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Sample records for crystallization water effect

  1. Effect of surfactants or a water soluble polymer on the crystal transition of clarithromycin during a wet granulation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozawa, Kenji; Iwao, Yasunori; Noguchi, Shuji; Itai, Shigeru

    2015-11-10

    To generate products containing a stable form of clarithromycin (CAM) (form II) regardless of the initial crystal form of CAM or type of granulation solvent, the effects of five surfactants, or a water-soluble polymer (macrogol 400) were determined on the crystal transition of CAM. The metastable form (form I) was kneaded with water, after adding surfactants, or a water-soluble polymer. Form II was also kneaded with ethanol, after adding the same additives. The resulting samples were analyzed by powder X-ray diffraction. Form I was completely converted to form II by a wet granulation using water with additives bearing polyoxyethylene chains such as polysorbate 80 (PS80), polyoxyl 40 stearate or macrogol 400. The granulation of the form II using ethanol with these additives did not result in a crystal transition to form I. Furthermore, CAM tablets were manufactured using granules with PS80, and these crystal forms and dissolution behaviors were investigated. As a result, the wet granulation of CAM with PS80 gave CAM tablets containing only form II and PS80 did not have any adverse effects on tablet characteristics. Therefore, these data suggests that the crystal form of CAM can be controlled to be form II using a wet granulation process with additives bearing polyoxyethylene chains regardless of the initial crystal form of CAM or type of granulation solvent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of Phytosterols on the Crystallization Behavior of Oil-in-Water Milk Fat Emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zychowski, Lisa M; Logan, Amy; Augustin, Mary Ann; Kelly, Alan L; Zabara, Alexandru; O'Mahony, James A; Conn, Charlotte E; Auty, Mark A E

    2016-08-31

    Milk has been used commercially as a carrier for phytosterols, but there is limited knowledge on the effect of added plant sterols on the properties of the system. In this study, phytosterols dispersed in milk fat at a level of 0.3 or 0.6% were homogenized with an aqueous dispersion of whey protein isolate (WPI). The particle size, morphology, ζ-potential, and stability of the emulsions were investigated. Emulsion crystallization properties were examined through the use of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Synchrotron X-ray scattering at both small and wide angles. Phytosterol enrichment influenced the particle size and physical appearance of the emulsion droplets, but did not affect the stability or charge of the dispersed particles. DSC data demonstrated that, at the higher level of phytosterol addition, crystallization of milk fat was delayed, whereas, at the lower level, phytosterol enrichment induced nucleation and emulsion crystallization. These differences were attributed to the formation of separate phytosterol crystals within the emulsions at the high phytosterol concentration, as characterized by Synchrotron X-ray measurements. X-ray scattering patterns demonstrated the ability of the phytosterol to integrate within the milk fat triacylglycerol matrix, with a concomitant increase in longitudinal packing and system disorder. Understanding the consequences of adding phytosterols, on the physical and crystalline behavior of emulsions may enable the functional food industry to design more physically and chemically stable products.

  3. Determination of crystal water in uranium tetrafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Yingfang

    1991-01-01

    A gravimetric method for measuring crystal water in uranium tetrafluoride is reported. Being convenient, reliable and quick, it can be used as a routine analytical method measure crystal water in uranium tetrafluoride, thorium tetrafluoride etc

  4. Effect of intracrystalline water on micro-Vickers hardness in tetragonal hen egg-white lysozyme single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, H; Kawamoto, H; Tachibana, M; Kojima, K

    2008-01-01

    Mechanical properties of high quality tetragonal hen egg-white lysozyme single crystals which are one type of protein crystal were investigated by the indentation method. The indentation marks were clearly observed on the crystal surface and no elastic recovery of them occurred. The value of the micro-Vickers hardness in the wet condition was estimated to be about 20 MPa at room temperature. The hardness greatly depended on the amount of intracrystalline water (mobile water) contained in the crystals. The hardness increased with increasing evaporation time to air at room temperature. It reached the maximum at about 260 MPa, which is 13 times as much as that in the wet condition. The origin of such a change in hardness was explained in terms of the dislocation mechanisms in lysozyme single crystals

  5. Toxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles to Escherichia coli: effects of particle size, crystal phase and water chemistry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuchun Lin

    Full Text Available Controversial and inconsistent results on the eco-toxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs are commonly found in recorded studies and more experimental works are therefore warranted to elucidate the nanotoxicity and its underlying precise mechanisms. Toxicities of five types of TiO2 NPs with different particle sizes (10∼50 nm and crystal phases were investigated using Escherichia coli as a test organism. The effect of water chemistry on the nanotoxicity was also examined. The antibacterial effects of TiO2 NPs as revealed by dose-effect experiments decreased with increasing particle size and rutile content of the TiO2 NPs. More bacteria could survive at higher solution pH (5.0-10.0 and ionic strength (50-200 mg L(-1 NaCl as affected by the anatase TiO2 NPs. The TiO2 NPs with anatase crystal structure and smaller particle size produced higher content of intracellular reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde, in line with their greater antibacterial effect. Transmission electron microscopic observations showed the concentration buildup of the anatase TiO2 NPs especially those with smaller particle sizes on the cell surfaces, leading to membrane damage and internalization. These research results will shed new light on the understanding of ecological effects of TiO2 NPs.

  6. Toxicity of TiO2 Nanoparticles to Escherichia coli: Effects of Particle Size, Crystal Phase and Water Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiuchun; Li, Jingyi; Ma, Si; Liu, Gesheng; Yang, Kun; Tong, Meiping; Lin, Daohui

    2014-01-01

    Controversial and inconsistent results on the eco-toxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) are commonly found in recorded studies and more experimental works are therefore warranted to elucidate the nanotoxicity and its underlying precise mechanisms. Toxicities of five types of TiO2 NPs with different particle sizes (10∼50 nm) and crystal phases were investigated using Escherichia coli as a test organism. The effect of water chemistry on the nanotoxicity was also examined. The antibacterial effects of TiO2 NPs as revealed by dose-effect experiments decreased with increasing particle size and rutile content of the TiO2 NPs. More bacteria could survive at higher solution pH (5.0–10.0) and ionic strength (50–200 mg L−1 NaCl) as affected by the anatase TiO2 NPs. The TiO2 NPs with anatase crystal structure and smaller particle size produced higher content of intracellular reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde, in line with their greater antibacterial effect. Transmission electron microscopic observations showed the concentration buildup of the anatase TiO2 NPs especially those with smaller particle sizes on the cell surfaces, leading to membrane damage and internalization. These research results will shed new light on the understanding of ecological effects of TiO2 NPs. PMID:25310452

  7. Effects of impurities on crystal growth in fructose crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Y. D.; Shiau, L. D.; Berglund, K. A.

    1989-10-01

    The influence of impurities on the crystallization of anhydrous fructose from aqueous solution was studied. The growth kinetics of fructose crystals in the fructose-water-glucose and fructose-water-difructose dianhydrides systems were investigated using photomicroscopic contact nucleation techniques. Glucose is the major impurity likely to be present in fructose syrup formed during corn wet milling, while several difructose dianhydrides are formed in situ under crystallization conditions and have been proposed as a cause in the decrease of overall yields. Both sets of impurities were found to cause inhibition of crystal growth, but the mechanisms responsible in each case are different. It was found that the presence of glucose increases the solubility of fructose in water and thus lowers the supersaturation of the solution. This is probably the main effect responsible for the decrease of crystal growth. Since the molecular structures of difructose dianhydrides are similar to that of fructose, they are probably "tailor-made" impurities. The decrease of crystal growth is probably caused by the incorporation of these impurities into or adsorption to the crystal surface which would accept fructose molecules in the orientation that existed in the difructose dianhydride.

  8. Plastic crystal phases of simple water models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aragones, J. L.; Vega, C.

    2009-01-01

    We report the appearance of two plastic crystal phases of water at high pressure and temperature using computer simulations. In one of them the oxygen atoms form a body centered cubic structure (bcc) and in the other they form a face centered cubic structure (fcc). In both cases the water molecules were able to rotate almost freely. We have found that the bcc plastic crystal transformed into a fcc plastic crystal via a Martensitic phase transition when heated at constant pressure. We have performed the characterization and localization in the phase diagram of these plastic crystal phases for the SPC/E, TIP4P, and TIP4P/2005 water potential models. For TIP4P/2005 model free energy calculations were carried out for the bcc plastic crystal and fcc plastic crystal using a new method (which is a slight variation of the Einstein crystal method) proposed for these types of solid. The initial coexistence points for the SPC/E and TIP4P models were obtained using Hamiltonian Gibbs–Duhem integration. For all of these models these two plastic crystal phases appear in the high pressure and temperature region of the phase diagram. It would be of interest to study if such plastic crystal phases do indeed exist for real water. This would shed some light on the question of whether these models can describe satisfactorily the high pressure part of the phase diagram of water, and if not, where and why they fail.

  9. Effects of water-absorption and thermal drift on a polymeric photonic crystal slab sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kristian Tølbøl; Ingvorsen, Charlotte Bonde; Nielsen, Line Hagner

    2018-01-01

    of resonant reflection during absorption, by monitoring the release of water using ellipsometry, and by rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA). The approach presented here enables monitoring of water uptake and thermal fluctuations, for drift-free, high-performance operation of a polymeric PCS sensor....... with additional challenges, besides those relating to temperature-variations, which must be considered in any refractive index based method: The polymeric waveguide core was found to swell by ?0.3% as water absorbed into the waveguide core over ?1.5 h. This was investigated by monitoring the wavelength...

  10. The Effect of Water Table Fluctuation and its Salinity on Fe Crystal and Noncrystal in some Khuzestan Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mostafa Pajohannia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Iron is found in different forms in the soil. In the primary minerals, iron is found as Fe3+ or Fe2+ which converted to Fe2+ and released in unsuitable reduction conditions. Minerals such as sulfide or chlorine and bicarbonate can affect and change the different forms soil Fe. FeAs these elements are abundance in groundwater or soil, they are capable to react chemically with Fe and change different Fe forms and also may deposit or even leach them by increasing its solubility in the soil. Water table fluctuation is a regular phenomenon in Khuzestan that Fe forms change under these situations. The study of Fe oxide forms and its changes can be applied for evaluation of soil development. Therefore, the aim of this study is the water table fluctuation and its quality effects, and some physio-chemical properties on Fe oxides forms in non-saline and saline soils in Khuzestan. Materials and Methods: Soil samples were collected from two regions: saline (Abdolkhan and non-saline (South Susa regions. soil samples were collected from all horizons of 12 soil field studied profiles . The samples were analyzed for soil texture, pH, EC (soil: water ratio 1:5, organic carbon and aggregate stability (Kemper and Rosenau method. Fe forms also were extracted by two methods in all samples: di-tyonite sodium and ammonium oxalate extraction. Fe oxalate extracted was related to Feo (non crystal Fe and Fed-Feo was related to Fec (crystalline Fe. The Fe content were determined by atomic absorbtion spectrophotometer (AAS. Data were analysis in SAS and Excel software and results were presented. Results and Discussion: The results showed that texture were loamy sand to silty clay loam, OM was very poor (0.1-0.7%. The soil salinity was also 2.8-16.8 dS/m. Calcium carbonate equivalent was 38-40%. All pedons were classified in Entisols and Inceptisols according to Keys to soil taxonomy (2010. The results showed that the proportion of Fe with oxalate to di

  11. Grain boundary barrier modification due to coupling effect of crystal polar field and water molecular dipole in ZnO-based structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Xu; Zhu, Yuan; Chen, Mingming; Su, Longxing; Chen, Anqi; Zhao, Chengchun; Gui, Xuchun; Xiang, Rong; Huang, Feng; Tang, Zikang

    2014-01-01

    Surface water molecules induced grain boundaries (GBs) barrier modification was investigated in ZnO and ZnMgO/ZnO films. Tunable electronic transport properties of the samples by water were characterized via a field effect transistor (FET) device structure. The FETs fabricated from polar C-plane ZnO and ZnMgO/ZnO films that have lots of GBs exhibited obvious double Schottky-like current-voltage property, whereas that fabricated from nonpolar M-plane samples with GBs and ZnO bulk single-crystal had no obvious conduction modulation effects. Physically, these hallmark properties are supposed to be caused by the electrostatical coupling effect of crystal polar field and molecular dipole on GBs barrier.

  12. Size effects in crystal plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Ulrik

    2007-01-01

    Numerical analyses of plasticity size effects have been carried out for different problems using a developed strain gradient crystal plasticiy theory. The theory employs higher order stresses as work conjugates to slip gradients and uses higher order boundary conditions. Problems on localization...... of plastic flow in a single crystal, grain boundary effects in a bicrystal, and grain size effects in a polycrystal are studied. Single crystals containing micro-scale voids have also been analyzed at different loading conditions with focus on the stress and deformation fields around the voids, on void...... growth and interaction between neighboring voids, and on a comparison between the developed strain gradient crystal plasticity theory and a discrete dislocation plasticity theory. Furthermore, voids and rigid inclusions in isotropic materials have been studied using a strain gradient plasticity theory...

  13. Channeling and related crystal effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uggerhoj, Erik

    1995-01-01

    Channeling, the interaction of particles with oriented crystals, has been applied in a wide variety of scientific and technological areas. A workshop at Aarhus, Denmark, this summer highlighted progress and future directions. Radiation emission has been explored and linked to coherent bremsstrahlung and other oriented crystal radiations. Dramatic effects have been found for ultra-relativistic electrons with Lorentz factors of 105 6. Single crystals are unique for investigations of quantum electrodynamics in strong external fields because probabilities for processes in axial/ planar fields are determined by the magnitude of these fields in the particle rest frame. Erik Uggerhoj of Aarhus reported on an extensive series of experiments concerning radiation emission, pair production, and shower formation carried out at CERN by the NA43 collaboration. As Vladimir Baier of Novosibirsk and Yuri Kononets of Kurchatov noted, theoretical treatment of these interconnected radiation distributions is challenging and much work needs to be done. In general, the agreement with the CERN experiments is good, but many areas like polarization phenomena and particle production need investigation. Prominent among high energy applications is extraction from accelerators. At the workshop, Alexei Asseev reported on beam extraction using a bent crystal at Serpukhov. Konrad Elsener and Jukka Klem reviewed recent CERN SPS studies driven by the possibility of using crystals for extraction of LHC beams. Thornton Murphy of Fermilab announced a step in that direction, with a demonstration this summer of extraction from the Tevatron at 900 GeV. Bent crystal channeling is also used for handling extracted high energy beams. Niels Doble presented a beautiful example of a beam for the CERN NA48 CP-violation experiment. Yuri Chesnokov reported that beams had been deflected through angles up to 150 milliradians at Serpukhov

  14. Mixed garnet laser crystals for water vapour DIAL transmitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treichel, Rainer; Czeranowsky, Christoph; Ileri, Bilge; Petermann, Klaus; Huber, Günter

    2017-11-01

    There are more or less well established technologies such as the optical-parametric-oscillator (OPO), the Raman-laser, and the Ti-Sapphire laser, which are able to emit laser light in the region of the water vapour absorption lines. For WALES the regions of about 935 nm, 942 nm, and 944 nm have been identified as the most suitable wavelength ranges. However, each of these laser designs is highly sophisticated. Current baseline for WALES is the Ti-Sapphire laser. A fourth possibility to achieve these wavelength ranges is to shift the groundstate laser lines (938 nm and 946 nm) of the Nd:YAG laser by replacing Aluminium and Yttrium by other rare earth elements. Changes of the host lattice characteristics lead to a shift of the upper and lower laser levels. These modified crystals are summarized under the name of "Mixed Garnet" crystals. Only the Mixed Garnet lasers can be pumped directly with diode laser and use a direct approach to generate the required laser pulses without frequency conversion. Therefore no additional non-linear crystals are needed and a higher electric to optical efficiency is expected as well as single frequency operation using spectral tuning elements like etalons. Such lasers have the great potential to fulfil the requirements and to become the preferred transmitter concept for WALES as well as for follow up missions. Within a ESA study several crystal compositions have been grown, spectrally characterised and analysed. Absorbed space radiation energy in the crystal lattice causes colour centres, which can reabsorb the pump and laser wavelength and consequently reduce the laser gain considerably. Co-dopants such as Chromium and Cerium are able to suppress the colour centres and are candidates for effective radiation hardening. The results of the crystal tuning, the co-doping with different radiation hardeners and the radiation tests will be presented. There applicability for a space based water vapour DIAL transmitter will be discussed.

  15. The effective crystal field potential

    CERN Document Server

    Mulak, J

    2000-01-01

    As it results from the very nature of things, the spherical symmetry of the surrounding of a site in a crystal lattice or an atom in a molecule can never occur. Therefore, the eigenfunctions and eigenvalues of any bound ion or atom have to differ from those of spherically symmetric respective free ions. In this way, the most simplified concept of the crystal field effect or ligand field effect in the case of individual molecules can be introduced. The conventional notion of the crystal field potential is narrowed to its non-spherical part only through ignoring the dominating spherical part which produces only a uniform energy shift of gravity centres of the free ion terms. It is well understood that the non-spherical part of the effective potential "seen" by open-shell electrons localized on a metal ion plays an essential role in most observed properties. Light adsorption, electron paramagnetic resonance, inelastic neutron scattering and basic characteristics derived from magnetic and thermal measurements, ar...

  16. Understanding water: Molecular dynamics simulations of solubilized and crystallized myoglobin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Gu; Garcia, A.E.; Schoenborn, B.P. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Molecular dynamics simulations were performed on CO myoglobin to evaluate the stability of the bound water molecules as determined in a neutron diffraction analysis. The myoglobin structure derived from the neutron analysis provided the starting coordinate set used in the simulations. The simulations show that only a few water molecules are tightly bound to protein atoms, while most solvent molecules are labile, breaking and reforming hydrogen bonds. Comparison between myoglobin in solution and in a single crystal highlighted some of the packing effects on the solvent structure and shows that water solvent plays an indispensable role in protein dynamics and structural stability. The described observations explain some of the differences in the experimental results of protein hydration as observed in NMR, neutron and X-ray diffraction studies.

  17. Understanding water: Molecular dynamics simulations of solubilized and crystallized myoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Gu; Garcia, A.E.; Schoenborn, B.P.

    1994-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were performed on CO myoglobin to evaluate the stability of the bound water molecules as determined in a neutron diffraction analysis. The myoglobin structure derived from the neutron analysis provided the starting coordinate set used in the simulations. The simulations show that only a few water molecules are tightly bound to protein atoms, while most solvent molecules are labile, breaking and reforming hydrogen bonds. Comparison between myoglobin in solution and in a single crystal highlighted some of the packing effects on the solvent structure and shows that water solvent plays an indispensable role in protein dynamics and structural stability. The described observations explain some of the differences in the experimental results of protein hydration as observed in NMR, neutron and X-ray diffraction studies

  18. Surface and bulk crystallization of amorphous solid water films: Confirmation of “top-down” crystallization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Chunqing; Smith, R. Scott; Kay, Bruce D.

    2016-10-01

    The crystallization kinetics of nanoscale amorphous solid water (ASW) films are investigated using temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) and reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS). TPD measurements are used to probe surface crystallization and RAIRS measurements are used to probe bulk crystallization. Isothermal TPD results show that surface crystallization is independent of the film thickness (from 100 to 1000 ML). Conversely, the RAIRS measurements show that the bulk crystallization time increases linearly with increasing film thickness. These results suggest that nucleation and crystallization begin at the ASW/vacuum interface and then the crystallization growth front propagates linearly into the bulk. This mechanism was confirmed by selective placement of an isotopic layer (5% D2O in H2O) at various positions in an ASW (H2O) film. In this case, the closer the isotopic layer was to the vacuum interface, the earlier the isotopic layer crystallized. These experiments provide direct evidence to confirm that ASW crystallization in vacuum proceeds by a “top-down” crystallization mechanism.

  19. The Morse code effect: A crystal-crystal transformation observed in gel-grown lead (II) oxalate crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisgarten, J. N.; Marks, J. A.

    2018-05-01

    This paper reports on an unusual crystal-crystal transformation phenomenon, which we have called the Morse Code Effect, based on the change in appearance of lead(II) oxalate crystals grown in agarose gels.

  20. Effect of solvent on crystallization behavior of xylitol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Hongxun; Hou, Baohong; Wang, Jing-Kang; Lin, Guangyu

    2006-04-01

    Effect of organic solvents content on crystallization behavior of xylitol was studied. Solubility and crystallization kinetics of xylitol in methanol-water system were experimentally determined. It was found that the solubility of xylitol at various methanol content all increases with increase of temperature. But it decreases when increasing methanol content at constant temperature. Based on the theory of population balance, the nucleation and growth rates of xylitol in methanol-water mixed solvents were calculated by moments method. From a series of experimental population density data of xylitol gotten from a batch-operated crystallizer, parameters of crystal nucleation and growth rate equations at different methanol content were got by the method of nonlinear least-squares. By analyzing, it was found that the content of methanol had an apparent effect on nucleation and growth rate of xylitol. At constant temperature, the nucleation and growth rate of xylitol all decrease with increase of methanol content.

  1. Polariton effects in naphthalene crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinette, S.L.

    1977-10-01

    The experimental verification of the two-step nature of energy dissipation of photon energy by a crystal is the subject of this dissertation. The α(O,O) Davydov component of the lowest energy singlet transition in pure strain-free napthalene single crystals is shown to exhibit an increase in absorption with increasing temperature, due to an increase in polariton damping via polariton-phonon scattering processes

  2. Photonic crystal fibres and effective index approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riishede, Jesper; Libori, Stig E. Barkou; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard

    2001-01-01

    Photonic crystal fibres are investigated with an effective index approach. The effective index of both core and cladding is found to be wavelength dependent. Accurate modelling must respect the rich topology of these fibres.......Photonic crystal fibres are investigated with an effective index approach. The effective index of both core and cladding is found to be wavelength dependent. Accurate modelling must respect the rich topology of these fibres....

  3. Contact angle of water droplet on apatite single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Takaomi; Hirose, Go; Oishi, Shuji

    2004-01-01

    Contact angles of water droplets on well-formed crystals of strontium and barium chlorapatites, Sr 5 Cl(PO 4 ) 3 and Ba 5 Cl(PO 4 ) 3 , were observed. The contact angles of water on (1 0 1-bar 0) and (1 0 1-bar 1) faces of Sr 5 Cl(PO 4 ) 3 were 74±8 deg. and 53±5 deg. and those on (1 0 1-bar 0) and (1 0 1-bar 1) faces of Ba 5 Cl(PO 4 ) 3 were 52±5 deg. and 33±1 deg., respectively. The surface tensions of the crystals were calculated using Neumann's equation. They were 39.2±50 and 52.0±3.0 mJ m -2 for (1 0 1-bar 0) and (1 0 1-bar 1) faces of Sr 5 Cl(PO 4 ) 3 , 52.5±2.9 and 63.0±0.5 mJ m -2 for (1 0 1-bar 0) and (1 0 1-bar 1) faces of Ba 5 Cl(PO 4 ) 3 , respectively. The (1 0 1-bar 1) face has larger surface tension than (1 0 1-bar 0) face for both crystals. The chlorapatite crystals have tendency to elongate in directions during the crystal growth process, indicating that (1 0 1-bar 0) face is more stable than (1 0 1-bar 1) face. This nature of crystal morphology is consistent with the surface tensions estimated from the water contact angles. The higher density of Ba 5 Cl(PO 4 ) 3 than Sr 5 Cl(PO 4 ) 3 is considered to cause the smaller contact angles of water droplet on Ba 5 Cl(PO 4 ) 3 crystal than that on Sr 5 Cl(PO 4 ) 3 crystal because the attractive force between the heavier atoms brings the larger surface tension of solid

  4. Physics of radiation effects in crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, RA

    1986-01-01

    ``Physics of Radiation Effects in Crystals'' is presented in two parts. The first part covers the general background and theory of radiation effects in crystals, including the theory describing the generation of crystal lattice defects by radiation, the kinetic approach to the study of the disposition of these defects and the effects of the diffusion of these defects on alloy compositions and phases. Specific problems of current interest are treated in the second part and include anisotropic dimensional changes in x-uranium, zirconium and graphite, acceleration of thermal creep in reactor ma

  5. Control of heat transfer in continuous-feeding Czochralski-silicon crystal growth with a water-cooled jacket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenhan; Liu, Lijun

    2017-01-01

    The continuous-feeding Czochralski method is an effective method to reduce the cost of single crystal silicon. By promoting the crystal growth rate, the cost can be reduced further. However, more latent heat will be released at the melt-crystal interface under a high crystal growth rate. In this study, a water-cooled jacket was applied to enhance the heat transfer at the melt-crystal interface. Quasi-steady-state numerical calculation was employed to investigate the impact of the water-cooled jacket on the heat transfer at the melt-crystal interface. Latent heat released during the crystal growth process at the melt-crystal interface and absorbed during feedstock melting at the feeding zone was modeled in the simulations. The results show that, by using the water-cooled jacket, heat transfer in the growing crystal is enhanced significantly. Melt-crystal interface deflection and thermal stress increase simultaneously due to the increase of radial temperature at the melt-crystal interface. With a modified heat shield design, heat transfer at the melt-crystal interface is well controlled. The crystal growth rate can be increased by 20%.

  6. Membrane crystallization for recovery of salts from produced water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quist-Jensen, Cejna Anna; Jensen, Henriette Casper; Ali, Aamer

    Membrane Crystallization (MCr) is a novel technology able to recover freshwater and high-purity salts from complex solutions and therefore, is suggested for a better exploitation of wastewater streams. Unlike other membrane processes, MCr is not limited by high concentrations and, therefore, the ......, the membrane maintained its hydrophobic nature despite that produced water contained oil residues. Conductivity and HPLC was utilized to analyze the quality of the permeate stream......., the solutions can be treated to achieve saturation level. Hereby different salts can be precipitated and directly recovered from various streams. In this study, it is shown that MCr is able to treat produced water by producing clean water and simultaneously NaCl crystals. The recovered crystals exhibited high...

  7. Antisolvent crystallization of a cardiotonic drug in ionic liquids: Effect of mixing on the crystal properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Azevedo Jacqueline, Resende; Fabienne, Espitalier; Jean-Jacques, Letourneau; Inês, Ré Maria

    2017-08-01

    LASSBio-294 (3,4-methylenedioxybenzoyl-2-thienylhydrazon) is a poorly soluble drug which has been proposed to have major advantages over other cardiotonic drugs. Poorly water soluble drugs present limited bioavailability due to their low solubility and dissolution rate. An antisolvent crystallization processing can improve the dissolution rate by decreasing the crystals particle size. However, LASSBio-294 is also poorly soluble in organic solvents and this operation is limited. In order to open new perspectives to improve dissolution rate, this work has investigated LASSBio-294 in terms of its antisolvent crystallization in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium methyl phosphonate [emim][CH3O(H)PO2] as solvent and water as antisolvent. Two modes of mixing are tested in stirred vessel with different pre-mixers (Roughton or T-mixers) in order to investigate the mixing effect on the crystal properties (crystalline structure, particle size distribution, residual solvent and in vitro dissolution rate). Smaller drug particles with unchanged crystalline structure were obtained. Despite the decrease of the elementary particles size, the recrystallized particles did not achieve a better dissolution profile. However, this study was able to highlight a certain number of findings such as the impact of the hydrodynamic conditions on the crystals formation and the presence of a gel phase limiting the dissolution rate.

  8. Water polygons in high-resolution protein crystal structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonas; Kim, Sung-Hou

    2009-07-01

    We have analyzed the interstitial water (ISW) structures in 1500 protein crystal structures deposited in the Protein Data Bank that have greater than 1.5 A resolution with less than 90% sequence similarity with each other. We observed varieties of polygonal water structures composed of three to eight water molecules. These polygons may represent the time- and space-averaged structures of "stable" water oligomers present in liquid water, and their presence as well as relative population may be relevant in understanding physical properties of liquid water at a given temperature. On an average, 13% of ISWs are localized enough to be visible by X-ray diffraction. Of those, averages of 78% are water molecules in the first water layer on the protein surface. Of the localized ISWs beyond the first layer, almost half of them form water polygons such as trigons, tetragons, as well as expected pentagons, hexagons, higher polygons, partial dodecahedrons, and disordered networks. Most of the octagons and nanogons are formed by fusion of smaller polygons. The trigons are most commonly observed. We suggest that our observation provides an experimental basis for including these water polygon structures in correlating and predicting various water properties in liquid state.

  9. Radiation effects in corundum single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gevorkyan, V.A.; Harutunyan, V.V.; Hakhverdyan, E.A.

    2005-01-01

    On the basis of new experimental results and analysis of publications it is shown that in the lattice of corundum crystals the high-energy particles create stable structural defects due to knocking out of atoms from normal sites of the anionic sublattice; this leads to the formation of F and F '+ centers as well as to other complex [Al i '+ F] type color centers. The essence of 'radiation memory' effect in corundum single crystals is that the high-energy particles irradiation, annealing at high temperatures and additional irradiation by X-rays result in the restoration of some spectral bands of the optical absorption in the range 200-650 nm

  10. Lattice effects in YVO3 single crystal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marquina, C; Sikora, M; Ibarra, MR; Nugroho, AA; Palstra, TTM

    In this paper we report on the lattice effects in the Mott insulator yttrium orthovanadate (YVO3). Linear thermal expansion and magnetostriction experiments have been performed on a single crystal, in the temperature range from 5 K to room temperature. The YVO3 orders antiferromagnetically at T-N =

  11. Anomalous Doppler effects in bulk phononic crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Feiyan; He Zhaojian; Zhang Anqi; Ding Yiqun; Liu Zhengyou

    2010-01-01

    Doppler effects in simple cubic phononic crystal are studied theoretically and numerically. In addition to observing Doppler shifts from a moving source's frequencies inside the gap, we find that Doppler shifts can be multi-order, anisotropic, and the dominant order of shift depends on the band index that the source's frequency is in.

  12. Lattice Boltzmann Simulation of Water Isotope Fractionation During Growth of Ice Crystals in Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, G.; Depaolo, D.; Kang, Q.; Zhang, D.

    2006-12-01

    The isotopic composition of precipitation, especially that of snow, plays a special role in the global hydrological cycle and in reconstruction of past climates using polar ice cores. The fractionation of the major water isotope species (HHO, HDO, HHO-18) during ice crystal formation is critical to understanding the global distribution of isotopes in precipitation. Ice crystal growth in clouds is traditionally treated with a spherically- symmetric steady state diffusion model, with semi-empirical modifications added to account for ventilation and for complex crystal morphology. Although it is known that crystal growth rate, which depends largely on the degree of vapor over-saturation, determines crystal morphology, there are no existing quantitative models that directly relate morphology to the vapor saturation factor. Since kinetic (vapor phase diffusion-controlled) isotopic fractionation also depends on growth rate, there should be a direct relationship between vapor saturation, crystal morphology, and crystal isotopic composition. We use a 2D Lattice-Boltzmann model to simulate diffusion-controlled ice crystal growth from vapor- oversaturated air. In the model, crystals grow solely according to the diffusive fluxes just above the crystal surfaces, and hence crystal morphology arises from the initial and boundary conditions in the model and does not need to be specified a priori. The input parameters needed are the isotope-dependent vapor deposition rate constant (k) and the water vapor diffusivity in air (D). The values of both k and D can be computed from kinetic theory, and there are also experimentally determined values of D. The deduced values of k are uncertain to the extent that the sticking coefficient (or accommodation coefficient) for ice is uncertain. The ratio D/k is a length that determines the minimum scale of dendritic growth features and allows us to scale the numerical calculations to atmospheric conditions using a dimensionless Damkohler number

  13. Water activated doping and transport in multilayered germanane crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, Justin R; Johnston-Halperin, Ezekiel; Chitara, Basant; Cultrara, Nicholas D; Arguilla, Maxx Q; Jiang, Shishi; Fan, Fan; Goldberger, Joshua E

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis of germanane (GeH) has opened the door for covalently functionalizable 2D materials in electronics. Herein, we demonstrate that GeH can be electronically doped by incorporating stoichiometric equivalents of phosphorus dopant atoms into the CaGe 2 precursor. The electronic properties of these doped materials show significant atmospheric sensitivity, and we observe a reduction in resistance by up to three orders of magnitude when doped samples are measured in water-containing atmospheres. This variation in resistance is a result of water activation of the phosphorus dopants. Transport measurements in different contact geometries show a significant anisotropy between in-plane and out-of-plane resistances, with a much larger out-of-plane resistance. These measurements along with finite element modeling results predict that the current distribution in top-contacted crystals is restricted to only the topmost, water activated crystal layers. Taken together, these results pave the way for future electronic and optoelectronic applications utilizing group IV graphane analogues. (paper)

  14. Cooling Crystallization of Indomethacin: Effect of Supersaturation, Temperature and Seeding on Polymorphism and Crystal Size Distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malwade, Chandrakant Ramkrishna; Qu, Haiyan

    2018-01-01

    In this work, effect of crystallization parameters i.e., supersaturation, seeding, and temperature on polymorphism and crystal size of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, indomethacin (IMC), was investigated. Firstly, several crystallization solvents (ethanol, methanol, ethyl acetate, acetone...... of IMC from ethanol confirmed that the supersaturation, operating temperature and seeding does affect the polymorphism as well as crystal size distribution of IMC. Fine needle shaped crystals of metastable α-IMC were obtained at 5 °C with high supersaturation even in presence of γ-IMC seeds, while...... rhombic plates like crystals of thermodynamically stable γ-IMC were obtained in remaining experiments. The amount of seed loading only marginally influenced the crystal growth rate and median particle diameter (d50). Particle size analysis of crystals obtained showed bimodal distribution in all...

  15. Hydrogenated TiO2 nanotube photonic crystals for enhanced photoelectrochemical water splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Ming; Zhou, Sihua; Yang, Lun; Gan, Zhixing; Liu, Kuili; Tian, Fengshou; Zhu, Yu; Li, ChunYang; Liu, Weifeng; Yuan, Honglei; Zhang, Yan

    2018-04-02

    We report the design, fabrication and characterization of novel TiO 2 nanotube photonic crystals with a crystalline core/disordered shell structure as well as substantial oxygen vacancies for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting. The novel TiO 2 nanotube photonic crystals are fabricated by annealing of anodized TiO 2 nanotube photonic crystals in hydrogen atmosphere at various temperatures. The optimized novel TiO 2 nanotube photonic crystals produce a maximal photocurrent density of 2.2 mA cm -2 at 0.22 V versus Ag/AgCl, which is two times higher that of the TiO 2 nanotube photonic crystals annealed in air. Such significant PEC performance improvement can be ascribed to synergistic effects of the disordered surface layer and oxygen vacancies. The reduced band gap owing to the disordered surface layer and localized states induced by oxygen vacancies can enhance the efficient utilization of visible light. In addition, the disordered surface layer and substantial oxygen vacancies can promote the efficiency for separation and transport of the photogenerated carriers. This work may open up new opportunities for the design and construction of the high efficient and low-cost PEC water splitting system.

  16. Hydrothermal decomposition of liquid crystal in subcritical water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang, Xuning; He, Wenzhi; Li, Guangming; Huang, Juwen; Lu, Shangming; Hou, Lianjiao

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Hydrothermal technology can effectively decompose the liquid crystal of 4-octoxy-4'-cyanobiphenyl. • The decomposition rate reached 97.6% under the optimized condition. • Octoxy-4'-cyanobiphenyl was mainly decomposed into simple and innocuous products. • The mechanism analysis reveals the decomposition reaction process. - Abstract: Treatment of liquid crystal has important significance for the environment protection and human health. This study proposed a hydrothermal process to decompose the liquid crystal of 4-octoxy-4′-cyanobiphenyl. Experiments were conducted with a 5.7 mL stainless tube reactor and heated by a salt-bath. Factors affecting the decomposition rate of 4-octoxy-4′-cyanobiphenyl were evaluated with HPLC. The decomposed liquid products were characterized by GC-MS. Under optimized conditions i.e., 0.2 mL H 2 O 2 supply, pH value 6, temperature 275 °C and reaction time 5 min, 97.6% of 4-octoxy-4′-cyanobiphenyl was decomposed into simple and environment-friendly products. Based on the mechanism analysis and products characterization, a possible hydrothermal decomposition pathway was proposed. The results indicate that hydrothermal technology is a promising choice for liquid crystal treatment

  17. Immobilizing Water into Crystal Lattice of Calcium Sulfate for its Separation from Water-in-Oil Emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guangming; Li, Junxi; Nie, Yunliang; Zhang, Sen; Dong, Fan; Guan, Baohong; Lv, Xiaoshu

    2016-07-19

    This work report a facile approach to efficiently separate surfactant-stabilized water (droplet diameter of around 2.0 μm) from water-in-oil emulsion via converting liquid water into solid crystal water followed by removal with centrifugation. The liquid-solid conversion is achieved through the solid-to-solid phase transition of calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CaSO4. 0.5H2O, HH) to dihydrate (CaSO4·2H2O, DH), which could immobilize the water into crystal lattice of DH. For emulsion of 10 mg mL(-1) water, the immobilization-separation process using polycrystalline HH nanoellipsoids could remove 95.87 wt % water at room temperature. The separation efficiency can be further improved to 99.85 wt % by optimizing the HH dosage, temperature, HH size and crystalline structure. Property examination of the recycled oil confirms that our method has neglectable side-effect on oil quality. The byproduct DH was recycled to alpha-HH (a valuable cemetitious material widely used in construction and binding field), which minimizes the risk of secondary pollution and promotes the practicality of our method. With the high separation efficiency, the "green" feature and the recyclability of DH byproduct, the HH-based immobilization-separation approach is highly promising in purifying oil with undesired water contamination.

  18. On the behavior of water at subfreezing temperatures in a protein crystal: evidence of higher mobility than in bulk water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongqi; Böckmann, Anja; Dolenc, Jožica; Meier, Beat H; van Gunsteren, Wilfred F

    2013-10-03

    NMR experiments have shown that water molecules in the crystal of the protein Crh are still mobile at temperatures well below 273 K. In order to investigate this water anomaly, a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation study of crystalline Crh was carried out to determine the mobility of water in this crystal. The simulations were carried out at three temperatures, 150, 200, and 291 K. Simulations of bulk water at these temperatures were also done to obtain the properties of the simple point charge (SPC) water model used at these temperatures and to allow a comparison of the properties of water in the Crh crystal with those of bulk water at the same temperatures. According to the simulations, water is immobilized at 150 K both in crystal and in bulk water. As expected, at 291 K it diffuses and rotates more slowly in the protein crystal than in bulk water. However, at 200 K, the translational and rotational mobility of the water molecules is larger in the crystal than in bulk water. The enhancement of water mobility in the crystal at 200 K was further investigated by MD simulations in which the backbone or all protein atoms were positionally restrained, and in which additionally the electrostatic protein-water interactions were removed. Of these changes in the environment of the water molecules, rigidifying the protein backbones slightly enhanced water diffusion, while it slowed down rotation. In contrast, removal of electrostatic protein-water interactions did not change water diffusion but enhanced rotational motion significantly. Further investigations are required to delineate particular features of the protein crystal that induce the anomalous behavior of water at 200 K.

  19. Oxidation and crystal field effects in uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobin, J. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Booth, C. H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Shuh, D. K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); van der Laan, G. [Diamond Light Source, Didcot (United Kingdom); Sokaras, D. [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, Stanford, CA (United States); Weng, T. -C. [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, Stanford, CA (United States); Yu, S. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bagus, P. S. [Univ. of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States); Tyliszczak, T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Nordlund, D. [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2015-07-06

    An extensive investigation of oxidation in uranium has been pursued. This includes the utilization of soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy, hard x-ray absorption near-edge structure, resonant (hard) x-ray emission spectroscopy, cluster calculations, and a branching ratio analysis founded on atomic theory. The samples utilized were uranium dioxide (UO2), uranium trioxide (UO3), and uranium tetrafluoride (UF4). As a result, a discussion of the role of non-spherical perturbations, i.e., crystal or ligand field effects, will be presented.

  20. Propagation of biochirality: crossovers and nonclassical crystallization kinetics of aspartic acid in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tu; Lin, Yu Kun; Tsai, Ya Chung; Lee, Hung Lin

    2013-11-01

    All experimental procedures discussed could be treated as a screening tool for probing the existence of molecular association among the chiral molecules and the solvent system. The molecular association phases of a racemic conglomerate solution (CS) and a racemic compound solution (RCS), and the templating effect of aspartic acid solid surface were observed to minimize the chance of redissolving racemic conglomerate and racemic compound aspartic acid in water and reforming an RCS in crossovers experiments. Only 1 %wt% of l-aspartic acid was adequate enough to induce a transformation from a racemic compound aspartic acid to a racemic conglomerate aspartic acid. This would make the propagation of biochirality more feasible and sound. However, tetrapeptide, (l-aspartic acid)4 , failed to induce enantioseparation as templates purely by crystallization. Nonclassical crystallization theory was needed to take into account the existence of a CS. Fundamental parameters of the crystallization kinetics such as the induction time, interfacial energy, Gibbs energetic barrier, nucleation rate, and critical size of stable nuclei of: (i) racemic compound aspartic acid, (ii) racemic compound aspartic acid seeded with 1 %wt% l-aspartic acid, (iii) racemic conglomerate aspartic acid, and (iv) l-aspartic acid were evaluated and compared with different initial supersaturation ratios. Morphological studies of crystals grown from the crystallization kinetics were also carried out. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Giant photonic Hall effect in magnetophotonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merzlikin, A M; Vinogradov, A P; Inoue, M; Granovsky, A B

    2005-10-01

    We have considered a simple, square, two-dimensional (2D) PC built of a magneto-optic matrix with square holes. It is shown that using such a magnetophotonic crystal it is possible to deflect a light beam at very large angles by applying a nonzero external magnetic field. The effect is called the giant photonic Hall effect (GPHE) or the magnetic superprism effect. The GPHE is based on magneto-optical properties, as is the photonic Hall effect [B. A. van Tiggelen and G. L. J. A. Rikken, in, edited by V. M. Shalaev (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2002), p. 275]; however GPHE is not caused by asymmetrical light scattering but rather by the influence of an external magnetic field on the photonic band structure.

  2. Crystallization of DNA fragments from water-salt solutions, containing 2-methylpentane-2,3-diol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osica, V D; Sukharevsky, B Y; Vasilchenko, V N; Verkin, B I; Polyvtsev, O F

    1976-09-01

    Fragments of calf thymus DNA have been crystallized by precipitation from water-salt solutions, containing 2-methylpentane-2,3-diol (MPD). DNA crystals usually take the form either of spherulites up to 100 mu in diameter or of needles with the length up to 50 mu. No irreversible denaturation of DNA occurs during the crystallization process. X-ray diffraction from dense slurries of DNA crystals yields crystalline powder patterns.

  3. Water Activated Doping and Transport in Multilayered Germanane Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-21

    Justin Young, Basant Chitara , Nicholas Cultrara , Maxx Q Arguilla , Shishi Jiang, Fan Fan , Ezekiel Johnston-Halperin, Joshua E Goldberger 611102 c...Crystals Justin R Young1, Basant Chitara2, Nicholas D Cultrara2, Maxx Q Arguilla2, Shishi Jiang2, Fan Fan2 Ezekiel Johnston-Halperin1, Joshua E...Optoelectronics ACS Nano 7 5660-5 [9] Zhang Y, Tan Y-W, Stormer H L and Kim P 2005 Experimental observation of the quantum Hall effect and Berry’s phase in

  4. Influence of fat crystals in the oil phase on stability of oil-in-water emulsions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    1980-01-01

    Coalescence at rest and during flow was studied in emulsions of paraffin oil in water with several surfactants and with crystals of solid paraffin or tristearate in the oil phase. Solid fat in the oil phase was estimated by pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance. Without crystals, oil-in-water emulsions

  5. Parity violation and parity conservation in unstirred crystallization: Effect of first crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szurgot, M. [Center of Mathematics and Physics, Technical University of Lodz (Poland)

    2012-02-15

    Statistics of nucleation of chiral forms was studied to establish the effect of the number of first crystals and their handedness on distributions of enantiomers. Various bimodal, trimodal and unimodal distributions are obtained in unstirred crystallization, depending on the number of initial crystals and growth conditions. The binomial distribution satisfactorily describes experimental distributions of enantiomeric excess and may be used to predict distributions and probabilities of nucleation of enantiomers. The first nucleated crystals determine the handedness of secondary crystals, and number of initial crystals governs statistics of chiral nucleation. According to the binomial distribution if single crystals nucleate as the first, the bimodal distributions result with D and L peaks. If LD, LL, and DD pairs are nucleated as first, trimodal distributions with D, R, and L peaks are created, and if groups of crystals of various handedness nucleate as the first the unimodal distributions of enantiomeric excess with racemate R peaks are formed. Chiral nucleation experiments on sodium bromate were the basis for the theoretical considerations and verifications of predictions resulting from binomial distributions on probabilities of the creation of L and D crystals, and racemates, and the presence of D, L, and R peaks in the distributions. Growth conditions affect the number of the first crystals and effectiveness of cloning, and as a result, the distributions of enantiomers. Formation of pure enantiomers and/or racemates proves that the conservation of chiral symmetry, and the breakage of chiral symmetry can occur in unstirred crystallization. (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  6. Crystal-field effect in UO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajek, Z.; Lahalle, M.P.; Krupa, J.C.; Mulak, J.

    1988-01-01

    Simple ab initio model perturbation calculations of the crystal-field parameters for the U 4+ ion in UO 2 crystals are reported. The crystal-field parameters obtained, B 0 4 = -7130 cm -1 and B 0 6 = 2890 cm -1 , turn out to be much lower in value, particularly the first one, than those usually assumed for this compound. They are found, however, to agree with new spectroscopic data and recent inelastic neutron scattering measurements. (orig.)

  7. Crystalization and redox effects in waste vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, C.W.; Buechele, A.C.; Muller, I.S.

    1996-01-01

    This is the continuation of a systematic study to determine the effects of redox state and the concentration of certain transition metals on selected properties of a simplified lime-aluminosilicate glass system, similar to one proposed for high temperature (1350 degrees C-1450 degrees C) vitrification of soil and wastes from DOE sites. The solubilities of Cr 2 O 3 , ZnO, NiO, and Fe 2 O 3 in the base glass, and of the first three oxides in higher-iron variants of the base glass are determined at 1350 degrees C, 1400 degrees C, and 1450 degrees C. Enthalpies of solution are calculated from the solubility data for these four transition metal oxides. Different redox ratios, Fe 2+ /Fe total , are induced at 1450 degrees C in a glass containing NiO at about 75% of its solubility limit at this temperature and related to changes in microstructure. A ZnO-SiO 2 -Fe 2 O 3 pseudoternary 1450 degrees C isotherm is determined and plotted over a wide range of compositions for glasses melted in air. Phases appearing are zincite-, hematite- and spinel-type phases. A Time-Temperature-Transformation (TTT) curve is plotted for a ZnO (12 wt%) containing glass using data from heat treatment studies, and the crystal layer growth rate of a melilite-type phase appearing in this glass is measured at several temperatures over the time range in which the rate is found to be linear. Some kinetic parameters of crystal growth are calculated

  8. Organic Matter in Extraterrestrial Water-Bearing Salt Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Q. H. S.; Zolensky, M. E.; Kebukwa, Y.; Fries, M.; Steele, A.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Direct samples of early Solar System fluids are present in two thermally-metamorphosed ordinary chondrite regolith breccias (Monahans (1998) [H5] and Zag [H3-6]), which were found to contain brine-bearing halite (NaCl) crystals that have been added to the regolith of an S-type asteroid following asteroidal metamorphism [1, 2]. The brine-bearing halite grains were proposed to be formed on an icy C-type asteroids (possibly Ceres), and transferred to an S-type asteroid via cryovolcanic event(s) [3]. A unique aspect of these halites is that they contain abundant organic rich solid inclusions hosted within the halites alongside the water inclusions. Methods: We analyzed in detail the compositions of the organic solids and the amino acid content of the halite crystals with two-step laser desorption/laser ionization mass spectrometry (L(sup 2) MS), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS), and ultra-performance liquid chromatography fluorescence detection and quadrupole time of flight hybrid mass spectrometry (UPLC-FD/QToF-MS). Results and Discussion: The L(sup 2) MS results show signatures of low-mass polyaromatic hydro-carbons (PAHs) indicated by sequences of peaks separated by 14 atomic mass units (amu) due to successive addition of methylene (CH2) groups to the PAH skeletons [4]. Raman spectra of the micron-sized solid inclusions of the halites indicate the presence of abundant and highly variable organic matter that include a mixture of short-chain aliphatic compounds and macromolecular carbon. C-XANES analysis identified C-rich areas with peaks at 285.0 eV (aromatic C=C) and 286.6 eV (vinyl-keto C=O). However, there is no 1s-sigma* exciton peak (291.7 eV) that is indicative of the development of graphene structure [5], which suggests the organics were synthesized cold. Na-noSIMS analyses show C-rich and N-rich areas that exhibit similar isotopic values with that of the IOM in

  9. In-vitro study on calcium carbonate crystal growth mediated by organic matrix extracted from fresh water pearls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Yufei; Qiao Li; Feng Qingling

    2012-01-01

    For the purpose of studying the mediation of organic matrix on the crystallization of calcium carbonate, water soluble matrix (WSM), acid soluble matrix (ASM) and acid insoluble matrix (AIM) were extracted from aragonite pearls and vaterite pearls respectively. Then, in-vitro calcium carbonate crystallization experiments under the control of these six organic matrices were carried out in the present study. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was utilized to observe the morphology of CaCO 3 and Raman spectroscopy as a powerful technique was used to distinguish the crystal polymorph. Influences of the six kinds of organic matrices on the calcium carbonate crystal growth are proposed. ASM of vaterite pearls can induce vaterite to crystallize and WSM of aragonite pearls mediates to produce aragonite crystals. The single AIM membranes of the two pearls have no pronounced effect on the CaCO 3 crystallization. Additionally, the crystal size obtained with the additive of WSM of the two kinds of pearls is smaller than that with the additive of ASM. Moreover, self-assembly phenomenon in the biomineralization process and the distorted morphology calcite are observed. Current results demonstrate important aspects of matrix protein-controlled crystallization, which is beneficial to the understanding of nacre biomineralization mechanism. Further study of the precise control of these matrix proteins on CaCO 3 crystal growth is being processed. - Highlights: ► WSM, ASM and AIM are extracted from aragonite pearls and vaterite pearls. ► ASM of vaterite pearl induces vaterite. ► WSM of aragonite pearl mediates to produce aragonite. ► WSM can fine control crystal size smaller than that with the additive of ASM. ► Self-assembly and the distorted calcite existed in the mineralization process.

  10. Laser Induced Damage of Potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate (KDP Optical Crystal Machined by Water Dissolution Ultra-Precision Polishing Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuchuan Chen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Laser induced damage threshold (LIDT is an important optical indicator for nonlinear Potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate (KDP crystal used in high power laser systems. In this study, KDP optical crystals are initially machined with single point diamond turning (SPDT, followed by water dissolution ultra-precision polishing (WDUP and then tested with 355 nm nanosecond pulsed-lasers. Power spectral density (PSD analysis shows that WDUP process eliminates the laser-detrimental spatial frequencies band of micro-waviness on SPDT machined surface and consequently decreases its modulation effect on the laser beams. The laser test results show that LIDT of WDUP machined crystal improves and its stability has a significant increase by 72.1% compared with that of SPDT. Moreover, a subsequent ultrasonic assisted solvent cleaning process is suggested to have a positive effect on the laser performance of machined KDP crystal. Damage crater investigation indicates that the damage morphologies exhibit highly thermal explosion features of melted cores and brittle fractures of periphery material, which can be described with the classic thermal explosion model. The comparison result demonstrates that damage mechanisms for SPDT and WDUP machined crystal are the same and WDUP process reveals the real bulk laser resistance of KDP optical crystal by removing the micro-waviness and subsurface damage on SPDT machined surface. This improvement of WDUP method makes the LIDT more accurate and will be beneficial to the laser performance of KDP crystal.

  11. Design of a Eutectic Freeze Crystallization process for multicomponent waste water stream

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewis, Alison E.; Nathoo, J.; Thomsen, Kaj

    2010-01-01

    Complex, hypersaline brines originating from the mining and extractive metallurgical industries have the potential to be treated using Eutectic Freeze Crystallization (EFC). Although EFC has been shown to be effective in separating a single salt and water, it has yet to be applied to the complex...... hypersaline brines that are typical of reverse osmosis retentates in South Africa. This paper focuses on the application of EFC for the purification of a typical brine containing high levels of sodium, chlorine, sulphate and ammonia that cannot be achieved with other separation techniques. The presence...

  12. CRYSTAL simulation code and modeling of coherent effects in a bent crystal at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sytov, A.I., E-mail: alex_sytov@mail.ru [Research Institute for Nuclear Problems, Belarusian State University, Bobruiskaya str., 11, 220030 Minsk (Belarus); INFN Sezione di Ferrara, Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44100 Ferrara (Italy); Tikhomirov, V.V., E-mail: vvtikh@mail.ru [Research Institute for Nuclear Problems, Belarusian State University, Bobruiskaya str., 11, 220030 Minsk (Belarus)

    2015-07-15

    A CRYSTAL simulation code for particle tracking in crystals is introduced. Its essence consists in both adequate and fast sampling of proton trajectories in crystals which is crucial for both correct description of experiments and quantitative prediction of new effects. The H8 single-pass experiment at the CERN SPS as well as 7 TeV proton deflection by a bent crystal at the LHC are simulated. We predict the existence of dechanneling peaks corresponding to the planar channeling oscillations as well as describe the possibility of their observation at high energies, specifically at the LHC energy. An effect of excess over the amorphous level of ionization losses in the channeling mode was also found at 7 TeV.

  13. Effect of medicinal plants on the crystallization of cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraswathi, N. T.; Gnanam, F. D.

    1997-08-01

    One of the least desirable calcifications in the human body is the mineral deposition in atherosclerosis plaques. These plaques principally consist of lipids such as cholesterol, cholesteryl esters, phospholipids and triglycerides. Chemical analysis of advanced plaques have shown the presence of considerable amounts of free cholesterol identified as cholesterol monohydrate crystals. Cholesterol has been crystallized in vitro. The extracts of some of the Indian medicinal plants detailed below were used as additives to study their effect on the crystallization behaviour of cholesterol. It has been found that many of the herbs have inhibitory effect on the crystallization such as nucleation, crystal size and habit modification. The inhibitory effect of the plants are graded as Commiphora mughul > Aegle marmeleos > Cynoden dactylon > Musa paradisiaca > Polygala javana > Alphinia officinarum > Solanum trilobatum > Enicostemma lyssopifolium.

  14. Effects of Humidity and Surfaces on the Melt Crystallization of Ibuprofen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Il Won Kim

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Melt crystallization of ibuprofen was studied to understand the effects of humidity and surfaces. The molecular self-assembly during the amorphous-to-crystal transformation was examined in terms of the nucleation and growth of the crystals. The crystallization was on Al, Au, and self-assembled monolayers with –CH3, –OH, and –COOH functional groups. Effects of the humidity were studied at room temperature (18–20 °C with relative humidity 33%, 75%, and 100%. Effects of the surfaces were observed at −20 °C (relative humidity 36% to enable close monitoring with slower crystal growth. The nucleation time of ibuprofen was faster at high humidity conditions probably due to the local formation of the unfavorable ibuprofen melt/water interface. The crystal morphologies of ibuprofen were governed by the nature of the surfaces, and they could be associated with the growth kinetics by the Avrami equation. The current study demonstrated the effective control of the melt crystallization of ibuprofen through the melt/atmosphere and melt/surface interfaces.

  15. Effects of humidity and surfaces on the melt crystallization of ibuprofen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Joo; Lee, Suyang; Kim, Il Won

    2012-01-01

    Melt crystallization of ibuprofen was studied to understand the effects of humidity and surfaces. The molecular self-assembly during the amorphous-to-crystal transformation was examined in terms of the nucleation and growth of the crystals. The crystallization was on Al, Au, and self-assembled monolayers with -CH(3), -OH, and -COOH functional groups. Effects of the humidity were studied at room temperature (18-20 °C) with relative humidity 33%, 75%, and 100%. Effects of the surfaces were observed at -20 °C (relative humidity 36%) to enable close monitoring with slower crystal growth. The nucleation time of ibuprofen was faster at high humidity conditions probably due to the local formation of the unfavorable ibuprofen melt/water interface. The crystal morphologies of ibuprofen were governed by the nature of the surfaces, and they could be associated with the growth kinetics by the Avrami equation. The current study demonstrated the effective control of the melt crystallization of ibuprofen through the melt/atmosphere and melt/surface interfaces.

  16. Effect of Galla chinensis on enhancing remineralization of enamel crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng Lei; Huang Shengbin [State Key Laboratory of Oral Disease, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Li Jiyao; Zhou Xuedong, E-mail: stonedentist@yahoo.c [West China College of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China)

    2009-06-15

    The aim of this scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study was to investigate the effect of chemical compounds of Galla chinensis (GCE, gallic acid) on the remineralization of enamel crystals in vitro. Bovine enamel blocks with an in vitro produced initial lesion were used. The lesions were subjected to a pH-cycling regime for 12 days. Each daily cycle included 4 x 1 min applications with one of six treatments: group A: 1000 ppm F aq. (as NaF, positive control); group B: deionized water (DDW, negative control); group C: 4000 ppm crude aqueous extract of GCE; group D: 4000 ppm gallic acid; group E: 4000 ppm GCE with 1000 ppm F; group F: 4000 ppm gallic acid with 1000 ppm F. The surface and vertical section of the enamel lesions were analyzed by SEM. The results indicated that the chemical compounds of G. chinensis could regulate the de-/remineralization balance through influencing the morphology and structure of enamel crystals, and the mechanisms seem to be different for GCE and gallic acid.

  17. Effect of Galla chinensis on enhancing remineralization of enamel crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Lei; Huang Shengbin; Li Jiyao; Zhou Xuedong

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study was to investigate the effect of chemical compounds of Galla chinensis (GCE, gallic acid) on the remineralization of enamel crystals in vitro. Bovine enamel blocks with an in vitro produced initial lesion were used. The lesions were subjected to a pH-cycling regime for 12 days. Each daily cycle included 4 x 1 min applications with one of six treatments: group A: 1000 ppm F aq. (as NaF, positive control); group B: deionized water (DDW, negative control); group C: 4000 ppm crude aqueous extract of GCE; group D: 4000 ppm gallic acid; group E: 4000 ppm GCE with 1000 ppm F; group F: 4000 ppm gallic acid with 1000 ppm F. The surface and vertical section of the enamel lesions were analyzed by SEM. The results indicated that the chemical compounds of G. chinensis could regulate the de-/remineralization balance through influencing the morphology and structure of enamel crystals, and the mechanisms seem to be different for GCE and gallic acid.

  18. Plasticity size effects in voided crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussein, M. I.; Borg, Ulrik; Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    singularities in an elastic material. The lattice resistance to dislocation motion, dislocation nucleation, dislocation interaction with obstacles and annihilation are incorporated through a set of constitutive rules. Over the range of length scales investigated, both the discrete dislocation and strain......The shear and equi-biaxial straining responses of periodic voided single crystals are analysed using discrete dislocation plasticity and a continuum strain gradient crystal plasticity theory. In the discrete dislocation formulation the dislocations are all of edge character and are modelled as line...... predictions of the two formulations for all crystal types and void volume fractions considered when the material length scale in the non-local plasticity model chosen to be $0.325\\mu m$ (around ten times the slip plane spacing in the discrete dislocation models)....

  19. Plasticity size effects in voided crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussein, M.I.; Borg, Ulrik; Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2008-01-01

    as line singularities in an elastic material. The lattice resistance to dislocation motion, dislocation nucleation, dislocation interaction with obstacles and annihilation are incorporated through a set of constitutive rules. Over the range of length scales investigated, both the discrete dislocation......The shear and equi-biaxial straining responses of periodic voided single crystals are analysed using discrete dislocation plasticity and a continuum strain gradient crystal plasticity theory. In the discrete dislocation formulation, the dislocations are all of edge character and are modelled...... between predictions of the two formulations for all crystal types and void volume fractions considered when the material length scale in the non-local plasticity model is chosen to be 0.325 mu m (about 10 times the slip plane spacing in the discrete dislocation models)....

  20. Plasmonic enhancement in BiVO4 photonic crystals for efficient water splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liwu; Lin, Chia-Yu; Valev, Ventsislav K; Reisner, Erwin; Steiner, Ullrich; Baumberg, Jeremy J

    2014-10-15

    Photo-electrochemical water splitting is a very promising and environmentally friendly route for the conversion of solar energy into hydrogen. However, the solar-to-H2 conversion efficiency is still very low due to rapid bulk recombination of charge carriers. Here, a photonic nano-architecture is developed to improve charge carrier generation and separation by manipulating and confining light absorption in a visible-light-active photoanode constructed from BiVO4 photonic crystal and plasmonic nanostructures. Synergistic effects of photonic crystal stop bands and plasmonic absorption are observed to operate in this photonic nanostructure. Within the scaffold of an inverse opal photonic crystal, the surface plasmon resonance is significantly enhanced by the photonic Bragg resonance. Nanophotonic photoanodes show AM 1.5 photocurrent densities of 3.1 ± 0.1 mA cm(-2) at 1.23 V versus RHE, which is among the highest for oxide-based photoanodes and over 4 times higher than the unstructured planar photoanode. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. EVALUATION OF SODIUM CHLORIDE CRYSTALLIZATION IN MEMBRANE DISTILLATION CRYSTALLIZATION APPLIED TO WATER DESALINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. N. Nariyoshi

    Full Text Available Abstract Crystallization in a Direct Contact Membrane Distillation (DCMD process was studied both theoretically and experimentally. A mathematical model was proposed in order to predict the transmembrane flux in DCMD. The model fitted well experimental data for the system NaCl-H2O from undersaturated to supersaturated conditions in a specially designed crystallization setup at a bench scale. It was found that higher transmembrane fluxes induce higher temperature and concentration polarizations, as well as higher supersaturation in the vicinity of the solution-vapor interface. In this region, the supersaturation ratio largely exceeded the metastable limit for NaCl crystallization for the whole range of transmembrane fluxes of 0.37 to 1.54 kg/ (m2 h, implying that heterogeneous primary nucleation occurred close to such interface either in solution or on the membrane surface. Solids formed in solution accounted for 14 to 36% of the total solids, whereas solid formed on the membrane surface (fouling was responsible for 6 to 19%. The remaining solids deposited on other surfaces such as in pumps and pipe fittings. It was also discovered that, by increasing the supersaturation ratio, heterogeneous nucleation in solution increased and on the membrane surface decreased. Heterogeneous nuclei in solution grew in size both by a molecular mechanism and by agglomeration. Single crystals were cubic shaped with well-formed edges and dominant size of about 40 µm whereas agglomerates were about 240 µm in size. The approach developed here may be applied to understanding crystallization phenomena in Membrane Distillation Crystallization (MDC processes of any scale.

  2. Lattice Boltzmann Simulation of Kinetic Isotope Effect During Snow Crystal Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, G.; Depaolo, D. J.; Kang, Q.; Zhang, D.

    2007-12-01

    The isotopic composition of precipitation, especially that of snow, plays a special role in the global hydrological cycle and in reconstruction of past climates using polar ice cores. The fractionation of the major water isotope species (HHO, HDO, HHO-18) during ice crystal formation is critical to understanding the global distribution of isotopes in precipitation. Ice crystal growth in clouds is traditionally treated with a spherically-symmetric steady state diffusion model, with semi-empirical modifications added to account for ventilation and for complex crystal morphology. Although it is known that crystal growth rate, which depends largely on the degree of vapor over- saturation, determines crystal morphology, there are no quantitative models that relate morphology to the vapor saturation factor. Since kinetic (vapor phase diffusion-controlled) isotopic fractionation also depends on growth rate, there should be direct relationships between vapor saturation, crystal morphology, and crystal isotopic composition. We use a 2D lattice Boltzmann model to simulate diffusion-controlled ice crystal growth from vapor- oversaturated air. In the model, crystals grow solely according to the diffusive fluxes just above the crystal surfaces, and hence crystal morphology arises from the initial and boundary conditions in the model and does not need to be specified a priori. Crystal growth patterns can be varied between random growth and deterministic growth (along the maximum concentration gradient for example). The input parameters needed are the isotope- dependent vapor deposition rate constant (k) and the water vapor diffusivity in air (D). The values of both k and D can be computed from kinetic theory, and there are also experimentally determined values of D. The deduced values of k are uncertain to the extent that the condensation coefficient for ice is uncertain. The ratio D/k is a length (order 1 micron) that determines the minimum scale of dendritic growth features

  3. crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yi; Huang, Yisheng; Zhang, Lizhen; Lin, Zhoubin; Sun, Shijia; Wang, Guofu

    2014-07-01

    A Nd3+:Na2La4(WO4)7 crystal with dimensions of ϕ 17 × 30 mm3 was grown by the Czochralski method. The thermal expansion coefficients of Nd3+:Na2La4(WO4)7 crystal are 1.32 × 10-5 K-1 along c-axis and 1.23 × 10-5 K-1 along a-axis, respectively. The spectroscopic characteristics of Nd3+:Na2La4(WO4)7 crystal were investigated. The Judd-Ofelt theory was applied to calculate the spectral parameters. The absorption cross sections at 805 nm are 2.17 × 10-20 cm2 with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 15 nm for π-polarization, and 2.29 × 10-20 cm2 with a FWHM of 14 nm for σ-polarization. The emission cross sections are 3.19 × 10-20 cm2 for σ-polarization and 2.67 × 10-20 cm2 for π-polarization at 1,064 nm. The fluorescence quantum efficiency is 67 %. The quasi-cw laser of Nd3+:Na2La4(WO4)7 crystal was performed. The maximum output power is 80 mW. The slope efficiency is 7.12 %. The results suggest Nd3+:Na2La4(WO4)7 crystal as a promising laser crystal fit for laser diode pumping.

  4. Indicative Surfaces for Crystal Optical Effects

    OpenAIRE

    R.Vlokh,; O.Mys; O.Vlokh

    2005-01-01

    This paper has mainly a pedagogical meaning. Our aim is to demonstrate a correct general approach for constructing indicative surfaces of higher-rank tensors. We reconstruct the surfaces of piezo-optic tensor for beta-BaB2O4 and LiNbO3 crystals, which have been incorrectly presented in our recent papers.

  5. Control of crystal growth in water purification by directional freeze crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, William M. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A Directional Freeze Crystallization system employs an indirect contact heat exchanger to freeze a fraction of liquid to be purified. The unfrozen fraction is drained away and the purified frozen fraction is melted. The heat exchanger must be designed in accordance with a Growth Habit Index to achieve efficient separation of contaminants. If gases are dissolved in the liquid, the system must be pressurized.

  6. Slow-light effects in photonic crystal membrane lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue, Weiqi; Yu, Yi; Ottaviano, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a systematic investigation of photonic crystal cavity laser operating in the slow-light regime. The dependence of lasing threshold on the effect of slow-light will be particularly highlighted.......In this paper, we present a systematic investigation of photonic crystal cavity laser operating in the slow-light regime. The dependence of lasing threshold on the effect of slow-light will be particularly highlighted....

  7. Strong crystal size effect on deformation twinning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Qian; Shan, Zhi-Wei; Li, Ju

    2010-01-01

    plasticity. Accompanying the transition in deformation mechanism, the maximum flow stress of the submicrometre-sized pillars was observed to saturate at a value close to titanium’s ideal strength9, 10. We develop a ‘stimulated slip’ model to explain the strong size dependence of deformation twinning......Deformation twinning1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 in crystals is a highly coherent inelastic shearing process that controls the mechanical behaviour of many materials, but its origin and spatio-temporal features are shrouded in mystery. Using micro-compression and in situ nano-compression experiments, here we...... find that the stress required for deformation twinning increases drastically with decreasing sample size of a titanium alloy single crystal7, 8, until the sample size is reduced to one micrometre, below which the deformation twinning is entirely replaced by less correlated, ordinary dislocation...

  8. Studying Crystal Growth With the Peltier Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, David J., Jr.; Dressler, B.; Silberstein, R. P.; Poit, W. J.

    1986-01-01

    Peltier interface demarcation (PID) shown useful as aid in studying heat and mass transfer during growth of crystals from molten material. In PID, two dissimilar "metals" solid and liquid phases of same material. Current pulse passed through unidirectionally solidifying sample to create rapid Peltier thermal disturbance at liquid/solid interface. Disturbance, measured by thermocouple stationed along path of solidification at or near interface, provides information about position and shape of interface.

  9. Effects of Purification on the Crystallization of Lysozyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Felecia L.; Forsythe, Elizabeth L.; Van Der Woerd, Mark; Pusey, Marc L.

    1996-01-01

    We have additionally purified a commercial lysozyme preparation by cation exchange chromatography, followed by recrystallization. This material is 99.96% pure with respect to macromolecular impurities. At basic pH, the purified lysozyme gave only tetragonal crystals at 20 C. Protein used directly from the bottle, prepared by dialysis against distilled water, or which did not bind to the cation exchange column had considerably altered crystallization behavior. Lysozyme which did not bind to the cation exchange column was subsequently purified by size exclusion chromatography. This material gave predominately bundles of rod-shaped crystals with some small tetragonal crystals at lower pHs. The origin of the bundled rod habit was postulated to be a thermally dependent tetragonal- orthorhombic change in the protein structure. This was subsequently ruled out on the basis of crystallization behavior and growth rate experiments. This suggests that heterogeneous forms of lysozyme may be responsible. These results demonstrate three classes of impurities: (1) small molecules, which may be removed by dialysis; (2) macromolecules, which are removable by chromatographic techniques; and (3) heterogeneous forms of the protein, which can be removed in this case by cation exchange chromatography. Of these, heterogeneous forms of the lysozyme apparently have the greatest affect on its crystallization behavior.

  10. Solvent effects on the crystal growth structure and morphology of the pharmaceutical dirithromycin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan; Liang, Zuozhong

    2017-12-01

    Solvent effects on the crystal structure and morphology of pharmaceutical dirithromycin molecules were systematically investigated using both experimental crystallization and theoretical simulation. Dirithromycin is one of the new generation of macrolide antibiotics with two polymorphic forms (Form I and Form II) and many solvate forms. Herein, six solvates of the dirithromycin, including acetonitrile, acetonitrile/water, acetone, 1-propanol, N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) and cyclohexane, were studied. Experimentally, we crystallized the dirithromycin molecules in different solvents by the solvent evaporating method and measured the crystal structures with the X-ray diffraction (XRD). We compared these crystal structures of dirithromycin solvates and analyzed the solvent property-determined structure evolution. The solvents have a strong interaction with the dirithromycin molecule due to the formation of inter-molecular interactions (such as the hydrogen bonding and close contacts (sum of vdW radii)). Theoretically, we calculated the ideal crystal habit based on the solvated structures with the attachment growth (AE) model. The predicted morphologies and aspect ratios of dirithromycin solvates agree well with the experimental results. This work could be helpful to better understand the structure and morphology evolution of solvates controlled by solvents and guide the crystallization of active pharmaceutical ingredients in the pharmaceutical industry.

  11. Effect of process parameters on crystal size and morphology of lactose in ultrasound-assisted crystallization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, S.R.; Murthy, Z.V.P. [Chemical Engineering Department, S.V. National Institute of Technology, Surat - 395 007, Gujarat (India)

    2011-03-15

    {alpha}-lactose monohydrate is widely used as a pharmaceutical excipient. Drug delivery system requires the excipient to be of narrow particle size distribution with regular particle shape. Application of ultrasound is known to increase or decrease the growth rate of certain crystal faces and controls the crystal size distribution. In the present paper, effect of process parameters such as sonication time, anti-solvent concentration, initial lactose concentration and initial pH of sample on lactose crystal size, shape and thermal transition temperature was studied. The parameters were set according to the L{sub 9}-orthogonal array method at three levels and recovered lactose from whey by sonocrystallization. The recovered lactose was analyzed by particle size analyzer, scanning electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimeter. It was found that the morphology of lactose crystal was rod/needle like shape. Crystal size distribution of lactose was observed to be influenced by different process parameters. From the results of analysis of variance, the sonication time interval was found to be the most significant parameter affecting the volume median diameter of lactose with the highest percentage contribution (74.28%) among other parameters. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  12. Effect of solvent and temperature on solution-crystallized terfenadine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitao, M. Luisa P.; Canotilho, Joao; Ferreira, Simone C.R.; Sousa, Adriano T.; Simoes Redinha, J.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this work was to understand the crystallization process of terfenadine in solution. Cooling of saturated solutions prepared at 50 deg. C at different temperatures, evaporating the solvent from nearly saturated solutions at a certain temperature, and exposing ethanol solutions of terfenadine to water vapour atmosphere were the techniques used for obtaining terfenadine specimens. The characterization of these specimens was carried out by thermal microscopy, differential thermal analysis, thermogravimetry and powder X-ray diffraction. Crystalline phases, amorphous solids, and solvates were identified. For the solvents used in the present study, the crystallinity degree of terfenadine decreases from ethanol-water to ethanol and from this to methanol. Decreasing the temperature promotes the formation of amorphous solid material; at low temperatures, methanol and ethanol solvates are also formed. Desolvation, following the terfenadine aggregation process in solution accounts for the different behaviour found for the solvents and for the effect of temperature on the structure. The role of the solvent as structure-mediator is explained on the grounds of the values previously published for the enthalpy of solution of terfenadine in the solvents under study

  13. Some results of simulation on radiation effects in crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baier, T.; AN SSSR, Novosibirsk

    1993-05-01

    Simulations concerning radiation in oriented silicon and tungsten crystals of different thicknesses are developed. Conditions are those of experiments done at Kharkov (Ukraine) and Tomsk (Russia) with electron beams in the 1 GeV range. Systematic comparisons between experimental and simulated spectra associated to real spectrum, radiation energy and angular distribution of the photons are developed. The ability of the simulation program to describe crystal effects in the considered energy range is analysed. (author) 11 refs.; 8 figs

  14. Effects of ionizing radiation on struvite crystallization of livestock wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tak- Hyun; Nam, Yun-Ku; Joo Lim, Seung

    2014-01-01

    Livestock wastewater is generally very difficult to be treated by conventional wastewater treatment techniques because it contains high-strength organics (COD), ammonium (NH 4 + ), phosphate (PO 4 3− ) and suspended solids. Struvite crystallization has been recently studied for the simultaneous removal of NH 4 + and PO 4 3− . In this study, gamma ray irradiation was carried out prior to struvite crystallization of the anaerobically digested livestock wastewater. The effects of gamma ray irradiation on the struvite crystallization of livestock wastewater were investigated. As a result, gamma ray irradiation can decrease the concentration of COD, NH 4 + and PO 4 3− contained in the livestock wastewater. This results in not only an enhancement of the struvite crystallization efficiency but also a decrease in the chemical demands for the struvite crystallization of livestock wastewater. - Highlights: • Gamma ray was applied prior to struvite crystallization of livestock wastewater. • Gamma ray resulted in an enhancement of struvite crystallization efficiency. • This is due to the decrease of COD concentration by gamma ray irradiation

  15. Fabrication of Terahertz Wave Resonators with Alumina Diamond Photonic Crystals for Frequency Amplification in Water Solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, N; Niki, T; Kirihara, S

    2011-01-01

    Terahertz wave resonators composed of alumina photonic crystals with diamond lattice structures were designed and fabricated by using micro stereolithography. These three dimensional periodic structures can reflect perfectly electromagnetic waves through Bragg diffraction. A micro glass cell including water solutions was put between the photonic crystals as a novel resonance sensor with terahertz frequency range. The localized and amplified waves in the resonators were measured by a spectroscopy, and visualized by theoretical simulations.

  16. Photonic crystal based sensor for organic solvents and for solvent-water mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenzl, Christoph; Hirsch, Thomas; Wolfbeis, Otto S

    2012-12-12

    Monodisperse polystyrene nanoparticles with a diameter of 173 nm were incorporated into a polydimethylsiloxane matrix where they display an iridescent color that can be attributed to the photonic crystal effect. The film is of violet color if placed in plain water, but turns to red in the presence of the non-polar solvent n-hexane. Several solvents were studied in some detail. We show that such films are capable of monitoring the water content of ethanol/water mixtures, where only 1% (v/v) of water leads to a shift of the peak wavelength of reflected light by 5 nm. The method also can be applied to determine, both visually and instrumentally, the fraction of methanol in ethanol/methanol mixtures. Here, a fraction of 1% of methanol (v/v) results in a wavelength shift of 2 nm. The reflected wavelength is not influenced by temperature changes nor impeded by photobleaching. The signal changes are fully reversible and response times are <1 s.

  17. Photonic Crystal Based Sensor for Organic Solvents and for Solvent-Water Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto S. Wolfbeis

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Monodisperse polystyrene nanoparticles with a diameter of 173 nm were incorporated into a polydimethylsiloxane matrix where they display an iridescent color that can be attributed to the photonic crystal effect. The film is of violet color if placed in plain water, but turns to red in the presence of the non-polar solvent n-hexane. Several solvents were studied in some detail. We show that such films are capable of monitoring the water content of ethanol/water mixtures, where only 1% (v/v of water leads to a shift of the peak wavelength of reflected light by 5 nm. The method also can be applied to determine, both visually and instrumentally, the fraction of methanol in ethanol/methanol mixtures. Here, a fraction of 1% of methanol (v/v results in a wavelength shift of 2 nm. The reflected wavelength is not influenced by temperature changes nor impeded by photobleaching. The signal changes are fully reversible and response times are <1 s.

  18. Effect of Crystal Orientation on Fatigue Failure of Single Crystal Nickel Base Turbine Blade Superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakere, Nagaraj K.; Swanson, Gregory R.

    2000-01-01

    High Cycle Fatigue (HCF) induced failures in aircraft gas-turbine engines is a pervasive problem affecting a wide range of components and materials. HCF is currently the primary cause of component failures in gas turbine aircraft engines. Turbine blades in high performance aircraft and rocket engines are increasingly being made of single crystal nickel superalloys. Single-crystal Nickel-base superalloys were developed to provide superior creep, stress rupture, melt resistance and thermomechanical fatigue capabilities over polycrystalline alloys previously used in the production of turbine blades and vanes. Currently the most widely used single crystal turbine blade superalloys are PWA 1480/1493 and PWA 1484. These alloys play an important role in commercial, military and space propulsion systems. PWA1493, identical to PWA1480, but with tighter chemical constituent control, is used in the NASA SSME (Space Shuttle Main Engine) alternate turbopump, a liquid hydrogen fueled rocket engine. Objectives for this paper are motivated by the need for developing failure criteria and fatigue life evaluation procedures for high temperature single crystal components, using available fatigue data and finite element modeling of turbine blades. Using the FE (finite element) stress analysis results and the fatigue life relations developed, the effect of variation of primary and secondary crystal orientations on life is determined, at critical blade locations. The most advantageous crystal orientation for a given blade design is determined. Results presented demonstrates that control of secondary and primary crystallographic orientation has the potential to optimize blade design by increasing its resistance to fatigue crack growth without adding additional weight or cost.

  19. Photonic crystal fiber coil sensor for water-depth sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chen-Feng; Yu, Chin-Ping

    2013-05-01

    We fabricate a PCF coil sensor for water-depth sensing by winding a PCF on a plastic straw. Due to the bending-induced birefringence along the PCF, we can observe clear interference pattern in the output spectrum by placing the PCF coil into a Sagnac fiber loop. As we horizontally immerse the fabricated PCF coil into water, a nonlinear relationship between the water depth and the wavelength shift can be obtained. We have also measured the interference spectrum by vertically immersing the PCF coil into water. We can observe a linear relationship between the water depth and the wavelength shift, and the measured water-depth sensitivity for vertical immersion is -1.17 nm/mm.

  20. The Effect of Radiation "Memory" in Alkali-Halide Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korovkin, M. V.; Sal'nikov, V. N.

    2017-01-01

    The exposure of the alkali-halide crystals to ionizing radiation leads to the destruction of their structure, the emergence of radiation defects, and the formation of the electron and hole color centers. Destruction of the color centers upon heating is accompanied by the crystal bleaching, luminescence, and radio-frequency electromagnetic emission (REME). After complete thermal bleaching of the crystal, radiation defects are not completely annealed, as the electrons and holes released from the color centers by heating leave charged and locally uncompensated defects. Clusters of these "pre centers" lead to electric microheterogeneity of the crystal, the formation of a quasi-electret state, and the emergence of micro-discharges accompanied by radio emission. The generation of REME associated with residual defectiveness, is a manifestation of the effect of radiation "memory" in dielectrics.

  1. Fluorescent polystyrene photonic crystals self-assembled with water-soluble conjugated polyrotaxanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Di Stasio

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate control of the photoluminescence spectra and decay rates of water-soluble green-emitting conjugated polyrotaxanes by incorporating them in polystyrene opals with a stop-band spectrally tuned on the rotaxane emission (405–650 nm. We observe a suppression of the luminescence within the photonic stop-band and a corresponding enhancement of the high-energy edge (405–447 nm. Time-resolved measurements reveal a wavelength-dependent modification of the emission lifetime, which is shortened at the high-energy edge (by ∼11%, in the range 405–447 nm, but elongated within the stop-band (by ∼13%, in the range 448–482 nm. We assign both effects to the modification of the density of photonic states induced by the photonic crystal band structure. We propose the growth of fluorescent composite photonic crystals from blends of “solvent-compatible” non-covalently bonded nanosphere-polymer systems as a general method for achieving a uniform distribution of polymeric dopants in three-dimensional self-assembling photonic structures.

  2. Indium-tin oxide surface treatments: Effects on the performance of liquid crystal devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abderrahmen, A.; Romdhane, F.F.; Ben Ouada, H.; Gharbi, A.

    2006-01-01

    In this work, we investigate the effect of indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate cleaning on the surface properties. Wettability technique was used to measure the contact angle and the surface energy of the different treated ITO substrates. It is found that treatment with the methanol without dehydration gives the lowest water contact angle (most hydrophilic surface) and the highest surface energy compared to other solvents. This result was confirmed by impedance measurements performed on nematic liquid crystal cells with ITO electrodes. Indeed, we check the decrease of ionic entities in the interface ITO/liquid crystal. The polarity and dielectric parameters of the used solvents explain the obtained results

  3. Indium-tin oxide surface treatments: Effects on the performance of liquid crystal devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abderrahmen, A. [Laboratoire de physique et chimie des interfaces, Faculte des sciences, 5000, Monastir (Tunisia)]. E-mail: asma_abderrahmen@yahoo.fr; Romdhane, F.F. [Laboratoire de la matiere molle, Faculte des sciences, Tunis (Tunisia); Ben Ouada, H. [Laboratoire de physique et chimie des interfaces, Faculte des sciences, 5000, Monastir (Tunisia); Gharbi, A. [Laboratoire de la matiere molle, Faculte des sciences, Tunis (Tunisia)

    2006-03-15

    In this work, we investigate the effect of indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate cleaning on the surface properties. Wettability technique was used to measure the contact angle and the surface energy of the different treated ITO substrates. It is found that treatment with the methanol without dehydration gives the lowest water contact angle (most hydrophilic surface) and the highest surface energy compared to other solvents. This result was confirmed by impedance measurements performed on nematic liquid crystal cells with ITO electrodes. Indeed, we check the decrease of ionic entities in the interface ITO/liquid crystal. The polarity and dielectric parameters of the used solvents explain the obtained results.

  4. Study of nonlinear effects in photonic crystals doped with nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Mahi R [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, N6A 3K7 Ontario (Canada)

    2008-07-14

    A theory of nonlinear phenomena has been developed for a photonic crystal in the presence of a pump and a coupling laser field. The crystal is doped with an ensemble of four-level nanoparticle impurities. It is considered that the impurity particles are not only interacting with the photonic crystal but also with each other via dipole-dipole interaction. An expression for the susceptibility has been obtained using the density matrix method. The nonlinear effects due to the coupling and the pump fields have been included in the formulation. The absorption spectrum has been calculated in the presence of the strong coupling and pump fields for an isotropic photonic crystal made from dielectric spheres. The photonic crystal has a gap to midgap ratio of about 21%. It is predicted that the absorption spectrum in the photonic crystal can have zero, one, two or three absorptionless states by tuning one of the transition energies within the bands. This is an interesting phenomenon which can be used to make photonic switching devices. We have also calculated the absorption spectrum in the presence of the dipole-dipole interaction. It is found that a symmetric absorption spectrum changes to an asymmetric one due to this interaction. It is also found that there is a large enhancement in the absorption and the dispersion simultaneously for certain values of the detuning and concentration.

  5. Gentle, fast and effective crystal soaking by acoustic dispensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Patrick M; Ng, Jia Tsing; Talon, Romain; Nekrosiute, Karolina; Krojer, Tobias; Douangamath, Alice; Brandao-Neto, Jose; Wright, Nathan; Pearce, Nicholas M; von Delft, Frank

    2017-03-01

    The steady expansion in the capacity of modern beamlines for high-throughput data collection, enabled by increasing X-ray brightness, capacity of robotics and detector speeds, has pushed the bottleneck upstream towards sample preparation. Even in ligand-binding studies using crystal soaking, the experiment best able to exploit beamline capacity, a primary limitation is the need for gentle and nontrivial soaking regimens such as stepwise concentration increases, even for robust and well characterized crystals. Here, the use of acoustic droplet ejection for the soaking of protein crystals with small molecules is described, and it is shown that it is both gentle on crystals and allows very high throughput, with 1000 unique soaks easily performed in under 10 min. In addition to having very low compound consumption (tens of nanolitres per sample), the positional precision of acoustic droplet ejection enables the targeted placement of the compound/solvent away from crystals and towards drop edges, allowing gradual diffusion of solvent across the drop. This ensures both an improvement in the reproducibility of X-ray diffraction and increased solvent tolerance of the crystals, thus enabling higher effective compound-soaking concentrations. The technique is detailed here with examples from the protein target JMJD2D, a histone lysine demethylase with roles in cancer and the focus of active structure-based drug-design efforts.

  6. Study of nonlinear effects in photonic crystals doped with nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Mahi R

    2008-01-01

    A theory of nonlinear phenomena has been developed for a photonic crystal in the presence of a pump and a coupling laser field. The crystal is doped with an ensemble of four-level nanoparticle impurities. It is considered that the impurity particles are not only interacting with the photonic crystal but also with each other via dipole-dipole interaction. An expression for the susceptibility has been obtained using the density matrix method. The nonlinear effects due to the coupling and the pump fields have been included in the formulation. The absorption spectrum has been calculated in the presence of the strong coupling and pump fields for an isotropic photonic crystal made from dielectric spheres. The photonic crystal has a gap to midgap ratio of about 21%. It is predicted that the absorption spectrum in the photonic crystal can have zero, one, two or three absorptionless states by tuning one of the transition energies within the bands. This is an interesting phenomenon which can be used to make photonic switching devices. We have also calculated the absorption spectrum in the presence of the dipole-dipole interaction. It is found that a symmetric absorption spectrum changes to an asymmetric one due to this interaction. It is also found that there is a large enhancement in the absorption and the dispersion simultaneously for certain values of the detuning and concentration

  7. Implication of Crystal Water Molecules in Inhibitor Binding at ALR2 Active Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hymavati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Water molecules play a crucial role in mediating the interaction between a ligand and a macromolecule. The solvent environment around such biomolecule controls their structure and plays important role in protein-ligand interactions. An understanding of the nature and role of these water molecules in the active site of a protein could greatly increase the efficiency of rational drug design approaches. We have performed the comparative crystal structure analysis of aldose reductase to understand the role of crystal water in protein-ligand interaction. Molecular dynamics simulation has shown the versatile nature of water molecules in bridge H bonding during interaction. Occupancy and life time of water molecules depend on the type of cocrystallized ligand present in the structure. The information may be useful in rational approach to customize the ligand, and thereby longer occupancy and life time for bridge H-bonding.

  8. Bulk photovoltaic effect in an organi c polar crystal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijayaraghavan, R.K.; Meskers, S.C.J.; Abdul Rahim, M.; Das, S.

    2014-01-01

    Organic polar crystals from the donor–acceptor substituted 1,4-diphenybutadiene 1 can generate a short-circuit photocurrent and a photovoltage upon illumination with near UV light. The photocurrent and photovoltage are attributed to a bulk photovoltaic effect. The bulk photovoltaic effect has been

  9. Effects of ultrasonic irradiation on crystallization and structural properties of EMT-type zeolite nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Eng-Poh, E-mail: epng@usm.my [School of Chemical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, USM, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Awala, Hussein [Laboratoire Catalyse & Spectrochimie, CNRS-ENSICAEN, Université de Caen (France); Ghoy, Jia-Pei [School of Chemical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, USM, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Vicente, Aurélie [Laboratoire Catalyse & Spectrochimie, CNRS-ENSICAEN, Université de Caen (France); Ling, Tau Chuan [Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya (Malaysia); Ng, Yun Hau [School of Chemical Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia); Mintova, Svetlana [Laboratoire Catalyse & Spectrochimie, CNRS-ENSICAEN, Université de Caen (France); Adam, Farook, E-mail: farook@usm.my [School of Chemical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, USM, 11800 Penang (Malaysia)

    2015-06-01

    Synthesis of EMT zeolite nanocrystals from rice husk ash biomass (RHA) under continuous ultrasonic irradiation is reported. The aging, nucleation and crystallization stages of EMT zeolite in the system were monitored at ambient temperature, and compared with the conventional hydrothermal method. It was found that ultrasonic wave induced rapid crystal growth of the nanosized EMT zeolite. Complete crystallization of EMT nanocrystals was achieved within 24 h which was much faster than conventional hydrothermal synthesis (36 h). Furthermore, XRD and TEM analyses revealed that more nuclei were formed during the nucleation stage, allowing the preparation of smaller zeolite nanocrystals with high crystallinity. The results also showed that sonocrystallization produced EMT zeolite with high yield (ca. 80%). The ultrasound-prepared EMT nanocrystals were also found to have high porosity and high hydrophilicity, making the material promising for water sorption applications including vapor sensing, heat pump and adsorption technologies. - Highlights: • Nanosized EMT zeolites are formed from rice husk ash under ultrasonic irradiation. • The effects of ultrasonic waves in nanosized EMT zeolite synthesis are studied. • Ultrasound induces rapid crystal growth and produces high zeolite yield. • Smaller zeolite nanocrystals with high crystallinity and large defect sites are obtained. • Improved surface hydrophilicity of crystals is beneficial for water sorption applications.

  10. Correlation theory of crystal field and anisotropic exchange effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgård, Per-Anker

    1985-01-01

    A general theory for including correlation effects in static and dynamic properties is presented in terms of Raccah or Stevens operators. It is explicitly developed for general crystal fields and anisotropic interactions and systems with several sublattices, like the rare earth compounds....... The theory gives explicitly a temperature dependent renormalization of both the crystal field and the interactions, and a damping of the excitations and in addition a central park component. The general theory is illustrated by a discussion of the singlet-doublet system. The correlation effects...

  11. Quantum effects for particles channeling in a bent crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feranchuk, Ilya, E-mail: iferanchuk@gmail.com [Atomic Molecular and Optical Physics Research Group, Ton Duc Thang University, 19 Nguyen Huu Tho Str., Tan Phong Ward, District 7, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Faculty of Applied Sciences, Ton Duc Thang University, 19 Nguyen Huu Tho Str., Tan Phong Ward, District 7, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Belarusian State University, 4 Nezavisimosty Ave., 220030 Minsk (Belarus); San, Nguyen Quang [Belarusian State University, 4 Nezavisimosty Ave., 220030 Minsk (Belarus)

    2016-09-15

    Quantum mechanical theory for channeling of the relativistic charged particles in the bent crystals is considered in the paper. Quantum effects of under-barrier tunneling are essential when the radius of the curvature is closed to its critical value. In this case the wave functions of the quasi-stationary states corresponding to the particles captured in a channel are presented in the analytical form. The efficiency of channeling of the particles and their angular distribution at the exit crystal surface are calculated. Characteristic experimental parameters for observation the quantum effects are estimated.

  12. Effect of a Nitrogen Impurity on the Fundamental Raman Band of Diamond Single Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusakov, G. A.; Samtsov, M. P.; Voropay, E. S.

    2018-05-01

    The effect of nitrogen defects in natural and synthetic diamond single crystals on the position and half-width of the fundamental Raman band was investigated. Samples containing the main types of nitrogen lattice defects at impurity contents of 1-1500 ppm were studied. The parameters of the Stokes and anti-Stokes components in Raman spectra of crystals situated in a cell with distilled water to minimize the influence of heating by the exciting laser radiation were analyzed to determine the effect of a nitrogen impurity in the diamond crystal lattice. It was shown that an increase of impurity atoms in the crystals in the studied concentration range resulted in broadening of the Raman band from 1.61 to 2.85 cm-1 and shifting of the maximum to lower frequency from 1332.65 to 1332.3 cm-1. The observed effect was directly proportional to the impurity concentration and depended on the form of the impurity incorporated into the diamond lattice. It was found that the changes in the position and half-width of the fundamental Raman band for diamond were consistent with the magnitude of crystal lattice distortions due to the presence of impurity defects and obeyed the Gruneisen law.

  13. Gyromagnetic Faraday effect in transparent magnetic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krinchik, G.S.; Koptsik, S.V.; Gan'shina, E.A.

    1982-01-01

    Faraday effect in the transparent paramagnetic Gd 3 Ga 5 O 12 at 4.2 K in magnetic fields up to 50 kE within 1-2.5 μm range is studied. The gyromagnetic Faraday effect caused by precession of magnetization vector under the effect of the magnetic field of wave light is shown to be the determinimg one in the infrared range. Hyromagnetic and gyroelectric contributions to Faraday effect in Gd 3 Fe 5 O 12 and Y 3 Fe 5 O 12 are determined. It is shown that field dependence of Faraday effect in non-colinear ferrimagnetic Yb 3 Fe 5 O 12 qualitatively proves the existence of gyromagnetic Faraday effect

  14. Strain gradient crystal plasticity effects on flow localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Ulrik

    2007-01-01

    for metals described by the reformulated Fleck-Hutchinson strain gradient plasticity theory. The theory is implemented numerically within a finite element framework using slip rate increments and displacement increments as state variables. The formulation reduces to the classical crystal plasticity theory...... in the absence of strain gradients. The model is used to study the effect of an internal material length scale on the localization of plastic flow in shear bands in a single crystal under plane strain tension. It is shown that the mesh sensitivity is removed when using the nonlocal material model considered...

  15. Lattice effects in HoVo(3) single crystal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sikora, M.; Marquina, C.; Ibarra, M. R.; Nugroho, A. A.; Palstra, T. T. M.

    We report the study of lattice effects in the Mott insulator HoVO3 performed by means of linear thermal expansion on a single crystal in the temperature range 10-290 K. The holmium orthovanadate HoVO3 reveals gradual orbital ordering (OO) below T-OO = 200K and orders antiferromagnetically at T-N =

  16. Organic field-effect transistors using single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Tatsuo; Takeya, Jun

    2009-01-01

    Organic field-effect transistors using small-molecule organic single crystals are developed to investigate fundamental aspects of organic thin-film transistors that have been widely studied for possible future markets for 'plastic electronics'. In reviewing the physics and chemistry of single-crystal organic field-effect transistors (SC-OFETs), the nature of intrinsic charge dynamics is elucidated for the carriers induced at the single crystal surfaces of molecular semiconductors. Materials for SC-OFETs are first reviewed with descriptions of the fabrication methods and the field-effect characteristics. In particular, a benchmark carrier mobility of 20-40 cm 2 Vs -1 , achieved with thin platelets of rubrene single crystals, demonstrates the significance of the SC-OFETs and clarifies material limitations for organic devices. In the latter part of this review, we discuss the physics of microscopic charge transport by using SC-OFETs at metal/semiconductor contacts and along semiconductor/insulator interfaces. Most importantly, Hall effect and electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements reveal that interface charge transport in molecular semiconductors is properly described in terms of band transport and localization by charge traps. (topical review)

  17. Organic field-effect transistors using single crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuo Hasegawa and Jun Takeya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic field-effect transistors using small-molecule organic single crystals are developed to investigate fundamental aspects of organic thin-film transistors that have been widely studied for possible future markets for 'plastic electronics'. In reviewing the physics and chemistry of single-crystal organic field-effect transistors (SC-OFETs, the nature of intrinsic charge dynamics is elucidated for the carriers induced at the single crystal surfaces of molecular semiconductors. Materials for SC-OFETs are first reviewed with descriptions of the fabrication methods and the field-effect characteristics. In particular, a benchmark carrier mobility of 20–40 cm2 Vs−1, achieved with thin platelets of rubrene single crystals, demonstrates the significance of the SC-OFETs and clarifies material limitations for organic devices. In the latter part of this review, we discuss the physics of microscopic charge transport by using SC-OFETs at metal/semiconductor contacts and along semiconductor/insulator interfaces. Most importantly, Hall effect and electron spin resonance (ESR measurements reveal that interface charge transport in molecular semiconductors is properly described in terms of band transport and localization by charge traps.

  18. Understanding water equilibration fundamentals as a step for rational protein crystallization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro M Martins

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vapor diffusion is the most widely used technique for protein crystallization and the rate of water evaporation plays a key role on the quality of the crystals. Attempts have been made in the past to solve the mass transfer problem governing the evaporation process, either analytically or by employing numerical methods. Despite these efforts, the methods used for protein crystallization remain based on trial and error techniques rather than on fundamental principles. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we present a new theoretical model which describes the hanging drop method as a function of the different variables that are known to influence the evaporation process. The model is extensively tested against experimental data published by other authors and considering different crystallizing conditions. Aspects responsible for the discrepancies between the existing theories and the measured evaporation kinetics are especially discussed; they include the characterization of vapor-liquid equilibrium, the role of mass transfer within the evaporating droplet, and the influence of the droplet-reservoir distance. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The validation tests show that the proposed model can be used to predict the water evaporation rates under a wide range of experimental conditions used in the hanging drop vapor-diffusion method, with no parameter fitting or computational requirements. This model combined with protein solubility data is expected to become a useful tool for a priori screening of crystallization conditions.

  19. Crystal structure of the tetraaquabis(thiocyanato-κNcobalt(II–caffeine–water (1/2/4 co-crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. El Hamdani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the structure of the title compound [systematic name: tetraaquabis(thiocyanato-κNcobalt(II–1,3,7-trimethyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-7H-purine-2,6-dione–water (1/2/4], [Co(NCS2(H2O4]·2C8H10N4O2·4H2O, the cobalt(II cation lies on an inversion centre and is coordinated in a slightly distorted octahedral geometry by the oxygen atoms of four water molecules and two N atoms of two trans-arranged thiocyanate anions. In the crystal, the complex molecules interact with the caffeine molecules through O—H...N, O—H...O and C—H...S hydrogen bonds and π–π interactions [centroid-to-centroid distance = 3.4715 (5 Å], forming layers parallel to the ab plane, which are further connected into a three-dimensional network by O—H...O and O—H...S hydrogen bonds involving the non-coordinating water molecules.

  20. Studying The Effect of Various Parameters on The Characteristics of The Dielectric and Metallic Photonic Crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, M.; Badawy, Z.M.; Abdel-Rahman, E.

    2015-01-01

    Transmittance characteristics of two types of photonic crystals have been analysed using the transfer matrix method. The first one is the dielectric photonic crystal (DPC), and the second is the metallic photonic crystal (MPC). The effect of the most parameters on the transmission spectra of the dielectric and metallic photonic crystals has been studied

  1. Precipitation of ikaite crystals in Antarctic marine sediments: implications from pore water geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Z.; Kennedy, H.; Rickaby, R. E.; Georg, B.; Shaw, S.; Lennie, A.; Pancost, R. D.

    2008-12-01

    Ikaite is a calcium carbonate hexahydrate (CaCO3•6H20) considered to be stable only at low temperatures. It has been found in form of tufa tower at locations where alkaline water mixes with water masses enriched in calcium (e.g. Ikka Fjord, Mono Lake). Large euhedral single crystals of ikaite were also recovered in marine sediments, associated with organic matter degradation, anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) and sulfate reduction. The hydration water in the ikaite crystals were demonstrated to record the oxygen isotope composition of the water from which they precipitated. Such a characteristic may allow using ikaite to reconstruct the ice volume in the past. For this purpose, the controls on its precipitation in the sediment column need to be investigated which is the main goal of this study. U.S. Antarctica Program cruise NBP0703 collected two cores with ikaite crystals at Antarctica Peninsula (Bransfield Strait and Firth of Tay). We determined major cation/anion concentrations, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and δ13C composition of DIC in the pore waters in these two cores. Strong organic matter degradation or AOM in both cores results in quick consumption of sulfate in shallow part of the cores (SMT at around 3m).Rapid build-up of DIC is accompanied by the sharp decrease of dissolved calcium in the top 5m. Large variations were observed in δ13CDIC values (-20‰ to +13‰). The δ13C of ikaite in two cores were distinctive from each other (-19‰ and +4‰) corresponding to the DIC pools at different depths. The down core saturation state of the ikaite was modeled in PHREEQC based on the pore water chemistry, and the results are consistent with carbon isotope data, suggesting that these large crystals very likely formed within a narrow depth interval and a short time period (given high sedimentation rates of 0.5-1 cm/yr in this area).

  2. The finite-size effect in thin liquid crystal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śliwa, I.

    2018-05-01

    Effects of surface ordering in liquid crystal systems confined between cell plates are of great theoretical and experimental interest. Liquid crystals introduced in thin cells are known to be strongly stabilized and ordered by cell plates. We introduce a new theoretical method for analyzing the effect of surfaces on local molecular ordering in thin liquid crystal systems with planar geometry of the smectic layers. Our results show that, due to the interplay between pair long-range intermolecular forces and nonlocal, relatively short-range, surface interactions, both orientational and translational orders of liquid crystal molecules across confining cells are very complex. In particular, it is demonstrated that the SmA, nematic, and isotropic phases can coexist. The phase transitions from SmA to nematic, as well as from nematic to isotropic phases, occur not simultaneously in the whole volume of the system but begin to appear locally in some regions of the LC sample. Phase transition temperatures are demonstrated to be strongly affected by the thickness of the LC system. The dependence of the corresponding shifts of phase transition temperatures on the layer number is shown to exhibit a power law character. This new type of scaling behavior is concerned with the coexistence of local phases in finite systems. The influence of a specific character of interactions of molecules with surfaces and other molecules on values of the resulting critical exponents is also analyzed.

  3. Electrically tunable spatially variable switching in ferroelectric liquid crystal/water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, A.; Coondoo, I.; Prakash, J.; Sreenivas, K.; Biradar, A. M.

    2009-04-01

    An unusual switching phenomenon in the region outside conducting patterned area in ferroelectric liquid crystal (FLC) containing about 1-2 wt % of water has been observed. The presence of water in the studied heterogeneous system was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The observed optical studies have been emphasized on the "spatially variable switching" phenomenon of the molecules in the nonconducting region of the cell. The observed phenomenon is due to diffusion of water between the smectic layers of the FLC and the interaction of the curved electric field lines with the FLC molecules in the nonconducting region.

  4. Surface effects on converse piezoelectricity of crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molayem, Mohammad; Springborg, Michael; Kirtman, Bernard

    2017-09-20

    The contribution of surface units to bulk properties are often neglected in theoretical and computational studies of crystalline systems. We demonstrate that this assumption has to be made with caution in the case of (electric field) polarization. As a generalization of an earlier work on quasi-one-dimensional systems [Springborg, et al., Phys. Rev. B: Condens. Matter Mater. Phys., 2010, 82, 165442], it is shown that the polarization for 2D and 3D systems contains a surface contribution that can, in principle, take any value (within physical limits) and has consequences for converse piezoelectric responses. Subsequently, we determine the surface effects quantitatively for a group of ferroelectric perovskite structures. Our results indicate that such contributions can be substantial.

  5. Influence of smectite crystal chemistry on the organization of interlayer water and cations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dazas, Baptiste

    2014-01-01

    Swelling clay minerals such as smectites are ubiquitous at the Earth surface and possess major hydration ability and contaminant uptake/retention capacity. As a consequence smectites exert a pivotal influence on elemental transfers in surficial environments. These properties are especially relevant also when smectites are used as sealant in engineered or geological barriers for waste disposal facilities. As interlayer H_2O molecules account for more than 80% of smectite water in under-saturated conditions, characterization of H_2O organization and dynamics in smectites interlayers is essential to determining the geometrical and dynamical properties of clay barriers for waste disposal and to predicting the mobility of contaminant whose principal vector is water. Within this general framework, the present works describe, in a first time, the structuration of interlayer water/cations in saturated conditions. Then, in a second time, review the influence of structural parameters such as the amount and location of layer charge deficit and the chemical composition (and more especially the presence of structural fluorine/hydroxyl) on smectite hydration properties. A set of samples covering the whole compositional range of swelling phyllosilicates has thus been synthesized and characterized chemically and structurally. Special attention was paid to determining the amount (water vapor sorption isotherms) and the distribution (X-ray diffraction) of interlayer water. Molecular modeling allowed unraveling the origin of the contrasting behaviors observed experimentally and to determine the influence of the different crystal-chemical parameters on smectite hydration. This step is essential for the prediction of smectite reactivity in the environment from a limited number of crystal-chemical parameters. Molecular modeling allowed unraveling the origin of the contrasting behaviors observed experimentally and to determine the influence of the different crystal-chemical parameters on

  6. Crystallization in metglass: growth mechanism of crystals and radiation effects in Fe Ni P B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limoge, Y.; Barbu, A.

    1981-08-01

    Studying crystallization mechanisms and transport properties in amorphous metallic alloys we propose a model for systems wich are displaying eutectoid decomposition. Bringing together self diffusion, electron microscopy and electron irradiation experiments on a Fe Ni P B alloys we have shown that crystallization controlled by interfacial diffusion at the crystal surface can explain all the observed features of the experimental behaviour

  7. Photorefractive effect at 775 nm in doped lithium niobate crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nava, G.; Minzioni, P.; Cristiani, I.; Degiorgio, V. [Department of Electrical, Computer, and Biomedical Engineering, and CNISM, University of Pavia, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Argiolas, N.; Bazzan, M.; Ciampolillo, M. V.; Pozza, G.; Sada, C. [Physics and Astronomy Departement, University of Padova, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2013-07-15

    The photorefractive effect induced by 775-nm laser light on doped lithium niobate crystals is investigated by the direct observation in the far field of the transmitted-beam distortion as a function of time. Measurements performed at various Zr-doping concentrations and different light intensities show that the 775-nm light beam induces a steady-state photorefractive effect comparable to that of 532-nm light, but the observed build-up time of the photovoltaic field is longer by three-orders of magnitude. The 775-nm photorefractivity of lithium niobate crystals doped with 3 mol. % ZrO{sub 2} or with 5.5 mol. % MgO is found to be negligible.

  8. Effect of grain boundary on the field-effect mobility of microrod single crystal organic transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaekyun; Kang, Jingu; Cho, Sangho; Yoo, Byungwook; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Park, Sung Kyu

    2014-11-01

    High-performance microrod single crystal organic transistors based on a p-type 2,7-dioctyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (C8-BTBT) semiconductor are fabricated and the effects of grain boundaries on the carrier transport have been investigated. The spin-coating of C8-BTBT and subsequent solvent vapor annealing process enabled the formation of organic single crystals with high aspect ratio in the range of 10 - 20. It was found that the organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) based on these single crystals yield a field-effect mobility and an on/off current ratio of 8.04 cm2/Vs and > 10(5), respectively. However, single crystal OFETs with a kink, in which two single crystals are fused together, exhibited a noticeable drop of field-effect mobility, and we claim that this phenomenon results from the carrier scattering at the grain boundary.

  9. Crystal water as the mol-ecular glue for obtaining different co-crystal ratios: the case of gallic acid tris-caffeine hexa-hydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella-Zarb, L; Baisch, U

    2018-04-01

    The crystal structure of the hexa-hydrate co-crystal of gallic acid and caffeine, C 7 H 6 O 5 ·3C 8 H 10 N 4 O 2 ·6H 2 O or GAL3CAF·6H 2 O , is a remarkable example of the importance of hydrate water acting as structural glue to facilitate the crystallization of two components of different stoichiometries and thus to compensate an imbalance of hydrogen-bond donors and acceptors. The water mol-ecules provide the additional hydrogen bonds required to form a crystalline solid. Whereas the majority of hydrogen bonds forming the inter-molecular network between gallic acid and caffeine are formed by crystal water, only one direct classical hydrogen bond between two mol-ecules is formed between the carb-oxy-lic oxygen of gallic acid and the carbonyl oxygen of caffeine with d ( D ⋯ A ) = 2.672 (2) Å. All other hydrogen bonds either involve crystal water or utilize protonated carbon atoms as donors.

  10. Characterization of Fabricated Photonic Crystal Fibers Using Effective Index Method

    OpenAIRE

    Faramarz E. Seraji

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the characteristics of photonic crystal fibers (PCFs), which have been experimentally determined in the last few years in Iran's Telecom Research Center are analyzed and compared theoretically using an effective index method. The PCFs under investigation are fabricated with a high speed drawing process that has not yet been reported elsewhere. It was shown that at higher wavelengths in PCFs; the light field is confined in the core where in shorter wavelengths the field spread...

  11. Efficient green luminescence of terbium oxalate crystals: A case study with Judd-Ofelt theory and single crystal structure analysis and the effect of dehydration on luminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Dinu; Joy, Monu; Thomas, Kukku; Sisira, S.; Biju, P. R.; Unnikrishnan, N. V.; Sudarsanakumar, C.; Ittyachen, M. A.; Joseph, Cyriac

    2018-06-01

    Design and synthesis of Lanthanide based metal organic framework is a frontier area of research owing to their structural diversity enabling specific applications. The luminescence properties of rare earths, tuned by the structural features of Ln-MOFs are investigated extensively. Rare earth oxalates which can be synthesized in a facile method, ensuring the structural features of MOFs with excellent photoluminescence characteristics deserves much attention. This work is the first time report on the single crystal structure and Judd-Ofelt (JO) theoretical analysis - their correlation with the intense and sharp green luminescence of Terbium oxalate crystals. The intense green luminescence observed for Terbium oxalate crystals for a wide range of excitation from DUV to visible region despite the luminescence limiting factors are discussed. The absence of concentration quenching and lifting up of forbidden nature of f-f transitions, allowing direct excitation of Terbium ions is analysed with the help of JO theory and single crystal structure analysis. The JO analysis predicted the asymmetry of Terbium sites, allowing the electric dipole transitions and from the JO intensity parameters, promising spectroscopic parameters - emission cross section, branching ratio, gain band width and gain coefficient of the material were calculated. The single crystal structure analysis revealed the asymmetry of Tb sites and structure of Terbium oxalate is formed by the hydrogen bonded stacking of overlapped six Terbium membered rings connected by the oxalate ligands. The molecularly thick layers thus formed on the crystal surface are imaged by the atomic force microscopy. The presence of water channels in the structure and the effect of lattice water molecules on the luminescence intensity are also investigated.

  12. Effects of thermo-order-mechanical coupling on band structures in liquid crystal nematic elastomer porous phononic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuai; Liu, Ying

    2018-08-01

    Liquid crystal nematic elastomers are one kind of smart anisotropic and viscoelastic solids simultaneously combing the properties of rubber and liquid crystals, which is thermal sensitivity. In this paper, the wave dispersion in a liquid crystal nematic elastomer porous phononic crystal subjected to an external thermal stimulus is theoretically investigated. Firstly, an energy function is proposed to determine thermo-induced deformation in NE periodic structures. Based on this function, thermo-induced band variation in liquid crystal nematic elastomer porous phononic crystals is investigated in detail. The results show that when liquid crystal elastomer changes from nematic state to isotropic state due to the variation of the temperature, the absolute band gaps at different bands are opened or closed. There exists a threshold temperature above which the absolute band gaps are opened or closed. Larger porosity benefits the opening of the absolute band gaps. The deviation of director from the structural symmetry axis is advantageous for the absolute band gap opening in nematic state whist constrains the absolute band gap opening in isotropic state. The combination effect of temperature and director orientation provides an added degree of freedom in the intelligent tuning of the absolute band gaps in phononic crystals. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of Polymeric Additives on the Crystallization and Release Behavior of Amorphous Ibuprofen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Yang Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Some polymeric additives were studied to understand their effects on the amorphous phase of ibuprofen (IBU, used as a poorly water soluble pharmaceutical model compound. The amorphous IBU in bulk, as well as in nanopores (diameter ~24 nm of anodic aluminum oxide, was examined with the addition of poly(acrylic acid, poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone, or poly(4-vinylphenol. Results of bulk crystallization showed that they were effective in limiting the crystal growth, while the nucleation of the crystalline phase in contact with water was nearly instantaneous in all cases. Poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone, the most effective additive, was in specific interaction with IBU, as revealed by IR spectroscopy. The addition of the polymers was combined with the nanoscopic confinement to further stabilize the amorphous phase. Still, the IBU with addition of polymeric additives showed sustained release behavior. The current study suggested that the inhibition of the crystal nucleation was probably the most important factor to stabilize the amorphous phase and fully harness its high solubility.

  14. Effects of Degree of Enzymatic Interesterification on the Physical Properties of Margarine Fats: Solid Fat Content, Crystallization Behavior, Crystal Morphology, and Crystal Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Hong; Smith, Paul; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    2004-01-01

    In this study enzymatic-interesterified margarine fats with different conversion degrees were produced in a packed-bed reactor. The effects of conversion degree on the formation of free fatty acids and diacyglycerols, solid fat content, crystallization behavior, microstructure, and crystal network...... °C with increasing conversion degree. Increased conversion degree from the blend to products, measured by X-ray with addition of 50% of rapeseed oil for dilution, caused the content of â to decrease from 100% to 33%, and 30% and eventually to pure ⢠crystal. However, double chain packing...

  15. DISCOVERY OF CRYSTALLIZED WATER ICE IN A SILHOUETTE DISK IN THE M43 REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terada, Hiroshi [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 650 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Tokunaga, Alan T., E-mail: terada@subaru.naoj.org [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu 96822 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    We present the 1.9-4.2 {mu}m spectra of the five bright (L {<=} 11.2) young stars associated with silhouette disks with a moderate to high inclination angle of 39 Degree-Sign -80 Degree-Sign in the M42 and M43 regions. The water ice absorption is seen toward d121-1925 and d216-0939, while the spectra of d182-316, d183-405, and d218-354 show no water ice feature around 3.1 {mu}m within the detection limits. By comparing the water ice features toward nearby stars, we find that the water ice absorption toward d121-1925 and d216-0939 most likely originates from the foreground material and the surrounding disk, respectively. The angle of the disk inclination is found to be mainly responsible for the difference of the optical depth of the water ice among the five young stars. Our results suggest that there is a critical inclination angle between 65 Degree-Sign and 75 Degree-Sign for the circumstellar disk where the water ice absorption becomes strong. The average density at the disk surface of d216-0939 was found to be 6.38 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -18} g cm{sup -3}. The water ice absorption band in the d216-0939 disk is remarkable in that the maximum optical depth of the water ice band is at a longer wavelength than detected before. It indicates that the primary carrier of the feature is purely crystallized water ice at the surface of the d216-0939 disk with characteristic size of {approx}0.8 {mu}m, which suggests grain growth. This is the first direct detection of purely crystallized water ice in a silhouette disk.

  16. Mixing effects in the crystallization of supercooled quantum binary liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kühnel, M.; Kalinin, A.; Fernández, J. M.; Tejeda, G.; Moreno, E.; Montero, S.; Tramonto, F.; Galli, D. E.; Nava, M.; Grisenti, R. E.

    2015-01-01

    By means of Raman spectroscopy of liquid microjets, we have investigated the crystallization process of supercooled quantum liquid mixtures composed of parahydrogen (pH 2 ) or orthodeuterium (oD 2 ) diluted with small amounts of neon. We show that the introduction of the Ne impurities affects the crystallization kinetics in terms of a significant reduction of the measured pH 2 and oD 2 crystal growth rates, similarly to what found in our previous work on supercooled pH 2 -oD 2 liquid mixtures [Kühnel et al., Phys. Rev. B 89, 180201(R) (2014)]. Our experimental results, in combination with path-integral simulations of the supercooled liquid mixtures, suggest in particular a correlation between the measured growth rates and the ratio of the effective particle sizes originating from quantum delocalization effects. We further show that the crystalline structure of the mixtures is also affected to a large extent by the presence of the Ne impurities, which likely initiate the freezing process through the formation of Ne-rich crystallites

  17. Mixing effects in the crystallization of supercooled quantum binary liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kühnel, M.; Kalinin, A. [Institut für Kernphysik, J. W. Goethe-Universität, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Fernández, J. M.; Tejeda, G.; Moreno, E.; Montero, S. [Laboratory of Molecular Fluid Dynamics, Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Tramonto, F.; Galli, D. E. [Laboratorio di Calcolo Parallelo e di Simulazioni di Materia Condensata, Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Nava, M. [Laboratorio di Calcolo Parallelo e di Simulazioni di Materia Condensata, Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Computational Science, Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, ETH Zurich, USI Campus, Via Giuseppe Buffi 13, CH-6900 Lugano (Switzerland); Grisenti, R. E. [Institut für Kernphysik, J. W. Goethe-Universität, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); GSI - Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2015-08-14

    By means of Raman spectroscopy of liquid microjets, we have investigated the crystallization process of supercooled quantum liquid mixtures composed of parahydrogen (pH{sub 2}) or orthodeuterium (oD{sub 2}) diluted with small amounts of neon. We show that the introduction of the Ne impurities affects the crystallization kinetics in terms of a significant reduction of the measured pH{sub 2} and oD{sub 2} crystal growth rates, similarly to what found in our previous work on supercooled pH{sub 2}-oD{sub 2} liquid mixtures [Kühnel et al., Phys. Rev. B 89, 180201(R) (2014)]. Our experimental results, in combination with path-integral simulations of the supercooled liquid mixtures, suggest in particular a correlation between the measured growth rates and the ratio of the effective particle sizes originating from quantum delocalization effects. We further show that the crystalline structure of the mixtures is also affected to a large extent by the presence of the Ne impurities, which likely initiate the freezing process through the formation of Ne-rich crystallites.

  18. Temperature and fluence effects in lead implanted cobalt single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, A.; Sarholt-Kristensen, L.; Johnson, E.; Steenstrup, S.; Chernysh, V.S.

    1988-01-01

    The channeled sputtering yields of the hcp and fcc phases of cobalt depend on the crystal structure and the radiation induced damage. Earlier irradiations of cobalt with argon ions channeled in the hcp direction give sputtering yields higher than expected in the temperature range 100-350deg C. This effect was attributed to a combination of radiation induced damage and a possible implantation induced hcp --> fcc phase transition. Sputtering yields for cobalt single crystals irradiated with 150 keV Pb + ions along the direction of the hcp phase and the direction of the fcc phase have been measured using the weightloss method. The radiation damage and the amount of lead retained in the implanted surface has been investigated by 'in situ' RBS/channeling analysis. Measured partial sputtering yields of lead ≅ 1 atom/ion indicate preferential sputtering of lead atoms. (orig.)

  19. Strong crystal field effect in ? - optical absorption study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajek, Z.; Krupa, J. C.

    1998-12-01

    =-1 Results of optical absorption measurements in polarized light on tetravalent neptunium diluted in a 0953-8984/10/50/021/img6 single crystal are reported. The recorded spectra are complex, pointing to the presence of an 0953-8984/10/50/021/img7 impurity. The electronic transitions assigned to the 0953-8984/10/50/021/img8 ion are interpreted in terms of the usual model, following the actual understanding of the neptunium electronic structure and independent theoretical predictions. R.m.s. deviations of the order of 0953-8984/10/50/021/img9 have been obtained for 42 levels fitted with 11 free parameters. The crystal field effect resulting from the fitting is considerably larger than that observed for the uranium ion in the same host.

  20. Study of memory effects in polymer dispersed liquid crystal films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Jinwoo

    2006-01-01

    In this work, we have studied the memory effects in polymer dispersed liquid crystal films. We found that optical responses, such as the memory effects, of the films depended strongly on the morphology. For example, memory effects were observed for films with polymer ball morphologies; however, only weak hysteresis effects were observed for films with droplet morphologies. In particular, a stronger memory effect was observed for films with more complicated polymer ball structures. Coincidentally, T TE , the temperature at which the memory state is thermally erased, was generally higher for the films exhibiting a stronger memory effect. In addition, studies of the temporal evolution of the films show that the memory effects become stronger after films have been kept on the shelf for a period of time. This change is likely to be associated with a modification of surface anchoring properties at the LC-polymer interface.

  1. Diffusion of water and ethanol in silicalite crystals synthesized in fluoride media

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ke

    2013-04-01

    Diffusion of water and ethanol in silicalite has been studied in large crystals (70 μm × 30 μm × 15 μm) synthesized via a fluoride mediated route. The near-perfect hydrophobic silicalite (F-) crystals have very few internal silanol defects and, as a result, display water and ethanol transport behavior that is uncontaminated by these defects. The transport diffusivity (Dt) of ethanol is higher than that of water at the same sorbate activity. However, this difference is due to the difference in the shape of the isotherms. The thermodynamically corrected diffusivity (D o) of water is almost an order of magnitude higher than that of ethanol reflecting the difference in molecular size. Estimates of the permeability/permselectivity/separation factors for ethanol/water separation based on the present kinetic and equilibrium data for the fluoride synthesized crystals are compared with the values observed for traditional silicalite membranes. The present diffusivity values for fluoride synthesized silicalite are similar to the values for regular silicalite (OH-) derived from uptake rate measurements but much smaller (by more than four orders of magnitude) than the self-diffusivities derived from PFG-NMR measurements. This result is consistent with the results of other measurements of the diffusion of small molecules in silicalite which suggest that, in macroscopic measurements, the rate of intra-crystalline transport is controlled by the sub-structure (extensive twinning), rather than by diffusion in the ideal MFI micropores. In this situation microscale measurements such as PFG-NMR will lead to erroneously high estimates of transport rates and therefore of permeability and permselectivity. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Diffusion of water and ethanol in silicalite crystals synthesized in fluoride media

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ke; Lively, Ryan P.; Dose, Michelle E.; Li, Liwei; Koros, William J.; Ruthven, Douglas M.; McCool, Benjamin A.; Chance, Ronald R.

    2013-01-01

    Diffusion of water and ethanol in silicalite has been studied in large crystals (70 μm × 30 μm × 15 μm) synthesized via a fluoride mediated route. The near-perfect hydrophobic silicalite (F-) crystals have very few internal silanol defects and, as a result, display water and ethanol transport behavior that is uncontaminated by these defects. The transport diffusivity (Dt) of ethanol is higher than that of water at the same sorbate activity. However, this difference is due to the difference in the shape of the isotherms. The thermodynamically corrected diffusivity (D o) of water is almost an order of magnitude higher than that of ethanol reflecting the difference in molecular size. Estimates of the permeability/permselectivity/separation factors for ethanol/water separation based on the present kinetic and equilibrium data for the fluoride synthesized crystals are compared with the values observed for traditional silicalite membranes. The present diffusivity values for fluoride synthesized silicalite are similar to the values for regular silicalite (OH-) derived from uptake rate measurements but much smaller (by more than four orders of magnitude) than the self-diffusivities derived from PFG-NMR measurements. This result is consistent with the results of other measurements of the diffusion of small molecules in silicalite which suggest that, in macroscopic measurements, the rate of intra-crystalline transport is controlled by the sub-structure (extensive twinning), rather than by diffusion in the ideal MFI micropores. In this situation microscale measurements such as PFG-NMR will lead to erroneously high estimates of transport rates and therefore of permeability and permselectivity. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The opto-thermal effect on encapsulated cholesteric liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Sung; Lin, Hui-Chi; Yang, Kin-Min

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we implemented a micro-encapsulated CLC electronic paper that is optically addressed and electrically erasable. The mechanism that forms spot diameters on the CLC films is discussed and verified through various experimental parameters, including the thickness of CLCs and Poly(2,3-dihydrothieno-1,4-dioxin)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), pump intensity, and pumping time. The opto-thermal effect, brought on by the PEDOT:PSS absorbing layer, causes the spot diameters on the cholesteric liquid crystal thin films to vary. According to our results, the spot diameter is larger for a sample with a thinner cholesteric liquid crystal layer with the same excitation conditions and same thickness of the PEDOT layer. The spot diameter is also larger for a sample with a thicker PEDOT under the same excitation conditions and same thickness of the cholesteric liquid crystal layer. We proposed a simple heat-conducting model to explain the experimental results, which qualitatively agree with this theoretical model.

  4. Temperature effect on phase states of quartz nano-crystals in silicon single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalanov, M.U.; Ibragimova, E.M.; Khamraeva, R.N.; Rustamova, V.M.; Ummatov, Kh.D.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Oxygen penetrates into the silicon lattice up to the concentration of 2·10 18 cm -3 in the course of growing [1]. By the author's opinion at a low oxygen content the formation of solid solution is possible in the local defect places of the silicon single crystal lattice due to the difference in effective ion radius of oxygen and silicon (r O 0.176 and r Si = 0.065 nm). Upon reaching some critical content (∼ 10 17 cm -3 ), it becomes favorable energetically for oxygen ions to form precipitates (SiO x ) and finally a dielectric layer (stoichiometric inclusions of SiO 2 ). It was shown later that depending on the growth conditions, indeed the quartz crystal inclusions are formed in the silicon single crystals at an amount of 0.3 /0.5 wt. % [2]. However the authors did not study a phase state of the quartz inclusions. Therefore the aim of this work was to study a phase state of the quartz inclusions in silicon crystal at various temperatures. We examined the silicon single crystals grown by Czochralski technique, which were cut in (111) plane in the form of disk of 20 mm diameter and 1.5 thickness and had hole conductivity with the specific resistance ρ o ≅ 1/10 Ohm cm. The dislocation density was N D ≅ 10 1 /10 3 cm -2 , the concentrations of oxygen and boron were N 0 ≅ 2/ 4·10 17 cm -3 and N B ≅ 3*10 15 cm -3 . Structure was analyzed at the set-up DRON-UM1 with high temperature supply UVD-2000 ( CuK = 0.1542 nm) at the temperatures of 300, 1173 and 1573 K measured with platinum-platinum-rhodium thermocouple. The high temperature diffraction spectrum measured at 1573 K in the angle range (2Θ≅10/70 d egree ) there is only one main structure reflection (111) with a high intensity and d/n ≅ 0.3136 nm (2 Θ≅ 28.5 d egree ) from the matrix lattice of silicon single crystal. The weak line at 2 Θ≅ 25.5 d egree ( d/n≅0.3136 nm) is β component of the main reflection (111), and the weak structure peak at 2Θ≅59 d egree ( d/n≅ 0.1568 nm

  5. Ice crystallization in ultrafine water-salt aerosols: nucleation, ice-solution equilibrium, and internal structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudait, Arpa; Molinero, Valeria

    2014-06-04

    Atmospheric aerosols have a strong influence on Earth's climate. Elucidating the physical state and internal structure of atmospheric aqueous aerosols is essential to predict their gas and water uptake, and the locus and rate of atmospherically important heterogeneous reactions. Ultrafine aerosols with sizes between 3 and 15 nm have been detected in large numbers in the troposphere and tropopause. Nanoscopic aerosols arising from bubble bursting of natural and artificial seawater have been identified in laboratory and field experiments. The internal structure and phase state of these aerosols, however, cannot yet be determined in experiments. Here we use molecular simulations to investigate the phase behavior and internal structure of liquid, vitrified, and crystallized water-salt ultrafine aerosols with radii from 2.5 to 9.5 nm and with up to 10% moles of ions. We find that both ice crystallization and vitrification of the nanodroplets lead to demixing of pure water from the solutions. Vitrification of aqueous nanodroplets yields nanodomains of pure low-density amorphous ice in coexistence with vitrified solute rich aqueous glass. The melting temperature of ice in the aerosols decreases monotonically with an increase of solute fraction and decrease of radius. The simulations reveal that nucleation of ice occurs homogeneously at the subsurface of the water-salt nanoparticles. Subsequent ice growth yields phase-segregated, internally mixed, aerosols with two phases in equilibrium: a concentrated water-salt amorphous mixture and a spherical cap-like ice nanophase. The surface of the crystallized aerosols is heterogeneous, with ice and solution exposed to the vapor. Free energy calculations indicate that as the concentration of salt in the particles, the advance of the crystallization, or the size of the particles increase, the stability of the spherical cap structure increases with respect to the alternative structure in which a core of ice is fully surrounded by

  6. Intracrystalline site preference of hydrogen isotopes in the water of crystallization of copper sulfate pentahydrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kita, I.; Matsuo, S.

    1981-01-01

    Difference in the isotopic partition at different sites of the water of crystallization of CuSO 4 .5H 2 O (the site preference) was estimated for the hydrogen isotopes. Fractional dehydration of CuSO 4 .5H 2 O under vacuum at 0 and 25 0 C was used to determine the isotopic ratio, the amount of dehydrated water, and the rate process of dehydration. The following results were obtained. (1) Two maxima occur in the isotopic ratio in the dehydration range, F < 0.8. (2) The dehydration occurs by the three sequential zeroth-order rate processes which have different rate constants for dehydration. The three different rate constants may be explained by the combination of the rate constants of dehydration of the water molecules dehydrated. The estimation of the difference in hydrogen isotope distribution for different sites, i.e., four of the five water molecules in the coordination sphere of copper ion (site A) and one bonded to the sulfate ion through hydrogen bonding (site B) was made. The site preference of hydrogen isotopes (delta D,%) was concluded to be -3.20 +- 0.52 for site A and +2.26 +- 2.09 for site B, where the delta D value was referred to the isotopic ratio of the mother liquor from which the crystal was formed

  7. Intracrystalline site preference of hydrogen isotopes in the water of crystallization of copper sulfate pentahydrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kita, I.; Matsuo, S.

    1981-04-02

    Difference in the isotopic partition at different sites of the water of crystallization of CuSO/sub 4/.5H/sub 2/O (the site preference) was estimated for the hydrogen isotopes. Fractional dehydration of CuSO/sub 4/.5H/sub 2/O under vacuum at 0 and 25/sup 0/C was used to determine the isotopic ratio, the amount of dehydrated water, and the rate process of dehydration. The following results were obtained. (1) Two maxima occur in the isotopic ratio in the dehydration range, F < 0.8. (2) The dehydration occurs by the three sequential zeroth-order rate processes which have different rate constants for dehydration. The three different rate constants may be explained by the combination of the rate constants of dehydration of the water molecules dehydrated. The estimation of the difference in hydrogen isotope distribution for different sites, i.e., four of the five water molecules in the coordination sphere of copper ion (site A) and one bonded to the sulfate ion through hydrogen bonding (site B) was made. The site preference of hydrogen isotopes (delta D,%) was concluded to be -3.20 +- 0.52 for site A and +2.26 +- 2.09 for site B, where the delta D value was referred to the isotopic ratio of the mother liquor from which the crystal was formed.

  8. Synthesis, Crystal Structure and Water Vapor Adsorption Properties of a Porous Supramolecular Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Qiao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A new complex, [Cu4(HL4(H2O14] (1, H3L·HCl = 5-((4-carboxypiperidin-1-ylmethylisophthalic acid hydrochloride, has been prepared and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD. The result of the X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that the complex crystallizes in monoclinic, space group C2/c and three unique Cu(II atoms that are connected by partially deprotonated HL2− anion to form a cyclic structure. The rich hydrogen bonding and π-π non-covalent packing interactions extend cyclic units into a three-dimensional (3D supramolecular polymer. Moreover, the thermogravimetric (TG analysis and water vapor adsorption property of 1 were also discussed.

  9. Preliminary observations of the effect of solutal convection on crystal morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, M. Beth H.; Witherow, William K.; Snyder, Robert S.; Carter, Daniel C.

    1988-01-01

    Studies to examine the effect of solutal convection on crystal morphology using sucrose as a model system were initiated. Aspect ratios, defined as the width of the 100-plane-oriented face over the width of the 001-plane-oriented face, were determined for oriented crystals which were grown with either the 001-oriented or the 100-oriented face perpendicular to the convective flow. The dependence of the crystal morphology on orientation is much greater for crystals grown with one face occluded than for crystals grown suspended in solution. Many factors appear to interact in a complex fashion to influence crystal morphology.

  10. Effect of cooling rate on crystallization in an aluminophosphosilicate melt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, S. J.; Zhang, Yanfei; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2011-01-01

    The effect of cooling rate on spontaneous crystallization behavior of an alumino-phospho-silicate melt is studied by means of differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and viscometry. The cooling rates of 160, 2100 and 12000 K/s are attained by subjecting ......, the opalescence of the glass can be tuned by adjusting the cooling rate. This makes the production of opal glasses or transparent glass ceramics more efficient and energy saving, since the conventional isothermal treatment procedure can be left out....

  11. Lattice effects in HoVo3 single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikora, M.; Marquina, C.; Ibarra, M.R.; Nugroho, A.A.; Palstra, T.T.M.

    2007-01-01

    We report the study of lattice effects in the Mott insulator HoVO 3 performed by means of linear thermal expansion on a single crystal in the temperature range 10-290 K. The holmium orthovanadate HoVO 3 reveals gradual orbital ordering (OO) below T OO =200 K and orders antiferromagnetically at T N =113 K. A first-order structural phase transition takes place at T S ∼38 K, which is probably accompanied by change of the OO type and hence the type of antiferromagnetic spin ordering

  12. Microbiologically influenced corrosion in condenser water boxes at Crystal River-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayner, G.O.; Pope, D.H.; Crane, B.E.

    1988-01-01

    During the spring of 1986, several welds in the lower half of the condenser inlet water boxes at Crystal River-3 (CR-3) were found to be seeping seawater. The leakage produced red-brown and black-green colored deposits on the outside surface of the water boxes. The welds in affected areas were not uniformly attacked, and the severity of attack varied between water boxes; however, there were instances of attack on each type of pressure-retaining weld in the affected regions. Weld seepage was also seen on the outside of the inlet piping to the water boxes. A few small pin holes were seen in the base metal of the water boxes not associated with welds. In this paper the authors report the results of examinations performed at both the CR-3 site and at The Babcock and Wilcox Company Lynchburt Research Center (LRC). The inside of a water box and the exterior of the condenser inlet piping were visually inspected at the Cr-3 site. Nodules inside the water box were probed and examined. Parts of nodules were collected and microscopically examined for bacteria. Two corrosion-deposit samples removed from condenser instrument piping and the condenser inlet piping were chemically analyzed at the LRC. Four pipe samples removed from the condenser instrument piping were destructively examined at the LRC. This work included visual inspection, metallographic, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) examinations performed on selected locations of the piping samples

  13. Effect of borax on the wetting properties and crystallization behavior of sodium sulfate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Granneman, S.J.C.; Shahidzadeh, N.; Lubelli, B.A.; Hees, R.P.J. van

    2017-01-01

    Borax has been identified as a possible crystallization modifier for sodium sulfate. Understanding the effect of borax on factors influencing transport and crystallization kinetics of sodium sulfate helps to clarify how this modifier might limit crystallization damage. It has been observed that the

  14. Inhibition of crystal nucleation and growth by water-soluble polymers and its impact on the supersaturation profiles of amorphous drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Shunsuke; Kushida, Ikuo; Yamashita, Taro; Hasebe, Takashi; Shirai, Osamu; Kano, Kenji

    2013-07-01

    The impact of water-soluble polymers on drug supersaturation behavior was investigated to elucidate the role of water-soluble polymers in enhancing the supersaturation levels of amorphous pharmaceuticals. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), and Eudragit L-100 (Eudragit) were used as representative polymers, and griseofulvin and danazol were used as model drugs. Supersaturation profiles of amorphous drugs were measured in biorelevant dissolution tests. Crystal growth rate was measured from the decrease in dissolved drug concentration in the presence of seed crystals. Nucleation kinetics was evaluated by measuring the induction time for nucleation. All experiments were performed in the presence and absence of polymers. The degree of supersaturation of the amorphous model drugs increased with an increase in the inhibitory efficiency of polymers against crystal nucleation and growth (HPMC > PVP > Eudragit). In the presence of HPMC, the addition of seed crystals diminished the supersaturation ratio dramatically for griseofulvin and moderately for danazol. The results demonstrated that the polymers contributed to drug supersaturation by inhibiting both nucleation and growth. The effect of the polymers was drug dependent. The detailed characterization of polymers would allow selection of appropriate crystallization inhibitors and a planned quality control strategy for the development of supersaturable formulations. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Protocols for atomistic modeling of water uptake into zeolite crystals for thermal storage and other applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fasano, Matteo; Borri, Daniele; Chiavazzo, Eliodoro; Asinari, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Numerical protocols for modeling water adsorption and infiltration into zeolite. • A priori screening of new materials for heat storage and desalination is possible. • Water uptake isotherms for bridging atomistic and engineering scales. - Abstract: We report numerical protocols for describing the water uptake process into microporous materials, with special emphasis on zeolite crystals. A better understanding and more predictive tools of the latter process are critical for a number of modern engineering applications, ranging from the optimization of loss free and compact thermal storage plants up to more efficient separation processes. Water sorption (and desorption) is indeed the key physical phenomenon to consider when designing several heat storage cycles, whereas water infiltration is to be studied when concerned with sieving through microporous materials for manufacturing selective membranes (e.g. water desalination by reverse osmosis). Despite the two quite different applications above, in this article we make an effort for illustrating a comprehensive numerical framework for predicting the engineering performances of microporous materials, based on detailed atomistic models. Thanks to the nowadays spectacular progresses in synthesizing an ever increasing number of new materials with desired properties such as zeolite with various concentrations of hydrophilic defects, we believe that the reported tools can possibly guide engineers in choosing and optimizing innovative materials for (thermal) engineering applications in the near future.

  16. Radiation-electromagnetic effect in germanium single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikoin, I.K.; Kikoin, L.I.; Lazarev, S.D.

    1980-01-01

    An experimental study was made of the radiation-electromagnetic effect in germanium single crystals when excess carriers were generated by bombardment with α particles, protons, or x rays in magnetic fields up to 8 kOe. The source of α particles and protons was a cyclotron and x rays were provided by a tube with a copper anode. The radiation-electromagnetic emf increased linearly on increase in the magnetic field and was directly proportional to the flux of charged particles at low values of the flux, reaching saturation at high values of the flux (approx.5 x 10 11 particles .cm -2 .sec -1 ). In the energy range 4--40 MeV the emf was practically independent of the α-particle energy. The sign of the emf was reversed when samples with a ground front surface were irradiated. Measurements of the photoelectromagnetic and Hall effects in the α-particle-irradiated samples showed that a p-n junction was produced by these particles and its presence should be allowed for in investigations of the radiation-electromagnetic effect. The measured even radiation-electromagnetic emf increased quadratically on increase in the magnetic field. An investigation was made of the barrier radiation-voltaic effect (when the emf was measured between the irradiated and unirradiated surfaces). Special masks were used to produce a set of consecutive p-n junctions in germanium crystals irradiated with α particles. A study of the photovoltaic and photoelectromagnetic effects in such samples showed that the method could be used to increase the efficiency of devices utilizing the photoelectromagnetic effect

  17. Annealing effect of H+ -implanted single crystal silicon on strain and crystal structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duo Xinzhong; Liu Weili; Zhang Miao; Gao Jianxia; Fu Xiaorong; Lin Chenglu

    2000-01-01

    The work focuses on the rocking curves of H + -implanted single silicon crystal detected by Four-Crystal X-ray diffractometer. The samples were annealed under different temperatures. Lattice defect in H + -implanted silicon crystals was detected by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry. It appeared that H-related complex did not crush until annealing temperature reached about 400 degree C. At that temperature H 2 was formed, deflated in silicon lattice and strained the lattice. But defects did not come into being in large quantity. The lattice was undamaged. When annealing temperature reached 500 degree C, strain induced by H 2 deflation crashed the silicon lattice. A large number of defects were formed. At the same time bubbles in the crystal and blister/flaking on the surface could be observed

  18. Determining ice water content from 2D crystal images in convective cloud systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Delphine; Coutris, Pierre; Fontaine, Emmanuel; Schwarzenboeck, Alfons; Strapp, J. Walter

    2016-04-01

    Cloud microphysical in-situ instrumentation measures bulk parameters like total water content (TWC) and/or derives particle size distributions (PSD) (utilizing optical spectrometers and optical array probes (OAP)). The goal of this work is to introduce a comprehensive methodology to compute TWC from OAP measurements, based on the dataset collected during recent HAIC (High Altitude Ice Crystals)/HIWC (High Ice Water Content) field campaigns. Indeed, the HAIC/HIWC field campaigns in Darwin (2014) and Cayenne (2015) provide a unique opportunity to explore the complex relationship between cloud particle mass and size in ice crystal environments. Numerous mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) were sampled with the French Falcon 20 research aircraft at different temperature levels from -10°C up to 50°C. The aircraft instrumentation included an IKP-2 (isokinetic probe) to get reliable measurements of TWC and the optical array probes 2D-S and PIP recording images over the entire ice crystal size range. Based on the known principle relating crystal mass and size with a power law (m=α•Dβ), Fontaine et al. (2014) performed extended 3D crystal simulations and thereby demonstrated that it is possible to estimate the value of the exponent β from OAP data, by analyzing the surface-size relationship for the 2D images as a function of time. Leroy et al. (2015) proposed an extended version of this method that produces estimates of β from the analysis of both the surface-size and perimeter-size relationships. Knowing the value of β, α then is deduced from the simultaneous IKP-2 TWC measurements for the entire HAIC/HIWC dataset. The statistical analysis of α and β values for the HAIC/HIWC dataset firstly shows that α is closely linked to β and that this link changes with temperature. From these trends, a generalized parameterization for α is proposed. Finally, the comparison with the initial IKP-2 measurements demonstrates that the method is able to predict TWC values

  19. Periodic changes in effluent chemistry at cold-water geyser: Crystal geyser in Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Weon Shik; Watson, Z. T.; Kampman, Niko; Grundl, Tim; Graham, Jack P.; Keating, Elizabeth H.

    2017-07-01

    Crystal geyser is a CO2-driven cold-water geyser which was originally drilled in the late 1930's in Green River, Utah. Utilizing a suite of temporal groundwater sample datasets, in situ monitoring of temperature, pressure, pH and electrical conductivity from multiple field trips to Crystal geyser from 2007 to 2014, periodic trends in groundwater chemistry from the geyser effluent were identified. Based on chemical characteristics, the primary sourcing aquifers are characterized to be both the Entrada and Navajo Sandstones with a minor contribution from Paradox Formation brine. The single eruption cycle at Crystal geyser lasted over four days and was composed of four parts: Minor Eruption (mEP), Major Eruption (MEP), Aftershock Eruption (Ae) and Recharge (R). During the single eruption cycle, dissolved ionic species vary 0-44% even though the degree of changes for individual ions are different. Generally, Na+, K+, Cl- and SO42- regularly decrease at the onset and throughout the MEP. These species then increase in concentration during the mEP. Conversely, Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe2+ and Sr2+ increase and decrease in concentration during the MEP and mEP, respectively. The geochemical inverse modeling with PHREEQC was conducted to characterize the contribution from three end-members (Entrada Sandstone, Navajo Sandstone and Paradox Formation brine) to the resulting Crystal geyser effluent. Results of the inverse modeling showed that, during the mEP, the Navajo, Entrada and brine supplied 62-65%, 36-33% and 1-2%, respectively. During the MEP, the contribution shifted to 53-56%, 45-42% and 1-2% for the Navajo, Entrada and Paradox Formation brine, respectively. The changes in effluent characteristics further support the hypothesis by Watson et al. (2014) that the mEP and MEP are driven by different sources and mechanisms.

  20. Effect of γ-radiation on crystallization of polycaprolactone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Guangming; Xu, Qianyong; Qin Ruifeng; Yan Hongxia; Liang Guozheng

    2005-01-01

    The crystallization behavior of radiation cross-linked poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) was studied by DSC at different cooling rates. The crystallization process was analyzed by the Ozawa equation and the Mo-Zhishen method that is developed from combining the Avrami equation and the Ozawa equation. It was concluded that the crystallization of radiation crosslinked PCL is governed by heterogeneous nucleation and single-dimension growth; the crystal fraction and rates of crystallization are related to the radiation dose and degree of cross-linking; the relationship between relative crystallinity and time follows the Ozawa equation: The higher the degree of crosslinking, the less the crystal velocity constant. The activation energy of crystallization for irradiated PCL is between 65 and 54kJ/mol

  1. Simulations of surface stress effects in nanoscale single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadin, V.; Veske, M.; Vigonski, S.; Jansson, V.; Muszinsky, J.; Parviainen, S.; Aabloo, A.; Djurabekova, F.

    2018-04-01

    Onset of vacuum arcing near a metal surface is often associated with nanoscale asperities, which may dynamically appear due to different processes ongoing in the surface and subsurface layers in the presence of high electric fields. Thermally activated processes, as well as plastic deformation caused by tensile stress due to an applied electric field, are usually not accessible by atomistic simulations because of the long time needed for these processes to occur. On the other hand, finite element methods, able to describe the process of plastic deformations in materials at realistic stresses, do not include surface properties. The latter are particularly important for the problems where the surface plays crucial role in the studied process, as for instance, in the case of plastic deformations at a nanovoid. In the current study by means of molecular dynamics (MD) and finite element simulations we analyse the stress distribution in single crystal copper containing a nanovoid buried deep under the surface. We have developed a methodology to incorporate the surface effects into the solid mechanics framework by utilizing elastic properties of crystals, pre-calculated using MD simulations. The method leads to computationally efficient stress calculations and can be easily implemented in commercially available finite element software, making it an attractive analysis tool.

  2. Amino Acids in the Asteroidal Water-Bearing Salt Crystals Hosted in the Zag Meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Q. H. S.; Zolensky, M. E.; Burton, A. S.; Locke, D. R.

    2016-01-01

    Solid evidence of liquid water in primitive meteorites is given by the ordinary chondrites H5 Monahans (1998) and H3-6 Zag. Aqueous fluid inclusion-bearing halite (NaCl) crystals were shown to be common in Zag. These striking blue/purple crystals (Figure 1), which gained the coloration from electron-trapping in the Cl-vacancies through exposure to ionizing radiation, were determined to be over 4.0-4.7 billion years old by I-Xe dating. The halite grains are present as discrete grains within an H-chondrite matrix with no evidence for aqueous alteration that indicates a xenogenic source, possibly ancient cryovolcanism. They were proposed to be formed from the cryovolcanic plumes on icy C-type asteroids (possibly Ceres), and were transferred and incorporated into the H chondrite parent asteroid following the eruption event(s). A unique aspect of these halites is that they contain abundant solid inclusions hosted within the halites alongside the water inclusions. The solid inclusions were suggested to be entrained within the fluid erupted from the cryovolcanic event(s), and were shown to be comprised of abundant organics. Spectrofluorometric study and Raman imaging of the halites have identified macromolecular carbon and aliphatic carbon compounds. In order to investigate the type of organics present in Zag and in particular within the fluid-bearing halites, we studied for the first time the amino acid contents of a selected mineral (halite) phase in a meteorite sample.

  3. Crystal and morphological phase transformation of Pb(II) to Pb(IV) in chlorinated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lytle, Darren A.; White, Colin; Nadagouda, Mallikarjuna N.; Worrall, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Herein, we show an important transformation of Pb(II) to Pb(IV) in chlorinated water under laboratory conditions. The study results will give an insight toward understanding how corrosion by-products on lead materials found in drinking water distribution systems develop and breakdown with time. The experiments were conducted to elucidate the morphology of lead (IV) oxide mineral transformation from hydrocerussite and its relationship to color change over a period of time. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used to describe the surface morphology, shape and size of lead solids. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was performed to determine the mineral structure of lead solids. Solids analysis results were compared over a 14-day period of time to define changes in the crystal structure and morphology of lead solids. XRD analysis results of freshly synthesized lead solids showed that hydrocerussite, [Pb 3 (CO 3 ) 2 (OH) 2 ], was the only lead mineral present. After 14 days, a mixture of cerussite (PbCO 3 ) and α-PbO 2 and β-PbO 2 was present. Lead precipitates, i.e. hydrocerussite changed color from white to reddish brown confirming a transformation of the lead phase with time. This was correlated to a change in morphology from flower shaped crystals to hexagonal bars and submicron particles.

  4. Process Analytical Technology in Freeze-Drying: Detection of the Secondary Solute + Water Crystallization with Heat Flux Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiming; Shalaev, Evgenyi

    2018-04-01

    In situ and non-invasive detection of solute crystallization during freeze-drying would facilitate cycle optimization and scale-up from the laboratory to commercial manufacturing scale. The objective of the study is to evaluate heat flux sensor (HFS) as a tool for monitoring solute crystallization and other first-order phase transitions (e.g., onset of freezing). HFS is a thin-film differential thermopile, which acts as a transducer to generate an electrical signal proportional to the total heat applied to its surface. In this study, HFS is used to detect both primary (ice formation) and secondary (also known as eutectic) solute + water crystallization during cooling and heating of solutions in a freeze-dryer. Binary water-solute mixtures with typical excipients concentrations (e.g., 0.9% of NaCl and 5% mannitol) and fill volumes (1 to 3 ml/vial) are studied. Secondary crystallization is detected by the HFS during cooling in all experiments with NaCl solutions, whereas timing of mannitol crystallization depends on the cooling conditions. In particular, mannitol crystallization takes place during cooling, if the cooling rate is lower than the critical value. On the other hand, if the cooling rate exceeds the critical cooling rate, mannitol crystallization during cooling is prevented, and crystallization occurs during subsequent warming or annealing. It is also observed that, while controlled ice nucleation allows initiation of the primary freezing event in different vials simultaneously, there is a noticeable vial-to-vial difference in the timing of secondary crystallization. The HFS could be a valuable process monitoring tool for non-invasive detection of various crystallization events during freeze-drying manufacturing.

  5. Solubility limit of methyl red and methylene blue in microemulsions and liquid crystals of water, sds and pentanol systems

    OpenAIRE

    Beri, D.; Pratami, A.; Gobah, P. L.; Dwimala, P.; Amran, A.

    2017-01-01

    Solubility of dyes in amphiphilic association structures of water, SDS and penthanol system (i.e. in the phases of microemulsions and liquid crystals) was attracted much interest due to its wide industrial and technological applications. This research was focused on understanding the solubility limitation of methyl red and methylene blue in microemulsion and liquid crystal phases. Experimental results showed that the highest solubility of methyl red was in LLC, followed by w/o microemulsion a...

  6. Development of Nanostructured Water Treatment Membranes Based on Thermotropic Liquid Crystals: Molecular Design of Sub-Nanoporous Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Takeshi; Ogawa, Takafumi; Nada, Hiroki; Nakatsuji, Koji; Mitani, Masato; Soberats, Bartolome; Kawata, Ken; Yoshio, Masafumi; Tomioka, Hiroki; Sasaki, Takao; Kimura, Masahiro; Henmi, Masahiro; Kato, Takashi

    2018-01-01

    Supply of safe fresh water is currently one of the most important global issues. Membranes technologies are essential to treat water efficiently with low costs and energy consumption. Here, the development of self-organized nanostructured water treatment membranes based on ionic liquid crystals composed of ammonium, imidazolium, and pyridinium moieties is reported. Membranes with preserved 1D or 3D self-organized sub-nanopores are obtained by photopolymerization of ionic columnar or bicontinuous cubic liquid crystals. These membranes show salt rejection ability, ion selectivity, and excellent water permeability. The relationships between the structures and the transport properties of water molecules and ionic solutes in the sub-nanopores in the membranes are examined by molecular dynamics simulations. The results suggest that the volume of vacant space in the nanochannel greatly affects the water and ion permeability.

  7. Quantum nernst effect in a bismuth single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, M.; Endo, A.; Hatano, N.; Nakamura, H.; Shirasaki, R.; Sugihara, K.

    2009-07-01

    We calculate the phonon-drag contribution to the transverse (Nernst) thermoelectric power S yx in a bismuth single crystal subjected to a quantizing magnetic field. The calculated heights of the Nernst peaks originating from the hole Landau levels and their temperature dependence reproduce the right order of magnitude for those of the pronounced magneto-oscillations recently reported by Behnia et al. A striking experimental finding that S yx is much larger than the longitudinal (Seebeck) thermoelectric power S xx can be naturally explained as the effect of the phonon drag, combined with the well-known relation between the longitudinal and the Hall resistivity ρ xx >> |ρ yx | in a semi-metal bismuth. The calculation that includes the contribution of both holes and electrons suggests that some of the hitherto unexplained minor peaks located roughly at the fractional filling of the hole Landau levels are attributable to the electron Landau levels. (author)

  8. Effect of neutron irradiation on single crystal V3Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viswanathan, R.; Caton, R.; Cox, D.E.; Guha, A.; Sarachik, M.P.; Smith, F.W.; Testardi, L.R.

    1977-01-01

    We We have investigated the effect of successive neutron irradiation up to a fluence of approximately 2 x 10 19 n/cm 2 , by measurements of heat capacity, susceptibility, resistivity, acoustic velocity and neutron diffraction in a single crystal V 3 Si. We find that for low level doses (phi t greater than or equal to 3.5 x 10 18 n/cm 2 ) (a) the structural transformation is very sensitive, whereas the suerconducting transition temperature, T/sub c/, is hardly affected, and (b) except for low temperature heat capacity, most of the other measurements show very little change. For the highest fluence of 2 x 10 19 n/cm 2 used to date, the T/sub c/ dropped to 7.5 K with large changes in the linear heat capacity coefficient, magnetic susceptibility and sound velocity. These results are discussed briefly in this paper

  9. Fishtail effect in twinned and detwinned YBCO single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudissa, M. [Universite Ferhat Abbas, Faculte des Sciences de l' Ingenieur, Setif (Algeria); Halimi, R. [Universite Mentouri, Unite de Recherche de Physique des Materiaux, Constantine (Algeria); Frikach, K.; Senoussi, S. [Universite Paris-Sud, Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, Orsay (France)

    2006-09-15

    We have studied the magnetization hysteresis loops of a twinned and detwinned single crystals in a temperature range between 4.2 and 100 K and a magnetic field (H) range between 0 and 6 T. We carried out relaxation measurements on the samples at different temperatures and magnetic fields. We investigated the twin pinning as a function of temperature (T) and the fishtail anomaly in the critical current density of the two samples. We tried in this study to confirm or infirm the different models which explain the fishtail effect by confronting them to our experimental results We found that the collective creep theory is consistent with the results of our experiment in the field region where the magnetization is at its minimum. This field marks a crossover between the small and large bundle pinning regimes. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. Fishtail effect in twinned and detwinned YBCO single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudissa, M.; Halimi, R.; Frikach, K.; Senoussi, S.

    2006-01-01

    We have studied the magnetization hysteresis loops of a twinned and detwinned single crystals in a temperature range between 4.2 and 100 K and a magnetic field (H) range between 0 and 6 T. We carried out relaxation measurements on the samples at different temperatures and magnetic fields. We investigated the twin pinning as a function of temperature (T) and the fishtail anomaly in the critical current density of the two samples. We tried in this study to confirm or infirm the different models which explain the fishtail effect by confronting them to our experimental results We found that the collective creep theory is consistent with the results of our experiment in the field region where the magnetization is at its minimum. This field marks a crossover between the small and large bundle pinning regimes. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  11. Faraday effect in hybrid magneto-plasmonic photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, B; García-Martín, A; Cuevas, J C

    2015-08-24

    We present a theoretical study of the Faraday effect in hybrid magneto-plasmonic crystals that consist of Au-Co-Au perforated membranes with a periodic array of sub-wavelength holes. We show that in these hybrid systems the interplay between the extraordinary optical transmission and the magneto-optical activity leads to a resonant enhancement of the Faraday rotation, as compared to purely ferromagnetic membranes. In particular, we determine the geometrical parameters for which this enhancement is optimized and show that the inclusion of a noble metal like Au dramatically increases the Faraday rotation over a broad bandwidth. Moreover, we show that the analysis of the Faraday rotation in these periodically perforated membranes provides a further insight into the origin of the extraordinary optical transmission.

  12. Effects of supporting electrolyte on galvanic deposition of Cu2O crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lida; Liu Guichang; Xue Dongfeng

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The effects of electrolyte on the galvanic deposition of Cu 2 O crystals have been investigated. → The chemical nature of supporting electrolyte plays important roles in the galvanic deposition of Cu 2 O crystals. → Cubic Cu 2 O crystals are formed in chloride electrolytes. → Truncated octahedral Cu 2 O crystals are produced in nitrate, sulfate and fluoride electrolytes. - Abstract: The effects of introduced supporting electrolyte on the galvanic deposition of Cu 2 O crystals have been investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results show that the chemical nature of supporting electrolytes plays very important roles in the galvanic deposition of Cu 2 O crystals. The chloride stabilizes the (1 0 0) planes of Cu 2 O crystals, resulting in the formation of cubic crystals, while nitrate, sulfate and fluoride stabilize the (1 1 1) planes of Cu 2 O crystals, leading to the deposition of truncated octahedral and octahedral Cu 2 O crystals. It provides a facile way to control the morphology of galvanically obtained Cu 2 O crystals by indirectly adjusting the inorganic adsorption agents.

  13. Effects of Thermal Exposure on Structures of DD6 Single Crystal Superalloy with Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DONG Jianmin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of water grit-blasting and high temperature thermal exposure on the microstructures of DD6 alloy with TBCs, DD6 single crystal superalloy specimens were water grit-blasted with 0.3 MPa pressure, then the specimens were coated with thermal barrier coatings by electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD. Specimens with TBCs were exposed at 1100℃ for 50 and 100 hours in the air respectively, and then these specimens were subjected to stress-rupture tests under the condition of 1100℃/130 MPa. The results show that grit-blasting doesn't lead into the recrystallization, thermal exposure can induce element interdiffusion between the bond coat and alloy substrate, the residual stress and element diffusion lead into the changes of γ' phase coarsing direction. After stress rupture tests, the secondary reaction zone emerges into a local area.

  14. Evaluation of water repellent treatments applied to stones used in andalusian cathedrals. II. Salt crystallization test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villegas Sánchez, R.

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available In a previous paper we have studied the changes that have ocurred in the properties related to water access and movement in the stone after the application of water repellent treatments. In this work we compare the weathering resistance of treated and untreated samples by means of sodium sulphate crystallization test. After finishing the test (75 cycles properties related to water have been measured again to know if the treatments have undergone any kind of deterioration and lose their water repellent characteristics.

    En un artículo anterior se han evaluado los cambios producidos en las propiedades relacionadas con el acceso y movimiento de agua en la piedra como consecuencia de la aplicación de tratamientos de hidrofugación. En este trabajo se compara la resistencia a la alteración producida por sales de las probetas tratadas y sin tratar, sometiéndolas al ensayo de cristalización de sulfato sódico. Tras finalizar el ensayo (75 ciclos se han medido nuevamente las propiedades relacionadas con el agua, con objeto de comprobar si los tratamientos han sufrido alguna alteración y si mantienen sus características hidrófugas.

  15. Effects of Humidity and Surfaces on the Melt Crystallization of Ibuprofen

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Dong-Joo; Lee, Suyang; Kim, Il Won

    2012-01-01

    Melt crystallization of ibuprofen was studied to understand the effects of humidity and surfaces. The molecular self-assembly during the amorphous-to-crystal transformation was examined in terms of the nucleation and growth of the crystals. The crystallization was on Al, Au, and self-assembled monolayers with –CH3, –OH, and –COOH functional groups. Effects of the humidity were studied at room temperature (18–20 °C) with relative humidity 33%, 75%, and 100%. Effects of t...

  16. Effect of milling on morphology of molten salt synthesized Sr3Ti2O7 crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kijamnajsuk, S.

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Effect of milling liquid (acetone and ethanol, and milling times on morphology of Sr3Ti2O7 (ST7 crystals grow in molten potassium chloride salt at 1250oC for 4 h was investigated. Two kinds of crystals with different morphologies were found: ST7 crystals having a tabular shape of less than 20 μm diameter and small secondary-phase crystals having high symmetry. Milling starting materials in ethanol yielded ST7 crystals that were up to 3 times thinner than those milled with acetone, increasing the (00l Lotgering factor almost twice that when prepared with acetone. Large crystals become a bit smaller and the number of small crystals increased when the milling time increased.

  17. Component effects on crystallization of RE-containing aluminoborosilicate glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohd Fadzil, Syazwani, E-mail: syazwanimf@ukm.edu.my [Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, 790784 Pohang (Korea, Republic of); School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, The National University of Malaysia, 43650 Bandar Baru Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Hrma, Pavel [Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, 790784 Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, WA (United States); Schweiger, Michael J.; Riley, Brian J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-15

    Lanthanide-aluminoborosilicate (LABS) glass is one option for immobilizing rare earth (RE) oxide fission products generated during reprocessing of pyroprocessed fuel. This glass system can accommodate a high loading of RE oxides and has excellent chemical durability. The present study describes efforts to model equilibrium crystallinity as a function of glass composition and temperature as well as liquidus temperature (T{sub L}) as a function of glass composition. The experimental method for determining T{sub L} was ASTM C1720-11. Typically, three crystalline phases were formed in each glass: Ce-borosilicate (Ce{sub 3}BSi{sub 2}O{sub 10}), mullite (Al{sub 10}Si{sub 2}O{sub 19}), and corundum (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}). Cerianite (CeO{sub 2}) was a common minor crystalline phase and Nd-silicate (Nd{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7}) occurred in some of the glasses. In the composition region studied, T{sub L} decreased as SiO{sub 2} and B{sub 2}O{sub 3} fractions increased and strongly increased with increasing fractions of RE oxides; Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} had a moderate effect on the T{sub L} but, as expected, it strongly affected the precipitation of Al-containing crystals. - Highlights: • We investigated equilibrium crystal fraction in glasses versus temperature. • We fitted empirical models to measured data obtaining component coefficients. • Liquidus temperature increased as SiO{sub 2} and B{sub 2}O{sub 3} fractions decreased. • Liquidus temperature increased as CeO{sub 2}, Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} fractions increased.

  18. Flood field uniformity testing - effects of crystal hydration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimcheva, M.; Sergieva, S.; Doldurova, M.; Jovanovska, A.

    2012-01-01

    The most basic and sensitive routine quality control (QC) of gamma camera is that of intrinsic flood-field uniformity. The routine QC test must be assessed daily and any nonuniformity must be eliminated before patient testing to eliminate artifacts and false positive or false-negative patient results. The purpose of this study was to compare uniformity analysis results for scintillation crystal hydration with symmetric and asymmetric energy window on the Siemens Symbia T2 SPECTCT camera. Integral and differential uniformity analysis was performed by placing a point source 99m Tc in front of the detector with removed collimator to measure the effect of correction matrix, a count rate and activity volume on intrinsic uniformity. A 15% energy window set symmetrically over the 99m Tc photo peak is equivalent to 140±10% keV or a window spanning 126-154 keV. The results, received from Detector 2 gave the following uniformity parameter values: Both asymmetric energy window images show clearly multiple focal spots due to crystal hydration: discrete hot spots in the asymmetric low window image and discrete cold spots in the asymmetric high window image. The above results are not seen yet on the symmetric window image. We had replaced Detector 2 in order to avoid spots become visible in flood images obtained with the clinical energy window. The uniformity of a gamma camera is maybe the most important parameter that expresses the quality of the camera's performance. Non uniform areas in the field of view can result in misdiagnosed patients and low quality of clinical services. (authors)

  19. Effect of Different Crystallization Techniques on the Dissolution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Methods: Ketoprofen crystals were prepared by various crystallization technique including spherical .... infrared. (FTIR) spectroscopy. FTIR spectral measurements were taken at ambient temperature (Shimadzu, model 8033,. USA). About 2 mg of the pure drug, as well as ... stored samples and the data compared with.

  20. Synthesis of single-crystal-like nanoporous carbon membranes and their application in overall water splitting

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hong

    2017-01-04

    Nanoporous graphitic carbon membranes with defined chemical composition and pore architecture are novel nanomaterials that are actively pursued. Compared with easy-to-make porous carbon powders that dominate the porous carbon research and applications in energy generation/conversion and environmental remediation, porous carbon membranes are synthetically more challenging though rather appealing from an application perspective due to their structural integrity, interconnectivity and purity. Here we report a simple bottom–up approach to fabricate large-size, freestanding and porous carbon membranes that feature an unusual single-crystal-like graphitic order and hierarchical pore architecture plus favourable nitrogen doping. When loaded with cobalt nanoparticles, such carbon membranes serve as high-performance carbon-based non-noble metal electrocatalyst for overall water splitting.

  1. Synthesis of single-crystal-like nanoporous carbon membranes and their application in overall water splitting

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hong; Min, Shixiong; Ma, Chun; Liu, Zhixiong; Zhang, Weiyi; Wang, Qiang; Li, Debao; Li, Yangyang; Turner, Stuart; Han, Yu; Zhu, Haibo; Abou-Hamad, Edy; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Pan, Jun; Yu, Weili; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Li, Lain-Jong; Yuan, Jiayin; Antonietti, Markus; Wu, Tao

    2017-01-01

    Nanoporous graphitic carbon membranes with defined chemical composition and pore architecture are novel nanomaterials that are actively pursued. Compared with easy-to-make porous carbon powders that dominate the porous carbon research and applications in energy generation/conversion and environmental remediation, porous carbon membranes are synthetically more challenging though rather appealing from an application perspective due to their structural integrity, interconnectivity and purity. Here we report a simple bottom–up approach to fabricate large-size, freestanding and porous carbon membranes that feature an unusual single-crystal-like graphitic order and hierarchical pore architecture plus favourable nitrogen doping. When loaded with cobalt nanoparticles, such carbon membranes serve as high-performance carbon-based non-noble metal electrocatalyst for overall water splitting.

  2. Nonlinear effects in water waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssen, P.A.E.M.

    1989-05-01

    This set of lecture notes on nonlinear effects in water waves was written on the occasion of the first ICTP course on Ocean Waves and Tides held from 26 September until 28 October 1988 in Trieste, Italy. It presents a summary and unification of my knowledge on nonlinear effects of gravity waves on an incompressible fluid without vorticity. The starting point of the theory is the Hamiltonian for water waves. The evolution equations of both weakly nonlinear, shallow water and deep water gravity waves are derived by suitable approximation of the energy of the waves, resulting in the Korteweg-de Vries equation and the Zakharov equation, respectively. Next, interesting properties of the KdV equation (solitons) and the Zakharov equation (instability of a finite amplitude wave train) are discussed in some detail. Finally, the evolution of a homogeneous, random wave field due to resonant four wave processes is considered and the importance of this process for ocean wave prediction is pointed out. 38 refs, 21 figs

  3. Effects of crystal size on the mechanical properties of a lithium disilicate glass-ceramic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, D. [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi’an Jiaotong University, 28 West Xianning Road, Xi’an 710049 (China); Guo, J.W.; Wang, X.S; Zhang, S.F. [State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology, Department of Prosthodontics, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, 145 West Changle Road, Xi’an 710032 (China); He, L., E-mail: helin@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi’an Jiaotong University, 28 West Xianning Road, Xi’an 710049 (China)

    2016-07-04

    Crystal size of lithium disilicate (LD) phase in a LD glass-ceramic was changed by thermally controlled crystallization of a precursory LD glass at different temperatures. Effects of the crystal size on the mechanical properties of the glass-ceramic were investigated. It was found that the flexural strength presented a hump-like variation trend with increasing the crystal size, the hardness monotonously decreased at the same time. It was further confirmed that micro residual compressive stresses existed inside the LD crystals due to the thermal expansion mismatch between the glass matrix and the crystalline phase. The levels of the residual stresses increased with increasing the crystal size. The crystal size performed dual effects on the flexural strength of the glass-ceramic: an “interlocking effect” caused by larger-sized LD crystals and a “micro residual stress effect” related to the balancing tensile stresses in the glass matrix. Higher residual tensile stresses in the glass matrix induced by larger-sized LD crystals would counteract the “interlocking effect” of the crystals, causing the strength degradation. The hardness of the glass-ceramic was mainly controlled by the “micro residual stress effect”.

  4. Measuring of nonlinearity of dye doped liquid crystals using of self phase modulation effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abedi, M.; Jafari, A.; Tajalli, H.

    2007-01-01

    Self phase modulation in dye doped liquid crystals has investigated and the nonlinearity of dye doped liquid crystals is measured by this effect. The Self phase modulation effect can be used for producing optical micro rings that have many applications in photonics and laser industries.

  5. Effect of starting point formation on the crystallization of amorphous silicon films by flash lamp annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Daiki; Ohdaira, Keisuke

    2018-04-01

    We succeed in the crystallization of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) films by flash lamp annealing (FLA) at a low fluence by intentionally creating starting points for the trigger of explosive crystallization (EC). We confirm that a partly thick a-Si part can induce the crystallization of a-Si films. A periodic wavy structure is observed on the surface of polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) on and near the thick parts, which is a clear indication of the emergence of EC. Creating partly thick a-Si parts can thus be effective for the control of the starting point of crystallization by FLA and can realize the crystallization of a-Si with high reproducibility. We also compare the effects of creating thick parts at the center and along the edge of the substrates, and a thick part along the edge of the substrates leads to the initiation of crystallization at a lower fluence.

  6. A detailed study on the interaction of a novel water-soluble glycine bridged zinc(II) Schiff base coordination polymer with BSA: synthesis, crystal structure, molecular docking and cytotoxicity effect against A549, Jurkat and Raji cell lines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Asadi, Z.; Golchin, M.; Eigner, Václav; Dušek, Michal; Amirghofran, Z.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 465, Aug (2017), s. 50-60 ISSN 0020-1693 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1603; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-03276S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/24510 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : water-soluble * coordination polymer * BSA * docking study * anticancer activity Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 2.002, year: 2016

  7. Large Electro-Optic Kerr-Effect in Ionic Liquid Crystals: Connecting Features of Liquid Crystals and Polyelectrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlick, Michael Christian; Kapernaum, Nadia; Neidhardt, Manuel; Wöhrle, Tobias; Stöckl, Yannick; Laschat, Sabine; Gießelmann, Frank

    2018-06-06

    The electro-optic Kerr effect in the isotropic phase of two ionic liquid crystals (ILCs) is investigated and compared to the Kerr effect in non-ionic liquid crystals (LCs) with same phase sequences, namely direct isotropic to hexagonal columnar transitions and direct isotropic to smectic-A transitions. Up to electric field amplitudes of some 106 V m-1, the optical birefringence induced in the isotropic phases follows Kerr's law and strongly increases when the temperature approaches the transition temperature into the particular liquid crystalline phase. Close to the transition, maximum Kerr constants in the order of 10-11 m V-2 are found, which are more than ten times higher than the Kerr constant of nitrobenzene, a strongly dipolar fluid with a huge Kerr effect applied in optical shutters and phase modulators. In comparison to their non-ionic LC counterparts the Kerr effect in ILCs is found to be enhanced in magnitude, but slowed-down in speed, showing rise times in the order of ten milliseconds. These remarkable differences are attributed to the presence of counterion polarization well-known from complex ionic fluids such as polyelectrolytes or ionic micellar solutions. ILCs thus combine the Kerr effect features of liquid crystals and complex ionic fluids. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. The effect of rotational viscosity on the memory effect in ferroelectric liquid crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, S.; Thakur, A.K.; Chauhan, R.; Bawa, S.S.; Biradar, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Memory effect in deformed helix ferroelectric liquid crystal (DHFLC) is not a new phenomenon. Although it was reported 12 years ago yet its exact physical behavior is not explained. It has been thought by various researchers all over the world that it might be a transient memory effect. In the present study, it has been observed and predicted that memory effect is of long duration and shows remarkable dependencies on the voltage and frequency of the driving electrical pulse, which is entirely different from the memory effect in surface-stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystal (SSFLC). The memory effect in SSFLC is primarily due to surface effect but in DHFLC, its ultra-short pitch plays a dominant role. So, it has been observed that the memory effect in DHFLC is due to its high viscosity and inter/intra layer dipolar interactions

  9. Electron irradiation effect on single crystal of niobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otero, M.P.; Lucki, G.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of electron irradiation (900 KeV) on gliding dislocations of single crystal Nb with its tensile axe in the [941] orientation was observed for the in-situ deformation in a high voltage electron microscope (HVEM) at Argonne National Laboratory. The experimental was carried out by the 1 hour-electron irradiation with no stress applied. Straight dislocations actuating as sinks for the electron produced defects became helicoidal as the irradiation proceeded. Frenkel pairs were created in Nb for electron energies > = 650 KeV and, as the single vacancies do not undergo long-range migration in Nb at temperatures much below 620 K, the defects that are entrapped by the dislocations are self-interstitials produced by electron displacement. Applying the stress it was possible to observe that modified dislocations did not glide while the dislocations not affected by the irradiation are visibly in movement. This important result explains the neutron and electron-irradiation induced work-hardening effect for Nb that was previously observed. (Author) [pt

  10. The effect factors of potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystallization in aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Cun; Sun, Fei; Liu, Xuzhao

    2017-01-01

    The effects of cooling rate and pH on the potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystallization process were studied by means of batch crystallization process. The experiment shows that with the increase of cooling rate, the metastable zone width increase and the induction period decrease. When the pH is 3.0, the metastable zone width and induction period are both the minimum, while the crystallization rate is the highest. The crystallization products were characterized by scanning election microscope. Potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate (KDP) is a kind of excellent nonlinear optical materials, and belongs to tetragonal system, and ideal shape is aggregate of tetragonal prism and tetragonal dipyramid, the (100) cone is alternating accumulation by double positive ions and double negative ions [1-4]. The crystals of aqueous solution method to grow have large electro-optical nonlinear coefficient and high loser-damaged threshold, and it is the only nonlinear optical crystal could be used in inertial confinement fusion (ICF), KDP crystals are the ideal system to study the native defects of complex oxide insulating material [5-7]. With the development of photovoltaic technology, KDP crystals growth and performance have become a research focus worldwide [8, 9]. The merits of the crystallization process directly affect the quality of KDP products, so the study of the effect of crystallization conditions has an important significance on industrial production. This paper studied the change rule of metastable zone width, induction period, crystallization rate and particle size distribution in crystal process, and discussed the technical condition of KDP crystallization.

  11. Effect of chemical and isotope substitution in LiH crystals on polariton emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plekhanov, V.G.

    1994-01-01

    Measurements of fine structure of phonon-free line of free exciton radiation in mixed crystals LiH x F 1-x (o x D 1-x (O x F 1-x crystals a sharp increase in the intensity of phonon-free line of free exciton radiation as compared with its LO repetitions is observed. The experimental results suggest manifestation of polariton effects in mixed crystals produced on the basis of lithium hydride. 17 refs., 2 figs

  12. EFFECT OF SODIUM DODECYLBENZENESULFONIC ACID (SDBS ON THE GROWTH RATE AND MORPHOLOGY OF BORAX CRYSTAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suharso Suharso

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of the effect of sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (SDBS on both growth rate and morphology of borax crystal has been carried out.  This experiment was carried out at temperature of 25 °C and relative supersaturation of 0.21 and 0.74 under in situ cell optical microscopy method.  The result shows that SDBS inhibits the growth rate and changes the morphology of borax crystal.   Keywords: Borax; growth rate; crystallization, SDBS

  13. Electroerosion impulse effect on W single crystal structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleshina, S.A.; Khvostikova, V.D.; Zolotykh, B.N.; Marchuk, A.I.

    1977-01-01

    The mechanism has been studied of brittle failure of single crystal tungsten on planes of crystallographic orientations [100], [110]; [111] in the process of electro-erosion machining by pulses of energies ranging from 1200 to 5000 μJ and of duration of 1 μs. It is shown that the electro-erosion machining of single crystal tungsten is characterized by the formation of a defect layer with a grid of microcracks which lie at a depth of approximately 80 μm. The appearance and the distribution of cracks on the surface of single crystals depends on the crystallogrpahic orientation

  14. Effect of method of crystallization on the IV-III and IV-II polymorphic transitions of ammonium nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargeese, Anuj A; Joshi, Satyawati S; Krishnamurthy, V N

    2009-01-15

    A study has been undertaken on the effect of crystallization method on the IVIII transition of ammonium nitrate (AN). AN is crystallized in three different ways, viz. recrystallization, evaporative crystallization and melt crystallization. When the samples were crystallized from saturated aqueous solution, ideal crystals were formed, which behaved differently from the crystals formed from the other methods. The DTA examination of the crystals showed that the crystals have different transition behaviour. The moisture uptake of the samples determined were found to have influenced by the mode of crystallization. The samples were further analyzed by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The present study showed that the parameters like thermal history, number of previous transformations and moisture content have a very negligible influence on the IVIII transition of AN as compared to the method of crystallization.

  15. Fatigue effect in ferroelectric crystals: Growth of the frozen domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shur, V. Ya.; Akhmatkhanov, A. R.; Baturin, I. S.

    2012-06-01

    The model of the fatigue effect during cyclic switching caused by growth of the frozen domain area with charged domain walls has been proposed. It was claimed on the basis of the previous experimental results that for switching in increasing field the frozen domain area started to grow at the given sub-threshold field value and stopped at the threshold field. The influence of the shape and frequency of the field pulses used for cyclic switching has been considered. The uniaxial ferroelectric stoichiometric lithium tantalate single crystals produced by vapor transport equilibration with record low value of coercive field have been chosen as a model material for experimental verification of the model. The formation of the charged domain walls as a result of cyclic switching has been revealed by analysis of the domain images obtained by optical and Raman confocal microscopy. It has been shown that the fatigue degree is equal to the fraction of the frozen domain area. The experimental dependence of the switched charge on the cycle number has been successfully fitted by modified Kolmogorov-Avrami formula. The experimentally observed frequency independence of fatigue profile for rectangular pulses and frequency dependence for triangular pulses has been explained by proposed model.

  16. Effect of oxalic acid on the optical, thermal, dielectric and mechanical behaviour of ADP crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajesh, P.; Ramasamy, P.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of the addition, over a concentration range from 1 to 5 mol%, of oxalic acid on the growth rate, optical transparency, hardness, dielectric behaviour, and SHG efficiency of ammonium dihydrogen phosphate single crystals grown by slow evaporation method has been investigated. UV-Vis studies show that the transparency of the oxalic acid added crystals decreased gradually. Thermal studies indicate that the decomposition temperatures of the crystal are decreased in oxalic acid added ADP crystals. It is observed from the dielectric measurements that the dielectric constant and dielectric loss increase with increase in temperature for all the crystals. Vicker's microhardness study reveals that the addition of higher concentration of oxalic acid decreases the hardness of the crystal. SHG efficiency of 1 mol% of oxalic acid is higher than the pure ADP.

  17. Investigation of the liquid crystal alignment layer: effect on electrical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abderrahmen, Asma; Romdhane, Fayda Fekih; Gharbi, Abdelhafidh [Laboratoire de la matiere molle, Faculte des sciences, Tunis (Tunisia); Ouada, Hafedh Ben [Laboratoire de physique et chimie des interfaces, Faculte des sciences, 5000 Monastir (Tunisia)], E-mail: asma_abderrahmen@yahoo.fr

    2008-04-01

    We investigate the electrical behavior of a symmetric liquid crystal (LC) cell: elecrode-silane-LC-silane-electrode. The silane (chlorodimethyloctadecyl-silane) layer induces a homeotropic orientation of the nematic liquid crystal (NLC) molecules. The wettability technique is used to detect the change of the surface energy of the electrode upon cleaning and silane layer deposition. We report on the dynamic impedance measurements of the nematic liquid crystal cell. It is found that the silane alignment layer has a blocking effect on the liquid crystal (LC) cell. We also study the relaxation behavior of the cell which is later assimilated as an electrical equivalent circuit.

  18. Investigation of the liquid crystal alignment layer: effect on electrical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abderrahmen, Asma; Romdhane, Fayda Fekih; Gharbi, Abdelhafidh; Ouada, Hafedh Ben

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the electrical behavior of a symmetric liquid crystal (LC) cell: elecrode-silane-LC-silane-electrode. The silane (chlorodimethyloctadecyl-silane) layer induces a homeotropic orientation of the nematic liquid crystal (NLC) molecules. The wettability technique is used to detect the change of the surface energy of the electrode upon cleaning and silane layer deposition. We report on the dynamic impedance measurements of the nematic liquid crystal cell. It is found that the silane alignment layer has a blocking effect on the liquid crystal (LC) cell. We also study the relaxation behavior of the cell which is later assimilated as an electrical equivalent circuit

  19. Effects of Electrolyte on Floating Water Bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideo Nishiumi

    2009-01-01

    spontaneously. In this paper, we examined flow direction of water bridge and what effects the addition of electrolytes such as NaCl, NaOH, and NH4Cl to the floating water bridge would give. We found that ionization degree reduced the length of water bridge though insoluble electrolyte Al2O3 had no effect on the length of water bridge.

  20. Polarizability of acetanilide and RDX in the crystal: effect of molecular geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiaousis, D.; Munn, R. W.; Smith, P. J.; Popelier, P. L. A.

    2004-10-01

    Density-functional theory with the B3LYP functional at the 6-311++G** level is used to calculate the dipole moment and the static polarizability for acetanilide and 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane (RDX) in their in-crystal structures. For acetanilide the dipole moment is 2{1}/{2}% larger than for the gas-phase structure and for RDX (where there is a gross geometry change) it is 15% larger. The polarizability for the in-crystal structure is smaller than for the gas-phase structure by 3% for both species, whereas the in-crystal effective optical polarizability is larger than the gas-phase static polarizability for both crystals. Hence, effects in addition to the molecular geometry change in the crystal must be considered in order to interpret the effective polarizability completely.

  1. Effect of pressure on the crystal field splitting in rare earth pnictides and chalcogenides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schirber, J.E.; Weaver, H.T.

    1978-01-01

    The experimental situation for the pressure dependence of the crystal field of praseodymium pnictides and chalcogenides is reviewed and compared with the predictions of the point charge model. The problem of separating exchange and crystal field contributions from the measured NMR frequency shift or susceptibility measurements is discussed as well as problems explaining these effects with conduction electron related models

  2. Pressure effects on Al89La6Ni5 amorphous alloy crystallization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhuang, Yanxin; Jiang, Jianzhong; Zhou, T. J.

    2000-01-01

    The pressure effect on the crystallization of the Al89La6Ni5 amorphous alloy has been investigated by in situ high-pressure and high-temperature x-ray powder diffraction using synchrotron radiation. The amorphous alloy crystallizes in two steps in the pressure range studied (0-4 GPa). The first p...

  3. Interaction potentials and their effect on crystal nucleation and symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, C.S.; Rahman, A.

    1979-01-01

    Molecular dynamics technique has been used to study the effect of the interaction potential on crystal nucleation and the symmetry of the nucleated phase. Four systems, namely rubidium, Lennard-Jones, rubidium-truncated, and Lennard-Jones-truncated, have been studied each at reduced density 0.95. Two types of calculations were performed. Firstly, starting from a liquid state, each system was quenched rapidly to a reduced temperature of approx.0.1. The nucleation process for these systems was monitored by studying the time dependence of temperature and the pair correlation function, and the resulting crystalline structure analyzed using among other properties the Voronoi polyhedra. Only in the case of rubidium was a b.c.c. structure nucleated. In the other three cases we obtained a f.c.c. ordering. Secondly, we have studied the effect of changing the interaction potential in a system which has already achieved an ordered state under the action of some other potential. After establishing a b.c.c. structure in a rubidium system, the change in the symmetry of the system was studied when the pair potential was modified to one of the other three forms. The results from both types of calculations are consistent: the rubidium potential leads to a b.c.c. structure while the other three potentials give an f.c.c. structure. Metastable disordered structures were not obtained in any of the calculations. However, the time elapse between the moment when the system is quick-quenched and the moment when nucleation occurs appears to depend upon the potential of interaction

  4. Thickness-dependent photovoltaic effects in miscut Nb-doped SrTiO3 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue Zengji; Zhao Kun; Zhao Songqing; Lu Zhiqing; Li Xiaoming; Ni Hao; Wang Aijun

    2010-01-01

    The photovoltaic effects of Nb-doped SrTiO 3 single crystals with different thicknesses were investigated under the illumination of ultraviolet pulsed lasers. The peak photovoltage increased and then decreased quickly with the decrease in crystal thickness, and a maximum photovoltage occurred for the 180 μm-thick crystal. The photovoltaic response time decreased monotonically with decreasing crystal thickness. The present results suggested the promising potential of reducing crystal thickness in high sensitivity detectors with fast response.

  5. Effects of growth conditions on thermal profiles during Czochralski silicon crystal growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Kwang Su; Stefani, Jerry A.; Dettling, Theodore B.; Tien, John K.; Wallace, John P.

    1991-01-01

    An eddy current testing method was used to continuously monitor crystal growth process and investigate the effects of growth conditions on thermal profiles during Czochralski silicon crystal growth. The experimental concept was to monitor the intrinsic electrical conductivities of the growing crystal and deduce temperature values from them. In terms of the experiments, the effects of changes in growth parameters, which include the crystal and crucible rotation rates, crucible position, and pull rate, and hot-zone geometries were investigated. The results show that the crystal thermal profile could shift significantly as a function of crystal length if the closed-loop control fails to maintain a constant thermal condition. As a direct evidence to the effects of the melt flow on heat transfer processes, a thermal gradient minimum was observed when the crystal/crucible rotation combination was 20/-10 rpm cw. The thermal gradients in the crystal near the growth interface were reduced most by decreasing the pull rate or by reducing the radiant heat loss to the environment; a nearly constant axial thermal gradient was achieved when either the pull rate was decreased by half, the height of the exposed crucible wall was doubled, or a radiation shield was placed around the crystal. Under these conditions, the average axial thermal gradient along the surface of the crystal was about 4-5°C/mm. When compared to theoretical results found in literature, the axial profiles correlated well with the results of the models which included radiant interactions. However, the radial gradients estimated from three-frequency data were much higher than what were predicted by known theoretical models. This discrepancy seems to indicate that optical phenomenon within the crystal is significant and should be included in theoretical modeling.

  6. In-Line Measurement of Water Content in Ethanol Using a PVA-Coated Quartz Crystal Microbalance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoung Chul Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An in-line device for measuring the water content in ethanol was developed using a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA-coated quartz crystal microbalance. Bio-ethanol is widely used as the replacement of gasoline, and its water content is a key component of its specifications. When the PVA-coated quartz crystal microbalance is contacted with ethanol containing a small amount of water, the water is absorbed into the PVA increasing the load on the microbalance surface to cause a frequency drop. The determination performance of the PVA-coated microbalance is examined by measuring the frequency decreases in ethanol containing 2% to 10% water while the ethanol flows through the measurement device. The measurements indicates that the higher water content is the more the frequency reduction is, though some deviation in the measurements is observed. This indicates that the frequency measurement of an unknown concentration of water in ethanol can be used to determine the water content in ethanol. The PVA coating is examined by microscopy and FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

  7. Ikaite crystals in melting sea ice – implications for pCO2 and pH levels in Arctic surface waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rysgaard, Søren; Glud, R.N.; Lennert, K.

    2012-01-01

    A major issue of Arctic marine science is to understand whether the Arctic Ocean is, or will be, a source or sink for air-sea CO 2 exchange. This has been complicated by the recent discoveries of ikaite (a polymorph of CaCO 3•6H 2O) in Arctic and Antarctic sea ice, which indicate that multiple...... chemical transformations occur in sea ice with a possible effect on CO 2 and pH conditions in surface waters. Here, we report on biogeochemical conditions, microscopic examinations and x-ray diffraction analysis of single crystals from a melting 1.7 km 2 (0.5-1 m thick) drifting ice floe in the Fram Strait...... during summer. Our findings show that ikaite crystals are present throughout the sea ice but with larger crystals appearing in the upper ice layers. Ikaite crystals placed at elevated temperatures disintegrated into smaller crystallites and dissolved. During our field campaign in late June, melt reduced...

  8. Interstitial diffusion in crystal and the Moessbauer effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzyublik, A.Ya.

    1976-01-01

    The role of different vibrational states of a crystal is taken into account in the model of interstitial uncorrelated jumps. The relation of the diffusion coefficient for an interstitial with probabilities of jumps is found. The cross section for resonant absorption of γ-quanta by a nucleus of a diffusing atom in a crystal is calculated. The existence of vibrational levels is shown to lead to less broadening and intensity of the Moessbauer line than those predicted by the simple model of jumps. The absorption line shape for atom jumping through octahedral sites in bcc lattice is investigated [ru

  9. Scratching experiments on quartz crystals: Orientation effects in chipping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellier, C. R.; Benmessaouda, D.

    1994-06-01

    The deformation and microfracture properties of quartz crystals were studied by scratching experiments. The critical load at which microfractures are initiated was found to be orientation dependent, whereas the average width of ductile grooves and chips remained relatively insensitive to crystal orientation. In contrast, a marked anisotropy in the shape of chips was observed. This anisotropy has been interpreted in terms of microfractures propagating preferentially along slip planes. Simple geometrical conditions for the SEM (scanning electron microscopy) observation of active slip planes are proposed.

  10. Effect of the Ultrasonic Substrate Vibration on Nucleation and Crystallization of PbI2 Crystals and Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Zabihi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Preparation of defect-free and well-controlled solution-processed crystalline thin films is highly desirable for emerging technologies, such as perovskite solar cells. In this work, using PbI2 as a model solution with a vast variety of applications, we demonstrate that the excitation of a liquid thin film by imposed ultrasonic vibration on the film substrate significantly affects the nucleation and crystallization kinetics of PbI2 and the morphology of the resulting solid thin film. It is found that by applying ultrasonic vibration to PbI2 solution spun onto an ITO substrate with a moderate power and excitation duration (5 W and 1 min for the 40 kHz transducer used in this study, the nucleation rate increases and the crystals transform from 2D or planar to epitaxial 3D columnar structures, resulting in the suppression of crystallization dewetting. The effects of various induced physical phenomena as a result of the excitation by ultrasonic vibration are discussed, including microstreaming and micromixing, increased heat transfer and local temperature, a change in the thermodynamic state of the solution, and a decrease in the supersaturation point. It is shown that the ultrasonic-assisted solution deposition of the PbI2 thin films is controllable and reproducible, a process which is low-cost and in line with the large-scale fabrication of such solution-processed thin films.

  11. Up-conversion nanoparticles sensitized inverse opal photonic crystals enable efficient water purification under NIR irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Lili; Ma, Xiumei; Ren, Junfeng; Sun, Qinxing; Shi, Yongsheng; Li, Lin; Shi, Jinsheng

    2018-03-01

    A novel porous monolayer inverse opal (IO) structure was prepared by a simple sol-gel method combined with a self-assembly PS photonic crystal (PC) as template. By prolonging deposition time of PS spheres, three-dimensional multilayer TiO2 IOPC was also fabricated. Up-conversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) were selected to sensitize TiO2 IOPCs. Photocatalytic activity of as-prepared materials was investigated by disinfection of bacteria and organic pollutant degradation. Under NIR light irradiation, a large improvement in bacterial inactivation and photodegradation efficiency could be seen for NYF/TiO2 composites in comparison with other samples. As for monolayer NYF/TiO2, water disinfection of 100% inactivation of bacteria is realized within 11 h and kinetic constant of RhB degradation is 0.133 h-1, which is about 10 times higher than that of pure TiO2 IOPCs. Reasons of enhanced photocatalytic activity were systematically investigated and a possible mechanism for NIR-driven photocatalysis was reasonably proposed.

  12. Effect of domains configuration on crystal structure in ferroelectric ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-09-09

    Sep 9, 2017 ... It is well known that domains and crystal structure control the physical properties of ferroelectrics. ... The as-prepared ceramics were crushed to fine pow- ders. ..... [1] Gao J, Xue D, Wang Y, Wang D, Zhang L, Wu H et al 2011.

  13. On size-effects in single crystal wedge indentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Kysar, Jeffrey W.

    2012-01-01

    constitutive length parameters to model sizeeffects. The problem is studied numerically using a strain gradient crystal visco-plasticity theory formulated along the lines proposed by Fleck andWillis (2009). It is shown how the force-indentation relation is affected due to size-dependence in the material. Size...

  14. Effect of asphaltenes on crude oil wax crystallization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kriz, Pavel; Andersen, Simon Ivar

    2005-01-01

    The paper summarizes the experimental work done on asphaltene influenced wax crystallization. Three different asphaltenes (from stable oil, instable oil, and deposit) were mixed at several concentrations or dispersions into the waxy crude oil. These blends were evaluated by viscometry and yield s...

  15. Shear effects on crystallization behaviors and structure transitions of isotactic poly-1-butene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jingqing; Guan, Peipei; Zhang, Yao

    2014-01-01

    Different melt pre-shear conditions were applied to isotactic poly-1-butene (iP-1-B) and the effect on the crystallization behaviors and the crystalline structure transitions of iP-1-B were investigated. The polarized optical microscope observations during isothermal crystallization process...... revealed that the applied melt pre-shear within the experimental range could enhance the nucleation of crystal II and accelerate the diameter growth of the formed spherulites. If the applied melt pre-shear rate was large enough, Shish-Kebabs structure could be formed. After the isothermal crystallization...... was formed in the melt pre-sheared iP-1-B samples. Further investigations were applied with synchrotron radiation instruments. Wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) after the crystal transition showed that the applied melt pre-shear could result in orientated fine...

  16. Effect of amaranth on dielectric, thermal and optical properties of KDP single crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandran, Senthilkumar; Paulraj, Rajesh, E-mail: rajeshp@ssn.edu.in; Ramasamy, P.

    2017-01-15

    Bulk single crystals of pure and amaranth doped KDP were grown using point seed technique. Effect of amaranth doping on KDP crystals was analyzed using powder XRD, thermal analysis (TG/DTA), dielectric, photoconductivity and etching studies. The phase purity and crystallinity of pure and dye doped crystals were confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction analysis. It is observed from TG-DTA analysis that the decomposition point decreased while doping with amaranth. Dielectric constant and loss increases with increasing temperatures. The photoconductivity decreases with the increase of amaranth concentration. - Highlights: • Pure and amaranth doped KDP crystals grown from point seed technique. • The addition of amaranth changes the decomposition points of dye doped KDP crystals. • Dielectric constant is increased. • It shows positive photoconductivity.

  17. Effect of calcium deficiency on the mechanical properties of hydroxyapatite crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viswanath, B.; Shastry, V.V.; Ramamurty, U.; Ravishankar, N.

    2010-01-01

    The deterioration of the mechanical properties of bone with age is related to several factors including the structure, organization and chemistry of the constituent phases; however, the relative contribution of each of these factors is not well understood. In this study, we have investigated the effect of chemistry (calcium deficiency) on the mechanical properties of single crystals of hydroxyapatite. Single crystals of stoichiometric crystals grown by the flux method and calcium-deficient platelet crystals grown using wet chemical methods were used as model systems. Using nanoindentation, we show that calcium deficiency leads to an 80% reduction in the hardness and elastic modulus and at least a 75% reduction in toughness in plate-shaped hydroxyapatite crystals. Measurement of local mechanical properties using nanoindentation and nanoscale chemistry through elemental mapping in a transmission electron microscope points to a direct correlation between the observed spatial variation in composition and the large scatter in the measured hardness and modulus values.

  18. Two-Stage Crystallizer Design for High Loading of Poorly Water-Soluble Pharmaceuticals in Porous Silica Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leia Dwyer

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available While porous silica supports have been previously studied as carriers for nanocrystalline forms of poorly water-soluble active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs, increasing the loading of API in these matrices is of great importance if these carriers are to be used in drug formulations. A dual-stage mixed-suspension, mixed-product removal (MSMPR crystallizer was designed in which the poorly soluble API fenofibrate was loaded into the porous matrices of pore sizes 35 nm–300 nm in the first stage, and then fed to a second stage in which the crystals were further grown in the pores. This resulted in high loadings of over 50 wt % while still producing nanocrystals confined to the pores without the formation of bulk-sized crystals on the surface of the porous silica. The principle was extended to another highly insoluble API, griseofulvin, to improve its loading in porous silica in a benchtop procedure. This work demonstrates a multi-step crystallization principle API in porous silica matrices with loadings high enough to produce final dosage forms of these poorly water-soluble APIs.

  19. Factors to Enable Crystallization of Environmentally Stable Bioscorodite from Dilute As(III-Contaminated Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahito Tanaka

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Applicability of the bioscorodite method (use of the thermo-acidophilic Fe(II-oxidizing archaeon Acidianus brierleyi for arsenic (As oxidation and immobilization at 70 °C was tested for synthetic copper refinery wastewaters of a wide range of dilute initial As(III concentrations ([As(III]ini = 3.3–20 mM with varying initial [Fe(II]/[As(III] molar ratios ([Fe(II]ini/[As(III]ini = 0.8–6.0. Crystallization of scorodite (FeAsO4·2H2O tends to become increasingly challenging at more dilute As(III solutions. Optimization of conditions such as initial pH, seed feeding and initial [Fe(II]/[As(III] molar ratio was found critical in improving final As removal and product stability: Whilst setting the initial pH at 1.2 resulted in an immediate single-stage precipitation of crystalline bioscorodite, the initial pH 1.5 led to a two-stage As precipitation (generation of brown amorphous precursors followed by whitish crystalline bioscorodite particles with a greater final As removal. The formation process of bioscorodite precipitates differed significantly depending on the type of seed crystals fed (bio- versus chemical- scorodite seeds. Feeding the former was found effective not only in accelerating the reaction, but also in forming more recalcitrant bioscorodite products (0.59 mg/L; Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP test. Under such favorable conditions, 94–99% of As was successfully removed as crystalline bioscorodite at all dilute As(III concentrations tested by setting [Fe(II]ini/[As(III]ini at 1.4–2.0. Providing an excess Fe(II (closer to [Fe(II]ini/[As(III]ini = 2.0 was found beneficial to improve the final As removal (up to 98–99% especially from more dilute As(III solutions.

  20. Effect of antimony incorporation on structural properties of CuInS{sub 2} crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Rabeh, M., E-mail: mohamedbenrabeh@yahoo.f [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique et Materiaux Semi-Conducteurs - ENIT BP 37, Le belvedere, 1002 Tunis (Tunisia); Chaglabou, N., E-mail: nadia_chaglabou@yahoo.f [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique et Materiaux Semi-Conducteurs - ENIT BP 37, Le belvedere, 1002 Tunis (Tunisia); Kanzari, M., E-mail: Mounir.Kanzari@ipeit.rnu.t [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique et Materiaux Semi-Conducteurs - ENIT BP 37, Le belvedere, 1002 Tunis (Tunisia)

    2010-02-15

    CuInS{sub 2} (CIS) single crystals doped with 1, 2, 3 and 4 atomic percent (at.%) of antimony (Sb) were grown by the horizontal Bridgman method. The effect of Sb doping on the structural properties of CIS crystal was studied by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and PL measurements. X-ray diffraction data suggests that the doping of Sb in the CIS single crystals does not affect the tetragonal (chalcopyrite) crystal structure and exhibited a (1 1 2) preferred orientation. In addition, with increasing Sb concentration, the X-ray diffraction analysis show that Sb doped CIS crystals are more crystallized and the diffraction peaks of the CuInS{sub 2} phase were more pronounced in particular the (1 1 2) plane. EDAX study revealed that Sb atoms can occupy the indium site and/or occupying the sulfur site to make an acceptor. PL spectra of undoped and Sb doped CIS crystals show two emission peaks at 1.52 and 1.62 eV, respectively which decreased with increasing atomic percent antimony. Sb doped CIS crystals show p-type conductivity.

  1. Effect of antimony incorporation on structural properties of CuInS2 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Rabeh, M.; Chaglabou, N.; Kanzari, M.

    2010-01-01

    CuInS 2 (CIS) single crystals doped with 1, 2, 3 and 4 atomic percent (at.%) of antimony (Sb) were grown by the horizontal Bridgman method. The effect of Sb doping on the structural properties of CIS crystal was studied by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and PL measurements. X-ray diffraction data suggests that the doping of Sb in the CIS single crystals does not affect the tetragonal (chalcopyrite) crystal structure and exhibited a (1 1 2) preferred orientation. In addition, with increasing Sb concentration, the X-ray diffraction analysis show that Sb doped CIS crystals are more crystallized and the diffraction peaks of the CuInS 2 phase were more pronounced in particular the (1 1 2) plane. EDAX study revealed that Sb atoms can occupy the indium site and/or occupying the sulfur site to make an acceptor. PL spectra of undoped and Sb doped CIS crystals show two emission peaks at 1.52 and 1.62 eV, respectively which decreased with increasing atomic percent antimony. Sb doped CIS crystals show p-type conductivity.

  2. Effect of electric and magnetic fields on current-voltage characteristics of a lyotropic liquid crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minasyants, M.Kh.; Badalyan, G. G.; Shahinian, A. A.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of electric and magnetic fields on current-voltage characteristics is studied for the lamellar phase in the lyotropic liquid-crystal sodium pentadecylsulfonate (SPDS)-water and lecithin-water systems. It has been found that the current-voltage characteristics of both systems have hysteresis. In the case of ionogenic SPDS, the hysteresis is formed due to ion current caused by the spatial reorientation of domains consisting of parallel lamellar fragments; in the case of lecithin, whose molecules contain dipoles, the hysteresis is formed due to the spatial reorientation of domains caused by the interaction of the resultant dipole moment of the domains with the electric field. It is shown that the introduction into lamellae of cetylpyridine bromide, which has an intrinsic magnetic moment, changes the resultant magnetic moment of domains and, thus, also the hysteresis loop of the current-voltage characteristic. The systems studied show the 'memory' effect with respect to both the electric and magnetic fields. Field-induced processes of domain reorientation were recorded by the method of small-angle x-ray scattering

  3. Experimental Study of Electronic Quantum Interference, Photonic Crystal Cavity, Photonic Band Edge Effects for Optical Amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-26

    AFRL-RV-PS- AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2016-0003 TR-2016-0003 EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF ELECTRONIC QUANTUM INTERFERENCE , PHOTONIC CRYSTAL CAVITY, PHOTONIC BAND...EDGE EFFECTS FOR OPTICAL AMPLIFICATION Shawn-Yu Lin Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute 110 8th Street Troy, New York 12180 26 Jan 2016 Final Report...2014 – 11 Jan 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Experimental Study of Electronic Quantum Interference , Photonic Crystal Cavity, Photonic Band Edge Effects

  4. Crystal orientation effects on wurtzite quantum well electromechanical fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duggen, Lars; Willatzen, Morten

    2010-01-01

    in the literature for semiconductors, is inaccurate for ZnO/MgZnO heterostructures where shear-strain components play an important role. An interesting observation is that a growth direction apart from [1̅ 21̅ 0] exists for which the electric field in the quantum well region becomes zero. This is important for, e......A one-dimensional continuum model for calculating strain and electric field in wurtzite semiconductor heterostructures with arbitrary crystal orientation is presented and applied to GaN/AlGaN and ZnO/MgZnO heterostructure combinations. The model is self-consistent involving feedback couplings...... of spontaneous polarization, strain, and electric field. Significant differences between fully coupled and semicoupled models are found for the longitudinal and shear-strain components as a function of the crystal-growth direction. In particular, we find that the semicoupled model, typically used...

  5. Effect of polar surfaces on organic molecular crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharia, Onise; Tsyshevskiy, Roman; Kuklja, Maija; University of Maryland College Park Team

    Polar oxide materials reveal intriguing opportunities in the field of electronics, superconductivity and nanotechnology. While behavior of polar surfaces has been widely studied on oxide materials and oxide-oxide interfaces, manifestations and properties of polar surfaces in molecular crystals are still poorly understood. Here we discover that the polar catastrophe phenomenon, known on oxides, also takes place in molecular materials as illustrated with an example of cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine (HMX) crystals. We show that the surface charge separation is a feasible compensation mechanism to counterbalance the macroscopic dipole moment and remove the electrostatic instability. We discuss the role of surface charge on degradation of polar surfaces, electrical conductivity, optical band-gap closure and surface metallization. Research is supported by the US ONR (Grants N00014-16-1-2069 and N00014-16-1-2346) and NSF. We used NERSC, XSEDE and MARCC computational resources.

  6. Ball-milling-induced crystallization and ball-milling effect on thermal crystallization kinetics in an amorphous FeMoSiB alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, F.Q.; Lu, K.

    1997-01-01

    Microstructure evolution in a melt-spun amorphous Fe 77.2 Mo 0.8 Si 9 B 13 alloy subjected to high-energy ball milling was investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), a transmission electron microscope (TEM), and a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). It was found that during ball milling, crystallization occurs in the amorphous ribbon sample with precipitation of an α-Fe solid solution, and the amorphous sample crystallizes completely into a single α-Fe nanostructure (rather than α-Fe and borides as in the usual thermal crystallization products) when the milling time exceeds 135 hours. The volume fraction of material crystallized was found to be approximately proportional to the milling time. The fully crystallized sample with a single α-Fe nanophase exhibits an intrinsic thermal stability against phase separation upon annealing at high temperatures. The ball-milling effect on the subsequent thermal crystallization of the amorphous phase in an as-milled sample was studied by comparison of the crystallization products and kinetic parameters between the as-quenched amorphous sample and the as-milled sample was studied by comparison of the crystallization products and kinetic parameters between the as-quenched amorphous sample and the as-milled partially crystallized samples. The crystallization temperatures and activation energies for the crystallization processes of the residual amorphous phase were considerably decreased due to ball milling, indicating that ball milling has a significant effect on the depression of thermal stability of the residual amorphous phase

  7. Liquid crystal blue phases: stability, field effects and alignment

    OpenAIRE

    Gleeson, HF; Miller, RJ; Tian, L; Görtz, V; Goodby, JW

    2015-01-01

    The blue phases are fascinating structures in liquid crystals, fluids that exhibit cubic structures that have true crystalline order. The blue phases were discovered in the 1970s and were the subject of extensive research in the 1980s, when a deep understanding of many of their properties was established. The discovery that the blue phases could be stabilised to exist over wide temperature ranges meant that they became more than scientific curiosities and led to a recent resurgence in researc...

  8. Radiation effects and defects in lithium borate crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogorodnikov, Igor N.; Poryvay, Nikita E.; Pustovarov, Vladimir A.

    2010-11-01

    The paper presents the results of a study of the formation and decay of lattice defects in wide band-gap optical crystals of LiB3O5 (LBO), Li2B4O7 (LTB) and Li6Gd(BO3)3 (LGBO) with a sublattice of mobile lithium cations. By means of thermoluminescence techniques, and luminescent and absorption optical spectroscopy with a nanosecond time resolution under excitation with an electron beam, it was revealed that the optical absorption in these crystals in the visible and ultraviolet spectral ranges is produced by optical hole-transitions from the local defect level to the valence band states. The valence band density of the states determines mainly the optical absorption spectral profile, and the relaxation kinetics is rated by the interdefect non-radiative tunnel recombination between the trapped-hole center and the Li0 trapped-electron centers. At 290 K, the Li0 centers are subject to thermally stimulated migration. Based on experimental results, the overall picture of thermally stimulated recombination processes with the participation of shallow traps was established for these crystals.

  9. Radiation effects and defects in lithium borate crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogorodnikov, Igor N; Poryvay, Nikita E; Pustovarov, Vladimir A, E-mail: igor.ogorodnikov@bk.ru [Ural Federal University, Mira Street, 19, Ekaterinburg 620002 (Russian Federation)

    2010-11-15

    The paper presents the results of a study of the formation and decay of lattice defects in wide band-gap optical crystals of LiB{sub 3}O{sub 5} (LBO), Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7} (LTB) and Li{sub 6}Gd(BO{sub 3}){sub 3} (LGBO) with a sublattice of mobile lithium cations. By means of thermoluminescence techniques, and luminescent and absorption optical spectroscopy with a nanosecond time resolution under excitation with an electron beam, it was revealed that the optical absorption in these crystals in the visible and ultraviolet spectral ranges is produced by optical hole-transitions from the local defect level to the valence band states. The valence band density of the states determines mainly the optical absorption spectral profile, and the relaxation kinetics is rated by the interdefect non-radiative tunnel recombination between the trapped-hole center and the Li{sup 0} trapped-electron centers. At 290 K, the Li{sup 0} centers are subject to thermally stimulated migration. Based on experimental results, the overall picture of thermally stimulated recombination processes with the participation of shallow traps was established for these crystals.

  10. Two-Stage Crystallizer Design for High Loading of Poorly Water-Soluble Pharmaceuticals in Porous Silica Matrices

    OpenAIRE

    Leia Dwyer; Samir Kulkarni; Luzdary Ruelas; Allan Myerson

    2017-01-01

    While porous silica supports have been previously studied as carriers for nanocrystalline forms of poorly water-soluble active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), increasing the loading of API in these matrices is of great importance if these carriers are to be used in drug formulations. A dual-stage mixed-suspension, mixed-product removal (MSMPR) crystallizer was designed in which the poorly soluble API fenofibrate was loaded into the porous matrices of pore sizes 35 nm-300 nm in the first st...

  11. Effect of amino acids and amino acid derivatives on crystallization of hemoglobin and ribonuclease A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Len; Kobayashi, Toyoaki; Shiraki, Kentaro; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    The effect of the addition of amino acids and amino acid derivatives on the crystallization of hemoglobin and ribonuclease A has been evaluated. The results showed that certain types of additives expand the concentration conditions in which crystals are formed. Determination of the appropriate conditions for protein crystallization remains a highly empirical process. Preventing protein aggregation is necessary for the formation of single crystals under aggregation-prone solution conditions. Because many amino acids and amino acid derivatives offer a unique combination of solubility and stabilizing properties, they open new avenues into the field of protein aggregation research. The use of amino acids and amino acid derivatives can potentially influence processes such as heat treatment and refolding reactions. The effect of the addition of several amino acids, such as lysine, and several amino acid derivatives, such as glycine ethyl ester and glycine amide, on the crystallization of equine hemoglobin and bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A has been examined. The addition of these amino acids and amino acid derivatives expanded the range of precipitant concentration in which crystals formed without aggregation. The addition of such additives appears to promote the crystallization of proteins

  12. Effect of amino acids and amino acid derivatives on crystallization of hemoglobin and ribonuclease A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Len, E-mail: len@ksc.kwansei.ac.jp; Kobayashi, Toyoaki [School of Science and Technology, Kwansei Gakuin University, 2-1 Gakuen, Sanda, Hyogo 669-1337 (Japan); Shiraki, Kentaro [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Hiroshi [School of Science and Technology, Kwansei Gakuin University, 2-1 Gakuen, Sanda, Hyogo 669-1337 (Japan)

    2008-05-01

    The effect of the addition of amino acids and amino acid derivatives on the crystallization of hemoglobin and ribonuclease A has been evaluated. The results showed that certain types of additives expand the concentration conditions in which crystals are formed. Determination of the appropriate conditions for protein crystallization remains a highly empirical process. Preventing protein aggregation is necessary for the formation of single crystals under aggregation-prone solution conditions. Because many amino acids and amino acid derivatives offer a unique combination of solubility and stabilizing properties, they open new avenues into the field of protein aggregation research. The use of amino acids and amino acid derivatives can potentially influence processes such as heat treatment and refolding reactions. The effect of the addition of several amino acids, such as lysine, and several amino acid derivatives, such as glycine ethyl ester and glycine amide, on the crystallization of equine hemoglobin and bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A has been examined. The addition of these amino acids and amino acid derivatives expanded the range of precipitant concentration in which crystals formed without aggregation. The addition of such additives appears to promote the crystallization of proteins.

  13. Effects of Electrolyte on Floating Water Bridge

    OpenAIRE

    Hideo Nishiumi; Fumitaka Honda

    2009-01-01

    Fuchs found phenomena that when high voltage is applied to deionized water filled in two contacted beakers, a floating water bridge forms spontaneously. In this paper, we examined flow direction of water bridge and what effects the addition of electrolytes such as NaCl, NaOH, and N H 4 C l to the floating water bridge would give. We found that ionization degree reduced the length of water bridge though insoluble electrolyte A l 2 O 3 had no effect on the length of water bridge.

  14. Ikaite crystals in melting sea ice - implications for pCO2 and pH levels in Arctic surface waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rysgaard, S.; Glud, R. N.; Lennert, K.; Cooper, M.; Halden, N.; Leakey, R. J. G.; Hawthorne, F. C.; Barber, D.

    2012-08-01

    A major issue of Arctic marine science is to understand whether the Arctic Ocean is, or will be, a source or sink for air-sea CO2 exchange. This has been complicated by the recent discoveries of ikaite (a polymorph of CaCO3·6H2O) in Arctic and Antarctic sea ice, which indicate that multiple chemical transformations occur in sea ice with a possible effect on CO2 and pH conditions in surface waters. Here, we report on biogeochemical conditions, microscopic examinations and x-ray diffraction analysis of single crystals from a melting 1.7 km2 (0.5-1 m thick) drifting ice floe in the Fram Strait during summer. Our findings show that ikaite crystals are present throughout the sea ice but with larger crystals appearing in the upper ice layers. Ikaite crystals placed at elevated temperatures disintegrated into smaller crystallites and dissolved. During our field campaign in late June, melt reduced the ice floe thickness by 0.2 m per week and resulted in an estimated 3.8 ppm decrease of pCO2 in the ocean surface mixed layer. This corresponds to an air-sea CO2 uptake of 10.6 mmol m-2 sea ice d-1 or to 3.3 ton km-2 ice floe week-1. This is markedly higher than the estimated primary production within the ice floe of 0.3-1.3 mmol m-2 sea ice d-1. Finally, the presence of ikaite in sea ice and the dissolution of the mineral during melting of the sea ice and mixing of the melt water into the surface oceanic mixed layer accounted for half of the estimated pCO2 uptake.

  15. Ikaite crystals in melting sea ice – implications for pCO2 and pH levels in Arctic surface waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. G. Leakey

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A major issue of Arctic marine science is to understand whether the Arctic Ocean is, or will be, a source or sink for air–sea CO2 exchange. This has been complicated by the recent discoveries of ikaite (a polymorph of CaCO3·6H2O in Arctic and Antarctic sea ice, which indicate that multiple chemical transformations occur in sea ice with a possible effect on CO2 and pH conditions in surface waters. Here, we report on biogeochemical conditions, microscopic examinations and x-ray diffraction analysis of single crystals from a melting 1.7 km2 (0.5–1 m thick drifting ice floe in the Fram Strait during summer. Our findings show that ikaite crystals are present throughout the sea ice but with larger crystals appearing in the upper ice layers. Ikaite crystals placed at elevated temperatures disintegrated into smaller crystallites and dissolved. During our field campaign in late June, melt reduced the ice floe thickness by 0.2 m per week and resulted in an estimated 3.8 ppm decrease of pCO2 in the ocean surface mixed layer. This corresponds to an air–sea CO2 uptake of 10.6 mmol m−2 sea ice d−1 or to 3.3 ton km−2 ice floe week−1. This is markedly higher than the estimated primary production within the ice floe of 0.3–1.3 mmol m−2 sea ice d−1. Finally, the presence of ikaite in sea ice and the dissolution of the mineral during melting of the sea ice and mixing of the melt water into the surface oceanic mixed layer accounted for half of the estimated pCO2 uptake.

  16. Effect of crystal habits on the surface energy and cohesion of crystalline powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Umang V; Olusanmi, Dolapo; Narang, Ajit S; Hussain, Munir A; Gamble, John F; Tobyn, Michael J; Heng, Jerry Y Y

    2014-09-10

    The role of surface properties, influenced by particle processing, in particle-particle interactions (powder cohesion) is investigated in this study. Wetting behaviour of mefenamic acid was found to be anisotropic by sessile drop contact angle measurements on macroscopic (>1cm) single crystals, with variations in contact angle of water from 56.3° to 92.0°. This is attributed to variations in surface chemical functionality at specific facets, and confirmed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Using a finite dilution inverse gas chromatography (FD-IGC) approach, the surface energy heterogeneity of powders was determined. The surface energy profile of different mefenamic acid crystal habits was directly related to the relative exposure of different crystal facets. Cohesion, determined by a uniaxial compression test, was also found to relate to surface energy of the powders. By employing a surface modification (silanisation) approach, the contribution from crystal shape from surface area and surface energy was decoupled. By "normalising" contribution from surface energy and surface area, needle shaped crystals were found to be ∼2.5× more cohesive compared to elongated plates or hexagonal cuboid shapes crystals. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. The effect of magnetic field on the shape of etch pits of paracetamol crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivashchenko, V.E. [Kemerovo State University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Research and Educational Center, Novosibirsk State University (Russian Federation); Boldyrev, V.V.; Shakhtshneider, T.P. [Institute of Solid State Chemistry and Mechanochemistry, RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Zakharov, Yu.A.; Krasheninin, V.I. [Kemerovo State University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Ermakov, A.E. [Institute of Physics of Metals, Ural Branch of RAS, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2002-04-01

    In the present study we investigate the effect of magnetic field on the shape of etch pits of the crystals of p-hydroxyacetanilide (paracetamol), which is widely used in pharmacy as antipyretic, antiphlogistic medicine. It was discovered that the magnetic field (H=0.5 T, {tau}=15 min) changes the morphology of etch pits and shifts dislocations in paracetamol crystal. Activation energy of the changes induced by the action of the magnetic field was determined to be 63 kJ/mol, which is comparable with the energy of hydrogen bonds in crystal lattice. (orig.)

  18. Glass transition, crystallization kinetics and pressure effect on crystallization of ZrNbCuNiBe bulk metallic glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xing, P.F.; Zhuang, Yanxin; Wang, W.H.

    2002-01-01

    The glass transition behavior and crystallization kinetics of Zr48Nb8Cu14Ni12Be18 bulk metallic glass have been investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and x-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The activation energies of both glass transition and crystallization events have been obtained using...... the Kissinger method. Results indicate that this glass crystallizes by a three-stage reaction: (1) phase separation and primary crystallization of glass, (2) formation of intermetallic compounds, and (3) decomposition of intermetallic compounds and crystallization of residual amorphous phase. The pressure...

  19. Effect of the Cu and Ni content on the crystallization temperature and crystallization mechanism of La–Al–Cu(Ni metallic glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peiyou Li

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the Cu and Ni content on the crystallization mechanism and the crystallization temperatures of La–Al–Cu(Ni metallic glasses (MGs was studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The experimental results have shown that the DSC curves obtained for the La–Al–Cu and La–Al–Ni MGs exhibit two and three crystallization temperatures, respectively. The crystallization temperatures of the La–Al–Cu and La–Al–Ni MGs result from the merging and splitting of thermal events related to the corresponding eutectic atomic pairs in the La72Cu28 and La81.6Al18.4 MGs, and La72Ni28 and La81.6Al18.4 MGs, respectively. In addition, Al- and Ni-containing clusters with weak or strong atomic interaction in the Al–Ni atomic pairs strongly affect the crystallization mechanism and thus the crystallization temperature of La–Al–Ni MGs. This study provides a novel understanding of the relation between the crystallization temperature and the underlying crystallization mechanisms in La–Al–Cu(Ni MGs.

  20. Evaluation of secondary crystallization effect in poly hydroxybutyrate and silanized coir dust composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mello, Carolina C. de; Costa, Marysilvia F. da; Thire, Rossana M.S.M.

    2011-01-01

    Polyhydroxybutyrate is a natural and biodegradable polyester, susceptible to secondary crystallization when it is stored at environment temperature. Coir dust is an agroindustrial waste which has good prospects for use as filler in composites. In this context, PHB-coir dust composites were produced. The compatibilization was made by coir dust silanization. The secondary crystallization evolution on materials was evaluated by x-ray diffraction. Its effect was verified by tension tests which presented that elastic modulus increases when crystallinity increases. (author)

  1. Longitudinal and transverse pyroelectric effects in a chiral ferroelectric liquid crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yablonskii, S. V., E-mail: yablonskii2005@yandex.ru; Bondarchuk, V. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation); Soto-Bustamante, E. A.; Romero-Hasler, P. N. [Universidad de Chile (Chile); Ozaki, M. [Osaka University, Department of Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering (Japan); Yoshino, K. [Shimane Institute for Industrial Technology (Japan)

    2015-04-15

    In this study, we compare the results of experimental investigations of longitudinal and transverse pyroelectric effects in a chiral ferroelectric crystal. In a transverse geometry, we studied freely suspended liquid-crystal films. In both geometries, samples exhibited bistability, demonstrating stable pyroelectric signals of different polarities at zero voltage. It is shown that a bistable cell based on a freely suspended film requires 40 times less energy expenditures as compared to the conventional sandwich-type cell.

  2. Pyroelectric effect in tryglicyne sulphate single crystals - Differential measurement method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trybus, M.

    2018-06-01

    A simple mathematical model of the pyroelectric phenomenon was used to explain the electric response of the TGS (triglycine sulphate) samples in the linear heating process in ferroelectric and paraelectric phases. Experimental verification of mathematical model was realized. TGS single crystals were grown and four electrode samples were fabricated. Differential measurements of the pyroelectric response of two different regions of the samples were performed and the results were compared with data obtained from the model. Experimental results are in good agreement with model calculations.

  3. Effect of indium and antimony doping in SnS single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaki, Sunil H., E-mail: sunilchaki@yahoo.co.in; Chaudhary, Mahesh D.; Deshpande, M.P.

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Single crystals growth of pure SnS, indium doped SnS and antimony doped SnS by direct vapour transport (DVT) technique. • Doping of In and Sb occurred in SnS single crystals by cation replacement. • The replacement mechanism ascertained by EDAX, XRD and substantiated by Raman spectra analysis. • Dopants concentration affects the optical energy bandgap. • Doping influences electrical transport properties. - Abstract: Single crystals of pure SnS, indium (In) doped SnS and antimony (Sb) doped SnS were grown by direct vapour transport (DVT) technique. Two doping concentrations of 5% and 15% each were employed for both In and Sb dopants. Thus in total five samples were studied viz., pure SnS (S1), 5% In doped SnS (S2), 15% In doped SnS (S3), 5% Sb doped SnS (S4) and 15% Sb doped SnS (S5). The grown single crystal samples were characterized by evaluating their surface microstructure, stoichiometric composition, crystal structure, Raman spectroscopy, optical and electrical transport properties using appropriate techniques. The d.c. electrical resistivity and thermoelectric power variations with temperature showed semiconducting and p-type nature of the as-grown single crystal samples. The room temperature Hall Effect measurements further substantiated the semiconducting and p-type nature of the as-grown single crystal samples. The obtained results are deliberated in detail.

  4. The effect of UV exposure and heat treatment on crystallization behavior of photosensitive glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kıbrıslı, Orhan; Ersundu, Ali Erçin

    2018-05-01

    In this study, photosensitive glasses in the Na2O-ZnO-Al2O3-SiO2 system with photosensitizing agents (cerium, silver, tin, antimony) and halogenides (NaF and KBr) were synthesized through a conventional melt-quenching technique. The crystallization mechanism was investigated for solely heat-treated and UV-exposed + heat-treated samples using differential thermal analysis (DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques to understand the effect of UV exposure on crystallization behavior of photosensitive glasses. Accordingly, non-isothermal DTA measurements were performed at different heating rates to determine crystallization peak, T p, and onset, T c, temperatures. For solely heat-treated samples, the kinetic parameters such as the Avrami constant, n, and morphology index, m, were calculated as 1 from the Ozawa method indicating surface crystallization and the value of crystallization activation energy was calculated as 944 kJ/mol using modified Kissinger method. On the contrary, bulk crystallization was found to be predominant for UV exposed + heat-treated samples revealing that UV exposure is the primary cause of bulk crystallization in photosensitive glasses.

  5. In-Line Measurement of Water Contents in Ethanol Using a Zeolite-Coated Quartz Crystal Microbalance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoung Chul Kim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A quartz crystal microbalance (QCM was utilized to measure the water content in ethanol. For the improvement of measurement sensitivity, the QCM was modified by applying zeolite particles on the surface with poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA binder. The measurement performance was examined with ethanol of 1% to 5% water content in circulation. The experimental results showed that the frequency drop of the QCM was related with the water content though there was some deviation. The sensitivity of the zeolite-coated QCM was sufficient to be implemented in water content determination, and a higher ratio of silicon to aluminum in the molecular structure of the zeolite gave better performance. The coated surface was inspected by microscopy to show the distribution of zeolite particles and PMMA spread.

  6. Application of hydrothermally crystallized coal ashes for waste water treatment, 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Yasuhiko; Kakimoto, Kohji; Ogawa, Hiroaki; Tomari, Masao; Sakamoto, Eiji; Asahara, Teruzo

    1986-11-01

    To provide an application of combustion coal ash, hydrothermal reaction of fly ash (FA) and clinker ash (CA) is performed and an investigation is carried out to determine the capability of the P type zeolite produced from these ashes to adsorb heavy metal ions. Hydrothermal reaction of FA and CA at 95 - 100 deg C is conducted with various concentrations of sodium hydroxide for various reaction times. Both types of ash are found to easily undergo crystallization to form P type zeolite (PZ) and hydroxy sodalite (HS) when treated with a sodium hydroxide solution (sodium hydroxide/coal ash = 10 v/w) for 18 hours. The FA-PZ and CA-PZ produced by the hydrothermal treatment have degrees of crystallinity in the range of 40 - 60 percent. It is seen that the degree of crystallinity gradually increases with increasing treatment time. The crystallinity of hydrothermally treated coal ash is also shown to have good correlation with the base substitution capacity and the maximum adsorption of ammonium ion. Furthermore, they are shown to effectively adsorb metal ions, in particular those of lead, cadmium and strontium. It is suggested that they may serve as an enrichment agent for low-level radioactive nuclides produced in nuclear power plants. They also seem to have the possibility of serving as a metal elution preventive for industrial wastes of some special types. (Nogami, K.).

  7. Intracrystalline oxygen isotope effects in CuSO4.5H2O and their dependence on crystallization temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinzinger, K.

    1976-01-01

    In copper sulphate pentahydrate the water molecules occupy three different sites, connected with different oxygen isotope ratios. Results of measurements of the change of these isotope ratios with crystallization temperature are reported. The temperature dependence found here provides the basis for the determination of crystallization temperatures of hydrated crystals from such intracrystalline oxygen isotope fractionation. Suppositions necessary for the application of this method are discussed. (author)

  8. Effect of Sn additive on the structure and crystallization kinetics in Ge–Se alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd-Elrahman, M.I., E-mail: mostafaia11@yahoo.com; Hafiz, M.M.; Abdelraheem, A.M.; Abu-Sehly, A.A.

    2016-08-05

    The structure of Ge{sub 20}Se{sub 80−x}Snx glassy alloys and crystallization phases are identified using the X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The glass transition kinetics and the crystallization mechanism of the system are studied using Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) under non-isothermal condition. The results reveal that glass transition temperature (Tg) increases with increasing Sn content which is attributed to the increase in the coordination number. The increase of the glass transition activation energy (Eg) with increasing Sn content is attributed to the decrease in the internal energy of the system as Sn increases. The compositional dependence of both glass forming ability and thermal stability are studied. From the experimental data, the thermal stability parameter (S) is found to be maximum for Ge{sub 20}Se{sub 78}Sn{sub 2} alloy, which indicates that this alloy is thermally more stable in the composition range under investigation. The effect of composition on the crystallization mechanism is discussed using different kinetic models. The crystallization activation energy (Ec) decreases with increasing Sn. This is attributed to the addition of Sn increases the tendency of crystallization. The calculated values of Avrami exponent (n) indicates the crystallization process occurs in one-and two dimensions for Sn is less than or equals 12 at%, respectively. - Highlights: • Glass and crystallization transitions in Ge{sub 20}Se{sub 80−x}Sn{sub x} candidate for devices. • The addition of Sn increases the tendency of Ge-Se alloy to crystallization. • The glass forming ability and thermal stability increase as Sn decreases. • The dimension of the crystals growth is one or two depending on the Sn content.

  9. Effect of Si and Co on the crystallization of Al-Ni-RE amorphous alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, S.H. [Key Lab of Liquid structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, South Campus of Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Bian, X.F. [Key Lab of Liquid structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, South Campus of Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China)], E-mail: xfbian@sdu.edu.cn

    2008-04-03

    Crystallization of Al{sub 83}Ni{sub 10}Si{sub 2}Ce{sub 5}, Al{sub 85}Ni{sub 10}Ce{sub 5}, Al{sub 87}Ni{sub 7}Nd{sub 6} and Al{sub 87}Ni{sub 5}Co{sub 2}Nd{sub 6} amorphous alloys has been studied by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The multiple transition metal (TM) (containing metalloid element) have significant effect on the crystallization behavior. A small addition of Si transforms a eutectic crystallization (Al{sub 85}Ni{sub 10}Ce{sub 5}) to a primary crystallization (Al{sub 83}Ni{sub 10}Si{sub 2}Ce{sub 5}); while a small addition of Co transforms a primary crystallization (Al{sub 87}Ni{sub 7}Nd{sub 6}) to a eutectic crystallization (Al{sub 87}Ni{sub 5}Co{sub 2}Nd{sub 6}). In addition, the activation energies for crystallization (E{sub a}) are obtained to be 191, 290, 221 and 166 kJ/mol for the Al{sub 83}Ni{sub 10}Si{sub 2}Ce{sub 5}, Al{sub 85}Ni{sub 10}Ce{sub 5}, Al{sub 87}Ni{sub 5}Co{sub 2}Nd{sub 6} and Al{sub 87}Ni{sub 7}Nd{sub 6} amorphous alloys based on the Kissinger method, respectively. It is found that the primary crystallization of fcc-Al is characteristic of a lower E{sub a}, as compared with eutectic crystallization.

  10. Recycling acetic acid from polarizing film of waste liquid crystal display panels by sub/supercritical water treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruixue; Chen, Ya; Xu, Zhenming

    2015-05-19

    Waste liquid crystal display (LCD) panels mainly contain inorganic materials (glass substrate) and organic materials (polarizing film and liquid crystal). The organic materials should be removed first since containing polarizing film and liquid crystal is to the disadvantage of the indium recycling process. In the present study, an efficient and environmentally friendly process to obtain acetic acid from waste LCD panels by sub/supercritical water treatments is investigated. Furthermore, a well-founded reaction mechanism is proposed. Several highlights of this study are summarized as follows: (i) 99.77% of organic matters are removed, which means the present technology is quite efficient to recycle the organic matters; (ii) a yield of 78.23% acetic acid, a quite important fossil energy based chemical product is obtained, which can reduce the consumption of fossil energy for producing acetic acid; (iii) supercritical water acts as an ideal solvent, a requisite reactant as well as an efficient acid-base catalyst, and this is quite significant in accordance with the "Principles of Green Chemistry". In a word, the organic matters of waste LCD panels are recycled without environmental pollution. Meanwhile, this study provides new opportunities for alternating fossil-based chemical products for sustainable development, converting "waste" into "fossil-based chemicals".

  11. Effect of algae and water on water color shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shengguang; Xia, Daying; Yang, Xiaolong; Zhao, Jun

    1991-03-01

    This study showed that the combined effect of absorption of planktonic algae and water on water color shift can be simulated approximately by the exponential function: Log( E {100cm/ W }+ E {100cm/ Xch1})=0.002λ-2.5 where E {100/cm W }, E {100cm/ Xchl} are, respectively, extinction coefficients of seawater and chlorophyll—a (concentration is equal to X mg/m3), and λ (nm) is wavelength. This empirical regression equation is very useful for forecasting the relation between water color and biomass in water not affected by terrigenous material. The main factor affecting water color shift in the ocean should be the absorption of blue light by planktonic algae.

  12. The ion capturing effect of 5° SiOx alignment films in liquid crystal devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi; Bos, Philip J.; Bhowmik, Achintya

    2010-09-01

    We show that SiOx, deposited at 5° to the interior surface of a liquid crystal cell allows for a surprisingly substantial reduction in the ion concentration of liquid crystal devices. We have investigated this effect and found that this type of film, due to its surface morphology, captures ions from the liquid crystal material. Ion adsorption on 5° SiOx film obeys the Langmuir isotherm. Experimental results shown allow estimation of the ion capturing capacity of these films to be more than an order of 10 000/μm2. These types of materials are useful for new types of very low power liquid crystal devices such as e-books.

  13. The tensile effect on crack formation in single crystal silicon irradiated by intense pulsed ion beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Guoying; Shen, Jie; Zhang, Jie; Zhong, Haowen; Cui, Xiaojun; Yan, Sha; Zhang, Xiaofu; Yu, Xiao; Le, Xiaoyun

    2017-10-01

    Improving antifatigue performance of silicon substrate is very important for the development of semiconductor industry. The cracking behavior of silicon under intense pulsed ion beam irradiation was studied by numerical simulation in order to understand the mechanism of induced surface peeling observed by experimental means. Using molecular dynamics simulation based on Stillinger Weber potential, tensile effect on crack growth and propagation in single crystal silicon was investigated. Simulation results reveal that stress-strain curves of single crystal silicon at a constant strain rate can be divided into three stages, which are not similar to metal stress-strain curves; different tensile load velocities induce difference of single silicon crack formation speed; the layered stress results in crack formation in single crystal silicon. It is concluded that the crack growth and propagation is more sensitive to strain rate, tensile load velocity, stress distribution in single crystal silicon.

  14. The effect of linear imperfection in [001] direction on the thermal properties of silver crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Davoodi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available  The aim of this investigation was to calculate the thermal properties of silver crystal in the presence of linear imperfection. The simulations were performed by molecular dynamics simulation technique in NPT as well as NVT ensemble based on quantum Sutton-Chen many body potential. The thermal properties including cohesive energy, melting temperature, isobaric heat capacity and thermal expansion of imperfect silver crystal were calculated and compared to those of the perfect crystal. Moreover, the quantities such as radial distribution function, order parameter and lindemann index were calculated in order to obtain information on crystal structure and disorder in atoms. All calculations were done both with liner imperfection in [001] direction and without imperfection at different temperature. The simulation results show that cohesive energy, linear thermal expansion coefficient increase and melting temperature, latent heat of fusion decrease with increasing linear imperfection. Also, the results show that linear imperfection has no effect on the heat capacity.

  15. Effect of amino acid doping on the growth and ferroelectric properties of triglycine sulphate single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghavan, C.M.; Sankar, R.; Mohan Kumar, R.; Jayavel, R.

    2008-01-01

    Effect of amino acids (L-leucine and isoleucine) doping on the growth aspects and ferroelectric properties of triglycine sulphate crystals has been studied. Pure and doped crystals were grown from aqueous solution by low temperature solution growth technique. The cell parameter values were found to significantly vary for doped crystals. Fourier transform infrared analysis confirmed the presence of functional groups in the grown crystal. Morphology study reveals that amino acid doping induces faster growth rate along b-direction leading to a wide b-plane and hence suitable for pyroelectric detector applications. Ferroelectric domain structure has been studied by atomic force microscopy and hysteresis measurements reveal an increase of coercive field due to the formation of single domain pattern

  16. Cost effective water treatment program in Heavy Water Plant (Manuguru)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapatra, C.; Prasada Rao, G.

    2002-01-01

    Water treatment technology is in a state of continuous evolution. The increasing urgency to conserve water and reduce pollution has in recent years produced an enormous demand for new chemical treatment programs and technologies. Heavy water plant (Manuguru) uses water as raw material (about 3000 m 3 /hr) and its treatment and management has benefited the plant in a significant way. It is a fact that if the water treatment is not proper, it can result in deposit formation and corrosion of metals, which can finally leads to production losses. Therefore, before selecting treatment program, complying w.r.t. quality requirements, safety and pollution aspects cost effectiveness shall be examined. The areas where significant benefits are derived, are raw water treatment using polyelectrolyte instead of inorganic coagulant (alum), change over of regenerant of cation exchangers from hydrochloric acid to sulfuric acid and in-house development of cooling water treatment formulation. The advantages and cost effectiveness of these treatments are discussed in detail. Further these treatments has helped the plant in achieving zero discharge and indirectly increased cost reduction of final product (heavy water); the dosage of 3 ppm of polyelectrolyte can replace 90 ppm alum at turbidity level of 300 NTU of raw water which has resulted in cost saving of Rs. 15-20 lakhs in a year beside other advantages; the change over of regenerant from HCl to H 2 SO 4 will result in cost saving of at least Rs.1.4 crore a year besides other advantages; the change over to proprietary formulation to in-house formulation in cooling water treatment has resulted in a saving about Rs.11 lakhs a year. To achieve the above objectives in a sustainable way the performance results are being monitored. (author)

  17. Anisotropic confinement effects in a two-dimensional plasma crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laut, I; Zhdanov, S K; Räth, C; Thomas, H M; Morfill, G E

    2016-01-01

    The spectral asymmetry of the wave-energy distribution of dust particles during mode-coupling-induced melting, observed for the first time in plasma crystals by Couëdel et al. [Phys. Rev. E 89, 053108 (2014)PLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.89.053108], is studied theoretically and by molecular-dynamics simulations. It is shown that an anisotropy of the well confining the microparticles selects the directions of preferred particle motion. The observed differences in intensity of waves of opposed directions are explained by a nonvanishing phonon flux. Anisotropic phonon scattering by defects and Umklapp scattering are proposed as possible reasons for the mean phonon flux.

  18. Optical solitons in nematic liquid crystals: model with saturation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgna, Juan Pablo; Panayotaros, Panayotis; Rial, Diego; de la Vega, Constanza Sánchez F.

    2018-04-01

    We study a 2D system that couples a Schrödinger evolution equation to a nonlinear elliptic equation and models the propagation of a laser beam in a nematic liquid crystal. The nonlinear elliptic equation describes the response of the director angle to the laser beam electric field. We obtain results on well-posedness and solitary wave solutions of this system, generalizing results for a well-studied simpler system with a linear elliptic equation for the director field. The analysis of the nonlinear elliptic problem shows the existence of an isolated global branch of solutions with director angles that remain bounded for arbitrary electric field. The results on the director equation are also used to show local and global existence, as well as decay for initial conditions with sufficiently small L 2-norm. For sufficiently large L 2-norm we show the existence of energy minimizing optical solitons with radial, positive and monotone profiles.

  19. Alloying effects of refractory elements in the dislocation of Ni-based single crystal superalloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyu Ma

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The alloying effects of W, Cr and Re in the [100] (010 edge dislocation cores (EDC of Ni-based single crystal superalloys are investigated using first-principles based on the density functional theory (DFT. The binding energy, Mulliken orbital population, density of states, charge density and radial distribution functions are discussed, respectively. It is clearly demonstrated that the addition of refractory elements improves the stability of the EDC systems. In addition, they can form tougher bonds with their nearest neighbour (NN Ni atoms, which enhance the mechanical properties of the Ni-based single crystal superalloys. Through comparative analysis, Cr-doped system has lower binding energy, and Cr atom has evident effect to improve the systemic stability. However, Re atom has the stronger alloying effect in Ni-based single crystal superalloys, much more effectively hindering dislocation motion than W and Cr atoms.

  20. The effect of exchange-correlation on change and stability of crystal structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yazdani, A.; Niazi, M.; Alimardan, V.

    2007-01-01

    Since exchange interaction energy has effect on band structure via polarization of spin of free electron, then can directly effects formation crystal structure. Therefore exchange-correlation is able to have an effect on determination of crystal structure or its change and stability. This energy is subject to fluctuation range of electrons between conduction band and valance band or density of electrons which due to increase the entropy of system, via Gibss Energy .We investigated these factors: 1) Size of ions 2) Density of States 3) Range of inter atomic and pair-potential.

  1. EFFECT OF CONTINUOUS CRYSTALLIZER PERFORMANCE ON STRUVITE CRYSTALS PRODUCED IN REACTION CRYSTALLIZATION FROM SOLUTIONS CONTAINING PHOSPHATE(V AND ZINC(II IONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Hutnik

    Full Text Available Abstract Continuous reaction crystallization of struvite from aqueous solutions containing phosphate(V (1.0 mass % and zinc(II ions (from 0.1 to 2.0 mg kg-1 in a continuous DT MSMPR crystallizer was investigated. The influence of pH (9 - 11 and mean residence time (900 - 3600 s on the product characteristics and its chemical composition was tested. Struvite crystals of mean size 22-41 µm were produced. An increase in Zn2+ concentration decreased the mean crystal size and homogeneity. An elevation of the pH also decreased the struvite crystal size. Augmenting the mean residence time influenced product quality advantageously. Coexistence of struvite and Zn(OH2 in the product was confirmed analytically.

  2. Bulk crystal growth and their effective third order nonlinear optical properties of 2-(4-fluorobenzylidene) malononitrile (FBM) single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyadharshini, A.; Kalainathan, S.

    2018-04-01

    2-(4-fluorobenzylidene) malononitrile (FBM), an organic third order nonlinear (TONLO) single crystal with the dimensions of 32 × 7 × 11 mm3, has been successfully grown in acetone solution by slow evaporation technique at 35 °C. The crystal system (triclinic), space group (P-1) and crystalline purity of the titular crystal were measured by single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction, respectively. The molecular weight and the multiple functional groups of the FBM material were confirmed through the mass and FT-IR spectral analysis. UV-Vis-NIR spectral study enroles that the FBM crystal exhibits excellent transparency (83%) in the entire visible and near infra-red region with a wide bandgap 2.90 eV. The low dielectric constant (εr) value of FBM crystal is appreciable for microelectronics industry applications. Thermal stability and melting point (130.09 °C) were ascertained by TGA-DSC analysis. The laser-induced surface damage threshold (LDT) value of FBM specimen is found to be 2.14 GW/cm2, it is fairly good compared to other reported NLO crystals. The third - order nonlinear optical character of the FBM crystal was confirmed through the typical single beam Z-scan technique. All these finding authorized that the organic crystal of FBM is favorably suitable for NLO applications.

  3. Molecular Weight and Crystallization Temperature Effects on Poly(ethylene terephthalate (PET Homopolymers, an Isothermal Crystallization Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo A. Baldenegro-Perez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The isothermal crystallization of poly(ethylene terephthalate (PET homopolymers with different molecular weight was studied in a wide temperature range (140–230 °C using different experimental techniques. Three different morphological regions, labeled r1, r2 and r3, were distinguished as a function of crystallization temperature (Tc. In r1 (low Tc crystallized samples were characterized by a low crystalline degree with a small spherulite texture containing thin crystals. In r2 (intermediate Tc samples showed medium size spherulites composed of two distinct crystalline families (thin and thick crystals. In this temperature range, the crystallization exhibited a maximum value and it was associated with a high content of secondary crystals. In r3 (high Tc, samples presented considerable amorphous zones and regions consisting of oversized spherulites containing only thick crystals. Time-resolved wide-angle X-ray diffraction measurements, using synchrotron radiation, indicated a rapid evolution of the crystalline degree within the second region, in contrast with the quite slow evolution observed in the third region. On the other hand, by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS and time-resolved SAXS experiment, it was found that the long period (L as well as the lamellar thickness (lc increase as a function of Tc, corroborating the formation of the thickest crystals in the third region. From all these observations, a morphological model was proposed for each region.

  4. Enhanced thermal lens effect in gold nanoparticle-doped Lyotropic liquid crystal by nanoparticle clustering probed by Z-scan technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, S.L.; Lenart, V.M.

    2015-01-01

    This work presents an experimental study of the thermal lens effect in Au nanoparticles-doped lyotropic liquid crystals under cw 532 nm optical excitation. Spherical Au nanoparticles of about 12 nm were prepared by Turkevich’s method, and the lyotropic liquid crystal was a ternary mixture of SDS, 1-DeOH, and water that exhibits an isotropic phase at room temperature. The lyotropic matrix induces aggregation of the nanoparticles, leading to a broad and a red-shifted surface plasmon resonance. The thermal nonlinear optical refraction coefficient n 2 increases as a power of number density of nanoparticles, being possible to address this behavior to nanoparticle clustering. (author)

  5. Enhanced thermal lens effect in gold nanoparticle-doped Lyotropic liquid crystal by nanoparticle clustering probed by Z-scan technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, S.L.; Lenart, V.M., E-mail: sgomez@uepg.br [Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa (UEPG), PR (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Turchiello, R.T. [Universidade Federal Tecnologica do Parana (UFTPR), Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Goya, G.F. [Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Aragon Institute of Nanoscience, Zaragoza (Spain)

    2015-10-01

    This work presents an experimental study of the thermal lens effect in Au nanoparticles-doped lyotropic liquid crystals under cw 532 nm optical excitation. Spherical Au nanoparticles of about 12 nm were prepared by Turkevich’s method, and the lyotropic liquid crystal was a ternary mixture of SDS, 1-DeOH, and water that exhibits an isotropic phase at room temperature. The lyotropic matrix induces aggregation of the nanoparticles, leading to a broad and a red-shifted surface plasmon resonance. The thermal nonlinear optical refraction coefficient n{sub 2} increases as a power of number density of nanoparticles, being possible to address this behavior to nanoparticle clustering. (author)

  6. In Situ Water Vapor Measurements Using Coupled UV Fragment Fluorescence/Absorption Spectroscopy in Support of CRYSTAL-FACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James G.

    2004-01-01

    Understanding the coupling of dynamics, chemistry, and radiation within the context of the NASA Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) and the national Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) requires, as a first-order priority, high spatial resolution, high-accuracy observations of water in its various phases. Given the powerful diagnostic importance of the condensed phases of water for dynamics and the impact of phase changes in water on the radiation field, the accurate, in situ observation of water vapor is of central importance to CRYSTAL FACE (CF). This is clear both from the defined scientific objectives of the NRA and from developments in the coupled fields of stratosphere/troposphere exchange, cirrus cloud formation/removal and mechanisms for the distribution of water vapor in the middle/upper troposphere. Accordingly, we were funded under NASA Grant NAG5-11548 to perform the following tasks for the CF mission: 1. Prepare the water vapor instrument for integration into the WB57F and test flights scheduled for Spring 2002. 2. Calibrate and prepare the water vapor instrument for the Summer 2002 CF science flights based in Jacksonville, Florida. 3. Provide both science and engineering support for the above-mentioned efforts. 4. Analyze and interpret the CF data in collaboration with other mission scientists. 5. Attend the science workshop in Spring 2003. 6. Publish the data and analysis in peer-reviewed journals.

  7. Effect of manganese doping on PIN-PMN-PT single crystals for high power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahul, Raffi

    Single crystals based on relaxor-lead titanate (relaxor-PT) solid solutions have advanced the world of piezoelectric materials for the past two decades with their giant piezoelectric properties achieved by domain engineered configurations. When single crystals of lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) solid solution in the rhombohedral phase were poled along [001]c direction with "4R" domain configuration, they exhibited high piezoelectric charge coefficient (d33 >2000 pC/N) and high electromechanical coupling (k33 >0.9) which led to their widespread use in advanced medical imaging systems and underwater acoustic devices. However, PMN-PT crystals suffer from low phase transition temperature (Trt ˜85-95 °C) and lower coercive field (depolarizing electric field, Ec ˜2-3 kV/cm). Lead indium niobate - lead magnesium niobate - lead titanate (PIN-PMN-PT) ternary single crystals formed by adding indium as another constituent exhibit higher coercive field (E c ˜5kV/cm) and higher Curie temperature (Tc >210 °C) than the binary PMN-PT crystals (Ec ˜2.5 kV/cm and Tc high mechanical Q-factor (Qm >600) compared to the undoped binary crystals (Qm of PMN-PT 2000 pC/N for PMN-PT) occurs in the [001]c poled crystals, which is attributed to the polarization rotation mechanisms. Hence, domain engineering configurations induced by poling these crystals in orientations other than their polarization axis are critical for achieving large piezoelectric effects. Based on the phase diagram of these solid solutions, with the increase in PT content beyond the rhombohedral phase region, orthorhombic/monoclinic and tetragonal phases are formed. In the orthorhombic and tetragonal phases, the spontaneous polarization directions are in the [011]c and [001] c directions respectively. Similar to the "4R" domain configuration achieved in [001]c poled rhombohedral crystals, other domain configurations can be achieved by poling the single crystals in different orientations, leading to

  8. Systematic replacement of lysine with glutamine and alanine in Escherichia coli malate synthase G: effect on crystallization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anstrom, David M.; Colip, Leslie; Moshofsky, Brian; Hatcher, Eric; Remington, S. James

    2005-01-01

    Alanine and glutamine mutations were made to the same 15 lysine positions on the surface of E. coli malate synthase G and the impact on crystallization observed. The results support lysine replacement for improvement of crystallization and provide insight into site selection and type of amino-acid replacement. Two proposals recommend substitution of surface lysine residues as a means to improve the quality of protein crystals. In proposal I, substitution of lysine by alanine has been suggested to improve crystallization by reducing the entropic cost of ordering flexible side chains at crystal contacts. In proposal II, substitution of lysine by residues more commonly found in crystal contacts, such as glutamine, has been proposed to improve crystallization. 15 lysine residues on the surface of Escherichia coli malate synthase G, distributed over a variety of secondary structures, were individually mutated to both alanine and glutamine. For 28 variants, detailed studies of the effect on enzymatic activity and crystallization were conducted. This has permitted direct comparison of the relative effects of the two types of mutations. While none of the variants produced crystals suitable for X-ray structural determination, small crystals were obtained in a wide variety of conditions, in support of the general approach. Glutamine substitutions were found to be more effective than alanine in producing crystals, in support of proposal II. Secondary structure at the site of mutation does not appear to play a major role in determining the rate of success

  9. Peak effect in untwinned YBa 2Cu 3O 7-δ single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Anna, G.; André, M.-O.; Indenbom, M. V.; Benoit, W.

    1994-12-01

    We report on the observation of a weak effect of the critical current density in untwinned YBa 2Cu 3O 7-δ single crystals of different purity, using a low frequency torsion pendulum. We construct the peak effect line and the irreversibility line.

  10. Disorder effects on free excitons in CdSsub(1-x)Sesub(x) mixed crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goede, O.; Hennig, D.; John, L.

    1979-01-01

    In CdSsub(1-x)Sesub(x) mixed crystals the energies and transition probability ratios for free A, B, and C excitons are obtained as a function of the composition x by reflection and emission measurements at 77 K. The observation of the disorder-allowed A(GAMMA 6 ) exciton transition, the bowing of the energy difference between A and C exciton, and the broadening of the exciton lines clearly demonstrate the importance of disorder effects in these mixed crystals. This conclusion is further supported by the stress-induced enhancement of the A(GAMMA 6 ) exciton transition probability by uniaxial stress parallel to the c-axis of the mixed crystals. The experimental results are discussed on the basis of an effective exciton Hamiltonian consisting of a quasi-cubic VCA-Hamiltonian for wurtzite-type mixed crystals and an additional lower-symmetric term which describes the disorder effects phenomenologically by two fluctuating crystal fields parallel and perpendicular to the c-axis, respectively. (author)

  11. Effect of radiation on the crystals of polyethylene and paraffins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ungar, G.; Grubb, D.T.; Keller, A.

    1980-01-01

    Paraffins were irradiated with electrons in the electron microscope. The electron microscopic image and the electron diffraction patterns were followed as a function of dose. The objectives were: (a) to establish a connection between the 'polyethylene-type' and 'paraffin-like' behaviour and (b) to identify the phase segregation, by visual means. Increasing chain length, increasing dose rate and decreasing temperature individually and in combination, were found to favour the 'polyethylene-type' behaviour (crystal destruction through increasing lattice defects) while the reverse trend of the above three variables favoured the 'paraffin-like' behaviour (phase-segregated damaged and undamaged species). Segregated phases could in some circumstances be identified as non-diffracting 'droplets' within a crystalline matrix, with the lattice hardly affected, in the electron microscopic image. These droplets remain constant in number but increase in size as the irradiation progresses, the number of droplets depending on the chain length of the paraffin, on the irradiation temperature and on the dose rate. This behaviour, together with some further observations, reveals that the radiation-induced active species do not form crosslinks in situ but migrate over distances which can amount to μm. In contrast to the above, in the case of the lowest paraffin investigated, (C 23 H 48 ), the lattice became uniformly distorted as judged from the diffraction pattern, but the damage was observed to 'heal-out' with time. The results are discussed. (author)

  12. Detection of low concentration of malachite green and crystal violet in water

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šafařík, Ivo; Šafaříková, Miroslava

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 36, - (2002), s. 196-200 ISSN 0043-1354 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/98/1145 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : magnetic particles * crystal violet Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.611, year: 2002

  13. Some effects of ice crystals on the FSSP measurements in mixed phase clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Febvre

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we show that in mixed phase clouds, the presence of ice crystals may induce wrong FSSP 100 measurements interpretation especially in terms of particle size and subsequent bulk parameters. The presence of ice crystals is generally revealed by a bimodal feature of the particle size distribution (PSD. The combined measurements of the FSSP-100 and the Polar Nephelometer give a coherent description of the effect of the ice crystals on the FSSP-100 response. The FSSP-100 particle size distributions are characterized by a bimodal shape with a second mode peaked between 25 and 35 μm related to ice crystals. This feature is observed with the FSSP-100 at airspeed up to 200 m s−1 and with the FSSP-300 series. In order to assess the size calibration for clouds of ice crystals the response of the FSSP-100 probe has been numerically simulated using a light scattering model of randomly oriented hexagonal ice particles and assuming both smooth and rough crystal surfaces. The results suggest that the second mode, measured between 25 μm and 35 μm, does not necessarily represent true size responses but corresponds to bigger aspherical ice particles. According to simulation results, the sizing understatement would be neglected in the rough case but would be significant with the smooth case. Qualitatively, the Polar Nephelometer phase function suggests that the rough case is the more suitable to describe real crystals. Quantitatively, however, it is difficult to conclude. A review is made to explore different hypotheses explaining the occurrence of the second mode. However, previous cloud in situ measurements suggest that the FSSP-100 secondary mode, peaked in the range 25–35 μm, is likely to be due to the shattering of large ice crystals on the probe inlet. This finding is supported by the rather good relationship between the concentration of particles larger than 20 μm (hypothesized to be ice shattered-fragments measured by the

  14. Robust photonic differentiator employing slow light effect in photonic crystal waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Siqi; Cheng, Ziwei; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn

    2017-01-01

    A robust photonic DIFF exploiting the slow light effect in a photonic crystal waveguide is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Input Gaussian pulses with full-width halfmaximums ranging from 2.7 ps to 81.4 ps can be accurately differentiated.......A robust photonic DIFF exploiting the slow light effect in a photonic crystal waveguide is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Input Gaussian pulses with full-width halfmaximums ranging from 2.7 ps to 81.4 ps can be accurately differentiated....

  15. Gamma radiation effects on photorefractive and photoelectric properties of lithium niobate crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vartanyan, Eh.S.; Ovsepyan, R.K.; Pogosyan, A.R.; Timofeev, A.L.

    1984-08-01

    Investigations into the gamma radiation effect on the photorefractive aned photoelectric properties of lithium niobate crystals have been carried out for the first time. Gamma irradiation has been found to lead to an increase in the photorefractive sensitivity. The effect of optical decoloration has been discovered for the first time along with photorelaxation currents resulting from radiation center decay under the action of light. It has been shown that an increase of photorefractive sensitivity in gamma-irradiated lithium niobate crystals is caused by a new photorefraction mechanism - photorelaxation currents.

  16. Memory effect of polymer dispersed liquid crystal by hybridization with nanoclay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The electro-optical performances of polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC were investigated in the presence of organically modified clays. With the addition and increasing amount of modified clay, driving voltage and memory effect, viz. transparent state of the film after the electricity is off simultaneously increased due most likely to the increased viscosity. Among the two types of modifier, 4-(4-aminophenyl benzonitrile having greater chemical affinity with LC than hexylamine, gave finer dispersion of clay in liquid crystal, greater viscosity, larger driving voltage and response time, and greater memory effect.

  17. Isotopic effects on phonon anharmonicity in layered van der Waals crystals: Isotopically pure hexagonal boron nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuscó, Ramon; Artús, Luis; Edgar, James H.; Liu, Song; Cassabois, Guillaume; Gil, Bernard

    2018-04-01

    Hexagonal boron nitride (h -BN) is a layered crystal that is attracting a great deal of attention as a promising material for nanophotonic applications. The strong optical anisotropy of this crystal is key to exploit polaritonic modes for manipulating light-matter interactions in 2D materials. h -BN has also great potential for solid-state neutron detection and neutron imaging devices, given the exceptionally high thermal neutron capture cross section of the boron-10 isotope. A good knowledge of phonons in layered crystals is essential for harnessing long-lived phonon-polariton modes for nanophotonic applications and may prove valuable for developing solid-state 10BN neutron detectors with improved device architectures and higher detection efficiencies. Although phonons in graphene and isoelectronic materials with a similar hexagonal layer structure have been studied, the effect of isotopic substitution on the phonons of such lamellar compounds has not been addressed yet. Here we present a Raman scattering study of the in-plane high-energy Raman active mode on isotopically enriched single-crystal h -BN. Phonon frequency and lifetime are measured in the 80-600-K temperature range for 10B-enriched, 11B-enriched, and natural composition high quality crystals. Their temperature dependence is explained in the light of perturbation theory calculations of the phonon self-energy. The effects of crystal anisotropy, isotopic disorder, and anharmonic phonon-decay channels are investigated in detail. The isotopic-induced changes in the phonon density of states are shown to enhance three-phonon anharmonic decay channels in 10B-enriched crystals, opening the possibility of isotope tuning of the anharmonic phonon decay processes.

  18. Highly crystallized nanometer-sized zeolite a with large Cs adsorption capability for the decontamination of water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torad, Nagy L; Naito, Masanobu; Tatami, Junichi; Endo, Akira; Leo, Sin-Yen; Ishihara, Shinsuke; Wu, Kevin C-W; Wakihara, Toru; Yamauchi, Yusuke

    2014-03-01

    Nanometer-sized zeolite A with a large cesium (Cs) uptake capability is prepared through a simple post-milling recrystallization method. This method is suitable for producing nanometer-sized zeolite in large scale, as additional organic compounds are not needed to control zeolite nucleation and crystal growth. Herein, we perform a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) study to evaluate the uptake ability of Cs ions by zeolite, to the best of our knowledge, for the first time. In comparison to micrometer-sized zeolite A, nanometer-sized zeolite A can rapidly accommodate a larger amount of Cs ions into the zeolite crystal structure, owing to its high external surface area. Nanometer-sized zeolite is a promising candidate for the removal of radioactive Cs ions from polluted water. Our QCM study on Cs adsorption uptake behavior provides the information of adsorption kinetics (e.g., adsorption amounts and rates). This technique is applicable to other zeolites, which will be highly valuable for further consideration of radioactive Cs removal in the future. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. The effect of stirring on the heterogeneous nucleation of water and of clathrates of tetrahydrofuran/water mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.W. Wilson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The statistics of liquid-to-crystal nucleation are measured for both water and for clathrate-forming mixtures of tetrahydrofuran (THF and water using an automatic lag time apparatus (ALTA. We measure the nucleation temperature using this apparatus in which a single sample is repeatedly cooled, nucleated and thawed. The effect of stirring on nucleation has been evaluated numerically and is discussed. We find that stirring of the solution makes no difference to the nucleation temperature of a given solution in a given tube.

  20. Numerical investigation of magnetic field effect on pressure in cylindrical and hemispherical silicon CZ crystal growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokhtari, F.; Bouabdallah, A.; Merah, A.; Oualli, H.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of axial magnetic field of different intensities on pressure in silicon Czochralski crystal growth is investigated in cylindrical and hemispherical geometries with rotating crystal and crucible and thermocapillary convection. As one important thermodynamic variable, the pressure is found to be more sensitive than temperature to magnetic field with strong dependence upon the vorticity field. The pressure at the triple point is proposed as a convenient parameter to control the homogeneity of the grown crystal. With a gradual increase of the magnetic field intensity the convection effect can be reduced without thermal fluctuations in the silicon melt. An evaluation of the magnetic interaction parameter critical value corresponding to flow, pressure and temperature homogenization leads to the important result that a relatively low axial magnetic field is required for the spherical system comparatively to the cylindrical one. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Numerical investigation of magnetic field effect on pressure in cylindrical and hemispherical silicon CZ crystal growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhtari, F. [Universite Mouloud Mammeri de Tizi Ouzou (Algeria); LTSE Laboratory, University of Science and Technology. BP 32 Elalia, Babezzouar, Algiers (Algeria); Bouabdallah, A. [LTSE Laboratory, University of Science and Technology. BP 32 Elalia, Babezzouar, Algiers (Algeria); Merah, A. [LTSE Laboratory, University of Science and Technology. BP 32 Elalia, Babezzouar, Algiers (Algeria); M' hamed Bougara University, Boumerdes (Algeria); Oualli, H. [EMP, Bordj ElBahri, Algiers (Algeria)

    2012-12-15

    The effect of axial magnetic field of different intensities on pressure in silicon Czochralski crystal growth is investigated in cylindrical and hemispherical geometries with rotating crystal and crucible and thermocapillary convection. As one important thermodynamic variable, the pressure is found to be more sensitive than temperature to magnetic field with strong dependence upon the vorticity field. The pressure at the triple point is proposed as a convenient parameter to control the homogeneity of the grown crystal. With a gradual increase of the magnetic field intensity the convection effect can be reduced without thermal fluctuations in the silicon melt. An evaluation of the magnetic interaction parameter critical value corresponding to flow, pressure and temperature homogenization leads to the important result that a relatively low axial magnetic field is required for the spherical system comparatively to the cylindrical one. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Effect of crystal alignment on the remanence of sintered NdFeB magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, T.; Ma, B.M.; Sankar, S.G.; Wallace, W.E.

    1990-01-01

    Nd 15.4 Fe 77.8 B 6.8 magnets of various degrees of crystal alignment have been prepared by the conventional powder metallurgy technique. The alignment of these magnets have been determined by x-ray diffraction and fitting the standard deviation of a Gaussian distribution for the relative intensity versus the angle between the normals of (hkl) and the tetragonal c axis. The standard deviation is a good indicator for crystal alignment. An aligning field of 8 kOe is found to be essential to obtain a well-aligned NdFeB magnet. The remanence of sintered magnets is directly affected by the crystal alignment. Furthermore, the effect of crystal alignment on the remanence follows the theoretical prediction of the Stoner--Wohlfarth model. Below the spin reorientation temperature, the effect of crystal alignment on the shape of hysteresis loop becomes more significant. The remanences extrapolated from first and second quadrant of the hysteresis loops have been found to be consistent with the prediction of Stoner--Wohlfarth model

  3. Self-assembly morphology effects on the crystallization of semicrystalline block copolymer thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yuhan; Pan, Caiyuan; Li, Binyao; Han, Yanchun

    2007-03-01

    Self-assembly morphology effects on the crystalline behavior of asymmetric semicrystalline block copolymer polystyrene-block-poly(L-lactic acid) thin film were investigated. Firstly, a series of distinctive self-assembly aggregates, from spherical to ellipsoid and rhombic lamellar micelles (two different kinds of rhombic micelles, defined as rhomb 1 and rhomb 2) was prepared by means of promoting the solvent selectivity. Then, the effects of these self-assembly aggregates on crystallization at the early stage of film evolution were investigated by in situ hot stage atomic force microscopy. Heterogeneous nucleation initiated from the spherical micelles and dendrites with flat on crystals appeared with increasing temperature. At high temperature, protruding structures were observed due to the thickening of the flat-on crystals and finally more thermodynamically stable crystallization formed. Annealing the rhombic lamellar micelles resulted in different phenomena. Turtle-shell-like crystalline structure initiated from the periphery of the rhombic micelle 1 and spread over the whole film surface in the presence of mostly noncrystalline domain interior. Erosion and small hole appeared at the surface of the rhombic lamellar micelle 2; no crystallization like that in rhomb 1 occurred. It indicated that the chain-folding degree was different in these two micelles, which resulted in different annealing behaviors.

  4. Effect of additionally introduced Zn and Eu dopants on the photoluminescence spectra of Er-doped GaN crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezdrogina, M.M.; Krivolapchuk, V.V.; Petrov, V.N.; Rodin, S.N.; Cherenkov, A.V.

    2006-01-01

    It is shown that the effect of dopants on the photoluminescence spectrum depends on the conductivity type of the initial GaN crystals. The sensitizing effect of emission is observed in wurtzite p-GaN crystals doped with Er. The same effect was previously observed in such crystals doped with Eu and Zn. In n-type GaN crystals sequentially doped with Eu, Zn, and Er, the emission is observed in visible and infrared ranges of the photoluminescence spectrum [ru

  5. Effect of Water on Coal Strength

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    1. INTRODUCTION. The knowledge of the mechanisms of the interaction of water with rock and its effects on rock properties is of paramount importance in geotechnical engineering. The presence of water at site of large projects such as dams, canals, caverns, highways and underground reservoirs are always a significant ...

  6. The effect of crystal size on tunneling phenomena in luminescent nanodosimetric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagonis, Vasilis; Bernier, Shannon; Vieira, Francisco Marques dos Santos; Steele, Shane

    2017-12-01

    The study of luminescence signals from nanodosimetric materials is an active research area, due to the many possible practical applications of such materials. In several of these materials it has been shown that quantum tunneling is a dominant mechanism for recombination processes associated with luminescence phenomena. This paper examines the effect of crystal size on quantum tunneling phenomena in nanocrystals, based on the assumption of a random distribution of electrons and positive ions. The behavior of such random distributions is determined by three characteristic lengths: the radius of the crystal R, the tunneling length a, and the initial average distance 〈d〉 between electrons and positive ions (which is directly related to the density of charges in the material). Two different cases are examined, depending on the relative concentrations of electrons and ions. In the first case the concentration of electrons is assumed to be much smaller than the concentration of positive ions. Examination of a previously derived analytical equation demonstrates two different types of crystal size effects. When the tunneling length a is much smaller than both R and 〈d〉, the analytical equations show that smaller crystals exhibit a faster tunneling recombination rate. However, when the tunneling length a is of the same order of magnitude as both R and 〈d〉, the opposite effect is observed, with smaller crystals exhibiting a slower tunneling recombination rate. As the crystal size increases, the rate of tunneling in both cases reaches the limit expected for bulk materials. In the second case we examine the situation where the concentrations of electrons and positive ions are equal at all times. In this situation there is no analytical equation available to describe the process, and the crystal size effects are simulated by using Monte Carlo (MC) techniques. The two opposite behaviors as a function of the crystal size are also observed in these MC simulations. The

  7. Studies on the crystal structure and arrangement of water in sitagliptin L-tartrate hydrates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tieger, E.; Kiss, V.; Pokol, G.; Finta, Z.; Dušek, Michal; Rohlíček, Jan; Skořepová, E.; Brázda, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 21 (2016), s. 3819-3831 ISSN 1466-8033 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1603; GA ČR GA16-10035S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/24510 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : sitagliptin tartarate * crystal structure * channel hydrates * hydration * dehydration Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.474, year: 2016

  8. A new strategy for imaging biomolecular events through interactions between liquid crystals and oil-in-water emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qiong-Zheng; Jang, Chang-Hyun

    2012-11-21

    In this study, we demonstrate a new strategy to image biomolecular events through interactions between liquid crystals (LCs) and oil-in-water emulsions. The optical response had a dark appearance when a nematic LC, 4-cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl (5CB), is in contact with emulsion droplets of glyceryl trioleate (GT). In contrast, the optical response had a bright appearance when 5CB is in contact with GT emulsions decorated with surfactants such as sodium oleate. Since lipase can hydrolyze GT and produce oleic acid, the optical response also displays a bright appearance after 5CB has been in contact with a mixture of lipase and GT emulsions. These results indicate the feasibility of monitoring biomolecular events through interactions between LCs and oil-in-water emulsions.

  9. Desorption of Water from Distinct Step Types on a Curved Silver Crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakrapan Janlamool

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the adsorption of H2O onto the A and B type steps on an Ag single crystal by temperature programmed desorption. For this study, we have used a curved crystal exposing a continuous range of surface structures ranging from [5(111 × (100] via (111 to [5(111 × (110]. LEED and STM studies verify that the curvature of our sample results predominantly from monoatomic steps. The sample thus provides a continuous array of step densities for both step types. Desorption probed by spatially-resolved TPD of multilayers of H2O shows no dependence on the exact substrate structure and thus confirms the absence of thermal gradients during temperature ramps. In the submonolayer regime, we observe a small and linear dependence of the desorption temperature on the A and B step density. We argue that such small differences are only observable by means of a single curved crystal, which thus establishes new experimental benchmarks for theoretical calculation of chemically accurate binding energies. We propose an origin of the observed behavior based on a “two state” desorption model.

  10. Institutions for Effective Water Demand Management

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-14

    Dec 14, 2010 ... The paper also describes the state of South African WDM to highlight ... Download the PDF: Working Paper 4: Institutions for Effective Water Demand Management ​ ... Managing flood risk through collaborative governance.

  11. Crystal size effect on the electrochemical oxidation of formate on carbon-supported palladium nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Rayana Marcela Izidoro da Silva; Nakazato, Roberto Zenhei; Ciapina, Eduardo Goncalves

    2016-01-01

    Full text: The electrochemical oxidation of formate in alkaline electrolytes has emerged an a promising anodic reaction in the Direct Formate Fuel Cells[1]. Although palladium is considered to be one of the best electro catalyst for the oxidation of formate, important structure-activity relationships are still not understood. In the present work, we investigated the effect of the size of the palladium crystals in the electrochemical oxidation of formate in 0.1 mol L -1 KOH. Carbon-supported palladium nanoparticles (Pd/C) were prepared by chemical reduction of palladium (II) chloride in aqueous media by sodium borohydride in the presence of varying quantities of sodium citrate in the reaction media to obtain metallic crystals with distinct sizes. Analysis of the X-ray diffraction profile revealed the presence of palladium crystals in the range of 6 to 19 nm. Potentiostatic oxidation of formate on the distinct Pd/C samples revealed a volcano-like dependence of the specific activity with the size of the palladium crystals, presenting the highest activity for crystals around 7.5 nm. Reference: [1] A.M. Bartrom, J.L. Haan, The direct formate fuel cell with an alkaline anion exchange membrane, J. Power Sources. 214 (2012) 68-74. (author)

  12. The effect of Cu{sup II} ions in L-asparagine single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana, Ricardo C., E-mail: santana@ufg.br; Gontijo, Henrique O.; Menezes, Arthur F.; Martins, José A.; Carvalho, Jesiel F., E-mail: carvalho@ufg.br

    2016-11-15

    We report the synthesis, crystal growth, and spectroscopic characterization of L-asparagine monohydrate (LAM) single crystals doped with CuII. The crystals were successfully grown by slow cooling from a supersaturated aqueous solution up to size of 16×12×2 mm{sup 3};the effect of copper impurities in the crystals morphology was discussed. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) was used to calculate the g and hyperfine coupling (A) tensors of the CuII ions (g{sub 1}=2.044, g{sub 2}=2.105, g{sub 3}=2.383and A{sub 1}≈0, A{sub 2}=35, A{sub 3}=108 Gauss). The EPR spectra for certain orientations of the magnetic field suggest that CuII ions are coordinated to two {sup 14}N atoms. Correlating the EPR and optical absorption results, the crystal field and the Cu{sup II} orbital bond parameters were calculated. The results indicate that the paramagnetic center occupies interstitial rhombic distorted site and the ground orbital state for the unpaired electron is the d(x{sup 2}-y{sup 2}).

  13. Effect of compatibilization and reprocessing on the isothermal crystallization kinetics of polypropylene/wood flour composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arieny Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have focused on polymer mixtures aimed at the potential applications of these materials. This work analyzed the effect of polymer reprocessing and the type and concentration of compatibilizer on the isothermal crystallization kinetics of polypropylene/wood flour composites. The composites, which were polypropylene grafted with acrylic acid (PP-g-AA and maleic anhydride (PP-g-MA, were processed in a twin screw extruder with and without compatibilizer. Reprocessed polypropylene reached complete crystallization in less time than the composites with virgin polypropylene. The addition of wood flour to the composites did not change the kinetics significantly compared to that of the pure polymers, but the compatibilizers did, particularly PP-g-AA. The nucleation exponent (n and crystallization rate (K were calculated from Avrami plots. The values of n ranged from 2 to 3, indicating instantaneous to sporadic nucleation. The crystallization half-time of reprocessed polypropylene was shorter than that of virgin polypropylene and of the compositions containing PP-g-AA compatibilizer. The activation energy of crystallization and the equilibrium melting temperature were calculated, respectively, from Arrhenius and Hoffman-Weeks plots. Both of these parameters showed lower values in the composites, particularly in the ones containing compatibilizers.

  14. Effects of emulsifier addition on the crystallization and melting behavior of palm olein and coconut oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Jessica Mayumi; Soares, Fabiana Andreia Schafer De Martini; D'Agostinho, Natalia Roque; Gonçalves, Maria Inês Almeida; Gioielli, Luiz Antonio; da Silva, Roberta Claro

    2014-03-12

    Two commercial emulsifiers (EM1 and EM2), containing predominantly monoacylglycerols (MAGs), were added in proportiond of 1.0 and 3.0% (w/w) to coconut oil and palm olein. EM1 consisted of approximately 90% MAGs, whereas EM2 consisted of approximately 50% MAGs. The crystallization behavior of these systems was evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and microscopy under polarized light. On the basis of DSC results, it was clear that the addition of EM2 accelerated the crystallization of coconut oil and delayed the crystallization of palm olein. In both oils EM2 addition led to the formation of smaller spherulites, and these effects improved the possibilities for using these fats as ingredients. In coconut oil the spherulites were maintained even at higher temperatures (20 °C). The addition of EM1 to coconut oil changed the crystallization pattern. In palm olein, the addition of 3.0% (w/w) of this emulsifier altered the pattern of crystallization of this fat.

  15. Effect of elastic anisotropy of crystal grain on stress intensity factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaya, Masayuki

    2002-01-01

    The stress intensity factor (SIF) is used widely for evaluating integrity of cracked components. Usually, the SIF obtained under isotropic elastic conditions is used for the evaluations. Although, macroscopic elastic behaviors of polycrystal materials can be considered isotropic, each crystal has anisotropic elastic properties. This implies that if the crack size is small and the influence of anisotropic elastic properties on the stress around cracks is significant, the SIF evaluated under anisotropic elastic conditions may differ from the SIF obtained under isotropic elastic conditions. In the present study, the effect of anisotropic elasticity on the SIF was evaluated by using the finite element analysis (FEA). First, the SIF of semi-circular cracks located in a single crystal was evaluated. It was found that the SIF is affected crystal orientation. Secondly, FEA using a polycrystal model was performed. It was found that the change in the SIF was caused by crack tip crystal orientation as well as the deformation constraint from neighboring crystals. Finally, the statistical tendency of change in the SIF caused by the anisotropic elastic properties and the relationship with crack size were examined. The influence of the local SIF on crack growth behavior is also discussed. (author)

  16. Effect of elastic anisotropy of crystal grain on stress intensity factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamaya, Masayuki [Inst. of Nuclear Safety System Inc., Mihama, Fukui (Japan)

    2002-09-01

    The stress intensity factor (SIF) is used widely for evaluating integrity of cracked components. Usually, the SIF obtained under isotropic elastic conditions is used for the evaluations. Although, macroscopic elastic behaviors of polycrystal materials can be considered isotropic, each crystal has anisotropic elastic properties. This implies that if the crack size is small and the influence of anisotropic elastic properties on the stress around cracks is significant, the SIF evaluated under anisotropic elastic conditions may differ from the SIF obtained under isotropic elastic conditions. In the present study, the effect of anisotropic elasticity on the SIF was evaluated by using the finite element analysis (FEA). First, the SIF of semi-circular cracks located in a single crystal was evaluated. It was found that the SIF is affected crystal orientation. Secondly, FEA using a polycrystal model was performed. It was found that the change in the SIF was caused by crack tip crystal orientation as well as the deformation constraint from neighboring crystals. Finally, the statistical tendency of change in the SIF caused by the anisotropic elastic properties and the relationship with crack size were examined. The influence of the local SIF on crack growth behavior is also discussed. (author)

  17. Dual Effect of the Cubic Ag₃PO₄ Crystal on Pseudomonas syringae Growth and Plant Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Kyung Kim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We previously found that the antibacterial activity of silver phosphate crystals on Escherichia coli depends on their structure. We here show that the cubic form of silver phosphate crystal (SPC can also be applied to inhibit the growth of a plant-pathogenic Pseudomonas syringae bacterium. SPC pretreatment resulted in reduced in planta multiplication of P. syringae. Induced expression of a plant defense marker gene PR1 by SPC alone is suggestive of its additional plant immunity-stimulating activity. Since SPC can simultaneously inhibit P. syringae growth and induce plant defense responses, it might be used as a more effective plant disease-controlling agent.

  18. Spin-to-orbital momentum conversion via electro-optic Pockels effect in crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skab, Ihor; Vasylkiv, Yurij; Smaga, Ihor; Vlokh, Rostyslav [Institute of Physical Optics, 23 Dragomanov Street, 79005 Lviv (Ukraine)

    2011-10-15

    In the present work we have demonstrated a possibility for operation by orbital angular momentum (OAM) of optical beams via the Pockels effect in solid-crystalline materials. Based on the analysis of an optical Fresnel ellipsoid perturbed by a conically shaped electric field, we have shown that the point groups of crystals convenient for the conversion of spin angular momentum (SAM) to OAM should contain a threefold symmetry axis or a sixfold inversion axis. The results of our experimental studies and theoretical simulations of the SAM-to-OAM conversion efficiency carried out for LiNbO{sub 3} crystals agree well with each other.

  19. Spin-to-orbital momentum conversion via electro-optic Pockels effect in crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skab, Ihor; Vasylkiv, Yurij; Smaga, Ihor; Vlokh, Rostyslav

    2011-01-01

    In the present work we have demonstrated a possibility for operation by orbital angular momentum (OAM) of optical beams via the Pockels effect in solid-crystalline materials. Based on the analysis of an optical Fresnel ellipsoid perturbed by a conically shaped electric field, we have shown that the point groups of crystals convenient for the conversion of spin angular momentum (SAM) to OAM should contain a threefold symmetry axis or a sixfold inversion axis. The results of our experimental studies and theoretical simulations of the SAM-to-OAM conversion efficiency carried out for LiNbO 3 crystals agree well with each other.

  20. Effects of crystal defects on the diffuse scattering of X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kremser, R.

    1974-01-01

    This thesis concerns with the influence of crystal defects in germanium-drifted silicium and in α=quartz on the intensity of the diffuse X-ray scattering. The experiments were performed at low and high temperatures to show the effect of the atomic thermal motion on the intensity of the diffuse maxima. The comparison of the results for pure silicium and for the germanium-drifted crystal gives information about the relation between the frequency-spectra and the defects of the drifted silicium. For α-quarts it was not possible to relate unequivocally the observed changes in the intensity to individual defects. (C.R.)

  1. A simple localized-itinerant model for PrAl3: crystal field and exchange effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranke, P.J. von; Palermo, L.

    1990-01-01

    We present a simple magnetic model for PrAl sub(3). The effects of crystal field are treated using a reduced set of levels and the corresponding wave functions are extracted from the actual crystal field levels of Pr sup(+3) in a hexagonal symmetry. The exchange between 4f- and conduction electrons are dealt within a molecular field approximation. An analytical magnetic state equation is derived and the magnetic behaviour discussed. The parameters of the model are estimated from a fitting of the inverse susceptibility of PrAl sub(3) given in the literature. (author)

  2. Chirp and temperature effects in parametric down conversion from crystals pumped at 800 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Lozano, X.; Wiechers, C.; Lucio, J. L.

    2018-04-01

    We consider spontaneous parametric down conversion from aperiodic poled crystals pumped at 800 nm. Our analyses account the effect of internal and external parameters, where, in the former, we include the crystal chirp and length, while in the latter temperature, also the pump chirp and other beam properties. The typical distribution produced is a pop-tab like structure in frequency-momentum space, and our results show that this system is a versatile light source, appropriated to manipulate the frequency and transverse momentum properties of the light produced. We briefly comment on the potential usefulness of the types of telecom wavelength light produced, in particular for quantum information applications.

  3. Bulk photovoltaic effect in LiTaO3 : Fe crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karabekyan, S.I.; Odoulov, S.G.

    1991-01-01

    The bulk photovoltaic effect that arises in non centrosymmetric crystals is determined by the third rank tensor. In this work four independent components of photovoltaic tensor, responsible for 'linear' photovoltaic currents, are measured for the first time for LiTaO 3 : Fe crystals in the range of photon energy from 2.07 to 3.88 eV. The observed correlation of the spectral dependences of β 15 and β 22 components indicates common origin of the transverse photovoltaic currents in this material

  4. Effects of Gravity on Supercritical Water Oxidation (SCWO) Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Uday; Hicks, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The effects of gravity on the fluid mechanics of supercritical water jets are being studied at NASA to develop a better understanding of flow behaviors for purposes of advancing supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) technologies for applications in reduced gravity environments. These studies provide guidance for the development of future SCWO experiments in new experimental platforms that will extend the current operational range of the DECLIC (Device for the Study of Critical Liquids and Crystallization) Facility on board the International Space Station (ISS). The hydrodynamics of supercritical fluid jets is one of the basic unit processes of a SCWO reactor. These hydrodynamics are often complicated by significant changes in the thermo-physical properties that govern flow behavior (e.g., viscosity, thermal conductivity, specific heat, compressibility, etc), particularly when fluids transition from sub-critical to supercritical conditions. Experiments were conducted in a 150 ml reactor cell under constant pressure with water injections at various flow rates. Flow configurations included supercritical jets injected into either sub-critical or supercritical water. Profound gravitational influences were observed, particularly in the transition to turbulence, for the flow conditions under study. These results will be presented and the parameters of the flow that control jet behavior will be examined and discussed.

  5. Interference effects from coexisting fatty acids on elaidic acid separation by fractionating crystallization: A model study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jala, Ram Chandra Reddy; Guo, Zheng; Bjerring, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    A multi-stage temperature-programmed fractionating crystallization process was carried out to examine the effects of the presence of stearic acid (SA), oleic acid (OA), and linoleic acid (LA) on the separation of elaidic acid (EA). The results showed that the efficiency of fractionating...

  6. Multi-Periodic Photonic Hyper-Crystals: Volume Plasmon Polaritons and the Purcell Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia; Iorsh, I. V.; Orlov, A. A.

    2014-01-01

    We theoretically demonstrate superior degree of control over volume plasmon polariton propagation and the Purcell effect in multi-period (4-layer unit cell) plasmonic multilayers, which can be viewed as multiscale hyperbolic metamaterials or multi-periodic photonic hyper-crystals. © 2014 OSA....

  7. Effects of microscopic boundary conditions on plastic deformations of small-sized single crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuroda, Mitsutoshi; Tvergaard, Viggo

    2009-01-01

    The finite deformation version of the higher-order gradient crystal plasticity model proposed by the authors is applied to solve plane strain boundary value problems, in order to obtain an understanding of the effect of the higher-order boundary conditions. Numerical solutions are carried out...

  8. Electro-optical effect of a magnetically biased ferronematic liquid crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S H; Liang, B J

    1988-09-01

    The electro-optical effect of a magnetically biased ferronematic liquid-crystal film is investigated by using birefringence measurements. When a magnetic field is applied, the threshold voltage of the Freedericksz transition no longer exists. The dependence of the birefringence on the magnetic field strength in the low field regime is presented. A theory that accounts for the results is given.

  9. Ambipolar Cu- and Fe-phthalocyanine single-crystal field-effect transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Boer, R.W.I.; Stassen, A.F.; Craciun, M.F.; Mulder, C.L.; Molinari, A.; Rogge, S.; Morpurgo, A.F.

    2005-01-01

    We report the observation of ambipolar transport in field-effect transistors fabricated on single crystals of copper- and iron-phthalocyanine, using gold as a high work-function metal for the fabrication of source and drain electrodes. In these devices, the room-temperature mobility of holes reaches

  10. Effect of Hydraulic Activity on Crystallization of Precipitated Calcium Carbonate (PCC) for Eco-Friendly Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Ah; Han, Gi-Chun; Lim, Mihee; You, Kwang-Suk; Ryu, Miyoung; Ahn, Ji-Whan; Fujita, Toyohisa; Kim, Hwan

    2009-01-01

    Wt% of aragonite, a CaCO3 polymorph, increased with higher hydraulic activity (°C) of limestone in precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) from the lime-soda process (Ca(OH)2-NaOH-Na2CO3). Only calcite, the most stable polymorph, was crystallized at hydraulic activity under 10 °C, whereas aragonite also started to crystallize over 10 °C. The crystallization of PCC is more dependent on the hydraulic activity of limestone than CaO content, a factor commonly used to classify limestone ores according to quality. The results could be effectively applied to the determination of polymorphs in synthetic PCC for eco-friendly paper manufacture. PMID:20087470

  11. arXiv Strong reduction of the effective radiation length in an oriented PWO scintillator crystal

    CERN Document Server

    Bandiera, L.; Romagnoni, M.; Argiolas, N.; Bagli, E.; Ballerini, G.; Berra, A.; Brizzolani, C.; Camattari, R.; De Salvador, D.; Haurylavets, V.; Mascagna, V.; Mazzolari, A.; Prest, M.; Soldani, M.; Sytov, A.; Vallazza, E.

    We measured a considerable increase of the emitted radiation by 120 GeV/c electrons in an axially oriented lead tungstate scintillator crystal, if compared to the case in which the sample was not aligned with the beam direction. This enhancement resulted from the interaction of particles with the strong crystalline electromagnetic field. The data collected at the external lines of CERN SPS were critically compared to Monte Carlo simulations based on the Baier Katkov quasiclassical method, highlighting a reduction of the scintillator radiation length by a factor of five in case of beam alignment with the [001] crystal axes. The observed effect opens the way to the realization of compact electromagnetic calorimeters/detectors based on oriented scintillator crystals in which the amount of material can be strongly reduced with respect to the state of the art. These devices could have relevant applications in fixed-target experiments as well as in satellite-borne gamma-telescopes.

  12. Effects of heat treatment temperature on morphology and properties of opal crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Tao; China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang; Peng Tongjiang; Chen Jiming; Tang Yongjian

    2008-01-01

    The monodispersed SiO 2 microspheres were synthesized by reactant mixed equally. The colloid crystal templates were assemblied by vertical sedimentation method in ethanol at certain temperatures, and the effects of the heat treatment temperature on the morphology and the properties of opal colloid crystals were investigated. SEM, TCr-DSC results indicate SiO 2 colloid templates should be heat treated at 700-800 degree C, enhancing the conglutination and mechanistic intensity of opal templates. UV-Vis analysis result indicates that the heat treatment process can remove the photonic band gap location of the opal colloid crystals, and with the heat treatment temperature increasing gradually, blue shift occurs and the gap narrows. (authors)

  13. Acousto-optical phonon excitation in cubic piezoelectric slabs and crystal growth orientation effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willatzen, Morten; Duggen, Lars

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we investigate theoretically the influence of piezoelectric coupling on phonon dispersion relations. Specifically we solve dispersion relations for a fully coupled zinc-blende freestanding quantum well for different orientations of the crystal unit cell. It is shown that the phonon...... mode density in GaAs can change by a factor of approximately 2–3 at qx a = 1 for different crystal-growth directions relative to the slab thickness direction. In particular, it is found that optical and acoustic phonon modes are always piezoelectrically coupled, independent of the crystal...... that the piezoelectric effect leads to a drastically enhanced coupling of acoustic and optical phonon modes and increase in the local phonon density of states near the plasma frequency where the permittivity approaches zero....

  14. Combined optical and electrical effects in ferroelectric crystal for high laser intensities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukhtarev, N. V.; Kukhtareva, T. V.; Stargell, G.; Wang, J. C.

    2009-08-01

    In this study, we have derived equations for the pyroelectric and photogalvanic contribution to the electrical charging of the photosensitive ferroelectric crystal. Standard photorefractive equations are supplemented by the equation of state for the polarization density following the Devonshire-Ginsburg-Landau (DGL) approach. The photogalvanic voltage and current is considered for a wide intensity range, which includes the CW and the pulsed photo-excitation with high intensities when the impurity is fully ionized and when the traditional linear-recombination approach is not valid. The crystal electrostatic accelerators, based on charging of ferroelectric crystals by pyroelectric and photogalvanic effects, are discussed in relation to the generation of the self-focused electron beam, X-rays, and neutrons.

  15. The Faraday effect of an antiferromagnetic photonic crystal with a defect layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xuanzhang

    2005-01-01

    A theoretical calculation of the Faraday optical rotation effect of an antiferromagnetic (AF) photonic crystal is presented. This crystal is composed of AF and dielectric (D) layers and contains an AF defect layer. From the theoretical results for the FeF 2 -SiO 2 crystal, we see a defect mode with high transmission and a high Faraday rotation angle in the optical stop band for ω/2πc -1 . The Faraday rotation of the mode is about 28 deg. mm -1 and 15 times that of the single AF film. Another more striking property is that the rotation in the vicinity of the zero-field AF resonance frequency is even larger than that of the defect mode: about 250 times. The Faraday rotation can be tuned by changing the strength of the external static magnetic field

  16. The effect of montelukast in a model of gouty arthritis induced by sodium monourate crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Ponce, Loida; Arjona, Marjorie; Blanco, Gustavo; Alvarez, Stuart; Arcila, Eduardo; Ortega, Arnaldo; Nuñez, Dubelis; Verzura, Julie; Tovar, Robert; Bethencourt, Sarah; Riera, Ricardo; Mora-Orta, Sioly; Corado, José

    2011-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) are the first line of therapy in acute gouty arthritis. NSAIDs inhibit the cyclooxygenase pathway, but not the lipooxygenase activity and can have many adverse effects and thus have a limited effect on the control of inflammation in this disease. In this work we studied the effect of montelukast on the cellular inflammatory infiltrate in a model of murine arthritis induced by sodium monourate crystals (SMU), using a subcutaneous air cavity (air p...

  17. Optical Effects Induced by Bloch Surface Waves in One-Dimensional Photonic Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina V. Soboleva

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The review considers the influence of Bloch surface waves on the optical and magneto-optical effects observed in photonic crystals; for example, the Goos–Hänchen effect, the Faraday effect, optical trapping and so on. Prospects for using Bloch surface waves for spatial light modulation, for controlling the polarization of light, for optical trapping and control of micro-objects are discussed.

  18. Optical nonlinearity due to thermomechanical effect in the planar and homeotropic nematic liquid crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poursamad, J.B. [Physics & Optic Engineering Group, University of Bonab, Bonab (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Phirouznia, A. [Department of Physics, Azerbaijan ShahidMadani University, 53714-161 Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sahrai, M. [Research Institue for Applied Physics and Astronomy, Univerity of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-11-01

    Possibility of observing third thermomechanical (TM) effect in uniform nematic liquid crystals (NLC) with proper selection of boundary conditions on the cell walls is theoretically studied. Absorption of a light wave induces the needed temperature gradient for the TM effect. The molecular director reorientation due to third TM effect and the induced phase shift on the probe beam are calculated. The forth TM coefficient can be measured directly by the method proposed in this work.

  19. Calcium Carbonate Crystal Growth in Porous Media, in the presence of Water Miscible and Non-Miscible Organic Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaho, Sofia; Sygouni, Varvara; Paraskeva, Christakis A.

    2015-04-01

    The deposition of sparingly soluble salts (scaling) within porous media is a major problem encountered in many industrial and environmental applications. In the oil industry scaling causes severe operational malfunctions and, therefore, increasing the total operating and maintenance cost [1]. The most common types of sparingly soluble salts located in oil fields include carbonate and sulfate salts of calcium, strondium and barium[1,2]. Multiple phase flow and tubing surface properties are some of the factors affecting scale formation [3]. The main purpose of the present work was the investigation of the precipitation mechanisms of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) through in situ mixing of two soluble salt solutions in a flow granular medium, in the presence of water miscible organic fluid (ethylene glycol) or non-miscible organic fluid (n-dodecane). All series of experiments were carried out in a two dimensional porous medium made of Plexiglas. For all solutions used in the experiments, the contact angles with the surface of the porous medium and the interfacial tensions were measured. During the experiments, the calcium carbonate crystal growth was continuously monitored and recorded through an optical microscope equipped with a digital programmed video camera. The snap-shots were taken within specific time intervals and their detailed procession gave information concerning the crystal growth rate and kinetics. The pH of the effluent was measured and fluids samples were collected for calcium analysis using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). In all experiments effluent calcium concentration decreased as a function of time, suggesting that CaCO3 precipitation took place inside the porous medium. Crystals of the precipitated salt were identified using Infrared Spectroscopy (IR) and the morphology of the crystals was examined using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The induction time for precipitation of CaCO3 crystals in the presence of n-dodecane was significantly

  20. The effect of oxygen fugacity on the rheological evolution of crystallizing basaltic melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolzenburg, S.; Di Genova, D.; Giordano, D.; Hess, K. U.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2018-04-01

    Storage and transport of silicate melts in the Earth's crust and their emplacement on the planet's surface occur almost exclusively at sub-liquidus temperatures. At these conditions, the melts undergo crystallization under a wide range of cooling-rates, deformation-rates, and oxygen fugacities (fO2). Oxygen fugacity is known to influence the thermodynamics and kinetics of crystallization in magmas and lavas. Yet, its influence on sub-liquidus rheology remains largely uncharted. We present the first rheological characterization of crystallizing lavas along natural cooling paths and deformation-rates and at varying fO2. Specifically, we report on apparent viscosity measurements for two crystallizing magmatic suspensions 1) at log ⁡ fO2 of -9.15 (quartz-fayalite-magnetite buffer, QFM, -2.1) and 2) in air. These fugacities span a range of reduced to oxidized conditions pertinent to magma migration and lava emplacement. We find that: 1) crystallization at constant cooling-rates results in a quasi-exponential increase in the apparent viscosity of the magmatic suspensions until they achieve their rheological cut off temperature (Tcutoff), where the melt effectively solidifies 2) the rheological departure and Tcutoff increase with increasing fO2 and 3) increasing fO2 results in decreased crystallization-rates. Based on the experimental results and by comparison with previous rheological isothermal studies we propose a generalisation of the effect of fO2 on the dynamic rheological evolution of natural magmatic and volcanic suspensions. We further discuss the implications for magmatic transport in plumbing and storage systems (e.g. conduits, dikes and magma chambers) and during lava flow emplacement.

  1. Effects of rotation on crystal settling in a terrestrial magma ocean: Spherical shell model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, C.; Hansen, U.

    2015-12-01

    Like Moon or Mars, Earth experienced one or several deep magma ocean periods of globalextent in a later stage of its accretion. The crystallization of these magma oceans is of keyimportance for the chemical structure of Earth, the mantle evolution and the onset of platetectonics. Due to the fast rotation of early Earth and the small magma viscosity, rotationprobably had a profound effect on differentiation processes. For example, Matyska et al.[1994] propose that the distribution of heterogeneities like the two large low shear velocityprovinces (LLSVP) at the core mantle boundary is influenced by rotational dynamicsof early Earth. Further Garnero and McNamara [2008] suggest that the LLSVPs arevery long-living anomalies, probably reaching back to the time of differentiation andsolidification of Earth. However, nearly all previous studies neglect the effects of rotation.In our previous work using a Cartesian model, a strong influence of rotation as well asof latitude on the differentiation processes in an early magma ocean was revealed. Weshowed that crystal settling in an early stage of magma ocean crystallization cruciallydepends on latitude as well as on rotational strength and crystal density.In order to overcome the restrictions as to the geometry of the Cartesian model, we arecurrently developing a spherical model to simulate crystal settling in a rotating sphericalshell. This model will allow us not only to investigate crystal settling at the poles andthe equator, but also at latitudes in-between these regions, as well as the migration ofcrystals between poles and equator. ReferencesE. J. Garnero and A. K. McNamara. Structure and dynamics of earth's lower mantle.Science, 320(5876):626-628, 2008.C. Matyska, J. Moser, and D. A. Yuen. The potential influence of radiative heat transferon the formation of megaplumes in the lower mantle. Earth and Planetary ScienceLetters, 125(1):255-266, 1994.

  2. Effect of additionally introduced Zn and Eu dopants on the photoluminescence spectra of Er-Doped GaN crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezdrogina, M. M.; Krivolapchuk, V. V.; Petrov, V. N.; Rodin, S. N.; Cherenkov, A. V.

    2006-01-01

    It is shown that the effect of dopants on the photoluminescence spectrum depends on the conductivity type of the initial GaN crystals. Sensitization of emission is observed in wurtzite p-GaN crystals doped with Er. The same effect was previously observed in such crystals doped with Eu and Zn. In n-type GaN crystals sequentially doped with Eu, Zn, and Er, emission is observed in the visible (λ = 360-440 and 530-560 nm) and IR (λ = 1.54 μm) spectral regions

  3. Vocational Self-Concept Crystallization as a Mediator of the Relationship between Career Self-Management and Job Decision Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Qingxiong; McElroy, James C.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the influence of career self-management and vocational self-concept crystallization on job decision effectiveness and how vocational self-concept crystallization mediates the relationship between career self-management and job decision effectiveness. Six hundred and eleven Chinese employees participated in the research. Using…

  4. Electroluminescence and phototrigger effect in single crystals of GaSxSe1-x alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyazym-Zade, A. G.; Salmanov, V. M.; Mokhtari, A. G.; Dadashova, V. V.; Agaeva, A. A.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of switching and electroluminescence as well as the interrelation between these effects in single crystals of GaS x Se 1-x alloys are detected and studied. It is established that the threshold voltage for switching depends on temperature, resistivity, and composition of alloys, and also on the intensity and spectrum of photoactive light. As a result, a phototrigger effect is observed; this effect arises under irradiation with light from the fundamental-absorption region. Electroluminescence is observed in the subthreshold region of the current-voltage characteristic; the electroluminescence intensity decreases drastically to zero as the sample is switched from a high-resistivity state to a low-resistivity state. Experimental data indicating that the electroluminescence and the switching effect are based on the injection mechanism (as it takes place in other layered crystals of the III-V type) are reported

  5. Effects of high pressure on microstructure evolution and crystallization mechanisms during solidification of nickel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-Tao; Mo, Yun-Fei; Liu, Rang-Su; Tian, Ze-An; Liu, Hai-Rong; Hou, Zhao-Yang; Zhou, Li-Li; Liang, Yong-Chao; Peng, Ping

    2018-03-01

    To deeply understand the effects of high pressure on microstructural evolutions and crystallization mechanisms of liquid metal Ni during solidification process, MD simulation studies have been performed under 7 pressures of 0 ˜ 30 GPa, at cooling rate of 1.0 × 1011 K s-1. Adopting several microstructural analyzing methods, especially the cluster-type index method (CTIM-2) to analyze the local microstructures in the system. It is found that the pressure has important influence on the formation and evolution of microstructures, especially of the main basic clusters in the system. All the simulation systems are directly solidified into crystal structures, and the 1421, 1422, 1441 and 1661 bond-types, as well the FCC (12 0 0 0 12 0), HCP (12 0 0 0 6 6) and BCC (14 6 0 8 0 0) clusters play a key role in the microstructure transitions from liquid to crystal structures. The crystallization temperature T c is enhanced almost linearly with the increase of pressure. Highly interesting, it is found for the first time that there is an important phase transformation point from FCC to BCC structures between 20 ˜ 22.5 GPa during the solidification processes from the same initial liquid system at the same cooling rate. And the effect of increasing pressure is similar to that of decreasing cooling rate for the phase transformation of microstructures during solidification process of liquid metal Ni system, though they have different concrete effecting mechanisms.

  6. Investigations of interhydrogen bond dynamical coupling effects in the polarized IR spectra of acetanilide crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flakus, Henryk T; Michta, Anna

    2010-02-04

    This Article presents the investigation results of the polarized IR spectra of the hydrogen bond in acetanilide (ACN) crystals measured in the frequency range of the proton and deuteron stretching vibration bands, nu(N-H) and nu(N-D). The basic spectral properties of the crystals were interpreted quantitatively in terms of the "strong-coupling" theory. The model of the centrosymmetric dimer of hydrogen bonds postulated by us facilitated the explanation of the well-developed, two-branch structure of the nu(N-H) and nu(N-D) bands as well as the isotopic dilution effects in the spectra. On the basis of the linear dichroic and temperature effects in the polarized IR spectra of ACN crystals, the H/D isotopic "self-organization" effects were revealed. A nonrandom distribution of hydrogen isotope atoms (H or D) in the lattice was deduced from the spectra of isotopically diluted ACN crystals. It was also determined that identical hydrogen isotope atoms occupy both hydrogen bonds in the dimeric systems, where each hydrogen bond belongs to a different chain. A more complex fine structure pattern of nu(N-H) and nu(N-D) bands in ACN spectra in comparison with the spectra of other secondary amides (e.g., N-methylacetamide) can be explained in terms of the "relaxation" theory of the IR spectra of hydrogen-bonded systems.

  7. Photonic crystal light collectors in fish retina improve vision in turbid water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreysing, Moritz; Pusch, Roland; Haverkate, Dorothee; Landsberger, Meik; Engelmann, Jacob; Ruiter, Janina; Mora-Ferrer, Carlos; Ulbricht, Elke; Grosche, Jens; Franze, Kristian; Streif, Stefan; Schumacher, Sarah; Makarov, Felix; Kacza, Johannes; Guck, Jochen; Wolburg, Hartwig; Bowmaker, James K; von der Emde, Gerhard; Schuster, Stefan; Wagner, Hans-Joachim; Reichenbach, Andreas; Francke, Mike

    2012-06-29

    Despite their diversity, vertebrate retinae are specialized to maximize either photon catch or visual acuity. Here, we describe a functional type that is optimized for neither purpose. In the retina of the elephantnose fish (Gnathonemus petersii), cone photoreceptors are grouped together within reflecting, photonic crystal-lined cups acting as macroreceptors, but rod photoreceptors are positioned behind these reflectors. This unusual arrangement matches rod and cone sensitivity for detecting color-mixed stimuli, whereas the photoreceptor grouping renders the fish insensitive to spatial noise; together, this enables more reliable flight reactions in the fish's dim and turbid habitat as compared with fish lacking this retinal specialization.

  8. Effect of Atmospheric Ions on Interfacial Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Chang Kurt Kung

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of atmospheric positivity on the electrical properties of interfacial water was explored. Interfacial, or exclusion zone (EZ water was created in the standard way, next to a sheet of Nafion placed horizontally at the bottom of a water-filled chamber. Positive atmospheric ions were created from a high voltage source placed above the chamber. Electrical potential distribution in the interfacial water was measured using microelectrodes. We found that beyond a threshold, the positive ions diminished the magnitude of the negative electrical potential in the interfacial water, sometimes even turning it to positive. Additionally, positive ions produced by an air conditioner were observed to generate similar effects; i.e., the electrical potential shifted in the positive direction but returned to negative when the air conditioner stopped blowing. Sometimes, the effect of the positive ions from the air conditioner was strong enough to destroy the structure of interfacial water by turning the potential decidedly positive. Thus, positive air ions can compromise interfacial water negativity and may explain the known negative impact of positive ions on health.

  9. A study on effective thermal conductivity of crystalline layers in layer melt crystallization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kwang-Joo; Ulrich, Joachim

    2002-01-01

    An effective thermal conductivity in layer melt crystallization was explored based on a model considering inclusions inside a crystalline layer during crystal growth, molecular diffusion of inclusions migration due to temperature gradient and heat generation due to recrystallization of inclusions in the crystalline layer. The effective thermal conductivity increases with time, in general, as a result of compactness of the layer. Lower cooling temperature, i.e. greater supercooling, results in a more porous layer with lower effective thermal conductivity. A similar result is seen for the parameter of melt temperature, but less pronounced. A high concentration of the melt results in a high effective thermal conductivity while low concentration yields low effective thermal conductivity. At higher impurity levels in the melt phase, constitutional supercooling becomes more pronounced and unstable growth morphologies occur more easily. Cooling rate and Reynolds number also affect the effective thermal conductivity. The predictions of an effective thermal conductivity agree with the experimental data. The model was applied to estimate the thermal conductivities of the crystalline layer during layer melt crystallization. (author)

  10. Effect of power history on the shape and the thermal stress of a large sapphire crystal during the Kyropoulos process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tran Phu; Chuang, Hsiao-Tsun; Chen, Jyh-Chen; Hu, Chieh

    2018-02-01

    In this study, the effect of the power history on the shape of a sapphire crystal and the thermal stress during the Kyropoulos process are numerically investigated. The simulation results show that the thermal stress is strongly dependent on the power history. The thermal stress distributions in the crystal for all growth stages produced with different power histories are also studied. The results show that high von Mises stress regions are found close to the seed of the crystal, the highly curved crystal surface and the crystal-melt interface. The maximum thermal stress, which occurs at the crystal-melt interface, increases significantly in value as the crystal expands at the crown. After this, there is reduction in the maximum thermal stress as the crystal lengthens. There is a remarkable enhancement in the maximum von Mises stress when the crystal-melt interface is close to the bottom of the crucible. There are two obvious peaks in the maximum Von Mises stress, at the end of the crown stage and in the final stage, when cracking defects can form. To alleviate this problem, different power histories are considered in order to optimize the process to produce the lowest thermal stress in the crystal. The optimal power history is found to produce a significant reduction in the thermal stress in the crown stage.

  11. Synergistic effects of irradiation of waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodbridge, D.D.; Cooper, P.C.; Vandenburg, A.J.; Musselman, H.D.; Lowe, H.N.; Florida Inst. of Tech., Melbourne; Army Facilities Engineering Support Agency, Fort Belvoir, Va.

    1975-01-01

    Theoretical considerations of the use of high level radiation in the treatment of waste water have failed to consider the effects of the hydrated electron and the potential of possible synergistic effects of combining chlorine, oxygen, and irradiation. An extensive testing program at the University Center for Pollution Research of Florida Institute of Technology over the past four years has shown that irradiation of waste water samples immersed in an aqueous environment provide bacterial kill and reduction in organic pollution far greater than that obtained from theoretical considerations of G values and earlier experiments where the waste samples were not immersed in an aqueous environment. These testing programs have investigated the synergistic effects of combining oxygen and irradiation. Each of these combined treatments resulted in an increased bacterial kill factor. Tests on Staphylococcus aureus bacteria and fecal streptococcus bacteria indicate that the synergistic effects observed for fecal coliform bacteria also apply to the pathogenic bacteria. A statistical analysis of the data obtained shows the interrelationships between the various effects on the bacteria. A definite shielding factor due to the turbidity of the waste water has been shown to exist. Synergistic effects have been shown to significantly offset the shielding effects. Optimization of these synergistic effects can greatly increase the effectiveness of irradiation in the treatment of waste water. (orig.) [de

  12. Behavior of water of crystallization in CuSO4·5H2O studied by the tritium tracer method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Tetsuya; Jiao, Yurong; Imaizumi, Hiroshi; Kano, Naoki

    2011-01-01

    Tritium (T) is one of hydrogen isotopes, and its chemical behavior is similar to other hydrogen isotopes. Therefore tritium is used as one of tracers in chemical experimental tracer. As one of applications, we tried to apply this method to clarifying the behavior of water of crystallization in an inorganic material. The sample used was copper sulfate pentahydrate. First, this compound was tritiated, then desorbed the water of crystallization from the tritiated compound. Comparing the behavior of amount of substance with the specific activity, the following four matters have been found. (1) There is no relation between each T concentration of HTO water and the mass of the compound within the T concentration used. (2) It can be confirmed that copper sulfate pentahydrate has three kinds of energetically different water of crystallization by T tracer method. (3) Each T concentration of water of crystallization is different at the coordinate position, and the HTO molecule is hard to coordinate at the position having weak binding force. (4) The T tracer method is useful to analyze the behavior of the combined water in materials. (author)

  13. Thermal transport in phononic crystals: The role of zone folding effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechaumphai, Edward; Chen, Renkun

    2012-04-01

    Recent experiments [Yu et al., Nature Nanotech 5, 718 (2010); Tang et al., Nano Lett. 10, 4279 (2010); Hopkins etal., Nano Lett. 11, 107(2011)] on silicon based nanoscale phononic crystals demonstrated substantially reduced thermal conductivity compared to bulk Si, which cannot be explained by incoherent phonon boundary scattering within the Boltzmann Transport Equation (BTE). In this paper, partial coherent treatment of phonons, where phonons are regarded as either wave or particles depending on their frequencies, was considered. Phonons with mean free path smaller than the characteristic size of phononic crystals are treated as particles and the transport in this regime is modeled by BTE with phonon boundary scattering taken into account. On the other hand, phonons with mean free path longer than the characteristic size are treated as waves. In this regime, phonon dispersion relations are computed using the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method and are found to be modified due to the zone folding effect. The new phonon spectra are then used to compute phonon group velocity and density of states for thermal conductivity modeling. Our partial coherent model agrees well with the recent experimental results on in-plane thermal conductivity of phononic crystals. Our study highlights the importance of zone folding effect on thermal transport in phononic crystals.

  14. Random crystal field effect on the magnetic and hysteresis behaviors of a spin-1 cylindrical nanowire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaim, N.; Zaim, A., E-mail: ah_zaim@yahoo.fr; Kerouad, M., E-mail: kerouad@fs-umi.ac.ma

    2017-02-15

    In this work, the magnetic behavior of the cylindrical nanowire, consisting of a ferromagnetic core of spin-1 atoms surrounded by a ferromagnetic shell of spin-1 atoms is studied in the presence of a random crystal field interaction. Based on Metropolis algorithm, the Monte Carlo simulation has been used to investigate the effects of the concentration of the random crystal field p, the crystal field D and the shell exchange interaction J{sub s} on the phase diagrams and the hysteresis behavior of the system. Some characteristic behaviors have been found, such as the first and second-order phase transitions joined by tricritical point for appropriate values of the system parameters, triple and isolated critical points can be also found. Depending on the Hamiltonian parameters, single, double and para hysteresis regions are explicitly determined. - Highlights: • Phase diagrams of a ferromagnetic nanowire are examined by the Monte Carlo simulation. • Different types of the phase diagrams are obtained. • The effect of the random crystal field on the hysteresis loops is studied. • Single, double and para hysteresis regions are explicitly determined.

  15. An effective approach to synthesize monolayer tungsten disulphide crystals using tungsten halide precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thangaraja, Amutha; Shinde, Sachin M.; Kalita, Golap, E-mail: kalita.golap@nitech.ac.jp; Tanemura, Masaki [Department of Frontier Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan)

    2016-02-01

    The synthesis of large-area monolayer tungsten disulphide (WS{sub 2}) single crystal is critical for realistic application in electronic and optical devices. Here, we demonstrate an effective approach to synthesize monolayer WS{sub 2} crystals using tungsten hexachloride (WCl{sub 6}) as a solid precursor in atmospheric chemical vapor deposition process. In this technique, 0.05M solution of WCl{sub 6} in ethanol was drop-casted on SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate to create an even distribution of the precursor, which was reduced and sulfurized at 750 °C in Ar atmosphere. We observed growth of triangular, star-shaped, as well as dendritic WS{sub 2} crystals on the substrate. The crystal geometry evolves with the shape and size of the nuclei as observed from the dendritic structures. These results show that controlling the initial nucleation and growth process, large WS{sub 2} single crystalline monolayer can be grown using the WCl{sub 6} precursor. Our finding shows an easier and effective approach to grow WS{sub 2} monolayer using tungsten halide solution-casting, rather than evaporating the precursor for gas phase reaction.

  16. An effective approach to synthesize monolayer tungsten disulphide crystals using tungsten halide precursor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thangaraja, Amutha; Shinde, Sachin M.; Kalita, Golap; Tanemura, Masaki

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis of large-area monolayer tungsten disulphide (WS 2 ) single crystal is critical for realistic application in electronic and optical devices. Here, we demonstrate an effective approach to synthesize monolayer WS 2 crystals using tungsten hexachloride (WCl 6 ) as a solid precursor in atmospheric chemical vapor deposition process. In this technique, 0.05M solution of WCl 6 in ethanol was drop-casted on SiO 2 /Si substrate to create an even distribution of the precursor, which was reduced and sulfurized at 750 °C in Ar atmosphere. We observed growth of triangular, star-shaped, as well as dendritic WS 2 crystals on the substrate. The crystal geometry evolves with the shape and size of the nuclei as observed from the dendritic structures. These results show that controlling the initial nucleation and growth process, large WS 2 single crystalline monolayer can be grown using the WCl 6 precursor. Our finding shows an easier and effective approach to grow WS 2 monolayer using tungsten halide solution-casting, rather than evaporating the precursor for gas phase reaction

  17. Effects of the auto irradiation in KBr:Eu2+ crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez S, R.; Aceves, R.

    2002-01-01

    In KCl :Eu 2+ crystals and in KBr :Eu 2+ crystals it has been detected the effect of the auto irradiation with 40 K isotope. In this work, a study of auto irradiation thermoluminescence in KBr :Eu 2+ crystals with different Eu 2+ concentrations and different thermal treatments is presented. The form of the Tl curve shows mainly a sparkle at 110 Centigrade degrees. The sparkle intensity increases linearly in a time interval around 3600 sec. After this time the increase of intensity was slower. In the linear interval, the lukewarm effects are almost scornful. The analysis of results is looked to the relation between the thermoluminescence and the Eu 2+ additions. It is discussed the form of the curve comparing it with the Tl induced by external irradiation sources on this type of materials. Also it is discussed the temporary dependence of the quantity of induced defects. Finally, the Tl intensity results for crystals with and without previous luke warms are compared. (Author)

  18. Effect of carboxymethylcellulose on potassium bitartrate crystallization on model solution and white wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajul, Audrey; Gerbaud, Vincent; Teychene, Sébastien; Devatine, Audrey; Bajul, Gilles

    2017-08-01

    Instability in bottled wines refer to tartaric salts crystallization such as potassium bitartrate (KHT). It is not desirable as consumers see the settled salts as an evidence of a poor quality control. In some cases, it causes excessive gushing in sparkling wine. We investigate the effect of two oenological carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) for KHT inhibition in a model solution of white wine by studying the impact of some properties of CMC such as the degree of polymerization, the degree of substitution, and the apparent dissociation constant determined by potentiometric titration. Polyelectrolyte adsorption is used for determining the surface and total charge and for providing information about the availability of CMC charged groups for interacting with KHT crystal faces. The inhibitory efficiency of CMC on model solution is evaluated by measuring the induction time with the help of conductimetric methods. Crystals growth with and without CMC are studied by observation with MEB and by thermal analysis using DSC. The results confirm the effectiveness of CMC as an inhibitor of KHT crystallization in a model solution. The main hypothesis of the mechanism lies in the interaction of dissociated anionic carboxymethyl groups along the cellulose backbone with positively charged layers on KHT faces like the {0 1 0} face. Key factors such as pH, CMC chain length and total charge are discusses.

  19. The Faraday effect in two-dimensional magneto-photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merzlikin, A.M.; Vinogradov, A.P.; Inoue, M.; Khanikaev, A.B.; Granovsky, A.B.

    2006-01-01

    The necessary conditions for the observation of the Faraday effect in 2D magneto-photonic crystals are discussed. It is found. that the Faraday effect may be observed in the directions where any couple of the wave vectors of the harmonics consisting the Bloch waves of TE and TM solutions in zero magnetic field are identical. This direction corresponds neither to Faraday nor to Voigt geometry

  20. Transverse Kerr effect in one-dimensional magnetophotonic crystals: Experiment and theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erokhin, S.; Boriskina, Yu.; Vinogradov, A.; Inoue, M.; Kobayashi, D.; Fedyanin, A.; Gan'shina, E.; Kochneva, M.; Granovsky, A.

    2006-01-01

    Magneto-optical transverse Kerr and Faraday effects are studied experimentally and theoretically in one-dimensional magnetophotonic crystals fabricated from a stack of four repetitions of layers of Bi-substituted yttrium iron garnet and SiO 2 layers. The results of theoretical calculations in the framework of modified matrices approach are consistent with the obtained experimental data with the exception of the one cusp at 480 nm in the transverse Kerr effect spectra. Possible mechanisms of this disagreement are discussed

  1. The Faraday effect in two-dimensional magneto-photonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merzlikin, A.M. [Institute for Theoretical and Applied Electromagnetism, OIVT, Russian Academy of Sciences, Izhorskay 13/19, Moscow 125412 (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: merzlikin_a@mail.ru; Vinogradov, A.P. [Institute for Theoretical and Applied Electromagnetism, OIVT, Russian Academy of Sciences, Izhorskay 13/19, Moscow 125412 (Russian Federation); Inoue, M. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1, Hibari-Ga-Oka, Tempaku, Toyohashi 441-8580 (Japan); Khanikaev, A.B. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1, Hibari-Ga-Oka, Tempaku, Toyohashi 441-8580 (Japan); Granovsky, A.B. [Faculty of Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninski Gory, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation)

    2006-05-15

    The necessary conditions for the observation of the Faraday effect in 2D magneto-photonic crystals are discussed. It is found. that the Faraday effect may be observed in the directions where any couple of the wave vectors of the harmonics consisting the Bloch waves of TE and TM solutions in zero magnetic field are identical. This direction corresponds neither to Faraday nor to Voigt geometry.

  2. Symmetry-adaptation and selection rules for effective crystal field Hamiltonians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuszynski, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    The intention of this paper is to systematically derive an effective Hamiltonian in the presence of crystal fields in such a way as to incorporate relativistic effects and higher order perturbation corrections including configuration mixing. This Hamiltonian will then be conveniently represented as a symmetry-adapted series of one- and two-body double tensor operators whose matrix elements will be analyzed for selection rules. 16 references, 4 tables

  3. Drivers and Effects of Virtual Water Cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Odorico, P.

    2016-12-01

    The increasing global demand for farmland products by the growing and increasingly burgeoning human population is placing unprecedented pressure on the global agricultural system and its water resources. Many regions of the world that are not self-sufficient because of their chronic water scarcity or lack of suitable agricultural land strongly depend on the importation of agricultural commodities and associated embodied (or "virtual") water. International trade, however, may become unreliable when the supplies in the international food market are scarce. As a result, transboundary investments in agricultural land have become a priority for a number of governments and corporations that are trying to expand their agricultural production while securing good profits. This global "land rush" is often driven by the need for a secure access to water resources for agriculture. The globalization of water and land through trade and foreign land acquisitions is leading to a displacement of land use and a disconnection between human populations and the water resources they rely on. Despite the recognized importance of these phenomena in reshaping the patterns of water dependency through teleconnections between consumer behavior and production areas, their effect on global and regional food security, remains poorly quantified. New teleconnections are also emerging from the increasing water use for energy production. Competition in water use for food and energy security constitutes the core of an emerging debate that is generating new questions on the environmental, ethical, economic, and policy implications of human appropriation of water resources. This lecture will examine the ways societies virtually modify their access to water through trade and foreign land acquisitions to meet their growing food and energy needs.

  4. Effect of copper on crack propagation in beryllium single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldinger, F.; Wilhelm, M.

    The effect of copper additives on the fracture energy and the development of cracks parallel to the basal plane was studied in zone-refined single crystalline beryllium. At 77 0 K the cleavage planes are very smooth, so the crack propagation energy, which is independent of copper content (less than 2 at. percent Cu) in the range of measurement accuracy, is only a little higher than the surface energy of the basal plane. At room temperature, due to intense plastic processes taking place in front of the crack tip, the fracture energy is an order of magnitude higher than at low temperatures. The effect of copper on the plastic processes can be divided into two regions. In region I (less than 1.2 at. percent Cu), in which the crack propagation energy increases sharply with increasing copper content, crack propagation is controlled by prism slips. The decrease in crack propagation energy in region II (greater than 1.2 at. percent Cu) can be attributed to a reduction of beryllium twinning energy with increasing copper content. (auth)

  5. Time, Temperature and Amount of Distilled Water Effects on the Purity and Yield of Bis(2-hydroxyethyl Terephthalate Purification System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.W. Goh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Polyethylene terephthalate (PET bottle is one of the common plastic wastes existed in the municipal solid waste in Malaysia. One alternative to solve the abundant of PET wastes is chemical recycling of the wastes to produce a value added product. This technology not only can decrease the PET wastes in landfill sites but also can produce many useful recycled PET products. Bis(2-hydroxyethyl terephthalate (BHET obtained from glycolysis reaction of PET waste was purified using crystallization process. The hot distilled water was added to glycolysis product followed by cooling and filtration to extract BHET in white solid form from the product. The effect of three operating conditions namely crystallization time, crystallization temperatures and amount of distilled water used to the yield of crystallization process were investigated. The purity of crystallization products were analyzed using HPLC and DSC. The optimum conditions of 3 hours crystallization time, 2 °C crystallization temperature and 5:1 mass ratio of distilled water used to glycolize solid gave the highest yield and purity of the crystallization process. © 2015 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 12nd August 2014; Revised: 4th February 2015; Accepted: 5th February 2015How to Cite: Goh, H.W., Salmiaton, A., Abdullah, N., Idris, A. (2015. Time, Temperature and Amount of Distilled Water Effects on the Purity and Yield of Bis(2-hydroxyethyl Terephthalate Purification System. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 10 (2: 143-154. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.10.2.7195.143-154 Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.10.2.7195.143-154  

  6. Effect of Cooling Rates on Shape and Crystal Size Distributions of Mefenamic Acid Polymorph in Ethyl Acetate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudalip, S. K. Abdul; Adam, F.; Parveen, J.; Abu Bakar, M. R.; Amran, N.; Sulaiman, S. Z.; Che Man, R.; Arshad, Z. I. Mohd; Shaarani, S. Md.

    2017-06-01

    This study investigate the effect of cooling rates on mefenamic acid crystallisation in ethyl acetate. The cooling rate was varied from 0.2 to 5 °C/min. The in-line conductivity system and turbidity system were employed to detect the onset of the crystallization process. The crystals produced were analysed using optical microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). It was found that the crystals produced at different cooling rates were needle-like and exhibit polymorphic form type I. However, the aspect ratio and crystal size distributions were varied with the increased of cooling rate. A high crystals aspect ratio and narrower CSD (100-900 μm) was obtained at cooling rate of 0.5 °C/min. Thus, can be suggested as the most suitable cooling rate for crystallization of mefenamic acid in ethyl acetate.

  7. The Effect of Chain Structures on the Crystallization Behavior and Membrane Formation of Poly(Vinylidene Fluoride Copolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzhong Ma

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The crystallization behaviors of two copolymers of PVDF were studied, and the effect of copolymerized chains on the crystallization behavior was investigated. The results indicated that both copolymers had a lowered crystallization temperature and crystallinity. The crystallization rate was improved by the copolymer with symmetrical units in PVDF chains, but hindered by asymmetrical units, compared with the neat PVDF. The symmetrical units in PVDF chains favored the β-crystals with fiber-like structures. According to the solubility parameter rule, methyl salicylate (MS can be chosen as a diluent for PVDF copolymers. Both diluted systems had liquid-liquid (L-L regions in the phase diagrams, which was due to the lowered crystallization temperature.

  8. Magnetoplastic effect in irradiated NaCl and LiF crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al'shitz, V.I.; Darinskaya, E.V.; Kazakova, O.L.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of low x-ray irradiation doses (≅10 2 rad) on the magnetoplastic effect - the detachment of dislocations from paramagnetic centers under the action of an external magnetic field B - in alkali-halide crystals has been investigated. The measurements were performed on LiF crystals and three types of NaCl crystals, differing in impurity content. The dependence of the mean free path l of the dislocations on the rotational frequency ν of a sample in a magnetic field was especially sensitive to low irradiation doses. In unirradiated crystals this dependence is a single-step dependence and is characterized by a critical frequency ν c ∝B 2 above which the magnetoplastic effect is not observed. The frequency ν c depends only on the type of paramagnetic centers, and not on their density. Even the lowest irradiation dose employed ( c2 , that is insensitive to the irradiation dose, and that corresponds to the appearance of magnetically sensitive stoppers of a new type under irradiation. The initial critical frequency ν c1 , as a rule, also varies with the dose, reflecting the change in state of the impurity complexes (Ca in NaCl and Mg in LiF). Specifically, it is shown for NaCl(Ca) crystals that as the irradiation dose increases, the frequency ν c1 increases, gradually approaching the value ν c2 , so that by the time the dose is ≅300 rad, the dependence l(ν) once again becomes a single-step dependence, dropping sharply only for ν≥ν c2 . It is shown that the addition of a small number of Ni atoms to a NaCl crystal makes the Ca complexes radiation resistant, and the critical frequency ν c1 corresponding to them initially equals ν c2 for crystals with no Ni. The recombination kinetics of radiation defects in the case in which the samples are irradiated under a tungsten lamp was investigated. A possible physical model of the observed dependences is discussed

  9. Integrating Product Water Quality Effects In Holistic Assessments Of Water Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rygaard, Martin

    2011-01-01

    economic assessment of water quality effects, production costs and environmental costs (water abstraction and CO2-emissions). Considered water quality issues include: health (dental caries, cardiovascular diseases, eczema), corrosion (lifetime of appliances, pipes), consumption of soap, and bottled water...

  10. Modeling thermo-optic effect in large mode area double cladding photonic crystal fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coscelli, Enrico; Cucinotta, Annamaria

    2014-02-01

    The impact of thermally-induced refractive index changes on the single-mode (SM) properties of large mode area (LMA) photonic crystal fibers are thoroughly investigated by means of a full-vector modal solver with integrated thermal model. Three photonic crystal fiber designs are taken into account, namely the 19-cell core fiber, the large-pitch fiber (LPF) and the distributed modal filtering (DMF) fiber, to assess the effects of the interplay between thermal effects and the high-order mode (HOM) suppression mechanisms exploited in order to obtain effectively SM guiding. The results have shown significant differences in the way the SM regime is changed by the increase of heat load, providing useful hints for the design of LMA fibers for high power lasers.

  11. Chemical binding effects in resonance - potential interference scattering for harmonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwaifi, A.; Summerfield, G.C.

    1991-01-01

    The neutron scattering cross section which is the quantity directly measured in experiments is given by the absolute square of the scattering amplitude. For energies near a resonance, this yields three terms: potential, resonant and interference. In this paper we deal with the interference neutron scattering cross section which is written in terms of a three-point correlation function. This function is calculated for the ideal gas and harmonic crystal models. For short collision times, the interference result for harmonic crystals is the same as the ideal gas but it has an effective temperature. This is the same effective temperature as was previously found for absorption and pure resonant processes. Therefore, the interference scattering cross section can be treated in the same way as resonant scattering and absorption are treated using an ideal gas result with the usual effective temperature. (author)

  12. EELS and electron diffraction studies on possible bonaccordite crystals in pressurized water reactor fuel CRUD and in oxide films of alloy 600 material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jiaxin [Studsvik Nuclear AB, Nykoping (Sweden); Lindberg, Fredrik [Swerea KIMAB AB, Kista (Sweden); Wells, Daniel [Electric Power Research Institute, Charlotte (United States); Bengysson, Bernt [Ringhals AB, Ringhalsverket, Varobacka (Sweden)

    2017-06-15

    Experimental verification of boron species in fuel CRUD (Chalk River Unidentified Deposit) would provide essential and important information about the root cause of CRUD-induced power shifts (CIPS). To date, only bonaccordite and elemental boron were reported to exist in fuel CRUD in CIPS-troubled pressurized water reactor (PWR) cores and lithium tetraborate to exist in simulated PWR fuel CRUD from some autoclave tests. We have reevaluated previous analysis of similar threadlike crystals along with examining some similar threadlike crystals from CRUD samples collected from a PWR cycle that had no indications of CIPS. These threadlike crystals have a typical [Ni]/[Fe] atomic ratio of ⁓2 and similar crystal morphology as the one (bonaccordite) reported previously. In addition to electron diffraction study, we have applied electron energy loss spectroscopy to determine boron content in such a crystal and found a good agreement with that of bonaccordite. Surprisingly, such crystals seem to appear also on corroded surfaces of Alloy 600 that was exposed to simulated PWR primary water with a dissolved hydrogen level of 5 mL H{sub 2}/kg H{sub 2}O, but absent when exposed under 75 mL H{sub 2}/kg H{sub 2}O condition. It remains to be verified as to what extent and in which chemical environment this phase would be formed in PWR primary systems.

  13. A visual water vapor photonic crystal sensor with PVA/SiO2 opal structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haowei; Pan, Lei; Han, Yingping; Ma, Lihua; Li, Yao; Xu, Hongbo; Zhao, Jiupeng

    2017-11-01

    In study, we proposed a simple yet fast optical sensing motif based on thimbleful of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) infiltrated photonic crystal (PC), which allows for high efficiency in vapor sensing through changes in their inter-layer space. Linear response to a broad dynamic range of vapor concentration was realized. Ultrafast response time (<1 s) and excellent recyclability were also demonstrated. Selective response to a vapor was exhibited, reflecting well the characteristic sorption properties of PVA, with which colorimetric reporting was readily achieved. These substantial improvements in performance are attributed to the efficacy of signal transduction and the enhanced signal transduction because of thimbleful PVA infiltrated space between adjacent SiO2 nanospheres.

  14. Microindentation deformation of lithium dihydrogen phosphate single crystals: Microhardness measurement and indentation size effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iurchenko, Anton [Institute for Single Crystals, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Lenin Avenue 60, 61001 Kharkiv (Ukraine); Borc, Jarosław, E-mail: j.borc@pollub.pl [Department of Applied Physics, Lublin University of Technology, ul. Nadbystrzycka 38, 20-618 Lublin (Poland); Sangwal, Keshra [Department of Applied Physics, Lublin University of Technology, ul. Nadbystrzycka 38, 20-618 Lublin (Poland); Voronov, Alexei [Institute for Single Crystals, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Lenin Avenue 60, 61001 Kharkiv (Ukraine)

    2016-02-15

    The Vickers microhardness H{sub V} of the (110) and (111) as-grown faces of lithium dihydrogen phosphate (LDP) crystals was investigated as a function of applied load P. The microhardness H{sub V} of the two faces increases with load P i.e. reverse indentation size effect (reverse ISE) and the hardness of the (110) face is somewhat lower than that of the (111) face but this difference is not easily recognized for these planes due to large scatter in the data. The origin of observed ISE was analyzed using different approaches. It was found that: (1) Hays–Kendall's and Begley–Hutchinson's relations do not explain the origin of reverse ISE but Meyer's law describes the reverse ISE satisfactorily and its constants provide a link between ISE and formation of radial cracks with applied indentation load P, (2) reverse ISE is associated with tensile surface stresses, (3) despite its failure to explain reverse ISE, Begley–Hutchinson's relation is reliable to obtain load-independent hardness H{sub 0}, is 2337 MPa for LDP, and (4) the value of fracture toughness K{sub C} of LDP crystals lies between 4.7 and 12 MPa m{sup 1/2}. The load-independent hardness H{sub 0} of LDP is higher by a factor of 1.5 than that reported for undoped KDP and ADP crystals whereas its fracture toughness K{sub C} is higher by factor of about 20 than that of undoped KDP crystals. - Highlights: • Vickers indentations on the (110) and (111) faces of LDP crystals were made. • The microhardness H{sub V} was investigated as a function of applied load P. • Reverse indentation size effect was observed. • Fracture toughness K{sub C} from the radial cracks was calculated.

  15. Microindentation deformation of lithium dihydrogen phosphate single crystals: Microhardness measurement and indentation size effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iurchenko, Anton; Borc, Jarosław; Sangwal, Keshra; Voronov, Alexei

    2016-01-01

    The Vickers microhardness H_V of the (110) and (111) as-grown faces of lithium dihydrogen phosphate (LDP) crystals was investigated as a function of applied load P. The microhardness H_V of the two faces increases with load P i.e. reverse indentation size effect (reverse ISE) and the hardness of the (110) face is somewhat lower than that of the (111) face but this difference is not easily recognized for these planes due to large scatter in the data. The origin of observed ISE was analyzed using different approaches. It was found that: (1) Hays–Kendall's and Begley–Hutchinson's relations do not explain the origin of reverse ISE but Meyer's law describes the reverse ISE satisfactorily and its constants provide a link between ISE and formation of radial cracks with applied indentation load P, (2) reverse ISE is associated with tensile surface stresses, (3) despite its failure to explain reverse ISE, Begley–Hutchinson's relation is reliable to obtain load-independent hardness H_0, is 2337 MPa for LDP, and (4) the value of fracture toughness K_C of LDP crystals lies between 4.7 and 12 MPa m"1"/"2. The load-independent hardness H_0 of LDP is higher by a factor of 1.5 than that reported for undoped KDP and ADP crystals whereas its fracture toughness K_C is higher by factor of about 20 than that of undoped KDP crystals. - Highlights: • Vickers indentations on the (110) and (111) faces of LDP crystals were made. • The microhardness H_V was investigated as a function of applied load P. • Reverse indentation size effect was observed. • Fracture toughness K_C from the radial cracks was calculated.

  16. Effects of shear flow on phase nucleation and crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mura, Federica; Zaccone, Alessio

    2016-04-01

    Classical nucleation theory offers a good framework for understanding the common features of new phase formation processes in metastable homogeneous media at rest. However, nucleation processes in liquids are ubiquitously affected by hydrodynamic flow, and there is no satisfactory understanding of whether shear promotes or slows down the nucleation process. We developed a classical nucleation theory for sheared systems starting from the molecular level of the Becker-Doering master kinetic equation and we analytically derived a closed-form expression for the nucleation rate. The theory accounts for the effect of flow-mediated transport of molecules to the nucleus of the new phase, as well as for the mechanical deformation imparted to the nucleus by the flow field. The competition between flow-induced molecular transport, which accelerates nucleation, and flow-induced nucleus straining, which lowers the nucleation rate by increasing the nucleation energy barrier, gives rise to a marked nonmonotonic dependence of the nucleation rate on the shear rate. The theory predicts an optimal shear rate at which the nucleation rate is one order of magnitude larger than in the absence of flow.

  17. Enhanced photoelectrochemical water splitting of BiVO4 photonic crystal photoanode by decorating with MoS2 nanosheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Feng; Cai, Tianyi; Ju, Sheng; Fang, Liang

    2018-04-01

    Bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) has been considered as one of the promising Photoelectrochemical (PEC) photoanode materials. However, the performances remain poorly rated due to inefficient carrier separation, short carrier diffusion length, and sluggish water oxidation kinetics. Herein, a photoanode consisting of MoS2 nanosheet coating on the three-dimensional ordered BiVO4 inverse opal is fabricated by a facile combination of nanosphere lithography and hydrothermal methods. By taking advantage of the photonic crystal and two-dimensional material, the optimized MoS2/BiVO4 inverse opal photoanode exhibits a 560% improvement of the photocurrent density and threefold enhancement of the incident photon-to-current efficiency than that of the pristine BiVO4 film photoanode. Systematic studies reveal that the excellent PEC activity should be attributed to enhanced light harvesting and charge separation efficiency.

  18. The effect of experimental resolution on crystal reflectivity and secondary extinction in neutron diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, O.W.; Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage

    1965-01-01

    The reflectivity for neutrons of a plane slab crystal is calculated in the transmission case when the crystal is placed between two Seller collimators. The calculations indicate that the crystal reflectivity, as well as the secondary extinction coefficient, depends signicantly on the angular...... resolution of the collimators. Curves are given for the extinction of the crystal with different crystal and collimator parameters....

  19. Effect of Preparation Methods on Crystallization Behavior and Tensile Strength of Poly(vinylidene fluoride) Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Lu, Xiaolong; Wu, Chunrui

    2013-11-21

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membranes were prepared by non solvent induced phase separation (NIPS), melt spinning and the solution-cast method. The effect of preparation methods with different membrane formation mechanisms on crystallization behavior and tensile strength of PVDF membranes was investigated. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were employed to examine the crystal form of the surface layers and the overall membranes, respectively. Spherulite morphologies and thermal behavior of the membranes were studied by polarized light optical microscopy (PLO) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) separately. It was found that the crystallization behavior of PVDF membranes was closely related to the preparation methods. For membranes prepared by the NIPS method, the skin layers had a mixture of α and β phases, the overall membranes were predominantly α phase, and the total crystallinity was 60.0% with no spherulite. For melt spinning membranes, the surface layers also showed a mixture of α and β phases, the overall membranes were predominantly α phase. The total crystallinity was 48.7% with perfect spherulites. Whereas the crystallization behavior of solution-cast membranes was related to the evaporation temperature and the additive, when the evaporation temperature was 140 °C with a soluble additive in the dope solution, obvious spherulites appeared. The crystalline morphology of PVDF exerted a great influence on the tensile strength of the membranes, which was much higher with perfect spherulites.

  20. Lubricating and Waxy Esters. VI. Effect of Symmetry about Ester on Crystallization of Linear Monoester Isomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laziz Bouzidi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structure development of jojoba-like esters incorporating either 1-decenoic acid and/or 1-decenol, namely octadec-9-enyl dec-9-enoate (JLE-281, and its isomer dec-9-enyl oleate (JLE-282 was investigated to reveal the effect of symmetry about the ester group on crystallization of aliphatic fatty monoesters. The phase transformation path was investigated with temperature-time resolved X-ray diffraction during stepped isothermal crystallization, and while cooling from the melt at a fixed rate. Startling differences in phase behavior were uncovered between the isomers. When stepped isothermals were used, selective extinctions occurred at a transition temperature for JLE-281 but not for JLE-282. The extinctions, which are due to dramatic changes in the electronic density of certain families of planes, indicate a phase transition attributed to a brusque rearrangement of the oxygen atoms in the crystal subcell. The phase transition did not occur when the JLEs were cooled continuously. The crucial role played by the position of the alkyl chain and its orientation relative to the easy rotation site of the C–O bond in the phase trajectories of the JLEs was particularly highlighted.

  1. Effect of Different Nucleating Agents on the Crystallization of Ziegler-Natta Isotactic Polypropylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Avalos-Belmontes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ziegler-Natta isotactic polypropylene (iPP was melt mixed with four different nucleating agents (carbon nanotubes (CNT, carbon nanofibers (CNF, lithium benzoate (LiBe, and a sorbitol derivative (Millad in order to study their effect on the crystallization of iPP. It was found that the four different nucleating agents promote the alpha crystalline form. At 0.01 wt%, the carbon nanoparticles produced the higher crystallization temperature “Tc” (~119°C, whereas, at 0.10 wt%, LiBe and Millad produced a markedly higher Tc (~125°C. Tc of pure iPP was 111°C. With 0.1 wt% nucleating agent, at 120°C, the crystallization half-life time of PP, when using LiBe or Millad, was 15 times faster than for pure PP, whereas, when using carbon nanoparticles, it was 20–25 times faster. At 135°C, with 0.01 wt% nucleating agent, the isothermal crystallization process of iPP was completed after 25 min, as well as with Millad. With LiBe, it was completed after just 15 min and, with any of the carbon nanoparticles, it was practically over after only a couple of minutes.

  2. Study of the effect of doping on the temperature stability of the optical properties of germanium single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podkopaev, O. I. [Joint-Stock Company “Germanium” (Russian Federation); Shimanskiy, A. F., E-mail: shimanaf@mail.ru [Siberian Federal University (Russian Federation); Kopytkova, S. A.; Filatov, R. A. [Joint-Stock Company “Germanium” (Russian Federation); Golubovskaya, N. O. [Siberian Federal University (Russian Federation)

    2016-10-15

    The effect of doping on the optical transmittance of germanium single crystals is studied by infrared Fourier spectroscopy. It is established that the introduction of silicon and tellurium additives into germanium doped with antimony provides a means for improving the temperature stability of the optical properties of the crystals.

  3. 75 FR 11530 - Crystal Lake Wind III, LLC, et al.; Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Crystal Lake Wind III, LLC, et al.; Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator Status March 4, 2010. Docket Nos. Crystal Lake Wind III, LLC EG10-6-000 GardenGarden Wind, LLC EG10-7-000 Star Point Wind Project LLC EG10-8-000...

  4. Study of the effect of doping on the temperature stability of the optical properties of germanium single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podkopaev, O. I.; Shimanskiy, A. F.; Kopytkova, S. A.; Filatov, R. A.; Golubovskaya, N. O.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of doping on the optical transmittance of germanium single crystals is studied by infrared Fourier spectroscopy. It is established that the introduction of silicon and tellurium additives into germanium doped with antimony provides a means for improving the temperature stability of the optical properties of the crystals.

  5. Prophylactic effect of coconut water (Cocos nucifera L.) on ethylene glycol induced nephrocalcinosis in male wistar rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, M; Aggarwal, M; Puri, S; Singla, S K

    2013-01-01

    Many medicinal plants have been employed during ages to treat urinary stones though the rationale behind their use is not well established. Thus, the present study was proposed to evaluate the effect of coconut water as a prophylactic agent in experimentally induced nephrolithiasis in a rat model. The male Wistar rats were divided randomly into three groups. Animals of group I (control) were fed standard rat diet. In group II, the animals were administrated 0.75% ethylene glycol in drinking water for the induction of nephrolithiasis. Group III animals were administrated coconut water in addition to ethylene glycol. All the treatments were continued for a total duration of seven weeks. Treatment with coconut water inhibited crystal deposition in renal tissue as well as reduced the number of crystals in urine. Furthermore, coconut water also protected against impaired renal function and development of oxidative stress in the kidneys. The results indicate that coconut water could be a potential candidate for phytotherapy against urolithiasis.

  6. The effect of water on the stability of C60 fullerene nanowhiskers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazawa, Kun’ichi; Hotta, Kayoko

    2011-01-01

    The morphology of C 60 precipitates synthesized by using isopropyl alcohol (IPA) added with water was investigated in order to know the effect of water on the growth of C 60 nanowhiskers (C 60 NWs) in C 60 –toluene–IPA solution systems. The stability of C 60 NWs decreased and granular crystals of C 60 were formed in the solutions when IPA added with an excess amount of water was used in the liquid–liquid interfacial precipitation method. The C 60 NWs were found to be destabilized with time in the solutions added with water. The C 60 NWs dried in air showed similar Raman profiles irrespective of the use of IPA with and without water addition. The Raman profiles of granular C 60 single crystals showed the base lines much flatter than those of C 60 NWs, indicating that C 60 NWs possess a disordered crystal structure. By optimizing the growth condition, short C 60 NWs with aspect ratios ranging from 3 to 10 and an average length of about 1.8 μm were successfully fabricated. The short C 60 NWs are expected to be applicable for electrodes of organic thick film solar cells.

  7. Synergistic Effects of Nucleating Agents and Plasticizers on the Crystallization Behavior of Poly(lactic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuetao Shi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The synergistic effect of nucleating agents and plasticizers on the thermal and mechanical performance of PLA nanocomposites was investigated with the objective of increasing the crystallinity and balancing the stiffness and toughness of PLA mechanical properties. Calcium carbonate, halloysite nanotubes, talc and LAK (sulfates were compared with each other as heterogeneous nucleating agents. Both the DSC isothermal and non-isothermal studies indicated that talc and LAK were the more effective nucleating agents among the selected fillers. Poly(D-lactic acid (PDLA acted also as a nucleating agent due to the formation of the PLA stereocomplex. The half crystallization time was reduced by the addition of talc to about 2 min from 37.5 min of pure PLA by the isothermal crystallization study. The dynamic mechanical thermal study (DMTA indicated that nanofillers acted as both reinforcement fillers and nucleating agents in relation to the higher storage modulus. The plasticized PLA studied by DMTA indicated a decreasing glass transition temperature with the increasing of the PEG content. The addition of nanofiller increased the Young’s modulus. PEG had the plasticization effect of increasing the break deformation, while sharply decreasing the stiffness and strength of PLA. The synergistic effect of nanofillers and plasticizer achieved the balance between stiffness and toughness with well-controlled crystallization.

  8. Photonic crystal and photonic quasicrystal patterned in PDMS surfaces and their effect on LED radiation properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suslik, Lubos [Dept. of Physics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Zilina, Univerzitna 1, 010 26, Zilina (Slovakia); Pudis, Dusan, E-mail: pudis@fyzika.uniza.sk [Dept. of Physics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Zilina, Univerzitna 1, 010 26, Zilina (Slovakia); Goraus, Matej [Dept. of Physics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Zilina, Univerzitna 1, 010 26, Zilina (Slovakia); Nolte, Rainer [Fakultät für Maschinenbau FG Lichttechnik Ilmenau University of Technology, Ilmenau (Germany); Kovac, Jaroslav [Inst. of Electronics and Photonics, Slovak University of Technology, Ilkovicova 3, 812 19, Bratislava (Slovakia); Durisova, Jana; Gaso, Peter [Dept. of Physics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Zilina, Univerzitna 1, 010 26, Zilina (Slovakia); Hronec, Pavol [Inst. of Electronics and Photonics, Slovak University of Technology, Ilkovicova 3, 812 19, Bratislava (Slovakia); Schaaf, Peter [Chair Materials for Electronics, Institute of Materials Engineering and Institute of Micro- and Nanotechnologies MacroNano, TU Ilmenau, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 5, 98693 Ilmenau (Germany)

    2017-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Photonic quasicrystal patterned in the surface of polydimethylsiloxane membrane (left) and radiation pattern of light emitting diode with patterned membrane applied in the surface (right). - Highlights: • We presented fabrication technique of PDMS membranes with patterned surface by photonic crystal (PhC) and photonic quasi-crystal (PQC). • Presented technique is effective for preparation PhC and PQC PDMS membranes easily implementing in the LED chip. • From the goniophotometer measurements, the membranes document effective angular emission due to the diffraction on patterned surfaces. • 12 fold symmetry PQC structure shows homogeneous radiation pattern, while the 2 fold symmetry of square PhC shows evident diffraction lobes. - Abstract: We present results of fabrication and implementation of thin polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membranes with patterned surface for the light emitting diode (LED). PDMS membranes were patterned by using the interference lithography in combination with embossing technique. Two-dimensional photonic crystal and photonic quasicrystal structures with different period were patterned in the surface of thin PDMS membranes with depth up to 550 nm. Patterned PDMS membranes placed on the LED chip effectively diffracted light and increased angular emission of LED radiation pattern. We presented effective technique for fabrication of patterned PDMS membranes, which could modify the emission properties of optoelectronic devices and can be applied directly on surface LEDs and small optical devices.

  9. Effect of Canister Movement on Water Turbidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TRIMBLE, D.J.

    2000-01-01

    Requirements for evaluating the adherence characteristics of sludge on the fuel stored in the K East Basin and the effect of canister movement on basin water turbidity are documented in Briggs (1996). The results of the sludge adherence testing have been documented (Bergmann 1996). This report documents the results of the canister movement tests. The purpose of the canister movement tests was to characterize water turbidity under controlled canister movements (Briggs 1996). The tests were designed to evaluate methods for minimizing the plumes and controlling water turbidity during fuel movements leading to multi-canister overpack (MCO) loading. It was expected that the test data would provide qualitative visual information for use in the design of the fuel retrieval and water treatment systems. Video recordings of the tests were to be the only information collected

  10. Photorefractive Axicon: Study of Light-induced Effect by Bessel Beam in Photorefractive Crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, T A; Gesualdi, M R R; Zamboni-Rached, M; Muramatsu, M

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we present the theoretical and computational study of the original analysis of the light-induced effects by Bessel beams in photorefractive crystals. Modern applications of these beams as: metrological, alignment of optical systems, optical tweezers, non linear optics, optical communication, and others, becoming a very interesting substitute for a Gaussian beam when this is subject to diffraction and dispersion effects to large distance propagation. On the other hand, the photorefractive crystals are very important materials for applications in non-linear optics, holographic storage, interferometry and optical information processing. We perform an analysis of the index refraction modulation generated by Bessel beam in photorefractive medium discussing the possibility this optical material to control and generation of Bessel beam properties.

  11. Effect of physicochemical factors on the microplasticity of the surface layer of molybdenum single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savenko, V.I.; Kuchumova, V.M.; Kochanova, L.A.; Shchukin, E.D.

    1984-07-01

    The microplastic properties of the surface layer of molybdenum single crystals produced by electron-beam zone melting have been investigated experimentaly using ultramicrosclerometry and microindentation techniques. It is found that the 111 plane has the highest susceptibility to plastic damage, while the 100 plane is the hardest. An analysis of the stressed state of the material under an indenter shows that the dislocation density along the loading paths, which characterizes the microplasticity of the material, is largely determined by the crystallography of the lattice, i.e., by the arrangement and the number of effective slip systems in specimens of different orientations. The effect of a monolayer octadecylamine film on the microplastic behavior of molybdenum single crystals is discussed.

  12. Effect of composition and. gamma. -irradiation on crystal lattice spacing of lead sulphide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Indenbaum, G V; Novikova, S F; Vanyukov, A V; Dvorkin, Yu V [Moskovskij Inst. Stali i Splavov (USSR)

    1981-02-01

    Value of crystal lattice spacing of lead sulphide after annealing and quenching at temperatures of 600, 700 and 800 deg C are found for the both boundaries of homogeneity region with error of 5x10/sup -5/A. The effect of ..gamma.. irradiation with quanta energy of 1.25 MeV from /sup 60/Co source (10/sup 4/, 10/sup 5/ and 10/sup 6/ G/kg) on crystal lattice spacing of lead sulphide preliminary saturated with sulphur or lead at 600 deg C, is studied. It is established that lattice spacing of lead sulphide depends on material prehistory and decreases at room temperature after quenching and ..gamma..-irradiation. Effect of natural ageing of lead sulphide is explained by the decomposition of nonstechiometric solid solution, supersaturated with components, at room temperature.

  13. Uniform angular overlap model interpretation of the crystal field effect in U(5+) fluoride compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gajek, Z.; Mulak, J. (W. Trzebiatowski Inst. of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Wroclaw (Poland))

    1990-11-01

    The uniform interpretation of the crystal field effect in three different U(5+) fluoride compounds: CsUF{sub 6}, {alpha}-UF{sub 5} and {beta}-UF{sub 5} within the angular overlap model (AOM) is given. Some characteristic relations between the AOM parameters and their distance dependencies resulting from ab initio calculations are introduced and examined from a phenomenological point of view. The traditional simplest approach with only one independent parameter, i.e. e{sub {sigma}} with e{sub {pi}}:e{sub {sigma}} = 0.32 and e{sub {delta}} = 0, is shown to provide a consistent interpretation of the crystal field effect of the whole class of the compounds. The parameters obtained for one compound are easily and successfully extrapolated to others. The specificity and importance of the e{sub {delta}} parameter for 5f{sup 1} systems is discussed. (orig.).

  14. Sintered pellets: A simple and cost effective method to predict the performance of GGAG:Ce single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Fang; Koschan, Merry; Melcher, Charles L.; Cohen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Sintered pellets were firstly used to predict the performance of single crystals. • Similar properties between sintered pellets and single crystals were investigated. • B and Ba increase luminescence intensity in pellets and light yield in crystals. • Ca shortens photoluminescence decay in pellets and scintillation decay in crystals. - Abstract: Polycrystalline Gd 3 Ga 3 Al 2 O 12 :Ce (GGAG:Ce) pellets with various codopants were prepared via solid-state synthesis and characterized by X-ray diffraction, radioluminescence (RL), photoluminescence (PL), reflectivity and PL decay measurements. GGAG:Ce pellets codoped with B and Ba were found to have higher RL intensity than pellets with other codopants, while Ca codoping improved the decay time but reduced the RL intensity. These results were strongly correlated with the performance of these codopants in GGAG:Ce single crystals. The light yield of the single crystals codoped with B or Ba was ∼15% higher than the light yield of the GGAG:Ce crystal without codoping, while Ca codoping in single crystals resulted in lower light yield but shorter scintillation decay time (43 ns vs. 56 ns). The consistent performance of these codopants in both matrix forms indicates that sintering pellets may be used as a simple cost effective technique to evaluate compositions for likely single crystal scintillator performance

  15. The Effect of Thermal Cycling on Crystal-Liquid Separation During Lunar Magma Ocean Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Ryan D.

    2013-01-01

    Differentiation of magma oceans likely involves a mixture of fractional and equilibrium crystallization [1]. The existence of: 1) large volumes of anorthosite in the lunar highlands and 2) the incompatible- rich (KREEP) reservoir suggests that fractional crystallization may have dominated during differentiation of the Moon. For this to have occurred, crystal fractionation must have been remarkably efficient. Several authors [e.g. 2, 3] have hypothesized that equilibrium crystallization would have dominated early in differentiation of magma oceans because of crystal entrainment during turbulent convection. However, recent numerical modeling [4] suggests that crystal settling could have occurred throughout the entire solidification history of the lunar magma ocean if crystals were large and crystal fraction was low. These results indicate that the crystal size distribution could have played an important role in differentiation of the lunar magma ocean. Here, I suggest that thermal cycling from tidal heating during lunar magma ocean crystallization caused crystals to coarsen, leading to efficient crystal-liquid separation.

  16. Solvothermal crystallization of nanocrystals of metal oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, S; Amino, H; Iwamoto, S; Inoue, M

    2008-01-01

    Solvothermal crystallization of the hydroxide gels obtained by hydrolysis of alkoxides (Zr, Ta, Nb, ln, Sn, Ti and Al) was examined. Nanocrystals having high surface areas (S BET > 170 m 2 g -1 ) were obtained except for the product derived from indium isopropoxide. The effect of water in organic solvent upon the crystallinity of the product was investigated. The increase in the activity of water by using high concentration of alkoxide or intentional addition of water to the solvothermal medium led to crystal growth of the products. In contrast, decrease in activity of water by adding ethylene glycol before solvothermal treatment caused a decrease in crystallinity of the product

  17. Solvothermal crystallization of nanocrystals of metal oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, S.; Amino, H.; Iwamoto, S.; Inoue, M.

    2008-07-01

    Solvothermal crystallization of the hydroxide gels obtained by hydrolysis of alkoxides (Zr, Ta, Nb, ln, Sn, Ti and Al) was examined. Nanocrystals having high surface areas (SBET > 170 m2 g-1) were obtained except for the product derived from indium isopropoxide. The effect of water in organic solvent upon the crystallinity of the product was investigated. The increase in the activity of water by using high concentration of alkoxide or intentional addition of water to the solvothermal medium led to crystal growth of the products. In contrast, decrease in activity of water by adding ethylene glycol before solvothermal treatment caused a decrease in crystallinity of the product.

  18. A proton wire and water channel revealed in the crystal structure of isatin hydrolase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard-Andersen, Kaare; Sommer, Theis; Jensen, Jan Kristian

    2014-01-01

    to a novel family of metalloenzymes that include the bacterial kynurenine formamidase. The product state, mimicked by bound thioisatinate, reveals a water molecule that bridges the thioisatinate to a proton wire in an adjacent water channel and thus allows the proton released by the reaction to escape only...... when the product is formed. The functional proton wire present in IH-b represents a unique catalytic feature common to all hydrolases is here trapped and visualized for the first time. The local molecular environment required to coordinate thioisatinate allows stronger and more confident identification...

  19. Water concentration controlled hydrolysis and crystallization in n-octanol to TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals with size below 10 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Meilan [School of Chemical and Biological Science and Engineering, Yantai University, Yantai 264005 (China); He Tao, E-mail: htzy79@yahoo.com.cn [School of Chemical and Biological Science and Engineering, Yantai University, Yantai 264005 (China); Pan Yanfei; Liao Weiping [School of Chemical and Biological Science and Engineering, Yantai University, Yantai 264005 (China); Zhang Shangzhou; Du Wei [School of Environment and Materials Engineering, Yantai University, Yantai 264005 (China)

    2011-11-01

    Highlights: {yields} Controlled hydrolysis of alkoxide was realized by adjusting water concentration. {yields} Carrying out hydrolysis under different water concentration gave hydrolyzed intermediate with different composition. {yields} A precise size control below 10 nm for anatase TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals was realized. - Abstract: Hydrolysis of tetrabutyl titanate (TBT) and crystallization from hydrolyzed intermediates were carried out in a simple ternary system including n-octanol, TBT and water. Anatase TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals (NCS) were prepared with precise size control below 10 nm. The hydrolysis rate at different water concentration (C{sub water}) was evaluated by measuring the induction time before turbidity changing of the synthetic solution. Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FT-IR) and thermogravimetric/differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA) techniques were applied to make clear the composition of hydrolyzed intermediates obtained at different C{sub water}. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique was used to track the crystallization process of TiO{sub 2} NCS. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), XRD, FT-IR and TG/DTA techniques were used to characterize the particular properties of NCS. The C{sub water} controlled mechanism responsible for the slow hydrolysis and crystallization were discussed. Since no other organic capping ligands or rapid injecting techniques were used to limit NCS' growth and the solvent n-octanol can be easily separated and reused, this simple synthetic process is of green chemistry and has application potential in large-scale preparation of inorganic NCS.

  20. Pressure effect on crystallization temperature in Zr70Pd30 metallic glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Jianzhong; Jeppesen, S; Saida, J.

    2004-01-01

    The pressure effect on amorphous-to-quasicrystalline-to-intermetallic phase transformations in a Zr70Pd30 metallic glass has been investigated by in situ x-ray diffraction measurements using synchrotron radiation. It is found that the glass crystallizes in two steps: (1) amorphous...... temperature for the formation of quasicrystals has been further discussed with the nucleation theory. ©2004 American Institute of Physics....

  1. Mimicking the biomolecular control of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystal growth: effect of contiguous glutamic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grohe, Bernd; Hug, Susanna; Langdon, Aaron; Jalkanen, Jari; Rogers, Kem A; Goldberg, Harvey A; Karttunen, Mikko; Hunter, Graeme K

    2012-08-21

    Scanning confocal interference microscopy (SCIM) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were used to investigate the adsorption of the synthetic polypeptide poly(l-glutamic acid) (poly-glu) to calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals and its effect on COM formation. At low concentrations (1 μg/mL), poly-glu inhibits growth most effectively in ⟨001⟩ directions, indicating strong interactions of the polypeptide with {121} crystal faces. Growth in directions was inhibited only marginally by 1 μg/mL poly-glu, while growth in directions did not appear to be affected. This suggests that, at low concentrations, poly-glu inhibits lattice-ion addition to the faces of COM in the order {121} > {010} ≥ {100}. At high concentrations (6 μg/mL), poly-glu resulted in the formation of dumbbell-shaped crystals featuring concave troughs on the {100} faces. The effects on crystal growth indicate that, at high concentrations, poly-glu interacts with the faces of COM in the order {100} > {121} > {010}. This mirrors MD simulations, which predicted that poly-glu will adsorb to a {100} terrace plane (most calcium-rich) in preference to a {121} (oblique) riser plane but will adsorb to {121} riser plane in preference to an {010} terrace plane (least calcium-rich). The effects of different poly-glu concentration on COM growth (1-6 μg/mL) may be due to variations between the faces in terms of growth mechanism and/or (nano)roughness, which can affect surface energy. In addition, 1 μg/mL might not be adequate to reach the critical concentration for poly-glu to significantly pin step movement on {100} and {010} faces. Understanding the mechanisms involved in these processes is essential for the development of agents to reduce recurrence of kidney stone disease.

  2. Effect of an external magnetic field on polytypism of CdI2 crystals grown from solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palosz, B.; Przedmojski, J.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of growth conditions on the polytypic structure of crystals of CdI 2 was analyzed for crystallization from solutions. Three solvents were used: H 2 O, 3 H 2 O + 1 C 2 H 5 OH and 1 H 2 O + 1 C 2 H 5 OH. Crystals were grown at two temperatures: 5 and 25 0 C with low and high growth rates; an external magnetic field of about 0.25 tesla was used. The effect of the above three parameters on the formation of the basic polytypes 2H and 4H and on the ordering of faults in disordered structures and in polytype cells was studied by X-ray analysis of crystal surfaces. Some distinct relations between the polytypic structure of crystals of CdI 2 and the magnetic field were found. (author)

  3. Effect of tensile mean stress on fatigue behavior of single-crystal and directionally solidified superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalluri, Sreeramesh; Mcgaw, Michael A.

    1990-01-01

    Two nickel base superalloys, single crystal PWA 1480 and directionally solidified MAR-M 246 + Hf, were studied in view of the potential usage of the former and usage of the latter as blade materials for the turbomachinery of the space shuttle main engine. The baseline zero mean stress (ZMS) fatigue life (FL) behavior of these superalloys was established, and then the effect of tensile mean stress (TMS) on their FL behavior was characterized. At room temperature these superalloys have lower ductilities and higher strengths than most polycrystalline engineering alloys. The cycle stress-strain response was thus nominally elastic in most of the fatigue tests. Therefore, a stress range based FL prediction approach was used to characterize both the ZMS and TMS fatigue data. In the past, several researchers have developed methods to account for the detrimental effect of tensile mean stress on the FL for polycrystalline engineering alloys. However, the applicability of these methods to single crystal and directionally solidified superalloys has not been established. In this study, these methods were applied to characterize the TMS fatigue data of single crystal PWA 1480 and directionally solidified MAR-M 246 + Hf and were found to be unsatisfactory. Therefore, a method of accounting for the TMS effect on FL, that is based on a technique proposed by Heidmann and Manson was developed to characterize the TMS fatigue data of these superalloys. Details of this method and its relationship to the conventionally used mean stress methods in FL prediction are discussed.

  4. Confinement effects on strongly polar alkylcyanobiphenyl liquid crystals probed by dielectric spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leys, Jan; Glorieux, Christ; Thoen, Jan [Laboratorium voor Akoestiek en Thermische Fysica, Departement Natuurkunde en Sterrenkunde, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D-bus 2416, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)], E-mail: jan.leys@fys.kuleuven.be, E-mail: jan.thoen@fys.kuleuven.be

    2008-06-18

    Dielectric spectroscopy has often been used to study confinement effects in alkylcyanobiphenyl liquid crystals. In this paper, we highlight some of the effects that have been discovered previously and add new data and interpretation. Aerosil nanoparticles form a hydrogen bonded random porous network. In dispersions of alkylcyanobiphenyls with aerosils, an additional slow process arises, that we ascribe to the relaxation of liquid crystal molecules in close interaction with these nanoparticles. Their relaxation is retarded by a hydrogen bond interaction between the cyano group of the liquid crystals and an aerosil surface hydroxyl group. A similar surface process is also observed in Vycor porous glass, a random rigid structure with small pores. A comparison of the temperature dependence of the relaxation times of the surface processes in decylcyanobiphenyl and isopentylcyanobiphenyl is made, both for Vycor and aerosil confinement. In decylcyanobiphenyl, the temperature dependence for the bulk and surface processes is Arrhenius (in a limited temperature range above the melting point), except in Vycor, where it is a Vogel-Fulcher-Tamman dependence (over a much broader temperature range). In bulk and confined isopentylcyanobiphenyl, the molecular processes have a Vogel-Fulcher-Tamman dependence, whereas the surface processes have an Arrhenius one. Another effect is the acceleration of the rotation around the short molecular axis in confinement, and particularly in aerosil dispersions. This is a consequence of the disorder introduced in the liquid crystalline phase. The disorder drives the relaxation time towards a more isotropic value, resulting in an acceleration for the short axis rotation.

  5. An effect of re-extraction crystallization parameters on physical and chemical properties of AUC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yahi, Boussad

    1990-07-01

    This study is concerned with direct cristallization of ammonium uranyl carbonate (AUC) from a uranium loaded organic phase (30% TBP in kerosene), with ammonium carbonate (NH4)2 CO3. The effects of operating conditions (NH4)2 CO3 concentration, flowration residence time, temperature on the physical properties of AUC crystals (particle size distribution, specific area, density..) are reported. All products were identified (both by chemical analysis, X-Ray diffraction) as being ammonium uranyl ratio and (NH4)2 CO3 concentration favor the formation of fine AUC grains and aggregates. This is due mainly to the high concentration of (NH4)+ in the system which leads to a high solution supersaturation and consequently to a rapid formation rate of crystal (germination). The reverse phenomenon is observed at low phase ratio and (NH4)2 CO3 concentration, where germination and crystal growth ara slow and the product is mainly monocrystal. In the intermediate range, a mixture of polycrystal and aggregates is obtained. Residence time and temperature are also shown to have an effect on the processes (the effect of time being more important than temperature)

  6. The Effect of Cellulose Crystal Structure and Solid-State Morphology on the Activity of Cellulases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stipanovic, Arthur J [SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry

    2014-11-17

    Consistent with the US-DOE and USDA “Roadmap” objective of producing ethanol and chemicals from cellulosic feedstocks more efficiently, a three year research project entitled “The Effect of Cellulose Crystal Structure and Solid-State Morphology on the Activity of Cellulases” was initiated in early 2003 under DOE sponsorship (Project Number DE-FG02-02ER15356). A three year continuation was awarded in June 2005 for the period September 15, 2005 through September 14, 2008. The original goal of this project was to determine the effect of cellulose crystal structure, including allomorphic crystalline form (Cellulose I, II, III, IV and sub-allomorphs), relative degree of crystallinity and crystallite size, on the activity of different types of genetically engineered cellulase enzymes to provide insight into the mechanism and kinetics of cellulose digestion by “pure” enzymes rather than complex mixtures. We expected that such information would ultimately help enhance the accessibility of cellulose to enzymatic conversion processes thereby creating a more cost-effective commercial process yielding sugars for fermentation into ethanol and other chemical products. Perhaps the most significant finding of the initial project phase was that conversion of native bacterial cellulose (Cellulose I; BC-I) to the Cellulose II (BC-II) crystal form by aqueous NaOH “pretreatment” provided an increase in cellulase conversion rate approaching 2-4 fold depending on enzyme concentration and temperature, even when initial % crystallinity values were similar for both allomorphs.

  7. Development of a vacuum crystallizer for the concentration of industrial waste water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, A.C.; Verschuur, R.-J.; Schreurs, B.; Scholz, R.; Jansens, P.J.

    2002-01-01

    Freeze concentration has proven to be a viable technology for the concentration of hazardous industrial waste waters before incineration. Owing to the relatively high investment cost of the technology, its applicability has been limited until now. This paper investigates the feasibility of a vacuum

  8. Radioactivity in surface waters and its effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoeber, I.

    1987-01-01

    In consequence of the reactor accident in Chernobyl, the State Office for Water and Waste Disposal of North-Rhine Westphalia implemented immediate programmes for monitoring radioactivity in surface waters, including their sediments and organisms. Of the initially-measured radionuclides, only cesium-137, with its long half-life of 30 years, is of interest. Only trace amounts of the almost equally long-lived strontium 90 (half-life 28 years) were present in rainfall. Cs-137 is a non-natural-radionuclide, occurring solely as a by-product of nuclear installations and atomic bomb tests. Following the ban on surface testing of nuclear weapons, the Cs-137 content of surface waters had fallen significantly up to April 1986. The load due to the reactor disaster is of the same order of magnitude as that produced by atomic testing at the end of the nineteen-sixties. The paper surveys radioactive pollution of surface waters in North-Rhine Westphalia and its effects on water use, especially in regard to potable water supplies and the fish population. (orig./HSCH) [de

  9. Effect of dislocations of forest on relaxation of mechanical stresses in irradiated zinc crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troitskij, O.A.; Kalymbetov, P.U.; Kusainov, S.G.; Shambulov, N.B.

    1988-01-01

    Effect of forest dislocations on the value of electron-plastic effect (EPE) in zinc crystals during their irradiation by accelerated electron packets is investigated. The following mechanical parameters are determined experimentally: total relaxation of voltages Δσ for 180s; change in reforming voltage Δσpl in single pulses of irradiation on the slope and bottom of relaxation curves. The results obtained testify to the effectiveness of forest dislocations as surmountable obstacles for the dislocations shiding in the basis plane

  10. Gamma-radiation and isotopic effect on the critical behavior in triglycine selenate crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, M. E.; Hamed, A. E.; Abulnasr, L.; Abboudy, S.

    1994-11-01

    Isotopic effects in pure and γ-irradiated triglycine selenate crystals were investigated using the specific heat ( Cp) technique. The obtained results showed an interesting dependence of the critical behavior of Cp on the deuterium content. With increasing content of deuterium, the character of the phase transition changed from a second order (γ-type) to a first order transition. After γ-irradiation, the behavior of Cp around the phase transition region was essentially affected. The transition temperature, Tc, decreased and Δ Cp depressed, and the transition became broad. It was noted that the effect of γ-irradiation is opposite to the isotopic effect.

  11. Gamma-radiation and isotopic effect on the critical behavior in triglycine selenate crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassem, M.E.; Hamed, A.E.; Abulnasr, L.; Abboudy, S.

    1994-01-01

    Isotopic effects in pure and γ-irradiated triglycine selenate crystals were investigated using the specific heat (C p ) technique. The obtained results showed an interesting dependence of the critical behavior of C p on the deuterium content. With increasing content of deuterium, the character of the phase transition changed from a second order (λ-type) to a first order transition. After γ-irradiation, the behavior of C p around the phase transition region was essentially affected. The transition temperature, T c , decreased and ΔC p depressed, and the transition became broad. It was noted that the effect of γ-irradiation is opposite to the isotopic effect. (author)

  12. Effect of magnetic treatment of water on chemical properties of water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed effect of magnetic treatment of water on chemical properties of water, sodium adsorption ratio, electrical conductivity (EC) of the water and the lifespan of the magnetic effect on water. Magnetic flux densities used for treating the water were 124, 319, 443 and 719 gauss. All the cations (Calcium, Sodium, ...

  13. Biological effects of deuterium - depleted water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanescu, I.; Titescu, Gh.; Croitoru, Cornelia; Saros-Rogobete, Irina

    2000-01-01

    Deuterium-depleted water (DDW) is represented by water that has an isotopic content smaller than 145 ppm D/(D + H). DDW production technique consists in the separation of deuterium from water by a continuous distillation process under pressure of about 133.3 mbar. The water used as raw material has a isotopic content of 145 ppm D/(D + H) and can be demineralized water, distillated water or condensed-steam. DDW results as a distillate with an isotopic deuterium content of 15-80 ppm, depending on the level we want to achieve. Beginning with 1996 the Institute of Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies, DDW producer, co-operated with Romanian specialized institutes for studying the biological effects of DDW. The role of naturally occurring D in living organisms was examined by using DDW instead of natural water. These investigations led to the following conclusions: - DDW caused a tendency towards the increase of the basal tone, accompanied by the intensification of the vasoconstrictor effects of phenylefrine, noradrenaline and angiotensin; the increase of the basal tone and vascular reactivity produced by the DDW persists after the removal of the vascular endothelium; - Animals treated with DDW showed an increase of the resistance both to sublethal and lethal gamma radiation doses, suggesting a radioprotective action by the stimulation of non-specific immune defense mechanisms; - DDW stimulates immuno-defense reactions represented by the opsonic, bactericidal and phagocyte capacity of the immune system together with an increase in the number of poly-morphonuclear neutrophils; - Investigations regarding artificial reproduction of fish with DDW fecundated solutions confirmed favorable influence in embryo growth stage and resistance and following growth stages; - It was studied germination, growth and quantitative character variability in plants; one can remark the favorable influence of DDW on biological processes in plants in various ontogenetic stages. (authors)

  14. Synthesis of Freestanding Single-crystal Perovskite Films and Heterostructures by Etching of Sacrificial Water-soluble Layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Di; Baek, David J.; Hong, Seung Sae; Kourkoutis, Lena F.; Hikita, Yasuyuki; Hwang, Harold Y.

    2016-08-22

    The ability to create and manipulate materials in two-dimensional (2D) form has repeatedly had transformative impact on science and technology. In parallel with the exfoliation and stacking of intrinsically layered crystals, atomic-scale thin film growth of complex materials has enabled the creation of artificial 2D heterostructures with novel functionality and emergent phenomena, as seen in perovskite heterostructures. However, separation of these layers from the growth substrate has proven challenging, limiting the manipulation capabilities of these heterostructures with respect to exfoliated materials. Here we present a general method to create freestanding perovskite membranes. The key is the epitaxial growth of water-soluble Sr3Al2O6 on perovskite substrates, followed by in situ growth of films and heterostructures. Millimetre-size single-crystalline membranes are produced by etching the Sr3Al2O6 layer in water, providing the opportunity to transfer them to arbitrary substrates and integrate them with heterostructures of semiconductors and layered compounds.

  15. Topological modeling of methane hydrate crystallization from low to high water cut emulsion systems

    OpenAIRE

    Melchuna , Aline; Cameirão , Ana; Herri , Jean-Michel; Glénat , Philippe

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Hydrate formation and remediation in oil flowlines facilities represent a major concern for oil industry in respect of capital and operational costs. It is necessary to have a better understanding on the hydrate formation process to be more efficient in hydrate prevention, especially in respect to additive dosage. This work is a contribution to enhance the knowledge of hydrate formation at high water cuts, by introducing new techniques of analysis in the Archimede flow...

  16. Direct measurements of conventional and anisotropic magnetocaloric effect in binary RAl2 single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, J. C. B.; Gandra, F. G.

    2017-06-01

    We report on specific heat and magnetocaloric effect (MCE) measurements in single crystals of HoAl2, DyAl2, and TbAl2 measured by a heat flux technique using Peltier devices. Those compounds order ferromagnetically at 31 K, 61 K, and 106 K respectively, and present a spin reorientation transition (SRT) below TC. We study the dependence of the SRT with magnetic field and temperature by means of specific heat measurements performed in single crystals oriented at the [" separators="| 100 ], [" separators="| 110 ], and [" separators="| 111 ] directions with the aid of calculations using a simple model. We obtained the conventional MCE for HoAl2 and TbAl2 and also the anisotropic version of the effect obtained indirectly from the specific heat for TbAl2 and DyAl2. We also present the results for a direct determination of the anisotropic MCE for DyAl2 by measuring the heat flux generated by a rotation of the single crystal under constant field.

  17. Controllable synthesis of α- and β-MnO2: cationic effect on hydrothermal crystallization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Xingkang; Lv Dongping; Yue Hongjun; Attia, Adel; Yang Yong

    2008-01-01

    α- and β-MnO 2 were controllably synthesized by hydrothermally treating amorphous MnO 2 obtained via a reaction between Mn 2+ and MnO 4 - , and cationic effects on the hydrothermal crystallization of MnO 2 were investigated systematically. The crystallization is believed to proceed by a dissolution-recrystallization mechanism; i.e. amorphous MnO 2 dissolves first under hydrothermal conditions, then condenses to recrystallize, and the polymorphs formed are significantly affected by added cations such as K + , NH 4 + and H + in the hydrothermal systems. The experimental results showed that K + /NH 4 + were in competition with H + to form polymorphs of α- and β-MnO 2 , i.e., higher relative K + /NH 4 + concentration favoured α-MnO 2 , while higher relative H + concentration favoured β-MnO 2

  18. Sensitized charge carrier injection into organic crystals studied by isotope effects in weak magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bube, W.; Michel-Beyerle, M.E.; Haberkorn, R.; Steffens, E.

    1977-01-01

    The magnetic field (H approximately 50 Oe) dependence of the rhodamine sensitized triplet exciton density in anthracene crystals is influenced by isotopic substitution. This confirms the hyperfine interaction as mechanism explaining the change of the spin multiplicity in the initially formed singlet state of the radical pair. The isotope effect occurs in the sensitizing dye ( 14 N/ 15 N) rather than at the molecular site of the injected charge within the crystal. This can be understood in terms of the high hopping frequency of the charge carriers as compared to the time constant of the hyperfine induced singlet-triplet transition. Since the dye molecules adsorb in an oriented fashion, the angular dependence of the magnetic field modulation of the triplet exciton density can be interpreted without assuming any additional interactions. (Auth.)

  19. Effect of Sr2+ concentration on generation of colour centres in KCl crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalczyk, J.; Damm, J.Z.

    1976-01-01

    Gamma radiation induced generation of F- and V-type colour centres in KCl crystals (one pure and eight Sr-doped) is examined. Beginning with about 66 ppm Sr in the sample the late colouration stage is practically suppressed. It is shown that V 2 bands are characteristic for the initial colouration stage and V 3 band for the late colouration stage. The latter band appears in the pure or low-doped KCl and in plastically deformed high-doped KCl. The introduction of fresh dislocation into the crystal either by irradiation (low-doped KCl) or by plastic deformation (high-doped KCl) is responsible for the disappearance of primary cation vacancies. Some additional data concerning the dose-rate effect and generation of F 2 (M) centres are presented. (author)

  20. Effect of reactor neutron radiation and temperature on the structure of InP single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bojko, V.M.; Kolin, N.G.; Merkurisov, D.I.; Bublik, V.T.; Voronova, M.I.; Shcherbachev, K.D.

    2006-01-01

    The structural characteristics of InP single crystals have been investigated depending on the radiation effects produced by fast and full spectrum neutrons and subsequent heat treatment. A lattice period in InP single crystals decreases under neutron irradiation. Fast neutrons make the main contribution into the change of the lattice period. Availability of the thermal neutrons initiates the formation of Sn atoms, but does not make a significant influence on the change of the lattice period. Heat treatment of the irradiated samples up to 600 deg C causes the annealing of radiation defects and recovery of the lattice period. With increasing neutron fluences a lattice period becomes even higher than before irradiation [ru

  1. Random crystal field effects on the integer and half-integer mixed-spin system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigit, Ali; Albayrak, Erhan

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we have focused on the random crystal field effects on the phase diagrams of the mixed spin-1 and spin-5/2 Ising system obtained by utilizing the exact recursion relations (ERR) on the Bethe lattice (BL). The distribution function P(Di) = pδ [Di - D(1 + α) ] +(1 - p) δ [Di - D(1 - α) ] is used to randomize the crystal field.The phase diagrams are found to exhibit second- and first-order phase transitions depending on the values of α, D and p. It is also observed that the model displays tricritical point, isolated point, critical end point and three compensation temperatures for suitable values of the system parameters.

  2. Effect of cobalt on microstructural parameters and mechanical properties of Ni-base single crystal superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Takanobu; Imai, Hachiro; Yokokawa, Tadaharu; Kobayashi, Toshiharu; Koizumi, Yutaka; Harada, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    The alloying effect of Cobalt (Co) to microstructural parameters and mechanical properties, such as partitioning ratios of alloying elements and creep strength, of Re-bearing Ni-base single crystal superalloys have been investigated. The second generation single crystal superalloys, TMS-82+, Ni-7.8Co-4.9Cr-1.9Mo-8.7W-5.3Al-6.0Ta-2.4Re-0.1Hf, in mass% (8Co) was compared to a Co-free (0Co) and 15 mass% Co (15Co) alloy which had the same chemical composition as TMS-82+ except that Co was changed. It was shown that the partitioning ratios of alloying elements trend to k(=X γ /X' γ )=1, as the content of Co was increased. Furthermore, it was found that there was suitable content of Co for the creep strength under various temperature-stress conditions. (author)

  3. Photovoltaic effect in Bi{sub 2}TeO{sub 5} photorefractive crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Ivan de, E-mail: ivan@ft.unicamp.brg; Capovilla, Danilo Augusto [GOMNI-Faculdade de Tecnologia/UNICAMP, Limeira (Brazil); Carvalho, Jesiel F.; Montenegro, Renata; Fabris, Zanine V. [Instituto de Física/Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia (Brazil); Frejlich, Jaime [Instituto de Física “Gleb Wataghin”/UNICAMP, Campinas (Brazil)

    2015-10-12

    We report on the presence of a strong photovoltaic effect on nominally undoped photorefractive Bi{sub 2}TeO{sub 5} crystals and estimated their Glass photovoltaic constant and photovoltaic field for λ = 532 nm illumination. We directly measured the photovoltaic-based photocurrent in this material under λ = 532 nm wavelength laser light illumination and compared its behavior with that of a well known photovoltaic Fe-doped Lithium Niobate crystal. We also show the photovoltaic current to strongly depend on the polarization direction of light. Holographic diffraction efficiency oscillation during recording and the behavior of fringe-locked running holograms in self-stabilized experiments are also demonstrated here as additional indirect proofs of the photovoltaic nature of this material.

  4. Effect of atomic initial phase difference on spontaneous emission of an atom embedded in photonic crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bing, Zhang; Xiu-Dong, Sun; Xiang-Qian, Jiang

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the effect of initial phase difference between the two excited states of a V-type three-level atom on its steady state behaviour of spontaneous emission. A modified density of modes is introduced to calculate the spontaneous emission spectra in photonic crystal. Spectra in free space are also shown to compare with that in photonic crystal with different relative positions of the excited levels from upper band-edge frequency. It is found that the initial phase difference plays an important role in the quantum interference property between the two decay channels. For a zero initial phase, destructive property is presented in the spectra. With the increase of initial phase difference, quantum interference between the two decay channels from upper levels to ground level turns to be constructive. Furthermore, we give an interpretation for the property of these spectra. (atomic and molecular physics)

  5. Origin of gigantic magnetostriction and crystal field effects in terbium dititanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksandrov, I.V.; Lidskij, B.V.; Mamsurova, L.G.

    1985-01-01

    The temperature and magnetic field dependences of the magnetostriction and magnetization and the temperature dependences of the magnetic susceptibility, specific heat and lattice parameter are investigated experimentally in a broad range of temperature and field strength for polycrystalline and single crystal Tb 2 Ti 2 O 7 . A conclusion is drawn regarding the structure of the energy levels of Tb 3+ in Tb 2 Ti 2 O 7 . A qualitative and quantitative explanation of all observed magnetic effects, and in particular of gigantic magnetostriction in Tb 2 Ti 2 O 7 , is presented which is based on the crystal field theory. It is shown that the huge magnitude of the magnetostriction in terbium dititanate is due to the specificity of the energy spectrum of Tb 3+ in Tb 2 Ti 2 O 7

  6. Pulse carving using nanocavity-enhanced nonlinear effects in photonic crystal Fano structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekele, Dagmawi Alemayehu; Yu, Yi; Hu, Hao

    2018-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the use of a photonic crystal Fano resonance for carving-out short pulses from long-duration input pulses. This is achieved by exploiting an asymmetric Fano resonance combined with carrier-induced nonlinear effects in a photonic crystal membrane structure. The use...... of a nanocavity concentrates the input field to a very small volume leading to an efficient nonlinear resonance shift that carves a short pulse out of the input pulse. Here, we demonstrate shortening of ∼500  ps and ∼100  ps long pulses to ∼30  ps and ∼20  ps pulses, respectively. Furthermore, we demonstrate...

  7. Effects of precursors on the crystal structure and photoluminescence of CdS nanocrystalline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Zuoling; Zhou Shihong; Shi Jinsheng; Zhang Siyuan

    2005-01-01

    A series of cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanocrystalline were synthesized by precipitation from a mixture of aqueous solutions of cadmium salts and sulfur salts without adding any surface-termination agent. Their crystal structures and particle sizes were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The CdS nanocrystalline precipitated from different precursors exhibited three cases: cubic phase, hexagonal phase and a hybrid of cubic and hexagonal phases. The photoluminescence (PL) of cadmium salt precursors and CdS nanocrystalline is also analyzed. Similar spectral band structure of cadmium salt precursors and CdS nanocrystalline is found. The PL of 3.4, 2.4 and 2.0 nm sized CdS nanocrystalline with the same crystal structure indicated quantum confinement effect

  8. Photovoltaic effect in Bi2TeO5 photorefractive crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Ivan de; Capovilla, Danilo Augusto; Carvalho, Jesiel F.; Montenegro, Renata; Fabris, Zanine V.; Frejlich, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    We report on the presence of a strong photovoltaic effect on nominally undoped photorefractive Bi 2 TeO 5 crystals and estimated their Glass photovoltaic constant and photovoltaic field for λ = 532 nm illumination. We directly measured the photovoltaic-based photocurrent in this material under λ = 532 nm wavelength laser light illumination and compared its behavior with that of a well known photovoltaic Fe-doped Lithium Niobate crystal. We also show the photovoltaic current to strongly depend on the polarization direction of light. Holographic diffraction efficiency oscillation during recording and the behavior of fringe-locked running holograms in self-stabilized experiments are also demonstrated here as additional indirect proofs of the photovoltaic nature of this material

  9. Cooperative effects in (ethanol)3-water heterotetramers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejia, Sol; Espinal, Juan F; Mondragon, Fanor

    2009-01-01

    Density Functional Theory (DFT: B3LYP/6-31 + G(d)) was used for the optimization of clusters on the potential energy surface of (ethanol)3-water heterotetramers. The tetramerization energies can reach values up to -21.00 kcal/ mol. This energy can not be obtained by just considering the contributions from interactions between two cluster molecules, which suggests of the presence of global cooperative effects (positive). These effects are reflected in smaller hydrogen bond distances and smaller oxygen-oxygen distances, as well as in greater elongations of the O-H proton donor bond with a stronger red-shift in the heterotetramers compared to the ethanol-water heterodimers and the ethanol dimer. The largest cooperativity effect was observed in the four hydrogen bonds arranged in the largest possible cyclic geometric pattern, where all the molecules act as proton acceptor and donor simultaneously. A similar analysis to the characterization of (ethanol)3-water heterotetramers was carried out on (methanol)3-water heterotetramers, and ethanol and methanol tetramers, whose comparison showed a great similarity between all evaluated parameters for the clusters with equal geometric pattern.

  10. Research on the possibility of separation of the small amounts of calcium from strontium during crystallization of their nitrates in the system acetic acid-water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubicki, W.; Piskorek, M.

    1976-01-01

    Co-crystallization of the calcium nitrate and strontium nitrate from solutions of acetic acid at room temperature and boiling point were investigated. The process of crystallization was studied, using radioactive calcium isotope Ca 45 of 153 day semi-stability period. The presented investigations show that high effects of purifying strontium nitrate from small amounts of calcium can be obtained during crystallization of these nitrates from the system CH 3 COOH-H 2 O. This method was applied for obtaining strontium nitrate of high purity. (author)

  11. The effect of roughness model on scattering properties of ice crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geogdzhayev, Igor; Diedenhoven, Bastiaan van

    2016-01-01

    We compare stochastic models of microscale surface roughness assuming uniform and Weibull distributions of crystal facet tilt angles to calculate scattering by roughened hexagonal ice crystals using the geometric optics (GO) approximation. Both distributions are determined by similar roughness parameters, while the Weibull model depends on the additional shape parameter. Calculations were performed for two visible wavelengths (864 nm and 410 nm) for roughness values between 0.2 and 0.7 and Weibull shape parameters between 0 and 1.0 for crystals with aspect ratios of 0.21, 1 and 4.8. For this range of parameters we find that, for a given roughness level, varying the Weibull shape parameter can change the asymmetry parameter by up to about 0.05. The largest effect of the shape parameter variation on the phase function is found in the backscattering region, while the degree of linear polarization is most affected at the side-scattering angles. For high roughness, scattering properties calculated using the uniform and Weibull models are in relatively close agreement for a given roughness parameter, especially when a Weibull shape parameter of 0.75 is used. For smaller roughness values, a shape parameter close to unity provides a better agreement. Notable differences are observed in the phase function over the scattering angle range from 5° to 20°, where the uniform roughness model produces a plateau while the Weibull model does not. - Highlights: • We compare scattering by hexagonal crystals for uniform and Weibull roughness models. • The Weibull shape parameter has a stronger effect on the phase function at backscattering. • DoLP is mostly affected at the side-scattering angles. • For high roughness, the two models are in relatively close agreement for a given roughness. • A plateau from 5° to 20° is observed in the phase function when using the uniform model.

  12. Geometrical and wave-optical effects on the performance of a bent-crystal dispersive X-ray spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutter, J.P.; Amboage, M.; Hayama, S.; Diaz-Moreno, S.

    2010-01-01

    The X-ray focusing properties of a bent single crystal diffracting in Bragg geometry are discussed. First, it is assumed that a polychromatic point source is focused to a point image. The elliptical arc that the crystal must trace and the aberrations caused by bending the crystal cylindrically are derived from the ray paths. For a source of finite size, the magnification is found to vary over the crystal's length, so that rays of different wavelength produce images of different size. More realistic treatments of penetration and diffraction are performed with spherical monochromatic incident waves, using Takagi-Taupin calculations to create the diffracted wave and the Fresnel integral to trace the diffracted wave's evolution. Such 'wave-optical' calculations on a symmetric Si (1 1 1) crystal with 7 keV X-rays predict beam sizes different from those found in ray traces. Optimal sample and detector placement therefore requires wave effects to be considered.

  13. Effect of γ-(Fe,Ni) crystal-size stabilization in Fe-Ni-B amorphous ribbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorshenkov, M. V.; Glezer, A. M.; Korchuganova, O. A.; Aleev, A. A.; Shurygina, N. A.

    2017-02-01

    The effect of stabilizing crystal size in a melt-quenched amorphous Fe50Ni33B17 ribbon is described upon crystallization in a temperature range of 360-400°C. The shape, size, volume fraction, and volume density have been investigated by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction methods. The formation of an amorphous layer of the Fe50Ni29B21 compound was found by means of atomic-probe tomography at the boundary of the crystallite-amorphous phase. The stabilization of crystal sizes during annealing is due to the formation of a barrier amorphous layer that has a crystallization temperature that exceeds the crystallization temperature of the matrix amorphous alloy.

  14. Classical kinetic equations for orientational effects with account for the two-particle correlation function of a crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ol'khovskij, I.I.; Sadykov, N.M.

    1980-01-01

    The paper deals with the development of classical-statistical approach to the orientational effect theory with account of the influence of the two-particle correlation function of a crystal on diffusion processes. Peculiarities of fast particle movement in the crystal moving at small angles to crystallographic axes and planes are caused by a great number of correlated collisions of the beam particle with the crystal atoms during which the particle slightly deviates in each collision from the direction of its movement before the collision. Obtained is the kinetic equation for the distribution function over coordinates and velocities describing the movement of these particles in the crystal. Lacking the particle deceleration the equation describing movement of the beam particles in the averaged potential and their diffusion by velocities is also obtained. The main peculiarity of these equations is the fact that they take into account strong spatial non-uniformity in the crystal atom distribution [ru

  15. Effect of defects induced by doping and fast neutron irradiation on the thermal properties of lithium ammonium sulphate crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandil, S.H.; Ramadan, T.A.; Darwish, M.M.; Kassem, M.E.; El-Khatib, A.M.

    1994-01-01

    Structural defects were introduced in lithium ammonium sulphate crystals (LAS) either in the process of crystal growth (in the form of foreign ions) or by neutron irradiation. The effect of such defects on the thermal properties of LAS crystals was studied in the temperature range 300-500 K. It was assumed that the doped LAS crystals are composed of a two-phase system having different thermal parameters in each phase. The specific heat at constant pressure, C p , of irradiated samples was found to decrease with increasing irradiation doses. The thermal expansion of LAS crystals was found to be dependent on neutron irradiation, and was attributed to two processes: the release of new species and the trapping process. (author)

  16. Effect of defects induced by doping and fast neutron irradiation on the thermal properties of lithium ammonium sulphate crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandil, S.H.; Ramadan, T.A.; Darwish, M.M. (Alexandria Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Materials Science); Kassem, M.E.; El-Khatib, A.M. (Alexandria Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Physics)

    1994-05-01

    Structural defects were introduced in lithium ammonium sulphate crystals (LAS) either in the process of crystal growth (in the form of foreign ions) or by neutron irradiation. The effect of such defects on the thermal properties of LAS crystals was studied in the temperature range 300-500 K. It was assumed that the doped LAS crystals are composed of a two-phase system having different thermal parameters in each phase. The specific heat at constant pressure, C[sub p], of irradiated samples was found to decrease with increasing irradiation doses. The thermal expansion of LAS crystals was found to be dependent on neutron irradiation, and was attributed to two processes: the release of new species and the trapping process. (author).

  17. Effect of Co-60 gamma radiation on optical, dielectric and mechanical properties of strontium L-ascorbate hexahydrate NLO crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dileep, M. S.; Suresh Kumar, H. M.

    2018-04-01

    A potentially useful nonlinear optical semi-organic single crystal of strontium L-ascorbate hexahydrate (SLAH) was grown by solution growth slow evaporation technique at room temperature. The grown crystal is semi transparent, yellowish in color with monoclinic crystal system having space group P21 and is stable up to 198 °C. Further, SLAH crystals were irradiated with gamma rays produced by 60Co with different doses of 10 KGy, 30 KGy and 50 KGy at room temperature and then studied the effect of gamma-rays on dielectric properties, optical absorption, microhardness and SHG efficiency. The absorption study reveals that the absorbance of the grown crystal is appeared to be low throughout the visible region with a lower cutoff wavelength of 277 nm and these parameters are not affected upon gamma irradiation. The luminescence intensity of the crystal is also not affected by the irradiation. There is noticeable changes were observed in dielectric properties and hardness of the materials for different doses of gamma irradiation. The second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency of the grown crystal is 0.54 times that of the KDP crystal and is decreased moderately by increasing the dosage of gamma irradiation.

  18. Transverse Kerr effect in one-dimensional magnetophotonic crystals: Experiment and theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erokhin, S. [Faculty of Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 11992 Moscow (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: yerokhin@magn.ru; Boriskina, Yu. [Faculty of Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 11992 Moscow (Russian Federation); Vinogradov, A. [Institute for Theoretical and Applied Electrodynamics, Izhorskaya 13/19, 127412 Moscow (Russian Federation); Inoue, M. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibari-Ga-Oka, Tempaku, Toyohashi 441-8580 (Japan); Kobayashi, D. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibari-Ga-Oka, Tempaku, Toyohashi 441-8580 (Japan); Fedyanin, A. [Faculty of Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 11992 Moscow (Russian Federation); Gan' shina, E. [Faculty of Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 11992 Moscow (Russian Federation); Kochneva, M. [Faculty of Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 11992 Moscow (Russian Federation); Granovsky, A. [Faculty of Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 11992 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2006-05-15

    Magneto-optical transverse Kerr and Faraday effects are studied experimentally and theoretically in one-dimensional magnetophotonic crystals fabricated from a stack of four repetitions of layers of Bi-substituted yttrium iron garnet and SiO{sub 2} layers. The results of theoretical calculations in the framework of modified matrices approach are consistent with the obtained experimental data with the exception of the one cusp at 480 nm in the transverse Kerr effect spectra. Possible mechanisms of this disagreement are discussed.

  19. The optical interface of a photonic crystal: Modeling an opal with a stratified effective index

    OpenAIRE

    Maurin, Isabelle; Moufarej, Elias; Laliotis, Athanasios; Bloch, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    An artificial opal is a compact arrangement of transparent spheres, and is an archetype of a three-dimensional photonic crystal. Here, we describe the optics of an opal using a flexible model based upon a stratified medium whose (effective) index is governed by the opal density in a small planar slice of the opal. We take into account the effect of the substrate and assume a well- controlled number of layers, as it occurs for an opal fabricated by Langmuir-Blodgett deposition. The calculation...

  20. Effect of reorientation of anisotropic point defects on relaxation of crystal elastic coefficients of high order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topchyan, I.I.; Dokhner, R.D.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of reorientation of anisotropic point defects in uniform fields of elastic stresses on the relaxation of the elastic coefficients of a crystal was investigated in the nonlinear elasticity theory approximation. In calculating the interaction of point defects with elastic-stress fields was taken into consideration. The expression for the relaxations of the elasticity coefficients are obtained in an analytical form. The relaxation of the second-order elasticity coefficients is due to the dimentional interaction of a point defect with an applied-stress field, whereas the relaxation of the higher-order elasticity coefficients is determined both by dimentional and module effects

  1. Biological effects of water reservoir radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashneva, N.I.

    1983-01-01

    Radiation damage to fresh water fishes at early stages of ontogenesis is revealed only during the spawn incubation in a solution with 10 -5 to 10 -3 Cu/l radioactivity and at relatively high dosages exceeding 500-1000 rad. Damaging effect of a fission product mixture of 9, 30 and 100 day age as well as of several separate radionuclides on embryogenesis of freshwater fishes depends mainly on fish species, concentration, toxicity, chemical form of radionuclides in the residence medium, on peculiarities of metabolism between the aqueous medium and an organism, stage of the embryo development by the moment of radiation effect and duration of this effect

  2. Pinning potentials of the vortex lattice in YBCO crystals in the peak effect region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasquini, G.; Bekeris, V.

    2004-01-01

    Memory effects in the dynamic response of the vortex lattice (VL) in type II superconductors and its relationship with the controversial peak effect, have attracted great interest for a long time. In the last years, these features have been observed in YBCO single crystals, with the DC magnetic field tilted away from the twin planes and were related with robust dynamical states characterized by different degrees of mobility. Recently, we reported that the previous dynamical history of the VL can modify not only its dynamic response, but can even modify its static properties as well. In the present work, we try to understand the nature of the peak effect in YBCO crystals by sensing the effective AC penetration depth in the linear Campbell regime. We report history dependent effective pinning potential well curvatures and study the stability of the different static configurations. Interestingly, we observe that the more pinned VL configuration is not the more stable. Results agree with a dynamic scenario undergoing the Peak Effect

  3. A study of the ac Stark effect in doped photonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haque, I; Singh, Mahi R [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, N6A 3K7 (Canada)

    2007-04-16

    In this paper we present calculations of level populations and susceptibility for an ensemble of five-level atoms doped in a photonic crystal, using the master equation method. The atoms in the ensemble interact with the crystal which acts as a reservoir and are coupled with two strong pump fields and a weak probe field. It is found that, by manipulating the resonance energy associated with one of the decay channels of the atom, the system can be switched between an inverted and a non-inverted state. We have also observed the ac Stark effect in these atoms and have shown that due to the role played by the band structure of the photonic crystal, it is possible to switch between an absorption state and a non-absorption state of the atomic system. This is a very important finding as techniques of rendering material systems transparent to resonant laser radiation are very desirable in the fabrication of novel optical and photonic devices.

  4. Effect of hydrothermal process for inorganic alumina sol on crystal structure of alumina gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Yamamura

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the effect of a hydrothermal process for alumina sol on the crystal structure of alumina gel derived from hydrothermally treated alumina sol to help push forward the development of low temperature synthesis of α-Al2O3. White precipitate of aluminum hydroxide was prepared with a homogeneous precipitation method using aluminum nitrate and urea in aqueous solution. The obtained aluminum hydroxide precipitate was peptized by using acetic acid at room temperature, which resulted in the production of a transparent alumina sol. The alumina sol was treated with a hydrothermal process and transformed into an alumina gel film by drying at room temperature. Crystallization of the alumina gel to α-Al2O3 with 900 °C annealing was dominant for a hydrothermal temperature of 100 °C and a hydrothermal time of 60 min, as production of diaspore-like species was promoted with the hydrothermal temperature and time. Excess treatments with hydrothermal processes at higher hydrothermal temperature for longer hydrothermal time prevented the alumina gel from being crystallized to α-Al2O3 because the excess hydrothermal treatments promoted production of boehmite.

  5. Crystal-plane effects of MFI zeolite in catalytic conversion of methanol to hydrocarbons

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Ning

    2018-02-15

    We report the direct characterization of coke information in the clearly resolved (0 1 0) and (1 0 0) planes of various anisotropic MFI zeolites using EELS techniques, in a model reaction of methanol to hydrocarbons. For the first time, we found that the main coke species varied between different planes and depended on the crystal structure. The coke species was graphite carbon and polyaromatic hydrocarbon over MFI nanosheets and MFI with b-axis length 60 nm, respectively. The diffusion of aromatics out of conventional MFI zeolites was found only through the straight channels, while small molecules randomly diffused through both channels, resulting in different coke deposition on the (0 1 0) plane and the (1 0 0) plane from different precursors. As all product molecules diffused only through the straight channels, the MFI nanosheet showed a distinct crystal-plane selective effect of coke deposition, in contrast to nearly uniform coke distribution throughout the entire external surface for conventional zeolites. This anisotropic diffusion behavior influenced the gaseous and liquid products significantly, providing deep insight into the MFI catalyst for the selective control of products via crystal structure.

  6. Giant anisotropy of magnetocaloric effect in TbMnO3 single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jin-Ling; Zhang, Xiang-Qun; Li, Guo-Ke; Cheng, Zhao-Hua; Zheng, Lin; Lu, Yi

    2011-05-01

    The magnetocaloric effect (MCE) in TbMnO3 single crystals was investigated by isothermal magnetization curves for the ab plane at low temperatures. Large magnetic entropy change, ΔSM = -18.0 J/kg K, and the refrigerant capacity, RC = 390.7 J/kg, are achieved near the ordering temperature of Tb3+ moment (TNTb) under 70 kOe along the a axis. Furthermore, the TbMnO3 single crystal exhibits a giant MCE anisotropy. The difference of ΔSMand RC between the a and b axes is field and temperature dependent, which reaches maximum values of 11.4 J/kg K and 304.1 J/kg, respectively. By taking magnetocrystalline anisotropy into account, the rotating ΔSMwithin the ab plane can be well simulated, indicating that the anisotropy of ΔSMis directly contributed from the magnetocrystalline anisotropy. Our finding for giant MCE anisotropy in TbMnO3 single crystals explores the possibility of using this material for magnetic refrigerators by rotating its magnetization vector rather than moving it in and out of the magnet.

  7. Indentation Size Effects in Single Crystal Copper as Revealed by Synchrotron X-ray Microdiffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, G.; Budiman, A. S.; Nix, W. D.; Tamura, N.; Patel, J. R.

    2007-11-19

    The indentation size effect (ISE) has been observed in numerous nanoindentation studies on crystalline materials; it is found that the hardness increases dramatically with decreasing indentation size - a 'smaller is stronger' phenomenon. Some have attributed the ISE to the existence of strain gradients and the geometrically necessary dislocations (GNDs). Since the GND density is directly related to the local lattice curvature, the Scanning X-ray Microdiffraction ({mu}SXRD) technique, which can quantitatively measure relative lattice rotations through the streaking of Laue diffractions, can used to study the strain gradients. The synchrotron {mu}SXRD technique we use - which was developed at the Advanced Light Source (ALS), Berkeley Lab - allows for probing the local plastic behavior of crystals with sub-micrometer resolution. Using this technique, we studied the local plasticity for indentations of different depths in a Cu single crystal. Broadening of Laue diffractions (streaking) was observed, showing local crystal lattice rotation due to the indentation-induced plastic deformation. A quantitative analysis of the streaking allows us to estimate the average GND density in the indentation plastic zones. The size dependence of the hardness, as found by nanoindentation, will be described, and its correlation to the observed lattice rotations will be discussed.

  8. Effects of low molecular weight organic acids on the immobilization of aqueous Pb(II) using phosphate rock and different crystallized hydroxyapatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Cui, Jing; Wei, Zhenggui

    2014-06-01

    Understanding the effects of low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) on the transformation of Pb(II) to geochemically stable pyromorphite (PY) by apatite materials (AMs), has considerable benefits for risk assessment and remediation strategies for contaminated water and soil. In this study, we systematically investigated the immobilization of Pb(II) from aqueous solution by natural phosphate rock (PR) and different crystallized hydroxyapatite (HAp) in the absence and presence of LMWOAs (oxalic, malic and citric acids). The results indicated that the effectiveness of PR and HAp in immobilizing Pb(II) followed in descending order by HAp2 (the poorly crystallized HAp), HAp1 (the well crystallized HAp) and PR, regardlessof the presence of LMWOAs. The presence of malic and citric acids significantly decreased the immobilizationefficiency of Pb(II) by HAp1 and PR, clarifying the lower adsorption affinities of Pb(II)-organic acid complexes on HAp1 and PR rather than Pb(II) ion. On thecontrary, oxalic acid could markedly enhance the removal of Pb(II) from aqueous solution by HAp1 and PR through the formation of lead oxalate, which was confirmed by FT-IR and XRDanalysis. Results also showed that LMWOAs had little promoting or inhibiting effect on the immobilization of Pb(II) by HAp2. This study suggested that the ubiquity of LMWOAs in natural environments could retard the transformation efficiency of Pb(II) to PY by AMs, especiallyin thepresenceof oxalic acid, and the poorly crystallized HAp2 had great potential to remediate Pb(II)-contaminated water and soil due to its insusceptibility to LMWOAs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of plasma absorption on dust lattice waves in hexagonal dust crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerong, HE; Hui, CHEN; Sanqiu, LIU

    2018-04-01

    In the present paper, the effect of plasma absorption on lattice waves in 2D hexagonal dust crystals is investigated. The dispersion relations with the effect of plasma absorption are derived. It is found that the temperature effect (electron-to-ion temperature ratio τ) enhances the frequency of the dust lattice waves, while the spatial effect (dimensionless Debye shielding parameter \\tilde{κ }) weakens the frequency of the dust lattice waves. In addition, the system stabilities under the conditions of plasma absorption are studied. It is found that the temperature effect narrows the range of instability, while the spatial effect extends this range. And the range of instability is calculated, i.e. the system will always in the stable state regardless of the value of \\tilde{κ } when τ > 3.5. However, the system will be unstable when τ = 1 and \\tilde{κ }> 4.1.

  10. Magneto-optic and converse magnetoelectric effects in a ferromagnetic liquid crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertelj, Alenka; Osterman, Natan; Lisjak, Darja; Copič, Martin

    2014-12-07

    We have studied the response of ferromagnetic liquid crystals to external magnetic and electric fields, and compared it to the usual response of nematic liquid crystals (NLCs). We have observed effects, which are not present in a pure NLC and are a consequence of the coupling between the nematic director and the magnetization. The electro-optic effect, which is in the ferromagnetic phase the same as in the pure NLC, is accompanied by a converse magnetoelectric effect. The magneto-optic effect differs completely from the one observed in the pure NLC, where it is a quadratic effect and it only appears when a magnetic field larger than a critical field is applied perpendicular to the director. In the ferromagnetic NLC in addition to the response to the perpendicular field, there is also a qualitatively different response to the parallel field. Contrary to the pure NLC no critical field needs to be exceeded for the system to respond to a perpendicular field, but a critical field needs to be exceeded to observe a response to the field parallel to the director and antiparallel to the magnetization. The critical field is in this case two orders of magnitude smaller than the critical field of the magnetic Frederiks transition in the pure NLC. The experimental observations are well described by a simple macroscopic theory.

  11. Investigation of the effects of swift heavy ion on the properties of yttrium calcium oxyborate (YCOB) NLO crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalidasan, M.; Dhanasekaran, R.; Asokan, K.

    2012-01-01

    Heavy ion irradiation is a successful tool to create an effective refractive index change in a nonlinear optical (NLO) crystal surface in several micron thickness. It leads to the fabrication of non-leaky optical guiding structures. As irradiation can create the property changes with low ion fluence, it will be an alternative for the ion implantation. The present work is related to the creation of micrometer level surface modification in the YCa_4O(BO_3)_3 NLO crystal by the irradiation of 120 MeV Au"9"+ swift heavy ion and studying the changes in property of the material. The irradiation was carried out in the Materials Science beam line of the pelletron accelerator at Inter University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi. YCOB crystals were grown by high temperature flux technique in our laboratory. YCOB belongs to borate family of crystals which are superior to other NLO crystals due to their structural and optical features. Borate crystal can produce UV and deep UV laser through harmonic generation with good optical conversion efficiency. YCOB crystal attracted because of its high laser damage threshold, long nonlinear conversion length and large aperture scaling capability to be employed in high power laser applications. The Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter (SRIM) simulation has been carried out to study the variation of electronic (S_e) and nuclear (S_n) energy losses with penetration depth and energy of gold ions in YCOB crystal. Refractive index change was observed in the YCOB crystal due to the irradiation of 120 MeV Au"9"+ ion. The UV-Visible studies show optical band gap shift and confirms the refractive index change created in the YCOB crystal. The morphology of the irradiated crystal was analysed with scanning electron microscopy. The inhomogeneous broadening of emission curve of the YCOB crystal takes place due to ion irradiation which is analyzed in detail. From the fluorescence decay curves of pristine and irradiated crystals the excited state

  12. Pressure-induced effects on the spectroscopic properties of Nd{sup 3+} in MgO:LiNbO{sub 3} single crystal. A crystal field approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muñoz Santiuste, J.E., E-mail: jems@fis.uc3m.es [Departamento de Física, Escuela Politécnica Superior, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avenida de la Universidad 30, E-28913 Leganés, Madrid (Spain); MALTA Consolider Team (Spain); Lavín, V.; Rodríguez-Mendoza, U.R. [MALTA Consolider Team (Spain); Departamento de Física, INM and IUdEA, Universidad de La Laguna, Apdo. 456. E-38200 San Cristóbal de La Laguna, Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Spain); Tardio, M.M.; Ramírez-Jiménez, R. [Departamento de Física, Escuela Politécnica Superior, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avenida de la Universidad 30, E-28913 Leganés, Madrid (Spain)

    2017-04-15

    The effects of pressure on the Nd{sup 3+}-doped MgO:LiNbO{sub 3} single crystal have been studied by luminescence spectroscopy at low temperature and high pressures from ambient conditions up to 33 GPa. Specifically, the pressure-induced evolution of the emission spectra, corresponding to the {sup 4}F{sub 3/2}→{sup 4}I{sub 9/2},{sup 4}I{sub 11/2} transitions, and the excitation spectra, corresponding to the {sup 4}I{sub 9/2}→{sup 4}F{sub 5/2}+{sup 2}H{sub 9/2}, and {sup 4}I{sub 9/2}→{sup 4}F{sub 7/2}+{sup 4}S{sub 3/2} transitions, show a gradual red-shift that follows a linear pressure dependence and a decrease in the intensity of the spectra with increasing pressure. The initial effect of increasing pressure on the MgO:LiNbO{sub 3} crystal is the modification of the relative amount of the several centers in the sample. At pressures around 20 GPa the characteristic multicenter Nd{sup 3+} structure eventually disappears indicating that all the centers have very similar environments near this pressure. At higher pressures, observed changes seem to have a different origin. The evolution of Nd{sup 3+} luminescence is studied in the frame of crystal-field theory in order to evaluate its capability of monitoring the pressure-induced structural changes. Crystal-field analysis, under approximated C{sub 3v} symmetry, shows a smooth increase of the overall crystal-field strength on the luminescent ion, which can be related to the volume reduction as pressure increases. Crystal-field parameters also show a general monotonic behavior with pressure that indicates a structural modification of the local structure that, maintaining the trigonal symmetry around the impurity ion, evolves towards a lower axial character. No evidences of a phase transition have been observed in the studied pressure range.

  13. Draft Tube Baffle (DTB) crystallizers: A study of stationary and dynamically behaving Crystal Size Distributions (CSD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deleer, B. G. M.

    1981-11-01

    Based on population balance, CSD behavior as a function of geometrical and operating variables was studied, using a crystallizer. A potash alum-water system, involving a separation technique which uses surface active agents and an apolar, organic liquid to separate potash alum crystals from mother liquid under the influence of gravity was used to check experimental findings against literature data. Results show action of annular settling spaces is strongly influenced by fluid velocities perpendicular to those directed upwards. The well-mixed volume decreases with increasing crystallizer size until a minimum effective volume is reached. As supersaturation is constant throughout the crystallizer volume under stationary operating conditions, the annular settling space behaves like a growth chamber for crystals in its volume. Swirl in the lower part of the annular volume introduces significant back mixing. Crystals within this space either grow and return to the well-mixed part, or withdraw from the annular volume permanently.

  14. Crystallization: the hidden dimension of Hedge funds' fee structure

    OpenAIRE

    Elaut, Gert; Frömmel, Michael; Sjödin, John

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the implications of variations in the frequency with which hedge fund managers update their high-water mark on fees paid by investors. We first document the crystallization frequencies used by Commodity Trading Advisors (CTAs) and then perform simulations and a bootstrap analysis. We find a statistically and economically significant effect of the crystallization frequency on the total fee load. Hedge funds' total fee load increases significantly as the crystallization frequency...

  15. Effective antibodies immobilization and functionalized nanoparticles in a quartz-crystal microbalance-based immunosensor for the detection of parathion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartolomeo Della Ventura

    Full Text Available Biosensor-based detection provides a rapid and low-cost alternative to conventional analytical methods for revealing the presence of the contaminants in water as well as solid matrices. Although important to be detected, small analytes (few hundreds of Daltons are an issue in biosensing since the signal they induce in the transducer, and specifically in a Quartz-Crystal Microbalance, is undetectable. A pesticide like parathion (M = 292 Da is a typical example of contaminant for which a signal amplification procedure is desirable.The ballasting of the analyte by gold nanoparticles has been already applied to heavy target as proteins or bacteria to improve the limit of detection. In this paper, we extend the application of such a method to small analytes by showing that once the working surface of a Quartz-Crystal Microbalance (QCM has been properly functionalized, a limit of detection lower than 1 ppb is reached for parathion. The effective surface functionalization is achieved by immobilizing antibodies upright oriented on the QCM gold surface by a simple photochemical technique (Photonic Immobilization Technique, PIT based on the UV irradiation of the antibodies, whereas a simple protocol provided by the manufacturer is applied to functionalize the gold nanoparticles. Thus, in a non-competitive approach, the small analyte is made detectable by weighing it down through a "sandwich protocol" with a second antibody tethered to heavy gold nanoparticles. The immunosensor has been proved to be effective against the parathion while showing no cross reaction when a mixture of compounds very similar to parathion is analyzed.The immunosensor described in this paper can be easily applied to any small molecule for which polyclonal antibodies are available since both the functionalization procedure of the QCM probe surface and gold nanoparticle can be applied to any IgG, thereby making our device of general application in terms of target analyte.

  16. Effects of temperature and solvent concentration on the solvent crystallization of palm-based dihydroxystearic acid with isopropyl alcohol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gregory F.L.Koay; Teong-Guan Chuah; Sumaiya Zainal-Abidin; Salmiah Ahmad; Thomas S.Y.Choong

    2012-01-01

    Palm-based dihydroxystearic acid of 69.55% purity was produced in a 500-kg-per-batch operation pilot plant and purified through solvent crystallization in a custom fabricated simultaneous batch crystallizer unit.The effects of temperature and solvent concentration on yield,particle size distribution and purity were studied.The purity was higher,while the yield and particle size were lower and smaller,respectively,at higher temperature and solvent concentration.The solvent crystallization process efficiency was rated at 66-69% when carried out with 70-80% isopropyl alcohol at 20 ℃.

  17. Effect of laser-plasma X-ray irradiation on crystallization of amorphous silicon film by excimer laser annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Naoto; Uejukkoku, Kazuya; Heya, Akira; Takanashi, Yasuyuki; Amano, Sho; Miyamoto, Shuji; Mochizuki, Takayasu

    2007-01-01

    The effect of laser plasma soft X-ray (LPX) irradiation on crystallization by excimer laser annealing (ELA) was investigated at low ELA energy densities. The crystalline fraction at energy densities of 50 and 60 mJ/cm 2 for LPX followed by ELA is nearly equal to that at 80 to 100 mJ/cm 2 for the ELA method with non-LPX irradiation. The results obtained indicate that LPX irradiation before ELA reduces the critical energy density for the start of crystallization. The combined method of LPX irradiation and ELA will enable us to realize a low-temperature process for ELA crystallization. (author)

  18. Analysis of the quadrupolar coupling effect on the line intensities using single-crystal nutation NMR in α-Al2O3 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Ae Ja; Cho, So Hyun; Han, Duk Young

    2000-01-01

    With 1D-nutation NMR for a spin I = 5/2 system, the relative line intensities of central and the inner- and outer-satellite transitions are calculated as functions of quadrupolar coupling ω Q and rf pulse strength ω rf . Experimentally measured line intensities including both central and satellites are used to extract the values of ω Q and ω rf from nonlinear least-squares fits. The method is illustrated in α-Al 2 O 3 crystals (ruby and corundum) with the single-crystal 27 Al nutation NMR spectra. As a result, the new feature that the rf pulse strength shows reduced effect on the satellite transition lines according to the quadrupolar coupling is discussed by using fictitious spin-1/2 operator

  19. Impurity effect of iron(III) on the growth of potassium sulfate crystal in aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Noriaki; Katagiri, Ken-ichi; Yokota, Masaaki; Sato, Akira; Yashiro, Hitoshi; Itai, Kazuyoshi

    1999-01-01

    Growth rates of the {1 1 0} faces of a potassium sulfate crystal were measured in a flow cell in the presence of traces of impurity Fe(III) (up to 2 ppm) over the range of pH=2.5-6.0. The growth rate was significantly suppressed by the impurity. The effect became stronger as the impurity concentration was increased and at pH5 it finally disappeared completely. The concentration and supersaturation effects on the impurity action were reasonably explained with a model proposed by Kubota and Mullin [J. Crystal Growth, 152 (1995) 203]. The surface coverage of the active sites by Fe(III) is estimated to increase linearly on increasing its concentration in solution in the range examined by growth experiments. The impurity effectiveness factor is confirmed to increase inversely proportional to the supersaturation as predicted by the model. Apart from the discussion based on the model, the pH effect on the impurity action is qualitatively explained by assuming that the first hydrolysis product of aqua Fe(III) complex compound, [Fe(H 2O) 5(OH)] 2+, is both growth suppression and adsorption active, but the second hydrolysis product, [Fe(H 2O) 4(OH) 2] +, is only adsorption active.

  20. Photoinduced nonlinear optical effects in Nd-doped δ-BiB3O6 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majchrowski, A.; Wojciechowski, A.; Kityk, I.V.; Chrunik, M.; Jaroszewicz, L.R.; Michalski, E.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • New type of optically operated rare earth doped borates is proposed. • Principal role of the phonon subsystem in photoinduced electrooptics, SHG and piezooptics is shown. • The possibility to create the laser operated materials is shown for the such kind of sold state alloys. - Abstract: The studies of the second harmonic generation, Pockels effect and piezoelectricity were performed for the new synthesized δ-BiB 3 O 6 single crystals. The incorporation of Nd 3+ ions into these crystals plays an important role for the increasing of the photoinduced nonlinear optical properties. Temperature dependences of the optical and piezoelectric features showed existence of some anomalies in the vicinity of 160 K and 220 K. This may confirm a principal role of the photopolarization and of the localized impurity states which give additional contribution into the observed effect. It is crucial that the effect is dependent on the number of the photoinducing pulses. The effect is completely reversible after switching off of the photoinducing laser beam

  1. Effects of Polluted Water on the Metallic Water Pipelines

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul-Khaliq M. Hussain; Bashir A. Tantosh; El-Sadeg A. Abdalla

    2010-01-01

    Corrosion of metallic water pipelines buried below ground surface is a function of the nature of the surrounding soil and groundwater. This gives the importance of knowing the physical and chemical characteristics of the pipe-s surrounding environment. The corrosion of externally – unprotected metallic water pipelines, specially ductile iron pipes, in localities with aggressive soil conditions is becoming a significant problem. Anticorrosive protection for metallic water ...

  2. Studies on carcinogenic effect of tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Shuai; Wang Hui; Li Maohe; Lin Suqin

    1994-09-01

    Studies on carcinogenic effect of tritiated water is introduced in two parts. The first part is an in vitro study in which CHL-1 cells were exposed to tritiated water (9.25 x 10 5 ∼ 3.5 x 10 6 Bq/ml) for 24 ∼ 96 h and the accumulated dose was from 0.055 to 0.88 Gy. In order to estimate RBE of tritium for malignant transformation in CHL-1 cells, the induction of malignant transformation in CHL-1 cells by exposure to gamma rays of 137 Cs was tested. Based on the transformation rates, the RBE of tritium for malignant transformation in CHL-1 cells was estimated to be 1.6. The second part is an in vivo study. In the study, rats were fed with tritiated water (2.22 x 10 5 and 1.11 x 10 5 Bq/ml) for 1.5 a. Rats in control group were fed with tap water. Results showed that in the statistics, the differences in the total tumor incidence and malignant tumor incidence between high and low dose rate groups and control groups were remarkably significant

  3. Algorithms for GPU-based molecular dynamics simulations of complex fluids: Applications to water, mixtures, and liquid crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazachenko, Sergey; Giovinazzo, Mark; Hall, Kyle Wm; Cann, Natalie M

    2015-09-15

    A custom code for molecular dynamics simulations has been designed to run on CUDA-enabled NVIDIA graphics processing units (GPUs). The double-precision code simulates multicomponent fluids, with intramolecular and intermolecular forces, coarse-grained and atomistic models, holonomic constraints, Nosé-Hoover thermostats, and the generation of distribution functions. Algorithms to compute Lennard-Jones and Gay-Berne interactions, and the electrostatic force using Ewald summations, are discussed. A neighbor list is introduced to improve scaling with respect to system size. Three test systems are examined: SPC/E water; an n-hexane/2-propanol mixture; and a liquid crystal mesogen, 2-(4-butyloxyphenyl)-5-octyloxypyrimidine. Code performance is analyzed for each system. With one GPU, a 33-119 fold increase in performance is achieved compared with the serial code while the use of two GPUs leads to a 69-287 fold improvement and three GPUs yield a 101-377 fold speedup. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Minimization of pyroelectric effects in relaxor-PbTiO3 crystals for piezoelectric sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Yanxue; Shen, Zongyang; Zhang, Shujun; Jiang, Wenhua; Luo, Jun; Shrout, Thomas R.

    2014-01-01

    To minimize pyroelectric effects while keeping high piezoelectric effects in relaxor-PbTiO 3 single crystals, the crystallographic orientation dependence of the pyroelectric and piezoelectric coefficients were investigated for binary (1 − x)Pb(Mg 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 –xPbTiO 3 (PMN–PT), ternary (1 − x − y)Pb(In 1/2 Nb 1/2 )O 3 –yPb(Mg 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 –xPbTiO 3 (PIN–PMN–PT) and Mn-doped PIN–PMN–PT single crystals with the “4R” multidomain state. The secondary pyroelectric coefficients were calculated from the thermodynamic inter-relationship between the piezoelectric, elastic, and thermal expansion coefficients, being on the order of (1.16–1.23) × 10 −4  C m −2  K −1 for binary crystals and (0.97–2.03) × 10 −4  C m −2  K −1 for ternary ones. The primary pyroelectric coefficients were –(6.73–6.84) × 10 −4  C m −2  K −1 and −(5.44–6.43) × 10 −4  C m −2  K −1 for binary and ternary crystals, respectively. The pyroelectric coefficients could be reduced by matrix rotation, but at the cost of decreasing longitudinal piezoelectric coefficients d 33 . Of particular interest is that the maximum piezoelectric coefficients d 24 ∗ at θ = ±55 o and d 34 ∗ at θ = ±35 o by a counterclockwise rotation of θ about the X axis (θ is the rotation angle about the coordinate axes), or d 15 ∗ at θ = ±55 o , and d 35 ∗ at θ = ±35 o by a counterclockwise rotation the Y axis, were found on the order of 3000 pC N −1 . The corresponding pyroelectric coefficients could be reduced by ∼20%. The reduced pyroelectric coefficients that can contribute to decrease undesirable output signals, together with the high piezoelectric coefficients, enable relaxor-PT crystals as favorable candidates for high-sensitivity piezoelectric sensors. - Highlights: • Primary/secondary pyroelectric coefficients were determined for relaxor-PT crystals. • Pyroelectric coefficients could be reduced by

  5. Thermal behaviour of strontium tartrate single crystals grown in gel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thermal behaviour of strontium tartrate crystals grown with the aid of sodium metasilicate gel is investigated using thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). Effect of magnetic field and dopant (Pb)2+ on the crystal stability is also studied using thermal analysis. This study reveals that water molecules are ...

  6. Temperature effects of Mach-Zehnder interferometer using a liquid crystal-filled fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ho, Bo-Yan; Su, Hsien-Pin; Tseng, Yu-Pei

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrated a simple and cost-effective method to fabricate all fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) based on cascading a short section of liquid crystal (LC)-filled hollow-optic fiber (HOF) between two single mode fibers by using automatically splicing technique. The transmission spectra...... of the proposed MZI with different LC-infiltrated length were measured and the temperature-induced wavelength shifts of the interference fringes were recorded. Both blue shift and red shift were observed, depending the temperature range. Based on our experimental results, interference fringe was observed...

  7. The volt-ampere characteristic and pole-Frenkel effect of TIS crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahramanova, S.M.; Mammadova, G.E.; Abdullayeva, I.A.

    2016-01-01

    As known, some features were observed at the Volt-Ampere Character while current severity deviation from voltage and liner dependence, which means that all happen at Volt-Ampere Character of upper oblasts than ohmic oblast. At this time, in many cases electric properties can not be provide one conductivity mechanism in the powerful electric field and it is explained by different mechanisms at different quantity oblast of electric field intensity. It was determined that, current in the non-liner part of Volt-Ampere Character of the TIS crystal conditioned with weak field effect and is explained in the context of Pul-Frenkel thermal field theory.

  8. Trapping effects and acoustoelectric current saturation in ZnO single crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosekilde, Erik

    1970-01-01

    Measurements of current-voltage characteristics for ZnO single crystals at temperatures between 77 and 640 °K are reported. Because of the buildup of an intense acoustic flux, a strong current saturation sets in when the trap-controlled electron drift velocity is equal to the velocity of sound....... The temperature dependence of the saturated current is discussed in terms of a trapping model which includes nonlinear trapping effects. Our results indicate the presence of a shallow-donor level with an ionization energy of 50 meV and a deep-donor level approximately 230 meV below the conduction-band edge...

  9. Effect of reducing conditions of synthesis on the character of the crystallization of phosphate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekseeva, I.P.; Karapetyan, G.O.; Milyukov, E.M.; Rusan, V.V.

    1986-03-01

    The authors investigate the effect of synthesis conditions on the properties of phosphate glasses with a high concentration of rare-earth elements (REE) which are promising materials for quantum electronics. Particular attention was paid to the character of the crystallization of the glasses. A model glass of the composition La/sub 2/O/sub 3/ X 3P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ was studied which is transparent in the visible and near-IR regions of the spectrum and produced commercially.

  10. Gigantic uniaxial pressure effect in single crystals of iron-based superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, Y.; Yui, H.; Sasagawa, T.

    2010-01-01

    In order to elucidate the anisotropic pressure effect on superconductivity in an iron-based superconductor, magnetization measurements have been performed in Ba(Fe 0.92 Co 0.08 ) 2 As 2 single crystals under uniaxial pressures applied along the c-axis. Gigantic T c suppression, dT c /dP //c = -15 K/GPa, was observed when the anisotropic deformation with the a-expansion and c-compression was induced by the c-pressure, which should be compared with dT c /dP c .

  11. Angular overlap model analysis of the D 2d crystal field effect in uranium (4+) compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajek, Z.; Hubert, S.; Krupa, J. C.

    1988-12-01

    Recent interpretations of the D 2d crystal field of U 4+ in β-ThCl 4, α, β-ThBr 4, ThSiO 4 and UCl 4 are discussed in terms of the simplified one-, two- and three-parameter versions of the Angular Overlap Model which are shown to be a handy tool in a trial interpretation of the effect. The variation of the CF parameters with a small D 2 distortion of the coordination is well reproduced by the model.

  12. Effect of pressure on the metamagnetic transition of DyB6 single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, T.; Oomi, G.; Uwatoko, Y.; Kunii, S.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of pressure on the magnetization (M) and the magnetostriction (MS) for DyB 6 single crystal have been measured at 4.2 K. It is found that the M loops are insensitive to pressure, whereas the large MS with magnitude of 0.5% at 5 T at ambient pressure is rapidly suppressed by applying pressure. The metamagnetic transition field H M in the M curve increases slightly by applying pressure with the rate of increase, ∂ ln H M /∂P, of 0.03 GPa -1 , which is almost the same value as that for T N , 0.04 GPa -1

  13. EFFECT OF INTERFACIAL ADHESION ON CRYSTALLIZATION AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF POLY (ETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE)/GLASS BEAD COMPOSITES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OU Yuchun; YU Zhongzhen; ZHU Jin; LI Ge; ZHU Shanguang

    1996-01-01

    The interfacial adhesion between poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET) and glass bead was investigated by scanning electron microscope and parallel-plate rheometer. Effect of interfacial adhesion on the crystallization and mechanical properties of PET/glass bead composites was also studied by differential scanning calorimeter and mechanical testers.The results obtained indicate that the glass bead has a heterogeneous nucleation effect on the PET crystallization. Although better interfacial adhesion is advantageous to the increase of the tensile strength of the composite, yet it is unfavorable to the crystallization of PET. It should be pointed out that the crystallization rate of filled PET is always higher than that of pure PET, regardless of the state of interfacial adhesion.

  14. The Effect of Anisotropy on Light Extraction of Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with Photonic Crystal Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The light extraction efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes (OLED is greatly limited due to the difference in refractive indexes between materials of OLED. We fabricated OLED with photonic crystal microstructures in the interface between the glass substrate and the ITO anode. The light extraction efficiency can be improved by utilizing photonic crystals; however, the anisotropy effect of light extraction was clearly observed in experiment. To optimize the device performance, the effect of photonic crystal on both light extraction and angular distribution was investigated using finite-difference time domain (FDTD method. We simulated the photonic crystals with the structure of square lattice and triangle lattice. We analyzed the improvement of these structures in the light extraction efficiency of the OLED and the influence of arrangement, depth, period, and diameter on anisotropy. The optimized geometric parameters were provided, which will provide the theoretical support for designing the high performance OLED.

  15. Crystallization of perovskite film using ambient moisture and water as co-solvent for efficient planar perovskite solar cell (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Ashish; Reza, Khan M.; Gaml, Eman; Adhikari, Nirmal; Qiao, Qiquan

    2016-09-01

    Smooth, compact and defect free morphology of perovskite is highly desired for enhanced device performance. Several routes such as thermal annealing, use of solvent mixtures, growth under controlled humidity has been adopted to obtain crystalline, smooth and defect free perovskite film. Herein we showed direct use of water (H2O) as co-solvent in precursor solution and have optimized the water content required to obtain smooth and dense film. Varying concentration of water was used in precursor solution of CH3NH3I and PbI2 mixed in γ-butyrolactone (GBL) and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). Perovskite films were crystallized using toluene assisted solvent engineering method using GBL:DMSO:H2O as solvent mixture. The amount of water was varied from 1% to 25%, which resulted in change in film morphology and perovskite crystallinity. It was concluded that an appropriate amount of water is required to assist the crystallization process to obtain smooth pin-hole free morphology. The change in morphology led to improved fill factor in the device, with highest efficiency 14%, which was significantly higher than devices made from perovskite film without adding water. We also showed that addition of up to 25% by volume of water does not significantly change the device performance.

  16. Plasmonic gold nanocrystals coupled with photonic crystal seamlessly on TiO2 nanotube photoelectrodes for efficient visible light photoelectrochemical water splitting

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhonghai

    2013-01-09

    A visible light responsive plasmonic photocatalytic composite material is designed by rationally selecting Au nanocrystals and assembling them with the TiO2-based photonic crystal substrate. The selection of the Au nanocrystals is so that their surface plasmonic resonance (SPR) wavelength matches the photonic band gap of the photonic crystal and thus that the SPR of the Au receives remarkable assistance from the photonic crystal substrate. The design of the composite material is expected to significantly increase the Au SPR intensity and consequently boost the hot electron injection from the Au nanocrystals into the conduction band of TiO2, leading to a considerably enhanced water splitting performance of the material under visible light. A proof-of-concept example is provided by assembling 20 nm Au nanocrystals, with a SPR peak at 556 nm, onto the photonic crystal which is seamlessly connected on TiO2 nanotube array. Under visible light illumination (>420 nm), the designed material produced a photocurrent density of ∼150 μA cm-2, which is the highest value ever reported in any plasmonic Au/TiO2 system under visible light irradiation due to the photonic crystal-assisted SPR. This work contributes to the rational design of the visible light responsive plasmonic photocatalytic composite material based on wide band gap metal oxides for photoelectrochemical applications. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  17. Real-Time Fluorescence Detection in Aqueous Systems by Combined and Enhanced Photonic and Surface Effects in Patterned Hollow Sphere Colloidal Photonic Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Kuo; Wang, Ling; Li, Jiaqi; Van Cleuvenbergen, Stijn; Bartic, Carmen; Song, Kai; Clays, Koen

    2017-05-16

    Hollow sphere colloidal photonic crystals (HSCPCs) exhibit the ability to maintain a high refractive index contrast after infiltration of water, leading to extremely high-quality photonic band gap effects, even in an aqueous (physiological) environment. Superhydrophilic pinning centers in a superhydrophobic environment can be used to strongly confine and concentrate water-soluble analytes. We report a strategy to realize real-time ultrasensitive fluorescence detection in patterned HSCPCs based on strongly enhanced fluorescence due to the photonic band-edge effect combined with wettability differentiation in the superhydrophobic/superhydrophilic pattern. The orthogonal nature of the two strategies allows for a multiplicative effect, resulting in an increase of two orders of magnitude in fluorescence.

  18. An incremental flow theory for crystal plasticity incorporating strain gradient effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nellemann, Christopher; Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Nielsen, Kim Lau

    2017-01-01

    The present work investigates a new approach to formulating a rate-independent strain gradient theory for crystal plasticity. The approach takes as offset recent discussions published in the literature for isotropic plasticity, and a key ingredient of the present work is the manner in which...... a gradient enhanced effective slip measure governs hardening evolution. The effect of both plastic strains and plastic strain gradients are combined into this scalar effective slip quantity, the energy associated with plastic strain is dissipative (unrecoverable), while the energy from plastic strain...... gradients is recoverable (free). The framework developed forms the basis of a finite element implementation and is demonstrated on benchmark problems designed to bring out effects such as strengthening and hardening. Monotonic loading and plane strain deformation is assumed throughout, but despite this, non...

  19. Wind effect on water surface of water reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Pelikán

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary research of wind-water interactions was focused on coastal areas along the shores of world oceans and seas because a basic understanding of coastal meteorology is an important component in coastal and offshore design and planning. Over time the research showed the most important meteorological consideration relates to the dominant role of winds in wave generation. The rapid growth of building-up of dams in 20th century caused spreading of the water wave mechanics research to the inland water bodies. The attention was paid to the influence of waterwork on its vicinity, wave regime respectively, due to the shoreline deterioration, predominantly caused by wind waves. Consequently the similar principles of water wave mechanics are considered in conditions of water reservoirs. The paper deals with the fundamental factors associated with initial wind-water interactions resulting in the wave origination and growth. The aim of the paper is thepresentation of utilization of piece of knowledge from a part of sea hydrodynamics and new approach in its application in the conditions of inland water bodies with respect to actual state of the art. The authors compared foreign and national approach to the solved problems and worked out graphical interpretation and overview of related wind-water interaction factors.

  20. Effect of a Polymercaptan Material on the Electro-Optical Properties of Polymer-Dispersed Liquid Crystal Films

    OpenAIRE

    Yujian Sun; Cuihong Zhang; Le Zhou; Hua Fang; Jianhua Huang; Haipeng Ma; Yi Zhang; Jie Yang; Lan-Ying Zhang; Ping Song; Yanzi Gao; Jiumei Xiao; Fasheng Li; Kexuan Li

    2016-01-01

    Polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) films were prepared by the ultraviolet-light-induced polymerization of photopolymerizable monomers in nematic liquid crystal/chiral dopant/thiol-acrylate reaction monomer composites. The effects of the chiral dopant and crosslinking agents on the electro-optical properties of the PDLC films were systematically investigate. While added the chiral dopant S811 into the PDLC films, the initial off-state transmittance of the films was decreased. It was found...

  1. The effect of hydrostatic pressure on conductivity behaviour of needle crystals of iodine and oxygen doped niobium-sulphur compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balla, D.D.; Bondarenko, A.V.; Obolenskij, M.A.; Beletskij, V.I.; Chashka, Kh.B.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of the hydrostatic pressures up to 11 kbar on conductivity behaviour of the needle crystal of iodine and oxygen doped niobium-sulphur compounds were studied in the temperature range 4.2-300 K. It is shown that in the temperature range 110-300 K conductivity is thermal activated (P=1 bar). Below 110 K the Mott characteristic is observed. Under hydrostatic pressure the deviations from Mott characteristic occurs. The analysis of data suggested that crystals are doped semiconductors

  2. EPR studies of excited state exchange and crystal-field effects in rare earth compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, C.Y.; Sugawara, K.; Cooper, B.R.

    1976-01-01

    EPR in excited crystal-field states of Tm 3+ , Pr 3+ , and Tb 3+ in singlet-ground-state systems and in the excited state of Ce 3+ in CeP are reviewed. Because one is looking at a crystal-field excited state resonance, the exchange, even if isotropic, does not act as a secular perturbation. This means that one obtains different effects and has access to more information about the dynamic effects of exchange than in conventional paramagnetic resonance experiments. The Tm and Pr monopnictides studied are paramagnetic at all temperatures. The most striking feature of the behavior of the GAMMA 5 /sup (2)/ EPR in the Tm compounds is the presence of an anomalous maximum in the temperature dependence of the g-factor. The relationship of this effect to anisotropic exchange is discussed. The results of the EPR of the excited GAMMA 5 /sup (2)/ level of Tb 3 + (g-factor becomes very large at T/sub N/ in antiferromagnetic TbX (X = P, As, Sb) and that of the excited GAMMA 8 level of Ce 3+ in antiferromagnetic CeP will also be reported. For sufficient dilution of the Tb 3+ in the terbium monopnictides, the systems become paramagnetic (Van Vleck paramagnets) down to 0 0 K. The Tb 3+ excited state resonance EPR in Tb/sub 0.1/ La/sub 0.9/P was studied as an example of behavior in such systems. 10 fig

  3. Understanding size effects on the strength of single crystals through high-temperature micropillar compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soler, Rafael; Wheeler, Jeffrey M.; Chang, Hyung-Jun; Segurado, Javier; Michler, Johann; Llorca, Javier; Molina-Aldareguia, Jon M.

    2014-01-01

    Compression tests of 〈1 1 1〉-oriented LiF single-crystal micropillars 1–5 μm in diameter were carried out from 25 °C to 250 °C. While the flow stress at ambient temperature was independent of the micropillar diameter, a strong size effect developed with elevated temperature. This behavior was explained by rigorously accounting for the different contributions to the flow stress of the micropillars as a function of temperature and pillar diameter: the lattice resistance, the forest hardening; and the size-dependent contribution as a result of the operation of single-arm dislocation sources. This was possible because the micropillars were obtained by chemically etching away the surrounding matrix in directionally solidified LiF–NaCl and LiF–KCl eutectics, avoiding any use of focused ion beam methods, yielding micropillars with a controlled dislocation density, independent of the sample preparation technique. In particular, the role of the lattice resistance on the size effect of micrometer-size single crystals was demonstrated unambiguously for the first time. This result rationalizes the different values of power-law exponent for the size effect found in the literature for face-centered cubic and body-centered cubic metals as well as for covalent and ionic solids

  4. Synthesis of SAPO-56 with controlled crystal size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Ting; Feng, Xuhui; Carreon, Maria L.; Carreon, Moises A.

    2017-01-01

    Herein, we present the hydrothermal synthesis of SAPO-56 crystals with relatively controlled crystal/particle size. The effects of water content, aluminum source, gel composition, stirring, crystallization temperature and time, as well as the incorporation of crystal growth inhibitors during synthesis were systematically investigated. The synthesized SAPO-56 crystals displayed BET surface areas as high as ∼630 m"2 g"−"1 with relative narrow size distribution in the ∼5–60 μm range. Nitrogen BET surface areas in the 451 to 631 m"2 g"−"1 range were observed. Decreasing the crystallization temperature from 220 to 210 °C helped to decrease the average SAPO-56 crystal size. Diluted gel compositions promoted the formation of smaller crystals. Crystal growth inhibitors were found to be helpful in reducing crystal size and narrow the size distribution. Specifically, ∼5 μm SAPO-56 crystals displaying narrow size distribution were synthesized employing aluminum-tri-sec-butoxide as Al source, high water content, and high stirring rates.

  5. Synthesis of SAPO-56 with controlled crystal size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Ting; Feng, Xuhui [Colorado School of Mines, Chemical and Biological Engineering Department (United States); Carreon, Maria L. [University of Tulsa, Rusell School of Chemical Engineering (United States); Carreon, Moises A., E-mail: mcarreon@mines.edu [Colorado School of Mines, Chemical and Biological Engineering Department (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Herein, we present the hydrothermal synthesis of SAPO-56 crystals with relatively controlled crystal/particle size. The effects of water content, aluminum source, gel composition, stirring, crystallization temperature and time, as well as the incorporation of crystal growth inhibitors during synthesis were systematically investigated. The synthesized SAPO-56 crystals displayed BET surface areas as high as ∼630 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} with relative narrow size distribution in the ∼5–60 μm range. Nitrogen BET surface areas in the 451 to 631 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} range were observed. Decreasing the crystallization temperature from 220 to 210 °C helped to decrease the average SAPO-56 crystal size. Diluted gel compositions promoted the formation of smaller crystals. Crystal growth inhibitors were found to be helpful in reducing crystal size and narrow the size distribution. Specifically, ∼5 μm SAPO-56 crystals displaying narrow size distribution were synthesized employing aluminum-tri-sec-butoxide as Al source, high water content, and high stirring rates.

  6. Helium crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipson, S.G.

    1987-01-01

    Hexagonal close-packed helium crystals in equilibrium with superfluid have been found to be one of the few systems in which an anisotropic solid comes into true thermodynamic equilibrium with its melt. The discovery of roughening transitions at the liquid-solid interface have shown this system to be ideal for the study of the statistical mechanics of interface structures. We describe the effect of roughening on the shape and growth of macroscopic crystals from both the theoretical and experimental points of view. (author)

  7. CRYSTALLIZATION IN MULTICOMPONENT GLASSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRUGER AA; HRMA PR

    2009-10-08

    In glass processing situations involving glass crystallization, various crystalline forms nucleate, grow, and dissolve, typically in a nonuniform temperature field of molten glass subjected to convection. Nuclear waste glasses are remarkable examples of multicomponent vitrified mixtures involving partial crystallization. In the glass melter, crystals form and dissolve during batch-to-glass conversion, melter processing, and product cooling. Crystals often agglomerate and sink, and they may settle at the melter bottom. Within the body of cooling glass, multiple phases crystallize in a non-uniform time-dependent temperature field. Self-organizing periodic distribution (the Liesegnang effect) is common. Various crystallization phenomena that occur in glass making are reviewed.

  8. Crystallization In Multicomponent Glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, A.A.; Hrma, P.R.

    2009-01-01

    In glass processing situations involving glass crystallization, various crystalline forms nucleate, grow, and dissolve, typically in a nonuniform temperature field of molten glass subjected to convection. Nuclear waste glasses are remarkable examples of multicomponent vitrified mixtures involving partial crystallization. In the glass melter, crystals form and dissolve during batch-to-glass conversion, melter processing, and product cooling. Crystals often agglomerate and sink, and they may settle at the melter bottom. Within the body of cooling glass, multiple phases crystallize in a non-uniform time-dependent temperature field. Self-organizing periodic distribution (the Liesegnang effect) is common. Various crystallization phenomena that occur in glass making are reviewed.

  9. Field-controllable Spin-Hall Effect of Light in Optical Crystals: A Conoscopic Mueller Matrix Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samlan, C T; Viswanathan, Nirmal K

    2018-01-31

    Electric-field applied perpendicular to the direction of propagation of paraxial beam through an optical crystal dynamically modifies the spin-orbit interaction (SOI), leading to the demonstration of controllable spin-Hall effect of light (SHEL). The electro- and piezo-optic effects of the crystal modifies the radially symmetric spatial variation in the fast-axis orientation of the crystal, resulting in a complex pattern with different topologies due to the symmetry-breaking effect of the applied field. This introduces spatially-varying Pancharatnam-Berry type geometric phase on to the paraxial beam of light, leading to the observation of SHEL in addition to the spin-to-vortex conversion. A wave-vector resolved conoscopic Mueller matrix measurement and analysis provides a first glimpse of the SHEL in the biaxial crystal, identified via the appearance of weak circular birefringence. The emergence of field-controllable fast-axis orientation of the crystal and the resulting SHEL provides a new degree of freedom for affecting and controlling the spin and orbital angular momentum of photons to unravel the rich underlying physics of optical crystals and aid in the development of active photonic spin-Hall devices.

  10. Hydrogen bonding intermolecular effect on electro-optical response of doped 6PCH nematic liquid crystal with some azo dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiani, S.; Zakerhamidi, M. S.; Tajalli, H.

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies on the electro-optical responses of dye-doped liquid crystal have shown that dopant material have a considerable effect on their electro-optical responses. Despite the studies carried out on electro-optical properties of dye-doped liquid crystal, no attention has been paid to study of the interaction and structural effects in this procedure. In this paper, linear dyes and with similar structure were selected as dopants. The only difference in used dyes is the functional groups in their tails. So, doping of these dyes into liquid crystals determines the influence of interaction type on electro-optical behaviours of the doped systems. Therefore, in this work, two aminoazobenzene (;A-dye;: hydrogen bond donor) and dimethyl-aminoazobenzene (;B-dye;) dyes with different compositional percentages in liquid crystal host were used. Electro-optical Kerr behaviour, the pre-transition temperature and third order nonlinear susceptibility were investigated. The obtained results effectively revealed that type of interactions between the dye and liquid crystal is determinative of behavioral difference of doped system, compared to pure liquid crystal. Also, pre-transitional behaviour and thereupon Kerr electro-optical responses were affected by formed interactions into doped systems. In other words, it will be shown that addition of any dopants in liquid crystal, regardless of the nature of interactions, cannot cause appropriate electro-optical responses. In fact, type of dye, nature of interactions between dopant and liquid crystalline host as well as concentration of dye are the key factors in selecting the appropriate liquid crystal and dopant dye.

  11. Faraday effect in γ-Dy2S3 and c-Dy2O3 paramagnetic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelykh, A.I.

    1987-01-01

    Studies of spectral and temperature dependences of Faraday effect in γ-Dy 2 S 3 and C-Dy 2 O 3 paramagnetic crystals are conducted. Paramagnetism of these crystals is brought about by Dy 3+ ions. Estimation of the effect of such factors as the value of paramagnetic ion concentration, width of the forbidden band, crystallochemical composition on magnetooptical effect in the considered compounds of dysprosium is carried out on the basis of the obtained experimental data and theoretical analysis. It is shown, that the Faraday effect in the considered compounds of dysprosium as well as the value of paramagnetic moment may be regarded rather accurately in free ion approximation

  12. Magnetic field effect on microplastic strain rate in C690 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, B.I.; Shpejzman, V.V.; Peschanskaya, N.N.; Nikolaev, R.K.

    2002-01-01

    Microplastic strain in magnetic field and beyond it, as well as, subsequent to preliminary exposure of C 60 crystals to magnetic field was investigated by means of laser interferometer enabling to measure rate of strain on the basis of 0.15 μm linear shifting. It is shown that introduction and removal of specimen from 0.2 T induction field immediately during deformation of specimen result in variation of its rate, and at reduction of rate one observes discontinuous interruption of deformation. Sign of effect depends on temperature: at room temperature magnetic field promotes deformation, at 100 K - shows it down. Effect of preliminary exposure within 0.2 and 2T induction field turned to be analogous one. One analyzed possible reasons of the observed manifestation of magnetoplastic effect in C 60 and relation of its sign with phase transition under 260 K temperature [ru

  13. Gamma-radiation and isotopic effect on the critical behavior in triglycine selenate crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassem, M.E.; Hamed, A.E.; Abulnasr, L.; Abboudy, S. [Alexandria Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Physics

    1994-11-01

    Isotopic effects in pure and {gamma}-irradiated triglycine selenate crystals were investigated using the specific heat (C{sub p}) technique. The obtained results showed an interesting dependence of the critical behavior of C{sub p} on the deuterium content. With increasing content of deuterium, the character of the phase transition changed from a second order ({lambda}-type) to a first order transition. After {gamma}-irradiation, the behavior of C{sub p} around the phase transition region was essentially affected. The transition temperature, T{sub c}, decreased and {Delta}C{sub p} depressed, and the transition became broad. It was noted that the effect of {gamma}-irradiation is opposite to the isotopic effect. (author).

  14. Colossal magnetodielectric effect and spin flop in magnetoelectric Co4Nb2O9 crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, L. H.; Yang, J.; Dai, J. M.; Song, W. H.; Zhu, X. B.; Zou, Y. M.; Sun, Y. P.

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated the detailed magnetic, magnetoelectric (ME), magnetodielectric (MD) and thermal expansion properties in Co 4 Nb 2 O 9 crystal. A magnetic-field-induced spin flop was observed below antiferromagnetic (AFM) transition temperature T N . Dielectric constant at applied magnetic field nearly diverges around the AFM transition, giving rise to a colossal MD effect as high as ∼138% around T N . Theoretical analysis of the ME and MD data revealed a major contribution of critical spin fluctuation to the colossal MD effect in Co 4 Nb 2 O 9 . These results suggest that linear ME materials with large ME coupling might be potentially used to realize large MD effect for future application.

  15. Crystal field effect in light actinide dioxides and oxychalcogenides - a unified phenomenological description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gajek, Z. E-mail: gajek@int.pan.wroc.pl

    2004-05-01

    The electronic properties of the actinide ions in the series of semi-conducting, antiferromagnetic compounds: dioxides, AnO{sub 2} and oxychalcogenides, AnOY, where An=U, Np and Y=S, Se, are re-examined from the point of view of the consistency of the crystal field (CF) model. The discussion is based on the supposition that the effective metal-ligand interaction solely determines the net CF effect in non-metallic compounds. The main question we address here is, whether a reliable, consistent description of the CF effect in terms of the intrinsic parameters can be achieved for this particular family of compounds. Encouraging calculations reported previously for the AnO{sub 2} and UOY series serve as a reference data in the present estimation of electronic structure parameters for neptunium oxychalcogenides.

  16. Crystal field effect in light actinide dioxides and oxychalcogenides-a unified phenomenological description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajek, Z.

    2004-05-01

    The electronic properties of the actinide ions in the series of semi-conducting, antiferromagnetic compounds: dioxides, AnO2 and oxychalcogenides, AnOY, where An=U, Np and Y=S, Se, are re-examined from the point of view of the consistency of the crystal field (CF) model. The discussion is based on the supposition that the effective metal-ligand interaction solely determines the net CF effect in non-metallic compounds. The main question we address here is, whether a reliable, consistent description of the CF effect in terms of the intrinsic parameters can be achieved for this particular family of compounds. Encouraging calculations reported previously for the AnO2 and UOY series serve as a reference data in the present estimation of electronic structure parameters for neptunium oxychalcogenides.

  17. Crystal field effect in light actinide dioxides and oxychalcogenides - a unified phenomenological description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajek, Z.

    2004-01-01

    The electronic properties of the actinide ions in the series of semi-conducting, antiferromagnetic compounds: dioxides, AnO 2 and oxychalcogenides, AnOY, where An=U, Np and Y=S, Se, are re-examined from the point of view of the consistency of the crystal field (CF) model. The discussion is based on the supposition that the effective metal-ligand interaction solely determines the net CF effect in non-metallic compounds. The main question we address here is, whether a reliable, consistent description of the CF effect in terms of the intrinsic parameters can be achieved for this particular family of compounds. Encouraging calculations reported previously for the AnO 2 and UOY series serve as a reference data in the present estimation of electronic structure parameters for neptunium oxychalcogenides

  18. Integrating Product Water Quality Effects In Holistic Assessments Of Water Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Rygaard, Martin

    2011-01-01

    While integrated assessments of sustainability of water systems are largely focused on quantity issues, chemical use, and energy consumption, effects of the supplied water quality are often overlooked. Drinking water quality affects corrosion rates, human health, applicability of water and aesthetics. Even small changes in the chemical composition of water may accumulate large impacts on city scale. Here, a method for integrated assessment of water quality is presented. Based on dose-response...

  19. Synthesis, Crystal Structure and Anti-Fatigue Effects of Some Benzamide Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianglong Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of benzamide derivatives such as 1-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-ylcarbonyl piperidine (1-BCP were synthesized by the reaction of substituted benzoic acids with piperidine, morpholine or pyrrolidine using a novel method. The crystals of these benzamide derivatives were obtained by recrystallization. Structures of target and intermediate compounds were determined via FT-IR, 1H-NMR and elemental analysis and X-ray crystallography of select examples. The crystal structures of these compounds have potential applications to identify the binding site for allosteric modulators of the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA receptor. The anti-fatigue effects of the benzamide derivatives in weight-loaded forced swimming mice were investigated in a swimming endurance capacity test used as an indicator of fatigue. The swimming times to exhaustion were longer in the b3, d3, and e3 groups than in the caffeine group (p < 0.05. In conclusion, b3, d3 and e3 enhanced the forced swimming capacity of mice. The mechanism of the anti-fatigue effects will be studied in the future.

  20. Synergistic effect of rhenium and ruthenium in nickel-based single-crystal superalloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, X.X. [Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang, C.Y., E-mail: cywang@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Central Iron and Steel Research Institute, Beijing 100081 (China); Zhang, X.N. [Institute of Microstructure and Property of Advanced Materials, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Yan, P. [Central Iron and Steel Research Institute, Beijing 100081 (China); Zhang, Z., E-mail: zezhang@zju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2014-01-05

    Highlights: • Re and Ru synergistic effects in nickel-based superalloys are investigated. • The Al site occupation of Re atom in the γ′ phase is observed directly. • The addition of Ru results in the repartitioning of Re to γ phase. -- Abstract: The microstructures of ternary Ni–Al–Re and quaternary Ni–Al–Re–Ru single-crystal alloys were investigated at atomic and electronic levels to clarify the synergistic effect of Re and Ru in nickel-based single-crystal superalloys. In the Ni–Al–Re alloy, it was directly observed that Re atom occupied the Al site of γ′ phase. In the Ni–Al–Re–Ru alloy, the mechanisms of Re repartition between γ and γ′ phases were proposed. In the dendritic cores, high concentrations of Re exceeded the solubility limit of γ′ phase and partitioned to γ phase, which led to the homogenization. In the interdendritic regions, Ru resulted in the repartitioning of Re to γ phase which was proved by transmission electron microscopy and first-principles calculations.

  1. The effect of Mg doping on the Raman spectra of LiNbO3 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lengyel, K.; Kovacs, L.; Peter, A.; Polgar, K.; Corradi, G.; Bourson, P.

    2007-01-01

    LiNbO 3 :Mg crystals doped with 0-8 mol% Mg with stoichiometric, intermediate and congruent compositions were systematically investigated by Raman spectroscopy in backscattering y(zx)y and y(zz)y geometries. The halfwidths of E(TO 3 ) - E(TO 9 ) and A 1 (TO 1 ) - A 1 (TO 4 ) bands, which have a significant composition dependence for undoped LiNbO 3 crystals, show only weak Mg-concentration dependence below the photorefractive threshold. This is a consequence of the counteracting effect of the decreasing amount of Nb ions at Li-ion sites (Nb Li ) and increasing amount of Mg ions at Li-ion sites (Mg Li ). The halfwidths of these bands, however, increase linearly with growing Mg content for samples above the threshold, irrespective of the Li/Nb ratio. The same effect was observed in the Mg dependence of the position and halfwidth of the two-phonon band at about 689 - 705 cm -1 . The change in the Mg concentration dependence of these parameters at a given Li/Nb ratio determines the same threshold value as that concluded from IR and UV spectroscopic measurements. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  2. Effect of adding Te to layered GaSe crystals to increase the van der Waals bonding force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Tadao; Zhao, Shu; Sato, Yohei; Oyama, Yutaka

    2017-10-01

    The interplanar binding strength of layered GaSe1-xTex crystals was directly measured using a tensile testing machine. The GaSe1-xTex crystals were grown by a low temperature liquid phase solution method under a controlled Se vapor pressure. The stoichiometry-controlled GaSe1-xTex crystal has the ɛ-polytype structure of GaSe, where the Te atoms are substituted for some of the Se atoms in the GaSe crystal. The effect of adding Te on the bonding strength between the GaSe layers was determined from direct measurements of the van der Waals bonding energy. The bonding energy was increased from 0.023 × 106 N/m2 for GaSe to 0.16 × 106 N/m2 for GaSe1-xTex (x = 0.106).

  3. An effective neodimium segregation coefficient in neodimium-doped yttrium-aluminum-garnet crystal growth by pulling method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiroki, Ken-ichi; Kuwano, Yasuhiko

    1978-01-01

    Effective Nd segregation coefficient in the Nd:YAG (Nd-doped Y 3 Al 5 O 12 ) crystal growth by pulling method was determined precisely over 0 -- 1.3 atom% Nd concentration range at a 0.6 mm hr -1 growth rate. Two Nd:YAG crystals (-- 20 g) were grown from a large melt (-- 1 kg). Neodymium concentrations in the crystals and residual melts were estimated by fluorescent X-ray analysis, and a value of 0.21 was obtained as the effective segregation coefficient. Next, the optical absorption coefficient of Nd:YAG crystal at 5889 A absorption peak was measured in order to analyze a small specimen for Nd by optical absorption measurements. The optical absorption coefficient of 0.97 mm -1 .atom% -1 was determined in this way. The Nd concentrations, calculated by the segregation coefficient, agreed well with those obtained by optical absorption measurements at 5889 A for six successively grown Nd:YAG crystals. Therefore, the obtained segregation coefficient, 0.21, was confirmed as a reliable value for the Nd:YAG crystal growth by the pulling method. (auth.)

  4. The effects of monosodium urate monohydrate crystals on chondrocyte viability and function: implications for development of cartilage damage in gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhana, Ashika; Callon, Karen E; Pool, Bregina; Naot, Dorit; Gamble, Gregory D; Dray, Michael; Pitto, Rocco; Bentley, Jarome; McQueen, Fiona M; Cornish, Jillian; Dalbeth, Nicola

    2013-12-01

    Cartilage damage is frequently observed in advanced destructive gout. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of monosodium urate monohydrate (MSU) crystals on chondrocyte viability and function. The alamarBlue assay and flow cytometry were used to assess the viability of primary human chondrocytes and cartilage explants following culture with MSU crystals. The number of dead chondrocytes in cartilage explants cultured with MSU crystals was quantified. Real-time PCR was used to determine changes in the relative mRNA expression levels of chondrocytic genes. The histological appearance of cartilage in joints affected by gout was also examined. MSU crystals rapidly reduced primary human chondrocyte and cartilage explant viability in a dose-dependent manner (p gout, normal cartilage architecture was lost, with empty chondrocyte lacunae observed. MSU crystals have profound inhibitory effects on chondrocyte viability and function. Interactions between MSU crystals and chondrocytes may contribute to cartilage damage in gout through reduction of chondrocyte viability and promotion of a catabolic state.

  5. The effect of pressure on open-framework silicates: elastic behaviour and crystal-fluid interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatta, G. D.; Lotti, P.; Tabacchi, G.

    2018-02-01

    The elastic behaviour and the structural evolution of microporous materials compressed hydrostatically in a pressure-transmitting fluid are drastically affected by the potential crystal-fluid interaction, with a penetration of new molecules through the zeolitic cavities in response to applied pressure. In this manuscript, the principal mechanisms that govern the P-behaviour of zeolites with and without crystal-fluid interaction are described, on the basis of previous experimental findings and computational modelling studies. When no crystal-fluid interaction occurs, the effects of pressure are mainly accommodated by tilting of (quasi-rigid) tetrahedra around O atoms that behave as hinges. Tilting of tetrahedra is the dominant mechanism at low-mid P-regime, whereas distortion and compression of tetrahedra represent the mechanisms which usually dominate the mid-high P regime. One of the most common deformation mechanisms in zeolitic framework is the increase of channels ellipticity. The deformation mechanisms are dictated by the topological configuration of the tetrahedral framework; however, the compressibility of the cavities is controlled by the nature and bonding configuration of the ionic and molecular content, resulting in different unit-cell volume compressibility in isotypic structures. The experimental results pertaining to compression in "penetrating" fluids, and thus with crystal-fluid interaction, showed that not all the zeolites experience a P-induced intrusion of new monoatomic species or molecules from the P-transmitting fluids. For example, zeolites with well-stuffed channels at room conditions (e.g. natural zeolites) tend to hinder the penetration of new species through the zeolitic cavities. Several variables govern the sorption phenomena at high pressure, among those: the "free diameters" of the framework cavities, the chemical nature and the configuration of the extra-framework population, the partial pressure of the penetrating molecule in the

  6. Avaliação da cristalização de mel utilizando parâmetros de cor e atividade de água Evaluation of honey crystallization from the colour and water activity parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alini Mari Kuroishi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available O mel é um dos edulcorantes mais antigos utilizados pelo homem, sendo composto principalmente de monossacarídeos, como a glicose e a frutose, responsáveis em parte pela sua cristalização. A cristalização varia segundo diversos fatores, como a concentração de açúcares, o teor de água na sua composição natural, a procedência floral do néctar, o manuseio durante seu processamento, bem como as condições de estocagem. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da temperatura e da incorporação de cristais de mel na cristalização do mel utilizando como parâmetro de acompanhamento a cor, por meio da determinação do Índice de Brancura (IB e variação da luminosidade (∆L*, e a atividade de água. Utilizou-se um delineamento experimental fatorial 2², tendo-se como variáveis o percentual de cristais de mel adicionado e a temperatura de armazenamento. Apenas as amostras armazenadas à temperatura de 11 e 21 °C cristalizaram, sendo mais evidente a cristalização da amostra armazenada em 11 °C, que foi adicionada de 5% de cristais de mel. O aumento da atividade de água e o aumento no Índice de Brancura (IB, assim como o ∆L*, foram correlacionados com a cristalização das amostras. A maior variação obtida para os valores de ∆L* encontram-se na região de temperatura de armazenamento de 11 °C, na qual as amostras cristalizaram mais rapidamente.Honey is one of the oldest sweeteners used by man, composed mainly of monosaccharides such as glucose and fructose, partially responsible for its crystallization. Honey crystallization depends on several factors, such as the sugar concentrations, natural percentage of water, the floral origin of the nectar, handling during processing and the storage conditions. The present work aimed to evaluate the effect of temperature and of the incorporation of honey crystals on honey crystallization, using the colour (as determined by the Whiteness Index - WI and changes in the

  7. Effect of Metal Dopant on Ninhydrin—Organic Nonlinear Optical Single Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Sreenivasan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, metal (Cu2+-substituted ninhydrin single crystals were grown by slow evaporation method. The grown crystals have been subjected to single crystal XRD, powder X-ray diffraction, FTIR, dielectric and SHG studies. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that the compound crystallizes in monoclinic system with noncentrosymmetric space group P21 with lattice parameters a=11.28 Å, b=5.98 Å, c=5.71 Å, α=90∘, β=98.57, γ=90∘, and V=381 (Å3, which agrees very well with the reported value. The sharp and strong peaks in the powder X-ray diffraction pattern confirm the good crystallinity of the grown crystals. The presence of dopants marginally altered the lattice parameters without affecting the basic structure of the crystal. The UV-Vis transmittance spectrum shows that the crystal has a good optical transmittance in the entire visible region with lower cutoff wavelength 314 nm. The vibrational frequencies of various functional groups in the crystals have been derived from FT-IR analysis. Based on the shifts in the vibrations, the presence of copper in the lattice of the grown crystal is clearly established from the pure ninhydrin crystals. Both dielectric constant and dielectric loss decrease with the increase in frequency. The second harmonic generation efficiency was measured by employing powder Kurtz method.

  8. Effect of grain defects on the mechanical behavior of nickel-based single crystal superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Haibin; Guo, Haiding [Nanjing Univ. of Aeronautics and Astronautics (China). Jiangsu Province Key Lab. of Aerospace Power System

    2017-03-15

    In this paper, a single crystal (SC) partition model, consisting of primary grains and grain defects, is proposed to simulate the weakening effect of grain defects generated at geometric discontinuities of SC materials. The plastic deformation of SC superalloy is described with the modified yield criterion, associated flow rule and hardening law. Then a bicrystal model containing only one group of misoriented grains under uniaxial loading is constructed and analyzed in the commercial finite element software ABAQUS. The simulation results indicate that the yield strength and elastic modulus of misoriented grains, which are determined by the crystallographic orientation, have a significant effect on the stress distribution of the bicrystal model. A critical stress, which is calculated by the stress state at critical regions, is proposed to evaluate the local stress rise at the sub-boundary of primary and misoriented grains.

  9. Isotope effects in lithium hydride and lithium deuteride crystals by molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammak, Hichem; Antoshchenkova, Ekaterina; Hayoun, Marc; Finocchi, Fabio

    2012-10-31

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been carried out to study isotope effects in lithium hydride and lithium deuteride crystals. Quantum effects on nuclear motion have been included through a quantum thermal bath (QTB). The interatomic forces were described either within the density functional theory (DFT) in the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) or by the phenomenological approach using the shell model. For both models, the isotopic shift in the lattice parameter can be successfully predicted by QTB-MD simulations. The slope of the experimental isotopic shift in pressure is satisfactorily reproduced by QTB-MD within DFT-GGA, in contrast to both density functional perturbation theory and QTB-MD with the shell model. We have analyzed the reasons for these discrepancies through the vibrational densities of states and the isotopic shifts in bulk modulus. The results illustrate the importance of anharmonic contributions to vibrations and to the isotopic pressure shift between LiH and LiD.

  10. Optical study on neutron irradiation effect on hexagonal SiC single crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Moritami; Kimura, Itsurou; Kanazawa, Satoshi; Kanno, Ikuo; Kamiya, Koji [Kyoto Univ. (Japan); Nakata, Toshitake; Watanabe, Masanori; Nakagawa, Masuo; Atobe, Kozo

    1996-04-01

    It is well known that SiC is a higher radiation resistant semiconductor on comparison with Si and Ge. Recently, on accompanying with advancement of developing program on nuclear fission reactor on space, development of electronic element workable effectively under severe radiation environment is desired. SiC is expected as one of such elements. Therefore, because of considering importance of understanding the effect on fundamental properties of SiC electronic element under radiation environment before its development, some studies on it was executed. In this paper, according to find out induction of interesting defect center in hexagonal 4H- and 6H-SiC single crystals irradiated with reactor neutron on light absorption and SER test, outlines of these experimental results were reported. (G.K.)

  11. Crystallization and mechanical properties of reinforced PHBV composites using melt compounding: Effect of CNCs and CNFs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Du; Guomin, Zhao; Mingzhu, Pan; Leilei, Zhuang; Dagang, Li; Rui, Zhang

    2017-07-15

    Nanocellulose reinforced poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) composites were prepared using melt compounding. The effects of nanocellulose types (CNCs and CNFs) and nanocellulose content (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7wt%) on the crystallization, thermal and mechanical properties of PHBV composites were systematically compared in this study. The thermal stability of PHBV composites was improved by both CNCs and CNFs. CNFs with a higher thermal stability leaded to a higher thermal stability of PHBV composites. Both CNCs and CNFs induced a reduction in the crystalline size of PHBV spherulites. Furthermore, CNCs could act as a better nucleating agent for PHBV than did CNFs. CNCs and CNFs showed reinforcing effects in PHBV composites. At the equivalent content of nanocellulose, CNCs led to a higher tensile modulus of PHBV composites than did CNFs. 1wt% CNCs/PHBV composites exhibited the most optimum mechanical properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of grain defects on the mechanical behavior of nickel-based single crystal superalloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Haibin; Guo, Haiding

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a single crystal (SC) partition model, consisting of primary grains and grain defects, is proposed to simulate the weakening effect of grain defects generated at geometric discontinuities of SC materials. The plastic deformation of SC superalloy is described with the modified yield criterion, associated flow rule and hardening law. Then a bicrystal model containing only one group of misoriented grains under uniaxial loading is constructed and analyzed in the commercial finite element software ABAQUS. The simulation results indicate that the yield strength and elastic modulus of misoriented grains, which are determined by the crystallographic orientation, have a significant effect on the stress distribution of the bicrystal model. A critical stress, which is calculated by the stress state at critical regions, is proposed to evaluate the local stress rise at the sub-boundary of primary and misoriented grains.

  13. Effect of microwave treatment on the luminescence properties of CdS and CdTe:Cl Single Crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Red’ko, R. A.; Budzulyak, S. I.; Korbutyak, D. V.; Lotsko, A. P.; Vakhnyak, N. D.; Demchyna, L. A.; Kalytchuk, S. M.; Konakova, R. V.; Milenin, V. V.; Bykov, Yu. V.; Egorov, S. V.; Eremeev, A. G.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of microwave radiation on the luminescence properties of CdS and CdTe:Cl single crystals is studied. It is established that the exposure of these semiconductors to short-term (≤30 s) microwave radiation substantially modifies their impurity and defect structure. The mechanisms of transformation of the defect subsystem of II–VI single crystals upon microwave treatment are discussed. It is shown that the experimentally observed changes are defined by the nonthermal effects of microwave radiation at a power density of 7.5 W cm –2 ; at 90 W cm –2 , nonthermal effects are prevailing

  14. Electro-optic studies of the flexoelectric effect in chiral nematic liquid crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musgrave, B.

    2000-01-01

    With the advent of global telecommunications networks and the Internet, the development of portable display technology has gained a new impetus. Liquid crystal devices have played a major role in this area, most conspicuously as displays in laptop computers. To date, these liquid crystalline devices have been generally based on the rather slow (∼ 30 ms) dielectric response of the achiral nematic liquid crystal phase, although more expensive devices based on the faster ( -1 m -1 , and are the highest measured to date: the highest value previously published is 0.12 C N -1 m -1 , measured for the commercial mixture TM216. In order to interpret the effect of the bimesogens' molecular structure, achiral nematic monomesogens and bimesogens have been doped with chiral additives and the resultant mixtures' flexoelectro-optic properties have been analysed. From this work it has been possible to determine that the polar cyanobiphenyl group is the key to the strong response in the estradiol-cyanobiphenyl materials. In conclusion, a recommendation is made, for the first time, for a general molecular structure likely to exhibit a strong flexoelectro-optic response: namely, bimesogenic materials composed of highly polar end groups separated by a flexible spacer. (author)

  15. Effects of gamma ray irradiation on the struvite crystallization of livestock wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Byeong Hak; Jo, Seong Hui; Lee, Myun Joo; Kim, Tak Hyun

    2010-01-01

    The struvite crystallization was applied to remove NH 4 + in livestock wastewater. The ammonium ions can be very toxic to the aquatic creatures. In this experiments, the livestock wastewater from Gongju livestock wastewater treatment plant was used. The behaviors of various parameters such as pH, mole ratio of Mg 2+ : NH 4 + : PO 4 3- and reaction temperature for struvite crystallization of livestock wastewater and the effect of gamma ray irradiation were evaluated. As results, for the pH variation, the NH 4 + removal efficiency showed the highest, 88%, at pH 9 ∼ 9.25. The removal efficiency of NH 4 + , Mg 2+ and PO 4 3- was showed highest when same molar ratio of Mg 2+ and PO 4 3- were applied. The NH 4 + removal efficiency showed 82% at 7 .deg. C, and 90% at 30 .deg. C, with temperature. When the wastewater was irradiated with 20 kGy of gamma ray, NH 4 + was removed as much as 83%

  16. Effect of sintering on crystallization and structural properties of soda lime silica glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaid Mohd Hafiz Mohd

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of sintering temperatures on crystallization and structural of the soda lime silica (SLS glass was reported. Elemental weight composition of the SLS glass powder was identified through Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF analysis while the thermal behavior of the glass was determined using Differential thermal analysis (DTA technique. Archimedes’ method and direct geometric measurement were respectively used to determine bulk density and linear shrinkage of the glass samples. Crystallisation behavior of the samples was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis and chemical bonds present in the samples were measured using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR spectroscopy. Results showed an increase in the density and linear shrinkage of the samples as a function of the sintering temperature. The XRD analysis revealed the formation of α-quartz (SiO2 and a minor amount of devitrite phases in the samples and these were further verified through the detection of chemical bonds by FTIR after sintering at 800ºC. The properties of the glass-ceramics can be explained on the basis of crystal chemistry which indicated that the alkali ions formed as carriers in the random network structure and can be recommended for the manufacture of glass fiber or toughened glass-ceramic insulators.

  17. Effects of ethyl cellulose on the crystallization and mechanical properties of poly(β-hydroxybutyrate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianxiang; Wu, Defeng; Pan, Keren

    2016-07-01

    Ethyl cellulose (EC) was blended with poly(β-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB), aiming at controlling crystallization and mechanical properties of PHB. The obtained PHB/EC blend is an immiscible system, and the discrete EC phase behaves dual characteristics in the PHB matrix, as the viscoelastic droplets during processing, and as the rigid filler particles during shear flow. This is confirmed by the rheological tests. The presence of EC domains acts as the tackifier, sharply increasing system viscosity from 1000Pas to 5000Pas, and as a result, has large influence on the spherulite morphology of PHB and its crystallization kinetics. The PHB spherulite growth rate reduces in the presence of inert EC, accompanied by decreased degree of crystallinity and reduced lamella defects. These affect the mechanical properties of PHB strongly, together with reinforcing effect of EC itself. At the lower content level, EC can act as both reinforcement and toughener. The presence of 1wt% EC enhances the tensile strength of PHB by about 22%, from 27.5MPa to 33.3MPa, accompanied by 15% increase of impact strength. This work provide an easy way to control the structure and properties of PHB using EC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of surface crystallization and oxidation in nanocrystalline FeNbCuSiB(P) ribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butvinová, B., E-mail: beata.butvinova@savba.sk [Institute of Physics SAS, Dúbravská cesta 9, 845 11 Bratislava (Slovakia); Butvin, P. [Institute of Physics SAS, Dúbravská cesta 9, 845 11 Bratislava (Slovakia); Brzózka, K. [Department of Physics, University of Technology and Humanities in Radom, Krasickiego 54, 26-600 Radom (Poland); Kuzminski, M. [Institute of Physics PAS, Al. Lotnikow 36/42, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Maťko, I.; Švec Sr, P. [Institute of Physics SAS, Dúbravská cesta 9, 845 11 Bratislava (Slovakia); Chromčíková, M. [Institute of Inorg. Chem. SAS, Centrum VILA, Študentská 2, 911 50 Trenčín (Slovakia)

    2017-02-15

    Si-poor Fe{sub 74}Nb{sub 3}Cu{sub 1}Si{sub 8}B{sub 14−x}P{sub x}, (x=0, 3) nanocrystalline ribbon-form alloys often form surfaces, which exert in-plane force on underlying ribbon interior when nanocrystallized in even modest presence of oxygen. Mostly unwanted hard-ribbon-axis magnetic anisotropy is standard result. Essential sources of the surface-caused stress have been sought and influence of P instead of B substitution on this effect was studied too. Preferred surface crystallization (PSC) was found to be the major reason. However P substitution suppresses PSC and promotes Fe-oxide formation, which eases the stress, softens the surfaces and provides different annealing evolution of surface properties. - Highlights: • Ar anneal of low-Si FeNbCuBSi ribbons produce surfaces that stress ribbon interior. • The stress comes mainly from preferred crystallization of surfaces. • Partial substitution of B by P changes annealing evolution of surface properties. • Without P, more crystalline surfaces significantly reduce ribbon's elasticity. • P suppresses surface crystallinity, promotes oxides and reduces mutual stress.

  19. Peak effect and vortex dynamics in superconducting MgB2 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyun-Sook; Jang, Dong-Jin; Kim, Heon-Jung; Kang, Byeongwon; Lee, Sung-Ik

    2007-01-01

    The dynamic nature of the vortex state of MgB 2 single crystals near the peak effect (PE) region, which is very different either from that of conventional low-temperature superconductors or from that of high-temperature cuprate superconductors, is introduced in this article. Relaxation from a disordered, metastable field-cooled (FC) state to an ordered, stable zero-field-cooled (ZFC) state of the MgB 2 single crystals under an applied magnetic field and current is investigated. From an analysis of the noise properties in the ZFC state, a dynamic vortex phase diagram of the MgB 2 is obtained near the PE region. Between the onset and the peak region in the critical current vs. magnetic field diagram, crossovers from a high-noise state to a noise-free state are observed with increasing current. Above the peak, however, an opposite phenomenon, crossovers from a noise-free to a high-noise state, is observed which has not been observed in any other superconductors. The hysteresis in the I-V curves and the two-level random telegraph noise in the time evolution of the voltage response under an constant applied current at the ZFC state are also studied in detail

  20. Evolution of stacking fault tetrahedral and work hardening effect in copper single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hai Tao; Zhu, Xiu Fu; Sun, Ya Zhou; Xie, Wen Kun

    2017-11-01

    Stacking fault tetrahedral (SFT), generated in machining of copper single crystal as one type of subsurface defects, has significant influence on the performance of workpiece. In this study, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation is used to investigate the evolution of stacking fault tetrahedral in nano-cutting of copper single crystal. The result shows that SFT is nucleated at the intersection of differently oriented stacking fault (SF) planes and SFT evolves from the preform only containing incomplete surfaces into a solid defect. The evolution of SFT contains several stress fluctuations until the complete formation. Nano-indentation simulation is then employed on the machined workpiece from nano-cutting, through which the interaction between SFT and later-formed dislocations in subsurface is studied. In the meanwhile, force-depth curves obtained from nano-indentation on pristine and machined workpieces are compared to analyze the mechanical properties. By simulation of nano-cutting and nano-indentation, it is verified that SFT is a reason of the work hardening effect.

  1. Effect of residual stress on the nanoindentation response of (100) copper single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Li-na; Xu, Bin-shi; Wang, Hai-dou; Wang, Cheng-biao

    2012-01-01

    Experimental measurements were used to investigate the effect of residual stress on the nanoindentation of (100) copper single crystal. Equi-biaxial tensile and compressive stresses were applied to the copper single crystal using a special designed apparatus. It was found that residual stresses greatly affected peak load, curvature of the loading curve, elastically recovered depth, residual depth, indentation work, pile-up amount and contact area. The Suresh and Giannakopoulos and Lee and Kwon methods were used to calculate the residual stresses from load-depth data and morphology observation of nanoindents using atomic force microscopy. Comparison of the obtained results with stress values from strain gage showed that the residual stresses analyzed from the Suresh and Giannakopoulos model agreed well with the applied stresses. -- Highlights: ► Residual stresses greatly affected various nanoindentation parameters. ► The contact area can be accurately measured from AFM observation. ► The residual stresses analyzed from the S and G model agreed well with applied stresses.

  2. Effects of Photonic Crystals on the Light Output of Heavy Inorganic Scintillators

    CERN Document Server

    Knapitsch, Arno; Fabjan, Christian W; Leclercq, Jean-Louis; Letartre, Xavier; Mazurczyk, Radoslaw; Lecoq, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Photonic crystals (PhCs) are optical materials which can affect the propagation of light in multiple ways. In recent years PhCs contributed to major technological developments in the field of semiconductor lasers, light emitting diodes and photovoltaic applications. In our case we are investigating the capabilities of photonic crystal slabs with the aim to improve the performance of heavy inorganic scintillators. To study the combination of scintillators and PhCs we use a Monte-Carlo program to simulate the light propagation inside a scintillator and a rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA) framework to analyse the optical PhC properties. The simulations show light output improvements of a wide range of scintillating materials due to light scattering effects of the PhC slabs. First samples have been produced on top of 1.2 × 2.6 × 5 mm LSO (cerium-doped Lutetium Oxyorthosilicate, Lu_2SiO_5:Ce^3+) scintillators using electron beam lithography and reactive ion etching (RIE). Our samples show a 30-60% light outp...

  3. Insight into excimer laser crystallization exploiting ellipsometry: Effect of silicon film precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Losurdo, Maria [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and of Plasmas, IMIP-CNR and INSTM sez. Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70125 Bari (Italy)], E-mail: maria.losurdo@ba.imip.cnr.it; Giangregorio, Maria M.; Sacchetti, Alberto; Capezzuto, Pio; Bruno, Giovanni [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and of Plasmas, IMIP-CNR and INSTM sez. Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70125 Bari (Italy); Mariucci, Luigi; Fortunato, Guglielmo [IFN-CNR, Via Cineto Romano, 42 - 00156 Rome (Italy)

    2007-07-16

    The optical diagnostic of spectroscopic ellipsometry is shown to be an effective tool to investigate the mechanism of excimer laser crystallization (ELC) of silicon thin films. A detailed spectroscopic ellipsometric investigation of the microstructures of polycrystalline Si films obtained on SiO{sub 2}/Si wafers by ELC of a-Si:H and nc-Si films deposited, respectively, by SiH{sub 4} plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) and SiF{sub 4}-PECVD is presented. It is shown that ellipsometric spectra of the pseudodielectric function of polysilicon thin films allows to discern the three different ELC regimes of partial melting, super lateral growth and complete melting. Exploiting ellipsometry and atomic force microscopy, it is shown that ELC of nc-Si has very low energy density threshold of 95 mJ/cm{sup 2} for complete melting, and that re-crystallization to large grains of {approx} 2 {mu}m can be achieved by multi-shot irradiation at an energy density as low as 260 mJ/cm{sup 2} when using nc-Si when compared to 340 mJ/cm{sup 2} for the ELC of a-Si films.

  4. Potential Effects of a Water Market on Enhancing Water Productivity and Reducing Water-Related Conflicts in Fars Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Zibaei

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The growing demand for water and the declining trend in renewable water resources in most regions has led to serious limitations on water availability calling for the sustainable management of the harvestable resources. This has, in turn, encouraged most planners in the water sector to focus on demand management. A number of tools are already available for realizing water demand management goals; one such tool is establishing a water market. The present study is designed and implemented in two stages to investigate the role of a water market in water resources management. In the first stage, the creation of a water market at the farm and basin levels is simulated using a mathematical planning model. The second stage involves the investigation of the combined effects of the water market and water extraction rationing policies. It is found that rationing policies lead to reduced extractions from groundwater resources. The two-stage random cluster sampling method is used to collect the required data. Pilot villages are selected based on the data obtained from the first sampling stage. Pilot farms are then selected in the second stage based on water availability in each place. The input-output data, quantities of available water, and any other data required are finally collected through interviews with local farmers. Results reveal that the volume of exchanged water accounts for 9.5% of the total water consumed and the average improvement gained in farmers’ income ranges from 15 to as high as 42%. This clearly provides enough incentives for the farmers to enter the water market. Like all other water saving policies and measures, establishing a water market might increase consumption, contrary to the national objectives, in the absence of proper supplementary preventive measures. Thus, a second scenario is designed to investigate the combined effects of both water extraction rationing and water marketing. According to this scenario, the total

  5. Effect of charcoal on water purification

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Hirotaka; Kawahigashi, Tatsuo

    2014-01-01

    [Abstract] A natural basin system purifies water through self-purification, but the water pollution load of a river might exceed its self-purification capacity. Charcoal, which is used for other uses aside from heating, such as air purification, was evaluated experimentally for water quality purification. The experiment described herein is based on simple water quality measurements. Some experimentally obtained results are discussed.

  6. Temperature driven structural-memory-effects in carbon nanotubes filled with Fe3C nano crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boi, Filippo S.; Zhang, Xiaotian; Corrias, Anna

    2018-02-01

    We report the observation of novel temperature-driven structural-memory-effects in carbon nanotubes (CNTs) filled with Fe3C nano-crystals. These structural-transitions were measured by means of temperature (T) dependent x-ray diffraction (XRD) in the T-range from 298 K to 12 K. A clear reversible 2θ-shift in the 002-peak of the graphitic-CNTs-walls is found with the decrease of the temperature. As determined by Rietveld refinement, such 2θ-shift translates in a not previously reported decrease in the value of the CNT graphitic c-axis with the decrease of the temperature (from 298 K to 12 K). Also, a clear reversible 2θ-shift in the 031 and 131 diffraction-peaks of Fe3C is observed within the same T-range. Rietveld refinements confirm the existence of such memory-effect and also reveal a gradual decrease of the 010-axis of Fe3C with the decrease of the temperature. These observations imply that the observed structural-memory-effect is a characteristic of CNTs when Fe3C is the encapsulated ferromagnet. The generality of such memory-effects was further confirmed by additional measurements performed on other types of CNTs characterized by continuous Fe3C-filling. XRD measurements in the T-range from 298 K to 673 K revealed also an unusual reversible decrease of the Fe3C-peak intensities with the increase of the temperature. These observations can have important implications on the magnetic data recording applications of these nanostructures by helping in better understanding the unusual temperature-dependent magnetic instabilities of iron-based nano-crystals which have been recently reported in literature.

  7. A method to evaluate the effect of contact with excipients on the surface crystallization of amorphous drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Si-Wei; Yu, Lian; Huang, Jun; Hussain, Munir A; Derdour, Lotfi; Qian, Feng; de Villiers, Melgardt M

    2014-12-01

    Amorphous drugs are used to improve the solubility, dissolution, and bioavailability of drugs. However, these metastable forms of drugs can transform into more stable, less soluble, crystalline counterparts. This study reports a method for evaluating the effect of commonly used excipients on the surface crystallization of amorphous drugs and its application to two model amorphous compounds, nifedipine and indomethacin. In this method, amorphous samples of the drugs were covered by excipients and stored in controlled environments. An inverted light microscope was used to measure in real time the rates of surface crystal nucleation and growth. For nifedipine, vacuum-dried microcrystalline cellulose and lactose monohydrate increased the nucleation rate of the β polymorph from two to five times when samples were stored in a desiccator, while D-mannitol and magnesium stearate increased the nucleation rate 50 times. At 50% relative humidity, the nucleation rates were further increased, suggesting that moisture played an important role in the crystallization caused by the excipients. The effect of excipients on the crystal growth rate was not significant, suggesting that contact with excipients influences the physical stability of amorphous nifedipine mainly through the effect on crystal nucleation. This effect seems to be drug specific because for two polymorphs of indomethacin, no significant change in the nucleation rate was observed under the excipients.

  8. Effect of Chain Conformation on the Single-Molecule Melting Force in Polymer Single Crystals: Steered Molecular Dynamics Simulations Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wei; Wang, Zhigang; Zhang, Wenke

    2017-02-28

    Understanding the relationship between polymer chain conformation as well as the chain composition within the single crystal and the mechanical properties of the corresponding single polymer chain will facilitate the rational design of high performance polymer materials. Here three model systems of polymer single crystals, namely poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), polyethylene (PE), and nylon-66 (PA66) have been chosen to study the effects of chain conformation, helical (PEO) versus planar zigzag conformation (PE, PA66), and chain composition (PE versus PA66) on the mechanical properties of a single polymer chain. To do that, steered molecular dynamics simulations were performed on those polymer single crystals by pulling individual polymer chains out of the crystals. Our results show that the patterns of force-extension curve as well as the chain moving mode are closely related to the conformation of the polymer chain in the single crystal. In addition, hydrogen bonds can enhance greatly the force required to stretch the polymer chain out of the single crystal. The dynamic breaking and reformation of multivalent hydrogen bonds have been observed for the first time in PA66 at the single molecule level.

  9. The effect of additives on the speed of the crystallization front of xylitol with various degrees of supercooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppaelae, Ari; Merilaeinen, Arttu [Helsinki University of Technology, Department of Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics, P.O. Box 4400, 02015 TKK (Finland); Wikstroem, Lisa; Kauranen, Pertti [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Advanced Materials, P.O. Box 1300, 33101 Tampere (Finland)

    2010-07-15

    Some liquids can be kept in a supercooled or supersaturated metastable state for substantially long periods. Such liquids can be applied as long-term heat storage where the latent heat can be released when needed. As xylitol possesses a relatively high value of latent heat and as it can be easily supercooled, it has promising properties for this application. However, the speed of the crystallization of xylitol is low, leading to a low release rate of latent heat. Several additives have been experimentally tested for the purpose of accelerating the crystallization speed. The effect of the additives on the latent heat, on the melting temperatures, and on the long-term durability of the supercooled state was also measured. The highest speeds of the crystallization front, at a temperature of 22 C, were achieved with methanol as an additive leading to speeds 33 times higher in vertical experiments and in 170 times higher in horizontal ones than with pure xylitol. The improved speed of the crystallization front is mostly caused by the methanol flow currents generated as a result of the separation of methanol during crystallization, and to a lesser extent, as a result of the increase in the speed of the growth of the crystals. (author)

  10. Effects of the rate of supersaturation generation on polymorphic crystallization of m-hydroxybenzoic acid and o-aminobenzoic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Guangwen; Wong, Annie B. H.; Chow, Pui Shan; Tan, Reginald B. H.

    2011-01-01

    Effects of the rate of supersaturation generation on polymorphic crystallization have been investigated through evaporation and cooling crystallization experiments of m-hydroxybenzoic acid (m-HBA) in methanol, acetone and ethyl acetate, and o-aminobenzoic acid (o-ABA) in ethanol. The rate of supersaturation generation has been altered by systematically changing either the cooling rate or the evaporation rate of solvent using a jacketed crystallizer and a microfluidic evaporation device, respectively. The results have revealed that the rate of supersaturation generation and the tendency of the formation of the less stable polymorph are positively correlated. Kinetic effects are dominant when the rate of supersaturation generation is high, thereby producing the metastable polymorphs (orthorhombic m-HBA; Form II of o-ABA); on the contrary, more stable polymorphs (monoclinic m-HBA; Forms III and I of o-ABA) are formed when the rate of supersaturation generation is low and the thermodynamic effects are prevailing.

  11. radiation and electric field induced effects on the order-disorder phase in lithium sodium sulphate crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, A. E.; Kassem, M. E.; El-Wahidy, E. F.; El-Abshehy, M. A.

    1995-03-01

    The temperature dependence of specific heat at constant pressure, Cp(T), has been measured for lithium sodium sulphate, LiNaSo4 crystals, at different ?-radiation doses and external bias electric field (Eb), in the temperature range 300-900 K. A nonlinear dependence of transition temperature, T1 and a remarkable change in the thermodynamic parameters, were obtained as the effect of both electric field and ?-radiation. The effect of ?-radiation doses on the phase transition in LiNaSO4 crystals was explained as due to an internal bias field, Eb, originating from the interaction of polar defects with the order parameter of the host lattice. The internal bias field effect on the behaviour of Cp(T) in LiNaSO4 crystals was similar to that of the external electric field (E).

  12. Copper co-crystallization and divalent metal salts cross-influence effect: A new optimization tool improving crystal morphology and diffraction quality

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kutá-Smatanová, Ivana

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 306, č. 2 (2007), s. 383-389 ISSN 0022-0248 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : crystal * crystallization Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.950, year: 2007

  13. Effect of Li and NH4 doping on the crystal perfection, second harmonic generation efficiency and laser damage threshold of potassium pentaborate crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigneshwaran, A. N.; Kalainathan, S.; Raja, C. Ramachandra

    2018-03-01

    Potassium pentaborate (KB5) is an excellent nonlinear optical material especially in the UV region. In this work, Li and NH4 doped KB5 crystals were grown using slow evaporation solution growth method. The incorporation of dopant has been confirmed and analysed by Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analysis and Raman spectroscopy. The crystalline perfection of pure and doped KB5 crystals was studied by High resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) analysis. Structural grain boundaries were observed in doped crystals. Second harmonic generation was confirmed for pure and doped crystals and output values revealed the enhancement of SHG efficiency in doped crystals. Resistance against laser damage was carried out using 1064 nm Nd-YAG laser of pulse width 10 ns. The laser damage threshold value is increased in Li doped crystal and decreased in NH4 doped crystal when compared to pure KB5 crystal.

  14. Growth of dopamine crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, Vidya, E-mail: vidya.patil@ruparel.edu; Patki, Mugdha, E-mail: mugdha.patki@ruparel.edu [D. G. Ruparel College, Senapati Bapat Marg, Mahim, Mumbai – 400 016 (India)

    2016-05-06

    Many nonlinear optical (NLO) crystals have been identified as potential candidates in optical and electro-optical devices. Use of NLO organic crystals is expected in photonic applications. Hence organic nonlinear optical materials have been intensely investigated due to their potentially high nonlinearities, and rapid response in electro-optic effect compared to inorganic NLO materials. There are many methods to grow organic crystals such as vapor growth method, melt growth method and solution growth method. Out of these methods, solution growth method is useful in providing constraint free crystal. Single crystals of Dopamine have been grown by evaporating the solvents from aqueous solution. Crystals obtained were of the size of orders of mm. The crystal structure of dopamine was determined using XRD technique. Images of crystals were obtained using FEG SEM Quanta Series under high vacuum and low KV.

  15. Colloidal crystal templated molecular imprinted polymer for the detection of 2-butoxyethanol in water contaminated by hydraulic fracturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jingjing; Vu, Danh; Nagel, Susan; Lin, Chung-Ho; Fidalgo de Cortalezzi, Maria

    2017-12-06

    The authors describe a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) that enables detection of 2-butoxyethanol (2BE), a pollutant associated with hydraulic fracturing contamination. Detection is based on a combination of a colloidal crystal templating and a molecular imprinting. The MIPs are shown to display higher binding capacity for 2BE compared to non-imprinted films (NIPs), with imprinting efficiencies of ∼ 2. The tests rely on the optical effects that are displayed by the uniformly ordered porous structure of the material. The reflectance spectra of the polymer films have characteristic Bragg peaks whose location varies with the concentration of 2BE. Peaks undergo longwave red shifts up to 50 nm on exposure of the MIP to 2BE in concentrations in the range from 1 ppb to 100 ppm. This allows for quantitative estimates of the 2BE concentrations present in aqueous solutions. The material is intended for use in the early detection of contamination at hydraulic fracturing sites. Graphical abstract Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) sensor with the sensing ability on reflectance spectra responding to the presence of 2-butoxyethanol (2BE) for early detection of hydraulic fracking contamination.

  16. Anti-solvent co-crystallization of carbamazepine and saccharin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, In-Chun; Lee, Min-Jeong; Sim, Sang-Jun; Kim, Woo-Sik; Chun, Nan-Hee; Choi, Guang J

    2013-06-25

    The co-crystal approach has been investigated extensively over the past decade as one of the most promising methods to enhance the dissolution properties of insoluble drug substances. Co-crystal powders are typically produced by mechanical grinding (neat or wet) or a solution method (evaporation or cooling). In this study, high-purity carbamazepine-saccharin (CBZ-SAC) co-crystals were manufactured by a novel method, anti-solvent addition. Among various solvents, methanol was found to perform well with water as the anti-solvent for the co-crystallization of CBZ and SAC. When water was added to the methanol solution of CBZ and SAC at room temperature under agitation, nucleation of CBZ-SAC co-crystals occurred within 2-3 min. Co-crystallization was complete after 30 min, giving a solid yield as high as 84.5% on a CBZ basis. The effects of initial concentrations, focusing on the SAC/CBZ ratio, were examined to establish optimal conditions. The whole anti-solvent co-crystallization process was monitored at-line via ATR-FTIR analysis of regularly sampled solutions. The nucleation and crystal growth of CBZ-SAC co-crystals were detected by a significant increase in absorption in the range of 2400-2260 cm(-1), associated with the formation of hydrogen bonds between the carbonyl group in CBZ and the N-H of SAC. When CBZ hydrates were formed as impurities during anti-solvent co-crystallization, the hydrogen bonding between methanol and water was reduced greatly, primarily due to the incorporation of water molecules into the CBZ crystal lattice. In conclusion, an anti-solvent approach can be used to produce highly pure CBZ-SAC co-crystal powders with a high solid yield. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Investigation of the process of co-crystallization of barium and strontium nitrates from the system acetic acid-water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubicki, W.; Piskorek, M.

    1976-01-01

    Co-crystallization of barium nitrate and strontium nitrate from the system CH 3 COOH-H 2 O was investigated by using radioactive tracer Ba 133 . The authors have found that during the crystallization of strontium nitrate from acetic acid solution at 25 0 C, one can obtain a 67-fold lowering of the content of barium in strontium nitrate, a 40-fold lowering of the content of barium in strontium nitrate is at 35 0 C. Strontium nitrate went to the solid phase with 70% efficiency. Acetic acid solutions of 24.5-24.3 per cent weight were used. Attention was paid to the franctionation of barium admixtures during crystallization of strontium nitrate from acetic acid solutions (so called ''isothermic salting out crystallization process'') is in agreement with the logarithmic law of Doerner-Hoskins. Process is characterized by a constant coefficient of surface co-crystallization lambda = 18. The results of investigations show that it is possible to obtain spectrally pure non-barium strontium nitrate as the result of its crystallization from the system CH 3 COOH-H 2 O at a temperature of 25 0 and 35 0 C. (author)

  18. Working Paper 4: Institutions for Effective Water Demand ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012-01-23

    Jan 23, 2012 ... Working Paper 4: Institutions for Effective Water Demand ... This working paper is part of WaDImena 's four Research Series on Water Demand Management ... Improving Water Demand Management Addressing Socioeconomic Inequalities and ... Women's rights and access to water and sanitation in Delhi.

  19. The effectiveness of conventional water treatment in removing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Algal blooms are a global problem due to various negative effects that can compromise water quality, such as the production of metabolites that are responsible for odour, colour, taste and toxins. In drinking water supplies algae can reduce the aesthetics of potable water when not readily removed by conventional water ...

  20. Effect of rare-earth dopants on the growth and structural, optical, electrical and mechanical properties of L-arginine phosphate single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arjunan, S.; Bhaskaran, A.; Kumar, R. Mohan; Mohan, R.; Jayavel, R.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Thorium, Lanthanum and Cerium rare-earth ions were doped with L-arginine phosphate material and the crystals were grown by slow evaporation technique. → The transparency of the rare-earth doped LAP crystals has enhanced compared to pure LAP. → The powder SHG measurements revealed that the SHG output of rare-earth doped LAP crystals increases considerably compared to that of LAP. → Vicker's hardness number of as-grown crystal of LAP is higher than that of rare-earth doped LAP crystals. - Abstract: Effect of Thorium, Lanthanum and Cerium rare-earth ions on the growth and properties of L-arginine phosphate single crystals has been reported. The incorporation of rare-earth dopants into the L-arginine phosphate crystals is confirmed by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectroscopy analysis. The unit cell parameters for pure and rare-earth doped L-arginine phosphate crystals have been estimated by powder X-ray diffraction studies. UV-visible studies revealed the transmittance percentage and cut-off wavelengths of the grown crystals. Powder second harmonic generation measurement has been carried out for pure and doped L-arginine phosphate crystals. The dielectric behavior of the grown crystals was analyzed for different frequencies at room temperature. The mechanical properties have been determined for pure and the doped L-arginine phosphate crystals.