WorldWideScience

Sample records for crystallized ge nanostructures

  1. 'Cold' crystallization in nanostructurized 80GeSe2-20Ga2Se3 glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klym, Halyna; Ingram, Adam; Shpotyuk, Oleh; Calvez, Laurent; Petracovschi, Elena; Kulyk, Bohdan; Serkiz, Roman; Szatanik, Roman

    2015-01-01

    'Cold' crystallization in 80GeSe2-20Ga2Se3 chalcogenide glass nanostructurized due to thermal annealing at 380°C for 10, 25, 50, 80, and 100 h are probed with X-ray diffraction, atomic force, and scanning electron microscopy, as well as positron annihilation spectroscopy performed in positron annihilation lifetime and Doppler broadening of annihilation line modes. It is shown that changes in defect-related component in the fit of experimental positron lifetime spectra for nanocrystallized glasses testify in favor of structural fragmentation of larger free-volume entities into smaller ones. Nanocrystallites of Ga2Se3 and/or GeGa4Se8 phases and prevalent GeSe2 phase extracted mainly at the surface of thermally treated samples with preceding nucleation and void agglomeration in the initial stage of annealing are characteristic features of cold crystallization.

  2. Femtosecond laser crystallization of amorphous Ge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihoglu, Omer; Kürüm, Ulaş; Yaglioglu, H. Gul; Elmali, Ayhan; Aydinli, Atilla

    2011-06-01

    Ultrafast crystallization of amorphous germanium (a-Ge) in ambient has been studied. Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition grown a-Ge was irradiated with single femtosecond laser pulses of various durations with a range of fluences from below melting to above ablation threshold. Extensive use of Raman scattering has been employed to determine post solidification features aided by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy measurements. Linewidth of the Ge optic phonon at 300 cm-1 as a function of laser fluence provides a signature for the crystallization of a-Ge. Various crystallization regimes including nanostructures in the form of nanospheres have been identified.

  3. Ge/SiGe superlattices for nanostructured thermoelectric modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chrastina, D., E-mail: daniel@chrastina.net [L-NESS Politecnico di Milano, Polo di Como, via Anzani 42, 22100 Como (Italy); Cecchi, S. [L-NESS Politecnico di Milano, Polo di Como, via Anzani 42, 22100 Como (Italy); Hague, J.P. [Department of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Frigerio, J. [L-NESS Politecnico di Milano, Polo di Como, via Anzani 42, 22100 Como (Italy); Samarelli, A.; Ferre–Llin, L.; Paul, D.J. [School of Engineering, University of Glasgow, Oakfield Avenue, Glasgow, G12 8LT (United Kingdom); Müller, E. [Electron Microscopy ETH Zurich (EMEZ), ETH-Zürich, CH-8093 (Switzerland); Etzelstorfer, T.; Stangl, J. [Institut für Halbleiter und Festkörperphysik, Universität Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Isella, G. [L-NESS Politecnico di Milano, Polo di Como, via Anzani 42, 22100 Como (Italy)

    2013-09-30

    Thermoelectrics are presently used in a number of applications for both turning heat into electricity and also for using electricity to produce cooling. Mature Si/SiGe and Ge/SiGe heteroepitaxial growth technology would allow highly efficient thermoelectric materials to be engineered, which would be compatible and integrable with complementary metal oxide silicon micropower circuits used in autonomous systems. A high thermoelectric figure of merit requires that electrical conductivity be maintained while thermal conductivity is reduced; thermoelectric figures of merit can be improved with respect to bulk thermoelectric materials by fabricating low-dimensional structures which enhance the density of states near the Fermi level and through phonon scattering at heterointerfaces. We have grown and characterized Ge-rich Ge/SiGe/Si superlattices for nanofabricated thermoelectric generators. Low-energy plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition has been used to obtain nanoscale-heterostructured material which is several microns thick. Crystal quality and strain control have been investigated by means of high resolution X-ray diffraction. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy images confirm the material and interface quality. Electrical conductivity has been characterized by the mobility spectrum technique. - Highlights: ► High-quality Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells for thermoelectric applications ► Mobility spectra of systems featuring a large number of parallel conduction channels ► Competitive thermoelectric properties measured in single devices.

  4. Germanene termination of Ge2Pt crystals on Ge(110)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bampoulis, Pantelis; Zhang, Lijie; Safaei, A.; van Gastel, Raoul; Poelsema, Bene; Zandvliet, Henricus J.W.

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated the growth of Pt on Ge(1 1 0) using scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy. The deposition of several monolayers of Pt on Ge(1 1 0) followed by annealing at 1100 K results in the formation of 3D metallic Pt-Ge nanocrystals. The outermost layer of these crystals exhibits

  5. Nanostructuring of GeTiO amorphous films by pulsed laser irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin S. Teodorescu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Laser pulse processing of surfaces and thin films is a useful tool for amorphous thin films crystallization, surface nanostructuring, phase transformation and modification of physical properties of thin films. Here we show the effects of nanostructuring produced at the surface and under the surface of amorphous GeTiO films through laser pulses using fluences of 10–30 mJ/cm2. The GeTiO films were obtained by RF magnetron sputtering with 50:50 initial atomic ratio of Ge:TiO2. Laser irradiation was performed by using the fourth harmonic (266 nm of a Nd:YAG laser. The laser-induced nanostructuring results in two effects, the first one is the appearance of a wave-like topography at the film surface, with a periodicity of 200 nm and the second one is the structure modification of a layer under the film surface, at a depth that is related to the absorption length of the laser radiation. The periodicity of the wave-like relief is smaller than the laser wavelength. In the modified layer, the Ge atoms are segregated in spherical amorphous nanoparticles as a result of the fast diffusion of Ge atoms in the amorphous GeTiO matrix. The temperature estimation of the film surface during the laser pulses shows a maximum of about 500 °C, which is much lower than the melting temperature of the GeTiO matrix. GeO gas is formed at laser fluences higher than 20 mJ/cm2 and produces nanovoids in the laser-modified layer at the film surface. A glass transition at low temperatures could happen in the amorphous GeTiO film, which explains the formation of the wave-like topography. The very high Ge diffusivity during the laser pulse action, which is characteristic for liquids, cannot be reached in a viscous matrix. Our experiments show that the diffusivity of atomic and molecular species such as Ge and GeO is very much enhanced in the presence of the laser pulse field. Consequently, the fast diffusion drives the formation of amorphous Ge nanoparticles through the

  6. Controlled growth of hexagonal gold nanostructures during thermally induced self-assembling on Ge(001) surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jany, B. R.; Gauquelin, N.; Willhammar, T.; Nikiel, M.; van den Bos, K. H. W.; Janas, A.; Szajna, K.; Verbeeck, J.; Van Aert, S.; Van Tendeloo, G.; Krok, F.

    2017-01-01

    Nano-sized gold has become an important material in various fields of science and technology, where control over the size and crystallography is desired to tailor the functionality. Gold crystallizes in the face-centered cubic (fcc) phase, and its hexagonal closed packed (hcp) structure is a very unusual and rare phase. Stable Au hcp phase has been reported to form in nanoparticles at the tips of some Ge nanowires. It has also recently been synthesized in the form of thin graphene-supported sheets which are unstable under electron beam irradiation. Here, we show that stable hcp Au 3D nanostructures with well-defined crystallographic orientation and size can be systematically created in a process of thermally induced self-assembly of thin Au layer on Ge(001) monocrystal. The Au hcp crystallite is present in each Au nanostructure and has been characterized by different electron microscopy techniques. We report that a careful heat treatment above the eutectic melting temperature and a controlled cooling is required to form the hcp phase of Au on a Ge single crystal. This new method gives scientific prospects to obtain stable Au hcp phase for future applications in a rather simple manner as well as redefine the phase diagram of Gold with Germanium. PMID:28195226

  7. Controlled growth of hexagonal gold nanostructures during thermally induced self-assembling on Ge(001) surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jany, B. R.; Gauquelin, N.; Willhammar, T.; Nikiel, M.; van den Bos, K. H. W.; Janas, A.; Szajna, K.; Verbeeck, J.; van Aert, S.; van Tendeloo, G.; Krok, F.

    2017-02-01

    Nano-sized gold has become an important material in various fields of science and technology, where control over the size and crystallography is desired to tailor the functionality. Gold crystallizes in the face-centered cubic (fcc) phase, and its hexagonal closed packed (hcp) structure is a very unusual and rare phase. Stable Au hcp phase has been reported to form in nanoparticles at the tips of some Ge nanowires. It has also recently been synthesized in the form of thin graphene-supported sheets which are unstable under electron beam irradiation. Here, we show that stable hcp Au 3D nanostructures with well-defined crystallographic orientation and size can be systematically created in a process of thermally induced self-assembly of thin Au layer on Ge(001) monocrystal. The Au hcp crystallite is present in each Au nanostructure and has been characterized by different electron microscopy techniques. We report that a careful heat treatment above the eutectic melting temperature and a controlled cooling is required to form the hcp phase of Au on a Ge single crystal. This new method gives scientific prospects to obtain stable Au hcp phase for future applications in a rather simple manner as well as redefine the phase diagram of Gold with Germanium.

  8. Growth and self-organization of SiGe nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aqua, J.-N., E-mail: aqua@insp.jussieu.fr [Institut des Nanosciences de Paris, Université Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6 and CNRS UMR 7588, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris (France); Berbezier, I., E-mail: isabelle.berbezier@im2np.fr [Institut Matériaux Microélectronique Nanoscience de Provence, Aix-Marseille Université, UMR CNRS 6242, 13997 Marseille (France); Favre, L. [Institut Matériaux Microélectronique Nanoscience de Provence, Aix-Marseille Université, UMR CNRS 6242, 13997 Marseille (France); Frisch, T. [Institut Non Linéaire de Nice, Université de Nice Sophia Antipolis, UMR CNRS 6618, 1361 routes des Lucioles, 06560 Valbonne (France); Ronda, A. [Institut Matériaux Microélectronique Nanoscience de Provence, Aix-Marseille Université, UMR CNRS 6242, 13997 Marseille (France)

    2013-01-01

    Many recent advances in microelectronics would not have been possible without the development of strain induced nanodevices and bandgap engineering, in particular concerning the common SiGe system. In this context, a huge amount of literature has been devoted to the growth and self-organization of strained nanostructures. However, even if an overall picture has been drawn out, the confrontation between theories and experiments is still, under various aspects, not fully satisfactory. The objective of this review is to present a state-of-the-art of theoretical concepts and experimental results on the spontaneous formation and self-organization of SiGe quantum dots on silicon substrates. The goal is to give a comprehensive overview of the main experimental results on the growth and long time evolution of these dots together with their morphological, structural and compositional properties. We also aim at describing the basis of the commonly used thermodynamic and kinetic models and their recent refinements. The review covers the thermodynamic theory for different levels of elastic strain, but focuses also on the growth dynamics of SiGe quantum dots in several experimental circumstances. The strain driven kinetically promoted instability, which is the main form of instability encountered in the epitaxy of SiGe nanostructures at low strain, is described. Recent developments on its continuum description based on a non-linear analysis particularly useful for studying self-organization and coarsening are described together with other theoretical frameworks. The kinetic evolution of the elastic relaxation, island morphology and film composition are also extensively addressed. Theoretical issues concerning the formation of ordered island arrays on a pre-patterned substrate, which is governed both by equilibrium ordering and kinetically-controlled ordering, are also reported in connection with the experimental results for the fabrication technology of ordered arrays of SiGe

  9. Promising features of low-temperature grown Ge nanostructures on Si(001) substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ze; Wang, Shuguang; Yin, Yefei; Liu, Tao; Lin, Dongdong; Li, De-Hui; Yang, Xinju; Jiang, Zuimin; Zhong, Zhenyang

    2017-03-17

    High-quality Ge nanostructures are obtained by molecular beam epitaxy of Ge on Si(001) substrates at 200 °C and ex situ annealing at 400 °C. Their structural properties are comprehensively characterized by atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. It is disclosed that they are almost defect free except for some defects at the Ge/Si interface and in the subsequent Si capping layer. The misfit strain in the nanostructure is substantially relaxed. Dramatically strong photoluminescence (PL) from the Ge nanostructures is observed. Detailed analyses on the power- and temperature-dependent PL spectra, together with a self-consistent calculation, indicate the confinement and the high quantum efficiency of excitons within the Ge nanostructures. Our results demonstrate that the Ge nanostructures obtained via the present feasible route may have great potential in optoelectronic devices for monolithic optical-electronic integration circuits.

  10. Promising features of low-temperature grown Ge nanostructures on Si(001) substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ze; Wang, Shuguang; Yin, Yefei; Liu, Tao; Lin, Dongdong; Li, De-hui; Yang, Xinju; Jiang, Zuimin; Zhong, Zhenyang

    2017-03-01

    High-quality Ge nanostructures are obtained by molecular beam epitaxy of Ge on Si(001) substrates at 200 °C and ex situ annealing at 400 °C. Their structural properties are comprehensively characterized by atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. It is disclosed that they are almost defect free except for some defects at the Ge/Si interface and in the subsequent Si capping layer. The misfit strain in the nanostructure is substantially relaxed. Dramatically strong photoluminescence (PL) from the Ge nanostructures is observed. Detailed analyses on the power- and temperature-dependent PL spectra, together with a self-consistent calculation, indicate the confinement and the high quantum efficiency of excitons within the Ge nanostructures. Our results demonstrate that the Ge nanostructures obtained via the present feasible route may have great potential in optoelectronic devices for monolithic optical–electronic integration circuits.

  11. STM study of In nanostructures formation on Ge(001) surface at different coverages and temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin Zhi-Hui; Shi Dong-Xia; Pang Shi-Jin; Gao Hong-Jun

    2008-01-01

    Different In/Ge(001) nanostructures have been obtained by annealing the samples at 320℃ with different coverages of In. Annealing a sample with a critical coverage of 2.1 monolayer of In, different In/Ge(001) nanostructures can be obtained at different temperatures. It is found that thermal annealing treatments first make In atoms form elongated Ge{103}-faceted In-clusters, which will grow wider and longer with increasing temperature, and finally cover the surface completely.

  12. Segregation of Ge in B and Ge codoped Czochralski-Si crystal growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arivanandhan, Mukannan, E-mail: rmarivu@ipc.shizuoka.ac.jp [Department of Electronics and Materials Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Shizuoka University, Johoku 3-5-1, Naka-Ku, Hamamatsu 432-8011 (Japan); Research Institute of Electronics, Shizuoka University, Johoku 3-5-1, Naka-Ku, Hamamatsu 432-8011 (Japan); Gotoh, Raira; Fujiwara, Kozo; Uda, Satoshi [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Hayakawa, Yasuhiro [Department of Electronics and Materials Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Shizuoka University, Johoku 3-5-1, Naka-Ku, Hamamatsu 432-8011 (Japan); Research Institute of Electronics, Shizuoka University, Johoku 3-5-1, Naka-Ku, Hamamatsu 432-8011 (Japan)

    2015-08-05

    Highlights: • Effective segregation of Ge in B and Ge codoped Czochralski-Si crystal growth was analyzed. • The equilibrium segregation coefficient of Ge was calculated. • The experimentally results were analytically analyzed using partitioning theory. - Abstract: The segregation of Ge in B and Ge codoped Czochralski (CZ)-Si crystal growth was investigated. The concentration of Ge in heavily Ge codoped CZ-Si was measured by electron probe micro analysis (EPMA) and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. The effective segregation coefficient of Ge (k{sub eff}) was calculated by fitting the EPMA data to the normal freezing equation, and by taking the logarithmic ratio of the Ge concentrations at the seed and tail of the ingots (top to bottom approach). The k{sub eff} of Ge increased from 0.30 to 0.55, when the initial Ge concentration in the Si melt (C{sub L(o)}{sup Ge}) was increased from 3 × 10{sup 19} to 3 × 10{sup 21} cm{sup −3}. To avoid cellular growth, the crystal pulling rate was decreased for heavily Ge codoped crystal growth (C{sub L(o)}{sup Ge} > 3 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3}). The equilibrium segregation coefficient (k{sub 0}) of Ge was calculated by partitioning theory, and was smaller than the experimentally estimated k{sub eff}. The variation of k{sub eff} from k{sub 0} was discussed based on Ge clustering in the heavily Ge codoped crystal, which led to changes in the bonding and strain energies caused by the incorporation of Ge into Si.

  13. Hyperbolic polaritonic crystals based on nanostructured nanorod metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Wayne; Beckett, Stephen; McClatchey, Christina; Murphy, Antony; O'Connor, Daniel; Wurtz, Gregory A; Pollard, Robert; Zayats, Anatoly V

    2015-10-21

    Surface plasmon polaritons usually exist on a few suitable plasmonic materials; however, nanostructured plasmonic metamaterials allow a much broader range of optical properties to be designed. Here, bottom-up and top-down nanostructuring are combined, creating hyperbolic metamaterial-based photonic crystals termed hyperbolic polaritonic crystals, allowing free-space access to the high spatial frequency modes supported by these metamaterials.

  14. Determination of Ge content in high concentration Ge-doped Czochralski Si single crystals by FTIR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Zhongwei; ZHANG Weilian; NIU Xinhuan

    2005-01-01

    SiGe single crystals with different Ge concentrations were measured by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy at room temperature (RT) and 10 K. A new peak appears at the wave number of 710 cm-1 and the spectroscopy becomes clearer with an increase in Ge content. The absorption strength and wave sharp of the 710 cm-1 peak are independent of temperature. The relation of the absorption coefficient amax, the band width of half maximum (BWHM) W1/2 of the 710 cm-1 peak, and the Ge concentration is determined with the Ge content obtained by SEM-EDX. The conversion factor is k = 1.211 at 10 K. Therefore, the Ge content in high concentration Ge doped CZ-Si single crystals can be determined by FTIR.

  15. Annealing induced changes in the structure, optical and electrical properties of GeTiO{sub 2} nanostructured films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stavarache, Ionel; Lepadatu, Ana-Maria; Teodorescu, Valentin Serban; Galca, Aurelian Catalin; Ciurea, Magdalena Lidia, E-mail: ciurea@infim.ro

    2014-08-01

    The GeTiO{sub 2} amorphous films were deposited by magnetron sputtering and subsequently annealed at 400, 550, 600 and 700 °C for nanostructuring. The structure of annealed films was investigated by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The transmittance spectra of all annealed GeTiO{sub 2} films were measured and simulated by using Bruggeman effective medium approximation considering components of TiO{sub 2} anatase, crystalline Ge, GeO{sub 2} and voids determined from the structure investigations. The electrical behavior of 400, 600 and 700 °C annealed films was studied by measuring current–voltage characteristics. We found that by increasing the annealing temperature the films thickness decreases from 330 nm (as-deposited films) to 290 nm (700 °C annealed films). The 400 °C annealed films are amorphous, while all the others annealed at higher temperatures are crystallized (X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy). In the 550 and 600 °C annealed films we found the (TiGe)O{sub 2} rutile structure which is formed by starting from the GeO{sub 2} tetragonal structure with high Ti content. Additionally, these films contain TiO{sub 2} anatase structure and cubic Ge nanocrystals. At 700 °C annealing temperature, a surface layer of GeO{sub 2} tetragonal nanocrystals is formed by Ge diffusion and a part of Ge is lost. The experimental transmittance spectra indicate a broadening of the transparency range by increasing the annealing temperature, and the simulated ones also indicate this behavior with the decrease of Ge content, the experimental and simulated spectra being in good agreement. Also, the increase of annealing temperature produces an increase of electrical conductivity.

  16. Bi surfactant mediated growth for fabrication of Si/Ge nanostructures and investigation of Si/Ge intermixing by STM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, N.

    2007-10-26

    In the thesis work presented here, we show that Bi is more promising surfactant material than Sb. We demonstrate that by using Bi as a terminating layer on Ge/Si surface, it is possible to distinguish between Si and Ge in Scanning tunnelling microscope (STM). Any attempt to utilize surfactant mediated growth must be preceded by a thorough study of its effect on the the system being investigated. Thus, the third chapter of this thesis deals with an extensive study of the Bi surfactant mediated growth of Ge on Si(111) surface as a function of Ge coverage. The growth is investigated from the single bilayer Ge coverage till the Ge coverage of about 15 BL when the further Ge deposition leads to two-dimensional growth. In the fourth chapter, the unique property of Bi terminating layer on Ge/Si surface to result in an STM height contrast between Si and Ge is explained with possible explanations given for the reason of this apparent height contrast. The controlled fabrication of Ge/Si nanostructures such as nanowires and nanorings is demonstrated. A study on Ge-Si diffusion in the surface layers by a direct method such as STM was impossible previously because of the similar electronic structure of Ge and Si. Since with the Bi terminating surface layer, one is able to distinguish between Ge and Si, the study of intermixing between them is also possible using STM. This method to distinguish between Si and Ge allows one to study intermixing on the nanoscale and to identify the fundamental diffusion processes giving rise to the intermixing. In Chapter 5 we discuss how this could prove useful especially as one could get a local probe over a very narrow Ge-Si interface. A new model is proposed to estimate change in the Ge concentration in the surface layer with time. The values of the activation energies of Ge/Si exchange and Si/Ge exchange are estimated by fitting the experimental data with the model. The Ge/Si intermixing has been studied on a surface having 1 ML Bi ({radical

  17. Facile synthesis and enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity of micro/nanostructured Ag{sub 2}ZnGeO{sub 4} hollow spheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jin [School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, 122 Luoshi Road, Wuhan 430070 (China); The Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Functional Materials and Applications, Zhoukou Normal University, Zhoukou 466001 (China); Zhang, Gaoke, E-mail: gkzhang@whut.edu.cn [School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, 122 Luoshi Road, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2015-03-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Micro/nanostructured Ag{sub 2}ZnGeO{sub 4} hollow spheres were synthesized by a facile method. • The formation mechanism for the Ag{sub 2}ZnGeO{sub 4} hollow spheres was investigated. • The catalyst exhibited an enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity. • The reactive species in the photocatalytic process were studied. - Abstract: Micro/nanostructured Ag{sub 2}ZnGeO{sub 4} hollow spheres were successfully synthesized by a one-step and low-temperature route under ambient pressure. The micro/nanostructured Ag{sub 2}ZnGeO{sub 4} hollow spheres have a diameter of 1–2 μm and their shells are composed of numerous nanoparticles and nanorods. The growth process of the micro/nanostructured Ag{sub 2}ZnGeO{sub 4} hollow spheres was investigated in detail. The results indicated that the morphologies and composition of Ag{sub 2}ZnGeO{sub 4} samples were strongly dependent on the dose of the AgNO{sub 3} and reaction time. Excessive AgNO{sub 3} was favorable for the nucleation and growth rate of Ag{sub 2}ZnGeO{sub 4} crystals and the formation of pure Ag{sub 2}ZnGeO{sub 4}. Moreover, the formation mechanism of the micro/nanostructured Ag{sub 2}ZnGeO{sub 4} hollow spheres is related to the Ostwald ripening. Under the same conditions, the photocatalytic activity of micro/nanostructured Ag{sub 2}ZnGeO{sub 4} hollow spheres is about 1.7 times and 11 times higher than that of bulk Ag{sub 2}ZnGeO{sub 4} and Degussa P25, respectively. These interesting findings could provide new insight on the synthesis of micro/nanostructured ternary-metal oxides with enhanced photocatalytic activity.

  18. (Si)GeSn nanostructures for light emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainko, D.; Stange, D.; von den Driesch, N.; Schulte-Braucks, C.; Mussler, G.; Ikonic, Z.; Hartmann, J. M.; Luysberg, M.; Mantl, S.; Grützmacher, D.; Buca, D.

    2016-05-01

    Energy-efficient integrated circuits for on-chip or chip-to-chip data transfer via photons could be tackled by monolithically grown group IV photonic devices. The major goal here is the realization of fully integrated group IV room temperature electrically driven lasers. An approach beyond the already demonstrated optically-pumped lasers would be the introduction of GeSn/(Si)Ge(Sn) heterostructures and exploitation of quantum mechanical effects by reducing the dimensionality, which affects the density of states. In this contribution we present epitaxial growth, processing and characterization of GeSn/(Si)Ge(Sn) heterostructures, ranging from GeSn/Ge multi quantum wells (MQWs) to GeSn quantum dots (QDs) embedded in a Ge matrix. Light emitting diodes (LEDs) were fabricated based on the MQW structure and structurally analyzed via TEM, XRD and RBS. Moreover, EL measurements were performed to investigate quantum confinement effects in the wells. The GeSn QDs were formed via Sn diffusion /segregation upon thermal annealing of GeSn single quantum wells (SQW) embedded in Ge layers. The evaluation of the experimental results is supported by band structure calculations of GeSn/(Si)Ge(Sn) heterostructures to investigate their applicability for photonic devices.

  19. Liquid crystal alignment on ZnO nanostructure films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yueh-Feng; Chen, Mu-Zhe; Yang, Sheng-Hsiung; Jeng, Shie-Chang

    2016-03-01

    The study of liquid crystal (LC) alignment is important for fundamental researches and industrial applications. The tunable pretilt angles of liquid crystal (LC) molecules aligned on the inorganic zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructure films with controllable surface wettability are demonstrated in this work. The ZnO nanostructure films are deposited on the ITO- glass substrates by the two-steps hydrothermal process, and their wettability can be modified by annealing. Our experimental results show that the pretilt angles of LCs on ZnO nanostructure films can be successfully adjusted over a wide range from ~90° to ~0° as the surface energy on the ZnO nanostructure films changes from ~30 to ~70 mJ/m. Finally we have applied this technique to fabricate a no-bias optically-compensated bend (OCB) LCD with ZnO nanostructure films annealed at 235 °C.

  20. On the compliant behaviour of free-standing Si nanostructures on Si(001) for Ge nanoheteroepitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, Grzegorz

    2012-04-24

    Selective chemical vapor deposition Ge heteroepitaxy approaches for high quality Ge nanostructure growth with reasonable thermal budget must be developed for local Ge photonic module integration. A promising vision is offered by the compliant substrate effects within nanometer scale Ge/Si heteroepitaxial structures. Here, in contrast to the classical Ge deposition on bulk Si substrates, the thermal and lattice mismatch strain energy accumulated in the Ge epilayer is partially shifted to the free-standing Si nanostructure. This strain partitioning phenomenon is at the very heart of the nanoheteroepitaxy theory (NHE) and, if strain energy levels are correctly balanced, offers the vision to grow defect-free nanostructures of lattice mismatched semiconductors on Si. In case of the Ge/Si heterosystem with a lattice mismatch of 4.2%, the strain partitioning phenomenon is expected to be triggered when free-standing Si nanopillars with the width of 50 nm and below are used. In order to experimentally verify NHE with its compliant substrate effects, a set of free-standing Ge/Si nanostructures with diameter ranging from 150 to 50 nm were fabricated and investigated. The main limitation corresponds to a simultaneous detection of (a) the strain partitioning phenomenon between Ge and Si and (b) the absence of defects on the nano-scale. In this respect, synchrotron-based grazing incidence X-ray diffraction was applied to study the epitaxial relationship, defect and strain characteristics with high resolution and sensitivity in a non-destructive way. Raman spectroscopy supported by finite element method calculations were used to investigate the strain distribution within a single Ge/Si nanostructure. Special focus was devoted to transmission electron microscopy to determine the quality of the Ge epilayer. It was found, that although high quality Ge nanoclusters can be achieved by thermal annealing on Si pillars bigger than 50 nm in width, no proof of strain partitioning

  1. High quality GaAs quantum nanostructures grown by droplet epitaxy on Ge and Ge-on-Si substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bietti, Sergio; Sanguinetti, Stefano [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Milano (Italy); L-NESS, Universitaedi Milano Bicocca, Milano (Italy); Cavigli, Lucia; Abbarchi, Marco; Vinattieri, Anna; Gurioli, Massimo [Dipartimento di Fisica, LENS, Firenze (Italy); CNISM, Universitaedi Firenze, Firenze (Italy); Fedorov, Alexey; Cecchi, Stefano; Isa, Fabio; Isella, Giovanni [CNISM, L-NESS, Como (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica del Politecnico di Milano, Como (Italy)

    2012-02-15

    We report on the growth and optical characterization by macro and micro photoluminescence measurements of high optical quality GaAs quantum nanostructures grown by droplet epitaxy on Ge and Si substrates. The quantum nanostructures show optical performances comparable to those achievable with the most advanced realized on GaAs substrates. The adopted growth procedures show also the possibility to fabricate the active layer maintaining a low thermal budget compatible with back-end integration of the fabricated materials on integrated circuits. We demonstrate the possibility to embed GaAs nanostructured devices such as intersubband detectors and single quantum emitters on Si substrates. (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  2. Heteroepitaxial growth of Ge on compliant strained nano-structured Si lines and dots on (001) silicon on insulator substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaumseil, Peter, E-mail: zaumseil@ihp-microelectronics.com [IHP, Im Technologiepark 25, 15236 Frankfurt (Oder) (Germany); Yamamoto, Yuji; Schubert, Markus Andreas [IHP, Im Technologiepark 25, 15236 Frankfurt (Oder) (Germany); Schroeder, Thomas [IHP, Im Technologiepark 25, 15236 Frankfurt (Oder) (Germany); Brandenburgische Technische Universität Cottbus, Konrad-Zuse-Str.1, Cottbus, 03046 (Germany); Tillack, Bernd [IHP, Im Technologiepark 25, 15236 Frankfurt (Oder) (Germany); Technische Universität Berlin, HFT4, Einsteinufer 25, 10587 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-04-30

    On the way to integrate lattice mismatched semiconductors on Si(001) we studied the Ge/Si heterosystem with the aim of a misfit dislocation free deposition that offers the vision to integrate defect-free alternative semiconductor structures on Si. Periodic Ge nano-structures (dots and lines) were selectively grown by chemical vapor deposition on Si nano-islands on silicon on insulator substrate with a thin (about 10 nm) SiGe buffer layer between Si and Ge. The strain state of the structures was measured by grazing incidence and specular diffraction using laboratory-based X-ray diffraction technique. The SiGe improves the compliance of the Si compared to direct Ge deposition, prevents plastic relaxation during growth, and allows elastic relaxation before Ge is deposited on top. As a result, an epitaxial growth of Ge on Si fully free of misfit dislocations was achieved. - Highlights: • Realization of nano-structured Si islands (dots and lines) on silicon on insulator substrate • Selective Ge epitaxy on nano-structured periodic Si islands with thin SiGe buffer • Strain characterization of Ge nano-structures by X-ray diffraction • Ge heteroepitaxy on Si without misfit dislocation confirmed by transmission electron microscopy.

  3. Thermoelectric Properties of Czochralski GeSi Crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In order to discuss the application possibility of SiGe crystal in thermoelectric materials, we investigated the thermoelectric properties of several silicon-germanium alloys with different content, orientation and electric conductive type. As discussed in the experiment result, the absolute value of Seebeck coefficient fluctuates from 300 to 600 μV/K in the whole temperature range. In the present paper, the relationship of Seebeck coefficient against content, orientation and electric conductive type is summarized in detail. The Seebeck coefficient of the sample with 〈111〉orientation is smaller than that in 〈100〉 at the same temperature. Absolute value of P-type is larger than that of N-type except pure Ge. But as the temperature increases, the absolute value of pure Ge decreases many times as quickly as that of other specimens. In addition, the specimens of bulk GeSi alloy crystals for experiment were grown by the Czochralski method through varying the pulling rate during the growing process.

  4. Si-Ge Nano-Structured with Tungsten Silicide Inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Jon; Sehirlioglu, Alp; Dynys, Fred

    2014-01-01

    Traditional silicon germanium high temperature thermoelectrics have potential for improvements in figure of merit via nano-structuring with a silicide phase. A second phase of nano-sized silicides can theoretically reduce the lattice component of thermal conductivity without significantly reducing the electrical conductivity. However, experimentally achieving such improvements in line with the theory is complicated by factors such as control of silicide size during sintering, dopant segregation, matrix homogeneity, and sintering kinetics. Samples are prepared using powder metallurgy techniques; including mechanochemical alloying via ball milling and spark plasma sintering for densification. In addition to microstructural development, thermal stability of thermoelectric transport properties are reported, as well as couple and device level characterization.

  5. Sn-enriched Ge/GeSn nanostructures grown by MBE on (001) GaAs and Si wafers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadofyev, Yu. G., E-mail: sadofyev@hotmail.com; Martovitsky, V. P.; Klekovkin, A. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation); Saraykin, V. V. [Lukin Research Institute of Physical Problems (Russian Federation); Vasil’evskii, I. S. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    Elastically stressed metastable GeSn layers with a tin molar fraction as large as 0.185 are grown on (001) Si and GaAs wafers covered with a germanium buffer layer. A set of wafers with a deviation angle in the range 0°–10° is used. It is established that the GeSn crystal undergoes monoclinic deformation with the angle β to 88° in addition to tetragonal deformation. Misorientation of the wafers surface results in increasing efficiency of the incorporation of tin adatoms into the GeSn crystal lattice. Phase separation in the solid solution upon postgrowth annealing of the structures begins long before the termination of plastic relaxation of elastic heteroepitaxial stresses. Tin released as a result of GeSn decomposition predominantly tends to be found on the surface of the sample. Manifestations of the brittle–plastic mechanism of the relaxation of stresses resulting in the occurrence of microcracks in the subsurface region of the structures under investigation are found.

  6. Silicon-germanium (Sige) nanostructures production, properties and applications in electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Usami, N

    2011-01-01

    Nanostructured silicon-germanium (SiGe) provides the prospect of novel and enhanced electronic device performance. This book reviews the materials science and technology of SiGe nanostructures, including crystal growth, fabrication of nanostructures, material properties and applications in electronics.$bNanostructured silicon-germanium (SiGe) opens up the prospects of novel and enhanced electronic device performance, especially for semiconductor devices. Silicon-germanium (SiGe) nanostructures reviews the materials science of nanostructures and their properties and applications in different electronic devices. The introductory part one covers the structural properties of SiGe nanostructures, with a further chapter discussing electronic band structures of SiGe alloys. Part two concentrates on the formation of SiGe nanostructures, with chapters on different methods of crystal growth such as molecular beam epitaxy and chemical vapour deposition. This part also includes chapters covering strain engineering and mo...

  7. Influence of Containment on Defects in GeSi Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volz, M. P.; Croell, A.; Mazuruk, K.

    2009-01-01

    Crystals grown without being in contact with a container have superior quality to otherwise similar crystals grown in direct contact with a container, especially with respect to impurity incorporation, formation of dislocations, and residual stress in crystals. "Detached" or "dewetted" Bridgman growth is similar to regular Bridgman growth in that most of the melt is in contact with the crucible wall, but the crystal is separated from the wall by a small gap, typically of the order of 10(exp -5) m. A small meniscus bridges the gap between the top of the crystal and the wall. Key parameters involved in achieving detached growth are the contact angle between the melt and crucible and the pressure differential across the meniscus. Sessile drop measurements were used to determine the wetting angles of Ge(sub 1-x)Si(sub x) melts on a variety of substrates and found that the highest wetting angles were achieved with pyrolitic boron nitride (pBN). GeSi crystals have been repeatedly grown detached in pBN crucibles but only occasionally in crucibles with lower wetting angles. Experiments have been conducted to assess the effect of pressure differential across the meniscus in sealed crucibles. This was done by adjusting the temperature profile after partial melting of the starting material. In a separate set of experiments, the pressure was controlled by connecting the volume below the meniscus to a regulated gas supply. The experiments were in agreement with calculations which predicted that stable detachment will only occur in crucibles with a low wetting angle over a relatively narrow range of pressure differential. Detached-grown crystals exhibited superior structural quality as evidenced by measurements of etch pit density, synchrotron white beam X-ray topography and double axis X-ray diffraction.

  8. Photonic crystal nanostructures for optical biosensing applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorfner, D.; Zabel, T.; Hürlimann, T.;

    2009-01-01

    We present the design, fabrication and optical investigation of photonic crystal (PhC) nanocavity drop filters for use as optical biosensors. The resonant cavity mode wavelength and Q-factor are studied as a function of the ambient refractive index and as a function of adsorbed proteins (bovine s...

  9. Simulation of a Laue lens with bent Ge(111) crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Valsan, Vineeth; Frontera, Filippo; Liccardo, Vincenzo; Caroli, Ezio; Stephen, John B

    2015-01-01

    In the context of Laue project for focusing hard X-/ soft gamma-rays, an entire Laue lens, using bent Ge(111) crystal tiles, with 40 meters curvature radius, is simulated with a focal length of 20 meters. The focusing energy band is between 80 keV and 600 keV. The distortion of the output image of the lens on the focal plane due to the effect of crystal tile misalignment as well as the radial distortion arising from the curvature of the crystal is discussed in detail. Expected detection efficiency and instrument background is also estimated. Finally the sensitivity of the Laue lens is calculated. A quantitative analysis of the results of these simulation is also presented.

  10. SiGe crystal growth aboard the international space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, K.; Arai, Y.; Tsukada, T.; Inatomi, Y.; Miyata, H.; Tanaka, R.

    2015-05-01

    A silicon germanium mixed crystal Si1-xGex (x~0.5) 10 mm in diameter and 9.2 mm in length was grown by the traveling liquidus-zone (TLZ) method in microgravity by suppressing convection in a melt. Ge concentration of 49.8±2.5 at% has been established for the whole of the grown crystal. Compared with the former space experiment, concentration variation in the axial direction increased from ±1.5 at% to ±2.5 at% although average Ge concentration reached to nearly 50 at%. Excellent radial Ge compositional uniformity 52±0.5 at% was established in the region of 7-9 mm growth length, where axial compositional uniformity was also excellent. The single crystalline region is about 5 mm in length. The interface shape change from convex to concave is implied from both experimental results and numerical analysis. The possible cause of increase in concentration variation and interface shape change and its relation to the two-dimensional growth model are discussed.

  11. Crystal Structure Effects on the Thermal Conductivity of Cu-Ge-Se Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoug, Eric; Cain, Jeffrey; Morelli, Donald

    2010-03-01

    One approach to increasing the efficiency of a thermoelectric material is to decrease its thermal conductivity without degrading its electronic properties. Traditionally this has been accomplished, for instance, by forming solid solutions between compounds with similar crystal structures, or, more recently, by inducing nanostructure in the crystal lattice. These methods have proven effective in many cases; however discovering compounds with intrinsically low thermal conductivity provides a fundamental solution to the same problem. Here we describe our initial efforts in synthesis and characterization of compounds of the series Cu2Ge1+xSe3, in which we observe a transition from orthorhombic to cubic symmetry at x = 0.55. The lattice thermal conductivity of the cubic phase is significantly lower than that of the orthorhombic phase, which we discuss here in relation to vacancies and anti-site defects. A simple valence argument is presented suggesting a change in the nominal valence of Ge as x approaches 1.0, which we speculate contributes to increased bond anharmonicity in the cubic-structure compounds.

  12. Si/SiGe heterointerfaces in one-, two-, and three-dimensional nanostructures: their impact on SiGe light emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, David; Wu, Xiaohua; Baribeau, Jean-Marc; Mala, Selina; Wang, Xialou; Tsybeskov, Leonid

    2016-03-01

    Fast optical interconnects together with an associated light emitter that are both compatible with conventional Si-based complementary metal-oxide- semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuit technology is an unavoidable requirement for the next-generation microprocessors and computers. Self-assembled Si/Si1-xGex nanostructures, which can emit light at wavelengths within the important optical communication wavelength range of 1.3 - 1.55 μm, are already compatible with standard CMOS practices. However, the expected long carrier radiative lifetimes observed to date in Si and Si/Si1-xGex nanostructures have prevented the attainment of efficient light-emitting devices including the desired lasers. Thus, the engineering of Si/Si1-xGex heterostructures having a controlled composition and sharp interfaces is crucial for producing the requisite fast and efficient photoluminescence (PL) at energies in the range 0.8-0.9 eV. In this paper we assess how the nature of the interfaces between SiGe nanostructures and Si in heterostructures strongly affects carrier mobility and recombination for physical confinement in three dimensions (corresponding to the case of quantum dots), two dimensions (corresponding to quantum wires), and one dimension (corresponding to quantum wells). The interface sharpness is influenced by many factors such as growth conditions, strain, and thermal processing, which in practice can make it difficult to attain the ideal structures required. This is certainly the case for nanostructure confinement in one dimension. However, we demonstrate that axial Si/Ge nanowire (NW) heterojunctions (HJs) with a Si/Ge NW diameter in the range 50 - 120 nm produce a clear PL signal associated with band-to-band electron-hole recombination at the NW HJ that is attributed to a specific interfacial SiGe alloy composition. For three-dimensional confinement, the experiments outlined here show that two quite different Si1-xGex nanostructures incorporated into a Si0.6Ge0.4 wavy

  13. Si/SiGe heterointerfaces in one-, two-, and three-dimensional nanostructures: their impact on SiGe light emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Lockwood

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Fast optical interconnects together with an associated light emitter that are both compatible with conventional Si-based complementary metal-oxide- semiconductor (CMOS integrated circuit technology is an unavoidable requirement for the next-generation microprocessors and computers. Self-assembled Si/Si1-xGex nanostructures, which can emit light at wavelengths within the important optical communication wavelength range of 1.3 – 1.55 μm, are already compatible with standard CMOS practices. However, the expected long carrier radiative lifetimes observed to date in Si and Si/Si1-xGex nanostructures have prevented the attainment of efficient light-emitting devices including the desired lasers. Thus, the engineering of Si/Si1-xGex heterostructures having a controlled composition and sharp interfaces is crucial for producing the requisite fast and efficient photoluminescence (PL at energies in the range 0.8-0.9 eV. In this paper we assess how the nature of the interfaces between SiGe nanostructures and Si in heterostructures strongly affects carrier mobility and recombination for physical confinement in three dimensions (corresponding to the case of quantum dots, two dimensions (corresponding to quantum wires, and one dimension (corresponding to quantum wells. The interface sharpness is influenced by many factors such as growth conditions, strain, and thermal processing, which in practice can make it difficult to attain the ideal structures required. This is certainly the case for nanostructure confinement in one dimension. However, we demonstrate that axial Si/Ge nanowire (NW heterojunctions (HJs with a Si/Ge NW diameter in the range 50 – 120 nm produce a clear PL signal associated with band-to-band electron-hole recombination at the NW HJ that is attributed to a specific interfacial SiGe alloy composition. For three-dimensional confinement, the experiments outlined here show that two quite different Si1-xGex nanostructures incorporated into a Si

  14. The sublimation kinetics of GeSe single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irene, E. A.; Wiedemeier, H.

    1975-01-01

    The sublimation kinetics of (001) oriented GeSe single crystal platelets was studied by high-temperature mass spectroscopy, quantitative vacuum microbalance techniques, and hot stage optical microscopy. For a mean experimental temperature of 563 K, the activation enthalpy and entropy are found to equal 32.3 kcal/mole and 19.1 eu, respectively. The vaporization coefficient is less than unity for the range of test temperatures, and decreases with increasing temperature. The combined experimental data are correlated by means of a multistep surface adsorption mechanism.

  15. Diamond turning of Si and Ge single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blake, P.; Scattergood, R.O.

    1988-12-01

    Single-point diamond turning studies have been completed on Si and Ge crystals. A new process model was developed for diamond turning which is based on a critical depth of cut for plastic flow-to-brittle fracture transitions. This concept, when combined with the actual machining geometry for single-point turning, predicts that {open_quotes}ductile{close_quotes} machining is a combined action of plasticity and fracture. Interrupted cutting experiments also provide a meant to directly measure the critical depth parameter for given machining conditions.

  16. Nanostructures of Indium Gallium Nitride Crystals Grown on Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji-Yeon; Man Song, Keun; Min, Yo-Sep; Choi, Chel-Jong; Seok Kim, Yoon; Lee, Sung-Nam

    2015-11-16

    Nanostructure (NS) InGaN crystals were grown on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) using metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The NS-InGaN crystals, grown on a ~5-μm-long CNT/Si template, were estimated to be ~100-270 nm in size. Transmission electron microscope examinations revealed that single-crystalline InGaN NSs were formed with different crystal facets. The observed green (~500 nm) cathodoluminescence (CL) emission was consistent with the surface image of the NS-InGaN crystallites, indicating excellent optical properties of the InGaN NSs on CNTs. Moreover, the CL spectrum of InGaN NSs showed a broad emission band from 490 to 600 nm. Based on these results, we believe that InGaN NSs grown on CNTs could aid in overcoming the green gap in LED technologies.

  17. Hard-photon emission from 150-GeV electrons incident on Si and Ge single crystals near axial directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medenwaldt, R.; Moller, S.P.; Sorensen, A.H.; Tang-Petersen, S.; Uggerhoj, E. (Institute of Physics, University of Aarhus, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark (DK)); Elsener, K. (European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), CH-1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland (CH)); Hage-Ali, M.; Siffert, P.; Stoquert, J. (Centre de Recherches Nucleaires, F-67037 Strasbourg CEDEX, France (FR)); Maier, K. (The Max-Planck Institut fuer Metallforschung, D-7000 Stuttgart 80, Federal Republic of Germany (DE))

    1989-12-25

    The emission of high-energy photons from 150-GeV electrons traversing single crystals near axial directions is studied experimentally for Ge and, for the first time, also for Si. Enhancements relative to random up to 2 orders of magnitude are observed. For incident angles much less than the critical channeling angle {psi}{sub 1} a pronounced peak appears in the photon spectra near {similar to}85% of the electron energy for both the Si and the Ge crystals. The peak disappears for incident angles larger than {similar to}0.3{psi}{sub 1}. The experimental findings are compared to theoretical results.

  18. Size-dependent and tunable crystallization of GeSbTe phase-change nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Ten Brink, Gert H.; Palasantzas, George; Kooi, Bart J.

    2016-12-01

    Chalcogenide-based nanostructured phase-change materials (PCMs) are considered promising building blocks for non-volatile memory due to their high write and read speeds, high data-storage density, and low power consumption. Top-down fabrication of PCM nanoparticles (NPs), however, often results in damage and deterioration of their useful properties. Gas-phase condensation based on magnetron sputtering offers an attractive and straightforward solution to continuously down-scale the PCMs into sub-lithographic sizes. Here we unprecedentedly present the size dependence of crystallization for Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) NPs, whose production is currently highly challenging for chemical synthesis or top-down fabrication. Both amorphous and crystalline NPs have been produced with excellent size and composition control with average diameters varying between 8 and 17 nm. The size-dependent crystallization of these NPs was carefully analyzed through in-situ heating in a transmission electron microscope, where the crystallization temperatures (Tc) decrease when the NPs become smaller. Moreover, methane incorporation has been observed as an effective method to enhance the amorphous phase stability of the NPs. This work therefore elucidates that GST NPs synthesized by gas-phase condensation with tailored properties are promising alternatives in designing phase-change memories constrained by optical lithography limitations.

  19. Nanostructured porous silicon photonic crystal for applications in the infrared

    OpenAIRE

    G. Recio-Sánchez; Torres-Costa, V.; Manso-Silván, M.; R. J. Martín-Palma

    2012-01-01

    In the last decades great interest has been devoted to photonic crystals aiming at the creation of novel devices which can control light propagation. In the present work, two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) devices based on nanostructured porous silicon have been fabricated. 2D devices consist of a square mesh of 2 μm wide porous silicon veins, leaving 5×5 μm square air holes. 3D structures share the same design although multilayer porous silicon veins are used instead, providing ...

  20. Electronic properties of hybrid metal-discotic liquid crystal nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsall, R. W.; Pecchia, A.; Bourlange, A.; Movaghar, B.; Evans, S. D.; Hickey, B. J.; Boden, N.

    2003-04-01

    A new class of hybrid organic/inorganic nanostructures, comprising self-organised discotic liquid crystal layers deposited on ultrathin metal films, has been investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Calculations show that the periodic self-organised molecular layer gives rise to a new, hybrid electronic bandstructure, resulting in modulation of the metal film conductivity. In situ conductivity measurements during deposition of such self-organised layers confirm that the metal film conductivity is altered. Theoretical modeling also shows that the AC conductivity should show structure related to the carrier trapping and one-dimensional transport features of the self-organised layer.

  1. Nanoscience with liquid crystals from self-organized nanostructures to applications

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Quan

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on the exciting topic of nanoscience with liquid crystals: from self-organized nanostructures to applications. The elegant self-organized liquid crystalline nanostructures, the synergetic characteristics of liquid crystals and nanoparticles, liquid crystalline nanomaterials, synthesis of nanomaterials using liquid crystals as templates, nanoconfinement and nanoparticles of liquid crystals are covered and discussed, and the prospect of fabricating functional materials is highlighted. Contributions, collecting the scattered literature of the field from leading and active player

  2. Carrier recombination in tailored multilayer Si/Si{sub 1−x}Ge{sub x} nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mala, S.A. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States); Tsybeskov, L., E-mail: tsybesko@njit.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States); Lockwood, D.J.; Wu, X.; Baribeau, J.-M. [National Research Council, Ottawa, ON, Canada KIA 0R6 (Canada)

    2014-11-15

    Photoluminescence (PL) measurements were performed in Si/Si{sub 1−x}Ge{sub x} nanostructures with a single Si{sub 0.92}Ge{sub 0.08} nanometer-thick layer incorporated into Si/Si{sub 0.6}Ge{sub 0.4} cluster multilayers. Under pulsed laser excitation, the PL decay associated with the Si{sub 0.92}Ge{sub 0.08} nano-layer is found to be nearly a 1000 times faster compared to that in Si/Si{sub 0.6}Ge{sub 0.4} cluster multilayers. A model considering Si/SiGe hetero-interface composition and explaining the fast and slow time-dependent recombination rates is proposed.

  3. Closely packed Ge quantum dots in ITO matrix: influence of Ge crystallization on optical and electrical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Car, Tihomir; Nekić, Nikolina; Jerčinović, Marko; Salamon, Krešimir; Bogdanović-Radović, Iva; Delač Marion, Ida; Dasović, Jasna; Dražić, Goran; Ivanda, Mile; Bernstorff, Sigrid; Pivac, Branko; Kralj, Marko; Radić, Nikola; Buljan, Maja

    2016-06-01

    In the present work, a method for the low-temperature production of the material consisting of closely packed Ge QDs embedded in ITO matrix is described. The films are produced by magnetron sputtering deposition followed by thermal annealing. It is shown that the conductivity and optical properties of the films depend on the structure, Ge content in the ITO matrix as well as on the annealing conditions. The conductivity of the films changes up to seven orders of magnitude in dependence on the annealing conditions, and it shows transformation from semiconductor to metallic behavior. The optical properties are also strongly affected by the preparation and annealing conditions, so both conductivity and optical properties can be controllably manipulated. In addition, the crystallization of Ge is found to occur already at 300 °C, which is significantly lower than the crystallization temperature of Ge produced by the same method in silica and alumina matrices.

  4. Radiation from 170 GeV electrons and positrons traversing thin Si and Ge crystals near the <110> axis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bak, J.F.; Moeller, S.P.; Petersen, J.B.B.; Soerensen, A.H.; Uggerhoej, E.; Barberis, D.; Elsener, K.; Brodbeck, T.J.; Newton, D.; Wilson, G.W.

    1988-10-20

    The first results from a broad angular beam experiment on emission of high-energy photons from 170 GeV electrons and positrons are presented. The targets were 0.5 mm thick Si and Ge crystals. A dramatic enhancement in the emitted radiation is found for angles of incidence close to the <110> axis. The experimental results are compared to a constant-field cascade calculation.

  5. Nanogrids and Beehive-Like Nanostructures Formed by Plasma Etching the Self-Organized SiGe Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juang Jenh-Yih

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A lithography-free method for fabricating the nanogrids and quasi-beehive nanostructures on Si substrates is developed. It combines sequential treatments of thermal annealing with reactive ion etching (RIE on SiGe thin films grown on (100-Si substrates. The SiGe thin films deposited by ultrahigh vacuum chemical vapor deposition form self-assembled nanoislands via the strain-induced surface roughening (Asaro-Tiller-Grinfeld instability during thermal annealing, which, in turn, serve as patterned sacrifice regions for subsequent RIE process carried out for fabricating nanogrids and beehive-like nanostructures on Si substrates. The scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy observations confirmed that the resultant pattern of the obtained structures can be manipulated by tuning the treatment conditions, suggesting an interesting alternative route of producing self-organized nanostructures.

  6. Parallel nanostructuring of GeSbTe film with particle mask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Z.B.; Hong, M.H.; Wang, Q.F.; Chong, T.C. [Data Storage Institute, DSI Building, 5 Engineering Drive 1, 117608, Singapore (Singapore); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 119260, Singapore (Singapore); Luk' yanchuk, B.S.; Huang, S.M.; Shi, L.P. [Data Storage Institute, DSI Building, 5 Engineering Drive 1, 117608, Singapore (Singapore)

    2004-09-01

    Parallel nanostructuring of a GeSbTe film may significantly improve the recording performance in data storage. In this paper, a method that permits direct and massively parallel nanopatterning of the substrate surface by laser irradiation is investigated. Polystyrene spherical particles were deposited on the surface in a monolayer array by self-assembly. The array was then irradiated with a 248-nm KrF laser. A sub-micron nanodent array can be obtained after single-pulse irradiation. These nanodents change their shapes at different laser energies. The optical near-field distribution around the particles was calculated according to the exact solution of the light-scattering problem. The influence of the presence of the substrate on the optical near field was also studied. The mechanisms for the generation of the nanodent structures are discussed. (orig.)

  7. Crystallization Behaviour and Nanostructuring in Alkali Niobiosilicate Glasses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E.Fanelli; P.Pernice; M.Xiao; A.Aronne; V.N.Sigacv

    2011-01-01

    23K2O·27Nb2O5·50SiO2 (KNS), 13K2O·10Na2O·27Nb2C5·50SiO2 (KNaNS) and 15K2O·12Li2O·27Nb2O5· 46SiO2 (KLiNS) transparent glasses were synthesized by melt-quenching technique, and studied by differential thermal analysis (DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) to reveal the effect of the devitrification behaviour on transparent nanostructure.Just above the glass transition temperature Tg in the KNS glass, an unidentified phase was formed, while in KNaNS and KLiNS, mixed-alkali niobate phases with tungsten bronze structure were obtained by bulk crystallization.Heat treatments at Tg performed on the KNS glass resulted in the transparent nanostructure with second order harmonic generation (SHG) activity.Heat treatment for 10 h on KNaNS and KLiNS decreased the first DTA exothermic peaks (at least 24℃), indicating the bulk nucleation, which was confirmed by the DTA in comparison with the powdered as-quenched samples.KNaNS and KLiNS showed similar XRD profiles as the K3Li2Nb5O15 crystal with the five most intense peaks at 22.7, 29.4, 32.3, 46.3 and 52.0 deg.HRTEM micrograph showed clear-cut nano-sized circular domains and spherical nanocrystals dispersed into the amorphous matrix.

  8. Computational Modeling of the Size Effects on the Optical Vibrational Modes of H-Terminated Ge Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Cruz-Irisson

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The vibrational dispersion relations of porous germanium (pGe and germanium nanowires (GeNWs were calculated using the ab initio density functional perturbation theory with a generalized gradient approximation with norm-conserving pseudopotentials. Both pores and nanowires were modeled using the supercell technique. All of the surface dangling bonds were saturated with hydrogen atoms. To address the difference in the confinement between the pores and the nanowires, we calculated the vibrational density of states of the two materials. The results indicate that there is a slight shift in the highest optical mode of the Ge-Ge vibration interval in all of the nanostructures due to the phonon confinement effects. The GeNWs exhibit a reduced phonon confinement compared with the porous Ge due to the mixed Ge-dihydride vibrational modes around the maximum bulk Ge optical mode of approximately 300 cm−1; however, the general effects of such confinements could still be noticed, such as the shift to lower frequencies of the highest optical mode belonging to the Ge vibrations.

  9. Dynamics of metal-induced crystallization of ultrathin Ge films by rapid thermal annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Yuanxun; Huang, Shujuan; Shrestha, Santosh; Conibeer, Gavin [School of Photovoltaic and Renewable Energy Engineering, UNSW Australia, Sydney 2052 (Australia)

    2015-12-07

    Though Ge crystallization has been widely studied, few works investigate metal-induced crystallization of ultrathin Ge films. For 2 nm Ge films in oxide matrix, crystallization becomes challenging due to easy oxidation and low mobility of Ge atoms. Introducing metal atoms may alleviate these problems, but the functions and the behaviours of metal atoms need to be clarified. This paper investigates the crystallization dynamics of a multilayer structure 1.9 nm Ge/0.5 nm Al/1.5 nm Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} under rapid thermal annealing (RTA). The functions of metal atoms, like effective anti-oxidation, downshifting Raman peaks, and incapability to decrease crystallization temperature, are found and explained. The metal behaviours, such as inter-diffusion and defect generation, are supported with direct evidences, Al-Ge nanobicrystals, and Al cluster in Ge atoms. With these understandings, a two-step RTA process achieves high-quality 2 nm nanocrystal Ge films with Raman peak at 298 cm{sup −1} of FWHM 10.3 cm{sup −1} and atomic smooth interfaces.

  10. Green laser crystallization of GeSi thin films and dopant activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rangarajan, Balaji; Brunets, Ihor; Oesterlin, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Laser-crystallization of amorphous $Ge_{0.85}Si_{0.15}$ films is studied, using green laser scanning and preformed topography to steer the crystallization. Large crystals (8x2 $\\mu m^2$) are formed with location-controlled grain boundaries. The obtained films were characterized using Scanning Electr

  11. Crystal structure determination of CoGeTe from powder diffraction data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laufek, F. [Czech Geological Survey, Geologicka 6, 15200 Praha 5 (Czech Republic)], E-mail: laufek@cgu.cz; Navratil, J. [Joint Laboratory of Solid State Chemistry of IMC AS CR and University of Pardubice, Studentska 84, 53210 Pardubice (Czech Republic); Plasil, J. [Faculty of Science, Charles University, Albertov 6, 12843 Praha 2 (Czech Republic); Plechacek, T. [Joint Laboratory of Solid State Chemistry of IMC AS CR and University of Pardubice, Studentska 84, 53210 Pardubice (Czech Republic)

    2008-07-28

    The crystal structure of cobalt germanium telluride CoGeTe has been determined by direct methods using integrate intensities of conventional X-ray powder diffraction data and subsequently refined with the Rietveld method. The title compound was prepared by heating of stoichiometric amount of Co, Ge and Te in silica glass tube at 670 deg. C. CoGeTe adopts orthorhombic symmetry, space group Pbca with unit cell parameters a = 6.1892(4) A, b = 6.2285(4) A, c = 11.1240(6) A, V = 428.8(1) A{sup 3} and Z = 8. Its crystal structure is formed by [CoGe{sub 3}Te{sub 3}] octahedra sharing both edges and corners. CoGeTe represents a ternary ordered variant of {alpha}-NiAs{sub 2} type structure. An important feature present in CoGeTe is an occurrence of short Co-Co distance across the shared edge of [CoGe{sub 3}Te{sub 3}] octahedra. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) has revealed that CoGeTe melts incongruently at about 725 deg. C; CoGeTe decomposes into GeTe, CoGe and CoTe{sub 2}. Temperature dependence of the electrical conductivity and value of Seebeck coefficient at 300 K are also reported.

  12. Optical and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of PbGeO3 and Pb5Ge3O11 single crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S C Sabharwal; S N Jha; Sangeeta

    2010-08-01

    Pb5Ge3O11 crystals are found to exhibit pale yellow colouration while PbGeO3 are colourless. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements show lead deficiency in both the crystals. The results also reveal a stronger ionic character for PbGeO3 as compared to Pb5Ge3O11 crystal. The binding energy of Ge3 core level in the case of Pb5Ge3O11 crystal is found to be smaller than the binding energy of germanium oxide, thereby indicating the incomplete oxidation of Ge ions in the crystal lattice. On gamma ray irradiation, the transmission of both the crystals is observed to deteriorate uniformly over the entire wavelength range, which has been attributed to the oxidation of some of the lattice Pb ions. On gamma irradiation the changes observed in O1 core level energies for both the crystals are seen to be consistent with the changes noted in the Pb47/2 and Ge3 spectra. Interestingly, the results reveal oxidation of surface Ge atoms with atmospheric oxygen under gamma irradiation.

  13. Crystal structure of the Nd(Ru{sub 0.6}Ge{sub 0.4}){sub 2} and ErRuGe compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzoli, C.; Sologub, O.; Salamakha, P

    2003-02-17

    Using X-ray powder and single crystal diffraction, the crystal structures of the Nd(Ru{sub 0.6}Ge{sub 0.4}){sub 2} and ErRuGe compounds were investigated. The compounds belong to the KHg{sub 2} and TiNiSi type structure, respectively.

  14. Nanostructured Porous Silicon Photonic Crystal for Applications in the Infrared

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Recio-Sánchez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades great interest has been devoted to photonic crystals aiming at the creation of novel devices which can control light propagation. In the present work, two-dimensional (2D and three-dimensional (3D devices based on nanostructured porous silicon have been fabricated. 2D devices consist of a square mesh of 2 μm wide porous silicon veins, leaving 5×5 μm square air holes. 3D structures share the same design although multilayer porous silicon veins are used instead, providing an additional degree of modulation. These devices are fabricated from porous silicon single layers (for 2D structures or multilayers (for 3D structures, opening air holes in them by means of 1 KeV argon ion bombardment through the appropriate copper grids. For 2D structures, a complete photonic band gap for TE polarization is found in the thermal infrared range. For 3D structures, there are no complete band gaps, although several new partial gaps do exist in different high-symmetry directions. The simulation results suggest that these structures are very promising candidates for the development of low-cost photonic devices for their use in the thermal infrared range.

  15. Self-assembled growth of nanostructural Ge islands on bromine-passivated Si(111) surfaces at room temperature

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amal K Das; B N Dev; B Sundaravel; E Z Luo; J B Xu; I H Wilson

    2002-07-01

    We have deposited relatively thick (∼ 60 nm) Ge layers on Br-passivated Si(111) substrates by thermal evaporation under high vacuum conditions at room temperature. Ge has grown in a layer-plus-island mode although it is different from the Stranski–Krastanov growth mode observed in epitaxial growth. Both the islands and the layer are nanocrystalline. This appears to be a consequence of reduction of surface free energy of the Si(111) substrate by Br-passivation. The size distribution of the Ge nanoislands has been determined. The Br–Si(111) substrates were prepared by a liquid treatment, which may not produce exactly reproducible surfaces. Nevertheless, some basic features of the nanostructural island growth are reasonably reproducible, while there are variations in the details of the island size distribution.

  16. 70 °C synthesis of high-Sn content (25%) GeSn on insulator by Sn-induced crystallization of amorphous Ge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toko, K., E-mail: toko@bk.tsukuba.ac.jp; Oya, N.; Suemasu, T. [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Saitoh, N.; Yoshizawa, N. [Electron Microscope Facility, TIA, AIST, 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba 305-8569 (Japan)

    2015-02-23

    Polycrystalline GeSn thin films are fabricated on insulating substrates at low temperatures by using Sn-induced crystallization of amorphous Ge (a-Ge). The Sn layer stacked on the a-Ge layer (100-nm thickness each) had two roles: lowering the crystallization temperature of a-Ge and composing GeSn. Slow annealing at an extremely low temperature of 70 °C allowed for a large-grained (350 nm) GeSn layer with a lattice constant of 0.590 nm, corresponding to a Sn composition exceeding 25%. The present investigation paves the way for advanced electronic optical devices integrated on a flexible plastic substrate as well as on a Si platform.

  17. ZnGeP sub 2 crystals for infrared laser radiation frequency conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Andreev, Y M; Gribenyukov, A I; Korotkova, V V

    1998-01-01

    In this parer, we present some recent results on integrated studies concerned with different aspects of ZnGeP sub 2 crystal technology: synthesis, growth, and post-growth treatment. High-yield two-temperature synthesis and subsequent growth of ZnGeP sub 2 crystals are considered. By X-Ray phase analysis it has been found that two-temperature synthesis of ZnGeP sub 2 is realized through binary zinc and germanium phosphides formed at the Zn-Ge mixture temperature of about 900 .deg. C and the P pressure of 7 approx 10 atm. Using the heat-balance equation, a ratio of the thermal conductivity in the solid to that in the liquid ZnGeP sub 2 near the melting point has been determined. The value of the determined ratio is K sub l /K sub s approx =2.3. Analysis of the most favored crystallographic directions for ZnGeP sub 2 growth has been performed. These directions are [116], [132] and [102]. Data for optical absorption of the as-grown and the annealed ZnGeP sub 2 crystals are also presented.

  18. Density functional theory calculations of stability and diffusion mechanisms of impurity atoms in Ge crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeta, Takahiro [Graduate School of System Engineering, Okayama Prefectural University, 111 Kuboki, Soja, Okayama 719-1197 (Japan); GlobalWafers Japan Co., Ltd., Higashikou, Seirou-machi, Kitakanbara-gun, Niigata 957-0197 (Japan); Sueoka, Koji [Department of Communication Engineering, Okayama Prefectural University, 111 Kuboki, Soja, Okayama 719-1197 (Japan)

    2014-08-21

    Ge-based substrates are being developed for applications in advanced nano-electronic devices because of their higher intrinsic carrier mobility than Si. The stability and diffusion mechanism of impurity atoms in Ge are not well known in contrast to those of Si. Systematic studies of the stable sites of 2nd to 6th row element impurity atoms in Ge crystal were undertaken with density functional theory (DFT) and compared with those in Si crystal. It was found that most of the impurity atoms in Ge were stable at substitutional sites, while transition metals in Si were stable at interstitial sites and the other impurity atoms in Si were stable at substitutional sites. Furthermore, DFT calculations were carried out to clarify the mechanism responsible for the diffusion of impurity atoms in Ge crystals. The diffusion mechanism for 3d transition metals in Ge was found to be an interstitial-substitutional diffusion mechanism, while in Si this was an interstitial diffusion mechanism. The diffusion barriers in the proposed diffusion mechanisms in Ge and Si were quantitatively verified by comparing them to the experimental values in the literature.

  19. Dense Ge nanocrystal layers embedded in oxide obtained by controlling the diffusion-crystallization process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepadatu, Ana-Maria [National Institute of Materials Physics (Romania); Stoica, Toma [Peter Gruenberg Institute (PGI-9), Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany); Stavarache, Ionel; Teodorescu, Valentin Serban [National Institute of Materials Physics (Romania); Buca, Dan [Peter Gruenberg Institute (PGI-9), Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany); Ciurea, Magdalena Lidia, E-mail: ciurea@infim.ro [National Institute of Materials Physics (Romania)

    2013-10-15

    Amorphous Ge/SiO{sub 2} multilayer structures deposited by magnetron sputtering have been annealed at different temperatures between 650 and 800 Degree-Sign C for obtaining Ge nanocrystals in oxide matrix. The properties of the annealed structures were investigated by transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and low temperature photoluminescence. The Ge crystallization is partially achieved at 650 Degree-Sign C and increases with annealing temperature. Insight of the Ge nanocrystal formation was acquired by comparing two annealing procedures, i.e., in a conventional tube furnace and by a rapid thermal annealing. By rapid thermal annealing in comparison to conventional furnace one, the Ge crystallization process is faster than Ge diffusion, resulting in the formation of more compact layers of Ge nanocrystals with 8-9.5-nm size as Raman spectroscopy reveals. These findings are important to improve the annealing efficiency in the nanocrystals formation for a precise control of their sizes and location in oxide matrix and for the possibility to create systems with interacting nanoparticles for charge or excitonic transfer. The infrared photoluminescence of Ge nanocrystals at low temperatures shows strong emission with two sharp peaks at about 1,000 meV.

  20. Self-catalytic crystal growth, formation mechanism, and optical properties of indium tin oxide nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yuan-Chang; Zhong, Hua

    2013-08-22

    In-Sn-O nanostructures with rectangular cross-sectional rod-like, sword-like, and bowling pin-like morphologies were successfully synthesized through self-catalytic growth. Mixed metallic In and Sn powders were used as source materials, and no catalyst layer was pre-coated on the substrates. The distance between the substrate and the source materials affected the size of the Sn-rich alloy particles during crystal growth in a quartz tube. This caused In-Sn-O nanostructures with various morphologies to form. An X-ray photoelectron spectroscope and a transmittance electron microscope with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer were used to investigate the elemental binding states and compositions of the as-synthesized nanostructures. The Sn doping and oxygen vacancies in the In2O3 crystals corresponded to the blue-green and yellow-orange emission bands of the nanostructures, respectively.

  1. Disentangling nonradiative recombination processes in Ge micro-crystals on Si substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzoli, Fabio; Giorgioni, Anna; Gallacher, Kevin; Isa, Fabio; Biagioni, Paolo; Millar, Ross W.; Gatti, Eleonora; Grilli, Emanuele; Bonera, Emiliano; Isella, Giovanni; Paul, Douglas J.; Miglio, Leo

    2016-06-01

    We address nonradiative recombination pathways by leveraging surface passivation and dislocation management in μm-scale arrays of Ge crystals grown on deeply patterned Si substrates. The time decay photoluminescence (PL) at cryogenic temperatures discloses carrier lifetimes approaching 45 ns in band-gap engineered Ge micro-crystals. This investigation provides compelling information about the competitive interplay between the radiative band-edge transitions and the trapping of carriers by dislocations and free surfaces. Furthermore, an in-depth analysis of the temperature dependence of the PL, combined with capacitance data and finite difference time domain modeling, demonstrates the effectiveness of GeO2 in passivating the surface of Ge and thus in enhancing the room temperature PL emission.

  2. Disentangling nonradiative recombination processes in Ge micro-crystals on Si substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pezzoli, Fabio, E-mail: fabio.pezzoli@unimib.it; Giorgioni, Anna; Gatti, Eleonora; Grilli, Emanuele; Bonera, Emiliano; Miglio, Leo [LNESS and Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, via Cozzi 55, I-20125 Milano (Italy); Gallacher, Kevin; Millar, Ross W.; Paul, Douglas J. [School of Engineering, University of Glasgow, Rankine Building, Oakfield Avenue, Glasgow G12 8LT (United Kingdom); Isa, Fabio [LNESS, Dipartimento di Fisica del Politecnico di Milano and IFN-CNR, Polo Territoriale di Como, Via Anzani 42, I-22100 Como (Italy); Laboratory for Solid State Physics, ETH Zurich, Otto-Stern-Weg 1, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Biagioni, Paolo [LNESS, Dipartimento di Fisica del Politecnico di Milano and IFN-CNR, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Isella, Giovanni [LNESS, Dipartimento di Fisica del Politecnico di Milano and IFN-CNR, Polo Territoriale di Como, Via Anzani 42, I-22100 Como (Italy)

    2016-06-27

    We address nonradiative recombination pathways by leveraging surface passivation and dislocation management in μm-scale arrays of Ge crystals grown on deeply patterned Si substrates. The time decay photoluminescence (PL) at cryogenic temperatures discloses carrier lifetimes approaching 45 ns in band-gap engineered Ge micro-crystals. This investigation provides compelling information about the competitive interplay between the radiative band-edge transitions and the trapping of carriers by dislocations and free surfaces. Furthermore, an in-depth analysis of the temperature dependence of the PL, combined with capacitance data and finite difference time domain modeling, demonstrates the effectiveness of GeO{sub 2} in passivating the surface of Ge and thus in enhancing the room temperature PL emission.

  3. Crystal nuclei templated nanostructured membranes prepared by solvent crystallization and polymer migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Ji, Jing; Li, Kang

    2016-09-01

    Currently, production of porous polymeric membranes for filtration is predominated by the phase-separation process. However, this method has reached its technological limit, and there have been no significant breakthrough over the last decade. Here we show, using polyvinylidene fluoride as a sample polymer, a new concept of membrane manufacturing by combining oriented green solvent crystallization and polymer migration is able to obtain high performance membranes with pure water permeation flux substantially higher than those with similar pore size prepared by conventional phase-separation processes. The new manufacturing procedure is governed by fewer operating parameters and is, thus, easier to control with reproducible results. Apart from the high water permeation flux, the prepared membranes also show excellent stable flux after fouling and superior mechanical properties of high pressure load and better abrasion resistance. These findings demonstrate the promise of a new concept for green manufacturing nanostructured polymeric membranes with high performances.

  4. Crystallization Kinetics of GeSbTe Phase-Change Nanoparticles Resolved by Ultrafast Calorimetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Bin; Brink, ten Gert; Palasantzas, Georgios; Kooi, Bart J.

    2017-01-01

    Although nanostructured phase-change materials (PCMs) are considered as the building blocks of next-generation phase-change memory and other emerging optoelectronic applications, the kinetics of the crystallization, the central property in switching, remains ambiguous in the high-temperature regime.

  5. Solution growth of single crystal methylammonium lead halide perovskite nanostructures for optoelectronic and photovoltaic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yongping; Meng, Fei; Rowley, Matthew B; Thompson, Blaise J; Shearer, Melinda J; Ma, Dewei; Hamers, Robert J; Wright, John C; Jin, Song

    2015-05-01

    Understanding crystal growth and improving material quality is important for improving semiconductors for electronic, optoelectronic, and photovoltaic applications. Amidst the surging interest in solar cells based on hybrid organic-inorganic lead halide perovskites and the exciting progress in device performance, improved understanding and better control of the crystal growth of these perovskites could further boost their optoelectronic and photovoltaic performance. Here, we report new insights on the crystal growth of the perovskite materials, especially crystalline nanostructures. Specifically, single crystal nanowires, nanorods, and nanoplates of methylammonium lead halide perovskites (CH3NH3PbI3 and CH3NH3PbBr3) are successfully grown via a dissolution-recrystallization pathway in a solution synthesis from lead iodide (or lead acetate) films coated on substrates. These single crystal nanostructures display strong room-temperature photoluminescence and long carrier lifetime. We also report that a solid-liquid interfacial conversion reaction can create a highly crystalline, nanostructured MAPbI3 film with micrometer grain size and high surface coverage that enables photovoltaic devices with a power conversion efficiency of 10.6%. These results suggest that single-crystal perovskite nanostructures provide improved photophysical properties that are important for fundamental studies and future applications in nanoscale optoelectronic and photonic devices.

  6. Studies of Nano-structured Se77Sb23- x Ge x Thin Films Prepared by Physical Vapor Condensation Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvi, M. A.

    2017-02-01

    Bulk Se77Sb23- x Ge x material with x = 4 and 12 was prepared by employing a melt quench technique. Its amorphous as well as glassy nature was confirmed by x-ray diffraction analysis and nonisothermal differential scanning calorimetry measurements. The physical vapor condensation technique was applied to prepare nanostructured thin films of Se77Sb23- x Ge x material. The surface morphology of the films was examined using field-emission scanning electron microscopy, revealing average particle size between 20 nm and 50 nm. Systematic investigation of optical absorption data indicated that the optical transition was indirect in nature. The dark conductivity (dc conductivity) of nano-structured Se77Sb23- x Ge x thin films was also investigated at temperatures from 313 K to 463 K, revealing that it tended to increase with increasing temperature. Analyses of our experimental data also indicate that the conduction is due to thermally supported tunneling of charge carriers in confined states close to the band edges. The calculated values of activation energy agree well with the optical bandgap.

  7. Phase relations and crystal structures in the system Ta-V-Ge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Atta U; Bursik, J; Rogl, P

    2012-05-28

    Phase equilibria have been derived for the isothermal section of the Ta-V-Ge system at 1500 °C (for concentrations phases have been identified within the isothermal section, out of which three were characterized by Rietveld refinement of X-ray powder diffraction data. τ(1)-(Ta(1-x)V(x))(5)Ge(3) (0.21 ≤ x ≤ 0.63) adopts the Mn(5)Si(3)-type and τ(2)-Ta(Ta(x)V(1-x-y)Ge(y))(2), x = 0.02, y = 0.12 was found to be a MgZn(2)-type Laves phase. Detailed transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in several crystallographic directions confirmed lattice parameters and crystal symmetry of this phase and rejected the presence of any superstructure. τ(3)-Ta(9-x+y)V(4+x-y-z)Ge(1+z), x = 0.32, y = 0.51, z = 0.98 crystallizes with the Nb(9)Co(4)Ge-type, whereas the structure of τ(4) is not yet known. Although a MgCu(2)-type cubic Laves phase is not present in the Ta-V binary at this temperature, additions of Ge stabilize this phase in the ternary system: C15-Ta(Ta(x)V(1-x-y)Ge(y))(2), x = 0.04, y = 0.05. V(11)Ge(8) (Cr(11)Ge(8) type) shows a large solubility up to (Ta(x)V(1-x))(11)Ge(8), x = 0.64 at 1500 °C.

  8. Low Temperature Rhombohedral Single Crystal SiGe Epitaxy on c-plane Sapphire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duzik, Adam J.; Choi, Sang H.

    2016-01-01

    Current best practice in epitaxial growth of rhombohedral SiGe onto (0001) sapphire (Al2O3) substrate surfaces requires extreme conditions to grow a single crystal SiGe film. Previous models described the sapphire surface reconstruction as the overriding factor in rhombohedral epitaxy, requiring a high temperature Al-terminated surface for high quality films. Temperatures in the 850-1100 C range were thought to be necessary to get SiGe to form coherent atomic matching between the (111) SiGe plane and the (0001) sapphire surface. Such fabrication conditions are difficult and uneconomical, hindering widespread application. This work proposes an alternative model that considers the bulk sapphire structure and determines how the SiGe film nucleates and grows. Accounting for thermal expansion effects, calculations using this new model show that both pure Ge and SiGe can form single crystal films in the 450-550 C temperature range. Experimental results confirm these predictions, where x-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy show the films fabricated at low temperature rival the high temperature films in crystallographic and surface quality. Finally, an explanation is provided for why films of comparable high quality can be produced in either temperature range.

  9. Fabricating colloidal crystals and construction of ordered nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Zhiqiang

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractColloidal crystals of polymeric or inorganic microspheres are of extensive interest due to their potential applications in such as sensing, optics, photonic bandgap and surface patterning. The article highlights a set of approaches developed in our group, which are efficient to prepare colloidal crystals with ordered voids, patterned colloidal crystals on non-planar surfaces, heterogeneous colloidal crystals of different building blocks, colloidal crystals composed of non-spherical polyhedrons, and colloidal crystals of non-close-packed colloidal microspheres in particular. The use of these colloidal crystals as templates for different microstructures range from nanoscale to micron-scale is also summarized.

  10. Piezoelectric properties of Sr3Ga2Ge4O14 single crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anhua Wu; Jiayue Xu; Juan Zhou; Hui Shen

    2007-04-01

    A new piezoelectric single crystal, Sr3Ga2Ge4O14 (SGG), has been grown successfully by the vertical Bridgman method with crucible-sealing technique. SGG crystal up to 2″ in diameter has been obtained. The relative dielectric constants, the piezoelectric strain constants, elastic compliance constants and electromechanical coupling factors have been determined with resonance and anti-resonance frequencies method by using the impedance analyzer (Agilent 4294A). The results show that the piezoelectric strain constants and electromechanical coupling factors of SGG single crystal are higher than those of LGS single crystals making it a potential substrate material for surface-acoustic wave applications.

  11. Deflection of 200 GeV/c and 450 GeV/c positively charged particles in a bent germanium crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biino, C.; Clement, M.; Doble, N.; Elsener, K.; Freund, A.; Gatignon, L.; Grafström, P.; Kirsebom, K.; Mikkelsen, U.; Møller, S. P.; Uggerhøj, E.; Worm, T.

    1997-02-01

    Experimental results on high-energy beam deflection by means of a bent germanium crystal are presented. Record deflection efficiencies of 60% have been found for 450 GeV/c protons at small angles. The results obtained with 200 and 450 GeV/c positively charged particles are well described by a classical model, giving confidence in predictions for other crystals and different beam momenta.

  12. Deflection of 200 GeV/c and 450 GeV/c Positively Charged Particles in a Bent Germanium Crystal

    CERN Document Server

    Biino, C; Doble, Niels T; Elsener, K; Freund, A; Gatignon, L; Grafström, P; Kirsebom, K; Mikkelsen, U; Møller, S P; Uggerhøj, Erik; Worm, T

    1997-01-01

    Experimental results on high-energy beam deflection by means of a bent germanium crystal are presented. Record deflection efficiencies of 60% have been found for 450 GeV/c protons at small angles. The results obtained with 200 and 450 GeV/c positively charged particles are well described by a classical model, giving confidence in predictions for other crystals and different beam momenta.

  13. Si and Ge nanostructures epitaxy on a crystalline insulating LaAlO{sub 3}(001) substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bischoff, Jean-Luc; Mortada, Hussein; Dentel, Didier; Derivaz, Mickael [Institut de Science des Materiaux de Mulhouse (IS2M), LRC 7228 CNRS-UHA, Universite de Haute Alsace, Mulhouse (France); Ben Azzouz, Chiraz; Akremi, Abdelwahab; Chefi, Chaabanne [Equipe Surface et Interface (ESI) - Faculte des Sciences, Bizerte (Tunisia); Morales, Francisco Miguel; Herrera, Miriam; Manuel, Jose Manuel; Garcia, Rafael [Department of Materials Science, Metallurgical Engineering and Inorganic Chemistry, Cadiz University (Spain); Diani, Mustapha [Equipe de Recherche en Mecanique, Materiaux et Metallurgie, FST, Tanger (Morocco)

    2012-04-15

    We present a comparative structural study of the growth of Si and Ge deposited by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on a c(2 x 2) reconstructed LaAlO{sub 3}(001) substrate. Our findings are based on complementary experimental techniques such as in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED), low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and ex situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). While the layers are amorphous and wet uniformly the substrate in a low deposition temperature range, above 500 C both Si and Ge growths proceed in a Volmer-Weber (VW) mode leading to the formation of nanocrystals (NCs). The islands are found to be composed of pure Si and Ge and to have abrupt interfaces with the substrate. Both semiconductors (SCs) crystallize in their own diamond structure leading to relaxed NCs. No facets could be observed on the crystalline islands. An epitaxial relationship is established for which the (001) planes of Si and Ge are parallel to the LaAlO{sub 3}(001) surface but are rotated by 45 around the [001] growth axis. The Ge lattice undergoes a second rotation of 6 with respect to the (001) growth axis. This 6 tilt is an original mechanism to partially compensate the strain in the Ge islands induced by the large misfit. Whereas a unique epitaxial relationship is pointed out for Si NCs, many Ge NCs are randomly orientated on the surface. This is interpreted by the fact that the Ge islands are less anchored to the substrate due to a large misfit and to the fact that the Ge-O bonds are weaker than the Si-O ones. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Three-dimensional nanostructures on Ge/Si(100) wetting layers: Hillocks and pre-quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalingam, Gopalakrishnan; Floro, Jerrold A.; Reinke, Petra

    2016-05-01

    The annealing of sub-critical Ge wetting layers (WL cake-type structure where the step edges run parallel to the ⟨110⟩ direction, are formed from thin wetting layers, while {105}-faceted structures, called pre-quantum dots (p-QDs), are formed from thicker layers. The wetting layer thickness and thus the misfit strain energy controls the type of structure. The crossover thickness between the hillock and p-QDs regime is between 1.6 and 2.1 ML. The hillocks have larger lateral dimensions and volumes than p-QDs, and the p-QDs are exceptionally small quantum dots with a lower limit of 10 nm in width. Our work opens a new pathway to the control of nanostructure morphology and size in the elastically strained Ge/Si system.

  15. The new piezoelectric single crystal obtained by the Ge doping in the α-quartz structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miclau, M.; Grozescu, A.; Bucur, R.; Poienar, M.; Vlazan, P.; Grozescu, I.; Miclau, N.; Muscutariu, I.

    2009-03-01

    The most interesting properties of the quartz-like crystals are its piezoelectric properties, which are strongly influenced by the intrinsic structural distortions of the material and the crystal growth conditions. Thus, physical properties such as coupling coefficient, the αβ transition can be directly related to structural distortions in terms of the bridging angle. We propose a new way to increase the structural distortion, using Ge to dope the SiO2 structure with respect to α-quartz structure type. Growth of α -SixGe1-xO2 crystal was realized hydrothermally using a temperature gradient method. Single crystals were investigated by electron microprobe analysis, X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy. The results open the possibility to tune the piezoelectric properties of these materials by varying the chemical composition.

  16. Dynamics of interstitial atoms and vacancies during the crystallization of amorphous Si and Ge films by flash lamp annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Naoto; Yoshioka, Naoki; Heya, Akira

    2017-08-01

    We examined the dynamics of interstitial atoms and vacancies in amorphous Si (a-Si) and a-Ge films crystallized by flash lamp annealing in consideration of the self-diffusion coefficients of Si and Ge. We found that the interstitial atoms play an important role in the liquid-phase crystallization (LPC) of a-Si films, whereas the vacancies are more important for the solid-phase crystallization (SPC) of a-Si films along with the LPC and SPC of a-Ge films. For Si, the crystal defect density of the film crystallized by LPC was higher than that of the film crystallized by SPC; the opposite result was achieved for Ge. This phenomenon is considered to be attributed to the existence of interstitial atoms introduced in Si. The thermodynamic calculated results related to the relationship between the point defect and SPC or LPC supported the crystallization mechanism.

  17. A Novel Approach to Obtain GeSbTe-Based High Speed Crystallizing Materials for Phase Change Optical Recording

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-04-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADP012318 TITLE: A Novel Approach to Obtain GeSbTe -Based High Speed...UNCLASSIFIED Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Vol. 674 © 2001 Materials Research Society A Novel Approach to Obtain GeSbTe -Based High Speed Crystallizing...fast crystallizing materials based on a conventional GeSbTe alloy for rewritable phase change optical data storage. By means of co-sputtering

  18. Liquid crystal alignment in electro-responsive nanostructured thermosetting materials based on block copolymer dispersed liquid crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tercjak, A; Garcia, I; Mondragon, I [Materials-Technologies Group, Departamento IngenierIa Quimica y M Ambiente, Escuela Politecnica, Universidad PaIs Vasco/Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, Plaza Europa 1, E-20018 Donostia-San Sebastian (Spain)], E-mail: scptesza@sc.ehu.es, E-mail: inaki.mondragon@ehu.es

    2008-07-09

    Novel well-defined nanostructured thermosetting systems were prepared by modification of a diglicydylether of bisphenol-A epoxy resin (DGEBA) with 10 or 15 wt% amphiphilic poly(styrene-b-ethylene oxide) block copolymer (PSEO) and 30 or 40 wt% low molecular weight liquid crystal 4'-(hexyl)-4-biphenyl-carbonitrile (HBC) using m-xylylenediamine (MXDA) as a curing agent. The competition between well-defined nanostructured materials and the ability for alignment of the liquid crystal phase in the materials obtained has been studied by atomic and electrostatic force microscopy, AFM and EFM, respectively. Based on our knowledge, this is the first time that addition of an adequate amount (10 wt%) of a block copolymer to 40 wt% HBC-(DGEBA/MXDA) leads to a well-organized nanostructured thermosetting system (between a hexagonal and worm-like ordered structure), which is also electro-responsive with high rate contrast. This behavior was confirmed using electrostatic force microscopy (EFM), by means of the response of the HBC liquid crystal phase to the voltage applied to the EFM tip. In contrast, though materials containing 15 wt% PSEO and 30 wt% HBC also form a well-defined nanostructured thermosetting system, they do not show such a high contrast between the uncharged and charged surface.

  19. Liquid crystal alignment in electro-responsive nanostructured thermosetting materials based on block copolymer dispersed liquid crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tercjak, A.; Garcia, I.; Mondragon, I.

    2008-07-01

    Novel well-defined nanostructured thermosetting systems were prepared by modification of a diglicydylether of bisphenol-A epoxy resin (DGEBA) with 10 or 15 wt% amphiphilic poly(styrene-b-ethylene oxide) block copolymer (PSEO) and 30 or 40 wt% low molecular weight liquid crystal 4'-(hexyl)-4-biphenyl-carbonitrile (HBC) using m-xylylenediamine (MXDA) as a curing agent. The competition between well-defined nanostructured materials and the ability for alignment of the liquid crystal phase in the materials obtained has been studied by atomic and electrostatic force microscopy, AFM and EFM, respectively. Based on our knowledge, this is the first time that addition of an adequate amount (10 wt%) of a block copolymer to 40 wt% HBC-(DGEBA/MXDA) leads to a well-organized nanostructured thermosetting system (between a hexagonal and worm-like ordered structure), which is also electro-responsive with high rate contrast. This behavior was confirmed using electrostatic force microscopy (EFM), by means of the response of the HBC liquid crystal phase to the voltage applied to the EFM tip. In contrast, though materials containing 15 wt% PSEO and 30 wt% HBC also form a well-defined nanostructured thermosetting system, they do not show such a high contrast between the uncharged and charged surface.

  20. Synthesis, crystal structure and properties of [(dien)2Mn]Ge2S4 with mixed-valent Ge centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Cheng-Yang; Yuan, Zhuang-Dong; Zhang, Lu-Ge; Wang, Ya-Bai; Liu, Guo-Dong; Gong, Liao-Kuo; Lei, Xiao-Wu

    2013-10-01

    One new manganese thiogermanate, [(dien)2Mn]Ge2S4 (dien=diethylenetriamine), was prepared under mild solvothermal conditions and structurally and spectroscopically characterized. The title compound crystallizes in the orthorhombic system, chiral space group P212121 (no. 19) with a=9.113(4) Å, b=12.475(5) Å, c=17.077(7) Å, V=1941.5(15) Å3 and Z=4. Its structure features a three-dimensional (3D) network composed of a one-dimensional (1D) [Ge2S4]2- anionic chain and a [(dien)2Mn]2+ complex interconnected via various hydrogen bonds. The most interesting structural feature of the compound is the presence of two different oxidation states of germanium centers in the 1D [Ge2S4]2- chain, which is also supported by the result of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurement. The optical property of the title compound has also been studied by UV-vis spectra.

  1. Channeling, Volume Reection and Gamma Emission Using 14GeV Electrons in Bent Silicon Crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, Brandon [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-08-14

    High energy electrons can be deflected with very tight bending radius using a bent silicon crystal. This produces gamma radiation. As these crystals can be thin, a series of bent silicon crystals with alternating direction has the potential to produce coherent gamma radiation with reasonable energy of the driving electron beam. Such an electron crystal undulator offers the prospect for higher energy radiation at lower cost than current methods. Permanent magnetic undulators like LCLS at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory are expensive and very large (about 100 m in case of the LCLS undulator). Silicon crystals are inexpensive and compact when compared to the large magnetic undulators. Additionally, such a high energy coherent light source could be used for probing through materials currently impenetrable by x-rays. In this work we present the experimental data and analysis of experiment T523 conducted at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. We collected the spectrum of gamma ray emission from 14 GeV electrons on a bent silicon crystal counting single photons. We also investigated the dynamics of electron motion in the crystal i.e. processes of channeling and volume reflection at 14 GeV, extending and building off previous work. Our single photon spectrum for the amorphous crystal orientation is consistent with bremsstrahlung radiation and the volume reflection crystal orientation shows a trend consistent with synchrotron radiation at a critical energy of 740 MeV. We observe that in these two cases the data are consistent, but we make no further claims because of statistical limitations. We also extended the known energy range of electron crystal dechanneling length and channeling efficiency to 14 GeV.

  2. Recent progress in the growth and characterization of large Ge single crystals for IR optics and microelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azoulay, Moshe; Gafni, Gabriella; Roth, Michael

    1991-11-01

    During recent years there has been an increasing demand for large homogeneous Ge single crystals to be used as optical components in high resolution thermal imaging systems. Thus, the authors' research focused on understanding the roles of dopant and stress distribution in large Ge crystals and their influence on the optical performance in the IR region, 8-12 micrometers . More recently, a new application for heavily dope, n-type Ge crystals with low resistivity (~0.1 Ω.cm) and high crystalline perfection (EPD ~5 X 103cm-2) has been reported. This paper presents the growth and characterization of large homogeneous Ge single crystals with diameters up to 240 mm for IR optics. Preliminary results on the growth of 75 mm diameter Ge single crystals for substrates preparation are given. These substrates can be used in GaAs solar cells for space applications.

  3. Bulk single crystal growth of SiGe by PMCZ method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Weilian; NIU Xinhuan; CHEN Hongjian; ZHANG Jianxin; SUN Junsheng; ZHANG Enhuai

    2003-01-01

    A new type of magnetic device was used to replace the conventional electro-magnetic field for CZSi (doped with Ge) growth. The device was composed of three permanent magnetic rings and called PMCZ device. The lines of magnetic force are horizontally distributed at radial 360°. Using the ring permanent magnetic field, thermal convection in melt and centrifugal pumping flows due to crystal rotation could be strongly suppressed so that the fluctuations of temperature and micro-growth rate at solid/liquid interface could be restrained effectively. In the PMCZ condition, the growing environment of SiGe bulk single crystal was similar to the crystal growth in space under the condition of micro-gravity. The motion of impurities (Ge, oxygen, etc.) had been controlled by diffusion near the solid/liquid interface. Oxygen concentraion became lower and the distribution of composition became more homogeneous along longitudinal direction and across a radial section in the grown SiGe crystal. The mechanism of PMCZ superior to MCZ was also discussed.

  4. Properties of laser-crystallized polycrystalline SiGe thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weizman, Moshe

    2008-06-06

    In this thesis, structural, electrical, and optical properties of laser-crystallized polycrystalline Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} thin films with 0crystallization of amorphous Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} thin films with 0.3Ge samples that are exposed to a single laser pulse exhibit a ripple structure that evolves into a hillock structure when the samples are irradiated with additional laser pulses. - It is maintained that the main mechanism behind the structure formation is an instability of the propagating solid-liquid interface during solidification. - The study of defects with electron spin resonance showed that laser-crystallized poly-Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} thin films with 0crystallization method and Ge content. The defect density for solid-phase crystallized SiGe films was lower and amounted to N{sub s}=7 x 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3}. - Germanium-rich laser-crystallized poly-SiGe thin films exhibited mostly a broad atypical electric dipole spin resonance (EDSR) signal that was accompanied by a nearly temperature-independent electrical conductivity in the range 20-100 K. - Most likely, the origin of the grain boundary conductance is due to dangling-bond defects and not impurities. Metallic-like conductance occurs when the dangling-bond defect density is above a critical value of about N{sub C} {approx} 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3}. - Laser crystallized poly-Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} thin films with x{>=}0.5 exhibit optical absorption behavior that is characteristic for disordered SiGe, implying that the absorption occurs primarily at the grain boundaries. A sub-band-gap absorption peak was found for

  5. Synthesis of highly monodisperse Ge crystals in a capacitively coupled flow through reactor for photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresback, Ryan; Kortshagen, Uwe

    2006-10-01

    Germanium nanocrystals are interesting candidates for quantum dot-based solar cells. While the band gap of bulk Ge is ˜0.7 eV, the energy gap can be increased due to quantum confinement to ˜ 2eV for Ge particles of ˜3 nm in size. With a single material, Ge nanocrystals of sizes from 3 -15 nm would thus allow to span the entire range of band gaps that is of interest for photovoltaic devices. Moreover, compared to many other quantum dot materials that are currently studied for photovoltaic applications, Ge is perceived as non-toxic and environmentally benign. Ge nanocrystals are synthesized in a tubular, capacitively coupled flow through reactor. Germanium tetrachloride is used as a precursor. It is introduced into the plasma by a flow of argon and hydrogen. At typical pressures of 2 Torr and 40 W of RF power at 13.56 MHz, Ge crystals are generated and reside in the plasma for several tens of milliseconds. The size of the nanocrystals can be controlled in a range from 3-20 nm through the residence time. Particles are highly monodisperse. Organically passivated Ge nanocrystals self-assemble into monolayers when cast from colloidal solutions.

  6. Deflection of 450 GeV protons by planar channeling in a bent silicon crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, B. N.; Møller, S. P.; Uggerhøj, E.; Worm, T.; Atherton, H. W.; Clément, M.; Doble, N.; Elsener, K.; Gatignon, L.; Grafström, P.; Jeanneret, J. B.; Hage-Ali, M.; Siffert, P.

    1992-08-01

    A 450 GeV proton beam has been bent by various angles from 4 to 14 mrad using planar channeling in a (111) silicon crystal. Detailed investigations of the deflected beam as well as the unbent and scattered particles have been performed. The incident beam had a divergence of about 35 μrad (FWHM). 20% of the protons hitting the crystal front face were found to be initially channeled. The measured bending efficiencies range from 5 to 2% (for increasing deflection angles) are compared to theoretical estimates including surface acceptance and dechanneling in bent silicon crystals.

  7. Deflection of 450 GeV protons by planar channeling in a bent silicon crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, B.N.; Moeller, S.P.; Uggerhoej, E.; Worm, T. (Inst. for Synchrotron Radiation, Aarhus Univ. (Denmark)); Atherton, H.W.; Clement, M.; Doble, N.; Elsener, K.; Gatignon, L.; Grafstroem, P.; Jeanneret, J.B. (European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland)); Hage-Ali, M.; Siffert, P. (Centre de Recherches Nucleaires, 67 - Strasbourg (France))

    1992-08-01

    A 450 GeV proton beam has been bent by various angles from 4 to 14 mrad using planar channeling in a (111) silicon crystal. Detailed investigations of the deflected beam as well as the unbent and scattered particles have been performed. The incident beam had a divergence of about 35 [mu]rad (FWHM). 20% of the protons hitting the crystal front face were found to be initially channeled. The measured bending efficiencies range from 5 to 2% (for increasing deflection angles) and are compared to theoretical estimates including surface acceptance and dechanneling in bent silicon crystals. (orig.).

  8. Phase-field simulations of faceted Ge/Si-crystal arrays, merging into a suspended film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvalaglio, Marco; Bergamaschini, Roberto; Backofen, Rainer; Voigt, Axel; Montalenti, Francesco; Miglio, Leo

    2017-01-01

    We simulate the morphological evolution of Ge microcrystals, grown out-of-equilibrium on deeply patterned Si substrates, as resulting from surface diffusion driven by the tendency toward the minimization of the surface energy. In particular, we report three-dimensional phase-field simulations accounting for the realistic surface energy anisotropy of Ge/Si crystals. In Salvalaglio et al. (2015) [10] it has been shown both by experiments and simulations that annealing of closely spaced crystals leads to a coalescence process with the formation of a suspended film. However, this was explained only by considering an isotropic surface energy. Here, we extend such a study by showing first the morphological changes of faceted isolated crystals. Then, the evolution of dense arrays is considered, describing their coalescence along with the evolution of facets. Combined with the previous results without anisotropy in the surface energy, this work allows us to confirm and assess the key features of the coalescence process.

  9. Anisotropic magnetic properties and superzone gap formation in CeGe single crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Pranab Kumar; Kumar, Neeraj; Kulkarni, R; Dhar, S K; Thamizhavel, A

    2012-04-11

    Single crystals of CeGe and its non-magnetic analog LaGe have been grown by the Czochralski method. The CeGe compound crystallizes in the orthorhombic FeB-type crystal structure with the space group Pnma (#62). The anisotropic magnetic properties have been investigated for well oriented single crystals by measuring the magnetic susceptibility, electrical resistivity and heat capacity. It has been found that CeGe orders antiferromagnetically at 10.5 K. Both transport and magnetic studies have revealed large anisotropy, reflecting the orthorhombic crystal structure. The magnetization data at 1.8 K reveal metamagnetic transitions along the [010] direction at 4.8 and 6.4 T and along the [100] direction at a critical field of 10.7 T, while the magnetization along the [001] direction increases linearly without any anomaly up to a field of 16 T. From the magnetic susceptibility and the magnetization measurements it has been found that the [010] direction is the easy axis of magnetization. The electrical resistivity along the three crystallographic directions exhibits an upturn at T(N), indicating superzone gap formation below T(N) in this compound. We have performed crystal electric field analysis on the magnetic susceptibility and the heat capacity data and found that the ground state is a doublet, and the energies of splitting from the ground state to the first and second excited doublet states were estimated to be 39 and 111 K, respectively.

  10. Effect of copper doping on the crystal structure and morphology of 1D nanostructured manganese oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun Hee; Park, Dae Hoon; Hwang, Seong-Ju; Choy, Jin-Ho

    2007-11-01

    We have tried to control the aspect ratio and physicochemical properties of 1D nanostructured manganese oxides through copper doping. Copper-doped manganese oxide nanostructures have been synthesized by one-pot hydrothermal treatment for the mixed solution of permanganate anions and copper cations. According to powder X-ray diffraction and electron microscopic analyses, all the present materials commonly crystallize with alpha-MnO2-type structure but their aspect ratio decreases significantly with increasing the content of copper. Such a variation of crystallite dimension is attributable to the limitation of crystal growth by the incorporation of copper ions. X-ray absorption spectroscopic studies at Mn K- and Cu K-edges clearly demonstrate that the average oxidation state of manganese ions is increased by the substitution of divalent copper ions. Electrochemical measurements reveal the improvement of the electrode performance of nanostructured manganate upon copper doping, which can be interpreted as a result of the decrease of aspect ratio and the increase of Mn valence state. From the present experimental findings, it becomes certain that the present Cu doping method can provide an effective way of controlling the crystal dimension and electrochemical property of 1D nanostructured manganese oxide.

  11. Evolution and Engineering of Precisely Controlled Ge Nanostructures on Scalable Array of Ordered Si Nano-pillars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuguang; Zhou, Tong; Li, Dehui; Zhong, Zhenyang

    2016-06-01

    The scalable array of ordered nano-pillars with precisely controllable quantum nanostructures (QNs) are ideal candidates for the exploration of the fundamental features of cavity quantum electrodynamics. It also has a great potential in the applications of innovative nano-optoelectronic devices for the future quantum communication and integrated photon circuits. Here, we present a synthesis of such hybrid system in combination of the nanosphere lithography and the self-assembly during heteroepitaxy. The precise positioning and controllable evolution of self-assembled Ge QNs, including quantum dot necklace(QDN), QD molecule(QDM) and quantum ring(QR), on Si nano-pillars are readily achieved. Considering the strain relaxation and the non-uniform Ge growth due to the thickness-dependent and anisotropic surface diffusion of adatoms on the pillars, the comprehensive scenario of the Ge growth on Si pillars is discovered. It clarifies the inherent mechanism underlying the controllable growth of the QNs on the pillar. Moreover, it inspires a deliberate two-step growth procedure to engineer the controllable QNs on the pillar. Our results pave a promising avenue to the achievement of desired nano-pillar-QNs system that facilitates the strong light-matter interaction due to both spectra and spatial coupling between the QNs and the cavity modes of a single pillar and the periodic pillars.

  12. Straw man 900-1000 GeV crystal extraction test beam for Fermilab collider operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrigan, R.A. Jr.

    1996-10-01

    A design for a 900-1000 GeV, 100 khz parasitic test beam for use during collider operations has been developed. The beam makes use of two bent crystals, one for extraction and the other one for redirecting the beam in to the present Switchyard beam system. The beam requires only a few modifications in the A0 area and largely uses existing devices. It should be straight-forward to modify one or two beam lines in the fixed target experimental areas to work above 800 GeV. Possibilities for improvements to the design,to operate at higher fluxes are discussed.

  13. Structural features of Ge(Ga) single crystals grown by the floating zone method in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokhorov, I. A.; Zakharov, B. G.; Senchenkov, A. S.; Egorov, A. V.; Camel, D.; Tison, P.

    2008-11-01

    Structural features of the Ge(Ga) single crystal grown by the floating zone (FZ) method in microgravity environment aboard the FOTON-9 spacecraft are investigated by methods of X-ray topography, double-crystal diffractometry, selective chemical etching and spreading resistance measurements. It is established that the crystal structure is characterized by the presence of an incompletely melted region and defects caused by its formation. Growth striations revealed in regrown part of the crystal, testify to development of non-stationary capillary Marangoni convection in melt at the realized parameters of FZ remelting under space conditions. Periodicity of the growth striations is compared to frequency characteristics of heat flux pulsations through the crystallization front, found as a result of numerical simulation of melt hydrodynamics.

  14. Ether-like Si-Ge hydrides for applications in synthesis of nanostructured semiconductors and dielectrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tice, Jesse B; Weng, Change; Tolle, John; D'Costa, Vijay R; Singh, Rachna; Menendez, Jose; Kouvetakis, John; Chizmeshya, Andrew V G

    2009-09-14

    Hydrolysis reactions of silyl-germyl triflates are used to produce ether-like Si-Ge hydride compounds including H(3)SiOSiH(3) and the previously unknown O(SiH(2)GeH(3))(2). The structural, energetic and vibrational properties of the latter were investigated by experimental and quantum chemical simulation methods. A combined Raman, infrared and theoretical analysis indicated that the compound consists of an equal mixture of linear and gauche isomers in analogy to the butane-like H(3)GeSiH(2)SiH(2)GeH(3) with an exceedingly small torsional barrier of approximately 0.2 kcal mol(-1). This is also corroborated by thermochemistry simulations which indicate that the energy difference between the isomers is less than 1 kcal mol(-1). Proof-of-principle depositions of O(SiH(2)GeH(3))(2) at 500 degrees C on Si(100) yielded nearly stoichiometric Si(2)Ge(2)O materials, closely reflecting the composition of the molecular core. A complete characterization of the film by RBS, XTEM, Raman and IR ellipsometry revealed the presence of Si(0.30)Ge(0.70) quantum dots embedded within an amorphous matrix of Si-Ge-O suboxide, as required for the fabrication of high performance nonvolatile memory devices. The use of readily available starting materials coupled with facile purification and high yields also makes the above molecular approach an attractive synthesis route to H(3)SiOSiH(3) with industrial applications in the formation of Si-O-N high-k gate materials in high-mobility SiGe based transistors.

  15. Hard photon yields from (70-240) GeV electrons incident near axial directions on Si, Ge and W single crystals with a large thickness variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medenwaldt, R.; Møller, S. P.; Tang-Petersen, S.; Uggerhøj, E.; Elsener, K.; Hage-Ali, M.; Siffert, P.; Stoquert, J.; Sona, P.; Maier, K.

    1990-06-01

    The dramatic peak found in photon spectra from 150 GeV channelled electrons has for the first time been investigated for 70, 150, and 240 GeV electrons incident on crystals with thickness from 100μ (Si). Very pronounced variations for the high energy part of the photon spectra are found. In Si the photon peak is not found for lower energies and thin crystals. For well-aligned electrons in Si the yield is more than 160 times the Bethe-Heitler one. In general the peak in the photon spectra disaapears for incident angles larger than half the critical angle for channeling. Dramatic radiative energy losses are found along axial directions - in 0.6 mm Ge a 150 GeV electron loses more than 60% of its total energy.

  16. Hard photon yields from (70-240) GeV electrons incident near axial directions on Si, Ge and W single crystals with a large thickness variation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medenwaldt, R.; Moeller, S.P.; Tang-Petersen, S.; Uggerhoej, E. (Aarhus Univ. (Denmark). Inst. of Physics); Elsener, K. (European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)); Hage-Ali, M.; Siffert, P.; Stoquert, J. (Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires); Sona, P. (Florence Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Florence (Italy)); Maier, K. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Metallforschung, Stuttgart (Germany, F.R.))

    1990-06-14

    The dramatic peak found in photon spectra from 150 GeV channelled electrons has for the first time been investigated for 70, 150, and 240 GeV electrons incident on crystals with thicknesses from 100 {mu}m to 1400 {mu}m (Si). Very pronounced variations for the high energy part of the photon spectra are found. In Si the photon peak is not found for lower energies and thin crystals. For well-aligned electrons in Si the yield is more than 160 times the Bethe-Heitler one. In general the peak in the photon spectra disappears for incident angles larger than half the critical angle for channelling. Dramatic radiative energy losses are found along axial directions - in 0.6 mm <110> Ge a 150 GeV electron loses more than 60% of its total energy. (orig.).

  17. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Studies of Tellurium and Antimony Bonding in Crystal Sb2Te3, GeTe, and Ge2Sb2Te5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobela, David C.; Taylor, P. Craig

    2008-10-01

    As a starting point in understanding the magnetic resonance data for amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5, the prototypical phase change material, we have used 121Sb and 125Te nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to study crystalline Sb2Te3, GeTe, and Ge2Sb2Te5. The frequency space data are affected by a quadrupole (121Sb only) and chemical shift (121Sb and 125Te) interaction, which reflect the bonding asymmetries occurring around each nuclei. The 125Te data indicate there are two distinct Te sites in Sb2Te3 and one Te site in the GeTe, in agreement with the known crystal structures. The Ge2Sb2Te5125Te data are less well-resolved, which is probably a consequence of the random arrangement of Sb/Ge atoms around the Te sites. Despite the lack of resolution, these data do correspond to the spectral positions and breadths observed in Sb2Te3 and GeTe, which suggests that Ge2Sb2Te5 contains similar Te bonding structures. The 121Sb data in Sb2Te3 show that the Sb sites have an approximately axially symmetric bonding environment. The Sb data in Ge2Sb2Te5 reveal that the average bonding structure of Sb is very different from the Sb sites occurring in Sb2Te3.

  18. Evolution of the Shape of Detached GeSi Crystals in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volz, M. P.; Mazuruk, K.

    2013-01-01

    A series of GeSi crystal growth experiments are planned to be conducted in the Low Gradient Furnace (LGF) onboard the International Space Station. An objective of these experiments is to understand the mechanisms of detached Bridgman growth, a process in which a gap exists between the growing semiconductor crystal and the crucible wall. Crystals grown without wall contact have superior quality to otherwise similar crystals grown in direct contact with a container, especially with respect to impurity incorporation, formation of dislocations, and residual stress in crystals. Numerical calculations are used to determine the conditions in which a gap can exist. According to crystal shape stability theory, only some of these gap widths will be dynamically stable. Beginning with a crystal diameter that differs from stable conditions, the transient crystal growth process is analyzed. In microgravity, dynamic stability depends only on capillary effects and is decoupled from heat transfer. Depending on the initial conditions and growth parameters, the crystal shape will evolve towards the crucible wall, towards a stable gap width, or towards the center of the crucible, collapsing the meniscus.

  19. Crystallization of a self-assembled three-dimensional DNA nanostructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendek, Kimberly N; Fromme, Raimund; Grotjohann, Ingo; Fromme, Petra

    2013-02-01

    The powerful and specific molecular-recognition system present in the base-pairing of DNA allows for the design of a plethora of nanostructures. In this work, the crystallization of a self-assembling three-dimensional B-DNA nanostructure is described. The DNA nanostructure consists of six single-stranded oligonucleotides that hybridize to form a three-dimensional tetrahedron of 80 kDa in molecular mass and 20 bp on each edge. Crystals of the tetrahedron have been successfully produced and characterized. These crystals may form the basis for an X-ray structure of the tetrahedron in the future. Nucleotide crystallography poses many challenges, leading to the fact that only 1352 X-ray structures of nucleic acids have been solved compared with more than 80,000 protein structures. In this work, the crystallization optimization for three-dimensional tetrahedra is also described, with the eventual goal of producing nanocrystals to overcome the radiation-damage obstacle by the use of free-electron laser technology in the future.

  20. Surface finishing of ZnGeP2 single crystal by diamond tool turning method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xiaobin; Xu, Min; Du, Wenhao; Chu, Chong

    2017-09-01

    In this work, diamond tool turning of vertical gradient freeze (VGF) grown single crystal ZnGeP2 (ZGP) was investigated. The flatness of machined ZGP surface was measured with a Zygo interferometry to be less than λ/10 and the roughness was measured with a Taloy profilermeter to be 0.7-0.9 nm. The laser-induced damage threshold was measured with a 2.07 μm wavelength pulsed laser to be >3 J/cm2.

  1. Fiber Bragg Gratings in Small-Core Ge-Doped Photonic Crystal Fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yiping Wang; Hartmut Bartelt; Wolfgang Ecke; Reinhardt Willsch; Jens Kobelke; Michael Kautz; Sven Brueckner; Manfred Rothhardt

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) inscribed in a small-core Ge-doped photonic crystal fibers with a UV laser and a Talbot inter-ferometer. The responses of such FBGs to temper-ature, strain, bending, and transverse-loading were systematically investigated. The Bragg wavelength of the FBGs shifts toward longer wavelengths with increasing temperature, tensile strain, and trans-verse-loading. The bending and transverse- loading properties of the FBGs are sensitive to the fiber orientations.

  2. Single-crystal study of highly anisotropic CeNiGe{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pikul, A P; Kaczorowski, D; Bukowski, Z; Plackowski, T; Gofryk, K [Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, PO Box 1410, 50-950 Wroclaw (Poland)

    2004-09-01

    High quality single crystals of CeNiGe{sub 2} have been investigated by means of magnetic susceptibility, magnetization, electrical resistivity, magnetoresistivity and thermoelectric power measurements, carried out along all three principal crystallographic directions. The compound is an antiferromagnetic Kondo system that orders magnetically at T{sub N} = 3.9 K and undergoes a spin structure rearrangement at T{sub 1} = 3.2 K. The magnetic behaviour is strongly anisotropic with the easy magnetic direction parallel to the crystallographic a-axis. The Kondo temperature and the total crystal field splitting are of the order of 20 and 100 K, respectively.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of germanium monosulphide (GeS) single crystals grown using different transporting agents

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G K Solanki; Dipika B Patel; Sandip Unadkat; M K Agarwal

    2010-05-01

    This paper reports the growth of germanium monosulphide (GeS) single crystals by vapour phase technique using different transporting agents. The single crystallinity and composition of the grown crystals have been verified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX) respectively. Resistivity measurements have been carried out in different temperature ranges. Transport parameters, e.g. resistivity, Hall coefficient, carrier concentration and mobility have been measured at varying magnetic fields. All the experimental results have been explained.

  4. Prediction of Giant Thermoelectric Efficiency in Crystals with Interlaced Nanostructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puzyrev, Y S; Shen, X; Pantelides, S T

    2016-01-13

    We present a theoretical study of the thermoelectric efficiency of "interlaced crystals", recently discovered in hexagonal-CuInS2 nanoparticles. Interlaced crystals are I-III-VI2 or II-IV-V2 tetrahedrally bonded compounds. They have a perfect Bravais lattice in which the two cations have an infinite set of possible ordering patterns within the cation sublattice. The material comprises nanoscale interlaced domains and phases with corresponding boundaries. Here we employ density functional theory and large-scale molecular dynamics calculations based on model classical potentials to demonstrate that the phase and domain boundaries are effective phonon scatterers and greatly suppress thermal conductivity. However, the absence of both structural defects and strain in the interlaced material results in a minimal effect on electronic properties. We predict an increase of thermal resistivity of up to 2 orders of magnitude, which makes interlaced crystals an exceptional candidate for thermoelectric applications.

  5. Tunable Nanostructures and Crystal Structures in Titanium Oxide Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuess H

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Controllable nanostructures in spin coated titanium oxide (TiO2 films have been achieved by a very simple means, through change of post deposition annealing temperature. Electron beam imaging and reciprocal space analysis revealed as-deposited TiO2films to be characterized by a dominant anatase phase which converts to the rutile form at 600 °C and reverts to the anatase modification at 1,200 °C. The phase changes are also accompanied by changes in the film microstructure: from regular nanoparticles (as-deposited to nanowires (600 °C and finally to dendrite like shapes at 1,200 °C. Photoluminescence studies, Raman spectral results, and X-ray diffraction data also furnish evidence in support of the observed solid state phase transformations in TiO2.

  6. Linear to Circular Polarisation Conversion using Birefringent Properties of Aligned Crystals for Multi-GeV Photons

    CERN Document Server

    Apyan, A; Badelek, B; Ballestrero, S; Biino, C; Birol, I; Cenci, P; Connell, S H; Eichblatt, S; Fonseca, T; Freund, A; Gorini, B; Groess, R; Ispirian, K; Ketel, T; Kononets, Yu V; López, A; Mangiarotti, A; Sellschop, J P Friedel; Shieh, M; Sona, P; Strakhovenko, V M; Uggerhøj, Erik; Uggerhøj, U; Van Rens, B; Velasco, M; Vilakazi, Z Z; Wessely, O; Ünel, G; Kononets, Yu.V.

    2003-01-01

    We present the first experimental results on the use of a thick aligned Si crystal acting as a quarter wave plate to induce a degree of circular polarisation in a high energy linearly polarised photon beam. The linearly polarised photon beam is produced from coherent bremsstrahlung radiation by 178 GeV unpolarised electrons incident on an aligned Si crystal, acting as a radiator. The linear polarisation of the photon beam is characterised by measuring the asymmetry in electron-positron pair production in a Ge crystal, for different crystal orientations. The Ge crystal therefore acts as an analyser. The birefringence phenomenon, which converts the linear polarisation to circular polarisation, is observed by letting the linearly polarised photons beam pass through a thick Si quarter wave plate crystal, and then measuring the asymmetry in electron-positron pair production again for a selection of relative angles between the crystallographic planes of the radiator, analyser and quarter wave plate. The systematics...

  7. Local atomic arrangements and lattice distortions in layered Ge-Sb-Te crystal structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotnyk, Andriy; Ross, Ulrich; Bernütz, Sabine; Thelander, Erik; Rauschenbach, Bernd

    2016-05-01

    Insights into the local atomic arrangements of layered Ge-Sb-Te compounds are of particular importance from a fundamental point of view and for data storage applications. In this view, a detailed knowledge of the atomic structure in such alloys is central to understanding the functional properties both in the more commonly utilized amorphous-crystalline transition and in recently proposed interfacial phase change memory based on the transition between two crystalline structures. Aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy allows direct imaging of local arrangement in the crystalline lattice with atomic resolution. However, due to the non-trivial influence of thermal diffuse scattering on the high-angle scattering signal, a detailed examination of the image contrast requires comparison with theoretical image simulations. This work reveals the local atomic structure of trigonal Ge-Sb-Te thin films by using a combination of direct imaging of the atomic columns and theoretical image simulation approaches. The results show that the thin films are prone to the formation of stacking disorder with individual building blocks of the Ge2Sb2Te5, Ge1Sb2Te4 and Ge3Sb2Te6 crystal structures intercalated within randomly oriented grains. The comparison with image simulations based on various theoretical models reveals intermixed cation layers with pronounced local lattice distortions, exceeding those reported in literature.

  8. Silicon photonic crystal nanostructures for refractive index sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorfner, Dominic; Hürlimann, T.; Zabel, T.

    2008-01-01

    The authors present the fabrication and optical investigation of Silicon on Insulator photonic crystal drop-filters for use as refractive index sensors. Two types of defect nanocavities (L3 and H1-r) are embedded between two W1 photonic crystal waveguides to evanescently route light at the cavity...... mode frequency between input and output waveguides. Optical characterization of the structures in air and various liquids demonstrate detectivities in excess of n=n = 0:018 and n=n = 0:006 for the H1-r and L3 cavities, respectively. The measured cavity-frequencies and detector refractive index...

  9. Antiferro- and ferromagnetic ordering in a PrGe single crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Pranab Kumar; Kumar, K Ramesh; Kulkarni, R; Dhar, S K; Thamizhavel, A

    2012-11-28

    An equiatomic PrGe single crystal was grown by the Czochralski pulling method. The grown single crystal was found to have CrB-type orthorhombic crystal structure with the space group Cmcm (no. 63). Transport and magnetization data reveal large anisotropy in the electrical resistivity, magnetic susceptibility and magnetization. PrGe was found to exhibit two consecutive magnetic orderings at 44 K and 41.5 K, respectively. The magnetic susceptibility measurement along the three principal directions in low applied fields revealed a cusp-like behaviour at 44 K while at 41.5 K a ferromagnetic-like increase was observed. The hysteretic behaviour in the magnetization measurement at 1.8 K confirmed the ferromagnetic nature of PrGe at low temperatures. The heat capacity data clearly revealed the bulk nature of two magnetic transitions by the presence of two sharp peaks attaining values exceeding 40 J K(-1) mol(-1) at the respective temperatures. The absence of a Schottky contribution in the magnetic part of the heat capacity indicates a quasi-ninefold degenerate J = 4 magnetic ground state in this system. The low temperature data of electrical resistivity and the magnetic part of the heat capacity show the existence of a gap in the spin-wave spectrum.

  10. Magnetic excitations in single crystals of Cu1-xNixGeO3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coad, S.; Petrenko, O.; Paul, D.M.;

    1997-01-01

    We have studied magnetic excitations in two single crystals of CuGeO3 doped with Ni2+, using inelastic neutron scattering at wave vectors close to the antiferromagnetic zone centre, Q=(0,1,1/2). Pure CuGeO3 is a one-dimensional compound with a spin-Peierls (S-P) gap of approximate to 1.95 meV. When...... Ni2+ is substituted for Cu2+ in CuGeO3, the 1D chains are broken into finite segments, suppressing the S-P phase and inducing a tow-temperature transition to coexistence with antiferromagnetic order. We show that for the 1.7% Ni-doped crystal the S-P gap is renormalised to approximate to 1.7 me......V, while approximate doubling of the dopant concentration to 3.2% results in an almost complete collapse of this excitation. Instead, measurements on the 3.2% Ni-doped crystal revealed a magnetic excitation that could be clearly resolved from the elastic magnetic peak. This excitation followed...

  11. Non-classical crystallization of thin films and nanostructures in CVD and PVD processes

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, Nong Moon

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to a recently-developed approach to the growth mechanism of thin films and nanostructures via chemical vapour deposition (CVD). Starting from the underlying principles of the low pressure synthesis of diamond films, it is shown that diamond growth occurs not by individual atoms but by charged nanoparticles. This newly-discovered growth mechanism turns out to be general to many CVD and some physical vapor deposition (PVD) processes. This non-classical crystallization is a new paradigm of crystal growth, with active research taking place on growth in solution, especially in biomineralization processes. Established understanding of the growth of thin films and nanostructures is based around processes involving individual atoms or molecules. According to the author’s research over the last two decades, however, the generation of charged gas phase nuclei is shown to be the rule rather than the exception in the CVD process, and charged gas phase nuclei are actively ...

  12. The Insulator to Superconductor Transition in Ga-Doped Semiconductor Ge Single Crystal Induced by the Annealing Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. B. Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We have fabricated the heavily Ga-doped layer in Ge single crystal by the implantation and rapid thermal annealing method. The samples show a crossover from the insulating to the superconducting behavior as the annealing temperature increases. Transport measurements suggest that the superconductivity is from the heavily Ga-doped layer in Ge.

  13. Direct laser interference ablating nanostructures on organic crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fang, Hong-Hua; Ding, Ran; Lu, Shi-Yang; Wang, Lei; Feng, Jing; Chen, Qi-Dai; Sun, Hong-Bo; Fang, Honghua

    2012-01-01

    Two-beam interference ablation of 1,4-Bis(4-methylstyryl) benzene organic crystal by short laser pulses (10 ns, 355 nm) is presented. The influence of laser fluence, interference period, and pulse number on the morphology have been studied. The morphology is closely associated with the molecular int

  14. Nanostructure characterization of beta-sheet crystals in silk under various temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the nanostructure characterizations of β-sheet in silk fiber with different reaction temperatures. A molecular dynamic model is developed and simulated by Gromacs software packages. The results reveal the change rules of the number of hydrogen bonds in β-sheet under different temperatures. The best reaction temperature for the β-sheet crystals is also found. This work provides theoretical basis for the designing of materials based on silk.

  15. Mn-Rich Nanostructures in Ge1-xMnx: Fabrication, Microstructure, and Magnetic Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic semiconductors have attracted extensive attention due to their novel physical properties as well as the potential applications in future spintronics devices. Over the past decade, tremendous efforts have been made in the diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS system, with many controversies disentangled but many puzzles unsolved as well. Here in this paper, we summarize recent experimental results in the growth, microstructure and magnetic properties of Ge-based DMSs (mainly Ge1-xMnx, which have been comprehensively researched owing to their compatibility with Si microelectronics. Growth conditions of high-quality, defect-free, and magnetic Ge1-xMnx bulks, thin films, ordered arrays, quantum dots, and nanowires are discussed in detail.

  16. IBA study of SiGe/SiO{sub 2} nanostructured multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barradas, Nuno P., E-mail: nunoni@ctn.ist.utl.pt [Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias Nucleares, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, E.N. 10 (ao km 139,7), 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Laboratório de Engenharia Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, E.N. 10 (ao km 139,7), 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Alves, E. [Associação Euratom/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Vieira, E.M.F. [Centre of Physics and Physics Department, University of Minho, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Parisini, A. [CNR-IMM Sezione di Bologna, via P. Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Conde, O. [Physics Department and ICEMS, University of Lisbon, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Martín-Sánchez, J. [Laser Processing Group, Instituto de Óptica, CSIC, C/Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Rolo, A.G. [Centre of Physics and Physics Department, University of Minho, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Chahboun, A. [Centre of Physics and Physics Department, University of Minho, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); FST Tanger, Physics Department, BP 416 Tanger (Morocco); Gomes, M.J.M. [Centre of Physics and Physics Department, University of Minho, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal)

    2014-07-15

    SiGe/SiO{sub 2} multilayers with layer thickness of 5 nm were deposited with RF magnetron sputtering. The as deposited samples had well defined SiGe amorphous layers. Different annealing treatments were made to promote the formation of SiGe nanocrystals. We report an ion beam analysis study with the Rutherford backscattering and elastic recoil analysis detection techniques, in order to determine the thickness and composition of the nanolayers, and gain insight into the evolution of the roughness of the layers. The results are correlated with other structural properties of the samples, as measured with complementary techniques such as grazing incidence X-ray diffraction annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy.

  17. Organic single crystals or crystalline micro/nanostructures: Preparation and field-effect transistor applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Organic single crystals hold great promise for the development of organic semiconductor materials,because they could reveal the intrinsic electronic properties of these materials,providing high-performance electronic devices and probing the structureproperty relationships.This article reviews the preparation methods for organic single crystals or crystalline micro/nanostructures,including vapor phase growth methods and solution-processed methods,and summarizes a few methods employed in the fabrication of field-effect transistors along with dozens of examples concerning both small molecules and polymers with high field-effect performance.

  18. Quantum Chemistry of Solids LCAO Treatment of Crystals and Nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Evarestov, Robert A

    2012-01-01

    Quantum Chemistry of Solids delivers a comprehensive account of the main features and possibilities of LCAO methods for the first principles calculations of electronic structure of periodic systems. The first part describes the basic theory underlying the LCAO methods  applied to periodic systems and the use of Hartree-Fock(HF), Density Function theory(DFT) and hybrid Hamiltonians. The translation and site symmetry consideration is included to establish connection between k-space solid –state physics and real-space quantum chemistry. The inclusion of electron correlation effects for periodic systems is considered on the basis of localized crystalline orbitals. The possibilities of LCAO methods for chemical bonding analysis in periodic systems are discussed. The second part deals with the applications of LCAO methods  for calculations of bulk crystal properties, including magnetic ordering and crystal structure optimization.  In the second edition two new chapters are added in the application part II of t...

  19. Effect of electrical field on crystallization and ferroelectric properties of Ge:Sb:Te films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gervacio Arciniega, J.J.; Prokhorov, E.; Espinoza Beltran, F.J.; Trapaga Martinez, L.G. [CINVESTAV, Unidad Queretaro (Mexico); Gonzalez-Hernandez, J. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, S.C. and Laboratorio Nacional de Nanotecnologia, Chihuahua (Mexico)

    2011-11-15

    In this work impedance spectroscopy has been used to investigate of the NaCl type-hexagonal transition in stoichiometric Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} and in non-stoichiometric (Ge{sub 24}Sb{sub 15}Te{sub 61}) films. The temperature dependence of capacitance in all films shows an abrupt change (about 4-6 times) at the temperature corresponding to the end of the NaCl type-hexagonal transition. Additional, impedance measurements were carried out in films which have been crystallized with an external DC electric field. Comparing the results in the films crystallized with and without the external electric field, it is observed that in films crystallized with an external electric field, the capacitance increases during the NaCl type-hexagonal transition for about 9-15 times and that the piezoresponse force microscopy measurements have shown ferroelectric domains in the NaCl type phase. External electrical field changes significantly the onset of amorphous-NaCl type crystallization temperature which could be related with an increase in atomic diffusion, promoting the growth of the crystalline phase. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  20. Crystal growth and detector performance of large size high-purity Ge crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Guojian; Mei, Hao; Mei, Dongming; Irmscher, Klaus; Guan, Yutong; Yang, Gang

    2015-01-01

    High-purity germanium crystals approximately 12 cm in diameter were grown in a hydrogen atmosphere using the Czochralski method. The dislocation density of the crystals was determined to be in the range of 2000 - 4200 cm-2, which meets a requirement for use as a radiation detector. The axial and radial distributions of impurities in the crystals were measured and are discussed. A planar detector was also fabricated from one of the crystals and then evaluated for electrical and spectral performance. Measurements of gamma-ray spectra from Cs-137 and Am-241 sources demonstrate that the detector has excellent energy resolution.

  1. Si/Ge复合纳米结构的制备及表征%Synthesis and characterization of Si/Ge composite nanostructures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦艳; 张晓娜; 郑坤; 韩晓东; 张泽

    2009-01-01

    By thermal decomposition of Si and GeO_2 powder, different morphologies of Ge- and Si-based nanomaterials have been obtained at different temperature regions of the substrate, including the octopus-like, feather-like and besom-like nanostructures. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) provided morphologies of these different nanostructures. Combining transmission electron microscopy (TEM) bright-field images and EDS mapping, the elemental distributions and their microstructures of these nanomaterials were investigated. The growing processes of these nanostructures were also discussed.%以Si和GeO_2为原料,通过简单直接的热蒸发法在衬底的不同温度区域上得到了章鱼状、羽毛球状、拖把状等不同形貌的Si/Ge/O复合纳米结构.利用扫描电镜(SEM)研究了不同衬底区域纳米结构的形态,结合透射电镜(TEM)的明场像和扫描透射(STEM)模式下能谱的面扫描,系统地研究了不同形貌纳米结构的成分分布,并对生长过程进行了探讨.

  2. Dislocation structure of Ge crystals grown by low thermal gradient Czochralski technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trukhanov, E. M.; Fritzler, K. B.; Vasilenko, A. P.; Kolesnikov, A. V.; Kasimkin, P. V.; Moskovskih, V. A.

    2017-06-01

    Dislocation structure of the Ge single crystals grown by Czochralski method with low thermal gradient has been studied. The selective etching technique and the X-Ray transmission and reflection topography were used. Clearly defined non-uniform dislocation distribution over the crystal cross - section is revealed. Helical dislocations and sets of prismatic dislocation loops are registered. Helical dislocations perpendicular to the ingot axis are situated near the boundary between the regions with low and high dislocation densities (102 and 103 cm-2, respectively). Their length can be as much as several millimeters. Dislocation formations lying at a 35.3° to the crystal axis along directions are also observed. These formations have the shape of prism confined by {111} planes.

  3. Strain relaxation of GaAs/Ge crystals on patterned Si substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taboada, A. G., E-mail: gonzalez@phys.ethz.ch; Kreiliger, T.; Falub, C. V.; Känel, H. von [Laboratory for Solid State Physics, ETH Zürich, Otto-Stern-Weg 1, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Isa, F.; Isella, G. [L-NESS, Department of Physics, Politecnico di Milano, via Anzani 42, I-22100 Como (Italy); Salvalaglio, M.; Miglio, L. [L-NESS, Department of Materials Science, Università di Milano-Bicocca, via Cozzi 55, I-20125 Milano (Italy); Wewior, L.; Fuster, D.; Alén, B. [IMM, Instituto de Microelectrónica de Madrid (CNM, CSIC), C/Isaac Newton 8, E-28760 Tres Cantos, Madrid (Spain); Richter, M.; Uccelli, E. [Functional Materials Group, IBM Research-Zürich, Säumerstrasse 4, CH-8803 Rüschlikon (Switzerland); Niedermann, P.; Neels, A.; Dommann, A. [Centre Suisse d' Electronique et Microtechnique, Jaquet-Droz 1, CH-2002 Neuchatel (Switzerland); Mancarella, F. [CNR-IMM of Bologna, Via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy)

    2014-01-13

    We report on the mask-less integration of GaAs crystals several microns in size on patterned Si substrates by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy. The lattice parameter mismatch is bridged by first growing 2-μm-tall intermediate Ge mesas on 8-μm-tall Si pillars by low-energy plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. We investigate the morphological evolution of the GaAs crystals towards full pyramids exhibiting energetically stable (111) facets with decreasing Si pillar size. The release of the strain induced by the mismatch of thermal expansion coefficients in the GaAs crystals has been studied by X-ray diffraction and photoluminescence measurements. The strain release mechanism is discussed within the framework of linear elasticity theory by Finite Element Method simulations, based on realistic geometries extracted from scanning electron microscopy images.

  4. Radiation from multi-GeV electrons and positrons in periodically bent silicon crystal

    CERN Document Server

    Bezchastnov, Victor G; Solovyov, Andrey V

    2015-01-01

    A periodically bent Si crystal is shown to efficiently serve for producing highly monochromatic radiation in a gamma-ray energy spectral range. A short-period small-amplitude bending yields narrow undulator-type spectral peaks in radiation from multi-GeV electrons and positrons channeling through the crystal. Benchmark theoretical results on the undulator are obtained by simulations of the channeling with a full atomistic approach to the projectile-crystal interactions over the macroscopic propagation distances. The simulations are facilitated by employing the MBN Explorer package for molecular dynamics calculations on the meso- bio- and nano-scales. The radiation from the ultra-relativistic channeling projectiles is computed within the quasi-classical formalism. The effects due to the quantum recoil are shown to be significantly prominent in the gamma-ray undulator radiation.

  5. Synthesis, crystal structure and properties of [(dien){sub 2}Mn]Ge{sub 2}S{sub 4} with mixed-valent Ge centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yue, Cheng-Yang; Yuan, Zhuang-Dong; Zhang, Lu-Ge; Wang, Ya-Bai; Liu, Guo-Dong; Gong, Liao-Kuo [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry in Universities of Shandong, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jining University, Qufu, Shandong 273155 (China); Lei, Xiao-Wu, E-mail: xwlei_jnu@163.com [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry in Universities of Shandong, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jining University, Qufu, Shandong 273155 (China); State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Institute of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250100 (China)

    2013-10-15

    One new manganese thiogermanate, [(dien){sub 2}Mn]Ge{sub 2}S{sub 4} (dien=diethylenetriamine), was prepared under mild solvothermal conditions and structurally and spectroscopically characterized. The title compound crystallizes in the orthorhombic system, chiral space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} (no. 19) with a=9.113(4) Å, b=12.475(5) Å, c=17.077(7) Å, V=1941.5(15) Å{sup 3} and Z=4. Its structure features a three-dimensional (3D) network composed of a one-dimensional (1D) [Ge{sub 2}S{sub 4}]{sup 2−} anionic chain and a [(dien){sub 2}Mn]{sup 2+} complex interconnected via various hydrogen bonds. The most interesting structural feature of the compound is the presence of two different oxidation states of germanium centers in the 1D [Ge{sub 2}S{sub 4}]{sup 2−} chain, which is also supported by the result of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurement. The optical property of the title compound has also been studied by UV–vis spectra. - Graphical abstract: One new thiogermanate, [(dien){sub 2}Mn]Ge{sub 2}S{sub 4}, contains a one-dimensional [Ge{sub 2}S{sub 4}]{sup 2−} anionic chain with two different oxidation states of germanium centers. Display Omitted - Highlights: • One new manganese thiogermanate [(dien){sub 2}Mn]Ge{sub 2}S{sub 4} was prepared. • The compound features 1D [Ge{sub 2}S{sub 4}]{sup 2−} chain composed of [Ge{sup II}S{sub 4}] and [Ge{sup IV}S{sub 4}] tetrahedra. • The first example of inorganic–organic hybrid thiogermanates with mixed valent Ge centers.

  6. Structural and thermoelectric properties of SiGe/Al multilayer systems during metal induced crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindorf, M.; Rohrmann, H.; Span, G.; Raoux, S.; Jordan-Sweet, J.; Albrecht, M.

    2016-11-01

    While the process of metal induced crystallization (MIC) is widely used in the fabrication of thin film electronic devices, its application to the field of thermoelectrics is fairly new. Especially, its implementation in the field of the classic thermoelectric material SiGe could lead to a low cost approach by combining the benefits of low thermal budget, self-doping, and thin film and sputter deposition compatibility. In this work, samples consisting of SiGe/Al multilayers deposited on aluminum oxide based substrates have been prepared. Special emphasis was put on the ratio of Al to SiGe and the resulting changes in transport properties during annealing. On one hand, a certain amount of Al is needed to ensure a complete MIC process for the SiGe, but on the other hand, an excess of Al results in a metallic system with low thermoelectric efficiency. In-situ characterization during annealing of the samples was carried out via x-ray diffraction, electrical resistivity, and Seebeck measurements.

  7. Coherent lateral-growth of Ge over insulating film by rapid-melting-crystallization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadoh, T., E-mail: sadoh@ed.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Electronics, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Kurosawa, M. [Department of Electronics, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); JSPS Research Fellow, 5-3-1 Kojimachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0083 (Japan); Toko, K.; Miyao, M. [Department of Electronics, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

    2014-04-30

    In rapid-melting-crystallization of network Ge-on-insulator (GOI), coalescence of growth-fronts inevitably occurs. To clarify crystallinity of the coalesced regions of two growth-fronts in GOI stripes, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy analyses are performed. These analyses reveal that lattice planes of two growth-fronts coherently align without strains for short growth-distance (≤ 5 μm). The lattice planes at growth-fronts start to tilt gradually for growth-distance above 5 μm. For intermediate growth-distance (5–150 μm), slightly-tilting lattice-planes coherently align without generating any defects, where locally-distributed strains are induced in the coalesced regions. On the other hand, for long growth-distance (≥ 150 μm), grain-boundaries are generated in coalesced regions, and the locally-distributed strains are relaxed. The coherent lattice-alignment for growth-distance below 150 μm is attributed to atomic reordering in the coalesced regions, where coalescence occurs at high temperatures around the solidification point of Ge. - Highlights: • Coalesced regions of growth-fronts in melting-grown Ge-on-insulator are investigated. • Lattice planes of growth-fronts coherently align. • The coherent alignment is attributed to atomic reordering in coalesced regions. • Here, coalescence occurs at high temperatures around solidification point of Ge. • This high-quality demonstrates significant advantage of melting growth.

  8. Magnetic study on single crystals of YMn{sub 6}Ge{sub 6} and LuMn{sub 6}Ge{sub 6}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyama, M. [KYOKUGEN, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Narumi, Y. [KYOKUGEN, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Yoshii, S. [KYOKUGEN, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan)]. E-mail: yoshii@mag.rcem.osaka-u.ac.jp; Kindo, K. [KYOKUGEN, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Zhang, L. [Van der Waals-Zeeman Instituut, Universiteit van Amsterdam, 1018 XE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Brueck, E. [Van der Waals-Zeeman Instituut, Universiteit van Amsterdam, 1018 XE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Buschow, K.H.J. [Van der Waals-Zeeman Instituut, Universiteit van Amsterdam, 1018 XE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Boer, F.R. de [KYOKUGEN, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Van der Waals-Zeeman Instituut, Universiteit van Amsterdam, 1018 XE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lefevre, C. [Lab. Chim. Sol. Mineral, Universite Henri Poincare-Nancy 1, 54506 Vandoeuvre les Nancy Cedex (France); Venturini, G. [Lab. Chim. Sol. Mineral, Universite Henri Poincare-Nancy 1, 54506 Vandoeuvre les Nancy Cedex (France)

    2006-02-09

    The magnetic properties of single crystals of the HfFe{sub 6}Ge{sub 6}-type compounds YMn{sub 6}Ge{sub 6} and LuMn{sub 6}Ge{sub 6} obtained in an In flux have been investigated by thermomagnetic measurements and by a high-field magnetization study. Both the compounds display Neel point at T {sub N} = 482 and 527 K, respectively. The compound YMn{sub 6}Ge{sub 6} saturates at M {sub s} = 12 {mu}{sub B}/f.u. above 33 T, whereas LuMn{sub 6}Ge{sub 6} is still not saturated in the largest applied field (M(50 T) = 9 {mu}{sub B}/f.u.), thus indicating different strengths of the antiferromagnetic interactions. The magnetization curves of YMn{sub 6}Ge{sub 6} and LuMn{sub 6}Ge{sub 6} recorded with the field applied along the c-axis display a field-induced transition at relatively low field (around 10 and 15 T, respectively), which should be related to spin reorientation process. In larger applied fields, all magnetization loops display two field-induced transitions with pronounced hysteretic behaviour which may be related to the successive stabilization of helical and fan structures.

  9. Optical properties of photonic crystal fiber with integral micron-sized Ge wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, H K; Schmidt, M A; Prill Sempere, L; Russell, P St J

    2008-10-27

    Using a selective hole closure technique, individual hollow channels in silica-air photonic crystal fibers are filled with pure Ge by pumping in molten material at high pressure. The smallest channels filled so far are 600 nm in diameter, which is 10x smaller than in previous work. Electrical conductivity and micro-Raman measurements indicate that the resulting cm-long wires have a high degree of crystallinity. Optical transmission spectra are measured in a sample with a single wire placed adjacent to the core of an endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber. This renders the fiber birefringent, as well as causing strongly polarization-dependent transmission losses, with extinction ratios as high as 30 dB in the visible. In the IR, anti-crossings between the glass-core mode and resonances on the high index Ge wire create a series of clear dips in the spectrum transmitted through the fiber. The measurements agree closely with the results of finite-element simulations in which the wavelength dependence of the dielectric constants is taken fully into account. A toy model based on a multilayer structure is used to help interpret the results. Finally, the temperature dependence of the anti-crossing wavelengths is measured, the preliminary results suggesting that the structure might form the basis of a compact optical thermometer. Since Ge provides electrical conductance together with low-loss guidance in the mid-IR, Ge-filled PCF seems likely to lead to new kinds of in-fiber detector and sensor, as well as having potential uses in ultra-low-threshold nonlinear optical devices.

  10. Crystal structure and thermal expansion of Mn(1-x)Fe(x)Ge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyadkin, Vadim; Grigoriev, Sergey; Ovsyannikov, Sergey V; Bykova, Elena; Dubrovinsky, Leonid; Tsvyashchenko, Anatoly; Fomicheva, L N; Chernyshov, Dmitry

    2014-08-01

    A series of temperature-dependent single-crystal and powder diffraction experiments has been carried out using synchrotron radiation in order to characterize the monogermanides of Mn, Fe and their solid solutions. The MnGe single crystal is found to be enantiopure and we report the absolute structure determination. The thermal expansion, parametrized with the Debye model, is discussed from the temperature-dependent powder diffraction measurements for Mn(1-x)Fe(x)Ge (x = 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.25, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.75, 0.8, 0.9). Whereas the unit-cell dimension and the Debye temperature follow a linear trend as a function of composition, the thermal expansion coefficient deviates from linear dependence with increasing Mn content. No structural phase transformations have been observed for any composition in the temperature range 80-500 K for both single-crystal and powder diffraction, indicating that the phase transition previously observed with neutron powder diffraction most probably has a magnetic origin.

  11. Synthesis of self-assembled Ge nano crystals employing reactive RF sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez H, A. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Escuela Superior de Apan, Calle Ejido de Chimalpa Tlalayote s/n, Col. Chimalpa, Apan, Hidalgo (Mexico); Hernandez H, L. A. [IPN, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, San Pedro Zacatenco, 07730 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Monroy, B. M.; Santana R, G. [UNAM, Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Apdo. Postal 70-360, 04510 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Santoyo S, J.; Gallardo H, S. [IPN, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Departamento de Fisica, Apdo. Postal 14740, 07300 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Marquez H, A. [Universidad de Guanajuato, Campus Irapuato-Salamanca, Departamento de Ingenieria Agricola, Km. 9 Carretera Irapuato-Silao, 36500 Irapuato, Guanajuato (Mexico); Mani G, P. G.; Melendez L, M. [Universidad Autonoma de Ciudad Juarez, Instituto de Ingenieria y Tecnologia, Departamento de Fisica y Matematicas, 32310 Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua (Mexico)

    2016-11-01

    This work presents the results of a simple methodology able to control crystal size, dispersion and spatial distribution of germanium nano crystals (Ge-NCs). It takes advantage of a self-assembled process taken place during the deposit of the system SiO{sub 2}/Ge/SiO{sub 2} by reactive RF sputtering. Nanoparticles formation is controlled mainly by the roughness of the first SiO{sub 2} layer buy the ulterior interaction of the interlayer with the top layer also play a role. Structural quality of germanium nano crystals increases with roughness and the interlayer thickness. The tetragonal phase of germanium is produced and its crystallographic quality improves with interlayer thickness and oxygen partial pressure. Room temperature photoluminescence emission without a post growth thermal annealing process indicates that our methodology produces a low density of non-radiative traps. The surface topography of SiO{sub 2} reference samples was carried out by atomic force microscopy. The crystallographic properties of the samples were studied by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction at 1.5 degrees carried out in a Siemens D-5000 system employing the Cu Kα wavelength. (Author)

  12. Vertical gradient freeze of 4 inch Ge crystals in a heater-magnet module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank-Rotsch, Ch.; Rudolph, P.

    2009-04-01

    For the first time 4-in. Ge single crystals were grown using the vertical gradient freeze technique (VGF) in a traveling magnetic field (TMF) generated in a heater-magnet module (HMM). The HMM was placed closely around the growth container inside the chamber of the industrial Bridgman equipment "Kronos". The HMM generates heat and a TMF together. It has a coil-shaped design and replaces the standard meander-type heater. Direct current (DC) for heat production and out-of-phase-accelerated currents (AC) for TMF generation were simultaneously delivered to three equally spaced coil segments connected by star-type wiring. In order to achieve a nearly flat and slightly convex growing interface the AC amplitude, frequency and phase shift have been optimized numerically by using the 3D CrysMAS code and validated by striation analysis on as-grown crystals. Low-field frequencies in the range f=20-50 Hz proved to be of most suitable condition. TMF programming is required to obtain constant interface morphology over the whole growth run. First Ge single crystals grown under nearly optimal conditions show reduced macro- and micro-inhomogeneities, relatively low dislocation density of (3-10)×10 2 cm -2, and high carrier mobility of μp=2800 cm 2 V -1 s -1.

  13. Anisotropic magnetic properties and crystal electric field studies on CePd2Ge2 single crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurya, Arvind; Kulkarni, R; Dhar, S K; Thamizhavel, A

    2013-10-30

    The anisotropic magnetic properties of the antiferromagnetic compound CePd2Ge2, crystallizing in the tetragonal crystal structure have been investigated in detail on a single crystal grown by the Czochralski method. From the electrical transport, magnetization and heat capacity data, the Néel temperature is confirmed to be 5.1 K. Anisotropic behaviour of the magnetization and resistivity is observed along the two principal crystallographic directions-namely, [100] and [001]. The isothermal magnetization measured in the magnetically ordered state at 2 K exhibits a spin reorientation at 13.5 T for the field applied along the [100] direction, whereas the magnetization is linear along the [001] direction attaining a value of 0.94 μ(B)/Ce at 14 T. The reduced value of the magnetization is attributed to the crystalline electric field (CEF) effects. A sharp jump in the specific heat at the magnetic ordering temperature is observed. After subtracting the phononic contribution, the jump in the heat capacity amounts to 12.5 J K(-1)mol(-1) which is the expected value for a spin ½ system. From the CEF analysis of the magnetization data the excited crystal field split energy levels were estimated to be at 120 K and 230 K respectively, which quantitatively explains the observed Schottky anomaly in the heat capacity. A magnetic phase diagram has been constructed based on the field dependence of magnetic susceptibility and the heat capacity data.

  14. Indium (In)- and tin (Sn)-based metal induced crystallization (MIC) on amorphous germanium (α-Ge)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Dong-Ho; Park, Jin-Hong, E-mail: jhpark9@skku.edu

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • In- and Sn-based MIC phenomenon on amorphous (α)-Ge is newly reported. • The In- and Sn-MIC phenomenon respectively started at 250 °C and 400 °C. • The Sn-MIC process presents higher sheet resistance and bigger crystal grains. - Abstract: In this paper, metal-induced crystallization (MIC) phenomenon on α-Ge by indium (In) and tin (Sn) are thoroughly investigated. In- and Sn-MIC process respectively started at 250 °C and 400 °C. Compared to the previously reported MIC samples including In-MIC, Sn-MIC process presented higher sheet resistance (similar to that of SPC) and bigger crystal grains above 50 nm (slightly smaller than that of SPC). According to SIMS analysis, Sn atoms diffused more slowly into Ge than In at 400 °C, providing lower density of heterogeneous nuclei induced by metals and consequently larger crystal grains.

  15. Observation of channeling for 6500 GeV/c protons in the crystal assisted collimation setup for LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scandale, W.; Arduini, G.; Butcher, M.; Cerutti, F.; Garattini, M.; Gilardoni, S.; Lechner, A.; Losito, R.; Masi, A.; Mirarchi, D.; Montesano, S.; Redaelli, S.; Rossi, R.; Schoofs, P.; Smirnov, G.; Valentino, G.; Breton, D.; Burmistrov, L.; Chaumat, V.; Dubos, S.; Maalmi, J.; Puill, V.; Stocchi, A.; Bagli, E.; Bandiera, L.; Germogli, G.; Guidi, V.; Mazzolari, A.; Dabagov, S.; Murtas, F.; Addesa, F.; Cavoto, G.; Iacoangeli, F.; Ludovici, L.; Santacesaria, R.; Valente, P.; Galluccio, F.; Afonin, A. G.; Chesnokov, Yu. A.; Durum, A. A.; Maisheev, V. A.; Sandomirskiy, Yu. E.; Yanovich, A. A.; Kovalenko, A. D.; Taratin, A. M.; Denisov, A. S.; Gavrikov, Yu. A.; Ivanov, Yu. M.; Lapina, L. P.; Malyarenko, L. G.; Skorobogatov, V. V.; James, T.; Hall, G.; Pesaresi, M.; Raymond, M.

    2016-07-01

    Two high-accuracy goniometers equipped with two bent silicon crystals were installed in the betatron cleaning insertion of the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) during its long shutdown. First beam tests were recently performed at the LHC with 450 GeV/c and 6500 GeV/c stored proton beams to investigate the feasibility of beam halo collimation assisted by bent crystals. For the first time channeling of 6500 GeV/c protons was observed in a particle accelerator. A strong reduction of beam losses due to nuclear inelastic interactions in the aligned crystal in comparison with its amorphous orientation was detected. The loss reduction value was about 24. Thus, the results show that deflection of particles by a bent crystal due to channeling is effective for this record particle energy.

  16. Interstitial-related defect reactions in electron-irradiated oxygen-rich Ge crystals: A DLTS study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markevich, V.P., E-mail: V.Markevich@manchester.ac.u [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Manchester, Sackville Str. Building, Manchester, M60 1QD (United Kingdom); Peaker, A.R. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Manchester, Sackville Str. Building, Manchester, M60 1QD (United Kingdom); Lastovskii, S.B.; Murin, L.I. [Scientific-Practical Materials Research Center of NAS of Belarus, Minsk 220072 (Belarus); Litvinov, V.V. [Belarusian State University, Minsk 220050 (Belarus); Emtsev, V.V. [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Dobaczewski, L. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland)

    2009-12-15

    Electrically active defects induced in oxygen-rich Ge:Sb crystals by irradiation with MeV electrons at 80 or 300 K have been studied by means of capacitance transient techniques. Transformations of the defects upon post-irradiation isochronal anneals have also been investigated. It is argued that a radiation-induced electron trap with an energy level at about 110 meV below the conduction band edge (E{sub 110}) can be associated with electron emission from an energy level of the Ge self-interstitial (I{sub Ge}). The E{sub 110} trap is eliminated in the temperature range 150-200 K upon 15 min isochronal annealing. No other traps in the upper half of the gap emerge simultaneously with the disappearance of the E{sub 110} trap. It is argued that Ge self-interstitials become mobile at temperatures higher than 150 K and in oxygen-rich Ge interact with interstitial oxygen atoms (O{sub i}). The resulting I{sub Ge}O{sub i} complexes do not have energy levels in the upper half of the Ge gap. Diffusion and interaction of the I{sub Ge}O{sub i} defects with interstitial oxygen atoms at T>50 deg. C result in the formation of I{sub Ge}O{sub 2i} complexes. In the most stable configuration the I{sub Ge}O{sub 2i} complex has orthorhombic (C{sub 2v}) symmetry.

  17. Nanostructured surfaces and detection instrumentation for photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhery, Vikram; George, Sherine; Lu, Meng; Pokhriyal, Anusha; Cunningham, Brian T

    2013-04-26

    Photonic crystal (PC) surfaces have been demonstrated as a compelling platform for improving the sensitivity of surface-based fluorescent assays used in disease diagnostics and life science research. PCs can be engineered to support optical resonances at specific wavelengths at which strong electromagnetic fields are utilized to enhance the intensity of surface-bound fluorophore excitation. Meanwhile, the leaky resonant modes of PCs can be used to direct emitted photons within a narrow range of angles for more efficient collection by a fluorescence detection system. The multiplicative effects of enhanced excitation combined with enhanced photon extraction combine to provide improved signal-to-noise ratios for detection of fluorescent emitters, which in turn can be used to reduce the limits of detection of low concentration analytes, such as disease biomarker proteins. Fabrication of PCs using inexpensive manufacturing methods and materials that include replica molding on plastic, nano-imprint lithography on quartz substrates result in devices that are practical for single-use disposable applications. In this review, we will describe the motivation for implementing high-sensitivity fluorescence detection in the context of molecular diagnosis and gene expression analysis though the use of PC surfaces. Recent efforts to improve the design and fabrication of PCs and their associated detection instrumentation are summarized, including the use of PCs coupled with Fabry-Perot cavities and external cavity lasers.

  18. Nanostructured Surfaces and Detection Instrumentation for Photonic Crystal Enhanced Fluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian T. Cunningham

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Photonic crystal (PC surfaces have been demonstrated as a compelling platform for improving the sensitivity of surface-based fluorescent assays used in disease diagnostics and life science research. PCs can be engineered to support optical resonances at specific wavelengths at which strong electromagnetic fields are utilized to enhance the intensity of surface-bound fluorophore excitation. Meanwhile, the leaky resonant modes of PCs can be used to direct emitted photons within a narrow range of angles for more efficient collection by a fluorescence detection system. The multiplicative effects of enhanced excitation combined with enhanced photon extraction combine to provide improved signal-to-noise ratios for detection of fluorescent emitters, which in turn can be used to reduce the limits of detection of low concentration analytes, such as disease biomarker proteins. Fabrication of PCs using inexpensive manufacturing methods and materials that include replica molding on plastic, nano-imprint lithography on quartz substrates result in devices that are practical for single-use disposable applications. In this review, we will describe the motivation for implementing high-sensitivity fluorescence detection in the context of molecular diagnosis and gene expression analysis though the use of PC surfaces. Recent efforts to improve the design and fabrication of PCs and their associated detection instrumentation are summarized, including the use of PCs coupled with Fabry-Perot cavities and external cavity lasers.

  19. Low-temperature properties of neutron irradiated CuGeO3 single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladczuk, L.; Mosiniewicz-Szablewska, E.; Dabkowska, H.; Baran, M.; Pytel, B.; Szymczak, R.; Szymczak, H.

    2000-07-01

    The effect of neutron irradiation on the magnetic properties of CuGeO3 single crystal which shows the spin-Peierls transition below T sp=14 K was investigated by means of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and susceptibility measurements. It was found that the irradiation led to a decrease of the spin-Peierls transition temperature and induced appreciable changes in the EPR signal intensity, resonance linewidth, g-factor and magnetic susceptibility of this material. These changes may be associated with a partial suppression of both the energy gap and the dimerization within the Cu chains.

  20. Molecular Field Calculation of Magnetization on NdRh2Ge2 Single Crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Himori

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Calculation of magnetization of the ternary single crystal compound NdRh2Ge2 has been carried out by using the wave-like molecular field model to explain the complex magnetic behavior. The field-induced magnetic structures having the propagation vectors, 2=(0,0,39/40, 3=(0,0,35/40, 4=(0,0,31/40, and 5=(0,0,0/40 (= the field-induced ferromagnetic phase were proposed. Calculation on the basis of these structures and the antiferromagnetic phase with 1=(0,0,1 well reproduces the experimental magnetization processes and - magnetic phase diagram.

  1. Nanoscale order and crystallization in nitrogen-alloyed amorphous GeTe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darmawikarta, Kristof; Abelson, John R., E-mail: abelson@illinois.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1304 W. Green St., Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Coordinated Science Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1308 W. Main St., Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Raoux, Simone [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, 1101 Kitchawan Road, Route 134, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States); Bishop, Stephen G. [Coordinated Science Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1308 W. Main St., Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1406 W. Green St., Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2014-11-10

    The nanoscale order in amorphous GeTe thin films is measured using fluctuation transmission electron microscopy (FTEM). The order increases upon annealing at 145 °C, which indicates a coarsening of subcritical nuclei. This correlates with a reduction in the nucleation delay time in laser crystallization. A shift in the FTEM peak positions may indicate a transformation in local bonding. In samples alloyed with 12 at. % nitrogen, the order does not change upon annealing, the peak does not shift, and the nucleation time is longer. The FTEM data indicate that nitrogen suppresses the structural evolution necessary for the nucleation process and increases the thermal stability of the material.

  2. Superlocalization and Formation of Grain Structure in Ni3ge Single Crystals with Different Orientations of Deformation Axes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solov'eva, Yu. V.; Lipatnikova, Ya. D.; Starenchenko, S. V.; Solov'ev, A. N.; Starenchenko, V. A.

    2017-09-01

    The paper describes the influence of orientation of Ni3Ge single crystal deformation axes on the high-temperature superlocalization of plastic deformation. Mechanical properties of single crystals with different orientations are studied in this paper as well as the slip traces and the evolution of the dislocation structure. Based on these investigations, the observing conditions are described for the superlocalization bands and the formation of the grain structure in local areas of the original single crystal.

  3. Influence of interface potential on the effective mass in Ge nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbagiovanni, E. G., E-mail: eric.barbagiovanni@ct.infn.it; Cosentino, S.; Terrasi, A.; Mirabella, S. [MATIS IMM-CNR and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Lockwood, D. J. [Measurement Science and Standards, National Research Council, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada); Costa Filho, R. N. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Caixa Postal 6030, Campus do Pici, 60455-760 Fortaleza, Ceará (Brazil)

    2015-04-21

    The role of the interface potential on the effective mass of charge carriers is elucidated in this work. We develop a new theoretical formalism using a spatially dependent effective mass that is related to the magnitude of the interface potential. Using this formalism, we studied Ge quantum dots (QDs) formed by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) and co-sputtering (sputter). These samples allowed us to isolate important consequences arising from differences in the interface potential. We found that for a higher interface potential, as in the case of PECVD QDs, there is a larger reduction in the effective mass, which increases the confinement energy with respect to the sputter sample. We further understood the action of O interface states by comparing our results with Ge QDs grown by molecular beam epitaxy. It is found that the O states can suppress the influence of the interface potential. From our theoretical formalism, we determine the length scale over which the interface potential influences the effective mass.

  4. Photonic-crystal switch divider based on Ge2Sb2Te5 thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Beijiao; Zhang, Peiqing; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Tengyu; Zeng, Jianghui; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Guoxiang; Xu, Peipeng; Zhang, Wei; Dai, Shixun

    2016-11-10

    A three-port phase-change photonic-crystal switch divider based on Ge2Sb2Te5 chalcogenide thin film was proposed. The chalcogenide material used was determined to have a high refractive index and fast phase-change speed by using laser radiation. The structure with a T-junction cavity was used to achieve three switch functions: switching "ON" in only one output port, switching "OFF" in both output ports, and dividing signals into two output ports. The transmission properties of the designed device at 2.0 μm were studied by the finite difference time domain method, which showed that the switch divider can achieve very high switching efficiency by optimizing T-junction cavity parameters. The scaling laws of photonic crystals revealed that the operating wavelength of the designed structure can be easily extended to another wavelength in the midinfrared region.

  5. High quality single crystal Ge nano-membranes for opto-electronic integrated circuitry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, V. A., E-mail: vishal.shah@warwick.ac.uk; Gammon, P. M. [Department of Engineering, The University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, The University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Rhead, S. D.; Halpin, J. E.; Trushkevych, O.; Wilson, N. R.; Myronov, M.; Edwards, R. S.; Patchett, D. H.; Allred, P. S.; Prest, M. J.; Whall, T. E.; Parker, E. H. C.; Leadley, D. R. [Department of Physics, The University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Chávez-Ángel, E. [ICN2-Institut Catala de Nanociencia i Nanotecnologia, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Department of Physics, UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Shchepetov, A.; Prunnila, M. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT, Espoo (Finland); Kachkanov, V.; Dolbnya, I. P. [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Reparaz, J. S. [ICN2-Institut Catala de Nanociencia i Nanotecnologia, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); and others

    2014-04-14

    A thin, flat, and single crystal germanium membrane would be an ideal platform on which to mount sensors or integrate photonic and electronic devices, using standard silicon processing technology. We present a fabrication technique compatible with integrated-circuit wafer scale processing to produce membranes of thickness between 60 nm and 800 nm, with large areas of up to 3.5 mm{sup 2}. We show how the optical properties change with thickness, including appearance of Fabry-Pérot type interference in thin membranes. The membranes have low Q-factors, which allow the platforms to counteract distortion during agitation and movement. Finally, we report on the physical characteristics showing sub-nm roughness and a homogenous strain profile throughout the freestanding layer, making the single crystal Ge membrane an excellent platform for further epitaxial growth or deposition of materials.

  6. Radiation damage of LSO crystals under γ- and 24 GeV protons irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auffray, E.; Barysevich, A.; Fedorov, A.; Korjik, M.; Koschan, M.; Lucchini, M.; Mechinski, V.; Melcher, C. L.; Voitovich, A.

    2013-09-01

    Irradiation damage of undoped and low Ce doped lutetium oxyorthosilicate has been investigated. Crystals were irradiated with both a 60Co γ-quanta source with an absorbed dose of 2000 Gy and, at CERN PS, a high-rate 24 GeV proton beam with a fluence of ˜3.6×1013 p/cm2. Both irradiations produced a similar set of induced absorption bands. However, a shift of the fundamental absorption spectrum cutoff appears after proton irradiation, but not in the case of the γ-irradiation. The observed shift of the band edge in the transmission spectrum following proton irradiation in lutetium oxyorthosilicate crystals indicates that this phenomenon is a general property of heavy crystalline materials. A possible proton-induced transmission damage mechanism is discussed.

  7. Distorted asymmetric cubic nanostructure of soluble fullerene crystals in efficient polymer:fullerene solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngkyoo; Nelson, Jenny; Zhang, Tong; Cook, Steffan; Durrant, James R; Kim, Hwajeong; Park, Jiho; Shin, Minjung; Nam, Sungho; Heeney, Martin; McCulloch, Iain; Ha, Chang-Sik; Bradley, Donal D C

    2009-09-22

    We found that 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)propyl-1-phenyl-(6,6)C(61) (PCBM) molecules make a distorted asymmetric body-centered cubic crystal nanostructure in the bulk heterojunction films of reigoregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) and PCBM. The wider angle of distortion in the PCBM nanocrystals was approximately 96 degrees , which can be assigned to the influence of the attached side group to the fullerene ball of PCBM to bestow solubility. Atom concentration analysis showed that after thermal annealing the PCBM nanocrystals do preferentially distribute above the layer of P3HT nanocrystals inside devices.

  8. Enhancement of local electromagnetic fields in plasmonic crystals of coaxial metallic nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanaga, Masanobu; Ikeda, Naoki; Sugimoto, Yoshimasa

    2012-01-01

    We have experimentally and numerically examined resonant modes in plasmonic crystals (PlCs) of coaxial metallic nanostructures. Resonance enhancements of local electromagnetic (EM) fields were evaluated quantitatively. We clarified that a local mode induced in the coaxial metallic structure shows the most significant field enhancement. The enhancement factors are comprehensively discussed by comparison with other PlCs, indicating that the coaxial PlC provides a locally intense electric field and EM power flux in the annular slit of 50-nm metallic gaps.

  9. Bubble evolution mechanism and stress-induced crystallization in low-temperature silicon wafer bonding based on a thin intermediate amorphous Ge layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Shaoying; Lin, Shaoming; Ye, Yujie; Mao, Danfeng; Huang, Wei; Xu, Jianfang; Li, Cheng; Chen, Songyan

    2017-10-01

    The dependence of the morphology and crystallinity of an amorphous Ge (a-Ge) interlayer between two Si wafers on the annealing temperature is identified to understand the bubble evolution mechanism. The effect of a-Ge layer thickness on the bubble density and size at different annealing temperatures is also clearly clarified. It suggests that the bubble density is significantly affected by the crystallinity and thickness of the a-Ge layer. With the increase of the crystallinity and thickness of the a-Ge layer, the bubble density decreases. It is important that a near-bubble-free Ge interface, which is also an oxide-free interface, is achieved when the bonded Si wafers (a-Ge layer thickness  ⩾  20 nm) are annealed at 400 °C. Furthermore, the crystallization temperature of the a-Ge between the bonded Si wafers is lower than that on a Si substrate alone and the Ge grains firstly form at the Ge/Ge bonded interface, rather than the Ge/Si interface. We believe that the stress-induced crystallization of a-Ge film and the intermixing of Ge atoms at the Ge/Ge interface can be responsible for this feature.

  10. GaAs/Ge crystals grown on Si substrates patterned down to the micron scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taboada, A. G., E-mail: gonzalez@phys.ethz.ch; Kreiliger, T.; Falub, C. V.; Känel, H. von [Laboratory for Solid State Physics, ETH Zürich, Otto-Stern-Weg. 1, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Meduňa, M. [Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, CZ-61137 Brno (Czech Republic); CEITEC, Masaryk University Kamenice 5, CZ-60177 Brno (Czech Republic); Salvalaglio, M.; Miglio, L. [L-NESS, Department of Materials Science, Università di Milano-Bicocca, Via R. Cozzi 55, I-20125 Milano (Italy); Isa, F. [Laboratory for Solid State Physics, ETH Zürich, Otto-Stern-Weg. 1, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); L-NESS and Department of Physics, Politecnico di Milano, via Anzani 42, I-22100 Como (Italy); Barthazy Meier, E.; Müller, E. [Scientific Center for Optical and Electron Microscopy (ScopeM), ETH Zürich, Auguste-Piccard-Hof 1, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Isella, G. [L-NESS and Department of Physics, Politecnico di Milano, via Anzani 42, I-22100 Como (Italy)

    2016-02-07

    Monolithic integration of III-V compounds into high density Si integrated circuits is a key technological challenge for the next generation of optoelectronic devices. In this work, we report on the metal organic vapor phase epitaxy growth of strain-free GaAs crystals on Si substrates patterned down to the micron scale. The differences in thermal expansion coefficient and lattice parameter are adapted by a 2-μm-thick intermediate Ge layer grown by low-energy plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The GaAs crystals evolve during growth towards a pyramidal shape, with lateral facets composed of (111) planes and an apex formed by (137) and (001) surfaces. The influence of the anisotropic GaAs growth kinetics on the final morphology is highlighted by means of scanning and transmission electron microscopy measurements. The effect of the Si pattern geometry, substrate orientation, and crystal aspect ratio on the GaAs structural properties was investigated by means of high resolution X-ray diffraction. The thermal strain relaxation process of GaAs crystals with different aspect ratio is discussed within the framework of linear elasticity theory by Finite Element Method simulations based on realistic geometries extracted from cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy images.

  11. Neutron thermodiffraction study of the crystallization of Ag-Ge-Se glasses: evidence of a new phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piarristeguy, Andrea A; Yot, Pascal G; Ribes, Michel; Pradel, Annie [Institut Charles Gerhardt, Equipe PMDP UMR 5253 CNRS, CC1503, Universite Montpellier 2, F-34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Cuello, Gabriel J [Institut Laue Langevin, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, BP 156, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)], E-mail: andrea.piarristeguy@lpmc.univ-montp2.fr, E-mail: cuello@ill.eu, E-mail: pyot@lpmc.univ-montp2.fr, E-mail: mribes@lpmc.univ-montp2.fr, E-mail: apradel@lpmc.univ-montp2.fr

    2008-04-16

    Silver-containing chalcogenide glasses are potential candidates for electrical memory manufacturing. In order to study the glasses under dynamic conditions, using the temperature as the main parameter, a neutron thermodiffraction study of three Ag{sub x}(Ge{sub 0.25}Se{sub 0.75}){sub 100-x} glasses (x = 5,15 and 25) was carried out. Two in situ diffraction experiments were performed: a first series including heating ramps from room temperature up to 350 {sup 0}C and a second one comprising the measurement of an isotherm at about 300 {sup 0}C for 5 h. For the three studied glasses two stable crystalline phases were formed during the heating process: the cubic Ag{sub 8}GeSe{sub 6} appeared first, followed by the crystallization of monoclinic GeSe{sub 2}. The crystallization process for the Ag-rich (x = 15 and 25) glasses was more complex, with the appearance of a new unstable phase at high temperature, i.e. Ag{sub 2}GeSe{sub 3}. Such a phase decomposed with time or temperature to produce a new phase, Ag{sub 10}Ge{sub 3}Se{sub 11}, along with the stable GeSe{sub 2}. This phase has never been reported to date while the existence of Ag{sub 2}GeSe{sub 3} was still controversial.

  12. Electric Field-Controlled Crystallizing CaCO3 Nanostructures from Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Jian Quan; Guo, Rui; Wang, Yu; Liu, Xuan Wen; Chan, Helen Lai Wah

    2016-12-01

    The role of electric field is investigated in determining the structure, morphology, and crystallographic characteristics of CaCO3 nanostructures crystallized from solution. It is found that the lattice structure and crystalline morphology of CaCO3 can be tailed by the electric field applied to the solution during its crystallization. The calcite structure with cubic-like morphology can be obtained generally without electric field, and the vaterite structure with the morphology of nanorod is formed under the high electric field. The vaterite nanorods can be piled up to the petaliform layers. Both the nanorod and the petaliform layer can have mesocrystal structures which are piled up by much fine units of the rods with the size of several nanometers. Beautiful rose-like nanoflowers can be self-arranged by the petaliform layers. These structures can have potential application as carrier for medicine to involve into metabolism of living cell.

  13. An Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance Multisensor System Based on Phthalocyanine Nanostructured Films: Discrimination of Musts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Garcia-Hernandez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available An array of electrochemical quartz crystal electrodes (EQCM modified with nanostructured films based on phthalocyanines was developed and used to discriminate musts prepared from different varieties of grapes. Nanostructured films of iron, nickel and copper phthalocyanines were deposited on Pt/quartz crystals through the Layer by Layer technique by alternating layers of the corresponding phthalocyanine and poly-allylamine hydrochloride. Simultaneous electrochemical and mass measurements were used to study the mass changes accompanying the oxidation of electroactive species present in must samples obtained from six Spanish varieties of grapes (Juan García, Prieto Picudo, Mencía Regadío, Cabernet Sauvignon, Garnacha and Tempranillo. The mass and voltammetric outputs were processed using three-way models. Parallel Factor Analysis (PARAFAC was successfully used to discriminate the must samples according to their variety. Multi-way partial least squares (N-PLS evidenced the correlations existing between the voltammetric data and the polyphenolic content measured by chemical methods. Similarly, N-PLS showed a correlation between mass outputs and parameters related to the sugar content. These results demonstrated that electronic tongues based on arrays of EQCM sensors can offer advantages over arrays of mass or voltammetric sensors used separately.

  14. Tuning the Structural Color of a 2D Photonic Crystal Using a Bowl-like Nanostructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umh, Ha Nee; Yu, Sungju; Kim, Yong Hwa; Lee, Su Young; Yi, Jongheop

    2016-06-22

    Structural colors of the ordered photonic nanostructures are widely used as an effective platform for manipulating the propagation of light. Although several approaches have been explored in attempts to mimic the structural colors, improving the reproducibility, mechanical stability, and the economic feasibility of sophisticated photonic crystals prepared by complicated processes continues to pose a challenge. In this study, we report on an alternative, simple method for fabricating a tunable photonic crystal at room temperature. A bowl-like nanostructure of TiO2 was periodically arranged on a thin Ti sheet through a two-step anodization process where its diameters were systemically controlled by changing the applied voltage. Consequently, they displayed a broad color distribution, ranging from red to indigo, and the principal reason for color generation followed the Bragg diffraction theory. This noncolorant method was capable of reproducing a Mondrian painting on a centimeter scale without the need to employ complex architectures, where the generated structural colors were highly stable under mechanical or chemical influence. Such a color printing technique represents a potentially promising platform for practical applications for anticounterfeit trademarks, wearable sensors, and displays.

  15. Observation of focusing of 400 GeV/c proton beam with the help of bent crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Scandale, W; Butcher, M; Cerutti, F; Gilardoni, S; Lechner, A; Losito, R; Masi, A; Metral, E; Mirarchi, D; Montesano, S; Redaelli, S; Smirnov, G; Bandiera, L; Baricordi, S; Dalpiaz, P; Guidi, V; Mazzolari, A; Vincenzi, D; Claps, G; Dabagov, S; Hampai, D; Murtas, F; Cavoto, G; Garattini, M; Iacoangeli, F; Ludovici, L; Santacesaria, R; Valente, P; Galluccio, F; Afonin, A G; Chesnokov, Yu A; Chirkov, P N; Maisheev, V A; Sandomirskiy, Yu E; Yazynin, I A; Kovalenko, A D; Taratin, A M; Gavrikov, Yu A; Ivanov, Yu M; Lapina, L P; Ferguson, W; Fulcher, J; Hall, G; Pesaresi, M; Raymond, M

    2014-01-01

    The results of observation and studies of focusing of 400 GeV/c proton beam with the help of bent single crystals are presented. Two silicon crystals have been used in the measurements. The focal length of the first and second crystals is found to be 1.48 m and 0.68 m, respectively. The mean square size of the horizontal profile in the focus was 3.1 and 4.3 times as small as at the exit of the crystals.

  16. Spin-wave dispersion of nanostructured magnonic crystals with periodic defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, V. L.; Lim, H. S.; Ng, S. C.; Kuok, M. H.; Zhou, X.; Adeyeye, A. O.

    2016-11-01

    The spin-wave dispersions in nanostructured magnonic crystals with periodic defects have been mapped by Brillouin light scattering. The otherwise perfect crystals are one-dimensional arrays of alternating 460nm-wide Ni80Fe20 stripes and 40nm-wide air gaps, where one in ten Ni80Fe20 stripes is a defect of width other than 460 nm. Experimentally, the defects are manifested as additional Brillouin peaks, lying within the first and second bandgaps of the perfect crystal, whose frequencies decrease with increasing defect stripe width. Finite-element calculations, based on a supercell comprising one defect and nine perfect Py stripes, show that the defect modes are localized about the defects, with the localization exhibiting an approximate U-shaped dependence on defect size. Calculations also reveal extra magnon branches and the opening of mini-bandgaps, within the allowed bands of the perfect crystal, arising from Bragg reflections at the boundaries of the shorter supercell Brillouin zone. Simulated magnetization profiles of the band-edge modes of the major and mini-bandgaps reveal their different symmetries and localization properties. The findings could find application in microwave magnonic devices like single-frequency passband spin-wave filters.

  17. Formation mechanisms of nano and microcones by laser radiation on surfaces of Si, Ge, and SiGe crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvid, Artur; Onufrijevs, Pavels; Jarimaviciute-Gudaitiene, Renata; Dauksta, Edvins; Prosycevas, Igoris

    2013-06-04

    In this work we study the mechanisms of laser radiation interaction with elementary semiconductors such as Si and Ge and their solid solution SiGe. As a result of this investigation, the mechanisms of nanocones and microcones formation on a surface of semiconductor were proposed. We have shown the possibility to control the size and the shape of cones both by the laser. The main reason for the formation of nanocones is the mechanical compressive stresses due to the atoms' redistribution caused by the gradient of temperature induced by strongly absorbed laser radiation. According to our investigation, the nanocone formation mechanism in semiconductors is characterized by two stages. The first stage is characterized by formation of a p-n junction for elementary semiconductors or of a Ge/Si heterojunction for SiGe solid solution. The generation and redistribution of intrinsic point defects in elementary semiconductors and Ge atoms concentration on the irradiated surface of SiGe solid solution in temperature gradient field take place at this stage due to the thermogradient effect which is caused by strongly absorbed laser radiation. The second stage is characterized by formation of nanocones due to mechanical plastic deformation of the compressed Ge layer on Si. Moreover, a new 1D-graded band gap structure in elementary semiconductors due to quantum confinement effect was formed. For the formation of microcones Ni/Si structure was used. The mechanism of the formation of microcones is characterized by two stages as well. The first stage is the melting of Ni film after irradiation by laser beam and formation of Ni islands due to surface tension force. The second step is the melting of Ni and subsequent manifestations of Marangoni effect with the growth of microcones.

  18. Bridgman growth and defects of Nd3+ : Sr3Ga2Ge4O14 laser crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jiaxuan Ding; Anhua Wu; Jiayue Xu

    2004-08-01

    Nd3+ : Sr3Ga2Ge4O14 crystals have been grown by the modified Bridgman method. The growth defects, such as striations, scattering particles and dislocations were investigated. Some featherlike striations were observed in as-grown crystals. EPMA analysis suggested that these inclusions were caused by the segregation of Nd2O3 from the melt. Chemical etching results showed that the dislocation density was in the range of 103 ∼ 105/cm2.

  19. Synthesis, crystal structure, and bonding analysis of the hypoelectronic cubic phase Ca5Pd6Ge6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doverbratt, Isa; Ponou, Siméon; Wang, Fei; Lidin, Sven

    2015-09-21

    The title compound, Ca5Pd6Ge6, was obtained during a systematic investigation of the Ca-Pd-Ge ternary phase diagram. The crystal structure was determined and refined from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. It crystallizes in a new structure variant of the Y4PdGa12-type structure (Im3̅m, a = 8.7764(4) Å) that features an arrangement of vertex-sharing body-centered cubes of calcium, Ca@Ca8, with a hierarchical bcc network, interpenetrating a second (Pd6Ge6) network consisting of Ge2 dumbbells surrounded by Pd in a strongly flattened octahedron with Pd(μ(2)-η(2),η(4)-Ge2)-like motifs. These octahedra are condensed through the Pd to form a 3D open fcc network. Theoretical band structure calculations suggested that the compound is hypoelectronic with predominantly multicenter-type interatomic interactions involving all three elements and essentially a Hume-Rothery-like regime of electronic stabilization. The similar electronegativity between germanium and palladium atoms has a decisive impact on the bonding picture of the system.

  20. Na2TiGeO5: Crystal structure stability at low temperature and high pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waskowska, A.; Gerward, Leif; Olsen, J.S.

    2008-01-01

    and GeO4 tetrahedra, alternating with layers of Na+ cations. Antiparallel alignment of the short apical titanyl bond in adjacent rows of the polyhedral layer gives rise to spontaneous strain, when a distortion of the TiO5 groups occurs. Single-crystal structures determined at room temperature and 120 K......-axis. The structure distortion, however, is too small to allow any unambiguous determination of the symmetry-breaking effects. The bulk modulus and its pressure derivative have been determined as B-0 = 89(2) GPa and B'(0) = 4.0. A pressure-induced phase transformation takes place at P-c approximate to 12.5 GPa......, presumably to an orthorhombic structure. The pressure effect on the transition temperature is given by Delta T-c/Delta P approximate to 1.76 K/GPa....

  1. Multistep metamagnetism of NdRh{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}single crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Himori, A [Graduate school of science and engineering, Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi 753-8512 (Japan); Ohishi, S [Graduate school of science and engineering, Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi 753-8512 (Japan); Koyama, K [Institute for Material Reserch, Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Sendai, 980-8577 (Japan); Watanabe, K [Institute for Material Reserch, Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Sendai, 980-8577 (Japan); Shigeoka, T [Graduate school of science and engineering, Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi 753-8512 (Japan)

    2006-11-15

    Measurements of high-field magnetization up to 18 T, magnetic susceptibility and specific heat have been performed on a tetragonal NdRh{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} single crystal and polycrystalline sample. From the temperature dependences of magnetic susceptibilities, this compound shows an antiferromagnetic behaviour with Neel temperature of 50 K. Another magnetic transition is observed at 37 K. At low temperatures, a multi-step metamagnetic behaviour is observed along the easy c-axis and a strong magnetic anisotropy is seen. The saturation magnetic moment is estimated to be 2.76 {mu}{sub B}/f.u.. There are five magnetic phases below the induced ferromagnetic phase in the H-Tmagnetic phase diagram. To discuss the magnetic behaviours, the CEF analysis has been made.

  2. Temperature-dependent far-infrared properties of Bi_(12) GeO_(20) single crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad Kamran; Dai Yao-Min; Ma Ji-Yun; Li Bo-Hong; He Shi-Kun; Zhang Wei-Jun; Zheng Xiao-Rui; Qiu Xiang-Gang

    2009-01-01

    Far-infrared reflectivity spectra of bismuth germanium oxide(Bi_(12)GeO_(20))single crystals are measured from room temperature down to 10 K. All the reflectivity spectra are fitted to a complex dielectric function ε(w) in the factorised form. Phonon modes at low frequency are found to develop upon decreasing temperature and gain considerable spectrum weight below 150 K. The temperature dependent static dielectric constants are obtained from the Lyddane-Sachs-Teller relation based on the obtained oscillator parameters. The dielectric constants are found to increase upon decreasing temperature. which is attributed to the charge transfer among the ions in the unit cell with the temperature varying.

  3. Crystal structure and magnetic properties of GdCo{sub 6}X{sub 6} (X=Ge, Sn) and TbCo{sub 6}Ge{sub 6}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szytula, A.; Wawrzynska, E.; Zygmunt, A

    2004-03-10

    Crystal structures of the YCo{sub 6}Ge{sub 6}-type for GdCo{sub 6}X{sub 6} (X=Ge, Sn) and TbCo{sub 6}Ge{sub 6} are determined by X-ray diffraction. The magnetic data indicates that GdCo{sub 6}Ge{sub 6} is an antiferromagnet with a Neel temperature equal to 3 K while GdCo{sub 6}Sn{sub 6} and TbCo{sub 6}Ge{sub 6} are paramagnetic down to 1.8 K.

  4. Channeling, volume reflection and gamma emission using 14GeV electrons in bent silicon crystals - Oral presentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, Brandon [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-08-23

    High energy electrons can be deflected with very tight bending radius using a bent silicon crystal. This produces gamma radiation. As these crystals can be thin, a series of bent silicon crystals with alternating direction has the potential to produce coherent gamma radiation with reasonable energy of the driving electron beam. Such an electron crystal undulator offers the prospect for higher energy radiation at lower cost than current methods. Permanent magnetic undulators like LCLS at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory are expensive and very large (about 100 m in case of the LCLS undulator). Silicon crystals are inexpensive and compact when compared to the large magnetic undulators. Additionally, such a high energy coherent light source could be used for probing through materials currently impenetrable by x-rays. In this work we present the experimental data and analysis of experiment T523 conducted at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. We collected the spectrum of gamma ray emission from 14 GeV electrons on a bent silicon crystal counting single photons. We also investigated the dynamics of electron motion in the crystal i.e. processes of channeling and volume reflection at 14 GeV, extending and building off previous work. Our single photon spectrum for the amorphous crystal orientation is consistent with bremsstrahlung radiation and the volume reflection crystal orientation shows a trend consistent with synchrotron radiation at a critical energy of 740 MeV. We observe that in these two cases the data are consistent, but we make no further claims because of statistical limitations. We also extended the known energy range of electron crystal dechanneling length and channeling efficiency to 14 GeV.

  5. Influence of ZnO nanostructures in liquid crystal interfaces for bistable switching applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Kaushik; Zhan, Bihong; Madhu Mohan, M. L. N.; Schirhagl, Romana; Wang, Guoping

    2015-12-01

    The controlled fabrication of nanometer-scale objects is without doubt one of the central issues in current science and technology. In this article, we exhibit a simple, one-step bench top synthesis of zinc oxide nano-tetrapods and nano-spheres which were tailored by the facial growth of nano-wires (diameter ≈ 24 nm; length ≈ 118 nm) and nano-cubes (≈395 nm edge) to nano-sphere (diameter ≈ 585 nm) appeaded. The possibilities of inexpensive, simple solvo-chemical synthesis of nanostructures were considered. In this article, a successful attempt has been made that ZnO nano-structures dispersed on well aligned hydrogen bonded liquid crystals (HBLC) comprising azelaic acid (AC) with p-n-alkyloxy benzoic acid (nBAO) by varying the respective alkyloxy carbon number (n = 5). The dispersion of nanomaterials with HBLC is an effective route to enhance the existing functionalities. A series of these composite materials were analyzed by polarizing optical microscope's electro-optical switching. An interesting feature of AC + nBAO is the inducement of tilted smectic G phase with increasing carbon chain length. Phase diagrams of the above hybrid ZnO nanomaterial influenced LC complex and pure LC were constructed and compared. The switching times, the contrast ratio and spontaneous polarization of the nanostructures-HBLC composite film were carried out by systematic investigation. The sample preparation parameters, such as the curing time and curing intensity were optimized. The critical applied voltage to achieve the switching bi-stability of our device is only 4.5 V, which is approximately twice its threshold voltage for Freedericksz transition. This performance puts the hybrid structure at the top level in the state of the art in application oriented research in optics of liquid crystalline composite materials.

  6. Synthesis of bulk nanostructured aluminum containing in situ crystallized amorphous particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhihui

    5083 Al containing in situ crystallized Al85Ni10La 5 amorphous particles (10% and 20% in volume fraction) was synthesized through a powder metallurgy route consisting of cold isostatic pressing, degassing and hot extrusion. The nanostructured 5083 Al powders (grain size ˜28 nm) were produced through mechanical milling in liquid nitrogen. The Al 85Ni10La5 powders were produced via gas atomization using helium gas and the fraction in the size range of compressive fracture strength of the as-extruded 10% and 20% Al85Ni10La5 composites were determined to be 1025 MPa and 837 MPa, respectively. The influence of secondary processing, i.e., swaging, following extrusion on the mechanical behavior was also studied. The coarse grain formation in cryomilled 5083 Al during the thermomechanical process was discussed and it was evident that grain rotation and coalescence played an important role in the overall mechanism.

  7. Manipulating transmission and reflection properties of a photonic crystal doped with quantum dot nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solookinejad, G.; Panahi, M.; Sangachin, E. A.; Asadpour, S. H., E-mail: s.hosein.asadpour@gmail.com, E-mail: S.Hosein.Asadpour@miau.ac.ir [Islamic Azad University, Department of Physics, Marvdasht Branch (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    The transmission and reflection properties of incident light in a defect dielectric structure is studied theoretically. The defect structure consists of donor and acceptor quantum dot nanostructures embedded in a photonic crystal. It is shown that the transmission and reflection properties of incident light can be controlled by adjusting the corresponding parameters of the system. The role of dipole–dipole interaction is considered as a new parameter in our calculations. It is noted that the features of transmission and reflection curves can be adjusted in the presence of dipole–dipole interaction. It is found that the absorption of weak probe light can be converted to the probe amplification in the presence of dipole–dipole interaction. Moreover, the group velocity of transmitted and reflected probe light is discussed in detail in the absence and presence of dipole–dipole interaction. Our proposed model can be used as a new all-optical devices based on photonic materials doped with nanoparticles.

  8. Characterization of Bi4Ge3O12 single crystal by impedance spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zélia Soares Macedo

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Bi4Ge3O12 (bismuth germanate - BGO single crystals were produced by the Czochralski technique and their electrical and dielectric properties were investigated by impedance spectroscopy. The isothermal ac measurements were performed for temperatures from room temperature up to 750 °C, but only the data taken above 500 °C presented a complete semicircle in the complex impedance diagrams. Experimental data were fitted to a parallel RC equivalent circuit, and the electrical conductivity was obtained from the resistivity values. Conductivity values from 5.4 × 10(9 to 4.3 × 10-7 S/cm were found in the temperature range of 500 to 750 °C. This electrical conductivity is thermally activated, following the Arrhenius law with an apparent activation energy of (1.41 ± 0.04 eV. The dielectric properties of BGO single crystal were also studied for the same temperature interval. Permittivity values of 20 ± 2 for frequencies higher than 10³ Hz and a low-frequency dispersion were observed. Both electric and dielectric behavior of BGO are typical of systems in which the conduction mechanism dominates the dielectric response.

  9. Generation and detection of the polarization of multi-GeV photons by use of two diamond crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsebom, K.; Kononets, Yu. V.; Mikkelsen, U.; Møller, S. P.; Uggerhøj, E.; Worm, T.; Elsener, K.; Biino, C.; Ballestrero, S.; Sona, P.; Avakian, R. O.; Ispirian, K. A.; Taroian, S. P.; Connell, S. H.; Sellschop, J. P. F.; Vilakazi, Z. Z.

    1999-07-01

    Presented are experimental results for the difference in pair production probability (the asymmetry) for 5-150 GeV photons polarized parallel and perpendicular to a (110) plane in a 1.5 mm thick diamond crystal. The photons are produced by interaction of 150 GeV electrons with an aligned diamond crystal of 0.5 mm thickness. A significant asymmetry is found over the whole energy range, which corresponds to a high degree of linear polarization of the photons as well as a difference in the refractive index. This proof-of-principle result gives the possibility of producing high energy photons with circular polarization by use of a crystal. This might open for several opportunities in high energy physics like for instance the investigation of the contribution of the gluons to the spin of the nucleon.

  10. Unusual 5f magnetism in the U2Fe3Ge ternary Laves phase: a single crystal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, M S; Gorbunov, D I; Waerenborgh, J C; Havela, L; Shick, A B; Diviš, M; Andreev, A V; Gonçalves, A P

    2013-02-13

    Magnetic properties of the intermetallic compound U(2)Fe(3)Ge were studied on a single crystal. The compound crystallizes in the hexagonal Mg(2)Cu(3)Si structure, an ordered variant of the MgZn(2) Laves structure (C14). U(2)Fe(3)Ge displays ferromagnetic order below the Curie temperature T(C) = 55 K and presents an exception to the Hill rule, as the nearest inter-uranium distances do not exceed 3.2 Å. Magnetic moments lie in the basal plane of the hexagonal lattice, with the spontaneous magnetic moment M(s) = 1.0 μ(B)/f.u. at T = 2 K. No anisotropy within the basal plane is detected. In contrast to typical U-based intermetallics, U(2)Fe(3)Ge exhibits very low magnetic anisotropy, whose field does not exceed 10 T. The dominance of U in the magnetism of U(2)Fe(3)Ge is suggested by the (57)Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy study, which indicates very low or even zero Fe moments. Electronic structure calculations are in agreement with the observed easy-plane anisotropy but fail to explain the lack of an Fe contribution to the magnetism of U(2)Fe(3)Ge.

  11. Investigation on the crystallization properties and structure of oxygen-doped Ge8Sb92 phase change thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Weihua; He, Zifang; Chen, Shiyu; Zhai, Jiwei; Song, Sannian; Song, Zhitang

    2017-03-01

    Effects of oxygen incorporation on the crystallization characteristics and crystal structure of Ge8Sb92 films were systematically investigated. The amorphous-to-crystalline transition was studied by in situ resistance measurement. The thermal stability, electrical resistance and band gap of Ge8Sb92 material increase significantly by the addition of oxygen. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy illustrate that a small amount of oxygen dopant can inhibit the grain growth and limit the grain size because of the formation of Ge and Sb oxide. Atomic force microscopy and x-ray reflectivity results indicate that the film surface becomes smoother and the film thickness change becomes smaller after oxygen doping. Phase change memory cells based on oxygen-doped Ge8Sb92 film were fabricated to evaluate the electrical properties as well. All the results demonstrate that suitable incorporation of oxygen is an effective way to enhance the comprehensive performance of Ge8Sb92 thin films for phase change memory application.

  12. Kinetics of liquid-mediated crystallization of amorphous Ge from multi-frame dynamic transmission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santala, M. K., E-mail: melissa.santala@oregonstate.edu; Campbell, G. H. [Materials Science Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Ave., Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Raoux, S. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, D-14109 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-12-21

    The kinetics of laser-induced, liquid-mediated crystallization of amorphous Ge thin films were studied using multi-frame dynamic transmission electron microscopy (DTEM), a nanosecond-scale photo-emission transmission electron microscopy technique. In these experiments, high temperature gradients are established in thin amorphous Ge films with a 12-ns laser pulse with a Gaussian spatial profile. The hottest region at the center of the laser spot crystallizes in ∼100 ns and becomes nano-crystalline. Over the next several hundred nanoseconds crystallization continues radially outward from the nano-crystalline region forming elongated grains, some many microns long. The growth rate during the formation of these radial grains is measured with time-resolved imaging experiments. Crystal growth rates exceed 10 m/s, which are consistent with crystallization mediated by a very thin, undercooled transient liquid layer, rather than a purely solid-state transformation mechanism. The kinetics of this growth mode have been studied in detail under steady-state conditions, but here we provide a detailed study of liquid-mediated growth in high temperature gradients. Unexpectedly, the propagation rate of the crystallization front was observed to remain constant during this growth mode even when passing through large local temperature gradients, in stark contrast to other similar studies that suggested the growth rate changed dramatically. The high throughput of multi-frame DTEM provides gives a more complete picture of the role of temperature and temperature gradient on laser crystallization than previous DTEM experiments.

  13. Influence of ZnO nanostructures in liquid crystal interfaces for bistable switching applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, Kaushik, E-mail: kaushikpal@whu.edu.cn [School of Power and Mechanical Engineering, Wuhan University, 8 East Lake South Road, Wuhan 430072 (China); Zhan, Bihong, E-mail: bihong_zhan@whu.edu.cn [School of Power and Mechanical Engineering, Wuhan University, 8 East Lake South Road, Wuhan 430072 (China); Madhu Mohan, M.L.N. [Liquid Crystal Research Laboratory (LCRL), Bannari Amman Institute of Technology, Sathyamangalam 638 401 (India); Schirhagl, Romana [University Medical Center Groningen, Department of BioMedical Engineering, Ant. Deusinglaan 1, 9713 AV Groningen (Netherlands); Wang, Guoping, E-mail: guopingwang@whu.edu.cn [School of Power and Mechanical Engineering, Wuhan University, 8 East Lake South Road, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2015-12-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • One step bench top novel synthesis and growth dynamics of ZnO structures are successfully performed. • Nanostructures dispersing liquid crystals (NDLC) is recently found to have significant influence on the nucleation and growth of many functional nanocrystals (NCs), and provide a fundamental approach to modify the crystallographic phase, size, morphology, and electronic configuration of nanomaterials. • Electro-optical switching application ensures the bright field droplet design marble pattern of smectic G phase, nematic and most significant twist nematic phase pattern are obtained. • Spontaneous polarization, rotational viscosity and response time study, exploring smart applications in LCD technology. - Abstract: The controlled fabrication of nanometer-scale objects is without doubt one of the central issues in current science and technology. In this article, we exhibit a simple, one-step bench top synthesis of zinc oxide nano-tetrapods and nano-spheres which were tailored by the facial growth of nano-wires (diameter ≈ 24 nm; length ≈ 118 nm) and nano-cubes (≈395 nm edge) to nano-sphere (diameter ≈ 585 nm) appeaded. The possibilities of inexpensive, simple solvo-chemical synthesis of nanostructures were considered. In this article, a successful attempt has been made that ZnO nano-structures dispersed on well aligned hydrogen bonded liquid crystals (HBLC) comprising azelaic acid (AC) with p-n-alkyloxy benzoic acid (nBAO) by varying the respective alkyloxy carbon number (n = 5). The dispersion of nanomaterials with HBLC is an effective route to enhance the existing functionalities. A series of these composite materials were analyzed by polarizing optical microscope's electro-optical switching. An interesting feature of AC + nBAO is the inducement of tilted smectic G phase with increasing carbon chain length. Phase diagrams of the above hybrid ZnO nanomaterial influenced LC complex and pure LC were

  14. Luminescence of one dimensional ZnO, GeO{sub 2}–Zn{sub 2}GeO{sub 4} nanostructure through thermal evaporation of Zn and Ge powder mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham, Vuong-Hung, E-mail: vuong.phamhung@hust.edu.vn; Kien, Vu Trung; Tam, Phuong Dinh; Huy, Pham Thanh

    2016-07-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • ZnO and GeO{sub 2}–ZnGeO{sub 4} nanowires were fabricated by thermal evaporation of Zn and Ge powder mixture. • Morphology of specimens were observed to have a nanowire structure to rod-like morphology. • Strong NBE emission band with suppressed visible green emission band were observed on the dominant ZnO nanowires. • Strong emission of ∼530 nm were observed on the GeO{sub 2}–Zn{sub 2}GeO{sub 4} nanowires. - Abstract: This paper reports the first attempt for fabrication of thermal evaporated Zn–Ge powder mixture to achieve near-band-edge (NBE) emission of ZnO and visible emission of GeO{sub 2}–Zn{sub 2}GeO{sub 4} nanowires with controllable intensities. The nanowires were fabricated by thermal evaporation of Zn and Ge powder mixture, particularly, by using different Zn:Ge ratio, temperature and evaporated times. The morphology of nanowires was depended on the Zn and Ge ratio that was observed to have a nanowire structure to rod-like morphology. The thermal evaporation of Zn:Ge powder mixture resulted in formation of dominant ZnO or GeO{sub 2}–Zn{sub 2}GeO{sub 4} nanowires as a function of evaporated parameters. These results suggest that the application of thermal evaporation of Zn and Ge mixture for potential application in synthesis of ZnO or GeO{sub 2}–Zn{sub 2}GeO{sub 4} nanowires for optoelectronic field.

  15. New quaternary thallium indium germanium selenide TlInGe2Se6: Crystal and electronic structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khyzhun, O. Y.; Parasyuk, O. V.; Tsisar, O. V.; Piskach, L. V.; Myronchuk, G. L.; Levytskyy, V. O.; Babizhetskyy, V. S.

    2017-10-01

    Crystal structure of a novel quaternary thallium indium germanium selenide TlInGe2Se6 was investigated by means of powder X-ray diffraction method. It was determined that the compound crystallizes in the trigonal space group R3 with the unit cell parameters a = 10.1798(2) Å, c = 9.2872(3) Å. The relationship with similar structures was discussed. The as-synthesized TlInGe2Se6 ingot was tested with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES). In particular, the XPS valence-band and core-level spectra were recorded for initial and Ar+ ion-bombarded surfaces of the sample under consideration. The XPS data allow for statement that the TlInGe2Se6 surface is rigid with respect to Ar+ ion-bombardment. Particularly, Ar+ ion-bombardment (3.0 keV, 5 min duration, ion current density fixed at 14 μA/cm2) did not cause substantial modifications of stoichiometry in topmost surface layers. Furthermore, comparison on a common energy scale of the XES Se Kβ2 and Ge Kβ2 bands and the XPS valence-band spectrum reveals that the principal contributions of the Se 4p and Ge 4p states occur in the upper and central portions of the valence band of TlInGe2Se6, respectively, with also their substantial contributions in other portions of the band. The bandgap energy of TlInGe2Se6 at the level of αg=103 cm-1 is equal to 2.38 eV at room temperature.

  16. Optical properties of opaline photonic crystals covered by phase-change material Ge$_2$Sb$_2$Te$_5$

    CERN Document Server

    Dyakov, Sergey A; Voronov, Mikhail M; Yakovlev, Sergey A; Pevtsov, Alexander B; Akimov, Ilya A; Tikhodeev, Sergei G

    2016-01-01

    Reflection spectra from 3D opaline photonic crystals covered with phase-change material Ge$_2$Sb$_2$Te$_5$ are studied for different incident angles of light both experimentally and theoretically. We demonstrate that in presence of Ge$_2$Sb$_2$Te$_5$ chalcogenide capping layer, the reflection spectra have peaks associated with resonant Wood's anomalies. The experimental reflection spectra are in a good agreement with theoretical calculations performed by the Fourier modal method in the scattering matrix form. The electromagnetic near-field distributions of incident light at resonant frequencies are calculated.

  17. Application of Bent Crystals at IHEP 70-GeV Accelerator to Enhance the Efficiency of its Usage

    CERN Document Server

    Afonin, A G; Chesnokov, Yu A; Fedotov, Yu S; Galjaev, A N; Gres, V N; Ivanov, Yu B; Kotov, V I; Maisheev, V A; Medvedev, V A; Minchenko, A V; Scandale, Walter; Terekhov, V I; Troyanov, E F; Zapolskii, V N; Zelenov, B A

    2000-01-01

    Bent crystal was extracting 70-GeV protons with average intensity 4x10$^{11}$ (as measured in external beamline) per spill of ~1.6 s duration, in parallel to the simultaneous work of two internal targets in the accelerator ring. An additional crystal, placed in the external beamline, was deflecting a small part of the extracted beam with intensity ~10$^7$ protons toward another physics experiment. Crystal-extracted beam had a typical size of 4 mm by 4 mm fwhm at the end of the external beamline. Measurements for the extraction efficiency and other characteristics at the simultaneous work of four experimental set-ups are presented. With crystal working in the above-said regime during one month, no degradation of channeling was observed. The studies of extraction efficiency have been continued with new crystals.

  18. CRYSTALLIZATION AND MELTING OF POLY(ETHYLENE OXIDE) CONFINED IN NANOSTRUCTURED PARTICLES WITH CROSS-LINKED SHELLS OF POLYBUTADIENE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-ping Gao; Yu Bai; Er-qiang Chen; Qi-feng Zhou

    2005-01-01

    Small fixed aggregates of a poly(ethylene oxide)-block-polybutadiene diblock copolymer (PEO-b-PB) in THF solution were obtained by adding a selective solvent for PB blocks, followed by cross-linking the PB shells. The morphologies of the nanostructured particles with a cross-linked shell were investigated by atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The average behaviors of the PEO crystallization and melting confined within the nanostructured particles were studied by using differential scanning calorimetry experiments. For the deeply cross-linked sample (SCL-l), the crystallization of the PEO blocks was fully confined. The individual nanoparticles only crystallized at very low crystallization temperatures (TcS), wherein the homogenous primary nucleation determined the overall crystallization rate. For the lightly cross-linked sample (SCL-2), the confinement effect was Tc dependent. At Tc ≤ 42℃, the crystallization and melting behaviors of SCL-2 were similar to those of the pure PEO-b-PB diblock copolymer. At Tc > 42℃,SCL-2 could form PEO lamellae thicker than those of the pure PEO-b-PB crystallized at the same Tc.

  19. Theoretical Study of Si(x) Ge(y)Li(z) (x=4-10, y=1-10, z=0-10) Clusters for Designing of Novel Nanostructured Materials to be Utilized as Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-16

    life for applications in portable electronic devices and electric vehicles. Currently, the graphite anode is the most commercially used due to its...AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2015-0088 Theoretical Study of Novel Nanostructured Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries Mario Sanchez-Vazquez CENTRO DE INVESTIGACION...SiGeLi Clusters for Design of Novel Nanostructured Materials to Be Utilized as Anodes for Lithium-ion Batteries 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER

  20. Measurements of Pair Production Under Channelling Conditions by 70-180 GeV Photons Incident on Single Crystals

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This experiment will use the WA69 set-up to deliver a tagged photon beam in the energy range from 15~GeV to 150~GeV with a total angular spread of about @M~0.5~mrad. The incident photon direction is known to about 35~@mrad through the direction of the emitting electron. The photon beam is incident on an about 1~mm thick Ge single crystal in order to investigate pair production in single crystals. Above a certain energy threshold photons incident along crystal axis will show strongly increased pair production yi - the so-called .us Channelling Pair Production (ChPP). The produced pairs are analyzed in the @W-spectrometer. The large spread in incident photon angles offers an excellent opportunity to investigate in one single experiment the pair production in an angular region around a crystal axes and thereby compare ChPP with coherent (CPP) and incoherent (ICPP) processes. The very abrupt onset of ChPP (around threshold) will be measured and give a crucial test of the theoretical calculations. The differential...

  1. Self-assembled hierarchical nanostructures for high-efficiency porous photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passoni, Luca; Criante, Luigino; Fumagalli, Francesco; Scotognella, Francesco; Lanzani, Guglielmo; Di Fonzo, Fabio

    2014-12-23

    The nanoscale modulation of material properties such as porosity and morphology is used in the natural world to mold the flow of light and to obtain structural colors. The ability to mimic these strategies while adding technological functionality has the potential to open up a broad array of applications. Porous photonic crystals are one such technological candidate, but have typically underachieved in terms of available materials, structural and optical quality, compatibility with different substrates (e.g., silicon, flexible organics), and scalability. We report here an alternative fabrication method based on the bottom-up self-assembly of elementary building blocks from the gas phase into high surface area photonic hierarchical nanostructures at room temperature. Periodic refractive index modulation is achieved by stacking layers with different nanoarchitectures. High-efficiency porous Bragg reflectors are successfully fabricated with sub-micrometer thick films on glass, silicon, and flexible substrates. High diffraction efficiency broadband mirrors (R≈1), opto-fluidic switches, and arrays of photonic crystal pixels with sizesolar cells, and photocatalysis are envisioned.

  2. Design and realization of transparent solar modules based on luminescent solar concentrators integrating nanostructured photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Solano, Alberto; Delgado-Sánchez, José-Maria; Calvo, Mauricio E; Miranda-Muñoz, José M; Lozano, Gabriel; Sancho, Diego; Sánchez-Cortezón, Emilio; Míguez, Hernán

    2015-12-01

    Herein, we present a prototype of a photovoltaic module that combines a luminescent solar concentrator integrating one-dimensional photonic crystals and in-plane CuInGaSe2 (CIGS) solar cells. Highly uniform and wide-area nanostructured multilayers with photonic crystal properties were deposited by a cost-efficient and scalable liquid processing amenable to large-scale fabrication. Their role is to both maximize light absorption in the targeted spectral range, determined by the fluorophore employed, and minimize losses caused by emission at angles within the escape cone of the planar concentrator. From a structural perspective, the porous nature of the layers facilitates the integration with the thermoplastic polymers typically used to encapsulate and seal these modules. Judicious design of the module geometry, as well as of the optical properties of the dielectric mirrors employed, allows optimizing light guiding and hence photovoltaic performance while preserving a great deal of transparency. Optimized in-plane designs like the one herein proposed are of relevance for building integrated photovoltaics, as ease of fabrication, long-term stability and improved performance are simultaneously achieved. © 2015 The Authors. Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Design and realization of transparent solar modules based on luminescent solar concentrators integrating nanostructured photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez‐Solano, Alberto; Delgado‐Sánchez, José‐Maria; Calvo, Mauricio E.; Miranda‐Muñoz, José M.; Lozano, Gabriel; Sancho, Diego; Sánchez‐Cortezón, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Herein, we present a prototype of a photovoltaic module that combines a luminescent solar concentrator integrating one‐dimensional photonic crystals and in‐plane CuInGaSe2 (CIGS) solar cells. Highly uniform and wide‐area nanostructured multilayers with photonic crystal properties were deposited by a cost‐efficient and scalable liquid processing amenable to large‐scale fabrication. Their role is to both maximize light absorption in the targeted spectral range, determined by the fluorophore employed, and minimize losses caused by emission at angles within the escape cone of the planar concentrator. From a structural perspective, the porous nature of the layers facilitates the integration with the thermoplastic polymers typically used to encapsulate and seal these modules. Judicious design of the module geometry, as well as of the optical properties of the dielectric mirrors employed, allows optimizing light guiding and hence photovoltaic performance while preserving a great deal of transparency. Optimized in‐plane designs like the one herein proposed are of relevance for building integrated photovoltaics, as ease of fabrication, long‐term stability and improved performance are simultaneously achieved. © 2015 The Authors. Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:27656090

  4. Ge and B doped collapsed photonic crystal optical fibre, a potential TLD material for low dose measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozaila, Z. Siti; Alyahyawi, Amjad; Khandaker, M. U.; Amin, Y. M.; Bradley, D. A.; Maah, M. J.

    2016-09-01

    Offering a number of advantageous features, tailor-made silica-based fibres are attracting attention as thermoluminesence (TL) dosimeters. We have performed a detailed study of the TL properties of Ge-doped and Ge-B-doped collapsed photonic crystal fibres (PCFc), most particularly with regard to their potential use for the environmental and X-ray diagnostic dose monitoring. Extrinsic doping and defects generated by strain at the fused inner walls of the collapsed fibres result in the PCFc-Ge-B and PCFc-Ge fibres producing markedly greater TL response than that of the phosphor-based dosimeter TLD-100, by some 9 and 7×, respectively. The linearity of TL yield has been investigated for X-ray doses from 0.5 mGy to 10 mGy. For a dose of 1 Gy, the energy response of the PCFs and TLD-100 has been studied using X-rays generated at accelerating potentials from 20 kVp through to 200 kVp and for the 1.25 MeV mean gamma-ray energy from 60Co. The effective atomic number , Zeffof PCFc-Ge and PCFc-Ge-B was estimated to be 12.5 and 14.4, respectively. Some 35 days post-irradiation, fading of the stored TL signal from PCFc-Ge-B and PCFc-Ge were found to be ∼15% and 20% respectively, with mean loss in TL emission of 0.4-0.5% per day. The present doped-silica collapsed PCFs provide greatly improved TLD performance compared to that of previous fibre designs and phosphor-based TLD-100.

  5. Characterization and Synthesis of Silver Nanostructures in Rare Earth Activated GeO2-PbO Glass Matrix Using Matrix Adjustment Thermal Reduction Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hj. A. A. Sidek

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports matrix adjustment thermal reduction method to synthesize silver nanostructures in Er3+/Yb3+ activated GeO2-PbO glass matrix. The GeO2-PbO glass, the medium of nanoparticle formation, doped with Er2O3, Yb2O3 and AgNO3 was prepared by a melt quenching method. Annealing of the glass for different times was utilized, not only due to thermally reduce Ag+ ions to Ag nanostructures, but also to influence the glassy network. This is because, the glass structural transformation temperature is near to 435 °C and heating at more than this temperature can cause some structural changes in the glass matrix. According to TEM images, samples that tolerate 450 °C annealing temperature for one hour show the formation of basil-like silver nanostructures with a mean length of 54 nm and mean diameter of 13 nm embedded in the glass matrix, whereas with annealing at 450 °C for 5 to 20 h, silver nanoparticles of about 3–4 nm mean diameter size are formed. Annealing for 30 h causes silver nanoparticles to aggregate to form larger particles due to an Oswald ripening process. Observation of the characteristic Ag-NP SPR band at 400–500 nm in the UV-visible absorption spectra confirms the existence of silver nanoparticles. The SPR band widens to longer wavelengths in one hour annealed samples, which relates to the existence of nanostructures with different size or fractal shapes. In addition, an increment in the peak of the SPR band by increasing the duration of annealing indicates the formation of more nanoparticles. Furthermore, the existence of a peak at 470 cm–1 in the FTIR spectra of annealed samples and its absence in the samples not exposed to an annealing process suggests that the glass matrix is polymerized by Pb-O chains during the 450 °C annealing process. This is the main source of different nanostructures because of the dissimilar stabilizing media. The tighter media cap the particles to form small and dense nanoparticles but a

  6. Growth and characterization of Ge nano-structures on Si(113) by adsorbate-mediated epitaxy; Wachstum und Charakterisierung von Ge-Nanostrukturen auf Si(113) durch Adsorbat-modifizierte Epitaxie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clausen, T.

    2006-11-15

    In the work presented here Ge nano-structures on Si(113) substrates have been grown by adsorbate-mediated epitaxy at sample temperatures between 400 C and 700 C. The Ge nano-islands and nano-layers have been investigated regarding their atomic reconstruction, morphology, strain state, chemical composition and defect structure. Various in-situ and ex-situ experimental techniques have been used, as there are low-energy electron diffraction, low-energy electron microscopy, X-ray photoemission electron microscopy, spot profile analysis low-energy electron diffraction, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, scanning tunneling microscopy, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. On a clean Si(113) surface Ge preferentially nucleates at surface step edges and forms a wetting layer exhibiting a Ge-(2 x 2) surface reconstruction. With increasing growth temperature the Ge islands are elongated in the [33 anti 2] direction. Simultaneously, the average island size increases with decreasing island density. From the Arrhenius-like behaviour of the island density, a Ge adatom diffusion barrier height of about 0.53 eV is deduced. At 600 C the Si concentration of the islands amounts to about 41% and the residual lattice strain of the islands is found to about 23 %. The adsorption of Gallium on a clean Si(113) substrate leads to the formation of well ordered surface facets in the [1 anti 10] direction with a periodicity of about 43 nm in the [33 anti 2] direction. From reciprocal space maps in different ({kappa} {sub perpendicular} {sub to} -{kappa} {sub parallel}) planes both facet angles are determined to be about 9.8 with respect to the [113] direction. Thus the facet orientations are identified to be (112) and (115), showing (6 x 1) and (4 x 1) surface reconstructions, respectively. Ge deposition on the faceted Si(113) leads to a high density of ordered 3D Ge nano-islands beaded at the surface facets. The size of these islands is

  7. Superconductivity and physical properties of CaPd2Ge2 single crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, V K; Kim, H; Tanatar, M A; Prozorov, R; Johnston, D C

    2014-10-08

    We present the superconducting and normal state properties of CaPd(2)Ge(2) single crystals investigated by magnetic susceptibility χ, isothermal magnetization M, heat capacity Cp, in-plane electrical resistivity ρ and London penetration depth λ versus temperature T and magnetic field H measurements. Bulk superconductivity is inferred from the ρ(T) and Cp(T) data. The ρ(T) data exhibit metallic behavior and a superconducting transition with T(c onset) = 1.98 K and zero resistivity at T(c 0) = 1.67 K. The χ(T) reveals the onset of superconductivity at 2.0 K. For T > 2.0 K, the χ(T) and M(H) are weakly anisotropic paramagnetic with χ(ab) > χ(c). The Cp(T) data confirm the bulk superconductivity below T(c) = 1.69(3) K. The superconducting state electronic heat capacity is analyzed within the framework of a single-band α-model of BCS superconductivity and various normal and superconducting state parameters are estimated. Within the α-model, the Cp(T) data and the ab plane λ(T) data consistently indicate a moderately anisotropic s-wave gap with Δ(0)/k(B)T(c) ≈ 1.6, somewhat smaller than the BCS value of 1.764. The relationship of the heat capacity jump at Tc and the penetration depth measurement to the anisotropy in the s-wave gap is discussed.

  8. Plasmonic enhancement of second harmonic generation from nonlinear RbTiOPO4 crystals by aggregates of silver nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sánchez-García, Laura; Tserkezis, Christos; Ramírez, Mariola O;

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a 60–fold enhancement of the second harmonic generation (SHG) response at the nanoscale in a hybrid metal-dielectric system. By using complex silver nanostructures photochemically deposited on the polar surface of a ferroelectric crystal, we tune the plasmonic resonances from the v...... the potential of aggregates of silver nanostructures for enhancing optical nonlinearities at the nanoscale and provides an alternative approach for the development of nanometric nonlinear photonic devices in a scalable way.......We demonstrate a 60–fold enhancement of the second harmonic generation (SHG) response at the nanoscale in a hybrid metal-dielectric system. By using complex silver nanostructures photochemically deposited on the polar surface of a ferroelectric crystal, we tune the plasmonic resonances from...... or up to 60 times when it matches the fundamental NIR radiation. The results are consistent with the more spatially-extended near-field response of complex metallic nanostructures and can be well explained by taking into account the quadratic character of the SHG process. The work points out...

  9. Fabrication and characterization of PbSe nanostructures on van der Waals surfaces of GaSe layered semiconductor crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudrynskyi, Z. R.; Bakhtinov, A. P.; Vodopyanov, V. N.; Kovalyuk, Z. D.; Tovarnitskii, M. V.; Lytvyn, O. S.

    2015-11-01

    The growth morphology, composition and structure of PbSe nanostructures grown on the atomically smooth, clean, nanoporous and oxidized van der Waals (0001) surfaces of GaSe layered crystals were studied by means of atomic force microscopy, x-ray diffractometry, photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Semiconductor heterostructures were grown by the hot-wall technique in vacuum. Nanoporous GaSe substrates were fabricated by the thermal annealing of layered crystals in a molecular hydrogen atmosphere. The irradiation of the GaSe(0001) surface by UV radiation was used to fabricate thin Ga2O3 layers with thickness clusters with a square or rectangular symmetry on the clean low-energy (0001) GaSe surface, and (001)-oriented growth of PbSe thin films takes place on this surface. Using this growth technique it is possible to grow PbSe nanostructures with different morphologies: continuous epitaxial layers with thickness quantum dots with a high lateral density (more than 1011 cm-2) on the oxidized van der Waals (0001) surfaces and faceted square pillar-like nanostructures with a low lateral density (˜108 cm-2) on the nanoporous GaSe substrates. We exploit the ‘vapor-liquid-solid’ growth with low-melting metal (Ga) catalyst of PbSe crystalline branched nanostructures via a surface-defect-assisted mechanism.

  10. Crystal structure of SrGeO3 in the high-pressure perovskite-type phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiko Nakatsuka

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Single crystals of the SrGeO3 (strontium germanium trioxide high-pressure phase have been synthesized successfully at 6 GPa and 1223 K. The compound crystallizes with the ideal cubic perovskite-type structure (space group Pm-3m, which consists of a network of corner-linked regular GeO6 octahedra (point-group symmetry m-3m, with the larger Sr atoms located at the centers of cavities in the form of SrO12 cuboctahedra (point-group symmetry m-3m in the network. The degrees of covalencies included in the Sr—O and the Ge—O bonds calculated from bond valences are 20.4 and 48.9%, respectively. Thus, the Ge—O bond of the GeO6 octahedron in the SrGeO3 perovskite has a strong covalency, comparable to those of the Si—O bonds of the SiO4 tetrahedra in silicates with about 50% covalency. The thermal vibrations of the O atoms in the title compound are remarkably suppressed in the directions of the Ge—O bonds. This anisotropy ranks among the largest observed in stoichiometric cubic perovskites.

  11. Evaluating the Effect of Surface Roughness on Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticle Deposition using a Combined Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation (QCM-D) and Generalized Ellipsometry (GE) Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kananizadeh, N.; Lee, J.; Rodenhausen, K. B.; Sekora, D.; Schubert, M.; Schubert, E.; Bartelt-Hunt, S.; Li, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Quantification and characterization of nanoparticles in soils and sediments are very challenging because they will interact not only with soil-water chemistry but also with highly heterogeneous soil and sediment surfaces. In this work, we measured the interaction of Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nTiO2), the most extensively manufactured engineered materials, with engineered rough surfaces under varied ionic strength conditions. Innovative three-dimensional Silicon nanostructured surfaces, referred to here as slanted columnar thin films (SCTFs), were used to generate surface roughness with controlled heights of 50nm, 100nm, and 200nm. Using atomic layer deposition technique (ALD), surfaces of SCTF were coated with either silicon dioxide or aluminum oxides to represent the most abundant silica aquifer materials and metal oxide impurities, respectively. The interaction between nTiO2 and model rough surfaces was measured using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). The data were analyzed using a model that couples the viscoelastic effect with the surface roughness effect. No nTiO2 deposition was observed on neither flat nor rough silicon dioxide surfaces under ionic strength ranged from 0 to 100 mM NaCl. On the other hand, the deposition of nTiO2 on the aluminum oxides coated surfaces increased as the height of roughness increased. In parallel with QCM-D, a Generalized Ellipsometry (GE) was used to measure the mass of deposited nTiO2. The combination of QCM-D and GE revealed that the properties (i.e. porosity and rigidness) of attached nTiO2 layer on the QCM-D surfaces were dependent on ionic strength and surface roughness.

  12. Nanoscale nuclei in phase change materials: Origin of different crystallization mechanisms of Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} and AgInSbTe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Bong-Sub, E-mail: bongsub@gmail.com; Bogle, Stephanie N.; Darmawikarta, Kristof; Abelson, John R. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and the Coordinated Sciences Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1-109 Engineering Sciences Building, 1101 West Springfield Avenue, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Shelby, Robert M.; Retter, Charles T.; Burr, Geoffrey W. [IBM Research—Almaden, 650 Harry Rd., San Jose, California 95120 (United States); Raoux, Simone [IBM Research—Almaden, 650 Harry Rd., San Jose, California 95120 (United States); IBM/Macronix PCRAM Joint Project, IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States); Bishop, Stephen G. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and the Coordinated Sciences Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1406 West Green Street, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2014-02-14

    Phase change memory devices are based on the rapid and reversible amorphous-to-crystalline transformations of phase change materials, such as Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} and AgInSbTe. Since the maximum switching speed of these devices is typically limited by crystallization speed, understanding the crystallization process is of crucial importance. While Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} and AgInSbTe show very different crystallization mechanisms from their melt-quenched states, the nanostructural origin of this difference has not been clearly demonstrated. Here, we show that an amorphous state includes different sizes and number of nanoscale nuclei, after thermal treatment such as melt-quenching or furnace annealing is performed. We employ fluctuation transmission electron microscopy to detect nanoscale nuclei embedded in amorphous materials, and use a pump-probe laser technique and atomic force microscopy to study the kinetics of nucleation and growth. We confirm that melt-quenched amorphous Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} includes considerably larger and more quenched-in nuclei than its as-deposited state, while melt-quenched AgInSbTe does not, and explain this contrast by the different ratio between quenching time and nucleation time in these materials. In addition to providing insights to the crystallization process in these technologically important devices, this study presents experimental illustrations of temperature-dependence of nucleation rate and growth speed, which was predicted by theory of phase transformation but rarely demonstrated.

  13. Enhanced electromagnetic showers initiated by 20-180 GeV gamma rays on aligned thick germanium crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baurichter, A.; Kirsebom, K.; Medenwaldt, R.; Mikkelsen, U.; Moeller, S.P.; Uggerhoej, E.; Worm, T.; Kononets, Y.V.; Elsener, K.; Ballestrero, S.; Sona, P.; Biino, C.; Connell, S.H.; Sellschop, J.P.F.; Vilakazi, Z.Z.; Apyan, A.; Avakian, R.O.; Ispirian, K.A.; Taroian, S.P

    1999-06-01

    The distribution of the energy released in a silicon detector placed on the downstream side of thick germanium single crystals bombarded by 20-180 GeV gamma rays along directions close to the <1 1 0> axis or along a random direction has been investigated. A large enhancement of the shower for axial incidence of the gamma rays has been found. The response of the system composed of a germanium crystal and a silicon detector to single gamma rays as a function of their energy has been deduced and compared with existing Monte Carlo simulations.

  14. Enhanced electromagnetic showers initiated by 20-180 GeV gamma rays on aligned thick germanium crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baurichter, A.; Kirsebom, K.; Medenwaldt, R.; Mikkelsen, U.; Møller, S. P.; Uggerhøj, E.; Worm, T.; Kononets, Y. V.; Elsener, K.; Ballestrero, S.; Sona, P.; Biino, C.; Connell, S. H.; Sellschop, J. P. F.; Vilakazi, Z. Z.; Apyan, A.; Avakian, R. O.; Ispirian, K. A.; Taroian, S. P.

    1999-06-01

    The distribution of the energy released in a silicon detector placed on the downstream side of thick germanium single crystals bombarded by 20-180 GeV gamma rays along directions close to the axis or along a random direction has been investigated. A large enhancement of the shower for axial incidence of the gamma rays has been found. The response of the system composed of a germanium crystal and a silicon detector to single gamma rays as a function of their energy has been deduced and compared with existing Monte Carlo simulations.

  15. Interstitial-related defect reactions in electron-irradiated oxygen-rich Ge crystals: A DLTS study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markevich, V. P.; Peaker, A. R.; Lastovskii, S. B.; Murin, L. I.; Litvinov, V. V.; Emtsev, V. V.; Dobaczewski, L.

    2009-12-01

    Electrically active defects induced in oxygen-rich Ge:Sb crystals by irradiation with MeV electrons at 80 or 300 K have been studied by means of capacitance transient techniques. Transformations of the defects upon post-irradiation isochronal anneals have also been investigated. It is argued that a radiation-induced electron trap with an energy level at about 110 meV below the conduction band edge (E110) can be associated with electron emission from an energy level of the Ge self-interstitial (IGe). The E110 trap is eliminated in the temperature range 150-200 K upon 15 min isochronal annealing. No other traps in the upper half of the gap emerge simultaneously with the disappearance of the E110 trap. It is argued that Ge self-interstitials become mobile at temperatures higher than 150 K and in oxygen-rich Ge interact with interstitial oxygen atoms (Oi). The resulting IGeOi complexes do not have energy levels in the upper half of the Ge gap. Diffusion and interaction of the IGeOi defects with interstitial oxygen atoms at T>50 °C result in the formation of IGeO2i complexes. In the most stable configuration the IGeO2i complex has orthorhombic (C2v) symmetry.

  16. Mechanism of the Reduced Thermal Conductivity of Fishbone-Type Si Phononic Crystal Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, M.; Maire, J.

    2015-06-01

    The mechanism of the reduced thermal conductivity of fishbone-type phononic crystal (PnC) nanostructures, in which ballistic phonon transport is dominant, was investigated with consideration of both the wave and particle nature of phonons. Phononic band diagrams were calculated for an Si nanowire and a fishbone-type PnC structure with a period of 100 nm, and a clear reduction of the group velocity of phonons, because of a zone-folding effect, was shown. Air-suspended Si nanowires and fishbone-type PnC structures were fabricated by electron beam (EB) lithography, and their thermal conductivities were measured by use of the originally developed micro time-domain thermoreflectance method. The PnC structure had a much lower thermal conductivity. We measured the thermal conductivity of a variety of PnC structures with different fin widths to investigate the mechanism of the reduced thermal conductivity observed. The result indicates that the increase of the phonon traveling distance. as a result of the fins, also results in reduced thermal conductivity.

  17. Comparison of thermoelectric properties of nanostructured Mg2Si, FeSi2, SiGe, and nanocomposites of SiGe–Mg2Si, SiGe–FeSi2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Nozariasbmarz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Thermoelectric properties of nanostructured FeSi2, Mg2Si, and SiGe are compared with their nanocomposites of SiGe–Mg2Si and SiGe–FeSi2. It was found that the addition of silicide nanoinclusions to SiGe alloy maintained or increased the power factor while further reduced the thermal conductivity compared to the nanostructured single-phase SiGe alloy. This resulted in ZT enhancement of Si0.88Ge0.12–FeSi2 by ∼30% over the broad temperature range of 500-950 °C compared to the conventional Si0.80Ge0.20 alloy. The Si0.88Ge0.12–Mg2Si nanocomposite showed constantly increasing ZT versus temperature up to 950 °C (highest measured temperature reaching ZT ∼ 1.3. These results confirm the concept of silicide nanoparticle-in-SiGe-alloy proposed earlier by Mingo et al. [Nano Lett. 9, 711–715 (2009].

  18. Isothermal section of the Ag{sub 2}S-PbS-GeS{sub 2} system at 300 K and the crystal structure of Ag{sub 2}PbGeS{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kogut, Yu. [Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Volyn State University, 13 Voli Avenue, 43025 Lutsk (Ukraine); Fedorchuk, A. [Department of Inorganic and Organic Chemistry, Lviv National University of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies, 50 Pekarska St., 79010 Lviv (Ukraine); Zhbankov, O. [Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Volyn State University, 13 Voli Avenue, 43025 Lutsk (Ukraine); Romanyuk, Ya. [EMPA, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research, 8600 Dubendorf (Switzerland); Kityk, I. [Electrical Engineering Department, Czestochowa University of Technology, Al. Armii Krajowej 17/19, 42-200 Czestochowa (Poland); Piskach, L. [Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Volyn State University, 13 Voli Avenue, 43025 Lutsk (Ukraine); Parasyuk, O., E-mail: oleg@univer.lutsk.ua [Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Volyn State University, 13 Voli Avenue, 43025 Lutsk (Ukraine)

    2011-03-17

    Research highlights: > The isothermal section of the quasi-ternary system Ag{sub 2}S-PbS-GeS{sub 2} was investigated by X-ray powder diffraction. The phase equilibria between the binary system components and the ternary and the quaternary compounds were identified. > The crystal structure of the quaternary compound Ag{sub 2}PbGeS{sub 4} was investigated by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The compound crystallizes in an own structural type in a non-centrosymmetric space group Ama2 with the lattice parameters a = 1.02390(4) nm, b = 1.02587(5) nm, c = 0.67701(3) nm. - Abstract: The isothermal section of the Ag{sub 2}S-PbS-GeS{sub 2} system at room temperature was investigated by XRD. The existence of two quaternary compounds, Ag{sub 2}PbGeS{sub 4} and Ag{sub 0.5}Pb{sub 1.75}GeS{sub 4}, was confirmed, and the phase equilibria between the binary system components and the ternary and the quaternary compounds were determined. The crystal structure of Ag{sub 2}PbGeS{sub 4} was studied using the single crystal X-ray diffraction. It was established that Ag{sub 2}PbGeS{sub 4} crystallizes in an own structural type in non-centrosymmetric space group Ama2 with the lattice parameters a = 1.02390(4) nm, b = 1.02587(5) nm, c = 0.67701(3) nm.

  19. Crystal and magnetic structure of TbFe{sub 0.25}Ge{sub 2} compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil, A., E-mail: a.gil@ajd.czest.pl [Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Jan Długosz University in Częstochowa, Armii Krajowej 13/15, 42-200 Częstochowa (Poland); Hoser, A. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14-109 Berlin (Germany); Penc, B.; Szytuła, A. [M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Reymonta 4, 30-059 Kraków (Poland)

    2013-10-15

    The crystal and magnetic structure of polycrystalline TbFe{sub 0.25}Ge{sub 2} sample have been determined. X-ray and neutron diffraction studies indicate that this compound has the orthorhombic CeNiSi{sub 2}-type crystal structure (space group Cmcm). The magnetic ordering, based on the neutron diffraction data in low temperature, is described by two components: a collinear antiferromagnetic G-type and a cosine-wave modulated one. In the collinear G-type structure the Tb magnetic moment is equal to 3.81(5) µ{sub B} and it is parallel to the c-axis. The modulated structure is described by the propagation vector k=(0.460(8), 0, 0.305(1)), the Tb magnetic moment equals 7.75(8) µ{sub B,} lies in b–c and forms an angle 23(2)° with the c-axis. The collinear component decreases to zero at 22.6 K while the modulated one at 190.8 K. - Highlights: • We determine crystal and magnetic structure of TbFe{sub 0.25}Ge{sub 2} compound. • We compare the results with other TbT{sub x}Ge{sub 2} compounds. • We observe the complex magnetic structure in TbFe{sub 0.25}Ge{sub 2} with two components: collinear and cosine-wave modulated. • T (3d) element have got significant influence on the interactions in Tb sublattice.

  20. Crystallization of Ge2Sb2Te5 thin films by nano- and femtosecond single laser pulse irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xinxing; Ehrhardt, Martin; Lotnyk, Andriy; Lorenz, Pierre; Thelander, Erik; Gerlach, Jürgen W.; Smausz, Tomi; Decker, Ulrich; Rauschenbach, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    The amorphous to crystalline phase transformation of Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) films by UV nanosecond (ns) and femtosecond (fs) single laser pulse irradiation at the same wavelength is compared. Detailed structural information about the phase transformation is collected by x-ray diffraction and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The threshold fluences to induce crystallization are determined for both pulse lengths. A large difference between ns and fs pulse irradiation was found regarding the grain size distribution and morphology of the crystallized films. For fs single pulse irradiated GST thin films, columnar grains with a diameter of 20 to 60 nm were obtained as evidenced by cross-sectional TEM analysis. The local atomic arrangement was investigated by high-resolution Cs-corrected scanning TEM. Neither tetrahedral nor off-octahedral positions of Ge-atoms could be observed in the largely defect-free grains. A high optical reflectivity contrast (~25%) between amorphous and completely crystallized GST films was achieved by fs laser irradiation induced at fluences between 13 and 16 mJ/cm2 and by ns laser irradiation induced at fluences between 67 and 130 mJ/cm2. Finally, the fluence dependent increase of the reflectivity is discussed in terms of each photon involved into the crystallization process for ns and fs pulses, respectively. PMID:27292819

  1. E/sup +/-e/sup -/ pair creation by 40-150 GeV photons incident near the <110> axis in a germanium crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bak, J.F.; Moeller, S.P.; Petersen, J.B.B.; Soerensen, A.H.; Uggerhoej, E.; Barberis, D.; Elsener, K.; Brodbeck, T.J.; Newton, D.; Wilson, G.W.

    1988-03-17

    Experimental results are presented on the pair production from high-energy photons (40-150 GeV) incident on a 0.5 mm Ge single crystal around the <100> axis. The observed enhancement increases from around 1 at threshold (40 GeV) to 7 at 150 GeV for photons aligned with the axis. Also the angular dependence and the differential e/sup +/e/sup -/ spectra have been studied. For photons aligned with the axis, the results are in good agreement with calculations based on the constant field approximation.

  2. Coherent Pair Production by Photons in the 20-170 GeV Energy Range Incident on Crystals and Birefringence

    CERN Document Server

    Apyan, A; Badelek, B; Ballestrero, S; Biino, C; Birol, I; Cenci, P; Connell, S H; Eichblatt, S; Fonseca, T; Freund, A; Gorini, B; Groess, R; Ispirian, K; Ketel, T; Kononets, Yu V; López, A; Mangiarotti, A; Sellschop, J P Friedel; Shieh, M; Sona, P; Strakhovenko, V M; Uggerhøj, Erik; Uggerhøj, U; Van Rens, B; Velasco, M; Vilakazi, Z Z; Wessely, O; Ünel, G; Kononets, Yu.V.

    2003-01-01

    The cross section for coherent pair production by linearly polarised photons in the 20-170 GeV energy range was measured for photon aligned incidence on ultra-high quality diamond and germanium crystals. The theoretical description of coherent bremsstrahlung and coherent pair production phenomena is an area of active theoretical debate and development. However, under our experimental conditions, the theory predicted the combined cross section and polarisation experimental observables very well indeed. In macroscopic terms, our experiment measured a birefringence effect in pair production in a crystal. This study of this effect also constituted a measurement of the energy dependent linear polarisation of photons produced by coherent bremsstrahlung in aligned crystals. New technologies for manipulating high energy photon beams can be realised based on an improved understanding of QED phenomena at these energies. In particular, this experiment demonstrates an efficient new polarimetry technique. The pair product...

  3. Single-crystal growth and size control of three novel polar intermetallics: Eu2.94(2)Ca6.06In8Ge8, Eu3.13(2)Ca5.87In8Ge8, and Sr3.23(3)Ca5.77In8Ge8 with crystal structure, chemical bonding, and magnetism studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Hyein; Nam, Gnu; Jang, Eunyoung; Kim, Jin; Lee, Yunho; Ahn, Kyunghan; You, Tae-Soo

    2014-05-05

    Three new quaternary polar intermetallic compounds of Eu2.94(2)Ca6.06In8Ge8, Eu3.13(2)Ca5.87In8Ge8, and Sr3.23(3)Ca5.77In8Ge8 have been synthesized by a metal-flux method using molten indium metal as a reactive flux, and the novel isotypic crystal structures have been characterized by both powder and single-crystal X-ray diffractions. All compounds crystallize in the orthorhombic space group Pmmn (Z = 2, Pearson symbol oP50) with 14 crystallographically unique atomic positions in the asymmetric unit. The lattice parameters are refined as follows: a = 36.928(2) Å, b = 4.511(1) Å, and c = 7.506(1) Å for Eu2.94(2)Ca6.06In8Ge8; a = 37.171(19) Å, b = 4.531(2) Å, and c = 7.560(4) Å for Eu3.13(2)Ca5.87In8Ge8; and a = 37.350(2) Å, b = 4.550(3) Å, and c = 7.593(4) Å for Sr3.23(3)Ca5.77In8Ge8. In particular, single crystals of two Eu-containing compounds are obtained as bundles of bar/needle-shaped crystals, and the thicknesses of those crystals can be controlled in the range between ca. 300 μm and ca. <10 μm by adjusting several reaction conditions, including the reaction cooling rate and the centrifugation temperature. The overall crystal structure is illustrated as an assembly of (1) the three-dimensional anionic framework, which is formed by the chains of edge-sharing InGe4 tetrahedra and the annulene-like "12-membered anionic rings" connected via Ge2 dimers, and (2) the cationic mixed sites embedded in the space between the anionic frameworks. Theoretical investigations based on tight-binding linear muffin-tin orbital (TB-LMTO) calculations provide a comprehesive understanding of the overall electronic structure and chemical bonding observed among anionic components and between anions and cations. Electron localization function (ELF) and electron density map present chemical bond strengths and polarization within the anionic framework. Magnetic susceptibility measurement proves an antiferromagnetic (AFM) ordering of Eu atoms below 4 K with a reduced effective

  4. Confined Etching within 2D and 3D Colloidal Crystals for Tunable Nanostructured Templates: Local Environment Matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendisch, Fedja J; Oberreiter, Richard; Salihovic, Miralem; Elsaesser, Michael S; Bourret, Gilles R

    2017-02-01

    We report the isotropic etching of 2D and 3D polystyrene (PS) nanosphere hcp arrays using a benchtop O2 radio frequency plasma cleaner. Unexpectedly, this slow isotropic etching allows tuning of both particle diameter and shape. Due to a suppressed etching rate at the point of contact between the PS particles originating from their arrangement in 2D and 3D crystals, the spherical PS templates are converted into polyhedral structures with well-defined hexagonal cross sections in directions parallel and normal to the crystal c-axis. Additionally, we found that particles located at the edge (surface) of the hcp 2D (3D) crystals showed increased etch rates compared to those of the particles within the crystals. This indicates that 2D and 3D order affect how nanostructures chemically interact with their surroundings. This work also shows that the morphology of nanostructures periodically arranged in 2D and 3D supercrystals can be modified via gas-phase etching and programmed by the superlattice symmetry. To show the potential applications of this approach, we demonstrate the lithographic transfer of the PS template hexagonal cross section into Si substrates to generate Si nanowires with well-defined hexagonal cross sections using a combination of nanosphere lithography and metal-assisted chemical etching.

  5. Fabrication of core-shell nanostructures via silicon on insulator dewetting and germanium condensation: towards a strain tuning method for SiGe-based heterostructures in a three-dimensional geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naffouti, Meher; David, Thomas; Benkouider, Abdelmalek; Favre, Luc; Cabie, Martiane; Ronda, Antoine; Berbezier, Isabelle; Abbarchi, Marco

    2016-07-01

    We report on a novel method for the implementation of core-shell SiGe-based nanocrystals combining silicon on insulator dewetting in a molecular beam epitaxy reactor with an ex situ Ge condensation process. With an in situ two-step process (annealing and Ge deposition) we produce two families of islands on the same sample: Si-rich, formed during the first step and, all around them, Ge-rich formed after Ge deposition. By increasing the amount of Ge deposited on the annealed samples from 0 to 18 monolayers, the islands’ shape in the Si-rich zones can be tuned from elongated and flat to more symmetric and with a larger vertical aspect ratio. At the same time, the spatial extension of the Ge-rich zones is progressively increased as well as the Ge content in the islands. Further processing by ex situ rapid thermal oxidation results in the formation of a core-shell composition profile in both Si and Ge-rich zones with atomically sharp heterointerfaces. The Ge condensation induces a Ge enrichment of the islands’ shell of up to 50% while keeping a pure Si core in the Si-rich zones and a ˜25% SiGe alloy in the Ge-rich ones. The large lattice mismatch between core and shell, the absence of dislocations and the islands’ monocrystalline nature render this novel class of nanostructures a promising device platform for strain-based band-gap engineering. Finally, this method can be used for the implementation of ultralarge scale meta-surfaces with dielectric Mie resonators for light manipulation at the nanoscale.

  6. Utilization of plasmonic and photonic crystal nanostructures for enhanced micro- and nanoparticle manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Cameron S; Knouf, Emily Christine; Tewari, Muneesh; Lin, Lih Y

    2011-09-27

    energy conversion into mechanical energy and a dipole-dependent radiation field. These fields are shown in figure 2 and the low trapping intensities are detailed in figures 4 and 5. The main problems with plasmonic tweezers are that the LSP's generate a considerable amount of heat and the trapping is only two dimensional. This heat generates convective flows and thermophoresis which can be powerful enough to expel submicron particles from the trap. The second approach that we will describe is utilizing periodic dielectric nanostructures to scatter incident light very efficiently into diffraction modes, as shown in figure 6. Ideally, one would make this structure out of a dielectric material to avoid the same heating problems experienced with the plasmonic tweezers but in our approach an aluminum-coated diffraction grating is used as a one-dimensional periodic dielectric nanostructure. Although it is not a semiconductor, it did not experience significant heating and effectively trapped small particles with low trapping intensities, as shown in figure 7. Alignment of particles with the grating substrate conceptually validates the proposition that a 2-D photonic crystal could allow precise rotation of non-spherical micron sized particles. The efficiencies of these optical traps are increased due to the enhanced fields produced by the nanostructures described in this paper.

  7. Study of the structural and physicochemical properties of nanostructured zirconia crystals for fabricating an innovative electrosurgical tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belov, S. V.; Borik, M. A.; Vishnyakova, M. A.; Danileiko, Yu. K.; Kulebyakin, A. V.; Lomonova, E. E.; Milovich, F. O.; Myzina, V. A.; Osiko, V. V.; Salyuk, V. A.; Tabachkova, N. Yu.

    2013-05-01

    To optimize the chemical composition of the crystals of nanostructured partially stabilized zirconium dioxide for fabricating cutting parts of an electrosurgical tool, the structural and strength properties of these crystals were investigated in dependence on the stabilizing impurity (Y2O3) content and the effect of additional dopants on the critical properties of the material was studied. It was established that in all the investigated crystals without additional doping, regardless of the stabilizing impurity content, there are two phases of zirconium dioxide tetragonal modification with different tetragonality factors, c/ a = 1.006-1.007 and 1.014-1.015, the first being nontransformable and the second being transformable to a monoclinic phase. All the synthesized crystals are characterized by a pronounced twin domain structure, which forms upon cooling the single crystal during the transition of the cubic structure to the tetragonal one. It was established that the Y2O3 concentration in the range from 2.5 to 3.0 mol % is optimal for ensuring high values of the strength characteristics and fracture toughness of the material. Doping of the crystals with the rare-earth elements notice-ably affects their strength characteristics. One of the most promising materials for fabricating cutting blades of the electrosurgical tool is the crystals of partially stabilized zirconium dioxide doped with Ce2O3+Nd2O3, which are characterized by high fracture toughness and enhanced bending strength.

  8. Nitridogermanate nitrides Sr7[GeN4]N2 and Ca7[GeN4]N2: synthesis employing sodium melts, crystal structure, and density-functional theory calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junggeburth, Sebastian C; Oeckler, Oliver; Johrendt, Dirk; Schnick, Wolfgang

    2008-12-15

    The alkaline earth nitridogermanate nitrides AE(7)[GeN(4)]N(2) (AE = Ca, Sr) have been synthesized using a Na flux technique in sealed Ta tubes. According to single-crystal X-ray diffraction the isotypic compounds crystallize in space group Pbcn (No. 60) with Z = 4, (Sr(7)[GeN(4)]N(2): a = 1152.6(2), b = 658.66(13), c = 1383.6(3) pm, V = 1050.5(4) x 10(6) pm(3), R1 = 0.049; Ca(7)[GeN(4)]N(2): a = 1082.6(2), b = 619.40(12), c = 1312.1(3) pm, V = 879.8(3) x 10(6) pm(3), R1 = 0.016). Owing to the high N/Ge ratio, the compounds contain discrete N(3-) ions coordinated by six AE(2+) besides discrete [GeN(4)](8-) tetrahedrons. One of the AE(2+) ion is coordinated by only four N(3-) ions, which is rather an unusual low coordination number for Sr(2+). Together with the isolated [GeN(4)](8-) tetrahedrons, these Sr(2+) ions form chains of alternating cation centered edge sharing tetrahedrons. The electronic structure and chemical bonding in Sr(7)[GeN(4)]N(2) has been analyzed employing linear muffin-tin orbital (LMTO) band structure calculations.

  9. Influence of peripheral vibrations and traveling magnetic fields on VGF growth of Sb-doped Ge crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dropka, Natasha; Frank-Rotsch, Christiane; Rudolph, Peter

    2016-11-01

    We performed 3D numerical and experimental studies to assess the potential of peripheral low frequency mechanical vibrations for improving the homogeneity of Sb-doped 4″ Ge crystals grown by vertical gradient freeze (VGF). For this study, a novel bell-shaped graphite vibrator was developed for the generation of the axial vibrations in the direction of three-phase junction. Melt stirring by downward traveling magnetic field (TMF) was used as a benchmark. The results showed superiority of peripheral vibrations to TMF stirring concerning radial and longitudinal doping distribution and initial stirring rate. Experimentally observed standing free surface waves in Ge were caused by shielding effect of the vibrator on TMF.

  10. Controlled crystallization of β-In2S3 in 65GeS2ṡ25In2S3ṡ10CsCl chalcohalide glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhuobin; Lin, Changgui; Nie, Qiuhua; Dai, Shixun

    2013-09-01

    65GeS2ṡ25In2S3ṡ10CsCl chalcohalide glass-ceramics containing β-In2S3 crystallites in the glassy matrix were prepared by traditional melt-quenching and subsequent heat-treatment at a fairly low temperature ( T g +10 ∘C) for different durations. The transmission spectra show that the cut-off edge of short wavelength is red-shifted with the prolongation of annealing time, but remains an excellent transmittance in the mid-IR region. Meanwhile, its crystallization behavior was investigated systematically. The results show that the precipitation of β-In2S3 crystal phase is responsible for the first crystallization peak, and the second crystal phase is GeS2, which precipitated in the interior after a heat treatment at a high temperature ( T g +70 ∘C). Furthermore, the crystallization mechanism was investigated using the non-isothermal method. The crystallization rate constant K value of 6.08×10-4 s-1 at 346 ∘C for the β-In2S3 phase is about three times larger than that of the GeS2 phase, indicating a much easier crystallization mechanism of β-In2S3 phase. Therefore, it is easy to control the precipitation of sole β-In2S3 crystallite, and to avoid interference of the second crystal phase GeS2.

  11. Plasmonic enhancement of second harmonic generation from nonlinear RbTiOPO4 crystals by aggregates of silver nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sánchez-García, Laura; Tserkezis, Christos; Ramírez, Mariola O

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a 60–fold enhancement of the second harmonic generation (SHG) response at the nanoscale in a hybrid metal-dielectric system. By using complex silver nanostructures photochemically deposited on the polar surface of a ferroelectric crystal, we tune the plasmonic resonances from...... the visible to the near-infrared (NIR) spectral region, matching either the SH or the fundamental frequency. In both cases the SHG signal at the metal-dielectric interface is enhanced, although with substantially different enhancement values: around 5 times when the plasmonic resonance is at the SH frequency...... or up to 60 times when it matches the fundamental NIR radiation. The results are consistent with the more spatially-extended near-field response of complex metallic nanostructures and can be well explained by taking into account the quadratic character of the SHG process. The work points out...

  12. Controlling Lateral Fano Interference Optical Force with Au-Ge2Sb2Te5 Hybrid Nanostructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Tun; Bao, Jiaxin; Mao, Libang;

    2016-01-01

    We numerically demonstrate that a pronounced dipole-quadrupole (DQ) Fano resonance (FR) induced lateral force can be exerted on a dielectric particle 80 nm in radius (R-sphere = 80 nm) that is placed 5 nm above an asymmetric bow-tie nanoantenna array based on Au/Ge2Sb2Te5 dual layers. The DQ-FR-i...

  13. Controlling Lateral Fano Interference Optical Force with Au-Ge2Sb2Te5 Hybrid Nanostructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Tun; Bao, Jiaxin; Mao, Libang

    2016-01-01

    We numerically demonstrate that a pronounced dipole-quadrupole (DQ) Fano resonance (FR) induced lateral force can be exerted on a dielectric particle 80 nm in radius (R-sphere = 80 nm) that is placed 5 nm above an asymmetric bow-tie nanoantenna array based on Au/Ge2Sb2Te5 dual layers. The DQ-FR-i...

  14. Size-dependent and tunable crystallization of GeSbTe phasechange nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Bin; ten Brink, Gerrit; Palasantzas, Georgios; Kooi, Bart

    2016-01-01

    Chalcogenide-based nanostructured phase-change materials (PCMs) are considered promising building blocks for non-volatile memory due to their high write and read speeds, high data-storage density, and low power consumption. Top-down fabrication of PCM nanoparticles (NPs), however, often results in d

  15. Relaxation of axially confined 400 GeV/c protons to planar channeling in a bent crystal

    CERN Document Server

    Bandiera, L; Bagli, E; Germogli, G; Guidi, V; Sytov, A; Kirillin, I V; Shul'ga, N F; Berra, A; Lietti, D; Prest, M; De Salvador, D; Vallazza, E

    2016-01-01

    An investigation on the mechanism of relaxation of axially confined 400 GeV/c protons to planar channeling in a bent crystal was carried out at the extracted line H8 from CERN Super Proton Synchrotron. The experimental results were critically compared to computer simulations, showing a good agreement. We firmly individuated a necessary condition for the exploitation of axial confinement or its relaxation for particle beam manipulation in high-energy accelerators. We demonstrated that with a short bent crystal, aligned with one of its main axis to the beam direction, it is possible to realize either a total beam steerer or a beam splitter with adjustable intensity. In particular, in the latter case, a complete relaxation from axial confinement to planar channeling takes place, resulting in beam splitting into the two strongest skew planar channels.

  16. Single-Crystal Investigations on Quaternary Clathrates Ba8Cu5Si x Ge41- x ( x = 6, 18, 41)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, X.; Grytsiv, A.; Giester, G.; Bauer, E.; Rogl, P.; Paschen, S.

    2011-05-01

    Type I clathrates have been considered as promising thermoelectric materials due to their special structural characteristics: the "rattling" guest atoms in the larger of the two cages of the clathrate I structure are frequently held responsible for the low lattice thermal conductivity. By single-crystal x-ray diffraction, we investigated the quaternary clathrates Ba8Cu5Si x Ge41- x ( x = 6, 18, 41). Rietveld refinements confirmed that the clathrates in this system crystallize with cubic primitive symmetry, in the type I clathrate structure, and that no phase transitions occur in the temperature range investigated (100 K to 300 K). We derive the concentration dependencies of the Debye temperature, the Einstein temperatures, the static disorder parameters, and the size of the two cages and argue that these dependencies underpin the previously assumed different bonding character of the Ba guest atoms in the larger and smaller cages. The linear thermal expansion coefficients for the samples are derived.

  17. Relaxation of axially confined 400 GeV/c protons to planar channeling in a bent crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandiera, L.; Mazzolari, A.; Bagli, E.; Germogli, G.; Guidi, V. [Universita di Ferrara, Dipartimento di Fisica, Ferrara (Italy); INFN, Ferrara (Italy); Sytov, A. [Universita di Ferrara, Dipartimento di Fisica, Ferrara (Italy); Belarusian State University, Research Institute for Nuclear Problems, Minsk (Belarus); INFN, Ferrara (Italy); Kirillin, I.V. [National Science Center ' ' Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology' ' , Akhiezer Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kharkov (Ukraine); Shul' ga, N.F. [National Science Center ' ' Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology' ' , Akhiezer Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kharkov (Ukraine); V.N. Karazin Kharkov National University, Kharkov (Ukraine); Berra, A.; Lietti, D.; Prest, M. [Universita dell' Insubria, Como (Italy); INFN Sezione di Milano Bicocca, Milan (Italy); De Salvador, D. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro (Italy); Universita di Padova, Dipartimento di Fisica, Padua (Italy); Vallazza, E. [INFN Sezione di Trieste, Trieste (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    An investigation on the mechanism of relaxation of axially confined 400 GeV/c protons to planar channeling in a bent crystal was carried out at the extracted line H8 from CERN Super Proton Synchrotron. The experimental results were critically compared to computer simulations, showing a good agreement. We identified a necessary condition for the exploitation of axial confinement or its relaxation for particle beam manipulation in high-energy accelerators. We introduce the idea of using a short bent crystal, aligned with one of its main axis to the beam direction, as a beam steerer or a beam splitter with adjustable intensity in the field of particle accelerators. In particular, in the latter case, a complete relaxation from axial confinement to planar channeling takes place, resulting in beam splitting into the two strongest skew planar channels. (orig.)

  18. Mirroring of 400 GeV/c protons by an ultra-thin straight crystal

    CERN Document Server

    Scandale, W; Butcher, M; Cerutti, F; Gilardoni, S; Lechner, A; Losito, R; Masi, A; Metral, E; Mirarchi, D; Montesano, S; Redaelli, S; Smirnov, G; Bagli, E; Bandiera, L; Baricordi, S; Dalpiaz, P; Germogli, G; Guidi, V; Mazzolari, A; Vincenzi, D; Claps, G; Dabagov, S; Hampai, D; Murtas, F; Cavoto, G; Garattini, M; Iacoangeli, F; Ludovici, L; Santacesaria, R; Valente, P; Galluccio, F; Afonin, A G; Chesnokov, Yu A; Chirkov, P N; Maisheev, V A; Sandomirskiy, Yu E; Yazynin, I A; Kovalenko, A D; Taratin, A M; Gavrikov, Yu A; Ivanov, Yu M; Lapina, L P; Ferguson, W; Fulcher, J; Hall, G; Pesaresi, M; Raymond, M

    2014-01-01

    Channeling is the confinement of the trajectory of a charged particle in a crystalline solid. Positively charged particles channeled between crystal planes oscillate with a certain oscillation length, which depends on particle energy. A crystal whose thickness is half the oscillation length for planar channeling may act as a mirror for charged particles. If the incident angle of the particle trajectory with the crystal plane is less than the critical angle for channeling, under-barrier particles undergo half an oscillation and exit the crystal with the reversal of their transverse momentum, i.e., the particles are “mirrored” by the crystal planes. Unlike the traditional scheme relying on millimeter-long curved crystals, particle mirroring enables beam steering in high-energy accelerators via interactions with micrometer-thin straight crystal. The main advantage of mirroring is the interaction with a minimal amount of material along the beam, thereby decreasing unwanted incoherent nuclear interactions. The...

  19. In situ X-ray diffraction study of crystallization process of GeSbTe thin films during heat treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Naohiko [Toyota Central R and D Labs., Inc., Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan)]. E-mail: e0957@mosk.tytlabs.co.jp; Konomi, Ichiro [Toyota Central R and D Labs., Inc., Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan); Seno, Yoshiki [Toyota Central R and D Labs., Inc., Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan); Motohiro, Tomoyoshi [Toyota Central R and D Labs., Inc., Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan)

    2005-05-15

    The crystallization processes of the Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} thin film used for PD and DVD-RAM were studied in its realistic optical disk film configurations for the first time by X-ray diffraction using an intense X-ray beam of a synchrotron orbital radiation facility (SPring-8) and in situ quick detection with a Position-Sensitive-Proportional-Counter. The dependence of the amorphous-to-fcc phase-change temperature T{sub 1} on the rate of temperature elevation R{sub et} gave an activation energy E{sub a}: 0.93 eV much less than previously reported 2.2 eV obtained from a model sample 25-45 times thicker than in the real optical disks. The similar measurement on the Ge{sub 4}Sb{sub 1}Te{sub 5} film whose large reflectance change attains the readability by CD-ROM drives gave E{sub a}: 1.13 eV with larger T{sub 1} than Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} thin films at any R{sub et} implying a lower sensitivity in erasing as well as a better data stability of the phase-change disk.

  20. Crystal structure, microstructure, and thermoelectric properties of GeSb{sub 6}Te{sub 10} prepared by spark plasma sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosuga, Atsuko, E-mail: a-kosuga@21c.osakafu-u.ac.jp [Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Research Center, Research Organization for the 21st Century, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai 599-8570 (Japan); Nakai, Kazuki [Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Research Center, Research Organization for the 21st Century, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai 599-8570 (Japan); Department of Physical Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai 599-8531 (Japan); Matsuzawa, Mie; Fujii, Yousuke [Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Research Center, Research Organization for the 21st Century, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai 599-8570 (Japan); Funahashi, Ryoji [Research Institute for Ubiquitous Energy Devices, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Ikeda 563-8577 (Japan); Tachizawa, Takuya; Kubota, Yoshiki [Department of Physical Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai 599-8531 (Japan); Kifune, Kouichi [Department of Physical Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai 599-8531 (Japan); Faculty of Engineering, Hiroshima Institute of Technology, Hiroshima 731-5193 (Japan)

    2015-01-05

    Highlights: • Spark plasma sintering effects on GeSb{sub 6}Te{sub 10} properties are described. • Sintered GeSb{sub 6}Te{sub 10} contains homologous GeSb{sub 6}Te{sub 10} and Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} tetradymite structures. • Spark plasma sintering causes elemental compositional deviations from GeSb{sub 6}Te{sub 10}. • SPS-consolidated and melt-prepared samples have similar ZT{sub max} values. • Spark plasma sintering significantly changes crystal structure and microstructure. - Abstract: We report the effects of spark plasma sintering (SPS) and subsequent annealing on the crystal structure, microstructure, and thermoelectric properties of polycrystalline GeSb{sub 6}Te{sub 10}. GeSb{sub 6}Te{sub 10} consolidated using SPS consisted of a mixture of GeSb{sub 6}Te{sub 10}-type homologous and Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3}-type tetradymite structures, whereas the sample prepared by melting had a single homologous structure. SPS produced small amounts of Ge-rich precipitates with a few micrometers in size. Even excluding these precipitates, the elemental compositional deviation from the nominal composition was wider than that for the sample prepared by melting. This implies that SPS promoted atomic diffusion and rearrangement of elements, leading to a substantial change in the crystal structure and elemental distribution of GeSb{sub 6}Te{sub 10}. SPS improved the power factor but also increased the thermal conductivity, as a result of the increased electrical conductivity, yielding a maximum dimensionless figure of merit, ZT{sub max}, of 0.33 at 710 K, which is similar to the value for the sample prepared by melting (0.39 at 710 K)

  1. Femtosecond pulse laser-induced self-organized nanostructures on the surface of ZnO crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong Min-Jian; Guo Guang-Lei; Yang Jun-Yi; Ma Ning-Hua; Ye Guo; Guo Xiao-Dong; Li Ru-Xin; Ma Hong-Liang

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports serf-organized nanostructures observed on the surface of ZnO crystal after irradiation by a focused beam of a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser with a repetition rate of 250 kHz. For a linearly polarized femtosecond laser, the periodic nanograting structure on the ablation crater surface was promoted. The period of self-organization structures is about 180 nm. The grating orientation is adjusted by the laser polarization direction. A long range Bragglike grating is formed by moving the sample at a speed of 10/μm/s. For a circularly polarized laser beam, uniform spherical nanoparticles were formed as a result of Coulomb explosion during the interaction of near-infrared laser with ZnO crystal.

  2. Fabrication of tensile-strained single-crystalline GeSn on transparent substrate by nucleation-controlled liquid-phase crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Hiroshi; Amamoto, Takashi; Koyama, Masahiro; Imai, Yasuhiko; Kimura, Shigeru; Hosoi, Takuji; Shimura, Takayoshi; Watanabe, Heiji

    2017-01-01

    We developed a method of forming single-crystalline germanium-tin (GeSn) alloy on transparent substrates that is based on liquid-phase crystallization. By controlling and designing nucleation during the melting growth process, a highly tensile-strained single-crystalline GeSn layer was grown on a quartz substrate without using any crystal-seeds or catalysts. The peak field-effect hole mobility of 423 cm2/V s was obtained for a top-gate single-crystalline GeSn MOSFET on a quartz substrate with a Sn content of 2.6%, indicating excellent crystal quality and mobility enhancement due to Sn incorporation and tensile strain.

  3. Coherent radiation from 70 GeV and 150 GeV electrons and positrons traversing diamond and Si crystals near axial and planar directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medenwaldt, R.; Møller, S. P.; Uggerhøj, E.; Worm, T.; Elsener, K.; Sona, P.; Connell, S. H.; Sellschop, J. P. F.; Avakian, R. O.; Avetisian, A. E.; Taroian, S. P.

    1995-10-01

    Channeling radiation and energy loss for 150 GeV electrons and positrons incident on a 0.5 mm thick diamond and a 0.6 mm thick Si crystal have been measured — near axial and planar directions. It is found that yields from well channeled electrons are enhanced by a factor of two, and those for positrons are reduced by a factor of five, as compared to yields outside the channeling region. The experimental critical angle for channeling agrees very well with the Lindhard angle ψ1. For incidence along planes and close to axial directions, the overall picture of the radiation spectra for electrons and positrons is the same for the high-energy photons, where a strongly enhanced peak is found, as was first discovered in an earlier electron experiment. In diamond, the standard coherent bremsstrahlung has been measured close to the 110 planes but for 10 mrad and 50 mrad from the axis. These experimental results agree well with calculations using the Born approximation.

  4. Magnetic phase diagram of the olivine-type Mn2GeO4 single crystal estimated from magnetic, resonance and thermodynamic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, N V; Mikhashenok, N V; Sablina, K A; Bayukov, O A; Gorev, M V; Balaev, A D; Pankrats, A I; Tugarinov, V I; Velikanov, D A; Molokeev, M S; Popkov, S I

    2013-04-03

    Mn2GeO4 single crystals with the olivine structure grown by the modified flux method have been investigated. Pronounced magnetic phase transitions at T1 = 47.7 K, T2 = 17 K and T3 = 5.5 K, with T2 being dependent on an applied magnetic field, have been found. Based on the data of magnetic, resonance and temperature measurements, the entire phase diagram of Mn2GeO4 has been built. Mn2GeO4 is shown to be a material with a complex magnetic structure consisting of two magnetic subsystems.

  5. Growth of Ge/Si(100) Nanostructures by Radio-Frequency Magnetron Sputtering: the Role of Annealing Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ALIREZA Samavati; S. K. Ghoshal; Z. Othaman

    2012-01-01

    Surface morphologies of Ge islands deposited on Si(100) substrates are characterized and their optical properties determined.Samples are prepared by rf magnetron sputtering in a high-vacuum chamber and are annealed at 600℃,700℃ and 800℃ for 2 min at nitrogen ambient pressure.Atomic force microscopy,field emission scanning electron microscopy,visible photoluminescence (PL) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy are employed.The results for the annealing temperature-dependent sample morphology and the optical properties are presented.The density,size and roughness are found to be strongly influenced by the annealing temperature.A red shift of ~0.29 eV in the PL peak is observed with increasing annealing temperature.%Surface morphologies of Ge islands deposited on Si(100) substrates are characterized and their optical properties determined. Samples are prepared by rf magnetron sputtering in a high-vacuum chamber and are annealed at 600℃, 700℃ and 800℃ for 2 min at nitrogen ambient pressure. Atomic force microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, visible photoluminescence (PL) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy are employed. The results for the annealing temperature-dependent sample morphology and the optical properties are presented. The density, size and roughness are found to be strongly influenced by the annealing temperature. A red shift of ~0.29 eV in the PL peak is observed with increasing annealing temperature.

  6. The nature of intrinsic luminescence in glasses and crystals of CaO-Ga2O3-GeO2 system

    OpenAIRE

    Padlyak B.

    2007-01-01

    Intrinsic luminescence of undoped glasses and crystals of CaO-Ga2O3-GeO2 system with different compositions is investigated. Using synchrotron excitation, the emission and time-resolved luminescence excitation spectra, as well as the luminescence kinetics are studied at T = 8 K for the undoped glasses and crystals with garnet Ca3Ga2Ge3O12 composition and the glasses with Ca3Ga2O6 composition. The observed luminescence spectra strongly depend on the basic glass composition and the excitation e...

  7. Coherent bremsstrahlung and channeling radiation from 40 and 150 GeV electrons and positrons traversing Si and diamond single crystals near planar directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medenwaldt, R.; Moeller, S.P.; Soerensen, A.H.; Uggerhoej, E. (Aarhus Univ. (Denmark). Inst. for Synchrotron Radiation); Elsener, K. (European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)); Hage-Ali, M.; Siffert, P.; Stoquert, J. (Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires); Sona, P. (Florence Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Florence (Italy))

    1991-05-09

    Along planar directions in both Si and C single crystals the radiation yields from 150GeV electrons are enhanced 40 times or more and the data present the first use of C crystals in the multi-hundred GeV region. For channeled electrons in Si the experimental results agree with calculations using the constant field approximation (CFA). Increasing incident angles reduce rapidly soft photon yields as expected from first order corrections to CFA. The first Born approximation only describes experimental results for large incident angles to planes. (orig.).

  8. Coherent bremsstrahlung and channeling radiation from 40 and 150 GeV electrons and positrons traversing Si and diamond single crystals near planar directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medenwaldt, R.; Møller, S. P.; Sørensen, A. H.; Uggerhøj, E.; Elsener, K.; Hage-Ali, M.; Siffert, P.; Stoquert, J.; Sona, P.

    1991-05-01

    Along planar directions in both Si and C single crystals the radiation yields from 150 GeV electrons are enhanced 40 times or more and the data present the first use of C crystals in the multi-hundred GeV region. For channeled electrons in Si the experimental results agree with calculations using the constant field approximation (CFA). Increasing incident angles reduce rapidly soft photon yields as expected from first order corrections to CFA. The first born approximation only describes experimental results for large incident angles to planes.

  9. Low-temperature (˜180 °C) position-controlled lateral solid-phase crystallization of GeSn with laser-anneal seeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Ryo; Chikita, Hironori; Kai, Yuki; Sadoh, Taizoh; Ikenoue, Hiroshi; Miyao, Masanobu

    2015-12-01

    To realize next-generation flexible thin-film devices, solid-phase crystallization (SPC) of amorphous germanium tin (GeSn) films on insulating substrates combined with seeds formed by laser annealing (LA) has been investigated. This technique enables the crystallization of GeSn at controlled positions at low temperature (˜180 °C) due to the determination of the starting points of crystallization by LA seeding and Sn-induced SPC enhancement. The GeSn crystals grown by SPC from LA seeds showed abnormal lateral profiles of substitutional Sn concentration. These lateral profiles are caused by the annealing time after crystallization being a function of distance from the LA seeds. This observation of a post-annealing effect also indicates that GeSn with a substitutional Sn concentration of up to ˜10% possesses high thermal stability. These results will facilitate the fabrication of next-generation thin-film devices on flexible plastic substrates with low softening temperatures (˜250 °C).

  10. Electronic structure of Cu{sub 2}CdGeSe{sub 4} single crystal as determined from X-ray spectroscopy data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocheretova, V.A. [National Technical University “Kyiv Polytechnic Institute”, 37 Peremogy Avenue, Kyiv 03036 (Ukraine); Parasyuk, O.V. [Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Eastern European National University, 13 Voli Avenue, Lutsk 43025 (Ukraine); Fedorchuk, A.O. [Department of Inorganic and Organic Chemistry, Lviv National University of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies, Pekarska St., 50, 79010 Lviv (Ukraine); Khyzhun, O.Y., E-mail: khyzhun@ipms.kiev.ua [Institute for Problems of Materials Science, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 3 Krzhyzhanivsky Street, Kyiv 03142 (Ukraine)

    2015-06-15

    We report on studies of the electronic structure of Cu{sub 2}CdGeSe{sub 4} single crystal by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES). In particular, X-ray photoelectron core-level and valence-band spectra for pristine and Ar{sup +} ion-irradiated surfaces of the Cu{sub 2}CdGeSe{sub 4} single crystal have been recorded. Our XPS results indicate that Cu{sub 2}CdGeSe{sub 4} is rather rigid with respect to Ar{sup +} ion-irradiation: such a treatment does not induce any significant changes of values of the binding energies of core-level electrons as well as of the shapes of the XPS core-level and valence-band spectra of the Cu{sub 2}CdGeSe{sub 4} surface. For the Cu{sub 2}CdGeSe{sub 4} single crystal, the XES bands representing the energy distribution of mainly the valence Cu d, Cd d, Ge p and Se p states have been measured and compared on a common energy scale with its XPS valence-band spectrum. Such a comparison allows for concluding that the Cu 3d and Cd 4d states contribute mainly at the top and at the bottom of the valence band, respectively, while the Ge 4p and Se 4p states in the central and upper portions of the band. These experimental findings are found to be in agreement with literature data of band-structure calculations for this compound. - Highlights: • Electronic structure of Cu{sub 2}CdGeSe{sub 4} single crystal is studied by XPS and XES. • Low hygroscopicity is characteristic of Cu{sub 2}CdGeSe{sub 4} single crystal surface. • Cu 4d states contribute mainly at the bottom of the valence band. • Cu 3d states contribute predominantly at the top of the valence band. • Ge 4p and Se 4p states contribute in the central and upper portions of the band.

  11. Irradiation induced defects in deformed $Ni_{3}Ge$ and $Ni_{3}Al$ single crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Murakumo, T; Miyahara, A; Hannuki, T; Sato, A

    2000-01-01

    The effect of plastic deformation on the formation of point defects and defect clusters by electron irradiation has been studied in Ll /sub 2/ ordered Ni/sub 3/Ge and Ni/sub 3/Al by high voltage electron microscopy. It is found that defects are formed preferentially along the Burgers vector directions as linear lines and grow into linear chains of clusters by electron irradiation. This phenomenon is explained by preferential generation of the defects along the antiphase boundary (APE) tubes, in specimens deformed both below and above the peak temperature T/sub p/. Based on three-dimensional analyses of the defect distribution, the formation mechanism of the APE tubes is discussed with particular reference to superdislocation motion and the strengthening of the Ll/sub 2/ ordered compounds of Ni /sub 3/Ge and Ni/sub 3/Al. (44 refs).

  12. Experimental and theoretical investigations of the gain dependence at two-wave interaction on the thickness and orientation angle of the Bi12GeO20 crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepelevich, V. V.; Makarevich, A. V.; Shandarov, S. M.

    2017-06-01

    Experimental studies of the dependence of object wave gain at two-wave interaction on the effective thickness of cubic photorefractive optically active crystal Bi12GeO20 were performed using only one (\\bar 1\\bar 10) -cut crystal sample. It is shown that the obtained experimental results can be satisfactorily theoretically interpreted taking into account the inverse piezoelectric and the photo-elastic effects in addition to the traditionally considered electro-optical one.

  13. Characterization of Si/SiGe/Si Deposited on SIMOX SOI by Synchrotron Radiation X-Ray Double-crystal Topography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Tongda; Tu Hailing; Hu Guangyong; Wang Jing

    2004-01-01

    The synchrotron X-ray double-crystal topography was employed to investigate the structure of Si/SiGe/Si deposited on SIMOX SOI. Rocking curves with three diffraction peaks were acquired before and after 180° rotation of samples. Double-crystal topographs taken at the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the three peaks differ from each other. Many defects appear in the Si layers that are likely related to the tilt between SOI and epitaxial layers.

  14. Effect of magnetic field on the spin-Peierls transition in single crystal CuGeO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Qing-Bo; Xu Xiang-Fan; Tao Qian; Wang Hong-Tao; Xu Zhu-An

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports that high quality CuGeO3 single crystals were successfully grown by floating-zone technique and the magnetic property was studied.The temperature dependence of magnetic susceptibility below the spin-Peierls (SP)transition temperature(Tsp)under magnetic fields applying along both the a-and c-axis direction can be fitted well by a model of noninteracting dimmers.The spin gap derived from the fitting is consistent with other reports.There is a very weak anisotropy in the fitting parameters for different directions,which should be expected from a SP system.A small upturn in susceptibility at low temperature due to paramagnetic impurities and/or defects can be observed.A suppression of the upturn by magnetic field is first discovered in this system and the possible origins for this suppression are discussed.

  15. Vertical gradient solution growth of N-type Si0.73Ge0.27 bulk crystals with homogeneous composition and its thermoelectric properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omprakash, M.; Arivanandhan, M.; Sabarinathan, M.; Koyama, T.; Momose, Y.; Ikeda, H.; Tatsuoka, H.; Aswal, D. K.; Bhattacharya, S.; Inatomi, Y.; Hayakawa, Y.

    2016-05-01

    Compositionally homogeneous Sb-doped (5×1018 and 1×1019 cm-3) Si0.73Ge0.27 bulk crystals were grown by a vertical gradient solution growth method. The sandwich sample Si (seed)/Sb-doped Ge/ Si(feed) was set up inside a furnace under a mild temperature gradient 0.57 °C/mm for homogeneous growth. The Si composition was analyzed by electron probe micro- analysis (EPMA). It revealed that the Si composition was homogeneous and the lengths of the Sb-doped (5×1018 and 1×1019 cm-3) Si0.73Ge0.27 bulk crystals were 18.3 and 15.1 mm, respectively. Grain distribution was investigated by electron backscattered diffraction spectrum (EBSD). The Seebeck coefficients (-440 and -426 μV/K) of Sb-doped (5×1018 and 1×1019 cm-3) Si0.73Ge0.27 were higher than the reported value (-211 μV/K) of P-doped (5×1019 cm-3) Si0.8Ge0.2 at room temperature. Thermal conductivity of Ga and Sb-doped SiGe was decreased with temperature due to scattering of phonon at the temperature range between 313 and 913 K. The maximum ZT values of Ga and Sb-doped SiGe were 0.34 and 0.44 at 820 K, respectively. The ZT values of Ga and Sb-doped SiGe were higher (0.07 and 0.13) than the reported value of Ga-doped Si0.81Ge0.19 (0.05) and P-doped (5×1019 cm-3) Si0.8Ge0.2 bulk crystals at room temperature. The improvement in ZT value was caused by a decrease of thermal conductivity which related to a composition of the alloy and doping concentration in the crystal.

  16. Pseudo single crystal, direct-band-gap Ge{sub 0.89}Sn{sub 0.11} on amorphous dielectric layers towards monolithic 3D photonic integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Haofeng; Brouillet, Jeremy; Wang, Xiaoxin; Liu, Jifeng, E-mail: Jifeng.Liu@dartmouth.edu [Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States)

    2014-11-17

    We demonstrate pseudo single crystal, direct-band-gap Ge{sub 0.89}Sn{sub 0.11} crystallized on amorphous layers at <450 °C towards 3D Si photonic integration. We developed two approaches to seed the lateral single crystal growth: (1) utilize the Gibbs-Thomson eutectic temperature depression at the tip of an amorphous GeSn nanotaper for selective nucleation; (2) laser-induced nucleation at one end of a GeSn strip. Either way, the crystallized Ge{sub 0.89}Sn{sub 0.11} is dominated by a single grain >18 μm long that forms optoelectronically benign twin boundaries with others grains. These pseudo single crystal, direct-band-gap Ge{sub 0.89}Sn{sub 0.11} patterns are suitable for monolithic 3D integration of active photonic devices on Si.

  17. Laser-induced glass-crystallization phenomena of GeSe2 investigated by light scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haro, E.; Xu, Z. S.; Morhange, J.-F.; Balkanski, M.; Espinosa, G. P.; Phillips, J. C.

    1985-07-01

    Recrystallization of glassy GeSe2 under laser irradiation has been studied with use of Raman spectroscopy. A threshold irradiation power level below which no changes in the local molecular structure of the system can be detected has been defined. For an irradiation power above the threshold, three stages of transformation have been identified: The first stage is characterized by the nucleation of clusters or submicrocrystallites which remain embedded in a continuum glass matrix. The second stage is characterized by the coexistence of clusters of various sizes. Up to this stage, the system is fully reversible. The last stage is reached when the crystallites coalesce to form a polycrystalline material.

  18. Crystallization and Thermoelectric Transport in Semiconductor Micro- and Nanostructures Under Extreme Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gokirmak, Ali [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Silva, Helena [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)

    2017-08-30

    This project focused on thermoelectric transport in semiconductor micro and nanostructures where moderate and typical operating voltages and currents lead to extreme thermal gradients and current densities. Models that describe behavior of semiconducting materials typically assume an equilibrium condition or slight deviations from it. In these cases the generation-recombination processes are assumed to have reached a local equilibrium for a given temperature. Hence, free carrier concentrations and their mobilities, band-gap, thermal conductivity, thermoelectric properties, mobility of atoms and mechanical properties of the material, can be described as a function of temperature. In the case of PN junctions under electrical bias, carrier concentrations can change up to ~ 1020 cm-3 and a drift-diffusion approximation is typically used to obtain the carrier concentrations while assuming that the material properties do not change. In non-equilibrium conditions, the assumption that the material properties remain the same may not be valid. While the increased conduction-band electron concentration may not have a drastic effect on the material, large hole concentration is expected to soften the material as ‘a hole’ comes into existence as a broken bond in the lattice. As the hole density approaches 1022 cm-3, the number of bonds holding the lattice together is significantly reduced, making it easier to break additional bonds, reduce band-gap and inhibit phonon transport. As these holes move away from where they were generated, local properties are expected to deviate significantly from the equilibrium case. Hence, temperature alone is not sufficient to describe the behavior of the material. The behavior of the solid material close to a molten region (liquid-solid interfaces) is also expected to deviate from the equilibrium case as a function of hole injection rate, which can be drastically increased or decreased in the presence of an electric field. In the past years

  19. Silicon doping effect on the crystallization behavior of Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Yifan; Xu, Ling; Chen, Jing; Zhang, Rui; Su, Weining; Yu, Yao; Ma, Zhongyuan; Xu, Jun [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Photonic and Electronic Materials Sciences and Technology, Nanjing University (China)

    2013-10-15

    Pure Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} thin films and Si-doped Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} thin films were deposited by electron beam evaporation method. The property of Si-doped Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} films are compared with that of pure Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} films. Through in situ resistance measurement and I-V characteristic tests, an improvement of amorphous stability and an increase of crystalline resistivity are observed. The phase-separation phenomenon is observed in TEM pictures and a distinct decrease of crystal grain size in Si-doped Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} thin film can be seen in HRTEM pictures. A blueshift and broadening of peaks after Si doping in Raman spectra are found and from absorption spectra, the broadening of crystalline optical bandgap in Si-doped Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} thin film is proved. Finally, the behavior of doped Si atoms is proposed to explain the effect of Si doping in Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} thin film. (copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. THERMODYNAMICS AND NANOSTRUCTURAL MECHANISMS OF PROCESSES OF MELTING AND CRYSTALLIZATION OF METALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Yu. Stetsenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Melting and crystallization of metals are equilibrium thermodynamic processes. As the main structural units of dendrites serve construction nanocrystals which are formed of elementary nanocrystals. The main mechanisms of processes of melting and crystallization of metals are disintegration of dendrites on nanocrystals and formation of dendrites from nanocrystals. On process of crystallization and morphology of dendrites the great influence is exerted by the hardening speed, surface-active elements and the dissolved gases.

  1. Crystallizing Vanadium Pentoxide Nanostructures in the Solid-State Using Modified Block Copolymer and Chitosan Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Diaz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A systematic study of the synthesis of V2O5 nanostructured materials using macromolecular PS-co-4-PVP·(VCl3y and chitosan·(VCl3y complexes is presented. It is demonstrated that various coordination degrees of the metal into the polymeric chain specifically influence the product formation after pyrolysis. PS-co-4-PVP·(VCl3y and chitosan·(VCl3y complexes were prepared by simple coordination reaction of VCl3 with the respective polymer in molar ratios 1 : 1, 1 : 5, and 1 : 10 metal/polymer and characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, and TGA/DSC analysis. Solid-state thermolysis of these precursors at several temperatures under air results in nanostructured V2O5 using all precursors. The size and shape of the nanostructured V2O5 depend on the nature of the polymer. For the chitosan·(VCl3y precursors sub-10 nm nanocrystals are formed. The calcination process, involved in the preparation method, produces V2O5 with photoluminescence in the visible light region, suggesting the possible application in oxygen sensing devices.

  2. Ce11Ge3.73(2)In6.27: Solid-state synthesis, crystal structure and site-preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Beom-Yong; Nam, Gnu; Lee, Dong Woo; Min Ok, Kang; You, Tae-Soo

    2016-04-01

    A novel intermetallic compound of Ce11Ge3.73(2)In6.27 has been synthesized through the high-temperature solid-state reaction using Nb-ampoules. A batch of well grown block-/short bar-shaped single-crystals has been obtained, and the crystal structure of the title compound has been characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. Ce11Ge3.73(2)In6.27 adopts the Ho11Ge10-type structure belonging to the tetragonal space group I4/mmm (Z=4, Pearson symbol tI84) with nine crystallographically unique atomic positions in the asymmetric unit. The lattice parameters are a=12.0163(1) Å and c=16.5396(2) Å. The overall crystal structure can simply be depicted as an assembly of three different types of co-facial cationic polyhedra centered by anions, which is further enclosed by the three-dimensional (3-D) cage-like anionic framework. The extra amount of In is observed in one of three isolated anionic sites resulting in introducing the Ge/In-mixed site at the Wyckoff 4e site. This unique site-preference of In substitution for Ge at the 4e site has been enlightened via the atomic size-aspect which was fully supported and rationalized by the site- and bond-energies analyses using tight-binding linear muffin-tin orbital (TB-LMTO) calculations. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), density of states (DOS), crystal orbital Hamilton population (COHP), and electron localization function (ELF) analyses for the title compound are also presented. Magnetic susceptibility measurement proves that an antiferromagnetic ordering of Ce atoms at a low temperature with a paramagnetic Curie temperature of -23.2 K.

  3. Third-order Elastic Constants of Bi12GeO20 Crystal%立方晶体Bi12GeO20的三阶弹性常数

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴昆裕; 邵继红

    2001-01-01

    By using of the ultrasonic pulse-echo overlap technique, the dependence of natural wave velocity on the hydrostatic pressure and uniaxial stress in cubic crystal Bi12 GeO20 was measured for various longitudinal and shear elastic modes. From the experimental results, the values of all independent second- and third-order elastic stiffness constants of Bi12GeO20 crystal were determined by means of the theory proposed by Thurston and Brugger.%用超声脉冲回波重合方法测量了立方晶体Bi12GeO20中九种不同模式纯纵波和 切变波自然声速值随流体静压力和单轴压力的变化关系,由此实验结果,用Thurston 和Brugger的理论,确定了Bi12GeO20晶体全部独立的三阶弹性常数.

  4. On the tensoresistance of n-Ge and n-Si crystals with radiation-induced defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaidar, G. P., E-mail: gaydar@kinr.kiev.ua [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Institute for Nuclear Research (Ukraine)

    2015-09-15

    A variation in the tensoresistance of n-Ge:Sb and n-Si:As crystals as a result of irradiation with γ-ray photons ({sup 60}Co source) at fixed temperatures under conditions of the application of uniaxial elastic stress (0 ≤ X ≤ 1.2 GPa) along the main crystallographic direction is studied. It is found that, in the case of the deformation axis being in an asymmetric position relative to the isoenergetic ellipsoids, there is a maximum for the dependences of the tensoresistance ρ{sub X}/ρ{sub 0} = f(X); an explanation as to the nature of the observed effect is suggested. Tensoresistance is revealed in unirradiated n-Si:As crystals in the case of the deformation axis being in a symmetric position relative to all isoenergetic ellipsoids; the value of the tensoresistance as a result of irradiation with γ-ray photons decreases. It is shown that this effect can be attributed to a variation in the mobility of electrons in the conduction band as a result of an increase in the transverse effective mass and the appearance of new deep-level centers under the effect of irradiation, respectively.

  5. Atomic Migration Induced Crystal Structure Transformation and Core-Centered Phase Transition in Single Crystal Ge2Sb2Te5 Nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun-Young; Kim, Jeong-Hyeon; Jeon, Deok-Jin; Han, Jaehyun; Yeo, Jong-Souk

    2016-10-12

    A phase change nanowire holds a promise for nonvolatile memory applications, but its transition mechanism has remained unclear due to the analytical difficulties at atomic resolution. Here we obtain a deeper understanding on the phase transition of a single crystalline Ge2Sb2Te5 nanowire (GST NW) using atomic scale imaging, diffraction, and chemical analysis. Our cross-sectional analysis has shown that the as-grown hexagonal close-packed structure of the single crystal GST NW transforms to a metastable face-centered cubic structure due to the atomic migration to the pre-existing vacancy layers in the hcp structure going through iterative electrical switching. We call this crystal structure transformation "metastabilization", which is also confirmed by the increase of set-resistance during the switching operation. For the set to reset transition between crystalline and amorphous phases, high-resolution imaging indicates that the longitudinal center of the nanowire mainly undergoes phase transition. According to the atomic scale analysis of the GST NW after repeated electrical switching, partial crystallites are distributed around the core-centered amorphous region of the nanowire where atomic migration is mainly induced, thus potentially leading to low power electrical switching. These results provide a novel understanding of phase change nanowires, and can be applied to enhance the design of nanowire phase change memory devices for improved electrical performance.

  6. Tailoring of morphology and crystal structure of CdSe nanostructures by controlling the ratio of triethylenetetraamine and water in their mixed solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammadi, M.R.; Zarghami, V. [Sharif University of Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fray, D.J. [University of Cambridge, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2012-05-15

    The morphological manipulation, structural characterization, and optical properties of different CdSe nanocrystals were reported. Several different CdSe nanostructures, including nanowires, tetrapod crystals, and nanoparticles were grown by varying the volume ratio of triethylenetetraamine (TETA) and water (WA) in their mixed solution. By manipulating the growth driving force (i.e., the degree of supersaturation) and kinetics of the process (i.e., growth rate), the morphology and crystal structure of CdSe nanocrystals can be tailored. Growth driving force changed their morphology from nanowires to tetrapod structures and from the latter structure to nanoparticles. Moreover, kinetics of the process altered their crystal structure from wurtzite to zinc blende. The optical property of CdSe nanocrystals was investigated using UV-vis spectroscopy. The absorption edge of CdSe nanostructures showed a blue shift. CdSe nanocrystals prepared under optimized conditions showed good microstructural and optical properties for solar cell application. (orig.)

  7. First principles study of crystal Si-doped Ge2Sb2Te5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Beibei; Yang, Fei; Chen, Tian; Wang, Minglei; Chang, Hong; Ke, Daoming; Dai, Yuehua

    2017-02-01

    Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) and Si-doped GST with hexagonal structure were investigated by means of First-principles calcucations. We performed many kinds of doping types and studied the electronic properties of Si-doped GST with various Si concentrations. The theoretical calculations show that the lowest formation energy appeared when Si atoms substitute the Sb atoms (SiSb). With the increasing of Si concentrations from 10% to 30%, the impurity states arise around the Fermi level and the band gap of the SiSb structure broadens. Meanwhile, the doping supercell has the most favorable structure when the doping concentration keeps in 20%. The Si-doped GST exhibits p-type metallic characteristics more distinctly owing to the Fermi level moves toward the valence band. The Te p, d-orbitals electrons have greater impact on electronic properties than that of Te s-orbitals.

  8. Tunable top-down fabrication and functional surface coating of single-crystal titanium dioxide nanostructures and nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Seungkyu; Janissen, Richard; Ussembayev, Yera Ye.; van Oene, Maarten M.; Solano, Belen; Dekker, Nynke H.

    2016-05-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is a key component of diverse optical and electronic applications that exploit its exceptional material properties. In particular, the use of TiO2 in its single-crystalline phase can offer substantial advantages over its amorphous and polycrystalline phases for existing and yet-to-be-developed applications. However, the implementation of single-crystal TiO2 has been hampered by challenges in its fabrication and subsequent surface functionalization. Here, we introduce a novel top-down approach that allows for batch fabrication of uniform high-aspect-ratio single-crystal TiO2 nanostructures with targeted sidewall profiles. We complement our fabrication approach with a functionalization strategy that achieves dense, uniform, and area-selective coating with a variety of biomolecules. This allows us to fabricate single-crystal rutile TiO2 nanocylinders tethered with individual DNA molecules for use as force- and torque-transducers in an optical torque wrench. These developments provide the means for increased exploitation of the superior material properties of single-crystal TiO2 at the nanoscale.Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is a key component of diverse optical and electronic applications that exploit its exceptional material properties. In particular, the use of TiO2 in its single-crystalline phase can offer substantial advantages over its amorphous and polycrystalline phases for existing and yet-to-be-developed applications. However, the implementation of single-crystal TiO2 has been hampered by challenges in its fabrication and subsequent surface functionalization. Here, we introduce a novel top-down approach that allows for batch fabrication of uniform high-aspect-ratio single-crystal TiO2 nanostructures with targeted sidewall profiles. We complement our fabrication approach with a functionalization strategy that achieves dense, uniform, and area-selective coating with a variety of biomolecules. This allows us to fabricate single-crystal rutile

  9. Stability to irradiation of SiGe whisker crystals used for sensors of physical values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Druzhinin A. A.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available An influence of g-irradiation (Co60 with doze up to 1—1018 сm–2 and magnetic field with induction up to 14 T on conduction of 1–xGex (х = 0,03 whisker crystals with resistivity of 0,08—0,025 Оhm·сm in temperature range 4,2—300 K have been studied. It is shown that whisker crystals resistance faintly varies under irradiation with doze 2·1017 сm–2, while their magnetoresistance substantially changes. The strain sensors stable to irradiation action operating in high magnetic fields on the base of the whiskers have been designed.

  10. Synthesis of doped semiconductor nanostructures using microemulsions and liquid crystals as templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzarella, Tracy Heckler

    Se QDs using zinc-acetate and manganese-acetate as reactants which are dissolved in the aqueous dispersed phase. The microemulsion was placed in a reactor and hydrogen selenide gas was bubbled through the solution. A single ZnSe QD formed in each droplet of the microemulsion via an irreversible reaction between the precursors and coalescence of the resulting nuclei. The size of the nanocrystals was controlled to be between 5 and 8 nm by adjusting the initial concentration of zinc-acetate in water. The quantum confinement threshold for ZnSe is 9 nm and the bulk emission of ZnSe is 460 nm. The as-grown particles initially exhibit a size-dependent emission peak, attributed only to ZnSe, with a wavelength less than 460 nm. An emission peak at 585 nm, attributed to Mn2+ ions, appears after a few days in storage and increases substantially with time, eventually reaching a plateau. This indicates that ZnSe QDs are formed first and Mn2+ ions slowly diffuse into their lattice. The synthesis method employed in this work allows for a detailed study of dopant incorporation into ZnSe nanocrystals as a function of time. The time evolution of the intensity and the ratio of the ZnSe and Mn2+ emission peaks were studied as a function of dopant salt concentration in the precursor solution. A model was developed to describe the Mn2+ incorporation into the ZnSe nanocrystal by assuming that the Mn2+ to ZnSe emission intensity ratio is proportional to the amount of Mn2+ incorporated in the ZnSe lattice. To enable the use of the doped QDs in applications, a procedure was developed for extraction of the QDs from the template, capping with hydrophilic ligands, and stabilization in an aqueous solution. Experiments were also performed to accelerate the Mn2+ incorporation in the ZnSe lattice. A ZnSe layer was grown over the initial QDs and was found to substantially increase the fluorescence emission intensity. Additionally the synthesis technique was expanded to use liquid crystals as templates

  11. Novel Zn sub 9 -cluster compounds RE sub 2 Zn sub 6 Ge sub 3 (RE: La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd): crystal structure and physical properties

    CERN Document Server

    Grytsiv, A; Berger, S; Hilscher, G; Michor, H; Paul, C; Rogl, P; Daoud-Aladine, A; Keller, L; Roisnel, T; Noel, H

    2003-01-01

    A novel ternary structure type has been determined from single crystals of Ce sub 2 Zn sub 6 Ge sub 3 grown from indium-zinc flux solvent. The Ce sub 2 Zn sub 6 Ge sub 3 type is hexagonal (a = 0.767 69(2) nm; c = 0.411 59(2) nm) with space group P6-bar2m, Z = 1. Isotypic compounds with La, Pr, Nd, Sm and Gd were synthesized by reaction sintering, and their isotypic crystal structures were confirmed from Rietveld refinements. These novel ternaries show metallic behaviour and their ground state depends on the particular rare earth ion. Long-range magnetic order was deduced for the compounds from Ce to Gd, with a maximum transition temperature T sub N approx 29 K for Gd sub 2 Zn sub 6 Ge sub 3. While the compounds with Ce and Pr exhibit a spontaneous magnetic type of order, those with Nd, Sm and Gd are antiferromagnetic. The magnetic structures of Pr sub 2 Zn sub 6 Ge sub 3 and Nd sub 2 Zn sub 6 Ge sub 3 were resolved on the basis of neutron powder diffraction performed at 1.5 K.

  12. Radiation emission and its influence on the motion of multi-GeV electrons and positrons incident on a single diamond crystal

    CERN Document Server

    Kirsebom, K; Uggerhøj, Erik; Elsener, K; Ballestrero, S; Sona, P; Connell, S H; Sellschop, J P Friedel; Vilakazi, Z Z

    2001-01-01

    A few years ago the CERN NA-43 collaboration installed an upgraded detector system which allows a detailed analysis of the particle motion before, during and after penetration of a crystal. Also, essentially perfect diamond crystals were produced by the collaborators from Schonland Research Centre. These facts have led to new and very detailed investigations of QED-processes in strong crystalline fields. Along axial directions the radiation emission is enhanced by more than two orders of magnitude. For incidence on a 0.7 mm thick diamond crystal of well-aligned 149 GeV electrons, 35% give rise to a high energy photon peak at approximately=120 GeV. For 243 GeV electrons and approximately=200 GeV photons, this number decreases to 25%-which may be an indication of quantum suppression. Different measurements of the photon multiplicities show that in most cases positrons and electrons emit equal number of photons. The dramatic radiation emission leads to a strong reduction in transverse energy and all electrons in...

  13. Vibrational properties of Ca{sub 3}Sc{sub 2}Ge{sub 3}O{sub 12}, a garnet host crystal for laser applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalli, Enrico [Dipartimento di Chimica Generale ed Inorganica, Chimica Analitica e Chimica Fisica, Universita di Parma, Parma (Italy)]. E-mail: cavalli@ipruniv.cce.unipr.it; Zannoni, Ester [Dipartimento di Chimica Generale ed Inorganica, Chimica Analitica e Chimica Fisica, Universita di Parma, Parma (Italy); Bettinelli, Marco; Speghini, Adolfo [Dipartimento Scientifico e Tecnologico, Universita di Verona Ca Vignal, Verona (Italy); Tonelli, Mauro; Toncelli, Alessandra [INFM, Pisa (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Pisa, Pisa (Italy)

    2000-05-29

    The IR and the Raman spectra of the Ca{sub 3}Sc{sub 2}Ge{sub 3}O{sub 12} (CaSGG) garnet crystal have been measured and discussed in terms of internal and external modes of the tetrahedral GeO{sup 4-}{sub 4} moiety. Some important aspects of the electronic spectroscopy of these materials activated with luminescent ions, i.e. the multiphonon relaxation of the excited states and the vibrational structure of the optical bands, have been taken into consideration, and correspondences with the vibrational properties of the host lattice have been presented. (author)

  14. Experimental study of the radiation emitted by 180-GeV/c electrons and positrons volume-reflected in a bent crystal

    CERN Document Server

    Scandale, Walter; Baricordi, S; Dalpiaz, P; Fiorini, M; Guidi, V; Mazzolari, A; Della Mea, G; Milan, R; Ambrosi, G; Zuccon, P; Bertucci, B; Bürger, W; Duranti, M; Cavoto, G; Santacesaria, R; Valente, P; Luci, C; Iacoangeli, F; Vallazza, E; Afonin, A G; Chesnokov, Yu A; Kotov, V I; Maisheev, V A; Yazynin, I A; Kovalenko, A D; Taratin, A M; Denisov, A S; Gavrikov, Y A; Ivanov, Yu M; Lapina, L P; Malyarenko, L G; Skorogobogatov, V V; Suvorov, V M; Vavilov, S A; Bolognini, D; Hasan, S; Mozzanica, A; Prest, M

    2009-01-01

    The radiation emitted by 180-GeV/c volume-reflected electrons and positrons impinging on a bent crystal has been measured by the H8RD22 Collaboration on the H8 beamline at the CERN SPS. A dedicated spectrometer has been developed to measure high-energy photon spectra (up to ~100 GeV) under volume reflection: photon and charged particle beams have been separated by a bending magnet and leptons were detected and tagged by microstrip silicon detectors and a Pb-scintillator sampling calorimeter. A comparison between the experimental and analytical data for the amorphous and volume-reflection cases is presented and the differences are discussed.

  15. Improving Light Extraction of Organic Light-Emitting Devices by Attaching Nanostructures with Self-Assembled Photonic Crystal Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Yu Peng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A single-monolayered hexagonal self-assembled photonic crystal (PC pattern fabricated onto polyethylene terephthalate (PET films by using simple nanosphere lithography (NSL method has been demonstrated in this research work. The patterned nanostructures acted as a scattering medium to extract the trapped photons from substrate mode of optical-electronic device for improving the overall external quantum efficiency of the organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs. With an optimum latex concentration, the distribution of self-assembled polystyrene (PS nanosphere patterns on PET films can be easily controlled by adjusting the rotation speed of spin-coater. After attaching the PS nanosphere array brightness enhancement film (BEF sheet as a photonic crystal pattern onto the device, the luminous intensity of OLEDs in the normal viewing direction is 161% higher than the one without any BEF attachment. The electroluminescent (EL spectrum of OLEDs with PS patterned BEF attachment also showed minor color offset and superior color stabilization characteristics, and thus it possessed the potential applications in all kinds of display technology and solid-state optical-electronic devices.

  16. Three new chalcohalides, Ba{sub 4}Ge{sub 2}PbS{sub 8}Br{sub 2}, Ba{sub 4}Ge{sub 2}PbSe{sub 8}Br{sub 2} and Ba{sub 4}Ge{sub 2}SnS{sub 8}Br{sub 2}: Syntheses, crystal structures, band gaps, and electronic structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Zuohong; Feng, Kai; Tu, Heng; Kang, Lei [Center for Crystal Research and Development, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Key Laboratory of Functional Crystals and Laser Technology, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Lin, Zheshuai [Center for Crystal Research and Development, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Key Laboratory of Functional Crystals and Laser Technology, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Yao, Jiyong, E-mail: jyao@mail.ipc.ac.cn [Center for Crystal Research and Development, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Key Laboratory of Functional Crystals and Laser Technology, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Wu, Yicheng [Center for Crystal Research and Development, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Key Laboratory of Functional Crystals and Laser Technology, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-10-25

    Highlights: • Three new chalcohalides: Ba{sub 4}Ge{sub 2}PbS{sub 8}Br{sub 2}, Ba{sub 4}Ge{sub 2}PbSe{sub 8}Br{sub 2} and Ba{sub 4}Ge{sub 2}SnS{sub 8}Br{sub 2} have been synthesized. • The MQ{sub 5}Br octahedra and GeQ{sub 4} tetrahedra form a three-dimensional framework with Ba{sup 2+} in the channels. • Band Gaps and electronic structures of the three compounds were studied. - Abstract: Single crystals of three new chalcohalides: Ba{sub 4}Ge{sub 2}PbS{sub 8}Br{sub 2}, Ba{sub 4}Ge{sub 2}PbSe{sub 8}Br{sub 2} and Ba{sub 4}Ge{sub 2}SnS{sub 8}Br{sub 2} have been synthesized for the first time. These isostructural compounds crystallize in the orthorhombic space group Pnma. In the structure, the tetra-valent Ge atom is tetrahedrally coordinated with four Q (Q = S, Se) atoms, while the bi-valent M atom (M = Pb, Sn) is coordinated with an obviously distorted octahedron of five Q (Q = S, Se) atoms and one Br atom, showing the stereochemical activity of the ns{sup 2} lone pair electron. The MQ{sub 5}Br (M = Sn, Pb; Q = S, Se) distorted octahedra and the GeQ{sub 4} (Q = S, Se) tetrahedra are connected to each other to form a three-dimensional framework with channels occupied by Ba{sup 2+} cations. Based on UV–vis–NIR spectroscopy measurements and the electronic structure calculations, Ba{sub 4}Ge{sub 2}PbS{sub 8}Br{sub 2}, Ba{sub 4}Ge{sub 2}PbSe{sub 8}Br{sub 2} and Ba{sub 4}Ge{sub 2}SnS{sub 8}Br{sub 2} have indirect band gaps of 2.054, 1.952, and 2.066 eV respectively, which are mainly determined by the orbitals from the Ge, M and Q atoms (M = Pb, Sn; Q = S, Se)

  17. 2.5 D Transrotational Microcrystals and Nanostructures Revealed by TEM in Crystallizing Amorphous Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolosov, Vladimir

    2015-03-01

    Unexpected transrotational microcrystals can be grown in thin 10-100 nm amorphous films. Crystals of different morphology (from nanowhiskers to spherulites, complex textures) and chemical nature (oxides, chalcogenides, metals and alloys) grown in thin films prepared by various methods are studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We use primarily our TEM bend-contour method and SAED (HREM, AFM are also performed). The phenomenon resides in strong (up to 300 degrees/ μm) regular internal bending of crystal lattice planes in a growing crystal. It can be traced inside TEM in situ. Usual translation is complicated by slight regular rotation of the crystal unit cell (transrotation) most prominent at the mesoscale. Different geometries of transrotation of positive and negative curvature are revealed. Transrotational crystal resembles ideal single crystal enclosed in a curved space. It can be also considered similar to hypothetical endless 2.5 D analogy of MW nanotube/nano-onion halves. Transrotation is strongly increasing as the film gets thinner in the range 100-15 nm. Transrotations supplement dislocations and disclinations. New transrotational nanocrystalline model of amorphous state is proposed. Support of Ministry of Higher Education and Science is acknowledged.

  18. Phase equilibria in the La–Mg–Ge system at 500 °C and crystal structure of the new ternary compounds La{sub 11}Mg{sub 2}Ge{sub 7} and LaMg{sub 3−x}Ge{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Negri, S., E-mail: serena.denegri@unige.it [Università degli Studi di Genova, Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, via Dodecaneso 31, 16146 Genova (Italy); Solokha, P.; Skrobańska, M. [Università degli Studi di Genova, Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, via Dodecaneso 31, 16146 Genova (Italy); Proserpio, D.M. [Università degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Chimica, Via Golgi 19, 20133 Milano (Italy); Samara Center for Theoretical Materials Science (SCTMS), Samara State University, Samara 443011 (Russian Federation); Saccone, A. [Università degli Studi di Genova, Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, via Dodecaneso 31, 16146 Genova (Italy)

    2014-10-15

    The whole 500 °C isothermal section of the La–Mg–Ge ternary system was constructed. The existence and crystal structure of three ternary compounds were confirmed: La{sub 2+x}Mg{sub 1−x}Ge{sub 2} (τ{sub 2}, P4/mbm, tP10–Mo{sub 2}FeB{sub 2}, 0≤x≤0.25), La{sub 4}Mg{sub 5}Ge{sub 6} (τ{sub 3}, Cmc2{sub 1}, oS60–Gd{sub 4}Zn{sub 5}Ge{sub 6}) and La{sub 4}Mg{sub 7}Ge{sub 6} (τ{sub 4}, C2/m, mS34, own structure type). Five novel compounds were identified and structurally characterized: La{sub 11}Mg{sub 2}Ge{sub 7} (τ{sub 1}, P4{sub 2}/ncm, tP88-8, own structure type, a=1.21338(5), c=1.57802(6) nm), LaMg{sub 3−x}Ge{sub 2} (τ{sub 5}, P3{sup ¯}1c, hP34-0.44, own structure type, x=0.407(5), a=0.78408(4), c=1.45257(7) nm), La{sub 6}Mg{sub 23}Ge (τ{sub 6}, Fm3{sup ¯}m, cF120–Zr{sub 6}Zn{sub 23}Si, a=1.46694(6) nm), La{sub 4}MgGe{sub 10−x} (τ{sub 7}, x=0.37(1), C2/m, mS60-1.46, own structure type, a=0.88403(8), b=0.86756(8), c=1.7709(2) nm, β=97.16°(1) and La{sub 2}MgGe{sub 6} (τ{sub 8}, Cmce, oS72–Ce{sub 2}(Ga{sub 0.1}Ge{sub 0.9}){sub 7}, a=0.8989(2), b=0.8517(2), c=2.1064(3) nm). Disordering phenomena were revealed in several La–Mg–Ge phases in terms of partially occupied sites. The crystal structures of La{sub 11}Mg{sub 2}Ge{sub 7} and LaMg{sub 3−x}Ge{sub 2} are discussed in details. The latter is a √3a×√3a×2c superstructure of the LaLi{sub 3}Sb{sub 2} structure type; the symmetry reduction scheme is shown in the Bärnighausen formalism terms. - Graphical abstract: La–Mg–Ge isothermal section at 500 °C and group–subgroup relation between the LaLi{sub 3}Sb{sub 2} (parent type) and LaMg{sub 3−x}Ge{sub 2} (derivative) structures. - Highlights: • Novel La−Mg−Ge compounds structure determination from X-ray single crystal data. • Disordering phenomena as common features of the studied germanides. • Bärnighausen formalism as a useful tool for accurate structure determination. • Full isothermal section of the La–Mg–Ge

  19. Giant Seebeck effect in Ge-doped SnSe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharsallah, M.; Serrano-Sánchez, F.; Nemes, N. M.; Mompeán, F. J.; Martínez, J. L.; Fernández-Díaz, M. T.; Elhalouani, F.; Alonso, J. A.

    2016-06-01

    Thermoelectric materials may contribute in the near future as new alternative sources of sustainable energy. Unprecedented thermoelectric properties in p-type SnSe single crystals have been recently reported, accompanied by extremely low thermal conductivity in polycrystalline samples. In order to enhance thermoelectric efficiency through proper tuning of this material we report a full structural characterization and evaluation of the thermoelectric properties of novel Ge-doped SnSe prepared by a straightforward arc-melting method, which yields nanostructured polycrystalline samples. Ge does not dope the system in the sense of donating carriers, yet the electrical properties show a semiconductor behavior with resistivity values higher than that of the parent compound, as a consequence of nanostructuration, whereas the Seebeck coefficient is higher and thermal conductivity lower, favorable to a better ZT figure of merit.

  20. Stimulated crystallization of melt-quenched Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} films employing femtosecond laser double pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotton, Rebecca L.; Siegel, Jan [Laser Processing Group, Instituto de Optica, CSIC, Serrano 121, E-28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-12-15

    The phase transformation of Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} films from the melt-quenched amorphous phase into the crystalline phase induced by 800 nm, 100 fs laser pulses has been studied. For partly amorphized films, progressive crystallization could be induced by single pulses, which can be explained by growth of already existing crystalline embryos. For completely amorphized films, it was not possible to induce crystallization with one or two consecutive pulses; three pulses being the threshold for the onset of crystallization. By employing a fs laser double pulse with an adjustable inter-pulse delay, partial crystallization could be triggered for a delay range of 200 fs-100 ps, while for longer delays no crystallization was possible. The time window for stimulated crystallization can be related to the relaxation dynamics of free electrons excited by the first pulse, which are further excited by the second pulse still remaining in the excited state. Our results indicate that the lifetime of excited electrons in melt-quenched amorphous Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} is Almost-Equal-To 100 ps.

  1. Synthesis and crystal structure of chlorate-enclathrated in aluminogermanate sodalite Na8[AlGeO4]6(ClO3)2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borhade, Ashok V.; Dholi, Arun G.

    2013-04-01

    Encapsulation of chlorate in sodalite with aluminogermanate host framework has been obtained by one pot hydrothermal synthesis at 393 K. The crystal structure of Na8[AlGeO4]6(ClO3)2; sodalite was refined from X-ray powder data in the space group Pbar 43 n: a = 9.169 Å, where Al-O-Ge angle is 137.6°. The 27Al MAS NMR study confirmed alternate Ge and Al ordering of the sodalite framework, while 23Na gave insight into the structure and dynamics of the cage fillings. Infrared spectrum confirmed the encapsulation of chlorate as well as the framework formation of aluminogermanate sodalite. SEM study showed the retention of cubical morphology of the aluminogermanate sodalite. Thermogravimetric analysis provided information on the extent of chlorate entrapment, stability within the sodalite cages and decomposition properties.

  2. Intermediate valence to heavy fermion through a quantum phase transition in Yb3(Rh 1 -xTx )4Ge13 (T =Co ,Ir ) single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Binod K.; Oswald, Iain W. H.; Chan, Julia Y.; Morosan, E.

    2016-01-01

    Single crystals of Yb3(Rh 1 -xTx )4Ge13 (T =Co ,Ir ) have been grown using the self-flux method. Powder x-ray diffraction data on these compounds are consistent with the cubic structure with space group P m 3 ¯n . Intermediate-valence behavior is observed in Yb3(Rh 1 -xTx )4Ge13 upon T = Co doping, while T = Ir doping drives the system into a heavy-fermion state. Antiferromagnetic order is observed in the Ir-doped samples Yb3(Rh 1 -xTx )4Ge13 for 0.5 xc = 0.5, accompanied by non-Fermi-liquid behavior evidenced by logarithmic divergence of the specific heat and linear temperature dependence of the resistivity. The Fermi-liquid behavior is recovered with the application of large magnetic fields.

  3. Crystal and electronic structure of PbTe/CdTe nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankowski Piotr

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article, the authors reported a theoretical study of structural and electronic properties of PbTe inclusions in CdTe matrix as well as CdTe nano-clusters in PbTe matrix. The structural properties are studied by ab initio methods. A tight-binding model is constructed to calculate the electron density of states (DOS of the systems. In contrast to the ab initio methods, the latter allows studying nanostructures with diameters comparable to the real ones. The calculations show that both kinds of inclusions lead to changes of the DOS of the carriers near the Fermi level, which may affect optical, electrical and thermoelectric properties of the material. These changes depend on the size, shape, and concentration of inclusions.

  4. Influence of Proton and Salt Concentration on the Chromonic Liquid Crystal Phase Diagram of Disodium Cromoglycate Solutions: Prospects and Limitations of a Host for DNA Nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bingru; Kitzerow, Heinz-S

    2016-03-31

    Lyotropic chromonic liquid crystals have recently been suggested for use as a self-organized host for dispersing and aligning self-organized DNA origami nanostructures. However, an appropriate pH value and a suitable cation concentration are necessary to stabilize such nanostructures and to avoid unfolding of the DNA. The present study shows that the nematic and columnar liquid crystal phases appearing in aqueous solutions of disodium cromoglycate are robust against the replacement of deionized water by a neutral or alkaline buffer solution. However, disodium cromoglycate precipitates when an acidic buffer is used or when the concentration of magnesium cations exceeds a critical concentration of about 0.6-0.7 mmol/L.

  5. Compositing orbital angular momentum beams in Bi4Ge3O12 crystal for magnetic field sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shuangfeng; Pang, Fufei; Liu, Huanhuan; Li, Xianjin; Yang, Junfeng; Wang, Tingyun

    2017-08-01

    The polarization states and orbital angular momentum (OAM) properties of light are of considerable importance for several aspects of high-precision optical measurements. In this work, we have investigated the properties of composited OAM beams propagating in a Bi4Ge3O12 crystal under an applied magnetic field and have demonstrated a magnetic field sensing method based on compositing of OAM beams using a Sagnac configuration. The polarization rotation can be projected into petal-like patterns by the rotation of the OAM beams. However, the accurate measurement of the rotation angles of the petal-like patterns of OAM beams remains challenging. Therefore, an image processing technique based on the Radon transform is explored to enable the accurate calculation of the rotation angle of the petal-like patterns of composite OAM beams under different magnetic fields. The rotation angle of these petal-like patterns is found to have a linear dependence on the magnetic field intensity, which means that the proposed system is appropriate for magnetic field sensing applications. Using this method, a magnetic field sensitivity of 28°/T has been achieved experimentally with a measurement error of 0.0123 T in a high-intensity magnetic field ranging from 191 to 3322 G for OAM beams with topological charge (TC) l =±1 .

  6. Effect of interstitial air holes on Bragg gratings in photonic crystal fibre with a Ge-doped core

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Hui-Jia; Li Shu-Guang; Hou Lan-Tian

    2009-01-01

    The effect of interstitial air holes on Bragg gratings in photonic crystal fibre (PCF) with a Ge-doped core is numerically investigated by using thc beam propagation method (BPM). It is shown that the interstitial air holes (IAHs) can make Bragg resonance wavelength λ3 shift a little towards short wavelengths and incrcase λB - λ1 (the wavelength spacing between the main peak with Bragg resonance wavelength λB and the first side peak with wavelength λ1) and the coupling coefficient κ of Bragg resonance. Moreover, when the ratio of air hole diameter (d) to pitch (A),d/A, is small, IAHs can suppress the cladding mode resonance. When d/A is large, IAHs increase the number of mode that could strongly interact with the fundamental mode. By comparing the transmission spectral characteristics of PCF-based fibrc Bragg grating (FBG) with IAHs with those without IAtIs at the same air-filling fraction, it is clarified that the change of transmission spectral characteristics of PCF-based FBG with IAHs is not due to a simple change in air-filling fraction. It is also closely related to the distribution of interstitial air holes.

  7. Fabrication and sensing behavior of one-dimensional ZnO-Zn2GeO4 heterostructures

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Yuan-Chang; Lin, Tzu-Yin

    2014-01-01

    Well-crystalline one-dimensional ZnO-Zn2GeO4 (ZGO) heterostructures were successfully synthesized using a high-temperature solid-state reaction between the ZnO and Ge layers of ZnO-Ge core-shell nanostructures. The polycrystalline ZGO crystallites had a thickness in the range of 17 to 26 nm. The high-temperature solid-state reaction induced grooves and crystal defects on the surfaces of the ZGO crystallites. The sensors made from the ZnO-ZGO heterostructures exhibited a marked photocurrent re...

  8. Crystal field analysis of the absorption spectra and electron phonon interaction in Ca3Sc2Ge3O12:Ni2+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brik, M. G.

    2006-04-01

    Exchange charge model of crystal field [B.Z. Malkin, in: A.A. Kaplyanskii, B.M. Macfarlane (Eds.), Spectroscopy of Solids Containing Rare-earth Ions, North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1987, pp. 33 50.] was used to analyze the energy level schemes of Ni2+ ion at both possible positions (octahedral and tetrahedral) in Ca3Sc2Ge3O12. The crystal field parameters were calculated from the crystal structure data; the crystal field Hamiltonian was diagonalised in the complete basis consisting of 25 wave functions of all LS terms of the Ni2+ ion. Results of calculations are in a good agreement with experimental data. From the experimental spectra available in the literature, the Huang Rhys parameter S=3.5 and effective phonon energy ℏω=200cm were evaluated for the octahedral Ni2+ ion.

  9. Investigations of rapid thermal annealing induced structural evolution of ZnO: Ge nanocomposite thin films via GISAXS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceylan, Abdullah; Ozcan, Yusuf; Orujalipoor, Ilghar; Huang, Yen-Chih; Jeng, U.-Ser; Ide, Semra

    2016-06-01

    In this work, we present in depth structural investigations of nanocomposite ZnO: Ge thin films by utilizing a state of the art grazing incidence small angle x-ray spectroscopy (GISAXS) technique. The samples have been deposited by sequential r.f. and d.c. sputtering of ZnO and Ge thin film layers, respectively, on single crystal Si(100) substrates. Transformation of Ge layers into Ge nanoparticles (Ge-np) has been initiated by ex-situ rapid thermal annealing of asprepared thin film samples at 600 °C for 30, 60, and 90 s under forming gas atmosphere. A special attention has been paid on the effects of reactive and nonreactive growth of ZnO layers on the structural evolution of Ge-np. GISAXS analyses have been performed via cylindrical and spherical form factor calculations for different nanostructure types. Variations of the size, shape, and distributions of both ZnO and Ge nanostructures have been determined. It has been realized that GISAXS results are not only remarkably consistent with the electron microscopy observations but also provide additional information on the large scale size and shape distribution of the nanostructured components.

  10. Experimental investigation of photon multiplicity and radiation cooling for 150 GeV electrons/positrons traversing diamond and Si crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsebom, K.; Medenwaldt, R.; Mikkelsen, U.; Møller, S. P.; Paludan, K.; Uggerhøj, E.; Worm, T.; Elsener, K.; Ballestrero, S.; Sona, P.; Romano, J.; Connell, S. H.; Sellschop, J. P. F.; Avakian, R. O.; Avetisian, A. E.; Taroian, S. P.

    1996-10-01

    Detailed experimental investigations of photon multiplicities for 150 GeV electrons/positrons traversing thin diamond and Si crystals have been performed. Along axial directions up to 10 photons are emitted in 1.5 mm diamond for a radiative energy loss larger than 4 GeV. This corresponds to a mean free path for photon emission of about two orders of magnitude shorter than in an amorphous target. This is in agreement with an enhanced radiative energy loss of ˜ 30 times that in amorphous targets. The strongly enhanced photon emission leads to radiation cooling which can result in particles exiting the crystal with a reduced angle to the axis. For incidences along planar directions the average multiplicity is still above one, even for the thinnest crystals used in the present experiment, so a single-photon spectrum can only be obtained for thicknesses ≤50 μm, which, on the other hand, is comparable to the coherence lengths for GeV photons, leading to destruction of the coherent effects.

  11. Ag掺杂对Ge2 Sb2 Te5结晶行为的影响%Crystallization behavior of phase change material Ge2 Sb2 Te5 doped with Ag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张滔; 郑坤; 张斌; 邵瑞文; 韩晓东; 张泽

    2014-01-01

    通过磁控溅射仪制备了Ge2 Sb2 Te5( GST)和Ag10�6( GST)89�4薄膜,利用X射线衍射( XRD)、电阻-温度( R-T)测试、透射电子显微学以及径向分布函数(RDF)等方法对比研究了GST和Ag10�6(GST)89�4的结晶过程和微观结构及其演化的差异。发现掺Ag的薄膜非晶态、晶态电阻均比GST更高,而且结晶过程只有非晶相到面心立方相( fcc)的转变,没有出现GST的非晶到fcc再到六方相( hcp)的过程,XRD分析进一步证实了这一结果。同时,透射电镜原位加热实验证实了在300℃时,Ag10�6( GST)89�4仍然保持着fcc结构,而GST中已经出现了hcp相。通过统计230℃下时效处理的晶态薄膜的晶粒尺寸,发现Ag10�6( GST)89�4的平均晶粒尺寸小于Ge2 Sb2 Te5薄膜的,这可能是造成其晶态电阻高于GST的主要原因。%Ag-doped Ge2 Sb2 Te5 films have been prepared, and the influence of Ag doping on the crystallization behavior, structure was investigated through X-ray diffraction techniques, electrical resistivity measurement and in situ TEM annealing techniques. The results show that the addition of Ag into GST films could result in an enhancement in electrical resistance compared with Ge2 Sb2 Te5 films. Ag doping can lead to one-step crystallization process from amorphous to single face-centered cubic ( fcc ) phase without any other crystalline phase. HRTEM images show that the grain size in Ag-doped Ge2 Sb2 Te5 films is smaller than that in conventional Ge2 Sb2 Te5 films.

  12. Synthesis of single crystal manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieve (OMS) nanostructures with tunable tunnels and shapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei-Na; Yuan, Jikang; Gomez-Mower, Sinue; Sithambaram, Shantakumar; Suib, Steven L

    2006-02-23

    A new and facile route is reported to manipulate the self-assembly synthesis of hierarchically ordered Rb-OMS-2 and pyrolusite with an interesting flowerlike morphology by a direct and mild reaction between rubidium chromateand manganese sulfate without any organic templates. The crystal forms, morphologies, and tunnel sizes of the obtained OMS materials can be controlled. A mechanism for the growth of manganese dioxides with flowerlike architectures was proposed. The obtained products exhibit potential for use in catalysis and other applications.

  13. Effect of nanostructured TiO2 crystal phase on photoinduced apoptosis of breast cancer epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lagopati N

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Nefeli Lagopati,1,2 Effie-Photini Tsilibary,1,* Polycarpos Falaras,2,* Panagiota Papazafiri,3 Evangelia A Pavlatou,4 Eleni Kotsopoulou,1 Paraskevi Kitsiou1,* 1Institute of Biosciences and Applications, 2Institute of Advanced Materials, Physicochemical Processes, Nanotechnology and Microsystems, National Center for Scientific Research “Demokritos”, Athens, Greece; 3Department of Animal and Human Physiology, Faculty of Biology, School of Science, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece; 4Laboratory of General Chemistry, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Athens, Greece *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: The use of nanoparticles has seen exponential growth in the area of health care, due to the unique physicochemical properties of nanomaterials that make them desirable for medical applications. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of crystal phase-nanostructured titanium dioxide particles on bioactivity/cytotoxicity in breast cancer epithelial cells. Materials and methods: Cultured Michigan Cancer Foundation (MCF-7 and human breast adenocarcinoma (MDA-MB-468 breast cancer epithelial cells were exposed to ultraviolet A light (wavelength 350 nm for 20 minutes in the presence of aqueous dispersions of two different nanostructured titanium dioxide (TiO2 crystal phases: anatase and an anatase–rutile mixture. Detailed characterization of each titanium dispersion was performed by dynamic light scattering. A 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT colorimetric assay was employed to estimate the percentage of viable cells after each treatment. Western blot analysis of protein expression and characterization, as well as a deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA-laddering assay, were used to detect cell apoptosis. Results: Our results documented that 100% anatase TiO2 nanoparticles (110–130 nm exhibited significantly higher cytotoxicity in

  14. Parasitic extraction of 900-GeV/c protons from the Tevatron using a bent silicon crystal and measurement of the $b \\bar{b}$ production cross-section at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 38.8-GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramachandran, Sathyadev [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This dissertation discusses results from an experiment demonstrating the feasibility of a novel extraction scheme using channeling in a bent crystal at future high-energy colliders for doing heavy avor physics in a xed target environment concurrently with collider experiments. In the second half of this dissertation we present the results from a measurement of the inclusive cross-section for b$\\bar{b}$ production at the center-of-mass energy of 38.8 GeV using the semileptonic decays of the beauty mesons.

  15. Detailed investigations of shower formation in Ge- and W-crystals traversed by 40-287 GeV/c electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medenwaldt, R.; Moeller, S.P.; Tang-Petersen, S.; Uggerhoej, E. (Aarhus Univ. (Denmark). Inst. of Physics); Elsener, K. (European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)); Hage Ali, M.; Siffert, P.; Stoquert, J.P. (Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires); Maier, K. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Metallforschung, Stuttgart (Germany, F.R.))

    1989-08-31

    The development of electromagnetic cascades along crystalline directions have for the first time been measured. As compared to random incidence the number of produced particles is enhanced more than 10 times along axial directions in Ge and increasing with particle energy. The critical angle for this strongly enhanced shower formation is around 1 mrad which means that the effect could be harnessed for high-resolution gamma-ray telescopes. (orig.).

  16. Detailed investigations of shower formation in Ge- and W-crystals traversed by 40-287 GeV/c electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medenwaldt, R.; Møller, S. P.; Tang-Petersen, S.; Uggerhøj, E.; Elsener, K.; Ali, M. Hage; Siffert, P.; Stoquert, J. P.; Maier, K.

    1989-08-01

    The development of electromagnetic cascades along crystalline directions have for the first time been measured. As compared to random incidence the number of produced particles is enhanced more than 10 times along axial directions in Ge and increasing with particle energy. The critical angle for this strongly enhanced shower formation is around 1 mrad which means that the effect could be harnessed for high-resolution gamma-ray telescopes.

  17. Liquid crystal terahertz phase shifters with functional indium-tin-oxide nanostructures for biasing and alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chan-Shan; Tang, Tsung-Ta; Pan, Ru-Pin; Yu, Peichen; Pan, Ci-Ling

    2014-04-01

    Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) nanowhiskers (NWhs) obliquely evaporated by electron-beam glancing-angle deposition can serve simultaneously as transparent electrodes and alignment layer for liquid crystal (LC) devices in the terahertz (THz) frequency range. To demonstrate, we constructed a THz LC phase shifter with ITO NWhs. Phase shift exceeding π/2 at 1.0 THz was achieved in a ˜517 μm-thick cell. The phase shifter exhibits high transmittance (˜78%). The driving voltage required for quarter-wave operation is as low as 5.66 V (rms), compatible with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) and thin-film transistor (TFT) technologies.

  18. Imprinting the nanostructures on the high refractive index semiconductor glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvennoinen, M.; Paivasaari, K.; Kaakkunen, J. J. J.; Tikhomirov, V. K.; Lehmuskero, A.; Vahimaa, P.; Moshchalkov, V. V.

    2011-05-01

    The centimeter range one- and two-dimensional nanostructures of 70 nm pitch have been imprinted by hot pressing with a quartz, silicon or nickel mold, at 240 °C, onto the surface of Ge 20As 20Se 14Te 46 semiconductor glass. Excellent glass stability of this glass allows multiple re-pressing of the nano-structures. With increasing the Te/Se ratio in the glass formula, the refractive index reaches a value of 3.5 with an option of free electron absorption at elevated temperatures pointing out the use of such nanostructures in submicron and micron scale electronic devices/chips, moth eye structures and photonic crystals.

  19. Hopping magnetotransport of the band-gap tuning Cu2Zn(Sn x Ge1-x )Se4 crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lähderanta, E.; Hajdeu-Chicarosh, E.; Shakhov, M. A.; Guc, M.; Bodnar, I. V.; Arushanov, E.; Lisunov, K. G.

    2016-11-01

    Resistivity, ρ(T, x), of Cu2Zn(Sn x Ge1-x )Se4 (CZTGeSe) single crystals with x  =  0-1, investigated at temperatures between T ~ 10-320 K, exhibits an activated character within the whole temperature range, attaining a minimum at x  =  0.47. Magnetoresistance (MR) of CZTGeSe with x  =  0.26, 0.47 and 0.64 is positive (pMR) in all measured fields of B up to 20 T at any T between ~40-320 K, whereas MR of samples with x  =  0 and 1 contains a negative contribution (nMR). The dependence of ρ(T) at B  =  0 gives evidence for a nearest-neighbor hopping (NNH) conductivity in high-temperature intervals within T ~ 200-320 K depending on x, followed by the Mott variable-range hopping (VRH) charge transfer with lowering temperature. The pMR law of lnρ(B) \\propto B 2 is observed in both hopping conductivity regimes above, provided that the nMR contribution is absent or saturated. Analysis of the ρ(T) and MR data has yielded the values of the NNH activation energy and the VRH characteristic temperature, as well as those of the acceptor band width, the acceptor concentration, the localization radii of holes and the density of the localized states (DOS) at the Fermi level. All the parameters above exhibit a systematic non-monotonous dependence on x. Their extremums, lying close to x  =  0.64, correspond to the minimum of a lattice disorder along with the maximum of DOS and of the acceptor concentration, as well as a highest proximity to the metal-insulator transition.

  20. Hopping magnetotransport of the band-gap tuning Cu2Zn(Sn x Ge1-x )Se4 crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lähderanta, E; Hajdeu-Chicarosh, E; Shakhov, M A; Guc, M; Bodnar, I V; Arushanov, E; Lisunov, K G

    2016-11-16

    Resistivity, ρ(T, x), of Cu2Zn(Sn x Ge1-x )Se4 (CZTGeSe) single crystals with x  =  0-1, investigated at temperatures between T ~ 10-320 K, exhibits an activated character within the whole temperature range, attaining a minimum at x  =  0.47. Magnetoresistance (MR) of CZTGeSe with x  =  0.26, 0.47 and 0.64 is positive (pMR) in all measured fields of B up to 20 T at any T between ~40-320 K, whereas MR of samples with x  =  0 and 1 contains a negative contribution (nMR). The dependence of ρ(T) at B  =  0 gives evidence for a nearest-neighbor hopping (NNH) conductivity in high-temperature intervals within T ~ 200-320 K depending on x, followed by the Mott variable-range hopping (VRH) charge transfer with lowering temperature. The pMR law of lnρ(B) [Formula: see text] B (2) is observed in both hopping conductivity regimes above, provided that the nMR contribution is absent or saturated. Analysis of the ρ(T) and MR data has yielded the values of the NNH activation energy and the VRH characteristic temperature, as well as those of the acceptor band width, the acceptor concentration, the localization radii of holes and the density of the localized states (DOS) at the Fermi level. All the parameters above exhibit a systematic non-monotonous dependence on x. Their extremums, lying close to x  =  0.64, correspond to the minimum of a lattice disorder along with the maximum of DOS and of the acceptor concentration, as well as a highest proximity to the metal-insulator transition.

  1. Crystal imperfections and Mott parameters of sprayed nanostructure IrO{sub 2} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassanien, A.S., E-mail: a.s.hassanien@gmail.com [Engineering Mathematics and Physics Department, Faculty of Engineering (Shoubra), Benha University (Egypt); Physics Department, Faculty of Science in Ad-Dawadmi, Shaqra University, 11911 (Saudi Arabia); Akl, Alaa A. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science in Ad-Dawadmi, Shaqra University, 11911 (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-09-15

    Nano-crystalline iridium oxide thin films were obtained by a spray pyrolysis technique onto preheated glass substrates. X-ray diffraction reveals that IrO{sub 2} thin films were polycrystalline in the rutile structure with primitive tetragonal lattice and its preferential orientation were along the 〈110〉 and 〈101〉 directions. X-ray diffraction line profile analysis (XRDLPA) was used to assign microstructure and crystal imperfections of IrO{sub 2} thin films. Some important parameters such as crystallite size, microstrain, average residual stress, number of crystallite/cm{sup 2} and dislocation density were studied. The effects of deposition temperatures and solution concentrations on the microstructural and crystal defects were discussed. All estimated values were found to be dependent upon the growth parameters. Mott parameters, trapping state energy and potential barrier were investigated and studied for a defined thin film sample. This sample was selected because it has the suitable conditions for electrochromic applications.

  2. High carrier mobility of Sn-doped polycrystalline-Ge films on insulators by thickness-dependent low-temperature solid-phase crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadoh, Taizoh; Kai, Yuki; Matsumura, Ryo; Moto, Kenta; Miyao, Masanobu

    2016-12-01

    To realize the advanced thin-film transistors (TFTs), high-carrier-mobility semiconductor films on insulator structures should be fabricated with low-temperature processing conditions (≤500 °C). To achieve this, we investigated the solid-phase crystallization of amorphous-GeSn films on insulating substrates under a wide range of Sn concentrations (0%-20%), film thicknesses (30-500 nm), and annealing temperatures (380-500 °C). Our results reveal that a Sn concentration close to the solid solubility of Sn in Ge (˜2%) is effective in increasing the grain-size of poly-GeSn. In addition, we discovered that the carrier mobility depends on the film thickness, where the mobilities are determined by the counterbalance between two different carrier scattering mechanisms. Here, vacancy-related defects dominate the carrier scattering near the insulating substrates (≤˜120 nm), and grain-size determined by bulk nucleation dominates the grain-boundary scattering of thick films (≥˜200 nm). Consequently, we obtained the maximum mobilities in samples with a Sn concentration of 2% and a film thickness of 200 nm. The effect of increasing the grain-size of poly-GeSn by lowering the annealing temperature was also clarified. By combining these results, a very high carrier mobility of 320 cm2/Vs was obtained at a low temperature of 380 °C. This mobility is about 2.5 times as high as previously reported data for Ge and GeSn films grown at low temperatures (≤500 °C). Our technique therefore opens up the possibility of high-speed TFTs for use in the next generation of electronics.

  3. Observation of high deflection efficiency and narrow energy loss distributions for 450 GeV protons channeled in a bent silicon crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, S. P.; Worm, T.; Clément, M.; Doble, N.; Elsener, K.; Gatignon, L.; Grafström, P.; Uggerhøj, E.; Hage-Ali, M.; Siffert, P.

    1994-03-01

    A 450 GeV proton beam has been deflected by various angles from 1 to 11 mrad using planar channeling in a (111) silicon crystal which was mechanically bent to achieve the desired beam deflection. High deflection efficiencies of up to 50% have been measured, in good agreement with present theoretical estimates. It is shown that bent crystals are also a unique tool for measurements of energy loss and straggling of channeled particles, without any influence from random particles: Selecting protons which are deflected by increasing angles corresponds to decreasing the transverse energy at the crystal entrance. With this technique energy loss and straggling was measured for protons channeled in the wide and narrow (111) planes in silicon for the first time.

  4. Observation of nanostructured cluster formation of Tm ions in CaF{sub 2} crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drazic, G.; Kobe, S. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Cefalas, A.C. [National Hellenic Research Foundation, TPCI, 48 Vassileos Constantinou Avenue, Athens 11635 (Greece)], E-mail: ccefalas@eie.gr; Sarantopoulou, E.; Kollia, Z. [National Hellenic Research Foundation, TPCI, 48 Vassileos Constantinou Avenue, Athens 11635 (Greece)

    2008-08-25

    Transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and high-resolution scanning-transmission electron microscopy, with electron beam sizes ranging from 2 to 50 nm, were used to investigate the spatial distribution and homogeneity of doped Tm{sup 3+} ions in CaF{sub 2} host matrices with atomic resolution, in solid crystals grown from melts using the Bridgman-Stockbarger method. With the smallest size electron beam available of 2 nm, it was found that the Tm{sup 3+} ions were distributed inhomogeneously at the host sites. They took the form of sub-nm agglomerations of 3-5 atoms, rather than individual ions and the phase transition layer was 0.1 nm thick. The spatial extend of inhomogeneous Tm{sup 3+} concentration was 2.6-6 nm and originates from ionic density fluctuations in the liquid phase at the interface layer due to the local electrostatic field at the ionic sites.

  5. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Non-equivalence of Cu crystal sites in CuGeO3 as evidenced by NQR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gippius, A. A.; Morozova, E. N.; Khozeev, D. F.; Vasil'ev, A. N.; Baenitz, M.; Dhalenne, G.; Revcolevschi, A.

    2000-02-01

    Nuclear quadrupole resonance results on the inorganic spin-Peierls compound CuGeO3 were re-examined using a single crystal and enhanced resolution. A clear splitting of 63,65 Cu NQR lines of about 250 kHz at 4.2 K was observed. Such a splitting has not been previously seen in Cu NQR spectra measured on polycrystalline samples of CuGeO3 (Itoh M et al 1995 Phys. Rev. B 52 3410, Kikuchi et al 1994 J. Phys. Soc. Japan 63 872). The mean frequency of the Cu doublet is in agreement with the Cu NQR frequency observed on powder samples. The splitting does not disappear with increasing temperature above TsP exhibiting only a slight kink at around 16 K. This points to a non-magnetic origin of the splitting which can be attributed to existence of at least two non-equivalent Cu crystal sites in CuGeO3 structure, as predicted by precise x-ray study and EPR measurements (Hidaka M et al 1997 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 9 809, Yamada I et al 1996 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 8 2625).

  6. Radiation emission and its influence on the motion of multi-GeV electrons and positrons incident on a single diamond crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirsebom, K.; Mikkelsen, U.; Uggerhoej, E. E-mail: ugh@ifa.au.dk; Elsener, K.; Ballestrero, S.; Sona, P.; Connell, S.H.; Sellschop, J.P.F.; Vilakazi, Z.Z

    2001-04-01

    A few years ago the CERN NA-43 collaboration installed an upgraded detector system which allows a detailed analysis of the particle motion before, during and after penetration of a crystal. Also, essentially perfect diamond crystals were produced by the collaborators from Schonland Research Centre. These facts have led to new and very detailed investigations of QED-processes in strong crystalline fields. Along axial directions the radiation emission is enhanced by more than two orders of magnitude. For incidence on a 0.7 mm thick diamond crystal of well-aligned 149 GeV electrons, 35% give rise to a high energy photon peak at {approx_equal}120 GeV. For 243 GeV electrons and {approx_equal}200 GeV photons, this number decreases to 25% - which may be an indication of quantum suppression. Different measurements of the photon multiplicities show that in most cases positrons and electrons emit equal number of photons. The dramatic radiation emission leads to a strong reduction in transverse energy and all electrons incident within the critical angle are captured to high lying channeling states and exit at channeling angles corresponding to their final energy - a completely new result for negatively charged particles. For the first time, we present an analysis where the photon is used as a 'messenger' for the transverse energy of the electron during the formation time and we conclude that the more energetic photons are created closer to the string and emitted in the axial direction - in contrast to earlier calculations using the Dirac equation. The strongly enhanced radiation emission leads to angular cooling for electrons but angular heating for positrons and we show that at higher electron energies the cooling becomes stronger as expected from theory. For electrons, the radiative cooling gives rise to a capture of above-barrier particles into the channeled beam. The total radiative energy loss is shown as not to follow the {gamma}{sup 2}-law expected from

  7. Radiation emission and its influence on the motion of multi-GeV electrons and positrons incident on a single diamond crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsebom, K.; Mikkelsen, U.; Uggerhøj, E.; Elsener, K.; Ballestrero, S.; Sona, P.; Connell, S. H.; Sellschop, J. P. F.; Vilakazi, Z. Z.

    2001-04-01

    A few years ago the CERN NA-43 collaboration installed an upgraded detector system which allows a detailed analysis of the particle motion before, during and after penetration of a crystal. Also, essentially perfect diamond crystals were produced by the collaborators from Schonland Research Centre. These facts have led to new and very detailed investigations of QED-processes in strong crystalline fields. Along axial directions the radiation emission is enhanced by more than two orders of magnitude. For incidence on a 0.7 mm thick diamond crystal of well-aligned 149 GeV electrons, 35% give rise to a high energy photon peak at ≃120 GeV. For 243 GeV electrons and ≃200 GeV photons, this number decreases to 25% - which may be an indication of quantum suppression. Different measurements of the photon multiplicities show that in most cases positrons and electrons emit equal number of photons. The dramatic radiation emission leads to a strong reduction in transverse energy and all electrons incident within the critical angle are captured to high lying channeling states and exit at channeling angles corresponding to their final energy - a completely new result for negatively charged particles. For the first time, we present an analysis where the photon is used as a `messenger' for the transverse energy of the electron during the formation time and we conclude that the more energetic photons are created closer to the string and emitted in the axial direction - in contrast to earlier calculations using the Dirac equation. The strongly enhanced radiation emission leads to angular cooling for electrons but angular heating for positrons and we show that at higher electron energies the cooling becomes stronger as expected from theory. For electrons, the radiative cooling gives rise to a capture of above-barrier particles into the channeled beam. The total radiative energy loss is shown as not to follow the γ2-law expected from classical electrodynamics, but turns over

  8. Theoretical hardness calculated from crystallo-chemical data for MoS2 and WS2 crystals and nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrescu, M I

    2012-10-01

    The calculation of the hardness of Mo and W disulfides using a crystallo-chemical model provides a unique opportunity to obtain separate quantitative information on the maximum hardness H(max) governed by strong intra-layer covalent bonds acting within the (0001) plane versus the minimum hardness H(min) governed by weak inter-layer van der Waals bonds acting along the c-axis of the hexagonal lattice. The penetration hardness derived from fundamental crystallo-chemical data (confirmed by experimental determinations) proved to be far lower in MS(2) (M = Mo, W) than in graphite and hexagonal BN, both for H(max) (H(graph)/H(MoS2) = 3.85; H(graph)/H(WS2) = 3.60; H(hBN)/H(MoS2) = 2.54; H(hBN)/H(WS2) = 2.37) as well as for H(min) (H(graph)/H(MoS2) = 6.22; H(graph)/H(WS2) = 5.87; H(hBN)/H(MoS2) = 4.72; H(hBN)/H(WS2) = 4.46). However, the gap between H(max) and H(min) is considerably larger in MS(2) (M = Mo,W), as indicated by H(max)/H(min) being 279 in 2H-MoS(2), 282 in 2H-WS(2), 173 in graphite and 150 in hBN. The gap was found to be even larger in MS(2) (M = Mo, W) nanostructures. These findings help to explain the excellent properties of MS(2) (M = Mo, W) as solid lubricants in high tech fields, either as bulk 2H crystals (inter-layer shear and peeling off lubricating mechanisms), or especially as onion-like fullerene nanoparticles (rolling/sliding mechanisms).

  9. Coherent bremsstrahlung, coherent pair production, birefringence, and polarimetry in the 20–170 GeV energy range using aligned crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The processes of coherent bremsstrahlung (CB and coherent pair production (CPP based on aligned crystal targets have been studied in the energy range 20–170 GeV. The experimental arrangement allowed for measurements of single photon properties of these phenomena including their polarization dependences. This is significant as the theoretical description of CB and CPP is an area of active debate and development. With the approach used in this paper, both the measured cross sections and polarization observables are predicted very well. This indicates a proper understanding of CB and CPP up to energies of 170 GeV. Birefringence in CPP on aligned crystals is applied to determine the polarization parameters in our measurements. New technologies for high-energy photon beam optics including phase plates and polarimeters for linear and circular polarization are demonstrated in this experiment. Coherent bremsstrahlung for the strings-on-strings (SOS orientation yields a larger enhancement for hard photons than CB for the channeling orientations of the crystal. Our measurements and our calculations indicate low photon polarizations for the high-energy SOS photons.

  10. Crystal Growth in Al72.9Ge27.1 Alloy Melt under Acoustic Levitation Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Na; DAI Fu-Ping; WANG Wei-Li; WEI Bing-Bo

    2011-01-01

    The nonequilibrium solidification of liquid Al72.9Ge27.1 hypoeutectic alloy is accomplished by using single-axis acoustic levitation.A maximum undercooling of 112K (0.16TL) is obtained for the alloy melt at a coofing rate of 50 K/s. The primary (Al) phase displays a morphological transition from coarse dendrite under a normal conditions to equiaxed grain under acoustic levitation.In the (Al)+(Ge) eutectic,the (Ge) phase exhibits a conspicuous branched growth morphology.Both the primary (Al) dendrites and (Al)+(Ge) eutectics are well refined and the solute content of the primary (Al) phase is extended under acoustic levitation.The calculated and experimental results indicate that the solute trapping effect becomes more intensive with the enhancement of bulk undercooling.

  11. Repetitively pulsed TEA CO{sub 2} laser and its application for second harmonic generation in ZnGeP{sub 2} crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koval' chuk, L V; Grezev, A N; Niz' ev, V G; Yakunin, V P [Institute on Laser and Information Technologies, Russian Academy of Sciences, Shatura, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Mezhevov, V S [Kaluga Laser Innovation and Technology Centre, Obninsk, Kaluga region (Russian Federation); Goryachkin, D A [Russian State Scientific Center for Robotics and Technical Cybernetics, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Sergeev, V V; Kalintsev, A G [Open Joint Stock Company S.I.Vavilov State Optical Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-31

    Experimental results are presented on the development of a radiation source emitting at a wavelength of 4.775 μm with a pulse energy up to 50 mJ and an average power up to several watts in short pulse trains. A TEA CO{sub 2} laser and a nonlinear converter based on a ZnGeP{sub 2} crystal, which are specially designed for these experiments, are described. The main limitations of nonlinear conversion and possible ways to overcome these limitations are considered. (lasers)

  12. Optical transmission damage of undoped and Ce doped Y3Al5O12 scintillation crystals under 24 GeV protons high fluence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auffray, E.; Fedorov, A.; Dormenev, V.; Houžvička, J.; Korjik, M.; Lucchini, M. T.; Mechinsky, V.; Ochesanu, S.

    2017-06-01

    This report presents results on the optical transmission damage of undoped and Ce doped Y3Al5O12 scintillation crystals under high fluence of 24 GeV protons. We observed that, similarly to other middle heavy scintillators, it possesses the unique radiation hardness at fluence values as high as 5×1014 p/cm2 and it is thus promising for the application in the detectors at High Luminosity LHC. The crystalline structure of the garnet scintillator allows to control and further optimize its scintillation parameters, such as scintillation decay time and emission wavelength, and shows a limited set of the radioisotopes after the irradiation with protons.

  13. Exploring Magnetic Nanostructures Embedded Within Single-Crystal Silicon for Generation Of Spin-Polarized Carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malladi, Machara Krishna Girish

    Integrating magnetic functionalities with silicon holds the promise of developing, in the most dominant semiconductor, a paradigm-shift information technology based on the manipulation and control of electron spin and charge. Here, we demonstrate an ion implantation approach enabling the synthesis of a ferromagnetic layer within a defect free Si environment by exploiting an additional implant of hydrogen in a region deep below the metal implanted layer. Upon post-implantation annealing, nanocavities created within the H-implanted region act as trapping sites for gettering the implanted metal species, resulting in the formation of metal nanoparticles in a Si region of excellent crystal quality. This is exemplified by the synthesis of magnetic nickel nanoparticles in Si implanted with H+(range: 850 nm; dose: 1.5x1016 cm-2) and Ni+ (range: 60 nm; dose: 2x10 15 cm-2). Following annealing, the H implanted region populated with Ni nanoparticles of size ( 10-25 nm) and density ( 1011/cm2) typical of those achievable via conventional thin film deposition and growth techniques. In particular, a maximum amount of gettered Ni atoms occurs after annealing at 900 ?C, yielding strong ferromagnetism persisting even at room temperature, as well as fully recovered crystalline Si environments adjacent to these Ni nanoparticles. Furthermore, Ni nanoparticles capsulated within a defect-free crystalline Si layer exhibit a very high magnetic switching energy barrier of 0.86 eV, an increase by about one order of magnitude as compared to their counterparts on a Si surface or in a highly defective Si environment. The electrical transport properties of the samples exhibiting room temperature ferromagnetism have been measured in an in-plane magnetic field and these samples show a high room temperature magnetoresistance ( 155% at 9T for p-Si and 80% at 9T for n-Si) which is dependent on the temperature and the applied current. The peak in the magnetoresistance occurs in the ohmic regime

  14. Gold-decorated highly ordered self-organized grating-like nanostructures on Ge surface: Kelvin probe force microscopy and conductive atomic force microscopy studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam Mollick, Safiul; Kumar, Mohit; Singh, Ranveer; Satpati, Biswarup; Ghose, Debabrata; Som, Tapobrata

    2016-10-01

    Nanoarchitecture by atomic manipulation is considered to be one of the emerging trends in advanced functional materials. It has a gamut of applications to offer in nanoelectronics, chemical sensing, and nanobiological science. In particular, highly ordered one-dimensional semiconductor nanostructures fabricated by self-organization methods are in high demand for their high aspect ratios and large number of applications. An efficient way of fabricating semiconductor nanostructures is by molecular beam epitaxy, where atoms are added to a crystalline surface at an elevated temperature during growth, yielding the desired structures in a self-assembled manner. In this article, we offer a room temperature process, in which atoms are sputtered away by ion impacts. Using gold ion implantation, the present study reports on the formation of highly ordered self-organized long grating-like nanostructures, with grooves between them, on a germanium surface. The ridges of the patterns are shown to have flower-like protruding nanostructures, which are mostly decorated by gold atoms. By employing local probe microscopic techniques like Kelvin probe force microscopy and conductive atomic force microscopy, we observe a spatial variation in the work function and different nanoscale electrical conductivity on the ridges of the patterns and the grooves between them, which can be attributed to gold atom decorated ridges. Thus, the architecture presented offers the advantage of using the patterned germanium substrates as periodic arrays of conducting ridges and poorly conducting grooves between them.

  15. A study of Channeling, Volume Reflection and Volume Capture of 3.35 - 14.0 GeV Electrons in a bent Silicon Crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wistisen, T. N. [Aarhus Univ. (Denmark); Uggerhoj, U. I. [Aarhus Univ. (Denmark); Wienands, U. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Markiewicz, T. W. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Noble, R. J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Benson, B. L. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Smith, T. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Bagli, E. [Univ. of Ferrara (Italy); Bandiera, L. [Univ. of Ferrara (Italy); Germogli, G. [Univ. of Ferrara (Italy); Guidi, V. [Univ. of Ferrara (Italy); Mazzolari, A. [Univ. of Ferrara (Italy); Holtzapple, R. [California Polytechnic State Univ. (CalPoly), San Luis Obispo, CA (United States); Tucker, S. [California Polytechnic State Univ. (CalPoly), San Luis Obispo, CA (United States)

    2015-12-03

    We present the experimental data and analysis of experiments conducted at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory investigating the processes of channeling, volume-reflection and volume-capture along the (111) plane in a strongly bent quasi-mosaic silicon crystal. Additionally, these phenomena were investigated at 5 energies: 3.35, 4.2, 6.3, 10.5 and 14.0 GeV with a crystal with bending radius of 0.15m, corresponding to curvatures of 0.070, 0.088, 0.13, 0.22 and 0.29 times the critical curvature respectively. We have extracted important parameters describing the channeling process such as the dechanneling length, the angle of volume reflection, the surface transmission and the widths of the distribution of channeled particles parallel and orthogonal to the plane.

  16. GeP3: A Small Indirect Band Gap 2D Crystal with High Carrier Mobility and Strong Interlayer Quantum Confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Yu; Ma, Yandong; Li, Yafei; Heine, Thomas

    2017-03-08

    We propose a two-dimensional crystal that possesses low indirect band gaps of 0.55 eV (monolayer) and 0.43 eV (bilayer) and high carrier mobilities similar to those of phosphorene, GeP3. GeP3 has a stable three-dimensional layered bulk counterpart, which is metallic and known from experiment since 1970. GeP3 monolayer has a calculated cleavage energy of 1.14 J m(-2), which suggests exfoliation of bulk material as viable means for the preparation of mono- and few-layer materials. The material shows strong interlayer quantum confinement effects, resulting in a band gap reduction from mono- to bilayer, and then to a semiconductor-metal transition between bi- and triple layer. Under biaxial strain, the indirect band gap can be turned into a direct one. Pronounced light absorption in the spectral range from ∼600 to 1400 nm is predicted for monolayer and bilayer and promises applications in photovoltaics.

  17. Crystal chemistry of iron containing germanium andalusites, Fe[sub x]Al[sub 8-x]Ge[sub 4]O[sub 20]. [Fe-Al-Ge-O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, R.X. (Mineralogisches Inst., Univ. Wuerzburg (Germany)); Schneider, H. (Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Inst. fuer Werkstoff-Forschung, Koeln (Germany))

    1992-01-01

    Five iron containing germanium andalusites have been synthesized from homogeneous mixtures of Al[sub 2]O[sub 3], GeO[sub 2] and Fe[sub 2]O[sub 3] powders. The andalusite-type germanate Fe[sub x]Al[sub 8-x]Ge[sub 4]O[sub 20] is formed in the composition range 2.6 [<=] x [<=] 5.6, corresponding to Fe[sub 2]O[sub 3] weight fractions from 23.9 to 45.5%, respectively. The phases crystallize in the orthorhombic space group Pnnm with lattice constants a ranging from 8.0223(1) A to 8.1490(2) A, b from 8.1546(1) A to 8.2654(2) A, and c from 5.7620(1) A to 5.8606(1) A, with Z = 1. Rietveld analyses based on X-ray powder diffraction data showed, that the iron atoms are distributed statistically over the octahedrally coordinated M1 site and the five-coordinated M2 position. Microprobe and structure analyses give evidence for the occurrence of partial vacancies in cation and oxygen sites in all samples.

  18. Effects of temperature gradient in the growth of Si0.5Ge0.5 crystals by the traveling liquidus-zone method on board the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, K.; Arai, Y.; Inatomi, Y.; Tsukada, T.; Miyata, H.; Tanaka, R.

    2016-12-01

    Si0.5Ge0.5 crystals were grown at two different temperature gradients on board the International Space Station (ISS) using the traveling liquidus-zone (TLZ) method and effects of temperature gradient on crystal quality were investigated. Although average axial Ge concentration profile was not affected by the temperature gradient, crystal quality was affected greatly. Single crystal length was shortened and constitutional supercooling (CS) is shown to occur more easily at higher temperature gradient. The calculated degree of CS based on the solute concentration profile in the melt and phase diagram data is about 4 times larger when the temperature gradient is twice, which supports the experimental results. Instability at high temperature gradient is unique to the TLZ method and is not common to other crystal growth methods such as the directional solidification method and Czochralski method.

  19. Influence of chemical bond length changes on the crystal field strength and “ligand metal” charge transfer transitions in Cs2GeF6 doped with Mn4+ and Os4+ ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brik, M. G.

    2007-07-01

    Detailed study of dependence of the crystal field strength 10Dq and lowest charge transfer (CT) energies for different interionic distances in Cs2GeF6:Mn4+ and Cs2GeF6:Os4+crystals is presented. The calculations were performed using the first-principles discrete-variational Dirac Slater (DV-DS) method. As a result, the functional dependencies of 10Dq and lowest CT energy on the metal ligand distance R were obtained without any fitting or semiempirical parameters. It was shown that 10Dq depends on R as 1/Rn, with n=4.0612 and 4.3874 for Cs2GeF6:Mn4+ and Cs2GeF6:Os4+, respectively. Two approximations (linear and quadratic) are obtained for the dependence of the lowest CT energy on R; CT energy decreases when R increases with dE(CT)/dR=-638 and -1080 cm-1/pm for Cs2GeF6:Mn4+ and Cs2GeF6:Os4+, respectively, if the linear approximation is used. These values can be used for estimations of the lowest CT energies for Mn4+ and Os4+ ions in other hosts with fluorine ligands. Estimations of the electron-vibrational interaction (EVI) constants, Huang Rhys parameters, and Stokes shifts for all the above-mentioned crystals were performed using the obtained 10Dq and E(CT) functions.

  20. Competing magnetic ground states and their coupling to the crystal lattice in CuFe2Ge2

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Andrew F.; Calder, Stuart; Parker, David S.; Sales, Brian C.; McGuire, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Identifying and characterizing systems with coupled and competing interactions is central to the development of physical models that can accurately describe and predict emergent behavior in condensed matter systems. This work demonstrates that the metallic compound CuFe2Ge2 has competing magnetic ground states, which are shown to be strongly coupled to the lattice and easily manipulated using temperature and applied magnetic fields. Temperature-dependent magnetization M measurements reveal a ferromagnetic-like onset at 228 (1) K and a broad maximum in M near 180 K. Powder neutron diffraction confirms antiferromagnetic ordering below TN ≈ 175 K, and an incommensurate spin density wave is observed below ≈125 K. Coupled with the small refined moments (0.5–1 μB/Fe), this provides a picture of itinerant magnetism in CuFe2Ge2. The neutron diffraction data also reveal a coexistence of two magnetic phases that further highlights the near-degeneracy of various magnetic states. These results demonstrate that the ground state in CuFe2Ge2 can be easily manipulated by external forces, making it of particular interest for doping, pressure, and further theoretical studies. PMID:27739477

  1. Electron paramagnetic resonance and electron-nuclear double resonance study of the neutral copper acceptor in ZnGeP sub 2 crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Stevens, K T; Setzler, S D; Schünemann, P G; Pollak, T M

    2003-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and electron-nuclear double resonance have been used to characterize the neutral copper acceptor in ZnGeP sub 2 crystals. The copper substitutes for zinc and behaves as a conventional acceptor (i.e. the 3d electrons do not play a dominant role). Because of a high degree of compensation from native donors, the copper acceptors in our samples were initially in the nonparamagnetic singly ionized state (Cu sub Z sub n sup -). The paramagnetic neutral state (Cu sub Z sub n sup 0) was observed when the crystals were exposed to 632.8 nm or 1064 nm laser light while being held at a temperature below 50 K. The g matrix of the neutral copper acceptor is axial g sub p sub a sub r = 2.049 and g sub p sub e sub r sub p = 2.030), with the unique principal direction parallel to the tetragonal c axis of the crystal. The hyperfine and nuclear quadrupole matrices also exhibit c-axis symmetry (A sub p sub a sub r = 87.6 MHz, A sub p sub e sub r sub p = 34.8 MHz and P = 0.87 MHz for sup 6 su...

  2. First results on radiation damage in PbWO4 crystals exposed to a 20 GeV/c proton beam

    CERN Document Server

    Huhtinen, M; Luckey, D; Nessi-Tedaldi, F

    2003-01-01

    We have exposed seven full length production quality crystals of the electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) of the CMS detector to a 20 GeV/c proton beam at the CERN PS accelerator. The exposure was done at fluxes of 10**12 p/cm**2/h and 10**13 p/cm**2/h and integral fluences of 10**12 p/cm**2 and 10**13 p/cm**2 were reached at both rates. The light transmission of the crystals was measured after irradiation and suitable cooling time for induced radioactivity to decrease to a safe level. First results of these measurements are shown. The possible damage mechanisms are discussed and simulations based on one possible model are presented. The implications for long-term operation of CMS are discussed and it is shown that in the whole barrel and at least most of the ECAL endcap hadron damage alone - even if cumulative - should not cause the crystals to fail the CMS specification of an induced absorption coefficient muIND < 1.5 /m during the first 10 years of LHC operation.

  3. First Results on Radiation Damage in PbWO_4Crystals Exposed to a 20, GeV/c Proton Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Huhtinen, M; Luckey, D; Nessi-Tedaldi, F

    2004-01-01

    We have exposed seven full length production quality crystals of the electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) of the CMS detector to a 20 GeV/c proton beam at the CERN PS accelerator. The exposure was done at fluxes of 1012 p/cm2/h and 1013 p/cm2/h and integral fluences of 1012 p/cm2 and 1013 p/cm2 were reached at both rates. The light transmission of the crystals was measured after irradiation and suitable cooling time for induced radioactivity to decrease to a safe level. First results of these measurements are shown. The possible damage mechanisms are discussed and simulations based on one possible model are presented. The implications for long-term operation of CMS are discussed and it is shown that in the whole barrel and at least most of the ECAL endcap hadron damage alone -even if cumulative- should not cause the crystals to fail the CMS specification of $\\mu_{IND} < 1.5m^{-1}$ during the first 10 years of LHC operation.

  4. R{sub 4}Ir{sub 13}Ge{sub 9} (R=La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm) and RIr{sub 3}Ge{sub 2} (R=La, Ce, Pr, Nd): Crystal structures with nets of Ir atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarema, Maksym [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, Kyryla i Mefodiya Str, 6, UA-79005 Lviv (Ukraine); Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology (EMPA), Ueberlandstr. 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Zaremba, Oksana; Gladyshevskii, Roman [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, Kyryla i Mefodiya Str, 6, UA-79005 Lviv (Ukraine); Hlukhyy, Viktor, E-mail: viktor.hlukhyy@lrz.tu-muenchen.de [Department Chemie, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Lichtenbergstr. 4, D-85747 Garching (Germany); Faessler, Thomas F. [Department Chemie, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Lichtenbergstr. 4, D-85747 Garching (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    The crystal structures of the new ternary compounds Sm{sub 4}Ir{sub 13}Ge{sub 9} and LaIr{sub 3}Ge{sub 2} were determined and refined on the basis of single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. They belong to the Ho{sub 4}Ir{sub 13}Ge{sub 9} (oP52, Pmmn) and CeCo{sub 3}B{sub 2} (hP5, P6/mmm) structure types, respectively. The formation of isotypic compounds R{sub 4}Ir{sub 13}Ge{sub 9} with R=La, Ce, Pr, Nd, and RIr{sub 3}Ge{sub 2} with R=Ce, Pr, Nd, was established by powder X-ray diffraction. The RIr{sub 3}Ge{sub 2} (R=La, Ce, Pr, Nd) compounds exist only in as-cast samples and decompose during annealing at 800 Degree-Sign C with the formation of R{sub 4}Ir{sub 13}Ge{sub 9}. The structure of Sm{sub 4}Ir{sub 13}Ge{sub 9} contains intersecting, slightly puckered nets of Ir atoms (4{sup 4})(4{sup 3}.6){sub 2}(4.6{sup 2}){sub 2} and (4{sup 4}){sub 2}(4{sup 3}.6){sub 4}(4.6{sup 2}){sub 2} that are perpendicular to [0 1 1] as well as to [0 -1 1] and [0 0 1]. The Ir atoms are surrounded by Ge atoms that form tetrahedra or square pyramids (where the layers intersect). The Sm and additional Ir atoms (in trigonal-planar coordination) are situated in channels along [1 0 0] (short translation vector). In the structure of LaIr{sub 3}Ge{sub 2} the Ir atoms form planar Kagome nets (3.6.3.6) perpendicular to [0 0 1]. These nets alternate along the short translation vector with layers of La and Ge atoms. - Graphical abstract: The crystal structures contain the nets of Ir atoms as main structural motif: R{sub 4}Ir{sub 13}Ge{sub 9} contains intersecting slightly puckered nets of Ir atoms, whereas in the structure of RIr{sub 3}Ge{sub 2} the Ir atoms form planar Kagome nets. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Ir-rich ternary germanides R{sub 4}Ir{sub 13}Ge{sub 9} (R=La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm) and RIr{sub 3}Ge{sub 2} (R=La, Ce, Pr, Nd) have been synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The RIr{sub 3}Ge{sub 2} compounds exist only in as-cast samples and decompose during annealing at 800

  5. Comparison of optical transients during the picosecond laser pulse-induced crystallization of GeSbTe and AgInSbTe phase-change thin films: Nucleation-driven versus growth-driven processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Guangfei; Li, Simian; Huang, Huan; Wang, Yang; Lai, Tianshu; Wu, Yiqun

    2013-09-01

    Direct comparison of the real-time in-situ crystallization behavior of as-deposited amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5 (GeSbTe) and Ag8In14Sb55Te23 (AgInSbTe) phase-change thin films driven by picosecond laser pulses was performed by a time-resolved optical pump-probe technique with nanosecond resolution. Different optical transients showed various crystallization processes because of the dissimilar nucleation- and growth-dominated mechanisms of the two materials. The effects of laser pulse fluence, thermal conductive structure, and successive pulse irradiation on their crystallization dynamics were also discussed. A schematic was then established to describe the different crystallization processes beginning from the as-deposited amorphous state. The results may provide further insight into the phase-change mechanism under extra-non-equilibrium conditions and aid the development of ultrafast phase-change memory materials.

  6. Coherent Bremsstrahlung, Coherent Pair Production, Birefringence and Polarimetry in the 20-170 GeV energy range using aligned crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Apyan, A; Badelek, B; Ballestrero, S; Biino, C; Birol, I; Cenci, P; Connell, S H; Eichblatt, S; Fonseca, T; Freund, A; Gorini, B; Groess, R; Ispirian, K; Ketel, T; Kononets, Y V; López, A; Mangiarotti, A; Sellschop, J P Friedel; Shieh, M; Sona, P; Strakhovenko, V M; Uggerhøj, U; Uggerhøj, Erik; Van Rens, B; Velasco, M; Vilakazi, Z Z; Wessely, O; Ünel, G; Kononets, Yu V

    2008-01-01

    The processes of coherent bremsstrahlung (CB) and coherent pair production (CPP) based on aligned crystal targets have been studied in the energy range 20-170 GeV. The experimental arrangement allowed these phenomena as well as their polarization dependence to be evaluated under conditions where single-photon cross-sections could be measured. This proved very important as the theoretical description of CB and CPP is an area of active theoretical debate and development. The theoretical approach used in this paper predicts both the cross sections and polarization observables very well for the experimental conditions investigated, indicating that the understanding of CB and CPP is reliable up to energies of 170 GeV. A birefringence effect in CPP was studied and it was demonstrated this enabled new technologies for high energy photon beam optics, such as polarimeters (for both linear and circular polarization) and phase plates. We also present new results regarding the features of coherent high energy photon emis...

  7. Optical absorption, piezoelectric effect and second harmonic generation studies of single crystal AgGaGe3Se7.6Te0.4 solid solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myronchuk, G. L.; Lakshminarayana, G.; Kityk, I. V.; Krymus, A. S.; Parasyuk, O. V.; Rudysh, M. Ya.; Shchepanskyi, P. A.; Piasecki, M.

    2017-03-01

    Spectral features of absorption were studied for novel AgGaGe3Se7.6Te0.4 solid-state alloys at different temperatures. The synthesized crystals structure parameters are obtained by the X-ray Rietveld refinement method. During increasing temperature from 100 up to 300 K, the energy gap of AgGaGe3Se7.6Te0.4 decreases linearly from 2.05 up to 1.94 eV at a rate 5.7 × 10-4 eV/K. The magnitudes of piezoelectric coefficients are significantly changed and demonstrate substantial anisotropy. At room temperature, these values are equal to 5.2 pm/V ( d 11), 31.5 pm/V ( d 22) and 35.5 pm/V ( d 33). It is crucial that with an increasing temperature the piezoelectric efficiencies are increased. We have explored temperature and laser-induced changes of piezoelectric coefficients.

  8. Crystal structure of new R{sub 2}TAl{sub 4}Ge{sub 2} (R = Y, Gd–Er, T = Fe, Co) quaternary compounds and magnetic properties of Gd{sub 2}TAl{sub 4}Ge{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Wei, E-mail: wei_he@gxu.edu.cn; Zeng, Weijing; Yang, Tonghan; Lin, Guoqiang

    2015-06-05

    Highlights: • New R{sub 2}TAl{sub 4}Ge{sub 2} (R = Y, Gd–Er, T = Fe, Co) quaternary compounds was detected. • The R{sub 2}TAl{sub 4}Ge{sub 2} crystallized in the Tb{sub 2}NiAl{sub 4}Ge{sub 2}-type structure with space group I4/mmm. • The structure of Gd{sub 2}TAl{sub 4}Ge{sub 2} (T = Fe, Co) was successfully refined by Rietveld method. • The effective magnetic moments of Gd{sub 2}CoAl{sub 4}Ge{sub 2} and Gd{sub 2}FeAl{sub 4}Ge{sub 2} were μ{sub eff} = 8.10μ{sub B} and μ{sub eff} = 8.27μ{sub B}. - Abstract: The new R{sub 2}TAl{sub 4}Ge{sub 2} (R = Y, Gd–Er, T = Fe, Co) quaternary compounds have been synthesized and studied by powder XRD, SEM and MPMS techniques. It is found that the R{sub 2}TAl{sub 4}Ge{sub 2} compounds crystallized in the tetragonal Tb{sub 2}NiAl{sub 4}Ge{sub 2}-type structure with space group I4/mmm (No. 139). The crystal structures of Gd{sub 2}CoAl{sub 4}Ge{sub 2} and Gd{sub 2}FeAl{sub 4}Ge{sub 2} were successfully refined by using Rietveld method. The magnetic measurements of Gd{sub 2}CoAl{sub 4}Ge{sub 2} and Gd{sub 2}FeAl{sub 4}Ge{sub 2} show antiferromagnetic ordering at lower temperature. The susceptibilities of Gd{sub 2}CoAl{sub 4}Ge{sub 2} and Gd{sub 2}FeAl{sub 4}Ge{sub 2} are followed perfectly by Curie–Weiss behavior in high temperature region. The magnetic measurement shows that the effective magnetic moment is μ{sub eff} = 8.10μ{sub B} (per Gd atom) and the paramagnetic Curie temperature is θ{sub p} = −31.1 K for Gd{sub 2}CoAl{sub 4}Ge{sub 2}, while the effective magnetic moment of Gd{sub 2}FeAl{sub 4}Ge{sub 2} is μ{sub eff} = 8.27μ{sub B} (per Gd atom) and the paramagnetic Curie temperature is θ{sub p} = −13.7 K. The isothermal magnetization of Gd{sub 2}TAl{sub 4}Ge{sub 2} (T = Fe, Co) were also investigated.

  9. Characterisation of a natural quartz crystal as a reference material for microanalytical determination of Ti, Al, Li, Fe, Mn, Ga and Ge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audetat, Andreas; Garbe-Schonberg, Dieter; Kronz, Andreas; Pettke, Thomas; Rusk, Brian G.; Donovan, John J.; Lowers, Heather

    2015-01-01

    A natural smoky quartz crystal from Shandong province, China, was characterised by laser ablation ICP-MS, electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and solution ICP-MS to determine the concentration of twenty-four trace and ultra trace elements. Our main focus was on Ti quantification because of the increased use of this element for titanium-in-quartz (TitaniQ) thermobarometry. Pieces of a uniform growth zone of 9 mm thickness within the quartz crystal were analysed in four different LA-ICP-MS laboratories, three EPMA laboratories and one solution-ICP-MS laboratory. The results reveal reproducible concentrations of Ti (57 ± 4 μg g-1), Al (154 ± 15 μg g-1), Li (30 ± 2 μg g-1), Fe (2.2 ± 0.3 μg g-1), Mn (0.34 ± 0.04 μg g-1), Ge (1.7 ± 0.2 μg g-1) and Ga (0.020 ± 0.002 μg g-1) and detectable, but less reproducible, concentrations of Be, B, Na, Cu, Zr, Sn and Pb. Concentrations of K, Ca, Sr, Mo, Ag, Sb, Ba and Au were below the limits of detection of all three techniques. The uncertainties on the average concentration determinations by multiple techniques and laboratories for Ti, Al, Li, Fe, Mn, Ga and Ge are low; hence, this quartz can serve as a reference material or a secondary reference material for microanalytical applications involving the quantification of trace elements in quartz.

  10. Comparison between Double Crystals X-ray Diffraction and Micro-Raman Measurement on Composition Determination of High Ge Content Si1-xGex Layer Epitaxied on Si Substrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei ZHAO; Yuhua ZUO; Buwen CHENG; Jinzhong YU; Qiming WANG

    2006-01-01

    It is important to acquire the composition of Si1-xGex layer, especially that with high Ge content, epitaxied on Si substrate. Two nondestructive examination methods, double crystals X-ray diffraction(DCXRD)and micro-Raman measurement, were introduced comparatively to determine x value in Si1-xGex layer, which show that while the two methods are consistent with each other when x is low, the results obtained from double crystals X-ray diffraction are not credible due to the large strain relaxation occurring in Si1-xGex layers when Ge content is higher than about 20%. Micro-Raman measurement is more appropriate for determining high Ge content than DCXRD.

  11. Growth and thermal stability of single crystal metastable semiconducting (GaSb)/sub 1-x/Ge/sub x/ films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadien, K.C.; Eltoukhy, A.H.; Greene, J.E.

    1981-01-01

    Epitaxial metastable (GaSb)/sub 1-x/)Ge/sub x/ alloys with compositions across the pseudobinary phase diagram have been grown on (100) GaAs substrates by multitarget rf sputtering. The maximum growth temperature T/sub s/ ranged from 490 to 520/sup 0/C depending on the alloy composition. An essential feature allowing the growth of these metastable materials was low energy ion bombardment of the growing film during deposition to enhance surface diffusion, promote mixing, and preferentially sputter incipient second phase precipitates. A phase map plotted as a function of T/sub s/ showed a very narrow transition region between metastable single phase alloys and equilibrium two phase structures. Annealing experiments indicated that the metastable films exhibit good high temperature stability and that they transform through a continuous series of GaSb-rich and Ge-rich phases in which the solute concentrations decrease until the equilibrium two phase alloy is obtained. While the calculated free energy difference between the single phase metastable and equilibrium states is approx. 18 MeV atom/sup -1/, the measured activation barrier for the transformation is approx. 3 eV. All films were p-type with room temperature hole concentrations varying from 10/sup 16/ to 10/sup 19/ cm/sup -3/ and mobilities between 10 and 720 cm/sup 2//V-s, depending on film composition.

  12. Growth of single-crystal metastable semiconducting (GaSb)/sub 1//sub -//sub x/Ge/sub x/ films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadien, K.C.; Eltoukhy, A.H.; Greene, J.E.

    1981-05-15

    Epitaxial metastable (GaSb)/sub 1-x/Ge/sub x/ alloys with compostions across the pseudobinary phase diagram have been grown on (100) GaAs substrates by multitarget rf sputtering. An essential feature allowing the growth of these metastable materials was low-energy ion bombardment of the growing film during deposition to enhance surface diffusion, promote mixing, and preferentially sputter incipient second-phase precipitates. Annealing experiments indicated that the metastable films exhibit good high-temperature stability and that they transform through a continuous series of GaSb-rich and Ge-rich phases in which the solute concentrations decrease until the equilibrium two-phase alloy is obtained. While the calculated free-energy difference between the single-phase metastable and equilibrium states is approx.18 meV, the measured activation barrier for the transformation is approx.3 eV. All films were p-type with room-temperature hole concentrations varying from 10/sup 16/ to 10/sup 19/ cm/sup -3/ and mobilities between 10 and 720 cm/sup 2// V s, depending on film composition.

  13. Crystal and magnetic structure of Eusub>4sub>Ga>8sub>Ge>1sub>>6sub>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, M.; Bryan, J.D.; Birkedal, H.

    2003-01-01

    dependence of the crystal structure was investigated from 11 K to room temperature using synchrotron x-ray powder diffraction. Analysis of the atomic displacement parameters with Einstein and Debye models gives Theta(E)=82(3) K for the guest atom and Theta(D)=266(4) K for the framework atoms. Based on Theta...

  14. Unraveling Crystal Growth in GeSb Phase-Change Films in between the Glass-Transition and Melting Temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eising, Gert; Van Damme, Tobias; Kooi, Bart J.

    2014-01-01

    The study of crystal growth in phase-change thin films is of crucial importance to improve our understanding of the extraordinary phase transformation kinetics of these materials excellently suited for data storage applications. Here, we developed and used a new method, based on isothermal heating u

  15. Growth and characterization of self-organized and 'organized' Si and Si sub 1 sub - sub X Ge sub X nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Schelling, C A

    2000-01-01

    transmission of adatoms at step edges is considered. Additionally, local epitaxial techniques have been explored for their potential to produce 'organized' self-assembled nanometer scale structures of high crystalline quality on pre-patterned substrates. The experiments revealed that significant mass transport occurs on the Si(001) surface already some 500 K below the melting point leading to a smoothing of the surface. The morphology of unstrained Si and strained SiGe layers grown with molecular beam epitaxy was investigated with atomic force microscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy. It is found that vicinal Si(001) surfaces are inherently unstable during homoepitaxial growth under kinetically limited growth conditions. The evolving morphology depends on parameters such as the growth rate and temperature, miscut angle and orientation, layer thickness, surface preparation, etc.. The morphologies comprise a large variety in structures and show very good long-range ordering over large scales. The temperatur...

  16. Pb{sub 4.7}Ba{sub 0.3}Ge{sub 3}O{sub 11} crystals as new acoustically induced nonlinear optical materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zmija, J.; Kaddouri, H. [Perpignan Univ. (France). LP2A; Majchrowski, A.; Mierczyk, Z. [Inst. of Applied Physics, MUT, Warsaw (Poland); Kityk, I.V. [Inst. of Physics Czestochowa (Poland)

    2001-07-01

    Acoustically induced optical second harmonic generation (SHG) and two-photon absorption (TPA) in ferroelectric Pb{sub 4.7}Ba{sub 0.3}Ge{sub 3}O{sub 11} crystals have been found. We have found that with increasing acoustical power, the SHG for YAG:Nd laser light ({lambda}=1.06 {mu}m) increases and achieves its maximum value at acoustical power density about 1.75 W/cm{sup 2}. The evaluated SHG values were 23% less comparing with {chi}{sub 222} tensor of the KDP single crystals. With decreasing temperature, the acoustically induced SHG signal strongly increases below 29 K. The maximal acoustically induced SHG has been observed at acoustical frequencies lying within the ranges 12-17 kHz, 22-23 kHz and above 26 kHz. This behavior reflects nonlinear superposition of the nonlinear optical susceptibilities stimulated by externally-induced electron-phonon anharmonicity. We have observed substantial increase of the TPA (for the acoustical power W= 1.8 W/cm{sup 2}) at high hydrostatic pressures (about 16 GPa) and low temperatures (below 16 K). This one confirms complicated influence of the electron-phonon interactions in the ferroelectrics on the observed nonlinear optical dependences. (orig.)

  17. Metastable Ge nanocrystalline in SiGe matrix for photodiode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouyang, Yao-Tsung; Su, Chien-Hao [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National Central University, Taoyuan City 320, Taiwan (China); Chang, Jenq-Yang [Department of Optics and Photonics, National Central University, Taoyuan City 320, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Shao-Liang; Lin, Po-Chen [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National Central University, Taoyuan City 320, Taiwan (China); Wu, Albert T., E-mail: atwu@ncu.edu.tw [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National Central University, Taoyuan City 320, Taiwan (China)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Amorphous Si{sub 1−x}Ge{sub x} films were prepared by co-sputtering by using rapid thermal annealing to form nanocrystal films. • Si–Ge alloy does not form total solid solution that is shown in phase diagram. • HRTEM images indicated that Ge atoms segregated and formed Ge clusters that are embedded in the amorphous Si–Ge matrix. • Ge segregation permitted high mobility; the grain size increased and the resistivity decreased with higher Ge content. • The rectifying property became stronger with the Ge fraction in the Si{sub 1−x}Ge{sub x} diodes. Si{sub 1−x}Ge{sub x} diodes are used as photodetectors, which provide a greater output current under illumination. - Abstract: Amorphous Si{sub 1−x}Ge{sub x} films were prepared by co-sputtering on an oxidized Si wafer, followed by rapid thermal annealing to form nanocrystal films. The formation of Ge nanocrystals was not at thermodynamic equilibrium formed in the amorphous Si{sub 1−x}Ge{sub x} matrix. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy was used to characterize the increase in the size of the grains in the Ge nanocrystals as the Ge content increased. The Ge nanocrystals have a greater absorption in the near-infrared region and higher carrier mobility than SiGe crystals, and the variation in their grain sizes can be used to tune the bandgap. This characteristic was exploited herein to fabricate n-Si{sub 1−x}Ge{sub x}/p-Si{sub 1−x}Ge{sub x} p–n diodes on insulating substrates, which were then examined by analyzing their current–voltage characteristics. The rectifying property became stronger as the fraction of Ge in the Si{sub 1−x}Ge{sub x} films increased. The Si{sub 1−x}Ge{sub x} diodes are utilized as photodetectors that have a large output current under illumination. This paper elucidates the correlations between the structural, optical and electrical properties and the p–n junction performance of the film.

  18. Electrochemical synthesis of nanostructured porous materials using liquid crystal and colloidal templates and their magnetic and optical properties

    CERN Document Server

    Ghanem, M A M

    2002-01-01

    material, and that these magnetic properties vary systematically with the diameter of the spherical pores within the films. A new oscillation effect has been observed for the coercivity of macroporous Ni sub 8 sub 0 Fe sub 2 sub 0 film with different pore layer thickness. sphere templates, the resulting films show well-formed, regular, two- and three-dimensional macroporous networks consisting of spherical pores arranged in a highly ordered face centred cubic (fee) structure. The spherical voids are interconnected by a series of smaller windows that form an open porous structure embedded in the material framework. The diameter of the spherical pores can be precisely changed over the range from 200 to 1000 nm by changing the diameter of the latex spheres used to form the templates. The resulting macroporous material structures are robust, self-supported, dense, polycrystalline, uniform and free from filling defects and contamination or problems caused by shrinkage during processing. The nanostructured macropor...

  19. Electronic structure of antiferromagnetic UN and UPtGe single crystals from optical and magneto-optical spectroscopy; Elektronische Struktur von antiferromagnetischen UN- und UPtGe-Einkristallen aus optischer und magnetooptischer Spektroskopie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marutzky, M.

    2006-10-12

    In this thesis the study of the magneto-optical Kerr effect and the determination of the optical constants by means of ellipsometry and Fourier-transformation infrared spectroscopy of UN and UPtGe is described. In UPtGe an optical anisotropy was detected over a spectral range from 6 meV to 32 eV. (HSI)

  20. A new approach for crystallization of copper(ii) oxide hollow nanostructures with superior catalytic and magnetic response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Inderjeet; Landfester, Katharina; Chandra, Amreesh; Muñoz-Espí, Rafael

    2015-11-01

    We report the synthesis of copper(ii) oxide hollow nanostructures at ambient pressure and close to room temperature by applying the soft templating effect provided by the confinement of droplets in miniemulsion systems. Particle growth can be explained by considering a mechanism that involves both diffusion and reaction control. The catalytic reduction of p-nitrophenol in aqueous media is used as a model reaction to prove the catalytic activity of the materials: the synthesized hollow structures show nearly 100 times higher rate constants than solid CuO microspheres. The kinetic behavior and the order of the reduction reaction change due to the increase of the surface area of the hollow structures. The synthesis also leads to modification of physical properties such as magnetism.We report the synthesis of copper(ii) oxide hollow nanostructures at ambient pressure and close to room temperature by applying the soft templating effect provided by the confinement of droplets in miniemulsion systems. Particle growth can be explained by considering a mechanism that involves both diffusion and reaction control. The catalytic reduction of p-nitrophenol in aqueous media is used as a model reaction to prove the catalytic activity of the materials: the synthesized hollow structures show nearly 100 times higher rate constants than solid CuO microspheres. The kinetic behavior and the order of the reduction reaction change due to the increase of the surface area of the hollow structures. The synthesis also leads to modification of physical properties such as magnetism. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Associated structural and morphological analysis, XPS characterization, BET surface area, catalytic measurements, recycle tests of the catalyst, and magnetic characterizations. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr05579b

  1. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of an Organic-inorganic Complex [Hg(DMSO)2(H2O)]2 [GeW12O40]·DMSO·H2O

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Ping WANG; Xiao Di DU; Xian Ying DUAN; Jing Yang NIU

    2006-01-01

    An organic-inorganic mercury coordination compound [Hg(DMSO)2(H2O)]2 [GeW12O40]·DMSO·H2O(DMSO =dimethyl sulfoxide) has been synthesized and characterized by IR, UV spectra, elemental analysis, TG-DTA and X-ray single-crystal diffraction. Structural analysis revealed that in the title compound, the mercury is three-coordinated to show the distorted trigonal cone geometry, and depending on the electrostatic interaction to connect the polyanion [α-GeW12O40]4-. TG-DTA study manifests the decomposition temperature of the polyanion framework in the title compound is 513.5℃, which is much higher than that of the anion framework. It means that the formation of the organic-inorganic mercury coordination compound made the polyanion [α-GeW12O40]4- to be more stable.

  2. Research progress of self-organized Ge quantum dots on Si substrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Changjun; YU Jinzhong; WANG Qiming

    2004-01-01

    A review is presented on recent research development of self-organized Ge/Si quantum dots (QDs).Emphasis is put on the morphological evolution of the Ge quantum dots grown on Si (001) substrate,the structure analysis of multilayer Ge QDs,the optical and electronic properties of these nanostructures,and the approaches to fabricating ordered Ge quantum dots.

  3. SILICON-GERMANIUM NANOSTRUCTURES WITH GERMANIUM QUANTUM DOTS FOR OPTOELECTRONIC APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Mudryi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of technological parameters (temperature of substrate, number of Ge layers, ion treatment on optical properties of Si/Ge nanostructures with Ge quantum dots have been studied. The Raman scattering lines related to the Si-Si, Ge-Ge and Si-Ge vibration modes have been detected in the Raman spectra of Si/Ge nanostructures. A significant enhancement of intensity of luminescence band at 0.8 eV related with radiative recombination on Ge quantum dots is observed after hydrogen-plasma ion treatment of Si-Ge nanostructures. It is important for increasing of the luminescence quantum efficienty of devices on the base of Si nanolayer with Ge quantum dots.

  4. The Study of Surfaces' Micro- and Nanostructure on Interlayer Cleavages of InSe Layered Crystals Intercalated by Nickel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.V. Galiy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of experimental study concerning element-phase composition, crystallographic structure, topography and electron-energy structure of interlayer cleavage (0001 surfaces, obtained for nickel intercalated (Ni3dInSe intercalate InSe layered crystals, by means of qualitative and quantitative X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, low energy electron diffraction (LEED and scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/STS. It was established that for all layered crystals' intercalates with different concentrations of nickel in initial synthesized InSe + x at.% Ni (x ≤ 10,0 % alloys and layered crystals further grown from them by Bridgman-Stockbarger method and subjected to intercalation, the maximum concentration of nickel on the cleavage (0001 surfaces of NiхInSe intercalates and, accordingly, in the interlayer gaps of up to 7.67 at. % is observed at 0.75 at. % of nickel in synthesized alloys. Nickel doesn't interact with selenium and indium and there are also no interaction with oxygen and carbon. It is established that nickel is placed in the interlayer gaps of NiхInSe intercalates and, accordingly, appears on the interlayer cleavage (0001 surfaces as fine-phase metal nickel clusters. The studied NiхInSe intercalate system is the perfect hybrid structure with the ability to use in magnetoelectronics.

  5. Mapping the 3D distribution of CdSe nanocrystals in highly oriented and nanostructured hybrid P3HT-CdSe films grown by directional epitaxial crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roiban, L; Hartmann, L; Fiore, A; Djurado, D; Chandezon, F; Reiss, P; Legrand, J-F; Doyle, S; Brinkmann, M; Ersen, O

    2012-11-21

    Highly oriented and nanostructured hybrid thin films made of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) and colloidal CdSe nanocrystals are prepared by a zone melting method using epitaxial growth on 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene oriented crystals. The structure of the films has been analyzed by X-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation, electron diffraction and 3D electron tomography to afford a multi-scale structural and morphological description of the highly structured hybrid films. A quantitative analysis of the reconstructed volumes based on electron tomography is used to establish a 3D map of the distribution of the CdSe nanocrystals in the bulk of the films. In particular, the influence of the P3HT-CdSe ratio on the 3D structure of the hybrid layers has been analyzed. In all cases, a bi-layer structure was observed. It is made of a first layer of pure oriented semi-crystalline P3HT grown epitaxially on the TCB substrate and a second P3HT layer containing CdSe nanocrystals uniformly distributed in the amorphous interlamellar zones of the polymer. The thickness of the P3HT layer containing CdSe nanoparticles increases gradually with increasing content of NCs in the films. A growth model is proposed to explain this original transversal organization of CdSe NCs in the oriented matrix of P3HT.

  6. Dipole-dipole-induced giant Goos-Hänchen shift in a photonic crystal doped with quantum dot nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahi, M.; Solookinejad, G.; Ahmadi Sangachin, E.; Hossein Asadpour, Seyyed

    2016-07-01

    The impact of the dipole-dipole interaction on the Goo-Hänchen (GH) shifts in reflected and transmitted lights is investigated. A weak probe beam is incident on a cavity containing the donor and acceptor quantum dots embedded in a nonlinear photonic crystal. We deduced that the GH shifts can be easily adjusted via controlling the corresponding parameters of the system in the presence or absence of dipole-dipole interaction. Our proposed model may be useful to developing the all-optical devices based on photonic materials doped with nanoparticles.

  7. On the crystal chemistry of olivine-type germanate compounds, Ca1 + xM1 - xGeO4 (M2+ = Ca, Mg, Co, Mn).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redhammer, Günther J; Roth, Georg; Amthauer, Georg; Lottermoser, Werner

    2008-06-01

    Germanate compounds, CaMGeO(4) with M(2+) = Ca, Mg, Co and Mn, were synthesized as single crystals by slow cooling from the melt or by flux growth techniques. All the compositions investigated exhibit Pnma symmetry at 298 K and adopt the olivine structure. The M2 site is exclusively occupied by Ca(2+), while on M1 both Ca(2+) and M(2+) cations are found. The amount of Ca(2+) on M1 increases with the size of the M1 cation, with the smallest amount in the Mg compound (0.1 atoms per formula unit) and the largest in the Mn compound (0.20 atoms per formula unit), while in Ca(2)GeO(4), also with olivine structure, both sites are completely filled with Ca(2+). When compared with those of Ca silicate olivine, the lattice parameters a and c are distinctly larger in the analogous germanate compounds, while b has essentially the same values, regardless of the tetrahedral cation, meaning that b is independent of the tetrahedral cation. Structural variations on the octahedrally coordinated M1 site are largely determined by the size of the M1 cation, the average M1-O bond lengths being identical in Ca silicate and Ca germanate olivine. Increasing the size of the M1 cation induces an increasing polyhedral distortion, expressed by the parameters bond-length distortion, octahedral angle variance and octahedral quadratic elongation. However, the Ca germanate olivine compounds generally have more regular octahedra than the analogous silicates. The octahedrally coordinated M2 site does not exhibit large variations in structural parameters as a consequence of the constant chemical composition; the same is valid for the tetrahedral site.

  8. Comparison of optical transients during the picosecond laser pulse-induced crystallization of GeSbTe and AgInSbTe phase-change thin films: Nucleation-driven versus growth-driven processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Guangfei [Key Laboratory of High Power Laser Materials, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Li, Simian [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technology, Department of Physics, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Huang, Huan [Key Laboratory of High Power Laser Materials, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Wang, Yang, E-mail: ywang@siom.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of High Power Laser Materials, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Lai, Tianshu, E-mail: stslts@mail.sysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technology, Department of Physics, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Wu, Yiqun [Key Laboratory of High Power Laser Materials, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2013-09-01

    Direct comparison of the real-time in-situ crystallization behavior of as-deposited amorphous Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} (GeSbTe) and Ag{sub 8}In{sub 14}Sb{sub 55}Te{sub 23} (AgInSbTe) phase-change thin films driven by picosecond laser pulses was performed by a time-resolved optical pump-probe technique with nanosecond resolution. Different optical transients showed various crystallization processes because of the dissimilar nucleation- and growth-dominated mechanisms of the two materials. The effects of laser pulse fluence, thermal conductive structure, and successive pulse irradiation on their crystallization dynamics were also discussed. A schematic was then established to describe the different crystallization processes beginning from the as-deposited amorphous state. The results may provide further insight into the phase-change mechanism under extra-non-equilibrium conditions and aid the development of ultrafast phase-change memory materials.

  9. Highly effective strain-induced band-engineering of (111) oriented, direct-gap GeSn crystallized on amorphous SiO2 layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haofeng; Wang, Xiaoxin; Liu, Jifeng

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate highly effective strain-induced band-engineering of (111) oriented direct-gap Ge1-xSnx thin films (0.074 GeSn films also demonstrate high thermal stability, offering both excellent direct-gap optoelectronic properties and fabrication/operation robustness for integrated photonics.

  10. Crystal Structure, Chemical Bonding and Magnetism Studies for Three Quinary Polar Intermetallic Compounds in the (Eu1−xCax9In8(Ge1−ySny8 (x = 0.66, y = 0.03 and the (Eu1−xCax3In(Ge3−ySn1+y (x = 0.66, 0.68; y = 0.13, 0.27 Phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyein Woo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Three quinary polar intermetallic compounds in the (Eu1−xCax9In8(Ge1−ySny8 (x = 0.66, y = 0.03 and the (Eu1−xCax3In(Ge3-ySn1+y (x = 0.66, 0.68; y = 0.13, 0.27 phases have been synthesized using the molten In-metal flux method, and the crystal structures are characterized by powder and single-crystal X-ray diffractions. Two orthorhombic structural types can be viewed as an assembly of polyanionic frameworks consisting of the In(Ge/Sn4 tetrahedral chains, the bridging Ge2 dimers, either the annulene-like “12-membered rings” for the (Eu1−xCax9In8(Ge1−ySny8 series or the cis-trans Ge/Sn-chains for the (Eu1−xCax3In(Ge3−ySn1+y series, and several Eu/Ca-mixed cations. The most noticeable difference between two structural types is the amount and the location of the Sn-substitution for Ge: only a partial substitution (11% occurs at the In(Ge/Sn4 tetrahedron in the (Eu1−xCax9In8(Ge1−ySny8 series, whereas both a complete and a partial substitution (up to 27% are observed, respectively, at the cis-trans Ge/Sn-chain and at the In(Ge/Sn4 tetrahedron in the (Eu1−xCax3In(Ge3−ySn1+y series. A series of tight-binding linear muffin-tin orbital calculations is conducted to understand overall electronic structures and chemical bonding among components. Magnetic susceptibility measurement indicates a ferromagnetic ordering of Eu atoms below 5 K for Eu1.02(1Ca1.98InGe2.87(1Sn1.13.

  11. Extreme biomimetic approach for developing novel chitin-GeO2 nanocomposites with photoluminescent properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marcin Wysokowski[1; Mykhailo Motylenko[2; Jan Beyer[3; Anna Makarova[4; Hartmut Stocker[5; Juliane Walter[5; Roberta Galli[6; Sabine Kaiser[5; Denis Vyalikh[4,7; Vasilii V. Bazhenov[5; laroslav Petrenko[5; Allison L Stelling[8; Serguei L. Molodtsovs[5,9,10; Dawid Stawski[11; Krzysztof J.Kurzydfowski[12; Enrico Langer[13; Mikhail V Tsurkan[14; Teofil Jesionowski[1; Johannes Heitmann[3; Dirk C. Meyer[5; Hermann Ehrlich[5

    2015-01-01

    This work presents an extreme biomimetics route for the creation of nano- structured biocomposites utilizing a chitinous template of poriferan origin. The specific thermal stability of the nanostructured chitinous template allowed for the formation under hydrothermal conditions of a novel germanium oxide- chitin composite with a defined nanoscale structure. Using a variety of analytical techniques (FTIR, Raman, energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS), and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, EDS-mapping, selected area for the electron diffraction pattern (SAEDP), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM)), we showed that this bioorganic scaffold induces the growth of GeO2 nanocrystals with a narrow (150-300 nm) size distri- bution and predominantly hexagonal phase, demonstrating the chitin template's control over the crystal morphology. The formed GeO2-chitin composite showed several specific physical properties, such as a striking enhancement in photo- luminescence exceeding values previously reported in GeOR-based biomaterials. These data demonstrate the potential of extreme biomimetics for developing new-generation nanostructured materials.

  12. Superhydrophilic nanostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Samuel S; Zormpa, Vasileia; Chen, Xiaobo

    2015-05-12

    An embodiment of a superhydrophilic nanostructure includes nanoparticles. The nanoparticles are formed into porous clusters. The porous clusters are formed into aggregate clusters. An embodiment of an article of manufacture includes the superhydrophilic nanostructure on a substrate. An embodiment of a method of fabricating a superhydrophilic nanostructure includes applying a solution that includes nanoparticles to a substrate. The substrate is heated to form aggregate clusters of porous clusters of the nanoparticles.

  13. Length dependent thermal conductivity measurements yield phonon mean free path spectra in nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hang; Hua, Chengyun; Ding, Ding; Minnich, Austin J

    2015-03-13

    Thermal conductivity measurements over variable lengths on nanostructures such as nanowires provide important information about the mean free paths (MFPs) of the phonons responsible for heat conduction. However, nearly all of these measurements have been interpreted using an average MFP even though phonons in many crystals possess a broad MFP spectrum. Here, we present a reconstruction method to obtain MFP spectra of nanostructures from variable-length thermal conductivity measurements. Using this method, we investigate recently reported length-dependent thermal conductivity measurements on SiGe alloy nanowires and suspended graphene ribbons. We find that the recent measurements on graphene imply that 70% of the heat in graphene is carried by phonons with MFPs longer than 1 micron.

  14. Polycondensation-type Ge nanofractal assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwen Chen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The group IV semiconductors such as silicon (Si and germanium (Ge are unique materials with a wide range of technological applications. A versatile integrated device for the semiconductor industry is highly desirable for advanced applications. Notwithstanding the widespread application of Ge its use is not as extensive as that of Si, and nebulous domains in our understanding of its precise technical functions still remain. Previous nanostructures have either been one-dimensional nanomaterials such as nanowires, nanorods, nanobelts/nanoribbons, nanotubes, two-dimensional nanoscale thin films, or zero-dimensional nanoparticles, which all have integer dimensions. Herein, the non-integer dimensional Ge nanostructures, referred to as nanofractals, were successfully assembled by high-vacuum thermal evaporation techniques. We have found that the thermodynamically driven assemblies of Ge nanocrystals possess amazing nanostructures such as polycondensation-type Ge nanofractals with non-integer dimensions, thick branches and smooth edges, metastable gamma-Au0.6Ge0.4 nanocrystals, and a variety of interesting micro/nanometer-sized features. The results of computer simulations using a ripening mechanism of non-uniform grains agree very well with the patterns formed in experiments.

  15. Intermediate valence in single crystals of (Lu{sub 1−x}Y b{sub x}){sub 3}Rh{sub 4}Ge{sub 13} (0 ≤ x ≤ 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rai, Binod K.; Morosan, E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Single crystals of (Lu{sub 1−x}Y b{sub x}){sub 3}Rh{sub 4}Ge{sub 13} were characterized by magnetization, specific heat, and electrical resistivity measurements. Doping Yb into the non-magnetic Lu{sub 3}Rh{sub 4}Ge{sub 13} compound tunes this cubic system’s properties from a superconductor with disordered metal normal state (x < 0.05) to a Kondo for 0.05 ≤ x ≤0.2 and intermediate valence at the highest Yb concentrations. The evidence for intermediate Yb valence comes from a broad maximum in the magnetic susceptibility and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Furthermore, the resistivity displays a local maximum at finite temperatures at intermediate compositions x, followed by apparent metallic behavior closest to the Yb end compound in the series.

  16. Investigations on the local structure and the spin-Hamiltonian parameters for the tetragonal $Cu^{2+}$ centre in $ZnGeF_{6}·6H_{2}O$ crystal

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    LI CHAO-YING; HUANG YING; ZHENG XUE MEI

    2016-08-01

    The spin-Hamiltonian parameters ($g$ factors $g_{||}, g{|perp}$ and hyperfine structure constants $A_{||}$, $A{|perp}$) and the local structure for the tetragonal $Cu^{2+}$ centre in trigonal $ZnGeF_{6}·6H_{2}O$ crystal are theoretically studied using the perturbation formulae of these parameters for a 3d9 ion in tetragonally elongated octahedra. In the calculations, the contributions to the spin-Hamiltonian parameters from ligand orbital and spin-orbit coupling are included on the basis of the cluster approach in view of moderate covalency of the studied systems, and the required crystal field parameters are obtained using the superposition model and the local structures of the studied $[Cu(H_{2}O)_{6}]^{2+}$ cluster. According to the calculations, the ligand octahedra around $Cu^{2+}$ suffer relative elongation$\\tau{\\sim 0.085 \\AA) along the [0 0 1] (or $C_4$) axis for the tetragonal $Cu^{2+}$ centres in $ZnGeF_{6}·6H_{2}O$ crystal, due to the Jahn--Teller effect. The calculated results show good agreement with the experimental data.

  17. Nucleation theory and growth of nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Dubrovskii, Vladimir G

    2013-01-01

    Semiconductor nanostructures such as nanowires are promising building blocks of future nanoelectronic, nanophotonic and nanosensing devices. Their physical properties are primarily determined by the epitaxy process which is rather different from the conventional thin film growth. This book shows how the advanced nucleation theory can be used in modeling of growth properties, morphology and crystal phase of such nanostructures.

  18. Optical spectra and band structure of Ag(x)Ga(x)Ge(1-x)Se2 (x = 0.333, 0.250, 0.200, 0.167) single crystals: experiment and theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshak, A H; Parasyuk, O V; Fedorchuk, A O; Kamarudin, H; Auluck, S; Chyský, J

    2013-12-05

    Theoretical and experimental studies of the Ag(x)Ga(x)Ge(1-x)Se2 (x = 0.333, 0.250, 0.200, 0.167) single crystals are performed. These crystals possess a lot of intrinsic defects which are responsible for their optoelectronic features. The theoretical investigations were performed by means of DFT calculations using different exchange-correlation potentials. The experimental studies were carried out using the modulated VUV ellipsometry for dielectric constants and birefringence studies. The comparison of the structure obtained from X-ray with the theoretically optimized structure is presented. The crucial role of the intrinsic defect states is manifested in the choice of the exchange correlation potential used. The data may be applicable for a large number of the ternary chalcogenides which are sensitive to the presence of the local disordered states near the band edges.

  19. Far-infrared spectroscopy of Zn{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}GeAs{sub 2} single crystals: Plasma damping influence on plasmon – Phonon interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romcevic, N., E-mail: romcevi@ipb.ac.rs [Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, Pregrevica 118, 11080 Belgrade (Serbia); Romcevic, M. [Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, Pregrevica 118, 11080 Belgrade (Serbia); Dobrowolski, W.D.; Kilanski, L. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Science, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Petrovic, M.; Trajic, J.; Hadzic, B.; Lazarevic, Z.; Gilic, M.; Ristic-Djurovic, J.L.; Paunovic, N. [Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, Pregrevica 118, 11080 Belgrade (Serbia); Reszka, A.; Kowalski, B.J. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Science, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Fedorchenko, I.V.; Marenkin, S.F. [Kurnakov Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry RAS, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); National Institute of Science and Technology, MISiS, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-15

    The interest in thorough description of Zn{sub 1–x}Mn{sub x}GeAs{sub 2} arises from its suitability for application in the field of non-linear optics. The room temperature far-infrared reflectivity spectra of single crystals Zn{sub 1–x}Mn{sub x}GeAs{sub 2}, where 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.078, were measured in the spectral range from 80 cm{sup −1} to 500 cm{sup −1}. The spectra were analyzed by fitting procedure using a dielectric function which includes interaction between a plasmon and two different phonons. The detected phonons are in excellent agreement with the theoretical predictions. The MnAs cluster phonons are detected, as well. - Highlights: • Zn{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}GeAs{sub 2} samples were grown using a direct fusion method. • Differencies between plasmon-phonon and plasmon-two different phonon interaction were discussed. • Plasmon damping influence on plasmon – (two) phonon interaction was registered. • MnAs clusters phonons are detected.

  20. Electrochemical Fabrication and Electrocatalytic Properties of Nanostructured Mesoporous Platinum Microelectrodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mengyan NIE; Joanne M. Elliott

    2005-01-01

    Electrodeposition from a lyotropic liquid crystal template medium was used to produce nanostructured platinum microelectrodes with high specific surface area and high mass transport efficiency. Compared to polished and conventional platinized microelectrodes, well-ordered nanostructured platinum microelectrodes exhibited enhanced electrocatalytic properties for oxygen and ascorbic acid, whilst well-ordered nanostructured platinum microelectrodes offered improved electrocatalytic properties for oxygen reduction compared to disordered nanostructured platinum microelectrodes.

  1. Quantum optics with semiconductor nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Jahnke, Frank

    2012-01-01

    A guide to the theory, application and potential of semiconductor nanostructures in the exploration of quantum optics. It offers an overview of resonance fluorescence emission.$bAn understanding of the interaction between light and matter on a quantum level is of fundamental interest and has many applications in optical technologies. The quantum nature of the interaction has recently attracted great attention for applications of semiconductor nanostructures in quantum information processing. Quantum optics with semiconductor nanostructures is a key guide to the theory, experimental realisation, and future potential of semiconductor nanostructures in the exploration of quantum optics. Part one provides a comprehensive overview of single quantum dot systems, beginning with a look at resonance fluorescence emission. Quantum optics with single quantum dots in photonic crystal and micro cavities are explored in detail, before part two goes on to review nanolasers with quantum dot emitters. Light-matter interaction...

  2. ZnGeP2单晶生长与安瓿设计研究%Study on Growth and Ampoule Design for ZnGeP2 Single Crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁栋程; 赵北君; 朱世富; 陈宝军; 何知宇; 范强; 徐婷

    2010-01-01

    根据晶体自发成核几何淘汰规律,结合ZnGeP2晶体的结晶习性,研究设计出生长完整ZnGeP2单晶体的双层镀碳石英安瓿,其关键技术参数为:安瓿长径比6~7,籽晶袋长度≥25 mm,安瓿主体与籽晶袋之间的放肩角在25°左右.在上述生长安瓿中,采用改进的垂直布里奇曼法,分段控制下降速率,成功生长出尺寸为22 mm×40 mm的ZnGeP2单晶.对晶体进行X射线分析,获得(204)面单晶衍射谱和回摆谱,衍射峰峰形尖锐无劈裂,回摆谱对称性好,半峰宽为0.063 °;晶片在2~12 μm波段范围内的红外透过率达50%以上.实验结果表明,研究设计的生长安瓿适合于磷锗锌单晶生长,能够获得较高质量的单晶体.

  3. Synthesis and the crystal and molecular structure of the germanium(IV) complex with propylene-1,3-diaminetetraacetic acid [Ge(Pdta)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sergienko, V. S., E-mail: sergienko@igic.ras.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kurnakov Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry (Russian Federation); Martsinko, E. E.; Seifullina, I. I. [Odessa National University (Ukraine); Churakov, A. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kurnakov Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry (Russian Federation); Chebanenko, E. A. [Odessa National University (Ukraine)

    2015-09-15

    The germanium(IV) complex with propylene-1,3-diaminetetraacetic acid (H{sub 4}Pdta) is studied by elemental analysis, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry, and IR spectroscopy. The X-ray diffraction study reveals two crystallographically independent [Ge(Pdta)] molecules of similar structure. Both Ge atoms are octahedrally coordinated by four O atoms and two N atoms (at the cis positions) of the hexadentate pentachelate Pdta{sup 4–} ligand. An extended system of weak C—H···O hydrogen bonds connects complex molecules into a supramolecular 3D framework.

  4. Synthesis, crystal structure, and transport properties of Fe substituted rhombohedral skutterudite derivatives Co4−xFexGe6Se6

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Kaya

    2014-11-01

    We report on the synthesis and low temperature transport properties of rhombohedral derivatives of the cubic skutterudite CoSb3, namely Co4-xFexGe6Se6 with x = 0, 1, 1.5. Rietveld refinement and elemental analyses were used to identify the structure and stoichiometry of the compositions. The thermal conductivity was investigated by employing the Debye model with different phonon-scattering parameters. This investigation demonstrates that Fe substitution is feasible in these skutterudite derivatives and can significantly affect the transport properties as compared with Co4Ge6Se6. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Structural and functional characterisation of slab waveguides written in Er{sup 3+} - doped tellurite glass, CaF{sub 2}, Bi{sub 4}(GeO{sub 4}){sub 3} and Bi{sub 12}GeO{sub 20} crystals via implantation of MeV N{sup +} ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banyasz, I; Berneschi, S; Khanh, N Q; Lohner, T; Fried, M; Petrik, P; Zolnai, Z; Lengyel, K; Peter, A; Watterich, A; Nunzi-Conti, G; Pelli, S; Righini, G C, E-mail: banyasz@sunserv.kfki.h

    2010-11-15

    Ion implantation proved to be a universal technique for producing waveguides in most optical materials. Tellurite glasses are used as hosts of rare-earth elements for the development of fibre and integrated optic amplifiers and lasers covering all the main telecommunication bands. Er{sup 3+}- doped tellurite glasses are very attractive materials for the fabrication of broadband amplifiers in wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) around 1.55 {mu}m, as they exhibit large stimulated cross sections and broad emission bandwidth. First objective of the present research was to optimise parameters of waveguide fabrication in the Er: tellurite glass via implantation of MeV energy N{sup +} ions in a wide range of implanted doses. Besides of glasses, slab optical waveguides were designed and fabricated in CaF{sub 2}, Bi{sub 4}Ge{sub 3}O{sub 12} and Bi{sub 12}GeO{sub 20} crystals, also using MeV energy N{sup +} ions. Waveguides were characterised using UV/VIS and NIR absorption spectroscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry and m-line spectroscopy. Part of the implanted samples was annealed to improve waveguide properties. We report on first working slab waveguides fabricated in CaF{sub 2} crystals using implantation of MeV-energy medium-mass ions.

  6. Thermally-induced crystallization behaviour of 80GeSe{sub 2}–20Ga{sub 2}Se{sub 3} glass as probed by combined X-ray diffraction and PAL spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shpotyuk, O., E-mail: shpotyuk@novas.lviv.ua [Scientific Research Company “Carat”, 202, Stryjska str., Lviv 79031 (Ukraine); Institute of Physics of Jan Dlugosz University, 13/15, al. Armii Krajowej, Czestochowa 42201 (Poland); Calvez, L.; Petracovschi, E. [Equipe Verres et Céramiques, UMR-CNRS 6226, Institute des Sciences chimiques de Rennes, Université de Rennes 1, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Klym, H. [Lviv polytechnic National University, 12 Bandera str., Lviv 79013 (Ukraine); Ingram, A. [Physics Faculty of Opole University of Technology, 75, Ozimska str., Opole 45370 (Poland); Demchenko, P. [Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, 6, Kyryla and Mefodiya Str., Lviv 79005 (Ukraine)

    2014-01-05

    Highlights: • Chalcogenide Ge–Ga–Se glasses were annealed at 380 °C for 10, 25 and 50 h. • Crystallization of glasses during annealing indicates formation of crystals. • Structural changes are described by two-state positron trapping model. • Modification leading to nucleation and fragmentation of free volume of glasses. • The Ge–Ga–Se systems cannot be classified as typical pseudo-binary system. -- Abstract: Crystallization behaviour of 80GeSe{sub 2}–20Ga{sub 2}Se{sub 3} glass caused by thermal annealing at 380 °C for 10, 25 and 50 h are studied using X-ray diffraction and positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy. It is shown that the structural changes caused by crystallization can be adequately described by positron trapping modes determined within two-state model. The observed changes in defect-related component in the fit of experimental positron lifetime spectra for annealed glasses testifies in a favour of structural fragmentation of larger free volume entities into smaller ones with preceding nucleation in the initial stage of thermal annealing. Because of strong deviation in defect-free bulk positron lifetime from corresponding additive values proper to boundary constituents, the studied glasses cannot be considered as typical representatives of pseudo-binary cut-section.

  7. Neutron transmutation doped Ge bolometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, E. E.; Kreysa, E.; Palaio, N. P.; Richards, P. L.; Rodder, M.

    1983-01-01

    Some conclusions reached are as follow. Neutron Transmutation Doping (NTD) of high quality Ge single crystals provides perfect control of doping concentration and uniformity. The resistivity can be tailored to any given bolometer operating temperature down to 0.1 K and probably lower. The excellent uniformity is advantaged for detector array development.

  8. DFT study and crystal structure analysis of a new nano-structure five coordinated Hg(II) complex involving C-H⋯O, N⋯O and π⋯π interactions in a supra-molecular structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montazerozohori, M; Musavi, S A; Masoudiasl, A; Hojjati, A; Assoud, A

    2015-08-05

    In this research, template synthesis and crystal structure of a new HgLI₂ complex are presented (L=N(1)-(4-nitrobenzylidene)-N(2)-(2-((E)-(4-nitrobenzylidene)amino)ethyl)ethane-1,2-diamine). The mercury complex crystallizes in the triclinic system with space group of P1¯. The crystal structure of the complex shows a distorted trigonal bipyramidal geometry around the mercury(II) center; including two I and an N atoms of Schiff base ligand in equatorial plane and two iminic N atoms in axial positions. Two five membered mercury containing rings [Hg(-N-C-C-N-)] are found in the structure. Some C-H⋯O, N⋯O and π⋯π intermolecular interactions causes a supra-molecular network in the solid-state. In addition to crystal structure analysis, density functional theory (DFT) study at the B3LYP/LanL2DZ level of theory has been also performed on the structure. Thereafter some theoretical structural and spectral data were compared with experimental results. Furthermore, total energy levels of HOMO and LUMO orbitals, molecular electrostatic potential, Mullikan atomic charges, thermodynamic and polarizability properties of the complex were calculated. Finally the mercury complex was prepared in nano-structure size confirmed by SEM and XRD analyses. The particles size of the titled complex was evaluated under 40 nm based on Sherrer's formula.

  9. Radiation damage effects in Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}:Ce scintillation crystals under γ-quanta and 24 GeV protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auffray, E. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Borisevitch, A. [Institute for Nuclear Problems, Minsk (Belarus); Gektin, A.; Gerasymov, Ia. [Institute for Scintillation Materials NASU, Kharkiv (Ukraine); Korjik, M.; Kozlov, D. [Institute for Nuclear Problems, Minsk (Belarus); Kurtsev, D. [Institute for Scintillation Materials NASU, Kharkiv (Ukraine); Mechinsky, V. [Institute for Nuclear Problems, Minsk (Belarus); Sidletskiy, O., E-mail: sidletskiy@isma.kharkov.com [Institute for Scintillation Materials NASU, Kharkiv (Ukraine); Zoueyski, R. [Institute for Nuclear Problems, Minsk (Belarus)

    2015-05-21

    This work focuses on the study of changes in the optical transmission of Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}:Ce crystals caused by ionizing radiation from γ-quanta and high energy protons. Radioisotope content of proton-irradiated crystals, transmission and induced absorption spectra, and scintillation characteristics are measured after irradiation with protons. In contrast to crystals of heavy complex oxides, Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}:Ce crystals do not demonstrate significant deterioration of transmission in the luminescence range (400–600 nm) under irradiation. Such crystals can be considered as a material for construction of detecting cells of the calorimetric detectors at LHC with high luminosity. The feasibility of growing large crackless Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}:Ce crystals with a diameter up to 50 mm and length up to 250 mm is demonstrated. - Highlights: • Large YSO:Ce single crystals are obtained. • YSO:Ce demonstrates improved radiation hardness compared to heavy scintillators. • YSO:Ce is a promising crystal for LHC detectors upgrade.

  10. Effect of Ge Content on the Formation of Ge Nanoclusters in Magnetron-Sputtered GeZrOx-Based Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khomenkova, L; Lehninger, D; Kondratenko, O; Ponomaryov, S; Gudymenko, O; Tsybrii, Z; Yukhymchuk, V; Kladko, V; von Borany, J; Heitmann, J

    2017-12-01

    Ge-rich ZrO2 films, fabricated by confocal RF magnetron sputtering of pure Ge and ZrO2 targets in Ar plasma, were studied by multi-angle laser ellipsometry, Raman scattering, Auger electron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction for varied deposition conditions and annealing treatments. It was found that as-deposited films are homogeneous for all Ge contents, thermal treatment stimulated a phase separation and a formation of crystalline Ge and ZrO2. The "start point" of this process is in the range of 640-700 °C depending on the Ge content. The higher the Ge content, the lower is the temperature necessary for phase separation, nucleation of Ge nanoclusters, and crystallization. Along with this, the crystallization temperature of the tetragonal ZrO2 exceeds that of the Ge phase, which results in the formation of Ge crystallites in an amorphous ZrO2 matrix. The mechanism of phase separation is discussed in detail.

  11. Analytic device including nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.

    2015-07-02

    A device for detecting an analyte in a sample comprising: an array including a plurality of pixels, each pixel including a nanochain comprising: a first nanostructure, a second nanostructure, and a third nanostructure, wherein size of the first nanostructure is larger than that of the second nanostructure, and size of the second nanostructure is larger than that of the third nanostructure, and wherein the first nanostructure, the second nanostructure, and the third nanostructure are positioned on a substrate such that when the nanochain is excited by an energy, an optical field between the second nanostructure and the third nanostructure is stronger than an optical field between the first nanostructure and the second nanostructure, wherein the array is configured to receive a sample; and a detector arranged to collect spectral data from a plurality of pixels of the array.

  12. Room Temperature Ferromagnetic Mn:Ge(001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Adrian Lungu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the synthesis of a room temperature ferromagnetic Mn-Ge system obtained by simple deposition of manganese on Ge(001, heated at relatively high temperature (starting with 250 °C. The samples were characterized by low energy electron diffraction (LEED, scanning tunneling microscopy (STM, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID, and magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE. Samples deposited at relatively elevated temperature (350 °C exhibited the formation of ~5–8 nm diameter Mn5Ge3 and Mn11Ge8 agglomerates by HRTEM, while XPS identified at least two Mn-containing phases: the agglomerates, together with a Ge-rich MnGe~2.5 phase, or manganese diluted into the Ge(001 crystal. LEED revealed the persistence of long range order after a relatively high amount of Mn (100 nm deposited on the single crystal substrate. STM probed the existence of dimer rows on the surface, slightly elongated as compared with Ge–Ge dimers on Ge(001. The films exhibited a clear ferromagnetism at room temperature, opening the possibility of forming a magnetic phase behind a nearly ideally terminated Ge surface, which could find applications in integration of magnetic functionalities on semiconductor bases. SQUID probed the co-existence of a superparamagnetic phase, with one phase which may be attributed to a diluted magnetic semiconductor. The hypothesis that the room temperature ferromagnetic phase might be the one with manganese diluted into the Ge crystal is formulated and discussed.

  13. Optical absorption, piezoelectric effect and second harmonic generation studies of single crystal AgGaGe{sub 3}Se{sub 7.6}Te{sub 0.4} solid solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myronchuk, G.L.; Krymus, A.S.; Piasecki, M. [Institute of Physics, J. Dlugosz University, Czestochowa (Poland); Eastern European National University, Physics Department, Lutsk (Ukraine); Lakshminarayana, G. [Universiti Putra Malaysia, Wireless and Photonic Networks Research Centre, Faculty of Engineering, Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Kityk, I.V. [Czestochowa University of Technology, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Czestochowa (Poland); Eastern European National University, Physics Department, Lutsk (Ukraine); Parasyuk, O.V. [Eastern European National University, Department of Chemistry, Lutsk (Ukraine); Rudysh, M.Ya.; Shchepanskyi, P.A. [Institute of Physics, J. Dlugosz University, Czestochowa (Poland); Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, Physics Department, Lviv (Ukraine)

    2017-03-15

    Spectral features of absorption were studied for novel AgGaGe{sub 3}Se{sub 7.6}Te{sub 0.4} solid-state alloys at different temperatures. The synthesized crystals structure parameters are obtained by the X-ray Rietveld refinement method. During increasing temperature from 100 up to 300 K, the energy gap of AgGaGe{sub 3}Se{sub 7.6}Te{sub 0.4} decreases linearly from 2.05 up to 1.94 eV at a rate 5.7 x 10{sup -4} eV/K. The magnitudes of piezoelectric coefficients are significantly changed and demonstrate substantial anisotropy. At room temperature, these values are equal to 5.2 pm/V (d{sub 11}), 31.5 pm/V (d{sub 22}) and 35.5 pm/V (d{sub 33}). It is crucial that with an increasing temperature the piezoelectric efficiencies are increased. We have explored temperature and laser-induced changes of piezoelectric coefficients. (orig.)

  14. Superconductivity and crystal and electronic structures in hydrogenated and disordered Nb3Ge and Nb3Sn layers with A15 structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nölscher, C.; Saemann-Ischenko, G.

    1985-08-01

    Superconducting and transport properties of Nb3Ge and Nb3Sn layers have been varied over a wide range by hydrogenation, ion irradiation, and annealing. After hydrogenation, both compounds remain in the A15 structure and no effects of hydride precipitations at low temperatures could be observed. At high ion-irradiation doses Nb3Ge becomes amorphous, but Nb3Sn remains in the A15 structure, although Tc behaves similarly. The long-range order parameter SA and the mean displacement amplitude u2>1/2 were determined for Nb3Sn with x-ray diffraction. Distinct differences between the irradiation- and annealing-induced correlations of Tc versus Sa, Tc versus u2>, and Tc versus lattice parameter were observed. This indicates the influence of topological short-range order. The correlations of Tc versus residual resistivity and Tc versus the temperature derivative of the upper critical field at Tc are distinctly different for hydrogenated and irradiated Nb3Sn and Nb3Ge, but the derived correlations of Tc versus the coefficient of the electronic specific heat are very similar. The results are interpreted by a dominant influence of the Γ12 band on high Tc. The measurements of the Hall constant RH indicate a filling of steep electronic bands as a result of hydrogenation. Irradiation has a similar influence as thermal-induced disorder on RH. A maximum in the temperature dependence of RH indicates a martensitic transformation of Nb3Sn at 50-55 K, which is unchanged in slightly hydrogenated samples with higher Tc but vanishes in irradiated samples.

  15. Synthesis and Structural Characterization of the New Clathrates K8Cd4Ge42, Rb8Cd4Ge42, and Cs8Cd4Ge42

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion C. Schäfer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results from our exploratory work in the systems K-Cd-Ge, Rb-Cd-Ge, and Cs-Cd-Ge, which yielded the novel type-I clathrates with refined compositions K8Cd3.77(7Ge42.23, Rb8Cd3.65(7Ge42.35, and Cs7.80(1Cd3.65(6Ge42.35. The three compounds represent rare examples of clathrates of germanium with the alkali metals, where a d10 element substitutes a group 14 element. The three structures, established by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, indicate that the framework-building Ge atoms are randomly substituted by Cd atoms on only one of the three possible crystallographic sites. This and several other details of the crystal chemistry are elaborated.

  16. Crystal Chemistry of the New Families of Interstitial Compounds R6Mg23C (R = La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, or Gd) and Ce6Mg23Z (Z = C, Si, Ge, Sn, Pb, P, As, or Sb).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrubl, Federico; Manfrinetti, Pietro; Pani, Marcella; Solokha, Pavlo; Saccone, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    The crystal chemical features of the new series of compounds R6Mg23C with R = La-Sm or Gd and Ce6Mg23Z with Z = C, Si, Ge, Sn, Pb, P, As, or Sb have been studied by means of single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction techniques. All phases crystallize with the cubic Zr6Zn23Si prototype (cF120, space group Fm3̅m, Z = 4), a filled variant of the Th6Mn23 structure. While no Th6Mn23-type binary rare earth-magnesium compound is known to exist, the addition of a third element Z (only 3 atom %), located into the octahedral cavity of the Th6Mn23 cell (Wyckoff site 4a), stabilizes this structural arrangement and makes possible the formation of the ternary R6Mg23Z compounds. The results of both structural and topological analyses as well as of LMTO electronic structure calculations show that the interstitial element plays a crucial role in the stability of these phases, forming a strongly bonded [R6Z] octahedral moiety spaced by zeolite cage-like [Mg45] clusters. Considering these two building units, the crystal structure of these apparently complex intermetallics can be simplified to the NaCl-type topology. Moreover, a structural relationship between RMg3 and R6Mg23C compounds has been unveiled; the latter can be described as substitutional derivatives of the former. The geometrical distortions and the consequent symmetry reduction that accompany this transformation are explicitly described by means of the Bärnighausen formalism within group theory.

  17. Structural Changes of Amorphous GeTe2 Films by Annealing (Formation of Metastable Crystalline GeTe2 Films)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumoto, Hirofumi; Tsunetomo, Keiji; Imura, Takeshi; Osaka, Yukio

    1987-01-01

    Amorphous GeTe2 films with the thickness ˜0.5 μm, prepared by sputtering technique, transform into the crystalline GeTe2 films with the isomorphic structure to β-cristobalite, cubic SiO2, at Ta(annealing temperature){=}200°C. The cubic phase of GeTe2 is metastable and decomposes into the mixed crystal of GeTe and Te at Ta{=}250°C.

  18. Insights into microstructural evolution and polycrystalline compounds formation from Pd Ge thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiwen; Shek, C. H.; Lai, J. K. L.

    2005-04-01

    Polycrystalline Pd-Ge thin films, prepared on freshly cleaved single crystal NaCl (1 0 0) substrate by evaporation techniques, were characterized for their composition, morphologies, and crystalline structure by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The experimental results indicated that the formation of Pd 2Ge and PdGe compounds dominated at low annealing temperatures, and it also affected the crystallization of amorphous Ge. The reactions of Pd and Ge are sensitively dependent on the annealing temperatures and the thickness ratio of Pd and Ge films. The crystallization of amorphous Ge and the reactions of Pd and Ge are mutually competitive in polycrystalline Pd-Ge thin films. The grain nucleation, growth, and aggregation in Pd-Ge thin films during processing are discussed in terms of the fundamental kinetic processes.

  19. Insights into microstructural evolution and polycrystalline compounds formation from Pd-Ge thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Zhiwen [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: cnzwchen@yahoo.com.cn; Shek, C.H. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China); Lai, J.K.L. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China)

    2005-04-15

    Polycrystalline Pd-Ge thin films, prepared on freshly cleaved single crystal NaCl (1 0 0) substrate by evaporation techniques, were characterized for their composition, morphologies, and crystalline structure by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The experimental results indicated that the formation of Pd{sub 2}Ge and PdGe compounds dominated at low annealing temperatures, and it also affected the crystallization of amorphous Ge. The reactions of Pd and Ge are sensitively dependent on the annealing temperatures and the thickness ratio of Pd and Ge films. The crystallization of amorphous Ge and the reactions of Pd and Ge are mutually competitive in polycrystalline Pd-Ge thin films. The grain nucleation, growth, and aggregation in Pd-Ge thin films during processing are discussed in terms of the fundamental kinetic processes.

  20. Mo- and W-based organic nanostructures prepared from bulk crystal isomorphs consisted of [(CH3CH2)3NH)]2[MO2(C14H6O4)2] (M = Mo, W).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B; Du, S Z; Lu, X M; Wang, G; Fen, J

    2013-08-19

    Two new crystal isomorphs consisting of complexes [(CH3CH2)3NH)]2[MoO2(C14H6O4)2] (1) and [(CH3CH2)3NH)]2[WO2(C14H6O4)2] (2) have been synthesized, respectively, and from which Mo-based flexible and durable nanopipes with diameters of 16 nm and lengths of hundreds of micrometers and W-based rigid and fragile nanotubules with ununiform diameters ranging from 30 to 100 nm and lengths in tens of micrometers have been prepared separately, which revealed that the change of the metal in the coordination center of the isomorphs can result in obvious variation to their nanostructures. The crystals both exhibited multilayered structures by the piling of lamellar repeating motifs through van der Waals forces, which are formed by the parallel alignment of 1D chains through hydrogen bonds, and the 1D chains are assembled by complexes 1 and 2, respectively, through geometrical intercalation and π-π packing. However, under grinding and ultrasonication, crystal 1 disassembled uniformly into longer and narrower nanostrips, whereas crystal 2 were broken at random into shorter and wider nanoribbons; therefore, the two lamellar nanostructures curled into different cylindrical nanospecies. The differences caused by Mo and W are the following: the Mo complex prefers to assemble into more durable one-dimensional structures along Mo-O bonds than W isomorphs; since Mo-O bonds are weaker than Mo═O and W-O bonds, then the weakest Mo-O bonds can be supported by the adjacent molecules through intercalation and π-π packing, which resulted in that the linkages among the Mo complexes are stronger along the Mo-O direction and hence the longer Mo-based cylindrical structure. Moreover, the flexibility of Mo-based nanopipes and the rigidity of W-based nanotubules might be attributed to that Mo possesses a lower melting point than W; therefore, Mo is softer and W is harsher.

  1. Microstructural changes and fractal Ge nanocrystallites in polycrystalline Au/amorphous Ge thin bilayer films upon annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Z W; Lai, J K L; Shek, C H [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China)

    2006-11-07

    Microstructural changes and fractal Ge nanocrystallites in polycrystalline Au/amorphous Ge thin bilayer films upon annealing have been investigated by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy observations and x-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Experimental results indicated that the microstructure of the metal Au film plays an important role in metal-induced crystallization for Au/Ge thin bilayer films upon annealing. Interestingly, we found the position exchange of Au and Ge films and the formation of the fractal Ge nanocrystallites induced by annealing. EDS microanalysis indicated that although there is lateral interdiffusion of Au and Ge atoms, the thickness of the fractal region and the matrix remain nearly the same. At the same time, EDS shows that there are also Au aggregates extending out of the films. It is suggested that, besides the preferred nucleation at the Au/Ge interface, the breaking of Ge-Ge bonds may stimulate the crystallization of amorphous Ge, so that the crystallization temperature of Au/Ge system is much lower than that of the isolated amorphous Ge system.

  2. Microstructural changes and fractal Ge nanocrystallites in polycrystalline Au/amorphous Ge thin bilayer films upon annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z. W.; Lai, J. K. L.; Shek, C. H.

    2006-11-01

    Microstructural changes and fractal Ge nanocrystallites in polycrystalline Au/amorphous Ge thin bilayer films upon annealing have been investigated by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy observations and x-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Experimental results indicated that the microstructure of the metal Au film plays an important role in metal-induced crystallization for Au/Ge thin bilayer films upon annealing. Interestingly, we found the position exchange of Au and Ge films and the formation of the fractal Ge nanocrystallites induced by annealing. EDS microanalysis indicated that although there is lateral interdiffusion of Au and Ge atoms, the thickness of the fractal region and the matrix remain nearly the same. At the same time, EDS shows that there are also Au aggregates extending out of the films. It is suggested that, besides the preferred nucleation at the Au/Ge interface, the breaking of Ge-Ge bonds may stimulate the crystallization of amorphous Ge, so that the crystallization temperature of Au/Ge system is much lower than that of the isolated amorphous Ge system.

  3. Physio chemical prop erties and crystallization b ehavior of GeS2-In2S3 chalcogenide glasses%GeS2-In2S3硫系玻璃的物化性质与晶化行为研究∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林常规; 翟素敏; 李卓斌; 屈国顺; 顾少轩; 陶海征; 戴世勋

    2015-01-01

    认识玻璃组成-性能-结构之间关系是玻璃科学中经久不衰的研究课题之一。在制得(100−x) GeS2-xIn2S3(x =10,15,20,25或30 mol%)系列玻璃和玻璃陶瓷样品的基础上,利用可见-近红外透过光谱, DSC, XRD和Raman光谱等测试技术表征了随组份变化的光学带隙,玻璃转变温度以及晶化行为等,并结合GeS2-Ga2 S3玻璃研究结果探讨了Ga, In 元素及其形成的网络结构对玻璃性质的影响。研究发现,在硫系玻璃中In比Ga对光学带隙和玻璃转变温度等性质的影响要大。它们所形成玻璃的晶化行为也截然不同,但与其各自的材料相图有着密切的联系。利用偏振拉曼光谱获得玻璃网络中的基本结构单元信息。最后,结合材料相图,玻璃随组成变化的物化性质和晶化行为以及基本网络结构单元的认识,探讨了玻璃的化学拓扑与网络拓扑之间的联系,为今后研究提供一种新的研究思路。%Relationship among the composition, properties, and structure of glasses are one of the long standing topics in glass science. In this paper, (100−x) GeS2-xIn2S3 (x=10, 15, 20, 25 or 30 mol%) glasses and glass-ceramics are prepared by melt-quenching and subsequent heat treatments. Their composition dependence of optical bandgap, glass transition temperature, and crystallization behavior is measured by various techniques, and the effect of Ga or In element and the related structural units on their properties is discussed with the help of the previous researches on the GeS2-Ga2S3 glass system. Results show that In has a much bigger influence than Ga on the optical bandgap and glass transition temperature of chalcogenide glasses, while the crystallization behavior of the two kinds of glasses containing Ga and In is totally different, but has a close connection with the respective phase diagram. Their structural motifs can be realized by employing polarized Raman spectra. Consequently, combined with the

  4. Crystal growth and optical properties of Ce:(La,Gd)2Ge2O7 grown by the floating zone method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Shishido, Toetsu; Sugawara, Takamasa; Yubuta, Kunio; Jan, Pejchal; Suzuki, Akira; Yokota, Yuui; Shoji, Yasuhiro; Kamada, Kei; Yoshikawa, Akira

    2014-05-01

    Some pyrosilicate scintillators such as Ce:Gd2Si2O7 and Ce:Lu2Si2O7 have a good light output, and especially Ce:(Gd,La)2Si2O7 has an excellent light output of over 36,000 ph/MeV. In order to search novel scintilators, we have developed a pyrogermanate-based scintillation material (Ce0.01,Gd0.90,La0.09)2Ge2O7 using the floating zone method. Although the light output was decreased due to quenching, 5d-4f transition of Ce3+ was observed around 480 nm in photo- and radio-luminescence spectra. This emission wavelength was longer than that of (Ce0.01,Gd0.90,La0.09)2Si2O7 with an emission wavelength of 390 nm.

  5. Magnetic and crystal structure correlations in PrMn 1.5Co 0.5Ge 2: a synchrotron diffraction study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenberg, H.; Dincer, I.; Elmali, A.; Elerman, Y.; Fuess, H.

    2002-12-01

    Structure details of PrMn 2- xCo xGe 2, x=0.5, with the tetragonal ThCr 2Si 2-type structure have been studied by high-resolution synchrotron powder diffraction. Unit cell parameters a and c, unit cell volume V, c/ a, (∂ a/∂ x) T and (∂ c/∂ x) T were determined from Rietveld refinements in the temperature range 10-300 K. The average composition =0.49(4) is determined based on a detailed diffraction profile analysis. Our measurements indicate three anomalies in the c/ a ratio, (∂ a/∂ x) T and (∂c/∂ x) T at a temperature of about 150 K, which is very close to the transition temperature from antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic intralayer ordering.

  6. Structural phase transitions in Bi[sub 2]V[sub 1[minus]x]Ge[sub x]O[sub 5. 5[minus]x/2] (x = 0. 2, 0. 4, and 0. 6) single crystals: X-ray crystallographic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sooryanarayana, K.; Guru Row, T.N.; Varma, K.B.R. (Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore (India))

    1999-02-01

    Single crystals of Bi[sub 2]V[sub 1[minus]x]Ge[sub x]O[sub 5.5[minus]x/2] (x = 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6) were grown by slow cooling of melts. Bismuth vanadate transforms from an orthorhombic to a tetragonal structure and subsequently to an orthorhombic system when the Ge[sup 4+] concentration was varied from x = 0.2 to x = 0.6. All of these compositions crystallized in polar space groups (Aba2, F4mm, and Fmm2 for x = 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6, respectively). The structures were fully determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies.

  7. Nanostructured Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    with macroscopic reinforcements such as fiber, clay, glass mineral and other fillers. The nano-alloyed polymers are particularly useful for producing...applications, including space-sur- vivable materials and seals, gaskets, cosmetics , and personal care. 25 Claims, 10 Drawing Sheets B-3 U.S. Patent Mar...the incorporation of fluorinated nanostructured chemicals onto the surface of a secondary material (such as Ti02 , CaC03 , glass or mineral

  8. Materials and devices for quantum information processing in Si/SiGe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sailer, Juergen

    2010-12-15

    In this thesis, we cover and discuss the complete way from material science, the fabrication of two-dimensional electron systems (2DES) in Si/SiGe heterostructures in molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), to quantum effects in few-electron devices based on these samples. We applied and compared two different approaches for the creation of pseudo-substrates that are as smooth, relaxed and defect free as possible. In the 'graded buffer' concept, starting from pure Si, the Ge content of the SiGe alloy is slowly and linearly increased until the desired Ge content is reached. In contrast, in the so-called 'low-temperature Si' concept, the SiGe alloy is deposited directly with the final Ge content, but onto a layer of highly defective Si. In terms of crystal defects, the 'graded buffer' turned out to be superior in comparison to the 'low-temperature Si' concept at the expense of a significantly higher material consumption. By continued optimization of the growth process, aiming at reducing the influence of the impurity, it nevertheless became possible to improve the charge carrier mobility from a mere 2000 cm{sup 2}/(Vs) to a record mobility exceeding 100 000 cm{sup 2}/(Vs). Within this work, we extended our MBE system with an electron beam evaporator for nuclear spin free {sup 28}Si. Together with the already existing effusion cell for {sup 70}Ge we were able to realize first 2DES in a nuclear spin free environment after successfully putting it to operation. The highest mobility 2DES in a nuclear spin free environment which have been realized in this thesis exhibited electron mobilities of up to 55 000 cm{sup 2}/(Vs). Quantum effects in Si/SiGe have been investigated in two- and zero-dimensional nanostructures. A remarkable phenomenon in the regime of the integer quantum Hall effect in Si/SiGe 2DES has been discovered and researched. For applications in quantum information processing and for the creation of qubits it is mandatory to

  9. Nanostructured photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Lan; Tan, H. Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati

    2013-01-01

    Energy and the environment are two of the most important global issues that we currently face. The development of clean and sustainable energy resources is essential to reduce greenhouse gas emission and meet our ever-increasing demand for energy. Over the last decade photovoltaics, as one of the leading technologies to meet these challenges, has seen a continuous increase in research, development and investment. Meanwhile, nanotechnology, which is considered to be the technology of the future, is gradually revolutionizing our everyday life through adaptation and incorporation into many traditional technologies, particularly energy-related technologies, such as photovoltaics. While the record for the highest efficiency is firmly held by multijunction III-V solar cells, there has never been a shortage of new research effort put into improving the efficiencies of all types of solar cells and making them more cost effective. In particular, there have been extensive and exciting developments in employing nanostructures; features with different low dimensionalities, such as quantum wells, nanowires, nanotubes, nanoparticles and quantum dots, have been incorporated into existing photovoltaic technologies to enhance their performance and/or reduce their cost. Investigations into light trapping using plasmonic nanostructures to effectively increase light absorption in various solar cells are also being rigorously pursued. In addition, nanotechnology provides researchers with great opportunities to explore the new ideas and physics offered by nanostructures to implement advanced solar cell concepts such as hot carrier, multi-exciton and intermediate band solar cells. This special issue of Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics contains selected papers on nanostructured photovoltaics written by researchers in their respective fields of expertise. These papers capture the current excitement, as well as addressing some open questions in the field, covering topics including the

  10. PREFACE: Nanostructured surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Richard E.

    2003-10-01

    We can define nanostructured surfaces as well-defined surfaces which contain lateral features of size 1-100 nm. This length range lies well below the micron regime but equally above the Ångstrom regime, which corresponds to the interatomic distances on single-crystal surfaces. This special issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter presents a collection of twelve papers which together address the fabrication, characterization, properties and applications of such nanostructured surfaces. Taken together they represent, in effect, a status report on the rapid progress taking place in this burgeoning area. The first four papers in this special issue have been contributed by members of the European Research Training Network ‘NanoCluster’, which is concerned with the deposition, growth and characterization of nanometre-scale clusters on solid surfaces—prototypical examples of nanoscale surface features. The paper by Vandamme is concerned with the fundamentals of the cluster-surface interaction; the papers by Gonzalo and Moisala address, respectively, the optical and catalytic properties of deposited clusters; and the paper by van Tendeloo reports the application of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to elucidate the surface structure of spherical particles in a catalyst support. The fifth paper, by Mendes, is also the fruit of a European Research Training Network (‘Micro-Nano’) and is jointly contributed by three research groups; it reviews the creation of nanostructured surface architectures from chemically-synthesized nanoparticles. The next five papers in this special issue are all concerned with the characterization of nanostructured surfaces with scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The papers by Bolotov, Hamilton and Dunstan demonstrate that the STM can be employed for local electrical measurements as well as imaging, as illustrated by the examples of deposited clusters, model semiconductor structures and real

  11. Pseudomorphic GeSn/Ge (001) heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonkikh, A. A., E-mail: tonkikh@mpi-halle.de [Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics (Germany); Talalaev, V. G. [Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, ZIK SiLi-nano (Germany); Werner, P. [Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics (Germany)

    2013-11-15

    The synthesis of pseudomorphic GeSn heterostructures on a Ge (001) substrate by molecular-beam epitaxy is described. Investigations by transmission electron microscopy show that the GeSn layers are defect free and possess cubic diamondlike structure. Photoluminescence spectroscopy reveals interband radiative recombination in the GeSn quantum wells, which is identified as indirect transitions between the subbands of heavy electrons and heavy holes. On the basis of experimental data and modeling of the band structure of pseudomorphic GeSn compounds, the lower boundary of the bowing parameter for the indirect band gap is estimated as b{sub L} {>=} 1.47 eV.

  12. Crystal growth, optical and magnetic properties of the Cr-doped Cu{sub 2}SnGe{sub 3} semiconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, H. E-mail: hectorom@ciens.ula.ve; Nieves, L.; Chourio, M.; Echeverria, R.; Carreron, I.; Ramirez, B.; Zysler, R

    2004-05-01

    Compound Cu{sub 2}SnSe{sub 3}:Cr{sub x} with nominal composition x=0.08 was grown by direct fusion in a vertical oven. At 500 deg. C was annealed during 220 h. The sample was crystallized in a monoclinic system, in the Cc space group. The temperature dependence of magnetization does not change in the (fieldcooled-zero-field-cooled) curves. At 42 K a magnetization jump is observed. The Curie temperature shifted probably due to lattice distortion. The low-temperature magnetic moment 0.37 {mu}{sub B} was calculated. A direct band gap energy was observed at 300 K.

  13. Epitaxial Growth of GeGaAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    liquid solvent for epitaxial growth of Ge. Because of the finite solubility of GaAs in Pb (7 x 10-4 atomic fraction at 500°C) relatively fast initial...mixture of Pb and Sn was used as a melt. The solubility of Ge in a PbSn eutetic mixture is significantly higher than the solubility of Ge in pure Pb...shallow donor acceptor levels. Addition of a deep level to the crystal lat- tice at this point would further pin the fermi level near mid-gap

  14. I8As21Ge25

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Single crystals of octaiodine henacosarsenic pentacosagermanium were grown by chemical transport reactions. The structure is isotypic with the analogous clathrates-I. In this structure, the statistically occupied clathrand atoms (As,Ge46 form bonds in a distorted tetrahedral coordination and their arrangement can define two polyhedra of different sizes; one is an (As,Ge20 pentagonal dodecahedron, and the other is an (As,Ge24 tetrakaidecahedron. The guest atom (iodine resides inside these polyhedra with site symmetry m3 (Wyckoff position 2a and overline{4}2m (Wyckoff position 6d, respectively.

  15. Polymer crystallization as a tool to pattern hybrid nanostructures: growth of 12 nm ZnO arrays in poly(3-hexylthiophene).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saberi Moghaddam, Reza; Huettner, Sven; Vaynzof, Yana; Ducati, Caterina; Divitini, Giorgio; Lohwasser, Ruth H; Musselman, Kevin P; Sepe, Alessandro; Scherer, Maik R J; Thelakkat, Mukundan; Steiner, Ullrich; Friend, Richard H

    2013-09-11

    Well-ordered hybrid materials with a 10 nm length scale are highly desired. We make use of the natural length scale (typically 10-15 nm) of the alternating crystalline and amorphous layers that are generally found in semicrystalline polymers to direct the growth of a semiconducting metal oxide. This approach is exemplified with the growth of ZnO within a carboxylic acid end-functionalized poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT-COOH). The metal-oxide precursor vapors diffuse into the amorphous parts of the semicrystalline polymer so that sheets of ZnO up to 0.5 μm in size can be grown. This P3HT-ZnO nanostructure further functions as a donor-acceptor photovoltaic system, with length scales appropriate for charge photogeneration.

  16. Imprinted photonic crystal chemical sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, A.; Burghoorn, M.M.A.; Saalmink, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present the use of Photonic Crystals as chemical sensors. These 2D nanostructured sensors were prepared by nano-imprint lithography during which a nanostructure is transferred from a nickel template into a responsive polymer, that is be specifically tuned to interact with the chemic

  17. Aragonite crystals grown on bones by reaction of CO2 with nanostructured Ca(OH)2 in the presence of collagen. Implications in archaeology and paleontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natali, Irene; Tempesti, Paolo; Carretti, Emiliano; Potenza, Mariangela; Sansoni, Stefania; Baglioni, Piero; Dei, Luigi

    2014-01-21

    The loss of mechanical properties affecting archeological or paleontological bones is often caused by demineralization processes that are similar to those driving the mechanisms leading to osteoporosis. One simple way to harden and to strengthen demineralized bone remains could be the in situ growth of CaCO3 crystals in the aragonite polymorph - metastable at atmospheric pressure -which is known to have very strong mechanical strength in comparison with the stable calcite. In the present study the controlled growth of aragonite crystals was achieved by reaction between atmospheric CO2 and calcium hydroxide nanoparticles in the presence of collagen within the deteriorated bones. In a few days the carbonation of Ca(OH)2 particles led to a mixture of calcite and aragonite, increasing the strength of the mineral network of the bone. Scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry showed that aragonite crystallization was achieved. The effect of the aragonite crystal formation on the mechanical properties of the deteriorated bones was investigated by means of X-rays microtomography, helium porosimetry, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and Vickers microhardness techniques. All these data enabled to conclude that the strength of the bones increased of a factor of 50-70% with respect to the untreated bone. These results could have immediate impact for preserving archeological and paleontological bone remains.

  18. Characterization of Ge-nanocrystal films with photoelectron spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Bostedt, C; Willey, T M; Nelson, A J; Franco, N; Möller, T; Terminello, L J

    2003-01-01

    The Ge 3d core-levels of germanium nanocrystal films have been investigated by means of photoelectron spectroscopy. The experiments indicate bulk-like coordinated atoms in the nanocrystals and suggest structured disorder on the nanoparticle surface. The results underline the importance of the surface on the overall electronic structure of this class of nanostructured materials.

  19. DNA nanostructure meets nanofabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guomei; Surwade, Sumedh P; Zhou, Feng; Liu, Haitao

    2013-04-07

    Recent advances in DNA nanotechnology have made it possible to construct DNA nanostructures of almost arbitrary shapes with 2-3 nm of precision in their dimensions. These DNA nanostructures are ideal templates for bottom-up nanofabrication. This review highlights the challenges and recent advances in three areas that are directly related to DNA-based nanofabrication: (1) fabrication of large scale DNA nanostructures; (2) pattern transfer from DNA nanostructure to an inorganic substrate; and (3) directed assembly of DNA nanostructures.

  20. Optical Biosensors Based on Semiconductor Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl J. Martín-Palma

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing availability of semiconductor-based nanostructures with novel and unique properties has sparked widespread interest in their use in the field of biosensing. The precise control over the size, shape and composition of these nanostructures leads to the accurate control of their physico-chemical properties and overall behavior. Furthermore, modifications can be made to the nanostructures to better suit their integration with biological systems, leading to such interesting properties as enhanced aqueous solubility, biocompatibility or bio-recognition. In the present work, the most significant applications of semiconductor nanostructures in the field of optical biosensing will be reviewed. In particular, the use of quantum dots as fluorescent bioprobes, which is the most widely used application, will be discussed. In addition, the use of some other nanometric structures in the field of biosensing, including porous semiconductors and photonic crystals, will be presented.

  1. Porphyrin-Based Nanostructures for Photocatalytic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingzhi Chen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Well-defined organic nanostructures with controllable size and morphology are increasingly exploited in optoelectronic devices. As promising building blocks, porphyrins have demonstrated great potentials in visible-light photocatalytic applications, because of their electrical, optical and catalytic properties. From this perspective, we have summarized the recent significant advances on the design and photocatalytic applications of porphyrin-based nanostructures. The rational strategies, such as texture or crystal modification and interfacial heterostructuring, are described. The applications of the porphyrin-based nanostructures in photocatalytic pollutant degradation and hydrogen evolution are presented. Finally, the ongoing challenges and opportunities for the future development of porphyrin nanostructures in high-quality nanodevices are also proposed.

  2. Effect of Er3+ ions on the phase formation and properties of In2O3nanostructures crystallized upon microwave heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Samantha C. S.; Romeiro, Fernanda C.; de Paula, Leonardo F.; Gonçalves, Rosana F.; de Moura, Ana P.; Ferrer, Mateus M.; Longo, Elson; Patrocinio, Antonio Otavio T.; Lima, Renata C.

    2017-05-01

    Regular sized nanostructures of indium oxide (In2O3) were homogeneously grown using a facile route, i.e. a microwave-hydrothermal method combined with rapid thermal treatment in a microwave oven. The presence of Er3+ doping plays an important role in controlling the formation of cubic (bcc) and rhombohedral (rh) In2O3 phases. The samples presented broad photoluminescent emission bands in the green-orange region, which were attributed to the recombination of electrons at oxygen vacancies. The photocatalytic activities of pure bcc-In2O3 and a bcc-rh-In2O3 mixture towards the UVA degradation of methylene blue (MB) were also evaluated. The results showed that Er+3 doped In2O3 exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity with a photonic efficiency three times higher than the pure oxide. The improved performance was attributed to the higher surface area, the greater concentration of electron traps due the presence of the dopant and the possible formation of heterojunctions between the cubic and rhombohedral phases.

  3. Nanofabrication of Metallic Nanostructures and Integration with Light Detection Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liang

    Metallic nanostructures have been investigated with various applications especially for integration with light detection devices. The incident light can be manipulated by those nanostructures to enhance light absorption therefor improve device performance. However, previous studies focused on optical design. The electrical properties of these integrated light detection devices have not been fully considered. The photon generated carriers transport and collection are critical for light detection devices as well. An optimized device platform considering from both the optical and electrical aspects to fully utilize these nanostructures is highly desired for future light detection devices. This dissertation targeted on three objectives, beginning with the fabrication process development of various nanostructures on different substrates. High quality nanostructures were achieved with minimum 20nm gap and 45nm line width. The second objective was developing the metallic fishnet nanostructures integrated Schottky contact a-Si solar cell to improve both light absorption and photon generated carrier collection. The fishnet was designed as the light trapping structure and 2D connected top contact to collect carriers. The third objective was developing metallic nanostructures integrated GeSn photodetectors. The H shape nano antennas were integrated on GeSn photodetectors. Multiple resonant absorption peaks at infrared range were observed using spectroscopic ellipsometry. However, there was no obvious photoresponse value improvement of developed solar cells and H shape antennas integrated GeSn photodetectors. For further investigation, interdigitated electrodes integrated GeSn photodetectors were designed. With less carrier transit time, the responsivity value of the integrated Ge0.991Sn0.009 photodetector was 72muA/W at 1.55mum at room temperature which was 6 times higher comparing to device without integration. Meanwhile, with the increased carrier life time by decreasing

  4. Clathrate formation in the systems Sr-Cu-Ge and {Ba,Sr}-Cu-Ge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiringer, I.; Moser, R.; Kneidinger, F.; Podloucky, R.; Royanian, E.; Grytsiv, A.; Bauer, E.; Giester, G.; Falmbigl, M.; Rogl, P.

    2014-09-01

    In the ternary system Sr-Cu-Ge, a novel clathrate type-I phase was detected, Sr8CuxGe46-x (5.2≤xtemperature interval. Sr8Cu5.3Ge40.7 decomposes eutectoidally on cooling at 730±3 °C into (Ge), SrGe2 and τ1-SrCu2-xGe2+x. Phase equilibria at 700 °C have been established for the Ge rich part and are characterized by the appearance of only one ternary compound, τ1-SrCu2-xGe2+x, which crystallizes with the ThCr2Si2 structure type and forms a homogeneity range up to x=0.4 (a=0.42850(4), c=1.0370(1) nm). Additionally, the extent of the clathrate type-I solid solution Ba8-ySryCuxGe46-x (0≤y≤~5.6; 5.2≤x≤5.4, from as cast alloys) has been studied at various temperatures. The clathrate type-I crystal structure (space group Pm3barn) has been proven by X-ray single crystal diffraction on two single crystals with the composition (from refinement): Sr8Cu5.36Ge40.64 (a=1.06368(2) nm at 300 K) and Ba4.86Sr3.14Cu5.36Ge40.64 (a=1.06748(2) nm at 300 K) measured at 300, 200 and 100 K. From the temperature dependence of the lattice parameters and the atomic displacement parameters, thermal expansion coefficients, Debye- and Einstein-temperatures and the speed of sound have been determined. From heat capacity measurements of Sr8Cu5.3Ge40.7 at low temperatures the Sommerfeld coefficient (γ=24 mJ/mol K2) and the Debye temperature (ΘDLT=273 K) have been extracted. From a detailed analysis of these data at higher temperatures, Einstein branches of the phonon dispersion relation have been derived and compared to those obtained from the atomic displacement parameters. Electrical resistivity measurements of Sr8Cu5.3Ge40.7 reveal a rather metallic behavior in the low temperature range (<300 K). Density function theory calculations provide densities of states, electronic resistivity and Seebeck coefficient as well as the vibrational spectrum and specific heat.

  5. Crystal orientation dependence of band matching in all-B2-trilayer current-perpendicular-to-plane giant magnetoresistance pseudo spin-valves using Co{sub 2}Fe(Ge{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}) Heusler alloy and NiAl spacer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jiamin; Hono, K., E-mail: kazuhiro.hono@nims.go.jp [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1, Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-2-1, Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Furubayashi, T.; Takahashi, Y. K.; Sasaki, T. T. [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1, Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan)

    2015-05-07

    We have experimentally investigated the crystal orientation dependence of band matching in current-perpendicular-to-plane giant magnetoresistance (CPP-GMR) pseudo-spin-valves using Co{sub 2}Fe(Ge{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}) (CFGG) Heusler alloy ferromagnetic layer and NiAl spacer. The high quality epitaxial CFGG/NiAl/CFGG all-B2-trilayers structure devices were fabricated on both MgO(001) and sapphire (112{sup ¯}0) single crystal substrates to create (001) and (110) crystal orientations. Same magneto-transport properties were observed from these two differently orientated devices indicating that there is no or little orientation dependence of band matching on MR output. We also found that all-B2-trilayer structure was free of lattice matching influence depending on the crystal orientation, which made it a good candidate for CPP-GMR device.

  6. Enhancement of Light-Matter Interaction in Semiconductor Nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stobbe, Søren

    This thesis reports research on enhancement of light-matter interaction in semi- conductor quantum nanostructures by means of nanostructure fabrication, optical measurements, and theoretical modeling. Photonic crystal membranes of very high quality and samples for studies of quantum dots...... coupling between quantum dot excitons and a photonic crystal waveguide. We show theoretically that the dipole approximation is not valid a priori for quantum dots and wells in nanostructures. A many-particle exciton formalism is developed by which the Wigner-Weisskopf result for spontaneous emission......-matter interaction is investigated. For the rst time the vacuum Rabi splitting is observed in an electrically tunable device....

  7. Interfacial processes in the Pd/a-Ge:H system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelman, F.; Cytermann, C.; Brener, R.; Eizenberg, M.; Weil, R.; Beyer, W.

    1993-06-01

    The kinetics of phase transformation has been studied in a two-layer structure of Pd/a-Ge:H after vacuum annealing at temperatures from 180 to 500°C. The a-Ge:H was deposited at 250°C on both c-Si and cleaved NaCl substrates in an RF glow discharge from a GeH 4/H 2 mixture. It was found that, similarly to the Pd/c-Ge and the Pd/a-Ge (e-gun deposited) systems, in the case of 0.15-0.2 μm Pd/0.6-1.0 μm a-Ge:H interfacial germanides formed first through the production of Pd 2Ge (plus a small amount of PdGe), and then PdGe was produced. The growth of both compounds was found to be diffusion-controlled. The nonreacted a-Ge:H layer beneath the germanide overlayer crystallized at 400-500°C. A reverse sequence of germanides formation was revealed in the case of 50 nm Pd/30 nm a-Ge:H, studied by in situ heat treatment in the TEM utilizing non-supported samples. The first germanide detected was PdGe and then, as a result of PdGe and Ge reaction or the PdGe decomposition, Pd 2Ge formed. The temperature dependence of the incubation time before the first ˜ 10 nm PdGe grains formed, followed an Arrhenius curve with an activation energy of 1.45 eV.

  8. X-ray absorption studies of atomic environments in semiconductor nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Boscherini, F

    2003-01-01

    The use of X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy in the investigation of the atomic environment in semiconductor nanostructures is illustrated. After a description of the experimental apparatus two specific examples are reported: the detection of Si-Ge intermixing in Ge quantum dots and the relation between long range elasticity and local distortions in strained InGaAs epilayers.

  9. Ge30Sb8Se62硫系玻璃的制备及其10.6μm低损耗空芯光子带隙光纤的设计%Preparation of Ge30Sb8Se62 Chalcogenide Glass and Designing for a Low-Loss Hollow-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber at 10.6 μm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永兴; 张培晴; 许银生; 王训四; 戴世勋; 聂秋华; 徐铁峰

    2012-01-01

    Chalcogenide glass photonic crystal fiber is expected to have important applications in the field of mid-infrared laser transmission. The Ge30Sb8Se62 chalcogenide glass with excellent transparency in mid-infrared region is prepared. Based on this chalcogenide glass,a band-gap photonic crystal fiber is designed,which suits high power laser transmission. With plane wave expansion method and finite element method,photonic band gap,mode-field area and confinement loss of the designed photonic crystal fiber are systematically studied. By optimizing the structural parameters of fiber,photonic crystal fiber with confinement loss less than 0. 1 dB/m and effective mode-field area larger than 100 μm2 at 10. 6μm is obtained.%硫系玻璃光子晶体光纤在中远红外激光传输领域具有广阔的应用前景.制备了红外波段具有优良透过特性的Ge30Sb8Se62硫系玻璃,并以此为基质材料设计了一种适合于高功率中红外激光传输的带隙型光子晶体光纤.利用平面波展开法和有限元法分析了不同结构下该光纤的光子带隙、模场面积和限制损耗特性.通过优化光纤的结构参数,获得了在10.6 μm处限制损耗小于0.1 dB/m的大模场(模场面积大于100 μm2)光子晶体光纤.

  10. Structural, thermal, and photoacoustic study of nanocrystalline Cr{sub 3}Ge produced by mechanical alloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prates, P. B.; Maliska, A. M.; Ferreira, A. S. [Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Campus Universitário Trindade, S/N, C.P. 476, 88040-900 Florianópolis, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Poffo, C. M. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Campus de Araranguá, 88900-000 Araranguá, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Borges, Z. V. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, 3000 Japiim, 69077-000 Manaus, Amazonas (Brazil); Lima, J. C. de, E-mail: fsc1jcd@fisica.ufsc.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Campus Universitário Trindade, S/N, C.P. 476, 88040-900 Florianópolis, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Biasi, R. S. de [Seção de Engenharia Mecânica e de Materiais, Instituto Militar de Engenharia, 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2015-10-21

    A thermodynamic analysis of the Cr-Ge system suggested that it was possible to produce a nanostructured Cr{sub 3}Ge phase by mechanical alloying. The same analysis showed that, due to low activation energies, Cr-poor crystalline and/or amorphous alloy could also be formed. In fact, when the experiment was performed, Cr{sub 11}Ge{sub 19} and amorphous phases were present for small milling times. For milling times larger than 15 h these additional phases decomposed and only the nanostructured Cr{sub 3}Ge phase remained up to the highest milling time used (32 h). From the differential scanning calorimetry measurements, the Avrami exponent n was obtained, indicating that the nucleation and growth of the nanostructured Cr{sub 3}Ge phase may be restricted to one or two dimensions, where the Cr and Ge atoms diffuse along the surface and grain boundaries. In addition, contributions from three-dimensional diffusion with a constant nucleation rate may be present. The thermal diffusivity of the nanostructured Cr{sub 3}Ge phase was determined by photoacoustic absorption spectroscopy measurements.

  11. Hydrogen Gas Sensors Based on Semiconductor Oxide Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongming Hu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the hydrogen gas sensing properties of semiconductor oxide (SMO nanostructures have been widely investigated. In this article, we provide a comprehensive review of the research progress in the last five years concerning hydrogen gas sensors based on SMO thin film and one-dimensional (1D nanostructures. The hydrogen sensing mechanism of SMO nanostructures and some critical issues are discussed. Doping, noble metal-decoration, heterojunctions and size reduction have been investigated and proved to be effective methods for improving the sensing performance of SMO thin films and 1D nanostructures. The effect on the hydrogen response of SMO thin films and 1D nanostructures of grain boundary and crystal orientation, as well as the sensor architecture, including electrode size and nanojunctions have also been studied. Finally, we also discuss some challenges for the future applications of SMO nanostructured hydrogen sensors.

  12. The low temperature epitaxy of Ge on Si (1 0 0) substrate using two different precursors of GeH4 and Ge2H6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kil, Yeon-Ho; Yuk, Sim-Hoon; Kim, Joung Hee; Kim, Taek Sung; Kim, Yong Tae; Choi, Chel-Jong; Shim, Kyu-Hwan

    2016-10-01

    We have investigated the initial stage of low temperature epitaxy (LTE) of Ge on 8″-dia. Si (1 0 0) substrate using a rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition (RTCVD) with two different precursors of GeH4 and Ge2H6. The quality of LTE Ge films such as surface morphology, defects and crystallinity were analyzed using SEM, AFM and TEM. Experimental results confirmed that the LTE Ge using Ge2H6 precursor was much more beneficial than the LTE using GeH4 in terms of growth rate (×10), stress relaxation (85% at surface), and crystal quality (low TDDs). The discrepancy looks originated from the weak Gesbnd Ge bonds requiring their dissociation energy small compared to the Gesbnd H bonds in GeH4 precursors, and the abundant supply of GeH3 molecules should stimulate chemical reactions at free surface sites. Our LTE technology would be promising for very thin Ge virtual substrate as well as be beneficial for nano-micro electronic devices in need of low temperature processes below 300-500 °C.

  13. I8Sb10Ge36

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Kars

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Single crystals of the title compound, octaiodide decaantimonate hexatriacontagermanide, were grown by chemical transport reactions. The structure is isotypic with the analogous clathrates-I. In this structure, the (Ge,Sb46 framework consists of statistically occupied Ge and Sb sites that atoms form bonds in a distorted tetrahedral arrangement. They form polyhedra that are covalently bonded to each other by shared faces. There are two polyhedra of different sizes, viz. a (Ge,Sb20 dodecahedron and a (Ge,Sb24 tetracosahedron in a 1:3 ratio. The guest atom (iodine resides inside these polyhedra with symmetry m3 (Wyckoff position 2a and overline{4}2m (Wyckoff position 2d, respectively.

  14. Atomistic modeling of electronic structure and transport in disordered nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharche, Neerav

    and illuminate the interesting physics of these disordered nanostructures that otherwise can not be explained using the traditional averaging methods such as the virtual crystal approximation. Finally, a multiscale modeling approach is employed, which combines the atomistic tight-binding method to compute the electronic structure and the real-space effective mass based quantum transport model including gate leakage to simulate the three terminal characteristics of III-V quantum well field effect transistors (QWFETs). The simulation methodology has been benchmarked against experimental data and it is then applied to investigate the logic performance of ultra-scaled III-V QWFETs with high mobility InAs channels.

  15. Strain effects on thermal transport and anisotropy in thin-films of Si and Ge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foss, Cameron J.; Aksamija, Zlatan

    2016-12-01

    As dimensions of nanoelectronic devices become smaller, reaching a few nanometers in modern processors, CPU hot spots become increasingly more difficult to manage. Applying mechanical strain in nanostructures provides an additional tuning mechanism for both electronic band structures and phonon dispersions that is independent of other methods such as alloying and dimensional confinement. By breaking crystal symmetry, strain increases anisotropy. We present thermal conductivity calculations, performed in thin Si and Ge strained films, using first principles calculations of vibrational frequencies under biaxial strain, along with a phonon Boltzmann transport equation within the relaxation time approximation. We find that, while in-plane transport is not strongly dependent on strain, the cross-plane component of the thermal conductivity tensor shows a clear strain dependence, with up to 20% increase (decrease) at 4% compressive (tensile) strain in both Si and Ge. We also uncover that strain emphasizes the anisotropy between in-plane and cross-plane thermal conductivity across several orders of magnitude in film thickness.

  16. Unexpected Ge-Ge Contacts in the Two-Dimensional Ge4 Se3 Te Phase and Analysis of Their Chemical Cause with the Density of Energy (DOE) Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küpers, Michael; Konze, Philipp M; Maintz, Stefan; Steinberg, Simon; Mio, Antonio M; Cojocaru-Mirédin, Oana; Zhu, Min; Müller, Merlin; Luysberg, Martina; Mayer, Joachim; Wuttig, Matthias; Dronskowski, Richard

    2017-08-14

    A hexagonal phase in the ternary Ge-Se-Te system with an approximate composition of GeSe0.75 Te0.25 has been known since the 1960s but its structure has remained unknown. We have succeeded in growing single crystals by chemical transport as a prerequisite to solve and refine the Ge4 Se3 Te structure. It consists of layers that are held together by van der Waals type weak chalcogenide-chalcogenide interactions but also display unexpected Ge-Ge contacts, as confirmed by electron microscopy analysis. The nature of the electronic structure of Ge4 Se3 Te was characterized by chemical bonding analysis, in particular by the newly introduced density of energy (DOE) function. The Ge-Ge bonding interactions serve to hold electrons that would otherwise go into antibonding Ge-Te contacts. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Holographic and e-Beam Image Recording in Ge5As37S58-Se Nanomultilayer Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronski, A.; Achimova, E.; Paiuk, O.; Meshalkin, A.; Abashkin, V.; Lytvyn, O.; Sergeev, S.; Prisacar, A.; Triduh, G.

    2016-01-01

    Processes of e-beam and holographic recording of surface relief structures using Ge5As37S58-Se multilayer nanostructures as registering media were studied in this paper. Optical properties of Ge5As37S58, Se layers, and Ge5As37S58-Se multilayer nanostructures were investigated. Spectral dependencies of refractive index were analyzed within the frames of single oscillator model. Values of optical band gaps for Ge5As37S58, Se layers, and Ge5As37S58-Se multilayer nanostructures were obtained from Tauc dependencies. Using e-beam and holographic recording, diffraction gratings were fabricated in Ge5As37S58-Se multilayer nanostructures. Images of Ukraine and Moldova state emblems were obtained by e-beam recording. Image size consisted of 512 × 512 pixels (size of 1 pixel was ~2 μm). Ge5As37S58-Se multilayer nanostructures are perspective for the direct recording of holographic diffraction gratings and other optical elements.

  18. Structural evolution of Ge-rich Si{sub 1−x}Ge{sub x} films deposited by jet-ICPCVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yu; Yang, Meng; Wang, Gang [Key Laboratory of Advanced Photonic and Electronic Materials and School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Wei, Xiaoxu; Wang, Junzhuan; Li, Yun; Zheng, Youdou; Shi, Yi, E-mail: yshi@nju.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Advanced Photonic and Electronic Materials and School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Micro-structures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zou, Zewen [College of Physics and Electronics Information, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu 241000 (China)

    2015-11-15

    Amorphous Ge-rich Si{sub 1−x}Ge{sub x} films with local Ge-clustering were deposited by dual-source jet-type inductively coupled plasma chemical-vapor deposition (jet-ICPCVD). The structural evolution of the deposited films annealed at various temperatures (Ta) is investigated. Experimental results indicate that the crystallization occurs to form Ge and Si clusters as Ta = 500 °C. With raising Ta up to 900 °C, Ge clusters percolate together and Si diffuses and redistributes to form a Ge/SiGe core/shell structure, and some Ge atoms partially diffuse to the surface as a result of segregation. The present work will be helpful in understanding the structural evolution process of a hybrid SiGe films and beneficial for further optimizing the microstructure and properties.

  19. Modifications of gallium phosphide single crystals using slow highly charged ions and swift heavy ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Said, A. S.; Wilhelm, R. A.; Heller, R.; Akhmadaliev, Sh.; Schumann, E.; Sorokin, M.; Facsko, S.; Trautmann, C.

    2016-09-01

    GaP single crystals were irradiated with slow highly charged ions (HCI) using 114 keV 129Xe(33-40)+ and with various swift heavy ions (SHI) of 30 MeV I9+ and 374 MeV-2.2 GeV 197Au25+. The irradiated surfaces were investigated by scanning force microscopy (SFM). The irradiations with SHI lead to nanohillocks protruding from the GaP surfaces, whereas no changes of the surface topography were observed after the irradiation with HCI. This result indicates that a potential energy above 38.5 keV is required for surface nanostructuring of GaP. In addition, strong coloration of the GaP crystals was observed after irradiation with SHI. The effect was stronger for higher energies. This was confirmed by measuring an increased extinction coefficient in the visible light region.

  20. Nanocrystals formation and fractal microstructural assessment in Au/Ge bilayer films upon annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Z.W. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: cnzwchen@yahoo.com.cn; Lai, J.K.L. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China); Shek, C.H. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China); Chen, H.D. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China)

    2005-08-31

    Nanocrystals formation and fractal microstructural assessment in Au/Ge bilayer films upon annealing have been investigated by transmission electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy observations. Experimental results indicated that the microstructure of the metal Au film plays an important role in metal-induced crystallization for Au/Ge bilayer films upon annealing. Synchronously, the crystallization processes of amorphous Ge accompanied by the formation of Ge fractal clusters, which were composed of Ge nanocrystals. We found that the grain boundaries of polycrystalline Au film were the initial nucleation sites of Ge nanocrystals. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy observations showed successive nucleation of amorphous Ge at Au grain boundaries near fractal tips. The crystallization process was suggested to be diffusion controlled and a random successive nucleation and growth mechanism.

  1. Growth and applications of GeSn-related group-IV semiconductor materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaima, Shigeaki; Nakatsuka, Osamu; Taoka, Noriyuki; Kurosawa, Masashi; Takeuchi, Wakana; Sakashita, Mitsuo

    2015-08-01

    We review the technology of Ge1-xSnx-related group-IV semiconductor materials for developing Si-based nanoelectronics. Ge1-xSnx-related materials provide novel engineering of the crystal growth, strain structure, and energy band alignment for realising various applications not only in electronics, but also in optoelectronics. We introduce our recent achievements in the crystal growth of Ge1-xSnx-related material thin films and the studies of the electronic properties of thin films, metals/Ge1-xSnx, and insulators/Ge1-xSnx interfaces. We also review recent studies related to the crystal growth, energy band engineering, and device applications of Ge1-xSnx-related materials, as well as the reported performances of electronic devices using Ge1-xSnx related materials.

  2. Growth and applications of GeSn-related group-IV semiconductor materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaima, Shigeaki; Nakatsuka, Osamu; Taoka, Noriyuki; Kurosawa, Masashi; Takeuchi, Wakana; Sakashita, Mitsuo

    2015-08-01

    We review the technology of Ge1-x Sn x -related group-IV semiconductor materials for developing Si-based nanoelectronics. Ge1-x Sn x -related materials provide novel engineering of the crystal growth, strain structure, and energy band alignment for realising various applications not only in electronics, but also in optoelectronics. We introduce our recent achievements in the crystal growth of Ge1-x Sn x -related material thin films and the studies of the electronic properties of thin films, metals/Ge1-x Sn x , and insulators/Ge1-x Sn x interfaces. We also review recent studies related to the crystal growth, energy band engineering, and device applications of Ge1-x Sn x -related materials, as well as the reported performances of electronic devices using Ge1-x Sn x related materials.

  3. Ternary germanides RERhGe2 (RE = Y, Gd-Ho) - New representatives of the YIrGe2 type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voßwinkel, Daniel; Heletta, Lukas; Hoffmann, Rolf-Dieter; Pöttgen, Rainer

    2016-11-01

    The YIrGe2 type ternary germanides RERhGe2 (RE = Y, Gd-Ho) were synthesized from the elements by arc-melting and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction. The structure of DyRhGe2 was refined from single crystal X-ray diffractometer data: Immm, a = 426.49(9), b = 885.0(2), c = 1577.4(3) pm, wR2 = 0.0533, 637 F2 values, 30 variables (300 K data). The structure contains two crystallographically independent dysprosium atoms in pentagonal prismatic and hexagonal prismatic coordination. The three-dimensional [RhGe2] polyanion is stabilized through covalent Rh-Ge (243-261 pm) and Ge-Ge (245-251 pm) bonding. The close structural relationship with the slightly rhodium-poorer germanides RE5Rh4Ge10 (≡ RERh0.8Ge2) is discussed. Temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibility measurements reveal Pauli paramagnetism for YRhGe2 and Curie-Weiss paramagnetism for RERhGe2 with RE = Gd, Tb, Dy and Ho. These germanides order antiferromagnetically at TN = 7.2(5), 10.6(5), 8.1(5), and 6.4(5) K, respectively.

  4. Si-Ge-metal ternary phase diagram calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleurial, J. P.; Borshchevsky, A.

    1990-01-01

    Solution crystal growth and doping conditions of Si-Ge alloys used for high-temperature thermoelectric generation are determined here. Liquid-phase epitaxy (LPE) has been successfully employed recently to obtain single-crystalline homogeneous layers of Si-Ge solid solutions from a liquid metal solvent. Knowledge of Si-Ge-metallic solvent ternary phase diagrams is essential for further single-crystal growth development. Consequently, a thermodynamic equilibrium model was used to calculate the phase diagrams of the Si-Ge-M systems, including solid solubilities, where M is Al, Ga, In, Sn, Pb, Sb, or Bi. Good agreement between calculated liquidus and solidus data and experimental DTA and microprobe results was obtained. The results are used to compare the suitability of the different systems for crystal growth (by LPE-type process).

  5. Electric and Magnetic Field Tunable Rectification and Magnetoresistance in FexGe1-x/Ge Heterojunction Diodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Yu-Feng; CHEN Yan-Xue; MEI Liang-Mo; ZHANG Ze; YAN Shi-Shen; KANG Shi-Shou; XIAO Shu-Qin; LI Qiang; DAI Zheng-Kun; SHEN Ting-Ting; DAI You-Yong; LIU Guo-Lei

    2011-01-01

    Fex Ge1- x/Ge amorphous heterojunction diodes with p-Fex Ge1-x ferromagnetic semiconductor layers are grown on single-crystal Ge substrates of p-type,n-type and intrinsic semiconductors,respectively.The I-V curves of pFe0.4 Ge0.6 /p-Ge diodes only show slight changes with temperature or with magnetic field.For the p-Fe0.4 Ge0.6 /nGe diode,good rectification is maintained at room temperature.More interestingly,the I-V curve of the pFe0.4Ge0.6/i-Ge diode can be tuned by the magnetic field,indicating a large positive magnetoresistance.The resistances of the junctions decrease with the increasing temperature,suggesting a typical semiconductor transport behavior.The origin of the positive magnetoresistance is discussed based on the effect of the electric and magnetic field on the energy band structures of the interface.In the past decades,ferromagnetic semiconductors (FMSs),which can be used as spin current sources,have received much attention due to their potential application in the next generation of information technology.In 1996,Ohno et a/.… reported molecular beam epitaxial (Ga,Mn)As FMSs,which show a wellaligned ferromagnetic order and an anomalous Halleffect.In 2002,Park et al.[2]%FexGe1-x/Ge amorphous heterojunction diodes with p-FexGe1-x ferromagnetic semiconductor layers are grown on single-crystal Ge substrates of p-type, n-type and intrinsic semiconductors, respectively. The I-V curves of p-Fe0.4Geo.6/p-Ge diodes only show slight changes with temperature or with magnetic field. For the p-Fe0.4Ge0.6/n-Ge diode, good rectification is maintained at room temperature. More interestingly, the I-V curve of the p-Fe0.4Ge0.6/I-Ge diode can be tuned by the magnetic field, indicating a large positive magnetoresistance. The resistances of the junctions decrease with the increasing temperature, suggesting a typical semiconductor transport behavior. The origin of the positive magnetoresistance is discussed based on the effect of the electric and magnetic field on the

  6. Growth strategies to control tapering in Ge nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Periwal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We report the effect of PH3 on the morphology of Au catalyzed Ge nanowires (NWs. Ge NWs were grown on Si (111 substrate at 400 °C in the presence of PH3, using vapor-liquid-solid method by chemical vapor deposition. We show that high PH3/GeH4 ratio causes passivation at NW surface. At high PH3 concentration phosphorous atoms attach itself on NW surface and form a self-protection coating that prevents conformal growth and leads to taper free nanostructures. However, in case of low PH3 flux the combination of axial and radial growth mechanism occurs resulting in conical structure. We have also investigated axial PH3-intrinsic junctions in Ge NWs. The unusual NW shape is attributed to a combination of catalyzed, uncatalyzed and diffusion induced growth.

  7. Bulk Nanostructured Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, C. C.; Langdon, T. G.; Lavernia, E. J.

    2017-09-01

    This paper will address three topics of importance to bulk nanostructured materials. Bulk nanostructured materials are defined as bulk solids with nanoscale or partly nanoscale microstructures. This category of nanostructured materials has historical roots going back many decades but has relatively recent focus due to new discoveries of unique properties of some nanoscale materials. Bulk nanostructured materials are prepared by a variety of severe plastic deformation methods, and these will be reviewed. Powder processing to prepare bulk nanostructured materials requires that the powders be consolidated by typical combinations of pressure and temperature, the latter leading to coarsening of the microstructure. The thermal stability of nanostructured materials will also be discussed. An example of bringing nanostructured materials to applications as structural materials will be described in terms of the cryomilling of powders and their consolidation.

  8. Ordered macroporous bimetallic nanostructures: design, characterization, and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lehui; Eychmüller, Alexander

    2008-02-01

    Ordered porous metal nanomaterials have current and future potential applications, for example, as catalysts, as photonic crystals, as sensors, as porous electrodes, as substrates for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), in separation technology, and in other emerging nanotechnologies. Methods for creating such materials are commonly characterized as "templating", a technique that involves first the creation of a sacrificial template with a specific porous structure, followed by the filling of these pores with desired metal materials and finally the removal of the starting template, leaving behind a metal replica of the original template. From the viewpoint of practical applications, ordered metal nanostructures with hierarchical porosity, namely, macropores in combination with micropores or mesopores, are of particular interest because macropores allow large guest molecules to access and an efficient mass transport through the porous structures is enabled while the micropores or mesopores enhance the selectivity and the surface area of the metal nanostructures. For this objective, colloidal crystals (or artificial opals) consisting of three-dimensional (3D) long-range ordered arrays of silica or polymer microspheres are ideal starting templates. However, with respect to the colloidal crystal templating strategies for production of ordered porous metal nanostructures, there are two challenging questions for materials scientists: (1) how to uniformly and controllably fill the interstitial space of the colloidal crystal templates and (2) how to generate ordered composite metal nanostructures with hierarchical porosity. This Account reports on recent work in the development and applications of ordered macroporous bimetallic nanostructures in our laboratories. A series of strategies have been explored to address the challenges in colloidal crystal template techniques. By rationally tailoring experimental parameters, we could readily and selectively design

  9. Phase segregation in Pb:GeSbTe chalcogenide system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, J.; Ahmad, M.; Chander, R.; Thangaraj, R.; Sathiaraj, T. S.

    2008-01-01

    Effect of Pb substitution on the amorphous-crystalline transformation temperature, optical band gap and crystalline structure of Ge{2}Sb{2}Te{5} has been studied. In Pb:GeSbTe chalcogenide films prepared by thermal evaporation, an amorphous to crystallization transition is observed at 124, 129, 136 and 138 °C in Pb{0}Ge{20}Sb{24}Te{56}, Pb{1.6}Ge{19}Sb{26}Te{54}, Pb{3}Ge{17}Sb{28}Te{53} and Pb{5}Ge{12}Sb{28}Te{55} respectively. XRD investigations of annealed samples reveal that Pb substitution retains NaCl type crystalline structure of GST but expands the lattice due to large atomic radii. The increase in amorphous-crystalline transformation temperature is followed with the increase in phase segregation. The optical gap shows marginal variations with composition.

  10. Reconfigurable optical assembly of nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montelongo, Yunuen; Yetisen, Ali K.; Butt, Haider; Yun, Seok-Hyun

    2016-06-01

    Arrangements of nanostructures in well-defined patterns are the basis of photonic crystals, metamaterials and holograms. Furthermore, rewritable optical materials can be achieved by dynamically manipulating nanoassemblies. Here we demonstrate a mechanism to configure plasmonic nanoparticles (NPs) in polymer media using nanosecond laser pulses. The mechanism relies on optical forces produced by the interference of laser beams, which allow NPs to migrate to lower-energy configurations. The resulting NP arrangements are stable without any external energy source, but erasable and rewritable by additional recording pulses. We demonstrate reconfigurable optical elements including multilayer Bragg diffraction gratings, volumetric photonic crystals and lenses, as well as dynamic holograms of three-dimensional virtual objects. We aim to expand the applications of optical forces, which have been mostly restricted to optical tweezers. Holographic assemblies of nanoparticles will allow a new generation of programmable composites for tunable metamaterials, data storage devices, sensors and displays.

  11. Growth method for chalcongenide phase-change nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bin (Inventor); Sun, Xuhui (Inventor); Meyyappan, Meyya (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method for growth of an alloy for use in a nanostructure, to provide a resulting nanostructure compound including at least one of Ge.sub.xTe.sub.y, In.sub.xSb.sub.y, In.sub.xSe.sub.y, Sb.sub.xTe.sub.y, Ga.sub.xSb.sub.y, Ge.sub.xSb.sub.y,Te.sub.z, In.sub.xSb.sub.yTe.sub.z, Ga.sub.xSe.sub.yTe.sub.z, Sn.sub.xSb.sub.yTe.sub.z, In.sub.xSb.sub.yGe.sub.z, Ge.sub.wSn.sub.xSb.sub.yTe.sub.z, Ge.sub.wSb.sub.xSe.sub.yTe.sub.z, and Te.sub.wGe.sub.xSb.sub.yS.sub.z, where w, x, y and z are numbers consistent with oxidization states (2, 3, 4, 5, 6) of the corresponding elements. The melt temperatures for some of the resulting compounds are in a range 330-420.degree. C., or even lower with some compounds.

  12. Search for Tetrahedral Symmetry in 70Ge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Khanh; Haring-Kaye, R. A.; Elder, R. M.; Jones, K. D.; Morrow, S. I.; Tabor, S. L.; Tripathi, V.; Bender, P. C.; Allegro, P. R. P.; Medina, N. H.; Oliveira, J. R. B.; Doring, J.

    2014-09-01

    The even-even Ge isotopes have recently become an active testing ground for a variety of exotic structural characteristics, including the existence of tetrahedral symmetry (pyramid-like shapes). Although theoretical shape calculations predict the onset of tetrahedral symmetry near 72Ge, the experimental signatures (including vanishing quadrupole moments within high-spin bands) remain elusive. This study searched for possible experimental evidence of tetrahedral symmetry in 70Ge. Excited states in 70Ge were populated at Florida State University using the 55Mn(18O,p2n) fusion-evaporation reaction at 50 MeV. Prompt γ- γ coincidences were measured with a Compton-suppressed Ge array consisting of three Clover detectors and seven single-crystal detectors. The existing level scheme was enhanced through the addition of 20 new transitions and the rearrangement of five others based on the measured coincidence relations and relative intensities. Lifetimes of 24 states were measured using the Doppler-shift attenuation method, from which transition quadrupole moments were inferred. These results will be compared with those obtained from cranked Woods-Saxon calculations. The even-even Ge isotopes have recently become an active testing ground for a variety of exotic structural characteristics, including the existence of tetrahedral symmetry (pyramid-like shapes). Although theoretical shape calculations predict the onset of tetrahedral symmetry near 72Ge, the experimental signatures (including vanishing quadrupole moments within high-spin bands) remain elusive. This study searched for possible experimental evidence of tetrahedral symmetry in 70Ge. Excited states in 70Ge were populated at Florida State University using the 55Mn(18O,p2n) fusion-evaporation reaction at 50 MeV. Prompt γ- γ coincidences were measured with a Compton-suppressed Ge array consisting of three Clover detectors and seven single-crystal detectors. The existing level scheme was enhanced through the addition

  13. Synthesis and characterisation of nanostructured neodymium titanium oxides by sol-gel process: Controlling the phase composition, crystal structure and grain size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammadi, M.R., E-mail: mrm41@cam.ac.uk [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Azadi Street, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom); Fray, D.J., E-mail: djf25@cam.ac.uk [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom)

    2010-08-01

    Nanocrystalline neodymium titanium oxide thin films and powders with different phase compositions with mesoporous structure were produced by a straightforward particulate sol-gel route. The sols were prepared in various Nd:Ti molar ratios and they showed a narrow particle size distribution in the range 20-26 nm. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) revealed that the powders contained mixtures of Nd{sub 4}Ti{sub 9}O{sub 24}, Nd{sub 2}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 11}, Nd{sub 3}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 12} for titanium dominant powders (Nd:Ti {<=} 45:60), mixtures of Nd{sub 2}TiO{sub 5} and Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} for neodymium dominant powders (Nd:Ti {>=} 75:25) and pure Nd{sub 3}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 12} phase for equal molar ratio of Nd:Ti, depending on the annealing temperature and Nd:Ti molar ratio. Moreover, it was found that Nd:Ti molar ratio influences the preferable orientation growth of the neodymium titanium oxide compounds. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) images confirmed that the average crystallite size of the powders annealed at 400 {sup o}C was in the range 1.0-2.8 nm and a gradual increase was occurred up to 6.7 nm by heat treatment at 1000 {sup o}C. The activation energy of crystal growth reduced with a decrease of Nd:Ti molar ratio, calculated in the range 6.90-18.12 kJ mol{sup -1}. Low activation energies indicating that the grain size will not change much with increase in temperature. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) analysis revealed that the deposited thin films had uniform, mesoporous and nanocrystalline structure. Moreover, atomic force microscope (AFM) images presented that the thin films had a columnar like morphology with average grain size in the range 17-30 nm at 600 {sup o}C and 47-60 nm at 800 {sup o}C, depending upon the Nd:Ti molar ratio. Based on Brunauer-Emmett-Taylor (BET) analysis, the synthesized powders showed mesoporous structure containing pores with sphere like shapes. The surface area of the

  14. Synthesis and the crystal and molecular structure of the silver(I)-germanium(IV) polymeric complex with citrate anions {[Ag2Ge(H Cit)2(H2O)2] • 2H2O} n

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergienko, V. S.; Martsinko, E. E.; Seifullina, I. I.; Churakov, A. V.; Chebanenko, E. A.

    2016-03-01

    The synthesis and X-ray diffraction study of compound {[Ag2Ge(H Cit)2(H2O)2] • 2H2O} n , where H4 Cit is the citric acid, are performed. In the polymeric structure, the H Cit 3- ligand fulfils the tetradentate chelate-μ4-bridging (3Ag, Ge) function (tridentate with respect to Ge and Ag atoms). The Ge atom is octahedrally coordinated by six O atoms of two H Cit 3-ligands. The coordination polyhedron of the Ag atom is an irregular five-vertex polyhedron [four O atoms of four H Cit 3- ligands and the O(H2O) atom]. An extended system of O-H···O hydrogen bonds connects complex molecules into a supramolecular 3D-framework.

  15. Nanostructured germanium deposited on heated substrates with enhanced photoelectric properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel Stavarache

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Obtaining high-quality materials, based on nanocrystals, at low temperatures is one of the current challenges for opening new paths in improving and developing functional devices in nanoscale electronics and optoelectronics. Here we report a detailed investigation of the optimization of parameters for the in situ synthesis of thin films with high Ge content (50 % into SiO2. Crystalline Ge nanoparticles were directly formed during co-deposition of SiO2 and Ge on substrates at 300, 400 and 500 °C. Using this approach, effects related to Ge–Ge spacing are emphasized through a significant improvement of the spatial distribution of the Ge nanoparticles and by avoiding multi-step fabrication processes or Ge loss. The influence of the preparation conditions on structural, electrical and optical properties of the fabricated nanostructures was studied by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, electrical measurements in dark or under illumination and response time investigations. Finally, we demonstrate the feasibility of the procedure by the means of an Al/n-Si/Ge:SiO2/ITO photodetector test structure. The structures, investigated at room temperature, show superior performance, high photoresponse gain, high responsivity (about 7 AW−1, fast response time (0.5 µs at 4 kHz and great optoelectronic conversion efficiency of 900% in a wide operation bandwidth, from 450 to 1300 nm. The obtained photoresponse gain and the spectral width are attributed mainly to the high Ge content packed into a SiO2 matrix showing the direct connection between synthesis and optical properties of the tested nanostructures. Our deposition approach put in evidence the great potential of Ge nanoparticles embedded in a SiO2 matrix for hybrid integration, as they may be employed in structures and devices individually or with other materials, hence the possibility of fabricating various heterojunctions on Si, glass or flexible substrates for future development of Si

  16. Phonon engineering for nanostructures.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubry, Sylvie (Stanford University); Friedmann, Thomas Aquinas; Sullivan, John Patrick; Peebles, Diane Elaine; Hurley, David H. (Idaho National Laboratory); Shinde, Subhash L.; Piekos, Edward Stanley; Emerson, John Allen

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the physics of phonon transport at small length scales is increasingly important for basic research in nanoelectronics, optoelectronics, nanomechanics, and thermoelectrics. We conducted several studies to develop an understanding of phonon behavior in very small structures. This report describes the modeling, experimental, and fabrication activities used to explore phonon transport across and along material interfaces and through nanopatterned structures. Toward the understanding of phonon transport across interfaces, we computed the Kapitza conductance for {Sigma}29(001) and {Sigma}3(111) interfaces in silicon, fabricated the interfaces in single-crystal silicon substrates, and used picosecond laser pulses to image the thermal waves crossing the interfaces. Toward the understanding of phonon transport along interfaces, we designed and fabricated a unique differential test structure that can measure the proportion of specular to diffuse thermal phonon scattering from silicon surfaces. Phonon-scale simulation of the test ligaments, as well as continuum scale modeling of the complete experiment, confirmed its sensitivity to surface scattering. To further our understanding of phonon transport through nanostructures, we fabricated microscale-patterned structures in diamond thin films.

  17. Compton profile study of V3Ge and Cr3Ge

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Y C Sharma; V Vyas; V Purvia; K B Joshi; B K Sharma

    2008-02-01

    In this paper the results of a Compton profile study of two polycrystalline A15 compounds, namely, V3Ge and Cr3Ge, have been reported. The measurements have been performed using 59.54 keV -rays from an 241Am source. The theoretical Compton profiles have been computed for both the compounds using ab-initio linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO) method employing CRYSTAL98. For both the A15 compounds, the isotropic experimental profiles are found to be in good overall agreement with the calculations. The comparison points out residual differences in V3Ge whereas for Cr3Ge the differences are within experimental error. The behaviour of valence electrons in the two iso-structural compounds has been examined on the scale of Fermi momentum. The valence electron distribution seems to be dominated by the metallic constituents rather than Ge and two compounds show covalent nature of bonding which is larger in V3Ge compared to Cr3Ge.

  18. Simple Thermal Decompose Method for Synthesis of Nickel Disulfide Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyghalkar, Hamideh; Sabet, Mohammad; Salavati-Niasari, Masoud

    2016-11-01

    In this work, a simple thermal decompose method was served to synthesize NiS2 nanostructures via a nickel complex. Also polyethylene glycol (PEG) was used as surfactant to increase the steric effect around nanostructure surfaces and decrease the particles size. The product was characterized with different analysis methods. The crystal structure of the product was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern. The particle size and morphology were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). To study the nanostructures surface purity, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) was used. And finally to study the optical properties of the product photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy was served.

  19. Novel nanostructures for next generation dye-sensitized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Tétreault, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Herein, we review our latest advancements in nanostructured photoanodes for next generation photovoltaics in general and dye-sensitized solar cells in particular. Bottom-up self-assembly techniques are developed to fabricate large-area 3D nanostructures that enable enhanced charge extraction and light harvesting through optical scattering or photonic crystal effects to improve photocurrent, photovoltage and fill factor. Using generalized techniques to fabricate specialized nanostructures enables specific optoelectronic and physical characteristics like conduction, charge extraction, injection, recombination and light harvesting but also helps improve mechanical flexibility and long-term stability in low cost materials. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  20. Fast Surface Dynamics of Metallic Glass Enable Superlatticelike Nanostructure Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L.; Cao, C. R.; Shi, J. A.; Lu, Z.; Sun, Y. T.; Luo, P.; Gu, L.; Bai, H. Y.; Pan, M. X.; Wang, W. H.

    2017-01-01

    Contrary to the formation of complicated polycrystals induced by general crystallization, a modulated superlatticelike nanostructure, which grows layer by layer from the surface to the interior of a Pd40Ni10Cu30P20 metallic glass, is observed via isothermal annealing below the glass transition temperature. The generation of the modulated nanostructure can be solely controlled by the annealing temperature, and it can be understood based on the fast dynamic and liquidlike behavior of the glass surface. The observations have implications for understanding the glassy surface dynamics and pave a way for the controllable fabrication of a unique and sophisticated nanostructure on a glass surface to realize the properties' modification.

  1. Advanced Magnetic Nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Sellmyer, David

    2006-01-01

    Advanced Magnetic Nanostructures is devoted to the fabrication, characterization, experimental investigation, theoretical understanding, and utilization of advanced magnetic nanostructures. Focus is on various types of 'bottom-up' and 'top-down' artificial nanostructures, as contrasted to naturally occurring magnetic nanostructures, such as iron-oxide inclusions in magnetic rocks, and to structures such as perfect thin films. Chapter 1 is an introduction into some basic concepts, such as the definitions of basic magnetic quantities. Chapters 2-4 are devoted to the theory of magnetic nanostructures, Chapter 5 deals with the characterization of the structures, and Chapters 6-10 are devoted to specific systems. Applications of advanced magnetic nanostructures are discussed in Chapters11-15 and, finally, the appendix lists and briefly discusses magnetic properties of typical starting materials. Industrial and academic researchers in magnetism and related areas such as nanotechnology, materials science, and theore...

  2. Nanostructured composite reinforced material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seals, Roland D [Oak Ridge, TN; Ripley, Edward B [Knoxville, TN; Ludtka, Gerard M [Oak Ridge, TN

    2012-07-31

    A family of materials wherein nanostructures and/or nanotubes are incorporated into a multi-component material arrangement, such as a metallic or ceramic alloy or composite/aggregate, producing a new material or metallic/ceramic alloy. The new material has significantly increased strength, up to several thousands of times normal and perhaps substantially more, as well as significantly decreased weight. The new materials may be manufactured into a component where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the bulk and/or matrix material, or as a coating where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the coating or surface of a "normal" substrate material. The nanostructures are incorporated into the material structure either randomly or aligned, within grains, or along or across grain boundaries.

  3. Nanostructured Materials for Magnetoelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Mikailzade, Faik

    2013-01-01

    This book provides an up-to-date review of nanometer-scale magnetism and focuses on the investigation of the basic properties of magnetic nanostructures. It describes a wide range of physical aspects together with theoretical and experimental methods. A broad overview of the latest developments in this emerging and fascinating field of nanostructured materials is given with emphasis on the practical understanding and operation of submicron devices based on nanostructured magnetic materials.

  4. GeSn/Ge multiquantum well photodetectors on Si substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehme, M; Widmann, D; Kostecki, K; Zaumseil, P; Schwartz, B; Gollhofer, M; Koerner, R; Bechler, S; Kittler, M; Kasper, E; Schulze, J

    2014-08-15

    Vertical incidence GeSn/Ge multiquantum well (MQW) pin photodetectors on Si substrates were fabricated with a Sn concentration of 7%. The epitaxial structure was grown with a special low temperature molecular beam epitaxy process. The Ge barrier in the GeSn/Ge MQW was kept constant at 10 nm. The well width was varied between 6 and 12 nm. The GeSn/Ge MQW structures were grown pseudomorphically with the in-plane lattice constant of the Ge virtual substrate. The absorption edge shifts to longer wavelengths with thicker QWs in agreement with expectations from smaller quantization energies for the thicker QWs.

  5. Nonlinear phenomenon in nanostructures creation by fast cluster ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moslem, W. M.; El-Said, A. S.; Sabry, R.; Shalouf, A.; El-Labany, S. K.; Bahlouli, H.

    2017-01-01

    The development of accelerators technology offers a new window for the creation of surface nanostructures in an efficient and accurate way. The use of 30 MeV C60 cluster ions enables the creation of nano-hillocks of size larger than the ones produced by GeV monoatomic ions. The physical mechanism underlying the realization of such nanostructures is elucidated using a plasma expansion approach. Numerical analysis showed that increasing the ionic temperature (number density) ratios would lead to decrease (increase) the nano-hillocks height.

  6. High quality, giant crystalline-Ge stripes on insulating substrate by rapid-thermal-annealing of Sn-doped amorphous-Ge in solid-liquid coexisting region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Matsumura

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Formation of large-grain (≥30 μm Ge crystals on insulating substrates is strongly desired to achieve high-speed thin-film transistors. For this purpose, we propose the methods of Sn-doping into amorphous-Ge combined with rapid-thermal-annealing (RTA in the solid-liquid coexisting temperature region for the Ge-Sn alloy system. The densities of micro-crystal-nuclei formed in this temperature region become low by tuning the RTA temperature close to the liquidus curve, which enhances the lateral growth of GeSn. Thanks to the very small segregation coefficient of Sn, almost all Sn atoms segregate toward edges of the stripes during growth. Agglomeration of GeSn degrades the surface morphologies; however, it is significantly improved by lowering the initial Sn concentration. As a result, pure Ge with large crystal grains (∼40 μm with smooth surface are obtained by optimizing the initial Sn concentration as low as 3 ∼ 5%. Lateral growth lengths are further increased through decreasing the number of nuclei in stripes by narrowing stripe width. In this way, high-crystallinity giant Ge crystals (∼200 μm are obtained for the stripe width of 3 μm. This “Si-seed free” technique for formation of large-grain pure Ge crystals is very useful to realize high-performance thin-film devices on insulator.

  7. High quality, giant crystalline-Ge stripes on insulating substrate by rapid-thermal-annealing of Sn-doped amorphous-Ge in solid-liquid coexisting region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Ryo; Kai, Yuki; Chikita, Hironori; Sadoh, Taizoh; Miyao, Masanobu

    2015-06-01

    Formation of large-grain (≥30 μm) Ge crystals on insulating substrates is strongly desired to achieve high-speed thin-film transistors. For this purpose, we propose the methods of Sn-doping into amorphous-Ge combined with rapid-thermal-annealing (RTA) in the solid-liquid coexisting temperature region for the Ge-Sn alloy system. The densities of micro-crystal-nuclei formed in this temperature region become low by tuning the RTA temperature close to the liquidus curve, which enhances the lateral growth of GeSn. Thanks to the very small segregation coefficient of Sn, almost all Sn atoms segregate toward edges of the stripes during growth. Agglomeration of GeSn degrades the surface morphologies; however, it is significantly improved by lowering the initial Sn concentration. As a result, pure Ge with large crystal grains (˜40 μm) with smooth surface are obtained by optimizing the initial Sn concentration as low as 3 ˜ 5%. Lateral growth lengths are further increased through decreasing the number of nuclei in stripes by narrowing stripe width. In this way, high-crystallinity giant Ge crystals (˜200 μm) are obtained for the stripe width of 3 μm. This "Si-seed free" technique for formation of large-grain pure Ge crystals is very useful to realize high-performance thin-film devices on insulator.

  8. Nonlinear photoluminescence spectrum of single gold nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knittel, Vanessa; Fischer, Marco P; de Roo, Tjaard; Mecking, Stefan; Leitenstorfer, Alfred; Brida, Daniele

    2015-01-27

    We investigate the multiphoton photoluminescence characteristics of gold nanoantennas fabricated from single crystals and polycrystalline films. By exciting these nanostructures with ultrashort pulses tunable in the near-infrared range, we observe distinct features in the broadband photoluminescence spectrum. By comparing antennas of different crystallinity and shape, we demonstrate that the nanoscopic geometry of plasmonic devices determines the shape of the emission spectra. Our findings rule out the contribution of the gold band structure in shaping the photoluminescence.

  9. Hypersonic phononic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorishnyy, T; Ullal, C K; Maldovan, M; Fytas, G; Thomas, E L

    2005-03-25

    In this Letter we propose the use of hypersonic phononic crystals to control the emission and propagation of high frequency phonons. We report the fabrication of high quality, single crystalline hypersonic crystals using interference lithography and show that direct measurement of their phononic band structure is possible with Brillouin light scattering. Numerical calculations are employed to explain the nature of the observed propagation modes. This work lays the foundation for experimental studies of hypersonic crystals and, more generally, phonon-dependent processes in nanostructures.

  10. Superlattice of Fe(x)Ge(1-x) nanodots and nanolayers for spintronics application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Tianxiao; Kou, Xufeng; Tang, Jianshi; Fan, Yabin; Lang, Murong; Chang, Li-Te; Chu, Chia-Pu; He, Liang; Lee, Sheng-Wei; Xiu, Faxian; Zou, Jin; Wang, Kang L

    2014-12-19

    Fe(x)Ge(1-x) superlattices with two types of nanostructures, i.e. nanodots and nanolayers, were successfully fabricated using low-temperature molecular beam epitaxy. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) characterization clearly shows that both the Fe(x)Ge(1-x) nanodots and nanolayers exhibit a lattice-coherent structure with the surrounding Ge matrix without any metallic precipitations or secondary phases. The magnetic measurement reveals the nature of superparamagnetism in Fe(x)Ge(1-x) nanodots, while showing the absence of superparamagnetism in Fe(x)Ge(1-x) nanolayers. Magnetotransport measurements show distinct magnetoresistance (MR) behavior, i.e. a negative to positive MR transition in Fe(x)Ge(1-x) nanodots and only positive MR in nanolayers, which could be due to a competition between the orbital MR and spin-dependent scatterings. Our results open a new growth strategy for engineering Fe(x)Ge(1-x) nanostructures to facilitate the development of Ge-based spintronics and magnetoelectronics devices.

  11. Low Thermal Budget Fabrication of III-V Quantum Nanostructures on Si Substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bietti, S; Somaschini, C; Sanguinetti, S; Koguchi, N [L-NESS and Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, via Cozzi 53, I-20125 Milano (Italy); Isella, G; Chrastina, D; Fedorov, A, E-mail: stefano.sanguinetti@mater.unimib.i [CNISM, L-NESS and Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, via Anzani 42, I-22100 Como (Italy)

    2010-09-01

    We show the possibility to integrate high quality III-V quantum nanostructures tunable in shape and emission energy on Si-Ge Virtual Substrate. Strong photoemission is observed, also at room temperature, from two different kind of GaAs quantum nanostructures fabricated on Silicon substrate. Due to the low thermal budget of the procedure used for the fabrication of the active layer, Droplet Epitaxy is to be considered an excellent candidate for implementation of optoelectronic devices on CMOS circuits.

  12. Shape Evolution of Detached Bridgman Crystals Grown in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volz, M. P.; Mazuruk, K.

    2015-01-01

    A theory describing the shape evolution of detached Bridgman crystals in microgravity has been developed. A starting crystal of initial radius r0 will evolve to one of the following states: Stable detached gap; Attachment to the crucible wall; Meniscus collapse. Only crystals where alpha plus omega is great than 180 degrees will achieve stable detached growth in microgravity. Results of the crystal shape evolution theory are consistent with predictions of the dynamic stability of crystallization (Tatarchenko, Shaped Crystal Growth, Kluwer, 1993). Tests of transient crystal evolution are planned for ICESAGE, a series of Ge and GeSi crystal growth experiments planned to be conducted on the International Space Station (ISS).

  13. Carrier transport in Ge nanowires / Si substrate heterojunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, E.-K.; Kamenev, B.; Tsybeskov, L.; Sharma, S.; Kamins, T. I.

    2006-03-01

    Semiconductor nanowires (NWs) attached to lattice-mismatched single-crystal substrates form quasi-one-dimensional (QOD) heterojunctions (HJs) where efficient structural relaxation might occur due to high surface-to-volume ratio. Current-voltage characteristics in Ge NW/(p+)Si samples with nearly micron-long Ge NWs exhibit metal-type conductivity with ohmic behavior and little conductivity temperature dependence. In contrast, Ge NW/(n+)Si samples display significant change in conductivity as a function of temperature with an activation energy up to 200 meV. In a narrow temperature interval near 150 K we observed current instabilities and oscillations for Ge NW/(n+)Si. At higher temperatures we find negative differential photoconductivity at low forward biases. Our experimental results are explained using a model of nearly ideal Si substrate/Ge NW hetero-interfaces.

  14. Li-Ge-H system: Hydrogenation and structural properties of LiGeHx (0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlyuk, V.; Ciesielski, W.; Kulawik, D.; Prochwicz, W.; Rożdżyńska-Kiełbik, B.

    2016-11-01

    The synthesis, isothermal section at 450 °C of the Li-Ge-H system in the concentration region from 40 at.% Li to 70 at.% Li and structural characterizations of the observed phases are reported. The hydrogenation and structural properties of the LiGeHx (0 < x < 0.25) phase were studied by volumetric analysis and X-ray diffraction. The absorption of hydrogen by LiGe binary compound produce the ternary hydride phase LiGeHx (0 < x < 0.25), thus the volume tetragonal unit cell increases on 1.8 Å3. The LiGeHx solid solution is formed by means of the insertion of hydrogen atoms into tetrahedral voids of parent LiGe structure. The extension of homogeneity range of LiGeHx (0 < x < 0.25) phase and its crystal structure were more precisely refined using X-ray diffraction data. Electronic structure calculations reveal an increased occupation of electronic states at the Fermi level for LiGeHx in comparison to LiGe.

  15. Distribution and Substitution Mechanism of Ge in a Ge-(Fe-Bearing Sphalerite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel J. Cook

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and substitution mechanism of Ge in the Ge-rich sphalerite from the Tres Marias Zn deposit, Mexico, was studied using a combination of techniques at μm- to atomic scales. Trace element mapping by Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Mass Spectrometry shows that Ge is enriched in the same bands as Fe, and that Ge-rich sphalerite also contains measurable levels of several other minor elements, including As, Pb and Tl. Micron- to nanoscale heterogeneity in the sample, both textural and compositional, is revealed by investigation using Focused Ion Beam-Scanning Electron Microscopy (FIB-SEM combined with Synchrotron X-ray Fluorescence mapping and High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy imaging of FIB-prepared samples. Results show that Ge is preferentially incorporated within Fe-rich sphalerite with textural complexity finer than that of the microbeam used for the X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES measurements. Such heterogeneity, expressed as intergrowths between 3C sphalerite and 2H wurtzite on  zones, could be the result of either a primary growth process, or alternatively, polystage crystallization, in which early Fe-Ge-rich sphalerite is partially replaced by Fe-Ge-poor wurtzite. FIB-SEM imaging shows evidence for replacement supporting the latter. Transformation of sphalerite into wurtzite is promoted by (111* twinning or lattice-scale defects, leading to a heterogeneous ZnS sample, in which the dominant component, sphalerite, can host up to ~20% wurtzite. Ge K-edge XANES spectra for this sphalerite are identical to those of the germanite and argyrodite standards and the synthetic chalcogenide glasses GeS2 and GeSe2, indicating the Ge formally exists in the tetravalent form in this sphalerite. Fe K-edge XANES spectra for the same sample indicate that Fe is present mainly as Fe2+, and Cu K-edge XANES spectra are characteristic for Cu+. Since there is no evidence for coupled substitution involving a monovalent

  16. Thermodynamic optimization of Co–Ge binary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, S.S.; Liu, S.G. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Tao, X.M. [College of Physical Science and Technology, Guangxi University, Nanning, Guangxi 530004 (China); Xiao, F.H.; Huang, L.H.; Yang, F.; He, Y.; Chen, Q. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Liu, H.S., E-mail: hsliu@csu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Jin, Z.P. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China)

    2013-11-20

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The Co–Ge binary system was reassessed and optimized. • The first-principle approach was employed to calculate formation enthalpies of two compounds. • A self-consistent set of thermodynamic parameters was obtained. • The experimental data were well reproduced in the present optimization. - Abstract: Phase diagram of Co–Ge binary system was thermodynamically assessed by using CALPHAD approach in this study. The excess Gibbs energy of the solution phases, liquid, α(Co) and ε(Co), were modeled with Redlich–Kister polynomial. Magnetic contribution to the Gibbs energy was also taken into account for α(Co) and ε(Co). Considering its crystal structure and solubility range, the intermetallic compound βCo{sub 5}Ge{sub 3}, with B8{sub 2}-structure, was particularly described with a three-sublattice model, (Co,Va){sub 1}:(Co){sub 4}:(Co,Ge){sub 3}. And the compound CoGe was described with two-sublattice model according to its crystal structure. Other intermetallic compounds were described as stoichiometric phases because of their narrow homogeneity ranges or unknown crystal structure. In order to obtain a reasonable description of several Co–Ge compounds, first-principle calculations were performed before optimization to determine their formation enthalpies. Finally, a set of thermodynamic parameters was finally obtained so that most data of phase boundaries and thermodynamic properties of various phases were reproduced in present optimization.

  17. The Majorana Ge-76 Double-Beta Decay Project

    CERN Document Server

    Aalseth, C E; Barabash, A S; Bowyer, T W; Brodzinski, R L; Brudanin, V B; Collar, J I; Doe, P J; Egorov, S; Elliott, S R; Farach, H A; Gaitskell, R J; Jordan, D; Kochetov, O I; Konovalov, S V; Kouzes, R T; Miley, H S; Pitts, W K; Reeves, J H; Robertson, R G H; Sandukovsky, V G; Smith, E; Stekhanov, V; Thompson, R C; Tornow, W; Umatov, V I; Warner, R A; Webb, J; Wilkerson, J F; Young, A

    2002-01-01

    The Majorana Experiment is a next-generation Ge-76 double-beta decay search. It will employ 500 kg of Ge, isotopically enriched to 86% in Ge-76, in the form of 200 detectors in a close-packed array for high granularity. Each crystal will be electronically segmented, with each region fitted with pulse-shape analysis electronics. A half-life sensitivity is predicted of 4.2e27 y or < 0.02-0.07 eV, depending on the nuclear matrix elements used to interpret the data.

  18. Gadolinium scandium germanide, Gd2Sc3Ge4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumohan Misra

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Gd2Sc3Ge4 adopts the orthorhombic Pu5Rh4-type structure. The crystal structure contains six sites in the asymmetric unit: two sites are statistically occupied by rare-earth atoms with Gd:Sc ratios of 0.967 (4:0.033 (4 and 0.031 (3:0.969 (3, one site (.m. symmetry is occupied by Sc atoms, and three distinct sites (two of which with .m. symmetry are occupied by Ge atoms. The rare-earth atoms form two-dimensional slabs with Ge atoms occupying the trigonal-prismatic voids.

  19. Numerical Simulation of Nanostructure Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Helen H.; Bose, Deepak; Govindan, T. R.; Meyyappan, M.

    2004-01-01

    Nanoscale structures, such as nanowires and carbon nanotubes (CNTs), are often grown in gaseous or plasma environments. Successful growth of these structures is defined by achieving a specified crystallinity or chirality, size or diameter, alignment, etc., which in turn depend on gas mixture ratios. pressure, flow rate, substrate temperature, and other operating conditions. To date, there has not been a rigorous growth model that addresses the specific concerns of crystalline nanowire growth, while demonstrating the correct trends of the processing conditions on growth rates. Most crystal growth models are based on the Burton, Cabrera, and Frank (BCF) method, where adatoms are incorporated into a growing crystal at surface steps or spirals. When the supersaturation of the vapor is high, islands nucleate to form steps, and these steps subsequently spread (grow). The overall bulk growth rate is determined by solving for the evolving motion of the steps. Our approach is to use a phase field model to simulate the growth of finite sized nanowire crystals, linking the free energy equation with the diffusion equation of the adatoms. The phase field method solves for an order parameter that defines the evolving steps in a concentration field. This eliminates the need for explicit front tracking/location, or complicated shadowing routines, both of which can be computationally expensive, particularly in higher dimensions. We will present results demonstrating the effect of process conditions, such as substrate temperature, vapor supersaturation, etc. on the evolving morphologies and overall growth rates of the nanostructures.

  20. SiGe layer thickness effect on the structural and optical properties of well-organized SiGe/SiO2 multilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, E. M. F.; Toudert, J.; Rolo, A. G.; Parisini, A.; Leitão, J. P.; Correia, M. R.; Franco, N.; Alves, E.; Chahboun, A.; Martín-Sánchez, J.; Serna, R.; Gomes, M. J. M.

    2017-08-01

    In this work, we report on the production of regular (SiGe/SiO2)20 multilayer structures by conventional RF-magnetron sputtering, at 350 °C. Transmission electron microscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy, raman spectroscopy, and x-ray reflectometry measurements revealed that annealing at a temperature of 1000 °C leads to the formation of SiGe nanocrystals between SiO2 thin layers with good multilayer stability. Reducing the nominal SiGe layer thickness (t SiGe) from 3.5-2 nm results in a transition from continuous SiGe crystalline layer (t SiGe ˜ 3.5 nm) to layers consisting of isolated nanocrystals (t SiGe ˜ 2 nm). Namely, in the latter case, the presence of SiGe nanocrystals ˜3-8 nm in size, is observed. Spectroscopic ellipsometry was applied to determine the evolution of the onset in the effective optical absorption, as well as the dielectric function, in SiGe multilayers as a function of the SiGe thickness. A clear blue-shift in the optical absorption is observed for t SiGe ˜ 2 nm multilayer, as a consequence of the presence of isolated nanocrystals. Furthermore, the observed near infrared values of n = 2.8 and k = 1.5 are lower than those of bulk SiGe compounds, suggesting the presence of electronic confinement effects in the nanocrystals. The low temperature (70 K) photoluminescence measurements performed on annealed SiGe/SiO2 nanostructures show an emission band located between 0.7-0.9 eV associated with the development of interface states between the formed nanocrystals and surrounding amorphous matrix.

  1. Engineered nanoporous and nanostructured films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel L. Plawsky

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanoporous and nanostructured films have become increasingly important to the microelectronics and photonics industries. They provide a route to low dielectric constant materials that will enable future generations of powerful microprocessors. They are the only route to achieving materials with refractive indices less than 1.2, a key feature for the future development of photonic crystal devices, enhanced omni-directional reflectors, enhanced anti-reflection coatings and black-body absorbers. In addition, these films exhibit tremendous potential for separations, catalytic, biomedical and heat transfer applications. This article will review two primary techniques for manufacturing these films, evaporation induced self-assembly and oblique or glancing angle deposition, and will discuss some of the film properties critical to their use in the microelectronics and photonics industries.

  2. Structural and Electronic Properties of Au Induced Nanowires on Ge(001)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kockmann, Daan; Mocking, Tijs F.; Houselt, van Arie; Poelsema, Bene; Zandvliet, Harold J.W.

    2009-01-01

    The structural and electronic properties of Au induced self-organized nanowires on Ge(001), prepared by different procedures, are investigated with scanning tunnelling microscopy and spectroscopy at room temperature and 77 K. We find that the Au induced nanostructures are identical for the different

  3. NANOSTRUCTURE PATTERNING UNDER ENERGETIC PARTICLE BEAM IRRADIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lumin [Regents of the University of Michigan; Lu, Wei [Regents of the University of Michigan

    2013-01-31

    Energetic ion bombardment can lead to the development of complex and diverse nanostructures on or beneath the material surface through induced self-organization processes. These self-organized structures have received particular interest recently as promising candidates as simple, inexpensive, and large area patterns, whose optical, electronic and magnetic properties are different from those in the bulk materials [1-5]. Compared to the low mass efficiency production rate of lithographic methods, these self-organized approaches display new routes for the fabrication of nanostructures over large areas in a short processing time at the nanoscale, beyond the limits of lithography [1,4]. Although it is believed that surface nanostructure formation is based on the morphological instability of the sputtered surface, driven by a kinetic balance between roughening and smoothing actions [6,7], the fundamental mechanisms and experimental conditions for the formation of these nanostructures has still not been well established, the formation of the 3-D naopatterns beneath the irradiated surface especially needs more exploration. During the last funding period, we have focused our efforts on irradiation-induced nanostructures in a broad range of materials. These structures have been studied primarily through in situ electron microscopy during electron or ion irradiation. In particular, we have performed studies on 3-D void/bubble lattices (in metals and CaF2), embedded sponge-like porous structure with uniform nanofibers in irradiated semiconductors (Ge, GaSb, and InSb), 2-D highly ordered pattern of nanodroplets (on the surface of GaAs), hexagonally ordered nanoholes (on the surface of Ge), and 1-D highly ordered ripple and periodic arrays (of Cu nanoparticles) [3,8-11]. The amazing common feature in those nanopatterns is the uniformity of the size of nanoelements (nanoripples, nanodots, nanovoids or nanofibers) and the distance separating them. Our research focuses on the

  4. Nanostructures of zinc oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Lin Wang

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide (ZnO is a unique material that exhibits semiconducting, piezoelectric, and pyroelectric multiple properties. Using a solid-vapor phase thermal sublimation technique, nanocombs, nanorings, nanohelixes/nanosprings, nanobows, nanobelts, nanowires, and nanocages of ZnO have been synthesized under specific growth conditions. These unique nanostructures unambiguously demonstrate that ZnO is probably the richest family of nanostructures among all materials, both in structures and properties. The nanostructures could have novel applications in optoelectronics, sensors, transducers, and biomedical science because it is bio-safe.

  5. Modular color evolution facilitated by a complex nanostructure in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliason, Chad M; Maia, Rafael; Shawkey, Matthew D

    2015-02-01

    The way in which a complex trait varies, and thus evolves, is critically affected by the independence, or modularity, of its subunits. How modular designs facilitate phenotypic diversification is well studied in nonornamental (e.g., cichlid jaws), but not ornamental traits. Diverse feather colors in birds are produced by light absorption by pigments and/or light scattering by nanostructures. Such structural colors are deterministically related to the nanostructures that produce them and are therefore excellent systems to study modularity and diversity of ornamental traits. Elucidating if and how these nanostructures facilitate color diversity relies on understanding how nanostructural traits covary, and how these traits map to color. Both of these remain unknown in an evolutionary context. Most dabbling ducks (Anatidae) have a conspicuous wing patch with iridescent color caused by a two-dimensional photonic crystal of small (100-200 nm) melanosomes. Here, we ask how this complex nanostructure affects modularity of color attributes. Using a combination of electron microscopy, spectrophotometry, and comparative methods, we show that nanostructural complexity causes functional decoupling and enables independent evolution of different color traits. These results demonstrate that color diversity is facilitated by how nanostructures function and may explain why some birds are more color-diverse than others.

  6. First-principles calculations on the origin of ferromagnetism in transition-metal doped Ge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinya, Hikari; Fukushima, Tetsuya; Masago, Akira; Sato, Kazunori; Katayama-Yoshida, Hiroshi

    2017-09-01

    Many researchers have shown an interest in Ge-based dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMSs) due to potential advantages for semiconductor spintronics applications. There has been great discussion about mechanisms of experimentally observed ferromagnetism in (Ge,Fe) and (Ge,Mn). We investigate the electronic structures, structural stabilities, magnetic exchange coupling constants, and Curie temperature of Ge-based DMSs, and clarify origins of the ferromagnetism, on the basis of density functional theory calculations. In both the (Ge,Fe) and (Ge,Mn) cases, the inhomogeneous distribution of the magnetic impurities plays an important role to determine the magnetic states; however, physical mechanisms of the ferromagnetism in these two materials are completely different. By the spinodal nanodecomposition, the Fe impurities in Ge gather together with keeping the diamond structure, so that the number of the first-nearest-neighbor Fe pairs with strong ferromagnetic interaction increases. Therefore, the Curie temperature drastically increases with the progress of the annealing. Our cluster expansion method clearly reveals that the other ordered compounds with different crystal structures such as Ge3Mn5 and Ge8Mn11 are easily generated in the (Ge,Mn) system. The estimated Curie temperature of Ge3Mn5 is in agreement with the observed Curie temperature in experiments. It should be considered that the precipitation of the ferromagnetic Ge3Mn5 clusters is an origin of high Curie temperature in (Ge,Mn).

  7. Transfer-free synthesis of highly ordered Ge nanowire arrays on glass substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakata, M.; Toko, K., E-mail: toko@bk.tsukuba.ac.jp; Suemasu, T. [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Jevasuwan, W.; Fukata, N. [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan); Saitoh, N.; Yoshizawa, N. [Electron Microscope Facility, TIA, AIST, 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba 305-8569 (Japan)

    2015-09-28

    Vertically aligned Ge nanowires (NWs) are directly synthesized on glass via vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth using chemical-vapor deposition. The use of the (111)-oriented Ge seed layer, formed by metal-induced crystallization at 325 °C, dramatically improved the density, uniformity, and crystal quality of Ge NWs. In particular, the VLS growth at 400 °C allowed us to simultaneously achieve the ordered morphology and high crystal quality of the Ge NW array. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that the resulting Ge NWs had no dislocations or stacking faults. Production of high-quality NW arrays on amorphous insulators will promote the widespread application of nanoscale devices.

  8. Nanoporosity induced by ion implantation in deposited amorphous Ge thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, L.; Impellizzeri, G.; Ruffino, F.; Miritello, M.; Grimaldi, M. G. [IMM-CNR MATIS and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Bosco, L. [Scuola Superiore di Catania, Via Valdisavoia 9, I-95123 Catania (Italy)

    2012-06-01

    The formation of a nano-porous structure in amorphous Ge thin film (sputter-deposited on SiO{sub 2}) during ion irradiation at room temperature with 300 keV Ge{sup +} has been observed. The porous film showed a sponge-like structure substantially different from the columnar structure reported for ion implanted bulk Ge. The voids size and structure resulted to be strongly affected by the material preparation, while the volume expansion turned out to be determined only by the nuclear deposition energy. In SiGe alloys, the swelling occurs only if the Ge concentration is above 90%. These findings rely on peculiar characteristics related to the mechanism of voids nucleation and growth, but they are crucial for future applications of active nanostructured layers such as low cost chemical and biochemical sensing devices or electrodes in batteries.

  9. Nanostructured CNx (0

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongiorno, G; Blomqvist, M; Piseri, P; Milani, P; Lenardi, C; Ducati, C; Caruso, T; Rudolf, P; Wachtmeister, S; Csillag, S; Coronel, E

    2005-01-01

    Nanostructured CNx thin films were prepared by supersonic cluster beam deposition (SCBD) and systematically characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The incorporat

  10. Self-assembled nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jin Z; Liu, Jun; Chen, Shaowei; Liu, Gang-yu

    2003-01-01

    Nanostructures refer to materials that have relevant dimensions on the nanometer length scales and reside in the mesoscopic regime between isolated atoms and molecules in bulk matter. These materials have unique physical properties that are distinctly different from bulk materials. Self-Assembled Nanostructures provides systematic coverage of basic nanomaterials science including materials assembly and synthesis, characterization, and application. Suitable for both beginners and experts, it balances the chemistry aspects of nanomaterials with physical principles. It also highlights nanomaterial-based architectures including assembled or self-assembled systems. Filled with in-depth discussion of important applications of nano-architectures as well as potential applications ranging from physical to chemical and biological systems, Self-Assembled Nanostructures is the essential reference or text for scientists involved with nanostructures.

  11. Analytical response function for planar Ge detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Alvarez, Juan A.; Maidana, Nora L.; Vanin, Vito R.; Fernández-Varea, José M.

    2016-04-01

    We model the response function (RF) of planar HPGe x-ray spectrometers for photon energies between around 10 keV and 100 keV. The RF is based on the proposal of Seltzer [1981. Nucl. Instrum. Methods 188, 133-151] and takes into account the full-energy absorption in the Ge active volume, the escape of Ge Kα and Kβ x-rays and the escape of photons after one Compton interaction. The relativistic impulse approximation is employed instead of the Klein-Nishina formula to describe incoherent photon scattering in the Ge crystal. We also incorporate a simple model for the continuous component of the spectrum produced by the escape of photo-electrons from the active volume. In our calculations we include external interaction contributions to the RF: (i) the incoherent scattering effects caused by the detector's Be window and (ii) the spectrum produced by photo-electrons emitted in the Ge dead layer that reach the active volume. The analytical RF model is compared with pulse-height spectra simulated using the PENELOPE Monte Carlo code.

  12. Platinum germanium ordering in UPtGe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Rolf-Dieter; Pöttgen, Rainer; Lander, Gerry H.; Rebizant, Jean

    2001-09-01

    The non-centrosymmetric structure of UPtGe was investigated by X-ray diffraction on both powders and single crystals: EuAuGe type, Imm2, a=432.86(5), b=718.81(8), c=751.66(9) pm, wR2=0.0738 for 399 F2 values and 22 variables. The platinum and germanium atoms form two-dimensional layers of puckered Pt 3Ge 3 hexagons with short PtGe intralayer distances of 252 and 253 pm. These condensed two-dimensionally infinite nets are interconnected to each other via weak PtPt contacts with bond distances of 300 pm. The two crystallographically independent uranium atoms are situated above and below the six-membered platinum-germanium rings. The U1 atoms have six closer germanium neighbors while the U2 atoms have six closer platinum neighbors. The group-subgroup relation with the KHg 2 type structure is presented.

  13. Ge doping of FeGa3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Quiceno, J. C.; Cabrera-Baez, M.; Munévar, J.; Micklitz, H.; Bittar, E. M.; Baggio-Saitovitch, E.; Ribeiro, R. A.; Avila, M. A.; Dalpian, G. M.; Osorio-Guillén, J. M.

    2015-03-01

    The intermetallic narrow-gap semiconductor FeGa3 is one of the few Fe-based diamagnetic materials. Experimentally, Ge doping induces a ferromagnetic (FM) state. The mechanism responsible for this FM response is still unestablished, but there are proposals of itinerant magnetism to explain this behavior. Our DFT simulations show that inserting holes induces a delocalized FM response, while inserting electrons induces a localized FM response around some Fe atoms. We also modeled different distributions of Ge substitution and observe that the FM response depends on the Ge concentration and also on the Ge distribution on the Ga sites. We observed that the extra electrons become localized in some specific Fe atoms, rather than delocalized over the entire crystal lattice, as expected from an itinerant model. For experimental probing of this scenario, we have performed 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy on flux-grown singlecrystalline samples. The resulting resonance peak shape supports a localized model for ferromagnetism, since it is possible to resolve the presence of two distinct Fe isomer shifts (despite a single crystallographic site), expected to correspond to Fe atoms with high and low magnetic moments. The authors thank Capes, CNPQ and FAPESP for financial support.

  14. Study of Ge2Sb2Te5 Film for Nonvolatile Memory Medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baowei QIAO; Yunfeng LAI; Jie FENG; Yun LING; Yinyin LIN; Ting'ao TANG; Bingchu CAI; Bomy CHEN

    2005-01-01

    The amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5 film with stoichiometric compositions was deposited by co-sputtering of separate Ge,Sb, and Te targets on SiO2/Si (100) wafer in ultrahigh vacuum magnetron sputtering apparatus. The crystallization behavior of amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5 film was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). With an increase of annealing temperature, the amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5 film undergoes a two-step crystallization process that it first crystallizes in face-centered-cubic (fcc) crystal structure and finally fcc structure changes to hexagonal (hex) structure. Activation energy values of 3.636±0.137and 1.579±0.005 eV correspond to the crystallization and structural transformation processes, respectively. From annealing temperature dependence of the film resistivity, it is determined th at the first steep decrease of the resistivity corresponds to crystallization while the second one is primarily caused by structural transformation from "fcc"to "hex" and growth of the crystal grains. Current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the device with 40 nm-thick Ge2Sb2Te5 film show that the Ge2Sb2Te5 film with nanometer order thickness is still applicable for memory medium of nonvolatile phase change memory.

  15. Dynamics of two-photon photoluminescence in gold nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagioni, P.; Brida, D.; Huang, J.-S.; Kern, J.; Duò, L.; Hecht, B.; Finazzi, M.; Cerullo, G.

    2012-03-01

    We introduce the possibility of performing two-pulse correlation measurements in order to probe the dynamics of twophoton photoluminescence in Au nanostructures. Our preliminary results obtained from single-crystal Au nanorods are consistent with the two-step model for the photoluminescence process.

  16. Single layer of Ge quantum dots in HfO2 for floating gate memory capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepadatu, A M; Palade, C; Slav, A; Maraloiu, A V; Lazanu, S; Stoica, T; Logofatu, C; Teodorescu, V S; Ciurea, M L

    2017-04-28

    High performance trilayer memory capacitors with a floating gate of a single layer of Ge quantum dots (QDs) in HfO2 were fabricated using magnetron sputtering followed by rapid thermal annealing (RTA). The layer sequence of the capacitors is gate HfO 2/floating gate of single layer of Ge QDs in HfO 2/tunnel HfO 2/p-Si wafers. Both Ge and HfO2 are nanostructured by RTA at moderate temperatures of 600-700 °C. By nanostructuring at 600 °C, the formation of a single layer of well separated Ge QDs with diameters of 2-3 nm at a density of 4-5 × 10(15) m(-2) is achieved in the floating gate (intermediate layer). The Ge QDs inside the intermediate layer are arranged in a single layer and are separated from each other by HfO2 nanocrystals (NCs) about 8 nm in diameter with a tetragonal/orthorhombic structure. The Ge QDs in the single layer are located at the crossing of the HfO2 NCs boundaries. In the intermediate layer, besides Ge QDs, a part of the Ge atoms is segregated by RTA at the HfO2 NCs boundaries, while another part of the Ge atoms is present inside the HfO2 lattice stabilizing the tetragonal/orthorhombic structure. The fabricated capacitors show a memory window of 3.8 ± 0.5 V and a capacitance-time characteristic with 14% capacitance decay in the first 3000-4000 s followed by a very slow capacitance decrease extrapolated to 50% after 10 years. This high performance is mainly due to the floating gate of a single layer of well separated Ge QDs in HfO2, distanced from the Si substrate by the tunnel oxide layer with a precise thickness.

  17. Fabrication and in-situ STM investigation of growth dynamics of semiconductor nanostructures grown by MBE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borisova, Svetlana

    2012-05-23

    Modern development of information technologies requires an introduction of new fundamental concepts, in order to create more efficient devices and to decrease their size. One of the most promising ways is to increase the functionality of silicon by integrating novel materials into Si-based production. This PhD thesis reports on the fabrication and investigation of the growth of semiconductor nanostructures on Si substrates by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). In-situ scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) is a powerful technique in order to study morphological and electronic properties of the grown structures directly under ultra high vacuum (UHV) conditions. It is shown that the combination of MBE and in-situ STM enables the study of nucleation and growth dynamics at the atomic scale. It provides us with numerous information concerning the nucleation mechanism, the growth mode of the structures, adatom kinetics, influence of the lattice mismatch between the substrate and the grown structure as well as formation and morphology of crystal defects. The first part of the thesis focuses on the experimental realization based upon an existing setup. The construction of an in-situ UHV STM compatible with the MBE cluster and the technical improvement of the STM setup are described. Subsequently, test measurements are performed on the technologically most important surfaces, Ge (100) and Si (111). The second part of the thesis is dedicated to ordered small-period arrays of self-assembled Ge quantum dots (QDs) grown on pre-patterned Si (100) substrates. Small-period Ge QD crystals are highly interesting since band structure calculations indicate coupled electronic states of the QDs in the case of the small lateral period of approximately 30 nm. Small-period hole patterns with a period of 56 nm are fabricated by e-beam lithography on Si substrates. The evolution of the hole morphology during the in-situ pre-growth annealing and the Si buffer layer growth are studied. Deposition of 5

  18. Structural colors: from plasmonic to carbon nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ting; Shi, Haofei; Wu, Yi-Kuei; Kaplan, Alex F; Ok, Jong G; Guo, L Jay

    2011-11-18

    In addition to colorant-based pigmentation, structure is a major contributor to a material's color. In nature, structural color is often caused by the interaction of light with dielectric structures whose dimensions are on the order of visible-light wavelengths. Different optical interactions including multilayer interference, light scattering, the photonic crystal effect, and combinations thereof give rise to selective transmission or reflection of particular light wavelengths, which leads to the generation of structural color. Recent developments in nanofabrication of plasmonic and carbon nanostructures have opened another efficient way to control light properties at the subwavelength scale, including visible-light wavelength selection, which can produce structural color. In this Concept, the most relevant and representative achievements demonstrated over the last several years are presented and analyzed. These plasmonic and carbon nanostructures are believed to offer great potential for high-resolution color displays and spectral filtering applications.

  19. DNA Nanostructures-Mediated Molecular Imprinting Lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Cheng; Kim, Hyojeong; Sun, Wei; Kim, Yunah; Yin, Peng; Liu, Haitao

    2017-01-24

    This paper describes the fabrication of polymer stamps using DNA nanostructure templates. This process creates stamps having diverse nanoscale features with dimensions ranging from several tens of nanometers to micrometers. DNA nanostructures including DNA nanotubes, stretched λ-DNA, two-dimensional (2D) DNA brick crystals with three-dimensional (3D) features, hexagonal DNA 2D arrays, and triangular DNA origami were used as master templates to transfer patterns to poly(methyl methacrylate) and poly(l-lactic acid) with high fidelity. The resulting polymer stamps were used as molds to transfer the pattern to acryloxy perfluoropolyether polymer. This work establishes an approach to using self-assembled DNA templates for applications in soft lithography.

  20. Formation of different gold nanostructures by silk nanofibrils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Guangqiang [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Engineering of Polymers, Collaborative Innovation Center of Polymers and Polymer Composite Materials, Department of Macromolecular Science, Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200433 (China); Yang, Yuhong [Research Centre for Analysis and Measurement, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Yao, Jinrong; Shao, Zhengzhong [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Engineering of Polymers, Collaborative Innovation Center of Polymers and Polymer Composite Materials, Department of Macromolecular Science, Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200433 (China); Chen, Xin, E-mail: chenx@fudan.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Engineering of Polymers, Collaborative Innovation Center of Polymers and Polymer Composite Materials, Department of Macromolecular Science, Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200433 (China)

    2016-07-01

    Metal nanostructures that have unique size- and shape-dependent electronic, optical and chemical properties gain more and more attention in modern science and technology. In this article, we show the possibility that we are able to obtain different gold nanostructures simply with the help of silk nanofibrils. We demonstrate that only by varying the pH of the reaction solution, we get gold nanoparticles, nano-icosahedrons, nanocubes, and even microplates. Particularly, we develop a practical method for the preparation of gold microplates in acid condition in the presence of silk nanofibrils, which is impossible by using other forms of silk protein. We attribute the role of silk nanofibrils in the formation of gold nanostructure to their reduction ability from several specific amino acid residues, and the suitable structural anisotropic features to sustain the crystal growth after the reduction process. Although the main purpose of this article is to demonstrate that silk nanofibrils are able to mediate the formation of different gold nanostructure, we show the potential applications of these resulting gold nanostructures, such as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and photothermal transformation effect, as same as those produced by other methods. In conclusion, we present in this communication a facile and green synthesis route to prepare various gold nanostructures with silk nanofibrils by simply varying pH in the reaction system, which has remarkable advantages in future biomedical applications. - Highlights: • Different Au nanostructures can be obtained by a facile and green protein reduction method. • Silk nanofibrils serve as both reductant and template in the formation of Au nanostructures. • Different Au nanostructures can be obtained simply by regulating the pH in the medium. • Large Au microplates can be obtained with a cheap, abundant, sustainable silk protein. • Silk/Au hybrid nanocomposites show potential application in SERS and

  1. Theory of Raman Scattering by Phonons in Germanium Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang-Chen Chumin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractWithin the linear response theory, a local bond-polarization model based on the displacement–displacement Green’s function and the Born potential including central and non-central interatomic forces is used to investigate the Raman response and the phonon band structure of Ge nanostructures. In particular, a supercell model is employed, in which along the [001] direction empty-column pores and nanowires are constructed preserving the crystalline Ge atomic structure. An advantage of this model is the interconnection between Ge nanocrystals in porous Ge and then, all the phonon states are delocalized. The results of both porous Ge and nanowires show a shift of the highest-energy Raman peak toward lower frequencies with respect to the Raman response of bulk crystalline Ge. This fact could be related to the confinement of phonons and is in good agreement with the experimental data. Finally, a detailed discussion of the dynamical matrix is given in the appendix section.

  2. Structural study of Ge/GaAs thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarov, V. K.; Lari, L.; Lytvyn, P. M.; Kholevchuk, V. V.; Mitin, V. F.

    2012-07-01

    Ge/GaAs heterostructure research is largely motivated by the application of this material in solar cells, metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors, mm-wave mixer diodes, temperature sensors and photodetectors. Therefore, understanding of how the properties of Ge/GaAs heterostructure depend on its preparation (growth) is of importance for various high-efficiency devices. In this work, by using thermal Ge evaporation on GaAs(100), we studied structural properties of these films as a function of the deposition rate. Film grains size and morphology show strong dependence of the deposition rate. Low deposition rates results in films with large crystal grains and rough surface. At high deposition rates films become flatter and their crystal grains size decreases, while at very high deposition rates films become amorphous. Cross-sectional TEM of the films show that the Ge films are granular single crystal epitaxially grown on GaAs. The Ge/GaAs interface is atomically abrupt and free from misfit dislocations. Stacking faults along the [111] directions that originate at the interface were also observed. Finally by using the Kelvin probe microscopy we show that work function changes are related to the grain structure of the film.

  3. Ge/GeO2-Ordered Mesoporous Carbon Nanocomposite for Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Batteries with a Long-Term Cycling Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Lingxing; Huang, Xiaoxia; Chen, Xi; Zheng, Cheng; Qian, Qingrong; Chen, Qinghua; Wei, Mingdeng

    2016-01-13

    Germanium-based nanostructures are receiving intense interest in lithium-ion batteries because they have ultrahigh lithium ion storage ability. However, the Germanium-based anodes undergo the considerably large volume change during the charge/discharge processes, leading to a fast capacity fade. In the present work, a Ge/GeO2-ordered mesoporous carbon (Ge/GeO2-OMC) nanocomposite was successfully fabricated via a facile nanocasting route by using mesoporous carbon as a nanoreactor, and was then used as an anode for lithium-ion batteries. Benefited from its unique three-dimensional "meso-nano" structure, the Ge/GeO2-OMC nanocomposite exhibited large reversible capacity, excellent long-time cycling stability and high rate performance. For instance, a large reversible capacity of 1018 mA h g(-1) was obtained after 100 cycles at a current density of 0.1 A g(-1), which might be attributed to the unique structure of the Ge/GeO2-OMC nanocomposite. In addition, a reversible capacity of 492 mA h g(-1) can be retained when cycled to 500 cycles at a current density of 1 A g(-1).

  4. Nanostructured electronic and magnetic materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R V Ramanujan

    2003-02-01

    Research and development in nanostructured materials is one of the most intensely studied areas in science. As a result of concerted R & D efforts, nanostructured electronic and magnetic materials have achieved commercial success. Specific examples of novel industrially important nanostructured electronic and magnetic materials are provided. Advantages of nanocrystalline magnetic materials in the context of both materials and devices are discussed. Several high technology examples of the use of nanostructured magnetic materials are presented. Methods of processing nanostructured materials are described and the examples of sol gel, rapid solidification and powder injection moulding as potential processing methods for making nanostructured materials are outlined. Some opportunities and challenges are discussed.

  5. Nucleation phenomena in the formation of electron-hole drops in Ge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westervelt, R.M.

    1977-09-01

    A detailed theory of the nucleation of electron-hole drops from a gas of free excitons in Ge is presented, together with a systematic experimental study of hysteresis and threshold phenomena in the luminescence of optically excited crystals of ultrapure Ge.

  6. Rhombohedrel Hybrid Crystal Semiconductor Device Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA Langley has succeeded in growing a rhombohedrally oriented single crystal SiGe on sapphire substrate. This opens up new challenges in micro-electronics. Since...

  7. Optical spectra of Dy3+-doped GdVO4 and Ca3Sc2Ge3O12 crystals and evaluation of the Ω2/Ω6 ratio as a quality factor for the classification of Dy3+-activated crystalline hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalli, Enrico

    2016-11-01

    The room temperature absorption spectra of Dy3+-doped GdVO4 and Ca3Sc2Ge3O12 crystals have been measured and analysed in the framework of the Judd-Ofelt Theory. The calculated intensity parameters have then been correlated with the intensities of the emission bands in the yellow and blue region. The analysis has then been extended to a number of host lattices using literature data, and a general empirical model has been proposed, correlating the Ω2/Ω6 and the yellow to blue (Y/B) ratio in order to define a criterion for predicting the visible luminescence properties of the Dy-activated crystalline materials.

  8. Photoluminescence and electroluminescence from Ge/strained GeSn/Ge quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chung-Yi; Huang, Chih-Hsiung; Huang, Shih-Hsien; Chang, Chih-Chiang; Liu, C. W.; Huang, Yi-Chiau; Chung, Hua; Chang, Chorng-Ping

    2016-08-01

    Ge/strained GeSn/Ge quantum wells are grown on a 300 mm Si substrate by chemical vapor deposition. The direct bandgap emission from strained GeSn is observed in the photoluminescence spectra and is enhanced by Al2O3/SiO2 passivation due to the field effect. The electroluminescence of the direct bandgap emission of strained GeSn is also observed from the Ni/Al2O3/GeSn metal-insulator-semiconductor tunneling diodes. Electroluminescence is a good indicator of GeSn material quality, since defects in GeSn layers degrade the electroluminescence intensity significantly. At the accumulation bias, the holes in the Ni gate electrode tunnel to the strained n-type GeSn layer through the ultrathin Al2O3 and recombine radiatively with electrons. The emission wavelength of photoluminescence and electroluminescence can be tuned by the Sn content.

  9. Nanostructured Thermoelectrics and the New Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanatzidis, Mercouri

    2012-02-01

    A comprehensive and stable energy strategy would require proportionate attention to all three legs of the ``energy stool''; supply (sources), demand (efficiency) and storage/transport (delivery). Thermoelectric materials, that convert waste thermal energy into useful electrical energy, have an important role to play in any and all these three legs. The efficacy and efficiency of thermoelectrics is reflected in the figure of merit ZT, which is directly proportional to the power factor (comprising electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient) and inversely proportional to thermal conductivity (comprising carrier and lattice contributions). The recent emergence of nanostructured thermoelectrics has ushered in a new era for bulk thermoelectrics, which show considerable promise to enhance the ``contra-indicating'' parameters of high electrical conductivity and low thermal conductivity. This is achieved by introducing nanostructures in bulk thermoelectric host materials to significantly reduce lattice thermal conductivity via effective scattering of heat carrying phonon through hierarchical architecture of nanostructured thermoelectrics. The presentation will cover recent developments, current research in our EFRC and future prospects for high performance bulk materials. Systems based on lead chalcogenides (e.g., PbTe, PbSe, PbS) present key science challenges with promising properties and are given particular emphasis. We have achieved excellent control of synthesis and crystal growth of such materials resulting in record enhancements in the figure of merit. These enhancements derive from very large reductions in lattice thermal conductivity possible with nanostructuring. We have experimentally realized concurrent synergistic effect of phonon blocking and charge transmission via the endotaxial placement of nanocrystals in thermoelectric material host. In particular, we have shown that the enhanced performance is due to nanostructuring of thermoelectric host matrix

  10. One-dimensional photonic crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, Huaizhong; Wang, Zhanhua; Wu, Yuxin; Yang, Bai

    2016-01-01

    A one-dimensional photonic crystal (1DPC), which is a periodic nanostructure with a refractive index distribution along one direction, has been widely studied by scientists. In this review, materials and methods for 1DPC fabrication are summarized. Applications are listed, with a special emphasis

  11. Nanostructured thin films for multiband-gap silicon triple junction solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schropp, R.E.I.; Li, H. B. T.; Franken, R.H.; Rath, J.K.; van der Werf, C.H.M.; Schuttauf, J.A.; Stolk, R.L.

    2008-01-01

    By implementing nanostructure in multiband-gap proto-Si/proto-SiGe/nc-Si:H triple junction n–i–p solar cells, a considerable improvement in performance has been achieved. The unalloyed active layers in the top and bottom cell of these triple junction cells are deposited by Hot-Wire CVD. A significan

  12. High-capacity nanostructured germanium-containing materials and lithium alloys thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graetz, Jason A.; Fultz, Brent T.; Ahn, Channing; Yazami, Rachid

    2010-08-24

    Electrodes comprising an alkali metal, for example, lithium, alloyed with nanostructured materials of formula Si.sub.zGe.sub.(z-1), where 0capacities, cycle lives, and/or cycling rates compared with similar electrodes made from graphite. These electrodes are useful as anodes for secondary electrochemical cells, for example, batteries and electrochemical supercapacitors.

  13. Nanostructures having high performance thermoelectric properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Peidong; Majumdar, Arunava; Hochbaum, Allon I; Chen, Renkun; Delgado, Raul Diaz

    2014-05-20

    The invention provides for a nanostructure, or an array of such nanostructures, each comprising a rough surface, and a doped or undoped semiconductor. The nanostructure is an one-dimensional (1-D) nanostructure, such a nanowire, or a two-dimensional (2-D) nanostructure. The nanostructure can be placed between two electrodes and used for thermoelectric power generation or thermoelectric cooling.

  14. Hierarchically Nano-structured Hollow Microspheres Synthesized Using Amino Acids as Crystal Growth Modifiers%以氨基酸为晶体生长控制剂合成多级纳米结构的硫化铟空心微球

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵绍峰; 张贵军; 周慧静; 关乃佳; 陈铁红

    2009-01-01

    Hierarchically nano-structured In2S3 hollow microspheres were synthesized by a hydrothermal method and the hollowing effect was attributed to an Ostwald ripening process. Using different amino acids as crystal growth modifiers, In2S3with different surface morphologies, such as raspberry-like, urchin-like, and flower-like hollow microspheres, were selectively fabricated. The shells of the microspheres were composed of nanosized particles or nanoflakes of In2S3. These results demonstrate that amino acids with different functional groups, such as -NH2, -COOH, and -SH, can induce the formation of different indium sulfide nanostructures. A blue shifted UV band in the UV-Vis spectrum as well as a strong emission at ca 385 nm and a weak emission at ca 364 nm in the photoluminescence (PL) spectrum of InCa hollow microspheres indicate strong quantum confinement because of the presence of nanocrystalline particles. Using different amino acids as crystal growth modifiers, microspheres with different surface morphologies were fabricated. These results demonstrate that amino acids with different functional groups can induce the formation of different indium sulfide nanostructures.%以水热方法制备具有多级纳米结构的In2S3空心微球.通过对不同反应时间产物的跟踪表征,证明微球中空结构的形成归因于Ostwald ripening机理.空心微球的壳层由In2S3的纳米粒子或纳米片组成,In2S3空心球的紫外可见光谱蓝移以及荧光光谱在约385 nm的强发射和364 nm的弱发射,均显示了纳米尺度In2S3晶体的量子局限效应.以不同的氨基酸作为晶体生长修饰剂,可以选择性地制备不同表面形貌的In2S3空心微球,显示了氨基酸的不同功能团在In2S3晶体生长过程中对表面形貌的控制作用.

  15. Hydrostatic strain enhancement in laterally confined SiGe nanostripes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanacore, G. M.; Chaigneau, M.; Barrett, N.; Bollani, M.; Boioli, F.; Salvalaglio, M.; Montalenti, F.; Manini, N.; Caramella, L.; Biagioni, P.; Chrastina, D.; Isella, G.; Renault, O.; Zani, M.; Sordan, R.; Onida, G.; Ossikovski, R.; Drouhin, H.-J.; Tagliaferri, A.

    2013-09-01

    Strain engineering in SiGe nanostructures is fundamental for the design of optoelectronic devices at the nanoscale. Here we explore a new strategy, where SiGe structures are laterally confined by the Si substrate, to obtain high tensile strain yet avoid the use of external stressors, thus improving the scalability. Spectromicroscopy techniques, finite element method simulations, and ab initio calculations are used to investigate the strain state of laterally confined Ge-rich SiGe nanostripes. Strain information is obtained by tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy with an unprecedented lateral resolution of ˜30 nm. The nanostripes exhibit a large tensile hydrostatic strain component, which is maximal at the center of the top free surface and becomes very small at the edges. The maximum lattice deformation is larger than the typical values of thermally relaxed Ge/Si(001) layers. This strain enhancement originates from a frustrated relaxation in the out-of-plane direction, resulting from the combination of the lateral confinement induced by the substrate side walls and the plastic relaxation of the misfit strain in the (001) plane at the SiGe/Si interface. The effect of this tensile lattice deformation at the stripe surface is probed by work function mapping, which is performed with a spatial resolution better than 100 nm using x-ray photoelectron emission microscopy. The nanostripes exhibit a positive work function shift with respect to a bulk SiGe alloy, quantitatively confirmed by electronic structure calculations of tensile-strained configurations. The present results have a potential impact on the design of optoelectronic devices at a nanometer-length scale.

  16. Selective Functionalization of Tailored Nanostructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slingenbergh, Winand; Boer, Sanne K. de; Cordes, Thorben; Browne, Wesley R.; Feringa, Ben L.; Hoogenboom, Jacob P.; Hosson, Jeff Th.M. De; Dorp, Willem F. van

    2012-01-01

    The controlled positioning of nanostructures with active molecular components is of importance throughout nanoscience and nanotechnology. We present a novel three-step method to produce nanostructures that are selectively decorated with functional molecules. We use fluorophores and nanoparticles to

  17. Nanostructured materials in potentiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düzgün, Ali; Zelada-Guillén, Gustavo A; Crespo, Gastón A; Macho, Santiago; Riu, Jordi; Rius, F Xavier

    2011-01-01

    Potentiometry is a very simple electrochemical technique with extraordinary analytical capabilities. It is also well known that nanostructured materials display properties which they do not show in the bulk phase. The combination of the two fields of potentiometry and nanomaterials is therefore a promising area of research and development. In this report, we explain the fundamentals of potentiometric devices that incorporate nanostructured materials and we highlight the advantages and drawbacks of combining nanomaterials and potentiometry. The paper provides an overview of the role of nanostructured materials in the two commonest potentiometric sensors: field-effect transistors and ion-selective electrodes. Additionally, we provide a few recent examples of new potentiometric sensors that are based on receptors immobilized directly onto the nanostructured material surface. Moreover, we summarize the use of potentiometry to analyze processes involving nanostructured materials and the prospects that the use of nanopores offer to potentiometry. Finally, we discuss several difficulties that currently hinder developments in the field and some future trends that will extend potentiometry into new analytical areas such as biology and medicine.

  18. Role of Ge Switch in Phase Transition: Approach using Atomically Controlled GeTe/Sb2Te3 Superlattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, Juniji; Fons, Paul; Kolobov, Alexander; Shima, Takayuki; Chong, Tow Chong; Zhao, Rong; Koon Lee, Hock; Shi, Luping

    2008-07-01

    Germanium-antimony-tellurite (GST) is a very attractive material not only for rewritable optical media but also for realizing solid state devices. Recently, the study of the switching mechanism between the amorphous and crystal states has actively been carried out experimentally and theoretically. Now, the role of the flip-flop transition of a Ge atom in a distorted simple-cubic unit cell is the center of discussion. Turning our viewpoint towards a much wider region beyond a unit cell, we can understand that GeSbTe consists of two units: one is a Sb2Te3 layer and the other is a Ge2Te2 layer. On the based of this simple model, we fabricated the superlattice of GST alloys and estimated their thermal properties by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). In this paper, we discuss the proof of the Ge switch on the basis of thermo-histories.

  19. Numerical simulation of microstructure of the GeSi alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasin, I.

    2006-09-08

    The goal of this work is to investigate pattern formation processes on the solid-liquid interface during the crystal growth of GeSi. GeSi crystals with cellular structure have great potential for applications in -ray and neutron optics. The interface patterns induce small quasi-periodic distortions of the microstructure called mosaicity. Existence and properties of this mosaicity are important for the application of the crystals. The properties depend on many factors; this dependence, is currently not known even not qualitatively. A better understanding of the physics near the crystal surface is therefore required, in order to optimise the growth process. There are three main physical processes in this system: phase-transition, diffusion and melt flow. Every process is described by its own set of equations. Finite difference methods and lattice kinetic methods are taken for solving these governing equations. We have developed a modification of the kinetic methods for the advectiondiffusion and extended this method for simulations of non-linear reaction diffusion equations. The phase-field method was chosen as a tool for describing the phase-transition. There are numerous works applied for different metallic alloys. An attempt to apply the method directly to simulation GeSi crystal growth showed that this method is unstable. This instability has not been observed in previous works due to the much smaller scale of simulations. We introduced a modified phase-field scheme, which enables to simulate pattern formation with the scale observed in experiment. A flow in the melt was taken in to account in the numerical model. The developed numerical model allows us to investigate pattern formation in GeSi crystals. Modelling shows that the flow near the crystal surface has impact on the patterns. The obtained patterns reproduce qualitatively and in some cases quantitatively the experimental results. (orig.)

  20. Micromachining with Nanostructured Cutting Tools

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Mark J

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the brief is to explain how nanostructured tools can be used to machine materials at the microscale.  The aims of the brief are to explain to readers how to apply nanostructured tools to micromachining applications. This book describes the application of nanostructured tools to machining engineering materials and includes methods for calculating basic features of micromachining. It explains the nature of contact between tools and work pieces to build a solid understanding of how nanostructured tools are made.

  1. Fabrication and in-situ STM investigation of growth dynamics of semiconductor nanostructures grown by MBE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borisova, Svetlana

    2012-05-23

    Modern development of information technologies requires an introduction of new fundamental concepts, in order to create more efficient devices and to decrease their size. One of the most promising ways is to increase the functionality of silicon by integrating novel materials into Si-based production. This PhD thesis reports on the fabrication and investigation of the growth of semiconductor nanostructures on Si substrates by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). In-situ scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) is a powerful technique in order to study morphological and electronic properties of the grown structures directly under ultra high vacuum (UHV) conditions. It is shown that the combination of MBE and in-situ STM enables the study of nucleation and growth dynamics at the atomic scale. It provides us with numerous information concerning the nucleation mechanism, the growth mode of the structures, adatom kinetics, influence of the lattice mismatch between the substrate and the grown structure as well as formation and morphology of crystal defects. The first part of the thesis focuses on the experimental realization based upon an existing setup. The construction of an in-situ UHV STM compatible with the MBE cluster and the technical improvement of the STM setup are described. Subsequently, test measurements are performed on the technologically most important surfaces, Ge (100) and Si (111). The second part of the thesis is dedicated to ordered small-period arrays of self-assembled Ge quantum dots (QDs) grown on pre-patterned Si (100) substrates. Small-period Ge QD crystals are highly interesting since band structure calculations indicate coupled electronic states of the QDs in the case of the small lateral period of approximately 30 nm. Small-period hole patterns with a period of 56 nm are fabricated by e-beam lithography on Si substrates. The evolution of the hole morphology during the in-situ pre-growth annealing and the Si buffer layer growth are studied. Deposition of 5

  2. Nanostructured materials for hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Andrew J.; Reboredo, Fernando A.

    2007-12-04

    A system for hydrogen storage comprising a porous nano-structured material with hydrogen absorbed on the surfaces of the porous nano-structured material. The system of hydrogen storage comprises absorbing hydrogen on the surfaces of a porous nano-structured semiconductor material.

  3. Intermediate Bandgap Solar Cells From Nanostructured Silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, Marcie [Bandgap Engineering, Lincoln, MA (United States)

    2014-10-30

    This project aimed to demonstrate increased electronic coupling in silicon nanostructures relative to bulk silicon for the purpose of making high efficiency intermediate bandgap solar cells using silicon. To this end, we formed nanowires with controlled crystallographic orientation, small diameter, <111> sidewall faceting, and passivated surfaces to modify the electronic band structure in silicon by breaking down the symmetry of the crystal lattice. We grew and tested these silicon nanowires with <110>-growth axes, which is an orientation that should produce the coupling enhancement.

  4. Microwave dielectric properties of nanostructured nickel ferrite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    John Jacob; M Abdul Khadar; Anil Lonappan; K T Mathew

    2008-11-01

    Nickel ferrite is one of the important ferrites used in microwave devices. In the present work, we have synthesized nanoparticles of nickel ferrite using chemical precipitation technique. The crystal structure and grain size of the particles are studied using XRD. The microwave dielectric properties of nanostructured nickel ferrite samples of three different average grain sizes and those of two sintered samples were studied. The parameters like dielectric constant, dielectric loss and heating coefficient of the nanoparticles samples are studied in the frequency range from 2.4 to 4 GHz. The values of these parameters are compared with those of sintered pellets of the same samples. All these parameters show size dependent variations.

  5. Semiconductor Nanostructures Quantum States and Electronic Transport

    CERN Document Server

    Ihn, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    This textbook describes the physics of semiconductor nanostructures with emphasis on their electronic transport properties. At its heart are five fundamental transport phenomena: quantized conductance, tunnelling transport, the Aharonov-Bohm effect, the quantum Hall effect, and the Coulomb blockade effect. The book starts out with the basics of solid state and semiconductor physics, such as crystal structure, band structure, and effective mass approximation, including spin-orbit interaction effects important for research in semiconductor spintronics. It contains material aspects such as band e

  6. Synthesis of porphyrin nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hongyou; Bai, Feng

    2014-10-28

    The present disclosure generally relates to self-assembly methods for generating porphyrin nanostructures. For example, in one embodiment a method is provided that includes preparing a porphyrin solution and a surfactant solution. The porphyrin solution is then mixed with the surfactant solution at a concentration sufficient for confinement of the porphyrin molecules by the surfactant molecules. In some embodiments, the concentration of the surfactant is at or above its critical micelle concentration (CMC), which allows the surfactant to template the growth of the nanostructure over time. The size and morphology of the nanostructures may be affected by the type of porphyrin molecules used, the type of surfactant used, the concentration of the porphyrin and surfactant the pH of the mixture of the solutions, and the order of adding the reagents to the mixture, to name a few variables.

  7. A facile preparation of crystalline GeS{sub 2} nanoplates and their photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qifan [School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Shanghai Institute of Technology, Shanghai 201418 (China); Kang, Shi-Zhao, E-mail: kangsz@sit.edu.cn [School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Shanghai Institute of Technology, Shanghai 201418 (China); Li, Xiangqing [School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Shanghai Institute of Technology, Shanghai 201418 (China); Yang, Ying-Wei [State Key Laboratory of Supramolecular Structure and Materials, College Of Chemistry, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012 (China); Qin, Lixia [School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Shanghai Institute of Technology, Shanghai 201418 (China); Mu, Jin, E-mail: mujin@sit.edu.cn [School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Shanghai Institute of Technology, Shanghai 201418 (China)

    2015-05-15

    Graphical abstract: The crystalline GeS{sub 2} nanoplates have been successfully prepared in the low temperature solvothermal process. Meanwhile, the as-prepared crystalline GeS{sub 2} nanoplates show considerable photocatalytic activity for hydrogen evolution from water, implying that GeS{sub 2} nanomaterials have great potential in the field of hydrogen generation from light-driven water splitting. - Highlights: • GeS{sub 2} nanoplates were prepared by a low temperature solvothermal process. • GeS{sub 2} nanoplates obtained possess high crystallinity. • Nanostructured GeS{sub 2} is first applied in the photocatalytic H{sub 2} evolution. - Abstract: Crystalline GeS{sub 2} nanoplates were prepared by low temperature solvothermal process and characterized with X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersion X-ray analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption, Raman spectroscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy and UV–vis–NIR diffuse reflectance absorption spectroscopy. Photocatalytic hydrogen evolution from water over the as-prepared GeS{sub 2} nanoplates was explored using Na{sub 2}S and K{sub 2}SO{sub 3} as sacrificial reagents. The results indicate that the crystalline orthorhombic GeS{sub 2} nanoplates can be obtained at 140 °C using this simple method and acetic acid as the solvent plays an important role in the formation of the GeS{sub 2} nanoplates. More importantly, the as-prepared GeS{sub 2} nanoplates can serve as a potential photocatalyst with a rate of H{sub 2} evolution of 144 μmol g{sup −1} h{sup −1} for hydrogen production from water when a xenon lamp is used as a light source. In addition, the formation mechanism of GeS{sub 2} nanoplates was preliminarily discussed.

  8. NANOSTRUCTURAL PROCESSES OF MELTING AND MOULDING OF HYPOEUTECTIC SILUMIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Yu. Stetsenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that melting and molding of hypoeutectic silumin are difficult physical and chemical nanostructural processes. In them the major role is played by the centers of crystallization of primary dendrites of aluminum, aluminum nanocrystals, the dissolved and adsorbed hydrogen. The role of the modifying crystals of an intermetallid of TiAl3 is reduced to absorption of the dissolved hydrogen and an intensification of process of a koalestsention of nanocrystals of aluminum in the centers of crystallization of primary dendrites of aluminum.

  9. Synthesis of Epitaxial Films Based on Ge-Si-Sn Materials with Ge/GeSn, Ge/GeSiSn, and GeSn/GeSiSn Heterojunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeev, V. A.; Kokhanenko, A. P.; Nikiforov, A. I.; Mashanov, V. I.; Tuktamyshev, A. R.; Loshkarev, I. D.

    2015-11-01

    Results of investigations into the synthesis of heterostructures based on Ge-Si-Sn materials by the method of low-temperature molecular beam epitaxy are presented. The formation of epitaxial films during structure growth has been controlled by the reflection high-energy electron diffraction method. Films with Ge/GeSn, Ge/GeSiSn, and GeSn/GeSiSn heterojunctions are grown with Sn content changing from 2 to 10 % at temperatures in the interval 150-350°C. The stressed state, the composition, and the lattice parameter are studied by the x-ray diffraction method using Omega-scan curves and reciprocal space maps. A tensile strain in the Ge film during Ge/Ge0.9Sn0.1/Si structure growth has reached 0.86%.

  10. The role of impurities in the shape, structure and physical properties of semiconducting oxide nanostructures grown by thermal evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cebriano

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A thermal evaporation method developed in the research group enables to grow and design several morphologies of semiconducting oxide nanostructures, such as Ga2O3, GeO2 or Sb2O3, among others, and some ternary oxide compounds (ZnGa2O4, Zn2GeO4. In order to tailor physical properties, a successful doping of these nanostructures is required. However, for nanostructured materials, doping may affect not only their physical properties, but also their morphology during the thermal growth process. In this paper, we will show some examples of how the addition of impurities may result into the formation of complex structures, or changes in the structural phase of the material. In particular, we will consider the addition of Sn and Cr impurities into the precursors used to grow Ga2O3, Zn2GeO4 and Sb2O3 nanowires, nanorods or complex nanostructures, such as crossing wires or hierarchical structures. Structural and optical properties were assessed by electron microscopy (SEM and TEM, confocal microscopy, spatially resolved cathodoluminescence (CL, photoluminescence, and Raman spectroscopies. The growth mechanisms, the luminescence bands and the optical confinement in the obtained oxide nanostructures will be discussed. In particular, some of these nanostructures have been found to be of interest as optical microcavities. These nanomaterials may have applications in optical sensing and energy devices.

  11. Refit Silver Nanostructures Using a Convergent Electron Beam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jian-Hong

    2007-01-01

    Using a superionic conductor AgI thin film and a direct current electric field,we synthesize silver nanowires in diameter of about 100 nm.In order to refit the prepared nanowires,the samples are irradiated by a convergent electron beam(200 kV)inside a transmission electron microscope to prepare new small silver nanostructures.The new nanostructures are investigated in situ by high-resolution transmission electron microscope.This electroninduced crystal growth method is useful for technical applications in fabrication of nanodevices.

  12. Injection moulding antireflective nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Alexander Bruun; Clausen, Jeppe Sandvik; Mortensen, N. Asger

    in an injection moulding process, to fabricate the antireflective surfaces. The cycle-time was 35 s. The injection moulded structures had a height of 125 nm, and the visible spectrum reflectance of injection moulded black polypropylene surfaces was reduced from 4.5±0.5% to 2.5±0.5%. The gradient of the refractive...... index of the nanostructured surfaces was estimated from atomic force micrographs and the theoretical reflectance was calculated using the transfer matrix method and effective medium theory. The measured reflectance shows good agreement with the theory of graded index antireflective nanostructures...

  13. Nanostructured Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guanying; Ning, Zhijun; Ågren, Hans

    2016-01-01

    We are glad to announce the Special Issue “Nanostructured Solar Cells”, published in Nanomaterials. This issue consists of eight articles, two communications, and one review paper, covering major important aspects of nanostructured solar cells of varying types. From fundamental physicochemical investigations to technological advances, and from single junction solar cells (silicon solar cell, dye sensitized solar cell, quantum dots sensitized solar cell, and small molecule organic solar cell) to tandem multi-junction solar cells, all aspects are included and discussed in this issue to advance the use of nanotechnology to improve the performance of solar cells with reduced fabrication costs.

  14. Nanostructured Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guanying; Ning, Zhijun; Ågren, Hans

    2016-08-09

    We are glad to announce the Special Issue "Nanostructured Solar Cells", published in Nanomaterials. This issue consists of eight articles, two communications, and one review paper, covering major important aspects of nanostructured solar cells of varying types. From fundamental physicochemical investigations to technological advances, and from single junction solar cells (silicon solar cell, dye sensitized solar cell, quantum dots sensitized solar cell, and small molecule organic solar cell) to tandem multi-junction solar cells, all aspects are included and discussed in this issue to advance the use of nanotechnology to improve the performance of solar cells with reduced fabrication costs.

  15. Nanostructured piezoelectric energy harvesters

    CERN Document Server

    Briscoe, Joe

    2014-01-01

    This book covers a range of devices that use piezoelectricity to convert mechanical deformation into electrical energy and relates their output capabilities to a range of potential applications. Starting with a description of the fundamental principles and properties of piezo- and ferroelectric materials, where applications of bulk materials are well established, the book shows how nanostructures of these materials are being developed for energy harvesting applications. The authors show how a nanostructured device can be produced, and put in context some of the approaches that are being invest

  16. On the energy dependence of proton beam extraction with a bent crystal

    CERN Document Server

    Arduini, Gianluigi; Fidecaro, Giuseppe; Gyr, Marcel; Herr, Werner; Klem, J T; Mikkelsen, U; Weisse, E

    1998-01-01

    Proton beam extraction from the CERN SPS by means of a bent silicon crystal is reported at three different energies, 14 GeV, 120 GeV and 270 GeV. The experimental results are compared to computer simulations which contain a sound model of the SPS accelerator as well as the channeling phenomena in bent crystals. The overall energy dependence of crystal assisted proton beam extraction is understood and provides the basis to discuss such a scheme for future accelerators.

  17. High Quality SiGe Layer Deposited by a New Ultrahigh Vacuum Chemical Vapor Deposition System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    An ultrahigh vacuum chemical vapor deposition (UHV/CVD) system is developed and the details of its construction and operation are reported. Using high purity SiH4 and GeH4 reactant gases,the Si0.82Ge0.18 layer is deposited at 550℃. With the measurements by double crystal X-ray diffraction (DCXRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) techniques, it is shown that the crystalline quality of the SiGe layer is good,and the underlying SiGe/Si heterointerface is sharply defined.

  18. GeP and (Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x})(P{sub 1−y}Ge{sub y}) (x≈0.12, y≈0.05): Synthesis, structure, and properties of two-dimensional layered tetrel phosphides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kathleen; Synnestvedt, Sarah; Bellard, Maverick; Kovnir, Kirill, E-mail: kkovnir@ucdavis.edu

    2015-04-15

    GeP and Sn-doped GeP were synthesized from elements in bismuth and tin flux, respectively. The layered crystal structures of these compounds were characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Both phosphides crystallize in a GaTe structure type in the monoclinic space group C2/m (No. 12) with GeP: a=15.1948(7) Å, b=3.6337(2) Å, c=9.1941(4) Å, β=101.239(2)°; Ge{sub 0.93(3)}P{sub 0.95(1)}Sn{sub 0.12(3)}: a=15.284(9) Å, b=3.622(2) Å, c=9.207(5) Å, β=101.79(1)°. The crystal structure of GeP consists of 2-dimensional GeP layers held together by weak electron lone pair interactions between the phosphorus atoms that confine the layer. Each layer is built of Ge–Ge dumbbells surrounded by a distorted antiprism of phosphorus atoms. Sn-doped GeP has a similar structural motif, but with a significant degree of disorder emphasized by the splitting of all atomic positions. Resistivity measurements together with quantum-chemical calculations reveal semiconducting behavior for the investigated phosphides. - Graphical abstract: Layered phosphides GeP and Sn-doped GeP were synthesized from elements in bismuth and tin flux, respectively. The crystal structure of GeP consists of 2-dimensional GeP layers held together by weak electron lone pair interactions between the phosphorus atoms that confine the layer. Sn-doped GeP has a similar structural motif with a significant degree of disorder emphasized by the splitting of all atomic positions. Resistivity measurements together with quantum-chemical calculations reveal semiconducting behavior for the investigated phosphides. - Highlights: • GeP crystallizes in a layered crystal structure. • Doping of Sn into GeP causes large structural distortions. • GeP is narrow bandgap semiconductor. • Sn-doped GeP exhibits an order of magnitude higher resistivity due to disorder.

  19. On the crystallization of amorphous germanium films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelman, F.; Komem, Y.; Bendayan, M.; Beserman, R.

    1993-06-01

    The incubation time for crystallization of amorphous Ge (a-Ge) films, deposited by e-gun, was studied as a function of temperature between 150 and 500°C by means of both in situ transmission electron microscopy and Raman scattering spectroscopy. The temperature dependence of t0 follows an Arrhenius curve with an activation energy of 2.0 eV for free-sustained a-Ge films. In the case where the a-Ge films were on Si 3N 4 substrate, the activation energy of the incubation process was 1.3 eV.

  20. Structure cristalline du composé intermétallique Ni18Ge12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Kars

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Single crystals of octadecanickel dodecagermanide were grown by chemical transport reaction. The intermetallic compound crystallizes in a superstructure of the hexagonal NiAs type (B8 type. All atoms in the asymmetric unit lie on special positions except one Ni atom (two Ni atoms have site symmetry -6.. and another one has site symmetry .2. while the Ge atoms have site symmetries 32., m.. and 3... In the structure, the Ni atoms are arranged in 11- or 13-vertex polyhedra (CN = 11–13. The coordination polyhedra of the Ge atoms are bicapped square antiprisms (CN = 10 or 11-vertex polyhedra (CN = 11. The structure exhibits strong Ge...Ni interactions, but no close Ge...Ge contacts are observed. The Ni atoms with CN = 13 form infinite chains along [001] with an Ni—Ni distance of 2.491 (2 Å.