated flood-plain. Previous screening characterization efforts revealed Cs-137 contamination in the sediment/soils of the flood-plain. As a part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act stimulus package, a comprehensive characterization effort was executed on the sediment/soils of the Lower Three Runs tail flood-plain providing a comprehensive look at the contaminant signature of the area. As a follow-up to that characterization, a regulatory decision Core Team, comprised of members of the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control, Environmental Protection Agency - Region IV, and DOE, conducted negotiations on a risk-based approach to address the level of contamination found in the tail flood-plain as an early action that provided a long-term solution to exposure scenarios. For evaluation purposes, the adolescent trespasser was selected as the most likely human receptor for the Lower Three Runs tail portion because of the natural attractiveness of the area for recreational activities (i

  2. Early construction and operation of the highly contaminated water treatment system in Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (2). Dynamic characteristics of KURION media for Cs removal in simulated contaminated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hijikata, Takatoshi; Uozumi, Koichi; Tsukada, Takeshi; Koyama, Tadafumi; Ishikawa, Keiji; Ono, Shoichi; Suzuki, Shunichi; Denton, Mark; Raymont, John

    2014-01-01

    The kinetic characteristics of the column were necessary property to be understood before actual operation. Hence, a functional small-scale zeolite column system was installed for conducting the experiments to understand decontamination behaviors. Each column has a 2 cm inner diameter and a 12 cm height, and 12 g of zeolite-type media was packed into the column. The column experiments were carried out with Kurion-zeolite, herschelite, at different feed rates of simulated water with different concentrations of Cs and sea salt. As expected from equilibrium ion-exchange isotherms obtained for KURION-herschelite, the adsorption of Cs is hampered by the existence of sea salt ratio. The difference in breakthrough behaviors can be ascribed to the difference in sea salt ratio. Above 1000 bed volumes, the adsorption rate of Cs was the same at a solution velocity of between 14 and 81 cm/min. Under the condition of a 3.4 wt% sea salt ratio, the performance of the media supplied by KURION was in the order surfactant modified zeolite < silver-impregnated engineered herschelite = herschelite (H). This result was suggested to evaluate the performance of KURION media on the actual columns. (author)

  3. A novel vanadosilicate with hexadeca-coordinated Cs+ ions as a highly effective Cs+ remover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, Shuvo Jit; Moon, Won Kyung; Choi, Do Young; Hwang, In Chul; Yoon, Kyung Byung

    2014-01-01

    The effective removal of 137 Cs + ions from contaminated groundwater and seawater and from radioactive nuclear waste solutions is crucial for public health and for the continuous operation of nuclear power plants. Various 137 Cs + removers have been developed, but more effective 137 Cs + removers are still needed. A novel microporous vanadosilicate with mixed-valence vanadium (V 4+ and V 5+ ) ions is now reported, which shows an excellent ability for Cs + capture and immobilization from groundwater, seawater, and nuclear waste solutions. This material is superior to other known materials in terms of selectivity, capacity, and kinetics, and at very low Cs + concentrations, it was found to be the most effective material for the removal of radioactive Cs + ions under the test conditions. This novel vanadosilicate also contains hexadeca-coordinated Cs + ions, which corresponds to the highest coordination number ever described.

  4. Incidence of contamination of live bird markets in Bangladesh with influenza A virus and subtypes H5, H7 and H9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, P K; Giasuddin, M; Chowdhury, P; Barua, H; Debnath, N C; Yamage, M

    2018-06-01

    In the absence of robust active surveillance of avian influenza viruses (AIV) affecting poultry in South Asian countries, monitoring of live bird markets (LBMs) can be an alternative. In a longitudinal study of 32 LBM, five environments were sampled as follows: market floor, stall floor, slaughter area, poultry holding cage and water used for meat processing. Samples were taken monthly for 5 months, September 2013-January 2014. Incidence rates (IRs) of LBM contamination with AIV and its subtypes H5, H7 and H9 were assessed. In 10 of the LBM selected, biosecurity measures had been implemented through FAO interventions: the other 22 were non-intervened. Standard procedures were applied to detect AIV and three subtypes in pooled samples (1:5). An LBM was considered positive for AIV or a subtype if at least one of the pooled samples tested positive. The incidence rates of LBM contamination with AIV, H5, H7 and H9 were 0.194 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.136-0.276), 0.031 (95% CI 0.013-0.075), 0 and 0.175 (95% CI 0.12-0.253) per LBM-month at risk, respectively. The log IR ratio between the FAO-intervened and non-intervened LBM for contamination with AIV was -0.329 (95% CI -1.052 to -0.394, p = .372), 0.598 (95% CI -1.593 to 2.789, p = .593) with subtype H5 and -0.500 (95% CI -1.249 to 0.248, p = .190) with subtype H9, indicating no significant difference. The results obtained suggest that both H5 and H9 were circulating in LBM in Bangladesh in the second half of 2013. The incidence of contamination with H9 was much higher than with H5. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Incidence and Levels of Deoxynivalenol, Fumonisins and Zearalenone Contaminants in Animal Feeds Used in Korea in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Ho Kim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the occurrence and levels of deoxynivalenol (DON, fumonisins B1 and B2 (FBs, and zearalenone (ZEN contaminants in animal feeds used in Korea in 2012. Contamination with DON was observed in 91.33% and 53.33% in compound feeds and feed ingredients, respectively. Among compound feeds, poultry layer feed (laying exhibited the highest contaminant level of 1.492 mg/kg. FBs contaminants were present in compound feeds and feed ingredients at 93.33% and 83.33%, respectively. Most poultry broiler (early feeds were highly contaminated with FBs, and one of these feeds detected the level as 12.823 mg/kg as the highest level. The levels of ZEN in compound feeds and feed ingredients were 71.33% and 47%, respectively. Ninety-eight percent of compound feeds for cattle were contaminated with ZEN, and the highest contamination level of 0.405 mg/kg was observed in cattle fatting feeds.

  6. CS Informativeness Governs CS-US Associability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Ryan D.; Gallistel, C. R.; Jensen, Greg; Richards, Vanessa L.; Fairhurst, Stephen; Balsam, Peter D

    2012-01-01

    In a conditioning protocol, the onset of the conditioned stimulus (CS) provides information about when to expect reinforcement (the US). There are two sources of information from the CS in a delay conditioning paradigm in which the CS-US interval is fixed. The first depends on the informativeness, the degree to which CS onset reduces the average expected time to onset of the next US. The second depends only on how precisely a subject can represent a fixed-duration interval (the temporal Weber fraction). In three experiments with mice, we tested the differential impact of these two sources of information on rate of acquisition of conditioned responding (CS-US associability). In Experiment 1, we show that associability (the inverse of trials to acquisition) increases in proportion to informativeness. In Experiment 2, we show that fixing the duration of the US-US interval or the CS-US interval or both has no effect on associability. In Experiment 3, we equated the increase in information produced by varying the C̅/T̅ ratio with the increase produced by fixing the duration of the CS-US interval. Associability increased with increased informativeness, but, as in Experiment 2, fixing the CS-US duration had no effect on associability. These results are consistent with the view that CS-US associability depends on the increased rate of reward signaled by CS onset. The results also provide further evidence that conditioned responding is temporally controlled when it emerges. PMID:22468633

  7. Early construction and operation of the highly contaminated water treatment system in Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (4). Assessment of hydrogen behavior in stored Cs adsorption vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Masahiro; Arai, Takahiro; Nishi, Yoshihisa

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen diffusion behavior in a cesium adsorption vessel is assessed. The vessel is used to remove radioactive substance from contaminated water, which is proceeded from Fukushima accident. Experiment and numerical calculation are conducted to clarify the characteristics of natural circulation in the vessel. The natural circulation arising from the temperature difference between inside and outside the vessel is confirmed. We develop an evaluation model to predict the natural circulation and its prediction agrees well with the results obtained by the experiment and the calculation. Using the model, we predict steady and transient behavior of hydrogen concentration. Results indicate that hydrogen concentration is kept lower than the flammability limit when the short vent pipe is open. (author)

  8. Concentration of 134Cs and 137Cs in Malaysian palm products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yii Mei Wo; Nor Aza Hassan; Narizan Sanusi

    2008-08-01

    Until today, countries importing food products from Malaysia, in region such as Indian Continental, Middle East, Central Europe and Central America still require the products to be tested for the radioactive contamination particularly for 134 Cs and 137 Cs. Information extracted from 3371 analytical results observed on isotopic concentration for 134 Cs and 137 Cs in the exported Malaysia origins palm products between years 2002 until 2007 had been summarized and reported in this work. Data shown that the concentration level of the concerned radio nuclides are below the minimum detectable activity and also well below maximum permissible limits adopted by Malaysian Government and also the international bodies. (Author)

  9. Reactive barriers for 137Cs retention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumhansl, James L.; Brady, Patrick V.; Anderson, Howard L.

    2000-01-01

    137 Cs was dispersed globally by cold war activities and, more recently, by the Chernobyl accident. Engineered extraction of 137 Cs from soils and groundwaters is exceedingly difficult. Because the half life of 137 Cs is only 30.2 years, remediation might be more effective (and less costly) if 137 Cs bioavailability could be demonstrably limited for even a few decades by use of a reactive barrier. Essentially permanent isolation must be demonstrated in those few settings where high nuclear level wastes contaminated the environment with 135 Cs (half life 2.3x10 6 years) in addition to 137 Cs. Clays are potentially a low-cost barrier to Cs movement, though their long-term effectiveness remains untested. To identify optimal clays for Cs retention Cs resorption was measured for five common clays: Wyoming Montmorillonite (SWy-1), Georgia Kaolinites (KGa-1 and KGa-2), Fithian Illite (F-Ill), and K-Metabentonite (K-Mbt). Exchange sites were pre-saturated with 0.16 M CsCl for 14 days and readily exchangeable Cs was removed by a series of LiNO 3 and LiCl washes. Washed clay were then placed into dialysis bags and the Cs release to the deionized water outside the bags measured. Release rates from 75 to 139 days for SWy-1, K-Mbt and F- 111 were similar; 0.017 to 0.021% sorbed Cs released per day. Both kaolinites released Cs more rapidly (0.12 to 0.05% of the sorbed Cs per day). In a second set of experiments, clays were doped for 110 days and subjected to an extreme and prolonged rinsing process. All the clays exhibited some capacity for irreversible Cs uptake so most soils have some limited ability to act as a natural barrier to Cs migration. However, the residual loading was greatest on K-Mbt (∼ 0.33 wt% Cs). Thus, this clay would be the optimal material for constructing artificial reactive barriers

  10. Discrimination and quantification of contamination and implanted solar wind in Genesis collector shards using grazing incidence synchrotron x-ray techniques: Initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitts, K.; Sutton, S.; Eng, P.; Ghose, S.; Burnett, D.

    2006-01-01

    Grazing incidence X-ray fluorescence is a non-destructive technique that can differentiate the embedded solar wind component from surface contamination and collector background in the Genesis shards. Initial solar Fe abundance in D30554 is 8 x 10 12 /cm 2 . Accurate knowledge of the composition of the Sun provides a baseline, which allows an understanding of how the solar system has evolved over time and how solar processes and solar wind mechanics behave. Unfortunately, the errors in photospheric abundances are too large for many planetary science problems and this hampers our understanding of these different processes. Analyses of solar wind implanted in meteorites or lunar soils have provided more precise data but alteration processes on these bodies may complicate such information. In response to this need for pristine solar wind samples, NASA developed and launched the Genesis Probe. Unfortunately, the probe smashed into the Utah desert shattering the 300 collector plates into 15,000+ pieces all of which are now coated in a both a fine terrestrial dust and Si and Ge powder from the disrupted collectors themselves. The solar wind penetration depth is 100-200 nm and the superposed contamination layers are typically 40-50 nm. Stringent cleaning regimes have the potential of removing the solar wind itself. The best solution is to have sufficient spatial resolution to separately analyze the surface contamination and penetrated solar wind. To that end, three Genesis collector array shards and their appropriate flight spares were characterized via grazing incidence x-ray fluorescence and x-ray reflectivity. The goals were (1) to evaluate the various cleaning methods used to eliminate contamination, (2) to identify the collector substrates most suited for this technique, (3) to determine whether the solar wind signature could be deconvolved from the collector background signature, and (4) to measure the relative abundances of Ca to Ge in the embedded solar wind.

  11. Distribution of 137Cs in the American Coot (Fulica americana)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, C.M.; Brisbin, I.L. Jr.; McDowell, S.G.; Whicker, F.W.

    1989-01-01

    Caesium-137 concentrations were determined for major tissue and organ components of Americal Coots (Fulica americana) wintering on two contaminated reactor cooling reservoirs on the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Plant. Concentrations reflected the relative contamination levels of the two reservoirs. A low ratio of 137 Cs in gut contents to that in muscle indicated that the coots used in the study were established winter residents and tissue 137 Cs had probably reached equilibrium with intake. The contributions of each component to the whole body weight and total 137 Cs body burden were calculated. Skeletal muscle exhibited the highest 137 Cs concentrations and comprised 35% of the total 137 Cs body burden. Gut contents represented 17% of the total body burden. Various other organs were intermediate and bone exhibited the lowest 137 Cs concentrations. Linear regressions were determined for 137 Cs concentrations in skeletal muscle, liver, kidney, gastrointestinal (GI) tract tissue and gut contents, as functions of whole-body concentrations. (author)

  12. Restoration of railway areas of Brescia dock and Montirone station contaminated by Cs{sup 137}; Bonifica delle aree degli impianti ferroviari di Brescia Scalo e Montirone (BS) contaminate da radiocesio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gili, M [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Saluggia, Vercelli (Italy). Dipt. Energia; Olivero, L [Centro Ricerche Saluggia, Vercelli (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1997-03-01

    ENEA (Italian National Agency for new Technologies Energy and the Environment) - Energy Department has designed and managed, on behalf of FS (Public Railways) plc. the restoration of railway areas of Brescia dock and Montirone (BS) station, contaminated by Cesium 137 due to scrap iron imported from Eastern Europe. The restoration went off according to the program in June-August 1995 with means and personnel from Italian National Agency for new Technology Energy and the Environment Saluggia (VC) Research Centre and it involved the removal of 51 tons of contaminated soil, its packaging in to 302 drums and the transport to Italian National Agency for new Technology Energy and the Environment Casaccia (RM) Centre for disposal.

  13. Modeling of the fate of radionuclides in urban sewer systems after contamination due to nuclear or radiological incidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urso, L.; Kaiser, J.C.; Andersson, Kasper Grann

    2013-01-01

    After an accidental radioactive contamination by aerosols in inhabited areas, the radiation exposure to man is determined by complex interactions between different factors such as dry or wet deposition, different types of ground surfaces, chemical properties of the radionuclides involved and buil...

  14. Behaviour of {sup 137} Cs in oxysoils and Goiania soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wassermann, Maria Angelica [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1997-12-31

    {sup 137} Cs soil-to-plant transfer factor obtained in oxy soils accidentally contaminated in Goiania and artificially contaminated shows that these soils present higher transfer when compared with data obtained under temperate climates. These differences were discussed in the light of pedology and geochemical partitioning. Some tropical soil characteristics as acidity, low available nutritive elements and low content of 2:1 clay type seems determine high availability for {sup 137} Cs. Results of sequential extraction showed {sup 137} Cs weakly bound to soil components and underline the importance of Fe oxides in the control of {sup 137} Cs availability in tropical climates. (author) 25 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Release of fission products from contaminated sodium fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, S.

    1976-01-01

    Leaks in the primary coolant system of a LMFBR and also serious incidents with tank rupture may entail the escape of fission products into the containment of the reactor. For incident analysis it is important to know the retention capability of sodium for the different fission products. The release of cesium and strontium from pools contaminated with 100 to 1000 ppM was investigated by experiments. The cesium content of airborne aerosols depends on oxygen concentration: at 21 percent oxygen concentration the Cs content of sodium-oxide aerosols is 3 times and at 0.5 percent 15 times as high as the initial Cs concentration in the pool. Strontium content of aerosols over burning contaminated sodium pools is 10 3 times smaller than the strontium pool concentration

  16. Modeling retrospective attribution of responsibility to hazard-managing institutions: an example involving a food contamination incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Branden B; Hallman, William K; Cuite, Cara L

    2015-03-01

    Perceptions of institutions that manage hazards are important because they can affect how the public responds to hazard events. Antecedents of trust judgments have received far more attention than antecedents of attributions of responsibility for hazard events. We build upon a model of retrospective attribution of responsibility to individuals to examine these relationships regarding five classes of institutions that bear responsibility for food safety: producers (e.g., farmers), processors (e.g., packaging firms), watchdogs (e.g., government agencies), sellers (e.g., supermarkets), and preparers (e.g., restaurants). A nationally representative sample of 1,200 American adults completed an Internet-based survey in which a hypothetical scenario involving contamination of diverse foods with Salmonella served as the stimulus event. Perceived competence and good intentions of the institution moderately decreased attributions of responsibility. A stronger factor was whether an institution was deemed (potentially) aware of the contamination and free to act to prevent or mitigate it. Responsibility was rated higher the more aware and free the institution. This initial model for attributions of responsibility to impersonal institutions (as opposed to individual responsibility) merits further development. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

  17. Fast CsI-phoswich detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langenbrunner, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    An improved phoswich radiation detector used pure CsI crystal and a fast plastic scintillator and a single photomultiplier tube. The plastic is arranged to receive incident radiation, and that which passed through then strikes the CsI crystal. Scintillation light from both the plastic and CsI crystal are applied to the photomultiplier tube, with the light from the plastic passing through the crystal without absorption therein. Electronics are provided for analyzing the output of the photomultiplier tube to discriminate responses due to the plastic and the CsI crystal, through short gate and long gate integration, to produce results which are indicative of the characteristics of the different types of incident radiation, even in the presence of large amounts of radiation. The phoswich detector has excellent timing resolution. The scintillators of the CsI- phoswich were chosen for their fast risetimes, of about 3 ns for NE102A, and 30 ns for the pure CsI. 5 figs

  18. Water culture of the rice containing Cs-137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yong Ho; Keum, Dong Kwon; Lim, Kwang Muk; Jun, In; Park, Doo Won

    2008-10-01

    Pot experiments were carried out in a greenhouse in order to produce Cs-137-containing rice seeds as a source material for use in manufacturing reference rice samples of a high Cs-137 activity. Two kinds of soil were used and two pots were prepared for each kind of soil. Rice plants were water-cultured in the pots and Cs-137 was applied to the surface water to induce a Cs-137 contamination of rice seeds via a plant uptake of Cs-137. Mature rice plants were harvested and Cs-137-containing rice seeds were obtained after some treatment of the harvested plants. These produced rice seeds are going to be provided for the KRISS so as to be used in manufacturing reference rice samples for Cs-137

  19. Fumigation of a laboratory-scale HVAC system with hydrogen peroxide for decontamination following a biological contamination incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, K M; Calfee, M W; Wood, J P; Mickelsen, L; Attwood, B; Clayton, M; Touati, A; Delafield, R

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate hydrogen peroxide vapour (H2 O2 ) for its ability to inactivate Bacillus spores within a laboratory-scale heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) duct system. Experiments were conducted in a closed-loop duct system, constructed of either internally lined or unlined galvanized metal. Bacterial spores were aerosol-deposited onto 18-mm-diameter test material coupons and strategically placed at several locations within the duct environment. Various concentrations of H2 O2 and exposure times were evaluated to determine the sporicidal efficacy and minimum exposure needed for decontamination. For the unlined duct, high variability was observed in the recovery of spores between sample locations, likely due to complex, unpredictable flow patterns within the ducts. In comparison, the lined duct exhibited a significant desorption of the H2 O2 following the fumigant dwell period and thus resulted in complete decontamination at all sampling locations. These findings suggest that decontamination of Bacillus spore-contaminated unlined HVAC ducts by hydrogen peroxide fumigation may require more stringent conditions (higher concentrations, longer dwell duration) than internally insulated ductwork. These data may help emergency responders when developing remediation plans during building decontamination. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology This article has been contributed to by US Government employees and their work is in the public domain in the USA.

  20. Cancer incidence in Priolo, Sicily: a spatial approach for estimation of industrial air pollution impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Fazzo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The territory around the industrial Sicilian area of Priolo, Italy, has been defined as a contaminated site (CS of national priority for remediation because of diffuse environmental contamination caused by large industrial settlements. The present study investigates the spatial distribution of cancer into the CS territory (period 1999-2006. Different geographical methods used for the evaluation of the impact of industrial air pollutants were adopted. Using the database of Syracuse Province Cancer Registry, gender-specific standardised incidence ratios were calculated for 35 tumour sites for the CS overall and for each municipality included in the CS. A cluster analysis for 17 selected neoplasms was performed at micro-geographical level. The identification of the priority index contaminants (PICs present in environmental matrices and a review of their carcinogenicity have been performed and applied in the interpretation of the findings. The area has a higher cancer incidence with respect to the provincial population, in particular excess is registered among both genders of lung, bladder and breast cancers as well as skin melanoma and pleural mesothelioma and there is an a priori evidence of association with the exposure to PICs. The study highlights the need to provide different approaches in CSs where several exposure pathways might be relevant for the population. The presence of potential sources of asbestos exposure deserves specific concern.

  1. Reconstructing the deposition environment and long-term fate of Chernobyl 137Cs at the floodplain scale through mobile gamma spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varley, Adam; Tyler, Andrew; Bondar, Yuri; Hosseini, Ali; Zabrotski, Viachaslau; Dowdall, Mark

    2018-09-01

    Cs-137 is considered to be the most significant anthropogenic contributor to human dose and presents a particularly difficult remediation challenge after a dispersal following nuclear incident. The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant meltdown in April 1986 represents the largest nuclear accident in history and released over 80 PBq of 137 Cs into the environment. As a result, much of the land in close proximity to Chernobyl, which includes the Polessie State Radioecology Reserve in Belarus, remains highly contaminated with 137 Cs to such an extent they remain uninhabitable. Whilst there is a broad scale understanding of the depositional patterns within and beyond the exclusion zone, detailed mapping of the distribution is often limited. New developments in mobile gamma spectrometry provide the opportunity to map the fallout of 137 Cs and begin to reconstruct the depositional environment and the long-term behaviour of 137 Cs in the environment. Here, full gamma spectrum analysis using algorithms based on the peak-valley ratio derived from Monte Carlo simulations are used to estimate the total 137 Cs deposition and its depth distribution in the soil. The results revealed a pattern of 137 Cs distribution consistent with the deposition occurring at a time of flooding, which is validated by review of satellite imagery acquired at similar times of the year. The results were also consistent with systematic burial of the fallout 137 Cs by annual flooding events. These results were validated by sediment cores collected along a transect across the flood plain. The true merit of the approach was confirmed by exposing new insights into the spatial distribution and long term fate of 137 Cs across the floodplain. Such systematic patterns of behaviour are likely to be fundamental to the understanding of the radioecological behaviour of 137 Cs whilst also providing a tracer for quantifying the ecological controls on sediment movement and deposition at a landscape scale. Copyright © 2018

  2. Dispersal of the radionuclide caesium-137 (137Cs) from point sources in the Barents and Norwegian Seas and its potential contamination of the Arctic marine food chain: Coupling numerical ocean models with geographical fish distribution data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heldal, Hilde Elise; Vikebø, Frode; Johansen, Geir Odd

    2012-01-01

    Dispersal of 137 Cs from Komsomolets and K-159 is simulated using realistic rates and hypothetical scenarios. Furthermore, spatiotemporal 137 Cs concentrations in Northeast Arctic cod and capelin are estimated based on survey data. The results indicate that only pulse discharges from K-159 will cause concentrations of 137 Cs in cod muscle exceeding the intervention level of 600 Bq/kg fresh weight. A discharge of ≥10% of the 137 Cs-inventory will result in concentrations in muscle of cod exceeding the intervention level for approximately two years. In fact, a discharge of 10% of the 137 Cs-inventory results in an overlap of 8–30% between the different size groups of cod and levels that exceed the intervention level during the first year after the discharge. For capelin, individuals less than one year old during the first year after a discharge are more likely to be severely affected by discharges comprising ≥50% of the inventory. - Highlights: ► The dispersal of 137 Cs from the wrecks of Komsomolets and K-159 are simulated. ► The submarine wrecks are resting on the seabed in the Norwegian and Barents Seas. ► Both realistic rates of discharges and what-if scenarios are simulated. ► Concentrations of 137 Cs are estimated in observational records of cod and capelin. ► Only pulse discharges from K-159 causes high 137 Cs concentrations in cod and capelin. - A leakage of 137 Cs from K-159 may cause concentrations in muscle of cod exceeding the intervention level of 600 Bq/kg fresh weight for up to two years after the leakage.

  3. Dispersal of the radionuclide caesium-137 (137Cs) from point sources in the Barents and Norwegian Seas and its potential contamination of the Arctic marine food chain: Coupling numerical ocean models with geographical fish distribution data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heldal, Hilde Elise; Vikebø, Frode; Johansen, Geir Odd

    2013-01-01

    Dispersal of 137 Cs from the nuclear submarine wrecks Komsomolets and K-159, which are resting on the seabed in the Norwegian and Barents Seas, respectively, is simulated using realistic rates and hypothetical scenarios. Furthermore, spatiotemporal 137 Cs concentrations in Northeast Arctic cod and capelin are estimated based on survey data. The results indicate that neither continuous leakages nor pulse discharges will cause concentrations of 137 Cs in cod muscle or whole body capelin exceeding the intervention level of 600 Bq/kg fw. Continuous leakages from Komsomolets and K-159 and pulse discharges from Komsomolets induced negligible activity concentrations in cod and capelin. A pulse discharge of 100% of the 137 Cs-inventory of K-159 will, however, result in concentrations in muscle of cod of above 100 times the present levels in the eastern Barents Sea. Within three years after the release, 137 Cs levels above 20 Bq/kg fw in cod are no longer occurring in the Barents Sea. -- Highlights: •The dispersal of 137 Cs from the wrecks of Komsomolets and K-159 are simulated. •The submarine wrecks are resting on the seabed in the Norwegian and Barents Seas. •Both realistic rates of discharges and what-if scenarios are simulated. •Concentrations of 137 Cs are estimated in observational records of cod and capelin. •Only pulse discharges from K-159 causes high 137 Cs concentrations in cod and capelin. -- A pulse discharge of 137 Cs from K-159 may cause concentrations in muscle of cod up to 63 and 123 Bq/kg fresh weight in the near-surface and near-bottom layer, respectively

  4. 137Cs behaviour in fruit trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monte, L.; Quaggia, S.; Pompei, F.; Fratarcangeli, S.

    1989-01-01

    The results of measurements carried out during the period 1987-1988, to evaluate the levels of 137 Cs and 134 Cs contamination in fruit samples and in various components of fruit-trees have been reported. It has been demonstrated that, in the case of an accidental contamination of the air, the contamination of fruit is mainly due to the foliar translocation of radionuclide. Data of radioactivity content in fruits collected through a period of three years show that the radioactivity content in fruit diminishes exponentially. Rough estimates of ''translocation coefficient'' defined as the ratio (radionuclide concentration in fruit)/(radionuclide deposition on soil), and of the ''biological half time'' have been carried out in the case of hazel-nut, walnut, apple, chestnut and olive

  5. Radiological aspects of choice of a system of cultivation of sod-podzolic sandy loam soils with different degree of humidity on lands of Mogilev region contaminated with 137Cs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarevich, S.S.; Ermolenko, A.V.; Shapsheeva, T.P.

    2010-01-01

    In the conditions of the Republic of Belarus there were presented data about the influence of technological factors on entry of 137Cs into plant products (grain and green mass). In course of the study there were analyzed the following variants of soil cultivation: moldboard plowing; subsurface chisel soil tillage; subsurface surface soil tillage; minimal tillage. There were presented data on specific activity of 137Cs in plant product samples of oat (Avena sativa) grain; field pea (Pisum arvense L.) and oat mixture grain and green mass; wheat (Triticum aestivum) grain. There were determined the main principles of influence of cultivation systems of sod-podzolic sandy loam soil with different degree of humidity on transition of 137Cs into plants depending on the degree of soil and crop humidity. On the automorphic soil there was revealed a tendency of increased transition of 137Cs into grain and green mass after application of subsurface surface soil tillage system

  6. Initial interaction of {sup 137}Cs with soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagasaki, S., E-mail: nagasaki@mcmaster.ca [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Makino, H.; Saito, T. [Univ. of Toyko, Tokyo (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    It is critical to understand the physicochemical behaviour of Cs in soil in order to progress the decontamination of soils which were contaminated by nuclear power plant accident and to improve the reliability of safety assessment of used nuclear fuel disposal. In this paper, the initial interactions of {sup 137}Cs with soils, which were sampled in Fukushima 38 days after Fukushima Accident, were investigated with sequential extraction method. It was found that there were fast and slow processes of fixation of {sup 137}Cs in clay minerals and that the organic substances might play an important role on kinetics of {sup 137}Cs in soils. (author)

  7. 137Cs metabolism in pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, D.R.; Lipsztein, J.L.; Oliveira, C.A.N.; Bertelli, L.

    2000-01-01

    Data from two pregnant women contaminated with 137 Cs, body burdens of 0.2 and 300 MBq, respectively at the time of the Goiania accident, were compared. The first one, with lower body burden was exposed during the fourth month of pregnancy, while the second became pregnant three years and eight months after 137 Cs intake. For the first woman 137 Cs concentrations were equal for the mother, infant and placenta, indicating an easy and homogeneous transport of 137 Cs from mother to foetus. The whole body monitoring data from the second woman, who became pregnant four years after intake, did not show a reduction in biological half-life during the pregnancy. Cs concentration in the mother was found to be 13 times higher than in the infant. One possible reason for this result is that four years after intake, Cs is supposed to be concentrated mainly in skeletal muscle tissue. During the pregnancy the blood flux becomes higher in most of the organs and tissues except brain, liver and skeletal muscle tissue. (author)

  8. Improving CS regulations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nesse, R.J.; Scheer, R.M.; Marasco, A.L.; Furey, R.

    1980-10-01

    President Carter issued Executive Order 12044 (3/28/78) that required all Federal agencies to distinguish between significant and insignificant regulations, and to determine whether a regulation will result in major impacts. This study gathered information on the impact of the order and the guidelines on the Office of Conservation and Solar Energy (CS) regulatory practices, investigated problems encountered by the CS staff when implementing the order and guidelines, and recommended solutions to resolve these problems. Major tasks accomplished and discussed are: (1) legislation, Executive Orders, and DOE Memoranda concerning Federal administrative procedures relevant to the development and analysis of regulations within CS reviewed; (2) relevant DOE Orders and Memoranda analyzed and key DOE and CS staff interviewed in order to accurately describe the current CS regulatory process; (3) DOE staff from the Office of the General Counsel, the Office of Policy and Evaluation, the Office of the Environment, and the Office of the Secretary interviewed to explore issues and problems encountered with current CS regulatory practices; (4) the regulatory processes at five other Federal agencies reviewed in order to see how other agencies have approached the regulatory process, dealt with specific regulatory problems, and responded to the Executive Order; and (5) based on the results of the preceding four tasks, recommendations for potential solutions to the CS regulatory problems developed. (MCW)

  9. Modelling 137Cs uptake in plants from undisturbed soil monoliths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waegeneers, Nadia; Smolders, Erik; Merckx, Roel

    2005-01-01

    A model predicting 137 Cs uptake in plants was applied on data from artificially contaminated lysimeters. The lysimeter data involve three different crops (beans, ryegrass and lettuce) grown on five different soils between 3 and 5 years after contamination and where soil solution composition was monitored. The mechanistic model predicts plant uptake of 137 Cs from soil solution composition. Predicted K concentrations in the rhizosphere were up to 50-fold below that in the bulk soil solution whereas corresponding 137 Cs concentration gradients were always less pronounced. Predictions of crop 137 Cs content based on rhizosphere soil solution compositions were generally closer to observations than those based on bulk soil solution composition. The model explained 17% (beans) to 91% (lettuce) of the variation in 137 Cs activity concentrations in the plants. The model failed to predict the 137 Cs activity concentration in ryegrass where uptake of the 5-year-old 137 Cs from 3 soils was about 40-fold larger than predicted. The model generally underpredicted crop 137 Cs concentrations at soil solution K concentration below about 1.0 mM. It is concluded that 137 Cs uptake can be predicted from the soil solution composition at adequate K nutrition but that significant uncertainties remain when soil solution K is below 1 mM

  10. Dispersal of the radionuclide caesium-137 (137Cs) from point sources in the Barents and Norwegian Seas and its potential contamination of the Arctic marine food chain: coupling numerical ocean models with geographical fish distribution data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldal, Hilde Elise; Vikebø, Frode; Johansen, Geir Odd

    2012-05-01

    Dispersal of (137)Cs from Komsomolets and K-159 is simulated using realistic rates and hypothetical scenarios. Furthermore, spatiotemporal (137)Cs concentrations in Northeast Arctic cod and capelin are estimated based on survey data. The results indicate that only pulse discharges from K-159 will cause concentrations of (137)Cs in cod muscle exceeding the intervention level of 600 Bq/kg fresh weight. A discharge of ≥10% of the (137)Cs-inventory will result in concentrations in muscle of cod exceeding the intervention level for approximately two years. In fact, a discharge of 10% of the (137)Cs-inventory results in an overlap of 8-30% between the different size groups of cod and levels that exceed the intervention level during the first year after the discharge. For capelin, individuals less than one year old during the first year after a discharge are more likely to be severely affected by discharges comprising ≥50% of the inventory. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Dispersal of the radionuclide caesium-137 ((137)Cs) from point sources in the Barents and Norwegian Seas and its potential contamination of the Arctic marine food chain: coupling numerical ocean models with geographical fish distribution data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldal, Hilde Elise; Vikebø, Frode; Johansen, Geir Odd

    2013-09-01

    Dispersal of (137)Cs from the nuclear submarine wrecks Komsomolets and K-159, which are resting on the seabed in the Norwegian and Barents Seas, respectively, is simulated using realistic rates and hypothetical scenarios. Furthermore, spatiotemporal (137)Cs concentrations in Northeast Arctic cod and capelin are estimated based on survey data. The results indicate that neither continuous leakages nor pulse discharges will cause concentrations of (137)Cs in cod muscle or whole body capelin exceeding the intervention level of 600 Bq/kg fw. Continuous leakages from Komsomolets and K-159 and pulse discharges from Komsomolets induced negligible activity concentrations in cod and capelin. A pulse discharge of 100% of the (137)Cs-inventory of K-159 will, however, result in concentrations in muscle of cod of above 100 times the present levels in the eastern Barents Sea. Within three years after the release, (137)Cs levels above 20 Bq/kg fw in cod are no longer occurring in the Barents Sea. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. CS Bond formation by

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-02-02

    Feb 2, 2017 ... a thiol substituent at position-2 of the quinazoline ring. ... coupling reactions represent great contribution to the recent growth of organic synthesis.2 ... Difficulties in C-S ...... Experimental Advances (Amsterdam: Elsevier) 19; (b).

  13. Radiochemical determination of 137Cs in foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastner, Geraldo F.; Ferreira, Andrea Vidal; Monteiro, Roberto P.G.

    2013-01-01

    A determination of radionuclides in food samples is important in commodities in order to attend to regulatory requirements for international trade. As a long-lived radioisotope of cesium, 137 Cs is produced as a result of human nuclear activities and than its contamination level evaluation among others radionuclides in foods is necessary. A methodology for the determination of 137 Cs in foods, pork and fish, is described. The procedures covered homogenization and freeze-drying of the samples. The 137 Cs was measured by gamma spectrometry using Canberra 50% HPGe detector. The counting was carried out with Monte Carlo software for detection conditions optimization including geometry and chemical data information. A certified sample, SRM IAEA-375, was analyzed in order to evaluate the reliability of the method, and the results showed good agreement between the measured and certified values. (author)

  14. Coefficients of distribution and accumulation of K, Rb, Cs and 137Cs in the intensive poultry breeding cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djuric, G.; Ajdacic, N.; Institut za Nuklearne Nauke Boris Kidric, Belgrade

    1984-01-01

    The concentration of K,Rb,Cs and the activity level of Cs-137 in samples from the intensive poultry breeding cycle (feed, meat, eggs), under the condition of chronic alimentary contamination is presented. Concentrations of Cs and Rb were determined by non-destructive neutron activation analysis, concentration of K by atomic absorption flame photometry and activity of Cs-137 by gamma spectrometric analysis. On the basis of these results, coefficients of distribution and accumulation were calculated. The distribution coefficients of the analysed stable isotopes in meat have values close to 1, whereas for various parts of egg these coefficients vary between 0.5 and 1.5. Significant differences in Cs-137 distribution in various parts of egg were established. The values of accumulation coefficients indicate that all analysed elements selectively accumulate in the meat of young birds (broilers), and Cs-137 accumulates in the egg white as well. (orig.)

  15. Dissolution behavior of 137Cs absorbed on the green tea leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oya, Yasuhisa; Uchimura, Hiromichi; Toda, Kensuke; Okuno, Kenji; Ikka, Takashi; Morita, Akio

    2013-01-01

    The green tea leaves was dipped in the 137 CsCl solution to elucidate the dissolution behavior of 137 Cs contaminated on the green tea leaves. It was found that the amount of 137 Cs dissolved into tea water was controlled by the temperature of water, and the activation energy of 137 Cs dissolution was estimated to be 0.045 eV, indicating that most of 137 Cs would exist as the adsorbed state. In addition, the dissolution behavior was controlled by the concentration of stable Cs dissolved in water, although no large correlation with pH was observed. (author)

  16. Possibility of soil clean-up from 137Cs in coast part of drainage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlin, Yh.V.; Barinov, A.S.; Prozorov, L.B.; Kropotov, V.N.; Chujkov, V.Yh.; Shcheglov, M.Yh.; Bakanov, A.V.

    1996-01-01

    The net of drainage canals is used for the collection of the surface ground waters on the radioactive waste storage at the MosNPO RADON. The soils of the drainage system were contaminated by 137-Cs migrating in the direction of the common flow. A unique technology was elaborated permitting to extract 137 Cs from soil 90% and to concentrate 137-Cs on the selective inorganic sorbent (nickel ferrocyanide). This technology combines electrokinetics, membrane and sorption methods of the contaminated media cleaning

  17. The influence of nitrogen - urea fertilization to leaves and chloride chlorocholine on the accumulation Cs-137 in spring wheat crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrynczuk, B.; Weber, R.

    1998-01-01

    In pot experiments were studied effects of using nitrogen urea solution to leaves and use chloride chlorocholine on the Cs-137 accumulation in spring wheat crops. The Cs-137 contamination was conducted from soil and through leaves. It has been found that use nitrogen fertilization as urea solution spray and in addition use chloride chlorocholine caused an increase of Cs-137 concentration in grain from the contaminated soil. Accumulation of Cs-137 in spring wheat grain is 2-4 times higher coming from the contaminated leaves in blooming phase in comparison to the grain of plants contaminated in spread phase. The urea solution fertilization used on leaves and addition chloride chlorocholine did not influence the Cs-137 accumulation in grain when the plants were contaminated in the early growing phase. The Cs-137 contamination brought on the plants after using chloride chlorocholine in subsequent growing phases passed early into spring wheat grain. (author)

  18. Estimation of average burnup of damaged fuels loaded in Fukushima Dai-ichi reactors by using the 134Cs/137Cs ratio method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, T.; Sato, S.; Yamamoto, A.

    2012-01-01

    Average burnup of damaged fuels loaded in Fukushima Dai-ichi reactors is estimated, using the 134 Cs/ 137 Cs ratio method for measured radioactivities of 134 Cs and 137 Cs in contaminated soils within the range of 100 km from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plants. As a result, the measured 134 Cs/ 137 Cs ratio from the contaminated soil is 0.996±0.07 as of March 11, 2011. Based on the 134 Cs/ 137 Cs ratio method, the estimated burnup of damaged fuels is approximately 17.2±1.5 [GWd/tHM]. It is noted that the numerical results of various calculation codes (SRAC2006/PIJ, SCALE6.0/TRITON, and MVP-BURN) are almost the same evaluation values of 134 Cs/ 137 Cs ratio with same evaluated nuclear data library (ENDF-B/VII.0). The void fraction effect in depletion calculation has a major impact on 134 Cs/ 137 Cs ratio compared with the differences between JENDL-4.0 and ENDF-B/VII.0. (authors)

  19. Root cause investigation of a viral contamination incident occurred during master cell bank (MCB) testing and characterization--a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dayue; Nims, Raymond; Dusing, Sandra; Miller, Pamela; Luo, Wen; Quertinmont, Michelle; Parekh, Bhavin; Poorbaugh, Josh; Boose, Jeri Ann; Atkinson, E Morrey

    2008-11-01

    An adventitious agent contamination occurred during a routine 9 CFR bovine viral screening test at BioReliance for an Eli Lilly Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell-derived Master Cell Bank (MCB) intended for biological production. Scientists from the sponsor (Eli Lilly and Company) and the testing service company (BioReliance) jointly conducted a systematic investigation in an attempt to determine the root cause of the contamination. Our investigation resulted in the identification of the viral nature of the contaminant. Subsequent experiments indicated that the viral contaminant was a non-enveloped and non-hemadsorbing virus. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the viral contaminant was 25-30 nm in size and morphologically resembled viruses of the family Picornaviridae. The contaminant virus was readily inactivated when exposed to acidic pH, suggesting that the viral contaminant was a member of rhinoviruses. Although incapable of infecting CHO cells, the viral contaminant replicated efficiently in Vero cell with a life cycle of approximately 16 h. Our investigation provided compelling data demonstrating that the viral contaminant did not originate from the MCB. Instead, it was introduced into the process during cell passaging and a possible entry point was proposed. We identified the viral contaminant as an equine rhinitis A virus using molecular cloning and DNA sequencing. Finally, our investigation led us to conclude that the source of the viral contaminant was the equine serum added to the cell growth medium in the 9 CFR bovine virus test.

  20. Behaviour of 134Cs in the aquatic ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yinliang; Chen Chuanqun

    1992-07-01

    The diminution of 134 Cs in the aquatic phases and the absorption of 134 Cs by aquatic lives observe the exponential expression. i.e. Y Ae be . The relationships between the enrichment factor of 134 Cs(K) and the time(t) in the aquatic lives can be represented by a linear equation, K A + Bt. The value of K in the Alternanthera philoxeroides was about 560. That can be used for monitoring and purifying the water phase contaminated by 134 Cs. Fish can absorb 134 Cs from water phase and store it in liver and kidney. The specific activity of 134 Cs in fish flesh was low but the percentage of radioactivity was high that was about 30% of total radioactivity in the fish. River mud can strongly absorb 134 Cs and reduce the absorption by aquatic lives. It is a good adsorbent and purifying agent with low cost for treatment of 134 Cs. The K + can prevent aquatic lives from absorbing Cs + because of antagonistic function

  1. Study of {sup 137} Cs contamination in Rochedo Reservoir, Meia Ponte river (Goias State) from the radiologic accident in Goiania; Estudo da contaminacao por {sup 137} Cs na Represa do Rochedo, Rio Meia Ponte (GO), proveniente do acidente radiologico de Goiania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Luca, Marcia Emilia M. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biofisica; Godoy, Jose Marcos O. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1997-12-31

    Through {sup 137} Cs concentration profiles in sediments from Rochedo Reservoir, it was possible to estimate the amount of this radionuclide (94 GBq) which has reached the Meia Ponte River system, as a consequence of the Goiania radiological accident in 1987. Based on in-situ measurements as well as on laboratory studies, the influence of N H{sub 4}{sup +} concentration on the K{sub d} value was also investigated. The results have shown that for high N H{sub 4}{sup +} concentrations there is a clear correlation between both parameters. It was also observed the influence on the aging effect on the {sup 137} Cs release from the sediment, as well as of the illite content in it. (author) 9 refs., 6 figs.

  2. Determination of {sup 135}Cs by accelerator mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, C.M.; Charles, C.R.J. [Andre. E. Lalonde AMS Laboratory, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada); Department of Earth Sciences, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada); Zhao, X.-L.; Kieser, W.E. [Andre. E. Lalonde AMS Laboratory, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada); Department of Physics, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada); Cornett, R.J. [Andre. E. Lalonde AMS Laboratory, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada); Department of Earth Sciences, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada); Litherland, A.E. [IsoTrace Laboratory, University of Toronto, 60 St. George St., Toronto, ON M5S 1A7 (Canada)

    2015-10-15

    The ratio of anthropogenic {sup 135}Cs and {sup 137}Cs isotopes is characteristic of a uranium fission source. This research evaluates the technique of isotope dilution (yield tracing) for the purpose of quantifying {sup 135}Cs by accelerator mass spectrometry with on-line isobar separation. Interferences from Ba, Zn{sub 2}, and isotopes of equal mass to charge ratios were successfully suppressed. However, some sample crosstalk from source contamination remains. The transmission and di-fluoride ionization efficiencies of Cs isotopes were found to be 8 × 10{sup −3} and 1.7 × 10{sup −7} respectively. This quantification of {sup 135}Cs using yield tracing by accelerator mass spectrometry shows promise for future environmental sample analysis once the issues of sample crosstalk and low efficiency can be resolved.

  3. Forms and rates of release of Cs-137 in 2 peat soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livens, F.R.; Howe, M.T.; Hemingway, J.D.; Goulding, K.W.T.; Howard, B.J.; IACR Rothamsted, Harpenden; Liverpool Univ.; Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, Grange-on-Sands

    1996-01-01

    Cation exchange resin saturated with H+ and Ca2+ was used to extract Cs-137 from peat soil at two sites in Britain affected by Cs-137 deposition following the Chernobyl accident. The technique identified three classes of Cs-137, similar to those observed for K+ in soils: ''Fast'', ''Intermediate'' and ''Slow''. These classes are probably related to the selectivity for Cs-137 of the cation exchange sites on the organic matter and the clay minerals, and to the structure of the soil. With one exception, most Cs-137 was in the ''Slow'' form and was only very slowly released to the resins, if at all. However, there was enough Cs-137 in the ''Fast'' and ''Intermediate'' forms to contaminate pasture and thus grazing animals for some years. Based on the resin technique, it is estimated that contamination will persist for several decades in uplands contaminated at these activity concentrations. (Author)

  4. Effective dose and time-integrated effective dose to humans from internal contamination of 134Cs and 137Cs: Results from a compilation of a Swedish national database of internal body burden of radiocaesium in various populations between 1964 and 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raeaef, L.C.; Zakaria, M.; Hubbard, L.; Falk, R.; Aagren, G.; Vesanen, R.

    2003-01-01

    A compilation of data on the whole-body burden of 134 Cs, 137 Cs and 40 K in various Swedish populations between 1964 and 2002 has been made. The compilation was carried out in co-operation with the Department of Radiation Physics in Malmoe, the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI), the Swedish Defence Research Agency Department (FOI) and the Department of Radiation Physics, Goeteborg University. Individual body burden values have been inserted into a calculation spread sheet, with data on body weight, gender, age, occupation (if available) and place of residence. The database enables a study of the time-pattern and geographical dependence of radiocaesium transfer from ground deposition to man, and the associated absorbed dose. The Swedish government has assigned SSI the responsibility for obtaining and assuring one of Sweden's national environmental quality objectives, A Safe Radiation Environment. A natural consequence of this responsibility is that a means for quantifying progress towards the objective is necessary. The data compilation discussed here is one important component in the national environmental monitoring programme that is currently (2002) being developed at SSI. The new program for monitoring environmental radiation has the goal of following geographical and ecological differences in the radiological effects to both mankind and the environment, and assessing relevant doses and risks. During the period between 1964 and 2002, fallout of radiocaesium from nuclear weapons tests (only 137 Cs) and from the Chernobyl accident in 1986 (both 134 Cs and 137 Cs) have occurred in Sweden. The ground deposition of the radiocaesium has gradually been transferred through different ecological pathways to man. From the database it can be deduced that large regional variations in the body burden of radiocaesium in man have occurred through this period. Three populations exhibit considerably higher body content levels than others; (i) reindeer herders in

  5. Ranking of the Ecological Disaster Areas According to Coliform Contamination and the Incidence of Acute Enteric Infections of the Population in Kyzylorda Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omarova, Mariya N.; Orakbay, Lyazzat Zh.; Shuratov, Idelbay H.; Kenjebayeva, Asiya T.; Zhumagalieva, Aizhan B.; Sarsenova, Ainur B.

    2016-01-01

    The paper is devoted to monitoring the environmental coliform bacteria (CB) contamination (soil and water) in the environmental disaster areas in the Kazakhstan part of the Aral Sea Region and ranking districts by their level of contamination and the rate of gastrointestinal infections (GI). The research was done in environmental disaster areas…

  6. Foliar uptake of 134Cs and 85Sr in strawberry as function by leaf age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortunati, P.; Brambilla, M.; Speroni, F.; Carini, F.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper a study of the foliar uptake and translocation of 134 Cs and 85 Sr in a herbaceous fruit plant is presented. In particular, absorption, translocation and loss of these radionuclides in strawberry plants have been studied in relation to the age of contaminated leaves. Strawberry plants were contaminated by distributing droplets of an aqueous solution containing 134 CsCl and 85 SrCl 2 on the surface of two leaves per plant. One half of the plants was contaminated through two young leaves, a second half through two old leaves. Sets of plants were collected 1 day, 7 days and 15 days after contamination. One half of them was rinsed with double distilled water before gamma analysis. Rinsing contaminated leaves removes on average 55% of the applied 134 Cs and 45% of 85 Sr. The activity removed decreases during the 15 days of the experimental study, both for 134 Cs and for 85 Sr, suggesting an increase in foliar absorption during this period. The activity removed does not differ between old and young leaves. 'External loss' is lower for young than old contaminated leaves. 'Internal loss' through translocation occurs mainly for 134 Cs. Translocation coefficients from contaminated leaves to fruits are two orders of magnitude higher for 134 Cs (4.0%), than for 85 Sr (0.05%). Leaf to fruit translocation coefficients for 134 Cs are higher from young leaves (5.8%), than from old leaves (2.3%)

  7. Study on movement, accumulation and distribution of 137Cs in rice and soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Zixian; Xu Shiming

    1992-11-01

    The experiment of growing rice contaminated by 137 Cs solution shows that from the seedling stage to booting stage the absorption rate of 137 Cs is the highest, in the heading stage it is steady and in the milk stage goes to high again. The 137 Cs transfers from root to straw and ear, and from vegetative organs to reproductive organs. The relationship between specific activity (SA) and the amount of 137 Cs in soil is proportional. Only when the amount of 137 Cs in soil reaches to 370 Bq/g the SA of 137 Cs in rice rises remarkably. The different soil growing rice has different absorption rate of 137 Cs. Only in Shenzhen it is much higher than in other areas. The absorption of 137 Cs is also depending on different stage, in the milk stage it is considerably higher than other stages

  8. Epiphytic fruticose lichens as biomonitors for retrospective evaluation of the 134Cs/137Cs ratio in Fukushima fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramzaev, V.; Barkovsky, A.; Gromov, A.; Ivanov, S.; Kaduka, M.

    2014-01-01

    In 2011–2013, sampling of epiphytic fruticose lichens of the genera Usnea, Bryoria and Alectoria was carried out on Sakhalin and Kuril Islands (the Sakhalin region, Russia) to investigate contamination of these organisms with the Fukushima-derived 134 Cs and 137 Cs. Activities of the radionuclides were determined in all 56 samples of lichens taken for the analysis. After correction for radioactive decay (on 15 March 2011), the activity concentrations ranged from 2.1 Bq kg −1 (d.w.) to 52 Bq kg −1 for 134 Cs and from 2.3 Bq kg −1 to 52 Bq kg −1 for 137 Cs. Cesium-134 and 137 Cs activities for the whole set of lichens (n = 56) were strongly positively correlated; Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was calculated as 0.991 (P < 0.01). The activity concentrations of 134 Cs and 137 Cs in Usnea lichens from the Sakhalin and Kunashir islands declined with a factor of three in the period from 2011 to 2013. The average biological half-time for both cesium radionuclides in lichens of the genus Usnea is estimated as 1.3 y. The mean of 0.99 ± 0.10 and median of 0.99 were calculated for the decay corrected 134 Cs/ 137 Cs activities ratios in the lichens (n = 56). The radionuclides ratio in the lichens did not depend on location of sampling site, species and the time that had passed after the Fukushima accident. The regression analysis has shown the background pre-Fukushima level of 137 Cs of 0.4 ± 0.3 Bq kg −1 , whereas the ratio between the Fukushima-borne 134 Cs and 137 Cs in the lichens was estimated as 1.04. The 134 Cs/ 137 Cs activities ratio in lichens from the Sakhalin region is consistent with the ratios reported by others for the heavy contaminated areas on Honshu Island in Japan following the Fukushima accident. The activity concentrations of natural 7 Be in lichens from the Sakhalin region varied between 100 Bq kg −1 and 600 Bq kg −1 ; the activity concentrations did not exhibit temporal variations during a 2y-period of observations. The

  9. Uptake and transfer factors of 137Cs by mushrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinrich, G.

    1991-01-01

    The 137 Cs content of 118 species (668 samples) of higher fungi collected in the period from August 1984 to October 1989 at three different locations in Styria, Austria, was determined by gamma-spectrometry. The Cs-content of most mushrooms has been increasing since September 1986. In order to find out which factors determine the 137 Cs-contamination of mushrooms and the transfer-value soil to mushroom, the concentration of total and plant-available radiocesium in soils as well as the pH-value, the content of humus, clay, silt, sand, exchangeable cations, the composition of the clay minerals, and the particle size distribution of the soils of two different locations were examined. The higher the 137 Cs contamination of the soil, the thicker the layer of humus and the higher the content of humus, the lower the pH-value, and the lower the amount of essential cations, especially of K + , the higher the amount of 137 Cs plant-available will be. Therefore, the contamination of the mushrooms in the coniferous forest of Koralpenblick (1000 m) is higher than in the mixed forest at the Rosenberg around Graz at approx. 500 m height. Of 26 different species of mushrooms measured at both sites, only 61% show the highest TF-values soil to mushrooms also at the Koralpenblick. In the spruce forest at Koralpenblick there are many species of mushrooms with high 137 Cs-contamination which were not found at the Rosenberg. However, the properties of the species to which a mushroom belongs are more important than environmental conditions and soil properties. The transfer values of 40 K stay within narrow bounds, whereas those of 137 Cs differ widely. (orig.)

  10. Molecular CsF 5 and CsF 2 +

    KAUST Repository

    Rogachev, Andrey Yu.; Miao, Mao-sheng; Merino, Gabriel; Hoffmann, Roald

    2015-01-01

    D5h star-like CsF5, formally isoelectronic with known XeF5− ion, is computed to be a local minimum on the potential energy surface of CsF5, surrounded by reasonably large activation energies for its exothermic decomposition to CsF+2 F2, or to CsF3 (three isomeric forms)+F2, or for rearrangement to a significantly more stable isomer, a classical Cs+ complex of F5−. Similarly the CsF2+ ion is computed to be metastable in two isomeric forms. In the more symmetrical structures of these molecules there is definite involvement in bonding of the formally core 5p levels of Cs.

  11. Molecular CsF 5 and CsF 2 +

    KAUST Repository

    Rogachev, Andrey Yu.

    2015-06-03

    D5h star-like CsF5, formally isoelectronic with known XeF5− ion, is computed to be a local minimum on the potential energy surface of CsF5, surrounded by reasonably large activation energies for its exothermic decomposition to CsF+2 F2, or to CsF3 (three isomeric forms)+F2, or for rearrangement to a significantly more stable isomer, a classical Cs+ complex of F5−. Similarly the CsF2+ ion is computed to be metastable in two isomeric forms. In the more symmetrical structures of these molecules there is definite involvement in bonding of the formally core 5p levels of Cs.

  12. Sr90 and Cs137 content in major types of food stuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knizhnikov, V.A.; Petukhova, Eh.V.

    1980-01-01

    Tables of 90 Sr and 137 Cs content in the major types of food stuffs in different regions of the USSR from 1963 to 1973, are presented. Maximum contamination is observed in 1963 and 1964. Variations of contamination of food stuffs depending upon fallout alterations during 1963-1964 are analyzed. The increased contamination of fish products, bread, deer meat and tea is observed in these years. The dependence of contamination of certain products on the area of their production is pointed out which makes possible a wide variation of results of investigations. It is established that the less contamination of food stuffs is observed in the areas with black soil. It is stated that 137 Cs contamination of food stuffs is several times higher than 90 Sr contamination, which is probably connected with a better 137 Cs uptake by vegetation from aerial fallouts

  13. An incident leading to contamination of the beaches near to the British Nuclear Fuels Limited Windscale and Calder Works, Sellafield November 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The report falls into the sections: executive summary; the inquiry; background to Sellafield operations (history; statutory control); the incident in the reprocessing plant (B205) (plant description; plant procedure; lead up to the incident; detection of the incident; conclusions concerning the incident); the effect on operations in the effluent treatment plant and sea discharge plant (B242/B241) (plant description; plant procedure; events in B242/B241 following the incident in B205; conclusions concerning operations in B242/B241); the effect on operations in the medium active liquid storage plant (B211) (plant description; events in B211 following transfer of waste from B242/B241; conclusions concerning the transfer of waste to B211); environmental aspects (description of events; conclusions concerning environmental aspects); compliance with the liquid waste disposal authorisation; conclusions and recommendations. (U.K.)

  14. Incidents with hazardous radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenhacker, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Incidents with hazardous radiation sources can occur in any country, even those without nuclear facilities. Preparedness for such incidents is supposed to fulfill globally agreed minimum standards. Incidents are categorized in incidents with licensed handling of radiation sources as for material testing, transport accidents of hazardous radiation sources, incidents with radionuclide batteries, incidents with satellites containing radioactive inventory, incidents wit not licensed handling of illegally acquired hazardous radiation sources. The emergency planning in Austria includes a differentiation according to the consequences: incidents with release of radioactive materials resulting in restricted contamination, incidents with release of radioactive materials resulting in local contamination, and incidents with the hazard of e@nhanced exposure due to the radiation source.

  15. 137Cs in Research Polygon 'Sumbar'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoko, B.; Marovic, G.; Babic, D.; Vickovic, I.

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, Radiation Protection Unit of the Institute for Medical Reseach and Occupational Health started a radioactivity measurement programme in research polygon ''Sumbar''. The purpose of these investigations is to collect as many data as possible about the contamination of the polygon that is mainly covered by a forest of English oak (Quercus robur) and hornbeam (Carpinus betulus). Once contaminated, forests represent long-term sources of radiation exposure to specific population groups which are using them as a source of foodstuffs. After the Chernobyl accident, researchers have shown that there has been more variability in radionuclide activity concentration in forests than in agricultural ecosystems. In order to carry out a radioactivity screening of the polygon, we randomly chosed three sampling sites for collecting soil, grass and moss samples. Different species of mushrooms were collected over the whole polygon area. The average activity concentration of 137Cs in soil for two sampling sites is (123 @ 9) Bq kg -1 , while the result for the third site is lower by an order of magnitude ((16.1@0.5) Bq kg -1 ). The activity concentration of 137Cs in grass samples ranges from (0.43 @ 0.03) Bq kg -1 to (13.2 @ 0.1) Bq kg -1 , and in moss samples from (8.7 @ 0.2) Bq kg -1 to (57.8 @ 0.3) Bq kg - 1. In five collected mushroom species, the activity of 137Cs is in the range between (4.1 @ 0.5) Bq kg -1 and (610 @ 5) Bq kg -1 , the lowest and the highest values referreing to Clitocybe nebularis and Gymnopus dryophilus, respectively. Parasitic mushrooms exhibit activity below the minimum detection level. Our preliminary results show and confirm variability of the activity concentration of 137Cs in different parts of this ecosystem. (author)

  16. 137Cs in man organism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marej, A.N.; Barkhudarov, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    Considered are the levels of 137 Cs content in the organism of adult urban population of the USSR and the main regularities of their alterations during 1962-1974. The non-uniform distribution of levels of 137 Cs buildup in adult population is shown to be connected with soil and geographic conditions. Food stuffs of local production have a noticeable effect on the levels of 137 Cs buildup in the organism of urban population. Calculation methods are used to study 137 Cs administration in a human organism. No significant difference is found between the indexes of 137 Cs content in the organism of rural and urban population. Presented are the levels of 137 Cs content in the organisms of inhabitants of such regions as Far North and Byelorussian-Ukrainian woodlands. Given are the reasons for the increased content of 137 Cs in the organism of rural population of these zones

  17. Biokinetic model for 137 Cs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, Dunstana Rabelo de

    1995-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to provide a realistic biokinetic model for 137 Cs metabolism. This model was based on the retention of cesium in 57 people contaminated in the Goiania accident, ages 1 to 73 y old, complemented by data obtained in an experiment with beagle dogs, and data taken from the open literature. Cesium is distributed among all tissues and organs of the body. Its main retention site is the skeletal muscle tissue. Mathematically, cesium retention in the body may be described by a sum of three terms exponential equation. The first term represents the fraction which is rapidly eliminated in urine. This fraction is weight dependent (negative correlation). The second term represents the retention of cesium in tissues and organs of the body. For children and adolescents, the second term biological half-life is a function of the weight. For adults, it is correlated with sex. Men present a higher retention of cesium than women. The third term correspond to a retention fraction of the order of 0,1% of the initial body burden. It is characterized by a very long half-life and represents a subcellular retention of cesium in the skeletal muscle tissue. During pregnancy the transfer factor from the mother to the fetus is correlated to the amount of cesium in the blood and it is equal to 1, if the intake of cesium occurs pregnancy. (author)

  18. Modeling radionuclide Cs and C dynamics in an artificial forest ecosystem in Japan -FoRothCs ver1.0-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuya eNishina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Predicting the environmental fate of Cs radionuclides in forest ecosystems is important for the effective management and assessment of radioactively contaminated forest areas. A large proportion of the radioactively contaminated areas in Japan consist of forest ecosystems, and most of these areas are artificial forests that are used for timber production (e.g., Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica and red pine (Pinus densiflora. Determining the long-term redistribution of 137Cs in forest ecosystems is important for estimating human doses and understanding the ecological impacts and challenges associated with managing contaminated forests. To facilitate the management and 137Cs decontamination of these forests, we developed a new open-source 137Cs cycling model, ForRothCs, that considers C cycling within forests, as well as biomass production and soil decomposition processes. For the 137Cs inventory, this model estimates the dynamics (Bq m−2 and activity (Bq kg−2 of 137Cs on a decadal time scale, primarily in the leaves, branches, stems, litter layer, and the soil. This model is based on the biomass production and the dynamics of the C cycle models. We tested the model by considering a simple scenario of forest management, i.e., thinning and harvesting, for the first five years following a fallout event. The results showed that these activities have a limited impact on the 137Cs inventory due to the rapid migration of 137Cs from vegetation to soil. Our projections also showed the examined forest management practices resulted in reduced litterfall, which in turn reduced C input to the forest floor and increased the concentration of 137Cs in the litterfall and soil organic layer. Although further validation of the ForRothCs model is required using field observation data, the model can be used to evaluate long-term 137Cs dynamics associated with commonly used forest and decontamination management scenarios.

  19. Theoretical study of the Cs isotope exchange reaction of CsI + Cs' → Cs + ICs' (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Takanori; Hashimoto, Masashi; Yokoyama, Keiichi

    2015-12-01

    To discuss the exchange reaction of Cs isotope by CsI + Cs' → Cs + ICs', the structure and chemical properties of Cs 2 I intermediate and potential energy surface of the entrance reaction are calculated using M06/def2-TZVPPD density functional calculation. The calculation shows that the reaction to the intermediate has no barrier and the two Cs-I bonds of Cs 2 I are chemically equivalent. These results suggest that the rate of the Cs exchange reaction of CsI + Cs' → Cs + ICs' is as high as the collision rate. (author)

  20. Activity of 137Cs in mushrooms from Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benova, K.; Novakova, J.; Dvorak, P.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, activity concentrations of radiocesium in mushrooms from various locations in the Slovak Republic during the year 2001 are presented. The highest activity concentration of 137 Cs measured was 966 Bq/kg, for Suillus luteus from Senica. Mushrooms belonging to Boletaceae which grow in Central Europe are not only bio-indicators of the environmental contamination with radiocesium, but might also represent depending on their actual radiocesium contamination - some risk factor if consumed too extensively. (authors)

  1. Frameworks in CS1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we argue that introducing object-oriented frameworks as subject already in the CS1 curriculum is important if we are to train the programmers of tomorrow to become just as much software reusers as software producers. We present a simple, graphical, framework that we have successfull...... point for introducing graphical user interface frameworks such as Java Swing and AWT as the students are not overwhelmed by all the details of such frameworks right away but given a conceptual road-map and practical experience that allow them to cope with the complexity....

  2. CS Seminar Videos

    OpenAIRE

    Ong, Derek; Tona, Glen; Gibb, Kyle; Parbadia, Sivani

    2013-01-01

    Main site for our project can be found at this URL: http://vtechworks.lib.vt.edu/handle/10919/19036. From here you can find videos of all the CS seminars and distinguished lectures given this semester. Each video has its own abstract and description. The files attached in this section are a final report in both raw Word Document and archival PDF formats and a presentation in both raw Powerpoint and archival PDF formats. Computer Science seminars are a very educational and interesting as...

  3. Frameworks in CS1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard

    2002-01-01

    point for introducing graphical user interface frameworks such as Java Swing and AWT as the students are not overwhelmed by all the details of such frameworks right away but given a conceptual road-map and practical experience that allow them to cope with the complexity.......In this paper we argue that introducing object-oriented frameworks as subject already in the CS1 curriculum is important if we are to train the programmers of tomorrow to become just as much software reusers as software producers. We present a simple, graphical, framework that we have successfully...

  4. Grazing incidence angle based sensing approach integrated with fiber-optic Fourier transform infrared (FO-FTIR) spectroscopy for remote and label-free detection of medical device contaminations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, Moinuddin, E-mail: moinuddin.hassan@fda.hhs.gov; Ilev, Ilko [Optical Therapeutics and Medical Nanophotonics Laboratory, Division of Biomedical Physics, Office of Science and Engineering Laboratories, Center for Devices and Radiological Health, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, Maryland 20993 (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Contamination of medical devices has become a critical and prevalent public health safety concern since medical devices are being increasingly used in clinical practices for diagnostics, therapeutics and medical implants. The development of effective sensing methods for real-time detection of pathogenic contamination is needed to prevent and reduce the spread of infections to patients and the healthcare community. In this study, a hollow-core fiber-optic Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy methodology employing a grazing incidence angle based sensing approach (FO-FTIR-GIA) was developed for detection of various biochemical contaminants on medical device surfaces. We demonstrated the sensitivity of FO-FTIR-GIA sensing approach for non-contact and label-free detection of contaminants such as lipopolysaccharide from various surface materials relevant to medical device. The proposed sensing system can detect at a minimum loading concentration of approximately 0.7 μg/cm{sup 2}. The FO-FTIR-GIA has the potential for the detection of unwanted pathogen in real time.

  5. Analysis on the influence of forest soil characteristics on radioactive Cs infiltration and evaluation of residual radioactive Cs on surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Yoshitomo; Yoneda, Minoru; Shimada, Yoko; Fukutani, Satoshi; Ikegami, Maiko; Shimomura, Ryohei

    2018-03-29

    We investigated the depth profiles of radioactive Cs, ignition loss, and cation exchange capacity (CEC) in five types of forest soils sampled using scraper plates. We then simulated the monitored depth profiles in a compartment model, taking ignition loss as a parameter based on experimental results showing a positive correlation between ignition loss and the CEC. The calculated values were comparable with the monitored values, though some discrepancy was observed in the middle of the soil layer. Based on decontamination data on the surface dose rate and surface contamination concentration, we newly defined a surface residual index (SRI) to evaluate the residual radioactive Cs on surfaces. The SRI value tended to gradually decrease in forests and unpaved roads and was much smaller in forests and on unpaved roads than on paved roads. The radioactive Cs was assumed to have already infiltrated underground 18 months after the nuclear power plant accident, and the sinking was assumed to be ongoing. The SRI values measured on paved roads suggested that radioactive Cs remained on the surfaces, though a gradual infiltration was observed towards the end of the monitoring term. The SRI value is thought to be effective in grasping the rough condition of residual radioactive Cs quickly at sites of decontamination activity in the field. The SRI value may be serviceable for actual contamination works after further research is done to elucidate points such as the relation between the SRI and the infiltration of radioactive Cs in various types of objects.

  6. Plutonium isotopes/137Cs activity ratios for soil in Montenegro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antovic, N. M.; Vukotic, P.; Svrkota, N.; Andrukhovich, S.K.

    2011-01-01

    Plutonium isotopes/ 137 Cs activity ratios were determined for six soil samples from Montenegro, using the results of alpha-spectrometric measurements of 239+240 Pu and 238 Pu, as well as gamma-spectrometric cesium measurements. An average 239+240 Pu/ 137 Cs activity ratio is found to be 0.02, as the 238 Pu/ 137 Cs and 238 Pu/ 239+240 Pu one - 0.0006 and 0.03, respectively. It follows from the results that the source of plutonium in Montenegro soil is nuclear weapon testing during the fifties and sixties of the twentieth century. On the other hand, there is a contribution of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant to the soil contamination with 137 Cs isotope. [sr

  7. Medical management of the victims of Goiana 137 Cs accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandao-Mello, C.E.; Farina, R.; Oliveira, A.R.; Valverde, N.J.

    1989-01-01

    In September 1987, a radiation accident happened in Gioania due to the theft of a shielded source of 137 Cs. Fifty persons were involved showing whole-body and local acute irradiation and also external and/or internal contamination mainly due to ingestion or absorption of 137 Cs. Fourteen of fifty developed severe bone marrow depression characterized by neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. None were submitted to bone marrow transplantation. Eight of fourteen received intravenously GM-CSF. Four of the fourteen died due to hemorrhage and infection. For those with significant internal contamination, Prussian blue was administered (1.5 to 10.0 gm/per day). Besides blue, other measures were taken to increase decorporation of 137 Cs including diuretics, water overload and ergometric exercises. Radiation induced skin injuries were observed in 28 patients and were treated conservatively. 6 patients required surgical intervention. (author)

  8. Airborne fallout mapping of 137Cs Finnish defence forces team

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kettunen, M.; Heininen, T.; Pulakka, M.

    1997-01-01

    The main task of the team was to create a fallout map of 137 Cs in a specified area in Padasjoki Auttoinen village. The team used an MI-8 helicopter of the Finnish Air Force. The team had an HPGe system (relative efficiency 70%) to measure nuclide specific ground contamination level. For navigation the team took advantage of the DGPS service provided by Finnish Broadcasting company utilizing the RDS-channel to get position accuracy within 2 meters. The correction signal is reachable nationwide on the FM transmitter network. The system produced a distribution map for 40 K and fallout maps for 134,137 Cs using a Micro Station Program with TerraModeler application. The maximum measured 137 Cs ground contamination exceeded 130-140 kBqm -2 . (au)

  9. Medical aspects of 137Cs decorporation: The Goiania radiological accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farina, R.; Brandao-Mello, C.E.; Oliveira, A.R.

    1991-01-01

    In September 1987, the Goiania radiological accident involving a source of 137 Cs culminated in about 140 victims who presented internal and/or external contamination and/or external exposure to radiation and/or radiation burns. Internal contamination was verified through analysis of urine and fecal samples. Internal contamination was also evaluated by measurements performed at the whole-body counter installed in Goiania in November 1987. To enhance the decorporation of 137Cs, patients were treated with the following: (1) Prussian Blue, oral administration, in 46 patients; (2) diuretics, oral administration, in 17 patients; (3) induced perspiration, increasing 137 Cs elimination. These procedures were done under rigorous clinical evaluation and considering the data from assay of excreta and data obtained from the whole-body counter. The doses of Prussian Blue exceeded about 6.5 times the dose previously indicated in the literature. It was the first time diuretics were used in humans to treat 137 Cs internal contamination. The results of these procedures are discussed

  10. Measurement of 137Cs activity in living chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balas, J.; Poeschl, M.

    1998-01-01

    The possibility of measuring the 137 Cs activity in broiler chickens in vivo was examined. The experiment was conducted with broiler chickens 7 to 22 days old (White Leghorn hybrid, race ISA VEDETTE). Three oral doses of 137 Cs (total activity 5 kBq/chicken) were administered during a day (at 8:00, 12:00 and 16:00). The radioactivity was determined by gamma spectroscopy with a stabilised Nal/Tl detector. The measurement was carried out on days 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 14 and 15 after the 137 Cs administration in vivo. The detector was put closely to the body in the area of breast muscles. The radiocesium activity concentrations in fresh daily excreta were also determined. A rapid uptake of the orally administered 137 Cs (within a few hours) as well as a rapid loss of radiocesium were observed. The dynamics and accuracy of the in vivo measurement of 137 Cs activity were comparable with the recently published results of in vitro measurement of radiocesium activity. Only the initial 137 Cs activity (during 2 days after 137 Cs application) was higher with regard to the content of contaminated feed mixture in the gastrointestinal tract

  11. Determination of Cs-134 and Cs-137 rain water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, M.F.; Mazzilli, B.

    1988-01-01

    In order to setting an environmental monitoring program at IPEN, was developed a fast and simple methodology for concentration of Cs-134 and Cs-137 in rain water. This procedure consists in the precipitation of cesium and others cathions of its family (NH 4 + , K + and Rb + ) by ammonium molybdophosphate. The measures of the desintegration rates of Cs-134 and Cs-137 was done by gamma spectrometry in a Ge(Li) detector. After setting up the ideal experimental conditions, the procedure was used to analyze four samples of rain water. (author) [pt

  12. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi mediated uptake of 137Cs in leek and ryegrass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, Klas; Weiliang, Zhong; Maertensson, Anna

    2005-01-01

    In a first experiment of soil contaminated with 137 Cs, inoculation with a mixture of arbuscular mycorrhizae enhanced the uptake of 137 Cs by leek under greenhouse conditions, while no effect on the uptake by ryegrass was observed. The mycorrhizal infection frequency in leek was independent of whether the 137 Cs-contaminated soil was inoculated with mycorrhizal spores or not. The lack of mycorrhizae-mediated uptake of 137 Cs in ryegrass could be due to the high root density, which was about four times that of leek, or due to a less well functioning mycorrhizal symbiosis than of leek. In a second experiment, ryegrass was grown for a period of four cuts. Additions of fungi enhanced 137 Cs uptake of all harvests, improved dry weight production in the first cut, and also improved the mycorrhizal infection frequencies in the roots. No differences were obtained between the two fungal inoculums investigated with respect to biomass production or 137 Cs uptake, but root colonization differed. We conclude that, under certain circumstances, mycorrhizae affect plant uptake of 137 Cs. There may be a potential for selecting fungal strains that stimulate 137 Cs accumulation in crops. The use of ryegrass seems to be rather ineffective for remediation of 137 Cs-contaminated soil

  13. Estimation on the origin and behavior of radioactive Cs in Natsui river basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Keisuke; Kikuchi, Ayaka; Tanahashi, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we conducted a survey of radioactive Cs contained in soil, sediment, vegetation, and lakes and river water in the Natsui river basin, which was extensively contaminated by radioactive fallout from the nuclear accident. This study focuses on the runoff behavior, pollution level/scale and accumulation in soils/sediments of radioactive 134 Cs and 137 Cs. Half-life ratios of 134 Cs and 137 Cs were used to quantitatively evaluate the impact from the nuclear accident source. In addition, a model was created to reproduce and forecast the concentration of Cs and to predict long-term changes in water contamination levels in the Kodama-dam lake and its river inflow. In this study, a relatively high Cs concentration was detected in the lake and pond sediments with the Fukushima nuclear power plant estimated to be the source of more than 90% of the Cs contamination. From the results it was estimated that the Cs concentration in the Lake of Kodama dam was initially a few Bq/L, with an expected reduction to about 0.1 Bq/L in 10 years. (author)

  14. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi on 137Cs uptake by plants grown on different soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinichuk, M.; Mårtensson, A.; Ericsson, T.; Rosén, K.

    2013-01-01

    The potential use of mycorrhiza as a bioremediation agent for soils contaminated by radiocesium was evaluated in a greenhouse experiment. The uptake of 137 Cs by cucumber, perennial ryegrass, and sunflower after inoculation with a commercial arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) product in soils contaminated with 137 Cs was investigated, with non-mycorrhizal quinoa included as a “reference” plant. The effect of cucumber and ryegrass inoculation with AM fungi on 137 Cs uptake was inconsistent. The effect of AM fungi was most pronounced in sunflower: both plant biomass and 137 Cs uptake increased on loamy sand and loamy soils. The total 137 Cs activity accumulated within AM host sunflower on loamy sand and loamy soils was 2.4 and 3.2-fold higher than in non-inoculated plants. Although the enhanced uptake of 137 Cs by quinoa plants on loamy soil inoculated by the AM fungi was observed, the infection of the fungi to the plants was not confirmed. - Highlights: ► Effect of soil inoculation on 137 Cs uptake by crops was studied in greenhouse. ► 137 Cs uptake by inoculated sunflower plants was most pronounced. ► The higher 137 Cs uptake by inoculated sunflower due to presence of mycorrhiza. ► Studies suggest potential for use of mycorrhiza on contaminated sites.

  15. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi mediated uptake of {sup 137}Cs in leek and ryegrass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, Klas; Weiliang, Zhong; Maertensson, Anna [Department of Soil Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences P.O. Box 7014, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2005-02-15

    In a first experiment of soil contaminated with {sup 137}Cs, inoculation with a mixture of arbuscular mycorrhizae enhanced the uptake of {sup 137}Cs by leek under greenhouse conditions, while no effect on the uptake by ryegrass was observed. The mycorrhizal infection frequency in leek was independent of whether the {sup 137}Cs-contaminated soil was inoculated with mycorrhizal spores or not. The lack of mycorrhizae-mediated uptake of {sup 137}Cs in ryegrass could be due to the high root density, which was about four times that of leek, or due to a less well functioning mycorrhizal symbiosis than of leek. In a second experiment, ryegrass was grown for a period of four cuts. Additions of fungi enhanced {sup 137}Cs uptake of all harvests, improved dry weight production in the first cut, and also improved the mycorrhizal infection frequencies in the roots. No differences were obtained between the two fungal inoculums investigated with respect to biomass production or {sup 137}Cs uptake, but root colonization differed. We conclude that, under certain circumstances, mycorrhizae affect plant uptake of {sup 137}Cs. There may be a potential for selecting fungal strains that stimulate {sup 137}Cs accumulation in crops. The use of ryegrass seems to be rather ineffective for remediation of {sup 137}Cs-contaminated soil.

  16. A novel vanadosilicate with hexadeca-coordinated Cs{sup +} ions as a highly effective Cs{sup +} remover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datta, Shuvo Jit; Moon, Won Kyung; Choi, Do Young; Hwang, In Chul; Yoon, Kyung Byung [Sogang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Korea Center for Artificial Photosynthesis

    2014-07-07

    The effective removal of {sup 137}Cs{sup +} ions from contaminated groundwater and seawater and from radioactive nuclear waste solutions is crucial for public health and for the continuous operation of nuclear power plants. Various {sup 137}Cs{sup +} removers have been developed, but more effective {sup 137}Cs{sup +} removers are still needed. A novel microporous vanadosilicate with mixed-valence vanadium (V{sup 4+} and V{sup 5+}) ions is now reported, which shows an excellent ability for Cs{sup +} capture and immobilization from groundwater, seawater, and nuclear waste solutions. This material is superior to other known materials in terms of selectivity, capacity, and kinetics, and at very low Cs{sup +} concentrations, it was found to be the most effective material for the removal of radioactive Cs{sup +} ions under the test conditions. This novel vanadosilicate also contains hexadeca-coordinated Cs{sup +} ions, which corresponds to the highest coordination number ever described.

  17. Foundation Fireworks CS4

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, N; Heerema, Matt; Mallott, Chuch; King, R; Erskine, Craig

    2009-01-01

    Are you a web designer who is looking for a new and quicker way to prototype and create for the web? Perhaps you are a programmer who finds most design tools to be overkill for what you need to get done. Or, maybe you're an old Fireworks pro, who wants to keep up to date on the latest changes in Creative Suite 4. Either way, this book has something for you. * Coverage of all that's new and powerful for the Web designer and developer in Fireworks CS4* Targets developers who want design tools that don't get in their way and designers who want development tools that don't constrain their creativi

  18. Frameworks in CS1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard

    2002-01-01

    point for introducing graphical user interface frameworks such as Java Swing and AWT as the students are not overwhelmed by all the details of such frameworks right away but given a conceptual road-map and practical experience that allow them to cope with the complexity.......In this paper we argue that introducing object-oriented frameworks as subject already in the CS1 curriculum is important if we are to train the programmers of tomorrow to become just as much software reusers as software producers. We present a simple, graphical, framework that we have successfully...... used to introduce the principles of object-oriented frameworks to students at the introductory programming level. Our framework, while simple, introduces central abstractions such as inversion of control, event-driven programming, and variability points/hot-spots. This has provided a good starting...

  19. A simple preparation of calibration curve standards of 134Cs and 137Cs by serial dilution of a standard reference material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labrecque, J.J.; Rosales, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    Two sets of calibration standards for 134 Cs and 137 Cs were prepared by small serial dilution of a natural matrix standard reference material, IAEA-154 whey powder. The first set was intended to screen imported milk powders which were suspected to be contaminated with 134 Cs and 137 Cs. Their concentration ranged from 40 to 400 Bq/kg. The other set of calibration standards was prepared to measure the environmental levels of 137 Cs in commercial Venezuelan milk powders. Their concentration ranged from 3 to 10 Bq/kg of 137 Cs. The accuracy of these calibration curves was checked by IAEA-152 and A-14 milk powders. Their measured values were in good agreement with their certified values. Finally, it is shown that these preparation techniques using serial dilution of a standard reference material were simple, rapid, precise, accurate and cost-effective. (author) 5 refs.; 5 figs.; 3 tabs

  20. Cs and Cl penetration estimation in mortar from fly ash of MSWI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, K.; Hosokawa, Y.; Haga, K.; Osako, M.

    2015-01-01

    By the Fukushima Daiichi accident, radioactive Cs was scattered widely in East Japan. From the viewpoint of radionuclide contaminated wastes management, water soluble Cs in the fly ash of incineration of municipal solid wastes (MSWI-FA) is the most serious problem. When final disposal of MSWI-FA contaminated by radioactive Cs in concrete pit is considered, it is necessary to understand the characteristics of MSWI-FA and Cs penetration behavior into concrete. In this study, the expected solution generated from MSWI-FA is analyzed and immersion test of mortar in this model solution was carried out for several kinds of cement and sand types. Cs showed similar penetration profiles with Cl regardless of cement and sand types. By using fly ash cement, the penetration depth of Cs decreased less than half compared to ordinary Portland cement (OPC). Clay mineral in sand did not affect the penetration of Cs possible because of the competing effect of potassium for Cs adsorption. Assuming a diffusion equation considering non-linear binding, from the measured profiles, diffusion coefficient and parameters of binding were obtained by fitting. Then, the Cs and Cl profiles after 30 years are estimated and penetration depths of Cs and Cl were only 15 mm for fly ash mortar. (authors)

  1. Speciation of Cs-137 in fertilizers amended soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mocanu, N.; Breban, D.C.

    1999-01-01

    One of the most used agricultural countermeasures to reduce the uptake of radionuclides from soil into plants is the chemical treatment of the soil with fertilizers. The distribution of a radionuclide between different physico chemical forms is essential to characterize its behaviour and the biological impact on the environment. To assess a radionuclide bioavailability to the soil-plant transfer, the chemical forms that are most relevant are the water soluble and exchangeable ones. Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the potential modifications in time of the Cs-137 distribution in the two soil fractions, induced by the treatment with different K-based fertilizers. The two types of soil were selected taking into account their importance for the agricultural use in Romania. By the sequential extraction method the distribution of 137 Cs has been determined in the water soluble and exchangeable fractions separated from the soils after 1 day, 1 week, 1 month and 4 months, respectively. For the reference untreated soils, experimental data revealed that less than 1 percent of Cs-137 is associated to the water soluble fraction for both types of soil. Around 4 percents of the total amount of Cs-137 in the brown-reddish soil and 13 percents in the alluvial one were associated to the exchangeable fraction. The differences between the Cs-137 distribution are correlated to the higher content of dust and clay in the brown reddish soil, which are strong binders for Cs ions. The application of the two fertilizers releasing fast the K ions (KCl and potassium salt), determined from at the first moment after the contamination a reduction of the Cs-137 concentration in both fraction. The effect was most pronounced for the soluble fraction in the brown -reddish soil: with a factor of 8 in case of KCl treatment and 5 in case of potassium salt. For the others experimental cases the concentration of Cs-137 in both fractions was slightly reduced, with factors between (1

  2. Effects of processing techniques on the radioactive contamination of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovard, P.; Delmas, J.; Grauby, A.

    Following contamination of cultures of rice, grapes and various vegetables by 90 Sr and 137 Cs, the effect of processing and cooking techniques on the contamination of the food-stuff was investigated [fr

  3. Radiocesium contamination and the reindeer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, O.; Raunistola, T.; Jones, B.E.V.

    1991-01-01

    The high transfer factors calculated for radiocesium in this study are partly due to the feeding habits of the reindeer with a substantial intake of lichens, especially in the wintertime. Seasonal changes in grazing plant selection caused a considerable cyclic, seasonal variation in radiocesium content of soft tissues. The effective half-life of radiocesium in reindeer during winter feeding conditions was determined to about 30 days in an experiment where a herd of reindeer was moved from a high (> 20 kBq/m 2 Cs-137) to a low (> 3 kBq/m 2 Cs-137) contamination area. During natural grazing conditions the fractional transfer of Cs-137 was determined to about 0.65 d/kg during wintertime in the low-contamination area and about 0.30 d/kg in summertime after grazing on highly contaminated pastures. The effective half-life of Cs-137 in reindeer lichens was seven to ten years both before and after the Chernobyl accident. In areas with initially high contamination the half-life was shorter, 6.2±0.9 years, than in areas with lower contamination, 15.0 ± 5.1 years. In heather, bilberry and crowberry negative effective half-lives, increasing concentrations, were observed. Precipitation during the growth period could change the Cs-137 activity of some plant species. (au) (32 refs.)

  4. Heavy metals, arsenic, and pesticide contamination in an area with high incidence of chronic kidney disease of non-traditional causes in El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, D. A.; Ribó, A.; Quinteros, E.; Mejia, R.; Jovel, R.; VanDervort, D.; Orantes, C. M.

    2013-12-01

    Chronic kidney disease of non-traditional causes is epidemic in Central America, Southern Mexico and other regions of the world such as Sri Lanka, where the origin of the illness is attributed to exposure to agrochemicals and arsenic in soils and groundwater. In Central America, several causes have been suggested for this illness including: high ambient temperatures and chronic dehydration, and toxic effects of agrochemicals. Previous research using step-wise multivariate regression in El Salvador found statistically significant correlation between the spatial distribution of the number of sick people per thousand inhabitants and the percent area cultivated with sugar cane, cotton, and beans, and maximum ambient temperature, with sugar cane cultivation as the most significant factor. This study aims to investigate the possible effects of agricultural activities in the occurrence of this illness looking at heavy metal, arsenic and pesticide contamination in soil, water and sediments of a community located in Bajo Lempa region (Ciudad Romero, El Salvador) and heavily affected by this illness. The Bajo Lempa region is close to Lempa River delta, in the Pacific coast. Ground and surface water, sediment and soil samples were collected in the village where the patients live and in the agricultural areas where they work. With respect to the heavy metals, lead and cadmium where detected in the soils but below the standards for cultivated soils, however, they were not detected in the majority of surface and groundwater. Of the inorganic contaminants, arsenic was present in most soil, sediments, and water samples with some concentrations considerable higher than the standards for cultivated lands and drinking water. Statistically different concentrations in soils were found for the village soils and the cultivated soils, with arsenic higher in the cultivated soils. For the pesticides, results show a significant pollution of soil and groundwater of organochlorine pesticides

  5. The removal of Cs-137 from soil using washing-electrokinetic decontamination equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gyenam; Kim, Seungsoo; Kim, Geunho; Park, Hyemin; Kim, Wansuk; Park, Ukryang; Kwon, Hyeokju; Ryu, Ohha; Moon, Jeikwon

    2012-01-01

    The radioactive soil at the KAERI radioactive waste storage facility has slightly high hydro-conductivity, and was mainly contaminated with 137 Cs 30-35 years ago. Recently, a soil washing method has been applied to remove 137 Cs from radioactive soil, but it appears that the removal efficiency of 137 Cs had low and a lot of waste solution was generated. Meanwhile, an electrokinetic decontamination method provides high removal efficiency of 137 Cs and generates little waste effluent. Thus, it is suggested that an electrokinetic decontamination method is a suitable technology in consideration of the soil characteristics near South Korean nuclear facilities

  6. The removal of Cs-137 from soil using washing-electrokinetic decontamination equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Gyenam; Kim, Seungsoo; Kim, Geunho; Park, Hyemin; Kim, Wansuk; Park, Ukryang; Kwon, Hyeokju; Ryu, Ohha; Moon, Jeikwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    The radioactive soil at the KAERI radioactive waste storage facility has slightly high hydro-conductivity, and was mainly contaminated with {sup 137}Cs 30-35 years ago. Recently, a soil washing method has been applied to remove {sup 137}Cs from radioactive soil, but it appears that the removal efficiency of {sup 137}Cs had low and a lot of waste solution was generated. Meanwhile, an electrokinetic decontamination method provides high removal efficiency of {sup 137}Cs and generates little waste effluent. Thus, it is suggested that an electrokinetic decontamination method is a suitable technology in consideration of the soil characteristics near South Korean nuclear facilities.

  7. Temporal changes in the distribution of 137Cs in alluvial soils at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyhan, J.W.; Hakonson, T.E.; Miera, F.R. Jr.; Bostick, K.V.

    1978-05-01

    The alluvial soils of three liquid-effluent receiving areas at Los Alamos were sampled to determine 137 Cs temporal distributional relationships. Soil radionuclide concentrations were determined as a function of soil depth and distance from the waste outfall, and discussed relative to runoff transport of 137 Cs-contaminated alluvium. The inventories of soil 137 Cs in various segments of each effluent-receiving area were calculated for two sampling periods and compared with amounts of 137 Cs added to the canyons in the liquid wastes. The distribution patterns of soil cesium were compared with the waste-use history of the three study areas and the hydrologic characteristics of the canyons

  8. On 99Tc, 137Cs and 90Sr in the Kara Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlgaard, H.

    1995-01-01

    Technetium-99 in the Arctic seas originate mainly from European reprocessing plants whereas 137 Cs and 90 Sr have many sources. It appears that for 137 Cs, re-mobilisation from the Irish Sea of sedimented activity from earlier discharges and the outflow of Baltic water contaminated with Chernobyl activity, are more important sources to the present contamination of the Kara Sea than new European discharges. As opposed to 137 Cs and 99 Tc, 90 Sr is correlated with low salinity waters. It is argued, that this is due to runoff of global atmospheric fallout 90 Sr from land. 7 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  9. Influence of water management and fertilizer application on "1"3"7Cs and "1"3"3Cs uptake in paddy rice fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakabayashi, Shokichi; Itoh, Sumio; Kihou, Nobuharu; Matsunami, Hisaya; Hachinohe, Mayumi; Hamamatsu, Shioka; Takahashi, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    Cesium-137 derived from the Tokyo Electric Power Company's Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident contaminated large areas of agricultural land in Eastern Japan. Previous studies before the accident have indicated that flooding enhances radiocesium uptake in rice fields. We investigated the influence of water management in combination with fertilizers on "1"3"7Cs concentrations in rice plants at two fields in southern Ibaraki Prefecture. Stable Cs ("1"3"3Cs) in the plants was also determined as an analogue for predicting "1"3"7Cs behavior after long-term aging of soil "1"3"7Cs. The experimental periods comprised 3 y starting from 2012 in one field, and 2 y from 2013 in another field. These fields were divided into three water management sections: a long-flooding section without midsummer drainage, and medial-flooding, and short-flooding sections with one- or two-week midsummer drainage and earlier end of flooding than the long-flooding section. Six or four types of fertilizer subsections (most differing only in potassium application) were nested in each water management section. Generally, the long-flooding treatment led to higher "1"3"7Cs and "1"3"3Cs concentrations in both straw and brown rice than medial- and short-flooding treatments, although there were some notable exceptions in the first experimental year at each site. Effects of differing potassium fertilizer treatments were cumulative; the effects on "1"3"7Cs and "1"3"3Cs concentrations in rice plants were not obvious in 2012 and 2013, but in 2014, these concentrations were highest where potassium fertilizer had been absent and lowest where basal dressings of K had been tripled. The relationship between "1"3"7Cs and "1"3"3Cs in rice plants was not correlative in the first experimental year at each site, but correlation became evident in the subsequent year(s). This study demonstrates a novel finding that omitting midsummer drainage and/or delaying drainage during the grain-filling period

  10. Transfer of 137Cs through the food chain to man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, C.; Bennett, B.G.

    1976-10-01

    Deposition, concentrations in diet, and body burdens of 137 Cs have been measured since 1954 at various sites throughout the world. This report is a compilation and updating of various fallout 137 Cs measurements and an interpretation of transfer properties of 137 Cs from deposition to diet and from diet to man. An empirical model is used to correlate deposition and diet data. Direct foliar contamination, stored food supplies, and uptake from soil contribute to the dietary levels of 137 Cs. The accumulation of 137 Cs by man is described by a single exponential model. The inferred biological half-times, 200 to 400 days, are somewhat greater than the half-time of about 100 days obtained from shorter term studies. Differences in body burdens due to sex, age, and weight are discussed. During the period 1954 to 1974, the internal dose from fallout 137 Cs, based on average body burdens, is estimated to be 4 to 5 percent of the 21 year radiation dose from 40 K

  11. Mechanisms and models of 137Cs migration in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frid, A.S.

    1999-01-01

    The most wide-spread mechanisms and models of the 137 Cs isotope migration in soil are considered because of urgency of this problem conditioned by global fallout during nuclear weapon tests and contamination of territories due to accidents on nuclear objects (including the East Urals and ChNPP accident). It is shown that the 137 Cs migration models with an account of the sorption-desorption kinetics have from the practical adequacy certain advantage in comparison with other models, though they are mathematically more complex and require complex calculations [ru

  12. Mathematical model of 137Cs dynamics in the deciduous forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamikhin, S.V.; Klyashtorin, A.L.

    1999-01-01

    A mathematical model of 137 Cs behaviour in the forest ecosystem is presented. The behaviour of this radionuclide is assumed to obey the same regularities as the behaviour of its stable chemical analogue, potassium. Radionuclide dynamics are considered in parallel with the dynamics of the phytomass. Radionuclides contained in the vegetation are pooled into two basic compartments: external and internal contamination, with separate analysis of each. The model was verified using the data obtained in the 30-km zone of the Chernobyl NPP in 1986-1994. The algorithm described was found to be the most efficient in terms of 137 Cs behaviour in the forest environments

  13. Transfer factor values of 137 Cs from latosoils to vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasserman, Maria Angelica Moreira; Belem, Lilia Maria Juacaba

    1996-01-01

    Transfer Factor values for black beams, radish and carrot were obtained for soils artificially and accidentally contaminated in Goiania during 1987. Differences of 137 Cs-soil-to-plant transfer were discussed in the light of pedology and crop type. These values were about one order of magnitude higher than mean values reported by IUR for temperature climate for the same crops. These results advertising for the peculiar dynamics of 137 Cs in tropical soils and for needs to obtain regional data to be used in assessment dose models. (author)

  14. Activity standardization of 134Cs and 137Cs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sochorová, Jana; Auerbach, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the results from a primary standardization of 137 Cs using two independent methods – efficiency tracing using PC-NaI coincidence and the TDCR method. The nuclides 60 Co and 134 Cs were used as the tracers. Primary standardization of the 134 Cs is also discussed. The efficiency extrapolation was carried out by measuring samples of varying mass and using the wet extrapolation method. The results obtained are in good agreement; the differences did not exceed 0.5%. The advantages, pitfalls and also possibilities for improvement of the procedures are discussed

  15. Cs phytoremediation by Sorghum bicolor cultivated in soil and in hydroponic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Chen, Can; Wang, Jianlong

    2017-04-03

    Cs accumulation characteristics by Sorghum bicolor were investigated in hydroponic system (Cs level at 50-1000 μmol/L) and in soil (Cs-spiked concentration was 100 and 400 mg/kg soil). Two varieties of S. bicolor Cowly and Nengsi 2# grown on pot soil during the entire growth period (100 days) did not show significant differences on the height, dry weight (DW), and Cs accumulation. S. bicolor showed the potential phytoextraction ability for Cs-contaminated soil with the bioaccumulation factor (BCF) and the translocation factor (TF) values usually higher than 1 in soil system and in hydroponic system. The aerial parts of S. bicolor contributed to 86-92% of the total removed amounts of Cs from soil. Cs level in solution at 100 μmol/L gave the highest BCF and TF values of S. bicolor. Cs at low level tended to transfer to the aerial parts, whereas Cs at high level decreased the transfer ratio from root to shoot. In soil, the plant grew well when Cs spiked level was 100 mg/kg soil, but was inhibited by Cs at 400 mg/kg soil with Cs content in sorghum reaching 1147 mg/kg (roots), 2473 mg/kg (stems), and 2939 mg/kg (leaves). In hydroponic system, average Cs level in sorghum reached 5270 mg/kg (roots) and 4513 mg/kg (aerial parts), without significant damages to its biomass at 30 days after starting Cs treatment. Cs accumulation in sorghum tissues was positively correlated with the metal concentration in medium.

  16. Fruits contamination in Poland after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubik, M.; Michalczuk, L.; Dzieciol, U.; Bem, H.; Kusmierek, E.

    1996-01-01

    The content of Cs 137, Cs 134 and Ru 106 have been measured in samples of different fruits, mushrooms and honey taken from many farms selected at whole territory of Poland. The research has been carried out during the period of 1986-1991. The soils contamination in farms and forests area has been also done. 2 figs, 2 tabs

  17. Early construction and operation of the highly contaminated water treatment system in Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (3). A unique simulation code to evaluate time-dependent Cs adsorption/desorption behavior in column system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, Kenta; Hijikata, Takatoshi; Tsukada, Takeshi; Koyama, Tadafumi; Ishikawa, Keiji; Ono, Shoichi; Suzuki, Shunichi

    2014-01-01

    A simulation code was developed to evaluate the performance of the cesium adsorption instrument operating in Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. Since contaminated water contains seawater whose salinity is not constant, a new model was introduced to the conventional zeolite column simulation code to deal with the variable salinity of the seawater. Another feature of the cesium adsorption instrument is that it consists of several columns arranged in both series and parallel. The spent columns are replaced in a unique manner using a merry-go-round system. The code is designed by taking those factors into account. Consequently, it enables the evaluation of the performance characteristics of the cesium adsorption instrument, such as the time history of the decontamination factor, the cesium adsorption amount in each column, and the axial distribution of the adsorbed cesium in the spent columns. The simulation is conducted for different operation patterns and its results are given to Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) to support the optimization of the operation schedule. The code is also used to investigate the cause of some events that actually occurred in the operation of the cesium adsorption instrument. (author)

  18. ANCCLI Scientific Committee - Opinion related to the level 2 incident related to the management of an equipment contaminated by tritium between October 2009 and November 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    After a recall of the facts and of requests expressed by the ANCCLI and its Scientific Committee about the incident, this report proposes an analysis of answers made to these requests by the different actors about the reasons and circumstances of the event, the follow-up at the regulatory level, the follow-up at the health level (environmental follow-up, assessment of population and employee exposures and health monitoring, measures implemented to help the involved subcontracting company and other companies). An appendix evokes the main measurement results, proposes the open letter published by the ANCCLI and its Scientific Committee, and the answer made by the ASN

  19. 137CS-determination in game meat from some hunting areas in lower Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayromlou, S.; Tataruch, F.

    2001-01-01

    In 1986, the contamination of some regions in Austria by 137 Cs, due to the Chernobyl accident was relatively high. Among other 137 Cs is taken up by people by the consumption of game. In an area of Lower Austria which is relatively heavily contaminated by Chernobyl fallout since 1986 the 137 Cs-contamination of meat of game-animals was measured every year. Clear differences arose in the load of the single game species whose causes just like the temporal changes are discussed. The highest 137 Cs activity concentration was with 5243 Bq/kg measured on a wild boar. With this activity concentration an annual effective dose of only 0,06 mSv can be estimated for an annual average consumption of one kilogram meat of wild boar. (orig.) [de

  20. In vitro and in vivo efficiency of clinoptilolite in 137Cs binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitorovic, D.; Vitorovic, G.; Mladenovic, V.; Vukicevic, O.

    1998-01-01

    The results of investigation of the sorption of micro amounts of 137 Cs on powdered clinoptilolite in an electrolyte similar to the stomach content of animals are presented. The experiments were performed with the natural form of clinoptilolite from the Zlatopek mine (Vranjska Banja) and with the sodium form at 37 deg C. Simultaneously, investigation was made into the efficiency of the natural form of clinoptilolite in the radioprotection of chicks alimentary contaminated with 1 37 Cs. Clinoptilolite showed a high efficiency in 137 Cs sorption from the electrolyte solution, where 96-98% of initial activity was sorbed. Protection effect in chicks alimentary contaminated with 137 Cs, measured 3 and 7 hours after the contamination, was approximately 75% for the meat and edible inner organs of the chicks

  1. 1+ collective states of 124Cs and 126Cs nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanova, S.P.; Kuliev, A.A.; Salamov, D.I.

    1977-01-01

    Within the framework of the random phase approximation β-decay properties of the 1 + states of 124 Cs and 126 Cs have been investigated. Greatly collectivized 1 + states in odd-odd nuclei are produced by the spin-dependent charge-exchange nucleon interaction. For numerical calculations the scheme of single-particle levels in the deformed Saxon-Woods potential has been used

  2. Fire as an agent in redistributing fallout 137Cs in the Canadian boreal forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paliouris, G.; Svoboda, J.; Mierzynski, B.; Taylor, H.W.; Wein, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    The presence of fallout 137 Cs in the boreal forest and the effect of fire in redistributing 137 Cs were studied in the remote region of Wood Buffalo National Park, N.W.T., Canada. Results of a preliminary study of five burned (the fire occurred in 1981) and five unburned stands conducted in 1986 revealed that 137 Cs concentrations were higher in the surface soil of the burned stands than in the unburned ones. In 1989, a comprehensive study was conducted, in which one burned and one unburned white spruce stand were sampled in greater detail. The latter investigation also revealed a difference in the distribution of 137 Cs within the burned stand compared to the unburned one. Specifically, in the unburned stand, the highest 137 Cs concentration was identified in the epiphytic lichens and in the mosses, whereas in the burned stand, the highest concentration was measured in the surface organic soil. These results indicate that fire caused the mobilization of part of the 137 Cs bound to the above-ground matter and concentrated it in the ash layer of the burned surface soil. An additional ecologically important finding in our study was that significantly lower total 137 Cs load was observed in the burned stand compared to the unburned one. Hence, our data not only provide evidence that 137 Cs is being redistributed within the burned stand to the surface soil, but also that part of the 137 Cs is lost due to fire, presumably contaminating other ecosystems. Volatilization and fly-ash during the fire, and runoff (e.g. from snow melt) after the fire are the most likely mechanisms for the 137 Cs removal. These findings point to fire as an agent of 137 Cs secondary contamination for initially unaffected systems, as well as for those previously contaminated

  3. Uptake of 137Cs in cultured fresh water fish (Cyprinus carpio): physiological and histological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vosniakos, F.; Kesidou, A.; Kalfa, A.; Moumtzis, A.; Karakoltsidis, P.

    1991-01-01

    An experiment was conducted in fresh-water fish (Cyprinus carpio) cultured, in small water tanks, artificially contaminated with radioactive 137 Cs (3000 Bq/1) to determine the uptake of 137 Cs and its physiological and histological effects in different fish organs. It was found that 137 Cs was located in muscular tissues, gills, head muscles, liver and kidneys. Moderate amounts were found in spleen, eyes, gonads, intestine and urinary bladder. It seems that sorption was of much less importance than ingestion in the uptake of 137 Cs. The histological examination in musculature tissue, revealed an acute hyperemia with focal haemorrages which may be due to allergic effects of 137 Cs. Hyperemia and focal fatty degeneration of hepatic cells was also noted in the liver which may be due to toxic effects of 137 Cs. Diffused hyperemia has also occurred in the brain and focal degeneration of epithelial cells of renal tubules. (Author)

  4. Contaminants of emerging concern in the Hartbeespoort Dam catchment and the uMngeni River estuary 2016 pollution incident, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimayi, Cornelius; Odusanya, David; Weiss, Jana M; de Boer, Jacob; Chimuka, Luke

    2018-06-15

    A quantitative assessment of pollutants of emerging concern in the Hartbeespoort Dam catchment area was conducted using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to establish the occurrence, source and distribution of 15 environmental pollutants, including 10 pharmaceuticals, 1 pesticide and 4 steroid hormones. Seasonal sampling was conducted in the Hartbeespoort Lake using sub-surface grab sampling to determine the lake's ecological status and obtain data for establishment of progressive operational monitoring. The Jukskei River, which lies upstream of the Hartbeespoort Dam, was sampled in the winter season. Five year old carp (Cyprinus carpio) and catfish (Clarias gariepinus) were also sampled from the Hartbeespoort Dam to study bioaccumulation in biota as well as to estimate risk associated with fish consumption. In the Jukskei River, the main source of 11 emerging pollutants (EPs) was identified as raw sewage overflow, with the highest ∑11 EP concentration of 593ngL -1 being recorded at the Midrand point and the lowest ∑11 EP concentration of 164ngL -1 at the N14 site located 1km downstream of a large wastewater treatment plant. The Jukskei River was found to be the largest contributor of the emerging contaminants detected in the Hartbeespoort Dam. In the Hartbeespoort Dam EP concentrations were generally in the order efavirenz>nevirapine>carbamazepine>methocarbamol>bromacil>venlafaxine. Water and sediment were sampled from the uMngeni River estuary within 24h after large volumes of an assortment of pharmaceutical waste had been discovered to be washed into the river estuary after flash rainfall on 18 May 2016. Analytical results revealed high levels of some emerging pollutants in sediment samples, up to 81ngg -1 for nevirapine and 4ngg -1 for etilefrine HCL. This study shows that efavirenz, nevirapine, carbamazepine, methocarbamol, bromacil and venlafaxine are contaminants that require operational monitoring in South African urban waters

  5. Sorption and migration of 137Cs attached to organic materials of tea in silty clay soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuecel, H.; Oezmen, A.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of the organic material of tea on the adsorption behavior of 137 Cs on the silty clay soil has been examined by batch experiments, using 137 Cs extracted tea contaminated by the Chernobyl accident, with water. The variation of K d values was studied as a function of contact time and a volume-solid ratio (V/m). The equilibrium time of 137 Cs extracted from the tea is slower by 9 times than that of 137 Cs + ions for the silty clay soil. The V/m ratio did not affect the 137 Cs adsorption strongly. The sorption of 137 Cs extracted form the tea in terms of the distribution coefficient K d is higher (a factor of 2.5) than that of 137 Cs + ions. This result indicates that 137 Cs-complexes with organic materials of tea are much sorbed than 137 C + ions on the silty clay soil. The migration of 137 Cs extracted from the tea in the silty clay soil has been studied under a steady flow of tea-extract by using a soil zone apparatus. The 137 Cs concentrations contained in both effluent fractions and in soil samples were measured using a HPGe detector. The distribution patterns of 137 Cs in the layers of the soil zone were obtained as one- and two-dimensional. The migration of 137 Cs extracted from the tea in soil is mainly influenced by flow. The results indicate that the migration of 137 Cs-complexes with organic materials and 137 Cs adsorbed fine silts cannot be described by such a K d based on ion-exchange reactions, but it is important to consider the moving mechanism of particulates besides ion-exchange reactions. (Author)

  6. Temporal resolution limit estimation of x-ray streak cameras using a CsI photocathode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiang; Gu, Li; Zong, Fangke; Zhang, Jingjin; Yang, Qinlao, E-mail: qlyang@szu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Devices and Systems of Ministry of Education and Guangdong Province, Institute of Optoelectronics, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China)

    2015-08-28

    A Monte Carlo model is developed and implemented to calculate the characteristics of x-ray induced secondary electron (SE) emission from a CsI photocathode used in an x-ray streak camera. Time distributions of emitted SEs are investigated with an incident x-ray energy range from 1 to 30 keV and a CsI thickness range from 100 to 1000 nm. Simulation results indicate that SE time distribution curves have little dependence on the incident x-ray energy and CsI thickness. The calculated time dispersion within the CsI photocathode is about 70 fs, which should be the temporal resolution limit of x-ray streak cameras that use CsI as the photocathode material.

  7. Radiochemical determination of {sup 137}Cs in foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kastner, Geraldo F.; Ferreira, Andrea Vidal; Monteiro, Roberto P.G., E-mail: gfk@cdtn.br, E-mail: avf@cdtn.br, E-mail: rpgm@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    A determination of radionuclides in food samples is important in commodities in order to attend to regulatory requirements for international trade. As a long-lived radioisotope of cesium, {sup 137}Cs is produced as a result of human nuclear activities and than its contamination level evaluation among others radionuclides in foods is necessary. A methodology for the determination of {sup 137}Cs in foods, pork and fish, is described. The procedures covered homogenization and freeze-drying of the samples. The {sup 137}Cs was measured by gamma spectrometry using Canberra 50% HPGe detector. The counting was carried out with Monte Carlo software for detection conditions optimization including geometry and chemical data information. A certified sample, SRM IAEA-375, was analyzed in order to evaluate the reliability of the method, and the results showed good agreement between the measured and certified values. (author)

  8. Household methods to reduce {sup 137}Cs contents of mushrooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostiainen, E. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority - STUK, Helsinki (Finland)

    2005-09-15

    High radiocaesium contents in different species of mushrooms have been observed in areas contaminated by radiocaesium deposition after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. There has been no significant reduction in the {sup 137}Cs contents of mushrooms during the past ten years, besides via radioactive decay. The internal radiation dose received via mushrooms can be reduced by processing mushrooms before consumption. Various household methods were studied to find out their efficiency to reduce {sup 137}Cs contents of mushrooms. The methods tested were the same as normally used in cooking. The tests were made for the species of edible mushrooms widely consumed. The retention factors for the treatments tested were in most cases 0.2-0.3. The efficiency of treatments in reducing the {sup 137}Cs contents increased with larger water volumes and prolonged treatment times.

  9. Household methods to reduce 137Cs contents of mushrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostiainen, E.

    2005-01-01

    High radiocaesium contents in different species of mushrooms have been observed in areas contaminated by radiocaesium deposition after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. There has been no significant reduction in the 137 Cs contents of mushrooms during the past ten years, besides via radioactive decay. The internal radiation dose received via mushrooms can be reduced by processing mushrooms before consumption. Various household methods were studied to find out their efficiency to reduce 137 Cs contents of mushrooms. The methods tested were the same as normally used in cooking. The tests were made for the species of edible mushrooms widely consumed. The retention factors for the treatments tested were in most cases 0.2-0.3. The efficiency of treatments in reducing the 137 Cs contents increased with larger water volumes and prolonged treatment times

  10. Learning Flash CS4 Professional

    CERN Document Server

    Shupe, Rich

    2009-01-01

    Learning Flash CS4 Professional offers beginners and intermediate Flash developers a unique introduction to the latest version of Adobe's powerful multimedia application. This easy-to-read book is loaded with full-color examples and hands-on tasks to help you master Flash CS4's new motion editor, integrated 3D system, and character control using the new inverse kinematics bones animation system. No previous Flash experience is necessary.

  11. Laboratory analyses of Cs-137 uptake by sunflower, reed and poplar

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soudek, Petr; Tykva, Richard; Vaněk, Tomáš

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 55, - (2004), s. 1081-1087 ISSN 0045-6535 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS4055014; GA MŠk OC 837.10 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : radiophytoremediation * Cs-137 * potassium ions Subject RIV: DK - Soil Contamination ; De-contamination incl. Pesticides Impact factor: 2.359, year: 2004

  12. Enhanced desorption of Cs from clays by a polymeric cation-exchange agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chan Woo, E-mail: park85@gmail.com [Decontamination & Decommissioning Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daedeok-daero 989-111, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Bo Hyun [Decontamination & Decommissioning Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daedeok-daero 989-111, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Department of Chemical Engineering, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Hee-Man; Seo, Bum-Kyoung [Decontamination & Decommissioning Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daedeok-daero 989-111, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kune-Woo, E-mail: nkwlee@kaeri.re.kr [Decontamination & Decommissioning Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daedeok-daero 989-111, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-05

    Highlights: • A cationic polyelectrolyte has excellent ability to desorb Cs bound strongly to clay. • The polycation desorbed significantly more Cs from the clay than did single cations. • Additional NH{sub 4}{sup +} treatment following the polycation treatment enhanced desorption of Cs. • The reaction yielded efficient desorption (95%) of an extremely low concentration of Cs-137 in the clay. - Abstract: We report on a new approach to increase the removal of cesium from contaminated clays based on the intercalation of a cationic polyelectrolyte into the clay interlayers. A highly charged cationic polyelectrolyte, polyethyleneimine (PEI), was shown to intercalate into the negatively charged interlayers and readily replaced Cs ions adsorbed on the interlayers of montmorillonite. The polycation desorbed significantly more Cs strongly bound to the clay than did single cations. Moreover, additional NH{sub 4}{sup +} treatment following the PEI treatment enhanced desorption of Cs ions that were less accessible by the bulky polyelectrolyte. This synergistic effect of PEI with NH{sub 4}{sup +} yielded efficient desorption (95%) of an extremely low concentration of radioactive {sup 137}Cs in the clay, which is very difficult to remove by simple cation-exchange methods due to the increased stability of the binding of Cs to the clay at low Cs concentrations.

  13. Parameters Affecting 137Cs Migration within Soil Profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sefien, S.M.; Ibrahim, A.S.; Abdelmalik, W.E.Y.

    2013-01-01

    Some studies have been carried out on the adsorption, distribution and migration of 137 Cs within soils of the area in the vicinity of the Nuclear Research Centre, Egypt, and Ismailia Canal. The soil physicochemical and mineralogical characteristics were carried out and indicated that the soil samples consisted mainly of sand fraction (quartz) and silt fractions (semctite minerals). The kinetics of caesium adsorption and its adsorption isotherms for the tested soils were also studied. The sorption of 137 Cs on soil minerals markedly affects its migration rate. The natural background of both locations of study indicated that the amounts of 137 Cs present in the reactor site were found to be originated from the fallout and from the external contamination which affected the background level. The 137 Cs activity at the canal site was found to be 20.01 Bq/m 2 .cm, while that around the reactor site were found to be 231.15 Bq/m2.cm which may be originating from the fallout and from external contamination which affect the background level at that location. The activity in the canal soil which amounted to 20.01 Bq/m2/cm (0.87 Bq/kg) is about that of background.Based on the distribution data, the vertical distribution of 137 Cs has been studied for soil in both locations (the vicinity of the Nuclear Research Centre (NRC) and Ismailia canal). The vertical migration rates of 137 Cs were calculated for soil samples selected from different locations. These rates were found to be 0.056 and 0.031 cm/year for the reactor and canal site respectively.

  14. Recent levels of radionuclides in lichens from southwest Poland with particular reference to 134Cs and 137Cs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seaward, M.R.D.; Bylinska, E.A.

    1988-01-01

    Analyses of Umbilicaria species collected from southwest Poland in August 1986 have shown there to be significant increases in levels of various radionuclides since previous analyses based on fieldwork in 1978-1979. The composition and ratio of the various radionuclides, particularly in respect of 134 Cs and 137 Cs, exhibit a characteristic signature consistent with contamination derived from the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear reactor in April 1986. Intraspecific variation in levels of 137 Cs in Umbilicaria is related to such factors as location, altitude and, to a lesser degree, aspect; interspecific variation in levels is related to ecological requirements and geographical pattern, and hence the same factors, although morphological differences in thalli may be implicated. (author)

  15. Exposure of a herbivorous fish to 134Cs and 137Cs from the riverbed following the Fukushima disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuboi, Jun-ichi; Abe, Shin-ichiro; Fujimoto, Ken; Kaeriyama, Hideki; Ambe, Daisuke; Matsuda, Keishi; Enomoto, Masahiro; Tomiya, Atsushi; Morita, Takami; Ono, Tsuneo; Yamamoto, Shoichiro; Iguchi, Kei'ichiro

    2015-01-01

    Ayu Plecoglossus altivelis, a herbivorous fish, is an important fishery resource and key component of the foodweb in many Japanese streams. Radionuclide contamination of this species is likely transferred to higher trophic levels, include humans, in the food chain. After the Fukushima accident in March 2011, ayu were exposed to highly contaminated silt while feeding on algae attached to the riverbed stones. To understand the route by which herbivorous fish are exposed to radionuclides, the activity concentrations of sum of 134 Cs and 137 Cs (radiocesium) were analyzed in riverbed samples (algae and silt) and in the internal organs and the muscle of ayu in five river systems in the Fukushima Prefecture between summer 2011 and autumn 2013. Although there was a positive correlation between the radiocesium activity concentrations in the muscle and the internal organs of ayu, the median activity concentration in the muscle was much lower than those in the internal organs. The activity concentrations of radiocesium in the riverbed samples and the internal organs and the muscle of ayu were correlated with contamination levels in soil samples taken from the watershed upstream of the sample sites. The results of the generalized linear mixed models suggest that the activity concentrations in both the internal organs and the muscle of ayu declined over time. Additionally, the activity concentrations in the internal organs were correlated with those in the riverbed samples that were collected around the same time as the ayu. The activity concentrations in the muscle were correlated with ayu body size. Our results suggest that ayu ingest 134 Cs and 137 Cs while grazing silt and algae from the riverbed, and a part of the 134 Cs and 137 Cs is assimilated into the muscle of the fish. - Highlights: • The radiocesium (sum of 134 Cs and 137 Cs) concentrations in a herbivorous fish were measured following the Fukushima disaster. • The muscle concentrations were correlated with

  16. 137 Cs in the soil from Pljevlja region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukotic, P.; Jovanovic, S.; Dapcevic, S.; Zic, J.

    1996-01-01

    Surface layer of the seven characteristic types of soil in Pljevlja region (Montenegro) is sampled. Soil samples are taken 33 locations, at eight of them from three layers up to 20 cm in depth. Specific activity of 137 Cs is then measured in the soil samples by a method of semiconductor gamma-spectrometry. Average cesium contamination in the region is found to be about 10 times higher than the same before Chernobyl accident. 137 Cs is still in the superficial soil layer, mostly to the depth of 10 cm. Contamination level of soil has certain regularities in distribution over the region, and is the highest on the two mutually almost parallel geographic directions. 7 refs.; 1 figs.; 1 tabs

  17. Two 238Pu inhalation incidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, R.R.; Hall, R.M.

    1978-06-01

    Two employees inhaled significant amounts of 238 Pu in separate unrelated contamination incidents in 1977. Both acute exposure incidents are described and the urine, feces, and in-vivo chest count data for each employee. Case B ( 238 PuNO 3 ) received 24 DTPA treatments beginning the day of the incident while, for medical reasons, Case A ( 238 PuO 2 ) received no therapy

  18. Cadastral valuation of land contaminated with radionuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnikov, A. N.; Sapozhnikov, P. M.; Sanzharova, N. I.; Sviridenko, D. G.; Zhigareva, T. L.; Popova, G. I.; Panov, A. V.; Kozlova, I. Yu.

    2016-01-01

    The methodology and procedure for cadastral valuation of land in the areas contaminated with radionuclides are presented. The efficiency of rehabilitation measures applied to decrease crop contamination to the levels satisfying sanitary-hygienic norms is discussed. The differentiation of cadastral value of radioactively contaminated agricultural lands for the particular farms and land plots is suggested. An example of cadastral valuation of agricultural land contaminated during the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident is given. It is shown that the use of sandy and loamy sandy soddy-podzolic soils with the 137Cs contamination of 37-185 and >185 kBq/m2 for crop growing is unfeasible. The growing of grain crops and potatoes on clay loamy soddy-podzolic soils with the 137Cs contamination of 555-740 kBq/m2 is unprofitable. The maximum cadastral value of radioactively contaminated lands is typical of leached chernozems.

  19. 137Cs uptake by sheep grazing tidally-inundated and inland pastures near the Sellafield reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, B.J.

    1987-01-01

    Field investigations into the transfer of 137 Cs from pasture to sheep tissues have been made at two contrasting sites in west Cumbria, close to the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at Sellafield. These were a saltmarsh bordering on the Esk estuary in 1982 and inland pastures close to the perimeter of the works in 1984. 137 Cs concentrations of sampled vegetation from the saltmarsh were generally two orders of magnitude greater than from the inland pasture due to its inundation with 137 Cs associated with silt. The relatively high 137 Cs content of soil/silt compared to that of vegetation at each site meant that soil contamination of vegetation sometimes accounted for a substantial proportion of its 137 Cs activity (up to 99% on the saltmarsh and 67% on the inland pastures). Considerable seasonal changes occurred in the extent of 137 Cs contamination on the inland pastures, with late winter and early spring levels being up to 20-fold higher than those of the summer. 137 Cs concentrations in tissues of lambs from the saltmarsh were consistently higher than for ewes; this was not true for sheep from the inland pastures. 137 Cs concentrations in kidney were found to be higher than in all other tissues, both in the study flocks and in one of the controls. Transfer coefficients (calculated by dividing the 137 Cs concentration of fresh tissue by the daily intake of 137 Cs) were significantly (P 137 Cs activity due to soil/silt contamination was removed from the estimates of daily intake leaving 137 Cs associated with the vegetation only to contribute to the transfer coefficients. Further studies are required to determine the availability of 137 Cs associated with soil/silt particles which are ingested by animals. (author)

  20. Uptake and release of {sup 134} Cs and {sup 137} Cs and iTs relation to {sup 40} K concentration in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Essa, M W.A.; Hussein, H H.M.; Abdelfattah, A T; Abdelbaky, W M [Nuclear research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1997-12-31

    Studies were performed to examine the effect of a accumulation of {sup 134} Cs and Cs-137 on the concentration of K-40 in white rats. Five male and five female rats were fed with normal diet for four weeks. After that, the ten rats were fed with macaroni contaminated with Cs-134 (116 Bq/kg) and Cs-137 (318 Bq/kg) besides the normal diet. Animal whole body counting was done once weekly for four months using HPGe and multichannel analyzer. The results should that the uptake of cesium increases until saturation was reached after about one month to values 60,65 Bq/kg for Cs-134, and 200,240 Bq/kg for Cs-137. Results show a decrease in k-40 concentration due to the replacement of potassium ions by cesium ions in the cell. After saturation, feeding with radioactive diet was replaced by normal diet. A release of Cs-134 and Cs-137 was noticed with increase of K-40 concentration. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Removal of radiocesium from contaminated agricultural soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oishi, Ayumi; Yanaga, Makoto

    2012-01-01

    The Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident occurred on March 11, 2011, led to emission of a great amount of radionuclides, and caused serious issues of contamination of our living environment. Two major radionuclides found to be widely deposited are Cs-134 and Cs-137. Because the half-lives of Cs-134 and Cs-137 are 2 years and 30 years, respectively, the decontamination of Cs is the crucial issue. Therefore, in the present work, the decontamination of Cs from the agricultural soil was attempted. For this purpose, we performed extractive test with 17 wt.% and 33 wt.% potassium iodide solution for agricultural soil collected on March 2012. The extraction rate was less than 2%, whereas the value of 20% was reported last year. This results might indicate that the cesium with soluble from have flowed or that cesium more strongly tied to soil. (author)

  2. Activity concentrations of 137Cs in meat of broiler chicken after single and continuous application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poeschl, M.; Balas, J.

    1998-01-01

    Previously we examined the transfer, distribution and half-live of radiocaesium in broiler chicken after the application of artificially contaminated feed mixture or wheat wheat contaminated from the Chernobyl accident. Our results pointed to a different dynamics of radiocaesium in breast meat compared to leg meat in the chicken after short-time application (3 oral applications in 1 day). The aim of the present study was to find if the results are similar also after single and repeated (long-time) applications of an artificially contaminated feed mixture. Two experiments were carried out with broiler chickens (White Leghorn hybrid, race ISA VEDETTE). In experiment 1, one artificially contaminated oral dose of 5160 Bq of 137 Cs (activity concentration 1664 Bq/g) was administered to 18-day-old chickens. In experiment 2, artificially contaminated oral doses of 500 Bq of 137 Cs (activity concentration 161.3 Bq/g) were administered to 14-day-old chickens twice a day (at 8:00 and 20:00 h.) for 10 days. In either experiment, four chickens were slaughtered for activity determination in meat (breast and leg muscles) 6, 12, 24, 48 and 96 hours and 2, 4, 8, 10 days, respectively, after the first application of 137 Cs. The uptake of the single oral 137 Cs was rapid and the maximum 137 Cs activity concentrations were found in breast meat (0.783 Bq/g) 24 hours and in leg meat (1.005 Bq/g) 6 hours after 137 Cs application. From the 24th hour of the experiment, radiocaesium activity concentrations in breast and leg meat decreased with the biological half-life (T 1/2b ) of 84 and 66 hours, respectively. During a 10-day application of continuous doses of 137 Cs, the Cs activity concentrations increased and were 3.988 Bq/g in breast meat and 5.610 Bq/g in leg meat on day 2, and 7.427 Bq/g and 7.698 Bq/g, respectively, on day 10. Immediately after the administration of radiocaesium was stopped, the 137 Cs activity concentrations decreased rapidly with T 1/2b = 4.5 and 3.8 days in

  3. {sup 137}CS-determination in game meat from some hunting areas in lower Austria; {sup 137}Cs-Bestimmungen im Wildfleisch aus einigen niederoesterreichischen Jagdrevieren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayromlou, S. [Inst. fuer Anorganische Chemie der Univ. Wien (Austria); Tataruch, F. [Forschungsinstitut fuer Wildtierkunde und Oekologie der Veterinaermedizinischen Univ., Wien (Austria)

    2001-07-01

    In 1986, the contamination of some regions in Austria by {sup 137}Cs, due to the Chernobyl accident was relatively high. Among other {sup 137}Cs is taken up by people by the consumption of game. In an area of Lower Austria which is relatively heavily contaminated by Chernobyl fallout since 1986 the {sup 137}Cs-contamination of meat of game-animals was measured every year. Clear differences arose in the load of the single game species whose causes just like the temporal changes are discussed. The highest {sup 137}Cs activity concentration was with 5243 Bq/kg measured on a wild boar. With this activity concentration an annual effective dose of only 0,06 mSv can be estimated for an annual average consumption of one kilogram meat of wild boar. (orig.) [German] Druch den Reaktor-Unfall in Tschernobyl wurde Oesterreich gebietsweise relativ stark mit {sup 137}Cs kontaminiert. Unter anderem gelangt {sup 137}Cs durch den Verzehr von Wildfleisch in den Koerper der Menschen. Daher wurden in einem niederoesterreichischen Gebiet, das 1986 durch Fallout verhaeltnismaessig stark kontaminiert worden war seither jaehrlich erlegte Wildtiere auf den {sup 137}Cs-Gehalt ihres Fleisches hin untersucht. Dabei ergaben sich deutliche Unterschiede in der Belastung der einzelnen Wildarten, deren Ursachen ebenso wie die zeitlichen Veraenderungen diskutiert werden. Die hoechste {sup 137}Cs-Aktivitaetskonzentration wurde mit 5243 Bq/kg bei einem Wildschwein gemessen. Mit einen durchschnittlichen Verzehr von 1 kg Wildschweinfleisch pro Jahr kann daraus eine maximale Effektivdosis von nur 0,06 mSv/Jahr abgeschaetzt werden. (orig.)

  4. The effect of clinoptilolite on 137 Cs binding in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. VITOROVIC

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the 137 Cs binding capacity of clinoptilolite.In the first in vitro experiment we investigated sorption of 137 Cs to natural and modified forms of clinoptilolite in highly acid solution,prepared to be similar to that of the gut of pigs (pH =2 3at 37 ºC.In the second in vivo experiment 137 Cs binding to a modified form of clinoptilolite was studied in orally contaminated broiler chickens.137 Cs sorption in the high acidity solution depended on clinoptilolite concentration and varied between 30 85 %of the initial activity.In the chickens,three hours after 137 Cs administration,there was 67%and 63%lower accumulation of 137 Cs in meat and edible organs (respectivelyand seven hours after 137 Cs administration,there was 69% and 49% lower accumulation of 137 Cs in meat and edible organs (respectivelycompared to the controls with no clinoptilolite added in food. Natural and modified forms of clinoptilolite have been shown to high sorption efficiency towards 137 Cs ions and could be recommended as possible radiocaesium binders in domestic animals.;

  5. Long-term behaviours of 137Cs in simulated crop fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, K. M.; Choi, Y. H.; Park, H. K.; Park, D. W.; Lee, W. Y.

    1999-01-01

    In order to understand the long-term behaviour of 137 Cs in crop fields, root uptake and underground distribution of 137 Cs were investigated through a greenhouse experiment where 137 Cs was mixed with topsoil in culture boxes and rice, soybean and Chinese cabbage were grown for 4 years. Soil-to-plant transfer factors of 137 Cs for hulled rice, rice straw, soybean seed and Chinese cabbage reduced by factors of 3-10 depending on crops, and leaching of 137 Cs from the rice culture box decreased by a factor of about 7, in 3 years. The 137 Cs transfer factor for soybean seed were several times higher than that for hulled rice. The amount of 137 Cs leaching during the growing season of rice was as low as 0.025% of applied activity even in the 1st year. The uniformity of 137 Cs distribution in topsoil tended to improve year by year. The present results may be utilized as basic information for the environmental impact assessment and the counter-measure decision when crop fields are contaminated with 137 Cs

  6. Cancer risk due to Cs-137 and Sr-90 dietary intake after the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toader, M; Vasilache, R A [Institute of Hygiene and Public Health, Bucharest (Romania)

    1997-09-01

    The most important radionuclides carried by the radioactive plume over Romania were I{sup 131}, Cs{sup 134}, Cs{sup 137} and Sr{sup 90}. As in many other countries, in the first days, I{sup 131} had the main contribution to the irradiation dose released to the population. After its decay, and the decay of the other short-lived radionuclides, Cs{sup 137} and Sr{sup 90} remained the most important contaminants. The principal route of intake for these two radionuclides is considered to be the ingestion of contaminated foods. Assessments of radiation doses to people living in the Bucharest area have utilized data obtained from measurement of Cs{sup 137} and Sr{sup 90} content in dietary intake samples for a number of subjects of different ages and sexes. This paper summarizes the results of some of our measurements performed since April 1986 until March 1995. 7 refs, 8 figs.

  7. Cancer risk due to Cs-137 and Sr-90 dietary intake after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toader, M.; Vasilache, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    The most important radionuclides carried by the radioactive plume over Romania were I 131 , Cs 134 , Cs 137 and Sr 90 . As in many other countries, in the first days, I 131 had the main contribution to the irradiation dose released to the population. After its decay, and the decay of the other short-lived radionuclides, Cs 137 and Sr 90 remained the most important contaminants. The principal route of intake for these two radionuclides is considered to be the ingestion of contaminated foods. Assessments of radiation doses to people living in the Bucharest area have utilized data obtained from measurement of Cs 137 and Sr 90 content in dietary intake samples for a number of subjects of different ages and sexes. This paper summarizes the results of some of our measurements performed since April 1986 until March 1995. 7 refs, 8 figs

  8. Resuspension and spreading of 137 Cs in urban areas: the Goiania experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rio, M.A.P. do.

    1993-01-01

    The characteristics of the Goiania accident (a restricted and local contamination) together with the fact that the region has received no contribution from the Chernobyl accident, neither from the atomic tests represents an unique opportunity to study the behaviour of 147 Cs at an urban area. The study of the resuspension and deposition processes of the 137 Cs associated to surface soil was performed at a house at the 57th. street near the main primary focus. It was decided to use the two gardens of the house, where continuous measurements of aerosol and total deposition took place. Impactor measurements were also performed to evaluate the size distribution of particles in the air. The results as a whole suggests a very complex pattern for the 137 Cs resuspension and deposition in Goiania, indicating to be these mechanisms local,phenomena and without evidences of a significant spreading of 137 Cs from the places of primary contamination. (author). 63 refs., 14 figs., 9 tabs

  9. Transfer factors of radionuclides 137Cs and 65Zn from soil to pearl millet and sorghum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachdev, P.; Sachdev, M.S.; Deb, D.L.

    1996-01-01

    The soil to plant transfer factors (TF) of 137 Cs and 65 Zn were determined for two crops, sorghum and pearl millet, under irrigated conditions in greenhouse and under rain fed conditions in field. In the greenhouse experiment, the accumulation of 137 Cs was almost doubled when the soil contamination level was doubled. Under field conditions, 137 Cs concentration in both pearl millet and sorghum grains as well as straw was nearly four times more at 148 kBq Kg -1 level of soil contamination as compared to lower level of 74 kBq kg -1 soil. The TF values for 65 Zn determined under greenhouse conditions for both the crops were nearly a hundred-fold higher as compared to 137 Cs. (author). 7 refs., 2 tabs

  10. Development of an EDV-supported decision instrument for site pre-selection of nuclear power plants. EDV-supported instrument for calculation of the space distribution of the collective dose rate and area contamination. Vol. 1. Radiation exposure through air- and water paths under authorized operating conditions and during incidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruessermann, K; Eschhaus, M; Kreymborg, A; Muenster, M; Schommer, N

    1980-01-01

    The collective dose rate and the area contamination form a basis for site criteria going beyond the individual considerations of distribution of the population, hydrology, meteorology etc. The possibilities of radio-ecological models on the radiation exposure through air- and water paths during operation and incidents are described by example of Biblis, Muelheim-Kaerlich and Esensham. Comparative evaluations were effected for Fessenheim.

  11. Direct contamination - seasonality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.

    1994-01-01

    Direct contamination is the primary pathway to terrestrial vegetation in the first period after an activity release to the atmosphere. All radionuclides are able to be transferred via this pathway. Deposition, interception and retention are the three processes involved in direct contamination of crops. Wet deposition is more important than dry deposition in temperature regions. Resuspension and rainsplash both belong to secondary direct deposition and became evident for e.g. radiocaesium after the Chernobyl accident. Seasonality is the varying response to radioactive contamination of crops according to the time of the year when the contamination occurs. Shortlived radionuclides (as 131 I) and those that mainly enter the foodchain by direct contamination (e.g. 137 Cs) are especially important in this connection. In particular, the contamination of cereal crops is influenced by seasonality. As a result of seasonality the impact of the Chernobyl accident on the radioactive contamination of human diet was for the same deposition density higher in southern than in northern Europe. (orig.)

  12. 137Cs levels in deer following the Three Mile Island accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, R W

    1993-06-01

    White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virgianus) tongues were assayed to assess whether or not significant widespread 137Cs contamination occurred in the vicinity of Three Mile Island Nuclear Station as a result of the 1979 accident. White-tailed deer tongues harvested from 10 Pennsylvania counties more than 88 km away from Three Mile Island had significantly higher 137Cs levels than deer tongues harvested from counties surrounding the nuclear plant. The mean deer tongue 137Cs levels found in Pennsylvania white-tailed deer were lower than 137Cs levels found in deer from other parts of the U.S. sampled shortly after culmination of major atmospheric nuclear testing. These findings support the conclusions of previous studies suggesting that only minimal quantities of 137Cs escaped from the damaged Three Mile Island plant after the accident.

  13. /sup 137/Cs transfer for forage to milk and its removal by clay treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gattavecchia, E; Ghini, S; Tonelli, D

    1988-03-01

    Since Apr 29, 1986, the radioactive contamination resulting from the accident of the Chernobyl reactor was measured in various kinds of matrixes, primarily in Northern Italy. Transfer kinetics of /sup 137/Cs from forage of known activity to milk was studied over a period of one year and the body Cs absorption was evaluated by measuring the percentages of Cs eliminated with milk as well as with urine and feces. Further, the decay rate of /sup 137/Cs in milk was assessed and the results of the kinetic analysis are reported. The efficiacy of various clay materials in removing Cs from milk was also evaluated. The results of adsorption kinetics for the grey clay which resulted the most effective material are reported. (author) 3 refs.; 5 figs.

  14. 137Cs transfer for forage to milk and its removal by clay treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gattavecchia, E.; Ghini, S.; Tonelli, D.

    1988-01-01

    Since Apr 29, 1986, the radioactive contamination resulting from the accident of the Chernobyl reactor was measured in various kinds of matrixes, primarily in Northern Italy. Transfer kinetics of 137 Cs from forage of known activity to milk was studied over a period of one year and the body Cs absorption was evaluated by measuring the percentages of Cs eliminated with milk as well as with urine and feces. Further, the decay rate of 137 Cs in milk was assessed and the results of the kinetic analysis are reported. The efficiacy of various clay materials in removing Cs from milk was also evaluated. The results of adsorption kinetics for the grey clay which resulted the most effective material are reported. (author) 3 refs.; 5 figs

  15. Seasonality of 137Cs in roe deer from Austria and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fielitz, U.; Klemt, E.; Strebl, F.; Tataruch, F.; Zibold, G.

    2009-01-01

    Empirical data on the 137 Cs activity concentration in meat of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) roaming in 3 spruce forest areas and one peat bog area are presented and compared. They cover time series of nearly 20 years after a spike contamination in 1986 originating from Chernobyl. A model is presented which considers three soil compartments to describe the change of the availability of 137 Cs with time. The time-dependency of the 137 Cs activity concentration in meat of roe deer is a combination of two components: (1) an exponential decay and (2) a peak in the second half of each year during the mushroom season. The exponential decay over the years can be described by a sum of two exponential functions. The additional transfer of 137 Cs into roe deer during the mushroom season depends on precipitation. On the peat bog the 137 Cs activity concentration in roe deer is higher and more persistent than in spruce forest

  16. 137Cs in soil and fallout around Zagreb (Croatia) at the time of the Fukushima accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šoštarić, Marko; Petrinec, Branko; Babić, Dinko

    2013-12-01

    This paper addresses the noticeable increase of 137Cs activity concentrations in soil and fallout in the area surrounding Zagreb (Croatia) that occurred at the time of the 2011 Fukushima accident. This topic is important for public health as 137Cs is highly toxic due to its long half-life of radioactive decay and chemical similarity to potassium. 137Cs concentrations in fallout were much greater than in soil, but remained present longer in the latter. While being detectable in our measurements, 137Cs did not spread through the food chain in amounts exceeding the maximum allowed level of radioactive food contamination. However, more thorough and consistent measurements need to be done in order to establish the precise activity trends of 137Cs in Zagreb soil and fallout.

  17. Determination of "1"3"5Cs by accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, C.M.; Charles, C.R.J.; Zhao, X.-L.; Kieser, W.E.; Cornett, R.J.; Litherland, A.E.

    2015-01-01

    The ratio of anthropogenic "1"3"5Cs and "1"3"7Cs isotopes is characteristic of a uranium fission source. This research evaluates the technique of isotope dilution (yield tracing) for the purpose of quantifying "1"3"5Cs by accelerator mass spectrometry with on-line isobar separation. Interferences from Ba, Zn_2, and isotopes of equal mass to charge ratios were successfully suppressed. However, some sample crosstalk from source contamination remains. The transmission and di-fluoride ionization efficiencies of Cs isotopes were found to be 8 × 10"−"3 and 1.7 × 10"−"7 respectively. This quantification of "1"3"5Cs using yield tracing by accelerator mass spectrometry shows promise for future environmental sample analysis once the issues of sample crosstalk and low efficiency can be resolved.

  18. Reconstruction of 137Cs activity in the ocean following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsumune, Daisuke; Aoyama, Michio; Tsubono, Takaki; Tateda, Yutaka; Misumi, Kazuhiro; Hayami, Hiroshi; Toyoda, Yasuhiro; Maeda, Yoshiaki; Yoshida, Yoshikatsu; Uematsu, Mitsuo

    2014-05-01

    A series of accidents at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant following the earthquake and tsunami of 11 March 2011 resulted in the release of radioactive materials to the ocean by two major pathways, direct release from the accident site and atmospheric deposition. We reconstructed spatiotemporal variability of 137Cs activity in the ocean by the comparison model simulations and observed data. We employed a regional scale and the North Pacific scale oceanic dispersion models, an atmospheric transport model, a sediment transport model, a dynamic biological compartment model for marine biota and river runoff model to investigate the oceanic contamination. Direct releases of 137Cs were estimated for more than 2 years after the accident by comparing simulated results and observed activities very close to the site. The estimated total amounts of directly released 137Cs was 3.6±0.7 PBq. Directly release rate of 137Cs decreased exponentially with time by the end of December 2012 and then, was almost constant. The daily release rate of 137Cs was estimated to be 3.0 x 1010 Bq day-1 by the end of September 2013. The activity of directly released 137Cs was detectable only in the coastal zone after December 2012. Simulated 137Cs activities attributable to direct release were in good agreement with observed activities, a result that implies the estimated direct release rate was reasonable, while simulated 137Cs activities attributable to atmospheric deposition were low compared to measured activities. The rate of atmospheric deposition onto the ocean was underestimated because of a lack of measurements of dose rate and air activity of 137Cs over the ocean when atmospheric deposition rates were being estimated. Observed 137Cs activities attributable to atmospheric deposition in the ocean helped to improve the accuracy of simulated atmospheric deposition rates. Although there is no observed data of 137Cs activity in the ocean from 11 to 21 March 2011, observed data of

  19. Changes in 137Cs transfer to agricultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharov, N.; Timochtchenko, A.; Milutin, A.

    1999-01-01

    The food production and food harvesting systems common in the areas contaminated by the Chernobyl accident in Republic of Belarus can be grouped into three major categories: collective farm produce, private farming produce and natural foods collected from natural ecosystems. The collective farm system provided the smallest contribution (8-12 %) to the intake of 137 Cs. Natural food was the major contributor to the intake at one study site (73 %), and private produce was the major contributor (60 %) at the other study site. Assessment of the situation just after the accident (one year) shows that collective farming was still a minor contributor to 137 CS intake (10 %) whilst private fanning would have been the major contributor wherever private milk production and consumption continued. The extent to which inhabitants consume natural foods from forests has a considerable effect on their 137 CS intake. The comparative importance of food products from natural ecosystems increases with time due to the long effective ecological half lives of 137 Cs in unimproved pastures and forests. Estimation of the contribution to the fluxes of 137 Cs from the different production and harvesting systems showed that the contribution from private farming and food harvesting from natural ecosystems may also be significant, contributing 14-30 % to the total fluxes of 137 Cs from an area even if the quantity of food produced in these systems is small. However, the major contributor to the flux exported from an area was the collective farming system, accounting for about 70-86 % of the total. Refs. 12 (author)

  20. Detritivores enhance the mobilization of {sup 137}Cs from leaf-litter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, Masashi; Suzuki, Takahiro [Community Ecology Lab., Biology Course, Faculty of Science, Chiba University, Chiba, 263-8522 (Japan); Ishii, Nobuyoshi [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba, 263-8555 (Japan); Ohte, Nobuhito [Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 113-8657 (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    A large amount of radioactive material was released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident after the disastrous earthquake and subsequent tsunami of March 2011. Since most of the Japanese land area is covered by forest ecosystems, {sup 137}Cs was mostly deposited and accumulated on the land surface of forest. The fate of radioactive materials accumulated on the leaf litters should be conscientiously monitored to understand the future distribution and the spread to the surrounding landscapes. Because the accident took place on 11 March 2011, just before the bud-break of deciduous trees, the {sup 137}Cs are highly accumulated on the surface of leaf litter on the forest floor. This accumulated {sup 137}Cs had transferred to higher trophic organisms mainly through the detritus food chain. However, on the litter surface, {sup 137}Cs considered to be strongly and immediately fixed and highly immobilized. Decomposition processes in the forest floor can re-mobilise the nutritional elements which are contained within detritus and make them available for the organisms. In the present study, the feeding effect of detritivore soil arthropods on the mobilization of {sup 137}Cs from leaf litter was experimentally examined. Furthermore, the effect of detritivores on the plant uptake of {sup 137}Cs was examined by small-scale nursery experiment. Decomposition experiment in the small microcosms was performed using a larvae of Trypoxylus dichotomus, whichis a detritivores feeding on dead plant materials such as wood debris and leaf litters. Contaminated leaf litters were collected in a forest of the Kami-Oguni River catchment in the northern part of Fukushima Prefecture. The leaf litters at A0 layers which are highly contaminated by {sup 137}Cs were utilized for the experiment. The contaminated leaf litter was fed to the larvae for ten days. The litter with larvae excreta was washed by 2 M KCl and deionized water. The {sup 137}Cs concentration was measured

  1. 137Cs inventory in sedimentary columns from continental shelf of Sao Paulo state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueira, Rubens C.L.; Cordero, Luisa M.; Mahiques, Michel M. de; Tessler, Moyses G.

    2009-01-01

    137 Cs is an artificial radioactive isotope produced by 235 U fission. This radionuclide has a high fission yield and a half-life of 30 years. It has been detected in the environment since 1945 and its principal contamination source has been nuclear tests in the atmosphere. There are other sources of 137 Cs contamination in the environment, such as: release from nuclear and reprocessing plants, radioactive dumping and nuclear accidents (Chernobyl, for example). This paper presents an inventory of 137 Cs on the Continental Shelf of Sao Paulo State, a region located between Cabo de Santa Marta Grande (Santa Catarina state) and Cabo Frio (Rio de Janeiro state). In this area, 9 cores were collected by the Instituto Oceanografico da Universidade de Sao Paulo (Sao Paulo University Institute of Oceanography). The cores were sliced at every 2 cm; sub-samples were lyophilized, grinded and stored in plastic containers. 137 Cs was determined by 661 keV photopeak using a gamma spectrometry detector (Ge hyperpure). The analysis was performed by efficiency and background in different counting times. 137 Cs concentration activities varied from 0.3 to 3.6 Bq kg -1 with a mean value of 1.2±0.6 Bq kg -1 . The inventory of 137 Cs in this area was 13±7 Bq m-2. Values obtained are in agreement with the Southern Hemisphere, a region contaminated by atmospheric fallout due to past nuclear explosions. (author)

  2. The inflow of Cs-137 in soil with root litter and root exudates of Scots pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcheglov, Alexey; Tsvetnova, Olga; Popova, Evgenia

    2017-04-01

    In the model experiment on evaluation of Cs-137 inflow in the soil with litter of roots and woody plants root exudates on the example of soil and water cultures of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) was shown, that through 45 days after the deposit Cs-137 solution on pine needles (specific activity of solution was 3.718*106 Bk) of the radionuclide in all components of model systems has increased significantly: needles, small branches and trunk by Cs-137 surface contamination during the experiment; roots as a result of the internal distribution of the radionuclide in the plant; soil and soil solution due to the of receipt Cs-137 in the composition of root exudates and root litter. Over 99% of the total reserve of Cs-137 accumulated in the components of the soil and water systems, accounted for bodies subjected to external pollution (needles and small branches) and soil solution, haven't been subjected to surface contamination. At the same contamination of soil and soil solution by Cs-137 in the model experiment more than a> 99.9% was due to root exudates

  3. {sup 137}Cs inventory in sedimentary columns from continental shelf of Sao Paulo state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueira, Rubens C.L.; Cordero, Luisa M.; Mahiques, Michel M. de; Tessler, Moyses G., E-mail: rfigueira@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. Oceanografico. Dept. de Oceanografia Fisica, Quimica e Geologica; Cruz, Jacson L.S. [Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    {sup 137}Cs is an artificial radioactive isotope produced by {sup 235}U fission. This radionuclide has a high fission yield and a half-life of 30 years. It has been detected in the environment since 1945 and its principal contamination source has been nuclear tests in the atmosphere. There are other sources of {sup 137}Cs contamination in the environment, such as: release from nuclear and reprocessing plants, radioactive dumping and nuclear accidents (Chernobyl, for example). This paper presents an inventory of {sup 137}Cs on the Continental Shelf of Sao Paulo State, a region located between Cabo de Santa Marta Grande (Santa Catarina state) and Cabo Frio (Rio de Janeiro state). In this area, 9 cores were collected by the Instituto Oceanografico da Universidade de Sao Paulo (Sao Paulo University Institute of Oceanography). The cores were sliced at every 2 cm; sub-samples were lyophilized, grinded and stored in plastic containers. {sup 137}Cs was determined by 661 keV photopeak using a gamma spectrometry detector (Ge hyperpure). The analysis was performed by efficiency and background in different counting times. {sup 137}Cs concentration activities varied from 0.3 to 3.6 Bq kg{sup -1} with a mean value of 1.2+-0.6 Bq kg{sup -1}. The inventory of {sup 137}Cs in this area was 13+-7 Bq m-2. Values obtained are in agreement with the Southern Hemisphere, a region contaminated by atmospheric fallout due to past nuclear explosions. (author)

  4. The behavior of 137Cs in the soil-forest plants system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiridonov, S.; Fesenko, S.; Avila, R.

    1999-01-01

    A model has been developed which simulates the behavior of 137 Cs in forest litter and soil, as well as seasonal and long-term dynamics of 137 CS content in forest plants. The long-term cycles of 137 CS migration are described as an integrated result of multiple annual cycles. The model results demonstrate a satisfactory coincidence with the experimental data. A set of model parameters is provided for each of four different types of forest (coniferous and deciduous forest; automorphic and semi-hydromorphic landscapes). The model allows an evaluation of the effects of countermeasures implemented in the contaminated forest. Refs. 1 (author)

  5. Sorption behaviour of Cs, Sr radionuclides in the presence of various anions and surfactants in solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davydov, Yu.P.; Toropov, I.G.; Vasilevskaya, T.V.

    1997-01-01

    The state of 137 Cs and 90 Sr radionuclides was studied in solutions of different compositions to develop appropriate methodology and technology for treatment of spent decontamination solutions. Complex physico-chemical methods were used for this study. Particular attention was paid to the sorption of 137 Cs and 90 Sr on different natural and synthetic inorganic sorbents, as the most specific and selective sorbents for separation of these radionuclides from different solutions. Sorption of CS and Sr on different fractions of soil was also studied in connection with development of rehabilitation methods for contaminated territories. (author). 2 refs, 20 tabs

  6. The content of Cs 137 in mushrooms of Chernobyl NPP alienation zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarubina, N.E.; Golovach, A.I.; Golovach, L.A.

    2002-01-01

    The Cs 137 contents in S. luteus is more in 1.5 - 20 times, than in B. edulis, selected on one polygon. However this ratio has changed and Cs 137 contents in S. luteus equals to contents in B. edulis in territory of some polygons of Chernobyl NPP alienation zone in 2000 and 2001. Therefore, as indicators of Cs 137 contamination by wood ecosystems it is necessary to use two or more kinds of mushrooms differing by depth of mycelium's localization in soil

  7. Foliar uptake of 137Cs from the water column by aquatic macrophytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, M.S.; Pinder, J.E. III

    1996-01-01

    A transplant experiment was performed to determine the relative importances of root uptake from the sediments and foliar uptake from the water column in determining the accumulation of 137 Cs by aquatic macrophytes. Uncontaminated individuals of three species, Brasenia schreberi, Nymphaea odorata and Nymphoides cordata, were transplanted into pots containing either contaminated sediments (i.e. 1.2 Bq 137 Cs g -1 dry mass) or uncontaminated sediments (i.e. -1 dry mass) and immersed in Pond B, a former reactor cooling pond where 137 Cs concentrations in surface waters range from 0.4 to 0.8 Bq liter -1 . The plants is uncontaminated sediments rapidly accumulated 137 Cs from the water column and after 35 days of immersion had 137 Cs concentrations in leaves that were: (1) not statistically significantly different from those for plants in contaminated sediments; and (2) similar to those for the same species growing naturally in Pond B. The similarity in 137 Cs concentrations between naturally-occurring plants and those in pots with uncontaminated sediments suggests that foliar uptake from the water column is the principal mode of Cs accumulation by these species in Pond B. (author)

  8. Chemical information on tank supernatants, Cs adsorption from tank liquids onto Hanford sediments, and field observations of Cs migration from past tank leaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serne, R.J.; Zachara, J.M.; Burke, D.S.

    1998-01-01

    Borehole gamma-logging profiles beneath the SX-Tank Farm suggest that contamination from Cs-137 extends to at least a depth of 40 m (130 ft), and may extend even deeper. What is presently not known is the pathway that Cs-137 has taken to reach these depths. In this report we provide an analysis of the chemistry of tank supernates with emphasis on the REDOX waste stream disposed in SX tanks, Cs chemistry in aqueous solutions and adsorption properties onto minerals, available data on Cs adsorption onto Hanford sediments, and information on Cs migration from other Hanford tank leaks that have been studied. The data in this report was used to help guide the vadose zone transport analysis of the SX Tank Farm presented in a companion report. The goal of the vadose zone transport modelling is to attempt to explain the depth and extent of the Cs-137 plume under the SX Tank farm, specifically in the vicinity of the greatest leak, near the SX-109 Tank as inferred from the gamma logs (DOE 1996). In solution Cs is present as the monovalent cation and shows very little tendency to form aqueous complexes with inorganic or organic ligands. Cs is expected to adsorb primarily onto selective minerals that have unique adsorption sites. The small Cs{sup +} ion is accommodated on these frayed edge and interlayer sites. Adsorption within the interlayers often leads to collapse of the layers such that the Cs{sup +} ion is effectively trapped and not readily exchangeable by all other common cations. The degree of adsorption is thus only moderately dependent on the types and high concentrations of other cations in leaking tank liquors.

  9. Chemical information on tank supernatants, Cs adsorption from tank liquids onto Hanford sediments, and field observations of Cs migration from past tank leaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serne, R.J.; Zachara, J.M.; Burke, D.S.

    1998-01-01

    Borehole gamma-logging profiles beneath the SX-Tank Farm suggest that contamination from Cs-137 extends to at least a depth of 40 m (130 ft), and may extend even deeper. What is presently not known is the pathway that Cs-137 has taken to reach these depths. In this report we provide an analysis of the chemistry of tank supernates with emphasis on the REDOX waste stream disposed in SX tanks, Cs chemistry in aqueous solutions and adsorption properties onto minerals, available data on Cs adsorption onto Hanford sediments, and information on Cs migration from other Hanford tank leaks that have been studied. The data in this report was used to help guide the vadose zone transport analysis of the SX Tank Farm presented in a companion report. The goal of the vadose zone transport modelling is to attempt to explain the depth and extent of the Cs-137 plume under the SX Tank farm, specifically in the vicinity of the greatest leak, near the SX-109 Tank as inferred from the gamma logs (DOE 1996). In solution Cs is present as the monovalent cation and shows very little tendency to form aqueous complexes with inorganic or organic ligands. Cs is expected to adsorb primarily onto selective minerals that have unique adsorption sites. The small Cs + ion is accommodated on these frayed edge and interlayer sites. Adsorption within the interlayers often leads to collapse of the layers such that the Cs + ion is effectively trapped and not readily exchangeable by all other common cations. The degree of adsorption is thus only moderately dependent on the types and high concentrations of other cations in leaking tank liquors

  10. Factors Effecting Adsorption of 137 Cs in Marine Sediment Samples in Marine Sediment Samples from the Upper Gulf of Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saengkul, C.; Sawangwong, P.; Pakkong, P.

    2014-01-01

    Contamination of 137 Cs in sediment is a far more serious problem than in water because sediment is a main transport factor of 137 Cs to the aquatic environmental. Most of 137 Cs in water could be accumulated in sediment which has direct effect to benthos. This study focused on factors effecting the adsorption of 137Cs in marine sediment samples collected from four different estuary sites to assess the transfer direction of 137 Cs from water to sediment that the study method by treat 137 Cs into seawater and mixed with different sediment samples for 4 days. The result indicated that properties of marine sediment (cation exchange capacity (CEC), organic matter, clay content, texture, type of clay mineral and size of soil particle) had effects on 137 Cs adsorption. CEC and clay content correlated positively with the accumulation of 137 Cs in the marine sediment samples. On the other hand, organic matter in sediment correlated negatively with the accumulation of 137 Cs in samples. The study of environmental effects (pH and potassium) found that the 137 Cs adsorption decreased when concentration of potassium increased. The pH effect is still unclear in this study because the differentiation of pH levels (6, 7, 8.3) did not have effects on 137 Cs adsorption in the samples.

  11. Interlaboratory comparison on 137Cs activity concentration in fume dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzika, Faidra; Hult, Mikael; Burda, Oleksiy; Arnold, Dirk; Sibbens, Goedele; Caro Marroyo, Belén; Gómez–Mancebo, Maria Belén; Peyrés, Virginia; Moser, Hannah; Ferreux, Laurent; Šolc, Jaroslav; Dryák, Pavel; Fazio, Aldo; Luca, Aurelian; Vodenik, Branko; Reis, Mario

    2015-01-01

    A comparison was conducted, between 11 European National Metrology Institutes and EC-JRC, on measurement of 137 Cs activity concentration in fume dust. As test material an activity standard produced from real contaminated fume dust was used. The standard material consisted of 13 cylindrical samples of compressed fume dust. The material contained 137 Cs and 60 Co of reference activity concentrations of (9.72±0.10) Bq/g and (0.450±0.018) Bq/g, respectively, for the reference date of 1 June 2013, determined using the comparison results. The organization and results of the intercomparison, as well as the process of obtaining reliable reference values are presented. - Highlights: • A European comparison was conducted on measurement of 137 Cs activity in fume dust. • Participants used high resolution gamma ray spectrometry. • Efficiency calibration included Monte Carlo, numerical and experimental methods. • Reference 137 Cs and 60 Co activity concentrations in the fume dust were determined. • A new traceable activity standard of fume dust matrix is available to end-users.

  12. Cs-137 in Norwegian Lapps in the spring of 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westerlund, E.A.; Jellum, W.; Arneberg, P.

    Measurements show that the body burden of Cs-137 in Lapps from Kautokeino diminished from 1965 to 1975 with an apparent half-life of 4-5 years. Since 1975 the reduction has been much slower. The Cs-137 content in reindeer meat has since 1966 diminished at the same rate. The reason for the lower rate of reduction since 1975 is that the fallout has received a contribution of Cs-137 from recent Chinese nuclear tests. The ratio of the average body burden of the Lapps who herd reindeer to the amount of Cs-137 in reindeer meat is 11.7 for men and 6.6 for women. The ratios for other Lapps are 8.1 and 4.7. Investigation of the seasonal variation of the body burden shows that measurements made at the end of March and beginning of April give values from which the annual dose may be calculated. The average dose from recent measurements for reindeer herders is about 25 mrad/year and about 2/3 of this for others. The Sr-90 measurements in reindeer bones are not related to health effects for the Lapps, but show how this parameter varies with time and indicates the environmental contamination by this nuclide. (JIW)

  13. Cs-134 and Cs-137 radioactivity in river waters in Fukushima, Miyagi, Ibaraki and Gunma Prefectures in August 2012 after the Fukuhsima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagao, S.; Ochiai, S.; Yamamoto, M. [Low Level Radioactivity Laboratory, Institute of Nature and Environmental Technology, Kanazawa University, Wake, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1224(Japan); Kanamori, M. [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kakuma, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 921-1192 (Japan); Tomihara, S. [Environmental Aquarium Aquamarine Fukushima, 50 Tatsumi, Onahama, Iwaki, Fukushima 971-8101(Japan); Suzuki, K. [Gunma Prefectural Fisheries Experimental Station, 13 Shikishima, Maebashi, Gunma 371-1036 (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    About 15 PBq from both {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs were released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) because of venting operations and hydrogen explosions. The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan reported total surface deposition of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs in Japan. To estimate short-term and long-term impacts of the radiation dose in Japan, it is important to understand the dynamics of radionuclides, especially those of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs, on river watershed environments. This study investigated {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs radioactivity in river systems in Fukushima, Miyagi, Ibaraki and Gunma prefectures, Japan. The secondary radioactive dispersion of radiocesium from the contaminated watershed to the river waters is reported for research areas with widely various radiocesium deposition on ground surfaces at 18 months after the accident. Field experiments were conducted at a fixed station in four rivers (the Uta, Niida, Natsui, and Same Rivers) in Fukushima Prefecture, and the Kuji River, and Naka River in Ibaraki Prefecture in August 2012. The Abukuma River was set up one site at the upper, two sites in the middle reach in Fukushima Prefecture and at one site in the lower area in Miyagi Prefecture. The Tone River system has three stations at the upper river area in Gunma Prefecture and one site at the lower reach in Ibaraki Prefecture. Surface deposition results reveals significant external radioactivity in a zone extending northwest from the NPP. However, a mountainous area in Gunma Prefecture, located about 220 km from Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP south of Fukushima Prefecture, shows similar accumulation of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs. The 20 L of surface river waters were collected at the station using buckets. The radioactivity of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs in the river waters was measured with gamma-ray spectrometry using ammonium molybdophosphate (AMP)/Cs compound method with a low background Ge

  14. 'Wash-out' of Cs-134 and Cs-137 from river sediment; 'Ispiranja' Cs-134 i Cs-137 iz recnog sedimenta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skrbic, Z; Conkic, Lj; Bikit, I; Veskovic, M; Slivka, J; Marinkov, L [Institut za Fiziku, Novi Sad Univ. (Yugoslavia)

    1988-07-01

    Natural elimination and 'wash out' period of the Cs-134 and Cs-137 from the river sediment has been investigated. Obtained results suggest the possibility to describe these processes by exponential low and determination of the corresponding half lives. (author)

  15. Exposition to 137Cs deposited in soil: A Monte Carlo study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira, Lucas M. da; Pereira, Marco A. M.; Belinato, Walmir

    2017-01-01

    In the event of environmental contamination with radioactive materials, one of the most dangerous materials is 137 Cs. In order to evaluate the radiation doses involved in an environmental contamination of soil, with 137 Cs, we carried out a computational dosimetric study. We determined the radiation doses conversion coefficients (CC) for E and H T , using a male and a female anthropomorphic phantom, coupled with the MCNPX (2.7.1) Monte Carlo simulation software, for three different types of soil. The highest CC[H T ] values were for the gonads and skin (male) and bone marrow and skin (female). We found no difference for the different types of soil. (author)

  16. Fixation of Cs to marine sediments estimated by a stochastic modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Børretzen, Peer; Salbu, Brit

    2002-01-01

    Dumping of nuclear waste in the Kara Sea represents a potential source of radioactive contamination to the Arctic Seas in the future. The mobility of 137Cs ions leached from the waste will depend on the interactions with sediment particles. Whether sediments will act as a continuous permanent sink for released 137Cs, or contaminated sediments will serve as a diffuse source of 137Cs in the future, depends on the interaction kinetics and binding mechanisms involved. The main purpose of this paper is to study the performance of different stochastic models using kinetic information to estimate the time needed for Cs ions to become irreversibly fixed within the sediments. The kinetic information was obtained from 134Cs tracer sorption and desorption (sequential extractions) experiments, conducted over time, using sediments from the Stepovogo Fjord waste dumping site, on the east coast of Novaya Zemlya. Results show that 134Cs ions interact rapidly with the surfaces of the Stepovogo sediment, with an estimated distribution coefficient Kd(eq) of 300 ml/g (or 13m2/g), and the 134Cs ions are increasingly irreversibly fixed to the sediment over time. For the first time, stochastic theory has been utilised for sediment-seawater systems to estimate the mean residence times (MRTs) of Cs ions in operationally defined sediment phases described by compartment models. In the present work, two different stochastic models (i) a Markov process model (MP) being analogous to deterministic compartment models, and (ii) a semi-Markov process model (SMP) which should be physically more relevant for inhomogeneous systems, have been compared. As similar results were obtained using the two models, the less complicated MP model was utilised to predict the time needed for an average Cs ion to become irreversibly fixed in the Stepovogo sediments. According the model, approximately 1100 days of contact time between Cs ions and sediments is needed before 50% of the 134Cs ion becomes fixed in the

  17. Use of experimental plots for assessing Chernobyl-derived fallout of 137CS in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonte, Ph.; Sogon, S.; Bourgeois, S.; Terce, M.; Morel, Ch.

    2004-01-01

    Caesium-137 ( 137 Cs) is widely used for the determination of soil erosion and sedimentation rates. However, in Europe, if the additional inputs of 137 Cs fallout associated with the Chernobyl accident have given a supplementary mark to know the chronological history of buried sediments in rivers or wetlands, they have considerably complicated the interpretation of 137 Cs inventories used for estimating soil redistribution on slopes. In fact, determination of Chernobyl-derived fallout 137 Cs is problematic because very few sites have been correctly sampled at the moment of the accident. During the ten years after, it was possible to estimate the fallout measuring the 134 Cs activity for estimating 137 Cs ( 137 Cs / 134 Cs 2.0 at the time of the accident). But these measurements are extremely rare, whereas it should be the more accurate method to resolve this question. The more used solution is to use model based on atmospheric circulation and rain precipitation, the main part of fallout been due to atmospheric washing by the rain. Other solution is to compare 137 Cs specific activity of soil samples collected after the accident and older samples. Then, we choose a set of soil samples collected on several experimental plots at different places in France, and sampled before and after the Chernobyl accident, to determine the part of contamination linked to this 137 Cs fallout event with a simple comparison of their 137 Cs specific activity. In fact, national French institutes working on agronomy maintain experimental plots, with varied surface area (1 m 2 10 m 2 or larger), for monitoring of soil physics and chemistry evolution. Nine sites were studied: two of them close to Paris, one 100 km east of Paris, 3 in Loire basin and 3 in south west, in the Pyrenees Atlantic. These measurements confirm the influence of the Chernobyl radioactive plume over the Paris Basin concerning the 137 Cs fallout. The 137 Cs specific activity is, on average, 25% (from 18 to 35% at

  18. Long-term ingestion dose monitoring in a population group with increased 137Cs intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartuskova, M.; Lusnak, J.; Malatova, I.; Pfeiferova, V.; Pospisilova, H.

    2008-01-01

    137 Cs amounts and ingestion doses in Czech population have been monitored by whole-body counting since the Chernobyl accident. Indirect estimation of the retention through measurement of 137 Cs excreted with urine in 24 hours has also been performed since 1987. The 137 Cs content in human body can be calculated from the urine data provided that the intake of 137 Cs during the period of interest is constant. In a semi-natural environment, the 137 Cs content in mushrooms, wild berries and game decreases due to its natural decay solely. The 137 Cs content in people who mostly consume venison and have been living in an area with elevated contamination has been monitored, mostly through measurement of 137 Cs in urine. In parallel, measurements with a mobile whole-body counter have also been performed. Currently, annual doses from the ingestion of 137 Cs in the inhabitants are very low (0.001 to 0.002 mSv.year -1 ). In a group of hunters in the Jeseniky Mountains (Northern Moravia) the doses were estimated to 0.10 mSv.year -1 . (orig.)

  19. Wheelchair incidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drongelen AW van; Roszek B; Hilbers-Modderman ESM; Kallewaard M; Wassenaar C; LGM

    2002-01-01

    This RIVM study was performed to gain insight into wheelchair-related incidents with powered and manual wheelchairs reported to the USA FDA, the British MDA and the Dutch Center for Quality and Usability Research of Technical Aids (KBOH). The data in the databases do not indicate that incidents with

  20. Uptake, retention and organ/tissue distribution of 137Cs by Japanese catfish (Silurus asotus Linnaeus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malek, M.A.; Nakahara, M.; Nakamura, R.

    2004-01-01

    The work describes the uptake, retention/biological elimination and organ/tissue distribution of 137 Cs by freshwater Japanese catfish (Silurus asotus Linnaeus) under laboratory conditions. The fish were divided into three groups based on their size and age and reared in 137 Cs-spiked water. The concentration of 137 Cs in the whole body of the live fish was measured at regular intervals up to 60 days. A significant accumulation of 137 Cs was found, but a steady state condition was not achieved by the end of the experiment. The bioaccumulation factors at steady state and the required time to reach steady state were estimated to be 1.55 and 255 days, 1.76 and 180 days and 1.99 and 160 days for large, medium and small size fish, respectively. To determine the effective half-life of 137 Cs, the fish were transferred and reared in the non-contaminated host water. The concentration of the remaining 137 Cs in the whole body of the live fish was measured up to 66 days. The average effective half-life of 137 Cs in the fish species was found to be ∼142 days for fish of all sizes. The distribution of 137 Cs in different organs/tissues of the fish was determined. Accumulation of 137 Cs in muscle/flesh of the fish was found to be ∼75% of whole body accumulation. The uptake rate and the retention capability of juvenile fish were found to be higher and therefore, these were more susceptible to 137 Cs than adult and old fish, and could be an important source of 137 Cs in the human food chain

  1. Fallout 137Cs in reindeer herders in Arctic Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skuterud, Lavrans; Thørring, Håvard

    2015-03-03

    Reindeer herders in the Arctic were among the most heavily exposed populations to the global fallout from nuclear weapons testing in the 1950s and 1960s, due to high transfer of radionuclides in the lichens-reindeer-human food chain. Annual studies of (137)Cs in reindeer herders in Kautokeino, Norway, were initiated in 1965 to monitor radiation doses and follow environmental (137)Cs behavior. The (137)Cs concentrations declined from the peak in 1965 with effective half-times of 6-8 years, only interrupted by a temporary doubling in levels from 1986 to 1987 due to the Chernobyl fallout. During the period of 1950-2010 an average herder received an integrated effective dose from incorporated (137)Cs of about 18 mSv. This dose represents an insignificant increase in the risk for developing cancer. Health studies even show a significantly lower cancer incidence among Sámis and reindeer herders in northern Norway compared to other populations in the same area.

  2. Evaluation of the mobility of 137CS in soil profiles of the Pantanal region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Fernanda L. da; Ferreira, Ana C.M.; Wasserman, Maria Angelica V.; Lapa, Celso F.; Perez, Daniel Vidal; Rendeiro, Nilson; Rochedo, Elaine R.R.

    2013-01-01

    Radioactive pollutants can cause impact on the environmental quality of soils and represent a risk to human health. Radioecological studies have shown that soils with low pH, low organic matter content and low fertility are more vulnerable to contamination by 137 Cs, since the transfer to plants is high. In this study, some surface horizons of soils from Jaraguari, situated at Brazilian Pantanal were assessed in order to map their vulnerability to contamination by 137 Cs. It was also proposed some mitigation measures adapted to the regional scenario in order to optimize radiological protection for rural areas. A conceptual model established to detect the vulnerability of radioactively contaminated soils was applied for soils located in the municipality of Jaraguari (Mato Grosso do Sul). This conceptual model was established based on the relationship between reference values of the soil-to-plant transfer factor (TF) for 137 Cs and critical pedological parameters for each radiovulnerability category (pH, CTC and exchangeable K). The application of this conceptual model to a soil data bank using Geographic Information System (GIS) tools generated vulnerability soils maps. This result identified that most of Pantanal soils presented very low radiovulnerability, but it was possible to detect some small areas presenting extreme radiovulnerability. It was possible to conclude that these small areas is not indicated for activities that presents a potential risk for 137 Cs contamination and also it must receive priority actions for remediation in the case of accident, since a superficial contamination with 137 Cs in these areas can lead to a contamination of subsoil and to a significant spread of contamination via groundwater. (author)

  3. Evaluation of the mobility of {sup 137}CS in soil profiles of the Pantanal region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Fernanda L. da; Ferreira, Ana C.M., E-mail: fleite@ird.gov.br, E-mail: anacris@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Wasserman, Maria Angelica V.; Lapa, Celso F., E-mail: lapa@ien.gov.br, E-mail: mwasserman@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Perez, Daniel Vidal; Rendeiro, Nilson, E-mail: chpd@cnps.embrapa.br, E-mail: nilson.rendeiro@embrapa.br [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria (EMBRAPA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Solos; Picanco Junior, Pericles L., E-mail: pericles.picanco@gmail.com [Instituto BioAtlantica (IBIO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rochedo, Elaine R.R., E-mail: elainerochedo@gmail.com [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2013-07-01

    Radioactive pollutants can cause impact on the environmental quality of soils and represent a risk to human health. Radioecological studies have shown that soils with low pH, low organic matter content and low fertility are more vulnerable to contamination by {sup 137}Cs, since the transfer to plants is high. In this study, some surface horizons of soils from Jaraguari, situated at Brazilian Pantanal were assessed in order to map their vulnerability to contamination by {sup 137}Cs. It was also proposed some mitigation measures adapted to the regional scenario in order to optimize radiological protection for rural areas. A conceptual model established to detect the vulnerability of radioactively contaminated soils was applied for soils located in the municipality of Jaraguari (Mato Grosso do Sul). This conceptual model was established based on the relationship between reference values of the soil-to-plant transfer factor (TF) for {sup 137}Cs and critical pedological parameters for each radiovulnerability category (pH, CTC and exchangeable K). The application of this conceptual model to a soil data bank using Geographic Information System (GIS) tools generated vulnerability soils maps. This result identified that most of Pantanal soils presented very low radiovulnerability, but it was possible to detect some small areas presenting extreme radiovulnerability. It was possible to conclude that these small areas is not indicated for activities that presents a potential risk for {sup 137}Cs contamination and also it must receive priority actions for remediation in the case of accident, since a superficial contamination with {sup 137}Cs in these areas can lead to a contamination of subsoil and to a significant spread of contamination via groundwater. (author)

  4. Statistical assessment of the 137Cs levels of the Chernihiv oblast's milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lev, T.D.; Zakhutska, O.M.

    2004-01-01

    The article deals with research directed on overcoming the consequences of the Chornobyl accident at the territory of Ukraine. Results are considered of the use of the long-normal distribution law to evaluate results of 137Cs milk contamination. Critical farms of Chernihiv oblast, where agreeing criteria for assessing the primary data on milk contamination were applied, became the object of the study. An algorithm was applied to calculate factual and forecast repetitions of gradations according to the stages of statistical processing of milk samples contaminated with 137Cs. Results of the milk contamination analysis at a later stage (1991-2001)are described by the long-normal distribution law which can be used to forecast for the subsequent years. The maximum repetability of the gradations of the contaminated milk (from 10 to 40 Bq/l) is determined for factual and forecast frequencies of the levels of contamination thereof. The results of the study are proposed to be used while taking measures directed on diminishing the levels of contamination of agricultural products with 137Cs

  5. Atmospheric contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruetter, Juerg

    1997-01-01

    It is about the levels of contamination in center America, the population's perception on the problem, effects of the atmospheric contamination, effects in the environment, causes of the atmospheric contamination, possibilities to reduce the atmospheric contamination and list of Roeco Swisscontac in atmospheric contamination

  6. The effect of Cs-137 short-range spatial variability on soil after the Chernobyl disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martynenko, Vladimir; Vakulovsky, Sergey; Linnik, Vitaly

    2014-05-01

    After the Chernobyl accident of 1986, large areas of Russia were contaminated by 137Cs. Post-depositional redistribution of 137Cs fallout across the land surface resulting from mechanical, physical, chemical, and biological processes operating in the soil system and the grain size selectivity associated with soil erosion and sediment transport processes. Therefore of uppermost importance are data on evaluating 137Cs variability at short distances, obtained at the early period after the accident. Measurements of 137Cs deposit at the territory of Russia exposed to radioactive contamination were mainly conducted with the help of air-gamma survey, and were verified by soil sampling on test plots with size 10x10 m with control soil sampling using "envelope" method of fivefold soil sampling (1 sampling at the centre and 4 along the edges of the plot under study). Presented here are evaluation data of 137Cs contamination, obtained in the Bryansk, Yaroslav and Rostov regions in 1991. Test plots were selected at the distance of 50-100 m away from a road on matted areas with undisturbed soil structure. Test routes of sampling were made perpendicularly to directions crossing basic traces of radioactive contamination. Sampling measurements were carried out at Canberra and Ortec gamma spectrometers. Each of the 5 samples of the "envelope" was measured separately, soil mixing was not applied. 137Cs value for the Bryansk Region varied from 2,6 kBq/m2 to 2294 kBq/m2, at the territories of the Yaroslav and Rostov regions 137Cs value varied from 0,44 kBq/m2 to 5,1 kBq/m2 and 0,56 kBq/m2 to 22,2 kBq/m2, respectively. Statistical analysis of 137Cs deposit at different plots is a solid argumentation in favour of nonuniform distribution in various landscapes and at a different distance from the Chernobyl NPP. Such nonuniformity of 137Cs soil contamination in the limits of 10 m of the plot is most likely to be related to initial aerosol contamination nonuniformity at the moment of

  7. Uptake and distribution of 137Cs, stable Cs and K in rice plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukada, Hirofumi; Hasegawa, Hidenao

    2003-01-01

    The uptake and distributions of 137 Cs, stable Cs and K were determined for rice plant components, including polished rice, rice bran, hulls, leaves, stems, and roots. The distribution of 137 Cs in polished rice and rice bran was similar to that of stable Cs, while that of K was different. The concentration ratios of Cs/K in leaves increased in older leaf blade positions, which meant that the translocation rate of stable Cs, was slower than that of K. At harvest the dry weight of polished rice accounted for 34% of the entire rice plant, while the distributions of stable Cs in the polished rice and the non-edible parts were 7 and 93%, respectively. These findings suggest that the transfer and distribution of stable Cs in rice plants are different from those of K, and the behavior of stable Cs provides a useful analogue in predicting the fate of 137 Cs in an agricultural environment. (author)

  8. Potential of largemouth bass as vectors of 137Cs dispersal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paller, M.H.; Fletcher, D.E.; Jones, T.; Dyer, S.A.; Isely, J.J.; Littrell, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    We conducted a radio telemetry study on the movements of potentially contaminated largemouth bass between Steel Creek, a restricted access 137 Cs contaminated stream on the Savannah River Site (located in South Carolina, USA), and the publicly accessible Savannah River. Largemouth bass were relatively mobile in lower Steel Creek and the portion of the Savannah River near Steel Creek, and there was considerable movement between these two habitats. Largemouth bass had home ranges of about 500 linear meters of shoreline in the Savannah River but sometimes moved long distances. Such movements occurred primarily during the spawning season, largely upstream, and increased when water levels were changing or elevated. However, approximately 90% of the largemouth bass observations were within 10 km of Steel Creek. The total quantity of 137 Cs transported into the Savannah River by largemouth bass was much less than transported by water and suspended sediments discharged from Steel Creek. We conclude that largemouth bass from the Savannah River Site are unlikely to be responsible for long distance dispersal of substantial radiological contamination in the Savannah River

  9. Extractability of 137Cs in Response to its Input Forms into Fukushima Forest Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengistu, T. T.; Carasco, L.; Orjollet, D.; Coppin, F.

    2017-12-01

    In case of nuclear accidents like Fukushima disaster, the influence of 137Cs depositional forms (soluble and/or solid forms) on mineral soil of forest environment on its availability have not reported yet. Soluble (137Cs tagged ultra-pure water) and solid (137Cs contaminated litter-OL and fragmented litter-OF) input forms were mixed with the mineral soils collected under Fukushima coniferous and broadleaf forests. The mixtures then incubated under controlled laboratory condition to evaluate the extractability of 137Cs in soil over time in the presence of decomposition process through two extracting reagents- water and ammonium acetate. Results show that extracted 137Cs fraction with water was less than 1% for soluble input form and below detection limit for solid input form. On the same way with acetate reagent, the extracted 137Cs fraction ranged from 46 to 56% for soluble input and 2 to 15% for solid input, implying the nature of 137Cs contamination strongly influences the extractability and hence the mobility of 137Cs in soil. Although the degradation rate of the organic materials has been calculated in the range of 0.18 ± 0.1 to 0.24 ± 0.1 y-1, its impact on 137Cs extractability appeared very weak at least within the observation period, probably due to shorter time scale. Concerning the treatments of solid 137Cs input forms through acetate extraction, relatively more 137Cs has been extracted from broadleaf organic materials mixes (BL-OL & BL-OF) than the coniferous counterparts. This probably is due to the fact that the lignified coniferous organic materials (CED-OL & CED-OF) components tend to retain more 137Cs than that of the broadleaf. Generally, by extrapolating these observations in to a field context, one can expect more available 137Cs fraction in forest soil from wet depositional pathways such as throughfall and stemflow than those attached with organic materials like litter (OL) and its eco-processed forms (OF).

  10. Atmospheric deposition of radioactive cesium (137Cs) associated with dust events in East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, H.

    2010-01-01

    Since the cessation of atmospheric nuclear testing in 1980, there has been no known serious atmospheric contamination by radioactive cesium (sup(137)Cs) apart from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident in 1986. There now remain only small amounts of anthropogenic radionuclides in the atmosphere that can be directly related to past testing. However, sup(137)Cs is still regularly found in atmospheric deposition samples in Japan. In this study, we analyzed sup(137)Cs monitoring data, meteorological data, and field survey results to investigate the recent transport and deposition of sup(137)Cs associated with dust phenomena. Monthly records of nationwide sup(137)Cs deposition in Japan during the 1990s show a consistent seasonal variation, with higher levels of deposition occurring in spring. In March 2002, an unexpectedly high amount of sup(137)Cs was deposited in the northwestern coastal area of Japan at the same time as an Asian dust event was observed. Analysis of land-based weather data showed that sandstorms and other dust-raising phenomena also occurred in March 2002 over areas of Mongolia and northeastern China where grassland and shrubs predominated. Furthermore, radioactivity measurements showed sup(137)Cs enrichment in the surface layer of grassland soils in the areas affected by these sandstorms. These results suggest that grasslands are potential sources of sup(137)Cs-bearing dust. Continued desertification of the East Asian continent in response to recent climate change can be expected to result in an increase in sup(137)Cs-bearing soil particles in the atmosphere, and their subsequent re-deposition in Japan. However, soil dust is also raised around Japanese monitoring sites by the strong winds that are common in Japan in spring, and this local dust might also contribute to sup(137)Cs deposition in Japan. To estimate the relative contributions of local and distant dust events to the total sup(137)Cs deposition, we monitored deposition of mineral particles

  11. Field based plastic contamination sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States has a long-held reputation of being a dependable source of high quality, contaminant-free cotton. Recently, increased incidence of plastic contamination from sources such as shopping bags, vegetable mulch, surface irrigation tubing, and module covers has threatened the reputation o...

  12. ICRP-26 and skin contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finnigan, T.; Huda, W.; Newbery, G.R.

    1979-01-01

    The experience of dealing with skin contamination incidents at The Radiochemical Centre over a 3-year period is presented. Data are given for the primary isotopes involved, the duration of skin contamination, and the skin doses that arise from these incidents. The methods employed in performing dosimetry for skin contamination are discussed and examples involving the isotopes carbon-14 and indium-111 are described. For skin contamination incidents, the mode of penetration of the activity into skin is normally not known and this can be of major significance for the final skin dose estimate. The operational health physics difficulties encountered in complying with both ICRP-26 and UK legislation for skin contamination are considered. In the event of multiple exposure (i.e. skin doses calculated from whole body film badges, extremity TLD dose meters and skin contamination) there is ambiguity in the precise meaning of the skin dose. The usefulness of Derived Working Levels is also discussed. Experience at The Radiochemical Centre has shown that good plant design, proper training and prompt action in dealing with contamination incidents ensures that overexposures to skin from accidental contamination are rare occurrences. (author)

  13. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi on 137Cs uptake by plants grown on different soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinichuk, M; Mårtensson, A; Ericsson, T; Rosén, K

    2013-01-01

    The potential use of mycorrhiza as a bioremediation agent for soils contaminated by radiocesium was evaluated in a greenhouse experiment. The uptake of (137)Cs by cucumber, perennial ryegrass, and sunflower after inoculation with a commercial arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) product in soils contaminated with (137)Cs was investigated, with non-mycorrhizal quinoa included as a "reference" plant. The effect of cucumber and ryegrass inoculation with AM fungi on (137)Cs uptake was inconsistent. The effect of AM fungi was most pronounced in sunflower: both plant biomass and (137)Cs uptake increased on loamy sand and loamy soils. The total (137)Cs activity accumulated within AM host sunflower on loamy sand and loamy soils was 2.4 and 3.2-fold higher than in non-inoculated plants. Although the enhanced uptake of (137)Cs by quinoa plants on loamy soil inoculated by the AM fungi was observed, the infection of the fungi to the plants was not confirmed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Bioaccumulation of 137Cs by culture collection strains of bacteria and fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pipiska, M.; Rozloznik, M.; Augustin, J.

    2003-01-01

    Soil decontamination of soil contaminated by low-level activities of radionuclides, mainly by caesium-137, which come from accidental releases by maintenance of nuclear devices and by liquid wastes reprocessing, is long-term and expensive technology. Knowledge of the causations, which control the processes of bioaccumulation of radionuclides, is a necessary condition for critical assessment and successful utilization of processes of bioremediation in situ in practise. The authors present the experimentally gained quantitative values of bioaccumulation of caesium-137 from water solutions by micro organism cultures of Rhodotorula aurantiaca CCY 20-9-1, Sacharomyces cerevisiae, Rhodococcus rhodochrous ATCC 15906, Streptomyces sp. DX-IX, Coriolus versicolor CCWDF-14 and Rhizopus sp. R-18. Intensively growing cultures reach the highest values of bioaccumulation; the cultures in non-growing phase reach several orders lower values. From researched micro organisms the highest values of bioaccumulation of Cs + 5.1 pmol/g (wet weight) at initial concentration of Cs + in solution co = 1 nmol/l (without carrier) and 29.2 μmol/g (wet weight) at co = 6 mmol/l Cs + (adding of carrier CsCl) were found out at growing culture S. cerevisiae as model of eukaryotic cell after an achievement of maximal stationary grow phase. Acquired information refer to the possible role of soil micro organisms at bioaccumulation of 137 Cs in contaminated soils and their potential utilization in lowering of radioactive contamination of environment (authors)

  15. Leaching of Cs and Sr from sewage sludge ash buried in a landfill site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Nao; Umita, Teruyuki; Ito, Ayumi

    2014-01-01

    Radionuclide contamination from the nuclear accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant has been found in sewage sludge ash produced in eastern Japan. When such contaminated waste contains less than 8,000 Bq/kg radiocesium, it is being disposed in controlled landfill sites. In order to assess the possible spread of the radionuclides by their leaching from the landfill sites, it is important to know the leaching behavior of the radionuclides from the sewage sludge ash and factors influencing the leaching behavior. In this study, leaching experiments using stable Cs and Sr were conducted for sewage sludge ash under several conditions to investigate effects of chemical composition of leachate, pH, and solid/liquid ratio on Cs and Sr leaching behaviors. In the pH range from 6 to 12, the leaching ratio of Cs or Sr was less than 5.2 or 0.21%, respectively. Additionally, the leaching ratio of Sr decreased with increasing pH of the leachate. In contrast, the higher the pH in the leachate was, the higher the leaching ratio of Cs was. Finally, possible radionuclide leaching from contaminated sewage sludge ash and then radionuclide concentrations in an actual landfill leachate were assessed. It could be suggested that 90 Sr leaching from the landfill site had the least effect on the environment, whereas 134+137 Cs leaching needed to be taken into account for spreading radioactive materials from the landfill site to the environment. (author)

  16. The influence of domestic and industrial treatment of food on Cs 137 content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombardi, C.C.; Monte, L.

    1988-01-01

    The environmental contamination due to the Chernobyl accident offers a large amount of data concerning the radioactive contamination of human food-chain. Using those data a research is being carried out to evaluate the behaviour of some radionuclides in food subjected to technological or domestic treatment. In this paper the authors discuss the consequences on the content of Cs-137 a) of domestic cooking of alimentary ''pasta'', b) of wheat milling, c) of milk coagulation to produce cheese

  17. Adobe Photoshop CS6 bible

    CERN Document Server

    Dayley, Brad

    2012-01-01

    The comprehensive, soup-to-nuts guide to Photoshop, fully updated Photoshop CS6, used for both print and digital media, is the industry leader in image-editing software. The newest version adds some exciting new features, and this bestselling guide has been revised to cover each of them, along with all the basic information you need to get started. Learn to use all the tools, including the histogram palette, Lens Blur, Match Color, and the color replacement tool, as well as keyboard shortcuts. Then master retouching and color correction, work with Camera Raw images, prepare photos for print

  18. 134cs uptake by plants from soil applying different absorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oncsik, M.

    1998-01-01

    A study of isotope uptake by plants using different zeolite clay minerals (montmorillonite, mordenite, clinoptilolite) was started with a view to reducing the rate of isotope uptake by plants by applying additives given to the soil. In pot experiments, the 134 Cs activity of green peas was reduced by 16% in average as compared to the control in the soils enriched with zeolite (mordenite type). Under field conditions, the radioactivity of millet and carrot yields were investigated in soils ameliorated with montmorillonite clay mineral. The radioactive contamination of the yield in soil treated with zeolite was in average 10% lower for millet and 24% for carrot roots as compared to the control

  19. Specificity of Cs-137 redistribution in toposequence of arable soils cultivated after the Chernobyl accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobova, Elena; Romanov, Sergey; Baranchukov, Vladimir; Berezkin, Victor; Moiseenko, Fedor; Kirov, Sergey

    2017-04-01

    Investigations performed after the Chernobyl accident showed high spatial variation of radionuclide contamination of the soil cover in elementary landscape geochemical systems (ELGS) that characterize catena's structure. Our studies of Cs-137 distribution along and cross the slopes of local ridges in natural forested key site revealed a cyclic character of variation of the radionuclide surface activity along the studied transections (Korobova et al, 2008; Korobova, Romanov, 2009; 2011). We hypothesized that the observed pattern reflects a specific secondary migration of Cs-137 with water, and that this process could have taken place in any ELGS. To test this hypothesis a detailed field measurement of Cs-137 surface activity was performed in ELGS in agricultural area cultivated after the Chernobyl accident but later withdrawn from land-use. In situ measurements carried out by field gamma-spectrometry were accompanied by soil core sampling at the selected points. Soil samples were taken in increments of 2 cm down to 20 cm and of 5 cm down to 40 cm. The samples were analyzed for Cs-137 in laboratory using Canberra gamma-spectrometer with HP-Ge detector. Obtained results confirmed the fact of area cultivation down to 20 cm that was clearly traced by Cs-137 profile in soil columns. At the same time, the measurements also showed a cyclic character of Cs-137 variation in a sequence of ELGS from watershed to the local depression similar to that found in woodland key site. This proved that the observed pattern is a natural process typical for matter migration in ELGS independently of the vegetation type and ploughing. Therefore, spatial aspect is believed to be an important issue for development of adequate technique for a forecast of contamination of agricultural production and remediation of the soil cover on the local scale within the contaminated areas. References Korobova, E.M., Romanov, S.L., 2009. A Chernobyl 137Cs contamination study as an example for the spatial

  20. Transfer factors of 134Cs for olive and orange trees grown on different soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skarlou, V.; Nobeli, C.; Anoussis, J.; Haidouti, C.; Papanicolaou, E.

    1999-01-01

    Transfer factors (TF) of 134 Cs to olive and citrus trees grown on two different soils, were determined for a 3-year greenhouse experiment. Two-year-old trees were transplanted with their entire rootball into large pots containing the contaminated soil (110 kg pot -1 ). The soil was transferred to each pot in layers on the top of which 134 Cs as CsCl was dripped (18.5 MBq pot -1 ). For both evergreen trees, soil type significantly influenced radiocaesium transfer. 134 Cs concentration was lower for the calcareous-heavy soil than for the acid-light soil. Transfer factors of orange trees were higher than those of olive trees in the acid-light soil. Although a significant amount of 134 Cs was measured in olives grown on the acid-light soil, no 134 Cs was detected in the unprocessed olive oil when an oil fraction (5% f.w.) was extracted. On the contrary the edible part of the oranges showed the highest 134 Cs concentration of all plant parts. The relationship between 134 Cs uptake and potassium content in the different plant compartments was also studied when selected trees were cut down. The potassium concentration in the plants was not significantly different between the trees growing in the two types of soil in spite of the big differences in the 134 Cs uptake in the two soils. TF values and potassium content in the different plant compartments of each tree were highly correlated. For both crops transfer factors as well as potassium content were the highest in the developing plant parts (new leaves and branches, flowers). The transfer factors of 134 Cs for the studied trees are in the same order of magnitude as the values of annual crops grown under similar conditions. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  1. Comparative study of {sup 137}Cs distribution in broilers and pheasants and possibilities for protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitrovic, Branislava M.; Vitorovic, Gordana; Lazarevic-Macanovic, Mirjana [University of Belgrade, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Radiology and Radiation Hygiene, Belgrade (Serbia); Vicentijevic, Mihajlo [Insititute of Veterinary Medicine Serbia, Laboratory of Radiation Hygiene, Belgrade (Serbia); Vitorovic, Dusko [University of Belgrade, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science, Belgrade (Serbia); Pantelic, Gordana [Institute of Nuclear Sciences-Vinca, Belgrade (Serbia)

    2012-03-15

    The aim of the present study was to investigate distribution of {sup 137}Cs in leg and breast meat of broilers and pheasants following single alimentary contamination and administration of two protectors (AFCF and clinoptilolite). The birds were administered a single dose of {sup 137}CsCl, with an activity of 750 Bq. Protectors were given via gastric tube or mixed in the forage pellets. AFCF given via gastric tube decreased the {sup 137}Cs concentration by a factor of 7.8 in broilers leg meat and 7.4 in broilers breast meat. When AFCF was mixed in pellets, the {sup 137}Cs concentration was 19.5 times lower in broilers leg meat and 22.1 times lower in broilers breast meat, than in the control group. In pheasants, AFCF administered via gastric tube decreased the {sup 137}Cs concentration by a factor of 12.4 in leg meat and by a factor of 13.7 in breast meat, respectively. In group 4, where pheasants were administered AFCF mixed in pellets, the {sup 137}Cs concentration was 3.7 times lower in leg and breast meat, than in the control group. For comparison, clinoptilolite administered via gastric tube decreased the {sup 137}Cs concentration 1.8 times in broilers leg meat and 2.0 times in breast meat, compared to the control group. In pheasants, {sup 137}Cs concentration was 2.9 times lower in leg meat and 2.6 times lower in breast meat. Clinoptilolite mixed in the feed had relatively low efficiency of protection in broilers ({sup 137}Cs concentration was 1.4 times lower in leg meat and 1.6 lower in breast meat). A similar trend was observed in pheasants ({sup 137}Cs concentration was 1.6 lower in leg and breast meat). (orig.)

  2. Sorption kinetics of Cs and Sr in sediments of a Savannah River Site reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, J.A.

    1997-07-01

    Laboratory measurements of the sorption and desorption of 134 Cs and 85 Sr to sediments were conducted. These sediments were sampled from the profundal zone of Par Pond at the Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina. The isotopes 134 Cs and 85 Sr were used to trace the sorption properties of the main contaminants found in the reservoir which are 137 Cs and 90 Sr respectively. The sorption behavior of these two elements was studied using spiked sediment/water slurries of a known mass to volume ratio. The results reveal that Sr undergoes significant reversible sorption while a fraction of Cs irreversibly sorbs to the sediment. The calculated distribution coefficient Kd at equilibrium was (3 ± 0.6) x 10 3 for 134 Cs after 60 d and (1 ± 0.2) x 10 3 for 85 Sr after 7 d at pH ∼ 6 and slurry ratio of 1:1000 g/ml. The K d for 134 Cs ranged from 2 x 10 2 to 3 x 10 4 depending on pH and conductivity. The 85 Sr reached equilibrium in a few days, while 134 Cs reached an apparent equilibrium in 1--2 months. The K d for 134 Cs was a function of the slurry ratio, pH, conductivity, and contact time. These factors were interrelated since the sediments released ions to the slurry mixture which decreased the pH and increased the conductivity. A sorption isotherm measured for 134 Cs was linear at water concentrations from 60 mBq/ml to 20 Bq/ml. A kinetic model was proposed to describe the basic sorption of 134 Cs to Par Pond sediments under homogeneous laboratory conditions

  3. The application of equilibrium models to incidence situations using the example of the exposure pathway human milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, Martin; Karcher, Klaus; Nosske, Dietmar

    2012-01-01

    The radiation exposure after a short-term release of radioactive substances is often calculated assuming equilibrium conditions. An example is that of the German Incident Calculation Bases for nuclear power plants with pressurized water reactors. Here, the contamination of human milk is calculated using transfer factors. Applying this equilibrium model to incident situations raises the question whether baby's radiation exposure is adequately assessed. This contribution shows that compliance with the relevant dose limits of paragraph 49 of the German Radiation Protection Ordinance is ensured for design basis accidents on the assumption that the hypothetical breastfeeding period starts at the beginning of the activity release. Comparative analyses were performed against the biokinetic models applied by ICRP for radiation protection purposes, taking the reference nuclides 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 131 I, 241 Am and long-lived plutonium isotopes as examples. (orig.)

  4. The application of equilibrium models to incidence situations using the example of the exposure pathway human milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, Martin; Karcher, Klaus; Nosske, Dietmar [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Oberschleissheim (Germany)

    2012-06-15

    The radiation exposure after a short-term release of radioactive substances is often calculated assuming equilibrium conditions. An example is that of the German Incident Calculation Bases for nuclear power plants with pressurized water reactors. Here, the contamination of human milk is calculated using transfer factors. Applying this equilibrium model to incident situations raises the question whether baby's radiation exposure is adequately assessed. This contribution shows that compliance with the relevant dose limits of paragraph 49 of the German Radiation Protection Ordinance is ensured for design basis accidents on the assumption that the hypothetical breastfeeding period starts at the beginning of the activity release. Comparative analyses were performed against the biokinetic models applied by ICRP for radiation protection purposes, taking the reference nuclides {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 131}I, {sup 241}Am and long-lived plutonium isotopes as examples. (orig.)

  5. Temporal changes in the distribution of /sup 137/Cs in alluvial soils at Los Alamos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyhan, J.W.; Hakonson, T.E.; Miera, F.R. Jr.; Bostick, K.V.

    1978-05-01

    The alluvial soils of three liquid-effluent receiving areas at Los Alamos were sampled to determine /sup 137/Cs temporal distributional relationships. Soil radionuclide concentrations were determined as a function of soil depth and distance from the waste outfall, and discussed relative to runoff transport of /sup 137/Cs-contaminated alluvium. The inventories of soil /sup 137/Cs in various segments of each effluent-receiving area were calculated for two sampling periods and compared with amounts of /sup 137/Cs added to the canyons in the liquid wastes. The distribution patterns of soil cesium were compared with the waste-use history of the three study areas and the hydrologic characteristics of the canyons.

  6. Intensity of 137Cs accumulation by macromycetes of oak-hornbeam forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlov, A.A.; Kurbet, T.V.

    2005-01-01

    The intensity of 137 Cs accumulation by fruit bodies of macromycetes of 25 species were studied under conditions of fresh oak forests in oak-hornbeam forests of Podolsk Hills (Ukraine). It was found the intraspecific differences of average values of 137 Cs specific activity in mushrooms fruit bodies on the same forest plots were about 35 times and average values of transfer factor - about 45 times; the ranked row of mushroom species was build up according their average values. It was shown, the row →forest litter saprotrophes→humus sapritrophes→xylotrophes-sapritrophes - is formed according to intensity of 137 Cs accumulation in fruit bodies ecological-trophic groups of macromycete. Permissible levels for density of 137 Cs soil contamination to preserve edible mushrooms were calculated; and it was drawn a conclusion to the effect that studied species of mushrooms can be presented without any limits. (author)

  7. Validation of Cs-137 measurement in food samples using gamma spectrometry system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yii Mei Wo; Kamarozaman Ishak

    2005-01-01

    Cs-137 was found to be one of major radionuclide contaminant present in foods consumed by human. In some countries, regulations required consumption foods moving in international trade to be scanned for caesium (Cs-134 and Cs-137) to ensure it does not exceeding the maximum permissible level. This is to ensure that the intake of such foods will not accumulate radionuclide until the significant level inside the human body. Gamma Spectrometry System was used to perform the measurement of caesium isotopes, because it was one of the easiest methods to be performed. This measuring method must be validated for several parameters include specificity, precision (repeatability), bias (accuracy), linearity, range, detection limit, robustness and ruggedness in order to ensure it is fit for the purpose. This paper would summarise how these parameters were fulfilled for this analytical method using several types certified reference materials. The same validated method would be considered workable on Cs-134 as well. (Author)

  8. Effect on Cs removal of solid-phase metal oxidation in metal ferrocyanides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Keun-Young; Kim, Jimin; Oh, Maengkyo; Lee, Eil-Hee; Kim, Kwang-Wook; Chung, Dong-Yong; Moon, Jei-Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of).

    2017-07-01

    Metal ferrocyanides (MFCs) have been studied for many years and are regarded as efficient adsorbents for the selective removal of radioactive cesium (Cs) from contaminated aqueous solutions. Although their efficiency has been demonstrated, various investigations on the physicochemical, thermal, and radiological stability of the solids of MFCs are required to enhance the applicability of MFCs in the treatment process. We observed that the Cs adsorption efficiencies of cobalt and nickel ferrocyanides decreased as their aging period increased, while the Cs adsorption efficiencies of copper and zinc ferrocyanides did not decrease. The tendencies of these ferrocyanides were accelerated by exposure of the solids at a higher temperature for a longer time. Our comprehensive analyses demonstrated that only the oxidizable metals in the MFCs can be oxidized by aging time and increasing temperature; also, this affects the Cs removal efficiency by decreasing the exchangeable sites in the solids. The chemical stability of MFCs is very important for the optimization of the synthesis and storage conditions.

  9. Transfer coefficient of 137Cs and 40K from feed to milk in Kakrapar Gujarat site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagh, S.S.; Patra, A.K.; John, Jaison T.; Ravi, P.M.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2018-01-01

    117 Cs is one of the most important contaminant from nuclear fall out because of its long physical half-life, affinity for biological systems and its uptake to man through diet. Cesium behaves like Potassium because of its similar physical and chemical properties. One of the important ingestion pathways of 137 Cs is grass to cow, cow to milk and exposed to man due to consumption of milk. Therefore it is necessary to measure the concentration of 137 Cs in grass and milk samples and to calculate the dose to human being due to the consumption of milk. This paper presents 137 Cs and 40 K concentration in feed and milk samples and the respective site-specific transfer coefficients from feed to milk for Kakrapar Gujarat Site

  10. Sorption and migration characteristics of 137Cs and 90Sr in natural dispersed systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lishtvan, I.I.; Brovka, G.P.; Dedyulya, I.V.; Rovdan, E.N.

    1996-01-01

    Sorption and migration characteristics of 137 Cs and 90 Sr have been determined in fen peat, Quarts sand, kaolin and bentonite. An electrolyte effect on the radio nuclides sorption and diffusion in the given systems has been studied. Presence of stable isotopes of cesium and strontium in the porous solution has been revealed to affect 137 Cs and 90 Sr distribution and diffusion indices permitting for the effective diffusion index to increase by two orders of magnitude. 137 Cs in the peat technical contamination resulting from the Chernobyl NPP accident has been found to be mainly in an exchange form and under steady state conditions up to 75% of 137 Cs can be transformed into water-soluble state for 8-12 months under effect of stable cesium chloride (0.2 (g-eq)/l). (authors). 4 tabs., 4 refs

  11. Levels of Cs-137 and pathological shifts in the organs and tissues of dead humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lushnikov, E.F.; Koleganov, Yu.F.; Lantsov, S.I.; Mozhaev, V.K.; Solov'eva, L.P.; Fomin, S.D.

    1996-01-01

    Measurements of the levels of Cs-137, alpha- and beta-radionuclides in the organs and tissues of 30 subjects dead 6 years after the accident, assessment of the pathological shifts and relationships between these shifts and exposure was carried out at territories contaminated with radionuclides in the Bryansk and Kaluga districts, in the town of Obninsk, and in region of Russia free of radionuclides. Study of radioautographs did not show alpha- or beta-radionuclides in any of the dead subjects. Cs-137 was detected in small quantities in the organs of all cadavers (3 to 424 Bq/kg) irrespective of their residence. The extent of radioactivity varied for different organs and was unrelated to organ pathology. Moreover, Cs-137 was detected in the organs of dead newborns and two-month-old infants, whose patients lived at territories contaminated with radionuclides [ru

  12. Airborne fallout mapping of {sup 137}Cs Finnish defence forces team

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kettunen, M.; Heininen, T. [Finnish Defence Forces Research Centre, Lakiala (Finland); Pulakka, M. [Finnish Air Force Depot, Tampere (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The main task of the team was to create a fallout map of {sup 137}Cs in a specified area in Padasjoki Auttoinen village. The team used an MI-8 helicopter of the Finnish Air Force. The team had an HPGe system (relative efficiency 70%) to measure nuclide specific ground contamination level. For navigation the team took advantage of the DGPS service provided by Finnish Broadcasting company utilizing the RDS-channel to get position accuracy within 2 meters. The correction signal is reachable nationwide on the FM transmitter network. The system produced a distribution map for {sup 40}K and fallout maps for {sup 134,137}Cs using a Micro Station Program with TerraModeler application. The maximum measured {sup 137}Cs ground contamination exceeded 130-140 kBqm{sup -2}. (au).

  13. The level of 137Cs concentration in Greek soils one decade after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vosniakos, F.K.; Zoumakis, N.M.; Diomou, C.S.

    1997-01-01

    One of the most serious consequences of the Chernobyl accident was the greatest radioactive contamination of the biosphere including the soil cover. It is well known that a soil analysis is a principal systematic method to estimate the radioactivity level in the particular area since deposition pattern is determined by measuring activity in grass and soil. The aim of the present work is first to identify the level of the existing 137 Cs contamination over Greece ten years after the Chernobyl accident. Secondly, a comparison between the 1986 137 Cs - distribution and the present measured one in more - less the same areas of Greece, has been attempted. The 40 k (0.0118% of natural K) concentration in soils as ratio 137 Cs/ 40 k has been, examined, even this ratio is not as constant in biological systems as the ratio Sr/Ca

  14. Airborne fallout mapping of {sup 137}Cs Finnish defence forces team

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kettunen, M; Heininen, T [Finnish Defence Forces Research Centre, Lakiala (Finland); Pulakka, M [Finnish Air Force Depot, Tampere (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    The main task of the team was to create a fallout map of {sup 137}Cs in a specified area in Padasjoki Auttoinen village. The team used an MI-8 helicopter of the Finnish Air Force. The team had an HPGe system (relative efficiency 70%) to measure nuclide specific ground contamination level. For navigation the team took advantage of the DGPS service provided by Finnish Broadcasting company utilizing the RDS-channel to get position accuracy within 2 meters. The correction signal is reachable nationwide on the FM transmitter network. The system produced a distribution map for {sup 40}K and fallout maps for {sup 134,137}Cs using a Micro Station Program with TerraModeler application. The maximum measured {sup 137}Cs ground contamination exceeded 130-140 kBqm{sup -2}. (au).

  15. Incidents analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francois, P.

    1996-01-01

    We undertook a study programme at the end of 1991. To start with, we performed some exploratory studies aimed at learning some preliminary lessons on this type of analysis: Assessment of the interest of probabilistic incident analysis; possibility of using PSA scenarios; skills and resources required. At the same time, EPN created a working group whose assignment was to define a new approach for analysis of incidents on NPPs. This working group gave thought to both aspects of Operating Feedback that EPN wished to improve: Analysis of significant incidents; analysis of potential consequences. We took part in the work of this group, and for the second aspects, we proposed a method based on an adaptation of the event-tree method in order to establish a link between existing PSA models and actual incidents. Since PSA provides an exhaustive database of accident scenarios applicable to the two most common types of units in France, they are obviously of interest for this sort of analysis. With this method we performed some incident analyses, and at the same time explores some methods employed abroad, particularly ASP (Accident Sequence Precursor, a method used by the NRC). Early in 1994 EDF began a systematic analysis programme. The first, transient phase will set up methods and an organizational structure. 7 figs

  16. Incidents analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francois, P

    1997-12-31

    We undertook a study programme at the end of 1991. To start with, we performed some exploratory studies aimed at learning some preliminary lessons on this type of analysis: Assessment of the interest of probabilistic incident analysis; possibility of using PSA scenarios; skills and resources required. At the same time, EPN created a working group whose assignment was to define a new approach for analysis of incidents on NPPs. This working group gave thought to both aspects of Operating Feedback that EPN wished to improve: Analysis of significant incidents; analysis of potential consequences. We took part in the work of this group, and for the second aspects, we proposed a method based on an adaptation of the event-tree method in order to establish a link between existing PSA models and actual incidents. Since PSA provides an exhaustive database of accident scenarios applicable to the two most common types of units in France, they are obviously of interest for this sort of analysis. With this method we performed some incident analyses, and at the same time explores some methods employed abroad, particularly ASP (Accident Sequence Precursor, a method used by the NRC). Early in 1994 EDF began a systematic analysis programme. The first, transient phase will set up methods and an organizational structure. 7 figs.

  17. SPECIFICITY OF ACCUMULATION OF VARIOUS RADIONUCLIDES (137Cs и 90Sr IN SPINACH (Spinacia oleracea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Soldatenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the specificity of accumulation of 137Cs and 90Sr by plants and limits of accumulation by plant fruits plays a key role at breeding of vegetable crops, which make demand for ecological safety of the product. The article is concerned with the study of varietal sources of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. aimed at development of ecological safety product on the territory polluted by radionuclides.The specificity of accumulation of radionuclides 137Cs and 90Sr was studied in 54 varieties of spinach at industrial contaminated and polluted lands. Experimental tests were conducted in the Moscow and Bryansk regions in 2012 and 2014. The absolute value of radionuclide 90Sr was higher than absolute value of radionuclide 137Cs in all studied zones. It was found that the hazard rate of 90Sr is higher because the level of pollution of product reaches up to 76% from maximum permissible concentration (MPC, while the level of product pollution by 137Cs is 26,4% from MPC. The spinach genotype differentiation for 90Sr in the most environments is lower than differentiation for 137Cs. The histograms of distribution 90Sr and 137Cs showed that samples amount in the groups of accumulation for both radionuclides are equal. Statistically significant data for radionuclides 137Cs and 90Sr in spinach were not obtained. The evaluation of spinach for low content of radionuclides should be conducted separately for each radionuclide on various backgrounds.

  18. Evaluation and testing of HUMASORB-CS trademark for the removal of radionuclides from groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, N.R.; Todd, T.A.; Wood, D.J.

    1998-01-01

    An independent experiment to demonstrate the combined removal of the radionuclides, 85 Sr and 137 Cs from groundwater has been conducted with the sorbent, HUMASORB-CS. Arctech, Inc. manufactures this humic acid-based sorbent material. This sorbent material is reported to have potential for remediation of contaminated groundwater present at DOE sites. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the removal efficiency and the capacity of the sorbent. Two ion-exchange columns were assembled at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) to evaluate the sorbent technology. Initial 137 Cs breakthrough in both columns was observed after 22.0 and 30.2 bed volumes, respectively. Strontium-85 removal was slightly more efficient than 137 Cs removal. Initial 85 Sr breakthrough in both columns was observed after 29.4 and 22.7 bed volumes, respectively. Calcium, which is of concern, is the major constituent within the feed solution. Calcium is attributed to loading interference in addition to other alkaline and alkaline earth metals such as stable Sr, Mg, Na, K, and Ba. Interfering ions fill exchange sites that greatly reduce the sorbents efficiency to sorb targeted ions such as radioactive Cs and Sr. Despite high concentrations of Ca in the feed solution, Ca was not sorbed by HUMASORB-CS. Results indicate HUMASORB-CS does not sorb sodium or potassium. Sodium and potassium concentrations were consistently observed at 100% breakthrough throughout the test

  19. Plant uptake of 134Cs in relation to soil properties and time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massas, I.; Skarlou, V.; Haidouti, C.

    2002-01-01

    134 Cs uptake by sunflower and soybean plants grown on seven different soils and its relation to soil properties were studied in a greenhouse pot experiment. Soil in each pot was contaminated by dripping the 134 Cs in layers, and sunflower and soybean plants were grown for three and two successive periods, respectively. 134 Cs plant uptake was expressed as the transfer factor (TF) (Bq kg -1 plant/Bq kg -1 soil) and as the daily plant uptake (flux) (Bq pot -1 day -1 ) taking into account biomass production and growth time. For the studied soils and for both plants, no consistent trend of TFs with time was observed. The use of fluxes, in general, provided less variable results than TFs and stronger functional relationships. A negative power functional relationship between exchangeable potassium plus ammonium cations expressed as a percentage of cation exchange capacity of each soil and 134 Cs fluxes was found for the sunflower plants. A similar but weaker relationship was observed for soybean plants. The significant correlation between sunflower and soybean TFs and fluxes, as well as the almost identical highest/lowest 134 Cs flux ratios, in the studied soils, indicated a similar effect of soil characteristics on 134 Cs uptake by both plants. In all the studied soils, sunflower 134 Cs TFs and fluxes were significantly higher than the respective soybean values, while no significant difference was observed in potassium content and daily potassium plant uptake (flux) of the two plants

  20. Radioactive Cs in the estuary sediments near Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamasaki, Shinya, E-mail: s-yamasaki@ied.tsukuba.ac.jp [Faculty of Pure and Applied Sciences and Center for Research in Isotopes and Environmental Dynamics, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Imoto, Junpei; Furuki, Genki; Ochiai, Asumi [Department of Chemistry, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Ohnuki, Toshihiko [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Shirakata Shirane 2-4, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Sueki, Keisuke [Faculty of Pure and Applied Sciences and Center for Research in Isotopes and Environmental Dynamics, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Nanba, Kenji [Department of Environmental Management, Faculty of Symbiotic System Science, Fukushima University, Kanayagawa 1, Fukushima, 960-1296 (Japan); Ewing, Rodney C. [Department of Geological Sciences and Center for International Security and Cooperation, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-2115 (United States); Utsunomiya, Satoshi [Department of Chemistry, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan)

    2016-05-01

    Increasing radioactivity was observed from surface to bottom. • 90% of the Cs-137 was strongly bound to clay minerals in the estuary sediments. • Cesium-137 is being transported from contaminated paddy fields to the estuary.

  1. Radioactive Cs in the estuary sediments near Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamasaki, Shinya; Imoto, Junpei; Furuki, Genki; Ochiai, Asumi; Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Sueki, Keisuke; Nanba, Kenji; Ewing, Rodney C.; Utsunomiya, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    observed from surface to bottom. • 90% of the Cs-137 was strongly bound to clay minerals in the estuary sediments. • Cesium-137 is being transported from contaminated paddy fields to the estuary.

  2. Study on 137Cs adsorption by soils around Qingshan and Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Zixian; Xu Shiming

    1992-10-01

    The patterns of 137 Cs adsorption and percolation are studied by 137 Cs solution through soil cylinder samples collected from seven sites around Qingshan and Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant. The top soils (0 ∼ 20 cm) are put into plastic tubes after being sieved. Three different ways are taken in the experiments. (1) 137 Cs solutions with the same specific activity (3.7 x 10 4 Bq/L) and same volume (40 mL) pass through the soils. (2) 137 Cs solutions with different specific activity (3.7 x 10 3 , 3.7 x 10 4 , and 3.7 x 10 5 Bq/L) and with same volume (40 mL) pass through the soils. (3) 137 Cs solutions with same specific activity (3.7 x 10 4 Bq/L) and with different volumes (40, 80, 120 mL) pass through the soils. The results show that the relationships of specific activity on the top 1 cm soil to the specific activity of solution is conformed to y = Ax B , to the volume of solution is conformed to y = A + Bx. The upper 0 to 1 cm soil adsorbs 137 Cs over 90-95%, and upper 0-5 cm soil adsorbs 100% 137 Cs. When the depth is greater than 5 cm the activity of filtered solution is background. From this experiment, it shows that the contamination can be eliminated by removing top soil when the soil is contaminated by 13 '7Cs solution

  3. Contaminated Land Remediation on decommissioned nuclear facilities: an optimized approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, Emilie

    2016-01-01

    The site of the Monts d'Arree located in Brennilis in the area of Brittany in France is a former 70 MWe heavy water reactor. EDF is now in charge of its decommissioning. The effluent treatment facility (STE) is currently being dismantled. As the future use of the site will exclude any nuclear activity, EDF is taking site release into consideration. Therefore a land management strategy for the land and soil is needed. An optimized approach is being proposed for the STE, to the French Regulator. In France, there is no specific regulation related to contaminated land (either radiologically contaminated or chemically contaminated). The French Nuclear Safety Authority's doctrine for radioactively contaminated land is a reference approach which involves complete clean-up, removing any trace of artificial radioactivity in the ground. If technical difficulties are encountered or the quantity of radioactive waste produced is too voluminous, an optimised clean-up can be implemented. EDF has been engaged since 2008 in drawing up a common guideline with other French nuclear operators (CEA and AREVA). The operators' guideline proposed the first steps to define how to optimise nuclear waste and to carry out a cost-benefits analysis. This is in accordance with the IAEA's prescriptions. Historically, various incidents involving effluent drum spills caused radiological contamination in the building platform and the underlying soil. While conducting the decontamination works in 2004/2005, it was impossible to remove all contamination (that went deeper than expected). A large characterization campaign was carried out in order to map the contamination. For the site investigation, 34 boreholes were drilled from 2 to 5 m under the building platform and 98 samples were analyzed to search for gamma, beta and alpha emitters. With the results, the contamination was mapped using a geostatistical approach developed by Geovariances TM . Main results were: - Soils are

  4. Understanding Contamination; Twenty Years of Simulating Radiological Contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emily Snyder; John Drake; Ryan James

    2012-02-01

    A wide variety of simulated contamination methods have been developed by researchers to reproducibly test radiological decontamination methods. Some twenty years ago a method of non-radioactive contamination simulation was proposed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) that mimicked the character of radioactive cesium and zirconium contamination on stainless steel. It involved baking the contamination into the surface of the stainless steel in order to 'fix' it into a tenacious, tightly bound oxide layer. This type of contamination was particularly applicable to nuclear processing facilities (and nuclear reactors) where oxide growth and exchange of radioactive materials within the oxide layer became the predominant model for material/contaminant interaction. Additional simulation methods and their empirically derived basis (from a nuclear fuel reprocessing facility) are discussed. In the last ten years the INL, working with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and the National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC), has continued to develop contamination simulation methodologies. The most notable of these newer methodologies was developed to compare the efficacy of different decontamination technologies against radiological dispersal device (RDD, 'dirty bomb') type of contamination. There are many different scenarios for how RDD contamination may be spread, but the most commonly used one at the INL involves the dispersal of an aqueous solution containing radioactive Cs-137. This method was chosen during the DARPA projects and has continued through the NHSRC series of decontamination trials and also gives a tenacious 'fixed' contamination. Much has been learned about the interaction of cesium contamination with building materials, particularly concrete, throughout these tests. The effects of porosity, cation-exchange capacity of the material and the amount of dirt and debris on the surface are very important factors

  5. Sources of 137Cs fluvial export from a forest catchment evaluated by stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic characterization of organic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotomi Muto; Mariko Atarashi-Andoh; Jun Koarashi; Erina Takeuchi; Syusaku Nishimura; Katsunori Tsuduki; Takeshi Matsunaga

    2017-01-01

    Fluvial export of particulate and dissolved 137 Cs was investigated to reveal its sources and transfer mechanisms in a broadleaved forest catchment using a continuous collection system. The finest size fraction (<75 µm), consisting of decomposed litter and surface mineral soil, was the dominant fraction in the particulate 137 Cs load, although the contribution of coarser size fractions increased during high water discharge in 2014. The dissolved 137 Cs originated from the decomposition of 137 Cs-contaminated litter. Temporal changes in 137 Cs distribution in the litter-mineral soil system indicated that the dissolved 137 Cs load will be moderated in several years, while particulate 137 Cs load has the potential to continue for a long time. (author)

  6. On-site radioactive soil contamination at the Andreeva Bay shore technical base, Northwest Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reistad, O; Dowdall, M; Selnaes, Ø G; Standring, W J F; Hustveit, S; Steenhuisen, F; Sørlie, A

    2008-07-01

    The radioactive waste (RAW) storage site at Andreeva Bay in the Russian Northwest has experienced radioactive contamination both as a result of activities carried out at the site and due to incidents that have occurred there in the past such as accidental releases of radioactive materials. The site is an interesting case study for decommissioning due to the extremely large amounts of radioactivity present at the site and the conditions under which it is stored; very little has been previously published in the scientific literature about this site. This paper complements the paper describing dose rates at Andreeva Bay which is published in this issue of Journal of Environmental Radioactivity by the same authors. This study presents new data related to the activity concentrations of (137)Cs and (90)Sr in surface soils and measurements of alpha- and beta-particle fluxes taken at different areas around the site. Limited data on 60Co is also presented. The results of the study indicate that the main areas of site contamination are associated with the former spent nuclear fuel storage facility at Building 5, due to accidental discharges which began in 1982. Substantial contamination is also observed at the solid radioactive waste storage facilities, probably due to the ingress of water into these facilities. More than 240 samples were measured: maximum contamination levels were 1 x 10(6)Bq/kg (137)Cs (mean value 4.1 x 10(5)Bq/kg) and 4 x 10(6)Bq/kg (90)Sr (mean value 1.2 x1 0(5)Bq/kg). Localised patches of alpha and beta contamination were also observed throughout the site.

  7. Evaluation of modelling body burden of Cs-137

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstroem, U; Nordlinder, S

    1996-05-01

    Within the IAEA/CEC VAMP-program one working group studied the precision in dose assessment models when calculating body burden of {sup 137}Cs as a result of exposure through multiple exposure pathways. One scenario used data from southern Finland regarding contamination of various media due to the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. In this study, a time dependent multiple exposure pathway model was constructed based on compartment theory. Uncertainties in model responses due to uncertainties in input parameter values were studied. The initial predictions for body burden were good, within a factor of 2 of the observed, while the time dynamics of levels in milk and meat did not agree satisfactorily. Some results, nevertheless, showed good agreement with observations due to compensatory effects. After disclosure of additional observational data, major reasons for mispredictions were identified as lack of consideration of time dependence of fixation of {sup 137}Cs in soils, and the selection of parameter values. When correction of this was made, a close agreement between predictions and observations was obtained. This study shows that the dose contribution due to {sup 137}Cs in food products from the seminatural environment is important for long-term exposure to man. The evaluation provided a basis for improvements of crucial parts in the model. 14 refs, 18 figs, 8 tabs.

  8. Evaluation of modelling body burden of Cs-137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergstroem, U.; Nordlinder, S.

    1996-05-01

    Within the IAEA/CEC VAMP-program one working group studied the precision in dose assessment models when calculating body burden of 137 Cs as a result of exposure through multiple exposure pathways. One scenario used data from southern Finland regarding contamination of various media due to the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. In this study, a time dependent multiple exposure pathway model was constructed based on compartment theory. Uncertainties in model responses due to uncertainties in input parameter values were studied. The initial predictions for body burden were good, within a factor of 2 of the observed, while the time dynamics of levels in milk and meat did not agree satisfactorily. Some results, nevertheless, showed good agreement with observations due to compensatory effects. After disclosure of additional observational data, major reasons for mispredictions were identified as lack of consideration of time dependence of fixation of 137 Cs in soils, and the selection of parameter values. When correction of this was made, a close agreement between predictions and observations was obtained. This study shows that the dose contribution due to 137 Cs in food products from the seminatural environment is important for long-term exposure to man. The evaluation provided a basis for improvements of crucial parts in the model. 14 refs, 18 figs, 8 tabs

  9. 137Cs in soil profiles in NE Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lust, M.; Realo, K.; Realo, E.

    2002-01-01

    Radiocaesium contamination in soil was produced by two fallout's: a global fallout caused by nuclear weapons testing in the atmosphere (1950s to 1970s) and a regional one - during/after the Chernobyl accident (1986). The area] distribution of the 137 CS fallout after the 1986 accident was extremely uneven in Estonia. Our previous studies showed that about 60% of its total deposition with the countrywide mean of 2 kBq m -2 occurred predominantly in the north-eastern part of Estonia. In this region the maximum deposition approached the values of 40 kBq m -2 . This is the reason why soil profiles in this region have been of interest. We have also determined the 137 Cs activity concentrations as a function of soil depth during 1991-2000. Attempts have been made to model the found depth-distributions of radiocaesium concentration and to find the possible time-dependent behaviour of these distributions in soil. The migration of radiocaesium into soil is dependent on several factors: soil properties, vegetation, mode of deposition, etc. For this reason, averaged distribution parameters for both total and Chernobyl 137 Cs have been used for deriving general trends of the migration processes. (au)

  10. Effect of Cs and Li atom adsorption on MgO: Secondary emission and work function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagraev, N.T.; Borisov, V.L.

    1980-01-01

    Adsorption of Cs and Li atoms on the surface of single crystal magnesium oxide films has been investigated using Auger, LEED and contact difference techniques. A decreased work function for a single crystal MgO film grown on the Mo (100) face was observed to be accompanied by an increased secondary electron emission yield shown to be due to a larger escape depth for secondary electrons. LEED showed well ordered layers of adsorbed Cs on the MgO film surface. A model to explain the behaviour of Cs atoms on the film surface is proposed. It is shown that the stability of the Cs coating is not dependent on a prolonged bombardment of the film by incident electron beams of high current density. Depositing and implanting of thin single crystal MgO films with Li were found to result in an increased secondary electron emission yield, with Li adsorption on the MgO film surface being disordered. (orig.)

  11. Evaluation of Cs-134 and Cs-137 in sugar by non-destructive analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correira, Filipe Lopes de Barros; Santos Júnior, José Araújo dos; Amaral, Romilton dos Santos; Santos, Josineide Marques do Nascimento; Medeiros, Nilson Vicente da Silva; Santos Junior, Otávio Pereira dos, E-mail: filipelbck@gmail.com, E-mail: jaraujo@ufpe.br, E-mail: romilton@ufpe.br, E-mail: josineide.santos@ufpe.br, E-mail: nilson.medeiros@ufpe.br, E-mail: otavio.santos@vitoria.ifpe.edu.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (RAE/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear. Grupo de Radioecologia; Vieira, José Wilson, E-mail: jose.wilson59@uol.com.br [Instituto Federal de Pernambuco (IFPE), Recife (Brazil); Valois, Rhaiana Caminha, E-mail: rhaianavalois@hotmail.com [Colégio Militar do Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The spread of anthropogenic radioisotopes in the environment comes from nuclear tests and accidents that occurred in the past, which justifies constant monitoring, to guarantee the safety and control of the activities that involve these applications. Brazil, when exporting some food products, depending on the country of origin, a radiometric report is required, especially for sugar that has high world consumption and the possibility of contamination of the population, when radioisotope is present. Therefore, the investigation of the levels of Cs-134 and Cs-137 in sugar matrices is necessary to predict radioecological emergency situations. The National Nuclear Energy Commission, the agency that oversees nuclear applications in Brazil, With Resolution No. 102 of December 22, 2010 approved regulatory positions, including levels of action for food control, recommended to restrict the marketing of food products in Brazil. General, whose specific activity is higher than the limit of 1.0 kBq / kg for the said isotopes of cesium independently. Aiming for improvements in the analyzes that are already performed in the Laboratory of Radioecology and Environmental Control of the Department of Nuclear Energy of the Federal University of Pernambuco to assurance the quality of sugar marketed in Brazil, a standard procedure for the analysis of these radionuclides in this matrix was determined. High resolution gamma spectrometry with non-destructive analysis was used to perform the tests. Priority was given to parameters that directly influence the qualitative and quantitative analysis of these radioactive elements, such as calibration in energy and efficiency, resolution, influence of self-absorption, counting statistics directly associated with the time of analysis, influence of background radiation and geometry analysis. (author)

  12. Evaluation of Cs-134 and Cs-137 in sugar by non-destructive analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correira, Filipe Lopes de Barros; Santos Júnior, José Araújo dos; Amaral, Romilton dos Santos; Santos, Josineide Marques do Nascimento; Medeiros, Nilson Vicente da Silva; Santos Junior, Otávio Pereira dos; Valois, Rhaiana Caminha

    2017-01-01

    The spread of anthropogenic radioisotopes in the environment comes from nuclear tests and accidents that occurred in the past, which justifies constant monitoring, to guarantee the safety and control of the activities that involve these applications. Brazil, when exporting some food products, depending on the country of origin, a radiometric report is required, especially for sugar that has high world consumption and the possibility of contamination of the population, when radioisotope is present. Therefore, the investigation of the levels of Cs-134 and Cs-137 in sugar matrices is necessary to predict radioecological emergency situations. The National Nuclear Energy Commission, the agency that oversees nuclear applications in Brazil, With Resolution No. 102 of December 22, 2010 approved regulatory positions, including levels of action for food control, recommended to restrict the marketing of food products in Brazil. General, whose specific activity is higher than the limit of 1.0 kBq / kg for the said isotopes of cesium independently. Aiming for improvements in the analyzes that are already performed in the Laboratory of Radioecology and Environmental Control of the Department of Nuclear Energy of the Federal University of Pernambuco to assurance the quality of sugar marketed in Brazil, a standard procedure for the analysis of these radionuclides in this matrix was determined. High resolution gamma spectrometry with non-destructive analysis was used to perform the tests. Priority was given to parameters that directly influence the qualitative and quantitative analysis of these radioactive elements, such as calibration in energy and efficiency, resolution, influence of self-absorption, counting statistics directly associated with the time of analysis, influence of background radiation and geometry analysis. (author)

  13. Evaluation Of The Radiological Situation In Algeria After The Algeciras Incident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. NOUREDDINE

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study has been carried out in the framework of our environmental monitoring programme and immediately after being informed by the IAEA of possible accidental releases of 137 Cs into the air, which might have been released between May 25 th and the first of June 1998 from the Acerinox factory in Algeciras (Spain. Algericas is the region where a steel-processing factory has been set up. During the work procedure, a radioactive source of 137 Cs passed through the furnace resulting in accidental releases into the atmosphere. This radioactive contamination was detected in France, Switzerland, Italy and Germany, and some radioactivity measurements were carried out by the Commissariat A l'Energie Atomique to evaluate the gamma radiation status in areas selected in Algeria. The approach adopted in our case was to start in situ gamma-radiation measurements and to collect air and soil samples as well from a selected area in Algiers. Afterwards, and in order to have more reliable results, a sampling program was carried out in July 1998, in the frame of which some sampling stations were established in the west of Algeria, based upon Algerian meteorological data during the period of incident. A total number of 16 environmental samples from 9 stations, namely, soil, sediment, vegetation and seawater were collected, followed by in situ gamma radiation measurements in each sampling location. Soil, sediment and vegetation samples were analysed by direct gamma spectrometry, whereas, sea water samples were analysed radiochemically using microcrystalline AMP for coprecipitation and gamma counted. Taking into consideration the background levels of radioactivity in the studied areas, obtained by our previous monitoring programs, the results obtained do not show any increase of 137 Cs resulting from the incinerated Caesium source in the Acerinox steel factory in Algeciras, Spain. The conclusion drawn by this work is that the investigated area was not

  14. Effect of crystal shape, size and reflector type on operation characteristics of gamma-radiation detectors based on CsI(Tl) and CsI(Na) scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Globus, M.E.; Grinyov, B.V.; Ratner, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    Operation characteristics of CsI(Tl) and CsI(Na) scintillation detectors, to a large degree connected with light collection in crystals, are calculated for various shapes, sizes and reflecting surface types. Allowance is made for the true light reflection indicatrix which is characterized by the effective mirror constituent of the reflected light, p. Its value , averaged over incidence angle, is used for the classification of reflecting surfaces. Operation characteristics (in particular, spectrometric ones) are found to be essentially dependent on . Tables of operation characteristics, given below, permit one to make inferential conclusions on an optimal combination of the shape, sizes an the reflecting surface version

  15. Activity ratios of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 239+240}Pu in environmental samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossew, P. [European Commission - DG Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability (IES), I-21020 Ispra (Vatican City State, Holy See,) (Italy)], E-mail: peter.bossew@jrc.it; Lettner, H. [Institute of Physics and Biophysics, University of Salzburg, Hellbrunner Strasse 34, A-5020 Salzburg (Austria)], E-mail: herbert.lettner@sbg.ac.at; Hubmer, A.; Erlinger, C.; Gastberger, M. [Institute of Physics and Biophysics, University of Salzburg, Hellbrunner Strasse 34, A-5020 Salzburg (Austria)

    2007-09-15

    Both global and Chernobyl fallout have resulted in environmental contamination with radionuclides such as {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 239+240}Pu. In environmental samples, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239+240}Pu can be divided into the contributions of either source, if also the isotopes {sup 134}Cs and {sup 238}Pu are measurable, based on the known isotopic ratios in global and Chernobyl fallout. No analogous method is available for {sup 90}Sr. The activity ratios of Sr to Cs and Pu, respectively, are known for the actual fallout mainly from air filter measurements; but due to the high mobility of Sr in the environment, compared to Cs and Pu, these ratios generally do not hold for the inventory many years after deposition. In this paper we suggest a method to identify the mean contributions of global and Chernobyl fallout to total Sr in soil, sediment and cryoconite samples from Alpine and pre-Alpine regions of Austria, based on a statistical evaluation of Sr/Cs/Pu radionuclide activity ratios. Results are given for Sr:Cs, Sr:Pu and Cs:Pu ratios. Comparison with fallout data shows a strong depletion of Sr against Cs and Pu.

  16. Regularities of food stuffs and ration contamination with radionuclide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkhudarov, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    Modelling of the process of contamination of food stuffs and rations as a whole in the case of aerial and soil ways of administration of 90 Sr and 137 Cs long-living radionuclides is presented. A modified formula which takes into account radionuclide content in the soil in the previous year and levels of precipitation for 2 years is given. A modified equation of 137 Cs content in soils and fallouts expressed through the value of the initial stratospheric reservoir is given. It is shown that since 1972 137 Cs has come in the ration as a whole and in milk primarily through the aerial way, while 137 Cs has come in bread and bakery products by a soil way in a practically equal amount. The data presented are mean values in the country. 137 Cs contamination in recent years occurs mainly by the soil way

  17. Properties of Cs-intercalated single wall carbon nanotubes investigated by 133Cs Nuclear Magnetic resonance

    KAUST Repository

    Schmid, Marc R.; Mahfouz, Remi; Bouhrara, Mohamed; Saih, Youssef; Mehring, Michael; Basset, Jean-Marie; Goze-Bac, Christophe; Abou-Hamad, Edy

    2012-01-01

    present within the carbon nanotube bundles. At high concentrations, the Cs (β)+ ions seem to occupy well defined positions relative to the carbon lattice. As a matter of fact, the Korringa relaxation behavior suggests a strong hyperfine coupling between Cs

  18. Double photoionisation in Rb and Cs in the threshold region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, D.M.P.; Codling, K.

    1981-01-01

    The extreme ultraviolet radiation emitted by the Bonn 2.5-GeV electron synchrotron, monochromatised by a 1-m vertically-dispersing Seya. The radiation, of 2 Angstroem band-pass (0.15 eV at 30 eV), was incident on an atomic beam of Rb or Cs vapour produced by a resistively heated oven. To avoid excessive oxidation, the oven was loaded with the alkali metal still under petroleum spirit and the residual spirit removed on evacuation of the system. The drift tube of a time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometer was placed at right angles to both the photon and atomic beams. The singly and doubly charged ions were pulsed out of the interaction region and detected by a microchannel-plate assembly placed at the end of the drift tube. The results for Rb are neither so accurate nor extensive as for Cs because a peak at mass number 44 in the TOF spectrum (probably CO 2 ), due to emission from the oven region, obscured the small Rb 2+ peak. The results for both Rb and Cs are shown as the ratios of double-to-single photoionisation. (orig./AH)

  19. Alternative agriculture as a substitute for environmental remediation. Production of poultry in radiologically contaminated areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, E.L.; Brisbin, I.L.; Kennamer, R.A. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Exploiting the physiological and ecological characteristics of domesticated species has seldom been considered as a means of returning radiologically contaminated areas to safe agricultural production. However, the proper choice of cultivated and domesticated species, together with appropriate husbandry practices, may allow safe production of foods, fibre and energy. As an example, factors that could permit safe production of food products for human consumption from poultry raised in contaminated areas are considered. These factors include radionuclide transfer from the environment into poultry and methods for reducing radionuclide uptake and/or decontaminating chickens to yield acceptable food products. Studies of growth and feed intake rates of chickens under intensive management and free-ranging husbandries, 137 Cs uptake by chickens exposed to contaminated sediments, potential effects of husbandry on 137 Cs concentrations and 137 Cs elimination by chickens after removal of contaminated feed are described. Data from these and other studies are combined in simulation models of the 13 '7Cs kinetics of chickens. Chicken product 137 Cs concentrations ([ 137 Cs]s) decrease with increases in body mass, apparently as a result of decreasing mass specific intake rates. Husbandries that increase contaminant intake (e.g. free-ranging rearing conditions versus brooder house production) or access to contaminated soils (e.g. scattering feed directly onto contaminated solid versus the use of feeders) increase total body [ 137 Cs]s. However, model simulations indicate that it is possible to produce safe poultry products (especially eggs) at all but unrealistically high feed contamination levels. Even when dietary 137 Cs levels produce [ 137 Cs]s in poultry products that exceed acceptable limits, the high metabolism of poultry leads to a rapid decrease in [ 137 Cs]s once the chickens are placed on uncontaminated rations. This permits the use of contaminated feed or forage for

  20. 137Cs in the meat of wild boars: a comparison of the impacts of Chernobyl and Fukushima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhauser, Georg; Saey, Paul R J

    The impact of Chernobyl on the 137 Cs activities found in wild boars in Europe, even in remote locations from the NPP, has been much greater than the impact of Fukushima on boars in Japan. Although there is great variability within the 137 Cs concentrations throughout the wild boar populations, some boars in southern Germany in recent years exhibit higher activity concentrations (up to 10,000 Bq/kg and higher) than the highest 137 Cs levels found in boars in the governmental food monitoring campaign (7900 Bq/kg) in Fukushima prefecture in Japan. The levels of radiocesium in boar appear to be more persistent than would be indicated by the constantly decreasing 137 Cs inventory observed in the soil which points to a food source that is highly retentive to 137 Cs contamination or to other radioecological anomalies that are not yet fully understood.

  1. The influence of biotic and abiotic factors on (137)Cs accumulation in higher fungi after the accident at Chernobyl NPP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarubina, N

    2016-09-01

    Levels of soil contamination with (137)Cs, the belonging of fungi to a certain ecological group, the localization depth of the main part of mycelium in soil are the primary factors influencing the value of (137)Cs specific activity in higher fungi after the accident at Chernobyl NPP. It has been found that the value of (137)Cs specific activity in fungi of one species could vary by more than 10 times during a vegetation period. A correlation between the changes of (137)Cs content in fungi during the vegetation period and the amount of precipitates during various periods preceding the collection of samples has not been determined. An assumption has been proposed stating dependence between peculiarities of mycelium growth during the vegetation period and the changes of (137)Cs specific activity in fungi. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Temperature and Pressure Dependence of the Reaction S plus CS (+M) -> CS2 (+M)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glarborg, Peter; Marshall, Paul; Troe, Juergen

    2015-01-01

    Experimental data for the unimolecular decomposition of CS2 from the literature are analyzed by unimolecular rate theory with the goal of obtaining rate constants for the reverse reaction S + CS (+M) -> CS2 (+M) over wide temperature and pressure ranges. The results constitute an important input...

  3. Patterns of Cs-137 and Sr-90 distribution in conjugated landscape systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobova, E.

    2012-04-01

    The main goal of the study was to reveal spatial patterns of 137Cs and 90Sr distribution in soils and plants of conjugated landscapes and to use 137Cs as a tracer for natural migration and accumulation processes in the environment. The studies were based on presumptions that: 1) the environment consisted of interrelated bio- and geochemical fields of hierarchical structure depending on the level and age of factors responsible for spatial distribution of chemical elements; 2)distribution of technogenic radionuclides in natural landscapes depended upon the location and type of the initial source and radionuclide involvement in natural pathways controlled by the state and mobility of the typomorphic elements and water migration. Case studies were undertaken in areas subjected to contamination after the Chernobyl accident and in the estuary zones of the Yenisey and Pechora rivers. First observations in the Chernobyl remote zone in 1987-1989 demonstrated relation between the dose rate, 137Cs, 134Cs, 144Ce, 106Ru, 125Sb in soil cover and the location of the measured plot in landscape toposequence. Later study of 137Cs and 90Sr concentration and speciation confirmed different patterns of their distribution dependent upon the radioisotope, soil features and vegetation cover corresponding to the local landscape and landuse structure. Certain patterns in distribution and migration of 137Cs and 90Sr in soils and local food chain were followed in private farms situated in different landscape position [1]. Detailed study of 137Cs activity in forested site with a pronounced relief 20 and 25 years after the Chernobyl accident showed its stable polycentric structure in soils, mosses and litter which was sensitive to meso- and micro-relief features [2]. Radionuclide contamination of the lower Yenisey and Pechora studied along meridian landscape transects proved both areas be subjected to global 137Cs pollution while the Yenisey floodplain received additional regional contamination

  4. Vertical profile of 137Cs in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krstić, D; Nikezić, D; Stevanović, N; Jelić, M

    2004-12-01

    In this paper, a vertical distribution of 137Cs in undisturbed soil was investigated experimentally and theoretically. Soil samples were taken from the surroundings of the city of Kragujevac in central Serbia during spring-summer of 2001. The sampling locations were chosen in such a way that the influence of soil characteristics on depth distribution of 137Cs in soil could be investigated. Activity of 137Cs in soil samples was measured using a HpGe detector and multi-channel analyzer. Based on vertical distribution of 137Cs in soil which was measured for each of 10 locations, the diffusion coefficient of 137Cs in soil was determined. In the next half-century, 137Cs will remain as the source of the exposure. Fifteen years after the Chernobyl accident, and more than 30 years after nuclear probes, the largest activity of 137Cs is still within 10 cm of the upper layer of the soil. This result confirms that the penetration of 137Cs in soil is a very slow process. Experimental results were compared with two different Green functions and no major differences were found between them. While both functions fit experimental data well in the upper layer of soil, the fitting is not so good in deeper layers. Although the curves obtained by these two functions are very close to each other, there are some differences in the values of parameters acquired by them.

  5. 137Cs concentration in some Philippine foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    dela Cruz, B.; Marzan, A.M.; Lagmay, N.; Anden, A.

    1977-01-01

    The current investigation being made by the Philippine Atomic Research Center on the 137 Cs content of the different foods commonly used by the Filipinos is described and preliminary results are reported. The 137 Cs content is determined radiochemically only for the edible portion of the food

  6. Sedimentation rates measurements in former channels of the upper Rhone river using Chernobyl 137Cs and 134Cs as tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rostan, J.C.; Juget, J.; Brun, A.M.

    1997-01-01

    Former river channels are aquatic ecosystems with a different geomorphology generated by fluvial dynamics more or less linked to the main channel. They present different ecological successions to become terrestrial ecosystems and are thus supposed to have different sedimentation rates. The aim of this paper is to assess this sedimentation rate using radioactive tracer methodology commonly used in lake studies. Chernobyl impacts, expressed in 137 Cs concentration and 137 Cs/ 134 Cs ratio, were determined in sediment cores. Sites (21) were sampled in the alluvial plain of the Upper Rhone River from 1989 to 1994. The contamination presented a high spatial heterogeneity. The maximum values encountered by site ranged between 34 and 541 Bq/kg of dry matter. The method generally gave good core profiles. Sedimentation rate ranged between 0.14 and 0.70 cm/year for the former meanders and between 0.14 and 2.86 cm/year for the braided channels. The sediment accumulation rates ranged from 0.03 to 0.25 g/cm 2 per year and 0.03 to 2.26 g/cm 2 per year, respectively. These values are similar to those found for Lake Geneva. The importance of the former channels in relation to the main channel is enhanced by the higher contamination and radionuclides retention. The sediment accumulation rate is related to the organic carbon content in the sediment. A comparison between two former channels with different productivity showed that the the allogeneous driven system presents a high organic sediment accumulation rate with a low organic content in the sediment and inversely, a low organic sediment accumulation rate with a high organic carbon content was found for the autogeneous driven system

  7. Inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizae does not improve 137Cs uptake in crops grown in the Chernobyl region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinichuk, M; Mårtensson, A; Rosén, K

    2013-12-01

    Methods for cleaning up radioactive contaminated soils are urgently needed. In this study we investigated whether the use of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi can improve (137)Cs uptake by crops. Barley, cucumber, perennial ryegrass, and sunflower were inoculated with AM fungi and grown in low-level radionuclide contaminated soils in a field experiment 70 km southwest of Chernobyl, Ukraine, during two successive years (2009-2010). Roots of barley, cucumber and sunflower plants were slightly or moderately infected with AM fungus and root infection frequency was negatively or non-correlated with (137)Cs uptake by plants. Roots of ryegrass were moderately infected with AM fungus and infection frequency was moderately correlated with (137)Cs uptake by ryegrass. The application of AM fungi to soil in situ did not enhance radionuclide plant uptake or biomass. The responsiveness of host plants and AM fungus combination to (137)Cs uptake varied depending on the soil, although mycorrhization of soil in the field was conditional and did not facilitate the uptake of radiocesium. The total amount of (137)Cs uptake by plants growing on inoculated soil was equal to amounts in plant cultivated on non-inoculated soil. Thus, the use of AM fungi in situ for bioremediation of soil contaminated with a low concentration of (137)Cs could not be recommended. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evolution of 137Cs and 90Sr content of the main foodstuff in Bucharest area after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toader, M.; Vasilache, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    Soon after the Chernobyl accident, the radioactive cloud, carrying the nuclides released into the atmosphere, reached Romania and, due to the rainy weather, an important fallout occurred over the Romanian territory. The most important contaminants for Romania were I 131 , Cs 134 , Cs 137 and Sr 90 . As in many other countries, in the first days, I 131 had the main contribution to the irradiation dose released to the population. After its decay, and the decay of other short-lived radionuclides, Cs 137 and Sr 90 remained the most important contaminants. The principal route of intake for these two radionuclides is considered to be the ingestion of contaminated foods. To assess the radioactive burden of foods, a long term, large scale survey was initiated at the National Institute of Hygiene and Public Health (INISP). These results were then used to assess the doses committed to cesium and strontium intake and the excedentary cancer risk for the population from Bucharest area

  9. {sup 137}Cs in northern Adriatic sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barisic, D; Lulic, S; Vdovic, N; Vertacnik, A [Center for Marine Research - Department Zagreb, ' Ruder Boskovic' Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Juracic, M [Department of Geology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Zagreb, Zagreb (Croatia)

    1996-01-01

    The activity of {sup 137}Cs in shallow northern Adriatic sediments was obtained on the basis of measurement results from 25 sediment box cores, sampled during the Adriatic Scientific COoperation Program (ASCOP) 16 cruise in the summer 1990. {sup 137}Cs was determined in surface sediments (0-3 cm) and 12-15 cm-deep sediment. It was found that the lowest caesium concentrations correspond to sands, which are spread along the Croatian coast. Parallel to the Italian coast, {sup 137}Cs concentrations in pelites are the highest. It seems that the influence of Po River is significant for {sup 137}Cs activities in recent marine sediments along Italian coast south of Po River delta. Significantly higher {sup 137}Cs activities in 0-3 cm sediment layer can be attributed to the deposition caused by Chernobyl accident. (author)

  10. 137Cs in northern Adriatic sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barisic, D.; Lulic, S.; Vdovic, N.; Vertacnik, A.; Juracic, M.

    1996-01-01

    The activity of 137 Cs in shallow northern Adriatic sediments was obtained on the basis of measurement results from 25 sediment box cores, sampled during the Adriatic Scientific COoperation Program (ASCOP) 16 cruise in the summer 1990. 137 Cs was determined in surface sediments (0-3 cm) and 12-15 cm-deep sediment. It was found that the lowest caesium concentrations correspond to sands, which are spread along the Croatian coast. Parallel to the Italian coast, 137 Cs concentrations in pelites are the highest. It seems that the influence of Po River is significant for 137 Cs activities in recent marine sediments along Italian coast south of Po River delta. Significantly higher 137 Cs activities in 0-3 cm sediment layer can be attributed to the deposition caused by Chernobyl accident. (author)

  11. Cs2UPd3Se6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George N. Oh

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Dicaesium uranium(IV tripalladium(II hexaselenide, Cs2UPd3Se6, crystallizes in the space group Fmmm in the Ba2NaCu3O6 structure type. The asymmetric unit comprises the following atoms with site symmetries as shown: U1 (mm2, Cs1 (222, Cs2 (m2m, Pd1 (.m., Pd2 (2mm, Se1 (m.., and Se2 (1. This layered structure contains six edge-sharing square-planar [PdSe4] units that form a hexagon. These, in turn, edge-share with [USe6] trigonal–prismatic units, forming an extended layer parallel to (010. The layers are stacked along [010]. They are staggered, and are separated by the Cs atoms. The Cs atoms are either coordinated in a square antiprism of Se atoms or are ten-coordinate, with one square face and the opposite face hexagonal.

  12. The Radiological Condition of 137 Cs in the Northern Adriatic Sea (2006-2007)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavicic-Hamer, D.; Lulic, S.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, the Croatian Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Center for Marine Research Rovinj has studied the levels and distribution of long-lived radionuclides in different marine samples. Artificial radioactivity in the northern Adriatic Sea was assessed by analysis of the concentration of 137Cs in seawater, sediment and marine organisms. A comparison of radioactive contamination was made between different ecosystems including in front of the river Po delta, the protected area of Lim bay and the Rovinj coastal area from 2006 to 2007. At the station which was under the direct influence of the Po river discharge the concentrations of 137Cs in seawater were back to pre-Chernobyl values (2.65 Bq m-3), although in sediment values were slightly higher (9.06 Bq/kg). Inside Lim bay the concentrations of 137Cs in seawater were low (1.99 Bq m -3 ) and in mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis were undetectable in this period. The concentrations of 137Cs in seawater in the surface layer in the Rovinj coastal area remained constant (2.43 Bq m-3), as were found within the top sediment layer (2.15 Bq/kg). The concentrations of 137Cs were detectable at very low levels in Mugil cephalus and Sardina pilchardus. Fucus virsoides and Mullus barbatus can be considered a good bio indicator of monitoring radio contamination in the Adriatic Sea. The radiological status of 137Cs in the Adriatic Sea has returned to the pre-accident level, taking into consideration their natural fluctuations due to physico-chemical and hydrological parameters in the investigated area. Such knowledge of radioactive contamination could be useful in the estimation of the state of the environment and as an input to plans for the protection of the Adriatic Sea.(author)

  13. Transfer of 137Cs to agricultural products in southern Sweden after a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haak, E.; Eriksson, Aake; Loensjoe, H.; Rosen, K.

    1998-12-01

    This report contains calculations of expected 137 Cs transfer from contaminated agricultural land to crop and animal products in the southern part of Sweden; Skaane and Blekinge. The fallout has been simulated to be 1 MBq per m 2 , uniformly deposited on the ground surface in the spring of 1995. The report covers a period of 20 years or the years 1996-2015. The calculations of 137 Cs transfer to crop products are based on official crop statistics of the year 1996 and earlier observed soil/plant transfer ratios. These ratios vary with crop and soil type. The sensitivity for 137 Cs-transfer from soil to plant varies between the counties. This variability depends on smaller root uptake in loamy than in sandy soils and less in sandy than in organic soils, and to a different distribution of these three soil types. The 137 Cs-transfer to crop products decreases considerably during a 20 years period. This depends on nuclide decay and on decreased root availability. As shown in tables and figures, the decrease is larger during the first years after fallout than later. This depends on successive ploughing of grass land during the crop rotation, which drastically decreases the root availability. Agricultural land is used for cultivating sale and fodder crops. The fodder crops are the main bases for transfer to animal products. The passage through the animal body will cause the main part of the 137 Cs intake to be linked off before the transfer to the animal products. The 137 Cs-content in a certain product will finally determine if it can be used for human intake. The 137 Cs-transfer to cow feed in MBq per 100 hectare decreases with time and, in analogy with the mean transfer to all crop products, more in the first years than in later years due to successive ploughing of grassland in the existing crop rotations. The calculations for the counties, which were made against the background of earlier Swedish micro plot and field experiments, clearly show that it will be effective

  14. Cesium-137 Contaminated Roads and Health Problems in Residents: an Epidemiological Investigation in Seoul, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Mina; Ju, Young Su; Lee, Won Jin; Hwang, Seung Sik; Yoo, Sang Chul; Choi, Kyung Hwa; Burm, Eunae; Lee, Jieon; Lee, Yun Keun; Im, Sanghyuk

    2018-02-26

    In 2011, two roads in a residential area in Seoul were found to be contaminated with the radionuclide cesium-137 (137Cs). In response to public concerns, an epidemiological study was conducted. The standardized cancer incidence ratios in the affected and neighboring regions were calculated based on the central cancer registry. Households in the region were sampled using the random stratified sampling technique, and questionnaires were administered to family members, via home visit and via students in elementary to high schools. Information on duration of residency and frequency of use of the roads was applied to calculate cumulative radiation exposure dose from the roads, alongside with the reported 137Cs contamination amounts. Information on past medical history, perceived risk, anxiety and psychological stress was also obtained. Of the 31,053 residents, 8,875 were analyzed. To examine possible associations between radiation exposure and health problems, logistic regression adjusted for covariates were performed with consideration of the sampling design, population weight and stratification. No significant association was found between self-informed diseases, including cancers, and estimated radiation exposure dose. According to an increase of radiation level, a significant increase in anxiety in all and a decline in the psychosocial wellbeing of the adults was noted. The risk perception level was higher in the elderly, females, the less educated, and the highest exposed individuals. This study provides a basis for risk communication with residents and community environmental health policy. © 2018 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  15. {sup 137}Cs Distribution in the Northern Adriatic Sea (2006-2010)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavicic-Hamer, D. [' Ruder Boskovic' Institute, Centre for Marine Research, Rovinj (Croatia); Barisic, D., E-mail: pavicic@cim.irb.hr [' Ruder Boskovic' Institute, Division for Marine and Environmental Research, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2013-07-15

    Artificial radioactivity in the northern Adriatic Sea was assessed by analysis of {sup 137}Cs concentrations in seawater, sediment and marine organisms. A comparison of radioactive contamination was made between different parts of the marine ecosystem including the area of the Po river delta, the protected area of the Lim bay and the Rovinj coastal area in the period from 2006 to 2010. In the area of the Po river delta {sup 137}Cs concentrations in seawater had decreased back to pre-Chernobyl values (2.48 Bq/m), although in sediment they were slightly higher (8.70 Bq/kg). Inside the Lim bay area {sup 137}Cs concentrations in surface water were low (1.93 Bq/m) and, in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, even undetectable in this period. In the Rovinj coastal area {sup 137}Cs concentrations in surface water remained constant (2.23 Bq/m), as well as in the surface sediment (1.88 Bq/kg). {sup 137}Cs concentrations were detectable at very low activity levels in Mugil cephalus and Sardina pilchardus. The data indicate that some species such as the intertidal brown algae Fucus virsoides and the benthic fish Mullus barbatus are better bio-accumulators of {sup 137}Cs than others. These species should be used as bio-indicators in future monitoring schemes in the A driatic Sea. (author)

  16. Field determination of 137Cs assimilation efficiencies in wild cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garten, C.T. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Unexplained anomalies have been found between predicted and observed values when a model is used to predict radiocesium uptake by wild cotton rats. An experiment is described in which laboratory-born cotton rats from wild parents were released into rat-proof enclosures on a site contaminated with 137 Cs. The rats fed on fescue growing in the enclosures. Samples of soil, fescue, rat carcasses and GI tracts from these plots were analyzed for 137 Cs. When assimilation efficiencies for radiocesium were calculated from the results of these measurements values lower than those previously assumed to apply to the uptake 134 137 Cs across the mammalian GI tract were obtained. It is suggested that these lower values may be due to the contribution of soil-bound 137 Cs to 137 Cs levels in plants and rat GI tracts since examination of GI tracts indicates that wild cotton rats ingest some soil, and soil-bound Cs cannot be readily extracted by gastric juice. (author)

  17. Radio contamination control on imported food. The bilberry case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zappa, S.; Calabrese, M.; Stancher, B.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper was pointed out the European regulation concerning the permissible limits of 137 Cs contamination in food importation, from countries affected by the consequences of the Chernobyl accident of 1986. A discussion about the control systems is lead and original data concerning the importation of the fruits of bilberry, a species particularly sensitive to radio contamination, are reported [it

  18. Analysis of 137Cs radionuclides activities in Cs-zeolite using gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noviarty; Ginting, Aslina Br; Anggraini, Dian; Rosika K

    2013-01-01

    137 Cs Radionuclide activity analysis has been carried out. The objective is to determine the activity of the 137 Cs radionuclide in Cs-zeolite are packaged in the form of point source. Analysis of 137 Cs Radionuclide activities in Cs zeolite samples was determined by measuring intensity of the isotope 137 Cs gamma energy at 661.7 keV use-y spectrometer. Before measurement the sample, was first carried out measurements of 137 Cs radionuclide in certified point standards from Amersham, to determine the efficiency value. Result the standard sample measurement obtained the efficiency value of 43.98%. Efficiency values obtained are used in the calculation of sample activity. On the measurement of the intensity of the sample obtained results dose rate 196.4537 cps with a standard deviation of 0.5274. By using standard measurement efficiency values obtained by the calculation of the average activity of the radionuclide 137 Cs in Cs-zeolite 524.9082 Bq. Deviation measurements were below 5% (0.27% ) so that the analysis of the activity of radionuclide 137 Cs in Cs-zeolite samples using gamma spectrometer can be accepted with a 95% confidence level. (author)

  19. Maps of surface activity of 137Cs of Slovakia on scale 1:200 000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gluch, A.

    2005-05-01

    The present set of maps (13 maps) arose from the geological project 'Re-ambulation of 137 Cs radioactivity map of Slovakia at scales 1:200 000 and 1:500 000' in phase of indicative geological survey of environmental factors. Maps document the state of contamination of the territory of Slovakia by one of the radioisotopes cesium-137 at the reference date 01.01.2005. In solving of geological tasks were used all available relevant data on measurements of 137 Cs activity from the whole territory of the Slovak Republic for the period from 1990 to 2003 from results of air and ground gamma spectrometric measurements. (authors)

  20. Environmental distribution of long-lived radionuclides /sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Csupka, S [Krajska Hygienicka Stanica, Bratislava (Czechoslovakia)

    1977-01-01

    Between 1963 and 1974 the content was investigated of /sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs in various parts of human environment. From food chains milk and dairy products, flour and flour products were chosen being the main sources of radioactivity produced by the above mentioned radionuclides to which the human population is exposed. In 1972 /sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs in the daily intake of food were responsible for 60 to 70% of total radioactivity in milk and flour products. On a world scale radioactive fallout continues to be the primary source of radioactive contamination with the soil in which radionuclides are accumulated being the secondary source.

  1. Foliar absorption and leaf-fruit transfer of 137Cs in fruit trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anguissola Scotti, I.; Silva, S.

    1992-01-01

    Measurements of 137 Cs and 40 K have been carried out on the leaves and fruit of cherry, peach, pear and apple trees contaminated by the radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear accident. It has been shown that the activity of 137 Cs in leaves depends on the interception ability of the foliage, while the amount transferred from leaves to fruit seems to be related more to genetic factors of the individual species and cultivar than to the quantity present in the leaves. (author)

  2. 137Cs and 90Sr in the water of the ChNPP cooling pond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Kanivets

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Results of long-term observations on 137Cs and 90Sr concentration in water mass of the ChNPP Cooling Pond are presented. Drastic transformation of the intrinsic trend in changes with time of averaged radionuclides con-tent in water is clearly demonstrated alongside with the spatial heterogeneity of radioactive contamination of water body. The cycling character of seasonal changes of 137Cs activity concentration in water is being linked to hydrochemical, temperature and oxygen regimes of the Cooling Pond.

  3. Distribution of 137Cs among individuals in fish and mammal populations in Chornobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.; Glenn, T.; Oleksyk, T.; Gashchak, S.; Zalissky, A.

    2001-01-01

    The frequency distribution of 137 Cs in populations of fish and mammals is not normal, because there is a strong relationship between the standard deviation and the mean of the distributions for both fish and mammals. The distribution for mammals is more skewed than for fish. These two types of vertebrates probably use their environment in fundamentally different ways and/or 137 Cs is distributed more heterogeneously in terrestrial than in aquatic environments. The greatest risk from the contaminant is confined to a few individuals in each population

  4. Enviromental influences on the 137Cs kinetics of the yellow-bellied turtle (Trachemys Scripta)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, E.L.; Brisbin, L.I. Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Assessments of ecological risk require accurate predictions of contaminant dynamics in natural populations. However, simple deterministic models that assume constant uptake rates and elimination fractions may compromise both their ecological realism and their general application to animals with variable metabolism or diets. In particular, the temperature-dependent model of metabolic rates characteristic of ectotherms may lead to significant differences between observed and predicted contaminant kinetics. We examined the influence of a seasonally variable thermal environment on predicting the uptake and annual cycling of contaminants by ectotherms, using a temperature-dependent model of 137 Cs kinetics in free-living yellow-bellied turtles, Trachemys scripta. We compared predictions from this model with those of deterministics negative exponential and flexibly shaped Richards sigmoidal models. Concentrations of 137 Cs in a population if this species in Pond B, a radionuclide-contaminated nuclear reactor cooling reservoir, and 137 Cs uptake by the uncontaminated turtles held captive in Pond B for 4 yr confirmed both the pattern of uptake and the equilibrium concentrations predicted by the temperature-dependent model. Almost 90% of the variance on the predicted time-integrated 137 Cs concentration was explainable by linear relationships with model paramaters. The model was also relatively insensitive to uncertainties in the estimates of ambient temperature, suggesting that adequate estimates of temperature-dependent ingestion and elimination may require relatively few measurements of ambient conditions at sites of interest. Analyses of Richards sigmoidal models of 137 Cs uptake indicated significant differences from a negative exponential trajectory in the 1st yr after the turtles' release into Pond B. 76 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs

  5. Surface Decontamination Studies of Cs-137 and Sr-85 Using Polymer Gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham, L.; Nguyen, C.; Nguyen, L.

    2015-01-01

    Strippable polymer coating is one of the methods for effective surface decontamination to remove isotopes on the contaminated surface. This method is applying in nuclear facilities on the World. In this paper, we present the results obtained in our laboratory from product the polymer coating to apply to remove radioisotopes of "1"3"7Cs and "8"5Sr from surface of glass, stainless steel, mild steel, ceramic, PVC plastic. This polymer gel solution consist of water soluble polymer preferably polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), plasticizing agent (glycerine) and chelating agents, (citric acid) which can be sprayed or pasted on to contaminated surface. After some hours, these gel solutions was dried to form a strong thin film and it was easily peeled off from a contaminated surface with the radioactive isotopes and can be disposed off as radioactive solid waste. In this study infrared spectrophotometry technique was used to examine the interaction of the cesium and strontium ions with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), polymer gel and the results of the study were also presented. The results showed that decontamination efficiency of "1"3"7Cs and "8"5Sr strongly depended on property, porosity and smoothness of the contaminated surface and obtained from 95-99% on glass and stainless steel, ceramic and PVC plastic surfaces. The decontamination efficiency also depended on activity and coating thickness. Optimization of film thickness is around 0.2 mm. Decontamination efficiency of Polymer gel were compared with Decongel 1101 (product from USA) on surfaces. IR spectra studies indicated that Cs and Sr ions interacted with PVA and citric acid in Polymer gel through cacboxyl (C = O) group. Polymer gel could remove of "1"3"7Cs and "8"5Sr better than PVA gel does because of citric acid, which can form chelating complex with Cs and Sr ion. (author)

  6. Molecular CsF{sub 5} and CsF{sub 2}{sup +}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogachev, Andrey Yu. [Illinois Institute of Technology, IL (United States). Dept. of Biological and Chemical Sciences; Miao, Mao-sheng [California State Univ., Northridge, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry; Beijing Computational Science Research Center (China); Merino, Gabriel [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Unidad Merida (Mexico). Dept. de Fisica Aplicada; Hoffmann, Roald [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Biology

    2015-07-06

    D{sub 5h} star-like CsF{sub 5}, formally isoelectronic with known XeF{sub 5}{sup -} ion, is computed to be a local minimum on the potential energy surface of CsF{sub 5}, surrounded by reasonably large activation energies for its exothermic decomposition to CsF + 2F{sub 2}, or to CsF{sub 3} (three isomeric forms) + F{sub 2}, or for rearrangement to a significantly more stable isomer, a classical Cs{sup +} complex of F{sub 5}{sup -}. Similarly the CsF{sub 2}{sup +} ion is computed to be metastable in two isomeric forms. In the more symmetrical structures of these molecules there is definite involvement in bonding of the formally core 5p levels of Cs.

  7. Environmental contamination from a ground-level release of fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stupka, R.C.; Kephart, G.S.; Rittmann, P.D.

    1986-08-01

    On January 11, 1985, a ground-level release of fission products, primarily 90 Sr, occurred at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The release was detected during routine surveys and the majority of the contamination was confined to the immediate area where the release occurred. Response to the incident was complicated by a strong inversion that resulted in a buildup of 222 Rn daughter products on environmental air samples and outdoor surfaces. The cause of the release appears to have been the operation of a transfer jet that inadvertently pressurized an unblanked line leading to the 241-C-151 Diversion Box. A buildup of pressure inside the diversion box forced contaminated air through gaps in the diversion box cover blocks resulting in an unmonitored, short duration release to the environment. The source term was estimated using data obtained from environmental air samplers. The ground deposition speed was calculated using the integrated exposure (air samples) and surface contamination levels obtained from recently fallen snow. The total release was estimated to be 1.4 Ci 90 Sr and 0.02 Ci 137 Cs. Based on this source term, the maximum 50-yr dose commitment to onsite pesonnel was 50 mrem whole body and 600 mrem bone. No detectable internal deposition occurred during the incident and corrective action which followed; this was probably due to several factors: (1) prompt detection of the release; (2) localized contamination control; (3) excellent personnel protection practices; and (4) the protection offered by building ventilation systems. The theoretical maximum offsite individual would receive a potential 1-yr dose commitment of 0.01 mrem whole body and 0.2 mrem bone from this incident. The potential 50-yr dose commitment would be 0.13 mrem whole body and 2.0 mrem bone. In actuality, neither onsite or offsite individuals would be expected to receive even these small dose commitments

  8. Variation of sup 137 Cs levels between sexes, body sizes and collection localities of mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki (Girard 1859), inhabiting a reactor cooling reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, M.C.; Brisbin, I.L. Jr. (Savannah River Ecology Lab., Aiken, SC (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Whole body concentrations of {sup 137}Cs were determined for 190 mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) collected in April 1987 from three locations in a former cooling reservoir which had been contaminated with {sup 137}Cs from production reactor effluents between 1961 and 1964. Male fish collected near the point where the reactor effluent had entered the reservoir tended to have higher {sup 137}Cs concentrations than those from the other locations. Females did not differ in {sup 137}Cs concentrations between the three locations. Females at the site of contaminant entry tended to decrease in {sup 137}Cs concentration as body size increased. These results suggest that that radionuclide whole body concentrations may vary in unexpected ways between sex or size classes within a given species and that such differences may also vary within microgeographic scales. (author).

  9. Incidents with hazardous radiation sources; Zwischenfaelle mit gefaehrlichen Strahlenquellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenhacker, Stefan [Bundesministerium fuer Inneres, Traiskirchen (Austria). Abt. 1/9 - Zivilschutzschule

    2016-07-01

    Incidents with hazardous radiation sources can occur in any country, even those without nuclear facilities. Preparedness for such incidents is supposed to fulfill globally agreed minimum standards. Incidents are categorized in incidents with licensed handling of radiation sources as for material testing, transport accidents of hazardous radiation sources, incidents with radionuclide batteries, incidents with satellites containing radioactive inventory, incidents wit not licensed handling of illegally acquired hazardous radiation sources. The emergency planning in Austria includes a differentiation according to the consequences: incidents with release of radioactive materials resulting in restricted contamination, incidents with release of radioactive materials resulting in local contamination, and incidents with the hazard of e@nhanced exposure due to the radiation source.

  10. Factors affecting 137Cs bio- availability under the application of different fertilizing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorkova, M. V.; Belova, N. I.

    2012-04-01

    Although it has been 25 years since the Chernobyl accident, it was generally found that radiocaesium remained bio-availability in some regions. Plant uptake of 137Cs is depended from quantity of exchangeable radionuclide and strongly influenced by soil properties. The addition of fertilizers to soil induces chemical and biological changes that influence the distribution of free ions the different phases (soil and soil solution). In this study we try to estimate influence of different soil conditions affecting the 137Cs bio-availability under the application of manure and inorganic fertilizers. Our research carried out in 2001-2008 years on contaminated after Chernobyl accident sod-podzolic soil during of prolonged field experiment. The experimental site was located in south-west of Bryansk region, Russia. Contamination density by 137Cs in the sampling point was equal to 475±30 kBq/m2. The sequence of crops in rotation was: 1) potato; 2) oats 3) lupine 4) winter rye. Three fertilizing systems were compared: organic - 80 tons per hectare of cow manure; inorganic fertilizing system - different rates of NPK (low, temperate and high) and mixed - 40 tons per hectare of cow manure + NPK. Main soil properties and chemical form of 137Cs and K (potassium) were detected. Radiocaesium activity was determined in soil and plant samples by gamma spectrometry, using a high purity Ge detectors. Overall efficiency was known to an accuracy of about 10-12%. Obtained results shows, that various fertilizing systems influence soil properties, chemical forms of 137Cs and K in soil and radionuclide soil-to-plant transfer in different ways. The highest reduction of exchangeable 137Cs in soil was found in case with application of organic fertilizers and also - temperate NPK rates. Part of exchangeable 137Cs is equal 6.8% (from total activity) in case of manure, 7.8% in case of inorganic fertilizers with control value - 10.2%. Caesium mobility in soil is affected by such soil properties as

  11. Transfer of 137Cs to wild vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Nobuhiko; Natsuhori, Masahiro; Mezawa, Akane; Kawakami, Akira

    1998-01-01

    For the evaluation of internal radiation dose, it is needed to estimate the amount of radionuclide incorporated to human body using a simulation model. 137 Cesium (Cs) is easily transferred associating with food intake as well as potassium and so, Cs is an important nuclide for evaluation of internal radiation. 137 Cs concentrations in wild vegetables are higher than those of cultured vegetables and milk. Therefore, the transfer coefficients of 137 Cs from soil to wild vegetables were estimated in this study. Wild vegetables and soils of their farms were collected in the Hakkoda Mountain range of Aomori Prefecture. The levels of 137 Cs in wild vegetables were 0.42-18.35 (Bq/kg), whereas those in cabbage and spinach were 0.08 and 0.01 (Bq/kg), respectively, indicating that the Cs level is dozens to several hundreds times higher in wild vegetables than cultured ones. And the transfer coefficient was estimated as 0.003-0.94 for the former and 0.001-0.8 for the latter. On the other hand, 1 37 Cs levels of the soils on which wild vegetables grew was 28.0 Bq/kg and it was 3.9 Bq/kg for the farm soil. Furthermore, the effects of water content and pH of the soil on the transfer coefficient were studied. (M.N.)

  12. Potential value of Cs-137 capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomster, C.H.; Brown, D.R.; Bruno, G.A.; Hazelton, R.F.; Hendrickson, P.L.; Lezberg, A.J.; Tingey, G.L.; Wilfert, G.L.

    1985-04-01

    We determined the value of Cs-137 compared to Co-60 as a source for the irradiation of fruit (apples and cherries), pork and medical supplies. Cs-137, in the WESF capsule form, had a value of approximately $0.40/Ci as a substitute for Co-60 priced at approximately $1.00/Ci. The comparison was based on the available curies emitted from the surface of each capsule. We developed preliminary designs for fourteen irradiation facilities; seven were based on Co-60 and seven were based on Cs-137. These designs provided the basis for estimating capital and operating costs which, in turn, provided the basis for determining the value of Cs-137 relative to Co-60 in these applications. We evaluated the effect of the size of the irradiation facility on the value of Cs-137. The cost of irradiation is low compared to the value of the product. Irradiation of apples for disinfestation costs $.01 to .02 per pound. Irradiation for trichina-safe pork costs $.02 per pound. Irradiation of medical supplies for sterilization costs $.07 to .12 per pound. The cost of the irradiation source, either Co-60 or Cs-137, contributed only a minor amount to the total cost of irradiation, about 5% for the fruit and hog cases and about 20% for the medical supply cases. We analyzed the sensitivity of the irradiation costs and Cs-137 value to several key assumptions.

  13. Potential value of Cs-137 capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloomster, C.H.; Brown, D.R.; Bruno, G.A.; Hazelton, R.F.; Hendrickson, P.L.; Lezberg, A.J.; Tingey, G.L.; Wilfert, G.L.

    1985-04-01

    We determined the value of Cs-137 compared to Co-60 as a source for the irradiation of fruit (apples and cherries), pork and medical supplies. Cs-137, in the WESF capsule form, had a value of approximately $0.40/Ci as a substitute for Co-60 priced at approximately $1.00/Ci. The comparison was based on the available curies emitted from the surface of each capsule. We developed preliminary designs for fourteen irradiation facilities; seven were based on Co-60 and seven were based on Cs-137. These designs provided the basis for estimating capital and operating costs which, in turn, provided the basis for determining the value of Cs-137 relative to Co-60 in these applications. We evaluated the effect of the size of the irradiation facility on the value of Cs-137. The cost of irradiation is low compared to the value of the product. Irradiation of apples for disinfestation costs $.01 to .02 per pound. Irradiation for trichina-safe pork costs $.02 per pound. Irradiation of medical supplies for sterilization costs $.07 to .12 per pound. The cost of the irradiation source, either Co-60 or Cs-137, contributed only a minor amount to the total cost of irradiation, about 5% for the fruit and hog cases and about 20% for the medical supply cases. We analyzed the sensitivity of the irradiation costs and Cs-137 value to several key assumptions

  14. Migration and chemical extractability of 137Cs and 90Sr in Swedish long-term experimental pastures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, S.; Strandmark, M.

    1999-01-01

    Vertical migration and chemical extractability were studied on two experimental pastures, a sandy soil and a clay soil, contaminated with 137 Cs and 90 Sr in 1961. Migration was studied by measuring the total nuclide content in soil samples to 55 cm depth, chemical extractability by sequential extraction. Both 137 Cs and 90 Sr were found at all depths in both soils, and 90 Sr had moved deeper than 137 Cs. 137 Cs was mainly found in the upper 10 cm, and no difference was seen between clay and sandy soil, due to retention in the root mat of the sandy soil. 90 Sr had moved deeper in sandy than in clay soil, the reason being the higher exchange capacity of the clay soil. Sequential extractions showed that 90 Sr was much more extractable than 137 Cs. 96-98% of 137 Cs was found in the HNO 3 and residual fractions. 137 Cs was more extractable in the sandy soil than in clay, and in the sandy soil the extractability of 137 Cs increased slightly with depth. Regarding 90 Sr, 63-75% was found in the easily exchangeable fractions, the higher figure was in clay soil. A large proportion, 18-30%, was extracted in the reducible fraction, showing that availability of 90 Sr might increase under reducing conditions. (au)

  15. Phytoremediation of 137Cs from low level nuclear waste using Catharanthus roseus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulekar, M.H.; Singh, Anamika; Thorat, Vidya; Kaushik, C.P.; Eapen, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Remediation of radionuclides has been carried out using the phytoremediation technology. The green plants have been screened for the uptake potential of radionuclide and found that Catharanthus roseus has the high potential for radionuclides in particular 137 Cs. Low level nuclear waste (LLNW) collected from effluent treatment plant, BARC has been characterized for physico-chemical and the presence of traces of radionuclides. LLNW was spiked with 3.7 x 10 4 kBqL -1 activity level of 137 Cs. The plants of C. roseus were grown in (i) LLNW, (ii) 137 Cs spiked LLNW and (iii) with the control. The radio activities were measured in the solution at the intervals of 0, 1, 2, 3, 6, 8 and 15 days in triplicate set of the experiment. The plants were harvested after the growth. The depletion of 137 Cs in LLNW was found to be 19, 21, 24, 38, 60 and 76% at intervals of 1, 2, 3, 6, 8 and 15 days, respectively. The bio-accumulation of 137 Cs has been measured in the roots and shoots of the harvested plants. The activity of 137 Cs was found higher in shoots (998 kBq g -1 dw) as compared to the roots (735 kBq g -1 dw). The uptake of radionuclide- 137 Cs, bio-accumulation in the shoot via the active transport from the root, shows the high efficiency and potentiality of C. roseus for the remediation of radionuclide. The bio-accumulation of 137 Cs in the shoot will remediate the radionuclide contamination from LLNW. C. roseus can also be made applicable for effective remediation of radionuclides present in the LLNW. (author)

  16. 137Cs in mushrooms from Croatia sampled 15-30 years after Chernobyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucaković, Ivana; Barišić, Delko; Grahek, Željko; Kasap, Ante; Širić, Ivan

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to select species with higher potential to accumulate 137 Cs among the available mushroom species, by determining the activity concentrations of 137 Cs in mushrooms collected along north and north-western part of Croatia. A total of 55 samples of 14 different species were analyzed and the potential of mycorrhizal and saprotrophic species to accumulate 137 Cs was compared. A wide range of the dry weight activity concentrations of 137 Cs was detected, ranging from 0.95 to 1210 Bq/kg (154 Bq/kg mean value; 52.3 Bq/kg geometric mean) in mycorrhizal and 1.05-36.8 Bq/kg (8.90 Bq/kg mean value; 5.49 Bq/kg geometric mean) in saprotrophic species. Statistical analyses showed that mycorrhizal species accumulate significantly higher concentrations of 137 Cs and thus could perform better as long-term bioindicators of environmental pollution by radiocaesium then saprotrophic species. The comparison of Boletus sp. and Hydnum repandum (both mycorrhizal species commonly found in Croatia) showed, in general order of magnitude, higher accumulation in Hydnum repandum. Clearly, mushrooms, especially mycorrhizal species, can be used as significant indicators even decades after the occurrence of any serious 137 Cs contamination event. However, as a wide range of values indicates that various parameters may influence the total uptake of the 137 Cs into the mushroom fruit bodies, it is necessary to emphasize that 137 Cs activity detected in a single mushroom sample is very site-specific. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Characterizing fallout material using Cs and Pu atom ratios in environmental samples from the FDNPP fallout zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, David; Dunne, James; Martin, Peter; Scott, Tom; Yamashiki, Yosuke; Coath, Chris; Chen, Hart

    2017-04-01

    Here we report the use of combined of Cs and Pu isotope measurements to investigate the extensive plumes of radioactive fallout from the disaster at Fukishima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FNDPP) in March 2011. Among the aims of our study are improved assessment of the physico-chemical nature and changing distribution of land-based fallout. 135Cs/137Cs and 134Cs/137Cs atom ratios are indicative of conditions that relate to the nuclear fission reactions responsible for producing the respective radiocaesium isotopes, and offer much more in terms of forensic and chronological analysis than monitoring 137Cs alone. We briefly present methods to quantify the atom ratios of Cs and Pu isotopes in soil, lichen and moss samples from FDNPP catchment using mass spectrometry (ThermoTRITON for Cs and ThermoNEPTUNE for Pu). High precision data from Fukushima are presented (e.g decay corrected 135Cs/137Cs atom ratio = 0.384 ± 0.001 (n = 5) for roadside dust from Iitate region), and these are in agreement with prelimary estimates by others. We also confirm results for IAEA-330, a spinach sample collected from Polesskoe, Ukraine and subject to contamination from the Chernobyl accident. In addition to Cs isotopes, we adopt Pu isotopes to add a further dimension to the forensic analysis. We discuss the corrections required for background levels prior to the disaster, possibility for multiple components of fallout and complicating factors associated with remobilisation during the clean-up operation. In parallel with this work on digests and leaches from bulk environmental samples, we are refining methods for particle identification, isolation and characterisation using a complementary sequence of cutting-edge materials and manipulation techniques, including combined electron microscopy, focused ion beam techniques (Dualbeam), nano/micro manipulators and nano-scale imaging x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (NanoESCA) and microCT.

  18. Fission products in National Atmospheric Deposition Program—Wet deposition samples prior to and following the Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Plant incident, March 8?April 5, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherbee, Gregory A.; Debey, Timothy M.; Nilles, Mark A.; Lehmann, Christopher M.B.; Gay, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Radioactive isotopes I-131, Cs-134, or Cs-137, products of uranium fission, were measured at approximately 20 percent of 167 sampled National Atmospheric Deposition Program monitoring sites in North America (primarily in the contiguous United States and Alaska) after the Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Plant incident on March 12, 2011. Samples from the National Atmospheric Deposition Program were analyzed for the period of March 8-April 5, 2011. Calculated 1- or 2-week radionuclide deposition fluxes at 35 sites from Alaska to Vermont ranged from 0.47 to 5,100 Becquerels per square meter during the sampling period of March 15-April 5, 2011. No fission-product isotopes were measured in National Atmospheric Deposition Program samples obtained during March 8-15, 2011, prior to the arrival of contaminated air in North America.

  19. 137Cs distribution in guava trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosquera, B.; Veiga, R.; Mangia, L.; Carvalho, C.; Estellita, L.; Uzeda, D.; Facure, A.; Violini, B.; Anjos, R.M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents results of 137 Cs concentration measured from a guava tree cultivated after the first decontamination work of one of the sites where the worst Brazilian radiological accident occurred. The present work aims to verify how the 137 Cs is transported and distributed along the tropical trees. Bi-dimensional analyses of the radial distribution of 137 Cs in the main trunk are also presented. Neither symmetrical nor homogeneous behaviors of the specific activity distribution in the tree rings were observed. (author)

  20. {sup 137}Cs distribution in guava trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosquera, B.; Veiga, R.; Mangia, L.; Carvalho, C.; Estellita, L.; Uzeda, D.; Facure, A.; Violini, B.; Anjos, R.M. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2004-09-15

    This paper presents results of {sup 137}Cs concentration measured from a guava tree cultivated after the first decontamination work of one of the sites where the worst Brazilian radiological accident occurred. The present work aims to verify how the {sup 137}Cs is transported and distributed along the tropical trees. Bi-dimensional analyses of the radial distribution of {sup 137}Cs in the main trunk are also presented. Neither symmetrical nor homogeneous behaviors of the specific activity distribution in the tree rings were observed. (author)

  1. CsI and some new photocathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.F.; Kwan, S.; Peskov, V.

    1993-06-01

    A discussion of the possible sources of discrepancies in the measurements of the quantum efficiency of CsI photocathodes is presented. We propose that the major causes for disagreements in QE are due to the QE dependence on the current density extracted from the photocathode, on the electric field, and on the temperature of the photocathode. Preliminary results on TMAE enhanced GaAs and Si, plus TMAE protected CsTe and SbCs photocathodes, operated in gas, are also presented

  2. Coordination polyhedra CsCln in crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serezhkin, V.N.; Serezhkina, L.B.

    1999-01-01

    Characteristics of the Voronoi-Dirichlet polyhedrons are estimated for 133 crystallographic cesium atoms in chlorides Cs x M y Cl z (M=Cd, Sc, V, Nb, Mo, W, Ru, Re, etc.). It is found that cesium atoms have coordination numbers 6,8,9,10, 11 and 12 as regards the chlorine atoms. The results of cesium atom coordination sphere examination by the crossing spheres method are presented. Metal-metal interactions (including Cs-Cs) in the structure of certain chlorides are revealed

  3. A study of bacterial contamination of rattlesnake venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Garcia-Lima

    1987-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors studied the bacterial contamination of rattlesnake venom isolated from snakes in captivity and wild snakes caught recently. The captive snakes showed a relatively high incidence of bacterial contamination of their venom.

  4. Inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizae does not improve 137Cs uptake in crops grown in the Chernobyl region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinichuk, M.; Mårtensson, A.; Rosén, K.

    2013-01-01

    Methods for cleaning up radioactive contaminated soils are urgently needed. In this study we investigated whether the use of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi can improve 137 Cs uptake by crops. Barley, cucumber, perennial ryegrass, and sunflower were inoculated with AM fungi and grown in low-level radionuclide contaminated soils in a field experiment 70 km southwest of Chernobyl, Ukraine, during two successive years (2009–2010). Roots of barley, cucumber and sunflower plants were slightly or moderately infected with AM fungus and root infection frequency was negatively or non-correlated with 137 Cs uptake by plants. Roots of ryegrass were moderately infected with AM fungus and infection frequency was moderately correlated with 137 Cs uptake by ryegrass. The application of AM fungi to soil in situ did not enhance radionuclide plant uptake or biomass. The responsiveness of host plants and AM fungus combination to 137 Cs uptake varied depending on the soil, although mycorrhization of soil in the field was conditional and did not facilitate the uptake of radiocesium. The total amount of 137 Cs uptake by plants growing on inoculated soil was equal to amounts in plant cultivated on non-inoculated soil. Thus, the use of AM fungi in situ for bioremediation of soil contaminated with a low concentration of 137 Cs could not be recommended. -- Highlights: • Effect of mycorrhization on 137 Cs uptake by crops was studied in a field experiment. • AM fungi did not enhance radionuclide plant uptake or biomass. • Plants growing on inoculated and non-inoculated soil accumulate 137 Cs equally

  5. Regeneration of Used Frying Palm Oil with Coffee Silverskin (CS), CS Ash (CSA) and Nanoparticles of CS (NCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Samir Abd-Elmonem A; El-Anany, Ayman Mohammed; Ali, Rehab Farouk M

    2017-01-01

    The present investigation aimed to evaluate the efficiency of coffee silverskin (CS), CS ash (CSA) and nanoparticles of CS (NCS) in regeneration the quality of used frying palm oil. The adsorbents were mixed individually with used frying palm oil at level 4% (w/v) for 60 min. The properties of CS, CSA and NCS adsorbents were studied using (SEM) scanning electron microscopy technique. Some of physico-chemical characteristics of used frying palm oil (UFPO) and UFPO treated with adsorbents were determined. The results showed that the CS ash particles composed of irregular spherical and semispherical grains with deep cavities. The size of particles of CS ash ranged in diameter from 1.1 to 1.7 µm. The morphology of NCS consisted of cluster-type spherical nanoparticles and flakes. The particle size of NCS varies from 0.9 to 1.7 µm. Purification treatments caused marked (poil compared to untreated oil. The treatment of UFPO with 4% of adsorbents caused significant reductions in the content of free fatty acids ranged from 51.2 to 65.0%. The lowest level of peroxide (2.1 meq/kg) was recorded for UFPO treated with 4% of NCS. The highest reductions (72.8; 70.0%) in p-anisidine value were observed in UFPO treated with 4% of CSA and NCS, respectively. Treatment of UFPO with 4% of CS, CSA and NCS significantly lowered the polar content from 13.9% to 6.3, 4.8 and 3.9%, respectively. The results also indicate that CSA and NCS have nearly the same adsorption efficiency in lowering polymer content of UFPO. Filtration treatment of UFPO with 4% of CS, CSA and NCS markedly lowered the viscosity and colour values of treated UFPO.

  6. [Energy pooling collisions for K(4P) + Cs(5D) in a K-Cs mixture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aihemaiti, Pulati; Dai, Kang; Lu, Xin-hong; Shen, Yi-fan

    2005-04-01

    The rate coefficients for energy-pooling collisions K(4P) + Cs(5D) --> Cs(6S) + K(4D, 6S) in the K-Cs vapor mixture were measured relative to a known energy-pooling rate coefficient of a homonuclear reaction [i. e., Cs(6P) + Cs(5D) --> Cs(6S) + Cs (7D(J))]. Populations of the Cs(6P, 5D) and K(4P) states were produced by photodissociation of K2 and Cs2 molecules through the use of a dye laser radiation. The resulting fluorescence included the direct components emitted in the decay of the excited states produced by photodissociation and the induced components arising from the collisionally populated states. By combining relative intensities of the components with the effective lifetimes of Cs(6P) and K(4P) states, the rate coefficients (in units of 10(-9) cm3 x s(-1)) for the heteronuclear energy-pooling were found to be 2.6 and 3.6, respectively. The contribution to the rate coefficients from other processes are discussed.

  7. Properties of Cs-intercalated single wall carbon nanotubes investigated by 133Cs Nuclear Magnetic resonance

    KAUST Repository

    Schmid, Marc R.

    2012-11-01

    In the present study, we investigated Cs-intercalated single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) using 133Cs Nuclear Magnetic resonance. We show that there are two types of Cs cations depending on the insertion level. Indeed, at low concentrations, Static spectra analysis shows that the Cs (α)+ species are fully ionized, i.e. α equal ca.1, while at higher concentrations a second paramagnetically shifted line appears, indicating the formation of Cs (β)+ ions with β < α ∼ +1. At low concentrations and low temperatures the Cs (α)+ ions exhibit a weak hyperfine coupling to the SWCNT conduction electrons, whereas, at higher temperatures, a thermally activated slow-motion diffusion process of the Cs (α)+ ions occurs along the interstitial channels present within the carbon nanotube bundles. At high concentrations, the Cs (β)+ ions seem to occupy well defined positions relative to the carbon lattice. As a matter of fact, the Korringa relaxation behavior suggests a strong hyperfine coupling between Cs nuclei and conduction electrons in the carbon nanotubes and a partial charge transfer, which suggest a plausible Cs(6s)-C(2p) hybridization. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Map of radioactive contamination in mushrooms of Poland in 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mietelski, J.W.; Jasinska, M.; Kubica, B.; Kozak, K.; Macharski, P.

    1992-01-01

    Results from part of the Polish Government programme for forests radioactive contamination studies are presented. 278 samples of edible mushroom (Xerocomus badius) were analysed for radiocesium 137 Cs and 134 Cs) and 40 K using low-background gamma spectrometer with a germanium detector. Samples were collected from all districts of Poland in October 1991 by forest inspectors. In consequence maps of 137 Cs, 134 Cs and for 40 K concentration in ''Xerocomus badius'' are presented. The method of measurements is also presented. Large differences in radiocesium contamination levels are observed for various parts of the country. The higher radiocesium contamination level is observed in Czestochowa-Opole region. Maximum value for 137 Cs is equal to 157 kBq/kg d.m. and that for 134 Cs is equal to 16.3 kBq/kg d.m. The 40 K content level is nearly constant and equal to c.a. 1.3 kBq/kg d.m. Minimum values for caesium contamination were observed in the Bieszczady Mountains. The effective dose equivalent estimation due to the consumption of mushrooms is performed. The limits of ingestion amounts are calculated. (author). 15 refs, 15 figs, 6 tabs

  9. Restoration of water environment contaminated by radioactive cesium released from Fukushima Daiichi NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeshita, K.; Takahashi, H. [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 157-8550 (Japan); Jinbo, Y. [CDM Cosulting Co.Ltd., 1-13-13 Tsukiji Chuo-ku Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Ishido, A. [Radwaste and Decommissioning Center, 1-7-6 Toranomon, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-0001 (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    In the Fukushima Daiichi NPP Accident, large amounts of volatile radioactive nuclides, such as {sup 131}I, {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs, were released to the atmosphere and huge areas surrounding the nuclear site were contaminated by the radioactive fallout. In this study, a combined process with a hydrothermal process and a coagulation settling process was proposed for the separation of radioactive Cs from contaminated soil and sewage sludge. The coagulation settling operation uses Prussian Blue (Ferric ferrocyanide) and an inorganic coagulant. The recovery of Cs from sewage sludge sampled at Fukushima city (100.000 Bq/kg) and soil at a nearby village (55.000 Bq/kg), was tested. About 96% of Cs in the sewage sludge was removed successfully by combining simple hydrothermal decomposition and coagulation settling. However, Cs in the soil was not removed sufficiently by the combined process (Cs removal is only 56%). The hydrothermal decomposition with blasting was carried out. The Cs removal from the soil was increased to 85%. When these operations were repeated twice, the Cs recovery was over 90%. The combined process with hydrothermal blasting and coagulation settling is applicable to the removal of Cs from highly contaminated soil.

  10. Aerial radiometric surveying of Goiania city, Brazil, after the accident with Cs-137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreto, P.M.C.; Fonseca, E.S. da

    1988-01-01

    A low altitude (40 m) aeroradiometric survey with an helicopter was carried out over Goiania city few days after the Cs-137 radiological accident was communicated to CNEN. The objective was to evaluate the extension of the contamination. All the urban area plus dwellings centers in the outskirts of the city as well as drainage systems were surveyed in two days of operation. A total of 67 million m 2 were evaluated. This survey found out only one contamination point (1.1 R/h) which was not yet identified by the ground crews. No contamination was found in the Capin Puba Creek and Meia Ponte river. Detection tests at differen heights over the main contamination points showed that Cs-137 radiation could be detected at more than 350m above them. The results demonstrated that the contamination was restricted to points in the neighbourhood of the junkyard where the source was violated. Such points were under the control of CNEN personnel. The advantages of the airbone technique was to cover a large area in short time. The non-existence of a regional contamination was an important fact to calm the population and the Government. (author) [pt

  11. Evaluation of the effect of blood contamination on the compressive strength of MTA modified with hydration accelerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaveh Oloomi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives This study was performed to evaluate the effect of blood contamination on the compressive strength (CS of Root MTA (RMTA modified with Calcium chloride (CaCl2 and Disodium hydrogen phosphate (Na2HPO4 as setting accelerators over time. Materials and Methods A total of 110 cylindrical specimens of RMTA were divided into 6 experimental groups as follows: Group1, RMTA; Group 2, RMTA modified with CaCl2 (RMTA-C; Group 3, RMTA modified with Na2HPO4 (RMTA-N; Group 4, RMTA contaminated with blood; Group 5, RMTA-C contaminated with blood; Group 6, RMTA-N contaminated with blood. The CS of specimens in all groups was evaluated after 3 hr, 24 hr, and 1 wk. In the modified groups (groups 2, 3, 5, and 6 the CS of five specimens per group was also evaluated after 1 hr. Results Blood contamination significantly reduced the CS of all materials at all time intervals (p < 0.05. After 3 hr, the CS of specimens in the RMTA groups (with and without blood contamination was significantly lower than those in the RMTA-C and RMTA-N groups (p < 0.05. The CS values were not significantly different at the other time intervals. In all groups, the CS of specimens significantly increased over time (p < 0.05. Conclusions Blood contamination decreased the CS of both original and accelerated RMTA.

  12. Combating radiocesium contamination in farm animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hove, K.; Ekern, A.

    1988-01-01

    Considerable amounts of radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl accident swept central parts of Norway, where especially native mountain areas but also some agricultural land were heavily contaminated. Parts of the heavily polluted areas are important in Norwegian animal production, being grazed by reindeer all year, and by sheep, goats and cattle in the summer. Cs-137 and Cs-134 appeared in feeds shortly after the accident and the levels increased throughout the summer. In this paper some of the results obtained in experiments with contaminated animals in Norway are reviewed. Experiments in connection with the use of uncontaminated feeds for decontamination of farm animals, the transfer of radioactivity to milk, and the use of cesiumbinders to reduce cesium contamination are described

  13. Chernobyl and its effects in terms of food contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    The contamination of plant surfaces and roots is gone into. There is a continuous decrease in contamination as a result of washout and dilution from plant growth. In animals, contamination decreases as a result of biological secretion. The isotopes I-131, Cs-137, and Sr-90 were investigated. To avoid high radiation, the author recommends to banish mushrooms, game, goat's meat, and mutton from the table. (PW) [de

  14. Modelling of 137Cs behaviour in forest ecosystems and prediction of its accumulation in forest products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiridonov, S.I.; Fesenko, S.V.; Gontarenko, I.A.; Avila, R.

    2001-01-01

    A mathematical model of 137 Cs migration in forest ecosystem contaminated due to the Chernobyl accident presented, which describes the behaviour of this radionuclide in the forest litter-soil system, tress, and forest animals. The model's parameters for different types of forest ecosystems are estimated and model's adequacy is tested through the use of independent experimental data. The sensitivity of the model's output variables is analyzed to variations in the most significant parameters. The differences in the seasonal and mean annual dynamics of 137 Cs concentration in muscles of roe deers and mooses are shown to be defined by specific features of the diets of these animals and variations in 137 Cs content in the main diet components [ru

  15. Optimization of CHA-PCFC Hybrid Material for the Removal of Radioactive Cs from Waste Seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Keun-Young; Kim, Jimin; Park, Minsung; Kim, Kwang-Wook; Lee, Eil-Hee; Chung, Dong-Yong; Moon, Jei-Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The liquid waste treatment processes in the normal operation of nuclear power plant are commercialized, those in the abnormal accidents have not been fully developed until now. In the present study, as a preliminary research for the development of precipitation-based treatment process specialized for the removal of Cs from waste seawater generated in the emergency case, the performance test of a hybrid material combining chabazite and potassium cobalt ferrocyanide was conducted. Also the synthesis method for the hybrid adsorbent was optimized for the best Cs removal efficiency on the actual contamination level of waste seawater. Because the temperature effect on the synthesis of PCFC was confirmed by preliminary experiments, the optimization of CHA-PCFC synthesis was also conducted. The hybrid material synthesized at 40 .deg. C showed the highest distribution coefficient of Cs in the same manner of the performance of PCFC synthesized at the lower temperature than that of conventional methods.

  16. Study of the Quantum Efficiency of CsI Photocathodes Exposed to Oxygen and Water Vapour

    CERN Document Server

    Di Mauro, A; Piuz, François; Schyns, E M; Van Beelen, J B; Williams, T D

    2000-01-01

    The operation of CsI photocathodes in gaseous detectors requires special attention to the purity of the applied gas mixtures.We have studied the influence of oxygen and water vapour contaminations on the performance of CsI photocathodes for theALICE HMPID RICH prototype. Measurements were done through comparison of Cherenkov rings obtained from beamtests. Increased levels of oxygen and water vapour did not show any effect on the performance. The results of this studyfound a direct application in the way of storing CsI photocathodes over long periods nad in particular in the shipment of theHMPID prototype from CERN to the STAR experiment at BNL. (Abstract only available,full text to follow)

  17. Transfer of 137Cs in Zea mays and Phaseolus vulgaris in a semi-arid ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervantes, M.L.; Segovia, N.; Gaso P, M.I.; Palacios, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    With the objective to analyse the transference of 137 Cs from soil to plants, it is realized a study in maize and bean plants in the Radioactive Waste Storage Center (CADER). This site is located in a semi-arid region with a characteristic vegetation of a sub humid temperature zone. So those plants maize and beans were cultivated in four zones near CADER during a four years period. The obtained results for 1991 to 1994 for 137 Cs in soil samples for those zones showed an evident contamination in zone 1, due to a rupture of an industrial source. In 1994 the effect of decontamination was evident since the values of specific activity found in roots were around magnitude lesser than found in 1992. In spite of exhaustive studies have been reported about the transference factors for 137 Cs in different agricultural foods, relatively few of them have paid attention to the interactions between cereals and leguminous associated in semiarid ecosystems. (Author)

  18. Adsorption of *sp134*Cs onto two different types of roof materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quenild, C.; Tveten, U.

    1983-01-01

    The report relates to a subproject under a Nordic project called ''Large reactor accidents - consequences and mitigating actions''. Natural decontamination of two types of roof material, typical of Norwegian and Swedish buildings, was examined. The roofs were contaminated with *sp134*Cs. After two days with 7 mm precipitation, the remaining activity on the tar-paper roof was 97% and on the steel roof 29%. After 8 months the remaining activity was 61% on the tar-paper roof and 22% on the steel roof. In spring *sp134*Cs was spread upon an 8 cm thick layer of fresh snow on an additional tar-paper roof. After 3 montsh and 191 mm precipitation the remaining activity was 59%. All results are based upon *sp134*Cs in collected run-off water.(Auth.)

  19. Bioaccumulation of 137Cs in pelagic food webs in the Norwegian and Barents Seas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heldal, Hilde Elise; Foeyn, Lars; Varskog, Per

    2003-01-01

    Knowledge and documentation of the levels of radioactive contamination in fish stocks important to Norwegian fisheries is of major importance to Norwegian consumers and fish export industry. In the present study, the bioaccumulation of caesium-137 ( 137 Cs) has been investigated in marine food webs in the Barents and Norwegian Seas. The contents of 137 Cs in the different organisms were generally low ( -1 wet weight), but a marked bioaccumulation was apparent: The concentration of 137 Cs was about 10-fold higher in the harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena, representing the upper level of the food web, than in the amphipod Themisto sp., representing the lower level of the food web. The Concentration Factors (CF=Bq kg -1 wet weight/Bq l -1 seawater) increased from 10±3 for a mixed sample of krill and amphipods to 165±5 for harbour porpoises

  20. Determination of Cs-134 and Cs-137 in different food-stuffs and environmental-stuffs collected from Serina area in Lombardy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimoldi, E.M.; Di Giancamillo, M.; Cavallone, E.; Brambilla, P.

    1999-01-01

    After the explosion of the reactor n°4 in the Ukrainian Nuclear Power Plant of Chernobyl, the highest radioactive contamination in Italy was observed in Lumbardy. In 1996, ten years after the Chernobyl's accident, the Authors carried out an investigation on soil samples from Serina area, in the district of Bergamo. N°158 samples have been analysed by NaI(Tl) detector (3x3), collected from surface soil and subsoil, running and stagnating waters, mosses, lichens, mushrooms, water-plants, fodder leafage, berries, pine-needles, striated muscle from cattle, sheep, chamois, roe-deer, milk and cheeses from cow and goat, chicken eggs. In all the soil samples analysed Cs-137 was detectable, and its activity was constantly higher in surface soil samples and particularly in those from woods. In May, the seasonal fallout period at our latitudes, it has been detected on Alben Mount a light fallout of Cs-134. In the samples collected on poly-phyto meadows no trace of Cs-137 has been detected, while in samples from wood's ecosystem this isotope was always detectable. Cs-137 was also present in the muds of the bottom of a small natural alpine lake and in water-plants there growing. On the basis of these data the Authors infer that mosses and lichens are the best markers of environmental contamination due to Cs-137. They suggest that it is absolutely necessary to continue to control regularly every substrate included in the food chain and of zootechnic and environmental interest with the following aims: i) to study the capacity of various ecosystems to metabolize the products derived from the Chernobyl's accident; ii) to safeguard the public health against future emergencies: iii) to keep under control foodstuff for human and animal feeding, which, because of the markets' globalization, can arrive from everywhere

  1. 137Cs monitoring in the meat of wild boar population in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Beňová

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, due to the elapsed time and the nature of the Chernobyl accident, the only artificial radionuclide present in the soil is 137Cs, with a physical half-life conversion of 30.17 years. The 137Cs is quickly integrated into a biological cycle, similar to potassium. Generally, radionuclides are characterized by their mobility in soil. Contamination of materials and food by radionuclides represent a serious problem and has a negative impact on human health. The threat of international terrorism and the inability to forestall the impact of natural disasters on nuclear energetic (Fukushima accident, are also reasons for continuous monitoring of food safety. According screening measurement performed in European countries, high radioactivity levels were reported in the wild boars muscles from Sumava (Czech Republic. Seasonal fluctuation of 137Cs activity in the wild boar meat samples was observed in the forests on the southern Rhineland. Monitoring of 137Cs activity in the wild boar meat samples in the hunting grounds in Slovakia was initiated based on the reports on exceeding limits of the content of radiocaesium in the meat of wild boar from the surrounding countries. The aim of this study was to determine the 137Cs post Chernobyl contamination of wild boars population in different hunting districts of Slovakia during 2013 - 2014. A total of 60 thigh muscle samples from wild boars of different age categories (4 months - 2 years were evaluated. 137Cs activity was measured by gamma spectrometry (Canberra. Despite the fact Slovakia is closer to Chernobyl as Czech Republic and Germany, the 137Cs activity measured was very low and far below the permitted limit. The highest radiocaesium activity level measured in muscle was 37.2 Bq.kg-1 ±4.7%. Wild boar originated from Zlate Moravce district. The measurement results show, that 137Cs contamination levels of game in Slovakia are low. Radiocaesium activity in examined samples was very low and

  2. Evaluation of 137Cs mobility in soil profiles from the Pantanal region, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Fernanda Leite da

    2013-01-01

    Radioactive pollutants can cause impact on the environmental quality of soils and pose a risk to human health. The release of radioactive materials through nuclear testing or nuclear accidents cause the deposition of radionuclides on the ground,· it may be leached by rain, transported to the sources of natural waters and absorbed by the soil fauna and flora, and thus enter the human food chain. Radioecological studies have shown that soils with low pH, low organic matter content and low fertility are more vulnerable to contamination by 137 Cs, since the transfer to plants is high. In this study, we aimed to assess and map the vulnerability to contamination by 137 Cs surface horizons of the soils from the Pantanal and propose mitigation measures adapted to the regional scenario to optimize radiological protection of agricultural areas. Therefore, selected soil profiles located in the municipality of Jaraguari, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, and applied the conceptual model developed by Picanco Jr (2012), which was used in the reference values of the factor of soil-plant transfer (FT) for 137 Cs in corn, related soil variables (pH, CTC and exchangeable K) and relevance of parameters and variations of amplitudes for each value range of FT. The application of this conceptual model established to detect the vulnerability of soils to radioactive contamination generated maps vulnerability showing that the region is very heterogeneous as this criterion, showing low levels of vulnerability for most of the region and in some areas, extreme vulnerability. This result identified the Pantanal as one of the less vulnerable to the radioactive contamination, but the sparse areas of extreme vulnerability can lead to contamination of subsoil and a significant spread of contamination via groundwater. This conceptual model, which defines vulnerability classification, is a first step for the study and determination of a numerical index of vulnerability to 137 Cs soil and can be used in

  3. New technology of CRDM-CS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasushi Nozaki; Hiroyuki Ukon; Toshiaki Matsumura; Yoshihiro Sakurai; Sigenori Hatazawa; Hitoshi Yamagishi; Katsuji Kaneizumi; Hisashi Yasuda

    2005-01-01

    Control Rod Drive Mechanism Control System (CRDM-CS) for PWR Nuclear Power Plant was developed as a domestic product in 1975 and it has been applied to the commercial power plants. Since then, the CRDM-CS has been continuously improved through applying a double-hold-system, an intensified monitoring system, etc. As the result of these modifications unexpected rod drops have never occurred more than ten years in Japanese PWR plants. The system is still so high reliable, however, the technologies of employed devices are old-fashioned and we face on the difficulty to keep spare-parts these days. On the other hand, there are new movements to seek after the plant life extension of 60 years. These situations require a modernized CRDM-CS to accomplish the reliability in accordance to the plant life extension. to comply the above-mentioned object we developed a new CRDM-CS applied with following technologies; 1) Digitalized logic cabinet, 2) I.G.B.T in the main circuit of power cabinet, 3) Standardized cabinet by employing the unit structure, 4) Unnecessary DC hold power cabinet. These measures can play an important role in cost cutting and space reduction in replacing CRDM-CS. The concepts in developing the new CRDM-CS, the applied technologies to the power cabinet, the system structure and characteristics of the logic cabinet and the outline of verification test and result are discussed in this paper. (authors)

  4. Costs of groundwater contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neil, W.B.; Raucher, R.S.

    1990-01-01

    Two factors determine the cost of groundwater contamination: (1) the ways in which water was being used or was expected to be used in the future and (2) the physical characteristics of the setting that constrain the responses available to regain lost uses or to prevent related damages to human health and the environment. Most contamination incidents can be managed at a low enough cost that uses will not be foreclosed. It is important to take into account the following when considering costs: (1) natural cleansing through recharge and dilution can take many years; (2) it is difficult and costly to identify the exact area and expected path of a contamination plume; and (3) treatment or replacement of contaminated water often may represent the cost-effective strategy for managing the event. The costs of contamination include adverse health effects, containment and remediation, treatment and replacement costs. In comparing the costs and benefits of prevention programs with those of remediation, replacement or treatment, it is essential to adjust the cost/benefit numbers by the probability of their actual occurrence. Better forecasts of water demand are needed to predict more accurately the scarcity of new supply and the associated cost of replacement. This research should include estimates of the price elasticity of water demand and the possible effect on demand of more rational cost-based pricing structures. Research and development of techniques for in situ remediation should be encouraged

  5. Case study the Cs-137 Zea mays grown at a semi arid ecosystem the Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervantes, L.; Quintero, E.; Rojas, V.

    2006-01-01

    A study of 1 37Cs in soil and Maize plants, (Zea mays) has been performed at the confined Storage Centre for Radioactive Waste from Mexico. The site is located in a semiarid region with a vegetation characteristic of a temperature sub humid zone. Under field conditions the site was divided in four zones 20x30 m, with different soil contamination characteristics, the zones 1 to 4 in lines separated 50 cm between them. The maize plants in the lines were separated 40 cm between them. The plants were grown 'in situ' reproducing the local agricultural. The soil and plant (root, stem, leaves, and grains) samples were analysed for 1 37Cs . The specific activities were determined in a dry weight (d.w.) basis by low background gamma spectrometry with a 29.7% relative efficiency HPGe detector . The geometry used was a 500 ml Marinelli beaker and the measurement time was 60.000 s per sample, to achieve a detection limit of 1 Bq.kg - 1 for 1 37Cs. The counting errors for the measurements were usually lower than 10% The results indicate that one of the zones had a striking 1 37Cs contamination in the soil and the uptake by the grown plants showed the highest specific activities at the root. For The results from 1991 to 1994 of the yearly average values for 1 37Cs in soil samples from the four zones. A striking contamination is evident in zone 1.The transfer factors ranges for the different parts of the maize plants was from 0.001 in the grain to 0.6 in the root. Statistical analyses were based on the mean values of the determination performed from each sampling zone. Pe arson's correlation coefficients were calculated, principal components were obtained, based on the correlation matrix of the measured, or calculated from them

  6. Monte Carlo Transverse Emittance Study on Cs2Te

    CERN Document Server

    Banfi, F; Galimberti, P G; Giannetti, C; Pagliara, S; Parmigiani, F; Pedersoli, E

    2005-01-01

    A Monte Carlo study of electron transport in Cs2Te films is performed to investigate the transverse emittance epsilon at the cathode surface. We find the photoemitted electron angular distribution and explain the physical mechanism involved in the process, a mechanism hindered by the statistical nature of the Monte Carlo method. The effects of electron-phonon scattering are discussed. The transverse emittance is calculated for different radiation wavelengths and a laser spot size of 1.5*10(-3) m. For a laser radiation at 265 nm we find epsilon = 0.56 mm-mrad. The dependence of epsilon and the quantum yield on the electron affinity Ea is also investigated. The data shows the importance of aging/contamination on the material.

  7. Uptake of {sup 137}Cs by fresh water fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Man, C.K.; Kwok, Y.H

    2000-02-01

    The uptake and discharge rates of {sup 137}Cs by fresh water fish at different radionuclide concentrations have been studied. A dual compartment model was used to fit the experimental data. The discharge rates have been found to be negligible for the duration of the experiment of 10 days. The uptake rates were independent of radionuclide concentrations for a particular type of fresh water fish and were different for different types of fish. The uptake rates of carp, tilapia and snakehead were 1.58, 1.66 and 2.23, in unit of 10{sup -6} h{sup -1}, respectively. It was also estimated that the consumption of fresh water fish, even if the water were contaminated as much as that in the Chernobyl accident, leads to negligible latent cancer fatality to the Hong Kong population.

  8. Measurement of the whole-body 137Cs in residents around the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, N.; Takamura, N.; Ashizawa, K.; Shimasaki, T.; Yamashita, S.; Okumura, Y.

    2005-01-01

    To understand the current situation of internal radiation exposure in the population around the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP), we examined the 137 Cs body burden in six residents of Belarus, Ukraine and Russia in 2002 and 2004 using the whole-body counter (WBC) at Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). The data were compared with those of our previous study performed in 1993-1994 using the same method. In 2002 and 2004, peaks of 137 Cs were detected in two residents from Gomel, which was heavily contaminated by the CNPP accident, one from Minsk (Belarus) and one from Kiev (Ukraine), but another resident from Minsk showed no 137 Cs peaks. The results of the present study suggests that residents around the CNPP are still exposed to chronic 137 Cs internal irradiation, probably due to the daily consumption of contaminated domestic foods, but the risk of any disease by the irradiation is quite low. Long-term follow-up of WBC around the CNPP is useful and may contribute to radiation safety regulation together with a reduction of unnecessary radio-phobia for the residents. (authors)

  9. Dynamic immobilization of simulated radionuclide 133Cs in soil by thermal treatment/vitrification with nanometallic Ca/CaO composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallampati, Srinivasa Reddy; Mitoma, Yoshiharu; Okuda, Tetsuji; Simion, Cristian; Lee, Byeong Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Although direct radiation induced health impacts were considered benign, soil contamination with 137 Cs, due to its long-term radiological impact (30 years half-life) and its high biological availability is of a major concern in Japan in the aftermath of the Fukushima nuclear power plant disaster. Therefore 137 Cs reduction and immobilization in contaminated soil are recognized as important problems to be solved using suitable and effective technologies. One such thermal treatment/vitrification with nanometallic Ca/CaO amendments is a promising treatment for the ultimate immobilization of simulated radionuclide 133 Cs in soil, showing low leachability and zero evaporation. Immobilization efficiencies were 88%, 95% and 96% when the 133 Cs soil was treated at 1200 °C with activated carbon, fly ash and nanometallic Ca/CaO additives. In addition, the combination of nanometallic Ca/CaO and fly ash (1:1) enhanced the immobilization efficiency to 99%, while no evaporation of 133 Cs was observed. At lower temperatures (800 °C) the leachable fraction of Cs was only 6% (94% immobilization). Through the SEM–EDS analysis, decrease in the amount of Cs mass percent detectable on soil particle surface was observed after soil vitrified with nCa/CaO + FA. The 133 Cs soil was subjected to vitrified with nCa/CaO + FA peaks related to Ca, crystalline phases (CaCO 3 /Ca(OH) 2 ), wollastonite, pollucite and hematite appeared in addition to quartz, kaolinite and bentonite, which probably indicates that the main fraction of enclosed/bound materials includes Ca-associated complexes. Thus, the thermal treatment with the addition of nanometallic Ca/CaO and fly ash may be considered potentially applicable for the remediation of radioactive Cs contaminated soil at zero evaporation, relatively at low temperature. - Graphical abstract: SEM–EDS element maps of 133 Cs contaminated soil before and after thermal treatment at 1200 °C with different addictives. Color intensity for Cs is from 0

  10. Exposition to {sup 137}Cs deposited in soil: A Monte Carlo study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, Lucas M. da; Pereira, Marco A. M. [Universidade Federal de Uberlândia (UFU), MG (Brazil). Instituto de Geografia; Neves, Lucio P. Neves; Perini, Ana P.; Santos, William S., E-mail: william@ufu.br [Universidade Federal de Uberlândia (UFU), MG (Brazil). Instituto de Física; Caldas, Linda V.E. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Belinato, Walmir [Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia da Bahia (IBA), Vitória da Conquista, BA (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    In the event of environmental contamination with radioactive materials, one of the most dangerous materials is {sup 137}Cs. In order to evaluate the radiation doses involved in an environmental contamination of soil, with {sup 137}Cs, we carried out a computational dosimetric study. We determined the radiation doses conversion coefficients (CC) for E and H{sub T}, using a male and a female anthropomorphic phantom, coupled with the MCNPX (2.7.1) Monte Carlo simulation software, for three different types of soil. The highest CC[H{sub T}] values were for the gonads and skin (male) and bone marrow and skin (female). We found no difference for the different types of soil. (author)

  11. Exposure to 137Cs deposited in soil – A Monte Carlo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silveira, Lucas M.; Pereira, Marco A. M.; Neves, Lucio P.; Perini, Ana P.; Belinato, Walmir; Caldas, Linda V. E.; Santos, William S.

    2018-03-01

    In the event of an environmental contamination with radioactive materials, one of the most dangerous materials is 137Cs. In order to evaluate the radiation doses involved in an environmental contamination of soil, with 137Cs, we carried out a computational dosimetric study. We determined the radiation conversion coefficients (CC) for effective (E) and equivalent (H T) doses, using a male and a female anthropomorphic phantoms. These phantoms were coupled with the MCNPX (2.7.0) Monte Carlo simulation software, for three different types of soil. The highest CC[H T] values were for the gonads and skin (male) and bone marrow and skin (female). We found no difference for the different types of soil.

  12. Monitoring of 137CS and 40K in the Levice District, Southern Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanta M.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The contamination of the environment, soil and meat of wild animals with radionuclides can negatively affect human health. The aim of our study was to analyse the risk arising from post-Chernobyl contamination of the meat of wild boars (Sus scrofa originating from the district Levice, southern Slovakia, with the radioactive artificial element 137Cs. The level of natural radionuclide 40K was also determined. We examined altogether 45 samples obtained from 9 wild boars hunted in this area during the period of 2013—2015. From each animal we collected and analysed samples from the thigh, stomach contents, stomach muscles and skin. We also examined samples of soil from the locations where these animals were shot. The activity values of radioactive caesium 137Cs determined in this study were very low and therefore the consumption of wild boar meat originating from this location presents no risk to human health.

  13. Treatment of Soil Decontamination Solution by the Cs{sup +} Ion Selective Ion Exchange Resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, Hui Jun; Kim, Gye Nam; Jung, Chung Hun; Oh, Won Zin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Occasionally, radioactively contaminated soils have been excavated and stored at the temporary storage facility. Cesium as a radionuclide is one of the most toxic elements and it has a long half decay life. During the operation of nuclear facility, soils near the facility would be contaminated with radioactive cesium and it will cause the deleterious effect to human body and environment. In this study, Cs{sup +} ion selective ion exchange resin was prepared by changing the functional group of commercial anion exchange resin for a ferrocyanide ion. Ion exchange capability of using the soil decontamination solution was investigated. We also performed the feasibility test of recycling the spent Cs ion selective ion exchange resin.

  14. Effect of Rain Acidity Upon Mobility of Cs-134 and Co-60 in Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruangchuay, S.; Harvey, N.W.; Sriyotha, P.

    1998-01-01

    This research was aimed to study the effects of groundwater and acid rain upon the mobility of radionuclides (Cs-134 and Co-60) in contaminated top soil. Clay soil was homogeneously packed in columns with dimension φ.12.5 cm. * 50 cm.. At the top 5 cm. of the columns, soil contaminated with radionuclides was added with the same consistency. Column were kept standing for 4 months in an artificial water table kept at 3 cm. from the bottom. During this period artificial acid rain with pH3, 4.5 and 6 was applied weekly at the top. Soil samples were taken every 30 days for examination of total and extracable radioactivity. It was shown that with the aide of the rain radionuclide movement down the profile was greater, with Co-60 > Cs-134. However acidity of the rain shown no effect on their movement

  15. Effect of wood ash and K-fertilization on {sup 137}Cs uptake by selected forest plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandro, Yrii N. [Zhytomyr State Technological University, P.O. Box 10005 Zhytomyr (Ukraine); Rosen, Klas [Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences P.O. Box 7070 SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Vinichuk, Mykhailo M. [Zhytomyr State Technological University, P.O. Box 10005 Zhytomyr (Ukraine); Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences P.O. Box 7070 SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2014-07-01

    Accumulation {sup 137}Cs by different forest plants and trees after fertilization of soil with potassium and wood ash ({sup 137}Cs-contaminated and non-contaminated) in forest ecosystems of Ukraine contaminated by radionuclides after Chernobyl accident in 1986 was studied. Experiment is performed in Bazar forestry, Zhytomyr region, Ukraine, located about 70 km (51 deg. 5'35'' N, 29 deg. 18'56'' E) from Chernobyl NPP. Potassium fertilizer (KCl, wooden ash (Ash), and {sup 137}Cs-contaminated ash ({sup 137}CsAsh) in different combinations) were spread on the forest floor in April 2012 at a rate corresponding 100 kg/ha potassium. The experiment layout was as follows: 1- Control (no fertilizers were applied), 2- KCl, 3- Ash + KCl, 4- Ash + {sup 137}CsAsh, 5- Ash, 6- {sup 137}CsAsh + KCl. Samples (leaves and annual shoots) of blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus), cowberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea), rowan (Sorbus aucuparia), birch (Betula), buckthorn (Frangula) and oak (Quercus robur) and also mushrooms (fruit bodies of Russula, Lactarius, Cantharellus, Collybia etc.) and berries (blueberry and cowberry) were taken monthly from each treatment. Samples were measured for {sup 137}Cs with calibrated HPGe detectors. The results of the first year studies show variation of Transfer Factors (TF) for different plants and for the same plants on different treatments. The effect of fertilization was found for blueberry on Ash-applicated (TF = 0.0085 ± 0.0025), {sup 137}CsAsh + KCl-applicated (TF = 0.0105 ± 0.0060) and Ash + KCl-applicated (TF = 0.0123 ± 0.0058) treatments compared to Control (TF = 0.0163 ± 0.0092). Also good effect for rowan on Ash + KCl-applicated treatment (TF = 0.0067 ± 0.0024) compared to Control (TF = 0.0100 ± 0.0064). Effect was less obvious for birch on Ash + KCl-applicated treatment and for cowberry on Ash + KCl-applicated treatment. There was not found an obvious effect of fertilization for buckthorn. Positive effect of

  16. Light contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cepeda Pena, William Enrique

    1998-01-01

    The article tries on the wrong use of the artificial light, of the main problems of the light contamination, dispersion of the light, noxious effects of the light contamination, ecological effects, effects on the man's biological rhythm, economic effects and effects about the civic and vial security, among other topics

  17. Use of experimental plots for assessing Chernobyl-derived fallout of {sup 137}CS in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonte, Ph.; Sogon, S.; Bourgeois, S.; Terce, M.; Morel, Ch. [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement, avenue de la Terrasse, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2004-07-01

    Caesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) is widely used for the determination of soil erosion and sedimentation rates. However, in Europe, if the additional inputs of {sup 137}Cs fallout associated with the Chernobyl accident have given a supplementary mark to know the chronological history of buried sediments in rivers or wetlands, they have considerably complicated the interpretation of {sup 137}Cs inventories used for estimating soil redistribution on slopes. In fact, determination of Chernobyl-derived fallout {sup 137}Cs is problematic because very few sites have been correctly sampled at the moment of the accident. During the ten years after, it was possible to estimate the fallout measuring the {sup 134}Cs activity for estimating {sup 137}Cs ({sup 137}Cs /{sup 134}Cs 2.0 at the time of the accident). But these measurements are extremely rare, whereas it should be the more accurate method to resolve this question. The more used solution is to use model based on atmospheric circulation and rain precipitation, the main part of fallout been due to atmospheric washing by the rain. Other solution is to compare {sup 137}Cs specific activity of soil samples collected after the accident and older samples. Then, we choose a set of soil samples collected on several experimental plots at different places in France, and sampled before and after the Chernobyl accident, to determine the part of contamination linked to this {sup 137}Cs fallout event with a simple comparison of their {sup 137}Cs specific activity. In fact, national French institutes working on agronomy maintain experimental plots, with varied surface area (1 m{sup 2} 10 m{sup 2} or larger), for monitoring of soil physics and chemistry evolution. Nine sites were studied: two of them close to Paris, one 100 km east of Paris, 3 in Loire basin and 3 in south west, in the Pyrenees Atlantic. These measurements confirm the influence of the Chernobyl radioactive plume over the Paris Basin concerning the {sup 137}Cs fallout. The

  18. Comparative study of "1"3"7Cs distribution in broilers and pheasants and possibilities for protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitrovic, Branislava M.; Vitorovic, Gordana; Lazarevic-Macanovic, Mirjana; Vicentijevic, Mihajlo; Vitorovic, Dusko; Pantelic, Gordana

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate distribution of "1"3"7Cs in leg and breast meat of broilers and pheasants following single alimentary contamination and administration of two protectors (AFCF and clinoptilolite). The birds were administered a single dose of "1"3"7CsCl, with an activity of 750 Bq. Protectors were given via gastric tube or mixed in the forage pellets. AFCF given via gastric tube decreased the "1"3"7Cs concentration by a factor of 7.8 in broilers leg meat and 7.4 in broilers breast meat. When AFCF was mixed in pellets, the "1"3"7Cs concentration was 19.5 times lower in broilers leg meat and 22.1 times lower in broilers breast meat, than in the control group. In pheasants, AFCF administered via gastric tube decreased the "1"3"7Cs concentration by a factor of 12.4 in leg meat and by a factor of 13.7 in breast meat, respectively. In group 4, where pheasants were administered AFCF mixed in pellets, the "1"3"7Cs concentration was 3.7 times lower in leg and breast meat, than in the control group. For comparison, clinoptilolite administered via gastric tube decreased the "1"3"7Cs concentration 1.8 times in broilers leg meat and 2.0 times in breast meat, compared to the control group. In pheasants, "1"3"7Cs concentration was 2.9 times lower in leg meat and 2.6 times lower in breast meat. Clinoptilolite mixed in the feed had relatively low efficiency of protection in broilers ("1"3"7Cs concentration was 1.4 times lower in leg meat and 1.6 lower in breast meat). A similar trend was observed in pheasants ("1"3"7Cs concentration was 1.6 lower in leg and breast meat). (orig.)

  19. Association of leukemia with radium groundwater contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyman, G.H.; Lyman, C.G.; Johnson, W.

    1985-01-01

    Radiation exposure, including the ingestion of radium, has been causally associated with leukemia in man. Groundwater samples from 27 counties on or near Florida phosphate lands were found to exceed 5 pCi/L total radium in 12.4% of measurements. The incidence of leukemia was greater in those counties with high levels of radium contamination (greater than 10% of the samples contaminated) than in those with low levels of contamination. Rank correlation coefficients of .56 and .45 were observed between the radium contamination level and the incidence of total leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia, respectively. The standardized incidence density ratio for those in high-contamination counties was 1.5 for total leukemia and 2.0 for acute myeloid leukemia. Further investigation is necessary, however, before a causal relationship between groundwater radium content and human leukemia can be established

  20. Long-term 137Cs activity monitoring of mushrooms in forest ecosystems of the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skrkal, J.; Rulik, P.; Fantinova, K.; Burianova, J.; Helebrant, J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on results of activity mass concentration analyses performed in various forest mushrooms in the Czech Republic within 1986 and 2011. The estimated effective half-life of 137 Cs and its environmental half-life (i.e. the effective half life minus the effect of physical decay) were found to be 5.6±0.6 and 6.9±0.7 y, respectively. Non-homogeneity in 137 Cs surface contamination over the country's territory and fungus species-based 137 Cs accumulation capacity then account for a span of up to 4 orders of magnitude in activity mass concentrations measured each year after the Chernobyl accident. The highest geometric activity mass concentration (Bq kg -1 of dry weight) means of 137 Cs (obtained from samples between years 2004 and 2011) were measured in Suillaceae (1050 Bq kg -1 ) and Boletus badius (930 Bq kg -1 ), the lowest in Agaricus (1 Bq kg -1 ). The geometric mean of all mushrooms amounted to 230 Bq kg -1 , being 440 Bq kg -1 in Boletales, 150 Bq kg -1 in Russulales and 21 Bq kg -1 in Agaricales. Geometric standard deviation levels were generally high. The highest Cs accumulation capacity was observed in Boletales (namely in Suillaceae), while the lowest in Agaricales, being over 3 orders of magnitude lower than in Suillaceae. (authors)

  1. Analysis of cows' milk in the content of radioactive cs137 gamma-spectrometric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagidulin, Z.Z.; Isayev, R.Sh.; Guseynova, I.A.

    2010-01-01

    Full text : The most intense