WorldWideScience

Sample records for crystals publication details

  1. Detailing of deformation processes in polymeric crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slutsker, A. I.; Vettegren', V. I.; Kulik, V. B.; Hilarov, V. L.; Polikarpov, Yu. I.; Karov, D. D.

    2015-11-01

    Structural changes in polymer crystals (polyethylene, polyimide, and others) have been studied using the X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy methods under different influences: tensile loading along the chain molecule axis and heating from 90 to 350 K. An increase in the molecule axial length under loading and a decrease in the molecule axial length upon heating have been identified and measured using X-ray diffraction. A decrease in the skeletal vibration frequency during loading and heating has been identified and measured using Raman spectroscopy, which indicates an increase in the molecule contour length in both cases. A technique for determining the change in the polyethylene molecule contour length in the crystal from the measured change in the skeletal vibration frequency has been justified. The contributions of two components, namely, skeletal (carbon-carbon) bond stretching and the change (an increase during stretching and a decrease during heating) in the angle between skeletal bonds, to the longitudinal deformation of polyethylene crystals, have been quantitatively estimated. It has been shown that the negative thermal expansion (contraction) of the polymer crystal is caused by the dominant contribution of the decrease in the bond angle.

  2. Detailed study of flat bands appearing in metallic photonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vala, Ali Soltani [Department of Solid State Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Tabriz, PO Box 51665-163, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Institute for Applied Physics and Astronomy, University of Tabriz, PO Box 51665-163, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sedghi, Aliasghar; Hosseini, Naser [Department of Solid State Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Tabriz, PO Box 51665-163, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kalafi, Manouchehr [Department of Solid State Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Tabriz, PO Box 51665-163, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Institute for Applied Physics and Astronomy, University of Tabriz, PO Box 51665-163, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Excellence Centre for Photonics, University of Tabriz, PO Box 51665-163, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    It has been difficult to compute the band structures of metallic photonic crystals for H-polarization. The existence of surface plasmon modes is the major reason for difficulty due to the localized nature of these modes. In this study, by virtue of the efficiency of the newly developed Dirichlet-to-Neumann map method, we are able to investigate the details of the flat bands in a two dimensional square lattice with metallic cylinders. We have obtained fine band structure for H polarization around the flat band region which has not been reported to the best of our knowledge. Our numerical results show that for the frequency around the surface plasmon, the modes are highly localized at the interface of the cylindrical metallic rods and air background and also by approaching the modes to the surface plasmon frequency the localization length decreases and the number of field's nodes increases considerably. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  3. A method for detailed simulations of neutron diffraction from imperfect crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alianelli, L. E-mail: lucia.alianelli@ill.fr; Wilson, N.; Andersen, K.H.; Sanchez del Rio, M.; Felici, R

    2004-08-21

    An upgraded version of the McStas Monochromator-curved module is presented. The new component, called Monochromator-reflect, is based on the use of input files for interpolating the neutron reflection and transmission probabilities according to the theoretical reflectivity of the crystal. These probabilities depend on the energy and angle at the crystal surface and also on the crystal mosaicity, geometry, material scattering cross-section, attenuation coefficient, and Bragg planes. We present details of the algorithm and definitions which are essential for a correct use of the module and show the improvements that it offers.

  4. A method for detailed simulations of neutron diffraction from imperfect crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alianelli, L.; Wilson, N.; Andersen, K. H.; Sánchez del Río, M.; Felici, R.

    2004-08-01

    An upgraded version of the McStas Monochromator-curved module is presented. The new component, called Monochromator-reflect, is based on the use of input files for interpolating the neutron reflection and transmission probabilities according to the theoretical reflectivity of the crystal. These probabilities depend on the energy and angle at the crystal surface and also on the crystal mosaicity, geometry, material scattering cross-section, attenuation coefficient, and Bragg planes. We present details of the algorithm and definitions which are essential for a correct use of the module and show the improvements that it offers.

  5. Crystal structure of listeriolysin O reveals molecular details of oligomerization and pore formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köster, Stefan; van Pee, Katharina; Hudel, Martina; Leustik, Martin; Rhinow, Daniel; Kühlbrandt, Werner; Chakraborty, Trinad; Yildiz, Özkan

    2014-04-01

    Listeriolysin O (LLO) is an essential virulence factor of Listeria monocytogenes that causes listeriosis. Listeria monocytogenes owes its ability to live within cells to the pH- and temperature-dependent pore-forming activity of LLO, which is unique among cholesterol-dependent cytolysins. LLO enables the bacteria to cross the phagosomal membrane and is also involved in activation of cellular processes, including the modulation of gene expression or intracellular Ca2+ oscillations. Neither the pore-forming mechanism nor the mechanisms triggering the signalling processes in the host cell are known in detail. Here, we report the crystal structure of LLO, in which we identified regions important for oligomerization and pore formation. Mutants were characterized by determining their haemolytic and Ca2+ uptake activity. We analysed the pore formation of LLO and its variants on erythrocyte ghosts by electron microscopy and show that pore formation requires precise interface interactions during toxin oligomerization on the membrane.

  6. Identification of a detailed function list for public health emergency management using three qualitative methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Guo-qing; RAO Ke-qin; SUN Zhen-qiu

    2007-01-01

    Background At present, many administrators lack a theoretical guide to build management systemsto cope with public health emergencies. This study developed a detailed function list for public health emergency management to help building the management systems scientifically.Methods The five steps in this study including literature review, semistructured interviews with experts, focus group,Delphi study and focus group were conducted to develop the detailed list of functions.Results An initial list of 25 functions with 188 items was formed through literature review. The list was reduced to 10 functions with 57 items by semistructured interviews with experts and focus group. Next, all these 57 items reached the consensus through one-round Delphi study. Some revisions of the consensus were done by the same focus group.Conclusion The final 10 functions with 57 items could be used as a guide for most countries during their building of a public health emergency management system.

  7. The detailed crystal and electronic structures of the cotunnite-type ZrO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Duan, Li; Ji, Vincent

    2016-07-01

    The detailed crystal and orbital-decomposed electronic structures of cotunnite-type ZrO2 have been investigated by using the first-principles projector augmented wave (PAW) potential within the generalized gradient approximation as well as taking into account on-site Coulomb repulsive interaction (GGA+U). The optimized structure shows that the OI and OII anions are surrounded by an arbitrary tetrahedron of four Zr cations and an arbitrary pentahedron of five Zr cations, respectively, in turn, the Zr cation is surrounded by an arbitrary tetrakaidecahedron formed by nine oxygen ligands. Although one more Zr cation is coordinated to OII, the larger bond lengths between OII and its adjacent five Zr cations (dOII-Zr) than those between OI and its adjacent four Zr cations (dOI-Zr) makes density of states (DOS) of s and three p (px , py and pz) states of the OII anion driving down in lower energy region and driving up in higher energy region. No crystal-field splitting is observed between three p (px , py and pz) states of anions OI and OII (between three p (px , py and pz) states and five d (dxy , dyz , dxz , dz2 and dx2-y2) states of cation Zr) is resulted from the arrangements of the surrounding cations (anions) do not have any symmetry. The additional covalent character upon Zr-O ionic bonds is attributed to the hybridization of itinerant Zr(5s) and less filled Zr(4d) states to the separated O(2s) and O(2p) states.

  8. Isotopic Zonation Within Sulfate Evaporite Mineral Crystals Reveal Quantitative Paleoenvironment Details

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, M.; Rhorssen, M.; Mielke, R. E.

    2008-12-01

    developed a new analytical method [2]. We use a modification of the standard TC/EA continuous-flow protocol to measure both hydrogen and oxygen of water of hydration from the same small sample. We have proved the concept of this new approach by analyzing zones within crystals and individual grains, growing epsomite (magnesium sulfate heptahydrate) in the laboratory and by analysis of natural gypsum evaporites. We are now exploring the effects of varying the controlling parameters. Eventual application to Martian sulfates will reveal amount of water involved in sulfate formation, its isotopic composition(s) and details of the paleo-atmospheric humidity. [1] Gat JR and Gonfiantini R, (Eds) (1981) IAEA Technical Report Series. [2] Rohrssen MK, Brunner B Mielke RE and Coleman M (2008) Analyt. Chem. (in press).

  9. Dark-field transmission electron microscopy of cortical bone reveals details of extrafibrillar crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarcz, Henry P; McNally, Elizabeth A; Botton, Gianluigi A

    2014-12-01

    In a previous study we showed that most of the mineral in bone is present in the form of "mineral structures", 5-6nm-thick, elongated plates which surround and are oriented parallel to collagen fibrils. Using dark-field transmission electron microscopy, we viewed mineral structures in ion-milled sections of cortical human bone cut parallel to the collagen fibrils. Within the mineral structures we observe single crystals of apatite averaging 5.8±2.7nm in width and 28±19nm in length, their long axes oriented parallel to the fibril axis. Some appear to be composite, co-aligned crystals as thin as 2nm. From their similarity to TEM images of crystals liberated from deproteinated bone we infer that we are viewing sections through platy crystals of apatite that are assembled together to form the mineral structures.

  10. Uncovering molecular details of urea crystal growth in the presence of additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvalaglio, Matteo; Vetter, Thomas; Giberti, Federico; Mazzotti, Marco; Parrinello, Michele

    2012-10-17

    Controlling the shape of crystals is of great practical relevance in fields like pharmacology and fine chemistry. Here we examine the paradigmatic case of urea which is known to crystallize from water with a needle-like morphology. To prevent this undesired effect, inhibitors that selectively favor or discourage the growth of specific crystal faces can be used. In urea the most relevant faces are the {001} and the {110} which are known to grow fast and slow, respectively. The relevant growth speed difference between these two crystal faces is responsible for the needle-like structure of crystals grown in water solution. To prevent this effect, additives are used to slow down the growth of one face relative to another, thus controlling the shape of the crystal. We study the growth of fast {001} and slow {110} faces in water solution and the effect of shape controlling inhibitors like biuret. Extensive sampling through molecular dynamics simulations provides a microscopic picture of the growth mechanism and of the role of the additives. We find a continuous growth mechanism on the {001} face, while the slow growing {110} face evolves through a birth and spread process, in which the rate-determining step is the formation on the surface of a two-dimensional crystalline nucleus. On the {001} face, growth inhibitors like biuret compete with urea for the adsorption on surface lattice sites; on the {110} face instead additives cannot interact specifically with surface sites and play a marginal sterical hindrance of the crystal growth. The free energies of adsorption of additives and urea are evaluated with advanced simulation methods (well-tempered metadynamics) allowing a microscopic understanding of the selective effect of additives. Based on this case study, general principles for the understanding of the anisotropic growth of molecular crystals from solutions are laid out. Our work is a step toward a rational development of novel shape-affecting additives.

  11. Crystal River National Wildlife Refuge public use survey report

    OpenAIRE

    Buckingham, Cheryl A.

    1989-01-01

    In creating a management plan that includes both the needs of the manatee and the desires of the public, the Crystal River National Wildlife Refuge must necessarily gather together a great deal of information. This project was intended to find out more about the people who use Kings Bay, to discaver what they know about the manatee and to d i i e r how well they understand the protection measures as they exist today (Document has 104 pages.)

  12. Detailed Surface Analysis Of Incremental Centrifugal Barrel Polishing (CBP) Of Single-Crystal Niobium Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palczewski, Ari D.; Tian, Hui; Trofimova, Olga; Reece, Charles E.

    2011-07-01

    We performed Centrifugal Barrel Polishing (CBP) on single crystal niobium samples/coupons housed in a stainless steel sample holder following the polishing recipe developed at Fermi Lab (FNAL) in 2011 \\cite{C. A. Cooper 2011}. Post CBP, the sample coupons were analyzed for surface roughness, crystal composition and structure, and particle contamination. Following the initial analysis each coupon was high pressure rinsed (HRP) and analyzed for the effectiveness of contamination removal. We were able to obtain the mirror like surface finish after the final stage of tumbling, although some defects and embedded particles remained. In addition, standard HPR appears to have little effect on removing embedded particles which remain after each tumbling step, although final polishing media removal was partially affected by standard/extended HPR.

  13. Detailed study of the TE band structure of two dimensional metallic photonic crystals with square symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedghi, Aliasghar [Islamic Azad University, Shabestar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Valiaghaie, Soma [Islamic Azad University, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Soufiani, Ahad Rounaghi [Islamic Azad University, Sufian (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    By virtue of the efficiency of the Dirichlet-to-Neumann map method, we have calculated, for H-polarization (TE mode), the band structure of 2D photonic crystals with a square lattice composed of metallic rods embedded in an air background. The rod in the unit cell is chosen to be circular in shape. Here, from a practical point of view, in order to obtain maximum band gaps, we have studied the band structure as a function of the size of the rods. We have also studied the flat bands appearing in the band structures and have shown that for frequencies around the surface plasmon frequency, the modes are highly localized at the interface between the metallic rods and the air background.

  14. Detailed Study of the TE band structure of two dimensional metallic photonic crystals with square symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedghi, Aliasghar; Valiaghaie, Soma; Soufiani, Ahad Rounaghi

    2014-10-01

    By virtue of the efficiency of the Dirichlet-to-Neumann map method, we have calculated, for H-polarization (TE mode), the band structure of 2D photonic crystals with a square lattice composed of metallic rods embedded in an air background. The rod in the unit cell is chosen to be circular in shape. Here, from a practical point of view, in order to obtain maximum band gaps, we have studied the band structure as a function of the size of the rods. We have also studied the flat bands appearing in the band structures and have shown that for frequencies around the surface plasmon frequency, the modes are highly localized at the interface between the metallic rods and the air background.

  15. Squeezing the most from every crystal: the fine details of data collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krojer, Tobias; Pike, Ashley C W; von Delft, Frank

    2013-07-01

    Modern synchrotron beamlines offer instrumentation of unprecedented quality, which in turn encourages increasingly marginal experiments, and for these, as much as ever, the ultimate success of data collection depends on the experience, but especially the care, of the experimenter. A representative set of difficult cases has been encountered at the Structural Genomics Consortium, a worldwide structural genomics initiative of which the Oxford site currently deposits three novel human structures per month. Achieving this target relies heavily on frequent visits to the Diamond Light Source, and the variety of crystal systems still demand customized data collection, diligent checks and careful planning of each experiment. Here, an overview is presented of the techniques and procedures that have been refined over the years and that are considered synchrotron best practice.

  16. Details from the Dashboard: Estimated Number of Public Charter Schools & Students, 2014-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Alliance for Public Charter Schools, 2015

    2015-01-01

    During the 2014-15 school year, almost 500 new public charter schools opened. An estimated 348,000 additional students were attending public charter schools in the 2014-15 school year compared with the previous school year. With the addition of new charter schools and students, there are now more than 6,700 public charter schools enrolling about…

  17. A Detailed Decomposition Analysis of the Public-Private Sector Wage Gap in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Kwenda, Prudence; Benhura, Miracle

    2015-01-01

    The present study examines the public-private sector wage gap in South Africa using individual cross section data for 2000-7. Results from unconditional quantile regressions and generalised Oaxaca-Blinder type decompositions show that the wage gap is inverted-U shaped across the wage distribution. The 'composition' effect is more important than the 'price' effect at the bottom of the distribution while the opposite applies at the top. Key factors underpinning the 'composition' effect are unio...

  18. Using publicly visible social media to build detailed forecasts of civil unrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Ryan; Lee, Craig; Xu, Jiejun; Artieda-Moncada, Luis; Lu, Tsai-Ching; Silva, Lalindra De; Macy, Michael

    We demonstrate how one can generate predictions for several thousand incidents of Latin American civil unrest, often many days in advance, by surfacing informative public posts available on Twitter and Tumblr. The data mining system presented here runs daily and requires no manual intervention. Identification of informative posts is accomplished by applying multiple textual and geographic filters to a high-volume data feed consisting of tens of millions of posts per day which have been flagged as public by their authors. Predictions are built by annotating the filtered posts, typically a few dozen per day, with demographic, spatial, and temporal information. Key to our textual filters is the fact that social media posts are necessarily short, making it possible to easily infer topic by simply searching for comentions of typically unrelated terms within the same post (e.g. a future date comentioned with an unrest keyword). Additional textual filters then proceed by applying a logistic regression classifier trained to recognize accounts belonging to organizations who are likely to announce civil unrest. Geographic filtering is accomplished despite sparsely available GPS information and without relying on sophisticated natural language processing. A geocoding technique which infers non-GPS-known user locations via the locations of their GPS-known friends provides us with location estimates for 91,984,163 Twitter users at a median error of 6.65km. We show that announcements of upcoming events tend to localize within a small geographic region, allowing us to forecast event locations which are not explicitly mentioned in text. We annotate our forecasts with demographic information by searching the collected posts for demographic specific keywords generated by hand as well as with the aid of DBpedia. Our system has been in production since December 2012 and, at the time of this writing, has produced 4,771 distinct forecasts for events across ten Latin American nations

  19. City of Crystal City, Missouri - Clean Water Act Public Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA is providing notice of proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against the City of Crystal City, Missouri, a municipality located in Jefferson County, Missouri, 63019, for alleged violations associated with the City’s wastewater treatment progra

  20. Crystallization of Magma. CEGS Programs Publication Number 14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, R. W.

    Crystallization of Magma is one of a series of single-topic problem modules intended for use in undergraduate geology and earth science courses. Through problems and observations based on two sets of experiments, this module leads to an understanding of how an igneous rock can form from molten material. Environmental factors responsible for…

  1. School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS) 2000 Public-Use Data Files, User's Manual, and Detailed Data Documentation. [CD-ROM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Education Statistics (ED), Washington, DC.

    This CD-ROM contains the raw, public-use data from the 2000 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS) along with a User's Manual and Detailed Data Documentation. The data are provided in SAS, SPSS, STATA, and ASCII formats. The User's Manual and the Detailed Data Documentation are provided as .pdf files. (Author)

  2. Detection of Toxocara eggs in contaminated soil from various public places of Chennai city and detailed correlation with literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Divyamol; Jeyathilakan, N

    2014-06-01

    Toxocarosis is one of the most prevalent human helminthosis caused by larvae of Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati, the most widely distributed nematode parasites of dogs and cats respectively. Soil is considered as the principal source of transmission of Toxocara infection to human beings. With increasing population of dogs and cats, soil contamination with ova or eggs of Toxocara can be detected in public and private locations of city backyards, playgrounds, streets, sand pits and so on, regardless of the season of the year. In this context the present study was carried out to estimate the extent of soil contamination with Toxocara eggs in public parks, playgrounds and few kennels situated in different parts of Chennai city. A total of 105 soil samples from 40 public places and 5 kennels were screened for the presence of parasitic eggs. Toxocara eggs were recovered from 5 soil samples indicating an overall prevalence rate of 4.75 %. Out of 80 samples collected from public places, three samples, one each from Mogappair, My lady park (Periamet) and Madras Veterinary College showed the presence of Toxocara spp. eggs indicating an overall prevalence of 3.75 per cent. Out of the 25 samples from 5 kennels, two samples one each from Tambaram and Thorappakkam kennels were positive for Toxocara eggs with prevalence of 8 per cent. Low prevalence of Toxocara eggs in soil samples of these areas can be attributed to the less population of pups, the carriers of adult worms and the active source of soil contamination. The progress made in ABC (animal birth control) programme carried out by both governmental and non-governmental organizations has contributed to reduction of birth rate in dogs and thereby reduced the chances of soil contamination with Toxocara eggs to a certain extent in Chennai city.

  3. Quartz-Crystal Microbalance (QCM) for Public Health: An Overview of Its Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Amicizia, Daniela; Panatto, Donatella; Tramalloni, Daniela; Valle, Ivana; Gasparini, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Nanobiotechnologies, from the convergence of nanotechnology and molecular biology and postgenomics medicine, play a major role in the field of public health. This overview summarizes the potentiality of piezoelectric sensors, and in particular, of quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM), a physical nanogram-sensitive device. QCM enables the rapid, real time, on-site detection of pathogens with an enormous burden in public health, such as influenza and other respiratory viruses, hepatitis B virus (HBV), and drug-resistant bacteria, among others. Further, it allows to detect food allergens, food-borne pathogens, such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium, and food chemical contaminants, as well as water-borne microorganisms and environmental contaminants. Moreover, QCM holds promises in early cancer detection and screening of new antiblastic drugs. Applications for monitoring biohazards, for assuring homeland security, and preventing bioterrorism are also discussed.

  4. [SQUIRE 2.0 (Standards for QUality Improvement Reporting Excellence): Revised publication guidelines from a detailed consensus process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogrinc, Greg; Davies, Louise; Goodman, Daisy; Batalden, Paul; Davidoff, Frank; Stevens, David

    2015-11-20

    Since the publication of Standards for Quality Improvement Reporting Excellence (SQUIRE 1.0) guidelines in 2008, the science of the field has advanced considerably. In this manuscript, we describe the development of SQUIRE 2.0 and its key components. We undertook the revision between 2012 and 2015 using (1) semi-structured interviews and focus groups to evaluate SQUIRE 1.0 plus feedback from an international steering group, (2) two face-to-face consensus meetings to develop interim drafts, and (3) pilot testing with authors and a public comment period. SQUIRE 2.0 emphasizes the reporting of three key components of systematic efforts to improve the quality, value, and safety of healthcare: the use of formal and informal theory in planning, implementing, and evaluating improvement work; the context in which the work is done; and the study of the intervention(s). SQUIRE 2.0 is intended for reporting the range of methods used to improve healthcare, recognizing that they can be complex and multi-dimensional. It provides common ground to share these discoveries in the scholarly literature (www.squire-statement.org).

  5. SQUIRE 2.0 (Standards for QUality Improvement Reporting Excellence): revised publication guidelines from a detailed consensus process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogrinc, Greg; Davies, Louise; Goodman, Daisy; Batalden, Paul; Davidoff, Frank; Stevens, David

    2016-12-01

    Since the publication of Standards for QUality Improvement Reporting Excellence (SQUIRE 1.0) guidelines in 2008, the science of the field has advanced considerably. In this manuscript, we describe the development of SQUIRE 2.0 and its key components. We undertook the revision between 2012 and 2015 using (1) semistructured interviews and focus groups to evaluate SQUIRE 1.0 plus feedback from an international steering group, (2) two face-to-face consensus meetings to develop interim drafts and (3) pilot testing with authors and a public comment period. SQUIRE 2.0 emphasises the reporting of three key components of systematic efforts to improve the quality, value and safety of healthcare: the use of formal and informal theory in planning, implementing and evaluating improvement work; the context in which the work is done and the study of the intervention(s). SQUIRE 2.0 is intended for reporting the range of methods used to improve healthcare, recognising that they can be complex and multidimensional. It provides common ground to share these discoveries in the scholarly literature (http://www.squire-statement.org). Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  6. Detailed optical spectroscopy of hybridization gap and hidden-order transition in high-quality URu2Si2 single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachar, N.; Stricker, D.; Muleady, S.; Wang, K.; Mydosh, J. A.; Huang, Y. K.; van der Marel, D.

    2016-12-01

    We present a detailed temperature and frequency dependence of the optical conductivity measured on clean high-quality single crystals of URu2Si2 of a c - and a b -plane surfaces. Our data demonstrate the itinerant character of the narrow 5 f bands, becoming progressively coherent as the temperature is lowered below a crossover temperature T*˜75 K. T* is higher than in previous reports as a result of a different sample preparation, which minimizes residual strain. We furthermore present the density-response (energy-loss) function of this compound, and determine the energies of the heavy-fermion plasmons with a - and c -axis polarization. Our observation of a suppression of optical conductivity below 50 meV along both the a and c axes, along with a heavy-fermion plasmon at 18 meV, points toward the emergence of a band of coherent charge carriers crossing the Fermi energy and the emergence of a hybridization gap on part of the Fermi surface. The evolution towards coherent itinerant states is accelerated below the hidden order temperature THO=17.5 K. In the hidden order phase the low-frequency optical conductivity shows a single gap at ˜6.5 meV, which closes at THO.

  7. Image quality performance of liquid crystal display systems: influence of display resolution, magnification and window settings on contrast-detail detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacher, Klaus; Smeets, Peter; De Hauwere, An; Voet, Tony; Duyck, Philippe; Verstraete, Koenraad; Thierens, Hubert

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the combined effects of liquid crystal display (LCD) resolution, image magnification and window/level adjustment on the low-contrast performance in soft-copy image interpretation in digital radiography and digital mammography. In addition, the effect of a new LCD noise reduction mechanism on the low-contrast detectability was studied. Digital radiographs and mammograms of two dedicated contrast-detail phantoms (CDRAD 2.0 and CDMAM 3.4) were scored on five LCD devices with varying resolutions (1-3- and 5-megapixel) and one dedicated 5-megapixel cathode ray tube monitor. Two 5-megapixel LCDs were included. The first one was a standard 5-megapixel LCD and the second had a new (Per Pixel Uniformity) noise reduction mechanism. A multi-variate analysis of variance revealed a significant influence of LCD resolution, image magnification and window/level adjustment on the image quality performance assessed with both the CDRAD 2.0 and the CDMAM 3.4 phantoms. The interactive adjustment of brightness and contrast of digital images did not affect the reading time, whereas magnification to full resolution resulted in a significantly slower soft-copy interpretation. For digital radiography applications, a 3-megapixel LCD is comparable with a 5-megapixel CRT monitor in terms of low-contrast performance as well as in reading time. The use of a 2-megapixel LCD is only warranted when radiographs are analysed in full resolution and when using the interactive window/level adjustment. In digital mammography, a 5-megapixel monitor should be the first choice. In addition, the new PPU noise reduction system in the 5-megapixel LCD devices provides significantly better results for mammography reading as compared to a standard 5-magapixel LCD or CRT. If a 3-megapixel LCD is used in mammography setting, a very time-consuming magnification of the digital mammograms would be necessary.

  8. Image quality performance of liquid crystal display systems: Influence of display resolution, magnification and window settings on contrast-detail detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacher, Klaus [Department of Medical Physics and Radiation Protection, Ghent University, Proeftuinstraat 86, B-9000 Gent (Belgium)]. E-mail: klaus.bacher@ugent.be; Smeets, Peter [Department of Radiology, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); De Hauwere, An [Department of Medical Physics and Radiation Protection, Ghent University, Proeftuinstraat 86, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Voet, Tony [Department of Radiology, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Duyck, Philippe [Department of Radiology, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Verstraete, Koenraad [Department of Radiology, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Thierens, Hubert [Department of Medical Physics and Radiation Protection, Ghent University, Proeftuinstraat 86, B-9000 Gent (Belgium)

    2006-06-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the combined effects of liquid crystal display (LCD) resolution, image magnification and window/level adjustment on the low-contrast performance in soft-copy image interpretation in digital radiography and digital mammography. In addition, the effect of a new LCD noise reduction mechanism on the low-contrast detectability was studied. Digital radiographs and mammograms of two dedicated contrast-detail phantoms (CDRAD 2.0 and CDMAM 3.4) were scored on five LCD devices with varying resolutions (1-3- and 5-megapixel) and one dedicated 5-megapixel cathode ray tube monitor. Two 5-megapixel LCDs were included. The first one was a standard 5-megapixel LCD and the second had a new (Per Pixel Uniformity) noise reduction mechanism. A multi-variate analysis of variance revealed a significant influence of LCD resolution, image magnification and window/level adjustment on the image quality performance assessed with both the CDRAD 2.0 and the CDMAM 3.4 phantoms. The interactive adjustment of brightness and contrast of digital images did not affect the reading time, whereas magnification to full resolution resulted in a significantly slower soft-copy interpretation. For digital radiography applications, a 3-megapixel LCD is comparable with a 5-megapixel CRT monitor in terms of low-contrast performance as well as in reading time. The use of a 2-megapixel LCD is only warranted when radiographs are analysed in full resolution and when using the interactive window/level adjustment. In digital mammography, a 5-megapixel monitor should be the first choice. In addition, the new PPU noise reduction system in the 5-megapixel LCD devices provides significantly better results for mammography reading as compared to a standard 5-magapixel LCD or CRT. If a 3-megapixel LCD is used in mammography setting, a very time-consuming magnification of the digital mammograms would be necessary.

  9. How the Molecular Packing Affects the Room Temperature Phosphorescence in Pure Organic Compounds: Ingenious Molecular Design, Detailed Crystal Analysis, and Rational Theoretical Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yujun; Ge, Yuwei; Peng, Qian; Li, Conggang; Li, Qianqian; Li, Zhen

    2017-02-21

    Long-lived phosphorescence at room temperature (RTP) from pure organic molecules is rare. Recent research reveals various crystalline organic molecules can realize RTP with lifetimes extending to the magnitude of second. There is little research on how molecular packing affecting RTP. Three compounds are designed with similar optical properties in solution, but tremendously different solid emission characteristics. By investigating the molecular packing arrangement in single crystals, it is found that the packing style of the compact face to face favors of long phosphorescence lifetime and high photoluminescence efficiency, with the lifetime up to 748 ms observed in the crystal of CPM ((9H-carbazol-9-yl)(phenyl)methanone). Theoretical calculation analysis also reveals this kind of packing style can remarkably reduce the singlet excited energy level and prompt electron communication between dimers. Surprisingly, CPM has two very similar single crystals, labeled as CPM and CPM-A, with almost identical crystal data, and the only difference is that molecules in CPM-A crystal take a little looser packing arrangement. X-ray diffraction and cross-polarization under magic spinning (13) C NMR spectra double confirm that they are different crystals. Interestingly, CPM-A crystal shows negligible RTP compared to the CPM crystal, once again proving that the packing style is critical to the RTP property.

  10. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details ... Intra‑Operative Airway Management in Patients with Maxillofacial Trauma having Reduction and ... Clinical Parameters and Challenges of Managing Cervicofacial Necrotizing Fasciitis in a ...

  11. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or ... Difficult airway management in a patient with giant malignant goitre scheduled for thyroidectomy - case report ... Airway Management Dilemma in a Patient with Maxillofacial Injury

  12. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details ... Sequencing for Batch Production in a Group Flowline Machine Shop ... Sampling Plans for Monitoring Quality Control Process at a Plastic Manufacturing Firm in Nigeria: A Case Study

  13. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Burnett, C. Vol 14, No 3 (2008): - Articles Participatory action research (PAR) in monitoring and evaluation of ... The role of the state in sport for development: A South African scenario ... Abstract · Vol 17, No 4 (2011): Part 2 - Articles ... Profiling public viewing and South African viewers during the 2010 FIFA World Cup

  14. Using public health detailing and a family-centered ecological approach to promote patient-provider-parent action for reducing childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sealy, Yvette M; Zarcadoolas, Christina; Dresser, Michelle; Wedemeyer, Laura; Short, Leslie; Silver, Lynn

    2012-04-01

    This paper describes the research and development of the Obesity in Children Action Kit, a paper-based chronic disease management tool of the Public Health Detailing Program (PHD) at the New York City (NYC) Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH). It also describes PHD's process for developing the Obesity in Children detailing campaign (targeting healthcare providers working with children aged 2-18) and its results, during which the Action Kit materials were a focal point. The campaign goals were to impact healthcare provider clinical behaviors, improve the health literacy of parents and children, instigate patient-provider-parent dialogue, and change family practices to prevent obesity. Qualitative research methods consisted of healthcare provider in-depth interviews and parent focus groups to aid campaign development. Evaluation of the Obesity in Children campaign included self-reported data on uptake and usage of clinical tools and action steps of matched assessments from 237 healthcare provider initial and follow-up visits, material stock counts, and DOHMH representative qualitative visit excerpts. Key themes identified in parent focus groups were concerns about childhood diabetes and high blood pressure, awareness of cultural pressure and our "supersize" culture, frustration with family communication around overweight and obesity, lack of knowledge about food quality and portion size, economic pressures, and the availability of healthy and nutritious foods. During the Obesity in Children campaign, six representatives reached 161 practices with 1,588 one-on-one interactions, and an additional 461 contacts were made through group presentations. After these interactions, there was a significant increase in the percentage of physicians self-reported use of key recommended practices: Use of BMI percentile-for-age to assess for overweight or obesity at every visit increased from 77% to 88% (p tools such as a soda bottle showing sugar content, pediatric plate

  15. Co-crystal structures of PKG Iβ (92-227 with cGMP and cAMP reveal the molecular details of cyclic-nucleotide binding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Joo Kim

    Full Text Available Cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinases (PKGs are central mediators of the NO-cGMP signaling pathway and phosphorylate downstream substrates that are crucial for regulating smooth muscle tone, platelet activation, nociception and memory formation. As one of the main receptors for cGMP, PKGs mediate most of the effects of cGMP elevating drugs, such as nitric oxide-releasing agents and phosphodiesterase inhibitors which are used for the treatment of angina pectoris and erectile dysfunction, respectively.We have investigated the mechanism of cyclic nucleotide binding to PKG by determining crystal structures of the amino-terminal cyclic nucleotide-binding domain (CNBD-A of human PKG I bound to either cGMP or cAMP. We also determined the structure of CNBD-A in the absence of bound nucleotide. The crystal structures of CNBD-A with bound cAMP or cGMP reveal that cAMP binds in either syn or anti configurations whereas cGMP binds only in a syn configuration, with a conserved threonine residue anchoring both cyclic phosphate and guanine moieties. The structure of CNBD-A in the absence of bound cyclic nucleotide was similar to that of the cyclic nucleotide bound structures. Surprisingly, isothermal titration calorimetry experiments demonstrated that CNBD-A binds both cGMP and cAMP with a relatively high affinity, showing an approximately two-fold preference for cGMP.Our findings suggest that CNBD-A binds cGMP in the syn conformation through its interaction with Thr193 and an unusual cis-peptide forming residues Leu172 and Cys173. Although these studies provide the first structural insights into cyclic nucleotide binding to PKG, our ITC results show only a two-fold preference for cGMP, indicating that other domains are required for the previously reported cyclic nucleotide selectivity.

  16. The Crystal Structure of the Ivy delta4-16:0-ACP Desaturase Reveals Structural Details of the Oxidized Active Site and Potential Determinants of Regioselectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guy,J.; Whittle, E.; Kumaran, D.; Lindqvist, Y.; Shanklin, J.

    2007-01-01

    The multifunctional acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) desaturase from Hedera helix (English ivy) catalyzes the {Delta}{sup 4} desaturation of 16:0-ACP and the{Delta}{sup 9} desaturation of 18:0-ACP and further desaturates{Delta}{sup 9}-16:1 or {Delta}{sup 9}-18:1 to the corresponding {Delta}{sup 4,9} dienes. The crystal structure of the enzyme has been solved to 1.95{angstrom} resolution, and both the iron-iron distance of 3.2{angstrom} and the presence of a {mu}-oxo bridge reveal this to be the only reported structure of a desaturase in the oxidized FeIII-FeIII form. Significant differences are seen between the oxidized active site and the reduced active site of the Ricinus communis (castor) desaturase; His{sup 227} coordination to Fe2 is lost, and the side chain of Glu{sup 224}, which bridges the two iron ions in the reduced structure, does not interact with either iron. Although carboxylate shifts have been observed on oxidation of other diiron proteins, this is the first example of the residue moving beyond the coordination range of both iron ions. Comparison of the ivy and castor structures reveal surface amino acids close to the annulus of the substrate-binding cavity and others lining the lower portion of the cavity that are potential determinants of their distinct substrate specificities. We propose a hypothesis that differences in side chain packing explains the apparent paradox that several residues lining the lower portion of the cavity in the ivy desaturase are bulkier than their equivalents in the castor enzyme despite the necessity for the ivy enzyme to accommodate three more carbons beyond the diiron site.

  17. Crystal Structures of GII.10 and GII.12 Norovirus Protruding Domains in Complex with Histo-Blood Group Antigens Reveal Details for a Potential Site of Vulnerability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansman, Grant S.; Biertümpfel, Christian; Georgiev, Ivelin; McLellan, Jason S.; Chen, Lei; Zhou, Tongqing; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Kwong, Peter D. (NIH); (NIID-Japan)

    2011-10-10

    Noroviruses are the dominant cause of outbreaks of gastroenteritis worldwide, and interactions with human histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) are thought to play a critical role in their entry mechanism. Structures of noroviruses from genogroups GI and GII in complex with HBGAs, however, reveal different modes of interaction. To gain insight into norovirus recognition of HBGAs, we determined crystal structures of norovirus protruding domains from two rarely detected GII genotypes, GII.10 and GII.12, alone and in complex with a panel of HBGAs, and analyzed structure-function implications related to conservation of the HBGA binding pocket. The GII.10- and GII.12-apo structures as well as the previously solved GII.4-apo structure resembled each other more closely than the GI.1-derived structure, and all three GII structures showed similar modes of HBGA recognition. The primary GII norovirus-HBGA interaction involved six hydrogen bonds between a terminal {alpha}fucose1-2 of the HBGAs and a dimeric capsid interface, which was composed of elements from two protruding subdomains. Norovirus interactions with other saccharide units of the HBGAs were variable and involved fewer hydrogen bonds. Sequence analysis revealed a site of GII norovirus sequence conservation to reside under the critical {alpha}fucose1-2 and to be one of the few patches of conserved residues on the outer virion-capsid surface. The site was smaller than that involved in full HBGA recognition, a consequence of variable recognition of peripheral saccharides. Despite this evasion tactic, the HBGA site of viral vulnerability may provide a viable target for small molecule- and antibody-mediated neutralization of GII norovirus.

  18. The role of boundary layer aerosol particles for the development of deep convective clouds: A high-resolution 3D model with detailed (bin) microphysics applied to CRYSTAL-FACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Delphine; Wobrock, Wolfram; Flossmann, Andrea I.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reproduces aircraft microphysical measurements using a three-dimensional model with bin resolved microphysics and is then used to analyze in particular the role of boundary layer aerosol particles in the anvil and the ice phase. The simulated case is a convective cloud which develops a large anvil of around 10 km height, which was sampled during the Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers — Florida Area Cirrus Experiment (CRYSTAL-FACE). The model couples the 3D dynamics of a cloud scale model with a detailed mixed phase microphysical code. The microphysical package considers the evolution of the wet aerosol particles, drop and ice crystal spectra on size grids with 39 bins. With this model hereafter called DESCAM 3D, we are able to simulate the cloud with features close to those observed and to provide explanations of the observed phenomena concerning cloud microphysics as well as cloud dynamics. The same CRYSTAL-FACE cloud has already been simulated by other groups using a similar model. They investigated the role of mid-tropospheric aerosol particles versus boundary layer aerosol on the microphysical properties of the anvil. Similar simulations with our DESCAM 3D lead to quite different results. Reducing the number of mid-tropospheric aerosol particles causes only minor changes in the cloud anvil. However, changing the aerosol particle spectrum in the boundary layer from clean to polluted conditions modifies strongly the dynamical evolution of the convective clouds and thus impacts significantly on the microphysical properties of the anvil. Possible reasons for the differences are discussed.

  19. Detailed Debunking of Denial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enting, I. G.; Abraham, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    The disinformation campaign against climate science has been compared to a guerilla war whose tactics undermine the traditional checks and balances of science. One comprehensive approach has to been produce archives of generic responses such as the websites of RealClimate and SkepticalScience. We review our experiences with an alternative approach of detailed responses to a small number of high profile cases. Our particular examples were Professor Ian Plimer and Christopher Monckton, the Third Viscount Monckton of Brenchley, each of whom has been taken seriously by political leaders in our respective countries. We relate our experiences to comparable examples such as John Mashey's analysis of the Wegman report and the formal complaints about Lomborg's "Skeptical Environmentalist" and Durkin's "Great Global Warming Swindle". Our two approaches used contrasting approaches: an on-line video of a lecture vs an evolving compendium of misrepresentations. Additionally our approaches differed in the emphasis. The analysis of Monckton concentrated on the misrepresentation of the science, while the analysis of Plimer concentrated on departures from accepted scientific practice: fabrication of data, misrepresentation of cited sources and unattributed use of the work of others. Benefits of an evolving compendium were the ability to incorporate contributions from members of the public who had identified additional errors and the scope for addressing new aspects as they came to public attention. `Detailed debunking' gives non-specialists a reference point for distinguishing non-science when engaging in public debate.

  20. Main: Clone Detail [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Clone Detail Mapping Pseudomolecule data detail Detail information Mapping to the TIGR japonica Pseudomolecu...les kome_mapping_pseudomolecule_data_detail.zip kome_mapping_pseudomolecule_data_detail ...

  1. Convective flow effects on protein crystal growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberger, Franz

    1995-01-01

    During the fifth semi-annual period under this grant we have pursued the following activities: (1) Characterization of the purity and further purification of lysozyme solutions, these efforts are summarized in Section 2; (2) Crystal growth morphology and kinetics studies with tetragonal lysozyme, our observation on the dependence of lysozyme growth kinetics on step sources and impurities has been summarized in a manuscript which was accepted for publication in the Journal of Crystal Growth; (3) Numerical modelling of the interaction between bulk transport and interface kinetics, for a detailed summary of this work see the manuscript which was accepted for publication in the Journal of Crystal Growth; and (4) Light scattering studies, this work has been summarized in a manuscript that has been submitted for publication to the Journal of Chemical Physics.

  2. Visual overview, oral detail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Simonsen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    and with the coordinating nurse, who is the main keeper of the whiteboard. On the basis of observations, we find that coordination is accomplished through a highly intertwined process of technologically mediated visual overview combined with orally communicated details. The oral details serve to clarify and elaborate...

  3. LOCKE Detailed Specification Tables

    CERN Document Server

    Menezo, Lucia G; Gregorio, Jose-Angel

    2012-01-01

    This document shows the detailed specification of LOCKE coherence protocol for each cache controller, using a table-based technique. This representation provides clear, concise visual information yet includes sufficient detail (e.g., transient states) arguably lacking in the traditional, graphical form of state diagrams.

  4. Detail and survey radioautographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wainwright, Wm.W.

    1949-04-19

    The much used survey or contact type of radioautograph is indispensible for a study of the gross distribution of radioactive materials. A detail radioautograph is equally indispensible. The radioautograph makes possible the determination of plutonium with respect to cells. Outlines of survey and detail techniques are given.

  5. Detailed Soils 24K

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This data set is a digital soil survey and is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The information was...

  6. The Crystal Hotel: A Microfluidic Approach to Biomimetic Crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiuqing; Wang, Yun-Wei; Ihli, Johannes; Kim, Yi-Yeoun; Li, Shunbo; Walshaw, Richard; Chen, Li; Meldrum, Fiona C

    2015-12-02

    A "crystal hotel" microfluidic device that allows crystal growth in confined volumes to be studied in situ is used to produce large calcite single crystals with predefined crystallographic orientation, microstructure, and shape by control of the detailed physical environment, flow, and surface chemistry. This general approach can be extended to form technologically important, nanopatterned single crystals.

  7. Three Latin Phonological Details

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Birgit Anette

    2006-01-01

    The present paper deals with three minor details of Latin phonology: 1) the development of the initial sequence *u¿l¿-, where it is suggested that an apparent vacillation between ul- and vol-/vul- represents sandhi variants going back to the proto-language, 2) the adjectives ama¯rus ‘bitter' and ...

  8. Advanced Protein Crystallization Facility (APCF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This section of the Life and Microgravity Spacelab (LMS) publication contains articles entitled: (1) Crystallization of EGFR-EGF; (2) Crystallization of Apocrustacyanin C1; (3) Crystallization and X-ray Analysis of 5S rRNA and the 5S rRNA Domain A; (4) Growth of Lysozyme Crystals at Low Nucleation Density; (5) Comparative Analysis of Aspartyl tRNA-synthetase and Thaumatin Crystals Grown on Earth and In Microgravity; (6) Lysosome Crystal Growth in the Advanced Protein Crystallization Facility Monitored via Mach-Zehnder Interferometry and CCD Video; (7) Analysis of Thaumatin Crystals Grown on Earth and in Microgravity; (8) Crystallization of the Nucleosome Core Particle; (9) Crystallization of Photosystem I; (10) Mechanism of Membrane Protein Crystal Growth: Bacteriorhodopsin-mixed Micelle Packing at the Consolution Boundary, Stabilized in Microgravity; (11) Crystallization in a Microgravity Environment of CcdB, a Protein Involved in the Control of Cell Death; and (12) Crystallization of Sulfolobus Solfataricus

  9. Detailed crystallization study of co-precipitated Y{sub 1.47} Gd{sub 1.53} Fe{sub 5} O{sub 12} and relevant magnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serra, Rogerio Arving [Instituto de Criminalistica Carlos Eboli (ICCE), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ogasawara, Tsuneharu; Ogasawara, Angelica Soares [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Dept. de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais]. E-mail: ogasawat@metalmat.ufrj.br

    2007-07-01

    The crystallization process of co-precipitated Y{sub 1.5}Gd{sub 1.5}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} powder heated up to 1000 deg C at rate of 5 deg C min{sup -1} was investigated. Above 810 deg C crystalline Y{sub 1.47}Gd{sub 1.53}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} was obtained with a lattice parameter of 12.41 A and a theoretical density of 5.84 g cm{sup -3}. Dry pressed rings were sintered at 1270 and 1320 deg C, increasing the grain-size from 3.1 to 6.5 {mu}m, the theoretical density by 87.6 to 95.3% and decreasing H{sub c} from 2.9725 to 1.4005 Oe. Additionally, Hc increased when the frequency of the hysteresis graph varied from 60 Hz to 10 kHz, the curie temperature was 282.4 deg C and Ms equalled 9.25 emu g{sup -1} (0.17 kG) agreeing well with the B{sub s}-value of the hysteresis graph and literature values. (author)

  10. Deformations of crystal frameworks

    CERN Document Server

    Borcea, Ciprian S

    2011-01-01

    We apply our deformation theory of periodic bar-and-joint frameworks to tetrahedral crystal structures. The deformation space is investigated in detail for frameworks modelled on quartz, cristobalite and tridymite.

  11. Global detailed gravimetric geoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, S.; Marsh, J. G.

    1974-01-01

    A global detailed gravimetric geoid has been computed by combining the Goddard Space Flight Center GEM-4 gravity model derived from satellite and surface gravity data and surface 1 x 1-deg mean free-air gravity anomaly data. The accuracy of the geoid is plus or minus 2 meters on continents, 5 to 7 meters in areas where surface gravity data are sparse, and 10 to 15 meters in areas where no surface gravity data are available. Comparisons have been made with the astrogeodetic data provided by Rice (United States), Bomford (Europe), and Mather (Australia). Comparisons have also been carried out with geoid heights derived from satellite solutions for geocentric station coordinates in North America, the Caribbean, Europe and Australia.

  12. Consider the details

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rasmus; Hertzum, Morten

    2013-01-01

    levels of distance in our study. For revision time, the electronic whiteboard is slower on one subtask but there is no difference on another subtask. Participants prefer the electronic whiteboard. Given the font size of the electronic whiteboard, the inferior reading accuracy is unsurprising......Electronic whiteboards are replacing dry-erase whiteboards in many contexts. In this study we compare electronic and dry-erase whiteboards in emergency departments (EDs) with respect to reading distance and revision time. We find inferior reading accuracy for the electronic whiteboard at all three...... but the reduced possibilities for acquiring information at a glance when clinicians pass the whiteboard may adversely affect their overview. Conversely, the similar revision times for one subtask show that logon may be done quickly. We discuss how details such as font size and logon may impact the high-level...

  13. Crowdsourcing detailed flood data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walliman, Nicholas; Ogden, Ray; Amouzad*, Shahrzhad

    2015-04-01

    Over the last decade the average annual loss across the European Union due to flooding has been 4.5bn Euros, but increasingly intense rainfall, as well as population growth, urbanisation and the rising costs of asset replacements, may see this rise to 23bn Euros a year by 2050. Equally disturbing are the profound social costs to individuals, families and communities which in addition to loss of lives include: loss of livelihoods, decreased purchasing and production power, relocation and migration, adverse psychosocial effects, and hindrance of economic growth and development. Flood prediction, management and defence strategies rely on the availability of accurate information and flood modelling. Whilst automated data gathering (by measurement and satellite) of the extent of flooding is already advanced it is least reliable in urban and physically complex geographies where often the need for precise estimation is most acute. Crowdsourced data of actual flood events is a potentially critical component of this allowing improved accuracy in situations and identifying the effects of local landscape and topography where the height of a simple kerb, or discontinuity in a boundary wall can have profound importance. Mobile 'App' based data acquisition using crowdsourcing in critical areas can combine camera records with GPS positional data and time, as well as descriptive data relating to the event. This will automatically produce a dataset, managed in ArcView GIS, with the potential for follow up calls to get more information through structured scripts for each strand. Through this local residents can provide highly detailed information that can be reflected in sophisticated flood protection models and be core to framing urban resilience strategies and optimising the effectiveness of investment. This paper will describe this pioneering approach that will develop flood event data in support of systems that will advance existing approaches such as developed in the in the UK

  14. Detailed IR aperture measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce, Roderik; Garcia Morales, Hector; Giovannozzi, Massimo; Hermes, Pascal Dominik; Mirarchi, Daniele; Quaranta, Elena; Redaelli, Stefano; Rossi, Carlo; Skowronski, Piotr Krzysztof; Wretborn, Sven Joel; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    MD 1673 was carried out on October 5 2016, in order to investigate in more detail the available aperture in the LHC high-luminosity insertions at 6.5 TeV and β∗=40 cm. Previous aperture measurements in 2016 during commissioning had shown that the available aperture is at the edge of protection, and that the aperture bottleneck at β∗=40 cm in certain cases is found in the separation plane instead of in the crossing plane. Furthermore, the bottlenecks were consistently found in close to the upstream end of Q3 on the side of the incoming beam, and not in Q2 on the outgoing beam as expected from calculations. Therefore, this MD aimed at measuring IR1 and IR5 separately (at 6.5 TeV and β∗=40 cm, for 185 µrad half crossing angle), to further localize the bottlenecks longitudinally using newly installed BLMs, investigate the difference in aperture between Q2 and Q3, and to see if any aperture can be gained using special orbit bumps.

  15. Macromolecular Crystallization in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Edward H.; Helliwell, John R.

    2004-01-01

    The key concepts that attracted crystal growers, macromolecular or solid state, to microgravity research is that density difference fluid flows and sedimentation of the growing crystals are greatly reduced. Thus, defects and flaws in the crystals can be reduced, even eliminated, and crystal volume can be increased. Macromolecular crystallography differs from the field of crystalline semiconductors. For the latter, crystals are harnessed for their electrical behaviors. A crystal of a biological macromolecule is used instead for diffraction experiments (X-ray or neutron) to determine the three-dimensional structure of the macromolecule. The better the internal order of the crystal of a biological macromolecule then the more molecular structure detail that can be extracted. This structural information that enables an understanding of how the molecule functions. This knowledge is changing the biological and chemical sciences with major potential in understanding disease pathologies. Macromolecular structural crystallography in general is a remarkable field where physics, biology, chemistry, and mathematics meet to enable insight to the basic fundamentals of life. In this review, we examine the use of microgravity as an environment to grow macromolecular crystals. We describe the crystallization procedures used on the ground, how the resulting crystals are studied and the knowledge obtained from those crystals. We address the features desired in an ordered crystal and the techniques used to evaluate those features in detail. We then introduce the microgravity environment, the techniques to access that environment, and the theory and evidence behind the use of microgravity for crystallization experiments. We describe how ground-based laboratory techniques have been adapted to microgravity flights and look at some of the methods used to analyze the resulting data. Several case studies illustrate the physical crystal quality improvements and the macromolecular structural

  16. New details emerge from the Einstein files

    CERN Multimedia

    Overbye, D

    2002-01-01

    For many years the FBI spied on Einstein. New details of this surveilance are emerging in "The Einstein File: J. Edgar Hoover's Secret War Against the World's Most Famous Scientist," by Fred Jerome, who sued the government with the help of the Public Citizen Litigation Group to obtain a less censored version of the file (1 page).

  17. Crystallization from Gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayana Kalkura, S.; Natarajan, Subramanian

    Among the various crystallization techniques, crystallization in gels has found wide applications in the fields of biomineralization and macromolecular crystallization in addition to crystallizing materials having nonlinear optical, ferroelectric, ferromagnetic, and other properties. Furthermore, by using this method it is possible to grow single crystals with very high perfection that are difficult to grow by other techniques. The gel method of crystallization provides an ideal technique to study crystal deposition diseases, which could lead to better understanding of their etiology. This chapter focuses on crystallization in gels of compounds that are responsible for crystal deposition diseases. The introduction is followed by a description of the various gels used, the mechanism of gelling, and the fascinating phenomenon of Liesegang ring formation, along with various gel growth techniques. The importance and scope of study on crystal deposition diseases and the need for crystal growth experiments using gel media are stressed. The various crystal deposition diseases, viz. (1) urolithiasis, (2) gout or arthritis, (3) cholelithiasis and atherosclerosis, and (4) pancreatitis and details regarding the constituents of the crystal deposits responsible for the pathological mineralization are discussed. Brief accounts of the theories of the formation of urinary stones and gallstones and the role of trace elements in urinary stone formation are also given. The crystallization in gels of (1) the urinary stone constituents, viz. calcium oxalate, calcium phosphates, uric acid, cystine, etc., (2) the constituents of the gallstones, viz. cholesterol, calcium carbonate, etc., (3) the major constituent of the pancreatic calculi, viz., calcium carbonate, and (4) cholic acid, a steroidal hormone are presented. The effect of various organic and inorganic ions, trace elements, and extracts from cereals, herbs, and fruits on the crystallization of major urinary stone and gallstone

  18. The living publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terwilliger, Thomas C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-04

    data allows readers to perform direct calculations of the electron density (using X-rays and electrons as probes) or the nuclear density (using neutrons as probe) on which the molecular models are directly based. This current community practice is described in our first article. There are various ways that these data and tools can be used to further analyze the molecules that have been crystallized. Notably, once a set of results is announced via the publication, the research community can start to interact directly with the data and models. This gives the community the opportunity not only to read about the structure, but to examine it in detail, and even generate subsequent improved models. These improved models could, in principle, be archived along with the original interpretation of the data and can represent a continuously improving set of interpretations of a set of diffraction data. The models could improve both by correction of errors in the original interpretation and by the use of new representations of molecules in crystal structures that more accurately represent the contents of a crystal. These possible developments are described in our second article. A current, significant, thrust for the IUCr is whether it would be advantageous for the crystallographic community to require, rather than only encourage, the archiving of the raw (unprocessed) diffraction data images measured from a crystal, a fibre or a solution. This issue is being evaluated in detail by an IUCr Working Group (see http://forums.iucr.org). Such archived raw data would be linked to and from any associated publications. The archiving of raw diffraction data could allow as yet undeveloped processing methods to have access to the originally measured data. The debate within the community about this much larger proposed archiving effort revolves around the issue of 'cost versus benefit'. Costs can be minimized by preserving the raw data in local repositories, either at centralized

  19. Ultrafast photonic crystal optical switching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Qi-huang; HU Xiao-yong

    2006-01-01

    Photonic crystal,a novel and artificial photonic material with periodic dielectric distribution,possesses photonic bandgap and can control the propagation states of photons.Photonic crystal has been considered to be a promising candidate for the future integrated photonic devices.The properties and the fabrication method of photonic crystal are expounded.The progresses of the study of ultrafast photonic crystal optical switching are discussed in detail.

  20. Macromolecular crystallization in microgravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snell, Edward H [Biophysics Group, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Code XD42, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Helliwell, John R [Department of Chemistry, The University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2005-04-01

    Density difference fluid flows and sedimentation of growing crystals are greatly reduced when crystallization takes place in a reduced gravity environment. In the case of macromolecular crystallography a crystal of a biological macromolecule is used for diffraction experiments (x-ray or neutron) so as to determine the three-dimensional structure of the macromolecule. The better the internal order of the crystal then the greater the molecular structure detail that can be extracted. It is this structural information that enables an understanding of how the molecule functions. This knowledge is changing the biological and chemical sciences, with major potential in understanding disease pathologies. In this review, we examine the use of microgravity as an environment to grow macromolecular crystals. We describe the crystallization procedures used on the ground, how the resulting crystals are studied and the knowledge obtained from those crystals. We address the features desired in an ordered crystal and the techniques used to evaluate those features in detail. We then introduce the microgravity environment, the techniques to access that environment and the theory and evidence behind the use of microgravity for crystallization experiments. We describe how ground-based laboratory techniques have been adapted to microgravity flights and look at some of the methods used to analyse the resulting data. Several case studies illustrate the physical crystal quality improvements and the macromolecular structural advances. Finally, limitations and alternatives to microgravity and future directions for this research are covered. Macromolecular structural crystallography in general is a remarkable field where physics, biology, chemistry and mathematics meet to enable insight to the fundamentals of life. As the reader will see, there is a great deal of physics involved when the microgravity environment is applied to crystallization, some of it known, and undoubtedly much yet to

  1. Crystals in crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus H.; Schmidt, I.; Carlsson, A.;

    2005-01-01

    A major factor governing the performance of catalytically active particles supported on a zeolite carrier is the degree of dispersion. It is shown that the introduction of noncrystallographic mesopores into zeolite single crystals (silicalite-1, ZSM-5) may increase the degree of particle dispersion...... of the zeolite particles, particularly after thermal treatment. When using mesoporous zeolites, the particles were evenly distributed throughout the mesopore system of the zeolitic support, even after calcination, leading to nanocrystals within mesoporous zeolite single crystals....

  2. Progress on photonic crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Lecoq, P; Gundacker, S; Hillemanns, H; Jarron, P; Knapitsch, A; Leclercq, J L; Letartre, X; Meyer, T; Pauwels, K; Powolny, F; Seassal, C

    2010-01-01

    The renewal of interest for Time of Flight Positron Emission Tomography (TOF PET) has highlighted the need for increasing the light output of scintillating crystals and in particular for improving the light extraction from materials with a high index of refraction. One possible solution to overcome the problem of total internal reflection and light losses resulting from multiple bouncing within the crystal is to improve the light extraction efficiency at the crystal/photodetector interface by means of photonic crystals, i.e. media with a periodic modulation of the dielectric constant at the wavelength scale. After a short reminder of the underlying principles this contribution proposes to present the very encouraging results we have recently obtained on LYSO pixels and the perspectives on other crystals such as BGO, LuYAP and LuAG. These results confirm the impressive predictions from our previously published Monte Carlo simulations. A detailed description of the sample preparation procedure is given as well ...

  3. Raman scattering in crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, D.F.

    1988-09-30

    A tutorial presentation is given of Raman scattering in crystals. The physical concepts are emphasized rather than the detailed mathematical formalism. Starting with an introduction to the concepts of phonons and conservation laws, the effects of photon-phonon interactions are presented. This interaction concept is shown for a simple cubic crystal and is extended to a uniaxial crystal. The correlation table method is used for determining the number and symmetry of the Raman active modes. Finally, examples are given to illustrate the relative ease of using this group theoretical method and the predictions are compared with measured Raman spectra. 37 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Computed tomography:the details.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2007-07-01

    Computed Tomography (CT) is a well established technique, particularly in medical imaging, but also applied in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imaging. Basic CT imaging via back-projection is treated in many texts, but often with insufficient detail to appreciate subtleties such as the role of non-uniform sampling densities. Herein are given some details often neglected in many texts.

  5. Crystal science fundamentals

    OpenAIRE

    Ramachandran, V.; Halfpenny, PJ; Roberts, KJ

    2017-01-01

    The fundamentals of crystal science notably crystallography, crystal chemistry, crystal defects, crystal morphology and the surface chemistry of crystals are introduced with particular emphasis on organic crystals.

  6. Phonetic Detail in American English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ray Freeze

    1987-01-01

    @@ In the course of teaching general phonetics and phonological analysis in the psat few years,l have found some phonetic detail which some native speakers as well as non-native speakers were unaware of. This subtle detail will be the focus of this presentation. Som e of this detail many of you will already be aware of because of your experience in learning, teaching, and thinking about English. If anything is new to you, I hope you might enjoy hearing about it even if it turns out not to be useful in your work.

  7. Details from the Dashboard: Charter School Race/Ethnicity Demographics

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Alliance for Public Charter Schools, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This "Details from the Dashboard" report examines race/ethnicity breakouts for public charter schools and traditional public schools at the state and the school district level. The data in this report indicate that in the large majority of states, the race/ethnicity student demographics of charter schools are almost identical to those of the…

  8. Review of Ship Structural Details

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    8 4.3 Knee and Beam Brackets 4-11 4.3.1 Brackets for Girders and Deep Webs 4-11 4.3.2 Brackets Connecting Rolled Sections 4-15 4.4 Tripping...are shell stringers penetrating deep web frames and longitudinal girders penetrating deep transverses. This is not a common detail. If double...34. 3-76 ^"SECTION ’’.’(-K PLAJ iNG * S v *^ 4Fb^:TH»r.KNF.^ SAME AS FLAMGE ► BULKHFADQR DEEP WEB SS- 9 Detail Type: STANCHION END

  9. Detail in architecture: Between arts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulencin Juraj

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Architectural detail represents an important part of architecture. Not only can it be used as an identifier of a specific building but at the same time enhances the experience of the realized project. Within it lie the signs of a great architect and clues to understanding his or her way of thinking. It is therefore the central topic of a seminar offered to architecture students at the Brno University of Technology. During the course of the semester-long class the students acquaint themselves with atypical architectural details of domestic and international architects by learning to read them, understand them and subsequently draw them by creating architectural blueprints. In other words, by general analysis of a detail the students learn theoretical thinking of its architect who, depending on the nature of the design, had to incorporate a variety of techniques and crafts. Students apply this analytical part to their own architectural detail design. The methodology of the seminar consists of experiential learning by project management and is complemented by a series of lectures discussing a diversity of details as well as materials and technologies required to implement it. The architectural detail design is also part of students’ bachelors thesis, therefore, the realistic nature of their blueprints can be verified in the production process of its physical counterpart. Based on their own documentation the students choose the most suitable manufacturing process whether it is supplied by a specific technology or a craftsman. Students actively participate in the production and correct their design proposals in real scale with the actual material. A student, as a future architect, stands somewhere between a client and an artisan, materializes his or her idea and adjusts the manufacturing process so that the final detail fulfills aesthetic consistency and is in harmony with its initial concept. One of the very important aspects of the design is its

  10. Transformative Dynamics in Detailed Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Poulsen, Naja; Gustavsson, Ted

    that the translation process relies heavily on integration of impositions in the detailed plan, although this has clear limitations, since some sustainable strategies are more difficult to impose than others. It also shows how strategic navigation may represent an alternative translation strategy to promote more...... difficult sustainable strategies that address the project design more directly. In conclusion, the paper argues that strategic navigation represents a stronger mediator of change compared to the detailed plan, but that especially timing issues in the coordination between formal planning and design processes...

  11. Liquid crystal infiltration of complex dielectrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gottardo, Stefano; Wiersma, Diederik S.; Vos, Willem L.

    2003-01-01

    Liquid crystal infiltration is becoming an important tool to control the optical properties of complex dielectric systems like photonic crystals and disordered dielectrics. We discuss the technical aspects of liquid crystal infiltration in meso-porous structures, give some details of the sample

  12. DAGAL: Detailed Anatomy of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapen, Johan H.

    2017-03-01

    The current IAU Symposium is closely connected to the EU-funded network DAGAL (Detailed Anatomy of Galaxies), with the final annual network meeting of DAGAL being at the core of this international symposium. In this short paper, we give an overview of DAGAL, its training activities, and some of the scientific advances that have been made under its umbrella.

  13. DAGAL: Detailed Anatomy of Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Knapen, Johan H

    2016-01-01

    The current IAU Symposium is closely connected to the EU-funded network DAGAL (Detailed Anatomy of Galaxies), with the final annual network meeting of DAGAL being at the core of this international symposium. In this short paper, we give an overview of DAGAL, its training activities, and some of the scientific advances that have been made under its umbrella.

  14. On Detailing in Contemporary Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Claus; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2010-01-01

    / tactility can blur the meaning of the architecture and turn it into an empty statement. The present paper will outline detailing in contemporary architecture and discuss the issue with respect to architectural quality. Architectural cases considered as sublime piece of architecture will be presented...

  15. High Birefringence Liquid Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Herman

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Liquid crystals, compounds and mixtures with positive dielectric anisotropies are reviewed. The mesogenic properties and physical chemical properties (viscosity, birefringence, refractive indices, dielectric anisotropy and elastic constants of compounds being cyano, fluoro, isothiocyanato derivatives of biphenyl, terphenyl, quaterphenyl, tolane, phenyl tolane, phenyl ethynyl tolane, and biphenyl tolane are compared. The question of how to obtain liquid crystal with a broad range of nematic phases is discussed in detail. Influence of lateral substituent of different kinds of mesogenic and physicochemical properties is presented (demonstrated. Examples of mixtures with birefringence ∆n in the range of 0.2–0.5 are given.

  16. The living publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terwilliger, Thomas C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-04

    data allows readers to perform direct calculations of the electron density (using X-rays and electrons as probes) or the nuclear density (using neutrons as probe) on which the molecular models are directly based. This current community practice is described in our first article. There are various ways that these data and tools can be used to further analyze the molecules that have been crystallized. Notably, once a set of results is announced via the publication, the research community can start to interact directly with the data and models. This gives the community the opportunity not only to read about the structure, but to examine it in detail, and even generate subsequent improved models. These improved models could, in principle, be archived along with the original interpretation of the data and can represent a continuously improving set of interpretations of a set of diffraction data. The models could improve both by correction of errors in the original interpretation and by the use of new representations of molecules in crystal structures that more accurately represent the contents of a crystal. These possible developments are described in our second article. A current, significant, thrust for the IUCr is whether it would be advantageous for the crystallographic community to require, rather than only encourage, the archiving of the raw (unprocessed) diffraction data images measured from a crystal, a fibre or a solution. This issue is being evaluated in detail by an IUCr Working Group (see http://forums.iucr.org). Such archived raw data would be linked to and from any associated publications. The archiving of raw diffraction data could allow as yet undeveloped processing methods to have access to the originally measured data. The debate within the community about this much larger proposed archiving effort revolves around the issue of 'cost versus benefit'. Costs can be minimized by preserving the raw data in local repositories, either at centralized

  17. XTALOPT Version r10: An open-source evolutionary algorithm for crystal structure prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Patrick; Falls, Zackary; Zurek, Eva

    2017-08-01

    A new version of XTALOPT, an evolutionary algorithm for crystal structure prediction, is available for download from the CPC library or the XTALOPT website, http://xtalopt.github.io. XTALOPT is published under the Gnu Public License (GPL), which is an open source license that is recognized by the Open Source Initiative. The new version incorporates many bug-fixes and new features, as detailed below.

  18. Axion Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Ozaki, Sho

    2016-01-01

    The low-energy effective theories for gapped insulators are classified by three parameters: permittivity $\\epsilon$, permeability $\\mu$, and theta angle $\\theta$. Crystals with periodic $\\epsilon$ are known as photonic crystals. We here study the band structure of photons in a new type of crystals with periodic $\\theta$ (modulo $2\\pi$) in space, which we call the axion crystals. We find that the axion crystals have a number of new properties that the usual photonic crystals do not possess, such as the helicity-dependent photonic band gaps and the nonrelativistic gapless dispersion relation at small momentum. We briefly discuss possible realizations of axion crystals in condensed matter systems as well as high-energy physics.

  19. The fluid phenomena in the crystallization of the protein crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duan Li; Kang Qi

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports that an optical diagnostic system consisting of Maeh-Zehnder interferometer with a phase shift device and image processor has been used for study of the kinetics of protein crystal growing process. The crystallization process of protein crystal by vapour diffusion is investigated. The interference fringes are observed in real time. The present experiment demonstrates that the diffusion and the sedimentation influence the crystallization of protein crystal which grows in solution, and the concentration capillary convection associated with surface tension occurs at the vicinity of free surface of the protein mother liquor, and directly affects on the outcome of protein crystallization. So far the detailed analysis and the important role of the fluid phenomena in protein crystallization have been discussed a little in both space- and ground-based crystal growth experiments. It is also found that these fluid phenomena affect theoutcome of protein crystallization, regular growth, and crystal quality. This may explain the fact that many results of space-based investigation do not show overall improvement.

  20. The crystal acceleration effect for cold neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braginetz, Yu. P., E-mail: aiver@pnpi.spb.ru [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute NRC KI (Russian Federation); Berdnikov, Ya. A. [Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University (Russian Federation); Fedorov, V. V., E-mail: vfedorov@pnpi.spb.ru; Kuznetsov, I. A.; Lasitsa, M. V.; Semenikhin, S. Yu., E-mail: ssy@pnpi.spb.ru; Vezhlev, E. O.; Voronin, V. V., E-mail: vvv@pnpi.spb.ru [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute NRC KI (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-15

    A new mechanism of neutron acceleration is discussed and studied experimentally in detail for cold neutrons passing through the accelerated perfect crystal with the energies close to the Bragg one. The effect arises due to the following reason. The crystal refraction index (neutron-crystal interaction potential) for neutron in the vicinity of the Bragg resonance sharply depends on the parameter of deviation from the exact Bragg condition, i.e. on the crystal-neutron relative velocity. Therefore the neutrons enter into accelerated crystal with one neutron-crystal interaction potential and exit with the other. Neutron kinetic energy cannot vary inside the crystal due to its homogeneity. So after passage through such a crystal neutrons will be accelerated or decelerated because of the different energy change at the entrance and exit crystal boundaries.

  1. Morphological details in bloodstain particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wael, K; Lepot, L

    2015-01-01

    During the commission of crimes blood can be transferred to the clothing of the offender or on other crime related objects. Bloodstain particles are sub-millimetre sized flakes that are lost from dried bloodstains. The nature of these red particles is easily confirmed using spectroscopic methods. In casework, bloodstain particles showing highly detailed morphological features were observed. These provided a rationale for a series of experiments described in this work. It was found that the "largest" particles are shed from blood deposited on polyester and polyamide woven fabrics. No particles are lost from the stains made on absorbent fabrics and from those made on knitted fabrics. The morphological features observed in bloodstain particles can provide important information on the substrates from which they were lost. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A Generalized Detailed Balance Relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruelle, David

    2016-08-01

    Given a system M in a thermal bath we obtain a generalized detailed balance relation for the ratio r=π _τ (K→ J)/π _τ (J→ K) of the transition probabilities M:J→ K and M:K→ J in time τ . We assume an active bath, containing solute molecules in metastable states. These molecules may react with M and the transition J→ K occurs through different channels α involving different reactions with the bath. We find that r=sum p^α r^α , where p^α is the probability that channel α occurs, and r^α depends on the amount of heat (more precisely enthalpy) released to the bath in channel α.

  3. A generalized detailed balance relation

    CERN Document Server

    Ruelle, David

    2015-01-01

    Given a system $M$ in a thermal bath we obtain a generalized detailed balance relation for the ratio $r=\\pi_\\tau(K\\to J)/\\pi_\\tau(J\\to K)$ of the transition probabilities $M:J\\to K$ and $M:K\\to J$ in time $\\tau$. We assume an active bath, containing solute molecules in metastable states. These molecules may react with $M$ and the transition $J\\to K$ occurs through different channels $\\alpha$ involving different reactions with the bath. We find that $r=\\sum p^\\alpha r^\\alpha$, where $p^\\alpha$ is the probability that channel $\\alpha$ occurs, and $r^\\alpha$ depends on the amount of heat (more precisely enthalpy) released to the bath in channel $\\alpha$.

  4. RNA Crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Barbara L.; Kundrot, Craig E.

    2003-01-01

    RNA molecules may be crystallized using variations of the methods developed for protein crystallography. As the technology has become available to syntheisize and purify RNA molecules in the quantities and with the quality that is required for crystallography, the field of RNA structure has exploded. The first consideration when crystallizing an RNA is the sequence, which may be varied in a rational way to enhance crystallizability or prevent formation of alternate structures. Once a sequence has been designed, the RNA may be synthesized chemically by solid-state synthesis, or it may be produced enzymatically using RNA polymerase and an appropriate DNA template. Purification of milligram quantities of RNA can be accomplished by HPLC or gel electrophoresis. As with proteins, crystallization of RNA is usually accomplished by vapor diffusion techniques. There are several considerations that are either unique to RNA crystallization or more important for RNA crystallization. Techniques for design, synthesis, purification, and crystallization of RNAs will be reviewed here.

  5. Protein Crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernov, Alexander A.

    2005-01-01

    Nucleation, growth and perfection of protein crystals will be overviewed along with crystal mechanical properties. The knowledge is based on experiments using optical and force crystals behave similar to inorganic crystals, though with a difference in orders of magnitude in growing parameters. For example, the low incorporation rate of large biomolecules requires up to 100 times larger supersaturation to grow protein, rather than inorganic crystals. Nucleation is often poorly reproducible, partly because of turbulence accompanying the mixing of precipitant with protein solution. Light scattering reveals fluctuations of molecular cluster size, its growth, surface energies and increased clustering as protein ages. Growth most often occurs layer-by-layer resulting in faceted crystals. New molecular layer on crystal face is terminated by a step where molecular incorporation occurs. Quantitative data on the incorporation rate will be discussed. Rounded crystals with molecularly disordered interfaces will be explained. Defects in crystals compromise the x-ray diffraction resolution crucially needed to find the 3D atomic structure of biomolecules. The defects are immobile so that birth defects stay forever. All lattice defects known for inorganics are revealed in protein crystals. Contribution of molecular conformations to lattice disorder is important, but not studied. This contribution may be enhanced by stress field from other defects. Homologous impurities (e.g., dimers, acetylated molecules) are trapped more willingly by a growing crystal than foreign protein impurities. The trapped impurities induce internal stress eliminated in crystals exceeding a critical size (part of mni for ferritin, lysozyme). Lesser impurities are trapped from stagnant, as compared to the flowing, solution. Freezing may induce much more defects unless quickly amorphysizing intracrystalline water.

  6. Textures of liquid crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Dierking, Ingo

    2006-01-01

    A unique compendium of knowledge on all aspects of the texture of liquid crystals, providing not just detailed information on texture formation and determination, but also an in-depth discussion of different characterization methods. Experts as well as graduates entering the field will find all the information they need in this handbook, while the magnitude of the color images make it valuable hands-on-reference.

  7. Computational crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altan, Irem; Charbonneau, Patrick; Snell, Edward H

    2016-07-15

    Crystallization is a key step in macromolecular structure determination by crystallography. While a robust theoretical treatment of the process is available, due to the complexity of the system, the experimental process is still largely one of trial and error. In this article, efforts in the field are discussed together with a theoretical underpinning using a solubility phase diagram. Prior knowledge has been used to develop tools that computationally predict the crystallization outcome and define mutational approaches that enhance the likelihood of crystallization. For the most part these tools are based on binary outcomes (crystal or no crystal), and the full information contained in an assembly of crystallization screening experiments is lost. The potential of this additional information is illustrated by examples where new biological knowledge can be obtained and where a target can be sub-categorized to predict which class of reagents provides the crystallization driving force. Computational analysis of crystallization requires complete and correctly formatted data. While massive crystallization screening efforts are under way, the data available from many of these studies are sparse. The potential for this data and the steps needed to realize this potential are discussed.

  8. Crystal growth and structural analysis of zirconium sulphoselenide single crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K R Patel; R D Vaidya; M S Dave; S G Patel

    2008-08-01

    A series of zirconium sulphoselenide (ZrSSe3–, where = 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3) single crystals have been grown by chemical vapour transport technique using iodine as a transporting agent. The optimum condition for the growth of these crystals is given. The stoichiometry of the grown crystals were confirmed on the basis of energy dispersive analysis by X-ray (EDAX) and the structural characterization was accomplished by X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. The crystals are found to possess monoclinic structure. The lattice parameters, volume, particle size and X-ray density have been carried out for these crystals. The effect of sulphur proportion on the lattice parameter, unit cell volume and X-ray density in the series of ZrSSe3– single crystals have been studied and found to decrease in all these parameters with rise in sulphur proportion. The grown crystals were examined under optical zoom microscope for their surface topography study. Hall effect measurements were carried out on grown crystals at room temperature. The negative value of Hall coefficient implies that these crystals are -type in nature. The conductivity is found to decrease with increase of sulphur content in the ZrSSe3– series. The electrical resistivity parallel to c-axis as well as perpendicular to -axis have been carried out in the temperature range 303–423 K. The results obtained are discussed in detail.

  9. Publicity and public relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosha, Charles E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses approaches to using publicity and public relations to meet the goals of the NASA Space Grant College. Methods universities and colleges can use to publicize space activities are presented.

  10. Crystal Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 3 NIST Crystal Data (PC database for purchase)   NIST Crystal Data contains chemical, physical, and crystallographic information useful to characterize more than 237,671 inorganic and organic crystalline materials. The data include the standard cell parameters, cell volume, space group number and symbol, calculated density, chemical formula, chemical name, and classification by chemical type.

  11. Crystal engineering: A brief overview

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gautam R Desiraju

    2010-09-01

    Crystal structures of organic and metal-organic compounds have been determined in enormous numbers over the past century, and at the time of writing this review, the Cambridge Structural Database has just crossed the half million mark. The possibility of designing a particular crystal packing is, however, of more recent origin and the subject of crystal engineering has addressed this possibility, more or less systematically, during the past 30 years. Crystal engineering demands a detailed and thorough knowledge of intermolecular interactions, which act as the supramolecular glue that binds molecules into crystals. It also requires systematic strategies for the design of a crystal, the architectural blueprint as it were. Finally, this enterprise needs to be geared towards a useful property in that the crystal that is being designed is a functional one. All these features of the subject are directly or indirectly connected with the fact that there is a very large database of known crystal structures that is available to the crystal engineer. This review attempts to briefly survey the current scenario in this expanding subject.

  12. Solid-state molecular organometallic chemistry. Single-crystal to single-crystal reactivity and catalysis with light hydrocarbon substrates† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Full details of experimental details, spectroscopic and other analytical data, X-ray crystallography, catalytic conditions, and computational studies. CCDC 1539832–1539836. For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c7sc01491k Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, F. Mark; McKay, Alasdair I.; Martinez-Martinez, Antonio J.; Rees, Nicholas H.; Krämer, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    Single-crystal to single-crystal solid/gas reactivity and catalysis starting from the precursor sigma-alkane complex [Rh(Cy2PCH2CH2PCy2)(η2η2-NBA)][BArF4] (NBA = norbornane; ArF = 3,5-(CF3)2C6H3) is reported. By adding ethene, propene and 1-butene to this precursor in solid/gas reactions the resulting alkene complexes [Rh(Cy2PCH2CH2PCy2)(alkene)x][BArF4] are formed. The ethene (x = 2) complex, [Rh(Cy2PCH2CH2PCy2)(ethene)2][BArF4]-Oct, has been characterized in the solid-state (single-crystal X-ray diffraction) and by solution and solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Rapid, low temperature recrystallization using solution methods results in a different crystalline modification, [Rh(Cy2PCH2CH2PCy2)(ethene)2][BArF4]-Hex, that has a hexagonal microporous structure (P6322). The propene complex (x = 1) [Rh(Cy2PCH2CH2PCy2)(propene)][BArF4] is characterized as having a π-bound alkene with a supporting γ-agostic Rh···H3C interaction at low temperature by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, variable temperature solution and solid-state NMR spectroscopy, as well as periodic density functional theory (DFT) calculations. A fluxional process occurs in both the solid-state and solution that is proposed to proceed via a tautomeric allyl-hydride. Gas/solid catalytic isomerization of d3-propene, H2C 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111111111111111 1111111111111111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000

  13. Photonic Crystals Physics and Practical Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Sukhoivanov, Igor A

    2009-01-01

    The great interest in photonic crystals and their applications in the past decade requires a thorough training of students and professionals who can practically apply the knowledge of physics of photonic crystals together with skills of independent calculation of basic characteristics of photonic crystals and modelling of various photonic crystal elements for application in all-optical communication systems. This book combines basic backgrounds in fiber and integrated optics with detailed analysis of mathematical models for 1D, 2D and 3D photonic crystals and microstructured fibers, as well as with descriptions of real algorithms and codes for practical realization of the models.

  14. Macromolecular crystallization and crystal perfection

    CERN Document Server

    Chayen, Naomi E; Snell, Edward H

    2010-01-01

    Structural biology is key to our understanding of the mechanisms of biological processes. This text describes current methods and future frontiers in crystal growth and use of X-ray and neutron crystallography, in the context of automation of crystallization and generation of synchrotron X-ray and neutron beams.

  15. Liquid crystal tunable photonic crystal dye laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buss, Thomas; Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Smith, Cameron

    2010-01-01

    We present a dye-doped liquid crystal laser using a photonic crystal cavity. An applied electric field to the liquid crystal provides wavelength tunability. The photonic crystal enhances resonant interaction with the gain medium....

  16. Crystal Dislocations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald W. Armstrong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Crystal dislocations were invisible until the mid-20th century although their presence had been inferred; the atomic and molecular scale dimensions had prevented earlier discovery. Now they are normally known to be just about everywhere, for example, in the softest molecularly-bonded crystals as well as within the hardest covalently-bonded diamonds. The advent of advanced techniques of atomic-scale probing has facilitated modern observations of dislocations in every crystal structure-type, particularly by X-ray diffraction topography and transmission electron microscopy. The present Special Issue provides a flavor of their ubiquitous presences, their characterizations and, especially, their influence on mechanical and electrical properties.

  17. The CMS crystal calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Lustermann, W

    2004-01-01

    The measurement of the energy of electrons and photons with very high accuracy is of primary importance far the study of many physics processes at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), in particular for the search of the Higgs Boson. The CMS experiment will use a crystal calorimeter with pointing geometry, almost covering 4p, as it offers a very good energy resolution. It is divided into a barrel composed of 61200 lead tungstate crystals, two end-caps with 14648 crystals and a pre-shower detector in front of the end-cap. The challenges of the calorimeter design arise from the high radiation environment, the 4 Tesla magnetic eld, the high bunch crossing rate of 40 MHz and the large dynamic range, requiring the development of fast, radiation hard crystals, photo-detectors and readout electronics. An overview of the construction and design of the calorimeter will be presented, with emphasis on some of the details required to meet the demanding performance goals. 19 Refs.

  18. Public Education, Public Good.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, John

    1986-01-01

    Criticizes policies which would damage or destroy a public education system. Examines the relationship between government-provided education and democracy. Concludes that privatization of public education would emphasize self-interest and selfishness, further jeopardizing the altruism and civic mindedness necessary for the public good. (JDH)

  19. Optical Properties of Photonic Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Sakoda, Kazuaki

    2005-01-01

    This is the first comprehensive textbook on the optical properties of photonic crystals. It deals not only with the properties of the radiation modes inside the crystals but also with their peculiar optical response to external fields. A general theory of linear and nonlinear optical response is developed in a clear and detailed fashion using the Green's function method. The symmetry of the eigenmodes is treated systematically using group theory to show how it affects the optical properties of photonic crystals. Important recent developments such as the enhancement of stimulated emission, second harmonic generation, quadrature-phase squeezing, and low-threshold lasing are also treated in detail and made understandable. Numerical methods are also emphasized. Thus this book provides both an introduction for graduate and undergraduate students and also key information for researchers in this field. This second edition has been updated and includes a new chapter on superfluorescence.

  20. Liquid crystal colloids

    CERN Document Server

    Muševič, Igor

    2017-01-01

    This book brings together the many concepts and discoveries in liquid crystal colloids contributed over the last twenty years and scattered across numerous articles and book chapters. It provides both a historical overview of the development of the field and a clear perspective on the future applications in photonics. The book covers all phenomena observed in liquid crystal colloids with an emphasis on experimental tools and applications of topology in condensed matter, as well as practical micro-photonics applications. It includes a number of spectacular manifestations of new topological phenomena not found or difficult to observe in other systems. Starting from the early works on nematic colloids, it explains the basics of topological defects in ordered media, charge and winding, and the elastic forces between colloidal particles in nematics. Following a detailed description of experimental methods, such as optical tweezing and particle tracking, the book eases the reader into the theoretical part, which de...

  1. Liquid Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Thermochromic liquid crystals, or TLCs, are a type of liquid crystals that react to changes in temperature by changing color. The Hallcrest/NASA collaboration involved development of a new way to visualize boundary layer transition in flight and in wind tunnel testing of aircraft wing and body surfaces. TLCs offered a new and potentially better method of visualizing the boundary layer transition in flight. Hallcrest provided a liquid crystal formulation technique that afforded great control over the sensitivity of the liquid crystals to varying conditions. Method is of great use to industry, government and universities for aerodynamic and hydrodynamic testing. Company's principal line is temperature indicating devices for industrial use, such as non-destructive testing and flaw detection in electric/electronic systems, medical application, such as diagnostic systems, for retail sale, such as room, refrigerator, baby bath and aquarium thermometers, and for advertising and promotion specials. Additionally, Hallcrest manufactures TLC mixtures for cosmetic applications, and liquid crystal battery tester for Duracell batteries.

  2. Public services, personal benefits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bob Kuhry; Evert Pommer; Jedid-Jah Jonker; John Stevens

    2006-01-01

    Original title: Publieke productie & persoonlijk profijt. This report looks in detail at the costs of public services (such as care, education, public administration and safety) and the benefits that citizens derive from the government expenditure involved in delivering those services. In

  3. Public services, personal benefits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bob Kuhry; Evert Pommer; Jedid-Jah Jonker; John Stevens

    2006-01-01

    Original title: Publieke productie & persoonlijk profijt. This report looks in detail at the costs of public services (such as care, education, public administration and safety) and the benefits that citizens derive from the government expenditure involved in delivering those services. In 2003,

  4. Monte Carlo methods beyond detailed balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schram, Raoul D.; Barkema, Gerard T.

    2015-01-01

    Monte Carlo algorithms are nearly always based on the concept of detailed balance and ergodicity. In this paper we focus on algorithms that do not satisfy detailed balance. We introduce a general method for designing non-detailed balance algorithms, starting from a conventional algorithm satisfying

  5. Crystal Ball Replica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajamian, John

    2016-09-01

    The A2 collaboration of the Institute for Nuclear Physics of Johannes Gutenberg University performs research on (multiple) meson photoproduction and nucleon structure and dynamics using a high energy polarized photon beam at specific targets. Particles scattered from the target are detected in the Crystal Ball, or CB. The CB is composed of 672 NaI crystals that surround the target and can analyze particle type and energy of ejected particles. Our project was to create a replica of the CB that could display what was happening in real time on a 3 Dimensional scale replica. Our replica was constructed to help explain the physics to the general public, be used as a tool when calibrating each of the 672 NaI crystals, and to better analyze the electron showering of particles coming from the target. This poster will focus on the hardware steps necessary to construct the replica and wire the 672 programmable LEDS in such a way that they can be mapped to correspond to the Crystal Ball elements. George Washington NSF Grant.

  6. Photonic crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Busch, Kurt; Wehrspohn, Ralf B; Föll, Helmut

    2006-01-01

    The majority of the contributions in this topically edited book stems from the priority program SPP 1113 ""Photonische Kristalle"" run by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), resulting in a survey of the current state of photonic crystal research in Germany. The first part of the book describes methods for the theoretical analysis of their optical properties as well as the results. The main part is dedicated to the fabrication, characterization and modeling of two- and three-dimensional photonic crystals, while the final section presents a wide spectrum of applications: gas sensors, micr

  7. Ribbon Crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Jakob; Markvorsen, Steen

    2013-01-01

    A repetitive crystal-like pattern is spontaneously formed upon the twisting of straight ribbons. The pattern is akin to a tessellation with isosceles triangles, and it can easily be demonstrated with ribbons cut from an overhead transparency. We give a general description of developable ribbons...

  8. Therapeutic Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Charles S.

    2014-01-01

    Some readers might not fully know what the difference is between crystallography, and the "new age" practice of dangling crystals around the body to capitalise on their healing energy. The latter is often considered to be superstition, while ironically, the former has actually resulted in real rationally-based healing of human diseases…

  9. Public Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Thomas F.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the importance of public speech in society, noting the power of public speech to create a world and a public. The paper offers a theory of public speech, identifies types of public speech, and types of public speech fallacies. Two ways of speaking of the public and of public life are distinguished. (SM)

  10. Carboxylic acids in crystallization of macromolecules: learning from successful crystallization experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offermann, Lesa R; He, John Z; Mank, Nicholas J; Booth, William T; Chruszcz, Maksymilian

    2014-03-01

    The production of macromolecular crystals suitable for structural analysis is one of the most important and limiting steps in the structure determination process. Often, preliminary crystallization trials are performed using hundreds of empirically selected conditions. Carboxylic acids and/or their salts are one of the most popular components of these empirically derived crystallization conditions. Our findings indicate that almost 40 % of entries deposited to the Protein Data Bank (PDB) reporting crystallization conditions contain at least one carboxylic acid. In order to analyze the role of carboxylic acids in macromolecular crystallization, a large-scale analysis of the successful crystallization experiments reported to the PDB was performed. The PDB is currently the largest source of crystallization data, however it is not easily searchable. These complications are due to a combination of a free text format, which is used to capture information on the crystallization experiments, and the inconsistent naming of chemicals used in crystallization experiments. Despite these difficulties, our approach allows for the extraction of over 47,000 crystallization conditions from the PDB. Initially, the selected conditions were investigated to determine which carboxylic acids or their salts are most often present in crystallization solutions. From this group, selected sets of crystallization conditions were analyzed in detail, assessing parameters such as concentration, pH, and precipitant used. Our findings will lead to the design of new crystallization screens focused around carboxylic acids.

  11. Photonic crystals principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, Qihuang

    2013-01-01

    IntroductionPrimary Properties of Photonic CrystalsFabrication of Photonic CrystalsPhotonic Crystal All-Optical SwitchingTunable Photonic Crystal FilterPhotonic Crystal LaserPhotonic Crystal Logic DevicesPhotonic Crystal Sensors

  12. Nabokov's Details: Making Sense of Irrational Standards

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Vladimir Nabokov's passion for detail is well-known, central to our very idea of the "Nabokovian." Yet Nabokov's most important claims for detail pose a challenge for the reader who would take them seriously. Startlingly extreme and deliberately counterintuitive -- Nabokov called them his "irrational standards" -- these claims push the very limits of reason and belief. Nabokov's critics have tended to treat his more extravagant claims for detail -- including his assertion that the "capacity t...

  13. Clinical professional governance for detailed clinical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossen, William; Goossen-Baremans, Anneke

    2013-01-01

    This chapter describes the need for Detailed Clinical Models for contemporary Electronic Health Systems, data exchange and data reuse. It starts with an explanation of the components related to Detailed Clinical Models with a brief summary of knowledge representation, including terminologies representing clinic relevant "things" in the real world, and information models that abstract these in order to let computers process data about these things. Next, Detailed Clinical Models are defined and their purpose is described. It builds on existing developments around the world and accumulates in current work to create a technical specification at the level of the International Standards Organization. The core components of properly expressed Detailed Clinical Models are illustrated, including clinical knowledge and context, data element specification, code bindings to terminologies and meta-information about authors, versioning among others. Detailed Clinical Models to date are heavily based on user requirements and specify the conceptual and logical levels of modelling. It is not precise enough for specific implementations, which requires an additional step. However, this allows Detailed Clinical Models to serve as specifications for many different kinds of implementations. Examples of Detailed Clinical Models are presented both in text and in Unified Modelling Language. Detailed Clinical Models can be positioned in health information architectures, where they serve at the most detailed granular level. The chapter ends with examples of projects that create and deploy Detailed Clinical Models. All have in common that they can often reuse materials from earlier projects, and that strict governance of these models is essential to use them safely in health care information and communication technology. Clinical validation is one point of such governance, and model testing another. The Plan Do Check Act cycle can be applied for governance of Detailed Clinical Models

  14. Displaying of Details in Subvoxel Accuracy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡文立; 陈天洲; 等

    1996-01-01

    Under the volume segmentation in voxel space,a lot of details,some fine and thin objects,are ignored.In order to accurately display these details,this paper has developed a methodology for volume segmentation in subvoxel space.In the subvoxel space,most of the “bridges”between adjacent layers are broken down.Based on the subvoxel space,an automatic segmentation algorithm reserving details is discussed.After segmentation,volume data in subvoxel space are reduced to original voxel space.Thus,the details with width of only one or several voxels are extracted and displayed.

  15. Growth, spectral and crystallization perfection studies of semi organic non linear optical crystal - L-alanine lithium chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redrothu, Hanumantharao; Kalainathan, S.; Bhagavannarayana, G.

    2012-06-01

    Single crystals of L-alanine lithium chloride single crystals were successfully grown using slow evaporation solution growth technique at constant temperature (303K). The formation of the new crystal has been confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, FT-IR studies. The crystalline perfection was analyzed by high-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) rocking curve measurements. The powder second harmonic generation (SHG) has been confirmed by Nd: YAG laser. The results have been discussed in detail.

  16. Detailed Analysis of Motor Unit Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolic, Mile; Sørensen, John Aasted; Dahl, Kristian

    1997-01-01

    System for decomposition of EMG signals intotheir constituent motor unit potentials and their firing patterns.The aim of the system is detailed analysis ofmotor unit variability.......System for decomposition of EMG signals intotheir constituent motor unit potentials and their firing patterns.The aim of the system is detailed analysis ofmotor unit variability....

  17. Stiilne detail vanalinnas / Jüri Kuuskemaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuuskemaa, Jüri, 1942-

    2000-01-01

    Näitus Rotermanni soolalaos "Stiilne detail vanalinnas" esitab detaile, mis on ilmestanud Tallinna siluetti (tuulelipud), tänavapilti (lukusiltidest ja uksekoputitest pühakuorvakujudeni) ja tubasid (akna käepidemest ahjukahlite, põrandaplaatide, toauste, stukk- ja kivireljeefideni). Kuraator J. Kuuskemaa, kujundaja M. Agabush.

  18. Detailed Analysis of Motor Unit Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolic, Mile; Sørensen, John Aasted; Dahl, Kristian

    1997-01-01

    System for decomposition of EMG signals intotheir constituent motor unit potentials and their firing patterns.The aim of the system is detailed analysis ofmotor unit variability.......System for decomposition of EMG signals intotheir constituent motor unit potentials and their firing patterns.The aim of the system is detailed analysis ofmotor unit variability....

  19. Understanding brains: details, intuition, and big data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eve Marder

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how the brain works requires a delicate balance between the appreciation of the importance of a multitude of biological details and the ability to see beyond those details to general principles. As technological innovations vastly increase the amount of data we collect, the importance of intuition into how to analyze and treat these data may, paradoxically, become more important.

  20. Public Procurement and Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolfstam, Max

    Max Rolfstam examines the increasing emphasis on public procurement as a means to stimulate innovation and the theoretical implications of this policy development. While ‘regular’ public procurement may be regarded as the outcome of anonymous market processes, public procurement of innovation must...... be understood as a special case of innovation, where social processes – and consequently the institutions governing these social processes – need to be considered. This book contributes to our understanding with a detailed institutional analysis of the public procurement of innovation....

  1. Computational studies of bioceramic crystals and related materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulis, Paul Michael

    Ongoing research to improve the foundations of knowledge concerning the human body requires a detailed understanding of the effects derived from atomic interactions. The details of these fundamental interactions will pave the way to the effective manipulation of macroscopic tissue. As a small step towards the realization of that goal the Orthogonalized Linear Combination of Atomic Orbitals (OLCAO) program suite has been applied to complex bioceramic crystals and other prototypes of hard tissue biological nanostructures. In addition, the OLCAO program suite has been further developed and extended in terms of efficiency, features, ease of use, and ease of maintenance such that even more complex systems and effects can be treated in the future. Through extensive OLCAO ab initio calculations on a collection of prototype bioceramic crystals the differences between them in terms of bonding, charge transfer, electronic structure, and spectroscopic properties have been detailed in an effort to lay the foundations of further research where interfaces, dopants, and defects are considered. In addition, inactive silicon defects that can be considered as prototypes for the complex environment in which bioceramic apatites exist have also been studied with the OLCAO program suite in an effort to expand the detection limit of small structures through spectroscopic means. With much effort, the OLCAO program suite has undergone a detailed conversion to a more modern programming language and programming style. A thorough review of the source code has accounted for many inaccuracies, corrected some programming errors, and removed various inefficient algorithmic bottlenecks. The generation of OLCAO input files, the execution of the components of the OLCAO suite, and the analysis of resultant data has been automated with numerous control scripts. Various external library packages have been instrumented for the benefit of profiling and resource efficiency in a high performance computing

  2. Public Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck Jørgensen, Torben; Rutgers, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    administration is approached in terms of processes guided or restricted by public values and as public value creating: public management and public policy-making are both concerned with establishing, following and realizing public values. To study public values a broad perspective is needed. The article suggest......This article provides the introduction to a symposium on contemporary public values research. It is argued that the contribution to this symposium represent a Public Values Perspective, distinct from other specific lines of research that also use public value as a core concept. Public...... a research agenda for this encompasing kind of public values research. Finally the contributions to the symposium are introduced....

  3. Post Entitlement Management Information - Detail Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Contains data that supports the detailed and aggregate receipt, pending and clearance data, as well as other strategic and tactical MI for many Title II and Title...

  4. Template Assembly for Detailed Urban Reconstruction

    KAUST Repository

    Nan, Liangliang

    2015-05-04

    We propose a new framework to reconstruct building details by automatically assembling 3D templates on coarse textured building models. In a preprocessing step, we generate an initial coarse model to approximate a point cloud computed using Structure from Motion and Multi View Stereo, and we model a set of 3D templates of facade details. Next, we optimize the initial coarse model to enforce consistency between geometry and appearance (texture images). Then, building details are reconstructed by assembling templates on the textured faces of the coarse model. The 3D templates are automatically chosen and located by our optimization-based template assembly algorithm that balances image matching and structural regularity. In the results, we demonstrate how our framework can enrich the details of coarse models using various data sets.

  5. 78 FR 66929 - Intent To Conduct a Detailed Economic Impact Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... Conduct a Detailed Economic Impact Analysis AGENCY: Policy and Planning Division, Export-Import Bank of... public of its intent to conduct a detailed economic impact analysis regarding a loan guarantee to support the export of U.S.-manufactured Boeing 787 wide-body passenger aircraft to an airline in China. Export...

  6. Detailed field test of yaw-based wake steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, P.; Churchfield, M.; Scholbrock, A.; Clifton, A.; Schreck, S.; Johnson, K.; Wright, A.; Gebraad, P.; Annoni, J.; Naughton, B.; Berg, J.; Herges, T.; White, J.; Mikkelsen, T.; Sjöholm, M.; Angelou, N.

    2016-09-01

    This paper describes a detailed field-test campaign to investigate yaw-based wake steering. In yaw-based wake steering, an upstream turbine intentionally misaligns its yaw with respect to the inflow to deflect its wake away from a downstream turbine, with the goal of increasing total power production. In the first phase, a nacelle-mounted scanning lidar was used to verify wake deflection of a misaligned turbine and calibrate wake deflection models. In the second phase, these models were used within a yaw controller to achieve a desired wake deflection. This paper details the experimental design and setup. All data collected as part of this field experiment will be archived and made available to the public via the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmosphere to Electrons Data Archive and Portal.

  7. Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 21 Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database (Web, free access)   The Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database and NASA Archive for Protein Crystal Growth Data (BMCD) contains the conditions reported for the crystallization of proteins and nucleic acids used in X-ray structure determinations and archives the results of microgravity macromolecule crystallization studies.

  8. Can Supersaturation Affect Protein Crystal Quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorti, Sridhar

    2013-01-01

    In quiescent environments (microgravity, capillary tubes, gels) formation of a depletion zone is to be expected, due either to limited sedimentation, density driven convection or a combination of both. The formation of a depletion zone can: Modify solution supersaturation near crystal; Give rise to impurity partitioning. It is conjectured that both supersaturation and impurity partitioning affect protein crystal quality and size. Further detailed investigations on various proteins are needed to assess above hypothesis.

  9. Prediction of Combustion Instability with Detailed Chemical Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    public release; distribution is unlimited. 5 of 19 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (a1) LOP = 8.89cm (a2) LOP = 13.97cm (a3) LOP ...19.05cm (a) Global single step kinetics (b1) LOP = 8.89cm (b2) LOP = 13.97cm (b3) LOP = 19.05cm (b) Detailed, GRI-1.2 kinetics Figure 5: Pressure trace...American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (a1) LOP = 8.89cm (a2) LOP = 13.97cm (a3) LOP = 19.05cm (a) Global single step kinetics (b1) LOP

  10. 76 FR 32237 - Florida Power Corporation, Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant; Notice of Availability...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-03

    ... COMMISSION Florida Power Corporation, Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant; Notice of Availability... Plants and Public Meetings for the License Renewal of Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant... operation for Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant. Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant...

  11. Making detailed predictions makes (some) predictions worse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Theresa F.

    In this paper, we investigate whether making detailed predictions about an event makes other predictions worse. Across 19 experiments, 10,895 participants, and 415,960 predictions about 724 professional sports games, we find that people who made detailed predictions about sporting events (e.g., how many hits each baseball team would get) made worse predictions about more general outcomes (e.g., which team would win). We rule out that this effect is caused by inattention or fatigue, thinking too hard, or a differential reliance on holistic information about the teams. Instead, we find that thinking about game-relevant details before predicting winning teams causes people to give less weight to predictive information, presumably because predicting details makes information that is relatively useless for predicting the winning team more readily accessible in memory and therefore incorporated into forecasts. Furthermore, we show that this differential use of information can be used to predict what kinds of games will and will not be susceptible to the negative effect of making detailed predictions.

  12. Nucleation and Crystallization in nucleated Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, Christoph; Zhuravlev, Evgeny; Wurm, Andreas

    2012-02-01

    Crystallization is commonly considered as nucleation followed by a growth process. Here we apply the recently developed technique, differential fast scanning calorimetry (DFSC), for a unique, new look at the crystal growth of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) and PCL carbon nanotube composites from 185 K, below the glass transition temperature, to 330 K, close to the equilibrium melting temperature. The DFSC allows temperature control of the sample and determination of its heat capacity during temperature treatments by employing cooling and heating rates from 50 to 50,000 K/s. First, the crystal nucleation and overall crystallization half times were determined simultaneously in the range of temperatures where crystallization of PCL occurs. After attempting to analyze the experiments with the classical nucleation and growth model a new methodology is described, which addresses the specific problems of crystallization of flexible linear macromolecules. The structures seem to range from having practically unmeasurable latent heats of ordering (nuclei) to being clearly-recognizable, ordered species with rather sharp disordering endotherms at temperatures from the glass transition to equilibrium melting (increasingly perfect and larger crystals). The mechanisms and kinetics of growth (if any) involve a detailed understanding of the interaction with the surrounding rigid amorphous fraction (RAF) in dependence of crystal size and perfection. E. Zhuravlev, J.W.P. Schmelzer, B. Wunderlich and C. Schick, Kinetics of nucleation and crystallization in poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL), Polymer 52 (2011) 1983-1997.

  13. Ribbon crystals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Bohr

    Full Text Available A repetitive crystal-like pattern is spontaneously formed upon the twisting of straight ribbons. The pattern is akin to a tessellation with isosceles triangles, and it can easily be demonstrated with ribbons cut from an overhead transparency. We give a general description of developable ribbons using a ruled procedure where ribbons are uniquely described by two generating functions. This construction defines a differentiable frame, the ribbon frame, which does not have singular points, whereby we avoid the shortcomings of the Frenet-Serret frame. The observed spontaneous pattern is modeled using planar triangles and cylindrical arcs, and the ribbon structure is shown to arise from a maximization of the end-to-end length of the ribbon, i.e. from an optimal use of ribbon length. The phenomenon is discussed in the perspectives of incompatible intrinsic geometries and of the emergence of long-range order.

  14. Crystallization process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Robert J.; Brown, William R.; Auyang, Lun; Liu, Yin-Chang; Cook, W. Jeffrey

    1986-01-01

    An improved crystallization process is disclosed for separating a crystallizable material and an excluded material which is at least partially excluded from the solid phase of the crystallizable material obtained upon freezing a liquid phase of the materials. The solid phase is more dense than the liquid phase, and it is separated therefrom by relative movement with the formation of a packed bed of solid phase. The packed bed is continuously formed adjacent its lower end and passed from the liquid phase into a countercurrent flow of backwash liquid. The packed bed extends through the level of the backwash liquid to provide a drained bed of solid phase adjacent its upper end which is melted by a condensing vapor.

  15. Fatigue-Prone Details in Steel Bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Heshmati

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the results of a comprehensive investigation including more than 100 fatigue damage cases, reported for steel and composite bridges. The damage cases are categorized according to types of detail. The mechanisms behind fatigue damage in each category are identified and studied. It was found that more than 90% of all reported damage cases are of deformation-induced type and generated by some kind of unintentional or otherwise overlooked interaction between different load-carrying members or systems in the bridge. Poor detailing, with unstiffened gaps and abrupt changes in stiffness at the connections between different members were also found to contribute to fatigue cracking in many details.

  16. Memory for details with self-referencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serbun, Sarah J; Shih, Joanne Y; Gutchess, Angela H

    2011-11-01

    Self-referencing benefits item memory, but little is known about the ways in which referencing the self affects memory for details. Experiment 1 assessed whether the effects of self-referencing operate only at the item, or general, level or whether they also enhance memory for specific visual details of objects. Participants incidentally encoded objects by making judgements in reference to the self, a close other (one's mother), or a familiar other (Bill Clinton). Results indicate that referencing the self or a close other enhances both specific and general memory. Experiments 2 and 3 assessed verbal memory for source in a task that relied on distinguishing between different mental operations (internal sources). The results indicate that self-referencing disproportionately enhances source memory, relative to conditions referencing other people, semantic, or perceptual information. We conclude that self-referencing not only enhances specific memory for both visual and verbal information, but can also disproportionately improve memory for specific internal source details.

  17. An Overview of Biological Macromolecule Crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Irene Russo; Merlino, Antonello; Vergara, Alessandro; Sica, Filomena

    2013-01-01

    The elucidation of the three dimensional structure of biological macromolecules has provided an important contribution to our current understanding of many basic mechanisms involved in life processes. This enormous impact largely results from the ability of X-ray crystallography to provide accurate structural details at atomic resolution that are a prerequisite for a deeper insight on the way in which bio-macromolecules interact with each other to build up supramolecular nano-machines capable of performing specialized biological functions. With the advent of high-energy synchrotron sources and the development of sophisticated software to solve X-ray and neutron crystal structures of large molecules, the crystallization step has become even more the bottleneck of a successful structure determination. This review introduces the general aspects of protein crystallization, summarizes conventional and innovative crystallization methods and focuses on the new strategies utilized to improve the success rate of experiments and increase crystal diffraction quality. PMID:23727935

  18. Higher order modes in photonic crystal slabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gansch, Roman; Kalchmair, Stefan; Detz, Hermann; Andrews, Aaron M; Klang, Pavel; Schrenk, Werner; Strasser, Gottfried

    2011-08-15

    We present a detailed investigation of higher order modes in photonic crystal slabs. In such structures the resonances exhibit a blue-shift compared to an ideal two-dimensional photonic crystal, which depends on the order of the slab mode and the polarization. By fabricating a series of photonic crystal slab photo detecting devices, with varying ratios of slab thickness to photonic crystal lattice constant, we are able to distinguish between 0th and 1st order slab modes as well as the polarization from the shift of resonances in the photocurrent spectra. This method complements the photonic band structure mapping technique for characterization of photonic crystal slabs. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  19. Detail in architecture: Between arts & crafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulencin, Juraj

    2016-06-01

    Architectural detail represents an important part of architecture. Not only can it be used as an identifier of a specific building but at the same time enhances the experience of the realized project. Within it lie the signs of a great architect and clues to understanding his or her way of thinking. It is therefore the central topic of a seminar offered to architecture students at the Brno University of Technology. During the course of the semester-long class the students acquaint themselves with atypical architectural details of domestic and international architects by learning to read them, understand them and subsequently draw them by creating architectural blueprints. In other words, by general analysis of a detail the students learn theoretical thinking of its architect who, depending on the nature of the design, had to incorporate a variety of techniques and crafts. Students apply this analytical part to their own architectural detail design. The methodology of the seminar consists of experiential learning by project management and is complemented by a series of lectures discussing a diversity of details as well as materials and technologies required to implement it. The architectural detail design is also part of students' bachelors thesis, therefore, the realistic nature of their blueprints can be verified in the production process of its physical counterpart. Based on their own documentation the students choose the most suitable manufacturing process whether it is supplied by a specific technology or a craftsman. Students actively participate in the production and correct their design proposals in real scale with the actual material. A student, as a future architect, stands somewhere between a client and an artisan, materializes his or her idea and adjusts the manufacturing process so that the final detail fulfills aesthetic consistency and is in harmony with its initial concept. One of the very important aspects of the design is its economic cost, an

  20. Local address and emergency contact details

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The HR Department would like to remind members of the personnel that they are responsible for ensuring that their personal data concerning local address and preferred emergency contact details remains valid and up-to-date.   Both are easily accessible via the links below: Local address: https://edh.cern.ch/Document/Personnel/LocalAddressChange   Emergency contacts: https://edh.cern.ch/Document/Personnel/EC   Please take a few minutes to check your details and modify if necessary. Thank you in advance. HR Department Head Office

  1. Educational Outreach to Opioid Prescribers: The Case for Academic Detailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotter Davis, Margot; Bateman, Brian; Avorn, Jerry

    2017-02-01

    Nonmedical use of opioid medications constitutes a serious health threat as the rates of addiction, overdoses, and deaths have risen in recent years. Increasingly, inappropriate and excessively liberal prescribing of opioids by physicians is understood to be a central part of the crisis. Public health officials, hospital systems, and legislators are developing programs and regulations to address the problem in sustained and systematic ways that both insures effective treatment of pain and appropriate limits on the availability of opioids. Three approaches have obtained prominence as means of avoiding excessive and inappropriate prescribing, including: providing financial incentives to physicians to change their clinical decision through pay-for-performance contracts, monitoring patient medications through Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs, and educational outreach to physicians. A promising approach to educational outreach to physicians is an intervention known as "academic detailing." It was developed in the 1980s to provide one-on-one educational outreach to physicians using similar methods as the pharmaceutical industry that sends "detailers" to market their products to physician practices. Core to academic detailing, however, is the idea that medical decisions should be based on evidence-based information, including managing conditions with updated assessment measures, behavioral, and nonpharmacological interventions. With the pharmaceutical industry spending billions of dollars to advertise their products, individual practitioners can have difficulty gathering unbiased information, especially as the number of approved medications grows each year. Academic detailing has successfully affected the management of health conditions, such as atrial fibrillation, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and recently, has targeted physicians who prescribe opioids. This article discusses the approach as a potentially effective preventative intervention to address the

  2. Anion-switchable supramolecular gels for controlling pharmaceutical crystal growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Jonathan A.; Piepenbrock, Marc-Oliver M.; Lloyd, Gareth O.; Clarke, Nigel; Howard, Judith A. K.; Steed, Jonathan W.

    2010-12-01

    We describe the use of low-molecular-weight supramolecular gels as media for the growth of molecular crystals. Growth of a range of crystals of organic compounds, including pharmaceuticals, was achieved in bis(urea) gels. Low-molecular-weight supramolecular gelators allow access to an unlimited range of solvent systems, in contrast to conventional aqueous gels such as gelatin and agarose. A detailed study of carbamazepine crystal growth in four different bis(urea) gelators, including a metallogelator, is reported. The crystallization of a range of other drug substances, namely sparfloxacin, piroxicam, theophylline, caffeine, ibuprofen, acetaminophen (paracetamol), sulindac and indomethacin, was also achieved in supramolecular gel media without co-crystal formation. In many cases, crystals can be conveniently recovered from the gels by using supramolecular anion-triggered gel dissolution; however, crystals of substances that themselves bind to anions are dissolved by them. Overall, supramolecular gel-phase crystallization offers an extremely versatile new tool in pharmaceutical polymorph screening.

  3. Gold nanoparticle capture within protein crystal scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Ann E.; Huber, Thaddaus R.; Ni, Thomas W.; Hartje, Luke F.; Appel, Karina L.; Yost, Jarad W.; Ackerson, Christopher J.; Snow, Christopher D.

    2016-06-01

    confirmed by single crystal X-ray crystallography. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Complete experimental details and supplementary figures and tables. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr03096c

  4. Detailed Balancing and the Structure of Proton

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Y Z

    2001-01-01

    The protons are taken as an ensemble of Fock states. Using detailed balancing principle, ensemble density metrix on the basis of the number of partons is calculated, and so some information about intrinsic gluons and intrinsic sea quarks are gained without any parameter.

  5. Detailed numerical simulations of laser cooling processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Serrano, J.; Kohel, J.; Thompson, R.; Yu, N.

    2001-01-01

    We developed a detailed semiclassical numerical code of the forces applied on atoms in optical and magnetic fields to increase the understanding of the different roles that light, atomic collisions, background pressure, and number of particles play in experiments with laser cooled and trapped atoms.

  6. Constructing Overview + Detail Dendrogram-Matrix Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jin; MacEachren, Alan M.; Peuquet, Donna J.

    2011-01-01

    A dendrogram that visualizes a clustering hierarchy is often integrated with a reorderable matrix for pattern identification. The method is widely used in many research fields including biology, geography, statistics, and data mining. However, most dendrograms do not scale up well, particularly with respect to problems of graphical and cognitive information overload. This research proposes a strategy that links an overview dendrogram and a detail-view dendrogram, each integrated with a re-orderable matrix. The overview displays only a user-controlled, limited number of nodes that represent the “skeleton” of a hierarchy. The detail view displays the sub-tree represented by a selected meta-node in the overview. The research presented here focuses on constructing a concise overview dendrogram and its coordination with a detail view. The proposed method has the following benefits: dramatic alleviation of information overload, enhanced scalability and data abstraction quality on the dendrogram, and the support of data exploration at arbitrary levels of detail. The contribution of the paper includes a new metric to measure the “importance” of nodes in a dendrogram; the method to construct the concise overview dendrogram from the dynamically-identified, important nodes; and measure for evaluating the data abstraction quality for dendrograms. We evaluate and compare the proposed method to some related existing methods, and demonstrating how the proposed method can help users find interesting patterns through a case study on county-level U.S. cervical cancer mortality and demographic data. PMID:19834151

  7. Small Public Library Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlmutter, Jane; Nelson, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Anyone at the helm of a small public library knows that every little detail counts. But juggling the responsibilities that are part and parcel of the job is far from easy. Finally, here's a handbook that includes everything administrators need to keep a handle on library operations, freeing them up to streamline and improve how the organization…

  8. Public lighting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    The function of public lighting and the relationship between public lighting and accidents are considered briefly as aspects of effective countermeasures. Research needs and recent developments in installation and operational described. Public lighting is an efficient accident countermeasure, but

  9. Detailed gravimetric geoid computations in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, J. G.; Chang, E. S.

    1976-01-01

    A detailed gravimetric geoid has been computed for the Eastern United States and the Northwestern Atlantic Ocean by combining the Goddard Space Flight Center GEM-8 earth gravity model with the available 15 x 15 arcmin and 1 x 1 deg mean free air surface gravity observations. The short wavelength undulations were computed by applying Stokes' formula to the 15 x 15 arcmin and 1 x 1 deg surface data. The long wavelength undulations were provided by the GEM-8 model. The gravimetric geoid has been compared with Geoceiver derived and astrogeodetically determined geoid heights in the United States and the rms agreement is on the order of 1.5 meters. Excellent agreement in shape has been found between the detailed geoid and geoidal profiles derived from GEOS-III altimeter data in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean.

  10. Thirty Meter Telescope Detailed Science Case: 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Skidmore, Warren; Fukugawa, Misato; Goswami, Aruna; Hao, Lei; Jewitt, David; Laughlin, Greg; Steidel, Charles; Hickson, Paul; Simard, Luc; Schöck, Matthias; Treu, Tommaso; Cohen, Judith; Anupama, G C; Dickinson, Mark; Harrison, Fiona; Kodama, Tadayuki; Lu, Jessica R; Macintosh, Bruce; Malkan, Matt; Mao, Shude; Narita, Norio; Sekiguchi, Tomohiko; Subramaniam, Annapurni; Tanaka, Masaomi; Tian, Feng; A'Hearn, Michael; Akiyama, Masayuki; Ali, Babar; Aoki, Wako; Bagchi, Manjari; Barth, Aaron; Bhalerao, Varun; Bradac, Marusa; Bullock, James; Burgasser, Adam J; Chapman, Scott; Chary, Ranga-Ram; Chiba, Masashi; Cooray, Asantha; Crossfield, Ian; Currie, Thayne; Das, Mousumi; Dewangan, G C; de Grijs, Richard; Do, Tuan; Dong, Subo; Evslin, Jarah; Fang, Taotao; Fang, Xuan; Fassnacht, Christopher; Fletcher, Leigh; Gaidos, Eric; Gal, Roy; Ghez, Andrea; Giavalisco, Mauro; Grady, Carol A; Greathouse, Thomas; Gogoi, Rupjyoti; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Ho, Luis; Hasan, Priya; Herczeg, Gregory J; Honda, Mitsuhiko; Imanishi, Masa; Inanmi, Hanae; Iye, Masanori; Kamath, U S; Kane, Stephen; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Kasliwal, Mansi; Kirby, Vishal KasliwalEvan; Konopacky, Quinn M; Lepine, Sebastien; Li, Di; Li, Jianyang; Liu, Junjun; Liu, Michael C; Lopez-Rodriguez, Enrigue; Lotz, Jennifer; Lubin, Philip; Macri, Lucas; Maeda, Keiichi; Marchis, Franck; Marois, Christian; Marscher, Alan; Martin, Crystal; Matsuo, Taro; Max, Claire; McConnachie, Alan; McGough, Stacy; Melis, Carl; Meyer, Leo; Mumma, Michael; Muto, Takayuki; Nagao, Tohru; Najita, Joan R; Navarro, Julio; Pierce, Michael; Prochaska, Jason X; Oguri, Masamune; Ojha, Devendra K; Okamoto, Yoshiko K; Orton, Glenn; Otarola, Angel; Ouchi, Masami; Packham, Chris; Padgett, Deborah L; Pandey, Shashi Bhushan; Pilachowsky, Catherine; Pontoppidan, Klaus M; Primack, Joel; Puthiyaveettil, Shalima; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Reddy, Naveen; Rich, Michael; Richter, Matthew J; Schombert, James; Sen, Anjan Ananda; Shi, Jianrong; Sheth, Kartik; Srianand, R; Tan, Jonathan C; Tanaka, Masayuki; Tanner, Angelle; Tominaga, Nozomu; Tytler, David; U, Vivian; Wang, Lingzhi; Wang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Yiping; Wilson, Gillian; Wright, Shelley; Wu, Chao; Wu, Xufeng; Xu, Renxin; Yamada, Toru; Yang, Bin; Zhao, Gongbo; Zhao, Hongsheng

    2015-01-01

    The TMT Detailed Science Case describes the transformational science that the Thirty Meter Telescope will enable. Planned to begin science operations in 2024, TMT will open up opportunities for revolutionary discoveries in essentially every field of astronomy, astrophysics and cosmology, seeing much fainter objects much more clearly than existing telescopes. Per this capability, TMT's science agenda fills all of space and time, from nearby comets and asteroids, to exoplanets, to the most distant galaxies, and all the way back to the very first sources of light in the Universe. More than 150 astronomers from within the TMT partnership and beyond offered input in compiling the new 2015 Detailed Science Case. The contributing astronomers represent the entire TMT partnership, including the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), the Indian Institute of Astrophysics (IIA), the National Astronomical Observatories of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (NAOC), the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ),...

  11. Reserving by detailed conditioning on individual claim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartikasari, Mujiati Dwi; Effendie, Adhitya Ronnie; Wilandari, Yuciana

    2017-03-01

    The estimation of claim reserves is an important activity in insurance companies to fulfill their liabilities. Recently, reserving method of individual claim have attracted a lot of interest in the actuarial science, which overcome some deficiency of aggregated claim method. This paper explores the Reserving by Detailed Conditioning (RDC) method using all of claim information for reserving with individual claim of liability insurance from an Indonesian general insurance company. Furthermore, we compare it to Chain Ladder and Bornhuetter-Ferguson method.

  12. Metastability for Markov processes with detailed balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larralde, Hernán; Leyvraz, François

    2005-04-29

    We present a definition for metastable states applicable to arbitrary finite state Markov processes satisfying detailed balance. In particular, we identify a crucial condition that distinguishes metastable states from other slow decaying modes and which allows us to show that our definition has several desirable properties similar to those postulated in the restricted ensemble approach. The intuitive physical meaning of this condition is simply that the total equilibrium probability of finding the system in the metastable state is negligible.

  13. Structural concepts and details for seismic design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    This manual discusses building and building component behavior during earthquakes, and provides suggested details for seismic resistance which have shown by experience to provide adequate performance during earthquakes. Special design and construction practices are also described which, although they might be common in some high-seismic regions, may not be common in low and moderate seismic-hazard regions of the United States. Special attention is given to describing the level of detailing appropriate for each seismic region. The UBC seismic criteria for all seismic zones is carefully examined, and many examples of connection details are given. The general scope of discussion is limited to materials and construction types common to Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Although the manual is primarily written for professional engineers engaged in performing seismic-resistant design for DOE facilities, the first two chapters, plus the introductory sections of succeeding chapters, contain descriptions which are also directed toward project engineers who authorize, review, or supervise the design and construction of DOE facilities. 88 refs., 188 figs.

  14. Binary colloidal crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christova-Zdravkova, C.G.

    2005-01-01

    Binary crystals are crystals composed of two types of particles having different properties like size, mass density, charge etc. In this thesis several new approaches to make binary crystals of colloidal particles that differ in size, material and charge are reported We found a variety of crystal st

  15. Public Broadcasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shooshan, Harry M.; Arnheim, Louise

    This paper, the second in a series exploring future options for public policy in the communications and information arenas, examines some of the issues underlying public broadcasting, primarily public television. It advances two reasons why quality local public television programming is scarce: funds for the original production of programming have…

  16. Growth features of ammonium hydrogen -tartrate single crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Sajeevkumar; R Raveendran; B S Remadevi; Alexander Varghese Vaidyan

    2004-08-01

    Ammonium hydrogen -tartrate (-AHT) single crystals were grown in silica gel. The growth features of these crystals with variation of parameters like specific gravity of the gel, gel pH, acid concentrations, concentration of the feed solution and gel age were studied in detail.

  17. Mixed crystal organic scintillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitseva, Natalia P; Carman, M Leslie; Glenn, Andrew M; Hamel, Sebastien; Hatarik, Robert; Payne, Stephen A; Stoeffl, Wolfgang

    2014-09-16

    A mixed organic crystal according to one embodiment includes a single mixed crystal having two compounds with different bandgap energies, the organic crystal having a physical property of exhibiting a signal response signature for neutrons from a radioactive source, wherein the signal response signature does not include a significantly-delayed luminescence characteristic of neutrons interacting with the organic crystal relative to a luminescence characteristic of gamma rays interacting with the organic crystal. According to one embodiment, an organic crystal includes bibenzyl and stilbene or a stilbene derivative, the organic crystal having a physical property of exhibiting a signal response signature for neutrons from a radioactive source.

  18. Financial statistics of major publicly owned electric utilities, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-31

    The Financial Statistics of Major Publicly Owned Electric Utilities publication presents summary and detailed financial accounting data on the publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with data that can be used for policymaking and decisionmaking purposes relating to publicly owned electric utility issues.

  19. Victorian Public Libraries and the Internet: Results and Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertot, John Carlo; McClure, Charles R.

    This study collected Victorian (Australia) public library and public library user Internet connectivity data that: provides a baseline measure of public library Internet connectivity; describes public library type and level of Internet connectivity; details public library branch Internet connectivity; reviews the costs of public library Internet…

  20. Homogeneous crystal nucleation in polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, Christoph; Androsch, R; Schmelzer, Juern W P

    2017-07-14

    The pathway of crystal nucleation significantly influences the structure and properties of semi-crystalline polymers. Crystal nucleation is normally heterogeneous at low supercooling, and homogeneous at high supercooling, of the polymer melt. Homogeneous nucleation in bulk polymers has been, so far, hardly accessible experimentally, and was even doubted to occur at all. This topical review summarizes experimental findings on homogeneous crystal nucleation in polymers. Recently developed fast scanning calorimetry, with cooling and heating rates up to 106 K s-1, allows for detailed investigations of nucleation near and even below the glass transition temperature, including analysis of nuclei stability. As for other materials, the maximum homogeneous nucleation rate for polymers is located close to the glass transition temperature. In the experiments discussed here, it is shown that polymer nucleation is homogeneous at such temperatures. Homogeneous nucleation in polymers is discussed in the framework of classical nucleation theory. The majority of our observations are consistent with the theory. The discrepancies may guide further research, particularly experiments to progress theoretical development. Progress in the understanding of homogeneous nucleation is much needed, since most of the modelling approaches dealing with polymer crystallization exclusively consider homogeneous nucleation. This is also the basis for advancing theoretical approaches to the much more complex phenomena governing heterogeneous nucleation. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  1. Free-falling Crystals: Biological Macromolecular Crystal Growth Studies in Low Earth Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Russell A.; Snell, E. H.; Pusey, M. L.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Spacecraft orbiting the earth experience a reduced acceleration environment due to being in a state of continuous free-fall. This state colloquially termed microgravity, has produced improved X-ray diffraction quality crystals of biological macromolecules. Improvements in X-ray diffraction resolution (detail) or signal to noise, provide greater detail in the three-dimensional molecular structure providing information about the molecule, how it works, how to improve its function or how to impede it. Greater molecular detail obtained by crystallization in microgravity, has important implications for structural biology. In this article we examine the theories behind macromolecule crystal quality improvement in microgravity using results obtained from studies with the model protein, chicken egg white lysozyme.

  2. Pressure cryocooling protein crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chae Un; Gruner, Sol M.

    2011-10-04

    Preparation of cryocooled protein crystal is provided by use of helium pressurizing and cryocooling to obtain cryocooled protein crystal allowing collection of high resolution data and by heavier noble gas (krypton or xenon) binding followed by helium pressurizing and cryocooling to obtain cryocooled protein crystal for collection of high resolution data and SAD phasing simultaneously. The helium pressurizing is carried out on crystal coated to prevent dehydration or on crystal grown in aqueous solution in a capillary.

  3. Detailed modeling of mountain wave PSCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fueglistaler

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs play a key role in polar ozone depletion. In the Arctic, PSCs can occur on the mesoscale due to orographically induced gravity waves. Here we present a detailed study of a mountain wave PSC event on 25-27 January 2000 over Scandinavia. The mountain wave PSCs were intensively observed by in-situ and remote-sensing techniques during the second phase of the SOLVE/THESEO-2000 Arctic campaign. We use these excellent data of PSC observations on 3 successive days to analyze the PSCs and to perform a detailed comparison with modeled clouds. We simulated the 3-dimensional PSC structure on all 3 days with a mesoscale numerical weather prediction (NWP model and a microphysical box model (using best available nucleation rates for ice and nitric acid trihydrate particles. We show that the combined mesoscale/microphysical model is capable of reproducing the PSC measurements within the uncertainty of data interpretation with respect to spatial dimensions, temporal development and microphysical properties, without manipulating temperatures or using other tuning parameters. In contrast, microphysical modeling based upon coarser scale global NWP data, e.g. current ECMWF analysis data, cannot reproduce observations, in particular the occurrence of ice and nitric acid trihydrate clouds. Combined mesoscale/microphysical modeling may be used for detailed a posteriori PSC analysis and for future Arctic campaign flight and mission planning. The fact that remote sensing alone cannot further constrain model results due to uncertainities in the interpretation of measurements, underlines the need for synchronous in-situ PSC observations in campaigns.

  4. Detailed measurement on a HESCO diffuser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Holm, Dorte; Nielsen, Peter V.

    2007-01-01

    the inlet velocity is a very important boundary condition both in CFD calculation and general flow measurements. If only the volume flow and the geometrical area are used, a relatively large error in the inlet velocity may result. From the detailed measurements it was possible to establish an expression......This paper focuses on measuring the inlet velocity from a HESCO diffuser used in the IEA Annex 20 work as a function of the volume flow it provides. The aim of the present work is to establish a relation between the inlet velocity, the effective area and the airflow. This is important because...

  5. Academic detailing to teach aging and geriatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckett, Ashley; Cuoco, Theresa; Pride, Pamela; Wiley, Kathy; Iverson, Patty J; Marsden, Justin; Moran, William; Caton, Cathryn

    2015-01-01

    Geriatric education is a required component of internal medicine training. Work hour rules and hectic schedules have challenged residency training programs to develop and utilize innovative teaching methods. In this study, the authors examined the use of academic detailing as a teaching intervention in their residents' clinic and on the general medicine inpatient wards to improve clinical knowledge and skills in geriatric care. The authors found that this teaching method enables efficient, directed education without disrupting patient care. We were able to show improvements in medical knowledge as well as self-efficacy across multiple geriatric topics.

  6. A detailed phylogeny for the Methanomicrobiales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouviere, P.; Mandelco, L.; Winker, S.; Woese, C. R.

    1992-01-01

    The small subunit rRNA sequence of twenty archaea, members of the Methanomicrobiales, permits a detailed phylogenetic tree to be inferred for the group. The tree confirms earlier studies, based on far fewer sequences, in showing the group to be divided into two major clusters, temporarily designated the "methanosarcina" group and the "methanogenium" group. The tree also defines phylogenetic relationships within these two groups, which in some cases do not agree with the phylogenetic relationships implied by current taxonomic names--a problem most acute for the genus Methanogenium and its relatives. The present phylogenetic characterization provides the basis for a consistent taxonomic restructuring of this major methanogenic taxon.

  7. A detailed phylogeny for the Methanomicrobiales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouviere, P.; Mandelco, L.; Winker, S.; Woese, C. R.

    1992-01-01

    The small subunit rRNA sequence of twenty archaea, members of the Methanomicrobiales, permits a detailed phylogenetic tree to be inferred for the group. The tree confirms earlier studies, based on far fewer sequences, in showing the group to be divided into two major clusters, temporarily designated the "methanosarcina" group and the "methanogenium" group. The tree also defines phylogenetic relationships within these two groups, which in some cases do not agree with the phylogenetic relationships implied by current taxonomic names--a problem most acute for the genus Methanogenium and its relatives. The present phylogenetic characterization provides the basis for a consistent taxonomic restructuring of this major methanogenic taxon.

  8. Desiccator Volume: A Vital Yet Ignored Parameter in CaCO3 Crystallization by the Ammonium Carbonate Diffusion Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Harris

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Employing the widely used ammonium carbonate diffusion method, we demonstrate that altering an extrinsic parameter—desiccator size—which is rarely detailed in publications, can alter the route of crystallization. Hexagonally packed assemblies of spherical magnesium-calcium carbonate particles or spherulitic aragonitic particles can be selectively prepared from the same initial reaction solution by simply changing the internal volume of the desiccator, thereby changing the rate of carbonate addition and consequently precursor formation. This demonstrates that it is not merely the quantity of an additive which can control particle morphogenesis and phase selectivity, but control of other often ignored parameters are vital to ensure adequate reproducibility.

  9. Isomorph invariance of the structure and dynamics of classical crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtsen, Dan; Olsen, Andreas Elmerdahl; Pedersen, Ulf Rørbæk

    2014-01-01

    of a defective fcc crystal is also shown to be isomorph invariant. In contrast, a NaCl crystal model does not exhibit isomorph invariances. Other systems simulated, though in less detail, are the Wahnström binary Lennard-Jones crystal with the MgZn2 Laves crystal structure, monatomic fcc crystals of particles......This paper shows by computer simulations that some crystalline systems have curves in their thermodynamic phase diagrams, so-called isomorphs, along which structure and dynamics in reduced units are invariant to a good approximation. The crystals are studied in a classical-mechanical framework......, which is generally a good description except significantly below melting. The existence of isomorphs for crystals is validated by simulations of particles interacting via the Lennard-Jones pair potential arranged into a face-centered cubic (fcc) crystalline structure; the slow vacancy-jump dynamics...

  10. Advanced Bent Crystal Collimation Studies at the Tevatron (T-980)

    CERN Document Server

    Zvoda, V; Carrigan, R; Drozhdin, A; Johnson, T; Kwan, S; Mokhov, N; Prosser, A; Reilly, R; Uplegger, R Rivera L; Shiltsev, V; Still, D; Zagel, J; Guidi, V; Bagli, E; Mazzolari, A; Ivanov, Yu; Chesnokov, Yu; Yazynin, I

    2011-01-01

    The T-980 bent crystal collimation experiment at the Tevatron has recently acquired substantial enhancements. First, two new crystals - a 16-strip one manufactured and characterized by the INFN Ferrara group and a quasi-mosaic crystal manufactured and characterized by the PNPI group. Second, a two plane telescope with 3 high-resolution pixel detectors per plane along with corresponding mechanics, electronics, control and software has been manufactured, tested and installed in the E0 crystal region. The purpose of the pixel telescope is to measure and image channeled (CH), volume-reflected (VR) and multiple volume-reflected (MVR) beam profiles produced by bent crystals. Third, an ORIGIN-based system has been developed for thorough analysis of experimental and simulation data. Results of analysis are presented for different types of crystals used from 2005 to present for channeling and volume reflection including pioneering tests of two-plane crystal collimation at the collider, all in comparison with detailed ...

  11. Rapid and reversible photoinduced switching of a rotaxane crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai-Jen; Tsai, Ya-Ching; Suzaki, Yuji; Osakada, Kohtaro; Miura, Atsushi; Horie, Masaki

    2016-11-01

    Crystalline phase transitions caused by external stimuli have been used to detect physical changes in the solid-state properties. This study presents the mechanical switching of crystals of ferrocene-containing rotaxane controlled by focused laser light. The expansion and contraction of the crystals can be driven by turning on and off laser light at 445 nm. The irradiation-induced expansion of the crystal involves elongation along the a, b and c axes at 30 °C, whereas heating of the crystal at 105 °C causes the shortening of c axis. The expansions reversibly occur and have the advantage of a rapid relaxation (reverse) process. Single-crystal X-ray crystallography reveals the detailed structural changes of the molecules, corresponding to a change in the size of the crystals on laser irradiation. This molecular crystal behaviour induced by laser irradiation, is demonstrated for the remote control of objects, namely, microparticle transport and microswitching in an electric circuit.

  12. Adsorption phenomena and anchoring energy in nematic liquid crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Barbero, Giovanni

    2005-01-01

    Despite the large quantity of phenomenological information concerning the bulk properties of nematic phase liquid crystals, little is understood about the origin of the surface energy, particularly the surface, interfacial, and anchoring properties of liquid crystals that affect the performance of liquid crystal devices. Self-contained and unique, Adsorption Phenomena and Anchoring Energy in Nematic Liquid Crystals provides an account of new and established results spanning three decades of research into the problems of anchoring energy and adsorption phenomena in liquid crystals.The book contains a detailed discussion of the origin and possible sources of anchoring energy in nematic liquid crystals, emphasizing the dielectric contribution to the anchoring energy in particular. Beginning with fundamental surface and anchoring properties of liquid crystals and the definition of the nematic phase, the authors explain how selective ion adsorption, dielectric energy density, thickness dependence, and bias voltage...

  13. Crystal structure of rofecoxib bound to human cyclooxygenase-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlando, Benjamin J.; Malkowski, Michael G. (Buffalo)

    2016-10-26

    Rofecoxib (Vioxx) was one of the first selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors (coxibs) to be approved for use in humans. Within five years after its release to the public, Vioxx was withdrawn from the market owing to the adverse cardiovascular effects of the drug. Despite the widespread knowledge of the development and withdrawal of Vioxx, relatively little is known at the molecular level about how the inhibitor binds to COX-2. Vioxx is unique in that the inhibitor contains a methyl sulfone moiety in place of the sulfonamide moiety found in other coxibs such as celecoxib and valdecoxib. Here, new crystallization conditions were identified that allowed the structural determination of human COX-2 in complex with Vioxx and the structure was subsequently determined to 2.7- Å resolution. The crystal structure provides the first atomic level details of the binding of Vioxx to COX-2. As anticipated, Vioxx binds with its methyl sulfone moiety located in the side pocket of the cyclooxygenase channel, providing support for the isoform selectivity of this drug.

  14. Crystal structure of rofecoxib bound to human cyclooxygenase-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, Benjamin J; Malkowski, Michael G

    2016-10-01

    Rofecoxib (Vioxx) was one of the first selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors (coxibs) to be approved for use in humans. Within five years after its release to the public, Vioxx was withdrawn from the market owing to the adverse cardiovascular effects of the drug. Despite the widespread knowledge of the development and withdrawal of Vioxx, relatively little is known at the molecular level about how the inhibitor binds to COX-2. Vioxx is unique in that the inhibitor contains a methyl sulfone moiety in place of the sulfonamide moiety found in other coxibs such as celecoxib and valdecoxib. Here, new crystallization conditions were identified that allowed the structural determination of human COX-2 in complex with Vioxx and the structure was subsequently determined to 2.7 Å resolution. The crystal structure provides the first atomic level details of the binding of Vioxx to COX-2. As anticipated, Vioxx binds with its methyl sulfone moiety located in the side pocket of the cyclooxygenase channel, providing support for the isoform selectivity of this drug.

  15. Thirty Meter Telescope Detailed Science Case: 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skidmore, Warren; TMT International Science Development Teams; Science Advisory Committee, TMT

    2015-12-01

    The TMT Detailed Science Case describes the transformational science that the Thirty Meter Telescope will enable. Planned to begin science operations in 2024, TMT will open up opportunities for revolutionary discoveries in essentially every field of astronomy, astrophysics and cosmology, seeing much fainter objects much more clearly than existing telescopes. Per this capability, TMT's science agenda fills all of space and time, from nearby comets and asteroids, to exoplanets, to the most distant galaxies, and all the way back to the very first sources of light in the universe. More than 150 astronomers from within the TMT partnership and beyond offered input in compiling the new 2015 Detailed Science Case. The contributing astronomers represent the entire TMT partnership, including the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), the Indian Institute of Astrophysics (IIA), the National Astronomical Observatories of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (NAOC), the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ), the University of California, the Association of Canadian Universities for Research in Astronomy (ACURA) and US associate partner, the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA). Cover image: artist's rendition of the TMT International Observatory on Mauna Kea opening in the late evening before beginning operations.

  16. A Detailed Chemical Kinetic Model for TNT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

    2005-01-13

    A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for 2,4,6-tri-nitrotoluene (TNT) has been developed to explore problems of explosive performance and soot formation during the destruction of munitions. The TNT mechanism treats only gas-phase reactions. Reactions for the decomposition of TNT and for the consumption of intermediate products formed from TNT are assembled based on information from the literature and on current understanding of aromatic chemistry. Thermodynamic properties of intermediate and radical species are estimated by group additivity. Reaction paths are developed based on similar paths for aromatic hydrocarbons. Reaction-rate constant expressions are estimated from the literature and from analogous reactions where the rate constants are available. The detailed reaction mechanism for TNT is added to existing reaction mechanisms for RDX and for hydrocarbons. Computed results show the effect of oxygen concentration on the amount of soot precursors that are formed in the combustion of RDX and TNT mixtures in N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} mixtures.

  17. Bolivia-Brazil gas line route detailed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-11

    This paper reports that state oil companies of Brazil and Bolivia have signed an agreement outlining the route for a 2,270 km pipeline system to deliver natural gas from Bolivian fields to Southeast Brazil. The two sides currently are negotiating details about construction costs as well as contract volumes and prices. Capacity is projected at 283-565 MMcfd. No official details are available, but Roberto Y. Hukai, a director of the Sao Paulo engineering company Jaako Poyry/Technoplan, estimates transportation cost of the Bolivian gas at 90 cents/MMBTU. That would be competitive with the price of gas delivered to the Sao Paulo gas utility Comgas, he the. Brazil's Petroleos Brasileiro SA estimates construction of the pipeline on the Brazilian side alone with cost $1.2-1.4 billion. Bolivia's Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales Bolivianos (YPFB) is negotiating with private domestic and foreign investors for construction of the Bolivian portion of the project.

  18. Detailed transcriptome atlas of the pancreatic beta cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutlu, Burak; Burdick, David; Baxter, David; Rasschaert, Joanne; Flamez, Daisy; Eizirik, Decio L; Welsh, Nils; Goodman, Nathan; Hood, Leroy

    2009-01-15

    Gene expression patterns provide a detailed view of cellular functions. Comparison of profiles in disease vs normal conditions provides insights into the processes underlying disease progression. However, availability and integration of public gene expression datasets remains a major challenge. The aim of the present study was to explore the transcriptome of pancreatic islets and, based on this information, to prepare a comprehensive and open access inventory of insulin-producing beta cell gene expression, the Beta Cell Gene Atlas (BCGA). We performed Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing (MPSS) analysis of human pancreatic islet samples and microarray analyses of purified rat beta cells, alpha cells and INS-1 cells, and compared the information with available array data in the literature. MPSS analysis detected around 7600 mRNA transcripts, of which around a third were of low abundance. We identified 2000 and 1400 transcripts that are enriched/depleted in beta cells compared to alpha cells and INS-1 cells, respectively. Microarray analysis identified around 200 transcription factors that are differentially expressed in either beta or alpha cells. We reanalyzed publicly available gene expression data and integrated these results with the new data from this study to build the BCGA. The BCGA contains basal (untreated conditions) gene expression level estimates in beta cells as well as in different cell types in human, rat and mouse pancreas. Hierarchical clustering of expression profile estimates classify cell types based on species while beta cells were clustered together. Our gene atlas is a valuable source for detailed information on the gene expression distribution in beta cells and pancreatic islets along with insulin producing cell lines. The BCGA tool, as well as the data and code used to generate the Atlas are available at the T1Dbase website (T1DBase.org).

  19. Detailed transcriptome atlas of the pancreatic beta cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eizirik Decio L

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression patterns provide a detailed view of cellular functions. Comparison of profiles in disease vs normal conditions provides insights into the processes underlying disease progression. However, availability and integration of public gene expression datasets remains a major challenge. The aim of the present study was to explore the transcriptome of pancreatic islets and, based on this information, to prepare a comprehensive and open access inventory of insulin-producing beta cell gene expression, the Beta Cell Gene Atlas (BCGA. Methods We performed Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing (MPSS analysis of human pancreatic islet samples and microarray analyses of purified rat beta cells, alpha cells and INS-1 cells, and compared the information with available array data in the literature. Results MPSS analysis detected around 7600 mRNA transcripts, of which around a third were of low abundance. We identified 2000 and 1400 transcripts that are enriched/depleted in beta cells compared to alpha cells and INS-1 cells, respectively. Microarray analysis identified around 200 transcription factors that are differentially expressed in either beta or alpha cells. We reanalyzed publicly available gene expression data and integrated these results with the new data from this study to build the BCGA. The BCGA contains basal (untreated conditions gene expression level estimates in beta cells as well as in different cell types in human, rat and mouse pancreas. Hierarchical clustering of expression profile estimates classify cell types based on species while beta cells were clustered together. Conclusion Our gene atlas is a valuable source for detailed information on the gene expression distribution in beta cells and pancreatic islets along with insulin producing cell lines. The BCGA tool, as well as the data and code used to generate the Atlas are available at the T1Dbase website (T1DBase.org.

  20. HANFORD MEDIUM-LOW CURIE WASTE PRETREATMENT ALTERNATIVES PROJECT FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION PILOT SCALE TESTING FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HERTING DL

    2008-09-16

    The Fractional Crystallization Pilot Plant was designed and constructed to demonstrate that fractional crystallization is a viable way to separate the high-level and low-activity radioactive waste streams from retrieved Hanford single-shell tank saltcake. The focus of this report is to review the design, construction, and testing details of the fractional crystallization pilot plant not previously disseminated.

  1. Public Schools

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This Public Schools feature dataset is composed of all Public elementary and secondary education in the United States as defined by the Common Core of Data, National...

  2. CRYSTALLIZATION IN MULTICOMPONENT GLASSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRUGER AA; HRMA PR

    2009-10-08

    In glass processing situations involving glass crystallization, various crystalline forms nucleate, grow, and dissolve, typically in a nonuniform temperature field of molten glass subjected to convection. Nuclear waste glasses are remarkable examples of multicomponent vitrified mixtures involving partial crystallization. In the glass melter, crystals form and dissolve during batch-to-glass conversion, melter processing, and product cooling. Crystals often agglomerate and sink, and they may settle at the melter bottom. Within the body of cooling glass, multiple phases crystallize in a non-uniform time-dependent temperature field. Self-organizing periodic distribution (the Liesegnang effect) is common. Various crystallization phenomena that occur in glass making are reviewed.

  3. Detailed Electrochemical Characterisation of Large SOFC Stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbæk, Rasmus Rode; Hjelm, Johan; Barfod, R.

    2012-01-01

    Fuel Cell A/S was characterised in detail using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. An investigation of the optimal geometrical placement of the current probes and voltage probes was carried out in order to minimise measurement errors caused by stray impedances. Unwanted stray impedances...... are particularly problematic at high frequencies. Stray impedances may be caused by mutual inductance and stray capacitance in the geometrical set-up and do not describe the fuel cell. Three different stack geometries were investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Impedance measurements were carried...... out at a range of ac perturbation amplitudes in order to investigate linearity of the response and the signal-to-noise ratio. Separation of the measured impedance into series and polarisation resistances was possible....

  4. Detailed gravimetric geoid for the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strange, W. E.; Vincent, S. F.; Berry, R. H.; Marsh, J. G.

    1972-01-01

    A detailed gravimetric geoid was computed for the United States using a combination of satellite-derived spherical harmonic coefficients and 1 by 1 deg mean gravity values from surface gravimetry. Comparisons of this geoid with astrogeodetic geoid data indicate that a precision of plus or minus 2 meters has been obtained. Translations only were used to convert the NAD astrogeodetic geoid heights to geocentric astrogeodetic heights. On the basis of the agreement between the geocentric astrogeodetic geoid heights and the gravimetric geoid heights, no evidence is found for rotation in the North American datum. The value of the zero-order undulation can vary by 10 to 20 meters, depending on which investigator's station positions are used to establish it.

  5. Most Detailed Image of the Crab Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This new Hubble image -- one among the largest ever produced with the Earth-orbiting observatory -- shows the most detailed view so far of the entire Crab Nebula ever made. The Crab is arguably the single most interesting object, as well as one of the most studied, in all of astronomy. The image is the largest image ever taken with Hubble's WFPC2 workhorse camera. The Crab Nebula is one of the most intricately structured and highly dynamical objects ever observed. The new Hubble image of the Crab was assembled from 24 individual exposures taken with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope and is the highest resolution image of the entire Crab Nebula ever made.

  6. A meaningful expansion around detailed balance

    CERN Document Server

    Colangeli, Matteo; Wynants, Bram

    2011-01-01

    We consider Markovian dynamics modeling open mesoscopic systems which are driven away from detailed balance by a nonconservative force. A systematic expansion is obtained of the stationary distribution around an equilibrium reference, in orders of the nonequilibrium forcing. The first order around equilibrium has been known since the work of McLennan (1959), and involves the transient irreversible entropy flux. The expansion generalizes the McLennan formula to higher orders, complementing the entropy flux with the dynamical activity. The latter is more kinetic than thermodynamic and is a possible realization of Landauer's insight (1975) that, for nonequilibrium, the relative occupation of states also depends on the noise along possible escape routes. In that way nonlinear response around equilibrium can be meaningfully discussed in terms of two main quantities only, the entropy flux and the dynamical activity. The expansion makes mathematical sense as shown in the simplest cases from exponential ergodicity.

  7. Picornavirus uncoating intermediate captured in atomic detail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jingshan; Wang, Xiangxi; Hu, Zhongyu; Gao, Qiang; Sun, Yao; Li, Xuemei; Porta, Claudine; Walter, Thomas S.; Gilbert, Robert J.; Zhao, Yuguang; Axford, Danny; Williams, Mark; McAuley, Katherine; Rowlands, David J.; Yin, Weidong; Wang, Junzhi; Stuart, David I.; Rao, Zihe; Fry, Elizabeth E.

    2013-01-01

    It remains largely mysterious how the genomes of non-enveloped eukaryotic viruses are transferred across a membrane into the host cell. Picornaviruses are simple models for such viruses, and initiate this uncoating process through particle expansion, which reveals channels through which internal capsid proteins and the viral genome presumably exit the particle, although this has not been clearly seen until now. Here we present the atomic structure of an uncoating intermediate for the major human picornavirus pathogen CAV16, which reveals VP1 partly extruded from the capsid, poised to embed in the host membrane. Together with previous low-resolution results, we are able to propose a detailed hypothesis for the ordered egress of the internal proteins, using two distinct sets of channels through the capsid, and suggest a structural link to the condensed RNA within the particle, which may be involved in triggering RNA release. PMID:23728514

  8. Detailed Chromospheric Activity Nature of KIC 9641031

    CERN Document Server

    Yoldaş, Ezgi

    2016-01-01

    This study depends on KIC 9641031 eclipsing binary system with a chromospherically active component. There are three type variations, such as geometrical variations due to eclipses, sinusoidal variations due to the rotational modulations and also flares, in the light curves obtained with the data taken from the Kepler Mission Database. Taking into account results obtained from KIC 9641031's observations in the Kepler Mission Database, we present and discuss the details of chromospheric activity. The sinusoidal light variations due to rotational modulation and the flare events were modelled separately. 92 different data subsets separated using the analytic models described in the literature were modelled separately to obtain the cool spot configuration. It is seen that just one component of the system is chromospherically active star. On this component, there are two active regions separated by about 180 deg longitudinally between the latitudes of +50 deg and +100 deg, whose locations and forms are rapidly cha...

  9. Report Details Solar Radiation Alert and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staedter, Tracy

    2006-06-01

    High-energy particles from the Sun and from regions beyond the solar system constantly bombard Earth. Thanks to the planet's atmosphere and magnetic field, comsic radiation is not a significant threat to those rooted on terra firma. But airline crew and passengers flying at high altitudes, or over the poles where the Earth's magnetic field provides no protection, are particularly vulnerable to unpredictable flares on the Sun's surface that launch streams of sub-atomic particles toward Earth. The report, ``Solar Radiation Alert System,'' published by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES) at the University of Colorado, Boulder, in July 2005 (www.faa.gov/library/reports/medical/oamtechreports/2000s/media/0514.pdf) details in alert system designed to estimate the ionizing radiation at aircraft flight altitudes and, depending on the resulting dose rate, issue a warning.

  10. Detailed Design of Intelligent Object Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasa Savicand Hao Shi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The design and implementation of Intelligent Object Framework(IOF aims to unite the communication and device management through a platform independent ma nagement protocol in conjunction with a management application. The Core Framework is devel oped using Microsoft Visual Studio, Microsoft’s .NET Framework and Microsoft’s Windows Mobile SDK. Secondary Intelligent Object is developed using Tibbo Integrated Development Environment (TIDE and T-BASIC programming language that is loaded on an EM1026 Embedded Device Platform running Tibbo Op erating System (TiOS. The backend database is based on Microsoft’s SQL Server.In this paper, prot ocols associated with Smart Living are first reviewed.The system architecture and intelligent ob ject management studio are presented. Then device application design and database design are detailed . Finally conclusions are drawn and future work is addressed.

  11. Detailed Chemical Abundances of Extragalactic Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Bernstein, R A

    2005-01-01

    We outline a method to measure the detailed chemical composition of extragalactic (unresolved) globular clusters (GCs) from echelle spectra of their integrated light. Our goal is to use this method to measure abundance patterns of GCs in distant spiral and elliptical galaxies to constrain their formation histories. To develop this technique we have obtained a ``training set'' of integrated-light spectra of resolved GCs in the Milky Way and LMC by scanning across the clusters during exposures. Our training set also include spectra of individual stars in those GCs from which abundances can be obtained in the normal way to provide a check on our integrated-light results. We present here the preliminary integrated-light analysis of one GC in our training set, NGC 104 (47 Tuc), and outline some of the techniques utilized and problems encountered in that analysis.

  12. Experimental Characterization of Photonic Band Crystals for Tera Hertz Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Experimental Characterization of Photonic Band Crystals for Tera F49620-01-1-0484 Hertz Devices 6. AUTHOR(S) Dennis W...01-1-0484 REPORT TITLE: Experimental Characterization of Photonic Band Crystals for Tera Hertz Devices SUBMITTED FOR PUBLICATION TO (applicable only

  13. Public lighting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2011-01-01

    Visual perception is very important for road users and in the dark it can be facilitated by public lighting. Public lighting has a mostly positive road safety effect. Installing public lighting on roads that were previously unlit generally results in fewer and less serious crashes. This effect seems

  14. Rainbows in channeling of charged particles in crystals and nanotubes

    CERN Document Server

    Nešković, Nebojša; Ćosić, Marko

    2017-01-01

    This book discusses the effects, modeling, latest results, and nanotechnology applications of rainbows that appear during channeling of charged particles in crystals and nanotubes. The authors begin with a brief review of the optical and particle rainbow effects followed by a detailed description of crystal rainbows, which appear in ion channeling in crystals, and their modeling using catastrophe theory. The effects of spatial and angular focusing of channeled ions are described, with special attention given to the applications of the former effect to subatomic microscopy. The results of a thorough study of the recent high-resolution channeling experiments performed with protons of energies between 2.0 and 0.7 MeV and a 55 nm thick silicon crystal are also provided. This study opens up the potential for accurate analysis of very thin crystals. Also presented are recent results related to rainbows occurring in proton transmission through carbon nanotubes, and a detailed quantum consideration of the transmissio...

  15. Crystal structure and prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Tejender S; Dubey, Ritesh; Desiraju, Gautam R

    2015-04-01

    The notion of structure is central to the subject of chemistry. This review traces the development of the idea of crystal structure since the time when a crystal structure could be determined from a three-dimensional diffraction pattern and assesses the feasibility of computationally predicting an unknown crystal structure of a given molecule. Crystal structure prediction is of considerable fundamental and applied importance, and its successful execution is by no means a solved problem. The ease of crystal structure determination today has resulted in the availability of large numbers of crystal structures of higher-energy polymorphs and pseudopolymorphs. These structural libraries lead to the concept of a crystal structure landscape. A crystal structure of a compound may accordingly be taken as a data point in such a landscape.

  16. Growth of dopamine crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, Vidya, E-mail: vidya.patil@ruparel.edu; Patki, Mugdha, E-mail: mugdha.patki@ruparel.edu [D. G. Ruparel College, Senapati Bapat Marg, Mahim, Mumbai – 400 016 (India)

    2016-05-06

    Many nonlinear optical (NLO) crystals have been identified as potential candidates in optical and electro-optical devices. Use of NLO organic crystals is expected in photonic applications. Hence organic nonlinear optical materials have been intensely investigated due to their potentially high nonlinearities, and rapid response in electro-optic effect compared to inorganic NLO materials. There are many methods to grow organic crystals such as vapor growth method, melt growth method and solution growth method. Out of these methods, solution growth method is useful in providing constraint free crystal. Single crystals of Dopamine have been grown by evaporating the solvents from aqueous solution. Crystals obtained were of the size of orders of mm. The crystal structure of dopamine was determined using XRD technique. Images of crystals were obtained using FEG SEM Quanta Series under high vacuum and low KV.

  17. Growth of dopamine crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Vidya; Patki, Mugdha

    2016-05-01

    Many nonlinear optical (NLO) crystals have been identified as potential candidates in optical and electro-optical devices. Use of NLO organic crystals is expected in photonic applications. Hence organic nonlinear optical materials have been intensely investigated due to their potentially high nonlinearities, and rapid response in electro-optic effect compared to inorganic NLO materials. There are many methods to grow organic crystals such as vapor growth method, melt growth method and solution growth method. Out of these methods, solution growth method is useful in providing constraint free crystal. Single crystals of Dopamine have been grown by evaporating the solvents from aqueous solution. Crystals obtained were of the size of orders of mm. The crystal structure of dopamine was determined using XRD technique. Images of crystals were obtained using FEG SEM Quanta Series under high vacuum and low KV.

  18. Crystallization in Emulsions: A Thermo-Optical Method to Determine Single Crystallization Events in Droplet Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serghei Abramov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Delivery systems with a solid dispersed phase can be produced in a melt emulsification process. For this, dispersed particles are melted, disrupted, and crystallized in a liquid continuous phase (melt emulsification. Different to bulk crystallization, droplets in oil-in-water emulsions show individual crystallization behavior, which differs from droplet to droplet. Therefore, emulsion droplets may form liquid, amorphous, and crystalline structures during the crystallization process. The resulting particle size, shape, and physical state influence the application properties of these colloidal systems and have to be known in formulation research. To characterize crystallization behavior of single droplets in micro emulsions (range 1 µm to several hundred µm, a direct thermo-optical method was developed. It allows simultaneous determination of size, size distribution, and morphology of single droplets within droplet clusters. As it is also possible to differentiate between liquid, amorphous, and crystalline structures, we introduce a crystallization index, CIi, in dispersions with a crystalline dispersed phase. Application of the thermo-optical approach on hexadecane-in-water model emulsion showed the ability of the method to detect single crystallization events of droplets within emulsion clusters, providing detailed information about crystallization processes in dispersions.

  19. ALICE photon spectrometer crystals

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    Members of the mechanical assembly team insert the last few crystals into the first module of ALICE's photon spectrometer. These crystals are made from lead-tungstate, a crystal as clear as glass but with nearly four times the density. When a high-energy particle passes through one of these crystals it will scintillate, emitting a flash of light allowing the energy of photons, electrons and positrons to be measured.

  20. CRYSTAL FILTER TEST SET

    Science.gov (United States)

    CRYSTAL FILTERS, *HIGH FREQUENCY, *RADIOFREQUENCY FILTERS, AMPLIFIERS, ELECTRIC POTENTIAL, FREQUENCY, IMPEDANCE MATCHING , INSTRUMENTATION, RADIOFREQUENCY, RADIOFREQUENCY AMPLIFIERS, TEST EQUIPMENT, TEST METHODS

  1. Detailed Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Cyclohexane Oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silke, E J; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K; Ribaucour, M

    2006-11-10

    A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism has been developed and used to study the oxidation of cyclohexane at both low and high temperatures. Reaction rate constant rules are developed for the low temperature combustion of cyclohexane. These rules can be used for in chemical kinetic mechanisms for other cycloalkanes. Since cyclohexane produces only one type of cyclohexyl radical, much of the low temperature chemistry of cyclohexane is described in terms of one potential energy diagram showing the reaction of cyclohexyl radical + O{sub 2} through five, six and seven membered ring transition states. The direct elimination of cyclohexene and HO{sub 2} from RO{sub 2} is included in the treatment using a modified rate constant of Cavallotti et al. Published and unpublished data from the Lille rapid compression machine, as well as jet-stirred reactor data are used to validate the mechanism. The effect of heat loss is included in the simulations, an improvement on previous studies on cyclohexane. Calculations indicated that the production of 1,2-epoxycyclohexane observed in the experiments can not be simulated based on the current understanding of low temperature chemistry. Possible 'alternative' H-atom isomerizations leading to different products from the parent O{sub 2}QOOH radical were included in the low temperature chemical kinetic mechanism and were found to play a significant role.

  2. Details of tetrahedral anisotropic mesh adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kristian Ejlebjerg; Gorman, Gerard

    2016-04-01

    We have implemented tetrahedral anisotropic mesh adaptation using the local operations of coarsening, swapping, refinement and smoothing in MATLAB without the use of any for- N loops, i.e. the script is fully vectorised. In the process of doing so, we have made three observations related to details of the implementation: 1. restricting refinement to a single edge split per element not only simplifies the code, it also improves mesh quality, 2. face to edge swapping is unnecessary, and 3. optimising for the Vassilevski functional tends to give a little higher value for the mean condition number functional than optimising for the condition number functional directly. These observations have been made for a uniform and a radial shock metric field, both starting from a structured mesh in a cube. Finally, we compare two coarsening techniques and demonstrate the importance of applying smoothing in the mesh adaptation loop. The results pertain to a unit cube geometry, but we also show the effect of corners and edges by applying the implementation in a spherical geometry.

  3. Detailed Aerosol Characterization using Polarimetric Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasekamp, Otto; di Noia, Antonio; Stap, Arjen; Rietjens, Jeroen; Smit, Martijn; van Harten, Gerard; Snik, Frans

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic aerosols are believed to cause the second most important anthropogenic forcing of climate change after greenhouse gases. In contrast to the climate effect of greenhouse gases, which is understood relatively well, the negative forcing (cooling effect) caused by aerosols represents the largest reported uncertainty in the most recent assessment of the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). To reduce the large uncertainty on the aerosol effects on cloud formation and climate, accurate satellite measurements of aerosol optical properties (optical thickness, single scattering albedo, phase function) and microphysical properties (size distribution, refractive index, shape) are essential. There is growing consensus in the aerosol remote sensing community that multi-angle measurements of intensity and polarization are essential to unambiguously determine all relevant aerosol properties. This presentations adresses the different aspects of polarimetric remote sensing of atmospheric aerosols, including retrieval algorithm development, validation, and data needs for climate and air quality applications. During past years, at SRON-Netherlands Instite for Space Research retrieval algorithms have been developed that make full use of the capabilities of polarimetric measurements. We will show results of detailed aerosol properties from ground-based- (groundSPEX), airborne- (NASA Research Scanning Polarimeter), and satellite (POLDER) measurements. Also we will discuss observational needs for future instrumentation in order to improve our understanding of the role of aerosols in climate change and air quality.

  4. Some articulatory details of emotional speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sungbok; Yildirim, Serdar; Bulut, Murtaza; Kazemzadeh, Abe; Narayanan, Shrikanth

    2005-09-01

    Differences in speech articulation among four emotion types, neutral, anger, sadness, and happiness are investigated by analyzing tongue tip, jaw, and lip movement data collected from one male and one female speaker of American English. The data were collected using an electromagnetic articulography (EMA) system while subjects produce simulated emotional speech. Pitch, root-mean-square (rms) energy and the first three formants were estimated for vowel segments. For both speakers, angry speech exhibited the largest rms energy and largest articulatory activity in terms of displacement range and movement speed. Happy speech is characterized by largest pitch variability. It has higher rms energy than neutral speech but articulatory activity is rather comparable to, or less than, neutral speech. That is, happy speech is more prominent in voicing activity than in articulation. Sad speech exhibits longest sentence duration and lower rms energy. However, its articulatory activity is no less than neutral speech. Interestingly, for the male speaker, articulation for vowels in sad speech is consistently more peripheral (i.e., more forwarded displacements) when compared to other emotions. However, this does not hold for female subject. These and other results will be discussed in detail with associated acoustics and perceived emotional qualities. [Work supported by NIH.

  5. Detailed modelling of the 21-cm Forest

    CERN Document Server

    Semelin, Benoit

    2015-01-01

    The 21-cm forest is a promising probe of the Epoch of Reionization. The local state of the intergalactic medium (IGM) is encoded in the spectrum of a background source (radio-loud quasars or gamma ray burst afterglow) by absorption at the local 21-cm wavelength, resulting in a continuous and fluctuating absorption level. Small-scale structures (filaments and minihaloes) in the IGM are responsible for the strongest absorption features. The absorption can also be modulated on large scales by inhomogeneous heating and Wouthuysen-Field coupling. We present the results from a simulation that attempts to preserve the cosmological environment while resolving some of the small-scale structures (a few kpc resolution in a 50 Mpc/h box). The simulation couples the dynamics and the ionizing radiative transfer and includes X-ray and Lyman lines radiative transfer for a detailed physical modelling. As a result we find that soft X-ray self-shielding, Lyman-alpha self-shielding and shock heating all have an impact on the pre...

  6. Level of detail technique for plant models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaopeng ZHANG; Qingqiong DENG; Marc JAEGER

    2006-01-01

    Realistic modelling and interactive rendering of forestry and landscape is a challenge in computer graphics and virtual reality. Recent new developments in plant growth modelling and simulation lead to plant models faithful to botanical structure and development, not only representing the complex architecture of a real plant but also its functioning in interaction with its environment. Complex geometry and material of a large group of plants is a big burden even for high performances computers, and they often overwhelm the numerical calculation power and graphic rendering power. Thus, in order to accelerate the rendering speed of a group of plants, software techniques are often developed. In this paper, we focus on plant organs, i.e. leaves, flowers, fruits and inter-nodes. Our approach is a simplification process of all sparse organs at the same time, i. e. , Level of Detail (LOD) , and multi-resolution models for plants. We do explain here the principle and construction of plant simplification. They are used to construct LOD and multi-resolution models of sparse organs and branches of big trees. These approaches take benefit from basic knowledge of plant architecture, clustering tree organs according to biological structures. We illustrate the potential of our approach on several big virtual plants for geometrical compression or LOD model definition. Finally we prove the efficiency of the proposed LOD models for realistic rendering with a virtual scene composed by 184 mature trees.

  7. Optoelectronic pH Meter: Further Details

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevarajan, Antony S.; Anderson, Mejody M.; Macatangay, Ariel V.

    2009-01-01

    A collection of documents provides further detailed information about an optoelectronic instrument that measures the pH of an aqueous cell-culture medium to within 0.1 unit in the range from 6.5 to 7.5. The instrument at an earlier stage of development was reported in Optoelectronic Instrument Monitors pH in a Culture Medium (MSC-23107), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 9 (September 2004), page 4a. To recapitulate: The instrument includes a quartz cuvette through which the medium flows as it is circulated through a bioreactor. The medium contains some phenol red, which is an organic pH-indicator dye. The cuvette sits between a light source and a photodetector. [The light source in the earlier version comprised red (625 nm) and green (558 nm) light-emitting diodes (LEDs); the light source in the present version comprises a single green- (560 nm)-or-red (623 nm) LED.] The red and green are repeatedly flashed in alternation. The responses of the photodiode to the green and red are processed electronically to obtain the ratio between the amounts of green and red light transmitted through the medium. The optical absorbance of the phenol red in the green light varies as a known function of pH. Hence, the pH of the medium can be calculated from the aforesaid ratio.

  8. Artistic Crystal Creations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    In this inquiry-based, integrative art and science activity, Grade 5-8 students use multicolored Epsom salt (magnesium sulfate) crystallizing solutions to reveal beautiful, cylindrical, 3-dimensional, needle-shaped structures. Through observations of the crystal art, students analyze factors that contribute to crystal size and formation, compare…

  9. Protein Crystal Based Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Jeffrey A.; VanRoey, Patrick

    2001-01-01

    This is the final report on a NASA Grant. It concerns a description of work done, which includes: (1) Protein crystals cross-linked to form fibers; (2) Engineering of protein to favor crystallization; (3) Better knowledge-based potentials for protein-protein contacts; (4) Simulation of protein crystallization.

  10. Analysis of liquid crystal properties for photonic crystal fiber devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weirich, Johannes; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Wei, Lei

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the bandgap structure of Liquid Crystal infiltrated Photonic Crystal Fibers depending on the parameters of the Liquid Crystals by means of finite element simulations. For a biased Liquid Crystal Photonic Crystal Fiber, we show how the tunability of the bandgap position depends...... on the Liquid Crystal parameters....

  11. The PEC reactor. Safety analysis: Detailed reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    In the safety-analysis of the PEC Brasimone reactor (Italy), attention was focused on the role of plant-incident analysis during the design stage and the conclusions reached. The analysis regarded the following: thermohydraulic incidents at full power; incidents with the reactor shut down; reactivity incidents; core local faults; analysis of fuel-handling incidents; engineered safeguards and passive safety features; coolant leakage and sodium fires; research and development studies on the seismic behaviour of the PEC fast reactor; generalized sodium fire; severe accidents, accident sequences with shudown; reference accident. Both the theoretical and experimental analyses demonstrated the adequacy of the design of the PEC fast reactor, aimed at minimizing the consequences of a hypothetical disruptive core accident with mechanical energy release. It was shown that the containment barriers were sized correctly and that the residual heat from a disassembled core would be removed. The re-evaluation of the source term emphasized the conservative nature of the hypotheses assumed in the preliminary safety analysis for calculating the risk to the public.

  12. A Detailed Modeling Study of Propane Oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westbrook, C K; Jayaweera, T M; Pitz, W J; Curran, H J

    2004-03-19

    A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism has been used to simulate ignition delay times recorded by a number of experimental shock tube studies over the temperature range 900 {le} T {le} 1800 K, in the pressure range 0.75-40 atm and in the equivalence ratio range 0.5 {le} {phi} {le} 2.0. Flame speed measurements at 1 atm in the equivalence ratio range 0.4 {le} {phi} {le} 1.8 have also been simulated. Both of these data sets, particularly those recorded at high pressure, are of particular importance in validating a kinetic mechanism, as internal combustion engines operate at elevated pressures and temperatures and rates of fuel oxidation are critical to efficient system operation. Experiments in which reactant, intermediate and product species were quantitatively recorded, versus temperature in a jet-stirred reactor (JSR) and versus time in a flow reactor are also simulated. This data provide a stringent test of the kinetic mechanism as it must reproduce accurate quantitative profiles for all reactant, intermediate and product species. The JSR experiments were performed in the temperature range 1000-1110 K, in the equivalence ratio range 0.5 {le} {phi} {le} 4.0, at a pressure of 5 atm. These experiments are complemented by those carried out in a flow reactor in the temperature range 660-820 K, at 10 atm and at an equivalence ratio of 0.4. In addition, burner stabilized flames were simulated, where chemical species profiles were measured at atmospheric pressure for two propane-air flat flames. Overall, reasonably good agreement is observed between the model simulations and the experimental results.

  13. Ultrabroadband terahertz spectroscopy of a liquid crystal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vieweg, N.; Fischer, B. M.; Reuter, M.;

    2012-01-01

    present the frequency dependent index of refraction and the absorption coefficients of the nematic liquid crystal 5CB over a frequency range from 0.3 THz to 15 THz using a dispersion-free THz time-domain spectrometer system based on two-color plasma generation and air biased coherent detection (ABCD). We......Liquid crystals (LCs) are becoming increasingly important for applications in the terahertz frequency range. A detailed understanding of the spectroscopic parameters of these materials over a broad frequency range is crucial in order to design customized LC mixtures for improved performance. We...

  14. Systematic hardness studies on lithium niobate crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K G Subhadra; K Kishan Rao; D B Sirdeshmukh

    2000-04-01

    In view of discrepancies in the available information on the hardness of lithium niobate, a systematic study of the hardness has been carried out. Measurements have been made on two pure lithium niobate crystals with different growth origins, and a Fe-doped sample. The problem of load variation of hardness is examined in detail. The true hardness of LiNbO3 is found to be 630 ± 30 kg/mm2. The Fe-doped crystal has a larger hardness of 750 ± 50 kg/mm2.

  15. Crystallization in nano-confinement seeded by a nanocrystal—A molecular dynamics study

    KAUST Repository

    Pan, Heng

    2014-03-14

    Seeded crystallization and solidification in nanoscale confinement volumes have become an important and complex topic. Due to the complexity and limitations in observing nanoscale crystallization, computer simulation can provide valuable details for supporting and interpreting experimental observations. In this article, seeded crystallization from nano-confined liquid, as represented by the crystallization of a suspended gold nano-droplet seeded by a pre-existing gold nanocrystal seed, was investigated using molecular dynamics simulations in canonical (NVT) ensemble. We found that the crystallization temperature depends on nano-confinement volume, crystal orientation, and seed size as explained by classical two-sphere model and Gibbs-Thomson effect. © 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.

  16. Protein crystallization with paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Miki; Kakinouchi, Keisuke; Adachi, Hiroaki; Maruyama, Mihoko; Sugiyama, Shigeru; Sano, Satoshi; Yoshikawa, Hiroshi Y.; Takahashi, Yoshinori; Yoshimura, Masashi; Matsumura, Hiroyoshi; Murakami, Satoshi; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Mori, Yusuke; Takano, Kazufumi

    2016-05-01

    We developed a new protein crystallization method that incorporates paper. A small piece of paper, such as facial tissue or KimWipes, was added to a drop of protein solution in the traditional sitting drop vapor diffusion technique, and protein crystals grew by incorporating paper. By this method, we achieved the growth of protein crystals with reducing osmotic shock. Because the technique is very simple and the materials are easy to obtain, this method will come into wide use for protein crystallization. In the future, it could be applied to nanoliter-scale crystallization screening on a paper sheet such as in inkjet printing.

  17. 78 FR 47317 - Intent To Conduct a Detailed Economic Impact Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ... UNITED STATES Intent To Conduct a Detailed Economic Impact Analysis This notice is to inform the public... support the export of U.S.-manufactured Boeing 787 wide-body passenger aircraft to an airline in China... U.S. airline industry. The aircraft in this transaction could enable passenger route service within...

  18. 78 FR 69669 - Intent To Conduct a Detailed Economic Impact Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... Conduct a Detailed Economic Impact Analysis This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import....-manufactured Boeing 777 wide-body passenger aircraft that will be operated by an airline in Russia, which will... 1% or more of comparable wide-body seat capacity within the U.S. airline industry. The aircraft in...

  19. Transport and Growth Kinetics in Microgravity Protein Crystal Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otalora, F.; Garcia-Ruiz, J. M.; Carotenuto, L.; Castagnolo, D.; Novella, M. L.; Chernov, A. A.

    2002-01-01

    The dynamic coupling between mass transport and incorporation of growth units into the surface of a crystal growing from solution in microgravity is used to derive quantitative information on the crystal growth kinetics. To this end, new procedures for experiment preparation, interferometric data processing and model fitting have been developed. The use of experimental data from the bulk diffusive maw transport together with a model for steady state stagnant crystal growth allows the detailed quantitative understanding of the kinetics of both the concentration depletion zone around the crystal and the growth of the crystal interface. The protein crystal used in the experiment is shown to be growing in the mixed kinetic regime (0.2 x 10(exp -6) centimeters per second less than beta R/D less than 0.9 x 10(exp -6) centimeters per second).

  20. Report details poverty-population-environment link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This summary reports on the state of environmental conditions in 1993 and is a reprint from an ICPD publication. This summary refers to a Roundtable Meeting held in November 1993, preliminary to the 1994 UN Conference on the Environment and Development, and an environmental report by Mary Berberis. The report identifies five regions with serious environmental degradation and resource depletion (the Bay of Bengal; the former forested uplands of Indonesia, Nepal, the Philippines, and Thailand; the forests of Central America; the arid regions of sub-Saharan Africa; and the small South Pacific island states). These regions are not just beset with environmental problems, but those problems are exacerbated by problems with land supply and use, poverty, waste, and lack of technology. The report emphasizes that a focus solely on population growth issues obscures the urgent demand for dealing with poverty alleviation, land reform, waste reduction, and improved technologies. Environmental degradation is also caused to a great extent by unsustainable patterns of consumption by affluent groups and by the processes of urban expansion, deforestation, and cultivation of marginal lands in both developed and developing countries. Mary Barberis in her summary of the literature on the causes of environmental conditions considers that the most serious environmental damage is generated by conditions of poverty and population pressure. Environmentally unsound practices are supported by inappropriate farming and soil management techniques, unequal access to resources, and government policies. The example of Bangladesh illustrates that urban population growth has occurred mostly in poor areas, and the problems of water supply, drainage, solid waste disposal, and sanitation are compounded by population growth. Rivers and marine fisheries is contaminated by urban discharges, untreated industrial waste, and fertilizers. Increased salinization degrades the land. Harvesting of wood depletes

  1. Detailed Burnup Calculations for Research Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leszczynski, F. [Centro Atomico Bariloche (CNEA), 8400 S. C. de Bariloche (Argentina)

    2011-07-01

    A general method (RRMCQ) has been developed by introducing a microscopic burn up scheme which uses the Monte Carlo calculated spatial power distribution of a research reactor core and a depletion code for burn up calculations, as a basis for solving nuclide material balance equations for each spatial region in which the system is divided. Continuous energy dependent cross-section libraries and full 3D geometry of the system is input for the calculations. The resulting predictions for the system at successive burn up time steps are thus based on a calculation route where both geometry and cross-sections are accurately represented, without geometry simplifications and with continuous energy data. The main advantage of this method over the classical deterministic methods currently used is that RRMCQ System is a direct 3D method without the limitations and errors introduced on the homogenization of geometry and condensation of energy of deterministic methods. The Monte Carlo and burn up codes adopted until now are the widely used MCNP5 and ORIGEN2 codes, but other codes can be used also. For using this method, there is a need of a well-known set of nuclear data for isotopes involved in burn up chains, including burnable poisons, fission products and actinides. For fixing the data to be included on this set, a study of the present status of nuclear data is performed, as part of the development of RRMCQ method. This study begins with a review of the available cross-section data of isotopes involved in burn up chains for research nuclear reactors. The main data needs for burn up calculations are neutron cross-sections, decay constants, branching ratios, fission energy and yields. The present work includes results of selected experimental benchmarks and conclusions about the sensitivity of different sets of cross-section data for burn up calculations, using some of the main available evaluated nuclear data files. Basically, the RRMCQ detailed burn up method includes four

  2. Detailed Fishery Operating Plan with 1985 Operating Criteria, 1985 Annual Publication.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karr, Malcolm H.

    1985-03-31

    This plan (DFOP) is designed as a working document to guide decisions and actions for achieving Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program measures and fishery objectives to improve the survival of migrant salmon and steelhead. The DFOP outlines current fishery objectives, research findings, and systems operational constraints in the Columbia River Basin. Together, program measures, fishery objectives, research findings, and system constraints form the foundation for the project specific operations recommendations in the DFOP.

  3. An Introduction to Cost-of-Living Adjustments in Public Retirement Plans: Details Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Penelope R.; Jennings, William P.; Phillips, G. Michael

    2016-01-01

    While financial planning students are expected to be able to understand client retirement plans, subtle differences in cost-of-living adjustments can have major impact on the success of client retirement plans. This teaching note compares the cost-of-living adjustments in the largest government sponsored retirement systems and a hypothetical…

  4. Devil in the Details? Developmental Dyslexia and Visual Long-Term Memory for Details

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn eHuestegge

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive theories on causes of developmental dyslexia can be divided into language-specific and general accounts. While the former assume that words are special in that associated processing problems are rooted in language-related cognition (e.g., phonology deficits, the latter propose that dyslexia is rather rooted in a general impairment of cognitive (e.g., visual and/or auditory processing streams. In the present study, we examined to what extent dyslexia (typically characterized by poor orthographic representations may be associated with a general deficit in visual long-term memory for details. We compared object- and detail-related visual long-term memory performance (and phonological skills between dyslexic primary school children and IQ-, age- and gender-matched controls. The results revealed that while the overall amount of long-term memory errors was comparable between groups, dyslexic children exhibited a greater portion of detail-related errors. The results suggest that not only phonological, but also general visual resolution deficits in long-term memory may play an important role in developmental dyslexia.

  5. Photonic crystals at visible, x-ray, and terahertz frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Tushar

    Photonic crystals are artificial structures with a periodically varying refractive index. This property allows photonic crystals to control the propagation of photons, making them desirable components for novel photonic devices. Photonic crystals are also termed as "semiconductors of light", since they control the flow of electromagnetic radiation similar to the way electrons are excited in a semiconductor crystal. The scale of periodicity in the refractive index determines the frequency (or wavelength) of the electromagnetic waves that can be manipulated. This thesis presents a detailed analysis of photonic crystals at visible, x-ray, and terahertz frequencies. Self-assembly and spin-coating methods are used to fabricate colloidal photonic crystals at visible frequencies. Their dispersion characteristics are examined through theoretical as well as experimental studies. Based on their peculiar dispersion property called the superprism effect, a sensor that can detect small quantities of chemical substances is designed. A photonic crystal that can manipulate x-rays is fabricated by using crystals of a non-toxic plant virus as templates. Calculations show that these metallized three-dimensional crystals can find utility in x-ray optical systems. Terahertz photonic crystal slabs are fabricated by standard lithographic and etching techniques. In-plane superprism effect and out-of-plane guided resonances are studied by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy, and verified by numerical simulations.

  6. Growth and micro-topographical studies of gel grown cholesterol crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anit Elizabeth; Cyriac Joseph; M A Ittyachen

    2001-08-01

    Cholesterol (C27H46O) is the most abundant and best-known steroid in the animal kingdom. The in vitro crystallization of this important biomaterial has been attempted by few researchers. Here we are reporting crystallization of pure cholesterol monohydrate crystals in gel medium. It is found that the morphology of the crystals depends on various parameters. The effect of solvent has been studied in detail. The different morphologies observed are fibrous, needle, platelet, dendrite etc. Micro topographical studies have been made and it is found that the crystals grow, at least in the last stage, by spreading of layers. However, at initial stage microcrystals formed and developed into dendrite or needle forms. These one-dimensional crystals developed into platelets and finally thickened. Further studies reveal that micro impurities play a vital role in the development of these crystals as seen by dissolution figures on the crystals. These crystals are characterized by using the XRD and IR spectroscopic methods.

  7. Feminism and public health ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, W A

    2006-06-01

    This paper sketches an account of public health ethics drawing upon established scholarship in feminist ethics. Health inequities are one of the central problems in public health ethics; a feminist approach leads us to examine not only the connections between gender, disadvantage, and health, but also the distribution of power in the processes of public health, from policy making through to programme delivery. The complexity of public health demands investigation using multiple perspectives and an attention to detail that is capable of identifying the health issues that are important to women, and investigating ways to address these issues. Finally, a feminist account of public health ethics embraces rather than avoids the inescapable political dimensions of public health.

  8. Synthesis, crystal growth and mechanical properties of Bismuth Silicon Oxide (BSO) single crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riscob, B. [CSIR – National Physical Laboratory, Crystal Growth and X-ray Analysis, New Delhi 110 012 (India); Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428, Gujarat (India); Shkir, Mohd. [CSIR – National Physical Laboratory, Crystal Growth and X-ray Analysis, New Delhi 110 012 (India); Ganesh, V. [Department of Physics, Kakatiya University, Warangal 506 009 (India); Vijayan, N.; Maurya, K.K. [CSIR – National Physical Laboratory, Crystal Growth and X-ray Analysis, New Delhi 110 012 (India); Kishan Rao, K. [Department of Physics, Kakatiya University, Warangal 506 009 (India); Bhagavannarayana, G., E-mail: bhagavan@mail.nplindia.ernet.in [CSIR – National Physical Laboratory, Crystal Growth and X-ray Analysis, New Delhi 110 012 (India)

    2014-03-05

    Highlights: • Synthesis of Bismuth Silicon Oxide (BSO). • Single crystal growth of BSO by Czochralski (Cz) method. • Complete mechanical analysis by device fabrication point of view. • Theoretical and experimental calculations of mechanical properties. -- Abstract: Bismuth Silicon Oxide (BSO) is an efficient material for piezo-electric and electro-optic applications. In this article, growth of BSO single crystal by high temperature Czochralski melt growth technique and its detailed mechanical characterization by Vickers microhardness, fracture toughness, crack propagation, brittleness index and yield strength have been reported. The raw material was synthesized by solid state reaction using the stoichiometric ratio of high purity bismuth tri-oxide and silicon di-oxide. The synthesized material was charged in the platinum crucible and then melted. The required rotation and pulling rate was optimized for BSO single crystal growth and good quality single crystal has been harvested after a time span of 5 days. Powder X-ray diffraction analysis confirms the parent crystallization phase of BSO. The experimentally studied mechanical behavior of the crystal is explained using various theoretical models. The anisotropic nature of the crystals is studied using Knoop indentation technique.

  9. Persistence of Performance Details in Music and Speech

    OpenAIRE

    Jungers, Melissa K.

    2004-01-01

    What aspects of music and speech are retained in memory? How do remembered performance details influence future performances? This paper focuses on memory for performance details in music and speech and the influence of these elements from perception to performance. Listeners form a memory for a sentence or melody that includes timing and intensity details. These details then influence performance. Musicians persist in the tempo of a melody they have just heard. They also incorporate details ...

  10. Public knowledge and public trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham-Burley, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    As health care applications derived from human genetics research are likely to move increasingly from 'clinic to community', there is growing interest not just in how patients understand and take up health-related genetic information but also in the views of the wider population, as well as a range of professional groups. In this paper, issues relating public knowledge and public trust are raised and discussed in an attempt to move forward debates about public involvement in genomic research and the role of sociologists within interdisciplinary teams. As the field of public understanding of science has developed, we have seen a shift from a focus on the lack of scientific literacy as problem to a recognition of the range of different knowledges that people have and use as they confront science and technology in their everyday lives. As a mood for dialogue pervades many institutions in their relations with 'publics', attention must now be paid to the way in which knowledge and expertise is expressed, heard and acted upon in dialogic encounters. There is increasing concern about public trust in science and calls to increase public confidence, particularly through more open engagement with a range of publics. However, lack of trust or loss of confidence may be constructed as problems rather than reflecting empirical reality, where more complex relationships and attitudes prevail. Lack of trust is often privatized, deeply rooted in lived experience and routinely managed. Trust relations are generally characterized by ambivalence, uncertainty and risk, and are always provisional. Drawing on selected literature and empirical research to review and illustrate this field, this paper argues that scepticism or ambivalence on the part of publics are not necessarily problems to be overcome in the interest of scientific progress, but rather should be mobilized to enhance open and public debates about the nature and direction of genomics research, medicine, and the related

  11. Simulation and understanding of quantum crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Cazorla, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Quantum crystals abound in the whole range of solid-state species. Below a certain threshold temperature the physical behavior of rare gases (4He and Ne), molecular solids (H2 and CH4), and some ionic (LiH), covalent (graphite), and metallic (Li) crystals can be only explained in terms of quantum nuclear effects (QNE). A detailed comprehension of the nature of quantum solids is critical for achieving progress in a number of fundamental and applied scientific fields like, for instance, planetary sciences, hydrogen storage, nuclear energy, quantum computing, and nanoelectronics. This review describes the current physical understanding of quantum crystals and the wide variety of simulation techniques that are used to investigate them. Relevant aspects in these materials such as phase transformations, energy and structural properties, elasticity, and the effects of crystalline defects and dimensionality, are discussed thoroughly. An introduction to quantum Monte Carlo techniques, which in the present context are ...

  12. Crystal structure of the eukaryotic ribosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Shem, Adam; Jenner, Lasse; Yusupova, Gulnara; Yusupov, Marat

    2010-11-26

    Crystal structures of prokaryotic ribosomes have described in detail the universally conserved core of the translation mechanism. However, many facets of the translation process in eukaryotes are not shared with prokaryotes. The crystal structure of the yeast 80S ribosome determined at 4.15 angstrom resolution reveals the higher complexity of eukaryotic ribosomes, which are 40% larger than their bacterial counterparts. Our model shows how eukaryote-specific elements considerably expand the network of interactions within the ribosome and provides insights into eukaryote-specific features of protein synthesis. Our crystals capture the ribosome in the ratcheted state, which is essential for translocation of mRNA and transfer RNA (tRNA), and in which the small ribosomal subunit has rotated with respect to the large subunit. We describe the conformational changes in both ribosomal subunits that are involved in ratcheting and their implications in coordination between the two associated subunits and in mRNA and tRNA translocation.

  13. Public opinion on public services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evelien Eggink; Debbie Verbeek-Oudijk; Evert Pommer

    2013-01-01

    Original titel: Burgers over de kwaliteit van publieke diensten Most citizens come into contact with public services, for example as a patient, as a student or pupil, as a passenger on public transport or as a museum visitor. More and more importance is being attached to the quality of those service

  14. Polymer semiconductor crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Ah Lim

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the long-standing challenges in the field of polymer semiconductors is to figure out how long interpenetrating and entangled polymer chains self-assemble into single crystals from the solution phase or melt. The ability to produce these crystalline solids has fascinated scientists from a broad range of backgrounds including physicists, chemists, and engineers. Scientists are still on the hunt for determining the mechanism of crystallization in these information-rich materials. Understanding the theory and concept of crystallization of polymer semiconductors will undoubtedly transform this area from an art to an area that will host a bandwagon of scientists and engineers. In this article we describe the basic concept of crystallization and highlight some of the advances in polymer crystallization from crystals to nanocrystalline fibers.

  15. A detailed framework to incorporate dust in hydrodynamical simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Grassi, T; Haugboelle, T; Schleicher, D R G

    2016-01-01

    Dust plays a key role in the evolution of the ISM and its correct modelling in numerical simulations is therefore fundamental. We present a new and self-consistent model that treats grain thermal coupling with the gas, radiation balance, and surface chemistry for molecular hydrogen. This method can be applied to any dust distribution with an arbitrary number of grain types without affecting the overall computational cost. In this paper we describe in detail the physics and the algorithm behind our approach, and in order to test the methodology, we present some examples of astrophysical interest, namely (i) a one-zone collapse with complete gas chemistry and thermochemical processes, (ii) a 3D model of a low-metallicity collapse of a minihalo starting from cosmological initial conditions, and (iii) a turbulent molecular cloud with H-C-O chemistry (277 reactions), together with self-consistent cooling and heating solved on the fly. Although these examples employ the publicly available code KROME, our approach c...

  16. CMS lead tungstate crystals

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2000-01-01

    These crystals are made from lead tungstate, a crystal that is as clear as glass yet with nearly four times the density. They have been produced in Russia to be used as scintillators in the electromagnetic calorimeter on the CMS experiment, part of the LHC project at CERN. When an electron, positron or photon passes through the calorimeter it will cause a cascade of particles that will then be absorbed by these scintillating crystals, allowing the particle's energy to be measured.

  17. Analysis of liquid crystal properties for photonic crystal fiber devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weirich, Johannes; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Wei, Lei;

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the bandgap structure of Liquid Crystal infiltrated Photonic Crystal Fibers depending on the parameters of the Liquid Crystals by means of finite element simulations. For a biased Liquid Crystal Photonic Crystal Fiber, we show how the tunability of the bandgap position depends on the L...

  18. Phononic crystal devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kady, Ihab F.; Olsson, Roy H.

    2012-01-10

    Phononic crystals that have the ability to modify and control the thermal black body phonon distribution and the phonon component of heat transport in a solid. In particular, the thermal conductivity and heat capacity can be modified by altering the phonon density of states in a phononic crystal. The present invention is directed to phononic crystal devices and materials such as radio frequency (RF) tags powered from ambient heat, dielectrics with extremely low thermal conductivity, thermoelectric materials with a higher ratio of electrical-to-thermal conductivity, materials with phononically engineered heat capacity, phononic crystal waveguides that enable accelerated cooling, and a variety of low temperature application devices.

  19. Heroin crystal nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Josef Edrik Keith; Merhi, Basma; Gregory, Oliver; Hu, Susie; Henriksen, Kammi; Gohh, Reginald

    2015-06-01

    In this paper we present an interesting case of acute kidney injury and severe metabolic alkalosis in a patient with a history of heavy heroin abuse. Urine microscopy showed numerous broomstick-like crystals. These crystals are also identified in light and electron microscopy. We hypothesize that heroin crystalizes in an alkaline pH, resulting in tubular obstruction and acute kidney injury. Management is mainly supportive as there is no known specific therapy for this condition. This paper highlights the utility of urine microscopy in diagnosing the etiology of acute kidney injury and proposes a novel disease called heroin crystal nephropathy.

  20. Geometric and unipotent crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Berenstein, Arkady; Kazhdan, David

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we introduce geometric crystals and unipotent crystals which are algebro-geometric analogues of Kashiwara's crystal bases. Given a reductive group G, let I be the set of vertices of the Dynkin diagram of G and T be the maximal torus of G. The structure of a geometric G-crystal on an algebraic variety X consists of a rational morphism \\gamma:X-->T and a compatible family e_i:G_m\\times X-->X, i\\in I of rational actions of the multiplicative group G_m satisfying certain braid-like ...

  1. Automation in biological crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw Stewart, Patrick; Mueller-Dieckmann, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    Crystallization remains the bottleneck in the crystallographic process leading from a gene to a three-dimensional model of the encoded protein or RNA. Automation of the individual steps of a crystallization experiment, from the preparation of crystallization cocktails for initial or optimization screens to the imaging of the experiments, has been the response to address this issue. Today, large high-throughput crystallization facilities, many of them open to the general user community, are capable of setting up thousands of crystallization trials per day. It is thus possible to test multiple constructs of each target for their ability to form crystals on a production-line basis. This has improved success rates and made crystallization much more convenient. High-throughput crystallization, however, cannot relieve users of the task of producing samples of high quality. Moreover, the time gained from eliminating manual preparations must now be invested in the careful evaluation of the increased number of experiments. The latter requires a sophisticated data and laboratory information-management system. A review of the current state of automation at the individual steps of crystallization with specific attention to the automation of optimization is given. PMID:24915074

  2. Tunable plasmonic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Gregory Conrad; Shaner, Eric A.; Reno, John L.; Aizin, Gregory

    2015-08-11

    A tunable plasmonic crystal comprises several periods in a two-dimensional electron or hole gas plasmonic medium that is both extremely subwavelength (.about..lamda./100) and tunable through the application of voltages to metal electrodes. Tuning of the plasmonic crystal band edges can be realized in materials such as semiconductors and graphene to actively control the plasmonic crystal dispersion in the terahertz and infrared spectral regions. The tunable plasmonic crystal provides a useful degree of freedom for applications in slow light devices, voltage-tunable waveguides, filters, ultra-sensitive direct and heterodyne THz detectors, and THz oscillators.

  3. Automation in biological crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Patrick Shaw; Mueller-Dieckmann, Jochen

    2014-06-01

    Crystallization remains the bottleneck in the crystallographic process leading from a gene to a three-dimensional model of the encoded protein or RNA. Automation of the individual steps of a crystallization experiment, from the preparation of crystallization cocktails for initial or optimization screens to the imaging of the experiments, has been the response to address this issue. Today, large high-throughput crystallization facilities, many of them open to the general user community, are capable of setting up thousands of crystallization trials per day. It is thus possible to test multiple constructs of each target for their ability to form crystals on a production-line basis. This has improved success rates and made crystallization much more convenient. High-throughput crystallization, however, cannot relieve users of the task of producing samples of high quality. Moreover, the time gained from eliminating manual preparations must now be invested in the careful evaluation of the increased number of experiments. The latter requires a sophisticated data and laboratory information-management system. A review of the current state of automation at the individual steps of crystallization with specific attention to the automation of optimization is given.

  4. Crystallization Formulation Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Crystallization Formulation Lab fills a critical need in the process development and optimization of current and new explosives and energetic formulations. The...

  5. Tunable plasmonic crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyer, Gregory Conrad; Shaner, Eric A.; Reno, John L.; Aizin, Gregory

    2015-08-11

    A tunable plasmonic crystal comprises several periods in a two-dimensional electron or hole gas plasmonic medium that is both extremely subwavelength (.about..lamda./100) and tunable through the application of voltages to metal electrodes. Tuning of the plasmonic crystal band edges can be realized in materials such as semiconductors and graphene to actively control the plasmonic crystal dispersion in the terahertz and infrared spectral regions. The tunable plasmonic crystal provides a useful degree of freedom for applications in slow light devices, voltage-tunable waveguides, filters, ultra-sensitive direct and heterodyne THz detectors, and THz oscillators.

  6. A crystal barrel

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The production of crystals for the barrel of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter has been completed. This is an important milestone for the experiment, which received the last of its 62,960 crystals on 9 March. The members of the team responsible for the crystal acceptance testing at CERN display the last crystal for the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter barrel. From left to right: Igor Tarasov, Etiennette Auffray and Hervé Cornet.One of the six machines specially developed to measure 67 different parameters on each crystal. Igor Tarasov is seen inserting the last batch of crystals into the machine. The last of the 62,960 CMS barrel crystals arrived at CERN on 9 March. Once removed from its polystyrene protection, this delicate crystal, like thousands of its predecessors, will be inserted into the last of the 36 supermodules of the barrel electromagnetic calorimeter in a few days' time. This marks the end of an important chapter in an almost 15-year-long journey by the CMS crystals team, some of whose member...

  7. Public Sociology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    What is the role of sociology in society? How can - and should - sociology contribute with insights relevant and useful to the outside world? Is sociology attuned to accommodate the demands of the wider public and of surrounding society? Who benefits from the knowledge produced and provided...... by sociology? What are the social implications and cultural effects of the knowledge sociology provides and creates? All of these questions, and many others, concern and centre on sociology's relationship to the surrounding society, in short to the ‘public'. All of these questions - and many others...... irrelevance and introversion and the Charybdis of public relevancy and extroversion. But what does it mean to be a ‘public sociologist' in contemporary society and are there really any other ways of doing sociology? What are the requirements of sociologists in a social world increasingly informed and shaped...

  8. Miscellaneous Publications

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Late 19th century Weather Bureau publications and Congressional reports pertaining to weather. Set of Weather Bureau Snowfall Bulletins for Rocky Mountain states...

  9. Public Airports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a vector point digital data structure that contains the locations of General Public Use Airports in the State of New Mexico. It only contains those...

  10. Public meetings

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Do you have questions about the elections to the Staff Council, 2017 MERIT exercise, EVE and School, LD to IC exercise, CHIS, the Pension Fund… Come get informed and ask your questions at our public meetings. These public meetings are also an opportunity to get the more information on current issues. Benefit from this occasion to get the latest news and to discuss with the representatives of the statutory body that is the Staff Association!

  11. HEiDi: Single crystal diffractometer at hot source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Meven

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The single crystal diffractometer HEiDi, which is operated by the Institute of Crystallography, RWTH Aachen University and JCNS, Forschungszentrum Jülich, is designed for detailed studies on structural and magnetic properties of single crystals using unpolarised neutrons and Bragg’s Law: 2dhklsinθ = λ (typically 0.55 Å <λ< 1.2 Å.

  12. Family physicians' perceptions of academic detailing: a quantitative and qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Connor Nicolette

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The efficacy of academic detailing in changing physicians' knowledge and practice has been the subject of many primary research publications and systematic reviews. However, there is little written about the features of academic detailing that physicians find valuable or that affect their use of it. The goal of our project was to explore family physicians' (FPs perceptions of academic detailing and the factors that affect their use of it. Methods We used 2 methods to collect data, a questionnaire and semi-structured telephone interviews. We mailed questionnaires to all FPs in the Dalhousie Office of Continuing Medical Education database and analyzed responses of non-users and users of academic detailing. After a preliminary analysis of questionnaire data, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 7 FPs who did not use academic detailing and 17 who did use it. Results Overall response rate to the questionnaire was 33% (289/869. Response rate of non-users of academic detailing was 15% (60/393, of users was 48% (229/476. The 3 factors that most encouraged use of academic detailing were the topics selected, the evidence-based approach adopted, and the handout material. The 3 factors that most discouraged the use of academic detailing were spending office time doing CME, scheduling time to see the academic detailer, and having CME provided by a non-physician. Users of academic detailing rated it as being more valuable than other forms of CME. Generally, interview data confirmed questionnaire data with the exception that interview informants did not view having CME provided by a non-physician as a barrier. Interview informants mentioned that the evidence-based approach adopted by academic detailing had led them to more critically evaluate information from other CME programs, pharmaceutical representatives, and journal articles, but not advice from specialists. Conclusion Users of academic detailing highly value its educational

  13. Discovery of Reversible Crystallization of Macromolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunderlich, Bernhard

    2004-03-01

    For 10 years "reversing melting" was observed with temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry, TMDSC. This reversing melting is the first harmonic response beyond that caused by the heat capacity of a metastable, semicrystalline macromolecular sample. Before one can identify "reversible melting," the calorimeter response must be corrected for loss of linearity, stationarity, frequency, amplitude, and instrument lag, or proper experiment-design must avoid these problems. Using quasi-isothermal TMDSC, the following observations were made [Prog. Polymer Sci. 28 (2003) 383-450]: Equilibrium crystals of polymers may melt at the equilibrium melting-temperature, but crystallization needs supercooling, even in the presence of crystal nuclei, making the overall process irreversible. Metastable, folded-chain crystals of the same molecules also melt irreversibly, however, may have some specific reversibility. Flexible, linear molecules of up to 10 nm length may melt fully reversibly. Macromolecules of less flexibility may lose the ability to melt reversibly. Decoupling of molecular segments, molecular nucleation, segregation of molar masses, rigid amorphous fractions, effects of equilibrium point defects in crystals and glasses, and transition-less ordering and solidification will be discussed in some detail. Supported by NSF, Polymers Program, DMR-0312233, and the Div. of Mat. Sci., BES, of DOE at ORNL, managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U.S. Department of Energy, DOE-AC05-00OR22725.

  14. www.detail.de/english - the research and service platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    DETAIL Archive and Download Centre Every year, DETAIL magazine publishes more than 120 outstanding buildings from all over the world, along with interviews, critiques and articles written by authors from different disciplines.

  15. Visual Overview, Oral Detail: The Use of an Emergency-Department Whiteboard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Simonsen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    and with the coordinating nurse, who is the main keeper of the whiteboard. On the basis of observations, we find that coordination is accomplished through a highly intertwined process of technologically mediated visual overview combined with orally communicated details. The oral details serve to clarify and elaborate......Whiteboards facilitate coordinative practices by making information publicly accessible and thereby strengthening communication and joint commitment about it. This study investigates how coordination is accomplished in an emergency department through interactions with the whiteboard...... instrumental and communicative coordination are central to the coordinative function of the whiteboard. We discuss this and other implications for design....

  16. Cloud Imagers Offer New Details on Earth's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    A stunning red sunset or purple sunrise is an aesthetic treat with a scientific explanation: The colors are a direct result of the absorption or reflectance of solar radiation by atmospheric aerosols, minute particles (either solid or liquid) in the Earth s atmosphere that occur both naturally and because of human activity. At the beginning or end of the day, the Sun s rays travel farther through the atmosphere to reach an observer s eyes and more green and yellow light is scattered, making the Sun appear red. Sunset and sunrise are especially colorful when the concentration of atmospheric particles is high. This ability of aerosols to absorb and reflect sunlight is not just pretty; it also determines the amount of radiation and heat that reaches the Earth s surface, and can profoundly affect climate. In the atmosphere, aerosols are also important as nuclei for the condensation of water droplets and ice crystals. Clouds with fewer aerosols cannot form as many water droplets (called cloud particles), and consequently, do not scatter light well. In this case, more sunlight reaches the Earth s surface. When aerosol levels in clouds are high, however, more nucleation points can form small liquid water droplets. These smaller cloud particles can reflect up to 90 percent of visible radiation to space, keeping the heat from ever reaching Earth s surface. The tendency for these particles to absorb or reflect the Sun s energy - called extinction by astronomers - depends on a number of factors, including chemical composition and the humidity and temperature in the surrounding air; because cloud particles are so small, they are affected quickly by minute changes in the atmosphere. Because of this sensitivity, atmospheric scientists study cloud particles to anticipate patterns and shifts in climate. Until recently, NASA s study of atmospheric aerosols and cloud particles has been focused primarily on satellite images, which, while granting large-scale atmospheric analysis

  17. Photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægsgaard, Jesper; Hansen, K P; Nielsen, M D;

    2003-01-01

    Photonic crystal fibers having a complex microstructure in the transverse plane constitute a new and promising class of optical fibers. Such fibers can either guide light through total internal reflection or the photonic bandgap effect, In this paper, we review the different types and applications...... of photonic crystal fibers with particular emphasis on recent advances in the field....

  18. Demonstration of Crystal Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, Joseph P.

    1985-01-01

    Describes an experiment where equal parts of copper and aluminum are heated then cooled to show extremely large crystals. Suggestions are given for changing the orientation of crystals by varying cooling rates. Students are more receptive to concepts of microstructure after seeing this experiment. (DH)

  19. Walkout in Crystal City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Greg

    2009-01-01

    When students take action, they create change that extends far beyond the classroom. In this article, the author, who was a former teacher from Crystal City, Texas, remembers the student walkout that helped launch the Latino civil rights movement 40 years ago. The Crystal City student walkout remains a high point in the history of student activism…

  20. Manipulation of colloidal crystallization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermolen, E.C.M.

    2008-01-01

    Colloidal particles (approximately a micrometer in diameter) that are dispersed in a fluid, behave thermodynamically similar to atoms and molecules: at low concentrations they form a fluid, while at high concentrations they can crystallize into a colloidal crystal to gain entropy. The analogy with m

  1. Crystal growth and crystallography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernov, A. A.

    1998-01-01

    Selected topics that may be of interest for both crystal-structure and crystal-growth communities are overviewed. The growth of protein crystals, along with that of some other compounds, is one of the topics, and recent insights into related phenomena are considered as examples of applications of general principles. The relationship between crystal growth shape and structure is reviewed and an attempt to introduce semiquantitative characterization of binding for proteins is made. The concept of kinks for complex structures is briefly discussed. Even at sufficiently low supersaturations, the fluctuation of steps may not be sufficient to implement the Gibbs-Thomson law if the kink density is low enough. Subsurface ordering of liquids and growth of rough interfaces from melts is discussed. Crystals growing in microgravity from solution should be more perfect if they preferentially trap stress-inducing impurities, thus creating an impurity-depleted zone around themselves. Evidently, such a zone is developed only around the crystals growing in the absence of convection. Under terrestrial conditions, the self-purified depleted zone is destroyed by convection, the crystal traps more impurity and grows stressed. The stress relief causes mosaicity. In systems containing stress-inducing but poorly trapped impurities, the crystals grown in the absence of convection should be worse than those of their terrestrial counterparts.

  2. Crystals in the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    Bent crystals can be used to deflect charged particle beams. Their use in high-energy accelerators has been investigated for almost 40 years. Recently, a bent crystal was irradiated for the first time in the HiRadMat facility with an extreme particle flux, which crystals would have to withstand in the LHC. The results were very encouraging and confirmed that this technology could play a major role in increasing the beam collimation performance in future upgrades of the machine.   UA9 bent crystal tested with a laser. Charged particles interacting with a bent crystal can be trapped in channelling states and deflected by the atomic planes of the crystal lattice (see box). The use of bent crystals for beam manipulation in particle accelerators is a concept that has been well-assessed. Over the last three decades, a large number of experimental findings have contributed to furthering our knowledge and improving our ability to control crystal-particle interactions. In modern hadron colliders, su...

  3. Photonic Crystal Fiber Attenuator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joo; Beom; Eom; Hokyung; Kim; Jinchae; Kim; Un-Chul; Paek; Byeong; Ha; Lee

    2003-01-01

    We propose a novel fiber attenuator based on photonic crystal fibers. The difference in the modal field diameters of a conventional single mode fiber and a photonic crystal fiber was used. A variable optical attenuator was also achieved by applying macro-bending on the PCF part of the proposed attenuator

  4. 46 CFR 90.25-1 - Electrical engineering details.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electrical engineering details. 90.25-1 Section 90.25-1... PROVISIONS General Electrical Engineering Requirements § 90.25-1 Electrical engineering details. (a) All electrical engineering details and installations shall be designed and installed in accordance with...

  5. 46 CFR 24.20-1 - Marine engineering details.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine engineering details. 24.20-1 Section 24.20-1... Engineering Requirements § 24.20-1 Marine engineering details. (a) All marine engineering details relative to... 40 feet in length will be found in subchapter F (Marine Engineering) of this chapter. ...

  6. 46 CFR 188.25-1 - Electrical engineering details.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electrical engineering details. 188.25-1 Section 188.25... GENERAL PROVISIONS General Electrical Engineering Requirements § 188.25-1 Electrical engineering details. (a) The electrical engineering details shall be in accordance with subchapter J (Electrical...

  7. 46 CFR 70.25-1 - Electrical engineering details.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electrical engineering details. 70.25-1 Section 70.25-1... General Electrical Engineering Requirements § 70.25-1 Electrical engineering details. All electrical engineering details and installations shall be designed and installed in accordance with subchapter J...

  8. 46 CFR 90.20-1 - Marine engineering details.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine engineering details. 90.20-1 Section 90.20-1... PROVISIONS General Marine Engineering Requirements § 90.20-1 Marine engineering details. (a) All marine engineering details such as piping, valves, fittings, boilers, pressure vessels, etc., and their appurtenances...

  9. 46 CFR 188.20-1 - Marine engineering details.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine engineering details. 188.20-1 Section 188.20-1... PROVISIONS General Marine Engineering Requirements § 188.20-1 Marine engineering details. (a) The marine engineering details shall be in accordance with Subchapter F (Marine Engineering) of this chapter. ...

  10. 20 CFR 422.604 - Request for detailed information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Request for detailed information. 422.604... whom you have premium responsibility, you may request detailed information as to the work histories of any of the listed miners and the basis for the assignment. Your request for detailed information must...

  11. 14 CFR 23.685 - Control system details.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Control system details. 23.685 Section 23... Control Systems § 23.685 Control system details. (a) Each detail of each control system must be designed... cables or tubes against other parts. (d) Each element of the flight control system must have...

  12. 14 CFR 29.685 - Control system details.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Control system details. 29.685 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Control Systems § 29.685 Control system details. (a) Each detail of each control system must be designed to prevent jamming, chafing, and...

  13. 14 CFR 25.685 - Control system details.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Control system details. 25.685 Section 25... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Control Systems § 25.685 Control system details. (a) Each detail of each control system must be designed and installed to prevent jamming...

  14. Active Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ek, Sara

    This thesis deals with the fabrication and characterization of active photonic crystal waveguides, realized in III-V semiconductor material with embedded active layers. The platform offering active photonic crystal waveguides has many potential applications. One of these is a compact photonic...... crystal semiconductor optical amplier. As a step towards such a component, photonic crystal waveguides with a single quantum well, 10 quantum wells and three layers of quantum dots are fabricated and characterized. An experimental study of the amplied spontaneous emission and a implied transmission...... are presented in this thesis. A variation of photonic crystal design parameters are used leading to a spectral shift of the dispersion, it is veried that the observed effects shift accordingly. An enhancement of the amplified spontaneous emission was observed close to the band edge, where light is slowed down...

  15. Function Photonic Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Xiang-Yao; Yang, Jing-Hai; Liu, Xiao-Jing; Ba, Nuo; Wu, Yi-Heng; Wang, Qing-Cai; Li, Jing-Wu

    2010-01-01

    In the paper, we present a new kind of function photonic crystals, which refractive index is a function of space position. Unlike conventional PCs, which structure grow from two materials, A and B, with different dielectric constants $\\epsilon_{A}$ and $\\epsilon_{B}$. By Fermat principle, we give the motion equations of light in one-dimensional, two-dimensional and three-dimensional function photonic crystals. For one-dimensional function photonic crystals, we study the dispersion relation, band gap structure and transmissivity, and compare them with conventional photonic crystals. By choosing various refractive index distribution function $n(z)$, we can obtain more width or more narrow band gap structure than conventional photonic crystals.

  16. Optically Anomalous Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Shtukenberg, Alexander; Kahr, Bart

    2007-01-01

    Optical anomalies in crystals are puzzles that collectively constituted the greatest unsolved problems in crystallography in the 19th Century. The most common anomaly is a discrepancy between a crystal’s symmetry as determined by its shape or by X-ray analysis, and that determined by monitoring the polarization state of traversing light. These discrepancies were perceived as a great impediment to the development of the sciences of crystals on the basis of Curie’s Symmetry Principle, the grand organizing idea in the physical sciences to emerge in the latter half of the 19th Century. Optically Anomalous Crystals begins with an historical introduction covering the contributions of Brewster, Biot, Mallard, Brauns, Tamman, and many other distinguished crystallographers. From this follows a tutorial in crystal optics. Further chapters discuss the two main mechanisms of optical dissymmetry: 1. the piezo-optic effect, and 2. the kinetic ordering of atoms. The text then tackles complex, inhomogeneous crystals, and...

  17. High-Temperature Piezoelectric Crystals for Acoustic Wave Sensor Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Hongfei; Wu, Huiyan; Wang, Qing-Ming

    2016-03-01

    In this review paper, nine different types of high-temperature piezoelectric crystals and their sensor applications are overviewed. The important materials' properties of these piezoelectric crystals including dielectric constant, elastic coefficients, piezoelectric coefficients, electromechanical coupling coefficients, and mechanical quality factor are discussed in detail. The determination methods of these physical properties are also presented. Moreover, the growth methods, structures, and properties of these piezoelectric crystals are summarized and compared. Of particular interest are langasite and oxyborate crystals, which exhibit no phase transitions prior to their melting points ∼ 1500 °C and possess high electrical resistivity, piezoelectric coefficients, and mechanical quality factor at ultrahigh temperature ( ∼ 1000 °C). Finally, some research results on surface acoustic wave (SAW) and bulk acoustic wave (BAW) sensors developed using this high-temperature piezoelectric crystals are discussed.

  18. Unstitching the nanoscopic mystery of zeolite crystal formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, Rhea; Cubillas, Pablo; Stevens, Sam M; Jelfs, Kim E; Umemura, Ayako; Gebbie, James T; Slater, Ben; Terasaki, Osamu; Holden, Mark A; Anderson, Michael W

    2010-10-06

    A molecular-scale understanding of crystal growth is critical to the development of important materials such as pharmaceuticals, semiconductors and catalysts. Only recently has this been possible with the advent of atomic force microscopy that permits observation of nanoscopic features on solid surfaces under a liquid or solution environment. This allows in situ measurement of important chemical transformations such as crystal growth and dissolution. Further, the microscope can access not only an accurate height measurement of surface topography, important to deduce structural elements, but also the forces involved during nanoscopic processes. We have discovered that it is possible to use these features to "illuminate" critical nanoscopic chemical events at crystal surfaces and at the same time extract the associated energies and unstitch the details of the stepwise mechanism of growth and dissolution. This approach has been developed using nanoporous crystals of the heterogeneous catalyst zeolite L; however, in principle the approach could be adapted to many crystal growth problems.

  19. Crystal growth from the melt by capillary shaping techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossipyan, Y. A.; Tatarchenko, V. A.

    A method based on the Lyapunov stability theory has been developed for studying the stability of crystallization by capillary shaping techniques (including Czochralski, Stepanov, EFG, Verneuil and floating zone methods). The preliminary results of the analysis of stability shows that the crystallization by capillary shaping technique under microgravitation conditions is more stable in some cases than under the action of gravitation. To get deeper into details of the capillary shaping technique under microgravitation conditions, we have carried out model experiments using two immiscible liquids of equal density and crystallization of sapphire in terrestrial conditions with small Bond number. The experiments on the copper crystallization were realized in the high-altitude rockets. Our experiments on indium crystallization carried out in the orbital space probe “Salyut” yielded cylindrical specimens.

  20. Crystallization phenomena of isotactic polystyrene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemstra, Peter Jan

    1975-01-01

    In this thesis the crystallization behavior of isotactic polystyrene has been described. The kinetics of the crystallization process and the crystalline structure were studied both for crystallization in the bulk and from dilute solutions. ... Zie Summary

  1. Going public

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Gitte; Sandøe, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The paper addresses issues of scientific conduct regarding relations between science and the media, relations between scientists and journalists, and attitudes towards the public at large. In the large and increasing body of literature on scientific conduct and misconduct, these issues seem...... deal with ethical public relations issues, guided by a norm or maxim of openness. Drawing on and rethinking the CUDOS codification of the scientific ethos, as it was worked out by Robert K. Merton in 1942, we propose that this, which is echoed in current codifications of norms for good scientific...... conduct, contains a tacit maxim of openness which may naturally be extended to cover the public relations of science. Discussing openness as access, accountability, transparency and receptiveness, the argumentation concentrates on the possible prevention of misconduct with respect to, on the one hand...

  2. Going public

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Gitte; Sandøe, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The paper addresses issues of scientific conduct regarding relations between science and the media, relations between scientists and journalists, and attitudes towards the public at large. In the large and increasing body of literature on scientific conduct and misconduct, these issues seem...... deal with ethical public relations issues, guided by a norm or maxim of openness. Drawing on and rethinking the CUDOS codification of the scientific ethos, as it was worked out by Robert K. Merton in 1942, we propose that this, which is echoed in current codifications of norms for good scientific...... conduct, contains a tacit maxim of openness which may naturally be extended to cover the public relations of science. Discussing openness as access, accountability, transparency and receptiveness, the argumentation concentrates on the possible prevention of misconduct with respect to, on the one hand...

  3. Public Sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trenz, Hans-Jörg

    2015-01-01

    of the collective will of the people in the act of democratic self-government. The concept of the public sphere is used across the fields of media and communication research, cultural studies and the humanities, the history of ideas, legal and constitutional studies as well as democracy studies. Historically......In modern societies, the public sphere represents the intermediary realm that supports the communication of opinions, the discovery of problems that need to be dealt with collectively, the channeling of these problems through the filter of the media and political institutions, and the realization......, public spheres have undergone structural transformations that were closely connected to the emergence of different mass media. More recently, they are subject to trends of transnationalization and digitalization in politics and society....

  4. Public Sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trenz, Hans-Jörg

    2015-01-01

    In modern societies, the public sphere represents the intermediary realm that supports the communication of opinions, the discovery of problems that need to be dealt with collectively, the channeling of these problems through the filter of the media and political institutions, and the realization......, public spheres have undergone structural transformations that were closely connected to the emergence of different mass media. More recently, they are subject to trends of transnationalization and digitalization in politics and society....... of the collective will of the people in the act of democratic self-government. The concept of the public sphere is used across the fields of media and communication research, cultural studies and the humanities, the history of ideas, legal and constitutional studies as well as democracy studies. Historically...

  5. A liquid crystal thermography calibration with true color image processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Rao; Shusheng Zang; Minghai Huang

    2009-01-01

    Liquid crystal thermography is a high-resolution,non-intrusive optical technique for full-field temperature measurement.We present the detailed calibration data for the thermochromic liquid crystal(TLC)with a usefill range of 41-60 ℃.The calibration is done with true color image processing by using an isothermal calibrator.The hue-temperature curve of the TLC is obtained,and the measurement uncertainty is analyzed.Combined with the image noise reduction technique of a 5×5 median filter,the measurement accuracy of the liquid crystal thermography can be significantly improved by approximately 57.1%.

  6. Isothermal Titration Calorimetry: Assisted Crystallization of RNA-Ligand Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Veiga, Cyrielle; Mezher, Joelle; Dumas, Philippe; Ennifar, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The success rate of nucleic acids/ligands co-crystallization can be significantly improved by performing preliminary biophysical analyses. Among suitable biophysical approaches, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is certainly a method of choice. ITC can be used in a wide range of experimental conditions to monitor in real time the formation of the RNA- or DNA-ligand complex, with the advantage of providing in addition the complete binding profile of the interaction. Following the ITC experiment, the complex is ready to be concentrated for crystallization trials. This chapter describes a detailed experimental protocol for using ITC as a tool for monitoring RNA/small molecule binding, followed by co-crystallization.

  7. Angular Distribution of Photons in Coherent Bremsstrahlung in Deformed Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Parazian, V V

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the angular distribution of photons in the coherent bremsstrahlung process by high-energy electrons in a periodically deformed single crystal with a complex base. The formula for the corresponding differential cross-section is derived for an arbitrary deformation field. The case is considered in detail when the electron enters into the crystal at small angles with respect to a crystallographic axis. The results of the numerical calculations are presented for SiO2 single crystal and Moliere parameterization of the screened atomic potentials in the case of the deformation field generated by the acoustic wave of S -type.

  8. Plasma crystals: experiments and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piel, A.

    2017-01-01

    Dusty plasmas are a well accessible system to study crystallization of charged-particle systems at room temperature. The large mass compared to atomic particles dramatically slows down the particle velocities. The high transparency of the system allows to trace simultaneously the motion of all particles with quasi-atomic resolution. After a brief overview, the progress in this field is exemplified by studies of spherical three-dimensional plasma crystals, the so-called Yukawa balls. The static structure and eigenmodes are explained in simple terms. It is shown that shielding modifies the expansion of a Yukawa ball from a self-similar explosion to a continuous ablation process that starts at the surface. The experimental progress with three-dimensional diagnostics and laser heating and sophisticated methods for visualising the order inside the shell structure are described. Together with quantifying the diffusion coefficient these investigations reveal the details of the solid-liquid phase transition. Besides thermodynamic aspects, the liquid phase of dusty plasmas also gives access to hydrodynamic phenomena at the individual particle scale.

  9. Crystals: animal, vegetable or mineral?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Stephen T

    2015-08-06

    The morphologies of biological materials, from body shapes to membranes within cells, are typically curvaceous and flexible, in contrast to the angular, facetted shapes of inorganic matter. An alternative dichotomy has it that biomolecules typically assemble into aperiodic structures in vivo, in contrast to inorganic crystals. This paper explores the evolution of our understanding of structures across the spectrum of materials, from living to inanimate, driven by those naive beliefs, with particular focus on the development of crystallography in materials science and biology. The idea that there is a clear distinction between these two classes of matter has waxed and waned in popularity through past centuries. Our current understanding, driven largely by detailed exploration of biomolecular structures at the sub-cellular level initiated by Bernal and Astbury in the 1930s, and more recent explorations of sterile soft matter, makes it clear that this is a false dichotomy. For example, liquid crystals and other soft materials are common to both living and inanimate materials. The older picture of disjoint universes of forms is better understood as a continuum of forms, with significant overlap and common features unifying biological and inorganic matter. In addition to the philosophical relevance of this perspective, there are important ramifications for science. For example, the debates surrounding extra-terrestrial life, the oldest terrestrial fossils and consequent dating of the emergence of life on the Earth rests to some degree on prejudices inferred from the supposed dichotomy between life-forms and the rest.

  10. public spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The topic of this issue is PUBLIC SPACES. It is familiar and clear to every citizen. The streets and courtyards as childhood experiences remain with us forever. And these are the places where we come with our parents at weekends, where we meet friends, where we have dates and where we already come for a walk with our children.The history of public spaces is long and captivating. It was the main city squares where the most important events took place in history. The Agoras of Ancient Greece and the Roman Forums, the squares of Vatican, Paris and London, Moscow and Saint Petersburg… Greve, Trafalgar, Senate, Palace, Red, Bolotnaya – behind every name there is life of capitals, countries and nations.Public spaces, their shapes, image and development greatly influence the perception of the city as a whole. Both visitors and inhabitants can see in public spaces not only the visage but the heart, the soul and the mind of the city.Unfortunately, sometimes we have to prove the value of public spaces and defend them from those who consider them nothing but a blank space, nobody’s land destined for barbarous development.What should happen to make citizens perceive public spaces as their own and to make authorities consider development and maintenance of squares and parks their priority task against the  background of increasing competition between cities and the fight for human capital? Lately they more often say about “a high-quality human capital”. And now, when they say “the city should be liveable” they add “for all groups of citizens, including the creative class”.

  11. Crystalline structures, thermal properties and crystallizing mechanism of polyamide 6 nanotubes in confined space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoru; Peng, Zhi; Yang, Chao; Han, Ping; Song, Guojun; Cong, Longliang

    2016-09-01

    The polyamide 6 (PA6) nanotubes were prepared by infiltrating the anodic aluminum oxide templates with polymer solution. Crystalline regions in the nanotube walls were detected by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques were employed to investigate crystallization, crystal faces and thermodynamics. It was found that the crystals were transformed from α-form in bulk to γ-form in nanotubes. It was made a detailed analysis in this article. Moreover, schematic diagram for the crystallizing mechanism of PA6 nanotubes was given to explain PA6 molecules how to crystallize in the nano-pores.

  12. Crystal acceleration effect for cold neutrons in the vicinity of the Bragg resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia P. Braginetz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A new mechanism of neutron acceleration is studied experimentally in detail for cold neutrons passing through the accelerated perfect crystal with the energies close to the Bragg one. The effect arises due to the following reason. The crystal refraction index (neutron–crystal interaction potential for neutron in the vicinity of the Bragg resonance sharply depends on the parameter of deviation from the exact Bragg condition, i.e. on the crystal–neutron relative velocity. Therefore the neutrons enter into the accelerated crystal with one neutron–crystal interaction potential and exit with the other. Neutron kinetic energy cannot vary inside the crystal due to its homogeneity. So, after passage through such a crystal, neutrons will be accelerated or decelerated because of the different energy change at the entrance and exit crystal boundaries.

  13. Shaped Crystal Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatartchenko, Vitali A.

    Crystals of specified shape and size (shaped crystals) with controlled crystal growth (SCG) defect and impurity structure have to be grown for the successful development of modern engineering. Since the 1950s many hundreds of papers and patents concerned with shaped growth have been published. In this chapter, we do not try to enumerate the successful applications of shaped growth to different materials but rather to carry out a fundamental physical and mathematical analysis of shaping as well as the peculiarities of shaped crystal structures. Four main techniques, based on which the lateral surface can be shaped without contact with the container walls, are analyzed: the Czochralski technique (CZT), the Verneuil technique (VT), the floating zone technique (FZT), and technique of pulling from shaper (TPS). Modifications of these techniques are analyzed as well. In all these techniques the shape of the melt meniscus is controlled by surface tension forces, i.e., capillary forces, and here they are classified as capillary shaping techniques (CST). We look for conditions under which the crystal growth process in each CST is dynamically stable. Only in this case are all perturbations attenuated and a crystal of constant cross section shaping technique (CST) grown without any special regulation. The dynamic stability theory of the crystal growth process for all CST is developed on the basis of Lyapunov's dynamic stability theory. Lyapunov's equations for the crystal growth processes follow from fundamental laws. The results of the theory allow the choice of stable regimes for crystal growth by all CST as well as special designs of shapers in TPS. SCG experiments by CZT, VT, and FZT are discussed but the main consideration is given to TPS. Shapers not only allow crystal of very complicated cross section to be grown but provide a special distribution of impurities. A history of TPS is provided later in the chapter, because it can only be described after explanation of the

  14. [Spherical crystallization in pharmaceutical technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabóné, R P; Pintyéné, H K; Kása, P; Erös, I; Hasznosné, N M; Farkas, B

    1998-03-01

    Physical properties of crystals, such as size, crystal size distribution and morphology, may predetermine the usefulness of crystalline materials in many pharmaceutical application. The above properties can be regulated with the crystallization process. The spherical crystals are suitable for direct tablet-making because of their better flowability and compressibility properties. These crystals can be used in the filling of the capsule. In this work, the spherical crystals such as "single crystal", "poly-crystals" and agglomerates with other excipients are collected from the literature and the experimental results of the authors. A close cooperation between chemists and the pharmaceutical technologists can help for doing steps in this field.

  15. Financial statistics of major US publicly owned electric utilities 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-01

    The 1993 edition of the Financial Statistics of Major U.S. Publicly Owned Electric Utilities publication presents five years (1989 to 1993) of summary financial data and current year detailed financial data on the major publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decision making purposes related to publicly owned electric utility issues. Generator and nongenerator summaries are presented in this publication. The primary source of publicly owned financial data is the Form EIA-412, the Annual Report of Public Electric Utilities, filed on a fiscal basis.

  16. Public health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den A.E.

    2007-01-01

    Agnes van den Berg wrote an essay about human health and nature, establishing that subject as an important policy argument in developing (urban) nature in the Netherlands. She studied the public balance of fear and fascination for nature, summarising benefits on human health. In this chapter, she ad

  17. Public Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, C. P.

    In this book effects of technological developments on world conditions are discussed on the basis of the author's public statements made between 1959-70. A total of seven pieces is presented under the headings: The Two Cultures and the Scientific Revolution, The Two Cultures: A Second Look, The Case of Leavis and the Serious Case, Science and…

  18. Public health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den A.E.

    2007-01-01

    Agnes van den Berg wrote an essay about human health and nature, establishing that subject as an important policy argument in developing (urban) nature in the Netherlands. She studied the public balance of fear and fascination for nature, summarising benefits on human health. In this chapter, she

  19. Publication Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Roy Paul

    This book is designed to solve the problem of coordinating art and typography with content in publications. Through text and illustrations, this book suggests ways to make pages and spreads in magazines, newspapers, and books attractive and readable. As a book of techniques, it is directed at potential and practicing art directors, designers, and…

  20. Publication Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Roy Paul

    This book is designed to solve the problem of coordinating art and typography with content in publications. Through text and illustrations, this book suggests ways to make pages and spreads in magazines, newspapers, and books attractive and readable. As a book of techniques, it is directed at potential and practicing art directors, designers, and…

  1. Quartz crystal growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baughman, Richard J.

    1992-01-01

    A process for growing single crystals from an amorphous substance that can undergo phase transformation to the crystalline state in an appropriate solvent. The process is carried out in an autoclave having a lower dissolution zone and an upper crystallization zone between which a temperature differential (.DELTA.T) is maintained at all times. The apparatus loaded with the substance, solvent, and seed crystals is heated slowly maintaining a very low .DELTA.T between the warmer lower zone and cooler upper zone until the amorphous substance is transformed to the crystalline state in the lower zone. The heating rate is then increased to maintain a large .DELTA.T sufficient to increase material transport between the zones and rapid crystallization. .alpha.-Quartz single crystal can thus be made from fused quartz in caustic solvent by heating to 350.degree. C. stepwise with a .DELTA.T of 0.25.degree.-3.degree. C., increasing the .DELTA.T to about 50.degree. C. after the fused quartz has crystallized, and maintaining these conditions until crystal growth in the upper zone is completed.

  2. Detailed statistical analysis plan for the difficult airway management (DIFFICAIR) trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Anders Kehlet; Lundstrøm, Lars Hyldborg; Rosenstock, Charlotte Vallentin

    2014-01-01

    on the frequency of unanticipated difficult airway management.To prevent outcome bias and selective reporting, we hereby present a detailed statistical analysis plan as an amendment (update) to the previously published protocol for the DIFFICAIR trial. METHOD/DESIGN: The DIFFICAIR trial is a stratified, parallel...... trial by an a priori publication of a statistical analysis plan. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01718561....

  3. Vapor Growth of Mercuric Iodide Tetragonal Prismatic Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    These steps were followed by immersion in 1% potassium iodide (KI) solution. The apparatus were then cleaned and rinsed thoroughly with deionized (DI...Pergamon Press, 1973. [34] N. Lyakh, “Composition and kinetic characteristics of vapour phase during mercuric iodide growing,” Crystal Res. Technol...DTRA-TR-13-6 Vapor Growth of Mercuric Iodide Tetragonal Prismatic Crystals Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited. March 2013

  4. Crystals in light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahr, Bart; Freudenthal, John; Gunn, Erica

    2010-05-18

    We have made images of crystals illuminated with polarized light for almost two decades. Early on, we abandoned photosensitive chemicals in favor of digital electrophotometry with all of the attendant advantages of quantitative intensity data. Accurate intensities are a boon because they can be used to analytically discriminate small effects in the presence of larger ones. The change in the form of our data followed camera technology that transformed picture taking the world over. Ironically, exposures in early photographs were presumed to correlate simply with light intensity, raising the hope that photography would replace sensorial interpretation with mechanical objectivity and supplant the art of visual photometry. This was only true in part. Quantitative imaging accurate enough to render the separation of crystalloptical quantities had to await the invention of the solid-state camera. Many pioneers in crystal optics were also major figures in the early history of photography. We draw out the union of optical crystallography and photography because the tree that connects the inventors of photography is a structure unmatched for organizing our work during the past 20 years, not to mention that silver halide crystallites used in chemical photography are among the most consequential "crystals in light", underscoring our title. We emphasize crystals that have acquired optical properties such as linear birefringence, linear dichroism, circular birefringence, and circular dichroism, during growth from solution. Other crystalloptical effects were discovered that are unique to curiously dissymmetric crystals containing embedded oscillators. In the aggregate, dyed crystals constitute a generalization of single crystal matrix isolation. Simple crystals provided kinetic stability to include guests such as proteins or molecules in excited states. Molecular lifetimes were extended for the preparation of laser gain media and for the study of the photodynamics of single

  5. Time Crystals: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacha, Krzysztof; Zakrzewski, Jakub

    2017-09-08

    Time crystals are time-periodic self-organized structures postulated by Frank Wilczek in 2012. While the original concept was strongly criticized, it stimulated at the same time an intensive research leading to propositions and experimental verifications of discrete (or Floquet) time crystals -- the structures that appear in the time domain due to spontaneous breaking of discrete time translation symmetry. The struggle to observe discrete time crystals is reviewed here together with propositions that generalize this concept introducing condensed matter like physics in the time domain. We shall also revisit the original Wilczek's idea and review strategies aimed at spontaneous breaking of continuous time translation symmetry. . © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  6. Crystallization on prestructured seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungblut, Swetlana; Dellago, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    The crystallization transition of an undercooled monodisperse Lennard-Jones fluid in the presence of small prestructured seeds is studied with transition path sampling combined with molecular dynamics simulations. Compared to the homogeneous crystallization, clusters of a few particles arranged into a face- and body-centered cubic structure enhance the crystallization, while icosahedrally ordered seeds do not change the reaction rate. We identify two distinct nucleation regimes-close to the seed and in the bulk. Crystallites form close to the face- and body-centered structures and tend to stay away from the icosahedrally ordered seeds.

  7. Molecules in crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spackman, Mark A.

    2013-04-01

    Hirshfeld surface analysis has developed from the serendipitous discovery of a novel partitioning of the crystal electron density into discrete molecular fragments, to a suite of computational tools used widely for the identification, analysis and discussion of intermolecular interactions in molecular crystals. The relationship between the Hirshfeld surface and very early ideas on the internal structure of crystals is outlined, and applications of Hirshfeld surface analysis are presented for three molecules of historical importance in the development of modern x-ray crystallography: hexamethylbenzene, hexamethylenetetramine and diketopiperazine.

  8. Hypersonic phononic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorishnyy, T; Ullal, C K; Maldovan, M; Fytas, G; Thomas, E L

    2005-03-25

    In this Letter we propose the use of hypersonic phononic crystals to control the emission and propagation of high frequency phonons. We report the fabrication of high quality, single crystalline hypersonic crystals using interference lithography and show that direct measurement of their phononic band structure is possible with Brillouin light scattering. Numerical calculations are employed to explain the nature of the observed propagation modes. This work lays the foundation for experimental studies of hypersonic crystals and, more generally, phonon-dependent processes in nanostructures.

  9. Controlling spontaneous emission of light by photonic crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lodahl, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Photonic bandgap crystals were proposed almost two decades ago as a unique tool for controlling propagation and emission of light. Since then the research field of photonic crystals has exploded and many beautiful demonstrations of the use of photonic crystals and fibers for molding light...... propagation have appeared that hold great promises for integrated optics. These major achievements solidly demonstrate the ability to control propagation of light. In contrast, an experimental demonstration of the use of photonic crystals for timing the emission of light has so far lacked. In a recent...... publication in Nature, we have demonstrated experimentally that both the direction and time of spontaneous emission can be controlled, thereby confirming the original proposal by Eli Yablonovich that founded the field of photonic crystals. We believe that this work opens new opportunities for solid...

  10. Anchoring and Publicity Effects in Clinical Judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, Myrna L.; Stockman, Susan J.

    1983-01-01

    Tested anchoring and publicity effects in clinicians' (N=46) successive judgments of detailed interview notes. Results indicated significant anchoring in one case suggesting a clinical bias. Public justification was related neither to subjects' ratings, to reported confidence in their ratings, nor differentially by case. (JAC)

  11. 2015 Fact Book: Arkansas Public Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkansas Department of Higher Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This publication provides governmental and higher education decision-makers a statewide perspective of Arkansas public higher education finance for the 2015-17 biennium, as well as trends for the past several years. It also contains a detailed financial profile of each institution and presents a basis for comparative assessments of revenue sources…

  12. Selected critical examples of scientometric publication analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingwersen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    of authors, institutions or countries per publication indexed by Web of Science. Methodology: The paper uses examples from earlier research evaluation studies and cases based on online data to describe issues, problematic details, pitfalls and how to overcome them in publication analysis with respect...

  13. Financial statistics of selected publicly owned electric utilities 1989. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-02-06

    The Financial Statistics of Selected Publicly Owned Electric Utilities publication presents summary and detailed financial accounting data on the publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide the Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with data that can be used for policymaking and decision making purposes relating to publicly owned electric utility issues. 21 tabs.

  14. Crystallization Growth of Single Crystal Cu by ContinuousCasting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Crystallization growth of single-crystal Cu by continuous casting has been investigated using selfdesigned horizontal continuous casting equipment and XRD. Experimental results showed that the crystallization plane of (311), (220) and (111) were eliminated sequentially in evolutionary process. The final growth plane of crystal was (200), the direction of crystallization was [100],the growth direction of both sides of the rod inclined to axis, and the degree of deviation of direction [100] from the crystal axis was less than 10. In order to produce high quality single crystal, the solid-liquid interface morphology must be smooth, even be planar.

  15. Public Sociology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    What is the role of sociology in society? How can - and should - sociology contribute with insights relevant and useful to the outside world? Is sociology attuned to accommodate the demands of the wider public and of surrounding society? Who benefits from the knowledge produced and provided...... by sociology? What are the social implications and cultural effects of the knowledge sociology provides and creates? All of these questions, and many others, concern and centre on sociology's relationship to the surrounding society, in short to the ‘public'. All of these questions - and many others...... - will be addressed in this book.   Sociology, as the self-proclaimed ‘the science of society', finds itself in an exceptional position within the scientific community in that it studies a universe it itself is part and parcel of. This means that sociology and sociologists are inextricably connected and linked...

  16. Scientific publication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getulio Teixeira Batista

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The necessary work for developing a scientific publication is sometimes underestimated and requires the effective participation of many players to obtain a result in good standard. Initially it depends upon the determination of the authors that decide to write the scientific article. Scientific writing is a very challenging and time consuming task, but at the same time essential for any scientist. A published scientific article is unquestionably one of the main indicators of scientific production, especially if published in a qualified scientific journal with highly qualified editorial committee and strict peer review procedure. By looking at evaluation criteria for scientific production of the several Thematic Scientific Committees of the Brazilian Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq it becomes clear publications in scientific journals that has certified quality is the most important item in the evaluation of a scientist production.

  17. Public opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, A

    2013-04-01

    This opinion-based article aims to highlight the worrying decline in support for dental public health as a specialty. Not only is this specialty important for its role in commissioning services, it is crucial for the identification of vulnerable groups in society and ensuring dental services are acceptable and assessable for these populations. Dental public health also addresses the social determinants of health in its approach, acknowledging the impact of these in perpetuating inequalities and looking for multisectoral approaches to their management. This article also looks at the lack of appreciation for these determinants in dental foundation training and how a change in the structure of the programme could both address this and the current shortage of places.

  18. Public meetings

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2012-01-01

    MARS PENSIONS CONTRACT POLICY GENERAL INFORMATION   PUBLIC MEETINGS COME AND BE INFORMED! Public meetings Monday 15 Oct. 2 pm Amphi IT, 31-3-004 Meyrin Wednesday 17 Oct. 10 am Amphi BE, 864-1-D02 Prévessin Thursday 18 Oct. 10 am Salle du Conseil/ Council Chamber 503-1-001 Meyrin Thursday 18 Oct. 2 pm Filtration Plant, 222-R-001(in English) Meyrin   Overview of the topics to be discussed Recognition of Merit – MARS Outcome of last exercise 2007 to 2012 : lessons learned Pension Fund Capital preservation policy : what is it ? Contract policy LC2IC statistics SA proposal General information CVI 2013 Voluntary programmes (PRP, SLS)  

  19. Crystal Electrostatic Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanchin, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    It has been shown that to calculate the parameters of the electrostatic field of the ion crystal lattice it sufficient to take into account ions located at a distance of 1-2 lattice spacings. More distant ions make insignificant contribution. As a result, the electrostatic energy of the ion lattice in the alkaline halide crystal produced by both positive and negative ions is in good agreement with experiment when the melting temperature and the shear modulus are calculated. For fcc and bcc metals the ion lattice electrostatic energy is not sufficient to obtain the observed values of these parameters. It is possible to resolve the contradiction if one assumes that the electron density is strongly localized and has a crystal structure described by the lattice delta - function. As a result, positive charges alternate with negative ones as in the alkaline halide crystal. Such delta-like localization of the electron density is known as a model of nearly free electrons.

  20. Shaping Crystals using Electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacci, Jeremie; Mackiewicz, Kristian

    2016-11-01

    Electrophoresis is size and shape independent as stressed by Morrison in his seminal paper. Here we present an original approach to reshape colloidal crystals using an electric field as a carving tool.

  1. Inclusions in DKDP crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The shape and the size of inclusions in DKDP crystal have been observed and measured microscopically.Three kinds of inclusions were found and the components of the inclusions were measured. The formation mechanisms were proposed and discussed.``

  2. Calcium oxalate crystals in eucalypt ectomycorrhizae: morphochemical characterization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Satler Pylro

    Full Text Available Ectomycorrhizal fungi are ubiquitous in forest ecosystems, benefitting plants principally by increasing the uptake of water and nutrients such as calcium from the soil. Previous work has demonstrated accumulation of crystallites in eucalypt ectomycorrhizas, but detailed morphological and chemical characterization of these crystals has not been performed. In this work, cross sections of acetic acid-treated and cleared ectomycorrhizal fragments were visualized by polarized light microscopy to evaluate the location of crystals within cortical root cells. Ectomycorrhizal sections were also observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM coupled with energy dispersive x-ray (EDS microprobe analysis. The predominant forms of crystals were crystal sand (granules and concretions. Calcium, carbon and oxygen were detected by EDS as constituent elements and similar elemental profiles were observed between both crystal morphologies. All analyzed crystalline structures were characterized as calcium oxalate crystals. This is the first report of the stoichiometry and morphology of crystals occurring in eucalypt ectomycorrhizas in tropical soils. The data corroborates the role of ectomycorrhizae in the uptake and accumulation of calcium in the form of calcium oxalate crystals in hybrid eucalypt plants.

  3. Crystallisation and crystal forms of carbohydrate derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, Lorna

    This thesis is focused on the synthesis and solid state analysis of carbohydrate derivatives, including many novel compounds. Although the synthetic chemistry surrounding carbohydrates is well established in the literature, the crystal chemistry of carbohydrates is less well studied. Therefore this research aims to improve understanding of the solid state properties of carbohydrate derivatives through gaining more information on their supramolecular bonding. Chapter One focuses on an introduction to the solid state of organic compounds, with a background to crystallisation, including issues that can arise during crystal growth. Chapter Two is based on glucopyranuronate derivatives which are understudied in terms of their solid state forms. This chapter reports on the formation of novel glucuronamides and utilising the functionality of the amide bond for crystallisation. TEMPO oxidation was completed to form glucopyranuronates by oxidation of the primary alcohol groups of glucosides to the carboxylic acid derivatives, to increase functionality for enhanced crystal growth. Chapter Three reports on the synthesis of glucopyranoside derivatives by O-glycosylation reactions and displays crystal structures, including a number of previously unsolved acetate protected and deprotected crystal structures. More complex glycoside derivatives were also researched in an aim to study the resultant supramolecular motifs. Chapter Four contains the synthesis of aryl cellobioside derivatives including the novel crystal structures that were solved for the acetate protected and deprotected compounds. Research was carried out to determine if 1-deoxycellodextrins could act as putative isostructures for cellulose. Our research displays the presence of isostructural references with 1-deoxycellotriose shown to be similar to cellulose III11, 1-deoxycellotetraose correlates with cellulose IV11 and 1-deoxycellopentose shows isostructurality similar to that of cellulose II. Chapter Five contains

  4. Study on crystallization behaviour of co-polyamide 66 containing triaryl phosphine oxide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yang Xiao Feng; Li Qiao Ling; Chen Zhi Ping; Yang Yong Feng; Zhang Lei

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, the isothermal crystallization and non-isothermal crystallization behaviour of flame retardant co-polyamide 66 (FR-PA66) containing triaryl phosphine oxide (TPO) were researched by employing differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), polarized optical microscopy (POM), respectively. The effects of TPO groups on nucleation mechanism, nucleation pattern and crystallization rate of FR-PA66 were discussed in detail. Experimental results show that TPO unit does not nucleate first during crystallization process of FR-PA66. The nucleationmechanism and nucleation pattern of FR-PA66 do not virtually change with incorporation of TPO groups when compared with polyamide 66 (PA66). The mainly crystallization process of FR-PA66 is still free nucleation and growing during the prime crystallization stage, and is unimensional nucleation and growing during the second crystallization stage. But at the second crystallization stage, we think there is a para-crystal forming with the maincrystal unimensional nucleation and growing. In addition, incorporation of TPO groups result in the decrement of both nucleation rate and crystallization rate of FR-PA66, and the increment of crystallization activation energy. Hence the TPO groups were unfavourable for FR-PA66 crystallization. In addition, incorporation of TPO groups also result in the decrement of crystallization region of FR-PA66, and increment of spherulite defect.

  5. Liquid Crystal Airborne Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-08-01

    81/2X 11- 10 -9 .8 display using a large advertising alphanimeric ( TCI ) has been added to the front of the optical box used in the F-4 aircraft for HUD...properties over a wide range of tempera - tures, including normal room temperature. What are Liquid Crystals? Liquid crystals have been classified in three...natic fanctions and to present data needed for the semi- automatic and manual control of system functions. Existing aircraft using CRT display

  6. Crystal Structures of Furazanes

    OpenAIRE

    Klapötke, Thomas; Schmid, Philipp; Stierstorfer, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Several nitrogen-rich salts of 3-nitramino-4-nitrofurazane and dinitraminoazoxyfurazane were synthesized and characterized by various spectroscopic methods. The crystal structures were determined by low temperature single crystal X-ray diffraction. Moreover the sensitivities toward thermal and mechanical stimuli were determined by differential thermal analysis (DTA) and BAM (Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung) methods. The standard enthalpies of formation were calculated for all...

  7. SINGLE CRYSTAL NEUTRON DIFFRACTION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KOETZLE,T.F.

    2001-03-13

    Single-crystal neutron diffraction measures the elastic Bragg reflection intensities from crystals of a material, the structure of which is the subject of investigation. A single crystal is placed in a beam of neutrons produced at a nuclear reactor or at a proton accelerator-based spallation source. Single-crystal diffraction measurements are commonly made at thermal neutron beam energies, which correspond to neutron wavelengths in the neighborhood of 1 Angstrom. For high-resolution studies requiring shorter wavelengths (ca. 0.3-0.8 Angstroms), a pulsed spallation source or a high-temperature moderator (a ''hot source'') at a reactor may be used. When complex structures with large unit-cell repeats are under investigation, as is the case in structural biology, a cryogenic-temperature moderator (a ''cold source'') may be employed to obtain longer neutron wavelengths (ca. 4-10 Angstroms). A single-crystal neutron diffraction analysis will determine the crystal structure of the material, typically including its unit cell and space group, the positions of the atomic nuclei and their mean-square displacements, and relevant site occupancies. Because the neutron possesses a magnetic moment, the magnetic structure of the material can be determined as well, from the magnetic contribution to the Bragg intensities. This latter aspect falls beyond the scope of the present unit; for information on magnetic scattering of neutrons see Unit 14.3. Instruments for single-crystal diffraction (single-crystal diffractometers or SCDs) are generally available at the major neutron scattering center facilities. Beam time on many of these instruments is available through a proposal mechanism. A listing of neutron SCD instruments and their corresponding facility contacts is included in an appendix accompanying this unit.

  8. Research on the Hotel Image Based on the Detail Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ban; Shenghua, Zheng; He, Yi

    Detail service management, initially developed as marketing programs to enhance customer loyalty, has now become an important part of customer relation strategy. This paper analyzes the critical factors of detail service and its influence on the hotel image. We establish the theoretical model of influencing factors on hotel image and propose corresponding hypotheses. We use applying statistical method to test and verify the above-mentioned hypotheses. This paper provides a foundation for further study of detail service design and planning issues.

  9. Selected critical examples of scientometric publication analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingwersen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    of authors, institutions or countries per publication indexed by Web of Science. Methodology: The paper uses examples from earlier research evaluation studies and cases based on online data to describe issues, problematic details, pitfalls and how to overcome them in publication analysis with respect...... to analytic tool application, calculation, presentation and interpretation. Results: By means of different kinds of analysis and presentation, the paper provides insight into scientometrics in the context of informetric analysis, selected cases of research productivity, publication patterns and research...

  10. How Public Is Public Administration? A Constitutional Approach of Publicness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringeling, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    Both in Public Administration and in practice, there is a loss of the concept of public. A view became dominant in which markets were superior to governments and public to private. Not only did the esteem of the public sphere diminish, but also its significance in our reasoning and teaching. It became less clear what the public sphere stood for.…

  11. How Public Is Public Administration? A Constitutional Approach of Publicness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringeling, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    Both in Public Administration and in practice, there is a loss of the concept of public. A view became dominant in which markets were superior to governments and public to private. Not only did the esteem of the public sphere diminish, but also its significance in our reasoning and teaching. It became less clear what the public sphere stood for.…

  12. Magnetic properties of a three layer superlattice with a crystal field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Wei; Li Xin; Wang Xi-Kun; Guo An-Bang

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the magnetic properties of a three layer superlattice with the crystal field on the honeycomb and square lattice have been studied based on the effective-field theory with self-spin correlations and the differential operator technique. The effects of the crystal field and longitudinal magnetic field on the susceptibility are discussed in detail. A number of interesting phenomena, originating from the competition between the longitudinal magnetic field, crystal-field,and coordination number, have been found.

  13. EPA Enforcement and Compliance History Online: Water Effluent Charts Details

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Detailed Discharge Monitoring Report (DMR) data supporting effluent charts for one Clean Water Act discharge permit. Includes effluent parameters, amounts discharged...

  14. Combustion instability detection using the wavelet detail of pressure fluctuations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junjie JI; Yonghao LUO

    2008-01-01

    A combustion instability detection method that uses the wavelet detail of combustion pressure fluctuations is put forward. To confirm this method, combustion pressure fluctuations in a stoker boiler are recorded at stable and unstable combustion with a pressure transducer. Daubechies one-order wavelet is chosen to obtain the wavelet details for comparison. It shows that the wavelet approximation indicates the general pressure change in the furnace, and the wavelet detail magnitude is consistent with the intensity of turbulence and combustion noise. The magnitude of the wavelet detail is nearly constant when the combustion is stable, however, it will fluctuate much when the combustion is unstable.

  15. Building a crystal palace

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The end-caps of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) take shape as the first quadrant was completed on Wednesday 3 October. 1831 crystals, organised into five by five blocks named ‘supercrystals’, make up the first quadrant of Dee 1.With the 61,200-crystal barrel of its electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) complete, CMS is now building the endcaps, on the tenth anniversary of their initial design. Crystals for the endcaps were the last to be made, so the race is now on to have them all in place and ready for the turn-on of the LHC next year. Assembly of the first of eight quadrants began in June and crystal mounting was completed on Wednesday 3 October. Each crystal is transparent, has a volume just larger than a CERN coffee cup yet weighs a huge 1.5kg. 1831 of these lead tungstate crystals went into the first quadrant from a total 14,648 in the endcaps. The lead and tungsten account for 86% of each crystal’s weight, but as project leader Dave Cockerill expl...

  16. High-throughput crystallization screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarina, Tatiana; Xu, Xiaohui; Evdokimova, Elena; Savchenko, Alexei

    2014-01-01

    Protein structure determination by X-ray crystallography is dependent on obtaining a single protein crystal suitable for diffraction data collection. Due to this requirement, protein crystallization represents a key step in protein structure determination. The conditions for protein crystallization have to be determined empirically for each protein, making this step also a bottleneck in the structure determination process. Typical protein crystallization practice involves parallel setup and monitoring of a considerable number of individual protein crystallization experiments (also called crystallization trials). In these trials the aliquots of purified protein are mixed with a range of solutions composed of a precipitating agent, buffer, and sometimes an additive that have been previously successful in prompting protein crystallization. The individual chemical conditions in which a particular protein shows signs of crystallization are used as a starting point for further crystallization experiments. The goal is optimizing the formation of individual protein crystals of sufficient size and quality to make them suitable for diffraction data collection. Thus the composition of the primary crystallization screen is critical for successful crystallization.Systematic analysis of crystallization experiments carried out on several hundred proteins as part of large-scale structural genomics efforts allowed the optimization of the protein crystallization protocol and identification of a minimal set of 96 crystallization solutions (the "TRAP" screen) that, in our experience, led to crystallization of the maximum number of proteins.

  17. The role of impurities on the morphology of NaCl crystals : an atomic scale view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radenovic, N.

    2005-01-01

    It is well known that crystal growth and morphology are largely influenced by the presence of impurities in the growth solution. However, little is known about the actual process of impurity interaction with the growing crystal surface. In this thesis we study this influence in detail using the NaCl

  18. A peek into the history of sapphire crystal growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Daniel C.

    2003-09-01

    After the chemical compositions of sapphire and ruby were unraveled in the middle of the 19th century, chemists set out to grow artificial crystals of these valuable gemstones. In 1885 a dealer in Geneva began to sell ruby that is now believed to have been created by flame fusion. Gemnologists rapidly concluded that the stones were artificial, but the Geneva ruby stimulated A. V. L. Verneuil in Paris to develop a flame fusion process to produce higher quality ruby and sapphire. By 1900 there was brisk demand for ruby manufactured by Verneuil's method, even though Verneuil did not publicly announce his work until 1902 and did not publish details until 1904. The Verneuil process was used with little alteration for the next 50 years. From 1932-1953, S. K. Popov in the Soviet Union established a capability for manufacturing high quality sapphire by the Verneuil process. In the U.S., under government contract, Linde Air Products Co. implemented the Verneuil process for ruby and sapphire when European sources were cut off during World War II. These materials were essential to the war effort for jewel bearings in precision instruments. In the 1960s and 1970s, the Czochralski process was implemented by Linde and its successor, Union Carbide, to make higher crystal quality material for ruby lasers. Stimulated by a government contract for structural fibers in 1966, H. LaBelle invented edge-defined film-fed growth (EFG). The Saphikon company, which is currently owned by Saint-Gobain, evolved from this effort. Independently and simultaneously, Stepanov developed edge-defined film-fed growth in the Soviet Union. In 1967 F. Schmid and D. Viechnicki at the Army Materials Research Lab grew sapphire by the heat exchanger method (HEM). Schmid went on to establish Crystal Systems, Inc. around this technology. Rotem Industries, founded in Israel in 1969, perfected the growth of sapphire hemispheres and near-net-shape domes by gradient solidification. In the U.S., growth of near

  19. When public service drama travels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia Majbritt; Nielsen, Jakob Isak; Waade, Anne Marit

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a detailed analysis of how the Danish public service broadcaster DR employs external funding for its drama productions. This investigation is carried out in order to discuss the schisms involved when a public service broadcaster – whose traditional obligations arguably pertain...... the last 15 years, our empirical data also show significant new patterns in production culture and international market orientation within DR. Interestingly, however, our study demonstrates the distinctive contribution that precisely DR’s public service remit has made to the quality of its drama...... assessed on the basis of existing theory and expert interviews conducted with significant industry professionals at DR’s Drama Division, DR Sales, German public broadcaster ZDF’s commercial sales arm ZDF Enterprises, and independent Danish production companies Nimbus Film and Miso Film. Specific cases...

  20. Digital publics and participatory education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J. McNely

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article—a collaborative exploration between instructors, students, and members of the broader, digital classroom community—explores how the strategic incorporation of sociotechnical networks and digital technologies facilitates literate practices that extend the classroom in productive ways. The article builds toward coauthors’ reflective practices (Schön, 1983, or “participatory perspectives”, had during an undergraduate English Studies course at a mid-sized, public, American university. Specifically, participants argue that these literate practices afforded not just information sharing, but the opening up of a traditional classroom to include broader digital publics and collaborative knowledge work (Spinuzzi, 2006. Toward this end, we ground literate practice in scholarship that attends to public writing in online spaces, and theoretically frame our argument using Jenkins et al.’s (2006 principles of participatory education. We then detail the specific curricular approach deliberately designed to create digitally connected publics and end with generalizable significance of coauthors’ participatory perspectives.

  1. Polymer Crystallization at Curved Liquid/Liquid Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenda

    -assembly behavior of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) at curved liquid/liquid interface and the crystallization behavior of polymers at curved liquid/liquid interface while SWCNTs in presence. A few crystalline polymers, such as polyethylene (PE), poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA), and poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT), and water/oil systems were used to study the behavior. The formation of nano speckle structure is a crystallization-driven process due to heterogeneous nucleation and crystal growth of polymers at curved liquid/liquid interface. The second part deals with the homogeneous nucleation and crystal growth at curved liquid/liquid interface. Both PE and PLLA were used to conduct the study. For PE, 1,2-dichlorobenzene (DCB), water, and sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) were used for the emulsion system. The emulsification system for PLLA is p-xylene, water, and hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). Surfactant concentration can be employed to control the droplet size, thus controlling the final crystal vesicle's size. By controlling the initial polymer concentration, crystal shells with different morphology, such as curved crystal, bowl-like crystals, and crystal vesicles (named lamellaesome) can be obtained. The formation of these unique structures was templated by the curved interface. The formation process and detailed crystal structure are analyzed based on electron diffraction data from different sized lamellaesomes. Mechanical properties of the crystal vesicles and their encapsulation abilities will be discussed. At the end of this dissertation, a summary of my work and future outlook will be given.

  2. Ice Crystal Icing Research at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegel, Ashlie B.

    2017-01-01

    Ice crystals found at high altitude near convective clouds are known to cause jet engine power-loss events. These events occur due to ice crystals entering a propulsion systems core flowpath and accreting ice resulting in events such as uncommanded loss of thrust (rollback), engine stall, surge, and damage due to ice shedding. As part of a community with a growing need to understand the underlying physics of ice crystal icing, NASA has been performing experimental efforts aimed at providing datasets that can be used to generate models to predict the ice accretion inside current and future engine designs. Fundamental icing physics studies on particle impacts, accretion on a single airfoil, and ice accretions observed during a rollback event inside a full-scale engine in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory are summarized. Low fidelity code development using the results from the engine tests which identify key parameters for ice accretion risk and the development of high fidelity codes are described. These activities have been conducted internal to NASA and through collaboration efforts with industry, academia, and other government agencies. The details of the research activities and progress made to date in addressing ice crystal icing research challenges are discussed.

  3. Managing Public Accountability : How Public Managers Manage Public Accountability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schillemans, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Accountability is of growing importance in contemporary governance. The academic literature on public accountability is fraught with concerned analyses, suggesting that accountability is a problematic issue for public managers. This article investigates how public managers experience accountability

  4. Public meetings

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

      MARS 2015 FIVE YEARLY REVIEW CONTRACT POLICY PENSION FUND GENERAL INFORMATION   COME AND BE INFORMED! PUBLIC MEETINGS Friday 3rd October at 10 am Amphi BE, 864-1-D02 Prévessin Friday 3rd October at 2 pm Salle du Conseil / Council Chamber, 503-1-001 (in English) Meyrin Monday 6th October at 10 am Kjell Johnsen Auditorium, 30-7-018 Meyrin Monday 6th October at 2 pm Salle du Conseil / Council Chamber, 503-1-001 Meyrin  

  5. Public meetings

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

      Public meetings : Come and talk about your future employment conditions !   The Staff Association will come and present the results of our survey on the 2015 five-yearly review. Following the survey, the topics discussed, will be contract policy, recognition of merit (MARS), working time arrangements and family policy. After each meeting and around a cup of coffee or tea you will be able to continue the discussions. Do not hesitate to join us, the five-yearly review, it is with YOU!

  6. Crystal Structure of the Vanadate-Inhibited Ca2+-ATPase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Johannes D.; Bublitz, Maike; Arnou, Bertrand Jean-Paul;

    2016-01-01

    Vanadate is the hallmark inhibitor of the P-type ATPase family; however, structural details of its inhibitory mechanism have remained unresolved. We have determined the crystal structure of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase with bound vanadate in the absence of Ca2+. Vanadate is bound...

  7. Crystal morphology of sunflower wax in soybean oil organogel

    Science.gov (United States)

    While sunflower wax has been recognized as an excellent organogelator for edible oil, the detailed morphology of sunflower wax crystals formed in an edible oil organogel has not been fully understood. In this study, polarized light microscopy, phase contrast microscopy, scanning electron microscopy ...

  8. A public world without public relations?

    OpenAIRE

    Nayden, Nikolay

    2015-01-01

    The term "public relations" (PR) has long gained currency as meaning the practice of producing a positive public image. This article argues that public relations should be released from the prison of "PR" and, instead, reconceptualised as relations which define the public realm much as economic relations define the economy. From this point of view, three main levels of public relations can be distinguished: (1) relations between public institutions, (2) relations between citizens and public i...

  9. A public world without public relations?:

    OpenAIRE

    Nayden, Nikolay

    2009-01-01

    The term "public relations" (PR) has long gained currency as meaning the practice of producing a positive public image. This article argues that public relations should be released from the prison of "PR" and, instead, reconceptualised as relations which define the public realm much as economic relations define the economy. From this point of view, three main levels of public relations can be distinguished: (1) relations between public institutions, (2) relations between citizens and public i...

  10. Basis/Detail-ontwerp, Werken met het IT, versie 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peek CJ

    1991-01-01

    This report is the result of the Global/Detailed design phase of "The use of IT, version 2". The first version of "The use of IT" has been published as part - chapter 6 - of the Global/Detailed-design Information System on Environmental Technology (IT), 1989, report nr.

  11. 46 CFR 70.20-1 - Marine engineering details.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine engineering details. 70.20-1 Section 70.20-1... General Marine Engineering Requirements § 70.20-1 Marine engineering details. All marine engineering... subchapter F (Marine Engineering) of this chapter. ...

  12. 44 CFR 5.27 - Deletion of identifying details.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Deletion of identifying details. 5.27 Section 5.27 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY..., FEMA may delete identifying details when making available or publishing an opinion, statement of...

  13. 46 CFR 194.05-7 - Explosives-Detail requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Explosives-Detail requirements. 194.05-7 Section 194.05... HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Stowage and Marking § 194.05-7 Explosives—Detail requirements. (a) Except as otherwise provided by this part, Division 1.1 and 1.2...

  14. Commentary: The Perils of Seduction: Distracting Details or Incomprehensible Abstractions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Ernest T.; Sadoski, Mark

    1995-01-01

    Reviews studies that have explicitly investigated the "seductive detail" effect (in which a reader's attention is diverted toward the interesting but unimportant seductive details and away from the uninteresting but important main ideas). Concludes that these studies do not provide convincing evidence for the existence of the effect. Argues that…

  15. Processing and Recall of Seductive Details in Scientific Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Stephen; Schraw, Gregory; McCrudden, Matthew T.; Hartley, Kendall

    2007-01-01

    This study examined how seductive details affect on-line processing of a technical, scientific text. In Experiment 1, each sentence from the experimental text was rated for interest and importance. Participants rated seductive details as being more interesting but less important than main ideas. In Experiment 2, we examined the effect of seductive…

  16. Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Architecture, Tutorial Part 2 - Detailed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handler, Louis

    2014-01-01

    The STRS architecture detail presentation presents each requirement in the STRS Architecture Standard with some examples and supporting information. The purpose is to give a platform provider, application provider, or application integrator a better, more detailed understanding of the STRS Architecture Standard and its use.

  17. Fun While Showing, Not Telling: Crafting Vivid Detail in Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Nero, Jennifer Renner

    2017-01-01

    This teaching tip highlights three writing minilessons that help students construct vivid sensory detail (textual detail related to the five senses) in their fiction and creative nonfiction writing. Learning to show, not tell, is a difficult task for novice writers. The author explores reasons why this is the case and provides directions for the…

  18. Crystallization of nepenthesin I using a low-pH crystallization screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fejfarová, Karla; Kádek, Alan; Mrázek, Hynek; Hausner, Jiří; Tretyachenko, Vyacheslav; Koval', Tomáš; Man, Petr; Hašek, Jindřich; Dohnálek, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Nepenthesins are aspartic proteases secreted by carnivorous pitcher plants of the genus Nepenthes. They significantly differ in sequence from other plant aspartic proteases. This difference, which provides more cysteine residues in the structure of nepenthesins, may contribute to their unique stability profile. Recombinantly produced nepenthesin 1 (rNep1) from N. gracilis in complex with pepstatin A was crystallized under two different crystallization conditions using a newly formulated low-pH crystallization screen. The diffraction data were processed to 2.9 and 2.8 Å resolution, respectively. The crystals belonged to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 86.63, b = 95.90, c = 105.40 Å, α = β = γ = 90° and a = 86.28, b = 97.22, c = 103.78 Å, α = β = γ = 90°, respectively. Matthews coefficient and solvent-content calculations suggest the presence of two molecules of rNep1 in the asymmetric unit. Here, the details of the crystallization experiment and analysis of the X-ray data are reported.

  19. Crystal Growth Models of Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate in a MSMPR Reactive Crystallizer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝红勋; 王静康; 王永莉; 侯宝红

    2005-01-01

    The reactive crystallization process of dexamethasone sodium phosphate was investigated in a continuous mixed-suspension, mixed-product-removal(MSMPR) crystallizer. Analyzing experimental data, it was found that the growth of product crystal was size-dependent. The Bransom, CR, ASL, M J2 and M J3 size-dependent growth models were discussed in details. Using experimental steady state population density data of dexamethasone sodium phosphate, parameters of five size-dependent growth models were determined by the method of non-linear least-squares. By comparison of experimental population density and linear growth rate data with those obtained from the five size-dependent growth models, it was found that the MJ3 model predicts the growth more accurately than do the other four models. Based on the theory of population balance, the crystal nucleation and growth rate equations of dexamethasone sodium phosphate were determined by non-linear regression method. The effects of different operation parameters such as supersaturation, magma density and temperature on the quality of product crystal were also discussed, and the optimal operation conditions were derived.

  20. Advanced Crystal Growth Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Land, T A; Hawley-Fedder, R A

    2005-03-01

    Although the fundamental mechanism of crystal growth has received and continues to receive deserved attention as a research activity, similar research efforts addressing the need for advanced materials and processing technology required to grow future high quality crystals has been sorely lacking. The purpose of this research effort is to develop advanced rapid growth processing technologies and materials suitable for providing the quality of products needed for advanced laser and photonics applications. In particular we are interested in developing a methodology for growing high quality KDP crystals based on an understanding of the fundamental mechanisms affecting growth. One problem in particular is the issue of control of impurities during the growth process. Many unwanted impurities are derived from the growth system containers and can adversely affect the optical quality and aspect ratio (shape) of the crystals. Previous studies have shown that even trace concentrations ({approx}10{sup -9} M) of impurities affect growth and even 'insignificant' species can have a large impact. It is also known that impurities affect the two growth faces of KDP very differently. Traces of trivalent metal impurities such as Fe{sup 3+}, Cr{sup 3+}, and Al{sup 3+} in solution are known to inhibit growth of the prismatic {l_brace}100{r_brace} faces of KDP while having little effect on the growth of the pyramidal {l_brace}101{r_brace} faces. This differentiation opens the possibility of intentionally adding select ions to control the aspect ratio of the crystal to obtain a more advantageous shape. This document summarizes our research efforts to improve KDP crystal growth. The first step was to control unwanted impurity addition from the growth vessel by developing an FEP liner to act as a barrier to the glass container. The other focus to develop an understanding of select impurities on growth rates in order to be able to use them to control the habit or shape of the

  1. Liquid crystals for holographic optical data storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matharu, Avtar; Jeeva, S.; Ramanujam, P.S.

    2007-01-01

    A tutorial review is presented to inform and inspire the reader to develop and integrate strong scientific links between liquid crystals and holographic data storage, from a materials scientist's viewpoint. The principle of holographic data storage as a means of providing a solution...... to the information storage demands of the 21st century is detailed. Holography is a small subset of the much larger field of optical data storage and similarly, the diversity of materials used for optical data storage is enormous. The theory of polarisation holography which produces holograms of constant intensity......, is discussed. Polymeric liquid crystals play an important role in the development of materials for holographic storage and photoresponsive materials based on azobenzene are targeted for discussion due to their ease of photo- reversion between trans- and cis- states. Although the final polymer may not be liquid...

  2. Introduction to protein crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Alexander; Gavira, Jose A

    2014-01-01

    Protein crystallization was discovered by chance about 150 years ago and was developed in the late 19th century as a powerful purification tool and as a demonstration of chemical purity. The crystallization of proteins, nucleic acids and large biological complexes, such as viruses, depends on the creation of a solution that is supersaturated in the macromolecule but exhibits conditions that do not significantly perturb its natural state. Supersaturation is produced through the addition of mild precipitating agents such as neutral salts or polymers, and by the manipulation of various parameters that include temperature, ionic strength and pH. Also important in the crystallization process are factors that can affect the structural state of the macromolecule, such as metal ions, inhibitors, cofactors or other conventional small molecules. A variety of approaches have been developed that combine the spectrum of factors that effect and promote crystallization, and among the most widely used are vapor diffusion, dialysis, batch and liquid-liquid diffusion. Successes in macromolecular crystallization have multiplied rapidly in recent years owing to the advent of practical, easy-to-use screening kits and the application of laboratory robotics. A brief review will be given here of the most popular methods, some guiding principles and an overview of current technologies.

  3. Crystal Ball Functional Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnick, David

    2016-09-01

    The A2 collaboration of the MAinz MIkrotron is dedicated to studying meson production and nucleon structure and behavior via photon scattering. The photons are made via bremsstrahlung process and energy-tagged using the Glasgow Photon tagger. The photon beam then interacts in a variety of targets: cryogenic, polarized or solid state, and scattered particles deposit their energy within the NaI crystals. Scintillators are able to give results on particles energy and time. Events are reconstructed by combining information from the Tagging spectrometer, the Crystal Ball detector, the TAPS forward wall spectrometer, a Cherenkov detector, and multi-wire proportional chambers. To better understand the detector and experimental events, a live display was built to show energies deposited in crystals in real-time. In order to show a range of energies and particles, addressable LEDs that are individually programmable were used. To best replicate the Crystal Ball, 3D printing technology was employed to build a similar highly segmented icosahedron that can hold each LED, creating a 3D representation of what photons see during experiments. The LEDs were controlled via Arduino microcontroller. Finally, we implemented the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System to grab live event data, and a simple program converts this data in to color and crystal number data that is able to communicate with the Arduino. Using these simple parts, we can better visualize and understand the tools used in nuclear physics. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Grant No. IIA-1358175.

  4. Growth and high pressure studies of zirconium sulphoselenide single crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K R Patel; R D Vaidya; M S Dave; S G Patel

    2009-11-01

    Transition metal trichalcogenides are well suited for extreme pressure lubrication. These materials being semiconducting and of layered structure may undergo structural and electronic transition under pressure. In this paper authors reported the details about synthesis and characterization of zirconium sulphoselenide single crystals. The chemical vapour transport technique was used for the growth of zirconium sulphoselenide single crystals. The energy dispersive analysis by X-ray (EDAX) gave the confirmation about the stoichiometry of the as-grown crystals and other structural characterizations were accomplished by X-ray diffraction (XRD) study. The variation of electrical resistance was monitored in a Bridgman opposed anvil set-up up to 8 GPa pressure to identify the occurrence of any structural transition. These crystals do not possess any structural transitions upto the pressure limit examined.

  5. Bringing Together Computational and Experimental Capabilities at the Crystal Scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, N R; Bernier, J V; Edmiston, J K

    2009-07-23

    Many phenomena of interest occur at the scale of crystals or are controlled be events happening at the crystalline scale. Examples include allotropic phase transformations in metals and pore collapse in energetic crystals. The research community is increasingly able to make detailed experimental observations at the crystalline scale and to inform crystal scale models using lower length scale computational tools. In situ diffraction techniques are pushing toward finer spatial and temporal resolution. Molecular and dislocation dynamics calculations are now able to directly inform mechanisms at the crystalline scale. Taken together, these factors give crystal based continuum models the ability to rationalize experimental observations, investigate competition among physical processes, and, when appropriately formulated and calibrated, predict behaviors. We will present an overview of current efforts, with emphasis on recent work investigating phase transformations and twinning in metals.

  6. Crystallization by Particle Attachment in Synthetic, Biogenic, and Geologic Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Yoreo, James J.; Gilbert, Pupa U.; Sommerdijk, Nico; Penn, R. Lee; Whitelam, Stephen B.; Joester, Derk; Zhang, Hengzhong; Rimer, Jeffrey D.; Navrotsky, Alexandra; Banfield, Jillian F.; Wallace, Adam F.; Michel, F. M.; Meldrum, Fiona C.; Colfen, Helmut; Dove, Patricia M.

    2015-07-31

    Field and laboratory observations show that crystals commonly form by the addition and attachment of particles that range from multi-ion complexes to fully formed nanoparticles. These non-classical pathways to crystallization are diverse, in contrast to classical models that consider the addition of monomeric chemical species. We review progress toward understanding crystal growth by particle attachment processes and show that multiple pathways result from the interplay of free energy landscapes and reaction dynamics. Much remains unknown about the fundamental aspects; particularly the relationships between solution structure, interfacial forces, and particle motion. Developing a predictive description that connects molecular details to ensemble behavior will require revisiting long-standing interpretations of crystal formation in synthetic systems and patterns of mineralization in natural environments.

  7. Thermodynamic properties of the magnetized Coulomb crystal lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozhberov, A. A.

    2016-08-01

    It is thought that Coulomb crystals of ions with hexagonal close-packed lattice may form in the crust of strongly-magnetized neutron stars (magnetars). In this work we are trying to verify this prediction assuming that the direction of the magnetic field corresponds to the minimum of the zero-point energy. We also continue a detailed study of vibration modes and thermodynamic properties of magnetized Coulomb crystals in a wide range of temperatures and magnetic fields. It is demonstrated that the total Helmholtz free energy of the body-centered cubic Coulomb crystal is always lower than that of the Coulomb crystal with hexagonal close-packed or face-centered cubic lattice, which casts doubt on the hypothesis above.

  8. Crystal Quality, the Long and the Short of It

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Eddie H.

    2004-01-01

    The term "crystal quality" is ambiguous and implies different meanings to different crystallographers. For the physical crystallographer who aims to understand long-range aspects of crystal growth mosaicity is one of the leading measures of perfection. For the structural crystallographer and those seeking to understand growth at a short-range, molecular level, the detail in the resulting structure is a key goal. Different quality measures have been developed due to different needs. Each of the measures has advantages and each has limitations. In this talk a sample of these measures will be discussed with particular emphasis applied to their application in the analysis of microgravity grown crystals. The advantages and limitations of each will be discussed. Ultimately, the choice of crystal quality measurement lies in the nature of the question asked. It is scfill to remember that beauty is often in the eye of the beholder.

  9. Recovering and Preventing Loss of Detailed Memory: Differential Rates of Forgetting for Detail Types in Episodic Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekeres, Melanie J.; Bonasia, Kyra; St-Laurent, Marie; Pishdadian, Sara; Winocur, Gordon; Grady, Cheryl; Moscovitch, Morris

    2016-01-01

    Episodic memories undergo qualitative changes with time, but little is known about how different aspects of memory are affected. Different types of information in a memory, such as perceptual detail, and central themes, may be lost at different rates. In patients with medial temporal lobe damage, memory for perceptual details is severely impaired,…

  10. Investigating the Interaction of Graphic Organizers and Seductive Details: Can a Graphic Organizer Mitigate the Seductive-Details Effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland-Bryant, Emily; Skinner, Christopher H.; Skinner, Amy L.; Saudargas, Richard; Robinson, Daniel H.; Kirk, Emily R.

    2009-01-01

    The interaction between seductive details (SD) and a graphic organizer (GO) was investigated. Undergraduate students (n = 207) read a target-material passage about Freud's psychosexual stages. Depending on condition, the participants also read a biographical paragraph (SD-only), viewed a graphic organizer that linked the seductive details to the…

  11. Recovering and Preventing Loss of Detailed Memory: Differential Rates of Forgetting for Detail Types in Episodic Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekeres, Melanie J.; Bonasia, Kyra; St-Laurent, Marie; Pishdadian, Sara; Winocur, Gordon; Grady, Cheryl; Moscovitch, Morris

    2016-01-01

    Episodic memories undergo qualitative changes with time, but little is known about how different aspects of memory are affected. Different types of information in a memory, such as perceptual detail, and central themes, may be lost at different rates. In patients with medial temporal lobe damage, memory for perceptual details is severely impaired,…

  12. Investigating the Interaction of Graphic Organizers and Seductive Details: Can a Graphic Organizer Mitigate the Seductive-Details Effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland-Bryant, Emily; Skinner, Christopher H.; Skinner, Amy L.; Saudargas, Richard; Robinson, Daniel H.; Kirk, Emily R.

    2009-01-01

    The interaction between seductive details (SD) and a graphic organizer (GO) was investigated. Undergraduate students (n = 207) read a target-material passage about Freud's psychosexual stages. Depending on condition, the participants also read a biographical paragraph (SD-only), viewed a graphic organizer that linked the seductive details to the…

  13. Flexible ferroelectric organic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owczarek, Magdalena; Hujsak, Karl A.; Ferris, Daniel P.; Prokofjevs, Aleksandrs; Majerz, Irena; Szklarz, Przemysław; Zhang, Huacheng; Sarjeant, Amy A.; Stern, Charlotte L.; Jakubas, Ryszard; Hong, Seungbum; Dravid, Vinayak P.; Stoddart, J. Fraser

    2016-10-01

    Flexible organic materials possessing useful electrical properties, such as ferroelectricity, are of crucial importance in the engineering of electronic devices. Up until now, however, only ferroelectric polymers have intrinsically met this flexibility requirement, leaving small-molecule organic ferroelectrics with room for improvement. Since both flexibility and ferroelectricity are rare properties on their own, combining them in one crystalline organic material is challenging. Herein, we report that trisubstituted haloimidazoles not only display ferroelectricity and piezoelectricity--the properties that originate from their non-centrosymmetric crystal lattice--but also lend their crystalline mechanical properties to fine-tuning in a controllable manner by disrupting the weak halogen bonds between the molecules. This element of control makes it possible to deliver another unique and highly desirable property, namely crystal flexibility. Moreover, the electrical properties are maintained in the flexible crystals.

  14. Flexible ferroelectric organic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owczarek, Magdalena; Hujsak, Karl A.; Ferris, Daniel P.; Prokofjevs, Aleksandrs; Majerz, Irena; Szklarz, Przemysław; Zhang, Huacheng; Sarjeant, Amy A.; Stern, Charlotte L.; Jakubas, Ryszard; Hong, Seungbum; Dravid, Vinayak P.; Stoddart, J. Fraser

    2016-01-01

    Flexible organic materials possessing useful electrical properties, such as ferroelectricity, are of crucial importance in the engineering of electronic devices. Up until now, however, only ferroelectric polymers have intrinsically met this flexibility requirement, leaving small-molecule organic ferroelectrics with room for improvement. Since both flexibility and ferroelectricity are rare properties on their own, combining them in one crystalline organic material is challenging. Herein, we report that trisubstituted haloimidazoles not only display ferroelectricity and piezoelectricity—the properties that originate from their non-centrosymmetric crystal lattice—but also lend their crystalline mechanical properties to fine-tuning in a controllable manner by disrupting the weak halogen bonds between the molecules. This element of control makes it possible to deliver another unique and highly desirable property, namely crystal flexibility. Moreover, the electrical properties are maintained in the flexible crystals. PMID:27734829

  15. Frequency doubling crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Francis; Velsko, Stephan P.

    1989-01-01

    A systematic approach to the production of frequency conversion crystals is described in which a chiral molecule has attached to it a "harmonic generating unit" which contributes to the noncentrosymmetry of the molecule. Certain preferred embodiments of such harmonic generating units include carboxylate, guanadyly and imidazolyl units. Certain preferred crystals include L-arginine fluoride, deuterated L-arginine fluoride, L-arginine chloride monohydrate, L-arginine acetate, dithallium tartrate, ammonium N-acetyl valine, N-acetyl tyrosine and N-acetyl hydroxyproline. Chemical modifications of the chiral molecule, such as deuteration, halogenation and controlled counterion substitution are available to adapt the dispersive properties of a crystal in a particular wavelength region.

  16. Photonic Crystal Microchip Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gailevicius, Darius; Koliadenko, Volodymyr; Purlys, Vytautas; Peckus, Martynas; Taranenko, Victor; Staliunas, Kestutis

    2016-09-01

    The microchip lasers, being very compact and efficient sources of coherent light, suffer from one serious drawback: low spatial quality of the beam strongly reducing the brightness of emitted radiation. Attempts to improve the beam quality, such as pump-beam guiding, external feedback, either strongly reduce the emission power, or drastically increase the size and complexity of the lasers. Here it is proposed that specially designed photonic crystal in the cavity of a microchip laser, can significantly improve the beam quality. Experiments show that a microchip laser, due to spatial filtering functionality of intracavity photonic crystal, improves the beam quality factor M2 reducing it by a factor of 2, and increase the brightness of radiation by a factor of 3. This comprises a new kind of laser, the “photonic crystal microchip laser”, a very compact and efficient light source emitting high spatial quality high brightness radiation.

  17. Photonic Crystal Fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard; Broeng, Jes; Sanchez Bjarklev, Araceli

    Photonic crystal fibres represent one of the most active research areas today in the field of optics. The diversity of applications that may be addressed by these fibres and their fundamental appeal, by opening up the possibility of guiding light in a radically new way compared to conventional...... optical fibres, have spun an interest from almost all areas of optics and photonics. The aim of this book is to provide an understanding of the different types of photonic crystal fibres and to outline some of the many new and exciting applications that these fibres offer. The book is intended for both...... readers with a general interest in photonic crystals, as well as for scientists who are entering the field and desire a broad overview as well as a solid starting point for further specialized stuides. Teh book, therefore, covers bothe general aspects such as the link from classical optics to photonic...

  18. Photonic Crystal Fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard; Broeng, Jes; Sanchez Bjarklev, Araceli

    Photonic crystal fibres represent one of the most active research areas today in the field of optics. The diversity of applications that may be addressed by these fibres and their fundamental appeal, by opening up the possibility of guiding light in a radically new way compared to conventional...... optical fibres, have spun an interest from almost all areas of optics and photonics. The aim of this book is to provide an understanding of the different types of photonic crystal fibres and to outline some of the many new and exciting applications that these fibres offer. The book is intended for both...... readers with a general interest in photonic crystals, as well as for scientists who are entering the field and desire a broad overview as well as a solid starting point for further specialized stuides. Teh book, therefore, covers bothe general aspects such as the link from classical optics to photonic...

  19. Public meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2010-01-01

    Dear Colleagues, I am pleased to invite you to a public meeting which will be held on Thursday 11 November 2010 at 2:30 p.m., in the Main Auditorium (welcome coffee from 2 p.m.) In this meeting Sigurd Lettow, Director for Administration and General Infrastructure will present the Management’s proposals towards restoring full funding of the Pension Fund. The meeting will follow discussions which took place with the Staff Association, at the Standing Concertation Committee (CCP) of 1 November 2010 and will be held with the Members States, at the Tripartite Employment Conditions Forum (TREF) of 4 November 2010. You will be able to attend this presentation in the Main Auditorium or via the webcast. The Management will also be available to reply to your questions on this subject. Best regards, Anne-Sylvie Catherin

  20. Public meetings

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    MARS SURVEY 5YR 2015 GENERAL INFORMATION ELECTIONS 2013   COME AND BE INFORMED! Public meetings Tuesday 1st Oct. 10 am Amphi IT, 31-3-004 Meyrin Tuesday 1st Oct. 2 pm Council Chamber, 503-1-001 Meyrin Friday 4 Oct. 10 am Amphi BE, 864-1-D02 Prévessin Monday 7 Oct. 2 pm Council Chamber, 503-1-001 (in English) Meyrin Tuesday 8 Oct. 10 am Amphi Kjell Johnsen, 30-7-018 Meyrin   Overview of the topics to be discussed Recognition of Merit – MARS Outcome of last exercise 2007 to 2013: lessons learned Survey: five-yearly review, give us your opinion General information CVI 2014 Voluntary programmes (PRP, SLS) Elections 2013 Renewal of the Staff Council 2014 - 2015  

  1. Public Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    on the entrepreneurship–society relationship. SE, as all entrepreneurship practices, operates by social and economic forces (limiting ourselves to those here), and generates social and economic outcomes (amongst others). Its second half, however, dominates the concept of SE, and our analysis seek to remedy this imbalance......In this paper we want to affirm the desiring-social-change that we find in practices presently represented by theorists and policy-makers as examples of ‘social entrepreneurship’ (SE). We do this as an attempt to intensify the presence of the social and sociality in today's discourse...... by focusing on the social productivity of entrepreneurship, on entrepreneurship desiring social change. We suggest ‘public entrepreneurship’ might grasp this as a more balanced concept that will also support a more precise analysis of the entrepreneurship–society relationship....

  2. Detailed black hole state counting in loop quantum gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agullo, Ivan; Barbero G., J. Fernando; Borja, Enrique F.; Diaz-Polo, Jacobo; Villaseñor, Eduardo J. S.

    2010-10-01

    We give a complete and detailed description of the computation of black hole entropy in loop quantum gravity by employing the most recently introduced number-theoretic and combinatorial methods. The use of these techniques allows us to perform a detailed analysis of the precise structure of the entropy spectrum for small black holes, showing some relevant features that were not discernible in previous computations. The ability to manipulate and understand the spectrum up to the level of detail that we describe in the paper is a crucial step toward obtaining the behavior of entropy in the asymptotic (large horizon area) regime.

  3. Detailed black hole state counting in loop quantum gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Agullo, Ivan; Borja, Enrique F; Diaz-Polo, Jacobo; Villaseñor, Eduardo J S; 10.1103/PhysRevD.82.084029

    2011-01-01

    We give a complete and detailed description of the computation of black hole entropy in loop quantum gravity by employing the most recently introduced number-theoretic and combinatorial methods. The use of these techniques allows us to perform a detailed analysis of the precise structure of the entropy spectrum for small black holes, showing some relevant features that were not discernible in previous computations. The ability to manipulate and understand the spectrum up to the level of detail that we describe in the paper is a crucial step towards obtaining the behavior of entropy in the asymptotic (large horizon area) regime.

  4. A detailed gravimetric geoid from North America to Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, S. F.; Strange, W. E.; Marsh, J. G.

    1972-01-01

    A detailed gravimetric geoid of the United States, North Atlantic, and Eurasia, which was computed from a combination of satellite derived and surface gravity data, is presented. The precision of this detailed geoid is + or - 2 to + or - 3 m in the continents but may be in the range of 5 to 7 m in those areas where data is sparse. Comparisons of the detailed gravimetric geoid with results of Rapp, Fischer, and Rice for the United States, Bomford in Europe, and Heiskanen and Fischer in India are presented. Comparisons are also presented with geoid heights from satellite solutions for geocentric station coordinates in North America, the Caribbean, and Europe.

  5. Large Terrain Continuous Level of Detail 3D Visualization Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myint, Steven; Jain, Abhinandan

    2012-01-01

    This software solved the problem of displaying terrains that are usually too large to be displayed on standard workstations in real time. The software can visualize terrain data sets composed of billions of vertices, and can display these data sets at greater than 30 frames per second. The Large Terrain Continuous Level of Detail 3D Visualization Tool allows large terrains, which can be composed of billions of vertices, to be visualized in real time. It utilizes a continuous level of detail technique called clipmapping to support this. It offloads much of the work involved in breaking up the terrain into levels of details onto the GPU (graphics processing unit) for faster processing.

  6. Supercontinuum Generation in a Photonic Crystal Fibre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Pei-Guang; RUAN Shuang-Chen; LIN Hao-Jia; DU Chen-Lin; YU Yong-Qin; LU Ke-Cheng; YAO Jian-Quan

    2004-01-01

    @@ Nearly 1000-nm broad continuum from 390nm to 1370nm is generated in a 2-m long photonic crystal fibre. The maximum total power of supercontinuum is measured to be 60mW with the pumping power of 800mW output from a 200-fs Ti:sapphire laser. The evolution of the pumping light into supercontinuum is experimentally studied in detail. It is found that the mechanism for supercontinuum generation has direct relations with Raman effect and soliton effect, and the four-wave mixing plays an important role in the last phase of the supercontinuum generation.

  7. Photonic crystals as metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foteinopoulou, S.

    2012-10-01

    The visionary work of Veselago had inspired intensive research efforts over the last decade, towards the realization of man-made structures with unprecedented electromagnetic (EM) properties. These structures, known as metamaterials, are typically periodic metallic-based resonant structures demonstrating effective constitutive parameters beyond the possibilities of natural material. For example they can exhibit optical magnetism or simultaneously negative effective permeability and permittivity which implies the existence of a negative refractive index. However, also periodic dielectric and polar material, known as photonic crystals, can exhibit EM capabilities beyond natural materials. This paper reviews the conditions and manifestations of metamaterial capabilities of photonic crystal systems.

  8. Crystal Structures of Furazanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M. Klapötke

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Several nitrogen-rich salts of 3-nitramino-4-nitrofurazane and dinitraminoazoxyfurazane were synthesized and characterized by various spectroscopic methods. The crystal structures were determined by low temperature single crystal X-ray diffraction. Moreover the sensitivities toward thermal and mechanical stimuli were determined by differential thermal analysis (DTA and BAM (Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung methods. The standard enthalpies of formation were calculated for all compounds at the CBS-4M level of theory, and the energetic performance was predicted with the EXPLO5 V6.02 computer code.

  9. Liquid crystals fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Shri

    2001-01-01

    Liquid crystals are partially ordered systems without a rigid, long-range structure. The study of these materials covers a wide area: chemical structure, physical properties and technical applications. Due to their dual nature - anisotropic physical properties of solids and rheological behavior of liquids - and easy response to externally applied electric, magnetic, optical and surface fields liquid crystals are of greatest potential for scientific and technological applications. The subject has come of age and has achieved the status of being a very exciting interdisciplinary field of scienti

  10. Cirrus Crystal Terminal Velocities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Iaquinta, Jean

    2000-04-01

    Cirrus crystal terminal velocities are of primary importance in determining the rate of transport of condensate from upper- to middle-tropospheric levels and profoundly influence the earth's radiation balance through their effect on the rate of buildup or decay of cirrus clouds. In this study, laboratory and field-based cirrus crystal drag coefficient data, as well as analytical descriptions of cirrus crystal shapes, are used to derive more physically based expressions for the velocities of cirrus crystals than have been available in the past.Polycrystals-often bullet rosettes-are shown to be the dominant crystal types in synoptically generated cirrus, with columns present in varying but relatively large percentages, depending on the cloud. The two critical parameters needed to calculate terminal velocity are the drag coefficient and the ratio of mass to cross-sectional area normal to their fall direction. Using measurements and calculations, it is shown that drag coefficients from theory and laboratory studies are applicable to crystals of the types found in cirrus. The ratio of the mass to area, which is shown to be relatively independent of the number of bullets in the rosette, is derived from an analytic model that represents bullet rosettes containing one to eight bullets in 19 primary geometric configurations. The ratio is also derived for columns. Using this information, a general set of equations is developed to calculate the terminal velocities and masses in terms of the aspect ratio (width divided by length), ice density, and rosette maximum dimension. Simple expressions for terminal velocity and mass as a function of bullet rosette maximum dimension are developed by incorporating new information on bullet aspect ratios.The general terminal velocity and mass relations are then applied to a case from the First International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) Research Experiment (FIRE) 2, when size spectra from a balloon-borne ice crystal

  11. 77 FR 3793 - Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices, Including Monitors, Televisions, and Modules, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices, Including Monitors, Televisions, and Modules, and Components Thereof; Request for Statements on the Public Interest AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission...

  12. Lessons from crystal structures of kainate receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllerud, Stine; Frydenvang, Karla Andrea; Pickering, Darryl S

    2017-01-01

    structure and how they bind agonists, antagonists and ions. The first structure of the ligand-binding domain of the GluK1 subunit was reported in 2005, seven years after publication of the crystal structure of a soluble construct of the ligand-binding domain of the AMPA-type subunit GluA2. Today, a full......-length structure has been determined of GluK2 by cryo electron microscopy to 7.6 Å resolution as well as 84 high-resolution crystal structures of N-terminal domains and ligand-binding domains, including agonist and antagonist bound structures, modulatory ions and mutations. However, there are still many unanswered...

  13. CDC WONDER: Detailed Mortality - Underlying Cause of Death

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Detailed Mortality - Underlying Cause of Death data on CDC WONDER are county-level national mortality and population data spanning the years 1999-2009. Data are...

  14. Results of Detailed Hydrologic Characterization Tests - Fiscal Year 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spane, Frank A.; Thorne, Paul D.; Newcomer, Darrell R.

    2001-01-19

    This report provides the results of detailed hydrologic characterization tests conducted within newly constructed Hanford Site wells during FY 1999. Detailed characterization tests performed during FY 1999 included: groundwater flow characterization, barometric response evaluation, slug tests, single-well tracer tests, constant-rate pumping tests, and in-well vertical flow tests. Hydraulic property estimates obtained from the detailed hydrologic tests include: transmissivity, hydraulic conductivity, specific yield, effective porosity, in-well lateral flow velocity, aquifer flow velocity, vertical distribution of hydraulic conductivity (within the well-screen section) and in-well vertical flow velocity. In addition, local groundwater flow characteristics (i.e., hydraulic gradient and flow direction) were determined for four sites where detailed well testing was performed.

  15. Results of Detailed Hydrologic Characterization Tests - Fiscal Year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spane, Frank A.; Thorne, Paul D.; Newcomer, Darrell R.

    2001-05-15

    This report provides the resluts of detailed hydrologic characterization tests conducted within eleven Hanford Site wells during fiscal year 2000. Detailed characterization tests performed included groundwater-flow characterization; barometric response evaluation; slug tests; single-well tracer tests; constant-rate pumping tests; and in-well, vertical flow tests. Hydraulic property estimates obtained from the detailed hydrologic tests include transmissivity; hydraulic conductivity; specific yield; effective porosity; in-well, lateral flow velocity; aquifer-flow velocity; vertical distribution of hydraulic conductivity (within the well-screen section); and in-well, verticla flow velocity. In addition, local groundwater-flow characteristics (i.e., hydraulic gradient and flow direction) were determined for four sites where detailed well testing was performed.

  16. Analysis of Common Fatigue Details in Steel Truss Structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉玲; 潘际炎; 潘际銮

    2004-01-01

    Generally, the number of fatigue cycles, the range of the repeated stresses, and the type of the structural details are the key factors affecting fatigue in large-scale welded structures. Seven types of structure details were tested using a 2000-kN hydraulic-pressure-servo fatigue machine to imitate fatigue behavior in modern steel-truss-structures fabricated using thicker welded steel plates and integral joint technology. The details included longitudinal edge welds, welded attachment affecting detail, integral joint, and weld repairs on plate edges. The fatigue damage locations show that the stress (normal or shear), the shape, and the location of the weld start and end points are three major factors reducing the fatigue strength. The test results can be used for similar large structures.

  17. 42 CFR 401.118 - Deletion of identifying details.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Deletion of identifying details. When CMS publishes or otherwise makes available an opinion or order, statement of policy, or other record which relates to a private party or parties, the name or names or...

  18. A detailed discussion of superfield supergravity prepotential perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovalle, J.

    2011-04-01

    This paper presents a detailed discussion of the issue of supergravity perturbations around the flat five dimensional superspace required for manifest superspace formulations of the supergravity side of the AdS_{5}/CFT_{4} Correspondence.

  19. Public History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Gouveia de Oliveira Rovai

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como proposta apresentar o conceito e as práticas de História Pública como um novo posicionamento da ciência histórica em diálogo com profissionais da comunicação, no sentido de produzir e divulgar as experiências humanas. Para isso, discute-se a origem do conceito de História Pública e as diferentes formas de educação histórica que a utilização das novas tecnologias podem proporcionar (dentre elas a internet. Nesse sentido, convida-se o leitor para a reflexão sobre as possibilidades de publicização e de democratização do conhecimento histórico e da cultura, ampliando-se a oportunidade de produção, de divulgação e de acesso do público a diferentes formas experiências no tempo. O artigo também intenciona chamar atenção dos profissionais que lidam com a História e com a Comunicação para os perigos de produções exclusivamente submetidas ao mercado que transformam a popularização da História no reforço de estigmas culturais.   PALAVRAS-CHAVE: História Pública; Educação histórica e Comunicação; democratização e estigmatização.     ABSTRACT This article aims to present the concept and practices of Public History as a new positioning of historical science in dialogue with communication professionals, in the sense of producing and disseminating human experiences. For this, the origin of the concept of Public History and the different forms of historical education that the use of the new technologies can provide (among them the Internet is discussed. In this sense, the reader is invited to reflect on the possibilities of publicizing and democratizing historical knowledge and culture, expanding the opportunity for production, dissemination and public access to different forms of experience in time. The article also intends to draw attention from professionals dealing with History and Communication to the dangers of exclusively commercialized productions that transform the popularization

  20. Functionalizing Designer DNA Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Arun Richard

    Three-dimensional crystals have been self-assembled from a DNA tensegrity triangle via sticky end interaction. The tensegrity triangle is a rigid DNA motif containing three double helical edges connected pair-wise by three four-arm junctions. The symmetric triangle contains 3 unique strands combined in a 3:3:1 ratio: 3 crossover, 3 helical and 1 central. The length of the sticky end reported previously was two nucleotides (nt) (GA:TC) and the motif with 2-helical turns of DNA per edge diffracted to 4.9 A at beam line NSLS-X25 and to 4 A at beam line ID19 at APS. The purpose of these self-assembled DNA crystals is that they can be used as a framework for hosting external guests for use in crystallographic structure solving or the periodic positioning of molecules for nanoelectronics. This thesis describes strategies to improve the resolution and to incorporate guests into the 3D lattice. The first chapter describes the effect of varying sticky end lengths and the influence of 5'-phosphate addition on crystal formation and resolution. X-ray diffraction data from beam line NSLS-X25 revealed that the crystal resolution for 1-nt (G:C) sticky end was 3.4 A. Motifs with every possible combination of 1-nt and 2-nt sticky-ended phosphorylated strands were crystallized and X-ray data were collected. The position of the 5'-phosphate on either the crossover (strand 1), helical (strand 2), or central strand (3) had an impact on the resolution of the self-assembled crystals with the 1-nt 1P-2-3 system diffracting to 2.62 A at APS and 3.1 A at NSLS-X25. The second chapter describes the sequence-specific recognition of DNA motifs with triplex-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs). This study examined the feasibility of using TFOs to bind to specific locations within a 3-turn DNA tensegrity triangle motif. The TFO 5'-TTCTTTCTTCTCT was used to target the tensegrity motif containing an appropriately embedded oligopurine.oligopyrimidine binding site. As triplex formation involving cytidine

  1. The Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium. Quarterly progress detailed report, 1 November 1996--31 January 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Progress for this quarter is given for each of the following Center programs: (1) plutonium information resource; (2) advisory function (DOE and state support); (3) environmental, public health and safety; (3) communication, education, and training; and (4) nuclear and other material studies. Both summaries of the activities and detailed reports are included.

  2. A New Video Coding Method Based on Improving Detail Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The Moving Pictures Expert Group (MPEG) and H.263 standard coding method is widely used in video compression. However, the visual quality of detail regions such as eyes and mouth is not content in people at the decoder, as far as the conference telephone or videophone is concerned. A new coding method based on improving detail regions is presented in this paper. Experimental results show that this method can improve the visual quality at the decoder.

  3. Detailed magnetic study on the formato-bridged MOFs with anion-tunable magnetic properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG XinYi; WANG ZheMing; GAO Song

    2012-01-01

    Detailed studies of the structures,magnetic properties and photodimerization of a series of formato-bridged MOFs with the general formula M2(HCOO)3(4,4'-bpe)3(H20)3(X)(4,4'-bpe =4,4'-bipyridylethylene,M =Mn(l-X-),X- =CIO-4,NO-3,BF-4,I-,Br-; M =Co(2-X-),X- =CIO-4,NO-3; M =Zn(3-X-),X- =NO-3)were reported.Careful magnetic measurements on an oriented single crystal of 1-ClO-4 determined the spin-flop magnetic phase diagram and some intrinsic parameters,such as the intralayer coupling J,the anisotropy field HA and the exchange field HE.Different anions can remarkably tune the magnetic properties of l-X-,especially the critical fields of the spin-flop transition.Compound 2-ClO-4 remained paramagnetic down to 2 K.

  4. Community How To Guide On Underage Drinking Prevention: Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of Governors' Highway Safety Representatives.

    Targeting public policy is a necessary part of a successful underage drinking prevention effort. This guide details how coalitions and organizations can effectively work to change public policies that impact underage drinking. The booklet first explains the elements of public policy including laws, regulations, and the policies and practices of…

  5. 14 CFR 298.70 - Public disclosure of data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public disclosure of data. 298.70 Section... Disclosure of Data § 298.70 Public disclosure of data. (a) Detailed domestic on-flight market data and... available for three years. Industry and carrier summary data may be made public before the end of six...

  6. 14 CFR 291.60 - Public disclosure of data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public disclosure of data. 291.60 Section... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS CARGO OPERATIONS IN INTERSTATE AIR TRANSPORTATION Public Disclosure of Data § 291.60 Public disclosure of data. (a) Detailed domestic on-flight market data and nonstop segment...

  7. Synthesis of Caffeine/Maleic Acid Co-crystal by Ultrasound-assisted Slurry Co-crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apshingekar, Prafulla P; Aher, Suyog; Kelly, Adrian L; Brown, Elaine C; Paradkar, Anant

    2017-01-01

    A green approach has been used for co-crystallization of noncongruent co-crystal pair of caffeine/maleic acid using water. Ultrasound is known to affect crystallization; hence, the effect of high power ultrasound on the ternary phase diagram has been investigated in detail using a slurry co-crystallization approach. A systematic investigation was performed to understand how the accelerated conditions during ultrasound-assisted co-crystallization will affect different regions of the ternary phase diagram. Application of ultrasound showed considerable effect on the ternary phase diagram, principally on caffeine/maleic acid 2:1 (disappeared) and 1:1 co-crystal (narrowed) regions. Also, the stability regions for pure caffeine and maleic acid in water were narrowed in the presence of ultrasound, expanding the solution region. The observed effect of ultrasound on the phase diagram was correlated with solubility of caffeine and maleic acid and stability of co-crystal forms in water. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Detail Enhancement for Infrared Images Based on Propagated Image Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yishu Peng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For displaying high-dynamic-range images acquired by thermal camera systems, 14-bit raw infrared data should map into 8-bit gray values. This paper presents a new method for detail enhancement of infrared images to display the image with a relatively satisfied contrast and brightness, rich detail information, and no artifacts caused by the image processing. We first adopt a propagated image filter to smooth the input image and separate the image into the base layer and the detail layer. Then, we refine the base layer by using modified histogram projection for compressing. Meanwhile, the adaptive weights derived from the layer decomposition processing are used as the strict gain control for the detail layer. The final display result is obtained by recombining the two modified layers. Experimental results on both cooled and uncooled infrared data verify that the proposed method outperforms the method based on log-power histogram modification and bilateral filter-based detail enhancement in both detail enhancement and visual effect.

  9. REFINEMENT OF THE CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF GUANIDINIUM ALUMINUM SULFATE HEXAHYDRATE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FERROELECTRIC CRYSTALS, * CRYSTAL STRUCTURE ), (*GUANIDINES, CRYSTAL STRUCTURE ), (*ALUMINUM COMPOUNDS, CRYSTAL STRUCTURE ), SULFATES, HYDRATES, X RAY DIFFRACTION, CHROMIUM COMPOUNDS, CRYSTAL LATTICES, CHEMICAL BONDS

  10. A novel Monte Carlo algorithm for simulating crystals with McStas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alianelli, L.; Sanchez del Rio, M.; Felici, R.; Andersen, K.H.; Farhi, E

    2004-07-15

    We developed an original Monte Carlo algorithm for the simulation of Bragg diffraction by mosaic, bent and gradient crystals. It has practical applications, as it can be used for simulating imperfect crystals (monochromators, analyzers and perhaps samples) in neutron ray-tracing packages, like McStas. The code we describe here provides a detailed description of the particle interaction with the microscopic homogeneous regions composing the crystal, therefore it can be used also for the calculation of quantities having a conceptual interest, as multiple scattering, or for the interpretation of experiments aiming at characterizing crystals, like diffraction topographs.

  11. A novel Monte Carlo algorithm for simulating crystals with McStas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alianelli, L.; Sánchez del Río, M.; Felici, R.; Andersen, K. H.; Farhi, E.

    2004-07-01

    We developed an original Monte Carlo algorithm for the simulation of Bragg diffraction by mosaic, bent and gradient crystals. It has practical applications, as it can be used for simulating imperfect crystals (monochromators, analyzers and perhaps samples) in neutron ray-tracing packages, like McStas. The code we describe here provides a detailed description of the particle interaction with the microscopic homogeneous regions composing the crystal, therefore it can be used also for the calculation of quantities having a conceptual interest, as multiple scattering, or for the interpretation of experiments aiming at characterizing crystals, like diffraction topographs.

  12. EFFECT OF PAN-MILLING STRESS ON CRYSTAL STRUCTURES OF HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLENE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua Huang

    2000-01-01

    A detailed study was performed on the crystal structures of pan-milled high-density polyethylene (HDPE) using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction. The crystallinity of HDPE first decreased slightly, followed by a gradual increase with increasing milling times. Monoclinic crystals appeared after 4 cycles of milling. With increasing times of milling, the proportion of monoclinic crystals increased significantly while the proportion of orthorhombic crystals decreased gradually. With increasing times of milling, the crystallite size of orthorhombic form decreased greatly, while the size of monoclinic crystallites kept almost constant during milling.

  13. Electrospray crystallization for high-quality submicron-sized crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radacsi, N.; Stankiewicz, A.I.; Creyghton, Y.L.M.; Heijden, A.E.D.M. van der; Horst, J.H. ter

    2011-01-01

    Nano- and submicron-sized crystals are too small to contain inclusions and are, therefore, expected to have a higher internal quality compared to conventionally sized particles (several tens to hundreds of microns). Using electrospray crystallization, nano- and submicron-sized crystals can be easily

  14. Liquid crystal colloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This special issue of "Condensed Matter Physics" focuses on the most recent developments in the study of a fascinating soft matter system, representing colloidal particles in a liquid crystalline environment. Furthermore, some articles address pioneering steps in the discovery of liquid crystals going back to 1861 paper by Julius Planer.

  15. Poet Lake Crystal Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    This September 19, 2016 letter from EPA approves the petition from Poet Biorefining-Lake Crystal, regarding non-grandfathered ethanol produced through a dry mill process, qualifying under the Clean Air Act for renewable fuel (D-code 6) RINs under the RFS

  16. The Crystal Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    In past issues of this journal, the late H. R. Crane wrote a long series of articles under the running title of "How Things Work." In them, Dick dealt with many questions that physics teachers asked themselves, but did not have the time to answer. This article is my attempt to work through the physics of the crystal set, which I thought…

  17. Computer-assisted Crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semeister, Joseph J., Jr.; Dowden, Edward

    1989-01-01

    To avoid a tedious task for recording temperature, a computer was used for calculating the heat of crystallization for the compound sodium thiosulfate. Described are the computer-interfacing procedures. Provides pictures of laboratory equipment and typical graphs from experiments. (YP)

  18. The Crystal Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    In past issues of this journal, the late H. R. Crane wrote a long series of articles under the running title of "How Things Work." In them, Dick dealt with many questions that physics teachers asked themselves, but did not have the time to answer. This article is my attempt to work through the physics of the crystal set, which I thought…

  19. DIFFRACTION FROM MODEL CRYSTALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although calculating X-ray diffraction patterns from atomic coordinates of a crystal structure is a widely available capability, calculation from non-periodic arrays of atoms has not been widely applied to cellulose. Non-periodic arrays result from modeling studies that, even though started with at...

  20. Simulating polymer liquid crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bladon, P.; Frenkel, D.

    1996-01-01

    A model suitable for simulating lyotropic polymer liquid crystals (PLCs) is described. By varying the persistence length between infinity and 25, the effect of increasing flexibility on the nematic - smectic transition of a PLC with a length-to-width ratio L/D = 6 is investigated. It is found that

  1. Public meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    Last Monday at 9 a.m. the Council Chamber was full, with several people standing, for the public meeting of the Staff Association. Simultaneously, many of our colleagues followed the presentations in the Amphitheatre in Prévessin. We would like to thank all of you for the interest you have shown and for your feedback. In the introduction we explained how the Staff Association represents the staff in its discussions with Management and Member States, and how the staff itself defined, by its participation in the 2013 staff survey, the priority assigned to various points related to the employment conditions. The position of the Staff Association regarding the new contract policy, to be implemented as of 31 March 2015 after approval by Council, was stated. Then, in the framework of the 2015 five-yearly review, the general approach that we would like to see for the new career structure, was explained. Concerning diversity, based on what we know about the situation in other international organiza...

  2. Reformulation of Nonlinear Anisotropic Crystal Elastoplasticity for Impact Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    JD. Modeling nonlinear electromechanical behavior of shocked silicon carbide. Journal of Applied Physics . 2010;107:013520. 30. Clayton JD. A... Physics by JD Clayton Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. NOTICES Disclaimers...of Nonlinear Anisotropic Crystal Elastoplasticity for Impact Physics by JD Clayton Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ARL

  3. H-Bond stabilized columnar discotic liquid crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paraschiv, I.

    2007-01-01

    Since 1977, more than 2300 publications on discotic (disk-like) liquid crystalline materials have appeared. Discotic liquid crystals, which usually consist of polyaromatic molecules surrounded by long peripheral alkyl tails, can form liquid crystalline mesophases in a wide temperature range. Within

  4. H-Bond stabilized columnar discotic liquid crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paraschiv, I.

    2007-01-01

    Since 1977, more than 2300 publications on discotic (disk-like) liquid crystalline materials have appeared. Discotic liquid crystals, which usually consist of polyaromatic molecules surrounded by long peripheral alkyl tails, can form liquid crystalline mesophases in a wide temperature range. Within

  5. A Public Trial De Novo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel, Jane Bjørn; Gad, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses the concept of “industrial interests” and examines its role in a topical controversy about a large research grant from a private foundation, the Novo Nordisk Foundation, to the University of Copenhagen. The authors suggest that the debate took the form of a “public trial......” where the grant and close(r) intermingling between industry and public research was prosecuted and defended. First, the authors address how the grant was framed in the media. Second, they redescribe the case by introducing new “evidence” that, because of this framing, did not reach “the court.......” The article ends with a discussion of some implications of the analysis, including that policy making, academic research, and public debates might benefit from more detailed accounts of interests and stakes....

  6. Subcutaneous crystal deposition in pseudogout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, B M; Round, M J

    1980-11-07

    Aspiration of inflamed periarticular tissues in seven patients suspected of having gout on clinical examination revealed positively birefringent calcium pyrophosphate crystals. The identification of calcium pyrophosphate crystals within articular structures and in the surrounding soft tissues and radiologic findings of chondrocalcinosis, in the absence of identifiable uric acid crystals, emphasize the importance of crystal identification in all cases of probable gout and stress the diagnostic role of soft-tissue aspiration in cases of soft-tissue inflammation, especially when arthrocentesis is unsuccessful.

  7. Intensified crystallization in complex media: heuristics for crystallization of platform chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urbanus, J.; Roelands, C.P.M.; Verdoes, D.; Horst, J.H. ter

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents heuristics for the integration of fermentation with the appropriate crystallization based in-situ product recovery (ISPR) technique. Here techniques, such as co-crystallization (CC), evaporative crystallization (EC), template induced crystallization (TIC), cooling crystallization

  8. Intensified crystallization in complex media: heuristics for crystallization of platform chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urbanus, J.; Roelands, C.P.M.; Verdoes, D.; Horst, J.H. ter

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents heuristics for the integration of fermentation with the appropriate crystallization based in-situ product recovery (ISPR) technique. Here techniques, such as co-crystallization (CC), evaporative crystallization (EC), template induced crystallization (TIC), cooling crystallization

  9. Older adults report moderately more detailed autobiographical memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert S Gardner

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Autobiographical memory (AM is an essential component of the human mind. Although the amount and types of subjective detail (content that compose AMs constitute important dimensions of recall, age-related changes in memory content are not well characterized. Previously, we introduced the Cue-Recalled Autobiographical Memory test (CRAM; see http://cramtest.info, an instrument that collects subjective reports of AM content, and applied it to college-aged subjects. CRAM elicits AMs using naturalistic word-cues. Subsequently, subjects date each cued AM to a life period and count the number of remembered details from specified categories (features, e.g., temporal detail, spatial detail, persons, objects, and emotions. The current work applies CRAM to a broad range of individuals (18-78 years old to quantify the effects of age on AM content. Subject age showed a moderately positive effect on AM content: older compared with younger adults reported ~16% more details (~25 vs. ~21 in typical AMs. This age-related increase in memory content was similarly observed for remote and recent AMs, although content declined with the age of the event among all subjects. In general, the distribution of details across features was largely consistent among younger and older adults. However, certain types of details, i.e., those related to objects and sequences of events, contributed more to the age effect on content. Altogether, this work identifies a moderate age-related feature-specific alteration in the way life events are subjectively recalled, among an otherwise stable retrieval profile.

  10. Photonics of liquid-crystal structures: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palto, S. P., E-mail: palto@online.ru; Blinov, L. M.; Barnik, M. I.; Lazarev, V. V.; Umanskii, B. A.; Shtykov, N. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-15

    The original results of studies of the electro-optical and laser effects which have been performed at the Laboratory of Liquid Crystals of the Institute of Crystallography, Russian Academy of Sciences, over the last few years are reviewed. Cholesteric liquid crystals as vivid representatives of photonic structures and their behavior in an electric field are considered in detail. The formation of higher harmonics in the periodic distribution of the director field in a helical liquid crystal structure and, correspondingly, the new (anharmonic) mode of electro-optical effects are discussed. Another group of studies is devoted to bistable light switching by an electric field in chiral nematics. Polarization diffraction gratings controlled by an electric field are also considered. The results of studies devoted to microlasers on various photonic structures with cholesteric and nematic liquid crystals are considered in detail. Particular attention is given to the new regime: leaky-mode lasing. Designs of liquid crystal light amplifiers and their polarization, field, and spectral characteristics are considered in the last section.

  11. Allophycocyanin and phycocyanin crystal structures reveal facets of phycobilisome assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Ailie; Adir, Noam

    2013-03-01

    X-ray crystal structures of the isolated phycobiliprotein components of the phycobilisome have provided high resolution details to the description of this light harvesting complex at different levels of complexity and detail. The linker-independent assembly of trimers into hexamers in crystal lattices of previously determined structures has been observed in almost all of the phycocyanin (PC) and allophycocyanin (APC) structures available in the Protein Data Bank. In this paper we describe the X-ray crystal structures of PC and APC from Synechococcus elongatus sp. PCC 7942, PC from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and PC from Thermosynechococcus vulcanus crystallized in the presence of urea. All five structures are highly similar to other PC and APC structures on the levels of subunits, monomers and trimers. The Synechococcus APC forms a unique loose hexamer that may show the structural requirements for core assembly and rod attachment. While the Synechococcus PC assembles into the canonical hexamer, it does not further assemble into rods. Unlike most PC structures, the Synechocystis PC fails to form hexamers. Addition of low concentrations of urea to T. vulcanus PC inhibits this proteins propensity to form hexamers, resulting in a crystal lattice composed of trimers. The molecular source of these differences in assembly and their relevance to the phycobilisome structure is discussed.

  12. Appropriate Levels of Detail in 3-D Visualisation: the House of the Surgeon, Pompeii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S. Murgatroyd

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of three-dimensional computer models in archaeological projects is a relatively new but rapidly growing area, both as a means of presenting research to the public and also as an aid to interpretation. This work uses the House of the Surgeon in Pompeii as a case study and seeks to illustrate the most effective ways to display information to a range of audiences. In using the flexibility of computer modelling techniques it seeks to show that the levels of detail in a 3-D computer model can be tailored to individual circumstances to produce the most effective result.

  13. Optimization of photonic crystal cavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Fengwen; Sigmund, Ole

    2017-01-01

    We present optimization of photonic crystal cavities. The optimization problem is formulated to maximize the Purcell factor of a photonic crystal cavity. Both topology optimization and air-hole-based shape optimization are utilized for the design process. Numerical results demonstrate...... that the Purcell factor of the photonic crystal cavity can be significantly improved through optimization....

  14. Classical and quantum Coulomb crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Bonitz, M; Baumgartner, H; Henning, C; Filinov, A; Block, D; Arp, O; Piel, A; Kading, S; Ivanov, Y; Melzer, A; Fehske, H; Filinov, V

    2008-01-01

    Strong correlation effects in classical and quantum plasmas are discussed. In particular, Coulomb (Wigner) crystallization phenomena are reviewed focusing on one-component non-neutral plasmas in traps and on macroscopic two-component neutral plasmas. The conditions for crystal formation in terms of critical values of the coupling parameters and the distance fluctuations and the phase diagram of Coulomb crystals are discussed.

  15. Surface properties of HMX crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, R. Y.; Adicoff, A.; Dibble, E. J.

    1980-01-01

    The surface properties of Beta-HMX crystals were studied. The surface energies of three principal crystal faces were obtained by measuring contact angles with several reference liquids. The surface energies and polarity of the three crystal faces are found to be different.

  16. Computational strain gradient crystal plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Kysar, Jeffrey W.

    2014-01-01

    of plane crystal plasticity are studied: pure shear of a single crystal between rigid platens as well as plastic deformation around cylindrical voids in hexagonal close packed and face centered cubic crystals. Effective in-plane constitutive slip parameters for plane strain deformation of specifically...

  17. A Few Good Crystals Please

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Russell A.; Snell, Edward H.

    1999-01-01

    Part of the challenge of macromolecular crystal growth for structure determination is obtaining an appropriate number of crystals with a crystal volume suitable for X-ray analysis. In this respect an understanding of the effect of solution conditions on macromolecule nucleation rates is advantageous. This study investigated the effects of solution conditions on the nucleation rate and final crystal size of two crystal systems; tetragonal lysozyme and glucose isomerase. Batch crystallization plates were prepared at given solution concentration and incubated at set temperatures over one week. The number of crystals per well with their size and axial ratios were recorded and correlated with solution conditions. Duplicate experiments indicate the reproducibility of the technique. Results for each system showing the effect of supersaturation, incubation temperature and solution pH on nucleation rates will be presented and discussed. In the case of lysozyme, having optimized solution conditions to produce an appropriate number of crystals of a suitable size, a batch of crystals were prepared under exactly the same conditions. Fifty of these crystals were analyzed by x-ray techniques. The results indicate that even under the same crystallization conditions, a marked variation in crystal properties exists.

  18. From Public Relations to Corporate Public Diplomacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    -win solutions supported by the general public. While existing research suggests that an important function of public relations is to create a perception of legitimacy and that the hope of economic and commercial public diplomacy is to create a perception of attractiveness among the public in foreign countries...

  19. Solution Growth and Characterization of Single Crystals on Earth and in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, M. D.; Currie, J. R.; Penn, B. G.; Batra, A. K.; Lal, R. B.

    2007-01-01

    Crystal growth has been of interest to physicists and engineers for a long time because of their unique properties. Single crystals are utilized in such diverse applications as pharmaceuticals, computers, infrared detectors, frequency measurements, piezoelectric devices, a variety of high-technology devices, and sensors. Solution crystal growth is one of the important techniques to grow a variety of crystals when the material decomposes at the melting point and a suitable solvent is available to make a saturated solution at a desired temperature. In this Technical Memorandum (TM) an attempt is made to give the fundamentals of growing crystals from solution including improved designs of various crystallizers. Since the same solution crystal growth technique could not be used in microgravity, the authors proposed a new cooled-sting technique to grow crystals in space. The authors experience from conducting two Space Shuttle solution crystal growth experiments are also detailed in this TM and the complexity of solution growth experiments to grow crystals in space are also discussed. These happen to be some of the early experiments performed in space, and various lessons learned are described. A brief discussion of protein crystal growth that shares basic principles of the solution growth technique is given, along with some flight hardware information for growth in microgravity.

  20. The effect of tailor-made additives on crystal growth of methyl paraben: Experiments and modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhihui; Liu, Yong; Song, Yang; Guan, Guoqiang; Jiang, Yanbin

    2017-03-01

    In this study, methyl paraben (MP) was selected as the model component, and acetaminophen (APAP), p-methyl acetanilide (PMAA) and acetanilide (ACET), which share the similar molecular structure as MP, were selected as the three tailor-made additives to study the effect of tailor-made additives on the crystal growth of MP. HPLC results indicated that the MP crystals induced by the three additives contained MP only. Photographs of the single crystals prepared indicated that the morphology of the MP crystals was greatly changed by the additives, but PXRD and single crystal diffraction results illustrated that the MP crystals were the same polymorph only with different crystal habits, and no new crystal form was found compared with other references. To investigate the effect of the additives on the crystal growth, the interaction between additives and facets was discussed in detail using the DFT methods and MD simulations. The results showed that APAP, PMAA and ACET would be selectively adsorbed on the growth surfaces of the crystal facets, which induced the change in MP crystal habits.

  1. Predicting crystal growth via a unified kinetic three-dimensional partition model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Michael W; Gebbie-Rayet, James T; Hill, Adam R; Farida, Nani; Attfield, Martin P; Cubillas, Pablo; Blatov, Vladislav A; Proserpio, Davide M; Akporiaye, Duncan; Arstad, Bjørnar; Gale, Julian D

    2017-04-03

    Understanding and predicting crystal growth is fundamental to the control of functionality in modern materials. Despite investigations for more than one hundred years, it is only recently that the molecular intricacies of these processes have been revealed by scanning probe microscopy. To organize and understand this large amount of new information, new rules for crystal growth need to be developed and tested. However, because of the complexity and variety of different crystal systems, attempts to understand crystal growth in detail have so far relied on developing models that are usually applicable to only one system. Such models cannot be used to achieve the wide scope of understanding that is required to create a unified model across crystal types and crystal structures. Here we describe a general approach to understanding and, in theory, predicting the growth of a wide range of crystal types, including the incorporation of defect structures, by simultaneous molecular-scale simulation of crystal habit and surface topology using a unified kinetic three-dimensional partition model. This entails dividing the structure into 'natural tiles' or Voronoi polyhedra that are metastable and, consequently, temporally persistent. As such, these units are then suitable for re-construction of the crystal via a Monte Carlo algorithm. We demonstrate our approach by predicting the crystal growth of a diverse set of crystal types, including zeolites, metal-organic frameworks, calcite, urea and l-cystine.

  2. Predicting crystal growth via a unified kinetic three-dimensional partition model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Michael W.; Gebbie-Rayet, James T.; Hill, Adam R.; Farida, Nani; Attfield, Martin P.; Cubillas, Pablo; Blatov, Vladislav A.; Proserpio, Davide M.; Akporiaye, Duncan; Arstad, Bjørnar; Gale, Julian D.

    2017-04-01

    Understanding and predicting crystal growth is fundamental to the control of functionality in modern materials. Despite investigations for more than one hundred years, it is only recently that the molecular intricacies of these processes have been revealed by scanning probe microscopy. To organize and understand this large amount of new information, new rules for crystal growth need to be developed and tested. However, because of the complexity and variety of different crystal systems, attempts to understand crystal growth in detail have so far relied on developing models that are usually applicable to only one system. Such models cannot be used to achieve the wide scope of understanding that is required to create a unified model across crystal types and crystal structures. Here we describe a general approach to understanding and, in theory, predicting the growth of a wide range of crystal types, including the incorporation of defect structures, by simultaneous molecular-scale simulation of crystal habit and surface topology using a unified kinetic three-dimensional partition model. This entails dividing the structure into ‘natural tiles’ or Voronoi polyhedra that are metastable and, consequently, temporally persistent. As such, these units are then suitable for re-construction of the crystal via a Monte Carlo algorithm. We demonstrate our approach by predicting the crystal growth of a diverse set of crystal types, including zeolites, metal-organic frameworks, calcite, urea and L-cystine.

  3. Liquid crystals in micron-scale droplets, shells and fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanski, Martin; Reyes, Catherine G.; Noh, JungHyun; Sharma, Anshul; Geng, Yong; Subba Rao Jampani, Venkata; Lagerwall, Jan P. F.

    2017-04-01

    The extraordinary responsiveness and large diversity of self-assembled structures of liquid crystals are well documented and they have been extensively used in devices like displays. For long, this application route strongly influenced academic research, which frequently focused on the performance of liquid crystals in display-like geometries, typically between flat, rigid substrates of glass or similar solids. Today a new trend is clearly visible, where liquid crystals confined within curved, often soft and flexible, interfaces are in focus. Innovation in microfluidic technology has opened for high-throughput production of liquid crystal droplets or shells with exquisite monodispersity, and modern characterization methods allow detailed analysis of complex director arrangements. The introduction of electrospinning in liquid crystal research has enabled encapsulation in optically transparent polymeric cylinders with very small radius, allowing studies of confinement effects that were not easily accessible before. It also opened the prospect of functionalizing textile fibers with liquid crystals in the core, triggering activities that target wearable devices with true textile form factor for seamless integration in clothing. Together, these developments have brought issues center stage that might previously have been considered esoteric, like the interaction of topological defects on spherical surfaces, saddle-splay curvature-induced spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking, or the non-trivial shape changes of curved liquid crystal elastomers with non-uniform director fields that undergo a phase transition to an isotropic state. The new research thrusts are motivated equally by the intriguing soft matter physics showcased by liquid crystals in these unconventional geometries, and by the many novel application opportunities that arise when we can reproducibly manufacture these systems on a commercial scale. This review attempts to summarize the current understanding of

  4. Generation of Absolute Controlled Crystal Chirality by the Removal of Crystal Water from Achiral Crystal of Nucleobase Cytosine

    OpenAIRE

    Kawasaki, Tsuneomi; Hakoda, Yuko; Mineki, Hiroko; Suzuki, Kenta; Soai, Kenso

    2010-01-01

    The enantioselective formation of chiral crystal of achiral nucleobase cytosine was achieved mediated by the crystal direction selective dehydration of crystal water in the achiral crystal of cytosine monohydrate (P21/c). Heat transfer from the enantiotopic face of the single crystal of cytosine monohydrate afforded the enantiomorphous crystal of anhydrous cytosine.

  5. Lessons from crystal structures of kainate receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllerud, Stine; Frydenvang, Karla Andrea; Pickering, Darryl S;

    2017-01-01

    synaptic transmission and modulate network excitability by regulating neurotransmitter release. Dysfunction of kainate receptors has been implicated in several neurological disorders such as epilepsy, schizophrenia and depression. Here we provide a review on the current understanding of kainate receptor...... structure and how they bind agonists, antagonists and ions. The first structure of the ligand-binding domain of the GluK1 subunit was reported in 2005, seven years after publication of the crystal structure of a soluble construct of the ligand-binding domain of the AMPA-type subunit GluA2. Today, a full...

  6. Manipulation of Phonons with Phononic Crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leseman, Zayd Chad [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-07-09

    There were three research goals associated with this project. First, was to experimentally demonstrate phonon spectrum control at THz frequencies using Phononic Crystals (PnCs), i.e. demonstrate coherent phonon scattering with PnCs. Second, was to experimentally demonstrate analog PnC circuitry components at GHz frequencies. The final research goal was to gain a fundamental understanding of phonon interaction using computational methods. As a result of this work, 7 journal papers have been published, 1 patent awarded, 14 conference presentations given, 4 conference publications, and 2 poster presentations given.

  7. A detailed BWR recirculation loop model for RELAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araiza-Martínez, Enrique, E-mail: enrique.araiza@inin.gob.mx; Ortiz-Villafuerte, Javier, E-mail: javier.ortiz@inin.gob.mx; Castillo-Durán, Rogelio, E-mail: rogelio.castillo@inin.gob.mx

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • A new detailed BWR recirculation loop model was developed for RELAP. • All jet pumps, risers, manifold, suction and control valves, and recirculation pump are modeled. • Model is tested against data from partial blockage of two jet pumps. • For practical applications, simulation results showed good agreement with available data. - Abstract: A new detailed geometric model of the whole recirculation loop of a BWR has been developed for the code RELAP. This detailed model includes the 10 jet pumps, 5 risers, manifold, suction and control valves, and the recirculation pump, per recirculation loop. The model is tested against data from an event of partial blockage at the entrance nozzle of one jet pump in both recirculation loops. For practical applications, simulation results showed good agreement with data. Then, values of parameters considered as figure of merit (reactor power, dome pressure, core flow, among others) for this event are compared against those from the common 1 jet pump per loop model. The results show that new detailed model led to a closer prediction of the reported power change. The detailed recirculation loop model can provide more reliable boundary condition data to a CFD models for studies of, for example, flow induced vibration, wear, and crack initiation.

  8. Biomedical images texture detail denoising based on PDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guan-nan; Pan, Jian-ji; Li, Chao; Chen, Rong; Lin, Ju-qiang; Yan, Kun-tao; Huang, Zu-fang

    2009-08-01

    Biomedical images denosing based on Partial Differential Equation are well-known for their good processing results. General denosing methods based on PDE can remove the noises of images with gentle changes and preserve more structure details of edges, but have a poor effectiveness on the denosing of biomedical images with many texture details. This paper attempts to make an overview of biomedical images texture detail denosing based on PDE. Subsequently, Three kinds of important image denosing schemes are introduced in this paper: one is image denosing based on the adaptive parameter estimation total variation model, which denosing the images based on region energy distribution; the second is using G norm on the perception scale, which provides a more intuitive understanding of this norm; the final is multi-scale denosing decomposition. The above methods involved can preserve more structures of biomedical images texture detail. Furthermore, this paper demonstrates the applications of those three methods. In the end, the future trend of biomedical images texture detail denosing Based on PDE is pointed out.

  9. Institutionalising of public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkee, R

    2014-01-01

    Though public health situation in Nepal is under-developed, the public health education and workforce has not been prioritised. Nepal should institutionalise public health education by means of accrediting public health courses, registration of public health graduates in a data bank and increasing job opportunities for public health graduates in various institutions at government sector.

  10. A detailed gravimetric geoid of North America, Eurasia, and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, S.; Strange, W. E.

    1972-01-01

    A detailed gravimetric geoid of North America, the North Atlantic, Eurasia, and Australia computed from a combination of satellite-derived and surface 1 x 1 gravity data, is presented. Using a consistent set of parameters, this geoid is referenced to an absolute datum. The precision of this detailed geoid is + or - 2 meters in the continents but may be in the range of 5 to 7 meters in those areas where data was sparse. Comparisons of the detailed gravimetric geoid with results of Rice for the United States, Bomford and Fischer in Eurasia, and Mather in Australia are presented. Comparisons are also presented with geoid heights from satellite solutions for geocentric station coordinates in North America, the Caribbean, Europe, and Australia.

  11. Testing for detailed balance in a financial market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiebig, H. R.; Musgrove, D. P.

    2015-06-01

    We test a historical price-time series in a financial market (the NASDAQ 100 index) for a statistical property known as detailed balance. The presence of detailed balance would imply that the market can be modeled by a stochastic process based on a Markov chain, thus leading to equilibrium. In economic terms, a positive outcome of the test would support the efficient market hypothesis, a cornerstone of neo-classical economic theory. In contrast to the usage in prevalent economic theory the term equilibrium here is tied to the returns, rather than the price-time series. The test is based on an action functional S constructed from the elements of the detailed balance condition and the historical data set, and then analyzing S by means of simulated annealing. Checks are performed to verify the validity of the analysis method. We discuss the outcome of this analysis.

  12. Study on Hierarchical Structure of Detailed Control Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Using case studies,this paper analyzes the characteristics of detailed control planning and its hierarchical controls,the form and composition of plan content,and methodological innovations.It then suggests improvements to the planning structure that are oriented at adaptability,fairness,centrality,and scientific principles with regard to the content,methods,and results of the planning.Regarding the hierarchical control system,the paper suggests that the detailed control plan should be composed of "block planning" and "plot planning".It is believed that through a combination of block and plot planning,the problem of joining long-term and short-term planning will be solved and it will be possible to address the need for adjustment and revision of detailed control plan.

  13. Generic Reliability-Based Inspection Planning for Fatigue Sensitive Details

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Straub, Daniel; Faber, Michael Havbro

    2005-01-01

    of fatigue sensitive details in fixed offshore steel jacket platforms and FPSO ship structures. Inspection and maintenance activities are planned such that code based requirements to the safety of personnel and environment for the considered structure are fulfilled and at the same time such that the overall......The generic approach for planning of in-service NDT inspections is extended to cover the case where the fatigue load is modified during the design lifetime of the structure. Generic reliability-based inspection planning has been developed as a practical approach to perform inspection planning...... expected costs for design, inspections, repairs and failures are minimized. The method is based on the assumption of “no-finds” of cracks during inspections. Each fatigue sensitive detail is categorized according to their type of details (SN curves), FDF values, RSR values, inspection, repair and failure...

  14. Crystallization-induced properties from morphology-controlled organic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chibeom; Park, Ji Eun; Choi, Hee Cheul

    2014-08-19

    During the past two decades, many materials chemists have focused on the development of organic molecules that can serve as the basis of cost-effective and flexible electronic, optical, and energy conversion devices. Among the potential candidate molecules, metal-free or metal-containing conjugated organic molecules offer high-order electronic conjugation levels that can directly support fast charge carrier transport, rapid optoelectric responses, and reliable exciton manipulation. Early studies of these molecules focused on the design and synthesis of organic unit molecules that exhibit active electrical and optical properties when produced in the form of thin film devices. Since then, researchers have worked to enhance the properties upon crystallization of the unit molecules as single crystals provide higher carrier mobilities and exciton recombination yields. Most recently, researchers have conducted in-depth studies to understand how crystallization induces property changes, especially those that depend on specific crystal surfaces. The different properties that depend on the crystal facets have been of particular interest. Most unit molecules have anisotropic structures, and therefore produce crystals with several unique crystal facets with dissimilar molecular arrangements. These structural differences would also lead to diverse electrical conductance, optical absorption/emission, and even chemical interaction properties depending on the crystal facet investigated. To study the effects of crystallization and crystal facet-dependent property changes, researchers must grow or synthesize crystals of highly conjugated molecules that have both a variety of morphologies and high crystallinity. Morphologically well-defined organic crystals, that form structures such as wires, rods, disks, and cubes, provide objects that researchers can use to evaluate these material properties. Such structures typically occur as single crystals with well-developed facets with

  15. Diffractive devices based on blue phase liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Huang, Shuaijia; Su, Yikai

    2016-09-01

    Blue phase liquid crystal (BPLC) has been attractive for display and photonic applications for its sub-millisecond response time, no need for surface alignment, and an optically isotropic dark state. Because of these advantages, diffractive devices based on blue phase liquid crystals have great potential for wide applications. In this work, we present several BPLC diffractive devices. The operation principles, fabrication and experimental measurements will be discussed in details for two BPLC gratings realized by holographic method and a BPLC Fresnel lens using a spatial light modulator projector. All of these devices exhibit several attractive features such as sub-millisecond response, relatively high spatial resolution and polarization-independence.

  16. Dual-Readout Calorimetry with Lead Tungstate Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Akchurin, N; Cardini, A; Ferrari, R; Gaudio, G; Hauptman, J; Kim, H; La Rotonda, L; Livan, M; Meoni, E; Paar, H; Penzo, Aldo L; Pinci, D; Policicchio, Antonio; Popescu, S; Susinno, G; Roh, Y; Vandelli, W; Wigmans, R

    2008-01-01

    Results are presented of beam tests in which a small electromagnetic calorimeter consisting of lead tungstate crystals was exposed to 50 GeV electrons and pions. This calorimeter was backed up by the DREAM Dual-Readout calorimeter, which measures the scintillation and \\v{C}erenkov light produced in the shower development, using two different media. The signals from the crystal calorimeter were analyzed in great detail in an attempt to determine the contributions from these two types of light to the signals, event by event. This information makes it possible to eliminate the dominating source of fluctuations and thus achieve an important improvement in hadronic calorimeter performance.

  17. The crystal cavities of the New Jersey zeolite region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, Waldemar Theodore

    1932-01-01

    The crystal cavities present in the mineral complex of the New Jersey traprock region have long excited the interest of mineralogists. In 1914 Fenner made the first detailed and comprehensive study of these cavities and suggested that babingtonite was the original mineral. Soon after this anhydrite was found occupying parts of some of the cavities at one of the quarries. At this time, too, Wherry concluded that glauberite was the original mineral of some of the cavities because of his studies of similar crystal cavities in Triassic shale at different places.

  18. Simulation of flame-vortex interaction using detailed and reduced

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilka, M. [Gaz de France (GDF), 75 - Paris (France); Veynante, D. [Ecole Centrale de Paris, Laboratoire EM2C. CNRS, 92 - Chatenay-Malabry (France); Baum, M. [CERFACS (France); Poinsot, T.J. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 45 - Orleans-la-Source (France). Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse

    1996-12-31

    The interaction between a pair of counter-rotating vortices and a lean premixed CH{sub 4}/O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} flame ({Phi} = + 0.55) has been studied by direct numerical simulations using detailed and reduced chemical reaction schemes. Results from the complex chemistry simulation are discussed with respect to earlier experiments and differences in the simulations using detailed and reduces chemistry are investigated. Transient evolutions of the flame surface and the total heat release rate are compared and modifications in the evolution of the local flame structure are displayed. (authors) 22 refs.

  19. Detailed field test of yaw-based wake steering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleming, P.; Churchfield, M.; Scholbrock, A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a detailed field-test campaign to investigate yaw-based wake steering. In yaw-based wake steering, an upstream turbine intentionally misaligns its yaw with respect to the inflow to deflect its wake away from a downstream turbine, with the goal of increasing total power...... production. In the first phase, a nacelle-mounted scanning lidar was used to verify wake deflection of a misaligned turbine and calibrate wake deflection models. In the second phase, these models were used within a yaw controller to achieve a desired wake deflection. This paper details the experimental...

  20. Benefits of detailed models of muscle activation and mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, S. L.; Stark, L.

    1981-01-01

    Recent biophysical and physiological studies identified some of the detailed mechanisms involved in excitation-contraction coupling, muscle contraction, and deactivation. Mathematical models incorporating these mechanisms allow independent estimates of key parameters, direct interplay between basic muscle research and the study of motor control, and realistic model behaviors, some of which are not accessible to previous, simpler, models. The existence of previously unmodeled behaviors has important implications for strategies of motor control and identification of neural signals. New developments in the analysis of differential equations make the more detailed models feasible for simulation in realistic experimental situations.

  1. Surrogate Seeds For Growth Of Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlichta, Paul J.

    1989-01-01

    Larger crystals of higher quality grown. Alternative method for starting growth of crystal involves use of seed crystal of different material instead of same material as solution. Intended for growing single-crystal proteins for experiments but applicable in general to growth of crystals from solutions and to growth of semiconductor or other crystals from melts.

  2. Soap, science, and flat-screen TVs a history of liquid crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Dunmur, David

    2011-01-01

    The terms 'liquid crystal' or 'liquid crystal display' (LCD) are well-known in the context of flat-screen televisions, but the properties and history of liquid crystals are little understood. This book tells the story of liquid crystals, from their controversial discovery at the end of the nineteenth century, to their eventual acceptance as another state of matter to rank alongside gases, liquids and solids. As their story unfolds, the scientists involved and their works are put into illuminating broader socio-political contexts. In recent years, liquid crystals have had a major impact on the display industry, culminating in the now widely available flat-screen televisions; this development is described in detail over three chapters, and the basic science behind it is explained in simple terms accessible to a general reader. New applications of liquid crystals in materials, bio-systems, medicine and technology are also explained.

  3. Liquid Crystal Thermography Measurement Uncertainty Analysis and Its Application to Turbulent Heat Transfer Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Rao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Liquid crystal thermography is an advanced nonintrusive measurement technique, which is capable of providing a high-accuracy continuous temperature field measurement, especially for a complex structured heat transfer surface. The first part of the paper presents a comprehensive introduction to the thermochromic liquid crystal material and the related liquid crystal thermography technique. Then, based on the aythors' experiences in using the liquid crystal thermography for the heat transfer measurement, the parameters affecting the measurement uncertainty of the liquid crystal thermography have been discussed in detail through an experimental study. The final part of the paper describes the applications of the steady and transient liquid crystal thermography technique in the study of the turbulent flow heat transfer related to the aeroengine turbine blade cooling.

  4. A method for analyzing on-line video images of crystallization at high-solid concentrations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Wan; Cai Y.Ma; Xue Z.Wang

    2008-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that on-line video imaging is a very promising technique for monitoring crystallization processes. The bottleneck in applying the technique for real-time closed-loop control is considered as image analysis that needs to be robust, fast and able to handle varied image qualities due to temporal variations of operating conditions such as mixing and solid concentrations. Image analysis at high-solid concentrations turns out to be extremely challenging because crystals tend to overlap or attach to each other and the boundaries between the crystals are usually ambiguous. This paper presents an image segmentation algorithm that can effectively deal with images taken at high-solid concentrations. The method segments crystals attached to each other along the mostly related concave points on the contours of crystal blocks. The detailed procedure is introduced with application to crystallization of L-glutamic acid in a hot-stage reactor.

  5. Twisted aspirin crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiaoyan; Rohl, Andrew L; Shtukenberg, Alexander; Kahr, Bart

    2013-03-06

    Banded spherulites of aspirin have been crystallized from the melt in the presence of salicylic acid either generated from aspirin decomposition or added deliberately (2.6-35.9 mol %). Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, and optical polarimetry show that the spherulites are composed of helicoidal crystallites twisted along the growth directions. Mueller matrix imaging reveals radial oscillations in not only linear birefringence, but also circular birefringence, whose origin is explained through slight (∼1.3°) but systematic splaying of individual lamellae in the film. Strain associated with the replacement of aspirin molecules by salicylic acid molecules in the crystal structure is computed to be large enough to work as the driving force for the twisting of crystallites.

  6. Nonlinear Photonic Crystal Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Per

    2004-01-01

    Despite the general recession in the global economy and the collapse of the optical telecommunication market, research within specialty fibers is thriving. This is, more than anything else, due to the technology transition from standard all-glass fibers to photonic crystal fibers, which, instead...... of doping, use a microstructure of air and glass to obtain a refractive index difference between the core and the cladding. This air/glass microstructure lends the photonic crystal fibers a range of unique and highly usable properties, which are very different from those found in solid standard fibers....... The freedom to design the dispersion profile of the fibers is much larger and it is possible to create fibers, which support only a single spatial mode, regardless of wavelength. In comparison, the standard dispersion-shifted fibers are limited by a much lower index-contrast between the core and the cladding...

  7. Nonlinear Photonic Crystal Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Per

    2004-01-01

    , leading to reduced mode confinement and dispersion flexibility. In this thesis, we treat the nonlinear photonic crystal fiber – a special sub-class of photonic crystal fibers, the core of which has a diameter comparable to the wavelength of the light guided in the fiber. The small core results in a large...... nonlinear coefficient and in various applications, it is therefore possible to reduce the required fiber lengths quite dramatically, leading to increased stability and efficiency. Furthermore, it is possible to design these fibers with zero-dispersion at previously unreachable wavelengths, paving the way...... for completely new applications, especially in and near the visible wavelength region. One such application is supercontinuum generation. Supercontinuum generation is extreme broadening of pulses in a nonlinear medium (in this case a small-core fiber), and depending on the dispersion of the fiber, it is possible...

  8. Liquid crystal dimers

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar Pal, Santanu

    2017-01-01

    This book covers in-depth discussion of design principles, synthesis and thermal behavior of all types of liquid crystal (LC) dimers. The text presents recent advances in the field of LC dimers consisting of different mesogenic units such as calamitic, discotic and bent-core molecules. It starts with a chapter on the introduction of liquid crystal dimers, including their odd-even behavior, basic classification of dimers and common mesophases in dimers. The text shows how the molecular architectures are being used to develop new materials to study a range of interesting phenomena such as the biaxial nematic phase containing rod-like and disc-like mesogenic units. Finally, the text presents perspectives related to technological relevance of these dimers such as dopants in LC display mixtures exhibiting faster relaxation time, strong flexoelectric coupling and others to effect control over the properties of these materials.

  9. Liquid crystals in tribology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrión, Francisco-José; Martínez-Nicolás, Ginés; Iglesias, Patricia; Sanes, José; Bermúdez, María-Dolores

    2009-09-18

    Two decades ago, the literature dealing with the possible applications of low molar mass liquid crystals, also called monomer liquid crystals (MLCs), only included about 50 references. Today, thousands of papers, conference reports, books or book chapters and patents refer to the study and applications of MLCs as lubricants and lubricant additives and efforts are made to develop new commercial applications. The development of more efficient lubricants is of paramount technological and economic relevance as it is estimated that half the energy consumption is dissipated as friction. MLCs have shown their ability to form ordered boundary layers with good load-carrying capacity and to lower the friction coefficients, wear rates and contact temperature of sliding surfaces, thus contributing to increase the components service life and to save energy. This review includes the use of MLCs in lubrication, and dispersions of MLCs in conventional polymers (PDMLCs). Finally, new lubricating system composed of MLC blends with surfactants, ionic liquids or nanophases are considered.

  10. Liquid Crystal Motion Picture Projector①

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHIYongji

    1997-01-01

    A liquid crystal moving picture projector and method are described.Light incident on a liquid crystal display-type device is selectively scattered or transmitted by respective portions of liquid crystal display,and a projection mechanism projects an image formed by either such scattered light or such transmitted light.A liquid cystal moving picture projector includes a liquid crystal display for creating characteristics of an image,and projecttion optics for projecting images sequentially created by the display.The display includes a liquid crystal material capable of temporary storing information at respective areas.The temporary storage may be a function of charge storing directly on liquid crystal material.A method of projecting plural images in sequence includes:creating an image or characteristics of an image in a liquid crystal material,storing such image in such liquid crystal material,directing light at such liquid crystal material,projecting such image as a function of light transmitted through or scattered by such liquid crystal material,and creating a further image in such liquid crystal material for subsequent projection.

  11. Phononic crystals fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Adibi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an in-depth analysis as well as an overview of phononic crystals. This book discusses numerous techniques for the analysis of phononic crystals and covers, among other material, sonic and ultrasonic structures, hypersonic planar structures and their characterization, and novel applications of phononic crystals. This is an ideal book for those working with micro and nanotechnology, MEMS (microelectromechanical systems), and acoustic devices. This book also: Presents an introduction to the fundamentals and properties of phononic crystals Covers simulation techniques for the analysis of phononic crystals Discusses sonic and ultrasonic, hypersonic and planar, and three-dimensional phononic crystal structures Illustrates how phononic crystal structures are being deployed in communication systems and sensing systems.

  12. Modern trends in technical crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matz, G.

    1980-04-01

    Interesting and significant developments have occurred in the last decade in both crystallization equipment and in the theory of crystallization process. In the field of technical crystallization new crystallizers have been developed and computer modelling has become important in scaling up and in the achievement of increased performance. The DP-Kristaller developed by Escher-Wyss-Tsukishima, the Brodie purifier, the sieve tray column having dancing balls, the automated multiple crystallization process due to Mützenberg and Saxer and the double belt cooler, all of which represent technical developments, are described in the first section. The second part of the paper reviews computer modelling of the fluidized bed crystallizer, chemical precipitation, flaking and prilling. Finally, there is a brief discussion of the impact of technical crystallization processes on environmental protection.

  13. Crystallization of undercooled liquid fenofibrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amstad, Esther; Spaepen, Frans; Weitz, David A

    2015-11-28

    Formulation of hydrophobic drugs as amorphous materials is highly advantageous as this increases their solubility in water and therefore their bioavailability. However, many drugs have a high propensity to crystallize during production and storage, limiting the usefulness of amorphous drugs. We study the crystallization of undercooled liquid fenofibrate, a model hydrophobic drug. Nucleation is the rate-limiting step; once seeded with a fenofibrate crystal, the crystal rapidly grows by consuming the undercooled liquid fenofibrate. Crystal growth is limited by the incorporation of molecules into its surface. As nucleation and growth both entail incorporation of molecules into the surface, this process likely also limits the formation of nuclei and thus the crystallization of undercooled liquid fenofibrate, contributing to the good stability of undercooled liquid fenofibrate against crystallization.

  14. Crystalizing the Spinon Basis

    OpenAIRE

    Nakayashiki, Atsushi; Yamada, Yasuhiko

    1995-01-01

    The quasi-particle structure of the higher spin XXZ model is studied. We obtained a new description of crystals associated with the level $k$ integrable highest weight $U_q(\\widehat{sl_2})$ modules in terms of the creation operators at $q=0$ (the crystaline spinon basis). The fermionic character formulas and the Yangian structure of those integrable modules naturally follow from this description. We have also derived the conjectural formulas for the multi quasi-particle states at $q=0$.

  15. Photonic crystal optical memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, A. Wirth; Sombra, A. S. B.

    2011-06-01

    After several decades pushing the technology and the development of the world, the electronics is giving space for technologies that use light. We propose and analyze an optical memory embedded in a nonlinear photonic crystal (PhC), whose system of writing and reading data is controlled by an external command signal. This optical memory is based on optical directional couplers connected to a shared optical ring. Such a device can work over the C-Band of ITU (International Telecommunication Union).

  16. Slotted photonic crystal biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scullion, Mark Gerard

    Optical biosensors are increasingly being considered for lab-on-a-chip applications due to their benefits such as small size, biocompatibility, passive behaviour and lack of the need for fluorescent labels. The light guiding mechanisms used by many of them result in poor overlap of the optical field with the target molecules, reducing the maximum sensitivity achievable. This thesis presents a new platform for optical biosensors, namely slotted photonic crystals, which engender higher sensitivities due to their ability to confine, spatially and temporally, the peak of optical mode within the analyte itself. Loss measurements showed values comparable to standard photonic crystals, confirming their ability to be used in real devices. A novel resonant coupler was designed, simulated, and experimentally tested, and was found to perform better than other solutions within the literature. Combining with cavities, microfluidics and biological functionalization allowed proof-of-principle demonstrations of protein binding to be carried out. High sensitivities were observed in smaller structures than most competing devices in the literature. Initial tests with cellular material for real applications was also performed, and shown to be of promise. In addition, groundwork to make an integrated device that includes the spectrometer function was also carried out showing that slotted photonic crystals themselves can be used for on-chip wavelength specific filtering and spectroscopy, whilst gas-free microvalves for automation were also developed. This body of work presents slotted photonic crystals as a realistic platform for complete on-chip biosensing; addressing key design, performance and application issues, whilst also opening up exciting new ideas for future study.

  17. Crystals against cancer

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    This is a remarkable example of direct technology transfer from particle physics to medicine. Clinical trials have begun in Portugal on a new medical imaging system for the diagnosis of breast cancer, which uses positron emission tomography (PET). The system, developed by a Portuguese consortium in collaboration with CERN and laboratories participating in the Crystal Clear collaboration, will detect even the smallest tumours and thus help avoid unnecessary biopsies.

  18. Quartz Crystal Microbalance Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxamusa, S H

    2011-11-16

    We are using a Qpod quartz crystal microbalance (manufactured by Inficon) for use as a low-volume non-volatile residue analysis tool. Inficon has agreed to help troubleshoot some of our measurements and are requesting to view some sample data, which are attached. The basic principle of an NVR analysis is to evaporate a known volume of solvent, and weigh the remaining residue to determine the purity of the solvent. A typical NVR analysis uses 60 g of solvent and can measure residue with an accuracy of +/- 0.01 mg. The detection limit is thus (0.01 mg)/(60 g) = 0.17 ppm. We are attempting to use a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) to make a similar measurement. The attached data show the response of the QCM as a 5-20 mg drop of solvent evaporates on its surface. The change in mass registered by the QCM after the drop evaporates is the residue that deposits on the crystal. On some measurements, the change in mass in less than zero, which is aphysical since the drop will leave behind {>=}0 mass of residue. The vendor, Inficon, has agreed to look at these data as a means to help troubleshoot the cause.

  19. Cholesterol crystal embolism (atheroembolism)

    Science.gov (United States)

    VENTURELLI, CHIARA; JEANNIN, GUIDO; SOTTINI, LAURA; DALLERA, NADIA; SCOLARI, FRANCESCO

    2006-01-01

    Cholesterol crystal embolism, known as atheroembolic disease, is caused by showers of cholesterol crystals from an atherosclerotic plaque that occludes small arteries. Embolization can occur spontaneously or as an iatrogenic complication from an invasive vascular procedure (angiography or vascular surgery) and after anticoagulant therapy. The atheroembolism can give rise to different degrees of renal impairment. Some patients show a moderate loss of renal function, others severe renal failure requiring dialysis. Renal outcome can be variable: some patients deteriorate or remain on dialysis, some improve and some remain with chronic renal impairment. Clinically, three types of atheroembolic renal disease have been described: acute, subacute or chronic. More frequently a progressive loss of renal function occurs over weeks. Atheroembolization can involve the skin, gastrointestinal system and central nervous system. The diagnosis is difficult and controversial for the protean extrarenal manifestations. In the past, the diagnosis was often made post-mortem. In the last 10 yrs, awareness of atheroembolic renal disease has improved. The correct diagnosis requires the clinician to be alert. The typical patient is a white male aged >60 yrs with a history of hypertension, smoking and arterial disease. The presence of a classic triad (precipitating event, renal failure and peripheral cholesterol crystal embolization) suggests the diagnosis. This can be confirmed by a biopsy of the target organs. A specific treatment is lacking; however, it is an important diagnosis to make because an aggressive therapeutic approach can be associated with a more favorable clinical outcome. PMID:21977265

  20. Slotted Photonic Crystal Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scullion, Mark G.; Krauss, Thomas F.; Di Falco, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Optical biosensors are increasingly being considered for lab-on-a-chip applications due to their benefits such as small size, biocompatibility, passive behaviour and lack of the need for fluorescent labels. The light guiding mechanisms used by many of them results in poor overlap of the optical field with the target molecules, reducing the maximum sensitivity achievable. This review article presents a new platform for optical biosensors, namely slotted photonic crystals, which provide higher sensitivities due to their ability to confine, spatially and temporally, the optical mode peak within the analyte itself. Loss measurements showed values comparable to standard photonic crystals, confirming their ability to be used in real devices. A novel resonant coupler was designed, simulated, and experimentally tested, and was found to perform better than other solutions within the literature. Combining with cavities, microfluidics and biological functionalization allowed proof-of-principle demonstrations of protein binding to be carried out. Higher sensitivities were observed in smaller structures than possible with most competing devices reported in the literature. This body of work presents slotted photonic crystals as a realistic platform for complete on-chip biosensing; addressing key design, performance and application issues, whilst also opening up exciting new ideas for future study. PMID:23503295

  1. Slotted Photonic Crystal Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Di Falco

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Optical biosensors are increasingly being considered for lab-on-a-chip applications due to their benefits such as small size, biocompatibility, passive behaviour and lack of the need for fluorescent labels. The light guiding mechanisms used by many of them results in poor overlap of the optical field with the target molecules, reducing the maximum sensitivity achievable. This review article presents a new platform for optical biosensors, namely slotted photonic crystals, which provide higher sensitivities due to their ability to confine, spatially and temporally, the optical mode peak within the analyte itself. Loss measurements showed values comparable to standard photonic crystals, confirming their ability to be used in real devices. A novel resonant coupler was designed, simulated, and experimentally tested, and was found to perform better than other solutions within the literature. Combining with cavities, microfluidics and biological functionalization allowed proof-of-principle demonstrations of protein binding to be carried out. Higher sensitivities were observed in smaller structures than possible with most competing devices reported in the literature. This body of work presents slotted photonic crystals as a realistic platform for complete on-chip biosensing; addressing key design, performance and application issues, whilst also opening up exciting new ideas for future study.

  2. Living liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shuang; Sokolov, Andrey; Lavrentovich, Oleg D.; Aranson, Igor S.

    2014-01-01

    Collective motion of self-propelled organisms or synthetic particles, often termed “active fluid,” has attracted enormous attention in the broad scientific community because of its fundamentally nonequilibrium nature. Energy input and interactions among the moving units and the medium lead to complex dynamics. Here, we introduce a class of active matter––living liquid crystals (LLCs)––that combines living swimming bacteria with a lyotropic liquid crystal. The physical properties of LLCs can be controlled by the amount of oxygen available to bacteria, by concentration of ingredients, or by temperature. Our studies reveal a wealth of intriguing dynamic phenomena, caused by the coupling between the activity-triggered flow and long-range orientational order of the medium. Among these are (i) nonlinear trajectories of bacterial motion guided by nonuniform director, (ii) local melting of the liquid crystal caused by the bacteria-produced shear flows, (iii) activity-triggered transition from a nonflowing uniform state into a flowing one-dimensional periodic pattern and its evolution into a turbulent array of topological defects, and (iv) birefringence-enabled visualization of microflow generated by the nanometers-thick bacterial flagella. Unlike their isotropic counterpart, the LLCs show collective dynamic effects at very low volume fraction of bacteria, on the order of 0.2%. Our work suggests an unorthodox design concept to control and manipulate the dynamic behavior of soft active matter and opens the door for potential biosensing and biomedical applications. PMID:24474746

  3. Instabilities in liquid crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Barclay, G J

    1998-01-01

    and we examine the differences which occur for differing dielectric anisotropies. Finally, in Chapter 7 we study how a sample of smectic C liquid crystal behaves when it is subjected to a uniform shear flow within the smectic plane. We find travelling wave solutions for the behaviour of the c-director and adapt these solutions to incorporate the effects of an applied field. This thesis contains theoretical work dealing with the effects of magnetic and electric fields on samples of nematic, smectic A and smectic C liquid crystals. Some background material along with the continuum theory is introduced in Chapter 2. In Chapter 3 we consider the effect on the director within an infinite sample of nematic liquid crystal which is subjected to crossed electric and magnetic fields. In particular we examine the stability of the travelling waves which describe the director motion by considering the behaviour of the stable perturbations as time increases. The work of Chapter 4 examines a bounded sample of smectic A liqu...

  4. Quality criteria for electronic publications in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, S; Auhuber, T; Schrader, U; Klar, R

    1998-01-01

    This paper defines "electronic publications in medicine (EPM)" as computer based training programs, databases, knowledge-based systems, multimedia applications and electronic books running on standard platforms and available by usual distribution channels. A detailed catalogue of quality criteria as a basis for development and evaluation of EPMs is presented. The necessity to raise the quality level of electronic publications is stressed considering aspects of domain knowledge, software engineering, media development, interface design and didactics.

  5. Some aspects of public associations’ participation in implementing public control at municipal level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman V. Gornev

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to clarify the status of public associations as subjects of public control and to analyze the problems of participation of citizens 39 associations in conducting public expertise and public audits. Methods the methodology of research includes general scientific methods such as dialectic method. Specific jurisprudence methods of scientific cognition have also been used. Systematic method was used for the analysis of forms of public control by citizens39 associations at the municipal level. The principle of scientific objectivity has allowed for a comprehensive and objective analysis of the factual material the totality of factors affecting the interaction of public associations with local authorities in the implementation of public control. The formallegal method allowed to analyze the normativelegal acts to reveal the signs of fixing of such public control forms as public expertise and public audit. In the present study other research methods were also applied allowing to study the theme in detail. Results the study identified the lack of legal regulation of the legal status of public associations as subjects of public control as well as some forms of public control. The additions to the list of subjects of public control by public associations were proposed as well as improvements in the implementation of public expertise and public audit by the citizens39 associations as forms of social control. Scientific novelty the author found a lack of regulation of public associationsrsquo participation in some forms of social control and justified proposals for their improvement from a scientific point of view. Practical significance the possibility to apply the research results in legislative activity aimed at improving the provisions of the Federal Laws quotOn fundamentals of public control in the Russian Federationquot and quotOn the general principles of local selfgovernment organization in the Russian Federationquot. In addition the

  6. Inspection of Single Crystal Aerospace Components with Ultrasonic Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, C. J. L.; Dunhill, A.; Drinkwater, B. W.; Wilcox, P. D.

    2010-02-01

    Single crystal metal alloys are used extensively in the manufacture of jet engine components for their excellent mechanical properties at elevated temperatures. The increasing use of these materials and demand for longer operational life and improved reliability motivates the requirement to have capable NDE methods available. Ultrasonic arrays are well established at detecting sub-surface defects however these methods are not currently suitable to the inspection of single crystal components due to their high elastic anisotropy causing directional variation in ultrasonic waves. In this paper a model of wave propagation in anisotropic material is used to correct an ultrasonic imaging algorithm and is applied to single crystal test specimens. The orientation of the crystal in a specimen must be known for this corrected-algorithm; therefore a crystal orientation method is also presented that utilizes surface skimming longitudinal waves under a 2D array. The work detailed in this paper allows an ultrasonic 2D array to measure the orientation of a single crystal material and then perform accurate volumetric imaging to detect and size defects.

  7. Tuning crystallization pathways through sequence engineering of biomimetic polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Xiang; Zhang, Shuai; Jiao, Fang; Newcomb, Christina J.; Zhang, Yuliang; Prakash, Arushi; Liao, Zhihao; Baer, Marcel D.; Mundy, Christopher J.; Pfaendtner, James; Noy, Aleksandr; Chen, Chun-Long; De Yoreo, James J.

    2017-04-17

    Two-step nucleation pathways in which disordered, amorphous, or dense liquid states precede appearance of crystalline phases have been reported for a wide range of materials, but the dynamics of such pathways are poorly understood. Moreover, whether these pathways are general features of crystallizing systems or a consequence of system-specific structural details that select for direct vs two-step processes is unknown. Using atomic force microscopy to directly observe crystallization of sequence-defined polymers, we show that crystallization pathways are indeed sequence dependent. When a short hydrophobic region is added to a sequence that directly forms crystalline particles, crystallization instead follows a two-step pathway that begins with creation of disordered clusters of 10-20 molecules and is characterized by highly non-linear crystallization kinetics in which clusters transform into ordered structures that then enter the growth phase. The results shed new light on non-classical crystallization mechanisms and have implications for design of self-assembling polymer systems.

  8. Tuning crystallization pathways through sequence engineering of biomimetic polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiang; Zhang, Shuai; Jiao, Fang; Newcomb, Christina J.; Zhang, Yuliang; Prakash, Arushi; Liao, Zhihao; Baer, Marcel D.; Mundy, Christopher J.; Pfaendtner, James; Noy, Aleksandr; Chen, Chun-Long; de Yoreo, James J.

    2017-07-01

    Two-step nucleation pathways in which disordered, amorphous, or dense liquid states precede the appearance of crystalline phases have been reported for a wide range of materials, but the dynamics of such pathways are poorly understood. Moreover, whether these pathways are general features of crystallizing systems or a consequence of system-specific structural details that select for direct versus two-step processes is unknown. Using atomic force microscopy to directly observe crystallization of sequence-defined polymers, we show that crystallization pathways are indeed sequence dependent. When a short hydrophobic region is added to a sequence that directly forms crystalline particles, crystallization instead follows a two-step pathway that begins with the creation of disordered clusters of 10-20 molecules and is characterized by highly non-linear crystallization kinetics in which clusters transform into ordered structures that then enter the growth phase. The results shed new light on non-classical crystallization mechanisms and have implications for the design of self-assembling polymer systems.

  9. On dewetting of thin films due to crystallization (crystallization dewetting).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Mehran; Rahimzadeh, Amin; Eslamian, Morteza

    2016-03-01

    Drying and crystallization of a thin liquid film of an ionic or a similar solution can cause dewetting in the resulting thin solid film. This paper aims at investigating this type of dewetting, herein termed "crystallization dewetting", using PbI2 dissolved in organic solvents as the model solution. PbI2 solid films are usually used in X-ray detection and lead halide perovskite solar cells. In this work, PbI2 films are fabricated using spin coating and the effect of major parameters influencing the crystallization dewetting, including the type of the solvent, solution concentration, drying temperature, spin speed, as well as imposed vibration on the substrate are studied on dewetting, surface profile and coverage, using confocal scanning laser microscopy. Simplified hydrodynamic governing equations of crystallization in thin films are presented and using a mathematical representation of the process, it is phenomenologically demonstrated that crystallization dewetting occurs due to the absorption and consumption of the solution surrounding a growing crystal. Among the results, it is found that a low spin speed (high thickness), a high solution concentration and a low drying temperature promote crystal growth, and therefore crystallization dewetting. It is also shown that imposed vibration on the substrate can affect the crystal size and crystallization dewetting.

  10. Phenocryst compositional diversity as a consequence of degassing induced crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, H. M.; Lange, R. A.

    2006-12-01

    the plagioclase crystallized. The range in dissolved water content (~6 to 0.5 wt%) in the crystal-poor lavas recorded by the plagioclase is the result of magma degassing upon ascent through the upper crust to the surface. The rapid loss of volatiles during ascent decreases the dissolved water content in the magma and induces crystallization. This is entirely consistent with the lack of zoning, euhedral shapes, and rapid-growth textures seen in the plagioclase. Degassing-induced crystallization is also supported by the compositions and textures of the pyroxene phenocrysts. In the crystal-poor lavas, the orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene phenocrysts have euhedral shapes, with compositional variation of .15 KD^{Fe-Mg} ((Fe/Mg)pyx/(Fe/Mg)liq) (e.g. 0.30-0.45), with each sample following a continuum in composition. Like the plagioclase, the compositional variation is typically not within individual pyroxene phenocrysts, which display little zoning, but the entire population. Several of the pyroxene crystals have serrated edges, a texture consistent with rapid growth. By looking in detail at the phenocrysts in less complex, crystal-poor lavas, we have recognized a process not previously considered to explain phenocryst compositional diversity in lavas. The results of this work have implications for studies of more crystal-rich lavas, typical of stratovolcanoes. Much of the compositional diversity previously attributed to magma mingling/mixing may simply be a consequence of volatile loss and degassing induced crystallization.

  11. Energy efficient engine high-pressure turbine detailed design report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thulin, R. D.; Howe, D. C.; Singer, I. D.

    1982-01-01

    The energy efficient engine high-pressure turbine is a single stage system based on technology advancements in the areas of aerodynamics, structures and materials to achieve high performance, low operating economics and durability commensurate with commercial service requirements. Low loss performance features combined with a low through-flow velocity approach results in a predicted efficiency of 88.8 for a flight propulsion system. Turbine airfoil durability goals are achieved through the use of advanced high-strength and high-temperature capability single crystal materials and effective cooling management. Overall, this design reflects a considerable extension in turbine technology that is applicable to future, energy efficient gas-turbine engines.

  12. 5 CFR 2635.104 - Applicability to employees on detail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applicability to employees on detail. 2635.104 Section 2635.104 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS GOVERNMENT ETHICS STANDARDS OF ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH General Provisions §...

  13. Probabilistic Model for Fatigue Crack Growth in Welded Bridge Details

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Yalamas, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper a probabilistic model for fatigue crack growth in welded steel details in road bridges is presented. The probabilistic model takes the influence of bending stresses in the joints into account. The bending stresses can either be introduced by e.g. misalignment or redistributio...

  14. Baca geothermal demonstration project. Power plant detail design document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-02-01

    This Baca Geothermal Demonstration Power Plant document presents the design criteria and detail design for power plant equipment and systems, as well as discussing the rationale used to arrive at the design. Where applicable, results of in-house evaluations of alternatives are presented.

  15. Spectangular - Spectral Disentangling For Detailed Chemical Analysis Of Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sablowski, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    Disentangling of spectra helps to improve the orbit parameters and allows detailed chemical analysis. Spectangular is a GUI program written in C++ for spectral disentangling of spectra of SB1 and SB2 systems. It is based on singular value decomposition in the wavelength space and is coupled to an orbital solution.The results are the component spectra and the orbital parameters.

  16. Reliability assessment of welded steel details in bridges using inspection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Yalamas, T.

    2014-01-01

    of the membrane stresses are estimated using a generic bridge structure and traffic measurements. The optimal reliability level for a welded detail in a bridge subjected to fatigue are estimated by cost benefit-analysis taking into account the risk of human lives through the Life Quality Index. Since the optimal...

  17. The Hybrid Motor Prototype: Design Details and Demonstration Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    S.Ueha and Y.Tomikawa3 have published some interesting details of the performance and life of ultrasonic motors with di erent frictional materials...be published as a technical report of the Institute for Systems Research, University of Maryland at College Park. [3] S. Ueha and Y. Tomikawa, Ultrasonic Motors : Theory and Applications. Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1993. 13

  18. Pharmaceutical crystallography: is there a devil in the details?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bond, A. D.

    2012-01-01

    Modern instruments for small-molecule crystallography continue to become more sophisticated and more automated. This technical progress provides a basis for frontier research in chemical and pharmaceutical crystallography, but it also encourages analytical crystallographers to become more...... are presented for pharmaceutical compounds, and the potential importance of the "details" in pharmaceutical crystallography is discussed....

  19. Video-based facial animation with detailed appearance texture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Facial shape transformation described by facial animation parameters (FAPs) involves the dynamic movement or deformation of eyes, brows, mouth, and lips, while detailed facial appearance concerns the facial textures such as creases, wrinkles, etc.Video-based facial animation exhibits not only facial shape transformation but also detailed appearance updates. In this paper, a novel algorithm for effectively extracting FAPs from video is proposed. Our system adopts the ICA-enforced direct appearance model (DAM) to track faces from video sequences; and then, FAPs are extracted from every frame of the video based on an extended model of Wincandidate 3.1. Facial appearance details are transformed from each frame by mapping an expression ratio image to the original image. We adopt wavelet to synthesize expressive details by combining the low-frequency signals of the original face and high-frequency signals of the expressive face from each frame of the video. Experimental results show that our proposed algorithm is suitable for reproducing realistic, expressive facial animations.

  20. Syllabus Detail and Students' Perceptions of Teacher Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saville, Bryan K.; Zinn, Tracy E.; Brown, Allison R.; Marchuk, Kimberly A.

    2010-01-01

    Although syllabi provide students with important course information, they can also affect perceptions of teaching effectiveness. To test this idea, we distributed 2 versions of a hypothetical course syllabus, a brief version and a detailed version, and asked students to rate the teacher of the course on qualities associated with master teaching.…