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Sample records for crystalline silicon c-si

  1. Effect of the CO2/SiH4 Ratio in the p-μc-SiO:H Emitter Layer on the Performance of Crystalline Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Sritharathikhun, Jaran; Krajangsang, Taweewat; Moollakorn, Apichan; Inthisang, Sorapong; Limmanee, Amornrat; Hongsingtong, Aswin; Boriraksantikul, Nattaphong; Taratiwat, Tianchai; Akarapanjavit, Nirod; Sriprapha, Kobsak

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the preparation of wide gap p-type hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon oxide (p-μc-SiO:H) films using a 40 MHz very high frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique. The reported work focused on the effects of the CO2/SiH4 ratio on the properties of p-μc-SiO:H films and the effectiveness of the films as an emitter layer of crystalline silicon heterojunction (c-Si-HJ) solar cells. A p-μc-SiO:H film with a wide optical band gap (E04), 2.1 eV, can be obtain...

  2. Variation in the Optical Properties of the SiC-SiO2 Composite Antireflection Layer in Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells by Annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannat, Azmira; Li, Zhen Yu; Akhter, M. Shaheer; Yang, O.-Bong

    2017-11-01

    This study showed the effects of annealing on a sol-gel-derived SiC-SiO2 composite antireflection (AR) layer and investigated the optical and photovoltaic properties of crystalline silicon (Si) solar cells. The SiC-SiO2 composite AR coating showed a considerable decrease in reflectance from 7.18% to 3.23% at varying annealing temperatures of 450-800°C. The refractive indices of the SiC-SiO2 composite AR layer were tuned from 2.06 to 2.45 with the increase in annealing temperature. The analysis of the current density-voltage characteristics indicated that the energy conversion efficiencies of the fabricated Si solar cells gradually increased from 16.99% to 17.73% with increasing annealing temperatures of 450-800°C. The annealing of the SiC-SiO2 composite AR layer in Si solar cells was crucial to improving the optical, morphological, and photovoltaic properties.

  3. Effect of the CO2/SiH4 Ratio in the p-μc-SiO:H Emitter Layer on the Performance of Crystalline Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaran Sritharathikhun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the preparation of wide gap p-type hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon oxide (p-μc-SiO:H films using a 40 MHz very high frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique. The reported work focused on the effects of the CO2/SiH4 ratio on the properties of p-μc-SiO:H films and the effectiveness of the films as an emitter layer of crystalline silicon heterojunction (c-Si-HJ solar cells. A p-μc-SiO:H film with a wide optical band gap (E04, 2.1 eV, can be obtained by increasing the CO2/SiH4 ratio; however, the tradeoff between E04 and dark conductivity must be considered. The CO2/SiH4 ratio of the p-μc-SiO:H emitter layer also significantly affects the performance of the solar cells. Compared to the cell using p-μc-Si:H (CO2/SiH4 = 0, the cell with the p-μc-SiO:H emitter layer performs more efficiently. We have achieved the highest efficiency of 18.3% with an open-circuit voltage (Voc of 692 mV from the cell using the p-μc-SiO:H layer. The enhancement in the Voc and the efficiency of the solar cells verified the potential of the p-μc-SiO:H films for use as the emitter layer in c-Si-HJ solar cells.

  4. IBC c-Si solar cells based on ion-implanted poly-silicon passivating contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, G.; Ingenito, A.; Isabella, O.; Zeman, M.

    2016-01-01

    Ion-implanted poly-crystalline silicon (poly-Si), in combination with a tunnel oxide layer, is investigated as a carrier-selective passivating contact in c-Si solar cells based on an interdigitated back contact (IBC) architecture. The optimized poly-Si passivating contacts enable low interface

  5. Gelcasting of SiC/Si for preparation of silicon nitride bonded silicon carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Z.P.; Tsinghua University, Beijing,; Cheng, Y.B.; Lu, J.W.; Huang, Y.

    2000-01-01

    In the present paper, gelcasting of aqueous slurry with coarse silicon carbide(1mm) and fine silicon particles was investigated to fabricate silicon nitride bonded silicon carbide materials. Through the examination of influence of different polyelectrolytes on the Zeta potential and viscosity of silicon and silicon carbide suspensions, a stable SiC/Si suspension with 60 vol% solid loading could be prepared by using polyelectrolyte of D3005 and sodium alginate. Gelation of this suspension can complete in 10-30 min at 60-80 deg C after cast into mold. After demolded, the wet green body can be dried directly in furnace and the green strength will develop during drying. Complex shape parts with near net size were prepared by the process. Effects of the debindering process on nitridation and density of silicon nitride bonded silicon carbide were also examined. Copyright (2000) The Australian Ceramic Society

  6. Argon plasma treatment of silicon nitride (SiN) for improved antireflection coating on c-Si solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Hemanta; Mitra, Suchismita; Saha, Hiranmay; Datta, Swapan Kumar; Banerjee, Chandan, E-mail: chandanbanerjee74@gmail.com

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Antireflection properties of argon plasma treated silicon nitride layer and its effect on crystalline silicon solar cell. • The reduction in reflection due to the formation of a silicon oxynitride/silicon nitride double layer. • EQE reveals a relative increase of 2.72% in J{sub sc} and 4.46% in conversion efficiency. - Abstract: Antireflection properties of argon plasma treated silicon nitride layer and its effect on crystalline silicon solar cell is presented here. Hydrogenated silicon nitride (a-SiN:H) layer has been deposited on a silicon substrate by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition (PECVD) using a mixture of silane (SiH{sub 4}), ammonia (NH{sub 3}) and hydrogen (H{sub 2}) gases followed by a argon plasma treatment. Optical analysis reveals a significant reduction in reflectance after argon plasma treatment of silicon nitride layer. While FESEM shows nanostructures on the surface of the silicon nitride film, FTIR reveals a change in Si−N, Si−O and N−H bonds. On the other hand, ellipsometry shows the variation of refractive index and formation of double layer. Finally, a c-Si solar cell has been fabricated with the said anti-reflection coating. External quantum efficiency reveals a relative increase of 2.72% in the short circuit current density and 4.46% in conversion efficiency over a baseline efficiency of 16.58%.

  7. Silicon Effects on Properties of Melt Infiltrated SiC/SiC Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.; Gyekenyesi, John Z.; Hurst, Janet B.

    2000-01-01

    Silicon effects on tensile and creep properties, and thermal conductivity of Hi-Nicalon SiC/SiC composites have been investigated. The composites consist of 8 layers of 5HS 2-D woven preforms of BN/SiC coated Hi-Nicalon fiber mats and a silicon matrix, or a mixture of silicon matrix and SiC particles. The Hi-Nicalon SiC/silicon and Hi-Nicalon SiC/SiC composites contained about 24 and 13 vol% silicon, respectively. Results indicate residual silicon up to 24 vol% has no significant effect on creep and thermal conductivity, but does decrease the primary elastic modulus and stress corresponding to deviation from linear stress-strain behavior.

  8. Structural investigation of the amorphous/crystalline interface by means of quantitative high-resolution transmission electron microscopy on the systems a-Si/c-Si and a-Ge/c-Si; Strukturelle Untersuchung der amorph/kristallinen Grenzflaeche mittels quantitativer hochaufloesender Transmissionselektronenmikroskopie an den Systemen a-Si/c-Si und a-Ge/c-Si

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiel, K.

    2006-11-02

    In this Thesis the interfaces between covalently bonded crystalline and amorphous materials were studied with regard to the induced ordering in the amorphous material in the interfacial region by means of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HREM). The interface between amorphous germanium and crystalline silicon and the interface between amorphous and crystalline silicon served as material system. In order to quantify the influence of the crystalline order on the amorphous material, the HREM images were periodically averaged along the interface. The intensity components, which are correlated with the period of the lattice image, could thus be separated from the statistical intensity fluctuations, which are characteristic for images of amorphous materials. Since amorphous materials can only be described meaningful by statistical distribution functions, for the induced order a three-dimensional distribution function {rho}{sub 3D}(r) was taken as a basis, which describes the probability to find an atom in the amorphous material, if r=0 is the position of an atom in the crystal. Its two-dimensional projection, {rho}, can be determined using iterative image matching techniques on averaged experimental and simulated interface images. For the analyzed material systems {rho} exhibits lateral ordering as well as a pronounced layering in the vicinity of the interface. In the case of the a-Si/c-Si sample the mean orientation of bonds was 70.5 , as is in the case of the undistorted diamond lattice, while for the a-Ge/c-Si sample 65 resulted. The standard deviation for the distribution of the deviations from the mean bond angle yields for the a-Ge/c-Si sample in the first atomic layer a value of 11.3 and for the a-Si/c-Si sample 1.9 . These results suggest the conclusion, that the differences in these values are to be interpreted as the reaction of the amorphous material to the volume misfit. Although for both material systems 1.4 nm was calculated for the width

  9. Impact of microcrystalline silicon carbide growth using hot-wire chemical vapor deposition on crystalline silicon surface passivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomaska, M.; Beyer, W.; Neumann, E.; Finger, F.; Ding, K.

    2015-01-01

    Highly crystalline microcrystalline silicon carbide (μc-SiC:H) with excellent optoelectronic material properties is a promising candidate as highly transparent doped layer in silicon heterojunction (SHJ) solar cells. These high quality materials are usually produced using hot wire chemical vapor deposition under aggressive growth conditions giving rise to the removal of the underlying passivation layer and thus the deterioration of the crystalline silicon (c-Si) surface passivation. In this work, we introduced the n-type μc-SiC:H/n-type μc-SiO x :H/intrinsic a-SiO x :H stack as a front layer configuration for p-type SHJ solar cells with the μc-SiO x :H layer acting as an etch-resistant layer against the reactive deposition conditions during the μc-SiC:H growth. We observed that the unfavorable expansion of micro-voids at the c-Si interface due to the in-diffusion of hydrogen atoms through the layer stack might be responsible for the deterioration of surface passivation. Excellent lifetime values were achieved under deposition conditions which are needed to grow high quality μc-SiC:H layers for SHJ solar cells. - Highlights: • High surface passivation quality was preserved after μc-SiC:H deposition. • μc-SiC:H/μc-SiO x :H/a-SiO x :H stack a promising front layer configuration • Void expansion at a-SiO x :H/c-Si interface for deteriorated surface passivation • μc-SiC:H provides a high transparency and electrical conductivity.

  10. Progress in the medicinal chemistry of silicon: C/Si exchange and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Shinya; Hashimoto, Yuichi

    2017-04-01

    Application of silyl functionalities is one of the most promising strategies among various 'elements chemistry' approaches for the development of novel and distinctive drug candidates. Replacement of one or more carbon atoms of various biologically active compounds with silicon (so-called sila-substitution) has been intensively studied for decades, and is often effective for alteration of activity profile and improvement of metabolic profile. In addition to simple C/Si exchange, several novel approaches for utilizing silicon in medicinal chemistry have been suggested in recent years, focusing on the intrinsic differences between silicon and carbon. Sila-substitution offers great potential for enlarging the chemical space of medicinal chemistry, and provides many options for structural development of drug candidates.

  11. Controlling the optical properties of monocrystalline 3C-SiC heteroepitaxially grown on silicon at low temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colston, Gerard; Myronov, Maksym

    2017-11-01

    Cubic silicon carbide (3C-SiC) offers an alternative wide bandgap semiconductor to conventional materials such as hexagonal silicon carbide (4H-SiC) or gallium nitride (GaN) for the detection of UV light and can offer a closely lattice matched virtual substrate for subsequent GaN heteroepitaxy. As 3C-SiC can be heteroepitaxially grown on silicon (Si) substrates its optical properties can be manipulated by controlling the thickness and doping concentrations. The optical properties of 3C-SiC epilayers have been characterized by measuring the transmission of light through suspended membranes. Decreasing the thickness of the 3C-SiC epilayers is shown to shift the absorbance edge to lower wavelengths, a result of the indirect bandgap nature of silicon carbide. This property, among others, can be exploited to fabricate very low-cost, tuneable 3C-SiC based UV photodetectors. This study investigates the effect of thickness and doping concentration on the optical properties of 3C-SiC epilayers grown at low temperatures by a standard Si based growth process. The results demonstrate the potential photonic applications of 3C-SiC and its heterogeneous integration into the Si industry.

  12. Optical Evaluation of the Rear Contacts of Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells by Coupled Electromagnetic and Statistical Ray-Optics Modeling

    KAUST Repository

    Dabirian, Ali; Morales-Masis, Monica; Haug, Franz-Josef; De Wolf, Stefaan; Ballif, Christophe

    2017-01-01

    High-efficiency crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cells increasingly feature sophisticated electron and hole contacts aimed at minimizing electronic losses. At the rear of photovoltaic devices, such contacts—usually consisting of stacks of functional

  13. a-Si:H/c-Si heterojunction front- and back contacts for silicon solar cells with p-type base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rostan, Philipp Johannes

    2010-07-01

    This thesis reports on low temperature amorphous silicon back and front contacts for high-efficiency crystalline silicon solar cells with a p-type base. The back contact uses a sequence of intrinsic amorphous (i-a-Si:H) and boron doped microcrystalline (p-{mu}c-Si:H) silicon layers fabricated by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) and a magnetron sputtered ZnO:Al layer. The back contact is finished by evaporating Al onto the ZnO:Al and altogether prepared at a maximum temperature of 220 C. Analysis of the electronic transport of mobile charge carriers at the back contact shows that the two high-efficiency requirements low back contact series resistance and high quality c-Si surface passivation are in strong contradiction to each other, thus difficult to achieve at the same time. The preparation of resistance- and effective lifetime samples allows one to investigate both requirements independently. Analysis of the majority charge carrier transport on complete Al/ZnO:Al/a-Si:H/c-Si back contact structures derives the resistive properties. Measurements of the effective minority carrier lifetime on a-Si:H coated wafers determines the back contact surface passivation quality. Both high-efficiency solar cell requirements together are analyzed in complete photovoltaic devices where the back contact series resistance mainly affects the fill factor and the back contact passivation quality mainly affects the open circuit voltage. The best cell equipped with a diffused emitter with random texture and a full-area a-Si:H/c-Si back contact has an independently confirmed efficiency {eta} = 21.0 % with an open circuit voltage V{sub oc} = 681 mV and a fill factor FF = 78.7 % on an area of 1 cm{sup 2}. An alternative concept that uses a simplified a-Si:H layer sequence combined with Al-point contacts yields a confirmed efficiency {eta} = 19.3 % with an open circuit voltage V{sub oc} = 655 mV and a fill factor FF = 79.5 % on an area of 2 cm{sup 2}. Analysis of the

  14. Explicit analytical modeling of the low frequency a-Si:H/c-Si heterojunction capacitance: Analysis and application to silicon heterojunction solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maslova, O. [Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Miusskaya sq., 4, Moscow 125047 (Russian Federation); GeePs (Group of electrical engineering of Paris), CNRS UMR 8507, CentraleSupélec, Univ Paris-Sud, Sorbonne Universités-UPMC Univ Paris 06, 11 rue Joliot-Curie, Plateau de Moulon, F-91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Brézard-Oudot, A.; Gueunier-Farret, M.-E.; Alvarez, J.; Kleider, J.-P. [GeePs (Group of electrical engineering of Paris), CNRS UMR 8507, CentraleSupélec, Univ Paris-Sud, Sorbonne Universités-UPMC Univ Paris 06, 11 rue Joliot-Curie, Plateau de Moulon, F-91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2015-09-21

    We develop a fully analytical model in order to describe the temperature dependence of the low frequency capacitance of heterojunctions between hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and crystalline silicon (c-Si). We demonstrate that the slope of the capacitance-temperature (C-T) curve is strongly enhanced if the c-Si surface is under strong inversion conditions compared to the usually assumed depletion layer capacitance. We have extended our analytical model to integrate a very thin undoped (i) a-Si:H layer at the interface and the finite thickness of the doped a-Si:H layer that are used in high efficiency solar cells for the passivation of interface defects and to limit short circuit current losses. Finally, using our calculations, we analyze experimental data on high efficiency silicon heterojunction solar cells. The transition from the strong inversion limited behavior to the depletion layer behavior is discussed in terms of band offsets, density of states in a-Si:H, and work function of the indium tin oxide (ITO) front electrode. In particular, it is evidenced that strong inversion conditions prevail at the c-Si surface at high temperatures down to 250 K, which can only be reproduced if the ITO work function is larger than 4.7 eV.

  15. Back scattering involving embedded silicon nitride (SiN) nanoparticles for c-Si solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Hemanta; Mitra, Suchismita; Siddiqui, M. S.; Saxena, A. K.; Chaudhuri, Partha; Saha, Hiranmay; Banerjee, Chandan

    2018-04-01

    A novel material, structure and method of synthesis for dielectric light trapping have been presented in this paper. First, the light scattering behaviour of silicon nitride nanoparticles have been theoretically studied in order to find the optimized size for dielectric back scattering by FDTD simulations from Lumerical Inc. The optical results have been used in electrical analysis and thereby, estimate the effect of nanoparticles on efficiency of the solar cells depending on substrate thickness. Experimentally, silicon nitride (SiN) nanoparticles have been formed using hydrogen plasma treatment on SiN layer deposited by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition (PECVD). The size and area coverage of the nanoparticles were controlled by varying the working pressure, power density and treatment duration. The nanoparticles were integrated with partial rear contact c-Si solar cells as dielectric back reflector structures for the light trapping in thin silicon solar cells. Experimental results revealed the increases of current density by 2.7% in presence of SiN nanoparticles.

  16. Amorphous silicon crystalline silicon heterojunction solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Fahrner, Wolfgang Rainer

    2013-01-01

    Amorphous Silicon/Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells deals with some typical properties of heterojunction solar cells, such as their history, the properties and the challenges of the cells, some important measurement tools, some simulation programs and a brief survey of the state of the art, aiming to provide an initial framework in this field and serve as a ready reference for all those interested in the subject. This book helps to "fill in the blanks" on heterojunction solar cells. Readers will receive a comprehensive overview of the principles, structures, processing techniques and the current developmental states of the devices. Prof. Dr. Wolfgang R. Fahrner is a professor at the University of Hagen, Germany and Nanchang University, China.

  17. Conventional and 360 degree electron tomography of a micro-crystalline silicon solar cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duchamp, Martial; Ramar, Amuthan; Kovács, András

    2011-01-01

    Bright-field (BF) and annular dark-field (ADF) electron tomography in the transmission electron microscope (TEM) are used to characterize elongated porous regions or cracks (simply referred to as cracks thereafter) in micro-crystalline siliconc-Si:H) solar cell. The limitations of inferring...

  18. The silicon neighborhood across the a-Si:H to {mu}c-Si transition by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tessler, Leandro R.; Wang Qi; Branz, Howard M

    2003-04-22

    We report a synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy study of the average neighborhood of Si near the transition from a-Si:H to {mu}c-Si on wedge-shaped samples prepared by hot-wire CVD in a chamber using a movable shutter. The thickness of the wedge varies from 30 to 160 nm. Nucleation of {mu}c-Si occurs at a critical thickness of approximately 100 nm. X-Ray absorption was measured at the Si K-edge (1.84 keV) by total electron photoemission yield. The absorption oscillations in the EXAFS region are very similar to all along the wedge. Analysis indicates an average tetrahedral first neighbor shell with radial disorder decreasing with crystallization. In the near-edge (XANES) region multiple scattering effects appear at the onset of crystallinity. Unlike single crystal silicon, these effects involve only double scattering within the first neighbor shell, indicating an ill-formed second shell in {mu}c-Si.

  19. Effect of initial porosity on mechanical properties of C/SiC composites fabricated by silicon melt infiltration process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, D.S.; Son, D.Y. [Dept. of Materials and Metallurgical Eng., Dong-Eui Univ., Busan (Korea); Lee, S.P. [Dept. of Mechanical Eng., Dong-Eui Univ., Busan (Korea); Park, H.S.; Kim, K.S. [Dreaming and Challenging Co., Changwon (Korea); Jeon, J.H. [Korea Inst. of Machinery and Materials, Changwon (Korea)

    2004-07-01

    Four kinds of raw C/C composites with a density between 1.25{proportional_to}1.66 g/cm{sup 3} were used in order to investigate the effect of the initial porosity of C/C composites on mechanical properties of liquid silicon infiltrated C/SiC composites. The microstructure observation, image analysis and flexural strength test of the composites were performed. The density and microstructural changes with the variation of the initial porosity was discussed in the terms of the infiltration behavior of liquid silicon and the reaction between liquid silicon and matrix carbon. (orig.)

  20. Evolution of a Native Oxide Layer at the a-Si:H/c-Si Interface and Its Influence on a Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenzhu; Meng, Fanying; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Liu, Zhengxin

    2015-12-09

    The interface microstructure of a silicon heterojunction (SHJ) solar cell was investigated. We found an ultrathin native oxide layer (NOL) with a thickness of several angstroms was formed on the crystalline silicon (c-Si) surface in a very short time (∼30 s) after being etched by HF solution. Although the NOL had a loose structure with defects that are detrimental for surface passivation, it acted as a barrier to restrain the epitaxial growth of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) during the plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). The microstructure change of the NOL during the PECVD deposition of a-Si:H layers with different conditions and under different H2 plasma treatments were systemically investigated in detail. When a brief H2 plasma was applied to treat the a-Si:H layer after the PECVD deposition, interstitial oxygen and small-size SiO2 precipitates were transformed to hydrogenated amorphous silicon suboxide alloy (a-SiO(x):H, x ∼ 1.5). In the meantime, the interface defect density was reduced by about 50%, and the parameters of the SHJ solar cell were improved due to the post H2 plasma treatment.

  1. Growth of boron doped hydrogenated nanocrystalline cubic silicon carbide (3C-SiC) films by Hot Wire-CVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawbake, Amit [School of Energy Studies, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune 411 007 (India); Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Colaba, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Mayabadi, Azam; Waykar, Ravindra; Kulkarni, Rupali; Jadhavar, Ashok [School of Energy Studies, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune 411 007 (India); Waman, Vaishali [Modern College of Arts, Science and Commerce, Shivajinagar, Pune 411 005 (India); Parmar, Jayesh [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Colaba, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Bhattacharyya, Somnath [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, IIT Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India); Ma, Yuan‐Ron [Department of Physics, National Dong Hwa University, Hualien 97401, Taiwan (China); Devan, Rupesh; Pathan, Habib [Department of Physics, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune 411007 (India); Jadkar, Sandesh, E-mail: sandesh@physics.unipune.ac.in [Department of Physics, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune 411007 (India)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Boron doped nc-3C-SiC films prepared by HW-CVD using SiH{sub 4}/CH{sub 4}/B{sub 2}H{sub 6}. • 3C-Si-C films have preferred orientation in (1 1 1) direction. • Introduction of boron into SiC matrix retard the crystallanity in the film structure. • Film large number of SiC nanocrystallites embedded in the a-Si matrix. • Band gap values, E{sub Tauc} and E{sub 04} (E{sub 04} > E{sub Tauc}) decreases with increase in B{sub 2}H{sub 6} flow rate. - Abstract: Boron doped nanocrystalline cubic silicon carbide (3C-SiC) films have been prepared by HW-CVD using silane (SiH{sub 4})/methane (CH{sub 4})/diborane (B{sub 2}H{sub 6}) gas mixture. The influence of boron doping on structural, optical, morphological and electrical properties have been investigated. The formation of 3C-SiC films have been confirmed by low angle XRD, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy and high resolution-transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) analysis whereas effective boron doping in nc-3C-SiC have been confirmed by conductivity, charge carrier activation energy, and Hall measurements. Raman spectroscopy and HR-TEM analysis revealed that introduction of boron into the SiC matrix retards the crystallanity in the film structure. The field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and non contact atomic force microscopy (NC-AFM) results signify that 3C-SiC film contain well resolved, large number of silicon carbide (SiC) nanocrystallites embedded in the a-Si matrix having rms surface roughness ∼1.64 nm. Hydrogen content in doped films are found smaller than that of un-doped films. Optical band gap values, E{sub Tauc} and E{sub 04} decreases with increase in B{sub 2}H{sub 6} flow rate.

  2. Silicon heterojunction solar cells with novel fluorinated n-type nanocrystalline silicon oxide emitters on p-type crystalline silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Sukanta; Mandal, Sourav; Das, Gourab; Mukhopadhyay, Sumita; Pratim Ray, Partha; Banerjee, Chandan; Barua, Asok Kumar

    2015-08-01

    A novel fluorinated phosphorus doped silicon oxide based nanocrystalline material have been used to prepare heterojunction solar cells on flat p-type crystalline silicon (c-Si) Czochralski (CZ) wafers. The n-type nc-SiO:F:H material were deposited by radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Deposited films were characterized in detail by using atomic force microscopy (AFM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), Raman, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and optoelectronics properties have been studied using temperature dependent conductivity measurement, Ellipsometry, UV-vis spectrum analysis etc. It is observed that the cell fabricated with fluorinated silicon oxide emitter showing higher initial efficiency (η = 15.64%, Jsc = 32.10 mA/cm2, Voc = 0.630 V, FF = 0.77) for 1 cm2 cell area compare to conventional n-a-Si:H emitter (14.73%) on flat c-Si wafer. These results indicate that n type nc-SiO:F:H material is a promising candidate for heterojunction solar cell on p-type crystalline wafers. The high Jsc value is associated with excellent quantum efficiencies at short wavelengths (<500 nm).

  3. Attenuation of Thermal Neutrons by Crystalline Silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adib, M.; Habib, N.; Ashry, A.; Fathalla, M.

    2002-01-01

    A simple formula is given which allows to calculate the contribution of the total neutron cross - section including the Bragg scattering from different (hkt) planes to the neutron * transmission through a solid crystalline silicon. The formula takes into account the silicon form of poly or mono crystals and its parameters. A computer program DSIC was developed to provide the required calculations. The calculated values of the total neutron cross-section of perfect silicon crystal at room and liquid nitrogen temperatures were compared with the experimental ones. The obtained agreement shows that the simple formula fits the experimental data with sufficient accuracy .A good agreement was also obtained between the calculated and measured values of polycrystalline silicon in the energy range from 5 eV to 500μ eV. The feasibility study on using a poly-crystalline silicon as a cold neutron filter and mono-crystalline as a thermal neutron one is given. The optimum crystal thickness, mosaic spread, temperature and cutting plane for efficiently transmitting the thermal reactor neutrons, while rejecting both fast neutrons and gamma rays accompanying the thermal ones for the mono crystalline silicon are also given

  4. Luminescence of solar cells with a-Si:H/c-Si heterojunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhigunov, D. M.; Il'in, A. S.; Forsh, P. A.; Bobyl', A. V.; Verbitskii, V. N.; Terukov, E. I.; Kashkarov, P. K.

    2017-05-01

    We have studied the electroluminescence (EL) and photoluminescence (PL) of solar cells containing a-Si:H/c-Si heterojunctions. It is established that both the EL and PL properties of these cells are determined by the radiative recombination of nonequilibrium carriers in crystalline silicon (c-Si). The external EL energy yield (efficiency) of solar cells with a-Si:H/c-Si heterojunctions at room temperature amounts to 2.1% and exceeds the value reached in silicon diode structures. This large EL efficiency can be explained by good passivation of the surface of crystalline silicon and the corresponding increase in lifetime of minority carrier s in these solar cells.

  5. Amorphous silicon/crystalline silicon heterojunctions for nuclear radiation detector applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, J.T.; Hong, W.S.; Luke, P.N.; Wang, N.W.; Ziemba, F.P.

    1996-01-01

    Results on the characterization of the electrical properties of amorphous silicon films for the three different growth methods, RF sputtering, PECVD, and LPCVD are reported. The performance of these a-Si films as heterojunctions on high resistivity p-type and n-type crystalline silicon is examined by measuring the noise, leakage current and the alpha particle response of 5 mm diameter detector structures. It is demonstrated that heterojunction detectors formed by RF sputtered films and PECVD films are comparable in performance with conventional surface barrier detectors. The results indicate that the a-Si/c-Si heterojunctions have the potential to greatly simplify detector fabrication. Directions for future avenues of nuclear particle detector development are indicated

  6. University Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaics Research and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajeet Rohatgi; Vijay Yelundur; Abasifreke Ebong; Dong Seop Kim

    2008-08-18

    The overall goal of the program is to advance the current state of crystalline silicon solar cell technology to make photovoltaics more competitive with conventional energy sources. This program emphasizes fundamental and applied research that results in low-cost, high-efficiency cells on commercial silicon substrates with strong involvement of the PV industry, and support a very strong photovoltaics education program in the US based on classroom education and hands-on training in the laboratory.

  7. Superacid Passivation of Crystalline Silicon Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, James; Kiriya, Daisuke; Grant, Nicholas; Azcatl, Angelica; Hettick, Mark; Kho, Teng; Phang, Pheng; Sio, Hang C; Yan, Di; Macdonald, Daniel; Quevedo-Lopez, Manuel A; Wallace, Robert M; Cuevas, Andres; Javey, Ali

    2016-09-14

    The reduction of parasitic recombination processes commonly occurring within the silicon crystal and at its surfaces is of primary importance in crystalline silicon devices, particularly in photovoltaics. Here we explore a simple, room temperature treatment, involving a nonaqueous solution of the superacid bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide, to temporarily deactivate recombination centers at the surface. We show that this treatment leads to a significant enhancement in optoelectronic properties of the silicon wafer, attaining a level of surface passivation in line with state-of-the-art dielectric passivation films. Finally, we demonstrate its advantage as a bulk lifetime and process cleanliness monitor, establishing its compatibility with large area photoluminescence imaging in the process.

  8. Poly(3-hexylthiophene) films by electrospray deposition for crystalline silicon/organic hybrid junction solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiate, Taiga; Miyauchi, Naoto; Tang, Zeguo; Ishikawa, Ryo; Ueno, Keiji; Shirai, Hajime [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, 255 Shimo-Okubo, Sakura, Saitama 858-3676 (Japan)

    2012-10-15

    The electrospray deposition (ESD) of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and conductive poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) on P3HT for use in crystalline silicon/organic hybrid heterojunction solar cells on CZ crystalline silicon (c-Si) (100) wafer was investigated using real-time characterization by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). In contrast to the nonuniform deposition of products frequently obtained by conventional spin-coating, a uniform deposition of P3HT and PEDOT:PSS films were achieved on flat and textured hydrophobic c-Si(100) wafers by adjusting the deposition conditions. The c-Si/P3HT/PEDOT:PSS heterojunction solar cells exhibited efficiencies of 4.1 and 6.3% on flat and textured c-Si(100) wafers, respectively. These findings suggest that ESD is a promising method for the uniform deposition of P3HT and PEDOT:PSS films on flat and textured hydrophobic substrates. (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  9. Effects of Preform Density on Structure and Property of C/C-SiC Composites Fabricated by Gaseous Silicon Infiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAO Yu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The 3-D needled C/C preforms with different densities deposited by chemical vapor infiltration (CVI method were used to fabricate C/C-SiC composites by gaseous silicon infiltration (GSI. The porosity and CVI C thickness of the preforms were studied, and the effects of preform density on the mechanical and thermal properties of C/C-SiC composites were analyzed. The results show that with the increase of preform density, the preform porosity decreases and the CVI C thickness increases from several hundred nanometers to several microns. For the C/C-SiC composites, as the preform density increases, the residual C content increases while the density and residual Si content decreases. The SiC content first keeps at a high level of about 40% (volume fraction, which then quickly reduces. Meanwhile, the mechanical properties increase to the highest values when the preform density is 1.085g/cm3, with the flexure strength up to 308.31MP and fracture toughness up to 11.36MPa·m1/2, which then decrease as the preform density further increases. The thermal conductivity and CTE of the composites, however, decrease with the increase of preform density. It is found that when the preform porosity is too high, sufficient infiltration channels lead to more residual Si, and thinner CVI C thickness results in the severe corrosion of the reinforcing fibers by Si and lower mechanical properties. When the preform porosity is relatively low, the contents of Si and SiC quickly reduce since the infiltration channels are rapidly blocked, resulting in the formation of large closed pores and not high mechanical properties.

  10. Interface properties of the amorphous silicon/crystalline silicon heterojunction photovoltaic cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliop, Basia

    Amorphous-crystalline silicon (a-Si:H/c-Si) heterojunctions have the potential of being a very high efficiency silicon photovoltaic platform technology with accompanying cost and energy budget reductions. In this research a heterojunction cell structure based on a-Si:H deposited using a DC saddle field plasma enhanced vapour deposition (DCSF PECVD) technique is studied, and the a-Si:H/c-Si and indium tin oxide/a-Si:H interfaces are examined using several characterization methods. Photocarrier radiometry (PCR) is used for the first time to probe the a-Si:H/c-Si junction. PCR is demonstrated as a carrier lifetime measurement technique -- specifically, confirming carrier lifetimes above 1 ms for 1-5 Ocm phosphorous-doped c-Si wafers passivated on both sides with 30 nm of i-a-Si:H. PCR is also used to determine surface recombination velocity and mobility, and to probe recombination at the a-Si:H/c-Si interface, distinguishing interface recombination from recombination within the a-Si:H layer or at the a-Si:H surface. A complementary technique, lateral conductivity is applied over a temperature range of 140 K to 430 K to construct energy band diagrams of a-Si:H/c-Si junctions. Boron doped a-Si:H films on glass are shown to have activation energies of 0.3 to 0.35 eV, tuneable by adjusting the diborane to silane gas ratio during deposition. Heterojunction samples show evidence of a strong hole inversion layer and a valence band offset of approximately 0.4 eV; carrier concentration in the inversion layer is reduced in p-a-Si:H/i-a-Si:H/ c-Si structures as intrinsic layer thickness increases, while carrier lifetime is increased. The indium tin oxide/amorphous silicon interface is also examined. Optimal ITO films were prepared with a sheet resistance of 17.3 O/[special character omitted] and AM1.5 averaged transmittance of 92.1%., for a film thickness of approximately 85 nm, using temperatures below 200°C. Two different heat treatments are found to cause crystallization of

  11. Current enhancement in crystalline silicon photovoltaic by low-cost nickel silicide back contact

    KAUST Repository

    Bahabry, R. R.; Gumus, A.; Kutbee, A. T.; Wehbe, N.; Ahmed, S. M.; Ghoneim, M. T.; Lee, K. -T.; Rogers, J. A.; Hussain, M. M.

    2016-01-01

    We report short circuit current (Jsc) enhancement in crystalline silicon (C-Si) photovoltaic (PV) using low-cost Ohmic contact engineering by integration of Nickel mono-silicide (NiSi) for back contact metallization as an alternative to the status quo of using expensive screen printed silver (Ag). We show 2.6 mA/cm2 enhancement in the short circuit current (Jsc) and 1.2 % increment in the efficiency by improving the current collection due to the low specific contact resistance of the NiSi on the heavily Boron (B) doped Silicon (Si) interface.

  12. Current enhancement in crystalline silicon photovoltaic by low-cost nickel silicide back contact

    KAUST Repository

    Bahabry, R. R.

    2016-11-30

    We report short circuit current (Jsc) enhancement in crystalline silicon (C-Si) photovoltaic (PV) using low-cost Ohmic contact engineering by integration of Nickel mono-silicide (NiSi) for back contact metallization as an alternative to the status quo of using expensive screen printed silver (Ag). We show 2.6 mA/cm2 enhancement in the short circuit current (Jsc) and 1.2 % increment in the efficiency by improving the current collection due to the low specific contact resistance of the NiSi on the heavily Boron (B) doped Silicon (Si) interface.

  13. Study of an Amorphous Silicon Oxide Buffer Layer for p-Type Microcrystalline Silicon Oxide/n-Type Crystalline Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells and Their Temperature Dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taweewat Krajangsang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon oxide (i-a-SiO:H films were used as front and rear buffer layers in crystalline silicon heterojunction (c-Si-HJ solar cells. The surface passivity and effective lifetime of these i-a-SiO:H films on an n-type silicon wafer were improved by increasing the CO2/SiH4 ratios in the films. Using i-a-SiO:H as the front and rear buffer layers in c-Si-HJ solar cells was investigated. The front i-a-SiO:H buffer layer thickness and the CO2/SiH4 ratio influenced the open-circuit voltage (Voc, fill factor (FF, and temperature coefficient (TC of the c-Si-HJ solar cells. The highest total area efficiency obtained was 18.5% (Voc=700 mV, Jsc=33.5 mA/cm2, and FF=0.79. The TC normalized for this c-Si-HJ solar cell efficiency was −0.301%/°C.

  14. Impact of Nickel silicide Rear Metallization on Series Resistance of Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Bahabry, Rabab R

    2018-01-11

    The Silicon-based solar cell is one of the most important enablers toward high efficiency and low-cost clean energy resource. Metallization of silicon-based solar cells typically utilizes screen printed silver-Aluminium (Ag-Al) which affects the optimal electrical performance. To date, metal silicide-based ohmic contacts are occasionally used as an alternative candidate only to the front contact grid lines in crystalline silicon (c-Si) based solar cells. In this paper, we investigate the electrical characteristics of nickel mono-silicide (NiSi)/Cu-Al ohmic contact on the rear side of c-Si solar cells. We observe a significant enhancement in the fill factor of around 6.5% for NiSi/Cu-Al rear contacts leading to increasing the efficiency by 1.2% compared to Ag-Al. This is attributed to the improvement of the parasitic resistance in which the series resistance decreased by 0.737 Ω.cm². Further, we complement experimental observation with a simulation of different contact resistance values, which manifests NiSi/Cu-Al rear contact as a promising low-cost metallization for c-Si solar cells with enhanced efficiency.

  15. On the origin of anisotropic lithiation in crystalline silicon over germanium: A first principles study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Chia-Yun [Materials Science and Engineering Program, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Hwang, Gyeong S., E-mail: gshwang@che.utexas.edu [Materials Science and Engineering Program, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2014-12-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We examine the underlying reasons for the anisotropic lithiation of Si over Ge in the crystalline phase. • Crystalline Si is lithiated in a layer-by-layer fashion, yielding a sharp amorphous–crystalline interface. • Lithiated c-Ge exhibits a graded lithiation front, which proceeds much faster than that in c-Si. • Lithiation behavior tends to be subject to the stiffness and dynamics of the host matrix. • We reveal the origin and extended impacts of the anisotropic Si vs. isotropic Ge lithiation. - Abstract: Silicon (Si) and germanium (Ge) are both recognized as a promising anode material for high-energy lithium-ion batteries. Si is abundant and best known for its superior gravimetric energy storage capacity, while Ge exhibits faster charge/discharge rates and better capacity retention. Recently, it was discovered that Si lithiation exhibits strong orientation dependence while Ge lithiation proceeds isotropically, although they have the same crystalline structure. To better understand the underlying reasons behind these distinctive differences, we examine and compare the lithiation behaviors at the Li{sub 4}Si/c-Si(1 1 0) and Li{sub 4}Ge/c-Ge(1 1 0) model systems using ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. In comparison to lithiated c-Si, where a sharp amorphous–crystalline interface remains and advances rather slowly, lithiated c-Ge tends to loose its crystallinity rapidly, resulting in a graded lithiation front of fast propagation speed. Analysis of the elastic responses and dynamics of the host Si and Ge lattices clearly demonstrate that from the beginning of the lithiation process, Ge lattice responds with more significant weakening as compared to the rigid Si lattice. Moreover, the more flexible Ge lattice is found to undergo facile atomic rearrangements during lithiation, overshadowing the original crystallographic characteristic. These unique properties of Ge thereby contribute synergistically to the rapid

  16. Crystalline to amorphous transformation in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheruvu, S.M.

    1982-09-01

    In the present investigation, an attempt was made to understand the fundamental mechanism of crystalline-to-amorphous transformation in arsenic implanted silicon using high resolution electron microscopy. A comparison of the gradual disappearance of simulated lattice fringes with increasing Frenkel pair concentration with the experimental observation of sharp interfaces between crystalline and amorphous regions was carried out leading to the conclusion that when the defect concentration reaches a critical value, the crystal does relax to an amorphous state. Optical diffraction experiments using atomic models also supported this hypothesis. Both crystalline and amorphous zones were found to co-exist with sharp interfaces at the atomic level. Growth of the amorphous fraction depends on the temperature, dose rate and the mass of the implanted ion. Preliminary results of high energy electron irradiation experiments at 1.2 MeV also suggested that clustering of point defects occurs near room temperature. An observation in a high resolution image of a small amorphous zone centered at the core of a dislocation is presented as evidence that the nucleation of an amorphous phase is heterogeneous in nature involving clustering or segregation of point defects near existing defects

  17. (Preoxidation cleaning optimization for crystalline silicon)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    A series of controlled experiments has been performed in Sandia's Photovoltaic Device Fabrication Laboratory to evaluate the effect of various chemical surface treatments on the recombination lifetime of crystalline silicon wafers subjected to a high-temperature dry oxidation. From this series of experiments we have deduced a relatively simple yet effective cleaning sequence. We have also evaluated the effect of different chemical damage-removal etches for improving the recombination lifetime and surface smoothness of mechanically lapped wafers. This paper presents the methodology used, the experimental results obtained, and our experience with using this process on a continuing basis over a period of many months. 7 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Wet-Chemical Preparation of Silicon Tunnel Oxides for Transparent Passivated Contacts in Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Malte; Pomaska, Manuel; Lentz, Florian; Finger, Friedhelm; Rau, Uwe; Ding, Kaining

    2018-05-02

    Transparent passivated contacts (TPCs) using a wide band gap microcrystalline silicon carbide (μc-SiC:H(n)), silicon tunnel oxide (SiO 2 ) stack are an alternative to amorphous silicon-based contacts for the front side of silicon heterojunction solar cells. In a systematic study of the μc-SiC:H(n)/SiO 2 /c-Si contact, we investigated selected wet-chemical oxidation methods for the formation of ultrathin SiO 2 , in order to passivate the silicon surface while ensuring a low contact resistivity. By tuning the SiO 2 properties, implied open-circuit voltages of 714 mV and contact resistivities of 32 mΩ cm 2 were achieved using μc-SiC:H(n)/SiO 2 /c-Si as transparent passivated contacts.

  19. Impact of organic overlayers on a-Si:H/c-Si surface potential

    KAUST Repository

    Seif, Johannes P.

    2017-04-11

    Bilayers of intrinsic and doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon, deposited on crystalline silicon (c-Si) surfaces, simultaneously provide contact passivation and carrier collection in silicon heterojunction solar cells. Recently, we have shown that the presence of overlaying transparent conductive oxides can significantly affect the c-Si surface potential induced by these amorphous silicon stacks. Specifically, deposition on the hole-collecting bilayers can result in an undesired weakening of contact passivation, thereby lowering the achievable fill factor in a finished device. We test here a variety of organic semiconductors of different doping levels, overlaying hydrogenated amorphous silicon layers and silicon-based hole collectors, to mitigate this effect. We find that these materials enhance the c-Si surface potential, leading to increased implied fill factors. This opens opportunities for improved device performance.

  20. Impact of organic overlayers on a-Si:H/c-Si surface potential

    KAUST Repository

    Seif, Johannes P.; Niesen, Bjoern; Tomasi, Andrea; Ballif, Christophe; De Wolf, Stefaan

    2017-01-01

    Bilayers of intrinsic and doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon, deposited on crystalline silicon (c-Si) surfaces, simultaneously provide contact passivation and carrier collection in silicon heterojunction solar cells. Recently, we have shown that the presence of overlaying transparent conductive oxides can significantly affect the c-Si surface potential induced by these amorphous silicon stacks. Specifically, deposition on the hole-collecting bilayers can result in an undesired weakening of contact passivation, thereby lowering the achievable fill factor in a finished device. We test here a variety of organic semiconductors of different doping levels, overlaying hydrogenated amorphous silicon layers and silicon-based hole collectors, to mitigate this effect. We find that these materials enhance the c-Si surface potential, leading to increased implied fill factors. This opens opportunities for improved device performance.

  1. Investigation of the agglomeration and amorphous transformation effects of neutron irradiation on the nanocrystalline silicon carbide (3C-SiC) using TEM and SEM methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huseynov, Elchin M., E-mail: elchin.h@yahoo.com [Department of Nanotechnology and Radiation Material Science, National Nuclear Research Center, Inshaatchilar pr. 4, AZ 1073 Baku (Azerbaijan); Institute of Radiation Problems of Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, B.Vahabzade 9, AZ 1143 Baku (Azerbaijan)

    2017-04-01

    Nanocrystalline 3C-SiC particles irradiated by neutron flux during 20 h in TRIGA Mark II light water pool type research reactor. Silicon carbide nanoparticles were analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) devices before and after neutron irradiation. The agglomeration of nanoparticles was studied comparatively before and after neutron irradiation. After neutron irradiation the amorphous layer surrounding the nanoparticles was analyzed in TEM device. Neutron irradiation defects in the 3C-SiC nanoparticles and other effects investigated by TEM device. The effect of irradiation on the crystal structure of the nanomaterial was studied by selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and electron diffraction patterns (EDP) analysis.

  2. Controllable Nanoscale Inverted Pyramids for High-Efficient Quasi-Omnidirectional Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Haiyuan; Zhong, Sihua; Zhuang, Yufeng; Shen, Wenzhong

    2017-11-14

    Nanoscale inverted pyramid structures (NIPs) have always been regarded as one of the most paramount light management schemes to achieve the extraordinary performance in various devices, especially in solar cells, due to their outstanding antireflection ability with relative lower surface enhancement ratio. However, the current approaches to fabricating the NIPs are complicated and not cost-effective for the massive cell production in the photovoltaic industry. Here, controllable NIPs are fabricated on crystalline silicon (c-Si) wafers by Ag catalyzed chemical etching and alkaline modification, which is a preferable all-solution-processed method. Through applying the NIPs to c-Si solar cells and optimizing the cell design, we have successfully achieved highly efficient NIPs textured solar cells with the champion efficiency of 20.5%. Importantly, the NIPs textured solar cells are further demonstrated to possess the quasi-omnidirectional property over the broad sunlight incident angles of approximately 0°-60°. Moreover, the NIPs are theoretically revealed to offer light trapping advantage for ultrathin c-Si solar cells. Hence, the NIPs formed by the controllable method exhibit a great potential to be used in the future photovoltaic industry as surface texture. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  3. Ion damage calculations in crystalline silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oen, O.S.

    1985-07-01

    Damage profiles in crystalline silicon produced by light (B) and heavy (Bi) ions with energies from 10 to 100 keV were studied using the computer program MARLOWE (version 12). The program follows not only the incident ion collision by collision, but also any Si target atom that is set into motion through an energetic collision. Thus, the transport effect of the complete cascade of recoiled target atoms is included in the damage profile. The influence of channeling was studied for Si(100) using beam tilt angles from the surface normal of 0 0 , 3 0 and 7 0 about the [001] or [011] axes. The effects of channeling on the damage profile are twofold: first, there is a large reduction of the central damage peak; second, there is a component of the damage profile that extends considerably deeper into the target than that found in conventional studies using a random target assemblage. The influence of amorphous overlayers of SiO 2 on the damage and implantation profiles in the Si(100) substrate has also been investigated

  4. Investigating the chemical mist deposition technique for poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) on textured crystalline-silicon for organic/crystalline-silicon heterojunction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Jaker; Ohki, Tatsuya; Ichikawa, Koki; Fujiyama, Kazuhiko; Ueno, Keiji; Fujii, Yasuhiko; Hanajiri, Tatsuro; Shirai, Hajime

    2016-03-01

    Chemical mist deposition (CMD) of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) was investigated in terms of cavitation frequency f, solvent, flow rate of nitrogen, substrate temperature Ts, and substrate dc bias Vs as variables for efficient PEDOT:PSS/crystalline silicon (c-Si) heterojunction solar cells. The high-speed-camera and differential mobility analysis characterizations revealed that the average size and flux of PEDOT:PSS mist depend on f, type of solvent, and Vs. Film deposition occurred when positive Vs was applied to the c-Si substrate at Ts of 30-40 °C, whereas no deposition of films occurred with negative Vs, implying that the film is deposited mainly from negatively charged mist. The uniform deposition of PEDOT:PSS films occurred on textured c-Si(100) substrates by adjusting Ts and Vs. The adhesion of CMD PEDOT:PSS film to c-Si was greatly enhanced by applying substrate dc bias Vs compared with that of spin-coated film. The CMD PEDOT:PSS/c-Si heterojunction solar cell devices on textured c-Si(100) in 2 × 2 cm2 exhibited a power conversion efficiency η of 11.0% with better uniformity of the solar cell parameters. Furthermore, η was increased to 12.5% by adding an AR coating layer of molybdenum oxide MoOx formed by CMD. These findings suggest that CMD with negatively charged mist has great potential for the uniform deposition of organic and inorganic materials on textured c-Si substrates by suitably adjusting Ts and Vs.

  5. Photocarrier radiometry for predicting the degradation of electrical parameters of monocrystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cell irradiated by 100 KeV proton beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, P. [School of Mechatronics Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Liu, J.Y., E-mail: ljywlj@hit.edu.cn [School of Mechatronics Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); State Key Laboratory of Robotics and System (HIT), Harbin 150001 (China); Yuan, H.M.; Oliullah, Md.; Wang, F. [School of Mechatronics Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Wang, Y., E-mail: songpengkevin@126.com [School of Mechatronics Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); State Key Laboratory of Robotics and System (HIT), Harbin 150001 (China)

    2016-09-15

    In this study, the monocrystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cell irradiated by 100 KeV proton beams at various fluences is investigated. A one-dimensional two-layer carrier density wave model has been developed to estimate the minority carrier lifetime of n-region and p-region of the non-irradiated c-Si solar cell by best fitting with the experimental photocarrier radiometry (PCR) signal (the amplitude and the phase). Furthermore, the lifetime is used to determine the initial defect density of the quasi-neutral region (QNR) of the solar cell to predict its I–V characteristics. The theoretically predicted short-circuit current density (J{sub sc}), and open-circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) of the non-irradiated samples are in good agreement with experiment. Then a three-region defect distribution model for the c-Si solar cell irradiated by proton beams is carried out to describe the defect density distribution according to Monte Carlo simulation results and the initial defect density of the non-irradiated sample. Finally, we find that the electrical measurements of J{sub sc} and V{sub oc} of the solar cells irradiated at different fluences using 100 KeV proton beams are consistent with the PCR predicting results.

  6. Photocarrier radiometry for predicting the degradation of electrical parameters of monocrystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cell irradiated by 100 KeV proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, P.; Liu, J.Y.; Yuan, H.M.; Oliullah, Md.; Wang, F.; Wang, Y.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the monocrystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cell irradiated by 100 KeV proton beams at various fluences is investigated. A one-dimensional two-layer carrier density wave model has been developed to estimate the minority carrier lifetime of n-region and p-region of the non-irradiated c-Si solar cell by best fitting with the experimental photocarrier radiometry (PCR) signal (the amplitude and the phase). Furthermore, the lifetime is used to determine the initial defect density of the quasi-neutral region (QNR) of the solar cell to predict its I–V characteristics. The theoretically predicted short-circuit current density (J_s_c), and open-circuit voltage (V_o_c) of the non-irradiated samples are in good agreement with experiment. Then a three-region defect distribution model for the c-Si solar cell irradiated by proton beams is carried out to describe the defect density distribution according to Monte Carlo simulation results and the initial defect density of the non-irradiated sample. Finally, we find that the electrical measurements of J_s_c and V_o_c of the solar cells irradiated at different fluences using 100 KeV proton beams are consistent with the PCR predicting results.

  7. Effect of sintering temperature on structure of C-B4C-SiC composites with silicon additive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Lijun; Academia Sinica, Shenyang; Huang Qizhong; Yang Qiaoqin; Zhao Lihu; Xu Zhongyu

    1996-01-01

    Carbon materials possess good electric conductivity, heat conductivity, corrosion-resistance, self-lubrication and hot-shocking resistance, and are easily machined. However, they have low mechanical strength, and are easily oxidized in air at high temperature. On the contrary, ceramic materials have high mechanical strength and hardness, and have good wear-resistance and oxidation-resistance. However, they have the shortages of poor thermal-shock resistance lubrication, and are difficult to machine. Therefore, carbon/ceramic composites with the advantages of both carbon and ceramic materials have been widely studied in the recent years. Huang prepared C-B 4 C-SiC composites with the free sintering method and the hot pressing method, and studied the effects of Si, Al, Al 2 O 3 , Ni and Ti additives on the properties of the composites. The results showed that these additives could improve the properties of the composites. Zhao et al. studies the structure of C-B 4 C-SiC composites with Si additive sintered at 2,000 C and found two c-center monoclinic phases. In this paper, the authors discussed the effect of the sintering temperature on the structure of C-B 4 C-SiC composites with Si additive by means of transmission electron microscope (TEM) and x-ray diffractometer (XRD)

  8. Increasing the efficiency of silicon heterojunction solar cells and modules by light soaking

    KAUST Repository

    Kobayashi, Eiji; De Wolf, Stefaan; Levrat, Jacques; Descoeudres, Antoine; Despeisse, Matthieu; Haug, Franz-Josef; Ballif, Christophe

    2017-01-01

    Silicon heterojunction solar cells use crystalline silicon (c-Si) wafers as optical absorbers and employ bilayers of doped/intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) to form passivating contacts. Recently, we demonstrated that such solar

  9. Principles and operation of crystalline and amorphous silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambouleyron, I.

    1983-01-01

    This paper deals with the fundamental aspects of photovoltaic energy conversion. Crystalline silicon solar cell physics together with design criteria and conversion losses are discussed. The general properties of hydrogenated amorphous silicon and the principles of a-Si:H solar cell operation are briefly reviewed. New trends in amorphous materials of photovoltaic interest and novel device structures are finally presented. (Author) [pt

  10. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, D. D.; O' Donoughue, P.; Fthenakis, V.; Heath, G. A.; Kim, H. C.; Sawyer, P.; Choi, J. K.; Turney, D. E.

    2012-04-01

    Published scientific literature contains many studies estimating life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of residential and utility-scale solar photovoltaics (PVs). Despite the volume of published work, variability in results hinders generalized conclusions. Most variance between studies can be attributed to differences in methods and assumptions. To clarify the published results for use in decision making and other analyses, we conduct a meta-analysis of existing studies, harmonizing key performance characteristics to produce more comparable and consistently derived results. Screening 397 life cycle assessments (LCAs) relevant to PVs yielded 13 studies on crystalline silicon (c-Si) that met minimum standards of quality, transparency, and relevance. Prior to harmonization, the median of 42 estimates of life cycle GHG emissions from those 13 LCAs was 57 grams carbon dioxide equivalent per kilowatt-hour (g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh), with an interquartile range (IQR) of 44 to 73. After harmonizing key performance characteristics, irradiation of 1,700 kilowatt-hours per square meter per year (kWh/m{sup 2}/yr); system lifetime of 30 years; module efficiency of 13.2% or 14.0%, depending on module type; and a performance ratio of 0.75 or 0.80, depending on installation, the median estimate decreased to 45 and the IQR tightened to 39 to 49. The median estimate and variability were reduced compared to published estimates mainly because of higher average assumptions for irradiation and system lifetime. For the sample of studies evaluated, harmonization effectively reduced variability, providing a clearer synopsis of the life cycle GHG emissions from c-Si PVs. The literature used in this harmonization neither covers all possible c-Si installations nor represents the distribution of deployed or manufactured c-Si PVs.

  11. Enhancing crystalline silicon solar cell efficiency with SixGe1-x layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Adnan; Cheow, S. L.; Azhari, A. W.; Sopian, K.; Zaidi, Saleem H.

    Crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cell represents a cost effective, environment-friendly, and proven renewable energy resource. Industrially manufacturing of c-Si solar has now matured in terms of efficiency and cost. Continuing cost-effective efficiency enhancement requires transition towards thinner wafers in near term and thin-films in the long term. Successful implementation of either of these alternatives must address intrinsic optical absorption limitation of Si. Bandgap engineering through integration with SixGe1-x layers offers an attractive, inexpensive option. With the help of PC1D software, role of SixGe1-x layers in conventional c-Si solar cells has been intensively investigated in both wafer and thin film configurations by varying Ge concentration, thickness, and placement. In wafer configuration, increase in Ge concentration leads to enhanced absorption through bandgap broadening with an efficiency enhancement of 8% for Ge concentrations of less than 20%. At higher Ge concentrations, despite enhanced optical absorption, efficiency is reduced due to substantial lowering of open-circuit voltage. In 5-25-μm thickness, thin-film solar cell configurations, efficiency gain in excess of 30% is achievable. Therefore, SixGe1-x based thin-film solar cells with an order of magnitude reduction in costly Si material are ideally-suited both in terms of high efficiency and cost. Recent research has demonstrated significant improvement in epitaxially grown SixGe1-x layers on nanostructured Si substrates, thereby enhancing potential of this approach for next generation of c-Si based photovoltaics.

  12. Predicting the performance of amorphous and crystalline silicon based photovoltaic solar thermal collectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daghigh, Ronak; Ibrahim, Adnan; Jin, Goh Li; Ruslan, Mohd Hafidz; Sopian, Kamaruzzaman

    2011-01-01

    BIPVT is an application where solar PV/T modules are integrated into the building structure. System design parameters such as thermal conductivity and fin efficiency, type of cells, type of coolant and operating conditions are factors which influence the performance of BIPVT. Attempts have been made to improve the efficiency of building-integrated photovoltaic thermal (BIPVT). A new design concept of water-based PVT collector for building-integrated applications has been designed and evaluated. The results of simulation study of amorphous silicon (a-Si) PV/T and crystalline silicon (c-Si) module types are based on the metrological condition of Malaysia for a typical day in March. At a flow rate of 0.02 kg/s, solar radiation level between 700 and 900 W/m 2 and ambient temperature between 22 and 32 o C, the electrical, thermal and combined photovoltaic thermal efficiencies for the PV/T (a-Si) were 4.9%, 72% and 77%, respectively. Moreover, the electrical, thermal and combined photovoltaic thermal efficiencies of the PV/T (c-Si) were 11.6%, 51% and 63%.

  13. Detection of Potential Induced Degradation in c-Si PV Panels Using Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oprea, Matei-lon; Spataru, Sergiu; Sera, Dezso

    2016-01-01

    This work, for the first time, investigates an Impedance Spectroscopy (IS) based method for detecting potential-induced degradation (PID) in crystalline silicon photovoltaic (c-Si PV) panels. The method has been experimentally tested on a set of panels that were confirmed to be affected by PID...

  14. Phosphorous Doping of Nanostructured Crystalline Silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plakhotnyuk, Maksym; Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Steckel, André

    Nano-textured silicon, known as black silicon (bSi), is attractive with excellent photon trapping properties. bSi can be produced using simple one-step fabrication reactive ion etching (RIE) technique. However, in order to use bSi in photovoltaics doping process should be developed. Due to high s...

  15. Wet chemical treatment of boron doped emitters on n-type (100) c-Si prior to amorphous silicon passivation

    OpenAIRE

    Meddeb, H.; Bearda, Twan; Payo, M. Recaman; Abdelwahab, I.; Abdulraheem, Yaser; Ezzaouia, H.; Gordon, I.; Szlufcik, J.; POORTMANS, Jef

    2015-01-01

    The influence of the cleaning process on the amorphous silicon passivation of homojunction emitters is investigated. A significant variation in the passivation quality following different cleaning sequences is not observed, even though differences in cleaning performance are evident. These results point out the effectiveness of our cleaning treatment and provide a hydrogen termination for intrinsic amorphous silicon passivation. A post-deposition treatment improves the passivation level yield...

  16. Laterally inherently thin amorphous-crystalline silicon heterojunction photovoltaic cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chowdhury, Zahidur R., E-mail: zr.chowdhury@utoronto.ca; Kherani, Nazir P., E-mail: kherani@ecf.utoronto.ca [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto, 10 King' s College Road, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G4 (Canada)

    2014-12-29

    This article reports on an amorphous-crystalline silicon heterojunction photovoltaic cell concept wherein the heterojunction regions are laterally narrow and distributed amidst a backdrop of well-passivated crystalline silicon surface. The localized amorphous-crystalline silicon heterojunctions consisting of the laterally thin emitter and back-surface field regions are precisely aligned under the metal grid-lines and bus-bars while the remaining crystalline silicon surface is passivated using the recently proposed facile grown native oxide–plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposited silicon nitride passivation scheme. The proposed cell concept mitigates parasitic optical absorption losses by relegating amorphous silicon to beneath the shadowed metallized regions and by using optically transparent passivation layer. A photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 13.6% is obtained for an untextured proof-of-concept cell illuminated under AM 1.5 global spectrum; the specific cell performance parameters are V{sub OC} of 666 mV, J{sub SC} of 29.5 mA-cm{sup −2}, and fill-factor of 69.3%. Reduced parasitic absorption, predominantly in the shorter wavelength range, is confirmed with external quantum efficiency measurement.

  17. Simulation calculations of efficiencies and silicon consumption for CH3NH3PbI3−x−y Brx Cly/crystalline silicon tandem solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Lili; Xie, Ziang; Qin, Guogang; Tian, Fuyang

    2017-01-01

    Much attention has been paid to two-subcell tandem solar cells (TSCs) with crystalline silicon (c-Si) as the bottom cell (TSC-Si). Previous works have pointed out that the optimal band gap, E g , of the top cell material for a TSC-Si is around 1.75 eV. With a tunable E g and better stability than MAPbI 3 (MA  =  CH 3 NH 3 ), MAPbI 3−x−y Br x Cl y is a promising candidate for the top cell material of a TSC-Si. In this work, calculations concerning the E g , refractive index and extinction coefficient of MAPbI 3−x−y Br x Cl y are performed using first-principles calculations including the spin–orbit coupling (SOC) effect. MAPbI 3−x−y Br x Cl y with five sets of x and y , which have a E g around 1.75 eV, are obtained. On this basis, absorption of the perovskite top cell is calculated applying the Lambert–Beer model (LBM) and the transfer matrix model (TMM), respectively. Considering the Auger recombination in the c-Si bottom cell and radiation coupling between the two subcells, the efficiencies for MAPbI 3−x−y Br x Cl y/ c-Si TSCs with the five sets of x and y are calculated. Among them, the MAPbI 2.375 Br 0.5 Cl 0.125 /c-Si TSC achieves the highest efficiency of 35.1% with a 440 nm thick top cell and 50 µ m thick c-Si when applying the LBM. When applying the TMM, the highest efficiency of 32.5% is predicted with a 580 nm thick MAPbI 2.375 Br 0.5 Cl 0.125 top cell and 50 µ m thick c-Si. Compared with the limiting efficiency of 27.1% for a 190 µ m thick c-Si single junction solar cell (SC), the MAPbI 2.375 Br 0.5 Cl 0.125 /c-Si TSC shows a superior performance of high efficiency and low c-Si consumption. (paper)

  18. Potential-Induced Degradation-Delamination Mode in Crystalline Silicon Modules: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hacke, Peter L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kempe, Michael D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wohlgemuth, John [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Li, Jichao [SunPower Corporation; Shen, Yu-Chen [SunPower Corporation

    2018-03-21

    A test sequence producing potential-induced degradation-delamination (PID-d) in crystalline silicon modules has been tested and found comparable under visual inspection to cell/encapsulant delamination seen in some fielded modules. Four commercial modules were put through this sequence, 85 degrees C, 85%, 1000 h damp heat, followed by an intensive PID stress sequence of 72 degrees C, 95% RH, and -1000 V, with the module face grounded using a metal foil. The 60 cell c-Si modules exhibiting the highest current transfer (4.4 center dot 10-4 A) exhibited PID-d at the first inspection after 156 h of PID stress. Effects promoting PID-d are reduced adhesion caused by damp heat, sodium migration further reducing adhesion to the cells, and gaseous products of electrochemical reactions driven by the applied system voltage. A new work item proposal for an IEC test standard to evaluate for PID-d is anticipated.

  19. Behind the Nature of Titanium Oxide Excellent Surface Passivation and Carrier Selectivity of c-Si

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plakhotnyuk, Maksym; Crovetto, Andrea; Hansen, Ole

    We present an expanded study of the passivation properties of titanium dioxide (TiO2) on p-type crystalline silicon (c-Si). We report a low surface recombination velocity (16 cm/s) for TiO2 passivation layers with a thin tunnelling oxide interlayer (SiO2 or Al2O3) on p-type crystalline silicon (c-Si......), and post-deposition annealing temperature were investigated. We have observed that that SiO2 and Al2O3 interlayers enhance the TiO2 passivation of c-Si. TiO2 thin film passivation layers alone result in lower effective carrier lifetime. Further annealing at 200  ̊C in N2 gas enhances the surface...

  20. Relaxation of a strained 3C-SiC(1 1 1) thin film on silicon by He+ and O+ ion beam defect engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Häberlen, M.; Murphy, B.; Stritzker, B.; Lindner, J.K.N.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we report on the successful reduction of tensile strain in a thin strained ion-beam synthesized 3C-SiC(1 1 1) layer on silicon. The creation of a near-interface defect structure consisting of nanometric voids and stacking fault type defects by He ion implantation and subsequent annealing yields significant relaxation in the top SiC film. The microstructure of the defect layer is studied by transmission electron microscopy, and the strain state of the 3C-SiC layer was studied by high-resolution X-ray diffraction in a parallel beam configuration. Typical process conditions for the growth of GaN films on the SiC layer were emulated by high temperature treatments in a rapid thermal annealer or a quartz tube furnace. It is found that prolonged annealing at high temperatures leads to ripening of the voids and to a weaker reduction of the tensile strain. It is shown that this problem can be overcome by the co-implantation of oxygen ions to form highly thermally stable void/extended defect structures.

  1. "Silicon millefeuille": From a silicon wafer to multiple thin crystalline films in a single step

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, David; Trifonov, Trifon; Garín, Moisés; Alcubilla, Ramon

    2013-04-01

    During the last years, many techniques have been developed to obtain thin crystalline films from commercial silicon ingots. Large market applications are foreseen in the photovoltaic field, where important cost reductions are predicted, and also in advanced microelectronics technologies as three-dimensional integration, system on foil, or silicon interposers [Dross et al., Prog. Photovoltaics 20, 770-784 (2012); R. Brendel, Thin Film Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells (Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany 2003); J. N. Burghartz, Ultra-Thin Chip Technology and Applications (Springer Science + Business Media, NY, USA, 2010)]. Existing methods produce "one at a time" silicon layers, once one thin film is obtained, the complete process is repeated to obtain the next layer. Here, we describe a technology that, from a single crystalline silicon wafer, produces a large number of crystalline films with controlled thickness in a single technological step.

  2. Transistors using crystalline silicon devices on glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Anthony M.

    1995-01-01

    A method for fabricating transistors using single-crystal silicon devices on glass. This method overcomes the potential damage that may be caused to the device during high voltage bonding and employs a metal layer which may be incorporated as part of the transistor. This is accomplished such that when the bonding of the silicon wafer or substrate to the glass substrate is performed, the voltage and current pass through areas where transistors will not be fabricated. After removal of the silicon substrate, further metal may be deposited to form electrical contact or add functionality to the devices. By this method both single and gate-all-around devices may be formed.

  3. Effect of TCO/μc-Si:H Interface Modification on Hydrogenated Microcrystalline Silicon Thin-Film Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-Wei Liang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of H2 plasma exposure on optical, electrical, and structural properties of fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO and AZO/FTO substrates have been investigated. With increasing the time of H2-plasma exposure, the hydrogen radical and ions penetrated through the FTO surface to form more suboxides such as SnO and metallic Sn, which was confirmed by the XPS analysis. The Sn reduction on the FTO surface can be effectively eliminated by capping the FTO with a very thin layer of sputtered aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO, as confirmed by the XPS analysis. By using the AZO/FTO as front TCO with the subsequent annealing, the p-i-n μc-Si:H cell exhibited a significantly enhanced JSC from 15.97 to 19.40 mA/cm2 and an increased conversion efficiency from 5.69% to 7.09%. This significant enhancement was ascribed to the effective elimination of the Sn reduction on the FTO surface by the thin AZO layer during the Si-based thin-film deposition with hydrogen-rich plasma exposure. Moreover, the subsequent annealing of the sputtered AZO could lead to less defects as well as a better interface of AZO/FTO.

  4. Hydrogen molecules and hydrogen-related defects in crystalline silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukata, N.; Sasaki, S.; Murakami, K.; Ishioka, K.; Nakamura, K. G.; Kitajima, M.; Fujimura, S.; Kikuchi, J.; Haneda, H.

    1997-09-01

    We have found that hydrogen exists in molecular form in crystalline silicon treated with hydrogen atoms in the downstream of a hydrogen plasma. The vibrational Raman line of hydrogen molecules is observed at 4158 cm-1 for silicon samples hydrogenated between 180 and 500 °C. The assignment of the Raman line is confirmed by its isotope shift to 2990 cm-1 for silicon treated with deuterium atoms. The Raman intensity has a maximum for hydrogenation at 400 °C. The vibrational Raman line of the hydrogen molecules is broad and asymmetric. It consists of at least two components, possibly arising from hydrogen molecules in different occupation sites in crystalline silicon. The rotational Raman line of hydrogen molecules is observed at 590 cm-1. The Raman band of Si-H stretching is observed for hydrogenation temperatures between 100 and 500 °C and the intensity has a maximum for hydrogenation at 250 °C.

  5. A Low Resistance Calcium/Reduced Titania Passivated Contact for High Efficiency Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Allen, Thomas G.

    2017-02-04

    Recent advances in the efficiency of crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cells have come through the implementation of passivated contacts that simultaneously reduce recombination and resistive losses within the contact structure. In this contribution, low resistivity passivated contacts are demonstrated based on reduced titania (TiOx) contacted with the low work function metal, calcium (Ca). By using Ca as the overlying metal in the contact structure we are able to achieve a reduction in the contact resistivity of TiOx passivated contacts of up to two orders of magnitude compared to previously reported data on Al/TiOx contacts, allowing for the application of the Ca/TiOx contact to n-type c-Si solar cells with partial rear contacts. Implementing this contact structure on the cell level results in a power conversion efficiency of 21.8% where the Ca/TiOx contact comprises only ≈6% of the rear surface of the solar cell, an increase of 1.5% absolute compared to a similar device fabricated without the TiOx interlayer.

  6. A Low Resistance Calcium/Reduced Titania Passivated Contact for High Efficiency Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Allen, Thomas G.; Bullock, James; Jeangros, Quentin; Samundsett, Christian; Wan, Yimao; Cui, Jie; Hessler-Wyser, Aï cha; De Wolf, Stefaan; Javey, Ali; Cuevas, Andres

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in the efficiency of crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cells have come through the implementation of passivated contacts that simultaneously reduce recombination and resistive losses within the contact structure. In this contribution, low resistivity passivated contacts are demonstrated based on reduced titania (TiOx) contacted with the low work function metal, calcium (Ca). By using Ca as the overlying metal in the contact structure we are able to achieve a reduction in the contact resistivity of TiOx passivated contacts of up to two orders of magnitude compared to previously reported data on Al/TiOx contacts, allowing for the application of the Ca/TiOx contact to n-type c-Si solar cells with partial rear contacts. Implementing this contact structure on the cell level results in a power conversion efficiency of 21.8% where the Ca/TiOx contact comprises only ≈6% of the rear surface of the solar cell, an increase of 1.5% absolute compared to a similar device fabricated without the TiOx interlayer.

  7. An overview of crystalline silicon solar cell technology: Past, present, and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopian, K.; Cheow, S. L.; Zaidi, S. H.

    2017-09-01

    Crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cell, ever since its inception, has been identified as the only economically and environmentally sustainable renewable resource to replace fossil fuels. Performance c-Si based photovoltaic (PV) technology has been equal to the task. Its price has been reduced by a factor of 250 over last twenty years (from ˜ 76 USD to ˜ 0.3 USD); its market growth is expected to reach 100 GWP by 2020. Unfortunately, it is still 3-4 times higher than carbon-based fuels. With the matured PV manufacturing technology as it exists today, continuing price reduction poses stiff challenges. Alternate manufacturing approaches in combination with thin wafers, low (< 10 x) optical enhancement with Fresnel lenses, band-gap engineering for enhanced optical absorption, and newer, advanced solar cell configurations including partially transparent bifacial and back contact solar cells will be required. This paper will present a detailed, cost-based analysis of advanced solar cell manufacturing technologies aimed at higher (˜ 22 %) efficiency with existing equipment and processes.

  8. Irradiation effect on Nite-SiC/SiC composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinoki, T.; Choi, Y.B.; Kohyama, A.; Ozawa, K.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Silicon carbide (SiC) and SiC composites are significantly attractive materials for nuclear application in particular due to exceptional low radioactivity, excellent high temperature mechanical properties and chemical stability. Despite of the excellent potential of SiC/SiC composites, the prospect of industrialization has not been clear mainly due to the low productivity and the high material cost. Chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) method can produce the excellent SiC/SiC composites with highly crystalline and excellent mechanical properties. It has been reported that the high purity SiC/SiC composites reinforced with highly crystalline fibers and fabricated by CVI method is very stable to neutron irradiation. However the production cost is high and it is difficult to fabricate thick and dense composites by CVI method. The novel processing called Nano-powder Infiltration and Transient Eutectic Phase (NITE) Processing has been developed based on the liquid phase sintering (LPS) process modification. The NITE processing can achieve both the excellent material quality and the low processing cost. The productivity of the processing is also excellent, and various kinds of shape and size of SiC/SiC composites can be produced by the NITE processing. The NITE processing can form highly crystalline matrix, which is requirement for nuclear application. The objective of this work is to understand irradiation effect of the NITESiC/SiC composites. The SiC/SiC composites used were reinforced with high purity SiC fibers, Tyranno TM SA and fabricated by the NITE method. The NITE-SiC/SiC composite bars and reference monolithic SiC bars fabricated by CVI and NITE were irradiated at up to 1.0 dpa and 600-1000 deg. C at JMTR, Japan. Mechanical properties of non-irradiated and irradiated NITESiC/ SiC composites bars were evaluated by tensile tests. Monolithic SiC bars were evaluated by flexural tests. The fracture surface was examined by SEM. Ultimate

  9. Hydrogen molecules and hydrogen-related defects in crystalline silicon

    OpenAIRE

    Fukata, N.; Sasak, S.; Murakami, K.; Ishioka, K.; Nakamura, K. G.; Kitajima, M.; Fujimura, S.; Kikuchi, J.; Haneda, H.

    1997-01-01

    We have found that hydrogen exists in molecular form in crystalline silicon treated with hydrogen atoms in the downstream of a hydrogen plasma. The vibrational Raman line of hydrogen molecules is observed at 4158cm-1 for silicon samples hydrogenated between 180 and 500 °C. The assignment of the Raman line is confirmed by its isotope shift to 2990cm-1 for silicon treated with deuterium atoms. The Raman intensity has a maximum for hydrogenation at 400 °C. The vibrational Raman line of the hydro...

  10. Improvement of μc-Si:H n–i–p cell efficiency with an i-layer made by hot-wire CVD by reverse H2-profiling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, H. B. T.; Franken, R.H.; Stolk, R.L.; van der Werf, C.H.M.; Rath, J.K.; Schropp, R.E.I.

    2008-01-01

    The technique of maintaining a proper crystalline ratio in microcrystalline siliconc-Si:H) layers along the thickness direction by decreasing the H2 dilution ratio during deposition (H2 profiling) was introduced by several laboratories while optimizing either n–i–p or p–i–n μc-Si:H cells made by

  11. Reduction of the environmental impacts in crystalline silicon module manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alsema, E.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073416258; de Wild-Schoten, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we review the most important options to reduce environmental impacts of crystalline silicon modules. We investigate which are the main barriers for implementation of the measure. Finally we review which measures to reduce environmental impacts could also lead to a cost reduction.

  12. Raman crystallinity and Hall Effect studies of microcrystalline silicon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aluminium induced crystallization (AIC) was used to crystallize sputtered amorphous silicon thin films on aluminium‐coated glass at annealing temperatures ranging from 250‐520°C in vacuum. Crystalline volume fractions were measured by Raman spectrometry as a function of annealing temperature. It was shown that the ...

  13. Electrochemistry of porous and crystalline silicon electrodes in methylviologen solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, Ernst S.; Despo, R.W.; Mulders, F.P.J.; Kelly, J.J.

    1996-01-01

    From measurements using stationary and rotating disc and ring-disc electrodes, it is concluded that the reduction reactions of the divalent methylviologen cation MV2+ (to MV+· and MV0) proceed via the conduction band of both porous and crystalline silicon. The product of the second reduction step

  14. Effect of Silicon Nanowire on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cell Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Ostadmahmoodi Do; Tahereh Fanaei Sheikholeslami; Hassan Azarkish

    2016-01-01

    Nanowires (NWs) are recently used in several sensor or actuator devices to improve their ordered characteristics. Silicon nanowire (Si NW) is one of the most attractive one-dimensional nanostructures semiconductors because of its unique electrical and optical properties. In this paper, silicon nanowire (Si NW), is synthesized and characterized for application in photovoltaic device. Si NWs are prepared using wet chemical etching method which is commonly used as a simple and low cost method fo...

  15. Phosphorus-doped Amorphous Silicon Nitride Films Applied to Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feinäugle, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    The Photovoltaics Group at the Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya is investigating silicon carbide (SiC) for the electronic passivation of the surface of crystalline silicon solar cells. The doping of SiC passivation layers with phosphorus resulted in a clear improvement of the minority carrier

  16. 76 FR 78313 - Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells and Modules From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ...)] Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells and Modules From China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... injured by reason of imports from China of crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells and modules, provided... imports of crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells and modules from China. Accordingly, effective October...

  17. Thin film silicon by a microwave plasma deposition technique: Growth and devices, and, interface effects in amorphous silicon/crystalline silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannathan, Basanth

    Thin film silicon (Si) was deposited by a microwave plasma CVD technique, employing double dilution of silane, for the growth of low hydrogen content Si films with a controllable microstructure on amorphous substrates at low temperatures (prepared by this technique. Such films showed a dark conductivity ˜10sp{-6} S/cm, with a conduction activation energy of 0.49 eV. Film growth and properties have been compared for deposition in Ar and He carrier systems and growth models have been proposed. Low temperature junction formation by undoped thin film silicon was examined through a thin film silicon/p-type crystalline silicon heterojunctions. The thin film silicon layers were deposited by rf glow discharge, dc magnetron sputtering and microwave plasma CVD. The hetero-interface was identified by current transport analysis and high frequency capacitance methods as the key parameter controlling the photovoltaic (PV) response. The effect of the interface on the device properties (PV, junction, and carrier transport) was examined with respect to modifications created by chemical treatment, type of plasma species, their energy and film microstructure interacting with the substrate. Thermally stimulated capacitance was used to determine the interfacial trap parameters. Plasma deposition of thin film silicon on chemically clean c-Si created electron trapping sites while hole traps were seen when a thin oxide was present at the interface. Under optimized conditions, a 10.6% efficient cell (11.5% with SiOsb2 A/R) with an open circuit voltage of 0.55 volts and a short circuit current density of 30 mA/cmsp2 was fabricated.

  18. Development and Property Evaluation of Selected HfO2-Silicon and Rare Earth-Silicon Based Bond Coats and Environmental Barrier Coating Systems for SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming

    2016-01-01

    Ceramic environmental barrier coatings (EBC) and SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) will play a crucial role in future aircraft propulsion systems because of their ability to significantly increase engine operating temperatures, improve component durability, reduce engine weight and cooling requirements. Advanced EBC systems for SiC/SiC CMC turbine and combustor hot section components are currently being developed to meet future turbine engine emission and performance goals. One of the significant material development challenges for the high temperature CMC components is to develop prime-reliant, high strength and high temperature capable environmental barrier coating bond coat systems, since the current silicon bond coat cannot meet the advanced EBC-CMC temperature and stability requirements. In this paper, advanced NASA HfO2-Si and rare earth Si based EBC bond coat EBC systems for SiC/SiC CMC combustor and turbine airfoil applications are investigated. High temperature properties of the advanced EBC systems, including the strength, fracture toughness, creep and oxidation resistance have been studied and summarized. The advanced NASA EBC systems showed some promise to achieve 1500C temperature capability, helping enable next generation turbine engines with significantly improved engine component temperature capability and durability.

  19. Improvement of crystalline silicon surface passivation by hydrogen plasma treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, I.; Vetter, M.; Orpella, A.; Voz, C.; Puigdollers, J.; Alcubilla, R.; Kharchenko, A.V.; Roca i Cabarrocas, P.

    2004-01-01

    A completely dry low-temperature process has been developed to passivate 3.3 Ω cm p-type crystalline silicon surface with excellent results. Particularly, we have investigated the use of a hydrogen plasma treatment, just before hydrogenated amorphous silicon carbide (a-SiC x :H) deposition, without breaking the vacuum. We measured effective lifetime, τ eff , through a quasi-steady-state photoconductance technique. Experimental results show that hydrogen plasma treatment improves surface passivation compared to classical HF dip. S eff values lower than 19 cm s -1 were achieved using a hydrogen plasma treatment and an a-SiC x :H film deposited at 300 deg. C

  20. Photon-phonon laser on crystalline silicon: a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zadernovsky, A A

    2015-01-01

    We discuss a feasibility of photon-phonon laser action in bulk silicon with electron population inversion. It is well known, that only direct gap semiconductors are used as an active medium in optical lasers. In indirect gap semiconductors, such as crystalline silicon, the near-to-gap radiative electron transitions must be assisted by emission or absorption of phonons to conserve the momentum. The rate of such two-quantum transitions is much less than in direct gap semiconductors, where the similar radiative transitions are single-quantum. As a result, the quantum efficiency of luminescence in silicon is too small to get it as a laser material. Numerous proposals to overcome this problem are aimed at increasing the rate of radiative recombination. We suggest enhancing the quantum efficiency of luminescence in silicon by stimulating the photon part of the two-quantum transitions by light from an appropriate external laser source. This allows us to obtain initially an external-source-assisted lasing in silicon and then a true photon-phonon lasing without any external source of radiation. Performed analysis revealed a number of requirements to the silicon laser medium (temperature, purity and perfection of crystals) and to the intensity of stimulating radiation. We discuss different mechanisms that may hinder the implementation of photon-phonon lasing in silicon

  1. Atomic-layer deposited Nb2O5 as transparent passivating electron contact for c-Si solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macco, Bart; Black, Lachlan E.; Melskens, Jimmy; van de Loo, Bas W.H.; Berghuis, Willem Jan H.; Verheijen, Marcel A.; Kessels, Wilhelmus M.M.

    2018-01-01

    Passivating contacts based on metal oxides have proven to enable high energy conversion efficiencies for crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cells at low processing complexity. In this work, the potential of atomic-layer deposited (ALD) Nb2O5 as novel electron-selective passivating contact is explored

  2. Electrical response of electron selective atomic layer deposited TiO2‑x heterocontacts on crystalline silicon substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahiboz, Doğuşcan; Nasser, Hisham; Aygün, Ezgi; Bek, Alpan; Turan, Raşit

    2018-04-01

    Integration of oxygen deficient sub-stoichiometric titanium dioxide (TiO2‑x) thin films as the electron transporting-hole blocking layer in solar cell designs are expected to reduce fabrication costs by eliminating high temperature processes while maintaining high conversion efficiencies. In this paper, we conducted a study to reveal the electrical properties of TiO2‑x thin films grown on crystalline silicon (c-Si) substrates by atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique. Effect of ALD substrate temperature, post deposition annealing, and doping type of the c-Si substrate on the interface states and TiO2‑x bulk properties were extracted by performing admittance (C-V, G-V) and current-voltage (J-V) measurements. Moreover, the asymmetry in C-V and J-V measurements between the p-n type and n-n TiO2‑x-c-Si heterojunction types were examined and the electron transport selectivity of TiO2‑x was revealed.

  3. Relation of lifetime to surface passivation for atomic-layer-deposited Al2O3 on crystalline silicon solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Young Joon; Song, Hee Eun; Chang, Hyo Sik

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We investigated the relation of potassium contamination on Si solar wafer to lifetime. • We deposited Al 2 O 3 layer by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on Si solar wafer after several cleaning process. • Potassium can be left on Si surface by incomplete cleaning process and degrade the Al 2 O 3 passivation quality. - Abstract: We investigated the relation of potassium contamination on a crystalline silicon (c-Si) surface after potassium hydroxide (KOH) etching to the lifetime of the c-Si solar cell. Alkaline solution was employed for saw damage removal (SDR), texturing, and planarization of a textured c-Si solar wafer prior to atomic layer deposition (ALD) Al 2 O 3 growth. In the solar-cell manufacturing process, ALD Al 2 O 3 passivation is utilized to obtain higher conversion efficiency. ALD Al 2 O 3 shows excellent surface passivation, though minority carrier lifetime varies with cleaning conditions. In the present study, we investigated the relation of potassium contamination to lifetime in solar-cell processing. The results showed that the potassium-contaminated samples, due to incomplete cleaning of KOH, had a short lifetime, thus establishing that residual potassium can degrade Al 2 O 3 surface passivation

  4. Optical Evaluation of the Rear Contacts of Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells by Coupled Electromagnetic and Statistical Ray-Optics Modeling

    KAUST Repository

    Dabirian, Ali

    2017-02-15

    High-efficiency crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cells increasingly feature sophisticated electron and hole contacts aimed at minimizing electronic losses. At the rear of photovoltaic devices, such contacts—usually consisting of stacks of functional layers—offer opportunities to enhance the infrared response of the solar cells. Here, we propose an accurate and simple modeling procedure to evaluate the infrared performance of rear contacts in c-Si solar cells. Our method combines full-wave electromagnetic modeling of the rear contact with a statistical ray optics model to obtain the fraction of optical energy dissipated from the rear contact relative to that absorbed by the Si wafer. Using this technique, we study the impact of the refractive index, extinction coefficient, and thickness of the rear-passivating layer and establish basic design rules. In addition, we evaluate novel optical structures, including stratified thin films, nanoparticle composites, and conductive nanowires embedded in a low-index dielectric matrix, for integration into advanced rear contacts in c-Si photovoltaic devices. From an optical perspective, nanowire structures preserving low contact resistance appear to be the most effective approach to mitigating dissipation losses from the rear contact.

  5. Effect of Environment on Stress-Rupture Behavior of a Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Silicon Carbide (C/SiC) Ceramic Matrix Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrilli, Michael J.; Opila, Elizabeth J.; Calomino, Anthony; Kiser, J. Douglas

    2002-01-01

    Stress-rupture tests were conducted in air, vacuum, and steam-containing environments to identify the failure modes and degradation mechanisms of a carbon fiber-reinforced silicon carbide (C/SiC) composite at two temperatures, 600 and 1200 C. Stress-rupture lives in air and steam containing environments (50 - 80% steam with argon) are similar for a composite stress of 69 MPa at 1200 C. Lives of specimens tested in a 20% steam/argon environment were about twice as long. For tests conducted at 600 C, composite life in 20% steam/argon was 20 times longer than life in air. Thermogravimetric analysis of the carbon fibers was conducted under similar conditions to the stress-rupture tests. The oxidation rate of the fibers in the various environments correlated with the composite stress-rupture lives. Examination of the failed specimens indicated that oxidation of the carbon fibers was the primary damage mode for specimens tested in air and steam environments at both temperatures.

  6. Controlling growth density and patterning of single crystalline silicon nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Tung-Hao; Chang, Yu-Cheng; Liu, Fu-Ken; Chu, Tieh-Chi

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the usage of well-patterned Au nanoparticles (NPs) as a catalyst for one-dimensional growth of single crystalline Si nanowires (NWs) through the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism. The study reports the fabrication of monolayer Au NPs through the self-assembly of Au NPs on a 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS)-modified silicon substrate. Results indicate that the spin coating time of Au NPs plays a crucial role in determining the density of Au NPs on the surface of the silicon substrate and the later catalysis growth of Si NWs. The experiments in this study employed optical lithography to pattern Au NPs, treating them as a catalyst for Si NW growth. The patterned Si NW structures easily produced and controlled Si NW density. This approach may be useful for further studies on single crystalline Si NW-based nanodevices and their properties.

  7. Photo-EMF Sensitivity of Porous Silicon Thin Layer–Crystalline Silicon Heterojunction to Ammonia Adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kae Dal Kwack

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method of using photo-electromotive force in detecting gas and controlling sensitivity is proposed. Photo-electromotive force on the heterojunction between porous silicon thin layer and crystalline silicon wafer depends on the concentration of ammonia in the measurement chamber. A porous silicon thin layer was formed by electrochemical etching on p-type silicon wafer. A gas and light transparent electrical contact was manufactured to this porous layer. Photo-EMF sensitivity corresponding to ammonia concentration in the range from 10 ppm to 1,000 ppm can be maximized by controlling the intensity of illumination light.

  8. Photo-EMF sensitivity of porous silicon thin layer-crystalline silicon heterojunction to ammonia adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashpanov, Yuriy; Jung, Jae Il; Kwack, Kae Dal

    2011-01-01

    A new method of using photo-electromotive force in detecting gas and controlling sensitivity is proposed. Photo-electromotive force on the heterojunction between porous silicon thin layer and crystalline silicon wafer depends on the concentration of ammonia in the measurement chamber. A porous silicon thin layer was formed by electrochemical etching on p-type silicon wafer. A gas and light transparent electrical contact was manufactured to this porous layer. Photo-EMF sensitivity corresponding to ammonia concentration in the range from 10 ppm to 1,000 ppm can be maximized by controlling the intensity of illumination light.

  9. Photo-EMF Sensitivity of Porous Silicon Thin Layer–Crystalline Silicon Heterojunction to Ammonia Adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashpanov, Yuriy; Jung, Jae Il; Kwack, Kae Dal

    2011-01-01

    A new method of using photo-electromotive force in detecting gas and controlling sensitivity is proposed. Photo-electromotive force on the heterojunction between porous silicon thin layer and crystalline silicon wafer depends on the concentration of ammonia in the measurement chamber. A porous silicon thin layer was formed by electrochemical etching on p-type silicon wafer. A gas and light transparent electrical contact was manufactured to this porous layer. Photo-EMF sensitivity corresponding to ammonia concentration in the range from 10 ppm to 1,000 ppm can be maximized by controlling the intensity of illumination light. PMID:22319353

  10. Self-diffusion in single crystalline silicon nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Südkamp, T.; Hamdana, G.; Descoins, M.; Mangelinck, D.; Wasisto, H. S.; Peiner, E.; Bracht, H.

    2018-04-01

    Self-diffusion experiments in single crystalline isotopically controlled silicon nanowires with diameters of 70 and 400 nm at 850 and 1000 °C are reported. The isotope structures were first epitaxially grown on top of silicon substrate wafers. Nanowires were subsequently fabricated using a nanosphere lithography process in combination with inductively coupled plasma dry reactive ion etching. Three-dimensional profiling of the nanosized structure before and after diffusion annealing was performed by means of atom probe tomography (APT). Self-diffusion profiles obtained from APT analyses are accurately described by Fick's law for self-diffusion. Data obtained for silicon self-diffusion in nanowires are equal to the results reported for bulk silicon crystals, i.e., finite size effects and high surface-to-volume ratios do not significantly affect silicon self-diffusion. This shows that the properties of native point defects determined from self-diffusion in bulk crystals also hold for nanosized silicon structures with diameters down to 70 nm.

  11. Effect of Silicon Nanowire on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cell Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Ostadmahmoodi Do

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanowires (NWs are recently used in several sensor or actuator devices to improve their ordered characteristics. Silicon nanowire (Si NW is one of the most attractive one-dimensional nanostructures semiconductors because of its unique electrical and optical properties. In this paper, silicon nanowire (Si NW, is synthesized and characterized for application in photovoltaic device. Si NWs are prepared using wet chemical etching method which is commonly used as a simple and low cost method for producing nanowires of the same substrate material. The process conditions are adjusted to find the best quality of Si NWs. Morphology of Si NWs is studied using a field emission scanning electron microscopic technique. An energy dispersive X-Ray analyzer is also used to provide elemental identification and quantitative compositional information. Subsequently, Schottky type solar cell samples are fabricated on Si and Si NWs using ITO and Ag contacts. The junction properties are calculated using I-V curves in dark condition and the solar cell I-V characteristics are obtained under incident of the standardized light of AM1.5. The results for the two mentioned Schottky solar cell samples are compared and discussed. An improvement in short circuit current and efficiency of Schottky solar cell is found when Si nanowires are employed.

  12. Mechanically flexible optically transparent porous mono-crystalline silicon substrate

    KAUST Repository

    Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto; Syed, Ahad A.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    For the first time, we present a simple process to fabricate a thin (≥5μm), mechanically flexible, optically transparent, porous mono-crystalline silicon substrate. Relying only on reactive ion etching steps, we are able to controllably peel off a thin layer of the original substrate. This scheme is cost favorable as it uses a low-cost silicon <100> wafer and furthermore it has the potential for recycling the remaining part of the wafer that otherwise would be lost and wasted during conventional back-grinding process. Due to its porosity, it shows see-through transparency and potential for flexible membrane applications, neural probing and such. Our process can offer flexible, transparent silicon from post high-thermal budget processed device wafer to retain the high performance electronics on flexible substrates. © 2012 IEEE.

  13. Towards Cost-Effective Crystalline Silicon Based Flexible Solar Cells: Integration Strategy by Rational Design of Materials, Process, and Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Bahabry, Rabab R.

    2017-11-30

    The solar cells market has an annual growth of more than 30 percent over the past 15 years. At the same time, the cost of the solar modules diminished to meet both of the rapid global demand and the technological improvements. In particular for the crystalline silicon solar cells, the workhorse of this technology. The objective of this doctoral thesis is enhancing the efficiency of c-Si solar cells while exploring the cost reduction via innovative techniques. Contact metallization and ultra-flexible wafer based c-Si solar cells are the main areas under investigation. First, Silicon-based solar cells typically utilize screen printed Silver (Ag) metal contacts which affect the optimal electrical performance. To date, metal silicide-based ohmic contacts are occasionally used for the front contact grid lines. In this work, investigation of the microstructure and the electrical characteristics of nickel monosilicide (NiSi) ohmic contacts on the rear side of c-Si solar cells has been carried out. Significant enhancement in the fill factor leading to increasing the total power conversion efficiency is observed. Second, advanced classes of modern application require a new generation of versatile solar cells showcasing extreme mechanical resilience. However, silicon is a brittle material with a fracture strains <1%. Highly flexible Si-based solar cells are available in the form thin films which seem to be disadvantageous over thick Si solar cells due to the reduction of the optical absorption with less active Si material. Here, a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology based integration strategy is designed where corrugation architecture to enable an ultra-flexible solar cell module from bulk mono-crystalline silicon solar wafer with 17% efficiency. This periodic corrugated array benefits from an interchangeable solar cell segmentation scheme which preserves the active silicon thickness and achieves flexibility via interdigitated back contacts. These cells

  14. Radicals and ions controlling by adjusting the antenna-substrate distance in a-Si:H deposition using a planar ICP for c-Si surface passivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, H.P., E-mail: haipzhou@uestc.edu.cn [School of Energy Science and Engineering, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, 2006 Xiyuan Ave., West High-Tech Zone, Chengdu, Sichuan, 611731 (China); Plasma Sources and Application Center, NIE, and Institute of Advanced Studies, Nanyang Technological University, 637616 (Singapore); Xu, S., E-mail: shuyan.xu@nie.edu.sg [Plasma Sources and Application Center, NIE, and Institute of Advanced Studies, Nanyang Technological University, 637616 (Singapore); Xu, M. [Key Laboratory of Information Materials of Sichuan Province & School of Electrical and Information Engineering, Southwest University for Nationalities, Chengdu, 610041 (China); Xu, L.X.; Wei, D.Y. [Plasma Sources and Application Center, NIE, and Institute of Advanced Studies, Nanyang Technological University, 637616 (Singapore); Xiang, Y. [School of Energy Science and Engineering, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, 2006 Xiyuan Ave., West High-Tech Zone, Chengdu, Sichuan, 611731 (China); Xiao, S.Q. [Key Laboratory of Advanced Process Control for Light Industry (Ministry of Education), Department of Electronic Engineering, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, 214122 (China)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • A planar ICP was used to grow a-Si:H films for c-Si surface passivation. • The direct- and remote-plasma was compared for high-quality c-Si surface passivation. • The remote ICP with controlled plasma species and ion bombardments is preferable for the surface passivation of c-Si. - Abstract: Being a key issue in the research and fabrication of silicon heterojunction (SHJ) solar cells, crystalline silicon (c-Si) surface passivation is theoretically and technologically intricate due to its complicate dependence on plasma characteristics, material properties, and plasma-material interactions. Here amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) grown by a planar inductively coupled plasma (ICP) reactor working under different antenna-substrate distances of d was used for the surface passivation of low-resistivity p-type c-Si. It is found that the microstructures (i.e., the crystallinity, Si-H bonding configuration etc.) and passivation function on c-Si of the deposited a-Si:H were profoundly influenced by the parameter of d, which primarily determines the types of growing precursors of SiH{sub n}/H contributing to the film growth and the interaction between the plasma and growing surface. c-Si surface passivation is analyzed in terms of the d-dependent a-Si:H properties and plasma characteristics. The controlling of radical types and ion bombardment on the growing surface through adjusting parameter d is emphasized.

  15. Unveiling the Formation Pathway of Single Crystalline Porous Silicon Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xing; Qu, Yongquan; Lin, Yung-Chen; Liao, Lei; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2011-01-01

    Porous silicon nanowire is emerging as an interesting material system due to its unique combination of structural, chemical, electronic, and optical properties. To fully understand their formation mechanism is of great importance for controlling the fundamental physical properties and enabling potential applications. Here we present a systematic study to elucidate the mechanism responsible for the formation of porous silicon nanowires in a two-step silver-assisted electroless chemical etching method. It is shown that silicon nanowire arrays with various porosities can be prepared by varying multiple experimental parameters such as the resistivity of the starting silicon wafer, the concentration of oxidant (H2O2) and the amount of silver catalyst. Our study shows a consistent trend that the porosity increases with the increasing wafer conductivity (dopant concentration) and oxidant (H2O2) concentration. We further demonstrate that silver ions, formed by the oxidation of silver, can diffuse upwards and re-nucleate on the sidewalls of nanowires to initiate new etching pathways to produce porous structure. The elucidation of this fundamental formation mechanism opens a rational pathway to the production of wafer-scale single crystalline porous silicon nanowires with tunable surface areas ranging from 370 m2·g−1 to 30 m2·g−1, and can enable exciting opportunities in catalysis, energy harvesting, conversion, storage, as well as biomedical imaging and therapy. PMID:21244020

  16. Improvement in IBC-silicon solar cell performance by insertion of highly doped crystalline layer at heterojunction interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashiri, Hadi; Azim Karami, Mohammad; Mohammadnejad, Shahramm

    2017-01-01

    By inserting a thin highly doped crystalline silicon layer between the base region and amorphous silicon layer in an interdigitated back-contact (IBC) silicon solar cell, a new passivation layer is investigated. The passivation layer performance is characterized by numerical simulations. Moreover, the dependence of the output parameters of the solar cell on the additional layer parameters (doping concentration and thickness) is studied. By optimizing the additional passivation layer in terms of doping concentration and thickness, the power conversion efficiency could be improved by a factor of 2.5%, open circuit voltage is increased by 30 mV and the fill factor of the solar cell by 7.4%. The performance enhancement is achieved due to the decrease of recombination rate, a decrease in solar cell resistivity and improvement of field effect passivation at heterojunction interface. The above-mentioned results are compared with reported results of the same conventional interdigitated back-contact silicon solar cell structure. Furthermore, the effect of a-Si:H/c-Si interface defect density on IBC silicon solar cell parameters with a new passivation layer is studied. The additional passivation layer also reduces the sensitivity of output parameter of solar cell to interface defect density. (paper)

  17. The configurational energy gap between amorphous and crystalline silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kail, F. [GRMT, Department of Physics, University of Girona, Montilivi Campus, 17071 Girona, Catalonia (Spain); Univ. Barcelona, Dept. Fisica Aplicada and Optica, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Farjas, J.; Roura, P. [GRMT, Department of Physics, University of Girona, Montilivi Campus, 17071 Girona, Catalonia (Spain); Secouard, C. [Univ. Barcelona, Dept. Fisica Aplicada and Optica, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Nos, O.; Bertomeu, J. [CEA Grenoble, LTS, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble cedex (France); Roca i Cabarrocas, P. [LPICM, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France)

    2011-11-15

    The crystallization enthalpy of pure amorphous silicon (a-Si) and hydrogenated a-Si was measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) for a large set of materials deposited from the vapour phase by different techniques. Although the values cover a wide range (200-480 J/g), the minimum value is common to all the deposition techniques used and close to the predicted minimum strain energy of relaxed a-Si (240 {+-} 25 J/g). This result gives a reliable value for the configurational energy gap between a-Si and crystalline silicon. An excess of enthalpy above this minimum value can be ascribed to coordination defects. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  18. Hydrogen passivation of multi-crystalline silicon solar cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡志华; 廖显伯; 刘祖明; 夏朝凤; 陈庭金

    2003-01-01

    The effects of hydrogen passivation on multi-crystalline silicon (mc-Si) solar cells are reported in this paper.Hydrogen plasma was generated by means of ac glow discharge in a hydrogen atmosphere. Hydrogen passivation was carried out with three different groups of mc-Si solar cells after finishing contacts. The experimental results demonstrated that the photovoltaic performances of the solar cell samples have been improved after hydrogen plasma treatment, with a relative increase in conversion efficiency up to 10.6%. A calculation modelling has been performed to interpret the experimental results using the model for analysis of microelectronic and photonic structures developed at Pennsylvania State University.

  19. Amorphous silicon/crystalline silicon heterojunctions for nuclear radiation detector applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, J.T.; Hong, W.S.; Luke, P.N.; Wang, N.W.; Ziemba, F.P.

    1996-10-01

    Results on characterization of electrical properties of amorphous Si films for the 3 different growth methods (RF sputtering, PECVD [plasma enhanced], LPCVD [low pressure]) are reported. Performance of these a-Si films as heterojunctions on high resistivity p-type and n- type crystalline Si is examined by measuring the noise, leakage current, and the alpha particle response of 5mm dia detector structures. It is demonstrated that heterojunction detectors formed by RF sputtered films and PECVD films are comparable in performance with conventional surface barrier detectors. Results indicate that the a-Si/c-Si heterojunctions have the potential to greatly simplify detector fabrication. Directions for future avenues of nuclear particle detector development are indicated

  20. The relationship between I{sub H{sub {alpha}}} /(I{sub SiH}{sup *}){sup 2} and crystalline volume fraction in microcrystalline silicon growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chantana, Jakapan; Higuchi, Takuya; Nagai, Tomoyuki; Sasaki, Shota; Sobajima, Yasushi; Toyama, Toshihiko; Sada, Chitose; Matsuda, Akihisa; Okamoto, Hiroaki [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama-cho, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan)

    2010-03-15

    Optical-emission-intensity ratio of I{sub H{sub {alpha}}} /(I{sub SiH}{sup *}) during film growth has been used as a simple indicator to predict crystallinity (crystal-volume fraction: X{sub C}) in the resulting microcrystalline silicon ({mu}c-Si:H) thin films. The relationship between I{sub H{sub {alpha}}} /(I{sub SiH}{sup *}) and X{sub C} has been checked under a wide variety of film-preparation conditions including low-deposition-rate (<0.1 nm/s) and high-deposition-rate (>5 nm/s) cases. On the basis of theoretical consideration, we have proposed optical-emission-intensity ratio of I{sub H{sub {alpha}}} /(I{sub SiH}{sup *}) {sup 2} as a new indicator of X{sub C} during film growth of {mu}c-Si:H. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  1. Crystalline silicon cell performance at low light intensities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reich, N.H.; van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.; Alsema, E.A.; Turkenburg, W.C. [Utrecht University, Faculty of Science, Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation, Department of Science, Techonology and Society, Heidelberglaan 2, 3584 CS Utrecht (Netherlands); Lof, R.W.; Schropp, R.E.I. [Utrecht University, Faculty of Science, Debye Institute for Nanomaterials Science, Nanophotonics - Physics of Device, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80.000, 3508 TA Utrecht (Netherlands); Sinke, W.C. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN), P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2009-09-15

    Measured and modelled JV characteristics of crystalline silicon cells below one sun intensity have been investigated. First, the JV characteristics were measured between 3 and 1000 W/m{sup 2} at 6 light levels for 41 industrially produced mono- and multi-crystalline cells from 8 manufacturers, and at 29 intensity levels for a single multi-crystalline silicon between 0.01 and 1000 W/m{sup 2}. Based on this experimental data, the accuracy of the following four modelling approaches was evaluated: (1) empirical fill factor expressions, (2) a purely empirical function, (3) the one-diode model and (4) the two-diode model. Results show that the fill factor expressions and the empirical function fail at low light intensities, but a new empirical equation that gives accurate fits could be derived. The accuracy of both diode models are very high. However, the accuracy depends considerably on the used diode model parameter sets. While comparing different methods to determine diode model parameter sets, the two-diode model is found to be preferred in principle: particularly its capability in accurately modelling V{sub OC} and efficiency with one and the same parameter set makes the two-diode model superior. The simulated energy yields of the 41 commercial cells as a function of irradiance intensity suggest unbiased shunt resistances larger than about 10 k{omega} cm{sup 2} may help to avoid low energy yields of cells used under predominantly low light intensities. Such cells with diode currents not larger than about 10{sup -9} A/cm{sup 2} are excellent candidates for Product Integrated PV (PIPV) appliances. (author)

  2. Optoelectronic transport properties in amorphous/crystalline silicon solar cell heterojunctions measured by frequency-domain photocarrier radiometry: Multi-parameter measurement reliability and precision studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.; Melnikov, A.; Mandelis, A.; Halliop, B.; Kherani, N. P.; Zhu, R.

    2015-01-01

    A theoretical one-dimensional two-layer linear photocarrier radiometry (PCR) model including the presence of effective interface carrier traps was used to evaluate the transport parameters of p-type hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and n-type crystalline silicon (c-Si) passivated by an intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon (i-layer) nanolayer. Several crystalline Si heterojunction structures were examined to investigate the influence of the i-layer thickness and the doping concentration of the a-Si:H layer. The experimental data of a series of heterojunction structures with intrinsic thin layers were fitted to PCR theory to gain insight into the transport properties of these devices. The quantitative multi-parameter results were studied with regard to measurement reliability (uniqueness) and precision using two independent computational best-fit programs. The considerable influence on the transport properties of the entire structure of two key parameters that can limit the performance of amorphous thin film solar cells, namely, the doping concentration of the a-Si:H layer and the i-layer thickness was demonstrated. It was shown that PCR can be applied to the non-destructive characterization of a-Si:H/c-Si heterojunction solar cells yielding reliable measurements of the key parameters

  3. Optoelectronic transport properties in amorphous/crystalline silicon solar cell heterojunctions measured by frequency-domain photocarrier radiometry: multi-parameter measurement reliability and precision studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Melnikov, A; Mandelis, A; Halliop, B; Kherani, N P; Zhu, R

    2015-03-01

    A theoretical one-dimensional two-layer linear photocarrier radiometry (PCR) model including the presence of effective interface carrier traps was used to evaluate the transport parameters of p-type hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and n-type crystalline silicon (c-Si) passivated by an intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon (i-layer) nanolayer. Several crystalline Si heterojunction structures were examined to investigate the influence of the i-layer thickness and the doping concentration of the a-Si:H layer. The experimental data of a series of heterojunction structures with intrinsic thin layers were fitted to PCR theory to gain insight into the transport properties of these devices. The quantitative multi-parameter results were studied with regard to measurement reliability (uniqueness) and precision using two independent computational best-fit programs. The considerable influence on the transport properties of the entire structure of two key parameters that can limit the performance of amorphous thin film solar cells, namely, the doping concentration of the a-Si:H layer and the i-layer thickness was demonstrated. It was shown that PCR can be applied to the non-destructive characterization of a-Si:H/c-Si heterojunction solar cells yielding reliable measurements of the key parameters.

  4. Low temperature surface passivation of crystalline silicon and its application to interdigitated back contact silicon heterojunction (ibc-shj) solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Zhan

    With the absence of shading loss together with improved quality of surface passivation introduced by low temperature processed amorphous silicon crystalline silicon (a-Si:H/c-Si) heterojunction, the interdigitated back contact silicon heterojunction (IBC-SHJ) solar cell exhibits a potential for higher conversion efficiency and lower cost than a traditional front contact diffused junction solar cell. In such solar cells, the front surface passivation is of great importance to achieve both high open-circuit voltage (Voc) and short-circuit current (Jsc). Therefore, the motivation of this work is to develop a low temperature processed structure for the front surface passivation of IBC-SHJ solar cells, which must have an excellent and stable passivation quality as well as a good anti-reflection property. Four different thin film materials/structures were studied and evaluated for this purpose, namely: amorphous silicon nitride (a-SiNx:H), thick amorphous silicon film (a-Si:H), amorphous silicon/silicon nitride/silicon carbide (a-Si:H/a-SiN x:H/a-SiC:H) stack structure with an ultra-thin a-Si:H layer, and zinc sulfide (ZnS). It was demonstrated that the a-Si:H/a-SiNx:H/a-SiC:H stack surpasses other candidates due to both of its excellent surface passivation quality (SRVSi surface is found to be resulted from (i) field effect passivation due to the positive fixed charge (Q fix~1x1011 cm-2 with 5 nm a-Si:H layer) in a-SiNx:H as measured from capacitance-voltage technique, and (ii) reduced defect state density (mid-gap Dit~4x1010 cm-2eV-1) at a-Si:H/c-Si interface provided by a 5 nm thick a-Si:H layer, as characterized by conductance-frequency measurements. Paralleled with the experimental studies, a computer program was developed in this work based on the extended Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) model of surface recombination. With the help of this program, the experimental injection level dependent SRV curves of the stack passivated c-Si samples were successfully reproduced and

  5. Test-to-Failure of Crystalline Silicon Modules: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hacke, P.; Terwilliger, K.; Glick, S.; Trudell, D.; Bosco, N.; Johnston, S.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2010-10-01

    Accelerated lifetime testing of five crystalline silicon module designs was carried out according to the Terrestrial Photovoltaic Module Accelerated Test-to-Failure Protocol. This protocol compares the reliability of various module constructions on a quantitative basis. The modules under test are subdivided into three accelerated lifetime testing paths: 85..deg..C/85% relative humidity with system bias, thermal cycling between ?40..deg..C and 85..deg..C, and a path that alternates between damp heat and thermal cycling. The most severe stressor is damp heat with system bias applied to simulate the voltages that modules experience when connected in an array. Positive 600 V applied to the active layer with respect to the grounded module frame accelerates corrosion of the silver grid fingers and degrades the silicon nitride antireflective coating on the cells. Dark I-V curve fitting indicates increased series resistance and saturation current around the maximum power point; however, an improvement in junction recombination characteristics is obtained. Shunt paths and cell-metallization interface failures are seen developing in the silicon cells as determined by electroluminescence, thermal imaging, and I-V curves in the case of negative 600 V bias applied to the active layer. Ability to withstand electrolytic corrosion, moisture ingress, and ion drift under system voltage bias are differentiated.

  6. Surface Passivation for Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deligiannis, D.

    2017-01-01

    Silicon heterojunction solar cells (SHJ) are currently one of the most promising solar cell technologies in the world. The SHJ solar cell is based on a crystalline silicon (c-Si) wafer, passivated on both sides with a thin intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) layer. Subsequently, p-type

  7. Role of field-effect on c-Si surface passivation by ultrathin (2-20 nm) atomic layer deposited Al2O3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terlinden, N.M.; Dingemans, G.; Sanden, van de M.C.M.; Kessels, W.M.M.

    2010-01-01

    Al2O3 synthesized by plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition yields excellent surface passivation of crystalline silicon (c-Si) for films down to ~ 5 nm in thickness. Optical second-harmonic generation was employed to distinguish between the influence of field-effect passivation and chemical

  8. Monotonic, Creep-Rupture, and Fatigue Behavior of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Silicon Carbide (C/SiC) at an Elevated Temperature

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Engesser, John

    2004-01-01

    .... Cyclic loading of C/SiC was investigated at frequencies of 375 Hz, 10 Hz, 1 Hz, and 0.1 Hz. Creep-Rupture tests and tests that were combinations of creep-rupture and fatigue were also accomplished...

  9. 77 FR 10478 - Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules, From the People's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules, From the People's Republic of China: Postponement of... determination in the countervailing duty investigation of crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells, whether or not... Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules, From the People's Republic of...

  10. 77 FR 14732 - Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules, From the People's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules, From the People's Republic of China: Postponement of... of an antidumping duty investigation of crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells, whether or not... currently due no later than March 27, 2012. \\1\\ See Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not...

  11. 77 FR 4764 - Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules, From the People's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ... Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules, From the People's Republic of China: Second... preliminary determination of the countervailing duty investigation of crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells... February 13, 2012.\\1\\ \\1\\ See Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules...

  12. 77 FR 37877 - Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules, From the People's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ... Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules, From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary... crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells, whether or not assembled into modules (``solar cells''), from the.... Correction In the Federal Register notice Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled...

  13. 76 FR 81914 - Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules, From the People's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules, From the People's Republic of China: Postponement of... investigation of crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells, whether or not assembled into modules, from the People..., 2012. \\1\\ See Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules, From the...

  14. 76 FR 66748 - Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells and Modules From China; Institution of Antidumping and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 701-TA-481 and 731-TA-1190 (Preliminary)] Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells and Modules From China; Institution of Antidumping and Countervailing... imports from China of crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells and modules, provided for in subheadings 8541...

  15. Characterization of thin-film silicon materials and solar cells through numerical modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, B.E.

    2008-01-01

    At present most commercially available solar cells are made of crystalline silicon (c-Si). The disadvantages of crystalline silicon solar cells are the high material cost and energy consumption during production. A cheaper alternative can be found in thin-film silicon solar cells. The thin-film

  16. Bending cyclic load test for crystalline silicon photovoltaic modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Soh; Doi, Takuya; Masuda, Atsushi; Tanahashi, Tadanori

    2018-02-01

    The failures induced by thermomechanical fatigue within crystalline silicon photovoltaic modules are a common issue that can occur in any climate. In order to understand these failures, we confirmed the effects of compressive or tensile stresses (which were cyclically loaded on photovoltaic cells and cell interconnect ribbons) at subzero, moderate, and high temperatures. We found that cell cracks were induced predominantly at low temperatures, irrespective of the compression or tension applied to the cells, although the orientation of cell cracks was dependent on the stress applied. The fracture of cell interconnect ribbons was caused by cyclical compressive stress at moderate and high temperatures, and this failure was promoted by the elevation of temperature. On the basis of these results, the causes of these failures are comprehensively discussed in relation to the viscoelasticity of the encapsulant.

  17. Acoustically driven degradation in single crystalline silicon solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olikh, O. Ya.

    2018-05-01

    The influence of ultrasound on current-voltage characteristics of crystalline silicon solar sell was investigated experimentally. The transverse and longitudinal acoustic waves were used over a temperature range of 290-340 K. It was found that the ultrasound loading leads to the reversible decrease in the photogenerated current, open-circuit voltage, fill factor, carrier lifetime, and shunt resistance as well as the increase in the ideality factor. The experimental results were described by using the models of coupled defect level recombination, Shockley-Read-Hall recombination, and dislocation-induced impedance. The contribution of the boron-oxygen related defects, iron-boron pairs, and oxide precipitates to both the carrier recombination and acousto-defect interaction was discussed. The experimentally observed phenomena are associated with the increase in the distance between coupled defects as well as the extension of the carrier capture coefficient of complex point defects and dislocations.

  18. Crystalline silicon films grown by pulsed dc magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinig, Peter; Fenske, Frank; Fuhs, Walther; Selle, Burkhardt [Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin, Abt. Silizium-Photovoltaik, Kekulestr. 5, D-12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2002-04-01

    Pulsed dc magnetron sputtering is used as a novel method for the deposition of crystalline silicon films on glass substrates. Hydrogen-free polycrystalline Si-films are deposited with high deposition rates at temperatures of 400-450 C and pulse frequencies f in the range 0-250 kHz. Strong preferential (100) orientation of the crystallites is observed with increasing f. High frequency and similarly high negative substrate bias cause an increase of the Ar content and an enhancement of structural disorder. Measurements of the transient floating potential suggest that the observed structural effects are related to bombardment of the growing film by Ar{sup +} ions of high energy.

  19. Crystalline silicon films sputtered on molybdenum A study of the silicon-molybdenum interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinig, P.; Fenske, F.; Fuhs, W.; Schoepke, A.; Selle, B

    2003-04-15

    Polycrystalline silicon films were grown on molybdenum (Mo)-coated substrates at high deposition rate using the pulsed magnetron sputtering technique. Our study investigates the silicon-molybdenum interface of these films to elucidate stimulating mechanisms for an ordered crystalline silicon thin film growth. Both Auger electron spectroscopy and Rutherford backscattering reveal that at a substrate temperature as low as T{sub S}=450 deg. C during the deposition process intermixing of Si and Mo at the Si-Mo interface takes place leading to a compositional ratio Mo:Si of about 1:2. By Raman spectroscopy hexagonal {beta}-MoSi{sub 2} could be identified as the dominant phase in this intermixed region. The dependence of the resulting thickness of the reacted interface layer on the deposition conditions is not fully understood yet.

  20. Crystalline silicon films sputtered on molybdenum A study of the silicon-molybdenum interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinig, P.; Fenske, F.; Fuhs, W.; Schoepke, A.; Selle, B.

    2003-01-01

    Polycrystalline silicon films were grown on molybdenum (Mo)-coated substrates at high deposition rate using the pulsed magnetron sputtering technique. Our study investigates the silicon-molybdenum interface of these films to elucidate stimulating mechanisms for an ordered crystalline silicon thin film growth. Both Auger electron spectroscopy and Rutherford backscattering reveal that at a substrate temperature as low as T S =450 deg. C during the deposition process intermixing of Si and Mo at the Si-Mo interface takes place leading to a compositional ratio Mo:Si of about 1:2. By Raman spectroscopy hexagonal β-MoSi 2 could be identified as the dominant phase in this intermixed region. The dependence of the resulting thickness of the reacted interface layer on the deposition conditions is not fully understood yet

  1. Life cycle assessment of grid-connected photovoltaic power generation from crystalline silicon solar modules in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Guofu; Sun, Honghang; Jiang, Ziying; Pan, Ziqiang; Wang, Yibo; Zhang, Xiaodan; Zhao, Ying; Yao, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Comparison of life cycle GHG emissions of various power sources. - Highlights: • The LCA study of grid-connected PV generation with silicon solar modules in China has been performed. • The energy payback times range from 1.6 to 2.3 years. • The GHG emissions are in the range of 60.1–87.3 g-CO_2,eq/kW h. • The PV manufacturing process occupied about 85% or higher of total energy usage and total GHG emission. • The SoG-Si production process accounted for more than 35% of total energy consumption and GHG emissions. - Abstract: The environmental impacts of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) power generation from crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar modules in China have been investigated using life cycle assessment (LCA). The life cycle inventory was first analyzed. Then the energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission during every process were estimated in detail, and finally the life-cycle value was calculated. The results showed that the energy payback time (T_E_P_B_T) of grid-connected PV power with crystalline silicon solar modules ranges from 1.6 to 2.3 years, while the GHG emissions now range from 60.1 to 87.3 g-CO_2,eq/kW h depending on the installation methods. About 84% or even more of the total energy consumption and total GHG emission occupied during the PV manufacturing process. The solar grade silicon (SoG-Si) production is the most energy-consuming and GHG-emitting process, which accounts for more than 35% of the total energy consumption and the total GHG emission. The results presented in this study are expected to provide useful information to enact reasonable policies, development targets, as well as subsidies for PV technology in China.

  2. Crystalline-to-amorphous phase transition in irradiated silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidman, D.N.; Averback, R.S.; Okamoto, P.R.; Baily, A.C.

    1986-01-01

    The amorphous(a)-to-crystalline (c) phase transition has been studied in electron(e - ) and/or ion irradiated silicon (Si). The irradiations were performed in situ in the Argonne High Voltage Microscope-Tandem Facility. The irradiation of Si, at 0 K, with 1-MeV e - to a fluence of 14 dpa failed to induce the c-to-a transition. Whereas an irradiation, at 0 K, with 1.0 or 1.5-MeV Kr+ ions induced the c-to-a transition by a fluence of approx.0.37 dpa. Alternatively a dual irradiation, at 10 0 K, with 1.0-MeV e - and 1.0 or 1.5-MeV Kr+ to a Kr+ fluence of 1.5 dpa - where the ratio of the displacement rates for e - to ions was approx.0.5 - resulted in the Si specimen retaining a degree of crystallinity. These results are discussed in terms of the degree of dispersion of point defects in the primary state of damage and the mobilities of point defects

  3. 77 FR 72884 - Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells and Modules From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... Silicon Photovoltaic Cells and Modules From China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed... imports of crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells and modules from China, provided for in subheadings 8501... silicon photovoltaic cells and modules from China. Chairman Irving A. Williamson and Commissioner Dean A...

  4. Tuning the colors of c-Si solar cells by exploiting plasmonic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peharz, G.; Grosschädl, B.; Prietl, C.; Waldhauser, W.; Wenzl, F. P.

    2016-09-01

    The color of a crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cell is mainly determined by its anti-reflective coating. This is a lambda/4 coating made from a transparent dielectric material. The thickness of the anti-reflective coating is optimized for maximal photocurrent generation, resulting in the typical blue or black colors of c-Si solar cells. However, for building-integrated photovoltaic (BiPV) applications the color of the solar cells is demanded to be tunable - ideally by a cheap and flexible coating process on standard (low cost) c-Si solar cells. Such a coating can be realized by applying plasmonic coloring which is a rapidly growing technology for high-quality color filtering and rendering for different fields of application (displays, imaging,…). In this contribution, we present results of an approach for tuning the color of standard industrial c-Si solar cells that is based on coating them with metallic nano-particles. In particular, thin films (green and brownish/red. The position of the resonance peak in the reflection spectrum was found to be almost independent from the angle of incidence. This low angular sensitivity is a clear advantage compared to alternative color tuning methods, for which additional dielectric thin films are deposited on c-Si solar cells.

  5. Light trapping in a-Si/c-Si heterojunction solar cells by embedded ITO nanoparticles at rear surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Sukanta; Mandal, Sourav; Mitra, Suchismita; Ghosh, Hemanta; Mukherjee, Sampad; Banerjee, Chandan; Saha, Hiranmoy; Barua, A. K.

    2017-12-01

    The advantages of the amorphous silicon (a-Si)/crystalline silicon (c-Si) hetero junction technology are low temperature (oxide (ITO) nanoparticles embedded in amorphous silicon material at the rear side of the crystalline wafer. The nanoparticles were embedded in silicon to have higher scattering efficiency, as has been established by simulation studies. It has been shown that significant photocurrent enhancements (32.8 mA cm-2 to 35.1 mA cm-2) are achieved because of high scattering and coupling efficiency of the embedded nanoparticles into the silicon device, leading to an increase in efficiency from 13.74% to 15.22%. In addition, we have observed a small increase in open circuit voltage. This may be due to the surface passivation during the ITO nanoparticle formation with hydrogen plasma treatment. We also support our experimental results by simulation, with the help of a commercial finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) software solution.

  6. Direct insight into grains formation in Si layers grown on 3C-SiC by chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khazaka, Rami; Portail, Marc; Vennéguès, Philippe; Alquier, Daniel; Michaud, Jean François

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: In this contribution, we demonstrated the influence of the 3C-SiC layer on the subsequent growth of Si epilayers. We were able to give a direct evidence that the rotation in the Si epilayer of 90° around the growth direction occurs exactly on the termination of an antiphase boundary in the 3C-SiC layer as shown in the figure above. Thus, increasing the layer thickness of the 3C-SiC leads to a direct improvement of the crystalline quality of the subsequent Si epilayer. (a) Cross-section bright-field TEM image of the Si/3C-SiC layer stack along two 3C-SiC zone axes [1 −1 0] and [1 1 0] (equivalent to [1 −1 1] and [1 1 2] in Si, respectively), (b) dark field image selecting a (2 0 −2) electron diffraction spot indicated by the black circle in the SAED shown as inset, (c) dark field image selecting a (−1 1 −1) electron diffraction spot indicated by the black circle in the SAED shown as inset. The dotted white line in the images show the position of the defect in the 3C-SiC layer. - Abstract: This work presents a structural study of silicon (Si) thin films grown on cubic silicon carbide (3C-SiC) by chemical vapor deposition. The presence of grains rotated by 90° around the growth direction in the Si layer is directly related to the presence of antiphase domains on the 3C-SiC surface. We were able to provide a direct evidence that the 90° rotation of Si grains around the growth direction occurs exactly on the termination of antiphase boundaries (APBs) in 3C-SiC layer. Increasing the 3C-SiC thickness reduces the APBs density on 3C-SiC surface leading to a clear improvement of the uppermost Si film crystal quality. Furthermore, we observed by high resolution plan-view TEM images the presence of hexagonal Si domains limited to few nm in size. These hexagonal Si domains are inclusions in small Si grains enclosed in larger ones rotated by 90°. Finally, we propose a model of grains formation in the Si layer taking into consideration the effect

  7. High Efficiency, Low Cost Solar Cells Manufactured Using 'Silicon Ink' on Thin Crystalline Silicon Wafers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoniadis, H.

    2011-03-01

    Reported are the development and demonstration of a 17% efficient 25mm x 25mm crystalline Silicon solar cell and a 16% efficient 125mm x 125mm crystalline Silicon solar cell, both produced by Ink-jet printing Silicon Ink on a thin crystalline Silicon wafer. To achieve these objectives, processing approaches were developed to print the Silicon Ink in a predetermined pattern to form a high efficiency selective emitter, remove the solvents in the Silicon Ink and fuse the deposited particle Silicon films. Additionally, standard solar cell manufacturing equipment with slightly modified processes were used to complete the fabrication of the Silicon Ink high efficiency solar cells. Also reported are the development and demonstration of a 18.5% efficient 125mm x 125mm monocrystalline Silicon cell, and a 17% efficient 125mm x 125mm multicrystalline Silicon cell, by utilizing high throughput Ink-jet and screen printing technologies. To achieve these objectives, Innovalight developed new high throughput processing tools to print and fuse both p and n type particle Silicon Inks in a predetermined pat-tern applied either on the front or the back of the cell. Additionally, a customized Ink-jet and screen printing systems, coupled with customized substrate handling solution, customized printing algorithms, and a customized ink drying process, in combination with a purchased turn-key line, were used to complete the high efficiency solar cells. This development work delivered a process capable of high volume producing 18.5% efficient crystalline Silicon solar cells and enabled the Innovalight to commercialize its technology by the summer of 2010.

  8. Drastic reduction in the surface recombination velocity of crystalline silicon passivated with catalytic chemical vapor deposited SiNx films by introducing phosphorous catalytic-doped layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thi, Trinh Cham; Koyama, Koichi; Ohdaira, Keisuke; Matsumura, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    We improve the passivation property of n-type crystalline silicon (c-Si) surface passivated with a catalytic chemical vapor deposited (Cat-CVD) Si nitride (SiN x ) film by inserting a phosphorous (P)-doped layer formed by exposing c-Si surface to P radicals generated by the catalytic cracking of PH 3 molecules (Cat-doping). An extremely low surface recombination velocity (SRV) of 2 cm/s can be achieved for 2.5 Ω cm n-type (100) floating-zone Si wafers passivated with SiN x /P Cat-doped layers, both prepared in Cat-CVD systems. Compared with the case of only SiN x passivated layers, SRV decreases from 5 cm/s to 2 cm/s. The decrease in SRV is the result of field effect created by activated P atoms (donors) in a shallow P Cat-doped layer. Annealing process plays an important role in improving the passivation quality of SiN x films. The outstanding results obtained imply that SiN x /P Cat-doped layers can be used as promising passivation layers in high-efficiency n-type c-Si solar cells.

  9. Meniscus-force-mediated layer transfer technique using single-crystalline silicon films with midair cavity: Application to fabrication of CMOS transistors on plastic substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaike, Kohei; Akazawa, Muneki; Nakagawa, Akitoshi; Higashi, Seiichiro

    2015-04-01

    A novel low-temperature technique for transferring a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) layer with a midair cavity (supported by narrow SiO2 columns) by meniscus force has been proposed, and a single-crystalline Si (c-Si) film with a midair cavity formed in dog-bone shape was successfully transferred to a poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrate at its heatproof temperature or lower. By applying this proposed transfer technique, high-performance c-Si-based complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) transistors were successfully fabricated on the PET substrate. The key processes are the thermal oxidation and subsequent hydrogen annealing of the SOI layer on the midair cavity. These processes ensure a good MOS interface, and the SiO2 layer works as a “blocking” layer that blocks contamination from PET. The fabricated n- and p-channel c-Si thin-film transistors (TFTs) on the PET substrate showed field-effect mobilities of 568 and 103 cm2 V-1 s-1, respectively.

  10. Fracture of crystalline silicon nanopillars during electrochemical lithium insertion

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, S. W.

    2012-02-27

    From surface hardening of steels to doping of semiconductors, atom insertion in solids plays an important role in modifying chemical, physical, and electronic properties of materials for a variety of applications. High densities of atomic insertion in a solid can result in dramatic structural transformations and associated changes in mechanical behavior: This is particularly evident during electrochemical cycling of novel battery electrodes, such as alloying anodes, conversion oxides, and sulfur and oxygen cathodes. Silicon, which undergoes 400% volume expansion when alloying with lithium, is an extreme case and represents an excellent model system for study. Here, we show that fracture locations are highly anisotropic for lithiation of crystalline Si nanopillars and that fracture is strongly correlated with previously discovered anisotropic expansion. Contrary to earlier theoretical models based on diffusion-induced stresses where fracture is predicted to occur in the core of the pillars during lithiation, the observed cracks are present only in the amorphous lithiated shell. We also show that the critical fracture size is between about 240 and 360 nm and that it depends on the electrochemical reaction rate.

  11. Simulation of channelled ion ranges in crystalline silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabadayi, Oender; Guemues, Hasan

    2004-01-01

    We present results from a channelled ion range simulation model based on separation of ion trajectories into three different categories known as random, channelled, and well-channelled. We present this for boron projectiles incident along the Si direction. Stopping powers for channelled particles, well-channelled, and random particles are determined using experimental ratios of random and channelled stopping powers for a boron/silicon system. We have found the particle range distributions and the mean range of particles in crystalline channels. A new program code has been developed for the implementation of the presented model. The results are compared with experimental data as well as Crystal-transport and range of ions in matter, stopping and ranges of ions in matter, and projected range algorithm programs. We have found good agreement between our calculations and experiment, with an average discrepancy of 7%. Our model is also able to simulate the observed shift towards larger depths for the main ion distribution under channelling conditions

  12. Economic Feasibility for Recycling of Waste Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idiano D’Adamo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cumulative photovoltaic (PV power installed in 2016 was equal to 305 GW. Five countries (China, Japan, Germany, the USA, and Italy shared about 70% of the global power. End-of-life (EoL management of waste PV modules requires alternative strategies than landfill, and recycling is a valid option. Technological solutions are already available in the market and environmental benefits are highlighted by the literature, while economic advantages are not well defined. The aim of this paper is investigating the financial feasibility of crystalline silicon (Si PV module-recycling processes. Two well-known indicators are proposed for a reference 2000 tons plant: net present value (NPV and discounted payback period (DPBT. NPV/size is equal to −0.84 €/kg in a baseline scenario. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis is conducted, in order to improve the solidity of the obtained results. NPV/size varies from −1.19 €/kg to −0.50 €/kg. The absence of valuable materials plays a key role, and process costs are the main critical variables.

  13. Review of New Technology for Preparing Crystalline Silicon Solar Cell Materials by Metallurgical Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Man; Dai, Yongnian; Ma, Wenhui; Yang, Bin; Chu, Qingmei

    2017-11-01

    The goals of greatly reducing the photovoltaic power cost and making it less than that of thermal power to realize photovoltaic power grid parity without state subsidies are focused on in this paper. The research status, key technologies and development of the new technology for preparing crystalline silicon solar cell materials by metallurgical method at home and abroad are reviewed. The important effects of impurities and defects in crystalline silicon on its properties are analysed. The importance of new technology on reducing production costs and improving its quality to increase the cell conversion efficiency are emphasized. The previous research results show that the raw materials of crystalline silicon are extremely abundant. The product of crystalline silicon can meet the quality requirements of solar cell materials: Si ≥ 6 N, P 1 Ω cm, minority carrier life > 25 μs cell conversion efficiency of about 19.3%, the product costs energy consumption energy consumption, low carbon and sustainable development are prospected.

  14. Modeling of Particle Engulfment during the Growth of Crystalline Silicon for Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yutao

    A major challenge for the growth of multi-crystalline silicon is the formation of carbide and nitride precipitates in the melt that are engulfed by the solidification front to form inclusions. These lower cell efficiency and can lead to wafer breakage and sawing defects. Minimizing the number of these engulfed particles will promote lower cost and higher quality silicon and will advance progress in commercial solar cell production. To better understand the physical mechanisms responsible for such inclusions during crystal growth, we have developed finite-element, moving-boundary analyses to assess particle dynamics during engulfment via solidification fronts. Two-dimensional, steady-state and dynamic models are developed using the Galerkin finite element method and elliptic mesh generation techniques in an arbitrary Eulerian-Lagrangian (ALE) implementation. This numerical approach allows for an accurate representation of forces and dynamics previously inaccessible by approaches using analytical approximations. We reinterpret the significance of premelting via the definition of an unambiguous critical velocity for engulfment from steady-state analysis and bifurcation theory. Parametric studies are then performed to uncover the dependence of critical growth velocity upon some important physical properties. We also explore the complicated transient behaviors due to oscillating crystal growth conditions as well as the nonlinear nature related with temperature gradients and solute effects in the system. When compared with results for the SiC-Si system measured during ParSiWal experiments conducted by our collaborators, our model predicts a more realistic scaling of critical velocity with particle size than that predicted by prior theories. However, the engulfment growth velocity observed in the subsequent experiment onboard the TEXUS sounding rocket mission turned out to be unexpectedly higher. To explain this model discrepancy, a macroscopic model is developed in order

  15. Chemical compatibility issues associated with use of SiC/SiC in advanced reactor concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Dane F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Silicon carbide/silicon carbide (SiC/SiC) composites are of interest for components that will experience high radiation fields in the High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGR), the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR), the Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR), or the Fluoride-cooled High-temperature Reactor (FHR). In all of the reactor systems considered, reactions of SiC/SiC composites with the constituents of the coolant determine suitability of materials of construction. The material of interest is nuclear grade SiC/SiC composites, which consist of a SiC matrix [high-purity, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) SiC or liquid phase-sintered SiC that is crystalline beta-phase SiC containing small amounts of alumina-yttria impurity], a pyrolytic carbon interphase, and somewhat impure yet crystalline beta-phase SiC fibers. The interphase and fiber components may or may not be exposed, at least initially, to the reactor coolant. The chemical compatibility of SiC/SiC composites in the three reactor environments is highly dependent on thermodynamic stability with the pure coolant, and on reactions with impurities present in the environment including any ingress of oxygen and moisture. In general, there is a dearth of information on the performance of SiC in these environments. While there is little to no excess Si present in the new SiC/SiC composites, the reaction of Si with O2 cannot be ignored, especially for the FHR, in which environment the product, SiO2, can be readily removed by the fluoride salt. In all systems, reaction of the carbon interphase layer with oxygen is possible especially under abnormal conditions such as loss of coolant (resulting in increased temperature), and air and/ or steam ingress. A global outline of an approach to resolving SiC/SiC chemical compatibility concerns with the environments of the three reactors is presented along with ideas to quickly determine the baseline compatibility performance of SiC/SiC.

  16. Nonlinear Optical Functions in Crystalline and Amorphous Silicon-on-Insulator Nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baets, R.; Kuyken, B.; Liu, X.

    2012-01-01

    Silicon-on-Insulator nanowires provide an excellent platform for nonlinear optical functions in spite of the two-photon absorption at telecom wavelengths. Work on both crystalline and amorphous silicon nanowires is reviewed, in the wavelength range of 1.5 to 2.5 µm....

  17. Durable crystalline Si photovoltaic modules based on silicone-sheet encapsulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Kohjiro; Ohwada, Hiroto; Furihata, Tomoyoshi; Masuda, Atsushi

    2018-02-01

    Crystalline Si photovoltaic (PV) modules were fabricated with sheets of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (silicone) as an encapsulant. The long-term durability of the silicone-encapsulated PV modules was experimentally investigated. The silicone-based modules enhanced the long-term durability against potential-induced degradation (PID) and a damp-heat (DH) condition at 85 °C with 85% relative humidity (RH). In addition, we designed and fabricated substrate-type Si PV modules based on the silicone encapsulant and an Al-alloy plate as the substratum, which demonstrated high impact resistance and high incombustible performance. The high chemical stability, high volume resistivity, rubber-like elasticity, and incombustibility of the silicone encapsulant resulted in the high durability of the modules. Our results indicate that silicone is an attractive encapsulation material, as it improves the long-term durability of crystalline Si PV modules.

  18. Damage-free laser patterning of silicon nitride on textured crystalline silicon using an amorphous silicon etch mask for Ni/Cu plated silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailly, Mark S., E-mail: mbailly@asu.edu; Karas, Joseph; Jain, Harsh; Dauksher, William J.; Bowden, Stuart

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the optimization of laser ablation with a femtosecond laser for direct and indirect removal of SiN{sub x} on alkaline textured c-Si. Our proposed resist-free indirect removal process uses an a-Si:H etch mask and is demonstrated to have a drastically improved surface quality of the laser processed areas when compared to our direct removal process. Scanning electron microscope images of ablated sites show the existence of substantial surface defects for the standard direct removal process, and the reduction of those defects with our proposed process. Opening of SiN{sub x} and SiO{sub x} passivating layers with laser ablation is a promising alternative to the standard screen print and fire process for making contact to Si solar cells. The potential for small contacts from laser openings of dielectrics coupled with the selective deposition of metal from light induced plating allows for high-aspect-ratio metal contacts for front grid metallization. The minimization of defects generated in this process would serve to enhance the performance of the device and provides the motivation for our work. - Highlights: • Direct laser removal of silicon nitride (SiN{sub x}) damages textured silicon. • Direct laser removal of amorphous silicon (a-Si) does not damage textured silicon. • a-Si can be used as a laser patterned etch mask for SiN{sub x}. • Chemically patterned SiN{sub x} sites allow for Ni/Cu plating.

  19. Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells with Thin Silicon Passivation Film Deposited prior to Phosphorous Diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Tao Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate the performance improvement of p-type single-crystalline silicon (sc-Si solar cells resulting from front surface passivation by a thin amorphous silicon (a-Si film deposited prior to phosphorus diffusion. The conversion efficiency was improved for the sample with an a-Si film of ~5 nm thickness deposited on the front surface prior to high-temperature phosphorus diffusion, with respect to the samples with an a-Si film deposited on the front surface after phosphorus diffusion. The improvement in conversion efficiency is 0.4% absolute with respect to a-Si film passivated cells, that is, the cells with an a-Si film deposited on the front surface after phosphorus diffusion. The new technique provided a 0.5% improvement in conversion efficiency compared to the cells without a-Si passivation. Such performance improvements result from reduced surface recombination as well as lowered contact resistance, the latter of which induces a high fill factor of the solar cell.

  20. Application of plasma silicon nitride to crystalline thin-film silicon solar cells. Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, J.; Oberbeck, L.; Rinke, T.J.; Berge, C.; Bergmann, R.B.

    2002-07-01

    We use plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition to deposit silicon nitride (SiN{sub x}) films at low temperature(400 C) onto the front surface of two different types of crystalline thin-film Si solar cells. The silicon nitride acts as an excellent antireflection coating on Si and provides a very high degree of electronic surface passivation over a wide range of compositions, including near-stoichiometric and Si-rich SiN{sub x}. Application of stoichiometric SiN{sub x} to non-textured thin-film cells, epitaxially grown at low temperature by ion-assisted deposition onto a monocrystalline Si substrate, results in an open-circuit voltage of 622 mV, a short-circuit current density of 26.6 mA/cm{sup 2} and an efficiency of 12.7%. It is shown that the SiN{sub x}-passivated in-situ grown n{sup +}-emitter of this cell type allows to reach open-circuit voltages of up to 667 mV. Silicon-rich SiN{sub x} is applied to the phosphorus-diffused n{sup +}-emitter of a textured thin-film cell on a glass superstrate fabricated by layer-transfer. The emitter saturation current density of these cells is only 40-64 fA/cm{sup 2}, which allows for open-circuit voltages of up to 699 mV. An impressively high open-circuit voltage of 638 mV and a short-circuit current density of 32.0 mA/cm{sup 2} are obtained for a 25 {mu}m thick SiN{sub x}-passivated, random pyramid-textured transfer cell. A transfer cell efficiency of 15.3% is independently confirmed.

  1. Observation of apparent MOS regimes on Al/PECVD grown boron nitride/p-c-Si/Al MIS structure, investigated through admittance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oezdemir, Orhan [Yildiz Technical University, Department of Physics, Esenler, istanbul (Turkey)

    2009-02-15

    PECVD grown boron nitride (BN) on crystalline silicon (c-Si) semiconductor was investigated by admittance measurement in the form of metal/insulator/semiconductor (MIS) structure. Apart from well-known regimes of traditional MOS structure, gradual bypassing of depletion layer was observed once ambient temperature (frequency) increased (decreased). Such an anomalous behavior was interpreted through modulations of charges located within BN film and/or at the interfacial layer of BN film/c-Si junction in terms of weighted average concept. (author)

  2. Electric measurements of PV heterojunction structures a-SiC/c-Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perný, Milan; Šály, Vladimír; Janíček, František; Mikolášek, Miroslav; Váry, Michal; Huran, Jozef

    2018-01-01

    Due to the particular advantages of amorphous silicon or its alloys with carbon in comparison to conventional crystalline materials makes such a material still interesting for study. The amorphous silicon carbide may be used in a number of micro-mechanical and micro-electronics applications and also for photovoltaic energy conversion devices. Boron doped thin layers of amorphous silicon carbide, presented in this paper, were prepared due to the optimization process for preparation of heterojunction solar cell structure. DC and AC measurement and subsequent evaluation were carried out in order to comprehensively assess the electrical transport processes in the prepared a-SiC/c-Si structures. We have investigated the influence of methane content in deposition gas mixture and different electrode configuration.

  3. Determination of thicknesses and temperatures of crystalline silicon wafers from optical measurements in the far infrared region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franta, Daniel; Franta, Pavel; Vohánka, Jiří; Čermák, Martin; Ohlídal, Ivan

    2018-05-01

    Optical measurements of transmittance in the far infrared region performed on crystalline silicon wafers exhibit partially coherent interference effects appropriate for the determination of thicknesses of the wafers. The knowledge of accurate spectral and temperature dependencies of the optical constants of crystalline silicon in this spectral region is crucial for the determination of its thickness and vice versa. The recently published temperature dependent dispersion model of crystalline silicon is suitable for this purpose. Because the linear thermal expansion of crystalline silicon is known, the temperatures of the wafers can be determined with high precision from the evolution of the interference patterns at elevated temperatures.

  4. Wet chemical treatment of boron doped emitters on n-type (1 0 0) c-Si prior to amorphous silicon passivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meddeb, H., E-mail: hosny.meddeb@gmail.com [KACST-Intel Consortium Center of Excellence in Nano-manufacturing Applications (CENA), Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Research and Technology Center of Energy, Photovoltaic Department, Borj-Cedria Science and Technology Park, BP 95, 2050 (Tunisia); University of Carthage, Faculty of Sciences of Bizerta (Tunisia); Bearda, T.; Recaman Payo, M.; Abdelwahab, I. [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Abdulraheem, Y. [Electrical Engineering Department, College of Engineering & Petroleum, Kuwait University, P.O. Box 5969, 13060 Safat (Kuwait); Ezzaouia, H. [Research and Technology Center of Energy, Photovoltaic Department, Borj-Cedria Science and Technology Park, BP 95, 2050 (Tunisia); Gordon, I.; Szlufcik, J. [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Poortmans, J. [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Electrical Engineering (ESAT), K.U. Leuven, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Faculty of Sciences, University of Hasselt, Martelarenlaan 42, 3500 Hasselt (Belgium)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • The influence of the cleaning process using different HF-based cleaning on the amorphous silicon passivation of homojunction boron doped emitters is analyzed. • The effect of boron doping level on surface characteristics after wet chemical cleaning: For heavily doped surfaces, the reduction in contact angle was less pronounced, which proves that such surfaces are more resistant to oxide formation and remain hydrophobic for a longer time. In the case of low HF concentration, XPS measurements show higher oxygen concentrations for samples with higher doping level, probably due to the incomplete removal of the native oxide. • Higher effective lifetime is achieved at lower doping for all considered different chemical pre-treatments. • A post-deposition annealing improves the passivation level yielding emitter saturation currents determined by Auger recombination in the order of 70 fA/cm{sup 2} and below. • The dominance of Auger recombination over other type of B-induced defects on lifetime quality in the case of our p+ emitter. - Abstract: The influence of the cleaning process on the amorphous silicon passivation of homojunction emitters is investigated. A significant variation in the passivation quality following different cleaning sequences is not observed, even though differences in cleaning performance are evident. These results point out the effectiveness of our cleaning treatment and provide a hydrogen termination for intrinsic amorphous silicon passivation. A post-deposition treatment improves the passivation level yielding emitter saturation currents determined by Auger recombination in the order of 70 fA/cm{sup 2} and below.

  5. Performance of conversion efficiency of a crystalline silicon solar cell with base doping density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokhan Sahin

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigate theoretically the electrical parameters of a crystalline silicon solar cell in steady state. Based on a one-dimensional modeling of the cell, the short circuit current density, the open circuit voltage, the shunt and series resistances and the conversion efficiency are calculated, taking into account the base doping density. Either the I-V characteristic, series resistance, shunt resistance and conversion efficiency are determined and studied versus base doping density. The effects applied of base doping density on these parameters have been studied. The aim of this work is to show how short circuit current density, open circuit voltage and parasitic resistances are related to the base doping density and to exhibit the role played by those parasitic resistances on the conversion efficiency of the crystalline silicon solar. Keywords: Crystalline silicon solar cell, Base doping density, Series resistance, Shunt resistance, Conversion efficiency

  6. New Opportunities in Crystalline Silicon R and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menna, P.

    1998-01-01

    To support the expected growth of the silicon solar cell industry, we believe that research and development (R ampersand D) activities should be carried out in the following areas: polysilicon feedstock for the PV industry; thin-layer silicon deposition methods, and more environmentally benign cell and module manufacturing processes. For each of these activities, we identify the main issues that needed to be addressed

  7. Reaction Front Evolution during Electrochemical Lithiation of Crystalline Silicon Nanopillars

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Seok Woo

    2012-12-01

    The high theoretical specific capacity of Si as an anode material is attractive in lithium-ion batteries, although the issues caused by large volume changes during cycling have been a major challenge. Efforts have been devoted to understanding how diffusion-induced stresses cause fracture, but recent observations of anisotropic volume expansion in single-crystalline Si nanostructures require new theoretical considerations of expansion behavior during lithiation. Further experimental investigation is also necessary to better understand the anisotropy of the lithiation process. Here, we present a method to reveal the crystalline core of partially lithiated Si nanopillars with three different crystallographic orientations by using methanol to dissolve the Li atoms from the amorphous Li-Si alloy. The exposed crystalline cores have flat {110} surfaces at the pillar sidewalls; these surfaces represent the position of the reaction front between the crystalline core and the amorphous Li-Si alloy. It was also found that an amorphous Si structure remained on the flat surfaces of the crystalline core after dissolution of the Li, which was presumed to be caused by the accumulation of Si atoms left over from the removal of Li from the Li-Si alloy. © 2012 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH &Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Reaction Front Evolution during Electrochemical Lithiation of Crystalline Silicon Nanopillars

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Seok Woo; Berla, Lucas A.; McDowell, Matthew T.; Nix, William D.; Cui, Yi

    2012-01-01

    The high theoretical specific capacity of Si as an anode material is attractive in lithium-ion batteries, although the issues caused by large volume changes during cycling have been a major challenge. Efforts have been devoted to understanding how diffusion-induced stresses cause fracture, but recent observations of anisotropic volume expansion in single-crystalline Si nanostructures require new theoretical considerations of expansion behavior during lithiation. Further experimental investigation is also necessary to better understand the anisotropy of the lithiation process. Here, we present a method to reveal the crystalline core of partially lithiated Si nanopillars with three different crystallographic orientations by using methanol to dissolve the Li atoms from the amorphous Li-Si alloy. The exposed crystalline cores have flat {110} surfaces at the pillar sidewalls; these surfaces represent the position of the reaction front between the crystalline core and the amorphous Li-Si alloy. It was also found that an amorphous Si structure remained on the flat surfaces of the crystalline core after dissolution of the Li, which was presumed to be caused by the accumulation of Si atoms left over from the removal of Li from the Li-Si alloy. © 2012 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH &Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Effect of silicon solar cell processing parameters and crystallinity on mechanical strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovich, V.A.; Yunus, A.; Janssen, M.; Richardson, I.M. [Delft University of Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Delft (Netherlands); Bennett, I.J. [Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands, Solar Energy, PV Module Technology, Petten (Netherlands)

    2011-01-15

    Silicon wafer thickness reduction without increasing the wafer strength leads to a high breakage rate during subsequent handling and processing steps. Cracking of solar cells has become one of the major sources of solar module failure and rejection. Hence, it is important to evaluate the mechanical strength of solar cells and influencing factors. The purpose of this work is to understand the fracture behavior of silicon solar cells and to provide information regarding the bending strength of the cells. Triple junctions, grain size and grain boundaries are considered to investigate the effect of crystallinity features on silicon wafer strength. Significant changes in fracture strength are found as a result of metallization morphology and crystallinity of silicon solar cells. It is observed that aluminum paste type influences the strength of the solar cells. (author)

  10. Influence of Chemical Composition and Structure in Silicon Dielectric Materials on Passivation of Thin Crystalline Silicon on Glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calnan, Sonya; Gabriel, Onno; Rothert, Inga; Werth, Matteo; Ring, Sven; Stannowski, Bernd; Schlatmann, Rutger

    2015-09-02

    In this study, various silicon dielectric films, namely, a-SiOx:H, a-SiNx:H, and a-SiOxNy:H, grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) were evaluated for use as interlayers (ILs) between crystalline silicon and glass. Chemical bonding analysis using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that high values of oxidant gases (CO2 and/or N2), added to SiH4 during PECVD, reduced the Si-H and N-H bond density in the silicon dielectrics. Various three layer stacks combining the silicon dielectric materials were designed to minimize optical losses between silicon and glass in rear side contacted heterojunction pn test cells. The PECVD grown silicon dielectrics retained their functionality despite being subjected to harsh subsequent processing such as crystallization of the silicon at 1414 °C or above. High values of short circuit current density (Jsc; without additional hydrogen passivation) required a high density of Si-H bonds and for the nitrogen containing films, additionally, a high N-H bond density. Concurrently high values of both Jsc and open circuit voltage Voc were only observed when [Si-H] was equal to or exceeded [N-H]. Generally, Voc correlated with a high density of [Si-H] bonds in the silicon dielectric; otherwise, additional hydrogen passivation using an active plasma process was required. The highest Voc ∼ 560 mV, for a silicon acceptor concentration of about 10(16) cm(-3), was observed for stacks where an a-SiOxNy:H film was adjacent to the silicon. Regardless of the cell absorber thickness, field effect passivation of the buried silicon surface by the silicon dielectric was mandatory for efficient collection of carriers generated from short wavelength light (in the vicinity of the glass-Si interface). However, additional hydrogen passivation was obligatory for an increased diffusion length of the photogenerated carriers and thus Jsc in solar cells with thicker absorbers.

  11. Reconfigurable c-Si/Au hybrid nanoantenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebykin, A. V.; Zalogina, A. S.; Zuev, D. A.; Makarov, S. V.

    2017-09-01

    We have performed numerical optimization of hybrid c-Si/Au nanoantenna's geometry to improve efficiency of NV-centers radiation. We have shown that Purcell factor at the wavelength 635 nm can be as much as 4550 for point light emitter placed in the gap between gold spherical nanoparticle and truncated silicon nanocone. We have demonstrated that electric field enhancement can reach a value of 12.9 at the wavelength of NV-center pumping, 532 nm. Our results can be useful for the development of more efficient sources of single photons based on NV-centers in nanodiamonds.

  12. Electroluminescence of a-Si/c-Si heterojunction solar cells after high energy irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrara, Manuela

    2009-11-24

    The crystalline silicon as absorber material will certainly continue to dominate the market for space applications of solar cells. In the contribution under consideration the applicability of a-Si:H/c-Si heterojunction solar cells in space has been tested by the investigation of the cell modification by high energy protons and comparing the results to the degradation of homojunction crystalline silicon reference cells. The investigated solar cells have been irradiated with protons of different energies and doses. For all investigated solar cells the maximum damage happens for an energy of about 1.7 MeV and is mainly due to the decrease of the effective minority carrier diffusion length in the crystalline silicon absorber. Simulations carried out by AFORS-HET, a heterojunction simulation program, also confirmed this result. The main degradation mechanism for all types of devices is the monotonically decreasing charge carrier diffusion length in the p-type monocrystalline silicon absorber layer. For the heterojunction solar cell an enhancement of the photocurrent in the blue wavelength region has been observed but only in the case of heterojunction solar cell with intrinsic a-Si:H buffer layer. Additionally to the traditional characterization techniques the electroluminescence technique used for monitoring the modifications of the heteroluminescence technique used for monitoring the modifications of the heterointerface between amorphous silicon and crystalline silicon in solar cells after proton irradiation. A direct relation between minority carrier diffusion length and electroluminescence quantum efficiency has been observed but also details of the interface modification could be monitored by this technique.

  13. Clathrates and beyond: Low-density allotropy in crystalline silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beekman, Matt [Department of Physics, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, California 93407 (United States); Wei, Kaya; Nolas, George S., E-mail: gnolas@usf.edu [Department of Physics, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33620 (United States)

    2016-12-15

    In its common, thermodynamically stable state, silicon adopts the same crystal structure as diamond. Although only a few alternative allotropic structures have been discovered and studied over the past six decades, advanced methods for structure prediction have recently suggested a remarkably rich low-density phase space that has only begun to be explored. The electronic properties of these low-density allotropes of silicon, predicted by first-principles calculations, indicate that these materials could offer a pathway to improving performance and reducing cost in a variety of electronic and energy-related applications. In this focus review, we provide an introduction and overview of recent theoretical and experimental results related to low-density allotropes of silicon, highlighting the significant potential these materials may have for technological applications, provided substantial challenges to their experimental preparation can be overcome.

  14. Photoconductance-calibrated photoluminescence lifetime imaging of crystalline silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herlufsen, Sandra; Schmidt, Jan; Hinken, David; Bothe, Karsten; Brendel, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    We use photoluminescence (PL) measurements by a silicon charge-coupled device camera to generate high-resolution lifetime images of multicrystalline silicon wafers. Absolute values of the excess carrier density are determined by calibrating the PL image by means of contactless photoconductance measurements. The photoconductance setup is integrated in the camera-based PL setup and therefore identical measurement conditions are realised. We demonstrate the validity of this method by comparison with microwave-detected photoconductance decay measurements. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  15. High performance multilayered nano-crystalline silicon/silicon-oxide light-emitting diodes on glass substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darbari, S; Shahmohammadi, M; Mortazavi, M; Mohajerzadeh, S [Thin Film and Nano-Electronic Laboratory, School of ECE, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abdi, Y [Nano-Physics Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Robertson, M; Morrison, T, E-mail: mohajer@ut.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Acadia University, Wolfville, NS (Canada)

    2011-09-16

    A low-temperature hydrogenation-assisted sequential deposition and crystallization technique is reported for the preparation of nano-scale silicon quantum dots suitable for light-emitting applications. Radio-frequency plasma-enhanced deposition was used to realize multiple layers of nano-crystalline silicon while reactive ion etching was employed to create nano-scale features. The physical characteristics of the films prepared using different plasma conditions were investigated using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, room temperature photoluminescence and infrared spectroscopy. The formation of multilayered structures improved the photon-emission properties as observed by photoluminescence and a thin layer of silicon oxy-nitride was then used for electrical isolation between adjacent silicon layers. The preparation of light-emitting diodes directly on glass substrates has been demonstrated and the electroluminescence spectrum has been measured.

  16. Sintering of nano crystalline o silicon carbide doping with

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sinterable silicon carbide powders were prepared by attrition milling and chemical processing of an acheson type -SiC. Pressureless sintering of these powders was achieved by addition of aluminium nitride together with carbon. Nearly 99% sintered density was obtained. The mechanism of sintering was studied by ...

  17. ULTRATHIN SILICON MEMBRANES TO STUDY SUPERCURRENT TRANSPORT IN CRYSTALLINE SEMICONDUCTORS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANHUFFELEN, WM; DEBOER, MJ; KLAPWIJK, TM

    1991-01-01

    We have developed a two-step anisotropic etching process to fabricate thin silicon membranes, used to study supercurrent transport in semiconductor coupled weak links. The process uses a shallow BF2+ implantation, and permits easy control of membrane thickness less-than-or-equal-to 100 nm.

  18. Preparation and characterization of tempered tungsten layers on single crystalline silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitzsche, K.; Knedlik, C.; Tippmann, H.; Spiess, L.; Harman, R.; Vanek, O.; Tvarozek, V.

    1984-01-01

    Tungsten layers have been deposited on single crystalline silicon by sputtering and characterized by measurements of the sheet resistance by a linear four point method and the van der Pauw method. The influence of tempering under argon on the resistance has been studied. By means of the RBS spectroscopy it was found that the increase in the specific resistance is caused by interdiffusion

  19. 77 FR 25400 - Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules, From the People's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    ... Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules, From the People's Republic of China: Alignment of... crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells, whether or not assembled into modules (solar cells) from the People's... Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules, From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of...

  20. 77 FR 73017 - Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules, From the People's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-07

    ... photovoltaic cells, whether or not assembled into modules (solar cells), from the People's Republic of China... published its final determination in the countervailing duty investigation of solar cells from the PRC.\\2... covered by this order is crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells, and modules, laminates, and panels...

  1. 77 FR 5487 - Countervailing Duty Investigation of Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... modules or panels) and 8541.40.6030 (solar cells, not assembled into modules or made up into panels) for... crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells, whether or not assembled into modules (solar cells), from the People's Republic of China (PRC), filed in proper form by SolarWorld Industries America Inc. (Petitioner).\\1\\ The...

  2. Graphene Quantum Dot Layers with Energy-Down-Shift Effect on Crystalline-Silicon Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung D; Park, Myung J; Kim, Do-Yeon; Kim, Soo M; Kang, Byungjun; Kim, Seongtak; Kim, Hyunho; Lee, Hae-Seok; Kang, Yoonmook; Yoon, Sam S; Hong, Byung H; Kim, Donghwan

    2015-09-02

    Graphene quantum dot (GQD) layers were deposited as an energy-down-shift layer on crystalline-silicon solar cell surfaces by kinetic spraying of GQD suspensions. A supersonic air jet was used to accelerate the GQDs onto the surfaces. Here, we report the coating results on a silicon substrate and the GQDs' application as an energy-down-shift layer in crystalline-silicon solar cells, which enhanced the power conversion efficiency (PCE). GQD layers deposited at nozzle scan speeds of 40, 30, 20, and 10 mm/s were evaluated after they were used to fabricate crystalline-silicon solar cells; the results indicate that GQDs play an important role in increasing the optical absorptivity of the cells. The short-circuit current density was enhanced by about 2.94% (0.9 mA/cm(2)) at 30 mm/s. Compared to a reference device without a GQD energy-down-shift layer, the PCE of p-type silicon solar cells was improved by 2.7% (0.4 percentage points).

  3. Crystalline-Amorphous Core−Shell Silicon Nanowires for High Capacity and High Current Battery Electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Cui, Li-Feng

    2009-01-14

    Silicon is an attractive alloy-type anode material for lithium ion batteries because of its highest known capacity (4200 mAh/g). However silicon\\'s large volume change upon lithium insertion and extraction, which causes pulverization and capacity fading, has limited its applications. Designing nanoscale hierarchical structures is a novel approach to address the issues associated with the large volume changes. In this letter, we introduce a core-shell design of silicon nanowires for highpower and long-life lithium battery electrodes. Silicon crystalline- amorphous core-shell nanowires were grown directly on stainless steel current collectors by a simple one-step synthesis. Amorphous Si shells instead of crystalline Si cores can be selected to be electrochemically active due to the difference of their lithiation potentials. Therefore, crystalline Si cores function as a stable mechanical support and an efficient electrical conducting pathway while amorphous shells store Li ions. We demonstrate here that these core-shell nanowires have high charge storage capacity (̃1000 mAh/g, 3 times of carbon) with ̃90% capacity retention over 100 cycles. They also show excellent electrochemical performance at high rate charging and discharging (6.8 A/g, ̃20 times of carbon at 1 h rate). © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  4. Ultra-thin silicon oxide layers on crystalline silicon wafers: Comparison of advanced oxidation techniques with respect to chemically abrupt SiO{sub 2}/Si interfaces with low defect densities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stegemann, Bert, E-mail: bert.stegemann@htw-berlin.de [HTW Berlin - University of Applied Sciences, 12459 Berlin (Germany); Gad, Karim M. [University of Freiburg, Department of Microsystems Engineering - IMTEK, 79110 Freiburg (Germany); Balamou, Patrice [HTW Berlin - University of Applied Sciences, 12459 Berlin (Germany); Helmholtz Center Berlin for Materials and Energy (HZB), 12489 Berlin (Germany); Sixtensson, Daniel [Helmholtz Center Berlin for Materials and Energy (HZB), 12489 Berlin (Germany); Vössing, Daniel; Kasemann, Martin [University of Freiburg, Department of Microsystems Engineering - IMTEK, 79110 Freiburg (Germany); Angermann, Heike [Helmholtz Center Berlin for Materials and Energy (HZB), 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Fabrication of ultrathin SiO{sub 2} tunnel layers on c-Si. • Correlation of electronic and chemical SiO{sub 2}/Si interface properties revealed by XPS/SPV. • Chemically abrupt SiO{sub 2}/Si interfaces generate less interface defect states considerable. - Abstract: Six advanced oxidation techniques were analyzed, evaluated and compared with respect to the preparation of high-quality ultra-thin oxide layers on crystalline silicon. The resulting electronic and chemical SiO{sub 2}/Si interface properties were determined by a combined x-ray photoemission (XPS) and surface photovoltage (SPV) investigation. Depending on the oxidation technique, chemically abrupt SiO{sub 2}/Si interfaces with low densities of interface states were fabricated on c-Si either at low temperatures, at short times, or in wet-chemical environment, resulting in each case in excellent interface passivation. Moreover, the beneficial effect of a subsequent forming gas annealing (FGA) step for the passivation of the SiO{sub 2}/Si interface of ultra-thin oxide layers has been proven. Chemically abrupt SiO{sub 2}/Si interfaces have been shown to generate less interface defect states.

  5. Approaching total absorption of graphene strips using a c-Si subwavelength periodic membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Tian; Wang, Rui; Li, Junlang; Zhou, Jianyu; Wang, Yueke

    2018-04-01

    Approaching total absorption of graphene strips at near infrared using a crystalline-silicon (c-Si) subwavelength periodic membrane (SPM) is presented. The absorption in graphene strips in a c-Si SPM is enhanced by a resonant tip, which is resulted from the coupling between the guided mode and the radiation mode through symmetry breaking of the structure at near-normal incidence. The enhancement of the electric field intensity is increased 1939 times and the group velocity of light is decreased to 3.55 ×10-4c at resonance, and 99.3% absorption in graphene strips can be achieved by critical coupling at the incident angle of 2°. High absorption of the graphene strips can be maintained as the etching thickness, the strip width, and the period are altered. When this type of c-Si SPM with graphene strips is used in refractive index sensors, it shows excellent sensing properties due to its stable near-unity absorption.

  6. 77 FR 35425 - Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells and Modules From China; Scheduling of the Final Phase of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... Silicon Photovoltaic Cells and Modules From China; Scheduling of the Final Phase of Countervailing Duty... silicon photovoltaic cells and modules, provided for in subheadings 8501.31.80, 8501.61.00, 8507.20.80... photovoltaic cells, and modules, laminates, and panels, consisting of crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells...

  7. Epitaxial growth of 3C-SiC by using C{sub 60} as a carbon source; Untersuchungen zum epitaktischen Wachstum von 3C-SiC bei Verwendung einer C{sub 60}-Kohlenstoffquelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiber, Sascha

    2006-01-15

    Within this work epitaxial 3C-SiC-films were grown on Si(001) substrates and on ion beam synthesized 3C-SiC(001) pseudo substrates. A rather new process was used which is based on the simultaneous deposition of C60 and Si. In order to set up the necessary experimental conditions an ultra-high vacuum chamber has been designed and built. A RHEED system was used to examine SiC film growth in-situ. Using the described technique 3C-SiC films were grown void-free on Si(001) substrates. Deposition rates of C60 and Si were chosen adequately to maintain a Si:C ratio of approximately one during the deposition process. It was shown that stoichiometric and epitaxial 3C-SiC growth with the characteristic relationship (001)[110]Si(001)[110]3C-SiC could be achieved. TEM investigations revealed that the grown 3C-SiC films consist of individual grains that extend from the Si substrate to the film surface. Two characteristic grain types could be identified. The correlation between structure and texture of void-free grown 3C-SiC films and film thickness was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Pole figure measurements showed that thin films only contain first-order 3C-SiC twins. With higher film thickness also second-order twins are found which are located as twin lamellae in grain type 2. Improvement of polar texture with increasing film thickness couldn't be observed in the investigated range of up to 550 nm. On ion beam synthesized 3C-SiC pseudo substrates homoepitaxial 3C-SiC growth could be demonstrated for the first time by using a C{sub 60} carbon source. In respect to the crystalline quality of the grown films the surface quality of the used substrates was identified as a crucial factor. Furthermore a correlation between the ratio of deposition rates of C{sub 60} and Si and 3C-SiC film quality could be found. Under silicon-rich conditions, i.e. with a Si:C ratio of slightly greater one, homoepitaxial 3C-SiC layer-by-layer growth can be achieved. Films grown under these

  8. Gettering effect in grain boundaries of multi-crystalline silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nouri, H.; Bouaicha, M.; Ben Rabha, M.; Bessais, B. [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique, Centre de Recherches et des Technologies de l' Energie, Technopole de Borj-Cedria, BP 95, Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia)

    2012-10-15

    In this work, we analyze the effect of three gettering procedures on the variation of the grain boundaries (GBs) defect density in multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si). The effective defect density (N{sup B}) was calculated using a theoretical model where we consider the potential barrier induced by the GB as being due to structural defects and impurities. Results are compared to those obtained from C-V measurements. The potential barrier was evaluated from the dark current-voltage (I-V) characteristic performed across the GB. In addition to the Rapid Thermal Annealing (RTA), we use aluminum (Al) in the first gettering procedure, in the second we use porous silicon (PS), whereas in the third one, we realize a chemical damage (grooving). Mc-Si wafers were annealed in an infrared furnace in the same conditions, at temperatures ranging from 600 C to 1000 C (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  9. Photovoltaic solar panels of crystalline silicon: Characterization and separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Pablo Ribeiro; Benevit, Mariana Gonçalves; Veit, Hugo Marcelo

    2016-03-01

    Photovoltaic panels have a limited lifespan and estimates show large amounts of solar modules will be discarded as electronic waste in a near future. In order to retrieve important raw materials, reduce production costs and environmental impacts, recycling such devices is important. Initially, this article investigates which silicon photovoltaic module's components are recyclable through their characterization using X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersion spectroscopy and atomic absorption spectroscopy. Next, different separation methods are tested to favour further recycling processes. The glass was identified as soda-lime glass, the metallic filaments were identified as tin-lead coated copper, the panel cells were made of silicon and had silver filaments attached to it and the modules' frames were identified as aluminium, all of which are recyclable. Moreover, three different components segregation methods have been studied. Mechanical milling followed by sieving was able to separate silver from copper while chemical separation using sulphuric acid was able to detach the semiconductor material. A thermo gravimetric analysis was performed to evaluate the use of a pyrolysis step prior to the component's removal. The analysis showed all polymeric fractions present degrade at 500 °C. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Advancements in n-type base crystalline silicon solar cells and their emergence in the photovoltaic industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ur Rehman, Atteq; Lee, Soo Hong

    2013-01-01

    The p-type crystalline silicon wafers have occupied most of the solar cell market today. However, modules made with n-type crystalline silicon wafers are actually the most efficient modules up to date. This is because the material properties offered by n-type crystalline silicon substrates are suitable for higher efficiencies. Properties such as the absence of boron-oxygen related defects and a greater tolerance to key metal impurities by n-type crystalline silicon substrates are major factors that underline the efficiency of n-type crystalline silicon wafer modules. The bi-facial design of n-type cells with good rear-side electronic and optical properties on an industrial scale can be shaped as well. Furthermore, the development in the industrialization of solar cell designs based on n-type crystalline silicon substrates also highlights its boost in the contributions to the photovoltaic industry. In this paper, a review of various solar cell structures that can be realized on n-type crystalline silicon substrates will be given. Moreover, the current standing of solar cell technology based on n-type substrates and its contribution in photovoltaic industry will also be discussed.

  11. Improvements in numerical modelling of highly injected crystalline silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altermatt, P.P. [University of New South Wales, Centre for Photovoltaic Engineering, 2052 Sydney (Australia); Sinton, R.A. [Sinton Consulting, 1132 Green Circle, 80303 Boulder, CO (United States); Heiser, G. [University of NSW, School of Computer Science and Engineering, 2052 Sydney (Australia)

    2001-01-01

    We numerically model crystalline silicon concentrator cells with the inclusion of band gap narrowing (BGN) caused by injected free carriers. In previous studies, the revised room-temperature value of the intrinsic carrier density, n{sub i}=1.00x10{sup 10}cm{sup -3}, was inconsistent with the other material parameters of highly injected silicon. In this paper, we show that high-injection experiments can be described consistently with the revised value of n{sub i} if free-carrier induced BGN is included, and that such BGN is an important effect in silicon concentrator cells. The new model presented here significantly improves the ability to model highly injected silicon cells with a high level of precision.

  12. Effect of hydrogen flow on growth of 3C-SiC heteroepitaxial layers on Si(111) substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Guoguo; Zhang, Feng; Niu, Yingxi; Yang, Fei; Liu, Xingfang; Wang, Lei; Zhao, Wanshun; Sun, Guosheng; Zeng, Yiping

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • 3C-SiC thin films of preferential orientation along with Si(111) substrates were obtained using home-made horizontal LPCVD with different H_2 flow rate ranging from15 to 30 slm. • High H_2 flow rate will inhibit the out-diffusion of silicon atoms from silicon substrates effectively. Transformation and the mechanism of void formation are discussed based on our model. • The variation of growth rate and n-type doping with increasing H_2 flow rate is researched and the influencing mechanism is discussed. - Abstract: 3C-SiC thin films were grown on Si(111) substrates at 1250 °C by horizontal low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD). We performed an exhaustive study on the effect of H_2 flow rate on the crystalline quality, surface morphologies, growth rate, n-type doping of 3C-SiC thin films and the voids at the interface. The films show epitaxial nature with high crystal quality and surface morphology increase obviously with increasing H_2 flow rate. The growth rate and n-type doping are also dependent on H_2 flow rate. The properties of the voids at the interface are discussed based on the cross-sectional scanning electron microscope characterization. Transformation of voids with increasing H_2 flow rate are attributed to higher 3C-SiC film growth rate and H_2 etching rate. The mechanism of void formation is discussed based on our model, too. The results demonstrate that H_2 flow rate plays a very important role in the heteroepitaxial growth of 3C-SiC films.

  13. Effect of hydrogen flow on growth of 3C-SiC heteroepitaxial layers on Si(111) substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Guoguo [Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhang, Feng, E-mail: fzhang@semi.ac.cn [Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Niu, Yingxi; Yang, Fei [Electrical Engineering New Materials and Microelectronics Department, State Grid Smart Grid Research Institute, Beijing 100192 (China); Liu, Xingfang; Wang, Lei; Zhao, Wanshun [Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Sun, Guosheng [Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Dongguan Tianyu Semiconductor, Inc., Dongguan 523000 (China); Zeng, Yiping [Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • 3C-SiC thin films of preferential orientation along with Si(111) substrates were obtained using home-made horizontal LPCVD with different H{sub 2} flow rate ranging from15 to 30 slm. • High H{sub 2} flow rate will inhibit the out-diffusion of silicon atoms from silicon substrates effectively. Transformation and the mechanism of void formation are discussed based on our model. • The variation of growth rate and n-type doping with increasing H{sub 2} flow rate is researched and the influencing mechanism is discussed. - Abstract: 3C-SiC thin films were grown on Si(111) substrates at 1250 °C by horizontal low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD). We performed an exhaustive study on the effect of H{sub 2} flow rate on the crystalline quality, surface morphologies, growth rate, n-type doping of 3C-SiC thin films and the voids at the interface. The films show epitaxial nature with high crystal quality and surface morphology increase obviously with increasing H{sub 2} flow rate. The growth rate and n-type doping are also dependent on H{sub 2} flow rate. The properties of the voids at the interface are discussed based on the cross-sectional scanning electron microscope characterization. Transformation of voids with increasing H{sub 2} flow rate are attributed to higher 3C-SiC film growth rate and H{sub 2} etching rate. The mechanism of void formation is discussed based on our model, too. The results demonstrate that H{sub 2} flow rate plays a very important role in the heteroepitaxial growth of 3C-SiC films.

  14. Suppression of nanoindentation-induced phase transformation in crystalline silicon implanted with hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelenković, Emil V.; To, Suet

    2017-09-01

    In this paper the effect of hydrogen implantation in silicon on nanoindentation-induced phase transformation is investigated. Hydrogen ions were implanted in silicon through 300 nm thick oxide with double energy implantation (75 and 40 keV). For both energies implantation dose was 4 × 1016 cm-2. Some samples were thermally annealed at 400 °C. The micro-Raman spectroscopy was applied on nanoindentation imprints and the obtained results were related to the pop out/elbow appearances in nanoindentatioin unloading-displacement curves. The Raman spectroscopy revealed a suppression of Si-XII and Si-III phases and formation of a-Si in the indents of hydrogen implanted Si. The high-resolution x-ray diffraction measurements were taken to support the analysis of silicon phase formation during nanoindentation. Implantation induced strain, high hydrogen concentration, and platelets generation were found to be the factors that control suppression of c-Si phases Si-XII and Si-III, as well as a-Si phase enhancement during nanoindentation. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  15. Statistical characterization of surface defects created by Ar ion bombardment of crystalline silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghazisaeidi, M.; Freund, J. B.; Johnson, H. T.

    2008-01-01

    Ion bombardment of crystalline silicon targets induces pattern formation by the creation of mobile surface species that participate in forming nanometer-scale structures. The formation of these mobile species on a Si(001) surface, caused by sub-keV argon ion bombardment, is investigated through molecular dynamics simulation of Stillinger-Weber [Phys. Rev. B 31, 5262 (1985)] silicon. Specific criteria for identifying and classifying these mobile atoms based on their energy and coordination number are developed. The mobile species are categorized based on these criteria and their average concentrations are calculated

  16. Single crystalline silicon solar cells with rib structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhei Yoshiba

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available To improve the conversion efficiency of Si solar cells, we have developed a thin Si wafer-based solar cell that uses a rib structure. The open-circuit voltage of a solar cell is known to increase with deceasing wafer thickness if the cell is adequately passivated. However, it is not easy to handle very thin wafers because they are brittle and are subject to warpage. We fabricated a lattice-shaped rib structure on the rear side of a thin Si wafer to improve the wafer’s strength. A silicon nitride film was deposited on the Si wafer surface and patterned to form a mask to fabricate the lattice-shaped rib, and the wafer was then etched using KOH to reduce the thickness of the active area, except for the rib region. Using this structure in a Si heterojunction cell, we demonstrated that a high open-circuit voltage (VOC could be obtained by thinning the wafer without sacrificing its strength. A wafer with thickness of 30 μm was prepared easily using this structure. We then fabricated Si heterojunction solar cells using these rib wafers, and measured their implied VOC as a function of wafer thickness. The measured values were compared with device simulation results, and we found that the measured VOC agrees well with the simulated results. To optimize the rib and cell design, we also performed device simulations using various wafer thicknesses and rib dimensions.

  17. Electrical interface characteristics (I-V), optical time of flight measurements, and the x-ray (20 keV) signal response of amorphous-selenium/crystalline-silicon heterojunction structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, David M.; Ho, Chu An; Belev, George; De Crescenzo, Giovanni; Kasap, Safa O.; Yaffe, Martin J.

    2011-03-01

    We have investigated the dark current, optical TOF (time of flight) properties, and the X-ray response of amorphousselenium (a-Se)/crystalline-silicon (c-Si) heterostructures for application in digital radiography. The structures have been studied to determine if an x-ray generated electron signal, created in an a-Se layer, could be directly transferred to a c-Si based readout device such as a back-thinned CCD (charge coupled device). A simple first order band-theory of the structure indicates that x-ray generated electrons should transfer from the a-Se to the c-Si, while hole transfer from p-doped c-Si to the a-Se should be blocked, permitting a low dark signal as required. The structures we have tested have a thin metal bias electrode on the x-ray facing side of the a-Se which is deposited on the c-Si substrate. The heterostructures made with pure a-Se deposited on epitaxial p-doped (5×10 14 cm-3) c-Si exhibited very low dark current of 15 pA cm-2 at a negative bias field of 10 V μm-1 applied to the a-Se. The optical TOF (time of flight) measurements show that the applied bias drops almost entirely across the a-Se layer and that the a-Se hole and electron mobilities are within the range of commonly accepted values. The x-ray signal measurements demonstrate the structure has the expected x-ray quantum efficiency. We have made a back-thinned CCD coated with a-Se and although most areas of the device show a poor x-ray response, it does contain small regions which do work properly with the expected x-ray sensitivity. Improved understanding of the a-Se/c-Si interface and preparation methods should lead to properly functioning devices.

  18. Passivating electron contact based on highly crystalline nanostructured silicon oxide layers for silicon solar cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stuckelberger, J.; Nogay, G.; Wyss, P.; Jeangros, Q.; Allebe, Ch.; Debrot, F.; Niquille, X.; Ledinský, Martin; Fejfar, Antonín; Despeisse, M.; Haug, F.J.; Löper, P.; Ballif, C.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 158, Dec (2016), s. 2-10 ISSN 0927-0248 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015087 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : surface passivation * passivating contact * nanostructure * silicon oxide * nanocrystalline * microcrystalline * poly-silicon * crystallization * Raman * transmission line measurement Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 4.784, year: 2016

  19. Crack detection and analyses using resonance ultrasonic vibrations in full-size crystalline silicon wafers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyaev, A.; Polupan, O.; Dallas, W.; Ostapenko, S.; Hess, D.; Wohlgemuth, J.

    2006-01-01

    An experimental approach for fast crack detection and length determination in full-size solar-grade crystalline silicon wafers using a resonance ultrasonic vibrations (RUV) technique is presented. The RUV method is based on excitation of the longitudinal ultrasonic vibrations in full-size wafers. Using an external piezoelectric transducer combined with a high sensitivity ultrasonic probe and computer controlled data acquisition system, real-time frequency response analysis can be accomplished. On a set of identical crystalline Si wafers with artificially introduced periphery cracks, it was demonstrated that the crack results in a frequency shift in a selected RUV peak to a lower frequency and increases the resonance peak bandwidth. Both characteristics were found to increase with the length of the crack. The frequency shift and bandwidth increase serve as reliable indicators of the crack appearance in silicon wafers and are suitable for mechanical quality control and fast wafer inspection

  20. Fracture behavior of C/SiC composites at elevated temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Dong Hyun; Lee, Jeong Won; Kim, Jae Hoon; Shin, Ihn Cheol; Lim, Byung Joo [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-15

    The fracture behavior of carbon fiber-reinforced silicon carbide (C/SiC) composites used in rocket nozzles has been investigated under tension, compression, and fracture conditions at room temperature, 773 K and 1173 K. The C/SiC composites used in this study were manufactured by liquid silicon infiltration process at ~1723 K. All experiments were conducted using two types of specimens, considering fiber direction and oxidation condition. Experimental results show that temperature, fiber direction, and oxidation condition affect the behavior of C/SiC composites. Oxidation was found to be the main factor that changes the strength of C/SiC composites. By applying an anti-oxidation coating, the tensile and compressive strengths of the C/SiC composites increased with temperature. The fracture toughness of the C/SiC composites also increased with increase temperature. A fractography analysis of the fractured specimens was conducted using a scanning electron microscope.

  1. Microdefects and self-interstitial diffusion in crystalline silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knowlton, W.B.

    1998-05-01

    In this thesis, a study is presented of D-defects and self-interstitial diffusion in silicon using Li ion (Li{sup +}) drifting in an electric field and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Obstruction of Li{sup +} drifting has been found in wafers from certain but not all FZ p-type Si. Incomplete Li{sup +} drifting always occurs in the central region of the wafers. This work established that interstitial oxygen is not responsible for hindering Li{sup +} drifting. TEM was performed on a samples from the partially Li{sup +} drifted area and compared to regions without D-defects. Precipitates were found only in the region containing D-defects that had partially Li{sup +} drifted. This result indicates D-defects are responsible for the precipitation that halts the Li{sup +} drift process. Nitrogen (N) doping has been shown to eliminate D-defects as measured by conventional techniques. Li{sup +} drifting and D-defects provide a useful means to study Si self-interstitial diffusion. The process modeling program SUPREM-IV was used to simulate the results of Si self-interstitial diffusion obtained from Li{sup +} drifting experiments. Anomalous results from the Si self-interstitial diffusion experiments forced a re-examination of the possibility of thermal dissociation of D-defects. Thermal annealing experiments that were performed support this possibility. A review of the current literature illustrates the need for more research on the effects of thermal processing on FZ Si to understand the dissolution kinetics of D-defects.

  2. Potential of ITO nanoparticles formed by hydrogen treatment in PECVD for improved performance of back grid contact crystalline silicon solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandal, Sourav; Mitra, Suchismita; Dhar, Sukanta; Ghosh, Hemanta; Banerjee, Chandan, E-mail: chandanbanerjee74@gmail.com; Datta, Swapan K.; Saha, Hiranmoy

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Indium tin oxide (ITO) nanoparticles as back scatterers in c-Si solar cells. • ITO NP have comparatively low dissipative losses and tunable optical properties. • ITO NP formed by hydrogen plasma treatment on sputtered ITO film. • Enhanced absorption and carrier collection at longer wavelengths due to enhanced light trapping. - Abstract: This paper discusses the prospect of using indium tin oxide (ITO) nanoparticles as back scatterers in crystalline silicon solar cells instead of commonly used metal nanoparticles as ITO nanoparticles have comparatively low dissipative losses and tunable optical properties. ITO nanoparticles of ∼5–10 nm size is developed on the rear side of the solar cell by deposition of ∼5–10 nm thick ITO layer by DC magnetron sputtering followed by hydrogen treatment in PECVD. The silicon solar cell is fabricated in the laboratory using conventional method with grid metal contact at the back surface. Various characterizations like FESEM, TEM, AFM, XRD, EQE and IV characteristics are performed to analyze the morphology, chemical composition, optical characteristics and electrical performance of the device. ITO nanoparticles at the back surface of the solar cell significantly enhances the short circuit current, open circuit voltage and efficiency of the solar cell. These enhancements may be attributed to the increased absorption and carrier collection at longer wavelengths of solar spectrum due to enhanced light trapping by the ITO nanoparticles and surface passivation by the hydrogen treatment of the back surface.

  3. 17th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells and Modules: Materials and Processes; Workshop Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sopori, B. L.

    2007-08-01

    The National Center for Photovoltaics sponsored the 17th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells & Modules: Materials and Processes, held in Vail, CO, August 5-8, 2007. This meeting provided a forum for an informal exchange of technical and scientific information between international researchers in the photovoltaic and relevant non-photovoltaic fields. The theme of this year's meeting was 'Expanding Technology for a Future Powered by Si Photovoltaics.'

  4. The fabrication of quantum wires in silicon utilising the characteristics of solid phase epitaxial regrowth of crystalline silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, A.C.Y.; McCallum, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    The process of solid phase epitaxy (SPE) in semiconductor materials is one which has been intensively researched due to possible applications in the semiconductor industry. SPE is a solid phase transformation, in which an amorphous layer can be recrystallized either through heating or a combination of heating and ion bombardment. The transformation is believed to occur exclusively at the interface between the amorphous and crystalline layers, with individual atoms from the amorphous phase being incorporated into the crystalline phase by some point defect mechanism. The process has been observed to follow an Arrhenius temperature dependence. A wafer silicon was subjected to a multi-energy silicon implant through a fine nickel grid to amorphise region to a depth of 5μm creating an array of amorphous wells. Metal impurity atoms were then implanted in this region at energy of 500 keV. Samples were examined using an optical microscope and the Alphastep profiler at RMIT. It was confirmed that burgeoning wells were about 2 μm wide and rose about 0.01 μm above the silicon substrate

  5. The crystalline-to-amorphous transition in ion-bombarded silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, G.; Kalbitzer, S.

    1980-01-01

    Hydrogen-free, but defect-rich a-Si can be obtained by ion bombardment of c-Si. The formation of such material has been studied in detail using carrier-removal measurements in the characterization of the bombardment damage. In order to develop an overall view of the disordering process these data are discussed together with results obtained on similar films by Rutherford back-scattering, electron spin resonance, electron microscopy and optical measurements. It is concluded that amorphous material generally evolves from an intermediate crystalline phase supersaturated with point defects. The transition occurs locally at the sites of energetic ion impacts into critically predamaged crystalline material. As a consequence, an amorphous layer is built up from small clusters with dimensions typically of the order of 50 A. From the net expansion of the bombarded layers it is concluded that regions of lower atomic density are locally present, very likely a consequence of a structural mismatch between individual amorphous clusters. In this way a heterogeneous defect structure may build up in these films which determines their electronic properties. (author)

  6. Review of status developments of high-efficiency crystalline silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingjing; Yao, Yao; Xiao, Shaoqing; Gu, Xiaofeng

    2018-03-01

    In order to further improve cell efficiency and reduce cost in achieving grid parity, a large number of PV manufacturing companies, universities and research institutes have been devoted to a variety of low-cost and high-efficiency crystalline Si solar cells. In this article, the cell structures, characteristics and efficiency progresses of several types of high-efficiency crystalline Si solar cells that have been in small scale production or are promising in mass production are presented, including passivated emitter rear cell, tunnel oxide passivated contact solar cell, interdigitated back contact cell, heterojunction with intrinsic thin-layer cell, and heterojunction solar cells with interdigitated back contacts. Both the industrialization status and future development trend of high-efficiency crystalline silicon solar cells are also pinpointed.

  7. Simple processing of back-contacted silicon heterojunction solar cells using selective-area crystalline growth

    KAUST Repository

    Tomasi, Andrea; Paviet-Salomon, Bertrand; Jeangros, Quentin; Haschke, Jan; Christmann, Gabriel; Barraud, Loris; Descoeudres, Antoine; Seif, Johannes Peter; Nicolay, Sylvain; Despeisse, Matthieu; De Wolf, Stefaan; Ballif, Christophe

    2017-01-01

    For crystalline-silicon solar cells, voltages close to the theoretical limit are nowadays readily achievable when using passivating contacts. Conversely, maximal current generation requires the integration of the electron and hole contacts at the back of the solar cell to liberate its front from any shadowing loss. Recently, the world-record efficiency for crystalline-silicon single-junction solar cells was achieved by merging these two approaches in a single device; however, the complexity of fabricating this class of devices raises concerns about their commercial potential. Here we show a contacting method that substantially simplifies the architecture and fabrication of back-contacted silicon solar cells. We exploit the surface-dependent growth of silicon thin films, deposited by plasma processes, to eliminate the patterning of one of the doped carrier-collecting layers. Then, using only one alignment step for electrode definition, we fabricate a proof-of-concept 9-cm2 tunnel-interdigitated back-contact solar cell with a certified conversion efficiency >22.5%.

  8. Crystalline silicon thin film growth by ECR plasma CVD for solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Licai Wang

    1999-07-01

    This thesis describes the background, motivation and work carried out towards this PhD programme entitled 'Crystalline Silicon Thin Film Growth by ECR Plasma CVD for Solar Cells'. The fundamental principles of silicon solar cells are introduced with a review of silicon thin film and bulk solar cells. The development and prospects for thin film silicon solar cells are described. Some results of a modelling study on thin film single crystalline solar cells are given which has been carried out using a commercially available solar cell simulation package (PC-1D). This is followed by a description of thin film deposition techniques. These include Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) and Plasma-Assisted CVD (PACVD). The basic theory and technology of the emerging technique of Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) PACVD, which was used in this research, are introduced and the potential advantages summarised. Some of the basic methods of material and cell characterisation are briefly described, together with the work carried out in this research. The growth by ECR PACVD at temperatures 2 illumination. The best efficiency in the ECR grown structures was 13.76% using an epitaxial emitter. Cell performance was analysed in detail and the factors controlling performance identified by fitting self-consistently the fight and dark current-voltage and spectral response data using PC-1D. Finally, the conclusions for this research and suggestions for further work are outlined. (author)

  9. Simple processing of back-contacted silicon heterojunction solar cells using selective-area crystalline growth

    KAUST Repository

    Tomasi, Andrea

    2017-04-24

    For crystalline-silicon solar cells, voltages close to the theoretical limit are nowadays readily achievable when using passivating contacts. Conversely, maximal current generation requires the integration of the electron and hole contacts at the back of the solar cell to liberate its front from any shadowing loss. Recently, the world-record efficiency for crystalline-silicon single-junction solar cells was achieved by merging these two approaches in a single device; however, the complexity of fabricating this class of devices raises concerns about their commercial potential. Here we show a contacting method that substantially simplifies the architecture and fabrication of back-contacted silicon solar cells. We exploit the surface-dependent growth of silicon thin films, deposited by plasma processes, to eliminate the patterning of one of the doped carrier-collecting layers. Then, using only one alignment step for electrode definition, we fabricate a proof-of-concept 9-cm2 tunnel-interdigitated back-contact solar cell with a certified conversion efficiency >22.5%.

  10. Nanopatterning of Crystalline Silicon Using Anodized Aluminum Oxide Templates for Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Tsu-An

    A novel thin film anodized aluminum oxide templating process was developed and applied to make nanopatterns on crystalline silicon to enhance the optical properties of silicon. The thin film anodized aluminum oxide was created to improve the conventional thick aluminum templating method with the aim for potential large scale fabrication. A unique two-step anodizing method was introduced to create high quality nanopatterns and it was demonstrated that this process is superior over the original one-step approach. Optical characterization of the nanopatterned silicon showed up to 10% reduction in reflection in the short wavelength range. Scanning electron microscopy was also used to analyze the nanopatterned surface structure and it was found that interpore spacing and pore density can be tuned by changing the anodizing potential.

  11. Process for forming a porous silicon member in a crystalline silicon member

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northrup, M. Allen; Yu, Conrad M.; Raley, Norman F.

    1999-01-01

    Fabrication and use of porous silicon structures to increase surface area of heated reaction chambers, electrophoresis devices, and thermopneumatic sensor-actuators, chemical preconcentrates, and filtering or control flow devices. In particular, such high surface area or specific pore size porous silicon structures will be useful in significantly augmenting the adsorption, vaporization, desorption, condensation and flow of liquids and gasses in applications that use such processes on a miniature scale. Examples that will benefit from a high surface area, porous silicon structure include sample preconcentrators that are designed to adsorb and subsequently desorb specific chemical species from a sample background; chemical reaction chambers with enhanced surface reaction rates; and sensor-actuator chamber devices with increased pressure for thermopneumatic actuation of integrated membranes. Examples that benefit from specific pore sized porous silicon are chemical/biological filters and thermally-activated flow devices with active or adjacent surfaces such as electrodes or heaters.

  12. Optimisation of electronic interface properties of a-Si:H/c-Si hetero-junction solar cells by wet-chemical surface pre-treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angermann, H. [Hahn-Meitner-Institut, Abt. Siliziumphotovoltaik, Kekulestrasse 5, D-12489 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: angermann@hmi.de; Korte, L.; Rappich, J.; Conrad, E.; Sieber, I.; Schmidt, M. [Hahn-Meitner-Institut, Abt. Siliziumphotovoltaik, Kekulestrasse 5, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Huebener, K.; Hauschild, J. [Freie Universitaet Berlin, FB Physik, Arnimallee 14, 14195 Berlin (Germany)

    2008-08-30

    The relation between structural imperfections at structured silicon surfaces, energetic distribution of interface state densities, recombination loss at a-Si:H/c-Si interfaces and solar cell characteristics have been intensively investigated using non-destructive, surface sensitive techniques, surface photovoltage (SPV) and photoluminescence (PL) measurements, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and electron microscopy (SEM). Sequences of wet-chemical oxidation and etching steps were optimised with respect to the etching behaviour of Si(111) pyramids. Special wet-chemical smoothing and oxide removal procedures for structured substrates were developed, in order to reduce the preparation-induced surface micro-roughness and density of electronically active defects. H-termination and passivation by wet-chemical oxides were used to inhibit surface contamination and native oxidation during the technological process. We achieved significantly lower micro-roughness, densities of surface states D{sub it}(E) and recombination loss at a-Si:H/c-Si interfaces on wafers with randomly distributed pyramids, compared to conventional pre-treatments. For amorphous-crystalline hetero-junction solar cells (ZnO/a-Si:H/c-Si/BSF/Al), the c-Si surface becomes part of the a-Si:H/c-Si interface, whose recombination activity determines cell performance. With textured substrates, the smoothening procedure results in a significant increase of short circuit current, fill factor and efficiency.

  13. Optimisation of electronic interface properties of a-Si:H/c-Si hetero-junction solar cells by wet-chemical surface pre-treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angermann, H.; Korte, L.; Rappich, J.; Conrad, E.; Sieber, I.; Schmidt, M.; Huebener, K.; Hauschild, J.

    2008-01-01

    The relation between structural imperfections at structured silicon surfaces, energetic distribution of interface state densities, recombination loss at a-Si:H/c-Si interfaces and solar cell characteristics have been intensively investigated using non-destructive, surface sensitive techniques, surface photovoltage (SPV) and photoluminescence (PL) measurements, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and electron microscopy (SEM). Sequences of wet-chemical oxidation and etching steps were optimised with respect to the etching behaviour of Si(111) pyramids. Special wet-chemical smoothing and oxide removal procedures for structured substrates were developed, in order to reduce the preparation-induced surface micro-roughness and density of electronically active defects. H-termination and passivation by wet-chemical oxides were used to inhibit surface contamination and native oxidation during the technological process. We achieved significantly lower micro-roughness, densities of surface states D it (E) and recombination loss at a-Si:H/c-Si interfaces on wafers with randomly distributed pyramids, compared to conventional pre-treatments. For amorphous-crystalline hetero-junction solar cells (ZnO/a-Si:H/c-Si/BSF/Al), the c-Si surface becomes part of the a-Si:H/c-Si interface, whose recombination activity determines cell performance. With textured substrates, the smoothening procedure results in a significant increase of short circuit current, fill factor and efficiency

  14. Drift mechanism of mass transfer on heterogeneous reaction in crystalline silicon substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukushkin, S.A. [Institute of Problems of Mechanical Engineering, Russian Academy of Science, St Petersburg, 199178 (Russian Federation); St. Petersburg National Research University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics, 197101 (Russian Federation); Osipov, A.V., E-mail: Andrey.V.Osipov@gmail.com [Institute of Problems of Mechanical Engineering, Russian Academy of Science, St Petersburg, 199178 (Russian Federation); St. Petersburg National Research University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics, 197101 (Russian Federation)

    2017-05-01

    This work aims to study the pressure dependence of the thickness of the epitaxial silicon carbide film growing from crystalline silicon due to the heterogeneous reaction with gaseous carbon monoxide. It turned out that this dependence exhibits the clear maximum. On further pressure increasing the film thickness decreases. The theoretical model has been developed which explains such a character of the dependence by the fact that the gaseous silicon monoxide reaction product inhibits the drift of the gaseous reagent through the channels of a crystal lattice, thus decreasing their hydraulic diameter. In the proposed hydraulic model, the dependences of the film thickness both on the gas pressure and time have been calculated. It was shown that not only the qualitative but also quantitative correspondence between theoretical and experimental results takes place. As one would expect, due to the Einstein relation, at short growth times the drift model coincides with the diffusion one. Consequences of this drift mechanism of epitaxial film growing are discussed. - Graphical abstract: This work aims to study the pressure dependence of the thickness of the epitaxial silicon carbide film growing from crystalline silicon due to the heterogeneous reaction with gaseous carbon monoxide. It turned out that this dependence exhibits the clear maximum. On further pressure increasing the film thickness decreases. The theoretical model has been developed which explains such a character of the dependence by the fact that the gaseous silicon monoxide reaction product inhibits the drift of the gaseous reagent through the channels of a crystal lattice, thus decreasing their hydraulic diameter. - Highlights: • It is established that the greater pressure, the smaller is the reaction rate. • The reaction product prevents penetration of the reagent into a reaction zone. • For description the hydraulic model of crystal lattice channels is developed. • Theoretical results for polytropic

  15. Substrate bias effect on crystallinity of polycrystalline silicon thin films prepared by pulsed ion-beam evaporation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Fazlat; Gunji, Michiharu; Yang, Sung-Chae; Suzuki, Tsuneo; Suematsu, Hisayuki; Jiang, Weihua; Yatsui, Kiyoshi [Nagaoka Univ. of Technology, Extreme Energy-Density Research Inst., Nagaoka, Niigata (Japan)

    2002-06-01

    The deposition of polycrystalline silicon thin films has been tried by a pulsed ion-beam evaporation method, where high crystallinity and deposition rate have been achieved without heating the substrate. The crystallinity and the deposition rate were improved by applying bias voltage to the substrate, where instantaneous substrate heating might have occurred by ion-bombardment. (author)

  16. Substrate bias effect on crystallinity of polycrystalline silicon thin films prepared by pulsed ion-beam evaporation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Fazlat; Gunji, Michiharu; Yang, Sung-Chae; Suzuki, Tsuneo; Suematsu, Hisayuki; Jiang, Weihua; Yatsui, Kiyoshi

    2002-01-01

    The deposition of polycrystalline silicon thin films has been tried by a pulsed ion-beam evaporation method, where high crystallinity and deposition rate have been achieved without heating the substrate. The crystallinity and the deposition rate were improved by applying bias voltage to the substrate, where instantaneous substrate heating might have occurred by ion-bombardment. (author)

  17. Optoelectrical modeling of solar cells based on c-Si/a-Si:H nanowire array: focus on the electrical transport in between the nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levtchenko, Alexandra; Le Gall, Sylvain; Lachaume, Raphaël; Michallon, Jérôme; Collin, Stéphane; Alvarez, José; Djebbour, Zakaria; Kleider, Jean-Paul

    2018-06-01

    By coupling optical and electrical modeling, we have investigated the photovoltaic performances of p-i-n radial nanowires array based on crystalline p-type silicon (c-Si) core/hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) shell. By varying either the doping concentration of the c-Si core, or back contact work function we can separate and highlight the contribution to the cell’s performance of the nanowires themselves (the radial cell) from the interspace between the nanowires (the planar cell). We show that the build-in potential (V bi) in the radial and planar cells strongly depends on the doping of c-Si core and the work function of the back contact respectively. Consequently, the solar cell’s performance is degraded if either the doping concentration of the c-Si core, or/and the work function of the back contact is too low. By inserting a thin (p) a-Si:H layer between both core/absorber and back contact/absorber, the performance of the solar cell can be improved by partly fixing the V bi at both interfaces due to strong electrostatic screening effect. Depositing such a buffer layer playing the role of an electrostatic screen for charge carriers is a suggested way of enhancing the performance of solar cells based on radial p-i-n or n-i-p nanowire array.

  18. High-performance a -Si/c-Si heterojunction photoelectrodes for photoelectrochemical oxygen and hydrogen evolution

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hsin Ping; Sun, Ke; Noh, Sun Young; Kargar, Alireza; Tsai, Meng Lin; Huang, Ming Yi; Wang, Deli; He, Jr-Hau

    2015-01-01

    Amorphous Si (a-Si)/crystalline Si (c-Si) heterojunction (SiHJ) can serve as highly efficient and robust photoelectrodes for solar fuel generation. Low carrier recombination in the photoelectrodes leads to high photocurrents and photovoltages

  19. Tantalum Nitride Electron-Selective Contact for Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Xinbo

    2018-04-19

    Minimizing carrier recombination at contact regions by using carrier‐selective contact materials, instead of heavily doping the silicon, has attracted considerable attention for high‐efficiency, low‐cost crystalline silicon (c‐Si) solar cells. A novel electron‐selective, passivating contact for c‐Si solar cells is presented. Tantalum nitride (TaN x ) thin films deposited by atomic layer deposition are demonstrated to provide excellent electron‐transporting and hole‐blocking properties to the silicon surface, due to their small conduction band offset and large valence band offset. Thin TaNx interlayers provide moderate passivation of the silicon surfaces while simultaneously allowing a low contact resistivity to n‐type silicon. A power conversion efficiency (PCE) of over 20% is demonstrated with c‐Si solar cells featuring a simple full‐area electron‐selective TaNx contact, which significantly improves the fill factor and the open circuit voltage (Voc) and hence provides the higher PCE. The work opens up the possibility of using metal nitrides, instead of metal oxides, as carrier‐selective contacts or electron transport layers for photovoltaic devices.

  20. Nano-Photonic Structures for Light Trapping in Ultra-Thin Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prathap Pathi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Thick wafer-silicon is the dominant solar cell technology. It is of great interest to develop ultra-thin solar cells that can reduce materials usage, but still achieve acceptable performance and high solar absorption. Accordingly, we developed a highly absorbing ultra-thin crystalline Si based solar cell architecture using periodically patterned front and rear dielectric nanocone arrays which provide enhanced light trapping. The rear nanocones are embedded in a silver back reflector. In contrast to previous approaches, we utilize dielectric photonic crystals with a completely flat silicon absorber layer, providing expected high electronic quality and low carrier recombination. This architecture creates a dense mesh of wave-guided modes at near-infrared wavelengths in the absorber layer, generating enhanced absorption. For thin silicon (<2 μm and 750 nm pitch arrays, scattering matrix simulations predict enhancements exceeding 90%. Absorption approaches the Lambertian limit at small thicknesses (<10 μm and is slightly lower (by ~5% at wafer-scale thicknesses. Parasitic losses are ~25% for ultra-thin (2 μm silicon and just 1%–2% for thicker (>100 μm cells. There is potential for 20 μm thick cells to provide 30 mA/cm2 photo-current and >20% efficiency. This architecture has great promise for ultra-thin silicon solar panels with reduced material utilization and enhanced light-trapping.

  1. Evolutionary process development towards next generation crystalline silicon solar cells : a semiconductor process toolbox application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tous L.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Bulk crystalline Silicon solar cells are covering more than 85% of the world’s roof top module installation in 2010. With a growth rate of over 30% in the last 10 years this technology remains the working horse of solar cell industry. The full Aluminum back-side field (Al BSF technology has been developed in the 90’s and provides a production learning curve on module price of constant 20% in average. The main reason for the decrease of module prices with increasing production capacity is due to the effect of up scaling industrial production. For further decreasing of the price per wattpeak silicon consumption has to be reduced and efficiency has to be improved. In this paper we describe a successive efficiency improving process development starting from the existing full Al BSF cell concept. We propose an evolutionary development includes all parts of the solar cell process: optical enhancement (texturing, polishing, anti-reflection coating, junction formation and contacting. Novel processes are benchmarked on industrial like baseline flows using high-efficiency cell concepts like i-PERC (Passivated Emitter and Rear Cell. While the full Al BSF crystalline silicon solar cell technology provides efficiencies of up to 18% (on cz-Si in production, we are achieving up to 19.4% conversion efficiency for industrial fabricated, large area solar cells with copper based front side metallization and local Al BSF applying the semiconductor toolbox.

  2. Correlating the silicon surface passivation to the nanostructure of low-temperature a-Si:H after rapid thermal annealing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macco, B.; Melskens, J.; Podraza, N.J.; Arts, K.; Pugh, C.; Thomas, O.; Kessels, W.M.M.

    2017-01-01

    Using an inductively coupled plasma, hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) films have been prepared at very low temperatures (<50 °C) to provide crystalline silicon (c-Si) surface passivation. Despite the limited nanostructural quality of the a-Si:H bulk, a surprisingly high minority carrier

  3. Silicon-Rich Silicon Carbide Hole-Selective Rear Contacts for Crystalline-Silicon-Based Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogay, Gizem; Stuckelberger, Josua; Wyss, Philippe; Jeangros, Quentin; Allebé, Christophe; Niquille, Xavier; Debrot, Fabien; Despeisse, Matthieu; Haug, Franz-Josef; Löper, Philipp; Ballif, Christophe

    2016-12-28

    The use of passivating contacts compatible with typical homojunction thermal processes is one of the most promising approaches to realizing high-efficiency silicon solar cells. In this work, we investigate an alternative rear-passivating contact targeting facile implementation to industrial p-type solar cells. The contact structure consists of a chemically grown thin silicon oxide layer, which is capped with a boron-doped silicon-rich silicon carbide [SiC x (p)] layer and then annealed at 800-900 °C. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that the thin chemical oxide layer disappears upon thermal annealing up to 900 °C, leading to degraded surface passivation. We interpret this in terms of a chemical reaction between carbon atoms in the SiC x (p) layer and the adjacent chemical oxide layer. To prevent this reaction, an intrinsic silicon interlayer was introduced between the chemical oxide and the SiC x (p) layer. We show that this intrinsic silicon interlayer is beneficial for surface passivation. Optimized passivation is obtained with a 10-nm-thick intrinsic silicon interlayer, yielding an emitter saturation current density of 17 fA cm -2 on p-type wafers, which translates into an implied open-circuit voltage of 708 mV. The potential of the developed contact at the rear side is further investigated by realizing a proof-of-concept hybrid solar cell, featuring a heterojunction front-side contact made of intrinsic amorphous silicon and phosphorus-doped amorphous silicon. Even though the presented cells are limited by front-side reflection and front-side parasitic absorption, the obtained cell with a V oc of 694.7 mV, a FF of 79.1%, and an efficiency of 20.44% demonstrates the potential of the p + /p-wafer full-side-passivated rear-side scheme shown here.

  4. Self-Anchored Catalyst Interface Enables Ordered Via Array Formation from Submicrometer to Millimeter Scale for Polycrystalline and Single-Crystalline Silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong Dong; Kim, Munho; Kong, Lingyu; Mohseni, Parsian K; Ranganathan, Srikanth; Pachamuthu, Jayavel; Chim, Wai Kin; Chiam, Sing Yang; Coleman, James J; Li, Xiuling

    2018-03-14

    Defying text definitions of wet etching, metal-assisted chemical etching (MacEtch), a solution-based, damage-free semiconductor etching method, is directional, where the metal catalyst film sinks with the semiconductor etching front, producing 3D semiconductor structures that are complementary to the metal catalyst film pattern. The same recipe that works perfectly to produce ordered array of nanostructures for single-crystalline Si (c-Si) fails completely when applied to polycrystalline Si (poly-Si) with the same doping type and level. Another long-standing challenge for MacEtch is the difficulty of uniformly etching across feature sizes larger than a few micrometers because of the nature of lateral etching. The issue of interface control between the catalyst and the semiconductor in both lateral and vertical directions over time and over distance needs to be systematically addressed. Here, we present a self-anchored catalyst (SAC) MacEtch method, where a nanoporous catalyst film is used to produce nanowires through the pinholes, which in turn physically anchor the catalyst film from detouring as it descends. The systematic vertical etch rate study as a function of porous catalyst diameter from 200 to 900 nm shows that the SAC-MacEtch not only confines the etching direction but also enhances the etch rate due to the increased liquid access path, significantly delaying the onset of the mass-transport-limited critical diameter compared to nonporous catalyst c-Si counterpart. With this enhanced mass transport approach, vias on multistacks of poly-Si/SiO 2 are also formed with excellent vertical registry through the polystack, even though they are separated by SiO 2 which is readily removed by HF alone with no anisotropy. In addition, 320 μm square through-Si-via (TSV) arrays in 550 μm thick c-Si are realized. The ability of SAC-MacEtch to etch through poly/oxide/poly stack as well as more than half millimeter thick silicon with excellent site specificity for a wide

  5. The open-circuit voltage in microcrystalline silicon solar cells of different degrees of crystallinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nath, Madhumita; Roca i Cabarrocas, P.; Johnson, E.V.; Abramov, A.; Chatterjee, P.

    2008-01-01

    We have used a detailed electrical-optical computer model (ASDMP) in conjunction with the experimental characterization of microcrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells of different degrees of crystallinity (but having identical P- and N-layers) to understand the observed decrease of the open-circuit voltage with increasing crystalline fraction. In order to model all aspects of the experimental current density-voltage and quantum efficiency characteristics of cells having low (∼ 75%) and high (over 90%) crystalline fraction, we had to assume both a higher mobility gap defect density and a lower band gap for the more crystallized material. The former fact is widely known to bring down the open-circuit voltage. Our calculations also reveal that the proximity of the quasi-Fermi levels to the energy bands in the cell based on highly crystallized (and assumed to have a lower band gap) microcrystalline silicon results in higher free and trapped carrier densities in this device. The trapped hole population is particularly high at and close to the P/I interface on account of the higher inherent defect density in this region and the fact that the hole quasi-Fermi level is close to the valence band edge here. This fact results in a strong interface field, a collapse of the field in the volume, and hence a lower open-circuit voltage. Thus a combination of higher mobility gap defects and a lower band gap is probably the reason for the lower open-circuit voltage in cells based on highly crystallized microcrystalline silicon

  6. Eighth Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cell Materials and Processes; Summary Discussion Sessions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sopori, B.; Swanson, D.; Sinton, R.; Stavola, M.; Tan, T.

    1998-01-01

    This report is a summary of the panel discussions included with the Eighth Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cell Materials and Processes. The theme of the workshop was ''Supporting the Transition to World Class Manufacturing.'' This workshop provided a forum for an informal exchange of information between researchers in the photovoltaic and nonphotovoltaic fields on various aspects of impurities and defects in silicon, their dynamics during device processing, and their application in defect engineering. This interaction helped establish a knowledge base that can be used for improving device-fabrication processes to enhance solar-cell performance and reduce cell costs. It also provided an excellent opportunity for researchers from industry and universities to recognize mutual needs for future joint research

  7. Impact of temperature on performance of series and parallel connected mono-crystalline silicon solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhash Chander

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on impact of temperature on the performance of series and parallel connected mono-crystalline silicon (mono-Si solar cell employing solar simulator. The experiment was carried out at constant light intensity 550 W/m2with cell temperature in the range 25–60 oC for single, series and parallel connected mono-Si solar cells. The performance parameters like open circuit voltage, maximum power, fill factor and efficiency are found to decrease with cell temperature while the short circuit current is observed to increase. The experimental results reveal that silicon solar cells connected in series and parallel combinations follow the Kirchhoff’s laws and the temperature has a significant effect on the performance parameters of solar cell.

  8. Environmental Life Cycle Inventory of Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic System Production. Status 2005-2006 (Excel File)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Wild - Scholten, M.J.; Alsema, E.A.

    2007-03-01

    The authors have assembled this LCI data set to the best of their knowledge and in their opinion it gives a reliable representation of the crystalline silicon module production technology in Western-Europe in the year 2005/2006 and Balance-of-System components of the year 2006. However, most of the data were provided to them by the companies that helped them. Although they have cross-checked the data from different sources they cannot guarantee that it does not contain any errors. Therefore they cannot accept any responsibility for the use of these data

  9. Dissolution chemistry and biocompatibility of single-crystalline silicon nanomembranes and associated materials for transient electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Suk-Won; Park, Gayoung; Edwards, Chris; Corbin, Elise A; Kang, Seung-Kyun; Cheng, Huanyu; Song, Jun-Kyul; Kim, Jae-Hwan; Yu, Sooyoun; Ng, Joanne; Lee, Jung Eun; Kim, Jiyoung; Yee, Cassian; Bhaduri, Basanta; Su, Yewang; Omennetto, Fiorenzo G; Huang, Yonggang; Bashir, Rashid; Goddard, Lynford; Popescu, Gabriel; Lee, Kyung-Mi; Rogers, John A

    2014-06-24

    Single-crystalline silicon nanomembranes (Si NMs) represent a critically important class of material for high-performance forms of electronics that are capable of complete, controlled dissolution when immersed in water and/or biofluids, sometimes referred to as a type of "transient" electronics. The results reported here include the kinetics of hydrolysis of Si NMs in biofluids and various aqueous solutions through a range of relevant pH values, ionic concentrations and temperatures, and dependence on dopant types and concentrations. In vitro and in vivo investigations of Si NMs and other transient electronic materials demonstrate biocompatibility and bioresorption, thereby suggesting potential for envisioned applications in active, biodegradable electronic implants.

  10. Role of the bond defect for structural transformations between crystalline and amorphous silicon: A molecular-dynamics study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stock, D. M.; Weber, B.; Gaertner, K.

    2000-01-01

    The relation between the bond defect, which is a topological defect, and structural transformations between crystalline and amorphous silicon, is studied by molecular-dynamics simulations. The investigation of 1-keV boron implantation into crystalline silicon proves that the bond defect can also be generated directly by collisional-induced bond switching in addition to its formation by incomplete recombination of primary defects. This supports the assumption that the bond defect may play an important role in the amorphization process of silicon by light ions. The analysis of the interface between (001) silicon and amorphous silicon shows that there are two typical defect configurations at the interface which result from two different orientations of the bond defect with respect to the interface. Thus the bond defect appears to be a characteristic structural feature of the interface. Moreover, annealing results indicate that the bond defect acts as a growth site for interface-mediated crystallization

  11. Influence of N-type μc-SiOx:H intermediate reflector and top cell material properties on the electrical performance of "micromorph" tandem solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, P.; Roca i Cabarrocas, P.

    2018-01-01

    Amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) / micro-crystalline siliconc-Si:H), "micromorph" tandem solar cells have been investigated using a detailed electrical - optical model. Although such a tandem has good light absorption over the entire visible spectrum, the a-Si:H top cell suffers from strong light-induced degradation (LID). To improve matters, we have replaced a-Si:H by hydrogenated polymorphous silicon (pm-Si:H), a nano-structured silicon thin film with lower LID than a-Si:H. But the latter's low current carrying capacity necessitates a thicker top cell for current-matching, again leading to LID problems. The solution is to introduce a suitable intermediate reflector (IR) at the junction between the sub-cells, to concentrate light of the shorter visible wavelengths into the top cell. Here we assess the suitability of N-type micro-crystalline silicon oxide (μc-SiOx:H) as an IR. The sensitivity of the solar cell performance to the complex refractive index, thickness and texture of such a reflector is studied. We conclude that N-μc-SiOx:H does concentrate light into the top sub-cell, thus reducing its required thickness for current-matching. However the IR also reflects light right out of the device; so that the initial efficiency suffers. The advantage of such an IR is ultimately seen in the stabilized state since the LID of a thin top cell is low. We also find that for high stabilized efficiencies, the IR should be flat (having no texture of its own). Our study indicates that we may expect to reach 15% stable tandem micromorph efficiency.

  12. The morphology of ceramic phases in B x C-SiC-Si infiltrated composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayun, S.; Frage, N.; Dariel, M.P.

    2006-01-01

    The present communication is concerned with the effect of the carbon source on the morphology of reaction bonded boron carbide (B 4 C). Molten silicon reacts strongly and rapidly with free carbon to form large, faceted, regular polygon-shaped SiC particles, usually embedded in residual silicon pools. In the absence of free carbon, the formation of SiC relies on carbon that originates from within the boron carbide particles. Examination of the reaction bonded boron carbide revealed a core-rim microstructure consisting of boron carbide particles surrounded by secondary boron carbide containing some dissolved silicon. This microstructure is generated as the outcome of a dissolution-precipitation process. In the course of the infiltration process molten Si dissolves some boron carbide until its saturation with B and C. Subsequently, precipitation of secondary boron carbide enriched with boron and silicon takes place. In parallel, elongated, strongly twinned, faceted SiC particles are generated by rapid growth along preferred crystallographic directions. This sequence of events is supported by X-ray diffraction and microcompositional analysis and well accounted for by the thermodynamic analysis of the ternary B-C-Si system. - Graphical abstract: Bright field TEM image of the rim area between two boron carbide grains

  13. Dry technologies for the production of crystalline silicon solar cells; Trockentechnologien zur Herstellung von kristallinen Siliziumsolarzellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rentsch, J.

    2005-04-15

    Within this work, dynamic plasma etching technologies for the industrial production of crystalline silicon solar cells has been investigated. The research activity can be separated into three major steps: the characterisation of the etching behaviour of a newly developed dynamic plasma etching system, the development and analysis of dry etching processes for solar cell production and the determination of the ecological and economical impacts of such a new technology compared to standard up to date technologies. The characterisation of the etching behaviour has been carried out for two different etching sources, a low frequency (110 kHz) and a microwave (2.45 GHz) plasma source. The parameter of interest was the delivered ion energy of each source mainly determining the reachable etch rate. The etch rate turned out to be the main most critical parameter concerning the reachable wafer throughput per hour. Other points of interest in characterisation of the etching system were the material of the transport carriers, the silicon load as well as the process temperatures. The development of different dry etching processes targets the design of a complete dry production process for crystalline silicon solar cells. Therefore etching processes for saw damage removal, texturing, edge isolation as well as etching of dielectric layers have been developed and optimised. The major benefits of a complete dry production process would be the reduction of handling steps in between process steps and therefore offers a large cost reduction potential. For multicrystalline silicon solar cells a cost reduction potential of 5 % compared to a standard wet chemical based reference process could be realized only including the dry etching of a phosphorus silicate glass layer after diffusion. Further reduction potential offers the implementation of a dry texturing process due to a significant efficiency increase. (orig.)

  14. Hydrogenated Nano-/Micro-Crystalline Silicon Thin-Films for Thermoelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, E.; Wight, N. M.; Smirnov, V.; Buckman, J.; Bennett, N. S.

    2018-06-01

    Thermoelectric technology has not yet been able to reach full-scale market penetration partly because most commercial materials employed are scarce/costly, environmentally unfriendly and in addition provide low conversion efficiency. The necessity to tackle some of these hurdles leads us to investigate the suitability of n-type hydrogenated microcrystalline siliconc-Si: H) in the fabrication of thermoelectric devices, produced by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD), which is a mature process of proven scalability. This study reports an approach to optimise the thermoelectric power factor (PF) by varying the dopant concentration by means of post-annealing without impacting film morphology, at least for temperatures below 550°C. Results show an improvement in PF of more than 80%, which is driven by a noticeable increase of carrier mobility and Seebeck coefficient in spite of a reduction in carrier concentration. A PF of 2.08 × 10-4 W/mK2 at room temperature is reported for n-type films of 1 μm thickness, which is in line with the best values reported in recent literature for similar structures.

  15. The temperature dependence of the characteristics of crystalline-silicon-based heterojunction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachenko, A. V.; Kryuchenko, Yu. V.; Kostylyov, V. P.; Korkishko, R. M.; Sokolovskyi, I. O.; Abramov, A. S.; Abolmasov, S. N.; Andronikov, D. A.; Bobyl', A. V.; Panaiotti, I. E.; Terukov, E. I.; Titov, A. S.; Shvarts, M. Z.

    2016-03-01

    Temperature dependences of the photovoltaic characteristics of ( p)a-Si/( i)a-Si:H/( n)c-Si singlecrystalline- silicon based heterojunction-with-intrinsic-thin-layer (HIT) solar cells have been measured in a temperature range of 80-420 K. The open-circuit voltage ( V OC), fill factor ( FF) of the current-voltage ( I-U) characteristic, and maximum output power ( P max) reach limiting values in the interval of 200-250 K on the background of monotonic growth in the short-circuit current ( I SC) in a temperature range of 80-400 K. At temperatures below this interval, the V OC, FF, and P max values exhibit a decrease. It is theoretically justified that a decrease in the photovoltaic energy conversion characteristics of solar cells observed on heating from 250 to 400 K is related to exponential growth in the intrinsic conductivity. At temperatures below 200 K, the I-U curve shape exhibits a change that is accompanied by a drop in V OC. Possible factors that account for the decrease in V OC, FF, and P max are considered.

  16. Hydrogenated Nano-/Micro-Crystalline Silicon Thin-Films for Thermoelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, E.; Wight, N. M.; Smirnov, V.; Buckman, J.; Bennett, N. S.

    2017-11-01

    Thermoelectric technology has not yet been able to reach full-scale market penetration partly because most commercial materials employed are scarce/costly, environmentally unfriendly and in addition provide low conversion efficiency. The necessity to tackle some of these hurdles leads us to investigate the suitability of n-type hydrogenated microcrystalline siliconc-Si: H) in the fabrication of thermoelectric devices, produced by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD), which is a mature process of proven scalability. This study reports an approach to optimise the thermoelectric power factor (PF) by varying the dopant concentration by means of post-annealing without impacting film morphology, at least for temperatures below 550°C. Results show an improvement in PF of more than 80%, which is driven by a noticeable increase of carrier mobility and Seebeck coefficient in spite of a reduction in carrier concentration. A PF of 2.08 × 10-4 W/mK2 at room temperature is reported for n-type films of 1 μm thickness, which is in line with the best values reported in recent literature for similar structures.

  17. Transport properties at 3C-SiC interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Gustav Jens Peter

    2011-01-01

    For years cubic (3C) silicon carbide (SiC) has been believed to be a very promising wide bandgap semiconductor for high frequency and high power electronics. However, 3C-SiC is fraught with large concentrations of various defects, which have so far hindered the achievement of the predicted properties at a macroscopic level. These defects have properties that are inherently nanoscale and that will have a strong influence on the electrical behavior of the material, particularly at interfaces c...

  18. Study of the interface in n{sup +}{mu}c-Si/p-type c-Si heterojunctions: role of the fluorine chemistry in the interface passivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Losurdo, M.; Grimaldi, A.; Sacchetti, A.; Capezzuto, P.; Ambrico, M.; Bruno, G.; Roca, Francesco

    2003-03-03

    Investigation of n-p heterojunction solar cells obtained by depositing a n-type thin silicon films either amorphous or microcrystalline on p-type c-Si is carried out. The study is focused on the improvement of the c-Si surface and emitter layer/c-Si substrate interface. The peculiarity is the use of SiF{sub 4}-based plasmas for the in situ dry cleaning and passivation of the c-Si surface and for the PECVD deposition of the emitter layer that can be either amorphous (a-Si:H,F) or microcrystalline ({mu}c-Si). The use of SiF{sub 4} instead of the conventional SiH{sub 4} results in a lower hydrogen content in the film and in a reduction of the interaction of the c-Si surface with hydrogen atoms. Furthermore, the dependence of the heterojunction solar cell photovoltaic parameters on the insertion of an intrinsic buffer layer between the n-type thin silicon layer and the p-type c-Si substrate is discussed.

  19. Enhanced cooling in mono-crystalline ultra-thin silicon by embedded micro-air channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed T. Ghoneim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In today’s digital world, complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS technology enabled scaling of bulk mono-crystalline silicon (100 based electronics has resulted in their higher performance but with increased dynamic and off-state power consumption. Such trade-off has caused excessive heat generation which eventually drains the charge of battery in portable devices. The traditional solution utilizing off-chip fans and heat sinks used for heat management make the whole system bulky and less mobile. Here we show, an enhanced cooling phenomenon in ultra-thin (>10 μm mono-crystalline (100 silicon (detached from bulk substrate by utilizing deterministic pattern of porous network of vertical “through silicon” micro-air channels that offer remarkable heat and weight management for ultra-mobile electronics, in a cost effective way with 20× reduction in substrate weight and a 12% lower maximum temperature at sustained loads. We also show the effectiveness of this event in functional MOS field effect transistors (MOSFETs with high-κ/metal gate stacks.

  20. The study of the application of crystalline silicone solar cell type for a temporary flood camp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendarti, R.; Katarina, W.; Wangidjaja, W.

    2017-12-01

    During flood period, most of temporary evacuation shelters in Jakarta are lack in electricity because the local electricity company turned the electricity off to avoid any electrical problem because of the high water level over the flooded area. Whereas, the local electricity or the grid is the main energy source for the lighting and water pump machine, therefore the energy source becomes a significant issue during this period. Currently, the local government has already provided diesel generators to substitute the local grid when it is off, however, the amount of the generators is still limited. This study, therefore, investigated an alternative energy for the electricity, particularly solar energy and this paper presents an analysis of the Jakarta duration of sunshine during rainy seasons in order to investigate which Crystalline Silicone solar cell type that can be implemented optimally for energy supply in the period of flood evacuation as well as for the shelter. A deep analysis on literature review was conducted on the three types of Crystalline Silicone solar cell, Jakarta local weather. Furthermore, the standard of International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) was also studied for the shelter design. The results of this study could be used as a reference for the local authority in providing the substitute energy supply in the temporary evacuation area during flood period in which the solar energy source could be also attached on the shelter.

  1. Optimization of oxidation processes to improve crystalline silicon solar cell emitters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Shen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Control of the oxidation process is one key issue in producing high-quality emitters for crystalline silicon solar cells. In this paper, the oxidation parameters of pre-oxidation time, oxygen concentration during pre-oxidation and pre-deposition and drive-in time were optimized by using orthogonal experiments. By analyzing experimental measurements of short-circuit current, open circuit voltage, series resistance and solar cell efficiency in solar cells with different sheet resistances which were produced by using different diffusion processes, we inferred that an emitter with a sheet resistance of approximately 70 Ω/□ performed best under the existing standard solar cell process. Further investigations were conducted on emitters with sheet resistances of approximately 70 Ω/□ that were obtained from different preparation processes. The results indicate that emitters with surface phosphorus concentrations between 4.96 × 1020 cm−3 and 7.78 × 1020 cm−3 and with junction depths between 0.46 μm and 0.55 μm possessed the best quality. With no extra processing, the final preparation of the crystalline silicon solar cell efficiency can reach 18.41%, which is an increase of 0.4%abs compared to conventional emitters with 50 Ω/□ sheet resistance.

  2. Oxygen recoil implant from SiO2 layers into single-crystalline silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, G.; Chen, Y.; Li, D.; Oak, S.; Srivastav, G.; Banerjee, S.; Tasch, A.; Merrill, P.; Bleiler, R.

    2001-01-01

    It is important to understand the distribution of recoil-implanted atoms and the impact on device performance when ion implantation is performed at a high dose through surface materials into single crystalline silicon. For example, in ultralarge scale integration impurity ions are often implanted through a thin layer of screen oxide and some of the oxygen atoms are inevitably recoil implanted into single-crystalline silicon. Theoretical and experimental studies have been performed to investigate this phenomenon. We have modified the Monte Carlo ion implant simulator, UT-Marlowe (B. Obradovic, G. Wang, Y. Chen, D. Li, C. Snell, and A. F. Tasch, UT-MARLOWE Manual, 1999), which is based on the binary collision approximation, to follow the full cascade and to dynamically modify the stoichiometry of the Si layer as oxygen atoms are knocked into it. CPU reduction techniques are used to relieve the demand on computational power when such a full cascade simulation is involved. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) profiles of oxygen have been carefully obtained for high dose As and BF 2 implants at different energies through oxide layers of various thicknesses, and the simulated oxygen profiles are found to agree very well with the SIMS data. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  3. Enhanced cooling in mono-crystalline ultra-thin silicon by embedded micro-air channels

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoneim, Mohamed T.; Fahad, Hossain M.; Hussain, Aftab M.; Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto; Sevilla, Galo T.; Alfaraj, Nasir; Lizardo, Ernesto B.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    In today’s digital world, complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology enabled scaling of bulk mono-crystalline silicon (100) based electronics has resulted in their higher performance but with increased dynamic and off-state power consumption. Such trade-off has caused excessive heat generation which eventually drains the charge of battery in portable devices. The traditional solution utilizing off-chip fans and heat sinks used for heat management make the whole system bulky and less mobile. Here we show, an enhanced cooling phenomenon in ultra-thin (>10 μm) mono-crystalline (100) silicon (detached from bulk substrate) by utilizing deterministic pattern of porous network of vertical “through silicon” micro-air channels that offer remarkable heat and weight management for ultra-mobile electronics, in a cost effective way with 20× reduction in substrate weight and a 12% lower maximum temperature at sustained loads. We also show the effectiveness of this event in functional MOS field effect transistors (MOSFETs) with high-κ/metal gate stacks.

  4. Selective deposition contact patterning using atomic layer deposition for the fabrication of crystalline silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Young Joon; Shin, Woong-Chul; Chang, Hyo Sik

    2014-01-01

    Selective deposition contact (SDC) patterning was applied to fabricate the rear side passivation of crystalline silicon (Si) solar cells. By this method, using screen printing for contact patterning and atomic layer deposition for the passivation of Si solar cells with Al 2 O 3 , we produced local contacts without photolithography or any laser-based processes. Passivated emitter and rear-contact solar cells passivated with ozone-based Al 2 O 3 showed, for the SDC process, an up-to-0.7% absolute conversion-efficiency improvement. The results of this experiment indicate that the proposed method is feasible for conversion-efficiency improvement of industrial crystalline Si solar cells. - Highlights: • We propose a local contact formation process. • Local contact forms a screen print and an atomic layer deposited-Al 2 O 3 film. • Ozone-based Al 2 O 3 thin film was selectively deposited onto patterned silicon. • Selective deposition contact patterning method can increase cell-efficiency by 0.7%

  5. Enhanced cooling in mono-crystalline ultra-thin silicon by embedded micro-air channels

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoneim, Mohamed T.

    2015-12-11

    In today’s digital world, complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology enabled scaling of bulk mono-crystalline silicon (100) based electronics has resulted in their higher performance but with increased dynamic and off-state power consumption. Such trade-off has caused excessive heat generation which eventually drains the charge of battery in portable devices. The traditional solution utilizing off-chip fans and heat sinks used for heat management make the whole system bulky and less mobile. Here we show, an enhanced cooling phenomenon in ultra-thin (>10 μm) mono-crystalline (100) silicon (detached from bulk substrate) by utilizing deterministic pattern of porous network of vertical “through silicon” micro-air channels that offer remarkable heat and weight management for ultra-mobile electronics, in a cost effective way with 20× reduction in substrate weight and a 12% lower maximum temperature at sustained loads. We also show the effectiveness of this event in functional MOS field effect transistors (MOSFETs) with high-κ/metal gate stacks.

  6. Simultaneous high crystallinity and sub-bandgap optical absorptance in hyperdoped black silicon using nanosecond laser annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franta, Benjamin, E-mail: bafranta@gmail.com; Pastor, David; Gandhi, Hemi H.; Aziz, Michael J.; Mazur, Eric [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Rekemeyer, Paul H.; Gradečak, Silvija [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2015-12-14

    Hyperdoped black silicon fabricated with femtosecond laser irradiation has attracted interest for applications in infrared photodetectors and intermediate band photovoltaics due to its sub-bandgap optical absorptance and light-trapping surface. However, hyperdoped black silicon typically has an amorphous and polyphasic polycrystalline surface that can interfere with carrier transport, electrical rectification, and intermediate band formation. Past studies have used thermal annealing to obtain high crystallinity in hyperdoped black silicon, but thermal annealing causes a deactivation of the sub-bandgap optical absorptance. In this study, nanosecond laser annealing is used to obtain high crystallinity and remove pressure-induced phases in hyperdoped black silicon while maintaining high sub-bandgap optical absorptance and a light-trapping surface morphology. Furthermore, it is shown that nanosecond laser annealing reactivates the sub-bandgap optical absorptance of hyperdoped black silicon after deactivation by thermal annealing. Thermal annealing and nanosecond laser annealing can be combined in sequence to fabricate hyperdoped black silicon that simultaneously shows high crystallinity, high above-bandgap and sub-bandgap absorptance, and a rectifying electrical homojunction. Such nanosecond laser annealing could potentially be applied to non-equilibrium material systems beyond hyperdoped black silicon.

  7. Temperature dependence of viscoelasticity of crystalline cellulose with different molecular weights added to silicone elastomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugino, Naoto; Nakajima, Shinya; Kameda, Takao; Takei, Satoshi; Hanabata, Makoto

    2017-08-01

    Silicone elastomers ( polydimethylsiloxane _ PDMS) are widely used in the field of imprint lithography and microcontactprinting (μCP). When performing microcontactprinting, the mechanical properties of the PCMS as a base material have a great influence on the performance of the device. Cellulose nanofibers having features of high strength, high elasticity and low coefficient of linear expansion have attracted attention in recent years due to their characteristics. Therefore, three types of crystalline cellulose having different molecular weights were added to PDMS to prepare a composite material, and dynamic viscoelasticity was measured using a rheometer. The PDMS with the highest molecular weight crystalline cellulose added exhibited smaller storage modulus than PDMS with other molecular weight added in all temperature ranges. Furthermore, when comparing PDMS to which crystalline cellulose was added and PDMS which is not added, the storage modulus of PDMS to which cellulose was added in the low temperature region was higher than that of PDMS to which it was not added, but it was reversed in the high temperature region It was a result. When used in a low temperature range (less than 150 ° C.), it can be said that cellulose can function as a reinforcing material for PDMS.

  8. Nickel Electroless Plating: Adhesion Analysis for Mono-Type Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Eun Gu; Rehman, Atteq ur; Lee, Sang Hee; Lee, Soo Hong

    2015-10-01

    The adhesion of the front electrodes to silicon substrate is the most important parameters to be optimized. Nickel silicide which is formed by sintering process using a silicon substrate improves the mechanical and electrical properties as well as act as diffusion barrier for copper. In this experiment p-type mono-crystalline czochralski (CZ) silicon wafers having resistivity of 1.5 Ω·cm were used to study one step and two step nickel electroless plating process. POCl3 diffusion process was performed to form the emitter with the sheet resistance of 70 ohm/sq. The Six, layer was set down as an antireflection coating (ARC) layer at emitter surface by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process. Laser ablation process was used to open SiNx passivation layer locally for the formation of the front electrodes. Nickel was deposited by electroless plating process by one step and two step nickel electroless deposition process. The two step nickel plating was performed by applying a second nickel deposition step subsequent to the first sintering process. Furthermore, the adhesion analysis for both one step and two steps process was conducted using peel force tester (universal testing machine, H5KT) after depositing Cu contact by light induced plating (LIP).

  9. Electronic structure of indium-tungsten-oxide alloys and their energy band alignment at the heterojunction to crystalline silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Dorothee; Mews, Mathias; Rech, Bernd; Korte, Lars

    2018-01-01

    The electronic structure of thermally co-evaporated indium-tungsten-oxide films is investigated. The stoichiometry is varied from pure tungsten oxide to pure indium oxide, and the band alignment at the indium-tungsten-oxide/crystalline silicon heterointerface is monitored. Using in-system photoelectron spectroscopy, optical spectroscopy, and surface photovoltage measurements, we show that the work function of indium-tungsten-oxide continuously decreases from 6.3 eV for tungsten oxide to 4.3 eV for indium oxide, with a concomitant decrease in the band bending at the hetero interface to crystalline silicon than indium oxide.

  10. Amorphous silicon oxide layers for surface passivation and contacting of heterostructure solar cells of amorphous and crystalline silicon; Amorphe Siliziumoxidschichten zur Oberflaechenpassivierung und Kontaktierung von Heterostruktur-Solarzellen aus amorphen und kristallinem Silizium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Einsele, Florian

    2010-02-05

    Atomic hydrogen plays a dominant role in the passivation of crystalline silicon surfaces by layers of amorphous silicon. In order to research into this role, this thesis presents the method of hydrogen effusion from thin amorphous films of silicon (a-Si:H) and silicon oxide (a-SiO{sub x}:H). The oxygen concentration of the sub-stoichiometric a-SiO{sub x}:H films ranges up to 10 at.-%. The effusion experiment yields information about the content and thermal stability of hydrogen and about the microstructure of the films. A mathematical description of the diffusion process of atomic hydrogen yields an analytical expression of the effusion rate R{sub E} depending on the linearly increasing temperature in the experiment. Fitting of the calculated effusion rates R{sub E} to measured effusion spectra yields the diffusion coefficient of atomic hydrogen in a-SiO{sub x}:H. With increasing oxygen concentration, the diffusion coefficient of hydrogen in the a-SiO{sub x}:H films decreases. This is attributed to an increasing Si-H bond energy due to back bonded oxygen, resulting in a higher stability of hydrogen in the films. This result is confirmed by an increasing thermal stability of the p-type c-Si passivation with a-SiO{sub x}:H of increasing oxygen concentrations up to 5 at.-%. The passivation reaches very low recombination velocities of S < 10 cm/s at the interface. However, for higher oxygen concentrations up to 10 at.-%, the passivation quality decreases significantly. Here, infrared spectroscopy of Si-H vibrational modes and hydrogen effusion show an increase of hydrogen-rich interconnected voids in the films. This microstructure results in a high amount of molecular hydrogen (H{sub 2}) in the layers, which is not suitable for the saturation of c-Si interface defects. Annealing of the films at temperatures around 400 C leads to a release of H{sub 2} from the voids, as a result of which Si-Si bonds in the material reconstruct. Subsequently, hydrogen migration in the

  11. Ninth workshop on crystalline silicon solar cell materials and processes: Summary discussion sessions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sopori, B.; Tan, T.; Swanson, D.; Rosenblum, M.; Sinton, R.

    1999-01-01

    This report is a summary of the panel discussions included with the Ninth Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cell Materials and Processes. The theme for the workshop was ''R and D Challenges and Opportunities in Si Photovoltaics''. This theme was chosen because it appropriately reflects a host of challenges that the growing production of Si photovoltaics will be facing in the new millennium. The anticipated challenges will arise in developing strategies for cost reduction, increased production, higher throughput per manufacturing line, new sources of low-cost Si, and the introduction of new manufacturing processes for cell production. At the same time, technologies based on CdTe and CIS will come on line posing new competition. With these challenges come new opportunities for Si PV to wean itself from the microelectronics industry, to embark on a more aggressive program in thin-film Si solar cells, and to try new approaches to process monitoring

  12. Effect of grain alignment on interface trap density of thermally oxidized aligned-crystalline silicon films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Woong; Lee, Jung-Kun; Findikoglu, Alp T.

    2006-12-01

    The authors report studies of the effect of grain alignment on interface trap density of thermally oxidized aligned-crystalline silicon (ACSi) films by means of capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements. C-V curves were measured on metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors fabricated on ⟨001⟩-oriented ACSi films on polycrystalline substrates. From high-frequency C-V curves, the authors calculated a decrease of interface trap density from 2×1012to1×1011cm-2eV-1 as the grain mosaic spread in ACSi films improved from 13.7° to 6.5°. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of grain alignment as a process technique to achieve significantly enhanced performance in small-grained (⩽1μm ) polycrystalline Si MOS-type devices.

  13. Technology for the large-scale production of multi-crystalline silicon solar cells and modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeber, A.W.; De Moor, H.H.C.

    1997-06-01

    In cooperation with Shell Solar Energy (formerly R and S Renewable Energy Systems) and the Research Institute for Materials of the Catholic University Nijmegen the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN) plans to develop a competitive technology for the large-scale manufacturing of solar cells and solar modules on the basis of multi-crystalline silicon. The project will be carried out within the framework of the Economy, Ecology and Technology (EET) program of the Dutch ministry of Economic Affairs and the Dutch ministry of Education, Culture and Sciences. The aim of the EET-project is to reduce the costs of a solar module by 50% by means of increasing the conversion efficiency as well as the development of cheap processes for large-scale production

  14. Diffusion modelling of low-energy ion-implanted BF{sub 2} in crystalline silicon: Study of fluorine vacancy effect on boron diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcon, J. [Laboratoire Electronique Microtechnologie et Instrumentation (LEMI), University of Rouen, 76821 Mont Saint Aignan (France)], E-mail: Jerome.Marcon@univ-rouen.fr; Merabet, A. [Laboratoire de Physique et Mecanique des Materiaux Metalliques, Departement d' O.M.P., Faculte des Sciences de l' Ingenieur, Universite de Setif, 19000 Setif (Algeria)

    2008-12-05

    We have investigated and modelled the diffusion of boron implanted into crystalline silicon in the form of boron difluoride BF{sub 2}{sup +}. We have used published data for BF{sub 2}{sup +} implanted with an energy of 2.2 keV in crystalline silicon. Fluorine effects are considered by using vacancy-fluorine pairs which are responsible for the suppression of boron diffusion in crystalline silicon. Following Uematsu's works, the simulations satisfactory reproduce the SIMS experimental profiles in the 800-1000 deg. C temperature range. The boron diffusion model in silicon of Uematsu has been improved taking into account the last experimental data.

  15. In-Situ Measurement of Power Loss for Crystalline Silicon Modules Undergoing Thermal Cycling and Mechanical Loading Stress Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spataru, Sergiu; Hacke, Peter; Sera, Dezso

    We analyze the degradation of multi-crystalline silicon photovoltaic modules undergoing simultaneous thermal, mechanical, and humidity-freeze stress testing to develop a dark environmental chamber in-situ measurement procedure for determining module power loss. We analyze dark I-V curves measured...

  16. 3C-SiC epitaxial films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering: Growth, characterization and device development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahab, Qamar ul.

    1994-01-01

    Epitaxial 3C-SiC films were grown on silicon substrates by reactive magnetron sputtering of pure Si target in a mixed Ar-CH[sub 4] discharges. Films were grown on Si(001), and 4 degrees off-oriented (001) substrates. Epitaxial 3C-SiC films with sharp interface to Si substrates have been grown at substrate temperatures [<=] 900 degrees C. Above 900 degrees C interfacial reaction starts resulting in a rough SiC/Si interface. The carbon content as well as the crystalline structure was also found to be strongly dependent on CH[sub 4] partial pressure (PCH[sub 4]) and stoichiometric composition can only be obtained in a narrow PCH[sub 4] range. Films grown on Si(001) substrates contained anti domain boundaries as evident by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM). Films grown on (111)-oriented substrates were epitaxial at 850 degrees C but contained double positioning domains as determined by X-ray diffraction analysis and XTEM. High quality films were obtained on 4 degrees off-oriented Si(001) substrates at T[sub s]=850 degrees C and PCH[sub 4]=0.6 mTorr. Films grown on off-oriented substrates showed atomically sharp interface to Si and also a smooth top surface. SiO[sub 2] layer grown on such films showed atomically sharp oxide/film interface. Also the growth of epitaxial Si films on top of SiC films was realized. Au-Schottky diodes fabricated on (001)-oriented 3C-SiC films showed good rectification with a leakage current density = 4 [mu]A cm[sup -2], a breakdown voltage of -15 V, an ideality factor of 1.27 and a barrier height of 1.04 eV. Metal oxide semiconductor structures were fabricated by thermally grown SiO[sub 2] on (111)-oriented SiC films. The capacitance-voltage measurements showed the accumulation, depletion and deep depletion region in the C-V curve. The interface trap densities were 3-7 x 10[sup 11] cm[sup -2] eV[sup -1]. Finally 3C-SiC/Si heterojunction diodes processed showed good rectification and the diode had a breakdown at -110 V.

  17. 3C-SiC epitaxial films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering: Growth, characterization and device development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahab, Qamar ul.

    1994-01-01

    Epitaxial 3C-SiC films were grown on silicon substrates by reactive magnetron sputtering of pure Si target in a mixed Ar-CH 4 discharges. Films were grown on Si(001), and 4 degrees off-oriented (001) substrates. Epitaxial 3C-SiC films with sharp interface to Si substrates have been grown at substrate temperatures ≤ 900 degrees C. Above 900 degrees C interfacial reaction starts resulting in a rough SiC/Si interface. The carbon content as well as the crystalline structure was also found to be strongly dependent on CH 4 partial pressure (PCH 4 ) and stoichiometric composition can only be obtained in a narrow PCH 4 range. Films grown on Si(001) substrates contained anti domain boundaries as evident by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM). Films grown on (111)-oriented substrates were epitaxial at 850 degrees C but contained double positioning domains as determined by X-ray diffraction analysis and XTEM. High quality films were obtained on 4 degrees off-oriented Si(001) substrates at T s =850 degrees C and PCH 4 =0.6 mTorr. Films grown on off-oriented substrates showed atomically sharp interface to Si and also a smooth top surface. SiO 2 layer grown on such films showed atomically sharp oxide/film interface. Also the growth of epitaxial Si films on top of SiC films was realized. Au-Schottky diodes fabricated on (001)-oriented 3C-SiC films showed good rectification with a leakage current density = 4 μA cm -2 , a breakdown voltage of -15 V, an ideality factor of 1.27 and a barrier height of 1.04 eV. Metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) structures were fabricated by thermally grown SiO 2 on (111)-oriented SiC films. The capacitance-voltage measurements showed the accumulation, depletion and deep depletion region in the C-V curve. The interface trap densities were 3-7 x 10 11 cm -2 eV -1 . Finally 3C-SiC/Si heterojunction diodes processed showed good rectification and the diode had a breakdown at -110 V. 59 refs, figs, tabs

  18. Symmetry, strain, defects, and the nonlinear optical response of crystalline BaTiO3/silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormondy, Kristy; Abel, Stefan; Popoff, Youri; Sousa, Marilyne; Caimi, Daniele; Siegwart, Heinz; Marchiori, Chiara; Rossell, Marta; Demkov, Alex; Fompeyrine, Jean

    Recent progress has been made towards exploiting the linear electro-optic or Pockels effect in ferroelectric BaTiO3 (BTO) for novel integrated silicon photonics devices. In such structures, the crystalline symmetry and domain structure of BTO determine which electro-optic tensor elements are accessible under application of an external electric field. For epitaxial thin films of BTO on Si (001), the role of defects in strain relaxation can lead to very different crystalline symmetry even for films of identical thickness. Indeed, through geometric phase analysis of high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy images, we map changes of the in-plane and out-of-plane lattice parameters across two 80-nm-thick BTO films. A corresponding 20% difference in the effective electro-optic response was measured by analyzing induced rotation of the polarization of a laser beam (λ = 1550 nm) transmitted through lithographically defined electrodes. Understanding, controlling, and modelling the role of BTO symmetry in nonlinear optics is of fundamental importance for the development of a hybrid BTO/Si photonics platform.. Work supported by the NSF (IRES-1358111), AFOSR (FA9550-12-10494), and European Commission (FP7-ICT-2013-11-619456-SITOGA).

  19. 14th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells& Modules: Materials and Processes; Extended Abstracts and Papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sopori, B. L.

    2004-08-01

    The 14th Workshop will provide a forum for an informal exchange of technical and scientific information between international researchers in the photovoltaic and relevant non-photovoltaic fields. It will offer an excellent opportunity for researchers in private industry and at universities to prioritize mutual needs for future collaborative research. The workshop is intended to address the fundamental properties of PV silicon, new solar cell designs, advanced solar cell processing techniques, and cell-related module issues. A combination of oral presentations by invited speakers, poster sessions, and discussion sessions will review recent advances in crystal growth, new cell designs, new processes and process characterization techniques, cell fabrication approaches suitable for future manufacturing demands, and solar cell encapsulation. This year's theme, ''Crystalline Si Solar Cells: Leapfrogging the Barriers,'' reflects the continued success of crystalline Si PV in overcoming technological barriers to improve solar cell performance and lower the cost of Si PV. The workshop will consist of presentations by invited speakers, followed by discussion sessions. In addition, there will be two poster sessions presenting the latest research and development results. Some presentations will address recent technologies in the microelectronics field that may have a direct bearing on PV. The sessions will include: Advances in crystal growth and material issues; Impurities and defects; Dynamics during device processing; Passivation; High-efficiency Si solar cells; Advanced processing; Thin Si solar cells; and Solar cell reliability and module issues.

  20. Dependence of Fracture Toughness on Crystallographic Orientation in Single-Crystalline Cubic (β) Silicon Carbide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pharr, M.; Katoh, Y.; Bei, H.

    2006-01-01

    Along with other desirable properties, the ability of silicon carbide (SiC) to retain high strength after elevated temperature exposures to neutron irradiation renders it potentially applicable in fusion and advanced fission reactors. However, properties of the material such as room temperature fracture toughness must be thoroughly characterized prior to such practical applications. The objective of this work is to investigate the dependence of fracture toughness on crystallographic orientation for single-crystalline β-SiC. X-ray diffraction was first performed on the samples to determine the orientation of the crystal. Nanoindentation was used to determine a hardness of 39.1 and 35.2 GPa and elastic modulus of 474 and 446 GPa for the single-crystalline and polycrystalline samples, respectively. Additionally, crack lengths and indentation diagonals were measured via a Vickers micro-hardness indenter under a load of 100 gf for different crystallographic orientations with indentation diagonals aligned along fundamental cleavage planes. Upon examination of propagation direction of cracks, the cracks usually did not initiate and propagate from the corners of the indentation where the stresses are concentrated but instead from the indentation sides. Such cracks clearly moved along the {1 1 0} family of planes (previously determined to be preferred cleavage plane), demonstrating that the fracture toughness of SiC is comparatively so much lower along this set of planes that the lower energy required to cleave along this plane overpowers the stress-concentration at indentation corners. Additionally, fracture toughness in the <1 1 0> direction was 1.84 MPa·m1/2, lower than the 3.46 MPa·m1/2 measured for polycrystalline SiC (which can serve as an average of a spectrum of orientations), further demonstrating that single-crystalline β-SiC has a strong fracture toughness anisotropy.

  1. Sprayed and Spin-Coated Multilayer Antireflection Coating Films for Nonvacuum Processed Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Uzum

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the simple and cost-effective methods, spin-coated ZrO2-polymer composite/spray-deposited TiO2-compact multilayer antireflection coating film was introduced. With a single TiO2-compact film on the surface of a crystalline silicon wafer, 5.3% average reflectance (the reflectance average between the wavelengths of 300 nm and 1100 nm was observed. Reflectance decreased further down to 3.3% after forming spin-coated ZrO2 on the spray-deposited TiO2-compact film. Silicon solar cells were fabricated using CZ-Si p-type wafers in three sets: (1 without antireflection coating (ARC layer, (2 with TiO2-compact ARC film, and (3 with ZrO2-polymer composite/TiO2-compact multilayer ARC film. Conversion efficiency of the cells improved by a factor of 0.8% (from 15.19% to 15.88% owing to the multilayer ARC. Jsc was improved further by 2 mA cm−2 (from 35.3 mA cm−2 to 37.2 mA cm−2 when compared with a single TiO2-compact ARC.

  2. Band Offsets at the Interface between Crystalline and Amorphous Silicon from First Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarolimek, K.; Hazrati, E.; de Groot, R. A.; de Wijs, G. A.

    2017-07-01

    The band offsets between crystalline and hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a -Si ∶H ) are key parameters governing the charge transport in modern silicon heterojunction solar cells. They are an important input for macroscopic simulators that are used to further optimize the solar cell. Past experimental studies, using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and capacitance-voltage measurements, have yielded conflicting results on the band offset. Here, we present a computational study on the band offsets. It is based on atomistic models and density-functional theory (DFT). The amorphous part of the interface is obtained by relatively long DFT first-principles molecular-dynamics runs at an elevated temperature on 30 statistically independent samples. In order to obtain a realistic conduction-band position the electronic structure of the interface is calculated with a hybrid functional. We find a slight asymmetry in the band offsets, where the offset in the valence band (0.29 eV) is larger than in the conduction band (0.17 eV). Our results are in agreement with the latest XPS measurements that report a valence-band offset of 0.3 eV [M. Liebhaber et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 031601 (2015), 10.1063/1.4906195].

  3. Epitaxial growth of silicon and germanium on (100-oriented crystalline substrates by RF PECVD at 175 °C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauguin O.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We report on the epitaxial growth of crystalline Si and Ge thin films by standard radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition at 175 °C on (100-oriented silicon substrates. We also demonstrate the epitaxial growth of silicon films on epitaxially grown germanium layers so that multilayer samples sustaining epitaxy could be produced. We used spectroscopic ellipsometry, Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction to characterize the structure of the films (amorphous, crystalline. These techniques were found to provide consistent results and provided information on the crystallinity and constraints in such lattice-mismatched structures. These results open the way to multiple quantum-well structures, which have been so far limited to few techniques such as Molecular Beam Epitaxy or MetalOrganic Chemical Vapor Deposition.

  4. Improved silicon surface passivation of APCVD Al2O3 by rapid thermal annealing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Black, L.E.; Allen, T.; McIntosh, K.R.; Cuévas, A.

    2016-01-01

    Short-duration post-deposition thermal treatments at temperatures above those normally used for annealing activation have the potential to further improve the already excellent passivation of crystalline silicon (c-Si) achieved by Al2O3, but have so far received little attention. In this work we

  5. Reaching Grid Parity Using BP Solar Crystalline Silicon Technology: A Systems Class Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, Daniel W; Wohlgemuth, John; Carlson, David E; Clark, Roger F; Gleaton, Mark; Posbic, John P; Zahler, James

    2010-12-06

    The primary target market for this program was the residential and commercial PV markets, drawing on BP Solar's premium product and service offerings, brand and marketing strength, and unique routes to market. These two markets were chosen because: (1) in 2005 they represented more than 50% of the overall US PV market; (2) they are the two markets that will likely meet grid parity first; and (3) they are the two market segments in which product development can lead to the added value necessary to generate market growth before reaching grid parity. Federal investment in this program resulted in substantial progress toward the DOE TPP target, providing significant advancements in the following areas: (1) Lower component costs particularly the modules and inverters. (2) Increased availability and lower cost of silicon feedstock. (3) Product specifically developed for residential and commercial applications. (4) Reducing the cost of installation through optimization of the products. (5) Increased value of electricity in mid-term to drive volume increases, via the green grid technology. (6) Large scale manufacture of PV products in the US, generating increased US employment in manufacturing and installation. To achieve these goals BP Solar assembled a team that included suppliers of critical materials, automated equipment developers/manufacturers, inverter and other BOS manufacturers, a utility company, and University research groups. The program addressed all aspects of the crystalline silicon PV business from raw materials (particularly silicon feedstock) through installation of the system on the customers site. By involving the material and equipment vendors, we ensured that supplies of silicon feedstock and other PV specific materials like encapsulation materials (EVA and cover glass) will be available in the quantities required to meet the DOE goals of 5 to 10 GW of installed US PV by 2015 and at the prices necessary for PV systems to reach grid parity in 2015

  6. Impact of one-dimensional photonic crystal back reflector in thin-film c-Si solar cells on efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Tahmineh

    2018-05-01

    In this work, the effect of one-dimensional photonic crystal on optical absorption, which is implemented at the back side of thin-film crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cells, is extensively discussed. The proposed structure acts as a Bragg reflector which reflects back light to the active layer as well as nanograting which couples the incident light to enhance optical absorption. To understand the optical mechanisms responsible for the enhancement of optical absorption, quantum efficiency and current density for all structures are calculated and the effect of influential parameters, such as grating period is investigated. The results confirm that our proposed structure have a great deal for substantial efficiency enhancement in a broad range from 400 to 1100 nm.

  7. Artificial neural systems using memristive synapses and nano-crystalline silicon thin-film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantley, Kurtis D.

    Future computer systems will not rely solely on digital processing of inputs from well-defined data sets. They will also be required to perform various computational tasks using large sets of ill-defined information from the complex environment around them. The most efficient processor of this type of information known today is the human brain. Using a large number of primitive elements (˜1010 neurons in the neocortex) with high parallel connectivity (each neuron has ˜104 synapses), brains have the remarkable ability to recognize and classify patterns, predict outcomes, and learn from and adapt to incredibly diverse sets of problems. A reasonable goal in the push to increase processing power of electronic systems would thus be to implement artificial neural networks in hardware that are compatible with today's digital processors. This work focuses on the feasibility of utilizing non-crystalline silicon devices in neuromorphic electronics. Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) nanowire transistors with Schottky barrier source/drain junctions, as well as a-Si:H/Ag resistive switches are fabricated and characterized. In the transistors, it is found that the on-current scales linearly with the effective width W eff of the channel nanowire array down to at least 20 nm. The solid-state electrolyte resistive switches (memristors) are shown to exhibit the proper current-voltage hysteresis. SPICE models of similar devices are subsequently developed to investigate their performance in neural circuits. The resulting SPICE simulations demonstrate spiking properties and synaptic learning rules that are incredibly similar to those in biology. Specifically, the neuron circuits can be designed to mimic the firing characteristics of real neurons, and Hebbian learning rules are investigated. Finally, some applications are presented, including associative learning analogous to the classical conditioning experiments originally performed by Pavlov, and frequency and pattern

  8. Tenth Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cell Materials and Processes: A Summary of Discussion Sessions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, T.; Swanson, D.; Sinton, R.; Sopori, B.

    2001-01-22

    The 10th Workshop on Silicon Solar Cell Materials and Processes was held in Copper Mountain, Colorado, on August 13-16, 2000. The workshop was attended by 85 scientists and engineers from 15 international photovoltaic (PV) companies and 24 research institutions. Review and poster presentations were augmented by discussion sessions to address the recent progress and critical issues in meeting the goals for Si in the PV Industry Roadmap. The theme of the workshop was Si Photovoltaics: 10 Years of Progress and Opportunities for the Future. Two special sessions were held: Advanced Metallization and Interconnections - covering recent advances in solar cell metallization, printed contacts and interconnections, and addressing new metallization schemes for low-cost cell interconnections; and Characterization Methods - addressing the growing need for process monitoring techniques in the PV industry. The following major issues emerged from the discussion sessions: (1) Mechanical breakage in the P V industry involves a large fraction, about 5%-10%, of the wafers. (2) The current use of Al screen-printed back-contacts appears to be incompatible with the PV Industry Roadmap requirements. (3) The PV manufacturers who use hydrogen passivation should incorporate the plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposited (PECVD) nitride for antireflection coating and hydrogenation. (4) There is an imminent need to dissolve metallic precipitates to minimize the electrical shunt problem caused by the ''bad'' regions in wafers. (5) Industry needs equipment for automated, in-line monitoring and testing. There are simply not many tools available to industry. (6) In the Wrap-Up Session of the workshop, there was consensus to create four industry/university teams that would address critical research topics in crystalline silicon. (7) The workshop attendees unanimously agreed that the workshop has served well the PV community by promoting the fundamental understanding of industrial

  9. Structural, electronic and transport properties of armorphous/crystalline silicon heterojunctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, Tim Ferdinand

    2011-06-15

    The present dissertation is concerned with the physical aspects of the a-Si:H/c-Si heterojunction in the context of PV research. In a first step, the technological development which took place in the framework of the thesis is summarized. Its main constituent was the development and implementation of ultrathin ({<=}10 nm) undoped a-Si:H[(i)a-Si:H] layers to improve the passivation of the c-Si surface with the goal of increasing the open-circuit voltage of the solar cell. It is shown that the effect of (i)a-Si:H interlayers depends on the c-Si substrate doping type, and that challenges exist particularly on the technologically more relevant (n)c-Si substrate. A precise optimization of (i)a-Si:H thickness and the doping level of the following a-Si:H top layers is required to realize an efficiency gain in the solar cell. In this chapter, the key scientific questions to be tackled in the main part of the thesis are brought up by the technological development. In the next chapter, the charge carrier transport through a-Si:H/c-Si heterojunctions is investigated making use of current-voltage (I/V) characteristics taken at different temperatures. The dominant transport mechanisms in a-Si:H/c-Si heterojunctions are identified, and the relevance for solar cell operation is discussed. It is found that in the bias regime relevant for solar cell operation, the theoretical framework for the description of carrier transport in classical c-Si solar cells applies as well, which enables to use I/V curves for a simple characterization of a-Si:H/c-Si structures. The next chapter deals with the microscopic characterization of ultrathin a-Si:H layers. Employing infrared spectroscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry, photoelectron spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectroscopy, the structural, electronic and optical properties of (i)a-Si:H are analyzed. It is found that ultrathin a-Si:H essentially behaves like layers of 10..100 times the thickness. This represents the basis for the

  10. Spectroellipsometric detection of silicon substrate damage caused by radiofrequency sputtering of niobium oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohner, Tivadar; Serényi, Miklós; Szilágyi, Edit; Zolnai, Zsolt; Czigány, Zsolt; Khánh, Nguyen Quoc; Petrik, Péter; Fried, Miklós

    2017-11-01

    Substrate surface damage induced by deposition of metal atoms by radiofrequency (rf) sputtering or ion beam sputtering onto single-crystalline silicon (c-Si) surface has been characterized earlier by electrical measurements. The question arises whether it is possible to characterize surface damage using spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). In our experiments niobium oxide layers were deposited by rf sputtering on c-Si substrates in gas mixture of oxygen and argon. Multiple angle of incidence spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements were performed, a four-layer optical model (surface roughness layer, niobium oxide layer, native silicon oxide layer and ion implantation-amorphized silicon [i-a-Si] layer on a c-Si substrate) was created in order to evaluate the spectra. The evaluations yielded thicknesses of several nm for the i-a-Si layer. Better agreement could be achieved between the measured and the generated spectra by inserting a mixed layer (with components of c-Si and i-a-Si applying the effective medium approximation) between the silicon oxide layer and the c-Si substrate. High depth resolution Rutherford backscattering (RBS) measurements were performed to investigate the interface disorder between the deposited niobium oxide layer and the c-Si substrate. Atomic resolution cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy investigation was applied to visualize the details of the damaged subsurface region of the substrate.

  11. Camera-Based Lock-in and Heterodyne Carrierographic Photoluminescence Imaging of Crystalline Silicon Wafers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Q. M.; Melnikov, A.; Mandelis, A.

    2015-06-01

    Carrierographic (spectrally gated photoluminescence) imaging of a crystalline silicon wafer using an InGaAs camera and two spread super-bandgap illumination laser beams is introduced in both low-frequency lock-in and high-frequency heterodyne modes. Lock-in carrierographic images of the wafer up to 400 Hz modulation frequency are presented. To overcome the frame rate and exposure time limitations of the camera, a heterodyne method is employed for high-frequency carrierographic imaging which results in high-resolution near-subsurface information. The feasibility of the method is guaranteed by the typical superlinearity behavior of photoluminescence, which allows one to construct a slow enough beat frequency component from nonlinear mixing of two high frequencies. Intensity-scan measurements were carried out with a conventional single-element InGaAs detector photocarrier radiometry system, and the nonlinearity exponent of the wafer was found to be around 1.7. Heterodyne images of the wafer up to 4 kHz have been obtained and qualitatively analyzed. With the help of the complementary lock-in and heterodyne modes, camera-based carrierographic imaging in a wide frequency range has been realized for fundamental research and industrial applications toward in-line nondestructive testing of semiconductor materials and devices.

  12. Nanowire decorated, ultra-thin, single crystalline silicon for photovoltaic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurang, Pantea; Turan, Rasit; Unalan, Husnu Emrah

    2017-10-06

    Reducing silicon (Si) wafer thickness in the photovoltaic industry has always been demanded for lowering the overall cost. Further benefits such as short collection lengths and improved open circuit voltages can also be achieved by Si thickness reduction. However, the problem with thin films is poor light absorption. One way to decrease optical losses in photovoltaic devices is to minimize the front side reflection. This approach can be applied to front contacted ultra-thin crystalline Si solar cells to increase the light absorption. In this work, homojunction solar cells were fabricated using ultra-thin and flexible single crystal Si wafers. A metal assisted chemical etching method was used for the nanowire (NW) texturization of ultra-thin Si wafers to compensate weak light absorption. A relative improvement of 56% in the reflectivity was observed for ultra-thin Si wafers with the thickness of 20 ± 0.2 μm upon NW texturization. NW length and top contact optimization resulted in a relative enhancement of 23% ± 5% in photovoltaic conversion efficiency.

  13. Qualification of multi-crystalline silicon wafers by optical imaging for industrial use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, G.J.M.; Van der Borg, N.J.C.M.; Manshanden, P.; De Bruijne, M.; Bende, E.E. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2012-09-15

    We have developed a method to qualify multi-crystalline silicon (mc-Si) wafers that are being used in a production process. An optical image of an etched wafer is made. This etching can be a standard industrial acid etching for mc-Si wafers as is commonly used for saw damage removal and simultaneous iso-texturing. Digital image processing is then applied to identify the number of dislocations and their distribution over the wafer. This information is used as input for a cell performance prediction model, where the performance is characterized by the open circuit voltage (Voc) or the efficiency. The model can include various levels of sophistication, i.e. from using an average density of dislocations to the full spatial resolution of the dislocations in a 2D simulation that includes also the metallization pattern on the cell. The predicted performance is then evaluated against pre-selected criteria. The possibility to apply this optical qualification method in an initial stage in the production enables early rejection of the wafers, further tailoring of the cell production process or identification of instabilities in the production process.

  14. Characterization of cell mismatch in a multi-crystalline silicon photovoltaic module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crozier, J.L.; Dyk, E.E. van; Vorster, F.J.

    2012-01-01

    In this study the causes and effects of cell mismatch were identified in a multi-crystalline silicon photovoltaic module. Different techniques were used to identify the causes of the mismatch, including Electroluminescence (EL) imaging, Infrared (IR) imaging, current–voltage (I–V) characteristics, worst-case cell determination and Large Area Laser Beam Induced Current (LA-LBIC) scans. In EL images the cracked cells, broken fingers and material defects are visible. The presence of poorly contacted cells results in the formation of hot-spots. LA-LBIC line scans give the relative photoresponse of the cells in the module. However, this technique is limited due to the penetration depth of the laser beam. The worst case cell determination compares the I–V curves of the whole module with the I–V curve of the module with one cell covered, allowing the evaluation of the performance of each cell in a series-connected string. These methods allowed detection of the poorly performing cells in the module. Using all these techniques an overall view of the photoresponse in the cells and their performance is obtained.

  15. Characterization of cell mismatch in a multi-crystalline silicon photovoltaic module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crozier, J.L., E-mail: s207094248@live.nmmu.ac.za [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 77000, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Dyk, E.E. van; Vorster, F.J. [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 77000, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa)

    2012-05-15

    In this study the causes and effects of cell mismatch were identified in a multi-crystalline silicon photovoltaic module. Different techniques were used to identify the causes of the mismatch, including Electroluminescence (EL) imaging, Infrared (IR) imaging, current-voltage (I-V) characteristics, worst-case cell determination and Large Area Laser Beam Induced Current (LA-LBIC) scans. In EL images the cracked cells, broken fingers and material defects are visible. The presence of poorly contacted cells results in the formation of hot-spots. LA-LBIC line scans give the relative photoresponse of the cells in the module. However, this technique is limited due to the penetration depth of the laser beam. The worst case cell determination compares the I-V curves of the whole module with the I-V curve of the module with one cell covered, allowing the evaluation of the performance of each cell in a series-connected string. These methods allowed detection of the poorly performing cells in the module. Using all these techniques an overall view of the photoresponse in the cells and their performance is obtained.

  16. Fabrication of 20.19% Efficient Single-Crystalline Silicon Solar Cell with Inverted Pyramid Microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunyang; Chen, Lingzhi; Zhu, Yingjie; Guan, Zisheng

    2018-04-03

    This paper reports inverted pyramid microstructure-based single-crystalline silicon (sc-Si) solar cell with a conversion efficiency up to 20.19% in standard size of 156.75 × 156.75 mm 2 . The inverted pyramid microstructures were fabricated jointly by metal-assisted chemical etching process (MACE) with ultra-low concentration of silver ions and optimized alkaline anisotropic texturing process. And the inverted pyramid sizes were controlled by changing the parameters in both MACE and alkaline anisotropic texturing. Regarding passivation efficiency, the textured sc-Si with normal reflectivity of 9.2% and inverted pyramid size of 1 μm was used to fabricate solar cells. The best batch of solar cells showed a 0.19% higher of conversion efficiency and a 0.22 mA cm -2 improvement in short-circuit current density, and the excellent photoelectric property surpasses that of the same structure solar cell reported before. This technology shows great potential to be an alternative for large-scale production of high efficient sc-Si solar cells in the future.

  17. Silicon based near infrared photodetector using self-assembled organic crystalline nano-pillars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajiki, Yoshiharu, E-mail: yoshiharu-ajiki@ot.olympus.co.jp, E-mail: isao@i.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Micromachine Center, 67 Kanda Sakumagashi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-0026 (Japan); Kan, Tetsuo [Department of Mechano-Informatics, Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Yahiro, Masayuki; Hamada, Akiko; Adachi, Chihaya [Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics Research (OPERA), Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Adachi, Junji [Office for Strategic Research Planning, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Matsumoto, Kiyoshi [IRT Research Initiative, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Shimoyama, Isao, E-mail: yoshiharu-ajiki@ot.olympus.co.jp, E-mail: isao@i.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Mechano-Informatics, Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); IRT Research Initiative, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2016-04-11

    We propose a silicon (Si) based near-infrared photodetector using self-assembled organic crystalline nano-pillars, which were formed on an n-type Si substrate and were covered with an Au thin-film. These structures act as antennas for near-infrared light, resulting in an enhancement of the light absorption on the Au film. Because the Schottky junction is formed between the Au/n-type Si, the electron excited by the absorbed light can be detected as photocurrent. The optical measurement revealed that the nano-pillar structures enhanced the responsivity for the near-infrared light by 89 (14.5 mA/W) and 16 (0.433 mA/W) times compared with those of the photodetector without nano-pillars at the wavelengths of 1.2 and 1.3 μm, respectively. Moreover, no polarization dependency of the responsivity was observed, and the acceptable incident angle ranged from 0° to 30°. These broad responses were likely to be due to the organic nano-pillar structures' having variation in their orientation, which is advantageous for near-infrared detector uses.

  18. Electric properties and carrier multiplication in breakdown sites in multi-crystalline silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneemann, Matthias; Carius, Reinhard; Rau, Uwe [IEK5-Photovoltaics, Forschungszentrum Jülich, Jülich 52425 (Germany); Kirchartz, Thomas, E-mail: t.kirchartz@fz-juelich.de [IEK5-Photovoltaics, Forschungszentrum Jülich, Jülich 52425 (Germany); Faculty of Engineering and CENIDE, University of Duisburg-Essen, Carl-Benz-Str. 199, Duisburg 47057 (Germany)

    2015-05-28

    This paper studies the effective electrical size and carrier multiplication of breakdown sites in multi-crystalline silicon solar cells. The local series resistance limits the current of each breakdown site and is thereby linearizing the current-voltage characteristic. This fact allows the estimation of the effective electrical diameters to be as low as 100 nm. Using a laser beam induced current (LBIC) measurement with a high spatial resolution, we find carrier multiplication factors on the order of 30 (Zener-type breakdown) and 100 (avalanche breakdown) as new lower limits. Hence, we prove that also the so-called Zener-type breakdown is followed by avalanche multiplication. We explain that previous measurements of the carrier multiplication using thermography yield results higher than unity, only if the spatial defect density is high enough, and the illumination intensity is lower than what was used for the LBIC method. The individual series resistances of the breakdown sites limit the current through these breakdown sites. Therefore, the measured multiplication factors depend on the applied voltage as well as on the injected photocurrent. Both dependencies are successfully simulated using a series-resistance-limited diode model.

  19. Impact of Nickel silicide Rear Metallization on Series Resistance of Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Bahabry, Rabab R; Hanna, Amir N; Kutbee, Arwa T; Gumus, Abdurrahman; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2018-01-01

    the electrical characteristics of nickel mono-silicide (NiSi)/Cu-Al ohmic contact on the rear side of c-Si solar cells. We observe a significant enhancement in the fill factor of around 6.5% for NiSi/Cu-Al rear contacts leading to increasing the efficiency by 1.2

  20. Large-size, high-uniformity, random silver nanowire networks as transparent electrodes for crystalline silicon wafer solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shouyi; Ouyang, Zi; Jia, Baohua; Gu, Min

    2013-05-06

    Metal nanowire networks are emerging as next generation transparent electrodes for photovoltaic devices. We demonstrate the application of random silver nanowire networks as the top electrode on crystalline silicon wafer solar cells. The dependence of transmittance and sheet resistance on the surface coverage is measured. Superior optical and electrical properties are observed due to the large-size, highly-uniform nature of these networks. When applying the nanowire networks on the solar cells with an optimized two-step annealing process, we achieved as large as 19% enhancement on the energy conversion efficiency. The detailed analysis reveals that the enhancement is mainly caused by the improved electrical properties of the solar cells due to the silver nanowire networks. Our result reveals that this technology is a promising alternative transparent electrode technology for crystalline silicon wafer solar cells.

  1. Robustness up to 400°C of the passivation of c-Si by p-type a-Si:H thanks to ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defresne, A.; Plantevin, O.; Roca i Cabarrocas, Pere

    2016-12-01

    Heterojunction solar cells based on crystalline silicon (c-Si) passivated by hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin films are one of the most promising architectures for high energy conversion efficiency. Indeed, a-Si:H thin films can passivate both p-type and n-type wafers and can be deposited at low temperature (layers, in particular p-type a-Si:H, show a dramatic degradation in passivation quality above 200°C. Yet, annealing at 300 - 400°C the TCO layer and metallic contacts is highly desirable to reduce the contact resistance as well as the TCO optical absorption. In this work, we show that as expected, ion implantation (5 - 30 keV) introduces defects at the c-Si/a-Si:H interface which strongly degrade the effective lifetime, down to a few micro-seconds. However, the passivation quality can be restored and lifetime values can be improved up to 2 ms over the initial value with annealing. We show here that effective lifetimes above 1 ms can be maintained up to 380°C, opening up the possibility for higher process temperatures in silicon heterojunction device fabrication.

  2. Electrical properties of the n-ZnO/c-Si heterojunction prepared by chemical spray pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, R.; Lopez, M.C.; Leinen, D.; Martin, F.; Ramos-Barrado, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    Electrical, structural and compositional properties of n-ZnO/c-Si heterojunctions prepared by chemical spray pyrolysis on single-crystal n-type and p-type monocrystalline silicon(1 0 0) substrates are examined with the C-V method and admittance spectroscopy at temperature ranges between 223 and 373 K. The n-ZnO/c-Si heterojunctions show a height barrier consistent with the difference in energy of the work functions of Si and ZnO; however, the n-ZnO:Al/c-Si heterojunctions present a more complex behavior due to the defects at or near the n-ZnO:Al/c-Si interface, causing a Fermi energy pinning

  3. Key Success Factors and Future Perspective of Silicon-Based Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Binetti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, after more than 70 years of continued progress on silicon technology, about 85% of cumulative installed photovolatic (PV modules are based on crystalline silicon (c-Si. PV devices based on silicon are the most common solar cells currently being produced, and it is mainly due to silicon technology that the PV has grown by 40% per year over the last decade. An additional step in the silicon solar cell development is ongoing, and it is related to a further efficiency improvement through defect control, device optimization, surface modification, and nanotechnology approaches. This paper attempts to briefly review the most important advances and current technologies used to produce crystalline silicon solar devices and in the meantime the most challenging and promising strategies acting to increase the efficiency to cost/ratio of silicon solar cells. Eventually, the impact and the potentiality of using a nanotechnology approach in a silicon-based solar cell are also described.

  4. Investigation of charges carrier density in phosphorus and boron doped SiNx:H layers for crystalline silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paviet-Salomon, B.; Gall, S.; Slaoui, A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We investigate the properties of phosphorus and boron-doped silicon nitride films. ► Phosphorus-doped layers yield higher lifetimes than undoped ones. ► The fixed charges density decreases when increasing the films phosphorus content. ► Boron-doped films feature very low lifetimes. ► These doped layers are of particular interest for crystalline silicon solar cells. -- Abstract: Dielectric layers are of major importance in crystalline silicon solar cells processing, especially as anti-reflection coatings and for surface passivation purposes. In this paper we investigate the fixed charge densities (Q fix ) and the effective lifetimes (τ eff ) of phosphorus (P) and boron (B) doped silicon nitride layers deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition. P-doped layers exhibit a higher τ eff than standard undoped layers. In contrast, B-doped layers exhibit lower τ eff . A strong Q fix decrease is to be seen when increasing the P content within the film. Based on numerical simulations we also demonstrate that the passivation obtained with P- and B-doped layers are limited by the interface states rather than by the fixed charges

  5. Unraveling Crystalline Structure of High-Pressure Phase of Silicon Carbonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rulong Zhou

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Although CO_{2} and SiO_{2} both belong to group-IV oxides, they exhibit remarkably different bonding characteristics and phase behavior at ambient conditions. At room temperature, CO_{2} is a gas, whereas SiO_{2} is a covalent solid with rich polymorphs. A recent successful synthesis of the silicon-carbonate solid from the reaction between CO_{2} and SiO_{2} under high pressure [M. Santoro et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108, 7689 (2011] has resolved a long-standing puzzle regarding whether a Si_{x}C_{1−x}O_{2} compound between CO_{2} and SiO_{2} exists in nature. Nevertheless, the detailed atomic structure of the Si_{x}C_{1−x}O_{2} crystal is still unknown. Here, we report an extensive search for the high-pressure crystalline structures of the Si_{x}C_{1−x}O_{2} compound with various stoichiometric ratios (SiO_{2}:CO_{2} using an evolutionary algorithm. Based on the low-enthalpy structures obtained for each given stoichiometric ratio, several generic structural features and bonding characteristics of Si and C in the high-pressure phases are identified. The computed formation enthalpies show that the SiC_{2}O_{6} compound with a multislab three-dimensional (3D structure is energetically the most favorable at 20 GPa. Hence, a stable crystalline structure of the elusive Si_{x}C_{1−x}O_{2} compound under high pressure is predicted and awaiting future experimental confirmation. The SiC_{2}O_{6} crystal is an insulator with elastic constants comparable to typical hard solids, and it possesses nearly isotropic tensile strength as well as extremely low shear strength in the 2D plane, suggesting that the multislab 3D crystal is a promising solid lubricant. These valuable mechanical and electronic properties endow the SiC_{2}O_{6} crystal for potential applications in tribology and nanoelectronic devices, or as a stable solid-state form for CO_{2} sequestration.

  6. Influence of hydrogen effusion from hydrogenated silicon nitride layers on the regeneration of boron-oxygen related defects in crystalline silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilking, S.; Ebert, S.; Herguth, A.; Hahn, G.

    2013-01-01

    The degradation effect boron doped and oxygen-rich crystalline silicon materials suffer from under illumination can be neutralized in hydrogenated silicon by the application of a regeneration process consisting of a combination of slightly elevated temperature and carrier injection. In this paper, the influence of variations in short high temperature steps on the kinetics of the regeneration process is investigated. It is found that hotter and longer firing steps allowing an effective hydrogenation from a hydrogen-rich silicon nitride passivation layer result in an acceleration of the regeneration process. Additionally, a fast cool down from high temperature to around 550 °C seems to be crucial for a fast regeneration process. It is suggested that high cooling rates suppress hydrogen effusion from the silicon bulk in a temperature range where the hydrogenated passivation layer cannot release hydrogen in considerable amounts. Thus, the hydrogen content of the silicon bulk after the complete high temperature step can be increased resulting in a faster regeneration process. Hence, the data presented here back up the theory that the regeneration process might be a hydrogen passivation of boron-oxygen related defects

  7. Fabrication of three-dimensional crystalline silicon-on-carbon nanotube nanocomposite anode by sputtering and laser annealing for high-performance lithium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ilwhan; Hyun, Seungmin; Nam, Seunghoon; Lee, Hoo-Jeong; Kang, Chiwon

    2018-05-01

    In this study, we fabricate a three-dimensional (3D) crystalline Si (c-Si)/carbon nanotube (CNT) nanocomposite anode by sputtering Si on 3D CNTs followed by laser annealing for Si crystallization — a simple, cost-effective route — for advanced Li-ion battery (LIB) applications. We use scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy to analyze the samples annealed at different laser energy densities. As a result, we confirm that laser annealing enables Si crystallization without damaging the CNTs. We assemble half-type coin cells for the battery performance test: the 3D c-Si/CNT anode sample demonstrates a specific capacity superior to that of its control counterpart; the cyclic stability is also enhanced significantly.

  8. Reassessment of the recombination parameters of chromium in n- and p-type crystalline silicon and chromium-boron pairs in p-type crystalline silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Chang; Rougieux, Fiacre E.; Macdonald, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Injection-dependent lifetime spectroscopy of both n- and p-type, Cr-doped silicon wafers with different doping levels is used to determine the defect parameters of Cr i and CrB pairs, by simultaneously fitting the measured lifetimes with the Shockley-Read-Hall model. A combined analysis of the two defects with the lifetime data measured on both n- and p-type samples enables a significant tightening of the uncertainty ranges of the parameters. The capture cross section ratios k = σ n /σ p of Cr i and CrB are determined as 3.2 (−0.6, +0) and 5.8 (−3.4, +0.6), respectively. Courtesy of a direct experimental comparison of the recombination activity of chromium in n- and p-type silicon, and as also suggested by modelling results, we conclude that chromium has a greater negative impact on carrier lifetimes in p-type silicon than n-type silicon with similar doping levels.

  9. Sintering of nano crystalline α silicon carbide by doping with boron ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    tions, they concluded that either reaction sintering or liquid phase .... α-6H silicon carbide single crystal by three different laboratories ... silicon carbide particles by the overall reaction .... layer displacement is likely to occur in such a manner as.

  10. Investigation on fabrication of SiC/SiC composite as a candidate material for fuel sub-assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae-Kwang; Naganuma, Masayuki; Park, Joon-Soo; Kohyama, Akira

    2005-01-01

    The possibility of SiC/SiC (Silicon carbide fiber reinforced Silicon carbide) composites application for fuel sub-assembly of Fast Breeder Reactor was investigated. To select a raw material of SiC/SiC composites, a few kinds of SiC nano powder was estimated by SEM observation and XRD analysis. Furthermore, SiC monolithic was sintered from them and estimated by flexural test. SiC nano-powder which showed good sinterability, it was used for fabrication of SiC/SiC composites by Hot Pressing method. From the sintering condition of 1800, 1820degC temperature and 15, 20 MPa pressure, SiC/SiC composite was fabricated and then estimated by tensile test. SiC/SiC composite, which made by 1820degC and 20 MPa condition, showed the highest mechanical strength by the monotonic tensile test. SiC/SiC composite, which made by 1800degC and 15 MPa condition, showed a stable fracture behavior at the monotonic and cyclic tensile test. And then, the hoop stress of ideal model of SiC/SiC composites was discussed. It was confirmed that applicability of SiC/SiC composites by Hot Pressing method for fuel sub-assembly structural material. To make it real attractive one, to maintain the reliability and safety as a high temperature structural material, the design and process study on SiC/Sic composites material will be continued. (author)

  11. Carrier loss mechanisms in textured crystalline Si-based solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Nakane, Akihiro; Fujimoto, Shohei; Fujiwara, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    A quite general device analysis method that allows the direct evaluation of optical and recombination losses in crystalline silicon (c-Si)-based solar cells has been developed. By applying this technique, the optical and physical limiting factors of the state-of-the-art solar cells with ~20% efficiencies have been revealed. In the established method, the carrier loss mechanisms are characterized from the external quantum efficiency (EQE) analysis with very low computational cost. In particula...

  12. The effect of metallic coatings and crystallinity on the volume expansion of silicon during electrochemical lithiation/delithiation

    KAUST Repository

    McDowell, Matthew T.

    2012-05-01

    Applying surface coatings to alloying anodes for Li-ion batteries can improve rate capability and cycle life, but it is unclear how this second phase affects mechanical deformation during electrochemical reaction. Here, in-situ transmission electron microscopy is employed to investigate the electrochemical lithiation and delithiation of silicon nanowires (NWs) with copper coatings. When copper is coated on only one sidewall, the NW bilayer structure bends during delithiation due to length changes in the silicon. Tensile hoop stress causes conformal copper coatings to fracture during lithiation without undergoing bending deformation. In addition, in-situ and ex-situ observations indicate that a copper coating plays a role in suppressing volume expansion during lithiation. Finally, the deformation characteristics and dimensional changes of amorphous, polycrystalline, and single-crystalline silicon are compared and related to observed electrochemical behavior. This study reveals important aspects of the deformation process of silicon anodes, and the results suggest that metallic coatings can be used to improve rate behavior and to manage or direct volume expansion in optimized silicon anode frameworks. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  13. MeV-ion beam analysis of the interface between filtered cathodic arc-deposited a-carbon and single crystalline silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamwanna, T.; Pasaja, N.; Yu, L.D.; Vilaithong, T.; Anders, A.; Singkarat, S.

    2008-01-01

    Amorphous carbon (a-C) films were deposited on Si(1 0 0) wafers by a filtered cathodic vacuum arc (FCVA) plasma source. A negative electrical bias was applied to the silicon substrate in order to control the incident energy of carbon ions. Effects of the electrical bias on the a-C/Si interface characteristics were investigated by using standard Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) in the channeling mode with 2.1-MeV He 2+ ions. The shape of the Si surface peaks of the RBS/channeling spectra reflects the degree of interface disorder due to atomic displacement from the bulk position of the Si crystal. Details of the analysis method developed are described. It was found that the width of the a-C/Si interface increases linearly with the substrate bias voltage but not the thickness of the a-C film.

  14. CVD growth and characterization of 3C-SiC thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Cubic silicon carbide (3C-SiC) thin films were grown on (100) and (111) Si substrates by CVD technique using ... of grown films were studied using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and X-ray ... the oxide mask gets damaged (Edgar et al 1998). There- fore, lower ...

  15. Electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity of SiC/Si ecoceramics prepared from sapele wood biocarbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfen'eva, L. S.; Orlova, T. S.; Smirnov, B. I.; Smirnov, I. A.; Misiorek, H.; Mucha, J.; Jezowski, A.; Gutierrez-Pardo, A.; Ramirez-Rico, J.

    2012-10-01

    Samples of β-SiC/Si ecoceramics with a silicon concentration of ˜21 vol % have been prepared using a series of consecutive procedures (carbonization of sapele wood biocarbon, synthesis of high-porosity biocarbon with channel-type pores, infiltration of molten silicon into empty channels of the biocarbon, formation of β-SiC, and retention of residual silicon in channels of β-SiC). The electrical resistivity ρ and thermal conductivity κ of the β-SiC/Si ecoceramic samples have been measured in the temperature range 5-300 K. The values of ρ{Si/chan}( T) and κ{Si/chan}( T) have been determined for silicon Sichan located in β-SiC channels of the synthesized β-SiC/Si ecoceramics. Based on the performed analysis of the obtained results, the concentration of charge carriers (holes) in Sichan has been estimated as p ˜ 1019 cm-3. The factors that can be responsible for such a high value of p have been discussed. The prospects for practical application of β-SiC/Si ecoceramics have been considered.

  16. Sequential C-Si Bond Formations from Diphenylsilane: Application to Silanediol Peptide Isostere Precursors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lone; Skrydstrup, Troels

    2008-01-01

    and the first new carbon-silicon bond. The next step is the reduction of this hydridosilane with lithium metal providing a silyl lithium reagent, which undergoes a highly diastereoselective addition to an optically active tert-butanesulfinimine, thus generating the second C-Si bond. This method allows...

  17. Importance of crystallinity of anchoring block of semi-solid amphiphilic triblock copolymers in stabilization of silicone nanoemulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Kim, Trang Huyen; Jun, Hwiseok; Nam, Yoon Sung

    2017-10-01

    Polymer emulsifiers solidified at the interface between oil and water can provide exceptional dispersion stability to emulsions due to the formation of unique semi-solid interphase. Our recent works showed that the structural stability of paraffin-in-water emulsions highly depends on the oil wettability of hydrophobic block of methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(ε-caprolactone) (mPEG-b-PCL). Here we investigate the effects of the crystallinity of hydrophobic block of triblock copolymer-based emulsifiers, PCLL-b-PEG-b-PCLL, on the colloidal properties of silicone oil-in-water nanoemulsions. The increased ratio of l-lactide to ε-caprolactone decreases the crystallinity of the hydrophobic block, which in turn reduces the droplet size of silicone oil nanoemulsions due to the increased chain mobility at the interface. All of the prepared nanoemulsions are very stable for a month at 37°C. However, the exposure to repeated freeze-thaw cycles quickly destabilizes the nanoemulsions prepared using the polymer with the reduced crystallinity. This work demonstrates that the anchoring chain crystallization in the semi-solid interphase is critically important for the structural robustness of nanoemulsions under harsh physical stresses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Fast determination of the current loss mechanisms in textured crystalline Si-based solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakane, Akihiro; Fujimoto, Shohei; Fujiwara, Hiroyuki

    2017-11-01

    A quite general device analysis method that allows the direct evaluation of optical and recombination losses in crystalline silicon (c-Si)-based solar cells has been developed. By applying this technique, the current loss mechanisms of the state-of-the-art solar cells with ˜20% efficiencies have been revealed. In the established method, the optical and electrical losses are characterized from the analysis of an experimental external quantum efficiency (EQE) spectrum with very low computational cost. In particular, we have performed the EQE analyses of textured c-Si solar cells by employing the experimental reflectance spectra obtained directly from the actual devices while using flat optical models without any fitting parameters. We find that the developed method provides almost perfect fitting to EQE spectra reported for various textured c-Si solar cells, including c-Si heterojunction solar cells, a dopant-free c-Si solar cell with a MoOx layer, and an n-type passivated emitter with rear locally diffused solar cell. The modeling of the recombination loss further allows the extraction of the minority carrier diffusion length and surface recombination velocity from the EQE analysis. Based on the EQE analysis results, the current loss mechanisms in different types of c-Si solar cells are discussed.

  19. SiC/SiC Cladding Materials Properties Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snead, Mary A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Katoh, Yutai [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Koyanagi, Takaaki [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Singh, Gyanender P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-08-01

    When a new class of material is considered for a nuclear core structure, the in-pile performance is usually assessed based on multi-physics modeling in coordination with experiments. This report aims to provide data for the mechanical and physical properties and environmental resistance of silicon carbide (SiC) fiber–reinforced SiC matrix (SiC/SiC) composites for use in modeling for their application as accidenttolerant fuel cladding for light water reactors (LWRs). The properties are specific for tube geometry, although many properties can be predicted from planar specimen data. This report presents various properties, including mechanical properties, thermal properties, chemical stability under normal and offnormal operation conditions, hermeticity, and irradiation resistance. Table S.1 summarizes those properties mainly for nuclear-grade SiC/SiC composites fabricated via chemical vapor infiltration (CVI). While most of the important properties are available, this work found that data for the in-pile hydrothermal corrosion resistance of SiC materials and for thermal properties of tube materials are lacking for evaluation of SiC-based cladding for LWR applications.

  20. Structure-Property Relationships in Polymer Derived Amorphous/Nano-Crystalline Silicon Carbide for Nuclear Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zunjarrao, Suraj C.; Singh, Abhishek K.; Singh, Raman P.

    2006-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) is a promising candidate for several applications in nuclear reactors owing to its high thermal conductivity, high melting temperature, good chemical stability, and resistance to swelling under heavy ion bombardment. However, fabricating SiC by traditional powder processing route generally requires very high temperatures for pressureless sintering. Polymer derived ceramic materials offer unique advantages such as ability to fabricate net shaped components, incorporate reinforcements and relatively low processing temperatures. Furthermore, for SiC based ceramics fabricated using polymer infiltration process (PIP), the microstructure can be tailored by controlling the processing parameters, to get an amorphous, nanocrystalline or crystalline SiC. In this work, fabrication of polymer derived amorphous and nano-grained SiC is presented and its application as an in-core material is explored. Monolithic SiC samples are fabricated by controlled pyrolysis of allyl-hydrido-poly-carbo-silane (AHPCS) under inert atmosphere. Chemical changes, phase transformations and microstructural changes occurring during the pyrolysis process are studied as a function of the processing temperature. Polymer cross-linking and polymer to ceramic conversion is studied using infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) are performed to monitor the mass loss and phase change as a function of temperature. X-ray diffraction studies are done to study the intermediate phases and microstructural changes. Variation in density is carefully monitored as a function of processing temperature. Owing to shrinkage and gas evolution during pyrolysis, precursor derived ceramics are inherently porous and composite fabrication typically involves repeated cycles of polymer re-infiltration and pyrolysis. However, there is a limit to the densification that can be achieved by this method and porosity in the final materials presents

  1. Very low recombination phosphorus emitters for high efficiency crystalline silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega, P; Vetter, M; Bermejo, S; Alcubilla, R

    2008-01-01

    This work studies low recombination phosphorus emitters on c-Si. The emitters are fabricated by diffusion from solid sources and then passivated by thermal oxide yielding sheet resistances between 15 and 280 Ω/sq. Emitter saturation current densities lie in the 2.5–110 fA cm −2 range, leading to implicit open-circuit voltages between 674 and 725 mV. Bulk lifetime is limited by intrinsic recombination mechanisms. Surface recombination velocities between 80 and 300 cm s −1 have been obtained, appearing among the lowest reported in this range of emitter sheet resistances

  2. Broadband near infrared quantum cutting in Bi–Yb codoped Y2O3 transparent films on crystalline silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu Minghao; Wang Ruzhi; Chen Yan; Zhang Ying; Li Kaiyu; Yan Hui

    2012-01-01

    By a pulsed laser deposition technique the efficient broadband near-infrared downconversion Bi–Yb codoped crystallization Y 2 O 3 transparent films have been grown successfully on Si (1 0 0) substrates. Upon excitation of ultraviolet photon varying from 300 to 400 nm, the near infrared quantum cutting has been obtained, which is originated from the transitions of the transition-metal Bi 3+3 P 1 level to Yb 3+2 F 5/2 level. The downconversion quantum efficiency of films is estimated to be 152%. The transparent Y 2 O 3 films may have potential application in enhancing the conversion efficiency of crystalline Si solar cells. - Highlights: ► The downconversion Y 2 O 3 :Bi,Yb films has good transparency. ► Y 2 O 3 :Bi,Yb films possess a broadband absorption in the UV region of 300–400 nm. ► The films may have potential application in enhancing the efficiency of c-Si cells.

  3. Establishment of a PID Pass/Fail Test for Crystalline Silicon Modules by Examining Field Performance for Five Years: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hacke, Peter L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-27

    In an experiment with five module designs and multiple replicas, it is found that crystalline silicon cell modules that can pass a criterion of less than 5 percent power degradation in stress test conditions of 60 degrees Celsius, 85 percent relative humidity (RH), 96 h, and nameplate-rated system voltage bias show no power degradation by potential induced degradation in the range of 4-6 years duration in the Florida, USA environment. This data suggests that this chamber stress level is useful as a pass/fail criterion for PID, and will help ensure against degradation by system voltage stress in Florida, or less stressful climates, for at least 5 years.

  4. Crystalline Silicon Interconnected Strips (XIS). Introduction to a New, Integrated Device and Module Concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Roosmalen, J.; Bronsveld, P.; Mewe, A.; Janssen, G.; Stodolny, M.; Cobussen-Pool, E.; Bennett, I.; Weeber, A.; Geerligs, B. [ECN Solar Energy, P.O. Box 1, NL-1755 ZG, Petten (Netherlands)

    2012-06-15

    A new device concept for high efficiency, low cost, wafer based silicon solar cells is introduced. To significantly lower the costs of Si photovoltaics, high efficiencies and large reductions of metals and silicon costs are required. To enable this, the device architecture was adapted into low current devices by applying thin silicon strips, to which a special high efficiency back-contact heterojunction cell design was applied. Standard industrial production processes can be used for our fully integrated cell and module design, with a cost reduction potential below 0.5 euro/Wp. First devices have been realized demonstrating the principle of a series connected back contact hybrid silicon heterojunction module concept.

  5. Organic-inorganic halide perovskite/crystalline silicon four-terminal tandem solar cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Löper, P.; Moon, S.J.; de Nicolas, S.M.; Niesen, B.; Ledinský, Martin; Nicolay, S.; Bailat, J.; Yum, J. H.; De Wolf, S.; Ballif, C.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 3 (2015), s. 1619-1629 ISSN 1463-9076 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011026 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : perovskites * solar cells * silicon solar cells * silicon heterojunction solar cells * photovoltaics Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 4.449, year: 2015

  6. Ultrastructural effects of silicone oil on the clear crystalline lens of the human eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Wael; Sharaf, Mohamed; Abdelazeem, Khaled; El-Gamal, Dalia; Nafady, Allam

    2018-03-01

    To evaluate light and electron microscopic changes of the anterior capsule and its epithelium after clear lens extraction of vitrectomized myopic eyes with silicone oil tamponade. This prospective, controlled, non-randomized, interventional study included 20 anterior lens capsular specimens that were excised during combined clear lens extraction and silicone oil removal from previously vitrectomized highly myopic patients with silicone oil tamponade for previous retinal detachment surgeries. The specimens were examined via light microscopy and electron microscopy and compared with 20 anterior capsule specimens removed during clear lens extraction of non-vitrectomized highly myopic eyes. Light microscopic examination of clear lens anterior capsule specimens of vitrectomized myopic eyes filled with silicone oil showed relatively more flat cells with irregular outline of lens' epithelial cells with wide intercellular spaces, deeply stained nuclei, and multiple intracytoplasmic vacuoles. Scanning electron microscopy revealed collagenous surfaces filled with multiple pits, depressions, and abnormal deposits. Transmission electron microscopy revealed lens epithelial cells with apoptotic changes, many cytoplasmic vacuoles, and filopodia-like protrusions between lens epithelial cells and the capsule. Epithelial proliferation and multilayering were also observed. silicone oil may play a role in the development of apoptotic and histopathological changes in clear lens epithelial cells. Clarity of the lens at the time of silicone oil removal does not indicate an absence of cataractous changes. We found justification of combined clear lens extraction and silicone oil removal or combined phacovitrectomy when silicone oil injection is planned, but further long-term studies with larger patient groups are required.

  7. Sintering of nano crystalline α silicon carbide by doping with boron ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sinterable nano silicon carbide powders of mean particle size (37 nm) were prepared by attrition milling and chemical processing of an acheson type alpha silicon carbide having mean particle size of 0.39 m (390 nm). Pressureless sintering of these powders was achieved by addition of boron carbide of 0.5 wt% together ...

  8. Wet-chemical passivation of atomically flat and structured silicon substrates for solar cell application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angermann, H.; Rappich, J.; Korte, L.; Sieber, I.; Conrad, E.; Schmidt, M.; Hübener, K.; Polte, J.; Hauschild, J.

    2008-04-01

    Special sequences of wet-chemical oxidation and etching steps were optimised with respect to the etching behaviour of differently oriented silicon to prepare very smooth silicon interfaces with excellent electronic properties on mono- and poly-crystalline substrates. Surface photovoltage (SPV) and photoluminescence (PL) measurements, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) investigations were utilised to develop wet-chemical smoothing procedures for atomically flat and structured surfaces, respectively. Hydrogen-termination as well as passivation by wet-chemical oxides were used to inhibit surface contamination and native oxidation during the technological processing. Compared to conventional pre-treatments, significantly lower micro-roughness and densities of surface states were achieved on mono-crystalline Si(100), on evenly distributed atomic steps, such as on vicinal Si(111), on silicon wafers with randomly distributed upside pyramids, and on poly-crystalline EFG ( Edge-defined Film-fed- Growth) silicon substrates. The recombination loss at a-Si:H/c-Si interfaces prepared on c-Si substrates with randomly distributed upside pyramids was markedly reduced by an optimised wet-chemical smoothing procedure, as determined by PL measurements. For amorphous-crystalline hetero-junction solar cells (ZnO/a-Si:H(n)/c-Si(p)/Al) with textured c-Si substrates the smoothening procedure results in a significant increase of short circuit current Isc, fill factor and efficiency η. The scatter in the cell parameters for measurements on different cells is much narrower, as compared to conventional pre-treatments, indicating more well-defined and reproducible surface conditions prior to a-Si:H emitter deposition and/or a higher stability of the c-Si surface against variations in the a-Si:H deposition conditions.

  9. Anisotropy of the thermal conductivity and electrical resistivity of the SiC/Si biomorphic composite based on a white-eucalyptus biocarbon template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfen'eva, L. S.; Orlova, T. S.; Smirnov, B. I.; Smirnov, I. A.; Misiorek, H.; Mucha, J.; Jezowski, A.; de Arellano-Lopez, A. R.; Martinez-Fernandez, J.; Varela-Feria, F. M.

    2006-12-01

    The thermal conductivity κ and electrical resistivity ρ of a cellular ecoceramic, namely, the SiC/Si biomorphic composite, are measured in the temperature range 5 300 K. The SiC/Si biomorphic composite is fabricated using a cellular biocarbon template prepared from white eucalyptus wood by pyrolysis in an argon atmosphere with subsequent infiltration of molten silicon into empty through cellular channels of the template. The temperature dependences κ(T) and ρ(T) of the 3C-SiC/Si biomorphic composite at a silicon content of ˜30 vol % are measured for samples cut out parallel and perpendicular to the direction of tree growth. Data on the anisotropy of the thermal conductivity κ are presented. The behavior of the dependences κ(T) and ρ(T) of the SiC/Si biomorphic composite at different silicon contents is discussed in terms of the results obtained and data available in the literature.

  10. Electroluminescence of erbium in Al/α-Si:H(Er)/p-c-Si/Al structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kon'kov, I.O.; Kuznetsov, A.N.; Pak, P.E.; Terukov, E.I.; Granitsyna, L.S.

    2001-01-01

    It is informed for the first time on the observation of the erbium intensive electroluminescence from the amorphous hydrated silicon layer by application of the Al/α-Si:H(Er)/p-c-Si/Al structure in the direct shift mode. The above structure is the n-p-heterostructure with the barrier values of 0.3-0.4 eV for the electrons and 0.9-1.1 eV for the holes. The electroluminescence efficiency is evaluated at the level ∼ 2 x 10 -5 . The electroluminescence effect in the Al/α-Si:H(Er)/p-c-Si/Al structure is connected with the hole tunneling from the crystal silicon by the amorphous silicon localized states with the subsequent release into the valent zone [ru

  11. Metallization of ion beam synthesized Si/3C-SiC/Si layer systems by high-dose implantation of transition metal ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindner, J.K.N.; Wenzel, S.; Stritzker, B.

    2001-01-01

    The formation of metal silicide layers contacting an ion beam synthesized buried 3C-SiC layer in silicon by means of high-dose titanium and molybdenum implantations is reported. Two different strategies to form such contact layers are explored. The titanium implantation aims to convert the Si top layer of an epitaxial Si/SiC/Si layer sequence into TiSi 2 , while Mo implantations were performed directly into the SiC layer after selectively etching off all capping layers. Textured and high-temperature stable C54-TiSi 2 layers with small additions of more metal-rich silicides are obtained in the case of the Ti implantations. Mo implantations result in the formation of the high-temperature phase β-MoSi 2 , which also grows textured on the substrate. The formation of cavities in the silicon substrate at the lower SiC/Si interface due to the Si consumption by the growing silicide phase is observed in both cases. It probably constitutes a problem, occurring whenever thin SiC films on silicon have to be contacted by silicide forming metals independent of the deposition technique used. It is shown that this problem can be solved with ion beam synthesized contact layers by proper adjustment of the metal ion dose

  12. Optoelectronic properties of Black-Silicon generated through inductively coupled plasma (ICP) processing for crystalline silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsch, Jens, E-mail: J.Hirsch@emw.hs-anhalt.de [Anhalt University of Applied Sciences, Faculty EMW, Bernburger Str. 55, DE-06366 Köthen (Germany); Fraunhofer Center for Silicon Photovoltaics CSP, Otto-Eißfeldt-Str. 12, DE-06120 Halle (Saale) (Germany); Gaudig, Maria; Bernhard, Norbert [Anhalt University of Applied Sciences, Faculty EMW, Bernburger Str. 55, DE-06366 Köthen (Germany); Lausch, Dominik [Fraunhofer Center for Silicon Photovoltaics CSP, Otto-Eißfeldt-Str. 12, DE-06120 Halle (Saale) (Germany)

    2016-06-30

    Highlights: • Fabrication of black silicon through inductively coupled plasma (ICP) processing. • Suppressed formation a self-bias and therefore a reduced ion bombardment of the silicon sample. • Reduction of the average hemispherical reflection between 300 and 1120 nm up to 8% within 5 min ICP process time. • Reflection is almost independent of the angle of incidence up to 60°. • 2.5 ms effective lifetime at 10{sup 15} cm{sup −3} MCD after ALD Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} surface passivation. - Abstract: The optoelectronic properties of maskless inductively coupled plasma (ICP) generated black silicon through SF{sub 6} and O{sub 2} are analyzed by using reflection measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and quasi steady state photoconductivity (QSSPC). The results are discussed and compared to capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) and industrial standard wet chemical textures. The ICP process forms parabolic like surface structures in a scale of 500 nm. This surface structure reduces the average hemispherical reflection between 300 and 1120 nm up to 8%. Additionally, the ICP texture shows a weak increase of the hemispherical reflection under tilted angles of incidence up to 60°. Furthermore, we report that the ICP process is independent of the crystal orientation and the surface roughness. This allows the texturing of monocrystalline, multicrystalline and kerf-less wafers using the same parameter set. The ICP generation of black silicon does not apply a self-bias on the silicon sample. Therefore, the silicon sample is exposed to a reduced ion bombardment, which reduces the plasma induced surface damage. This leads to an enhancement of the effective charge carrier lifetime up to 2.5 ms at 10{sup 15} cm{sup −3} minority carrier density (MCD) after an atomic layer deposition (ALD) with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Since excellent etch results were obtained already after 4 min process time, we conclude that the ICP generation of black silicon is a promising technique

  13. Comparative study of the reliability of MPPT algorithms for the crystalline silicon photovoltaic modules in variable weather conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Dandoussou

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The crystalline silicon photovoltaic modules are widely used as power supply sources in the tropical areas where the weather conditions change abruptly. Fortunately, many MPPT algorithms are implemented to improve their performance. In the other hand, it is well known that these power supply sources are nonlinear dipoles and so, their intrinsic parameters may vary with the irradiance and the temperature. In this paper, the MPPT algorithms widely used, i.e. Perturb and Observe (P&O, Incremental Conductance (INC, Hill-Climbing (HC, are implemented using Matlab®/Simulink® model of a crystalline silicon photovoltaic module whose intrinsic parameters were extracted by fitting the I(V characteristic to experimental points. Comparing the simulation results, it is obvious that the variable step size INC algorithm has the best reliability than both HC and P&O algorithms for the near to real Simulink® model of photovoltaic modules. With a 60 Wp photovoltaic module, the daily maximum power reaches 50.76 W against 34.40 W when the photovoltaic parameters are fixed. Meanwhile, the daily average energy is 263 Wh/day against 195 Wh/day.

  14. Light-induced performance increase of silicon heterojunction solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Kobayashi, Eiji; De Wolf, Stefaan; Levrat, Jacques; Christmann, Gabriel; Descoeudres, Antoine; Nicolay, Sylvain; Despeisse, Matthieu; Watabe, Yoshimi; Ballif, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Silicon heterojunction solar cells consist of crystalline silicon (c-Si) wafers coated with doped/intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) bilayers for passivating-contact formation. Here, we unambiguously demonstrate that carrier injection either due to light soaking or (dark) forward-voltage bias increases the open circuit voltage and fill factor of finished cells, leading to a conversion efficiency gain of up to 0.3% absolute. This phenomenon contrasts markedly with the light-induced degradation known for thin-film a-Si:H solar cells. We associate our performance gain with an increase in surface passivation, which we find is specific to doped a-Si:H/c-Si structures. Our experiments suggest that this improvement originates from a reduced density of recombination-active interface states. To understand the time dependence of the observed phenomena, a kinetic model is presented.

  15. Light-induced performance increase of silicon heterojunction solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Kobayashi, Eiji

    2016-10-11

    Silicon heterojunction solar cells consist of crystalline silicon (c-Si) wafers coated with doped/intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) bilayers for passivating-contact formation. Here, we unambiguously demonstrate that carrier injection either due to light soaking or (dark) forward-voltage bias increases the open circuit voltage and fill factor of finished cells, leading to a conversion efficiency gain of up to 0.3% absolute. This phenomenon contrasts markedly with the light-induced degradation known for thin-film a-Si:H solar cells. We associate our performance gain with an increase in surface passivation, which we find is specific to doped a-Si:H/c-Si structures. Our experiments suggest that this improvement originates from a reduced density of recombination-active interface states. To understand the time dependence of the observed phenomena, a kinetic model is presented.

  16. Crystalline silicon solar cell with front and rear polysilicon passivated contacts as bottom cell for hybrid tandems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luxembourg, S.L.; Zhang, D.; Wu, Y.; Najafi, M.; Zardetto, V.; Verhees, W.; Burgers, A.R.; Veenstra, S.; Geerligs, L.J.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we analyze and model perovskite/c-Si tandem cells with front and rear polySi passivated contacts on the bottom cell. A high-efficiency tandem approach will benefit from the high Voc potential of a c-Si bottom cell with front and rear polySi passivated contacts while the combination

  17. Plane shock loading on mono- and nano-crystalline silicon carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branicio, Paulo S.; Zhang, Jingyun; Rino, José P.; Nakano, Aiichiro; Kalia, Rajiv K.; Vashishta, Priya

    2018-03-01

    The understanding of the nanoscale mechanisms of shock damage and failure in SiC is essential for its application in effective and damage tolerant coatings. We use molecular-dynamics simulations to investigate the shock properties of 3C-SiC along low-index crystallographic directions and in nanocrystalline samples with 5 nm and 10 nm grain sizes. The predicted Hugoniot in the particle velocity range of 0.1 km/s-6.0 km/s agrees well with experimental data. The shock response transitions from elastic to plastic, predominantly deformation twinning, to structural transformation to the rock-salt phase. The predicted strengths from 12.3 to 30.9 GPa, at the Hugoniot elastic limit, are in excellent agreement with experimental data.

  18. Process control of high rate microcrystalline silicon based solar cell deposition by optical emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilper, T.; Donker, M.N. van den; Carius, R.; Rech, B.; Braeuer, G.; Repmann, T.

    2008-01-01

    Silicon thin-film solar cells based on microcrystalline siliconc-Si:H) were prepared in a 30 x 30 cm 2 plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition reactor using 13.56 or 40.68 MHz plasma excitation frequency. Plasma emission was recorded by optical emission spectroscopy during μc-Si:H absorber layer deposition at deposition rates between 0.5 and 2.5 nm/s. The time course of SiH * and H β emission indicated strong drifts in the process conditions particularly at low total gas flows. By actively controlling the SiH 4 gas flow, the observed process drifts were successfully suppressed resulting in a more homogeneous i-layer crystallinity along the growth direction. In a deposition regime with efficient usage of the process gas, the μc-Si:H solar cell efficiency was enhanced from 7.9 % up to 8.8 % by applying process control

  19. High-temperature protective coatings for C/SiC composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Yang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbon fiber-reinforced silicon carbide (C/SiC composites were well-established light weight materials combining high specific strength and damage tolerance. For high-temperature applications, protective coatings had to provide oxidation and corrosion resistance. The literature data introduced various technologies and materials, which were suitable for the application of coatings. Coating procedures and conditions, materials design limitations related to the reactivity of the components of C/SiC composites, new approaches and coating systems to the selection of protective coatings materials were examined. The focus of future work was on optimization by further multilayer coating systems and the anti-oxidation ability of C/SiC composites at temperatures up to 2073 K or higher in water vapor.

  20. Formation of shallow boron emitters in crystalline silicon using flash lamp annealing: Role of excess silicon interstitials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riise, Heine Nygard, E-mail: h.n.riise@fys.uio.no; Azarov, Alexander; Svensson, Bengt G.; Monakhov, Edouard [Department of Physics/Centre for Materials Science and Nanotechnology, University of Oslo, P. O. Box 1048 Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Schumann, Thomas; Hübner, Renè; Skorupa, Wolfgang [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, P. O. Box 510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany)

    2015-07-13

    Shallow, Boron (B)-doped p{sup +} emitters have been realized using spin-on deposition and Flash Lamp Annealing (FLA) to diffuse B into monocrystalline float zone Silicon (Si). The emitters extend between 50 and 140 nm in depth below the surface, have peak concentrations between 9 × 10{sup 19 }cm{sup –3} and 3 × 10{sup 20 }cm{sup –3}, and exhibit sheet resistances between 70 and 3000 Ω/□. An exceptionally large increase in B diffusion occurs for FLA energy densities exceeding ∼93 J/cm{sup 2} irrespective of 10 or 20 ms pulse duration. The effect is attributed to enhanced diffusion of B caused by Si interstitial injection following a thermally activated reaction between the spin-on diffusant film and the silicon wafer.

  1. Crystalline-Amorphous Core−Shell Silicon Nanowires for High Capacity and High Current Battery Electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Cui, Li-Feng; Ruffo, Riccardo; Chan, Candace K.; Peng, Hailin; Cui, Yi

    2009-01-01

    fading, has limited its applications. Designing nanoscale hierarchical structures is a novel approach to address the issues associated with the large volume changes. In this letter, we introduce a core-shell design of silicon nanowires for highpower

  2. Development of Novel Front Contract Pastes for Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duty, C.; Jellison, D. G.E. P.; Joshi, P.

    2012-04-05

    In order to improve the efficiencies of silicon solar cells, paste to silicon contact formation mechanisms must be more thoroughly understood as a function of paste chemistry, wafer properties and firing conditions. Ferro Corporation has been involved in paste development for over 30 years and has extensive expertise in glass and paste formulations. This project has focused on the characterization of the interface between the top contact material (silver paste) and the underlying silicon wafer. It is believed that the interface between the front contact silver and the silicon wafer plays a dominant role in the electrical performance of the solar cell. Development of an improved front contact microstructure depends on the paste chemistry, paste interaction with the SiNx, and silicon (“Si”) substrate, silicon sheet resistivity, and the firing profile. Typical front contact ink contains silver metal powders and flakes, glass powder and other inorganic additives suspended in an organic medium of resin and solvent. During fast firing cycles glass melts, wets, corrodes the SiNx layer, and then interacts with underlying Si. Glass chemistry is also a critical factor in the development of an optimum front contact microstructure. Over the course of this project, several fundamental characteristics of the Ag/Si interface were documented, including a higher-than-expected distribution of voids along the interface, which could significantly impact electrical conductivity. Several techniques were also investigated for the interfacial analysis, including STEM, EDS, FIB, EBSD, and ellipsometry.

  3. Progress on Fabrication of Planar Diffusion Couples with Representative TRISO PyC/SiC Microstructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunn, John D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jolly, Brian C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gerczak, Tyler J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Campbell, Anne A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Schumacher, Austin T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Release of fission products from tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) coated particle fuel limits the fuel’s operational lifetime and creates potential safety and maintenance concerns. A need for diffusion analysis in representative TRISO layers exists to provide fuel performance models with high fidelity data to improve fuel performance and efficiency. An effort has been initiated to better understand fission product transport in, and release from, quality TRISO fuel by investigating diffusion couples with representative pyrocarbon (PyC) and silicon carbide (SiC). Here planar PyC/SiC diffusion couples are being developed with representative PyC/SiC layers using a fluidized bed chemical vapor deposition (FBCVD) system identical to those used to produce laboratory-scale TRISO fuel for the Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Qualification and Development Program’s (AGR) first fuel irradiation. The diffusivity of silver, the silver and palladium system, europium, and strontium in the PyC/SiC will be studied at elevated temperatures and under high temperature neutron irradiation. The study also includes a comparative study of PyC/SiC diffusion couples with varying TRISO layer properties to understand the influence of SiC microstructure (grain size) and the PyC/SiC interface on fission product transport. The first step in accomplishing these goals is the development of the planar diffusion couples. The diffusion couple construction consists of multiple steps which includes fabrication of the primary PyC/SiC structures with targeted layer properties, introduction of fission product species and seal coating to create an isolated system. Coating development has shown planar PyC/SiC diffusion couples with similar properties to AGR TRISO fuel can be produced. A summary of the coating development process, characterization methods, and status are presented.

  4. Porous SiC/SiC composites development for industrial application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeta, S.; Hinoki, T.

    2014-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) is promising structural materials in nuclear fields due to an excellent irradiation resistance and low activation characteristics. Conventional SiC fibers reinforced SiC matrix (SiC/SiC composites) fabricated by liquid phase sintering (LPS-SiC/SiC composites) have been required high cost and long processing time. And microstructure and mechanical property data of finally obtained LPS-SiC/SiC composites are easily scattered, because quality of the composites depend on personal skill. Thus, conventional LPS-SiC/SiC composites are inadequate for industrial use. In order to overcome these issues, the novel “porous SiC/SiC composites” have been developed by means of liquid phase sintering fabrication process. The composites consist of porous SiC matrix and SiC fibers without conventional carbon interfacial layer. The composites don’t have concerns of the degradation interfacial layer at the severe accident. Porous SiC/SiC composites preform was prepared with a thin sheet shape of SiC, sintering additives and carbon powder mixture by tape casting process which was adopted because of productive and high yielding rate fabrication process. The preform was stacked with SiC fibers and sintered in hot-press at the high temperature in argon environment. The sintered preform was decarburized obtain porous matrix structure by heat-treatment in air. Moreover, mechanical property data scattering of the obtained porous SiC/SiC composites decreased. In the flexural test, the porous SiC/SiC composites showed pseudo-ductile behavior with sufficient strength even after heat treatment at high temperature in air. From these conclusions, it was proven that porous SiC/SiC composites were reliable material at severe environment such as high temperature in air, by introducing tape casting fabrication process that could produce reproducible materials with low cost and simple way. Therefore development of porous SiC/SiC composites for industrial application was

  5. Status and prospects for SiC-SiC composite materials development for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharafat, S.; Jones, R.H.; Kohyama, A.; Fenici, P.

    1995-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) composites are very attractive for fusion applications because of their low afterheat and low activation characteristics coupled with excellent high temperature properties. These composites are relatively new materials that will require material development as well as evaluation of hermiticity, thermal conductivity, radiation stability, high temperature strength, fatigue, thermal shock, and joining techniques. The radiation stability of SiC-SiC composites is a critical aspect of their application as fusion components and recent results will be reported. Many of the non-fusion specific issues are under evaluation by other ceramic composite development programs, such as the US national continuous fiber ceramic composites.The current development status of various SiC-SiC composites research and development efforts is given. Effect of neutron irradiation on the properties of SiC-SiC composite between 500 and 1200 C are reported. Novel high temperature properties specific to ceramic matrix composite (CMC) materials are discussed. The chemical stability of SiC is reviewed briefly. Ongoing research and development efforts for joining CMC materials including SiC-SiC composites are described. In conclusion, ongoing research and development efforts show extremely promising properties and behavior for SiC-SiC composites for fusion applications. (orig.)

  6. 18th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells and Modules: Materials and Processes; Workshop Proceedings, 3-6 August 2008, Vail, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sopori, B. L.

    2008-09-01

    The National Center for Photovoltaics sponsored the 18th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells & Modules: Materials and Processes, held in Vail, CO, August 3-6, 2008. This meeting provided a forum for an informal exchange of technical and scientific information between international researchers in the photovoltaic and relevant non-photovoltaic fields. The theme of this year's meeting was 'New Directions for Rapidly Growing Silicon Technologies.'

  7. Positron annihilation and electron spin resonance studies of defects in electron-irradiated 3C-SiC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Hisayoshi; Yoshikawa, Masahito; Tanigawa, Shoichiro; Nashiyama, Isamu; Misawa, Shunji; Okumura, Hajime; Yoshida, Sadafumi.

    1992-01-01

    Defects induced by 1 MeV electron-irradiation in cubic silicon carbide (3C-SiC) epitaxially grown by chemical vapor deposition have been studied with positron annihilation and electron spin resonance (ESR). Doppler broadened energy spectra of annihilation γ-rays obtained by using variable-energy positron beams showed the formation of vacancy-type defects in 3C-SiC by the electron-irradiation. An ESR spectrum labeled Tl, which has an isotropic g-value of 2.0029 ± 0.001, was observed in electron-irradiated 3C-SiC. The Tl spectrum is interpreted by hyperfine interactions of paramagnetic electrons with 13 C at four carbon sites and 29 Si at twelve silicon sites, indicating that the Tl center arises from a point defect at a silicon site. Both the results can be accounted for by the introduction of isolated Si vacancies by the irradiation. (author)

  8. A review of manufacturing metrology for improved reliability of silicon photovoltaic modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kristopher O.; Walters, Joseph; Schneller, Eric; Seigneur, Hubert; Brooker, R. Paul; Scardera, Giuseppe; Rodgers, Marianne P.; Mohajeri, Nahid; Shiradkar, Narendra; Dhere, Neelkanth G.; Wohlgemuth, John; Rudack, Andrew C.; Schoenfeld, Winston V.

    2014-10-01

    In this work, the use of manufacturing metrology across the supply chain to improve crystalline silicon (c-Si) photovoltaic (PV) module reliability and durability is addressed. Additionally, an overview and summary of a recent extensive literature survey of relevant measurement techniques aimed at reducing or eliminating the probability of field failures is presented. An assessment of potential gaps is also given, wherein the PV community could benefit from new research and demonstration efforts. This review is divided into three primary areas representing different parts of the c-Si PV supply chain: (1) feedstock production, crystallization and wafering; (2) cell manufacturing; and (3) module manufacturing.

  9. Multi-frequency EDMR studies of light-activated paramagnetic centers in μc-Si:H thin-film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents a comprehensive study of paramagnetic centers in fully-processed microcrystalline siliconc-Si:H) thin-film solar cells. The heterogeneous material gives rise to a complex band structure with deep defects in the middle of the energy band gap as well as localized states close to the energy band edges. They can act as recombination centers and traps and, thereby, influence the charge transport of photogenerated charge carriers. Thus, they diminish the performance of the cell. To reduce the disadvantageous influence of the defect states on the cell efficiency, a detailed understanding of the charge transport processes via these states is necessary. In this work, light-activated paramagnetic centers are studied with electrically detected magnetic resonance (EDMR) at various microwave frequencies. This technique combines electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) with the photocurrent measurement in the solar cell, thus, delivering information about the transport processes and magnetic parameters of the involved defect states. Multi-frequency EDMR at low temperatures reveals four paramagnetic states in μc-Si:H. Dangling bond (db) defects and holes in valence band tail (h) states are located in the disordered phase, whereas so-called CE and V states originate from the crystalline phase. The multi-frequency approach allows for a separation of field-dependent and -independent line widths. All EDMR signals are affected by line broadening due to spin-spin interaction, which could be used to estimate mean inter-spin distances of around ∼ 0.5 nm for the V center and of ∼ 1-2 nm for the remaining centers. Based on the strong spin-spin coupling and on transient nutation experiments the V signal could be correlated with a vacancy site in its excited triplet state. From the particular properties of the CE line it was concluded that the corresponding states are located in inversion layers and potential wells close to the conduction band of

  10. Stable electroluminescence from passivated nano-crystalline porous silicon using undecylenic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelloz, B.; Sano, H.; Boukherroub, R.; Wayner, D. D. M.; Lockwood, D. J.; Koshida, N.

    2005-06-01

    Stabilization of electroluminescence from nanocrystalline porous silicon diodes has been achieved by replacing silicon-hydrogen bonds terminating the surface of nanocrystalline silicon with more stable silicon-carbon (Si-C) bonds. Hydrosilylation of the surface of partially and anodically oxidized porous silicon samples was thermally induced at about 90 °C using various different organic molecules. Devices whose surface have been modified with stable covalent bonds shows no degradation in the EL efficiency and EL output intensity under DC operation for several hours. The enhanced stability can be attributed to the high chemical resistance of Si-C bonds against current-induced surface oxidation associated with the generation of nonradiative defects. Although devices treated with 1-decene exhibit reduced EL efficiency and brightness compared to untreatred devices, other molecules, such as ethyl-undecylenate and particularly undecylenic acid provide stable and more efficient visible electroluminescence at room temperature. Undecylenic acid provides EL brightness as high as that of an untreated device.

  11. Stable electroluminescence from passivated nano-crystalline porous silicon using undecylenic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelloz, B.; Sano, H.; Koshida, N. [Dept. Elec. and Elec. Eng., Tokyo Univ. of A and T, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan); Boukherroub, R. [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Condensee, Ecole Polytechnique, Route de Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Wayner, D.D.M.; Lockwood, D.J. [National Research Council, Ottawa (Canada)

    2005-06-01

    Stabilization of electroluminescence from nanocrystalline porous silicon diodes has been achieved by replacing silicon-hydrogen bonds terminating the surface of nanocrystalline silicon with more stable silicon-carbon (Si-C) bonds. Hydrosilylation of the surface of partially and anodically oxidized porous silicon samples was thermally induced at about 90 C using various different organic molecules. Devices whose surface have been modified with stable covalent bonds shows no degradation in the EL efficiency and EL output intensity under DC operation for several hours. The enhanced stability can be attributed to the high chemical resistance of Si-C bonds against current-induced surface oxidation associated with the generation of nonradiative defects. Although devices treated with 1-decene exhibit reduced EL efficiency and brightness compared to untreated devices, other molecules, such as ethyl-undecylenate and particularly undecylenic acid provide stable and more efficient visible electroluminescence at room temperature. Undecylenic acid provides EL brightness as high as that of an untreated device. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  12. Review of the Potential of the Ni/Cu Plating Technique for Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atteq ur Rehman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Developing a better method for the metallization of silicon solar cells is integral part of realizing superior efficiency. Currently, contact realization using screen printing is the leading technology in the silicon based photovoltaic industry, as it is simple and fast. However, the problem with metallization of this kind is that it has a lower aspect ratio and higher contact resistance, which limits solar cell efficiency. The mounting cost of silver pastes and decreasing silicon wafer thicknesses encourages silicon solar cell manufacturers to develop fresh metallization techniques involving a lower quantity of silver usage and not relying pressing process of screen printing. In recent times nickel/copper (Ni/Cu based metal plating has emerged as a metallization method that may solve these issues. This paper offers a detailed review and understanding of a Ni/Cu based plating technique for silicon solar cells. The formation of a Ni seed layer by adopting various deposition techniques and a Cu conducting layer using a light induced plating (LIP process are appraised. Unlike screen-printed metallization, a step involving patterning is crucial for opening the masking layer. Consequently, experimental procedures involving patterning methods are also explicated. Lastly, the issues of adhesion, back ground plating, process complexity and reliability for industrial applications are also addressed.

  13. Electrical analysis of high dielectric constant insulator and metal gate metal oxide semiconductor capacitors on flexible bulk mono-crystalline silicon

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoneim, Mohamed T.

    2015-06-01

    We report on the electrical study of high dielectric constant insulator and metal gate metal oxide semiconductor capacitors (MOSCAPs) on a flexible ultra-thin (25 μm) silicon fabric which is peeled off using a CMOS compatible process from a standard bulk mono-crystalline silicon substrate. A lifetime projection is extracted using statistical analysis of the ramping voltage (Vramp) breakdown and time dependent dielectric breakdown data. The obtained flexible MOSCAPs operational voltages satisfying the 10 years lifetime benchmark are compared to those of the control MOSCAPs, which are not peeled off from the silicon wafer. © 2014 IEEE.

  14. Plasmonic scattering back reflector for light trapping in flat nano-crystalline silicon solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, L.; van de Groep, J.; Veldhuizen, L.W.; Di Vece, M.; Polman, A.; Schropp, R.E.I.

    2016-01-01

    Most types of thin film solar cells require light management to achieve sufficient light absorptance. We demonstrate a novel process for fabricating a scattering back reflector for flat, thin film hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si:H) solar cells. This scattering back reflector consists of

  15. 77 FR 17439 - Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules, From the People's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ... cells or solar cells assembled into modules or panels, and thus quantity is not recorded consistently in... silicon photovoltaic cells, whether or not assembled into modules (solar cells) from the People's Republic... History The Department initiated a countervailing duty (CVD) investigation of solar cells from the PRC on...

  16. Reduction of Peroxodisulfate at Porous and Crystalline Silicon Electrodes: An Anomaly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, Ernst S.; Noordhoek, S.M.; Kelly, J.J.

    1996-01-01

    Electroluminescence from n-type porous silicon can be generated in solution by reduction of peroxodisulfate. It has been assumed that the SO4•- radical ion, formed in the first reduction step, injects a hole into the valence band of the porous semiconductor. The hole should subsequently undergo

  17. Fiber Optic Excitation of Silicon Microspheres in Amorphous and Crystalline Fluids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yilmaz, H.; Murib, M.S.; Serpenguzel, A.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the optical resonance spectra of free-standing monolithic single crystal silicon microspheres immersed in various amorphous fluids, such as air, water, ethylene glycol, and 4-Cyano-4’-pentylbiphenyl nematic liquid crystal. For the various amorphous fluids,

  18. Fundamental Research and Development for Improved Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells: Final Subcontract Report, March 2002 - July 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohatgi, A.

    2007-11-01

    This report summarizes the progress made by Georgia Tech in the 2002-2006 period toward high-efficiency, low-cost crystalline silicon solar cells. This program emphasize fundamental and applied research on commercial substrates and manufacturable technologies. A combination of material characterization, device modeling, technology development, and complete cell fabrication were used to accomplish the goals of this program. This report is divided into five sections that summarize our work on i) PECVD SiN-induced defect passivation (Sections 1 and 2); ii) the effect of material inhomogeneity on the performance of mc-Si solar cells (Section 3); iii) a comparison of light-induced degradation in commercially grown Ga- and B-doped Czochralski Si ingots (Section 4); and iv) the understanding of the formation of high-quality thick-film Ag contacts on high sheet-resistance emitters (Section 5).

  19. Comparison of slowness profiles of lamb wave with elastic moduli and crystal structure in single crystalline silicon wafers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Young Jae; Yun, Gyeong Won; Kim, Kyung Min; Roh, Yuji; Kim, Young H. [Applied Acoustics Lab, Korea Science Academy of KAIST, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Single crystalline silicon wafers having (100), (110), and (111) directions are employed as specimens for obtaining slowness profiles. Leaky Lamb waves (LLW) from immersed wafers were detected by varying the incident angles of the specimens and rotating the specimens. From an analysis of LLW signals for different propagation directions and phase velocities of each specimen, slowness profiles were obtained, which showed a unique symmetry with different symmetric axes. Slowness profiles were compared with elastic moduli of each wafer. They showed the same symmetries as crystal structures. In addition, slowness profiles showed expected patterns and values that can be inferred from elastic moduli. This implies that slowness profiles can be used to examine crystal structures of anisotropic solids.

  20. Low-temperature grown indium oxide nanowire-based antireflection coatings for multi-crystalline silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yu-Cian; Chen, Chih-Yao; Chen, I Chen [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, National Central University, Taoyuan (China); Kuo, Cheng-Wen; Kuan, Ta-Ming; Yu, Cheng-Yeh [TSEC Corporation, Hsinchu (China)

    2016-08-15

    Light harvesting by indium oxide nanowires (InO NWs) as an antireflection layer on multi-crystalline silicon (mc-Si) solar cells has been investigated. The low-temperature growth of InO NWs was performed in electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma with an O{sub 2}-Ar system using indium nanocrystals as seed particles via the self-catalyzed growth mechanism. The size-dependence of antireflection properties of InO NWs was studied. A considerable enhancement in short-circuit current (from 35.39 to 38.33 mA cm{sup -2}) without deterioration of other performance parameters is observed for mc-Si solar cells coated with InO NWs. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. 16th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells and Modules: Materials and Processes; Program, Extended Abstracts, and Papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sopori, B. L.

    2006-08-01

    The National Center for Photovoltaics sponsored the 16th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells and Modules: Materials and Processes held August 6-9, 2006 in Denver, Colorado. The workshop addressed the fundamental properties of PV-Si, new solar cell designs, and advanced solar cell processing techniques. It provided a forum for an informal exchange of technical and scientific information between international researchers in the photovoltaic and relevant non-photovoltaic fields. The Workshop Theme was: "Getting more (Watts) for Less ($i)". A combination of oral presentations by invited speakers, poster sessions, and discussion sessions reviewed recent advances in crystal growth, new cell structures, new processes and process characterization techniques, and cell fabrication approaches suitable for future manufacturing demands. The special sessions included: Feedstock Issues: Si Refining and Purification; Metal-impurity Engineering; Thin Film Si; and Diagnostic Techniques.

  2. Current status and recent research achievements in SiC/SiC composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katoh, Y., E-mail: katohy@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Snead, L.L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Henager, C.H. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Nozawa, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan); Hinoki, T. [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Iveković, A.; Novak, S. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Gonzalez de Vicente, S.M. [EFDA Close Support Unit, Garching (Germany)

    2014-12-15

    The silicon carbide fiber-reinforced silicon carbide matrix (SiC/SiC) composite system for fusion applications has seen a continual evolution from development a fundamental understanding of the material system and its behavior in a hostile irradiation environment to the current effort which is directed at a broad-based program of technology maturation program. In essence, over the past few decades this material system has steadily moved from a laboratory curiosity to an engineering material, both for fusion structural applications and other high performance application such as aerospace. This paper outlines the recent international scientific and technological achievements towards the development of SiC/SiC composite material technologies for fusion application and discusses future research directions. It also reviews the materials system in the larger context of progress to maturity as an engineering material for both the larger nuclear community and broader engineering applications.

  3. Current status and recent research achievements in SiC/SiC composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katoh, Y.; Snead, L.L.; Henager, C.H.; Nozawa, T.; Hinoki, T.; Iveković, A.; Novak, S.; Gonzalez de Vicente, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    The silicon carbide fiber-reinforced silicon carbide matrix (SiC/SiC) composite system for fusion applications has seen a continual evolution from development a fundamental understanding of the material system and its behavior in a hostile irradiation environment to the current effort which is directed at a broad-based program of technology maturation program. In essence, over the past few decades this material system has steadily moved from a laboratory curiosity to an engineering material, both for fusion structural applications and other high performance application such as aerospace. This paper outlines the recent international scientific and technological achievements towards the development of SiC/SiC composite material technologies for fusion application and discusses future research directions. It also reviews the materials system in the larger context of progress to maturity as an engineering material for both the larger nuclear community and broader engineering applications

  4. Current status and recent research achievements in SiC/SiC composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Y.; Snead, L. L.; Henager, C. H.; Nozawa, T.; Hinoki, T.; Iveković, A.; Novak, S.; Gonzalez de Vicente, S. M.

    2014-12-01

    The silicon carbide fiber-reinforced silicon carbide matrix (SiC/SiC) composite system for fusion applications has seen a continual evolution from development a fundamental understanding of the material system and its behavior in a hostile irradiation environment to the current effort which is directed at a broad-based program of technology maturation program. In essence, over the past few decades this material system has steadily moved from a laboratory curiosity to an engineering material, both for fusion structural applications and other high performance application such as aerospace. This paper outlines the recent international scientific and technological achievements towards the development of SiC/SiC composite material technologies for fusion application and discusses future research directions. It also reviews the materials system in the larger context of progress to maturity as an engineering material for both the larger nuclear community and broader engineering applications.

  5. Contact Selectivity Engineering in a 2 μm Thick Ultrathin c-Si Solar Cell Using Transition-Metal Oxides Achieving an Efficiency of 10.8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Muyu; Islam, Raisul; Meng, Andrew C; Lyu, Zheng; Lu, Ching-Ying; Tae, Christian; Braun, Michael R; Zang, Kai; McIntyre, Paul C; Kamins, Theodore I; Saraswat, Krishna C; Harris, James S

    2017-12-06

    In this paper, the integration of metal oxides as carrier-selective contacts for ultrathin crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cells is demonstrated which results in an ∼13% relative improvement in efficiency. The improvement in efficiency originates from the suppression of the contact recombination current due to the band offset asymmetry of these oxides with Si. First, an ultrathin c-Si solar cell having a total thickness of 2 μm is shown to have >10% efficiency without any light-trapping scheme. This is achieved by the integration of nickel oxide (NiO x ) as a hole-selective contact interlayer material, which has a low valence band offset and high conduction band offset with Si. Second, we show a champion cell efficiency of 10.8% with the additional integration of titanium oxide (TiO x ), a well-known material for an electron-selective contact interlayer. Key parameters including V oc and J sc also show different degrees of enhancement if single (NiO x only) or double (both NiO x and TiO x ) carrier-selective contacts are integrated. The fabrication process for TiO x and NiO x layer integration is scalable and shows good compatibility with the device.

  6. EROI of crystalline silicon photovoltaics : Variations under different assumptions regarding manufacturing energy inputs and energy output

    OpenAIRE

    Lundin, Johan

    2013-01-01

    Installed photovoltaic nameplate power have been growing rapidly around the worldin the last few years. But how much energy is returned to society (i.e. net energy) by this technology, and which factors contribute the most to the amount of energy returned? The objective of this thesis was to examine the importance of certain inputs and outputs along the solar panel production chain and their effect on the energy return on (energy) investment (EROI) for crystalline wafer-based photovoltaics. A...

  7. Studying the Kinetics of Crystalline Silicon Nanoparticle Lithiation with In Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    McDowell, Matthew T.

    2012-09-04

    In situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is used to study the electrochemical lithiation of high-capacity crystalline Si nanoparticles for use in Li-ion battery anodes. The lithiation reaction slows down as it progresses into the particle interior, and analysis suggests that this behavior is due not to diffusion limitation but instead to the influence of mechanical stress on the driving force for reaction. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Studying the Kinetics of Crystalline Silicon Nanoparticle Lithiation with In Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    McDowell, Matthew T.; Ryu, Ill; Lee, Seok Woo; Wang, Chongmin; Nix, William D.; Cui, Yi

    2012-01-01

    In situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is used to study the electrochemical lithiation of high-capacity crystalline Si nanoparticles for use in Li-ion battery anodes. The lithiation reaction slows down as it progresses into the particle interior, and analysis suggests that this behavior is due not to diffusion limitation but instead to the influence of mechanical stress on the driving force for reaction. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Silicon Monoxide at 1 atm and Elevated Pressures: Crystalline or Amorphous?

    KAUST Repository

    AlKaabi, Khalid

    2014-03-05

    The absence of a crystalline SiO phase under ordinary conditions is an anomaly in the sequence of group 14 monoxides. We explore theoretically ordered ground-state and amorphous structures for SiO at P = 1 atm, and crystalline phases also at pressures up to 200 GPa. Several competitive ground-state P = 1 atm structures are found, perforce with Si-Si bonds, and possessing Si-O-Si bridges similar to those in silica (SiO2) polymorphs. The most stable of these static structures is enthalpically just a little more stable than a calculated random bond model of amorphous SiO. In that model we find no segregation into regions of amorphous Si and amorphous SiO2. The P = 1 atm structures are all semiconducting. As the pressure is increased, intriguing new crystalline structures evolve, incorporating Si triangular nets or strips and stishovite-like regions. A heat of formation of crystalline SiO is computed; it is found to be the most negative of all the group 14 monoxides. Yet, given the stability of SiO2, the disproportionation 2SiO (s) → Si(s)+SiO2(s) is exothermic, falling right into the series of group 14 monoxides, and ranging from a highly negative ΔH of disproportionation for CO to highly positive for PbO. There is no major change in the heat of disproportionation with pressure, i.e., no range of stability of SiO with respect to SiO2. The high-pressure SiO phases are metallic. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  10. High-temperature protective coatings for C/SiC composites

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang Yang; Chen Zhao-hui; Cao Feng

    2014-01-01

    Carbon fiber-reinforced silicon carbide (C/SiC) composites were well-established light weight materials combining high specific strength and damage tolerance. For high-temperature applications, protective coatings had to provide oxidation and corrosion resistance. The literature data introduced various technologies and materials, which were suitable for the application of coatings. Coating procedures and conditions, materials design limitations related to the reactivity of the components of C...

  11. H{sub 2}-Ar dilution for improved c-Si quantum dots in P-doped SiN{sub x}:H thin film matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jia [Shaanxi Engineering Lab for Advanced Energy Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710119 (China); Zhang, Weijia, E-mail: zwjghx@126.com [Center of Condensed Matter and Material Physics, School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing, 100191 (China); Liu, Shengzhong, E-mail: szliu@dicp.ac.cn [Shaanxi Engineering Lab for Advanced Energy Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710119 (China); State key Laboratory of Catalysis, iChEM, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Dalian National Laboratory for Clean Energy, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Phosphorous-doped SiN{sub x}:H thin films containing c-Si QDs were prepared by PECVD in H{sub 2}-Ar mixed dilution under low temperature. • QD density and QD size can be controlled by tuning H{sub 2}/Ar flow ratio. • The sample prepared at the H{sub 2}/Ar flow ratio of 100/100 possesses both wide band gap and excellent conductivity. • Detail discussion has been presented for illustrating the influence of H{sub 2}/Ar mixed dilution on the crystallization process and P-doping. - Abstract: Phosphorus-doped hydrogenated silicon nitride (SiN{sub x}:H) thin films containing crystalline silicon quantum dot (c-Si QD) was prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) using hydrogen-argon mixed dilution. The effects of H{sub 2}/Ar flow ratio on the structural, electrical and optical characteristics of as-grown P-doped SiN{sub x}:H thin films were systematically investigated. Experimental results show that crystallization is promoted by increasing the H{sub 2}/Ar flow ratio in dilution, while the N/Si atomic ratio is higher for thin film deposited with argon-rich dilution. As the H{sub 2}/Ar flow ratio varies from 100/100 to 200/0, the samples exhibit excellent conductivity owing to the large volume fraction of c-Si QDs and effective P-doping. By adjusting the H{sub 2}/Ar ratio to 100/100, P-doped SiN{sub x}:H thin film containing tiny and densely distributed c-Si QDs can be obtained. It simultaneously possesses wide optical band gap and high dark conductivity. Finally, detailed discussion has been made to analyze the influence of H{sub 2}-Ar mixed dilution on the properties of P-doped SiN{sub x}:H thin films.

  12. Three dimensional modelling of grain boundary interaction and evolution during directional solidification of multi-crystalline silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, T.; Lin, H. K.; Lan, C. W.

    2018-03-01

    The development of grain structures during directional solidification of multi-crystalline silicon (mc-Si) plays a crucial role in the materials quality for silicon solar cells. Three dimensional (3D) modelling of the grain boundary (GB) interaction and evolution based on phase fields by considering anisotropic GB energy and mobility for mc-Si is carried out for the first time to elucidate the process. The energy and mobility of GBs are allowed to depend on misorientation and the GB plane. To examine the correctness of our method, the known the coincident site lattice (CSL) combinations such as (∑ a + ∑ b → ∑ a × b) or (∑ a + ∑ b → ∑ a / b) are verified. We frther discuss how to use the GB normal to characterize a ∑ 3 twin GB into a tilt or a twist one, and show the interaction between tilt and twist ∑ 3 twin GBs. Two experimental scenarios are considered for comparison and the results are in good agreement with the experiments as well as the theoretical predictions.

  13. 15th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells and Modules: Materials and Processes; Extended Abstracts and Papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sopori, B. L.

    2005-11-01

    The National Center for Photovoltaics sponsored the 15th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells & Modules: Materials and Processes, held in Vail, CO, August 7-10, 2005. This meeting provided a forum for an informal exchange of technical and scientific information between international researchers in the photovoltaic and relevant non-photovoltaic fields. The workshop addressed the fundamental properties of PV silicon, new solar cell designs, and advanced solar cell processing techniques. A combination of oral presentations by invited speakers, poster sessions, and discussion sessions reviewed recent advances in crystal growth, new cell designs, new processes and process characterization techniques, and cell fabrication approaches suitable for future manufacturing demands. The theme of this year's meeting was 'Providing the Scientific Basis for Industrial Success.' Specific sessions during the workshop included: Advances in crystal growth and material issues; Impurities and defects in Si; Advanced processing; High-efficiency Si solar cells; Thin Si solar cells; and Cell design for efficiency and reliability module operation. The topic for the Rump Session was ''Si Feedstock: The Show Stopper'' and featured a panel discussion by representatives from various PV companies.

  14. 13th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cell Materials and Processes: Extended Abstracts and Papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sopori, B. L.; Rand, J.; Saitoh, T.; Sinton, R.; Stavola, M.; Swanson, D.; Tan, T.; Weber, E.; Werner, J.; Al-Jassim, M.

    2003-08-01

    The 13th Workshop will provide a forum for an informal exchange of technical and scientific information between international researchers in the photovoltaic and relevant non-photovoltaic fields. It will offer an excellent opportunity for researchers in private industry and at universities to prioritize mutual needs for future collaborative research. The workshop is intended to address the fundamental aspects of impurities and defects in silicon: their properties, the dynamics during device processing, and their application for developing low-cost processes for manufacturing high-efficiency silicon solar cells. A combination of oral, poster, and discussion sessions will review recent advances in crystal growth, new cell structures, new processes and process characterization techniques, and cell fabrication approaches suitable for future manufacturing demands.

  15. Comparison of specific production performances by two crystalline silicon PV systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Fajman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparison of two independent photovoltaic (PV systems located close to each other on the south of the Czech Moravian Highland was accomplished. Due to differences in installation parameters; reference quantities were used to calculate transformed data sets for specific production performances comparison. Differences in monthly and annually daily production were performed by t-test.According to obtained results, it was concluded that annually mean daily productions per 1 kWp of installed capacity and per 1 m2 of active area of the panels are significantly better by single crystal silicon installation in tracking system than by stable installation of a different technology of single crystal silicon. However, comparing this performance per 1 m2 of occupied land by studied power-plants the stable installation performed higher production rates on daily mean basis in majority of months of the year 2010 as well as by annually mean daily production.

  16. Improved amorphous/crystalline silicon interface passivation for heterojunction solar cells by low-temperature chemical vapor deposition and post-annealing treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengyou; Zhang, Xiaodan; Wang, Liguo; Jiang, Yuanjian; Wei, Changchun; Xu, Shengzhi; Zhao, Ying

    2014-10-07

    In this study, hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin films are deposited using a radio-frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (RF-PECVD) system. The Si-H configuration of the a-Si:H/c-Si interface is regulated by optimizing the deposition temperature and post-annealing duration to improve the minority carrier lifetime (τeff) of a commercial Czochralski (Cz) silicon wafer. The mechanism of this improvement involves saturation of the microstructural defects with hydrogen evolved within the a-Si:H films due to the transformation from SiH2 into SiH during the annealing process. The post-annealing temperature is controlled to ∼180 °C so that silicon heterojunction solar cells (SHJ) could be prepared without an additional annealing step. To achieve better performance of the SHJ solar cells, we also optimize the thickness of the a-Si:H passivation layer. Finally, complete SHJ solar cells are fabricated using different temperatures for the a-Si:H film deposition to study the influence of the deposition temperature on the solar cell parameters. For the optimized a-Si:H deposition conditions, an efficiency of 18.41% is achieved on a textured Cz silicon wafer.

  17. Effect of Environment on the Stress- Rupture Behavior of a C/SiC Composite Studied

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrilli, Michael J.; Kiser, J. Douglas; Opila, Elizabeth J.; Calomino, Anthony M.

    2002-01-01

    Advanced reusable launch vehicles will likely incorporate fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composites (CMC's) in critical propulsion and airframe components. The use of CMC's is highly desirable to save weight, improve reuse capability, and increase performance. One of the candidate CMC materials is carbon-fiber-reinforced silicon carbide (C/SiC). In potential propulsion applications, such as turbopump rotors and nozzle exit ramps, C/SiC components will be subjected to a service cycle that includes mechanical loading under complex, high-pressure environments containing hydrogen, oxygen, and steam. Degradation of both the C fibers and the SiC matrix are possible in these environments. The objective of this effort was to evaluate the mechanical behavior of C/SiC in various environments relevant to reusable launch vehicle applications. Stress-rupture testing was conducted at the NASA Glenn Research Center on C/SiC specimens in air and steam-containing environments. Also, the oxidation kinetics of the carbon fibers that reinforce the composite were monitored by thermogravimetric analysis in the same environments and temperatures used for the stress-rupture tests of the C/SiC composite specimens. The stress-rupture lives obtained for C/SiC tested in air and in steam/argon mixtures are shown in the following bar chart. As is typical for most materials, lives obtained at the lower temperature (600 C) are longer than for the higher temperature (1200 C). The effect of environment was most pronounced at the lower temperature, where the average test duration in steam at 600 C was at least 30 times longer than the lives obtained in air. The 1200 C data revealed little difference between the lives of specimens tested in air and steam at atmospheric pressure.

  18. Dynamic Chemically Driven Dewetting, Spreading, and Self-Running of Sessile Droplets on Crystalline Silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arscott, Steve

    2016-12-06

    A chemically driven dewetting effect is demonstrated using sessile droplets of dilute hydrofluoric acid on chemically oxidized silicon wafers. The dewetting occurs as the thin oxide is slowly etched by the droplet and replaced by a hydrogen-terminated surface; the result of this is a gradual increase in the contact angle of the droplet with time. The time-varying work of adhesion is calculated from the time-varying contact angle; this corresponds to the changing chemical nature of the surface during dewetting and can be modeled by the well-known logistic (sigmoid) function often used for the modeling of restricted growth, in this case, the transition from an oxidized surface to a hydrogen-terminated silicon surface. The observation of the time-varying contact angle allows one to both measure the etch rate of the silicon oxide and estimate the hydrogenation rate as a function of HF concentration and wafer type. In addition to this, at a certain HF concentration, a self-running droplet effect is observed. In contrast, on hydrogen-terminated silicon wafers, a chemically induced spreading effect is observed using sessile droplets of nitric acid. The droplet spreading can also be modeled using a logistical function, where the restricted growth is the transition from hydrogen-terminated to a chemically induced oxidized silicon surface. The chemically driven dewetting and spreading observed here add to the methods available to study dynamic wetting (e.g., the moving three-phase contact line) of sessile droplets on surfaces. By slowing down chemical kinetics of the wetting, one is able to record the changing profile of the sessile droplet with time and gather information concerning the time-varying surface chemistry. The data also indicates a chemical interface hysteresis (CIH) that is compared to contact angle hysteresis (CAH). The approach can also be used to study the chemical etching and deposition behavior of thin films using liquids by monitoring the macroscopic

  19. Triple Layer Antireflection Design Concept for the Front Side of c-Si Heterojunction Solar Cell Based on the Antireflective Effect of nc-3C-SiC:H Emitter Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Omondi Ateto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the antireflective (AR effect of hydrogenated nanocrystalline cubic silicon carbide (nc-3C-SiC:H emitter and its application in the triple layer AR design for the front side of silicon heterojunction (SHJ solar cell. We found that the nc-3C-SiC:H emitter can serve both as an emitter and antireflective coating for SHJ solar cell, which enables us to realize the triple AR design by adding one additional dielectric layer to normally used SHJ structure with a transparent conductive oxide (TCO and an emitter layer. The optimized SHJ structure with the triple layer AR coating (LiF/ITO/nc-3C-SiC:H exhibit a short circuit current density (Jsc of 38.65 mA/cm2 and lower reflectivity of about 3.42% at wavelength range of 300 nm–1000 nm.

  20. Nanoscale silver-assisted wet etching of crystalline silicon for anti-reflection surface textures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Wang, Shuling; Chuwongin, Santhad; Zhou, Weidong

    2013-01-01

    We report here an electro-less metal-assisted chemical etching (MacEtch) process as light management surface-texturing technique for single crystalline Si photovoltaics. Random Silver nanostructures were formed on top of the Si surface based on the thin film evaporation and annealing process. Significant reflection reduction was obtained from the fabricated Si sample, with approximately 2% reflection over a wide spectra range (300 to 1050 nm). The work demonstrates the potential of MacEtch process for anti-reflection surface texture fabrication of large area, high efficiency, and low cost thin film solar cell.

  1. Correlation between the fine structure of spin-coated PEDOT:PSS and the photovoltaic performance of organic/crystalline-silicon heterojunction solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funda, Shuji; Ohki, Tatsuya; Liu, Qiming; Hossain, Jaker; Ishimaru, Yoshihiro; Ueno, Keiji; Shirai, Hajime [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan)

    2016-07-21

    We investigated the relationship between the fine structure of spin-coated conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiphene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) films and the photovoltaic performance of PEDOT:PSS crystalline-Si (PEDOT:PSS/c-Si) heterojunction solar cells. Real-time spectroscopic ellipsometry revealed that there were two different time constants for the formation of the PEDOT:PSS network. Upon removal of the polar solvent, the PEDOT:PSS film became optically anisotropic, indicating a conformational change in the PEDOT and PSS chain. Polarized Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflection absorption spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy measurements also indicated that thermal annealing promoted an in-plane π-conjugated C{sub α} = C{sub β} configuration attributed to a thiophene ring in PEDOT and an out-of-plane configuration of -SO{sub 3} groups in the PSS chain with increasing composition ratio of oxidized (benzoid) to neutral (quinoid) PEDOT, I{sub qui}/I{sub ben}. The highest power conversion efficiency for the spin-coated PEDOT:PSS/c-Si heterojunction solar cells was 13.3% for I{sub qui}/I{sub ben} = 9–10 without employing any light harvesting methods.

  2. On the c-Si surface passivation mechanism by the negative-charge-dielectric Al2O3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoex, B.; Gielis, J.J.H.; Sanden, van de M.C.M.; Kessels, W.M.M.

    2008-01-01

    Al2 O3 is a versatile high- ¿ dielectric that has excellent surface passivation properties on crystalline Si (c-Si), which are of vital importance for devices such as light emitting diodes and high-efficiency solar cells. We demonstrate both experimentally and by simulations that the surface

  3. X-ray scattering and diffraction from Xe-induced ripples in crystalline silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biermanns, Andreas; Pietsch, Ullrich; Grigorian, Souren [Universitaet Siegen (Germany); Grenzer, Joerg; Facsko, Stefan; Hanisch, Antje [Foschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany); Carbone, Dina; Metzger, Hartmut [ID Beamline, ESRF (France)

    2008-07-01

    The formation of surface-nanostructures with a characteristic size ranging from several nanometer up to microns has attracted significant interest in the last decades in the context of fabrication of novel opto-electronic and storage devices. One kind of those nanostructures are wave-like patterns (ripples) produced by an interplay between a roughening process caused by ion beam erosion (sputtering) of the surface and smoothening processes caused by surface diffusion. In this contribution we report on investigations of patterned Si(001) surfaces after irradiation with Xe{sup +}-ions using ion-energies up to 40 keV. During the sputtering, an amorphous surface-layer is formed followed by a rather sharp interface towards crystalline material, showing the same morphology as the surface. The structures of the amorphous layer and the amorphous-crystalline interface were studied by means of grazing-incidence-small angle scattering (GISAXS) and diffraction (GID) using synchrotron-radiation. We found that the crystal structure at the interface is expanded along the ripples, caused by the creation of defects inside the surface region, whereas this expansion is strongly reduced across the ripples. This different relaxation may play a driving role in pattern formation at the interface.

  4. Microstructural optimization of high temperature SiC/SiC composites by nite process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimoda, K.; Park, J.S.; Hinoki, T.; Kohyama, A.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: SiC/SiC composites are one of the promising structural materials for future fusion reactor because of the excellent potentiality in thermal and mechanical properties under very severe environment including high temperature and high energy neutron bombardment. For fusion-grade SiC/SiC composites, high-crystallinity and near-stoichiometric characteristic are required to keep excellent stability against neutron irradiation. The realization of the reactor will be strongly depend on optimization of SiC/SiC composites microstructure, particularly in regard to the materials and processes used for the fiber, interphase and matrix constituents. One of the important accomplishments is the new process, called nano-particle infiltration and transient eutectic phase (NITE) process developed in our group. The microstructure of NITE-SiC/SiC composites, such as fiber volume fraction, porosity and type of pores, can be controlled precisely by the selection of sintering temperature/applied stress history. The objective of this study is to investigate thermal stability and mechanical properties of NITE-SiC/SiC composites at high-temperature. Two kinds of highly-densified SiC/SiC composites with the difference of fiber volume fraction were prepared, and were subjected to exposure tests from 1000 deg. C to 1500 deg. C in an argon-oxygen gas mixture with an oxygen partial pressure of 0.1 Pa. The thermal stability of the composites was characterized through mass change and TEM/SEM observation. The in-situ tensile tests at 1300 deg. C and 1500 deg. C were carried out in the same atmosphere. Most of SiC/SiC composites, even for the advanced CVI-SiC/SiC composites with multi-layered SiC/C inter-phases, underwent reduction in the maximum strength by about 20% at 1300 deg. C. In particular, this reduction was attributed to a slight burnout of the carbon interphase due to oxygen impurities in test atmosphere. However, there was no significant degradation for

  5. Microstructural optimization of high temperature SiC/SiC composites by nite process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimoda, K. [Kyoto Univ., Graduate School of Energy Science (Japan); Park, J.S. [Kyoto Univ., Institute of Advanced Energy (Japan); Hinoki, T.; Kohyama, A. [Kyoto Univ., lnstitute of Advanced Energy, Gokasho, Uji (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: SiC/SiC composites are one of the promising structural materials for future fusion reactor because of the excellent potentiality in thermal and mechanical properties under very severe environment including high temperature and high energy neutron bombardment. For fusion-grade SiC/SiC composites, high-crystallinity and near-stoichiometric characteristic are required to keep excellent stability against neutron irradiation. The realization of the reactor will be strongly depend on optimization of SiC/SiC composites microstructure, particularly in regard to the materials and processes used for the fiber, interphase and matrix constituents. One of the important accomplishments is the new process, called nano-particle infiltration and transient eutectic phase (NITE) process developed in our group. The microstructure of NITE-SiC/SiC composites, such as fiber volume fraction, porosity and type of pores, can be controlled precisely by the selection of sintering temperature/applied stress history. The objective of this study is to investigate thermal stability and mechanical properties of NITE-SiC/SiC composites at high-temperature. Two kinds of highly-densified SiC/SiC composites with the difference of fiber volume fraction were prepared, and were subjected to exposure tests from 1000 deg. C to 1500 deg. C in an argon-oxygen gas mixture with an oxygen partial pressure of 0.1 Pa. The thermal stability of the composites was characterized through mass change and TEM/SEM observation. The in-situ tensile tests at 1300 deg. C and 1500 deg. C were carried out in the same atmosphere. Most of SiC/SiC composites, even for the advanced CVI-SiC/SiC composites with multi-layered SiC/C inter-phases, underwent reduction in the maximum strength by about 20% at 1300 deg. C. In particular, this reduction was attributed to a slight burnout of the carbon interphase due to oxygen impurities in test atmosphere. However, there was no significant degradation for

  6. Ion beam synthesis and characterization of large area 3C-SiC pseudo substrates for homo- and heteroepitaxy; Ionenstrahlsynthese und Charakterisierung grossflaechiger 3C-SiC-Pseudosubstrate fuer die Homo- und Heteroepitaxie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haeberlen, Maik

    2006-12-15

    In this work, large area epitaxial 3C-SiC films on Si(100) and Si(111) were formed by ion beam synthesis and subsequently characterized for their structural and crystalline properties. These SiC/Si structures are meant to be used as SiC pseudosubstrates for the homo- and heteroepitaxial growth of other compound semiconductors. The suitability of these pseudosubstrates for this purpose was tested using various epitaxial systems and thin film growth methods. For this the homoepitaxial growth of 3C-SiC employing C{sub 60}-MBE and the heteroepitaxial growth of hexagonal GaN films grown by MOCVD and IBAMBA was studied in detail. The comparison of the structural and crystalline properties with data from literature enabled a qualified judgement of the potential of the 3C-SiC pseudosubstrates as an alternative substrate for the epitaxial growth of such films. These new 3C-SiC pseudosubstrates also enabled studies of other little known epitaxial systems: For the first time hexagonal ZnO films on (111) oriented pseudosubstrates were grown using PLD. The method if IBAMBE enabled the growth of cubic GaN layers on (100)-oriented pseudosubstrates. (orig.)

  7. Crack Detection in Single-Crystalline Silicon Wafer Using Laser Generated Lamb Wave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Kyoo Song

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the semiconductor industry, with increasing requirements for high performance, high capacity, high reliability, and compact components, the crack has been one of the most critical issues in accordance with the growing requirement of the wafer-thinning in recent years. Previous researchers presented the crack detection on the silicon wafers with the air-coupled ultrasonic method successfully. However, the high impedance mismatching will be the problem in the industrial field. In this paper, in order to detect the crack, we propose a laser generated Lamb wave method which is not only noncontact, but also reliable for the measurement. The laser-ultrasonic generator and the laser-interferometer are used as a transmitter and a receiver, respectively. We firstly verified the identification of S0 and A0 lamb wave modes and then conducted the crack detection under the thermoelastic regime. The experimental results showed that S0 and A0 modes of lamb wave were clearly generated and detected, and in the case of the crack detection, the estimated crack size by 6 dB drop method was almost equal to the actual crack size. So, the proposed method is expected to make it possible to detect the crack in the silicon wafer in the industrial fields.

  8. Metal-Catalyst-Free Synthesis and Characterization of Single-Crystalline Silicon Oxynitride Nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Xi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Large quantities of single-crystal silicon oxynitride nanowires with high N concentration have been synthesized directly on silicon substrate at 1200°C without using any metal catalyst. The diameter of these ternary nanowires is ranging from 10 to 180 nm with log-normal distribution, and the length of these nanowires varies from a few hundreds of micrometers to several millimeters. A vapor-solid mechanism was proposed to explain the growth of the nanowires. These nanowires are grown to form a disordered mat with an ultrabright white nonspecular appearance. The mat demonstrates highly diffusive reflectivity with the optical reflectivity of around 80% over the whole visible wavelength, which is comparable to the most brilliant white beetle scales found in nature. The whiteness might be resulted from the strong multiscattering of a large fraction of incident light on the disordered nanowire mat. These ultra-bright white nanowires could form as reflecting surface to meet the stringent requirements of bright-white light-emitting-diode lighting for higher optical efficiency. They can also find applications in diverse fields such as sensors, cosmetics, paints, and tooth whitening.

  9. Simulation of light-induced degradation of μc-Si in a-Si/μc-Si tandem solar cells by the diode equivalent circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weicht, J. A.; Hamelmann, F. U.; Behrens, G.

    2016-02-01

    Silicon-based thin film tandem solar cells consist of one amorphous (a-Si) and one microcrystalline (μc-Si) silicon solar cell. The Staebler - Wronski effect describes the light- induced degradation and temperature-dependent healing of defects of silicon-based solar thin film cells. The solar cell degradation depends strongly on operation temperature. Until now, only the light-induced degradation (LID) of the amorphous layer was examined in a-Si/μc-Si solar cells. The LID is also observed in pc-Si single function solar cells. In our work we show the influence of the light-induced degradation of the μc-Si layer on the diode equivalent circuit. The current-voltage-curves (I-V-curves) for the initial state of a-Si/pc-Si modules are measured. Afterwards the cells are degraded under controlled conditions at constant temperature and constant irradiation. At fixed times the modules are measured at standard test conditions (STC) (AM1.5, 25°C cell temperature, 1000 W/m2) for controlling the status of LID. After the degradation the modules are annealed at dark conditions for several hours at 120°C. After the annealing the dangling bonds in the amorphous layer are healed, while the degradation of the pc-Si is still present, because the healing of defects in pc-Si solar cells needs longer time or higher temperatures. The solar cells are measured again at STC. With this laboratory measured I-V-curves we are able to separate the values of the diode model: series Rs and parallel resistance Rp, saturation current Is and diode factor n.

  10. Concentrator bifacial crystalline silicon solar cells with multi-wire metallization attached to TCO layers using transparent conductive polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Untila, Gennady; Chebotareva, Alla; Kost, Tatiana; Salazkin, Sergei; Shaposhnikova, Vera; Shvarts, Maxim

    2017-09-01

    Replacing expensive silver with inexpensive copper for the metallization of silicon wafer solar cells can lead to substantial reductions in material costs associated with cell production. A promising approach is the use of multi-wire design. This technology uses many wires in the place of busbars, and the copper wires are "soldered" during the low-temperature lamination process to the fingers (printed or plated) or to the transparent conductive oxide (TCO) layer, e.g. in the case of the α-Si/c-Si heterojunction cells. Here we describe a solar cell design in which wires are attached to TCO layers using transparent conductive polymer (TCP) films. To this end, we have synthesized a number of thermoplastics, poly(arylene ether ketone) copolymers (co-PAEKs), containing phthalide in their main chain. The fraction of phthalide-containing units in the copolymers was p = 3, 5, 15, and 50 mol %. With increasing p, the peak strain temperature of the co-PAEKs rises from 205 to 290 °C and their optical band gap and refractive index increase from 3.12 to 3.15 eV and from 1.6 to 1.614, respectively. The copolymers have a negligible absorption coefficient in the wavelength range 400- 1100 nm. When exposed to an excess pressure of 1 atm or above, co-PAEK films less than 30 µm in thickness undergo a transition from a dielectric to a conductive state. The resistivity (ρC) of wire/TCP/TCO (ITO = In2O3:Sn and IFO = In2O3:F) contacts ranges from 0.37 to 1.43 mΩ cm2. The polymer with the highest phthalide content (p = 50 mol %) has the lowest ρC. The average work of adhesion per unit area determined by pulling off the wires from the polymer surface depends on both the phthalide content of the co-PAEKs and their reduced viscosity, ranging from 14.3 to 43.5 N/cm. The highest value was obtained for the co-PAEK with p = 50 mol %. We have fabricated low-concentration bifacial IFO/(n+pp+)Cz-Si/ITO solar cells with a wire contact grid attached to IFO and ITO using a co-PAEK film. The

  11. Photoluminescence studies on porous silicon/polymer heterostructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, J.K.; Bhunia, S.; Banerjee, S.; Banerji, P.

    2008-01-01

    Hybrid devices formed by filling porous silicon with MEH-PPV or poly [2-methoxy-5(2-ethylhexyloxy-p-phenylenevinylene)] have been investigated in this work. Analyses of the structures by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) demonstrated that the porous silicon layer was filled by the polymer with no significant change of the structures except that the polymer was infiltrated in the pores. The photoluminescence (PL) of the structures at 300 K showed that the emission intensity was very high as compared with that of the MEH-PPV films on different substrates such as crystalline silicon (c-Si) and indium tin oxide (ITO). The PL peak in the MEH-PPV/porous silicon composite structure is found to be shifted towards higher energy in comparison with porous silicon PL. A number of possibilities are discussed to explain the observations

  12. The potential for the fabrication of wires embedded in the crystalline silicon substrate using the solid phase segregation of gold in crystallising amorphous volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, A.C.Y.; McCallum, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    The refinement of gold in crystallising amorphous silicon volumes was tested as a means of creating a conducting element embedded in the crystalline matrix. Amorphous silicon volumes were created by self-ion-implantation through a mask. Five hundred kiloelectronvolt Au + was then implanted into the volumes. The amorphous volumes were crystallised on a hot stage in air, and the crystallisation was characterised using cross sectional transmission electron microscopy. It was found that the amorphous silicon volumes crystallised via solid phase epitaxy at all the lateral and vertical interfaces. The interplay of the effects of the gold and also the hydrogen that infilitrated from the surface oxide resulted in a plug of amorphous material at the surface. Further annealing at this temperature demonstrated that the gold, once it had reached a certain critical concentration nucleated poly-crystalline growth instead of solid phase epitaxy. Time resolved reflectivity and Rutherford backscattering and channeling measurements were performed on large area samples that had been subject to the same implantation regime to investigate this system further. It was discovered that the crystallisation dynamics and zone refinement of the gold were complicated functions of both gold concentration and temperature. These findings do not encourage the use of this method to obtain conducting elements embedded in the crystalline silicon substrate

  13. X-ray spectroscopy of electronic structure of amorphous silicon and silicyne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashin, A.I.; Khokhlov, A.F.; Mashin, N.I.; Domashevskaya, Eh.P.; Terekhov, V.A.

    2001-01-01

    SiK β and SiL 23 emission spectra of crystalline silicon (c-Si), amorphous hydrogenated silicon (α-Si:H) and silicyne have been studied by X-ray and ultrasoft X-ray spectroscopy. It is observed that SiL 23 emission spectra of silicyne displays not two maximums, as it usually observed for the c-Si and α-Si:H, but three ones. The third one is seen at high energies near 95.7 eV, and has an intensity about 75%. An additional maximum in the short- wave part of SiK β emission spectrum is observed. This difference of shapes of X-ray spectra between α-Si:H and silicyne is explained by the presence in silicyne a strong π-component of chemical bonds of a silicon atoms in silicyne [ru

  14. X-ray spectroscopy of electronic structure of amorphous silicon and silicyne

    CERN Document Server

    Mashin, A I; Mashin, N I; Domashevskaya, E P; Terekhov, V A

    2001-01-01

    SiK subbeta and SiL sub 2 sub 3 emission spectra of crystalline silicon (c-Si), amorphous hydrogenated silicon (alpha-Si:H) and silicyne have been studied by X-ray and ultrasoft X-ray spectroscopy. It is observed that SiL sub 2 sub 3 emission spectra of silicyne displays not two maximums, as it usually observed for the c-Si and alpha-Si:H, but three ones. The third one is seen at high energies near 95.7 eV, and has an intensity about 75%. An additional maximum in the short- wave part of SiK subbeta emission spectrum is observed. This difference of shapes of X-ray spectra between alpha-Si:H and silicyne is explained by the presence in silicyne a strong pi-component of chemical bonds of a silicon atoms in silicyne

  15. Ion beam synthesis and characterization of large area 3C-SiC pseudo substrates for homo- and heteroepitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeberlen, Maik

    2006-12-01

    In this work, large area epitaxial 3C-SiC films on Si(100) and Si(111) were formed by ion beam synthesis and subsequently characterized for their structural and crystalline properties. These SiC/Si structures are meant to be used as SiC pseudosubstrates for the homo- and heteroepitaxial growth of other compound semiconductors. The suitability of these pseudosubstrates for this purpose was tested using various epitaxial systems and thin film growth methods. For this the homoepitaxial growth of 3C-SiC employing C 60 -MBE and the heteroepitaxial growth of hexagonal GaN films grown by MOCVD and IBAMBA was studied in detail. The comparison of the structural and crystalline properties with data from literature enabled a qualified judgement of the potential of the 3C-SiC pseudosubstrates as an alternative substrate for the epitaxial growth of such films. These new 3C-SiC pseudosubstrates also enabled studies of other little known epitaxial systems: For the first time hexagonal ZnO films on (111) oriented pseudosubstrates were grown using PLD. The method if IBAMBE enabled the growth of cubic GaN layers on (100)-oriented pseudosubstrates. (orig.)

  16. Hall mobility reduction in single-crystalline silicon gradually compensated by thermal donors activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veirman, J.; Dubois, S.; Enjalbert, N.; Garandet, J. P.; Heslinga, D. R.; Lemiti, M.

    2010-06-01

    This letter focuses on the variation of the Hall majority carrier mobility with the dopant compensation level in purely Boron-doped Czochralski grown silicon single crystals. Compensation was varied continuously at the sample scale via a step by step activation of the oxygen-based thermal donors. At room temperature, we show a strong drop in mobility for high compensation levels in both p- and n-type Si. Mobility models taking into account carrier scattering on ionized impurities and phonons could not reproduce this drop. We conclude that a specific effect of compensation must be taken into account to explain the observed behaviour. We qualitatively discuss physical mechanisms susceptible to reduce mobility in highly compensated Si.

  17. Eighth workshop on crystalline silicon solar cell materials and processes: Extended abstracts and papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    The theme of this workshop is Supporting the Transition to World Class Manufacturing. This workshop provides a forum for an informal exchange of information between researchers in the photovoltaic and non-photovoltaic fields on various aspects of impurities and defects in silicon, their dynamics during device processing, and their application in defect engineering. This interaction helps establish a knowledge base that can be used for improving device fabrication processes to enhance solar-cell performance and reduce cell costs. It also provides an excellent opportunity for researchers from industry and universities to recognize mutual needs for future joint research. The workshop format features invited review presentations, panel discussions, and two poster sessions. The poster sessions create an opportunity for both university and industrial researchers to present their latest results and provide a natural forum for extended discussions and technical exchanges.

  18. Synthesis, structure and photoelectrochemical properties of single crystalline silicon nanowire arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalchiele, E.A.; Martin, F.; Leinen, D.; Marotti, R.E.; Ramos-Barrado, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    In the present work, n-type silicon nanowire (n-SiNW) arrays have been synthesized by self-assembly electroless metal deposition (EMD) nanoelectrochemistry. The synthesized n-SiNW arrays have been submitted to scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and optical studies. Initial probes of the solar device conversion properties and the photovoltaic parameters such as short-circuit current, open-circuit potential, and fill factor of the n-SiNW arrays have been explored using a liquid-junction in a photoelectrochemical (PEC) system under white light. Moreover, a direct comparison between the PEC performance of a polished n-Si(100) and the synthesized n-SiNW array photoelectrodes has been done. The PEC performance was significantly enhanced on the n-SiNWs photoelectrodes compared with that on polished n-Si(100).

  19. Measurements of the ballistic-phonon component resulting from nuclear and electron recoils in crystalline silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, A.T.; Cabrera, B.; Dougherty, B.L.; Penn, M.J.; Pronko, J.G.; Tamura, S.

    1996-01-01

    We present measurements of the ballistic-phonon component resulting from nuclear and electron recoils in silicon at ∼380 mK. The detectors used for these experiments consist of a 300-μm-thick monocrystal of silicon instrumented with superconducting titanium transition-edge sensors. These sensors detect the initial wavefront of athermal phonons and give a pulse height that is sensitive to changes in surface-energy density resulting from the focusing of ballistic phonons. Nuclear recoils were generated by neutron bombardment of the detector. A Van de Graaff proton accelerator and a thick 7 Li target were used. Pulse-height spectra were compared for neutron, x-ray, and γ-ray events. A previous analysis of this data set found evidence for an increase in the ballistic-phonon component for nuclear recoils compared to electron recoils at a 95% confidence level. An improved understanding of the detector response has led to a change in the result. In the present analysis, the data are consistent with no increase at the 68% confidence level. This change stems from an increase in the uncertainty of the result rather than a significant change in the central value. The increase in ballistic phonon energy for nuclear recoils compared to electron recoils as a fraction of the total phonon energy (for equal total phonon energy events) was found to be 0.024 +0.041 -0.055 (68% confidence level). This result sets a limit of 11.6% (95% confidence level) on the ballistic phonon enhancement for nuclear recoils predicted by open-quote open-quote hot spot close-quote close-quote and electron-hole droplet models, which is the most stringent to date. To measure the ballistic-phonon component resulting from electron recoils, the pulse height as a function of event depth was compared to that of phonon simulations. (Abstract Truncated)

  20. Influence of the impurity-defect and impurity-impurity interactions on the crystalline silicon solar cells conversion efficiency; Influence des interactions impurete-defaut et impurete-impurete sur le rendement de conversion des cellules photovoltaiques au silicium cristallin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubois, S

    2007-05-15

    This study aims at understanding the influence of the impurity - defect interaction on the silicon solar cell performances. We studied first the case of single-crystalline silicon. We combined numerical simulations and experimental data providing new knowledge concerning metal impurities in silicon, to quantify the evolution of the conversion efficiency with the impurity concentration. Mainly due to the gettering effects, iron appears to be quite well tolerated. It is not the case for gold, diffusing too slowly. Hydrogenation effects were limited. We transposed then this study toward multi-crystalline silicon. Iron seems rather well tolerated, due to the gettering effects but also due to the efficiency of the hydrogenation. When slow diffusers are present, multi crystalline silicon is sensitive to thermal degradation. n-type silicon could solve this problem, this material being less sensitive to metal impurities. (author)

  1. 10th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cell Materials and Processes: Extended Abstracts and Papers from the Workshop, Copper Mountain Resort; August 14-16, 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sopori, B.L.; Gee, J.; Kalejs, J.; Saitoh, R.; Stavola, M.; Swanson, D.; Tan, T.; Weber, E.; Werner, J.

    2000-08-11

    The 10th Workshop provided a forum for an informal exchange of technical and scientific information between international researchers in the photovoltaic and non-photovoltaic fields. Discussions included the various aspects of impurities and defects in silicon-their properties, the dynamics during device processing, and their application for developing low-cost processes for manufacturing high-efficiency silicon solar cells. Sessions and panel discussions also reviewed thin-film crystalline-silicon PV, advanced cell structures, new processes and process characterization techniques, and future manufacturing requirements to meet the ambitious expansion goals described in the recently released US PV Industry Roadmap. The Workshop also provided an excellent opportunity for researchers in private industry and at universities to recognize a mutual need for future collaborative research. The three-day workshop consisted of presentations by invited speakers, followed by discussion sessions. In addition, there was two poster sessions presenting the latest research and development results. The subjects discussed included: solar cell processing, light-induced degradation, gettering and passivation, crystalline silicon growth, thin-film silicon solar cells, and impurities and defects. Two special sessions featured at this workshop: advanced metallization and interconnections, and characterization methods.

  2. Fracture Characteristics of C/SiC Composites for Rocket Nozzle at Elevated Temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Dong Hyun; Lee, Jeong Won; Kim, Jae Hoon [Chungnam Nat’l Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Sihn, Ihn Cheol; Lim, Byung Joo [Dai-Yang Industries Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    In a solid propulsion system, the rocket nozzle is exposed to high temperature combustion gas. Hence, choosing an appropriate material that could demonstrate adequate performance at high temperature is important. As advanced materials, carbon/silicon carbide composites (C/SiC) have been studied with the aim of using them for the rocket nozzle throat. However, when compared with typical structural materials, C/SiC composites are relatively weak in terms of both strength and toughness, owing to their quasi-brittle behavior and oxidation at high temperatures. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the thermal and mechanical properties of this material before using it in this application. This study presents an experimental method to investigate the fracture behavior of C/SiC composite material manufactured using liquid silicon infiltration (LSI) method at elevated temperatures. In particular, the effects of major parameters, such as temperature, loading, oxidation conditions, and fiber direction on strength and fracture characteristics were investigated. Fractography analysis of the fractured specimens was performed using an SEM.

  3. Policrystalline silicon used in microelectronic deposited in the LPCVD.-2: Uniformity and crystallinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastor, G.; Dominguez, C.; Lora-Tamayo, E.; Dominguez, E.

    1987-01-01

    The present work is a study about the uniformity of the silicon deposition in the LPCVD system starting out from the pure silane. It is concluded that it is necessary to take account of all the parameters involved (pressure, temperature, gas flow, number, position and spacing between wafers). From the point of view of the uniformity, three kinds of depositions are observed: poly uniform zone, poly non-uniform zone and amorphous precipitates zone. In the non-uniform zone the increase of the non-uniformity obeys an exponential low when only one of the parameters of the system changes. However, in the amorphous precipitates zone the non-uniformity tends to a constant value. By drawing the values of pressure (P) and gas flow (C), for a fixed temperature, that separates both the uniform/non-uniform and amorphous/policrystalline zones, the equation P n C m #alpha # K(T) are fulfilled where K is a function of temperature. 10 refs

  4. Fabrication of antireflective nanostructures for crystalline silicon solar cells by reactive ion etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Hsin-Han; Chen, Wen-Hua; Wang, Chi-Jen; Hong, Franklin Chau-Nan

    2013-01-01

    In this study we have fabricated large-area (15 × 15 cm 2 ) subwavelength antireflection structure on poly-Si substrates to reduce their solar reflectivity. A reactive ion etching system was used to fabricate nanostructures on the poly-silicon surface. Reactive gases, composed of chlorine (Cl 2 ), sulfur hexafluoride (SF 6 ) and oxygen (O 2 ), were activated to fabricate nanoscale pyramids by RF plasma. The poly-Si substrates were etched in various gas compositions for 6–10 min to form nano-pyramids. The sizes of pyramids were about 200–300 nm in heights and about 100 nm in width. Besides the nanoscale features, the high pyramid density on the poly-Si surface is another important factor to reduce the reflectivity. Low-reflectivity surface was fabricated with reflectivity significantly reduced down to < 2% for photons in a wavelength range of 500–900 nm. - Highlights: ► Large-area (15 × 15 cm 2 ) antireflection structures fabricated on poly-Si substrates ► Si nano-pyramids produced by utilizing self-masked reactive ion etching process ► High density of nanoscale pyramids was formed on the entire substrate surface. ► Surface reflectivity below 2% was achieved in the wavelength range of 500–900 nm

  5. C-Si solar cell modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Takashi

    2005-01-01

    In order to meet the rapidly growing demand for solar power photovoltaic systems which is based on public consciousness of global environmental issues, SHARP has increased the production of solar cells and modules over 10-fold in the last 5 years. Silicon-based technologies are expected to be dominant in the coming decade. In the course of an increase of the annual production scale to 1000 MW, the efficiency of modules will be improved and the thickness of wafers will be decreased and all this will lead to a drastic price reduction of PV systems. (Author)

  6. Effects of LiF/Al back electrode on the amorphous/crystalline silicon heterojunction solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sunbo; Lee, Jaehyeong; Dao, Vinh Ai; Lee, Seungho; Balaji, Nagarajan; Ahn, Shihyun; Hussain, Shahzada Qamar; Han, Sangmyeong; Jung, Junhee; Jang, Juyeon; Lee, Yunjung; Yi, Junsin

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We have employed a LiF dielectric layer as a new back-contact electrode. ► Increasing LiF thickness will decrease barrier for electrons transport, thus yield J sc . ► Increasing LiF thickness will reduced shunt leakage and enhanced internal field, thus yield V oc . ► Employing LiF layer, improvement of performance of HIT solar cells up to 17.13%. -- Abstract: To improve the quantum efficiency (QE) and hence the efficiency of the amorphous/crystalline silicon heterojunction solar cell, we have employed a LiF dielectric layer on the rear side. The high dipole moment of the LiF reduces the aluminum electrode's work–function and then lowers the energy barrier at back contact. This lower energy barrier height helps to enhance both the operating voltage and the QE at longer wavelength region, in turn improves the open-circuit voltage (V oc ), short-circuit current density (J sc ), and then overall cell efficiency. With optimized LiF layer thickness of 20 nm, 1 cm 2 heterojunction with intrinsic thin layer (HIT) solar cells were produced with industry-compatible process, yielding V oc of 690 mV, J sc of 33.62 mA/cm 2 , and cell efficiencies of 17.13%. Therefore LiF/Al electrode on rear side is proposed as an alternate back electrode for high efficiency HIT solar cells

  7. Effects of spectral variation on the device performance of copper indium diselenide and multi-crystalline silicon photovoltaic modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okullo, W.; Munji, M.K.; Vorster, F.J.; van Dyk, E.E. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Box 77000, Port Elizabeth (South Africa)

    2011-02-15

    We present results of an experimental investigation of the effects of the daily spectral variation on the device performance of copper indium diselenide and multi-crystalline silicon photovoltaic modules. Such investigations are of importance in characterization of photovoltaic devices. The investigation centres on the analysis of outdoor solar spectral measurements carried out at 10 min intervals on clear-sky days. We have shown that the shift in the solar spectrum towards infrared has a negative impact on the device performance of both modules. The spectral bands in the visible region contribute more to the short circuit current than the bands in the infrared region while the ultraviolet region contributes least. The quantitative effects of the spectral variation on the performance of the two photovoltaic modules are reflected on their respective device performance parameters. The decrease in the visible and the increase in infrared of the late afternoon spectra in each case account for the decreased current collection and hence power and efficiency of both modules. (author)

  8. Biomimetic spiral grating for stable and highly efficient absorption in crystalline silicon thin-film solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Hou, Jin; Hong, Wei; Li, Xiaohang; Yang, Chunyong; Chen, Shaoping

    2017-01-01

    By emulating the phyllotaxis structure of natural plants, which has an efficient and stable light capture capability, a two-dimensional spiral grating is introduced on the surface of crystalline silicon solar cells to obtain both efficient and stable light absorption. Using the rigorous coupled wave analysis method, the absorption performance on structural parameter variations of spiral gratings is investigated firstly. Owing to diffraction resonance and excellent superficies antireflection, the integrated absorption of the optimal spiral grating cell is raised by about 77 percent compared with the conventional slab cell. Moreover, though a 15 percent deviation of structural parameters from the optimal spiral grating is applied, only a 5 percent decrease of the absorption is observed. This reveals that the performance of the proposed grating would tolerate large structural variations. Furthermore, the angular and polarization dependence on the absorption of the optimized cell is studied. For average polarizations, a small decrease of only 11 percent from the maximum absorption is observed within an incident angle ranging from −70 to 70 degrees. The results show promising application potentials of the biomimetic spiral grating in the solar cell.

  9. Biomimetic spiral grating for stable and highly efficient absorption in crystalline silicon thin-film solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Hou, Jin

    2017-09-12

    By emulating the phyllotaxis structure of natural plants, which has an efficient and stable light capture capability, a two-dimensional spiral grating is introduced on the surface of crystalline silicon solar cells to obtain both efficient and stable light absorption. Using the rigorous coupled wave analysis method, the absorption performance on structural parameter variations of spiral gratings is investigated firstly. Owing to diffraction resonance and excellent superficies antireflection, the integrated absorption of the optimal spiral grating cell is raised by about 77 percent compared with the conventional slab cell. Moreover, though a 15 percent deviation of structural parameters from the optimal spiral grating is applied, only a 5 percent decrease of the absorption is observed. This reveals that the performance of the proposed grating would tolerate large structural variations. Furthermore, the angular and polarization dependence on the absorption of the optimized cell is studied. For average polarizations, a small decrease of only 11 percent from the maximum absorption is observed within an incident angle ranging from −70 to 70 degrees. The results show promising application potentials of the biomimetic spiral grating in the solar cell.

  10. Improving Crystalline Silicon Solar Cell Efficiency Using Graded-Refractive-Index SiON/ZnO Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Chun Tu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The fabrication of silicon oxynitride (SiON/ZnO nanotube (NT arrays and their application in improving the energy conversion efficiency (η of crystalline Si-based solar cells (SCs are reported. The SiON/ZnO NT arrays have a graded-refractive-index that varies from 3.5 (Si to 1.9~2.0 (Si3N4 and ZnO to 1.72~1.75 (SiON to 1 (air. Experimental results show that the use of 0.4 μm long ZnO NT arrays coated with a 150 nm thick SiON film increases Δη/η by 39.2% under AM 1.5 G (100 mW/cm2 illumination as compared to that of regular SCs with a Si3N4/micropyramid surface. This enhancement can be attributed to SiON/ZnO NT arrays effectively releasing surface reflection and minimizing Fresnel loss.

  11. Femtosecond laser-induced cross-periodic structures on a crystalline silicon surface under low pulse number irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xu; Jiang, Lan; Li, Xiaowei; Han, Weina; Liu, Yang; Wang, Andong; Lu, Yongfeng

    2015-01-01

    A cross-patterned surface periodic structure in femtosecond laser processing of crystalline silicon was revealed under a relatively low shots (4 energy slightly higher than the ablation threshold. The experimental results indicated that the cross-pattern was composed of mutually orthogonal periodic structures (ripples). Ripples with a direction perpendicular to laser polarization (R⊥) spread in the whole laser-modified region, with the periodicity around 780 nm which was close to the central wavelength of the laser. Other ripples with a direction parallel to laser polarization (R‖) were found to be distributed between two of the adjacent ripples R⊥, with a periodicity about the sub-wavelength of the irradiated laser, 390 nm. The geometrical morphology of two mutually orthogonal ripples under static femtosecond laser irradiation could be continuously rotated as the polarization directions changed, but the periodicity remained almost unchanged. The underlying physical mechanism was revealed by numerical simulations based on the finite element method. It was found that the incubation effect with multiple shots, together with the redistributed electric field after initial ablation, plays a crucial role in the generation of the cross-patterned periodic surface structures.

  12. Behavior of the potential-induced degradation of photovoltaic modules fabricated using flat mono-crystalline silicon cells with different surface orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Seira; Masuda, Atsushi; Ohdaira, Keisuke

    2016-04-01

    This paper deals with the dependence of the potential-induced degradation (PID) of flat, p-type mono-crystalline silicon solar cell modules on the surface orientation of solar cells. The investigated modules were fabricated from p-type mono-crystalline silicon cells with a (100) or (111) surface orientation using a module laminator. PID tests were performed by applying a voltage of -1000 V to shorted module interconnector ribbons with respect to an Al plate placed on the cover glass of the modules at 85 °C. A decrease in the parallel resistance of the (100)-oriented cell modules is more significant than that of the (111)-oriented cell modules. Hence, the performance of the (100)-oriented-cell modules drastically deteriorates, compared with that of the (111)-oriented-cell modules. This implies that (111)-oriented cells offer a higher PID resistance.

  13. SiC/SiC composites through transient eutectic-phase route for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katoh, Y.; Kohyama, A.; Nozawa, T.; Sato, M.

    2004-01-01

    Factors that may limit attractiveness of silicon-carbide-based ceramic composites to fusion applications include thermal conductivity, applicable design stress, chemical compatibility, hermeticity, radiation stability and fabrication cost. A novel SiC/SiC composite, which has recently been developed through nano-infiltration and transient eutectic-phase (NITE) processing route, surpasses conventional materials in many of these properties. In this paper, the latest development, property evaluation and prospect of the NITE SiC/SiC composites are briefly reviewed. The topics range from fundamental aspects of process development to industrial process development. Elevated temperature strength, fracture behavior, and thermo-physical properties in various environments are summarized. Future directions of materials and application technology development are also discussed

  14. Numerical modeling of uncertainty and variability in the technology, manufacturing, and economics of crystalline silicon photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristow, Alan H.

    2008-10-01

    Electricity generated from photovoltaics (PV) promises to satisfy the world's ever-growing thirst for energy without significant pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. At present, however, PV is several times too expensive to compete economically with conventional sources of electricity delivered via the power grid. To ensure long-term success, must achieve cost parity with electricity generated by conventional sources of electricity. This requires detailed understanding of the relationship between technology and economics as it pertains to PV devices and systems. The research tasks of this thesis focus on developing and using four types of models in concert to develop a complete picture of how solar cell technology and design choices affect the quantity and cost of energy produced by PV systems. It is shown in this thesis that high-efficiency solar cells can leverage balance-of-systems (BOS) costs to gain an economic advantage over solar cells with low efficiencies. This advantage is quantified and dubbed the "efficiency premium." Solar cell device models are linked to models of manufacturing cost and PV system performance to estimate both PV system cost and performance. These, in turn, are linked to a model of levelized electricity cost to estimate the per-kilowatt-hour cost of electricity produced by the PV system. A numerical PV module manufacturing cost model is developed to facilitate this analysis. The models and methods developed in this thesis are used to propose a roadmap to high-efficiency multicrystalline-silicon PV modules that achieve cost parity with electricity from the grid. The impact of PV system failures on the cost of electricity is also investigated; from this, a methodology is proposed for improving the reliability of PV inverters.

  15. On the potential of Hg-Photo-CVD process for the low temperature growth of nano-crystalline silicon (Topical review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barhdadi, A.

    2005-08-01

    Mercury-Sensitized Photo-Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition (Hg-Photo-CVD) technique opens new possibilities for reducing thin film growth temperature and producing novel semiconductor materials suitable for the future generation of high efficiency thin film solar cells onto low cost flexible plastic substrates. This paper provides an overview of this technique, with the emphasis on its potential in low temperature elaboration of nano-crystalline silicon for the development of thin films photovoltaic technology. (author)

  16. Metal impurities profile in a 450kg multi-crystalline silicon ingot by Cold Neutron Prompt Gamma-ray Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Hani; Sun, Gwang Min; Kim, Ji seok; Oh, Mok; Chung, Yong Sam; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sun Ha; Baek, Sung Yeol; Tuan, Hoang Sy Minh

    2014-01-01

    Metal impurities are harmful to multi-crystalline silicon solar cells. They reduce solar cell conversion efficiencies through increased carrier recombination. They are present as isolated point-like impurities or precipitates. This work is to study the concentration profiles of some metal impurities of the directionally solidified 450kg multi-crystalline silicon ingot grown for solar cell production. The concentration of such impurities are generally below 10 15 cm -3 , and as such cannot be detected by physical techniques such as secondary-ion-mass spectroscopy(SIMS). So, we have tried to apply Cold Neutron - Prompt Gamma ray Activation Analysis(CN-PGAA) at the HANARO reactor research. The impurity concentrations of Au, Mn, Pt, Mo of a photovoltaic grade multi-crystalline silicon ingot appear by segregation from the liquid to the solid phase in the central region of the ingot during the crystallization. In the impurities concentration of the bottom region is higher than middle region due to the solid state diffusion. Towards the top region the segregation impurities diffused, during cooling process

  17. Mechanical behavior of SiCf/SiC composites with alternating PyC/SiC multilayer interphases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Haijiao; Zhou, Xingui; Zhang, Wei; Peng, Huaxin; Zhang, Changrui

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Superior combination of flexural strength and fracture toughness of the 3D SiC/SiC composite was achieved by interface tailoring. ► Resulted composite possesses a much higher flexural strength and fracture toughness than its counterparts in literatures. ► Mechanisms that PyC/SiC multilayer coatings improve the mechanical properties were illustrated. -- Abstract: In order to tailor the fiber–matrix interface of continuous silicon carbide fiber reinforced silicon carbide (SiC f /SiC) composites for improved fracture toughness, alternating pyrolytic carbon/silicon carbide (PyC/SiC) multilayer coatings were applied to the KD-I SiC fibers using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Three dimensional (3D) KD-I SiC f /SiC composites reinforced by these coated fibers were fabricated using a precursor infiltration and pyrolysis (PIP) process. The interfacial characteristics were determined by the fiber push-out test and microstructural examination using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effect of interface coatings on composite mechanical properties was evaluated by single-edge notched beam (SENB) test and three-point bending test. The results indicate that the PyC/SiC multilayer coatings led to an optimum interfacial bonding between fibers and matrix and greatly improved the fracture toughness of the composites.

  18. BURNER RIG TESTING OF A500 C/SiC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-17

    AFRL-RX-WP-TR-2018-0071 BURNER RIG TESTING OF A500® C /SiC Larry P. Zawada Universal Technology Corporation Jennifer Pierce UDRI...TITLE AND SUBTITLE BURNER RIG TESTING OF A500® C /SiC 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-House 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62102F 6...test program characterized the durability behavior of A500® C /SiC ceramic matrix composite material at room and elevated temperature. Specimens were

  19. 11th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cell Materials and Processes, Extended Abstracts and Papers, 19-22 August 2001, Estes Park, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sopori, B.

    2001-08-16

    The 11th Workshop will provide a forum for an informal exchange of technical and scientific information between international researchers in the photovoltaic and non-photovoltaic fields. Discussions will include the various aspects of impurities and defects in silicon--their properties, the dynamics during device processing, and their application for developing low-cost processes for manufacturing high-efficiency silicon solar cells. Sessions and panel discussions will review impurities and defects in crystalline-silicon PV, advanced cell structures, new processes and process characterization techniques, and future manufacturing demands. The workshop will emphasize some of the promising new technologies in Si solar cell fabrication that can lower PV energy costs and meet the throughput demands of the future. The three-day workshop will consist of presentations by invited speakers, followed by discussion sessions. Topics to be discussed are: Si Mechanical properties and Wafer Handling, Advanced Topics in PV Fundamentals, Gettering and Passivation, Impurities and Defects, Advanced Emitters, Crystalline Silicon Growth, and Solar Cell Processing. The workshop will also include presentations by NREL subcontractors who will review the highlights of their research during the current subcontract period. In addition, there will be two poster sessions presenting the latest research and development results. Some presentations will address recent technologies in the microelectronics field that may have a direct bearing on PV.

  20. Electronic structure of the amorphous-crystalline Silicon heterostructure contact; Die elektronische Struktur des amorph-kristallinen Silizium-Heterostruktur-Kontakts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korte, L.

    2006-07-01

    In the present work, the electronic density of states of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) layers in the thickness range from 300 down to {proportional_to}2 nm was examined by Near-UV-photoelectron spectroscopy (NUV-PES). The measurements yield a mean density (averaged over all directions in k space) of the extended states in the valence band close to the band edge E{sub v}, down to approximately E{sub v}-1 eV, as well as the density of states in the band-gap between E{sub v} and the Fermi level E{sub f}. An analytic model for the density of states was fitted to the measured yield data. The model describes the extended states close to the band edge as well as the localized states in the band gap. The defect parameters obtained from the fits to the 300 nm sample are elevated with respect to literature data. In contrast to PES the photocurrent measurement yield the defect parameters averaged over the entire layer thickness. Finally, the photocurrent measurements can be evaluated in the Tauc plot to yield the optical band-gap, E{sub g}{sup opt}=1.76(5) eV. The methodology developed in the first part of the thesis (PES measurement and fit of the model density of states) was then applied to various series of approximately 10 nm thin a-Si:H layers on c-Si substrates, where the deposition temperature of the layers and the concentration of their doping both by phosphorus and boron were varied. The experimental results can be summarized as follows: Ultrathin a-Si:H layers show an optimum of the deposition-temperature around 230 C. The optimum is characterized by an Urbach energy of 66(1) meV and a defect-density of 2,9(3).10{sup 18} cm{sup -3}. For undoped layers, the Fermi level lies E{sub F}-E{sub V}{sup {mu}}=1.04(6) eV, the films are therefore slightly n-type. Conductivity measurements at identically prepared thick layers on glass allow to determine the distance of the Fermi level to the conduction band mobility edge, E{sub C}{sup {mu}}-E{sub F}. Both for the

  1. Effect of Ion Beam Irradiation on Silicon Carbide with Different Microstructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kyeong Hwan; Park, Ji Yeon; Kim, Weon Ju; Jung, Choong Hwan; Ryu, Woo Seog

    2006-01-01

    SiC and SiC/SiC composites are one of promising candidates for structural materials of the next generation energy systems such as the gas-cooled reactors and fusion reactors. This anticipation yields many material issues, and radiation effects of silicon carbide are recognized as an important research subject. Silicon carbide has diverse crystal structures (called polytypes), such as α-SiC (hexagonal structure), β-SiC (cubic structure) and amorphous SiC. Among these polytypes, β-SiC has been studied as matrix material in SiC/SiC composites. Near-stoichiometric β-SiC with high crystallinity and purity is considered as suitable material in the next generation energy system and matrix material in SiC/SiC composites because of its excellent radiation resistance. Highly pure and crystalline β-SiC and SiC/SiC composites could be obtained by the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and Infiltration (CVI) process using a gas mixture of methyltrichlorosilane (CH 3 SiCl 3 , MTS) and purified H 2 . SiC produced by the CVD method has different grain size and microstructural morphology depended on the process conditions such as temperature, pressure and the input gas ratio. In this work, irradiation effects of silicon carbide were investigated using ion beam irradiation with emphasis on the influence of grain size and grain boundary. MeV ion irradiation at low temperature makes amorphous phase in silicon carbide. The microstructures and mechanical property changes of silicon carbide with different structures were analyzed after ion beam irradiation

  2. About the optical properties of oxidized black silicon structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincik, E.; Brunner, R.; Kobayashi, H.; Mikula, M.; Kučera, M.; Švec, P.; Greguš, J.; Vojtek, P.; Zábudlá, Z.; Imamura, K.; Zahoran, M.

    2017-02-01

    The paper deals with the optical and morphological properties of thermally oxidized black silicon (OBSi) nano-crystalline specimens produced by the surface structure chemical transfer method (SSCT). This method can produce a nano-crystalline Si black color layer on c-Si with a range of thickness of ∼50 nm to ∼300 nm by the contact of c-Si immersed in chemical solutions HF + H2O2 with a catalytic mesh. We present and discuss mainly the photoluminescence properties of both polished c-Si and OBSi structures, respectively. The similar photoluminescence (PL) behaviors recorded at liquid helium (6 K) and room temperatures on both polished crystalline Si and OBSi samples, respectively, indicate the similar origin of recorded luminescence light. As the positions of PL maxima of OBSi structures are mainly related to the size of Si nanocrystallites and SiO(x), we therefore suppose that the size of the dominant parts of the luminated OBSi nanostructure is pre-determined by the used polishing Si procedure, and/or the distribution function of the number of formed crystallites on their size is very similar. The blue shift of both PL spectra reaching almost value of 0.40 eV observed after the decrease of the sample temperature to 6 K we relate also with the change of the semiconductor band gap width.

  3. Recombination reduction at the c-Si/RCA oxide interface through Ar-H2 plasma treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landheer, Kees; Bronsveld, Paula C. P.; Poulios, Ioannis; Tichelaar, Frans D.; Kaiser, Monja; Schropp, Ruud E. I.; Rath, Jatin K.

    2017-02-01

    An Ar-H2 plasma treatment was applied on an ultrathin RCA oxide to create well-passivated silicon wafers with symmetric c-Si/SiOx:H/a-Si:H passivation layer stacks. The effective lifetime of these samples increased from 10 μs to 4 ms after annealing at 200 °C through Ar-H2 plasma treatment of the oxide. The results indicate that the plasma treatment can modify the RCA oxide and this enables atomic hydrogen diffusion at low annealing temperature, leading to a well passivated c-Si/SiOx:H interface. This might provide new possibilities to use wet chemical oxides in c-Si solar cells, for example as tunnel contacts.

  4. Effects of LiF/Al back electrode on the amorphous/crystalline silicon heterojunction solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sunbo; Lee, Jaehyeong; Dao, Vinh Ai; Lee, Seungho [School of Information and Communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Balaji, Nagarajan [Department of Energy Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Shihyun [School of Information and Communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Hussain, Shahzada Qamar [Department of Energy Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Sangmyeong [School of Information and Communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Junhee [Department of Energy Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Juyeon; Lee, Yunjung [School of Information and Communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Junsin, E-mail: yi@yurim.skku.ac.kr [School of Information and Communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Energy Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► We have employed a LiF dielectric layer as a new back-contact electrode. ► Increasing LiF thickness will decrease barrier for electrons transport, thus yield J{sub sc}. ► Increasing LiF thickness will reduced shunt leakage and enhanced internal field, thus yield V{sub oc}. ► Employing LiF layer, improvement of performance of HIT solar cells up to 17.13%. -- Abstract: To improve the quantum efficiency (QE) and hence the efficiency of the amorphous/crystalline silicon heterojunction solar cell, we have employed a LiF dielectric layer on the rear side. The high dipole moment of the LiF reduces the aluminum electrode's work–function and then lowers the energy barrier at back contact. This lower energy barrier height helps to enhance both the operating voltage and the QE at longer wavelength region, in turn improves the open-circuit voltage (V{sub oc}), short-circuit current density (J{sub sc}), and then overall cell efficiency. With optimized LiF layer thickness of 20 nm, 1 cm{sup 2} heterojunction with intrinsic thin layer (HIT) solar cells were produced with industry-compatible process, yielding V{sub oc} of 690 mV, J{sub sc} of 33.62 mA/cm{sup 2}, and cell efficiencies of 17.13%. Therefore LiF/Al electrode on rear side is proposed as an alternate back electrode for high efficiency HIT solar cells.

  5. Development of Hydrogenated Microcrystalline Silicon-Germanium Alloys for Improving Long-Wavelength Absorption in Si-Based Thin-Film Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Tang Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon-germanium (μc-Si1-xGex:H alloys were developed for application in Si-based thin-film solar cells. The effects of the germane concentration (RGeH4 and the hydrogen ratio (RH2 on the μc-Si1-xGex:H alloys and the corresponding single-junction thin-film solar cells were studied. The behaviors of Ge incorporation in a-Si1-xGex:H and μc-Si1-xGex:H were also compared. Similar to a-Si1-xGex:H, the preferential Ge incorporation was observed in μc-Si1-xGex:H. Moreover, a higher RH2 significantly promoted Ge incorporation for a-Si1-xGex:H, while the Ge content was not affected by RH2 in μc-Si1-xGex:H growth. Furthermore, to eliminate the crystallization effect, the 0.9 μm thick absorbers with a similar crystalline volume fraction were applied. With the increasing RGeH4, the accompanied increase in Ge content of μc-Si1-xGex:H narrowed the bandgap and markedly enhanced the long-wavelength absorption. However, the bias-dependent EQE measurement revealed that too much Ge incorporation in absorber deteriorated carrier collection and cell performance. With the optimization of RH2 and RGeH4, the single-junction μc-Si1-xGex:H cell achieved an efficiency of 5.48%, corresponding to the crystalline volume fraction of 50.5% and Ge content of 13.2 at.%. Compared to μc-Si:H cell, the external quantum efficiency at 800 nm had a relative increase by 33.1%.

  6. Effects of neutral particle beam on nano-crystalline silicon thin films, with application to thin film transistor backplane for flexible active matrix organic light emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Jin Nyoung; Song, Byoung Chul; Lee, Dong Hyeok; Yoo, Suk Jae; Lee, Bonju; Hong, MunPyo

    2011-01-01

    A novel deposition process for nano-crystalline silicon (nc-Si) thin films was developed using neutral beam assisted chemical vapor deposition (NBaCVD) technology for the application of the thin film transistor (TFT) backplane of flexible active matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED). During the formation of a nc-Si thin film, the energetic particles enhance nano-sized crystalline rather microcrystalline Si in thin films. Neutral Particle Beam (NPB) affects the crystallinity in two ways: (1) NPB energy enhances nano-crystallinity through kinetic energy transfer and chemical annealing, and (2) heavier NPB (such as Ar) induces damage and amorphization through energetic particle impinging. Nc-Si thin film properties effectively can be changed by the reflector bias. As increase of NPB energy limits growing the crystalline, the performance of TFT supports this NPB behavior. The results of nc-Si TFT by NBaCVD demonstrate the technical potentials of neutral beam based processes for achieving high stability and reduced leakage in TFT backplanes for AMOLEDs.

  7. Characterization of μc-Si:H/a-Si:H tandem solar cell structures by spectroscopic ellipsometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, Daisuke; Yuguchi, Tetsuya; Fujiwara, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    In order to perform the structural characterization of Si thin-film solar cells having submicron-size rough textured surfaces, we have developed an optical model that can be utilized for the spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) analysis of a multilayer solar cell structure consisting of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and microcrystalline siliconc-Si:H) layers fabricated on textured SnO 2 :F substrates. To represent the structural non-uniformity in the textured structure, the optical response has been calculated from two regions with different thicknesses of the Si layers. Moreover, in the optical model, the interface layers are modeled by multilayer structures assuming two-phase composites and the volume fractions of the phases in the layers are controlled by the structural curvature factor. The polarized reflection from the μc-Si:H layer that shows extensive surface roughening during the growth has also been modeled. In this study, a state-of-the-art solar cell structure with the textured μc-Si:H (2000 nm)/ZnO (100 nm)/a-Si:H (200 nm)/SnO 2 :F/glass substrate structure has been characterized. The μc-Si:H/a-Si:H textured structure deduced from our SE analysis shows remarkable agreement with that observed by transmission electron microscopy. From the above results, we have demonstrated the high-precision characterization of highly-textured μc-Si:H/a-Si:H solar cell structures. - Highlights: • Characterization of textured μc-Si:H/a-Si:H solar cell structures by ellipsometry • A new optical model using surface area and multilayer models • High precision characterization of submicron-range rough interface structures

  8. SiC-SiC and C-SiC Honeycomb for Advanced Flight Structures, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed project builds upon the work done in Phase I with the development of a C-SiC CMC honeycomb material that was successfully tested for mechanical...

  9. Modelling on c-Si/a-Si:H wire solar cells: some key parameters to optimize the photovoltaic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvarez J.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Solar cells based on silicon nano- or micro-wires have attracted much attention as a promising path for low cost photovoltaic technology. The key point of this structure is the decoupling of the light absorption from the carriers collection. In order to predict and optimize the performance potential of p- (or n- doped c-Si/ n-(or p- doped a-Si:H nanowire-based solar cells, we have used the Silvaco-Atlas software to model a single-wire device. In particular, we have noticed a drastic decrease of the open-circuit voltage (Voc when increasing the doping density of the silicon core beyond an optimum value. We present here a detailed study of the parameters that can alter the Voc of c-Si(p/a-Si:H (n wires according to the doping density in c-Si. A comparison with simulation results obtained on planar c-Si/a-Si:H heterojunctions shows that the drop in Voc, linked to an increase of the dark current in both structures, is more pronounced for radial junctions due to geometric criteria. These numerical modelling results have lead to a better understanding of transport phenomena within the wire.

  10. Chemical functionalization of crystalline silicon surface with complexes of type (M3 (Dpa) 4X2) for the development of electronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Zamora, Maria Alejandra

    2012-01-01

    New surfaces on crystalline silicon (100) diamines have been developed. The diamines 4-aminopyridine, 4-aminomethylpyridine and 1,12-dodecildiame, and self-assembled surfaces Si-diamine-metallic complexes, with cooper (II) acetate and trimetal Cu 3 (dpa) 4 CI 2 were studied. These surfaces are characterized with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), chemical force microscopy (CFM), by contact angle and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The XPS has suggested the formation of diamines monolayers with covalent binding to crystalline silicon, and modification of these surfaces, with metal complexes by coordination chemistry. The CFM has confirmed that surfaces are modified with diamines and cooper (II) acetate, and that were determined different chemical forces according to the change. The contact angle has been suggested that the functionalized surface with 4-aminomethylpyridine has had similar basicity to 1,12-dodecildiame, and more than 4-aminopyridine. This implies that the coordination with metallics complexes is benefited with 4-aminopyridine, which in turn is reflected with electrochemical data. Cyclic voltammetry analysis have showed that silicon surfaces with 4-aminomethylpyridine and 4-aminopyridine with cooper (II) acetate and trimetal have been electrochemically active. Thus, the surfaces could to have interesting applications in molecular electronics. (author) [es

  11. Effect of hydrogen on passivation quality of SiNx/Si-rich SiNx stacked layers deposited by catalytic chemical vapor deposition on c-Si wafers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thi, Trinh Cham; Koyama, Koichi; Ohdaira, Keisuke; Matsumura, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the role of hydrogen content and fixed charges of catalytic chemical vapor deposited (Cat-CVD) SiN x /Si-rich SiN x stacked layers on the quality of crystalline silicon (c-Si) surface passivation. Calculated density of fixed charges is on the order of 10 12 cm −2 , which is high enough for effective field effect passivation. Hydrogen content in the films is also found to contribute significantly to improvement in passivation quality of the stacked layers. Furthermore, Si-rich SiN x films deposited with H 2 dilution show better passivation quality of SiN x /Si-rich SiN x stacked layers than those prepared without H 2 dilution. Effective minority carrier lifetime (τ eff ) in c-Si passivated by SiN x /Si-rich SiN x stacked layers is as high as 5.1 ms when H 2 is added during Si-rich SiN x deposition, which is much higher than the case of using Si-rich SiN x films prepared without H 2 dilution showing τ eff of 3.3 ms. - Highlights: • Passivation mechanism of Si-rich SiN x /SiN x stacked layers is investigated. • H atoms play important role in passivation quality of the stacked layer. • Addition of H 2 gas during Si-rich SiN x film deposition greatly enhances effective minority carrier lifetime (τ eff ). • For a Si-rich SiN x film with refractive index of 2.92, τ eff improves from 3.3 to 5.1 ms by H 2 addition

  12. A thermochemical approach to enhance hydrophobicity of SiC/SiO{sub 2} powder using γ-methacryloxypropyl trimethoxy silane and octylphenol polyoxyethylene ether (7)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chunxue; Feng, Dandan; Wang, Xiangke; Li, Zhihong; Zhu, Yumei, E-mail: zhuyumei@tju.edu.cn

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Through the exploration of modification mechanism, the hydrophilic properties of SiC/SiO{sub 2}-KH570-OP-7 were far superior to SiC/SiO{sub 2}-KH570. - Highlights: • A novel universal method is performed to enhance hydrophobicity of SiC/SiO{sub 2} powder. • Through pyrolysis of KH570 and OP-7, hydrophilic groups is grafted. • The hydrophobicity of SiC/SiO{sub 2}-KH570-OP-7 was far superior to SiC/SiO{sub 2}-KH570. • A possible formation mechanism of hydrophilic surface was proposed. • Surface changes on SiC/SiO{sub 2}-KH570-OP-7 powder were analyzed via SEM, FTIR, XPS. - Abstract: A thermochemical synthetic methodology for silicon carbide/silica (SiC/SiO{sub 2}) powder modified by integrating γ-methacryloxypropyl trimethoxy silane (KH570) and octylphenol polyoxyethylene ether (7) (OP-7) with hydrophilic SiC/SiO{sub 2} particles is described. On account of weak hydrophobicity of SiC/SiO{sub 2} powder modified by KH570 (SiC/SiO{sub 2}-KH570), the study focuses on the improvement of hydrophobicity utilizing alkylation reaction between OP-7 and KH570 at high temperature. Compared with using KH570 alone, SiC/SiO{sub 2} powder modified by KH570 and OP-7 (SiC/SiO{sub 2}-KH570-OP-7) shows better water resistance, and also an increased contact angle from 73.8° to 136.4°, resulting thus an improved hydrophobicity. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), as well as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), was utilized to characterize these surfaces, and the results indicated that KH570 and OP-7 can be covalently bonded on the surface of SiC/SiO{sub 2} powder. Furthermore, it has been deeply investigated in the paper not only the possible modes of non-oxidative thermal degradation of OP-7 and KH570, but also the formation mechanism of more hydrophobic SiC/SiO{sub 2}-KH570-OP-7 powder, which probably will have a potential utility for other inorganic materials.

  13. Low-Loss, Low-Noise, Crystalline Silicon Dielectric for Superconducting Microstrip and Kinetic Inductance Detector Capacitors

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of technology to use crystalline dielectrics in superconducting spectroscopic sensors operating in the infrared/sub-millimeter wavelength range. The...

  14. Defect states in microcrystalline silicon probed by photoluminescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merdzhanova, T.; Carius, R.; Klein, S.; Finger, F.; Dimova-Malinovska, D.

    2006-01-01

    Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy is used to investigate defects and localized band tail states within the band gap of hydrogenated microcrystalline siliconc-Si:H) prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) and hot wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD). The effect of the substrate temperature (T S ), which influences mainly the defect density, and silane concentration (SC), as Key parameter to control the microstructure of the material were varied. In high quality μc-Si:H films (T S = 185-200 deg. C) a PL band ('μc'-Si-band) is observed at ∼ 0.9-1.05 eV which is attributed to radiative recombination via localized band tail states in the microcrystalline phase. In μc-Si:H films prepared at higher T S (> 300 deg. C), an additional PL band at ∼ 0.7 eV with a width of ∼ 0.17 eV is found for both PECVD and HWCVD material. This band maintains its position at ∼ 0.7 eV with increasing SC in contrast to the observed shift of the 'μc'-Si-band to higher energies. Studies of the temperature dependences of the PL peak energy and intensity for the two bands show: (i) the PL band at 0.7 eV remains unaffected upon increasing temperature, while the 'μc'-Si-band shifts to lower energies (ii) a much weaker quenching for the 0.7 eV band compared to the 'μc'-Si-band. It was also found that the PL band at 0.7 eV exhibits a slightly stronger temperature dependence of the PL intensity compared to 'defect' band at 0.9 eV in a-Si:H suggesting similar recombination transition via deeper trap states. Due to a similar PL properties of the emission band previously observed in Czochralski-grown silicon (Cz-Si), the 0.7 eV band in μc-Si:H is assigned tentatively to defect-related transitions in the crystalline phase

  15. Examining the free radical bonding mechanism of benzoquinone– and hydroquinone–methanol passivation of silicon surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotulak, Nicole A.; Chen, Meixi; Schreiber, Nikolas; Jones, Kevin; Opila, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Photons are required for high levels of c-Si passivation by both BQ/ME and HQ/ME solutions. • Protons are required for high levels of c-Si passivation by both BQ/ME and HQ/ME solutions. • The free radical QH· is the likely passivating species for c-Si surfaces from BQ/ME and HQ/ME solutions. - Abstract: The surface passivation of p-benzoquinone (BQ) and hydroquinone (HQ) when dissolved in methanol (ME) has been examined through effective lifetime testing of crystalline silicon (c-Si) wafers treated with the aforementioned solutions. Changes in the availability of both photons and protons in the solutions were demonstrated to affect the level of passivation achieved. The requirement of both excess protons and ambient light exposure to maintain high effective lifetimes supports the presence of a free radical species that drives the surface passivation. Surface analysis suggests a 1:1 ratio of HQ-like bonds to methoxy bonds on the c-Si surface after treatment with a BQ/ME solution.

  16. Zero lattice mismatch and twin-free single crystalline ScN buffer layers for GaN growth on silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lupina, L.; Zoellner, M. H.; Dietrich, B.; Capellini, G. [IHP, Im Technologiepark 25, 15236 Frankfurt, Oder (Germany); Niermann, T.; Lehmann, M. [Technische Universität Berlin, Institut für Optik und Atomare Physik, Straße des 17. Juni 135, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Thapa, S. B.; Haeberlen, M.; Storck, P. [SILTRONIC AG, Hanns-Seidel-Platz 4, 81737 München (Germany); Schroeder, T. [IHP, Im Technologiepark 25, 15236 Frankfurt, Oder (Germany); BTU Cottbus, Konrad-Zuse-Str. 1, 03046 Cottbus (Germany)

    2015-11-16

    We report the growth of thin ScN layers deposited by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Si(111) substrates. Using x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy, we find that ScN films grown at 600 °C are single crystalline, twin-free with rock-salt crystal structure, and exhibit a direct optical band gap of 2.2 eV. A high degree of crystalline perfection and a very good lattice matching between ScN and GaN (misfit < 0.1%) makes the ScN/Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} buffer system a very promising template for the growth of high quality GaN layers on silicon.

  17. Phase Stability and Thermal Conductivity of Composite Environmental Barrier Coatings on SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkel, Samantha; Zhu, Dongming

    2011-01-01

    Advanced environmental barrier coatings are being developed to protect SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites in harsh combustion environments. The current coating development emphasis has been placed on the significantly improved cyclic durability and combustion environment stability in high-heat-flux and high velocity gas turbine engine environments. Environmental barrier coating systems based on hafnia (HfO2) and ytterbium silicate, HfO2-Si nano-composite bond coat systems have been processed and their stability and thermal conductivity behavior have been evaluated in simulated turbine environments. The incorporation of Silicon Carbide Nanotubes (SiCNT) into high stability (HfO2) and/or HfO2-silicon composite bond coats, along with ZrO2, HfO2 and rare earth silicate composite top coat systems, showed promise as excellent environmental barriers to protect the SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites.

  18. Joining of SiC/SiCf ceramic matrix composites for fusion reactor blanket applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombo, P.; Riccardi, B.; Donato, A.; Scarinci, G.

    2000-01-01

    Using a preceramic polymer, joints between SiC/SiC f ceramic matrix composites were obtained. The polymer, upon pyrolysis at high temperature, transforms into a ceramic material and develops an adhesive bonding with the composite. The surface morphology of 2D and 3D SiC/SiC f composites did not allow satisfactory results to be obtained by a simple application of the method initially developed for monolithic SiC bodies, which employed the use of a pure silicone resin. Thus, active or inert fillers were mixed with the preceramic polymer, in order to reduce its volumetric shrinkage which occurs during pyrolysis. In particular, the joints realized using the silicone resin with Al-Si powder as reactive additive displayed remarkable shear strength (31.6 MPa maximum). Large standard deviation for the shear strength has nevertheless been measured. The proposed joining method is promising for the realization of fusion reactor blanket structures, even if presently the measured strength values are not fully satisfactory

  19. Betavoltaic device in por-SiC/Si C-Nuclear Energy Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akimchenko Alina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The miniature and low-power devices with long service life in hard operating conditions like the Carbon-14 beta-decay energy converters indeed as eternal resource for integrated MEMS and NEMS are considered. Authors discuss how to create the power supply for MEMS/NEMS devices, based on porous SiC/Si structure, which are tested to be used as the beta-decay energy converters of radioactive C-14 into electrical energy. This is based on the silicon carbide obtaining by self-organizing mono 3C-SiC endotaxy on the Si substrate. The new idea is the C-14 atoms including in molecules in the silicon carbide porous structure by this technology, which will increase the efficiency of the converter due to the greater intensity of electron-hole pairs generation rate in the space charge region. The synthesis of C-14 can be also performed by using the electronically controlled magneto-optic chamber.

  20. Grinding, Machining Morphological Studies on C/SiC Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Chun-fang; Han, Bing

    2018-05-01

    C/SiC composite is a typical material difficult to machine. It is hard and brittle. In machining, the cutting force is large, the material removal rate is low, the edge is prone to collapse, and the tool wear is serious. In this paper, the grinding of C/Si composites material along the direction of fiber distribution is studied respectively. The surface microstructure and mechanical properties of C/SiC composites processed by ultrasonic machining were evaluated. The change of surface quality with the change of processing parameters has also been studied. By comparing the performances of conventional grinding and ultrasonic grinding, the surface roughness and functional characteristics of the material can be improved by optimizing the processing parameters.

  1. Development of an In-Line Minority-Carrier Lifetime Monitoring Tool for Process Control during Fabrication of Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells: Annual Subcontract Report, June 2003 (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinton, R. A.

    2004-04-01

    Under the PV Manufacturing R&D subcontract''Development of an In-Line, Minority-Carrier Lifetime Monitoring Tool for Process Control during Fabrication of Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells'', Sinton Consulting developed prototypes for several new instruments for use in the manufacture of silicon solar cells. These instruments are based on two families of R&D instruments that were previously available, an illumination vs. open-circuit-voltage technique and the quasi-steady state RF photoconductance technique for measuring minority-carrier lifetime. Compared to the previous instruments, the new prototypes are about 20 times faster per measurement, and have automated data analysis that does not require user intervention even when confronted by challenging cases. For example, un-passivated multi-crystalline wafers with large variations in lifetime and trapping behavior can be measured sequentially without error. Five instruments have been prototyped in this project to date, including a block tester for evaluating cast or HEM silicon blocks, a CZ ingot tester, an FZ boule tester for use with long-lifetime silicon, and an in-line sample head for measuring wafers. The CZ ingot tester and the FZ boule tester are already being used within industry and there is interest in the other prototypes. For each instrument, substantial R&D work was required in developing the device physics and analysis as well as for the hardware. This work has been documented in a series of application notes and conference publications, and will result in significant improvements for both the R&D and the industrial types of instruments.

  2. A broadband-sensitive upconverter La(Ga0.5Sc0.5)O3:Er,Ni,Nb for crystalline silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Yasuhiko; Mizuno, Shintaro; Luitel, Hom Nath; Tani, Toshihiko

    2016-01-01

    We have developed an upconverter that significantly broadens the sensitive range, to overcome the shortcoming that conventional Er 3+ -doped upconverters used for crystalline silicon solar cells can utilize only a small portion of the solar spectrum at around 1.55 μm. We have designed the combination of the sensitizers and host material to utilize photons not absorbed by silicon or Er 3+ ions. Ni 2+ ions have been selected as the sensitizers that absorb photons in the wavelength range between the silicon absorption edge (1.1 μm) and the Er 3+ absorption band and transfer the energies to the Er 3+ emitters, with La(Ga,Sc)O 3 as the host material. The Ga to Sc ratio has been optimized to tune the location of the Ni 2+ absorption band for sufficient energy transfer. Co-doping with Nb 5+ ions is needed for charge balance to introduce divalent Ni 2+ ions into the trivalent Ga 3+ and Sc 3+ sites. In addition to 1.45–1.58 μm photons directly absorbed by the Er 3+ ions, we have demonstrated upconversion of 1.1–1.35 μm photons in the Ni 2+ absorption band to 0.98 μm photons, using 10% Er, 0.5% Ni, and 0.5% Nb-doped La(Ga 0.5 Sc 0.5 )O 3 . The broadband-sensitive upconverter developed here can improve conversion efficiency of crystalline silicon solar cells more notably than conventional ones

  3. Research and development of photovoltaic power system. Characterization and control of surface/interface recombination velocity of crystalline silicon thin films; Taiyoko hatsuden system no kenkyu kaihatsu. Silicon kessho usumaku ni okeru hyomen kaimen saiketsugo sokudo no hyoka to seigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, H [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the result obtained during fiscal 1994 on characterization and control of surface/interface recombination velocity of crystalline silicon thin films. To optimize design and manufacture of solar cells, it is necessary to identify correctly resistance factor (or doping) of bulk of materials, bulk minority carrier life, and recombination velocity on surface, passivation interface and electrode interface. A group in the Hokkaido University has been working since a few years ago on development of non-contact and non-destructive photo-luminescence surface level spectroscopy (PLS{sup 3}). A new non-contact C-V method was also introduced. Using these methods, basic discussions were given on possibility of separate measurements on surface/interface and bulk characteristics of solar cell materials. The PLS{sup 3} method and the non-contact C-V method were used for experimental discussions on evaluation of silicon mono-crystalline and poly-crystalline materials. Discussions were given on separate evaluations by using the DLTS method. 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Study by molecular dynamics of the influence of temperature and pressure on the optical properties of undoped 3C-SiC structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Gilberto; Monthe, Aubin Mekeze; Guévelou, Simon; Rousseau, Benoit

    2018-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC)-based open-cell foams appear to be promising porous materials for designing high-temperature energy conversion systems such as volumetric solar receivers. In these media, heat transfers and fluid flows occur simultaneously. The numerical models developed for computing the thermal efficiencies of SiC foams must take into account the energy contribution of thermal radiation. In particular, the thermal radiative properties of these foams must be accurately known. This explains why knowledge of the pressure and temperature dependences of the optical properties of the crystalline parts, which compose the foams, is of primary concern for computing the latter properties correctly. However, the data available in the literature provide the evolution laws of the dielectric functions, needed to calculate the optical properties, as dependent on one thermodynamic parameter at a time. To deal with this issue, a study of the temperature/pressure influence on the dielectric functions of a silicon carbide structure by simulation with molecular dynamics (MD) is presented in this paper. The Vashishta interaction potential, based on the sum of two- and three-body terms, is used in this study. The simulations are carried out on undoped 3C-SiC at pressures ranging from 0.2 to 20 GPa and temperatures ranging from 300 K to 1500 K. The dielectric functions are obtained by applying the linear response theory and comparing them with values provided in the literature, using a Lorentz model. The simulated results, in good agreement with the experimental ones, make it possible to establish the evolution laws of the dielectric functions with both parameters, temperature and pressure, applicable to any field requiring the use of undoped silicon carbide.

  5. Effect of silane/hydrogen ratio on microcrystalline silicon thin films by remote inductively coupled plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Y. N.; Wei, D. Y.; Xiao, S. Q.; Huang, S. Y.; Zhou, H. P.; Xu, S.

    2013-05-01

    Hydrogenated microcrystalline siliconc-Si:H) thin films were prepared by remote low frequency inductively coupled plasma (ICP) chemical vapor deposition system, and the effect of silane/hydrogen ratio on the microstructure and electrical properties of μc-Si:H films was systematically investigated. As silane/hydrogen ratio increases, the crystalline volume fraction Fc decreases and the ratio of the intensity of (220) peak to that of (111) peak drops as silane flow rate is increased. The FTIR result indicates that the μc-Si:H films prepared by remote ICP have a high optical response with a low hydrogen content, which is in favor of reducing light-induced degradation effect. Furthermore, the processing window of the phase transition region for remote ICP is much wider than that for typical ICP. The photosensitivity of μc-Si:H films can exceed 100 at the transition region and this ensures the possibility of the fabrication of microcrystalline silicon thin film solar cells with a open-circuit voltage of about 700 mV.

  6. Mechanical properties of MeV ion-irradiated SiC/SiC composites characterized by indentation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.Y.; Park, K.H.; Kim, W.; Kishimoto, H.; Kohyama, A.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: SiC/SiC composites have been considered as a structural material for advanced fusion concepts. In the core of fusion reactor, those SiC/SiC composites are experienced the complex attacks such as strong neutron, high temperature and transmuted gases. One of the vital data for designing the SiC/SiC composites to the fusion reactor is mechanical properties under the severe neutron irradiation. In this work, various SiC/SiC composites were prepared by the different fabrication processes like CVI (chemical vapor infiltration), WA-CVI (SiC whisker assisted CVI) and hot-pressed method. The expected neutron irradiation was simulated by a silicon self-ion irradiation at a DuET facility; Dual-beam for Energy Technologies, Kyoto University. The irradiation temperature were 600 deg. C and 1200 deg. C, and the irradiation does were 5 dpa and 20 dpa, respectively. The 5.1 MeV Si ions were irradiated to the intrinsic CVI-SiC, SiC whisker reinforced SiC and SiC composites produced by hot-press method. The mechanical properties like hardness, elastic modulus and fracture toughness were characterized by an indentation technique. The ion irradiation caused the increase of the hardness and fracture toughness, which was dependent on the irradiation temperature. SiC whisker reinforcement in the SiC matrix accelerated the increase of the fracture toughness by the ion irradiation. For SiC/SiC composites after the ion irradiation, this work will provide the additional data for the mechanical properties as well as the effect of SiC whisker reinforcement. (authors)

  7. PIE of nuclear grade SiC/SiC flexural coupons irradiated to 10 dpa at LWR temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyanagi, Takaaki [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Katoh, Yutai [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Silicon carbide fiber-reinforced SiC matrix (SiC/SiC) composites are being actively investigated for accident-tolerant core structures of light water reactors (LWRs). Owing to the limited number of irradiation studies previously conducted at LWR-coolant temperature, this study examined SiC/SiC composites following neutron irradiation at 230–340°C to 2.0 and 11.8 dpa in the High Flux Isotope Reactor. The investigated materials are chemical vapor infiltrated (CVI) SiC/SiC composites with three different reinforcement fibers. The fiber materials were monolayer pyrolytic carbon (PyC)-coated Hi-NicalonTM Type-S (HNS), TyrannoTM SA3 (SA3), and SCS-UltraTM (SCS) SiC fibers. The irradiation resistance of these composites was investigated based on flexural behavior, dynamic Young’s modulus, swelling, and microstructures. There was no notable mechanical properties degradation of the irradiated HNS and SA3 SiC/SiC composites except for reduction of the Young’s moduli by up to 18%. The microstructural stability of these composites supported the absence of degradation. In addition, no progressive swelling from 2.0 to 11.8 dpa was confirmed for these composites. On the other hand, the SCS composite showed significant mechanical degradation associated with cracking within the fiber. This study determined that SiC/SiC composites with HNS or SA3 SiC/SiC fibers, a PyC interphase, and a CVI SiC matrix retain their properties beyond the lifetime dose for LWR fuel cladding at the relevant temperature.

  8. Influence of helium atoms on the shear behavior of the fiber/matrix interphase of SiC/SiC composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Enze; Du, Shiyu; Li, Mian; Liu, Chen; He, Shihong; He, Jian; He, Heming

    2016-10-01

    Silicon carbide has many attractive properties and the SiC/SiC composite has been considered as a promising candidate for nuclear structural materials. Up to now, a computational investigation on the properties of SiC/SiC composite varying in the presence of nuclear fission products is still missing. In this work, the influence of He atoms on the shear behavior of the SiC/SiC interphase is investigated via Molecular Dynamics simulation following our recent paper. Calculations are carried out on three dimensional models of graphite-like PyC/SiC interphase and amorphous PyC/SiC interphase with He atoms in different regions (the SiC region, the interface region and the PyC region). In the graphite-like PyC/SiC interphase, He atoms in the SiC region have little influence on the shear strength of the material, while both the shear strength and friction strength may be enhanced when they are in the PyC region. Low concentration of He atoms in the interface region of the graphite-like PyC/SiC interphase increases the shear strength, while there is a reduction of shear strength when the He concentration is high due to the switch of sliding plane. In the amorphous PyC/SiC interphase, He atoms can cause the reduction of the shear strength regardless of the regions that He atoms are located. The presence of He atoms may significantly alter the structure of SiC/SiC in the interface region. The influence of He atoms in the interface region is the most significant, leading to evident shear strength reduction of the amorphous PyC/SiC interphase with increasing He concentration. The behaviors of the interphases at different temperatures are studied as well. The dependence of the shear strengths of the two types of interphases on temperatures is studied as well. For the graphite-like PyC/SiC interphase, it is found strongly related to the regions He atoms are located. Combining these results with our previous study on pure SiC/SiC system, we expect this work may provide new insight

  9. Influence of helium atoms on the shear behavior of the fiber/matrix interphase of SiC/SiC composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Enze [State Nuclear Power Research Institute, Beijing, 100029 (China); Du, Shiyu, E-mail: dushiyu@nimte.ac.cn [Engineering Laboratory of Specialty Fibers and Nuclear Energy Materials, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo, Zhejiang, 315201 (China); Li, Mian [Engineering Laboratory of Specialty Fibers and Nuclear Energy Materials, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo, Zhejiang, 315201 (China); Liu, Chen [Beijing Research Institute of Chemical Engineering and Metallurgy (China); He, Shihong [State Nuclear Power Research Institute, Beijing, 100029 (China); Engineering Laboratory of Specialty Fibers and Nuclear Energy Materials, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo, Zhejiang, 315201 (China); He, Jian [Center for Translational Medicine, Department of Biotechnology, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian, Liaoning, 116023 (China); He, Heming, E-mail: heheming@snptc.com.cn [State Nuclear Power Research Institute, Beijing, 100029 (China)

    2016-10-15

    Silicon carbide has many attractive properties and the SiC/SiC composite has been considered as a promising candidate for nuclear structural materials. Up to now, a computational investigation on the properties of SiC/SiC composite varying in the presence of nuclear fission products is still missing. In this work, the influence of He atoms on the shear behavior of the SiC/SiC interphase is investigated via Molecular Dynamics simulation following our recent paper. Calculations are carried out on three dimensional models of graphite-like PyC/SiC interphase and amorphous PyC/SiC interphase with He atoms in different regions (the SiC region, the interface region and the PyC region). In the graphite-like PyC/SiC interphase, He atoms in the SiC region have little influence on the shear strength of the material, while both the shear strength and friction strength may be enhanced when they are in the PyC region. Low concentration of He atoms in the interface region of the graphite-like PyC/SiC interphase increases the shear strength, while there is a reduction of shear strength when the He concentration is high due to the switch of sliding plane. In the amorphous PyC/SiC interphase, He atoms can cause the reduction of the shear strength regardless of the regions that He atoms are located. The presence of He atoms may significantly alter the structure of SiC/SiC in the interface region. The influence of He atoms in the interface region is the most significant, leading to evident shear strength reduction of the amorphous PyC/SiC interphase with increasing He concentration. The behaviors of the interphases at different temperatures are studied as well. The dependence of the shear strengths of the two types of interphases on temperatures is studied as well. For the graphite-like PyC/SiC interphase, it is found strongly related to the regions He atoms are located. Combining these results with our previous study on pure SiC/SiC system, we expect this work may provide new insight

  10. Influence of helium atoms on the shear behavior of the fiber/matrix interphase of SiC/SiC composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Enze; Du, Shiyu; Li, Mian; Liu, Chen; He, Shihong; He, Jian; He, Heming

    2016-01-01

    Silicon carbide has many attractive properties and the SiC/SiC composite has been considered as a promising candidate for nuclear structural materials. Up to now, a computational investigation on the properties of SiC/SiC composite varying in the presence of nuclear fission products is still missing. In this work, the influence of He atoms on the shear behavior of the SiC/SiC interphase is investigated via Molecular Dynamics simulation following our recent paper. Calculations are carried out on three dimensional models of graphite-like PyC/SiC interphase and amorphous PyC/SiC interphase with He atoms in different regions (the SiC region, the interface region and the PyC region). In the graphite-like PyC/SiC interphase, He atoms in the SiC region have little influence on the shear strength of the material, while both the shear strength and friction strength may be enhanced when they are in the PyC region. Low concentration of He atoms in the interface region of the graphite-like PyC/SiC interphase increases the shear strength, while there is a reduction of shear strength when the He concentration is high due to the switch of sliding plane. In the amorphous PyC/SiC interphase, He atoms can cause the reduction of the shear strength regardless of the regions that He atoms are located. The presence of He atoms may significantly alter the structure of SiC/SiC in the interface region. The influence of He atoms in the interface region is the most significant, leading to evident shear strength reduction of the amorphous PyC/SiC interphase with increasing He concentration. The behaviors of the interphases at different temperatures are studied as well. The dependence of the shear strengths of the two types of interphases on temperatures is studied as well. For the graphite-like PyC/SiC interphase, it is found strongly related to the regions He atoms are located. Combining these results with our previous study on pure SiC/SiC system, we expect this work may provide new insight

  11. Large-area 2D periodic crystalline silicon nanodome arrays on nanoimprinted glass exhibiting photonic band structure effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, C; Lockau, D; Sontheimer, T; Rech, B; Schubert-Bischoff, P; Rudigier-Voigt, E; Bockmeyer, M; Schmidt, F

    2012-01-01

    Two-dimensional silicon nanodome arrays are prepared on large areas up to 50 cm 2 exhibiting photonic band structure effects in the near-infrared and visible wavelength region by downscaling a recently developed fabrication method based on nanoimprint-patterned glass, high-rate electron-beam evaporation of silicon, self-organized solid phase crystallization and wet-chemical etching. The silicon nanodomes, arranged in square lattice geometry with 300 nm lattice constant, are optically characterized by angular resolved reflection measurements, allowing the partial determination of the photonic band structure. This experimentally determined band structure agrees well with the outcome of three-dimensional optical finite-element simulations. A 16% photonic bandgap is predicted for an optimized geometry of the silicon nanodome arrays. By variation of the duration of the selective etching step, the geometry as well as the optical properties of the periodic silicon nanodome arrays can be controlled systematically. (paper)

  12. Microcrystalline silicon carbide alloys prepared with HWCVD as highly transparent and conductive window layers for thin film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finger, F.; Astakhov, O.; Bronger, T.; Carius, R.; Chen, T.; Dasgupta, A.; Gordijn, A.; Houben, L.; Huang, Y.; Klein, S.; Luysberg, M.; Wang, H.; Xiao, L.

    2009-01-01

    Crystalline silicon carbide alloys have a very high potential as transparent conductive window layers in thin-film solar cells provided they can be prepared in thin-film form and at compatible deposition temperatures. The low-temperature deposition of such material in microcrystalline form (μc-Si:C:H) was realized by use of monomethylsilane precursor gas diluted in hydrogen with the Hot-Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition process. A wide range of deposition parameters has been investigated and the structural, electronic and optical properties of the μc-SiC:H thin films have been studied. The material, which is strongly n-type from unintentional doping, has been used as window layer in n-side illuminated microcrystalline silicon solar cells. High short-circuit current densities are obtained due to the high transparency of the material resulting in a maximum solar cell conversion efficiency of 9.2%.

  13. Tuning the optical properties of RF-PECVD grown μc-Si:H thin films using different hydrogen flow rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dushaq, Ghada; Nayfeh, Ammar; Rasras, Mahmoud

    2017-07-01

    In this paper we study the effect of H2/SiH4 dilution ratio (R) on the structural and optical properties of hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon embedded in amorphous matrix thin films. The thin films are prepared using standard RF-PECVD process at substrate temperature of 200 °C. The effect of hydrogen dilution ratio on the optical index of refraction and the absorption coefficient were investigated. It was observed that by incorporating higher hydrogen flow rate in the films with low SiH4 concentration, the optical index of refraction can be tuned over a broad range of wavelengths due to the variation of crystalline properties of the produced films. By varying the hydrogen flow of μc-Si:H samples, ∼8% and 12% reduction in the index of refraction at 400 nm and at 1500 nm can be achieved, respectively. In addition a 78% reduction in surface roughness is obtained when 60sccm of H2 is used in the deposition compared to the sample without any H2 incorporation.

  14. Eutectic and solid-state wafer bonding of silicon with gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abouie, Maryam; Liu, Qi; Ivey, Douglas G.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Eutectic and solid-state Au-Si bonding are compared for both a-Si and c-Si samples. ► Exchange of a-Si and Au layer was observed in both types of bonded samples. ► Use of c-Si for bonding resulted in formation of craters at the Au/c-Si interface. ► Solid-state Au-Si bonding produces better bonds in terms of microstructure. - Abstract: The simple Au-Si eutectic, which melts at 363 °C, can be used to bond Si wafers. However, faceted craters can form at the Au/Si interface as a result of anisotropic and non-uniform reaction between Au and crystalline silicon (c-Si). These craters may adversely affect active devices on the wafers. Two possible solutions to this problem were investigated in this study. One solution was to use an amorphous silicon layer (a-Si) that was deposited on the c-Si substrate to bond with the Au. The other solution was to use solid-state bonding instead of eutectic bonding, and the wafers were bonded at a temperature (350 °C) below the Au-Si eutectic temperature. The results showed that the a-Si layer prevented the formation of craters and solid-state bonding not only required a lower bonding temperature than eutectic bonding, but also prevented spill out of the solder resulting in strong bonds with high shear strength in comparison with eutectic bonding. Using amorphous silicon, the maximum shear strength for the solid-state Au-Si bond reached 15.2 MPa, whereas for the eutectic Au-Si bond it was 13.2 MPa.

  15. The effect of metallic coatings and crystallinity on the volume expansion of silicon during electrochemical lithiation/delithiation

    KAUST Repository

    McDowell, Matthew T.; Woo Lee, Seok; Wang, Chongmin; Cui, Yi

    2012-01-01

    in the silicon. Tensile hoop stress causes conformal copper coatings to fracture during lithiation without undergoing bending deformation. In addition, in-situ and ex-situ observations indicate that a copper coating plays a role in suppressing volume expansion

  16. Effects of Heat Treatment on SiC-SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knauf, Michael W.

    Residual stresses resulting from the manufacturing process found within a silicon carbide/silicon carbide (SiC/SiC) ceramic matrix composite were thoroughly investigated through the use of high-energy X-ray diffraction and Raman microspectroscopy. The material system studied was a Rolls-Royce composite produced with Hi-Nicalon fibers woven into a five harness satin weave, coated with boron nitride and silicon carbide interphases, and subsequently infiltrated with silicon carbide particles and a silicon matrix. Constituent stress states were measured before, during, and after heat treatments ranging from 900 °C to 1300 °C for varying times between one and sixty minutes. Stress determination methods developed through these analyses can be utilized in the development of ceramic matrix composites and other materials employing boron-doped silicon. X-ray diffraction experiments were performed at the Argonne National Laboratory Advanced Photon Source to investigate the evolution of constituent stresses through heat treatment, and determine how stress states are affected at high temperature through in situ measurements during heat treatments up to 1250 °C for 30 minutes. Silicon carbide particles in the as-received condition exhibited a nearly isotropic stress state with average tensile stresses of approximately 300 MPa. The silicon matrix exhibited a complimentary average compressive stress of approximately 300 MPa. Strong X-ray diffraction evidence is presented demonstrating solid state boron diffusion and increased boron solubility found in silicon throughout heat treatment. While the constituent stress states did evolve through the heat treatment cycles, including approaching nearly stress-free conditions at temperatures close to the manufacturing temperature, no permanent relaxation of stress was observed. Raman spectroscopy was utilized to investigate stresses found within silicon carbide particles embedded within the matrix and the silicon matrix as an alternate

  17. Field-emission property of self-purification SiC/SiOx coaxial nanowires synthesized via direct microwave irradiation using iron-containing catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qing; Yu, Yongzhi; Huang, Shan; Meng, Jiang; Wang, Jigang

    2017-07-01

    SiC/SiOx coaxial nanowires were rapidly synthesized via direct microwave irradiation in low vacuum atmosphere. During the preparation process, only graphite, silicon, silicon dioxide powders were used as raw materials and iron-containing substance was employed as catalyst. Comprehensive characterizations were employed to investigate the microstructure of the products. The results showed that a great quantity of coaxial nanowires with uniform sizes and high aspect ratio had been successfully achieved. The coaxial nanowires consist of a silicon oxide (SiOx) shell and a β-phase silicon carbide (β-SiC) core that exhibited in special tube brush like. In additional, nearly all the products were achieved in the statement of pure SiC/SiOx coaxial nanowires without the existence of metallic catalyst, indicating that the self-removal of iron (Fe) catalyst should be occurred during the synthesis process. Photoluminescence (PL) spectral analysis result indicated that such novel SiC/SiOx coaxial nanowires exhibited significant blue-shift. Besides, the measurement results of field-emission (FE) demonstrated that the SiC/SiOx coaxial nanowires had ultralow turn-on field and threshold field with values of 0.2 and 2.1 V/μm, respectively. The hetero-junction structure formed between SiOx shell and SiC core, lots of emission sites, as well as clear tips of the nanowires were applied to explain the excellent FE properties.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  18. Synthesis, characterization, and wear and friction properties of variably structured SiC/Si elements made from wood by molten Si impregnation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhiman, Rajnish; Rana, Kuldeep; Bengu, Erman

    2012-01-01

    We have synthesized pre-shaped SiC/Si ceramic material elements from charcoal (obtained from wood) by impregnation with molten silicon, which takes place in a two-stage process. In the first process, a porous structure of connected micro-crystals of β-SiC is formed, while, in the second process...

  19. Microcrystalline silicon films and solar cells investigatet by photoluminescence spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merdzhanova, T.

    2005-07-01

    A systematic investigation on photoluminescence (PL) properties of microcrystalline silicon ({mu}c-Si:H) films with structural composition changing from highly crystalline to predominantly amorphous is presented. The samples were prepared by PECVD and HWCVD with different silane concentration in hydrogen (SC). By using photoluminescence in combination with Raman spectroscopy the relationship between electronic properties and the microstructure of the material is studied. The PL spectra of {mu}c-Si:H reveal a rather broad ({proportional_to}0.13 eV) featureless band at about 1 eV ('{mu}c'-Si-band). In mixed phase material of crystalline and amorphous regions, a band at about 1.3 eV with halfwidth of about 0.3 eV is found in addition to '{mu}c'-Si-band, which is attributed to the amorphous phase ('a'-Si-band). Similarly to amorphous silicon, the '{mu}c'-Si-band is assigned to recombination between electrons and holes in band tail states. An additional PL band centred at about 0.7 eV with halfwidth slightly broader than the '{mu}c'-Si-band is observed only for films prepared at high substrate temperature and it is preliminarily assigned to defect-related transitions as in polycrystalline silicon. With decreasing crystalline volume fraction, the '{mu}c'-Si-band shifts continuously to higher energies for all {mu}c-Si:H films but the linewidth of the PL spectra is almost unaffected. This is valid for all deposition conditions investigated. The results are interpreted, assuming decrease of the density of band tail states with decreasing crystalline volume fraction. A simple model is proposed to simulate PL spectra and V{sub oc} in {mu}c-Si:H solar cells as a function of temperature, based on carrier distributions in quasi-equilibrium conditions. In the model is assumed symmetric density of states distributions for electrons and holes in the conduction and the valence band tail states. The best agreement between

  20. Chromium Trioxide Hole-Selective Heterocontacts for Silicon Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wenjie; Wu, Weiliang; Liu, Zongtao; Qiu, Kaifu; Cai, Lun; Yao, Zhirong; Ai, Bin; Liang, Zongcun; Shen, Hui

    2018-04-25

    A high recombination rate and high thermal budget for aluminum (Al) back surface field are found in the industrial p-type silicon solar cells. Direct metallization on lightly doped p-type silicon, however, exhibits a large Schottky barrier for the holes on the silicon surface because of Fermi-level pinning effect. As a result, low-temperature-deposited, dopant-free chromium trioxide (CrO x , x solar cell as a hole-selective contact at the rear surface. By using 4 nm CrO x between the p-type silicon and Ag, we achieve a reduction of the contact resistivity for the contact of Ag directly on p-type silicon. For further improvement, we utilize a CrO x (2 nm)/Ag (30 nm)/CrO x (2 nm) multilayer film on the contact between Ag and p-type crystalline silicon (c-Si) to achieve a lower contact resistance (40 mΩ·cm 2 ). The low-resistivity Ohmic contact is attributed to the high work function of the uniform CrO x film and the depinning of the Fermi level of the SiO x layer at the silicon interface. Implementing the advanced hole-selective contacts with CrO x /Ag/CrO x on the p-type silicon solar cell results in a power conversion efficiency of 20.3%, which is 0.1% higher than that of the cell utilizing 4 nm CrO x . Compared with the commercialized p-type solar cell, the novel CrO x -based hole-selective transport material opens up a new possibility for c-Si solar cells using high-efficiency, low-temperature, and dopant-free deposition techniques.

  1. Electron spin resonance investigaton of semiconductor materials for application in thin-film silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Lihong

    2012-07-01

    In the present work, hydrogenated silicon and its alloys silicon carbide and silicon oxide have been investigated using electron spin resonance (ESR). The microstructure of these materials ranges from highly crystalline to amorphous. The correlation between the paramagnetic defects, microstructure, optical and electrical properties has been discussed. Correspondingly, these properties were characterized by the spin density (N{sub S}), g-value and the lineshape of ESR spectra, Infrared (I{sup IR}{sub C}) and/or Raman crystallinity (I{sup RS}{sub C}) as well as optical absorption and electrical dark conductivity ({sigma}{sub D}). 1. As the light absorber, Si layers essentially should have low defect density and good stability against light exposure. The spin density (N{sub S}) measured by ESR is often used as a measure for the paramagnetic defect density (N{sub D}) in the material. However, ESR sample preparation procedures can potentially cause discrepancy between N{sub S} and N{sub D}. Using Mo-foil, Al-foil and ZnO:Al-covered glass as sacrificial substrates, {mu}c-Si:H and a-Si:H films were deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), and ESR powder samples have been prepared with corresponding procedures. Possible preparation-related metastability and instability effects have been investigated in terms of substrate dependence, HCl-etching and atmosphere exposure. A sequence of 'preparation - annealing - air-exposure - annealing' has been designed to investigate the metastability and instability effects. N{sub S} after post-preparation air exposure is higher than in the annealed states, especially for the highly crystalline {mu}c-Si:H material the discrepancy reached one order of magnitude. Low temperature ESR measurements at 40 K indicated that atmospheric exposure leads to a redistribution of the defect states which in turn influence the evaluated N{sub S}. In annealed conditions the samples tend to have lower N{sub S} presumably due

  2. Grazing incidence X-ray fluorescence analysis of buried interfaces in periodically structured crystalline silicon thin-film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenhauer, David; Preidel, Veit; Becker, Christiane [Young Investigator Group Nanostructured Silicon for Photovoltaic and Photonic Implementations (Nano-SIPPE), Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Pollakowski, Beatrix; Beckhoff, Burkhard [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Berlin (Germany); Baumann, Jonas; Kanngiesser, Birgit [Institut fuer Optik und Atomare Physik, Technische Universitaet Berlin (Germany); Amkreutz, Daniel; Rech, Bernd [Institut Silizium Photovoltaik, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Back, Franziska; Rudigier-Voigt, Eveline [SCHOTT AG, Mainz (Germany)

    2015-03-01

    We present grazing incidence X-ray fluorescence (GIXRF) experiments on 3D periodically textured interfaces of liquid phase crystallized silicon thin-film solar cells on glass. The influence of functional layers (SiO{sub x} or SiO{sub x}/SiC{sub x}) - placed between glass substrate and silicon during crystallization - on the final carbon and oxygen contaminations inside the silicon was analyzed. Baring of the buried structured silicon surface prior to GIXRF measurement was achieved by removal of the original nano-imprinted glass substrate by wet-chemical etching. A broad angle of incidence distribution was determined for the X-ray radiation impinging on this textured surface. Optical simulations were performed in order to estimate the incident radiation intensity on the structured surface profile considering total reflection and attenuation effects. The results indicate a much lower contamination level for SiO{sub x} compared to the SiO{sub x}/SiC{sub x} interlayers, and about 25% increased contamination when comparing structured with planar silicon layers, both correlating with the corresponding solar cell performances. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Influence of oxygen doping on resistive-switching characteristic of a-Si/c-Si device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiahua; Chen, Da; Huang, Shihua

    2017-12-01

    The influence of oxygen doping on resistive-switching characteristics of Ag/a-Si/p+-c-Si device was investigated. By oxygen doping in the growth process of amorphous silicon, the device resistive-switching performances, such as the ON/OFF resistance ratios, yield and stability were improved, which may be ascribed to the significant reduction of defect density because of oxygen incorporation. The device I-V characteristics are strongly dependent on the oxygen doping concentration. As the oxygen doping concentration increases, the Si-rich device gradually transforms to an oxygen-rich device, and the device yield, switching characteristics, and stability may be improved for silver/oxygen-doped a-Si/p+-c-Si device. Finally, the device resistive-switching mechanism was analyzed. Project supported by the Zhejiang Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China (No. LY17F040001), the Open Project Program of Surface Physics Laboratory (National Key Laboratory) of Fudan University (No. KF2015_02), the Open Project Program of National Laboratory for Infrared Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (No. M201503), the Zhejiang Provincial Science and Technology Key Innovation Team (No. 2011R50012), and the Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory (No. 2013E10022).

  4. Influence of Constituents on Creep Properties of SiC/SiC Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, R.; DiCarlo, J.

    2016-01-01

    SiC-SiC composites are being considered as potential candidate materials for next generation turbine components such as combustor liners, nozzle vanes and blades because of their low density, high temperature capability, and tailorable mechanical properties. These composites are essentially fabricated by infiltrating matrix into a stacked array of fibers or fiber preform by one or a combination of manufacturing methods such as, Melt Infiltration (MI) of molten silicon metal, Chemical Vapor Infiltration (CVI), Polymer Infiltration and Pyrolysis (PIP). To understand the influence of constituents, the SiC-SiC composites fabricated by MI, CVI, and PIP methods were creep tested in air between 12000 and 14500 degrees Centigrade for up to 500 hours. The failed specimens were analyzed under a scanning electron microscope to assess damage mechanisms. Also, knowing the creep deformation parameters of the fiber and the matrix under the testing conditions, the creep behavior of the composites was modeled and compared with the measured data. The implications of the results on the long term durability of these composites will be discussed.

  5. High-performance a -Si/c-Si heterojunction photoelectrodes for photoelectrochemical oxygen and hydrogen evolution

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hsin Ping

    2015-05-13

    Amorphous Si (a-Si)/crystalline Si (c-Si) heterojunction (SiHJ) can serve as highly efficient and robust photoelectrodes for solar fuel generation. Low carrier recombination in the photoelectrodes leads to high photocurrents and photovoltages. The SiHJ was designed and fabricated into both photoanode and photocathode with high oxygen and hydrogen evolution efficiency, respectively, by simply coating of a thin layer of catalytic materials. The SiHJ photoanode with sol-gel NiOx as the catalyst shows a current density of 21.48 mA/cm2 at the equilibrium water oxidation potential. The SiHJ photocathode with 2 nm sputter-coated Pt catalyst displays excellent hydrogen evolution performance with an onset potential of 0.640 V and a solar to hydrogen conversion efficiency of 13.26%, which is the highest ever reported for Si-based photocathodes. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

  6. Hot pressing of B4C/SiC composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahin, F.C.; Turhan, E.; Yesilcubuk, S.A.; Addemir, O.

    2005-01-01

    B 4 C/SiC ceramic composites containing 10-20-30 vol % SiC were prepared by hot pressing method. The effect of SiC addition and hot pressing temperature on sintering behaviour and mechanical properties of hot pressed composites were investigated. Microstructures of hot pressed samples were examined by SEM technique. Three different temperatures (2100 deg. C, 2200 deg. C and 2250 deg. C) were used to optimize hot pressing temperature applying 100 MPa pressure under argon atmosphere during the sintering procedure. The highest relative density of 98.44 % was obtained by hot pressing at 2250 deg. C. However, bending strengths of B 4 C/SiC composite samples were lower than monolithic B 4 C in all experimental conditions. (authors)

  7. Interfacial characterization of CVI-SiC/SiC composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, W.; Kohyama, A.; Noda, T.; Katoh, Y.; Hinoki, T.; Araki, H.; Yu, J.

    2002-01-01

    The mechanical properties of the interfaces of two families of chemical vapor infiltration SiC/SiC composites, advanced Tyranno-SA and Hi-Nicalon fibers reinforced SiC/SiC composites with various carbon and SiC/C interlayers, were investigated by single fiber push-out/push-back tests. Interfacial debonding and fibers sliding mainly occurred adjacent to the first carbon layer on the fibers. The interfacial debonding strengths and frictional stresses for both Tyranno-SA/SiC and Hi-Nicalon/SiC composites were correlated with the first carbon layer thickness. Tyranno-SA/SiC composites exhibited much larger interfacial frictional stresses compared to Hi-Nicalon/SiC composites. This was assumed to be mainly contributed by the rather rough surface of the Tyranno-SA fiber

  8. First-principles studies of di-arsenic interstitial and its implications for arsenic-interstitial diffusion in crystalline silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yonghyun; Kirichenko, Taras A.; Kong, Ning; Larson, Larry; Banerjee, Sanjay K.

    2007-01-01

    We propose new structural configurations and novel diffusion mechanisms for neutral di-arsenic interstitial (As 2 I 2 ) in silicon with a first-principle density functional theory simulation within the generalized gradient approximation. With an assumption of excess silicon interstitials and high arsenic concentrations, neutral As 2 I 2 is expected to be favorable and mobile with low-migration barrier. Moreover, because the diffusion barrier of arsenic interstitial pairs (AsI) is very low ( 2 I 2 can be easily formed and likely intermediate stage of larger arsenic interstitial clusters

  9. Impedance spectroscopy of heterojunction solar cell a-SiC/c-Si with ITO antireflection film investigated at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Šály, V; Pern, M; Janíček, F; Mikolášek, M; Packa, J; Huran, J

    2017-01-01

    Progressive smart photovoltaic technologies including heterostructures a-SiC/c-Si with ITO antireflection film are one of the prospective replacements of conventional photovoltaic silicon technology. Our paper is focused on the investigation of heterostructures a-SiC/c-Si provided with a layer of ITO (indium oxide/tin oxide 90/10 wt.%) which acts as a passivating and antireflection coating. Prepared photovoltaic cell structure was investigated at various temperatures and the influence of temperature on its operation was searched. The investigation of the dynamic properties of heterojunction PV cells was carried out using impedance spectroscopy. The equivalent AC circuit which approximates the measured impedance data was proposed. Assessment of the influence of the temperature on the operation of prepared heterostructure was carried out by analysis of the temperature dependence of AC equivalent circuit elements. (paper)

  10. Impedance spectroscopy of heterojunction solar cell a-SiC/c-Si with ITO antireflection film investigated at different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šály, V.; Perný, M.; Janíček, F.; Huran, J.; Mikolášek, M.; Packa, J.

    2017-04-01

    Progressive smart photovoltaic technologies including heterostructures a-SiC/c-Si with ITO antireflection film are one of the prospective replacements of conventional photovoltaic silicon technology. Our paper is focused on the investigation of heterostructures a-SiC/c-Si provided with a layer of ITO (indium oxide/tin oxide 90/10 wt.%) which acts as a passivating and antireflection coating. Prepared photovoltaic cell structure was investigated at various temperatures and the influence of temperature on its operation was searched. The investigation of the dynamic properties of heterojunction PV cells was carried out using impedance spectroscopy. The equivalent AC circuit which approximates the measured impedance data was proposed. Assessment of the influence of the temperature on the operation of prepared heterostructure was carried out by analysis of the temperature dependence of AC equivalent circuit elements.

  11. Towards Cost-Effective Crystalline Silicon Based Flexible Solar Cells: Integration Strategy by Rational Design of Materials, Process, and Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Bahabry, Rabab R.

    2017-01-01

    . However, silicon is a brittle material with a fracture strains <1%. Highly flexible Si-based solar cells are available in the form thin films which seem to be disadvantageous over thick Si solar cells due to the reduction of the optical absorption

  12. Role of a-Si:H in lateral growth of crystalline silicon nanowires using Pb and In catalysts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kočka, Jan; Müller, Martin; Stuchlík, Jiří; Stuchlíková, The-Ha; Červenka, Jiří; Fejfar, Antonín

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 213, č. 7 (2016), s. 1821-1825 ISSN 1862-6300 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-12355S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : amorphous films * catalysts * chemical vapor deposition * amorphous silicon Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.775, year: 2016

  13. Oxidation-resistant interface coatings for SiC/SiC composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stinton, D.P.; Kupp, E.R.; Hurley, J.W.; Lowden, R.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1996-08-01

    The characteristics of the fiber-matrix interfaces in ceramic matrix composites control the mechanical behavior of these composites. Finite element modeling (FEM) was performed to examine the effect of interface coating modulus and coefficient of thermal expansion on composite behavior. Oxide interface coatings (mullite and alumina-titania) produced by a sol-gel method were chosen for study as a result of the FEM results. Amorphous silicon carbide deposited by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is also being investigated for interface coatings in SiC-matrix composites. Processing routes for depositing coatings of these materials were developed. Composites with these interfaces were produced and tested in flexure both as-processed and after oxidation to examine the suitability of these materials as interface coatings for SiC/SiC composites in fossil energy applications.

  14. Characterization on C/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites with Novel Fiber Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petko, Jeanne; Kiser, J. Douglas; McCue, Terry; Verrilli, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMCs) are attractive candidate materials in the aerospace industry due to their high specific strength, low density and higher temperature capabilities. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is pursuing the use of CMC components in advanced Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) propulsion applications. Carbon fiber-reinforced silicon carbide (C/SiC) is the primary material of interest for a variety of RLV propulsion applications. These composites offer high- strength carbon fibers and a high modulus, oxidation-resistant matrix. For comparison, two types of carbon fibers were processed with novel types of interface coatings (multilayer and pseudoporous). For RLV propulsion applications, environmental durability will be critical. The coatings show promise of protecting the carbon fibers from the oxidizing environment. The strengths and microstructures of these composite materials are presented.

  15. Surface acoustic wave devices on AlN/3C–SiC/Si multilayer structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Chih-Ming; Lien, Wei-Cheng; Riekkinen, Tommi; Senesky, Debbie G; Pisano, Albert P; Chen, Yung-Yu; Felmetsger, Valery V

    2013-01-01

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) propagation characteristics in a multilayer structure including a piezoelectric aluminum nitride (AlN) thin film and an epitaxial cubic silicon carbide (3C–SiC) layer on a silicon (Si) substrate are investigated by theoretical calculation in this work. Alternating current (ac) reactive magnetron sputtering was used to deposit highly c-axis-oriented AlN thin films, showing the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the rocking curve of 1.36° on epitaxial 3C–SiC layers on Si substrates. In addition, conventional two-port SAW devices were fabricated on the AlN/3C–SiC/Si multilayer structure and SAW propagation properties in the multilayer structure were experimentally investigated. The surface wave in the AlN/3C–SiC/Si multilayer structure exhibits a phase velocity of 5528 m s −1 and an electromechanical coupling coefficient of 0.42%. The results demonstrate the potential of AlN thin films grown on epitaxial 3C–SiC layers to create layered SAW devices with higher phase velocities and larger electromechanical coupling coefficients than SAW devices on an AlN/Si multilayer structure. Moreover, the FWHM values of rocking curves of the AlN thin film and 3C–SiC layer remained constant after annealing for 500 h at 540 °C in air atmosphere. Accordingly, the layered SAW devices based on AlN thin films and 3C–SiC layers are applicable to timing and sensing applications in harsh environments. (paper)

  16. Characteristic electron energy loss spectra in SiC buried layers formed by C+ implantation into crystalline silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Hui; Chen Guanghua; Kwok, R.W.M.

    1998-01-01

    SiC buried layers were synthesized by a metal vapor vacuum arc ion source, with C + ions implanted into crystalline Si substrates. According to X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the characteristic electron energy loss spectra of the SiC buried layers were studied. It was found that the characteristic electron energy loss spectra depend on the profiles of the carbon content, and correlate well with the order of the buried layers

  17. In-situ determination of the effective absorbance of thin μc-Si:H layers growing on rough ZnO:Al

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meier Matthias

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study optical transmission measurements were performed in-situ during the growth of microcrystalline siliconc-Si:H layers by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD. The stable plasma emission was used as light source. The effective absorption coefficient of the thin μc-Si:H layers which were deposited on rough transparent conductive oxide (TCO surfaces was calculated from the transient transmission signal. It was observed that by increasing the surface roughness of the TCO, the effective absorption coefficient increases which can be correlated to the increased light scattering effect and thus the enhanced light paths inside the silicon. A correlation between the in-situ determined effective absorbance of the μc-Si:H absorber layer and the short-circuit current density of μc-Si:H thin-film silicon solar cells was found. Hence, an attractive technique is demonstrated to study, on the one hand, the absorbance and the light trapping in thin films depending on the roughness of the substrate and, on the other hand, to estimate the short-circuit current density of thin-film solar cells in-situ, which makes the method interesting as a process control tool.

  18. Creep/Stress Rupture Behavior and Failure Mechanisms of Full CVI and Full PIP SiC/SiC Composites at Elevated Temperatures in Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, R. T.; Kiser, J. D.

    2017-01-01

    SiC/SiC composites fabricated by melt infiltration are being considered as potential candidate materials for next generation turbine components. However these materials are limited to 2400 F application because of the presence of residual silicon in the SiC matrix. Currently there is an increasing interest in developing and using silicon free SiC/SiC composites for structural aerospace applications above 2400 F. Full PIP or full CVI or CVI + PIP hybrid SiC/SiC composites can be fabricated without excess silicon, but the upper temperature stress capabilities of these materials are not fully known. In this study, the on-axis creep and rupture properties of the state-of-the-art full CVI and full PIP SiC/SiC composites with Sylramic-iBN fibers were measured at temperatures to 2700 F in air and their failure modes examined. In this presentation creep rupture properties, failure mechanisms and upper temperature capabilities of these two systems will be discussed and compared with the literature data.

  19. Nanomechanical properties of thick porous silicon layers grown on p- and p+-type bulk crystalline Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charitidis, C.A.; Skarmoutsou, A.; Nassiopoulou, A.G.; Dragoneas, A.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The nanomechanical properties of bulk crystalline Si. → The nanomechanical properties of porous Si. → The elastic-plastic deformation of porous Si compared to bulk crystalline quantified by nanoindentation data analysis. - Abstract: The nanomechanical properties and the nanoscale deformation of thick porous Si (PSi) layers of two different morphologies, grown electrochemically on p-type and p+-type Si wafers were investigated by the depth-sensing nanoindentation technique over a small range of loads using a Berkovich indenter and were compared with those of bulk crystalline Si. The microstructure of the thick PSi layers was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy. PSi layers on p+-type Si show an anisotropic mesoporous structure with straight vertical pores of diameter in the range of 30-50 nm, while those on p-type Si show a sponge like mesoporous structure. The effect of the microstructure on the mechanical properties of the layers is discussed. It is shown that the hardness and Young's modulus of the PSi layers exhibit a strong dependence on their microstructure. In particular, PSi layers with the anisotropic straight vertical pores show higher hardness and elastic modulus values than sponge-like layers. However, sponge-like PSi layers reveal less plastic deformation and higher wear resistance compared with layers with straight vertical pores.

  20. Low cost sol–gel derived SiC–SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite as anti reflection layer for enhanced performance of crystalline silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannat, Azmira [School of Semiconductor and Chemical Engineering, Solar Energy Research Center, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 54896 (Korea, Republic of); Solar Energy Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 54896 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Woojin [School of Semiconductor and Chemical Engineering, Solar Energy Research Center, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 54896 (Korea, Republic of); Akhtar, M. Shaheer, E-mail: shaheerakhtar@jbnu.ac.kr [School of Semiconductor and Chemical Engineering, Solar Energy Research Center, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 54896 (Korea, Republic of); New & Renewable Energy Materials Development Center (NewREC), Chonbuk National University, Jeonbuk (Korea, Republic of); Li, Zhen Yu [School of Semiconductor and Chemical Engineering, Solar Energy Research Center, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 54896 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, O.-Bong, E-mail: obyang@jbnu.ac.kr [School of Semiconductor and Chemical Engineering, Solar Energy Research Center, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 54896 (Korea, Republic of); New & Renewable Energy Materials Development Center (NewREC), Chonbuk National University, Jeonbuk (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Sol–gel derived SiC–SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite was prepared. • It effectively coated as AR layer on p-type Si-wafer. • SiC–SiO{sub 2} layer on Si solar cells exhibited relatively low reflectance of 7.08%. • Fabricated Si solar cell attained highly comparable performance of 16.99% to commercial device. - Abstract: This paper describes the preparation, characterizations and the antireflection (AR) coating application in crystalline silicon solar cells of sol–gel derived SiC–SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite. The prepared SiC–SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite was effectively applied as AR layer on p-type Si-wafer via two step processes, where the sol–gel of precursor solution was first coated on p-type Si-wafer using spin coating at 2000 rpm and then subjected to annealing at 450 °C for 1 h. The crystalline, and structural observations revealed the existence of SiC and SiO{sub 2} phases, which noticeably confirmed the formation of SiC–SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite. The SiC–SiO{sub 2} layer on Si solar cells was found to be an excellent AR coating, exhibiting the low reflectance of 7.08% at wavelengths ranging from 400 to 1000 nm. The fabricated crystalline Si solar cell with SiC–SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite AR coating showed comparable power conversion efficiency of 16.99% to the conventional Si{sub x}N{sub x} AR coated Si solar cell. New and effective sol–gel derived SiC–SiO{sub 2} AR layer would offer a promising technique to produce high performance Si solar cells with low-cost.

  1. Ninth Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cell Materials and Processes: Extended Abstracts and Papers of the Workshop, 9-11 August 1999, Breckenridge, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sopori, B.L.; Gee, J.; Kalejs, J.; Saitoh, R.; Stavola, M.; Swanson, D.; Tan, T.; Weber, E.; Werner, J.

    2000-08-04

    Since 1997, the PV sales have exceeded 100 MW/yr with > 85% of the production coming from silicon photovoltaics (Si-PV). As the PV demands increase in the new millennium, there will be a host of challenges to Si-PV. The challenges will arise in developing strategies for cost reduction, increased production, higher throughput per manufacturing line, new sources of low-cost Si, and introduction of new manufacturing processes for cell fabrication. At the same time, newer thin-film technologies, based on CdTe and CIS, will come on board posing new competition. With these challenges come new opportunities for the Si-PV-to detach itself from the microelectronics industry, to embark on an aggressive program in thin-film Si solar cells, and to try new approaches to process monitoring. The 9th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cell Materials and Processes addressed these issues in a number of sessions. In addition to covering the usual topics of impurity gettering, defects, passivation, and solar cell processing, there were sessions on poly feedstock, mechanical properties of Si, metallization, and process monitoring.

  2. Application of CTLM method combining interfacial structure characterization to investigate contact formation of silver paste metallization on crystalline silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Shenghu; Yuan, Xiao; Tong, Hua; Yang, Yunxia; Liu, Cui; Ye, Xiaojun; Li, Yongsheng; Wang, Xianhao; Luo, Lan

    2018-04-01

    Circular transmission line model (CTLM) measurements were applied to study the contact formation mechanism of the silver paste metallization on n-type emitter of crystalline silicon solar cells. The electrical performance parameters ρc,Rsk , and Lt , which are related to the physical and chemical states of the multiphase materials at the interface, were extracted from the CTLM measurements, and were found to be sensitive to sintering temperature. As the temperature increased from 585 °C to 780 °C, initially the ρc value decreased rapidly, then flattened out and increased slightly. The order of resistivity magnitude was restricted by the SiNx passivation layer in the early sintering stages, and relied on the carrier tunneling probability affected by the precipitated silver crystallites or colloids, emitter doping concentration and molten glass layer. Based on the calculations that the sheet resistance underneath the electrode was reduced form 110 Ω / □ to 0.186 Ω / □ , it could be inferred that there was formation of a highly conductive layer of silver crystallites and colloids contained glass on the emitter. The transfer length Lt exhibited a U-shaped variation along with the temperature, reflecting the variation of the interfacial electrical properties. Overall, this article shows that the CTLM method can become a new powerful tool for researchers to meet the challenges of silver paste metallization innovation for manufacturing high-efficiency silicon solar cells.

  3. Influence of additional heat exchanger block on directional solidification system for growing multi-crystalline silicon ingot - A simulation investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, S. G.; Srinivasan, M.; Aravinth, K.; Ramasamy, P.

    2018-04-01

    Transient simulation has been carried out for analyzing the heat transfer properties of Directional Solidification (DS) furnace. The simulation results revealed that the additional heat exchanger block under the bottom insulation on the DS furnace has enhanced the control of solidification of the silicon melt. Controlled Heat extraction rate during the solidification of silicon melt is requisite for growing good quality ingots which has been achieved by the additional heat exchanger block. As an additional heat exchanger block, the water circulating plate has been placed under the bottom insulation. The heat flux analysis of DS system and the temperature distribution studies of grown ingot confirm that the established additional heat exchanger block on the DS system gives additional benefit to the mc-Si ingot.

  4. Study in static mode of a photovoltaic cell bi facial to crystalline silicon under electric polarization and constant multispectral illumination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ZOUNGRANA Martial

    2000-01-01

    The theoretical study in static mode of a photovoltaic cell bi facial to silicon under electric polarization and multispectral illumination is presented. Through this study, various expressions of the parameters of recombination have been established as well for an illumination by the face before an illumination by the back face. Curves of variation of the densities of carriers, densities of photocurrent, speeds of recombinations and photo tensions have been traced for the two modes of illumination [fr

  5. Wide angle light collection with ultralow reflection and super scattering by silicon micro-nanostructures for thin crystalline silicon solar cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Sonali; Kundu, Avra; Saha, Hiranmay; Datta, Swapan K

    2016-01-01

    Conventional c-Si solar cells employ micron-sized pyramids for achieving reduced reflection (∼10%) and enhanced light trapping by multiple bounces (maximum 3) of the incident light. Alternatively, bio-mimetic, moth-eye sub-wavelength nanostructures offer broadband antireflection properties (∼3%) suitable for solar cell applications in the optical regime. However, such structures do not provide any advantage in the charge carrier extraction process as radial junctions cannot be formed in such sub-wavelength dimensions and they have high surface area causing increased charged carrier recombination. The choice of the geometry for achieving optimum photon–electron harvesting for solar applications is therefore very critical. Cross-fertilization of the conventional solar cell light-trapping techniques and the sub-wavelength nanostructures results in unique micro-nanostructures (structures having sub-wavelength dimensions as well as dimensions of the order of few microns) which provide advanced light management capabilities along with the ability of realizing radial junctions. It is seen that an ultralow reflection along with wide angle light collection is obtained which enables such structures to overcome the morning, evening and winter light losses in solar cells. Further, super-scattering in the structures offer enhanced light trapping not only in the structure itself but also in the substrate housing the structure. Ray and wave optics have been used to understand the optical benefits of the structures. It is seen that the aspect ratio of the structures plays the most significant role for achieving such light management capabilities, and efficiencies as high as 12% can be attained. Experiments have been carried out to fabricate a unique micro-nanomaze-like structure instead of a periodic array of micro-nanostructures with the help of nanosphere lithography and the MacEtch technique. It is seen that randomized micro-nanomaze geometry offers very good

  6. Metastability of a-SiO{sub x}:H thin films for c-Si surface passivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serenelli, L., E-mail: luca.serenelli@enea.it [ENEA Research centre “Casaccia”, via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Rome (Italy); DIET University of Rome “Sapienza”, via Eudossiana 18, 00184 Rome (Italy); Martini, L. [DIET University of Rome “Sapienza”, via Eudossiana 18, 00184 Rome (Italy); Imbimbo, L. [ENEA Research centre “Casaccia”, via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Rome (Italy); DIET University of Rome “Sapienza”, via Eudossiana 18, 00184 Rome (Italy); Asquini, R. [DIET University of Rome “Sapienza”, via Eudossiana 18, 00184 Rome (Italy); Menchini, F.; Izzi, M.; Tucci, M. [ENEA Research centre “Casaccia”, via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Rome (Italy)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • a-SiO{sub x}:H film deposition by RF-PECVD is optimized from SiH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} gas mixture. • Metastability of a-SiO{sub x}:H/c-Si passivation is investigated under thermal annealing and UV exposure. • A correlation between passivation metastability and Si−H bonds is found by FTIR spectra. • A metastability model is proposed. - Abstract: The adoption of a-SiO{sub x}:H films obtained by PECVD in heterojunction solar cells is a key to further increase their efficiency, because of its transparency in the UV with respect to the commonly used a-Si:H. At the same time this layer must guarantee high surface passivation of the c-Si to be suitable in high efficiency solar cell manufacturing. On the other hand the application of amorphous materials like a-Si:H and SiN{sub x} on the cell frontside expose them to the mostly energetic part of the sun spectrum, leading to a metastability of their passivation properties. Moreover as for amorphous silicon, thermal annealing procedures are considered as valuable steps to enhance and stabilize thin film properties, when performed at opportune temperature. In this work we explored the reliability of a-SiO{sub x}:H thin film layers surface passivation on c-Si substrates under UV exposition, in combination with thermal annealing steps. Both p- and n-type doped c-Si substrates were considered. To understand the effect of UV light soaking we monitored the minority carriers lifetime and Si−H and Si−O bonding, by FTIR spectra, after different exposure times to light coming from a deuterium lamp, filtered to UV-A region, and focused on the sample to obtain a power density of 50 μW/cm{sup 2}. We found a certain lifetime decrease after UV light soaking in both p- and n-type c-Si passivated wafers according to a a-SiO{sub x}:H/c-Si/a-SiO{sub x}:H structure. The role of a thermal annealing, which usually enhances the as-deposited SiO{sub x} passivation properties, was furthermore considered. In

  7. Study of the main parameters involved in carbothermal reduction reaction of silica aiming to obtain silicon nitride powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, J.C. da; Greca, M.C.

    1989-01-01

    The influence of main parameters involved in the method of silicon nitride attainment by carbothermal reduction of silica followed by nitridation were studied in isothermal experiments of fine powder mixtures of silica and graphite in a nitrogen gas flow. The time, temperature, rate C/SiO 2 and flow of nitrogen were varied since they are the main parameters involved in this kind of reaction. The products of reaction were analysed by X-ray diffraction to identify the crystalline phases and as a result was obtained the nucleation of silicon nitride phase. Meanwhile, corroborating prior results, we verified to be difficult the progress of the reaction and the inhibition of formation of silicon carbide phase, the last one being associated to the formation of silicon nitride phase due to thermodynamic matters [pt

  8. Crystalline Silica Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1992-01-01

    Crystalline silica is the scientific name for a group of minerals composed of silicon and oxygen. The term crystalline refers to the fact that the oxygen and silicon atoms are arranged in a threedimensional repeating pattern. This group of minerals has shaped human history since the beginning of civilization. From the sand used for making glass to the piezoelectric quartz crystals used in advanced communication systems, crystalline silica has been a part of our technological development. Crystalline silica's pervasiveness in our technology is matched only by its abundance in nature. It's found in samples from every geologic era and from every location around the globe. Scientists have known for decades that prolonged and excessive exposure to crystalline silica dust in mining environments can cause silicosis, a noncancerous lung disease. During the 1980's, studies were conducted that suggested that crystalline silica also was a carcinogen. As a result of these findings, crystalline silica has been regulated under the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) Hazard Communication Standard (HCS). Under HCS, OSHAregulated businesses that use materials containing 0.1% or more crystalline silica must follow Federal guidelines concerning hazard communication and worker training. Although the HCS does not require that samples be analyzed for crystalline silica, mineral suppliers or OSHAregulated

  9. Improved C/SiC Ceramic Composites Made Using PIP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easler, Timothy

    2007-01-01

    Improved carbon-fiber-reinforced SiC ceramic-matrix composite (C/SiC CMC) materials, suitable for fabrication of thick-section structural components, are producible by use of a combination of raw materials and processing conditions different from such combinations used in the prior art. In comparison with prior C/SiC CMC materials, these materials have more nearly uniform density, less porosity, and greater strength. The majority of raw-material/processing-condition combinations used in the prior art involve the use of chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) for densifying the matrix. In contrast, in synthesizing a material of the present type, one uses a combination of infiltration with, and pyrolysis of, a preceramic polymer [polymer infiltration followed by pyrolysis (PIP)]. PIP processing is performed in repeated, tailored cycles of infiltration followed by pyrolysis. Densification by PIP processing takes less time and costs less than does densification by CVI. When one of these improved materials was tested by exposure to a high-temperature, inert-gas environment that caused prior C/SiC CMCs to lose strength, this material did not lose strength. (Information on the temperature and exposure time was not available at the time of writing this article.) A material of the present improved type consists, more specifically, of (1) carbon fibers coated with an engineered fiber/matrix interface material and (2) a ceramic matrix, containing SiC, derived from a pre-ceramic polymer with ceramic powder additions. The enhancements of properties of these materials relative to those of prior C/SiC CMC materials are attributable largely to engineering of the fiber/ matrix interfacial material and the densification process. The synthesis of a material of this type includes processing at an elevated temperature to a low level of open porosity. The approach followed in this processing allows one to fabricate not only simple plates but also more complexly shaped parts. The carbon fiber

  10. Effect of expanded graphite and PEI-co-Silicon Rubber on the thermo mechanical, morphological as well as rheological properties of in situ composites based on poly (ether imide) and liquid crystalline polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatui, Goutam, E-mail: hatui.goutam@gmail.com; Malas, Asish, E-mail: malasasish@gmail.com; Bhattacharya, Pallab; Dhibar, Saptarshi, E-mail: saptaaus2007@gmail.com; Kundu, Mrinal Kanti, E-mail: kanti.mrinal19@gmail.com; Kumar Das, Chapal, E-mail: chapal12@yahoo.co.in

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • PEI/LCP/ PEI-co-Silicon Rubber/EG and PEI/LCP/MWCNT nano composites are prepared by melt blending method. • The dispersions of acid modified expanded graphite were improved in presence of PEI-co-Silicon Rubber. • Thermal stability was found to be highest for PLGC composite. • Storage modulus and Young’s modulus showed an upward trend with incorporation of only EG and EG in presence of PEI-co-Silicon Rubber. • Among the nano composites PLGC has highest viscosity. - Abstract: Nanocomposites of polyether imide (PEI) and liquid crystalline polymer (LCP) with either MWCNT, Expanded Graphite (EG) or in combination of both EG and PEI-co-Silicon Rubber were prepared by melt blending process. The compatibility between the polymeric phases (PEI and LCP) was observed to be increased by the addition of PEI-co-Silicon Rubber while the only MWCNT added system (PLC) resulted in smaller LCP droplets. A continuous morphology was produced in presence of both PEI-co-Silicon Rubber and EG both added system (PLGR). This was due to the compatibilizing effect of PEI-co-Silicon Rubber. FTIR analysis revealed interaction between PEI and LCP in presence of PEI-co-Silicon Rubber. Remarkable increment of storage modulus was observed with the addition of EG and PEI-co-Silicon Rubber. Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) analysis showed better dispersion of multiple graphene layers of EG in presence of PEI-co-Silicon Rubber compatibilized system. Tensile and Young’s modulus both were highest for EG/ PEI-co-Silicon Rubber added system. This is due to flexible compatibilizing effect of PEI-co-Silicon Rubber which delayed the detachment of LCP domain from the PEI matrix and thus detains the fracture.

  11. Effect of expanded graphite and PEI-co-Silicon Rubber on the thermo mechanical, morphological as well as rheological properties of in situ composites based on poly (ether imide) and liquid crystalline polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatui, Goutam; Malas, Asish; Bhattacharya, Pallab; Dhibar, Saptarshi; Kundu, Mrinal Kanti; Kumar Das, Chapal

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • PEI/LCP/ PEI-co-Silicon Rubber/EG and PEI/LCP/MWCNT nano composites are prepared by melt blending method. • The dispersions of acid modified expanded graphite were improved in presence of PEI-co-Silicon Rubber. • Thermal stability was found to be highest for PLGC composite. • Storage modulus and Young’s modulus showed an upward trend with incorporation of only EG and EG in presence of PEI-co-Silicon Rubber. • Among the nano composites PLGC has highest viscosity. - Abstract: Nanocomposites of polyether imide (PEI) and liquid crystalline polymer (LCP) with either MWCNT, Expanded Graphite (EG) or in combination of both EG and PEI-co-Silicon Rubber were prepared by melt blending process. The compatibility between the polymeric phases (PEI and LCP) was observed to be increased by the addition of PEI-co-Silicon Rubber while the only MWCNT added system (PLC) resulted in smaller LCP droplets. A continuous morphology was produced in presence of both PEI-co-Silicon Rubber and EG both added system (PLGR). This was due to the compatibilizing effect of PEI-co-Silicon Rubber. FTIR analysis revealed interaction between PEI and LCP in presence of PEI-co-Silicon Rubber. Remarkable increment of storage modulus was observed with the addition of EG and PEI-co-Silicon Rubber. Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) analysis showed better dispersion of multiple graphene layers of EG in presence of PEI-co-Silicon Rubber compatibilized system. Tensile and Young’s modulus both were highest for EG/ PEI-co-Silicon Rubber added system. This is due to flexible compatibilizing effect of PEI-co-Silicon Rubber which delayed the detachment of LCP domain from the PEI matrix and thus detains the fracture

  12. ProTEK PSB as Biotechnology Photosensitive Protection Mask on 3C-SiC-on-Si in MEMS Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsi, N.; Majlis, B. Y.; Mohd-Yasin, F.; Hamzah, A. A.; Mohd Rus, A. Z.

    2016-11-01

    This project presents the fabrication of MEMS employing a cubic silicon carbide (3C- SiC) on silicon wafer using newly developed ProTEK PSB as biotechnology photosensitive protection mask. This new biotechnology can reduce the number of processes and simplify the process flow with minimal impact on overall undercut performance. The 680 pm thick wafer is back-etched, leaving the 3C-SiC thin film with a thickness of 1.0 μm as the flexible diaphragm to detect pressure. The effect of the new coating of ProTEK PSB on different KOH solvents were investigated depending on various factors such as development time, final cure temperature and the thickness of the ProTEK PSB deposited layer. It is found that 6.174 μm thickness of ProTEK PSB offers some possibility of reducing the processing time compared to silicon nitride etch masks in KOH (55%wt, 80°C). The new ProTEK PSB biotechnology photosensitive protection mask indicates good stability and sustains its performance in different treatments under KOH and IPA for 8 hours. This work also revealed that the fabrication of MEMS sensors using the new biotechnology photosensitive protection mask provides a simple assembly approach and reduces manufacturing costs. The MEMS sensor can operate up to 500 °C as indicated under the sensitivity of 0.826 pF/MPa with nonlinearity and hysteresis of 0.61% and 3.13%, respectively.

  13. Dry Phosphorus silicate glass etching and surface conditioning and cleaning for multi-crystalline silicon solar cell processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagilik, Ahmed S.

    2014-01-01

    As an alternative to the wet chemical etching method, dry chemical etching processes for Phosphorus silicate glass [PSG} layer removal using Trifluormethane/Sulfur Hexafluoride (CHF 3 / SF 6 ) gas mixture in commercial silicon-nitride plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (SiN-PECVD) system is applied. The dependence of the solar cell performance on the etching temperature is investigated and optimized. It is found that the SiN-PECVD system temperature variation has a significant impact on the whole solar cell characteristics. A dry plasma cleaning treatment of the Si wafer surface after the PSG removal step is also investigated and developed. The cleaning step is used to remove the polymer film which is formed during the PSG etching using both oxygen and hydrogen gases. By applying an additional cleaning step, the polymer film deposited on the silicon wafer surface after PSG etching is eliminated. The effect of different plasma cleaning conditions on solar cell performance is investigated. After optimization of the plasma operating conditions, the performance of the solar cell is improved and the overall gain in efficiency of 0.6% absolute is yielded compared to a cell without any further cleaning step. On the other hand, the best solar cell characteristics can reach values close to that achieved by the conventional wet chemical etching processes demonstrating the effectiveness of the additional O 2 /H 2 post cleaning treatment.(author)

  14. Silica-sol-based spin-coating barrier layer against phosphorous diffusion for crystalline silicon solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzum, Abdullah; Fukatsu, Ken; Kanda, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Yutaka; Tanimoto, Kenji; Yoshinaga, Seiya; Jiang, Yunjian; Ishikawa, Yasuaki; Uraoka, Yukiharu; Ito, Seigo

    2014-01-01

    The phosphorus barrier layers at the doping procedure of silicon wafers were fabricated using a spin-coating method with a mixture of silica-sol and tetramethylammonium hydroxide, which can be formed at the rear surface prior to the front phosphorus spin-on-demand (SOD) diffusion and directly annealed simultaneously with the front phosphorus layer. The optimization of coating thickness was obtained by changing the applied spin-coating speed; from 2,000 to 8,000 rpm. The CZ-Si p-type silicon solar cells were fabricated with/without using the rear silica-sol layer after taking the sheet resistance measurements, SIMS analysis, and SEM measurements of the silica-sol material evaluations into consideration. For the fabrication of solar cells, a spin-coating phosphorus source was used to form the n(+) emitter and was then diffused at 930°C for 35 min. The out-gas diffusion of phosphorus could be completely prevented by spin-coated silica-sol film placed on the rear side of the wafers coated prior to the diffusion process. A roughly 2% improvement in the conversion efficiency was observed when silica-sol was utilized during the phosphorus diffusion step. These results can suggest that the silica-sol material can be an attractive candidate for low-cost and easily applicable spin-coating barrier for any masking purpose involving phosphorus diffusion.

  15. Crystallinity, Surface Morphology, and Photoelectrochemical Effects in Conical InP and InN Nanowires Grown on Silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parameshwaran, Vijay; Xu, Xiaoqing; Clemens, Bruce

    2016-08-24

    The growth conditions of two types of indium-based III-V nanowires, InP and InN, are tailored such that instead of yielding conventional wire-type morphologies, single-crystal conical structures are formed with an enlarged diameter either near the base or near the tip. By using indium droplets as a growth catalyst, combined with an excess indium supply during growth, "ice cream cone" type structures are formed with a nanowire "cone" and an indium-based "ice cream" droplet on top for both InP and InN. Surface polycrystallinity and annihilation of the catalyst tip of the conical InP nanowires are observed when the indium supply is turned off during the growth process. This growth design technique is extended to create single-crystal InN nanowires with the same morphology. Conical InN nanowires with an enlarged base are obtained through the use of an excess combined Au-In growth catalyst. Electrochemical studies of the InP nanowires on silicon demonstrate a reduction photocurrent as a proof of photovolatic behavior and provide insight as to how the observed surface polycrystallinity and the resulting interface affect these device-level properties. Additionally, a photovoltage is induced in both types of conical InN nanowires on silicon, which is not replicated in epitaxial InN thin films.

  16. Effect of impact energy on damage resistance and mechanical property of C/SiC composites under low velocity impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mei, Hui, E-mail: phdhuimei@yahoo.com; Yu, Changkui; Xu, Yawei; Han, Daoyang; Cheng, Laifei

    2017-02-27

    The present study investigated the damage resistance of two dimensional carbon fiber reinforced silicon carbide (C/SiCs) composites subjected to low velocity impact (LVI). Damage microstructures of specimens under different impact energies (E{sub i}) were characterized by infrared thermography, X-ray computed tomography and scanning electron microscopy. The real damage radii of specimens were found to change slightly with E{sub i}, whereas apparent damage radii where much larger. Overall, the fabricated 2D C/SiC composites exhibited good damage resistance to LVI with nominal post-impact tensile strengths remaining at 89.4%, 83.35%, 76.97%, and 74.84% of their pre-impacted counterpart of 158 MPa, for impact energies of 3, 4, 5, and 6 J, respectively. Compared with the as-received one, after LVI real tensile strengths of the C/SiC composite specimens increased by 5.84% for the E{sub i} of 3 J, 9.27% for 4 J, −1.83% for 5 J, −3.16% for 6 J.

  17. Electronic properties of {mu}c-Si:H layers investigated with Hall measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronger, T

    2007-02-28

    In the present work, the electronic properties of thin layers of PECVD-grown {mu}c-Si:H have been examined using the Hall effect. The main focus was on the mobility of the carriers because this is a crucial limiting factor for the electronic quality of this material, however, the density of free carriers as well as the conductivity were also determined. In order to get a picture as comprehensive as possible, a sample matrix was studied consisting of samples with different n-type doping levels and different crystallinities. Additionally, doped samples with artificially implanted defects which could be annealed gradually were investigated. All measurements have been made temperature-dependently. During the work, a new computer control and analysis program was developed from scratch for the Hall setup. It allows for high automation as well as comprehensive error estimation, both of which being very important for high ohmic samples. All samples showed a thermally activated mobility and carrier concentration, however, there is no single activation energy. Instead, all Arrhenius plots exhibited a more or less pronounced convex curvature. This curvature was identified with the parallel connection of a broad distribution of barriers in the material, which are limiting to the transport and are overcome by thermoionic emission. From this, the model of normally distributed barriers (NDB) was derived, mathematically investigated, and successfully applied to the experimental data of this work and (for not too highly doped samples) of other works. As a significant validation of the NDB model, the relative room-temperature mobility values could be calculated just from the Arrhenius slopes and curvatures. A very important dependence turned out to be mobility versus carrier concentration. In particular the annealed sample showed a clear {mu} {proportional_to} n{sup 1/2} behaviour, which could be backed with the sample matrix. Additionally, Hall measurements on HWCVD-grown {mu}c-Si

  18. Ab initio density functional theory investigation of crystalline bundles of polygonized single-walled silicon carbide nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moradian, Rostam; Behzad, Somayeh; Chegel, Raad [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: moradian.rostam@gmail.com

    2008-11-19

    By using ab initio density functional theory, the structural characterizations and electronic properties of two large-diameter (13, 13) and (14, 14) armchair silicon carbide nanotube (SiCNT) bundles are investigated. Full structural optimizations show that the cross sections of these large-diameter SiCNTs in the bundles have a nearly hexagonal shape. The effects of inter-tube coupling on the electronic dispersions of large-diameter SiCNT bundles are demonstrated. By comparing the band structures of the triangular lattices of (14, 14) SiCNTs with nearly hexagonal and circular cross sections we found that the polygonization of the tubes in the bundle leads to a further dispersion of the occupied bands and an increase in the bandgap by 0.18 eV.

  19. Ab initio density functional theory investigation of crystalline bundles of polygonized single-walled silicon carbide nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moradian, Rostam; Behzad, Somayeh; Chegel, Raad

    2008-01-01

    By using ab initio density functional theory, the structural characterizations and electronic properties of two large-diameter (13, 13) and (14, 14) armchair silicon carbide nanotube (SiCNT) bundles are investigated. Full structural optimizations show that the cross sections of these large-diameter SiCNTs in the bundles have a nearly hexagonal shape. The effects of inter-tube coupling on the electronic dispersions of large-diameter SiCNT bundles are demonstrated. By comparing the band structures of the triangular lattices of (14, 14) SiCNTs with nearly hexagonal and circular cross sections we found that the polygonization of the tubes in the bundle leads to a further dispersion of the occupied bands and an increase in the bandgap by 0.18 eV.

  20. Ab initio density functional theory investigation of crystalline bundles of polygonized single-walled silicon carbide nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradian, Rostam; Behzad, Somayeh; Chegel, Raad

    2008-11-01

    By using ab initio density functional theory, the structural characterizations and electronic properties of two large-diameter (13, 13) and (14, 14) armchair silicon carbide nanotube (SiCNT) bundles are investigated. Full structural optimizations show that the cross sections of these large-diameter SiCNTs in the bundles have a nearly hexagonal shape. The effects of inter-tube coupling on the electronic dispersions of large-diameter SiCNT bundles are demonstrated. By comparing the band structures of the triangular lattices of (14, 14) SiCNTs with nearly hexagonal and circular cross sections we found that the polygonization of the tubes in the bundle leads to a further dispersion of the occupied bands and an increase in the bandgap by 0.18 eV.

  1. Equilibrium shapes of polycrystalline silicon nanodots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korzec, M. D., E-mail: korzec@math.tu-berlin.de; Wagner, B., E-mail: bwagner@math.tu-berlin.de [Department of Mathematics, Technische Universität Berlin, Straße des 17. Juni 136, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Roczen, M., E-mail: maurizio.roczen@physik.hu-berlin.de [Department of Physics, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Newtonstraße 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Schade, M., E-mail: martin.schade@physik.uni-halle.de [Zentrum für Innovationskompetenz SiLi-nano, Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, Karl-Freiherr-von-Fritsch-Straße 3, 06120 Halle (Germany); Rech, B., E-mail: bernd.rech@helmholtz-berlin.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Institute for Silicon Photovoltaics, Kekuléstraße 5, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-02-21

    This study is concerned with the topography of nanostructures consisting of arrays of polycrystalline nanodots. Guided by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements of crystalline Si (c-Si) nanodots that evolved from a “dewetting” process of an amorphous Si (a-Si) layer from a SiO{sub 2} coated substrate, we investigate appropriate formulations for the surface energy density and transitions of energy density states at grain boundaries. We introduce a new numerical minimization formulation that allows to account for adhesion energy from an underlying substrate. We demonstrate our approach first for the free standing case, where the solutions can be compared to well-known Wulff constructions, before we treat the general case for interfacial energy settings that support “partial wetting” and grain boundaries for the polycrystalline case. We then use our method to predict the morphologies of silicon nanodots.

  2. Hierarchical 3C-SiC nanowires as stable photocatalyst for organic dye degradation under visible light irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Judong; Chen, Jianjun; Xin, Lipeng; Wang, Mingming

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The photocatalytic performance was enhanced by hierarchical nanostructural SiC nanowires due to the increased specific surface areas and efficient incident light scattering. The positive effect of SiO 2 layer growth on the surface of nanowires during the catalytic process on the high decolorization efficiency of SiC nanowires was attributed to SiO 2 surface oxygen vacancies. -- Highlights: • High decolorization rate of methylene blue using hierarchical 3C-SiC nanowires was obtained. • The effect of methylene blue with different concentration to catalytic result was investigated. • The photocatalytic reaction mechanism of degrading methylene blue was explained. • The SiO 2 layer generating on nanowire surface in the catalytic process was analyzed. -- Abstract: 3C-SiC nanowires with hierarchical structure were synthesized by sol–gel carbothermal reduction method. The photocatalytic property of SiC nanowires was investigated. 3C-SiC hierarchical nanowires exhibited an enhanced photocatalytic activity by accelerating the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue solution under visible light irradiation. Methylene blue was degraded efficiently after 5 h irradiation over the photocatalyst. The photocatalytic activity was affected by the initial concentration of the methylene blue solution. Silicon dioxide layer was observed on the surface of nanowires after the catalytic process. The positive effect of SiO 2 surface oxygen vacancies and 3C-SiC hierarchical nanostructures on the high decolorization efficiency of SiC nanowires was discussed. The detailed photocatalytic redox processes were also explained

  3. PECVD-ONO: A New Deposited Firing Stable Rear Surface Passivation Layer System for Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hofmann

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposited (PECVD stack layer system consisting of a-SiOx:H, a-SiNx:H, and a-SiOx:H is presented for silicon solar cell rear side passivation. Surface recombination velocities below 60 cm/s (after firing and below 30 cm/s (after forming gas anneal were achieved. Solar cell precursors without front and rear metallisation showed implied open-circuit voltages Voc values extracted from quasi-steady-state photoconductance (QSSPC measurements above 680 mV. Fully finished solar cells with up to 20.0% energy conversion efficiency are presented. A fit of the cell's internal quantum efficiency using software tool PC1D and a comparison to a full-area aluminium-back surface field (Al-BSF and thermal SiO2 is shown. PECVD-ONO was found to be clearly superior to Al-BSF. A separation of recombination at the metallised and the passivated area at the solar cell's rear is presented using the equations of Fischer and Kray. Nuclear reaction analysis (NRA has been used to evaluate the hydrogen depth profile of the passivation layer system at different stages.

  4. The microstructure matters: breaking down the barriers with single crystalline silicon as negative electrode in Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternad, M.; Forster, M.; Wilkening, M.

    2016-01-01

    Silicon-based microelectronics forms a major foundation of our modern society. Small lithium-ion batteries act as the key enablers of its success and have revolutionised portable electronics used in our all everyday’s life. While large-scale LIBs are expected to help establish electric vehicles, on the other end of device size chip-integrated Si-based μ-batteries may revolutionise microelectronics once more. In general, Si is regarded as one of the white hopes since it offers energy densities being ten times higher than conventional anode materials. The use of monocrystalline, wafer-grade Si, however, requires several hurdles to be overcome since it its volume largely expands during lithiation. Here, we will show how 3D patterned Si wafers, prepared by the sophisticated techniques from semiconductor industry, are to be electrochemically activated to overcome these limitations and to leverage their full potential being reflected in stable charge capacities (>1000 mAhg–1) and high Coulomb efficiencies (98.8%). PMID:27531589

  5. Kinetics of the permanent deactivation of the boron-oxygen complex in crystalline silicon as a function of illumination intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Steckenreiter

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on contactless carrier lifetime measurements performed on p-type boron-doped Czochralski-grown silicon (Cz-Si wafers, we examine the rate constant Rde of the permanent deactivation process of the boron-oxygen-related defect center as a function of the illumination intensity I at 170°C. While at low illumination intensities, a linear increase of Rde on I is measured, at high illumination intensities, Rde seems to saturate. We are able to explain the saturation by assuming that Rde increases proportionally with the excess carrier concentration Δn and take the fact into account that at sufficiently high illumination intensities, the carrier lifetime decreases with increasing Δn and hence the slope of Δn(I decreases, leading to an apparent saturation. Importantly, on low-lifetime Cz-Si samples no saturation of the deactivation rate constant is observed for the same illumination intensities, proving that the deactivation is stimulated by the presence of excess electrons and not directly by the photons.

  6. Short-circuit current density imaging of crystalline silicon solar cells via lock-in thermography: Robustness and simplifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fertig, Fabian; Greulich, Johannes; Rein, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Spatially resolved determination of solar cell parameters is beneficial for loss analysis and optimization of conversion efficiency. One key parameter that has been challenging to access by an imaging technique on solar cell level is short-circuit current density. This work discusses the robustness of a recently suggested approach to determine short-circuit current density spatially resolved based on a series of lock-in thermography images and options for a simplified image acquisition procedure. For an accurate result, one or two emissivity-corrected illuminated lock-in thermography images and one dark lock-in thermography image have to be recorded. The dark lock-in thermography image can be omitted if local shunts are negligible. Furthermore, it is shown that omitting the correction of lock-in thermography images for local emissivity variations only leads to minor distortions for standard silicon solar cells. Hence, adequate acquisition of one image only is sufficient to generate a meaningful map of short-circuit current density. Beyond that, this work illustrates the underlying physics of the recently proposed method and demonstrates its robustness concerning varying excitation conditions and locally increased series resistance. Experimentally gained short-circuit current density images are validated for monochromatic illumination in comparison to the reference method of light-beam induced current

  7. Two- and three-dimensional folding of thin film single-crystalline silicon for photovoltaic power applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaoying; Li, Huan; Ahn, Bok Yeop; Duoss, Eric B; Hsia, K Jimmy; Lewis, Jennifer A; Nuzzo, Ralph G

    2009-12-01

    Fabrication of 3D electronic structures in the micrometer-to-millimeter range is extremely challenging due to the inherently 2D nature of most conventional wafer-based fabrication methods. Self-assembly, and the related method of self-folding of planar patterned membranes, provide a promising means to solve this problem. Here, we investigate self-assembly processes driven by wetting interactions to shape the contour of a functional, nonplanar photovoltaic (PV) device. A mechanics model based on the theory of thin plates is developed to identify the critical conditions for self-folding of different 2D geometrical shapes. This strategy is demonstrated for specifically designed millimeter-scale silicon objects, which are self-assembled into spherical, and other 3D shapes and integrated into fully functional light-trapping PV devices. The resulting 3D devices offer a promising way to efficiently harvest solar energy in thin cells using concentrator microarrays that function without active light tracking systems.

  8. Simulation and experimental study of a novel bifacial structure of silicon heterojunction solar cell for high efficiency and low cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haibin; Tian, Gangyu; Zhou, Lang; Yuan, Jiren; Fahrner, Wolfgang R.; Zhang, Wenbin; Li, Xingbing; Chen, Wenhao; Liu, Renzhong

    2018-03-01

    A novel structure of Ag grid/SiN x /n+-c-Si/n-c-Si/i-a-Si:H/p+-a-Si:H/TCO/Ag grid was designed to increase the efficiency of bifacial amorphous/crystalline silicon-based solar cells and reduce the rear material consumption and production cost. The simulation results show that the new structure obtains higher efficiency compared with the typical bifacial amorphous/crystalline silicon-based solar cell because of an increase in the short-circuit current (J sc), while retaining the advantages of a high open-circuit voltage, low temperature coefficient, and good weak-light performance. Moreover, real cells composed of the novel structure with dimensions of 75 mm ×75 mm were fabricated by a special fabrication recipe based on industrial processes. Without parameter optimization, the cell efficiency reached 21.1% with the J sc of 41.7 mA/cm2. In addition, the novel structure attained 28.55% potential conversion efficiency under an illumination of AM 1.5 G, 100 mW/cm2. We conclude that the configuration of the Ag grid/SiN x /n+-c-Si/n-c-Si/i-a-Si:H/p+-a-Si:H/TCO/Ag grid is a promising structure for high efficiency and low cost. Project supported by the Jiangxi Provincial Key Research and Development Foundation, China (Grant No. 2016BBH80043), the Open Fund of Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Materials and Technology for Energy Conversion, China (Grant No. NJ20160032), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61741404, 61464007, and 51561022).

  9. Development in fiscal 1999 of technologies to put photovoltaic power generation systems into practical use. Development of thin film solar cell manufacturing technologies (Development of low-cost large-area module manufacturing technologies, and development of technologies to manufacture amorphous silicon/thin film poly-crystalline silicon hybrid thin film solar cells); 1999 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (tei cost daimenseki module seizo kaihatsu (oyogata shinkozo usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (amorphous silicon / usumaku takessho silicon hybrid usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Developmental research has been performed on large-area low-cost manufacturing technologies on hybrid thin film solar cells of amorphous silicon and poly-crystalline silicon. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1999. The research has been performed on a texture construction formed naturally on silicon surface, and thin film poly-crystalline silicon cells with STAR structure having a rear side reflection layer to increase light absorption. The research achievements during the current fiscal year may be summarized as follows: the laser scribing technology for thin film poly-crystalline silicon was established, which is important for modularization, making fabrication of low-cost and large-area modules possible; a stabilization efficiency of 11.3% was achieved in a hybrid mini module comprising of ten-stage series integrated amorphous silicon and thin film poly-crystalline silicon; structures different hybrid modules were discussed, whereas an initial efficiency of 10.3% (38.78W) was achieved in a sub-module having a substrate size of 910 mm times 455 mm; and feasibility of forming large-area hybrid modules was demonstrated. (NEDO)

  10. Innovative technologies for emitter formation of crystalline silicon solar cells using in-line diffusion; Innovative Technologien zur Emittererzeugung fuer kristalline Silizium-Solarzellen mittels Durchlaufdiffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyer, Catherine

    2009-04-20

    An in-line emitter formation process for crystalline silicon solar cells was developed. The wafers were coated at room temperature with dilute phosphoric acid (2.5 w/w% in water) using ultrasonic spraying and then heated up to temperatures around 900 C in a metal-contamination-free in-line furnace. In the first zones of the furnace, a phosphosilicate glass (PSG) is formed on the silicon surface and serves as the doping source. The PSG thickness was adjusted by varying the flow rate of dilute phosphoric acid to the spray nozzle and took on values appropriate for emitter formation, in the range of {proportional_to}40-120 nm. A surfactant mixture was added to the dilute phosphoric acid in order to obtain complete wetting of the silicon surface. The mixture, which was composed of a hydrocarbon surfactant and of a fluorosurfactant, achieved better wetting properties than would be possible when using only one of the two surfactants. The spray solution containing only the hydrocarbon surfactant achieved a faster drop flattening, while the spray solution containing only the fluorosurfactant achieved a lower static surface tension. The mixture allowed for a combination of these desired properties: The drops coalesced together sufficiently rapidly (before drying) on the silicon surface to form a complete dopant source liquid layer and this layer remains sufficiently homogeneous during the layer drying. The sprayed-on layer is thicker ({proportional_to}15 microns) than the height of the surface texture ({proportional_to}5-10 microns). The liquid strives for a state of equilibrium, a convex meniscus. The topography of the liquid surface at the time at which the increase in viscosity puts an end to the liquid flow is reflected in the topography of the PSG thickness. The corresponding variations in sheet resistance across a wafer are sufficiently small for solar cells. Furthermore, the liquid layer conforms itself, during the drying, to the surface texture on a microscopic scale

  11. Preliminary calculations of stress change of fuel pin using SiC/SiC composites for GFR with changing of thermal conductivity degradation by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. K.; Naganuma, M.

    2006-01-01

    Gas cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) is being researched as a candidate concept of Generation IV international Forum. As a main feature of GFR, it should be maintained high temperature and pressure of coolant gas for heat transfer efficiency. Such a demanding environment requires high-temperature-resistant structural materials distinguished from traditional steel material. Consequently, ceramics are promising candidate material of core components. Especially, Silicon Carbide fiber reinforced Silicon Carbide composites (SiC/SiC) have encouraging characteristics such as refractoriness, low activation and toughness. Application of new material to core components must be explained by the viewpoint of engineering validity. Therefore, present study surveyed that current report for mechanical strength and thermal conductivity of SiC/SiC composites. According to the reports, neutron irradiation environment degraded mechanical properties of SiC/SiC composites. To confirm applicability to core components, model of fuel pin using SiC/SiC composites was assumed with feasible mechanical properties. Furthermore, it was calculated and estimated that the stress caused by temperature variation of inner and outer side of assumed model of cladding tube. Stress was calculated by changing of input date such as thickness of cladding tube, temperature variation, thermal conductivity and linear power. In the range of this study, the most important factor was identified as degradation of thermal conductivity by irradiation. It caused a significant stress and limited a geometrical design of fuel pin. It was discussed that the differences of heat transfer between isotropic and anisotropic materials like a metal and composites. These results should be helpful not only to determine a design factor of core component but also to indicate an improvement direction of SiC/SiC composites. Through these work, reliability and safety of GFR will be increased

  12. CVD growth of (001) and (111)3C-SiC epilayers and their interface reactivity with praseodymium oxide dielectric layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohal, R.

    2006-01-01

    In this work, growth and characterisation of 3C-SiC thin films, investigation of oxidation of thus prepared layers and Pr-silicate and AlON based interface with SiC have been studied. Chemical vapor deposition of 3C-SiC thin films on Si(001) and Si(111) substrates has been investigated. Prior to the actual SiC growth, preparation of initial buffer layers of SiC was done. Using such a buffer layer, epitaxial growth of 3C-SiC has been achieved on Si(111) and Si(001) substrates. The temperature of 1100 C and 1150 C has been determined to be the optimal temperature for 3C-SiC growth on Si (111) and Si(001) substrates respectively. The oxidation studies on SiC revealed that a slow oxidation process at moderate temperatures in steps was useful in reducing and suppressing the g-C at the SiO 2 /SiC interface. Clean, graphite-free SiO 2 has been successfully grown on 3C-SiC by silicon evaporation and UHV anneal. For the application of high-k Pr 2 O 3 on silicon carbide, plausible interlayer, Pr-Silicate and AlON, have been investigated. Praseodymium silicate has been prepared successfully completely consuming the SiO2 and simultaneously suppressing the graphitic carbon formation. A comparatively more stable interlayer using AlON has been achieved. This interlayer mainly consists of stable phases of AlN along with some amount of Pr-aluminates and CN. Such layers act as a reaction barrier between Pr 2 O 3 and SiC, and simultaneously provide higher band offsets. (orig.)

  13. CVD growth of (001) and (111)3C-SiC epilayers and their interface reactivity with pradeodymium oxide dielectric layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohal, R.

    2006-07-24

    In this work, growth and characterisation of 3C-SiC thin films, investigation of oxidation of thus prepared layers and Pr-silicate and AlON based interface with SiC have been studied. Chemical vapor deposition of 3C-SiC thin films on Si(001) and Si(111) substrates has been investigated. Prior to the actual SiC growth, preparation of initial buffer layers of SiC was done. Using such a buffer layer, epitaxial growth of 3C-SiC has been achieved on Si(111) and Si(001) substrates. The temperature of 1100 C and 1150 C has been determined to be the optimal temperature for 3C-SiC growth on Si (111) and Si(001) substrates respectively. The oxidation studies on SiC revealed that a slow oxidation process at moderate temperatures in steps was useful in reducing and suppressing the g-C at the SiO{sub 2}/SiC interface. Clean, graphite-free SiO{sub 2} has been successfully grown on 3C-SiC by silicon evaporation and UHV anneal. For the application of high-k Pr{sub 2}O{sub 3} on silicon carbide, plausible interlayer, Pr-Silicate and AlON, have been investigated. Praseodymium silicate has been prepared successfully completely consuming the SiO2 and simultaneously suppressing the graphitic carbon formation. A comparatively more stable interlayer using AlON has been achieved. This interlayer mainly consists of stable phases of AlN along with some amount of Pr-aluminates and CN. Such layers act as a reaction barrier between Pr{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SiC, and simultaneously provide higher band offsets. (orig.)

  14. Oxidation of C/SiC Composites at Reduced Oxygen Partial Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opila, Elizabeth J.; Serra, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    Carbon-fiber reinforced SiC (C/SiC) composites are proposed for leading edge applications of hypersonic vehicles due to the superior strength of carbon fibers at high temperatures (greater than 1500 C). However, the vulnerability of the carbon fibers in C/SiC to oxidation over a wide range of temperatures remains a problem. Previous oxidation studies of C/SiC have mainly been conducted in air or oxygen, so that the oxidation behavior of C/SiC at reduced oxygen partial pressures of the hypersonic flight regime are less well understood. In this study, both carbon fibers and C/SiC composites were oxidized over a wide range of temperatures and oxygen partial pressures to facilitate the understanding and modeling of C/SiC oxidation kinetics for hypersonic flight conditions.

  15. The influence of passivation and photovoltaic properties of α-Si:H coverage on silicon nanowire array solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Silicon nanowire (SiNW) arrays for radial p-n junction solar cells offer potential advantages of light trapping effects and quick charge collection. Nevertheless, lower open circuit voltages (Voc) lead to lower energy conversion efficiencies. In such cases, the performance of the solar cells depends critically on the quality of the SiNW interfaces. In this study, SiNW core-shell solar cells have been fabricated by growing crystalline silicon (c-Si) nanowires via the metal-assisted chemical etching method and by depositing hydrogenated amorphous silicon (α-Si:H) via the plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) method. The influence of deposition parameters on the coverage and, consequently, the passivation and photovoltaic properties of α-Si:H layers on SiNW solar cells have been analyzed. PMID:24059343

  16. Doping and stability of 3C-SiC: from thinfilm to bulk growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jokubavicius, V.; Sun, J.; Linnarsson, M. K.

    cell technology. Nitrogen and boron doped 3C-SiC layers can depict a new infrared LED. Hexagonal SiC is an excellent substrate for heteropeitaxial growth of 3C-SiC due to excellent compatibility in lattice constant and thermal expansion coefficient. However, the growth of 3C-SiC on such substrates......-SiC for optoelectronic applications are discussed....

  17. Impact resistance of uncoated SiC/SiC composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.; Choi, Sung R.; Cosgriff, Laura M.; Fox, Dennis S.; Lee, Kang N.

    2008-01-01

    Two-dimensional woven SiC/SiC composites fabricated by melt infiltration method were impact tested at room temperature and at 1316 deg. C in air using 1.59-mm diameter steel-ball projectiles at velocities ranging from 115 to 400 m/s. The extent of substrate damage with increasing projectile velocity was imaged and analyzed using optical and scanning electron microscopy, and non-destructive evaluation (NDE) methods such as pulsed thermography, and computed tomography. The impacted specimens were tensile tested at room temperature to determine their residual mechanical properties. Results indicate that at 115 m/s projectile velocity, the composite showed no noticeable surface or internal damage and retained its as-fabricated mechanical properties. As the projectile velocity increased above this value, the internal damage increased and mechanical properties degraded. At velocities >300 m/s, the projectile penetrated through the composite, but the composite retained ∼50% of the ultimate tensile strength of the as-fabricated composite and exhibited non-brittle failure. Predominant internal damages are delamination of fiber plies, fiber fracture and matrix shearing

  18. Surface Passivation of Silicon Using HfO2 Thin Films Deposited by Remote Plasma Atomic Layer Deposition System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Ying; Hsu, Chia-Hsun; Lien, Shui-Yang; Chen, Song-Yan; Huang, Wei; Yang, Chih-Hsiang; Kung, Chung-Yuan; Zhu, Wen-Zhang; Xiong, Fei-Bing; Meng, Xian-Guo

    2017-12-01

    Hafnium oxide (HfO 2 ) thin films have attracted much attention owing to their usefulness in equivalent oxide thickness scaling in microelectronics, which arises from their high dielectric constant and thermodynamic stability with silicon. However, the surface passivation properties of such films, particularly on crystalline silicon (c-Si), have rarely been reported upon. In this study, the HfO 2 thin films were deposited on c-Si substrates with and without oxygen plasma pretreatments, using a remote plasma atomic layer deposition system. Post-annealing was performed using a rapid thermal processing system at different temperatures in N 2 ambient for 10 min. The effects of oxygen plasma pretreatment and post-annealing on the properties of the HfO 2 thin films were investigated. They indicate that the in situ remote plasma pretreatment of Si substrate can result in the formation of better SiO 2 , resulting in a better chemical passivation. The deposited HfO 2 thin films with oxygen plasma pretreatment and post-annealing at 500 °C for 10 min were effective in improving the lifetime of c-Si (original lifetime of 1 μs) to up to 67 μs.

  19. FEM numerical analysis of excimer laser induced modification in alternating multi-layers of amorphous and nano-crystalline silicon films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conde, J.C., E-mail: jconde@uvigo.es [Dpto. Fisica Aplicada, Universidade de Vigo, Rua Maxwell s/n, Campus Universitario Lagoas Marcosende, Vigo (Spain); Martin, E. [Dpto. Mecanica, Maquinas, Motores Termicos y Fluidos, Universidade de Vigo, Rua Maxwell s/n, Campus Universitario Lagoas Marcosende, Vigo (Spain); Stefanov, S. [Dpto. Fisica Aplicada, Universidade de Vigo, Rua Maxwell s/n, Campus Universitario Lagoas Marcosende, Vigo (Spain); Alpuim, P. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade do Minho, 4800-058 Guimaraes (Portugal); Chiussi, S. [Dpto. Fisica Aplicada, Universidade de Vigo, Rua Maxwell s/n, Campus Universitario Lagoas Marcosende, Vigo (Spain)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer nc-Si:H is a material with growing importance for a large-area of nano-electronic, photovoltaic or biomedical devices. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UV-ELA technique causes a rapid heating that provokes the H{sub 2} desorption from the Si surface and bulk material. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Next, diffusion of P doped nc-Si films and eventually, for high energy densities would be possible to reach the melting point. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These multilayer structures consisting of thin alternating a-Si:H(10 nm) and n-doped nc-Si:H(60 nm) films deposited on SiO{sub 2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer To optimize parameters involved in this processing, FEM numerical analysis of multilayer structures have been performed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The numerical results are compared with exhaustive characterization of the experimental results. - Abstract: UV excimer laser annealing (UV-ELA) is an alternative annealing process that, during the last few years, has gained enormous importance for the CMOS nano-electronic technologies, with the ability to provide films and alloys with electrical and optical properties to fit the desired device performance. The UV-ELA of amorphous (a-) and/or doped nano-crystalline (nc-) silicon films is based on the rapid (nanoseconds) formation of temperature profiles caused by laser radiation that is absorbed in the material and lead to crystallisation, diffusion in solid or even in liquid phase. To achieve the desired temperature profiles and to optimize the parameters involved in the processing of hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si:H) films with the UV-ELA, a numerical analysis by finite element method (FEM) of a multilayer structure has been performed. The multilayer structures, consisting of thin alternating a-Si:H(10 nm) and n-doped nc-Si:H(60 nm) layers, deposited on a glass substrate, has also been experimentally analyzed. Temperature profiles caused by 193 nm radiation with 25

  20. FEM numerical analysis of excimer laser induced modification in alternating multi-layers of amorphous and nano-crystalline silicon films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conde, J.C.; Martín, E.; Stefanov, S.; Alpuim, P.; Chiussi, S.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► nc-Si:H is a material with growing importance for a large-area of nano-electronic, photovoltaic or biomedical devices. ► UV-ELA technique causes a rapid heating that provokes the H 2 desorption from the Si surface and bulk material. ► Next, diffusion of P doped nc-Si films and eventually, for high energy densities would be possible to reach the melting point. ► These multilayer structures consisting of thin alternating a-Si:H(10 nm) and n-doped nc-Si:H(60 nm) films deposited on SiO 2 . ► To optimize parameters involved in this processing, FEM numerical analysis of multilayer structures have been performed. ► The numerical results are compared with exhaustive characterization of the experimental results. - Abstract: UV excimer laser annealing (UV-ELA) is an alternative annealing process that, during the last few years, has gained enormous importance for the CMOS nano-electronic technologies, with the ability to provide films and alloys with electrical and optical properties to fit the desired device performance. The UV-ELA of amorphous (a-) and/or doped nano-crystalline (nc-) silicon films is based on the rapid (nanoseconds) formation of temperature profiles caused by laser radiation that is absorbed in the material and lead to crystallisation, diffusion in solid or even in liquid phase. To achieve the desired temperature profiles and to optimize the parameters involved in the processing of hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si:H) films with the UV-ELA, a numerical analysis by finite element method (FEM) of a multilayer structure has been performed. The multilayer structures, consisting of thin alternating a-Si:H(10 nm) and n-doped nc-Si:H(60 nm) layers, deposited on a glass substrate, has also been experimentally analyzed. Temperature profiles caused by 193 nm radiation with 25 ns pulse length and energy densities ranging from 50 mJ/cm 2 to 400 mJ/cm 2 have been calculated. Numerical results allowed us to estimate the dehydrogenation

  1. Circumferential tensile test method for mechanical property evaluation of SiC/SiC tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Ju-Hyeon, E-mail: 15096018@mmm.muroran-it.ac.jp [Graduate School, Muroran Institute of Technology, 27-1, Muroran, Hokkaido (Japan); Kishimoto, Hirotatsu [Graduate School, Muroran Institute of Technology, 27-1, Muroran, Hokkaido (Japan); OASIS, Muroran Institute of Technology, 27-1, Muroran, Hokkaido (Japan); Park, Joon-soo [OASIS, Muroran Institute of Technology, 27-1, Muroran, Hokkaido (Japan); Nakazato, Naofumi [Graduate School, Muroran Institute of Technology, 27-1, Muroran, Hokkaido (Japan); Kohyama, Akira [OASIS, Muroran Institute of Technology, 27-1, Muroran, Hokkaido (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • NITE SiC/SiC cooling channel system to be a candidate of divertor system in future. • Hoop strength is one of the important factors for a tube. • This research studies the relationship between deformation and strain of SiC/SiC tube. - Abstract: SiC fiber reinforced/SiC matrix (SiC/SiC) composite is expected to be a candidate material for the first-wall, components in the blanket and divertor of fusion reactors in future. In such components, SiC/SiC composites need to be formed to be various shapes. SiC/SiC tubes has been expected to be employed for blanket and divertor after DEMO reactor, but there is not established mechanical investigation technique. Recent progress of SiC/SiC processing techniques is likely to realize strong, having gas tightness SiC/SiC tubes which will contribute for the development of fusion reactors. This research studies the relationship between deformation and strain of SiC/SiC tube using a circumferential tensile test method to establish a mechanical property investigation method of SiC/SiC tubes.

  2. 3C-SiC microdisk mechanical resonators with multimode resonances at radio frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaesung; Zamani, Hamidrera; Rajgopal, Srihari; Zorman, Christian A.; X-L Feng, Philip

    2017-07-01

    We report on the design, modeling, fabrication and measurement of single-crystal 3C-silicon carbide (SiC) microdisk mechanical resonators with multimode resonances operating at radio frequencies (RF). These microdisk resonators (center-clamped on a vertical stem pedestal) offer multiple flexural-mode resonances with frequencies dependent on both disk and anchor dimensions. The resonators are made using a novel fabrication method comprised of focused ion beam nanomachining and hydroflouic : nitric : acetic (HNA) acid etching. Resonance peaks (in the frequency spectrum) are detected through laser-interferometry measurements. Resonators with different dimensions are tested, and multimode resonances, mode splitting, energy dissipation (in the form of quality factor measurement) are investigated. Further, we demonstrate a feedback oscillator based on a passive 3C-SiC resonator. This investigation provides important guidelines for microdisk resonator development, ranging from an analytical prediction of frequency scaling law to fabrication, suggesting RF microdisk resonators can be good candidates for future sensing applications in harsh environments.

  3. SiC/SiC Leading Edge Turbine Airfoil Tested Under Simulated Gas Turbine Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, R. Craig; Hatton, Kenneth S.

    1999-01-01

    Silicon-based ceramics have been proposed as component materials for use in gas turbine engine hot-sections. A high pressure burner rig was used to expose both a baseline metal airfoil and ceramic matrix composite leading edge airfoil to typical gas turbine conditions to comparatively evaluate the material response at high temperatures. To eliminate many of the concerns related to an entirely ceramic, rotating airfoil, this study has focused on equipping a stationary metal airfoil with a ceramic leading edge insert to demonstrate the feasibility and benefits of such a configuration. Here, the idea was to allow the SiC/SiC composite to be integrated as the airfoil's leading edge, operating in a "free-floating" or unrestrained manner. and provide temperature relief to the metal blade underneath. The test included cycling the airfoils between simulated idle, lift, and cruise flight conditions. In addition, the airfoils were air-cooled, uniquely instrumented, and exposed to the same internal and external conditions, which included gas temperatures in excess of 1370 C (2500 F). Results show the leading edge insert remained structurally intact after 200 simulated flight cycles with only a slightly oxidized surface. The instrumentation clearly suggested a significant reduction (approximately 600 F) in internal metal temperatures as a result of the ceramic leading edge. The object of this testing was to validate the design and analysis done by Materials Research and Design of Rosemont, PA and to determine the feasibility of this design for the intended application.

  4. High temperature energy harvesters utilizing ALN/3C-SiC composite diaphragms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yun-Ju; Li, Wei-Chang; Felmetsger, Valery V.; Senesky, Debbie G.; Pisano, Albert P.

    2014-06-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) energy harvesting devices aiming at powering wireless sensor systems for structural health monitoring in harsh environments are presented. For harsh environment wireless sensor systems, sensor modules are required to operate at elevated temperatures (> 250°C) with capabilities to resist harsh chemical conditions, thereby the use of battery-based power sources becomes challenging and not economically efficient if considering the required maintenance efforts. To address this issue, energy harvesting technology is proposed to replace batteries and provide a sustainable power source for the sensor systems towards autonomous harsh environment wireless sensor networks. In particular, this work demonstrates a micromachined aluminum nitride/cubic silicon carbide (AlN/3C-SiC) composite diaphragm energy harvester, which enables high temperature energy harvesting from ambient pulsed pressure sources. The fabricated device yields an output power density of 87 μW/cm2 under 1.48-psi pressure pulses at 1 kHz while connected to a 14.6-kΩ load resistor. The effects of pulse profile on output voltage have been studied, showing that the output voltage can be maximized by optimizing the diaphragm resonance frequency based on specific pulse characteristics. In addition, temperature dependence of the diaphragm resonance frequency over the range of 20°C to 600°C has been investigated and the device operation at temperatures as high as 600°C has been verified.

  5. Characterization of C/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMCs) with Novel Interface Fiber Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petko, Jeanne F.; Kiser, J. Douglas; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMCs) are attractive candidate aerospace materials due to their high specific strength, low density and high temperature capabilities. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is pursuing the use of CMC components in advanced Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) propulsion applications. Carbon fiber-reinforced silicon carbide (C/SiC) is the primary material of interest for a variety of RLV propulsion applications. These composites consist of high-strength carbon fibers and a high modulus, oxidation resistant matrix. For RLV propulsion applications, environmental durability will be critical. Two types of carbon fibers were processed with both standard (pyrolytic carbon) and novel (multilayer and pseudoporous) types of interface coatings as part of a study investigating various combinations of constituents. The benefit of protecting the composites with a surface sealant was also investigated. The strengths, durability in oxidizing environments, and microstructures of these developmental composite materials are presented. The novel interface coatings and the surface sealant show promise for protecting the carbon fibers from the oxidizing environment.

  6. Technology development for crystalline silicon thin-film solar cells (TEKSI). Final report; Technologieentwicklung fuer kristalline Silizium-Duennschicht-Solarzellen (TEKSI). Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wettling, W.; Hurrle, A.; Bau, S.; Eyer, A.; Haas, F.; Huljic, D.; Kieliba, T.; Lautenschlager, H.; Luedemann, R.; Lutz, F.; Preu, R.; Reber, S.; Rentsch, J.; Schaefer, S.; Schetter, C.; Schillinger, N.; Warta, W.; Zimmermann, W.

    2002-10-01

    The results of a project aimed at the development of crystalline solar wafers are presented. All process stages were reviewed in detail with a view to industrial fabrication. This included also the further development of machinery, e.g. for selective zone melting recrystallisation, CVD silicon deposition, and characterisation of deposited films and solar cells. Not all the envisaged goals were achieved. For example, efficiencies up to 17.6 percent were possible on direct epitactic, highly doped CZ-Si substrates and with a high-efficiency process, but the normal efficiencies of solar cells on SSP or on ceramic substrates were in the range of 8-11 percent. This underlines the need for further research on the development of appropriate substrates with reproducible properties. [German] Im vorliegenden Bericht werden die Ergebnisse eines mehrjaehrigen Projekts zur Entwicklung der kristallinen Silizium-Duennschichtsolarzelle (KSD-Solarzelle) vorgestellt. Die Arbeiten waren eine konsequente Fortsetzung der bereits in einem Vorgaengerprojekt (FKZ 0328986B) bearbeiteten Themen. Alle zur Herstellung solcher Solarzellen noetigen Prozessschritte im Rahmen des am Fraunhofer ISE verfolgten Hochtemperaturpfads wurden detailliert untersucht, insbesondere im Hinblick auf eine industrielle Fertigung. Ein wesentlicher Teil der Arbeiten befasste sich deshalb auch mit der Weiterentwicklung von Geraeten, so z. B. fuer die Zonenschmelzrekristallisation, fuer die Silizumabscheidung mittels CVD-Verfahren und fuer die Charakterisierung abgeschiedener Schichten und Solarzellen. Nicht alle der ehrgeizigen Projektziele konnten erreicht werden. Auf direkt epitaxierten, hochdotierten CZ-Si-Substraten konnten zwar mit einem High-Efficiency-Prozess Wirkungsgrade bis zu 17.6%, mit fertigungsrelevanter Siebdrucktechnologie bis 13% erzielt werden. Die Wirkungsgrade von Solarzellen auf SSP oder auf Keramiksubstraten lagen aber alle im Bereich von 8-11%. Dies zeigt deutlich, dass die Entwicklung

  7. Study of the irradiation defects in 3C-SiC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefevre, J.

    2007-01-01

    This work deals with the study of the irradiation defects in the cubic polytype 3C of the n type silicon carbide. Low temperature photoluminescence and electron spin resonance techniques have been used. In situ photoluminescence measurements after irradiation at 10 K by electrons have shown that the nature of the defects induced is identical to those observed after irradiation at ambient temperature with electrons, protons or carbon ions. No regeneration of these defects has been revealed after in situ annealings until 300 K. The electrons Van de Graff accelerator of the Irradiated Solid Laboratory has allowed to irradiate sample of 3C in a range of energies between 190 keV and 1 MeV. It has then been possible to estimate the appearance threshold of the irradiation defects but especially to be able to determine the displacement threshold energy of silicon in this SiC polytype. The found value of 25 eV is in good agreement with the first experimental result proposed by X. Kerbiriou with the use of the ESR. Annealings in the range of high temperatures have been carried out. The evolution of the irradiation defects has been followed in photoluminescence and in ESR. The results show that, in one part, the vacancy of the silicon negatively charged is essentially the only compensating defect in 3C-SiC of n type and that, in another part, the majority of the defects are annealed below 1200 C. Only the D1 defect remains after annealings until 1600 C. The D1 center is in fact a native defect in SiC; indeed, it has been identified alone in non irradiated samples. A systematic study of these last samples show the absence of D1 in samples strongly compensated. The compared results of photoluminescence and of positons annihilation are in good agreement for the possible attribution of D1 to the bi-vacancy V C -V Si . One of the most interesting result of this last work has been obtained using the ESR technique under excitation with a neodymium laser. The measurements, carried

  8. Structural and optical properties of SiC-SiO2 nanocomposite thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozetine, I.; Keffous, A.; Kaci, S.; Menari, H.; Manseri, A.

    2018-03-01

    This study deals with the deposition of thin films of a SiC-SiO2nanocomposite deposited on silicon substrates. The deposition is carried out by a co-sputtering RF magnetron 13.56 MHz, using two targets a polycristallin 6H-SiC and sprigs of SiO2. In order to study the influence of the deposition time on the morphology, the structural and optical properties of the thin films produced, two series of samples were prepared, namely a series A with a 30 min deposition time and a series B of one hour duration. The samples were investigated using different characterization techniques such as Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), X-ray Diffraction (DRX), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) and photoluminescence. The results obtained, reveal an optical gap varies between 1.4 and 2.4 eV depending on the thickness of the film; thus depending on the deposition time. The SIMS profile recorded the presence of oxygen (16O) on the surface, which the signal beneath the silicon signal (28Si) and carbon (12C) signals, which confirms that the oxide (SiO2) is the first material deposited at the interface film - substrate with an a-OSiC structure. The photoluminescence (PL) measurement exhibits two peaks, centred at 390 nm due to the oxide and at 416 nm due probably to the nanocrystals of SiC crystals, note that when the deposition time increases, the intensity of the PL drops drastically, result in agreement with dense and smooth film.

  9. a-Si:H/μc-Si:H solar cells prepared by the single-chamber processes—minimization of phosphorus and boron cross contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merdzhanova, Tsvetelina, E-mail: t.merdzhanova@fz-juelich.de; Zimmermann, Thomas; Zastrow, Uwe; Gordijn, Aad; Beyer, Wolfhard

    2013-07-01

    Single-chamber processes for the deposition of high efficiency thin-film silicon tandem cells of an a-Si:H p-i-n (top cell)/μc-Si:H p-i-n (bottom cell) structure involving short fabrication time are reported. An industry relevant reactor and an excitation frequency of 13.56 MHz were used. The conversion efficiency is found to be highly sensitive to dopant cross contamination into the μc-Si:H i-layer of the bottom cell and within the n/p-interface of the tunnel recombination junction (TRJ). Different reactor treatments at the p/i-interfaces of the top and bottom cells and at the n/p-interface of the TRJ were applied, aiming to prevent dopant cross contamination. The phosphorus and the boron concentrations were evaluated by secondary ion mass spectrometry measurements. Phosphorus cross contamination after TRJ n-layer deposition is found to result in significant n-type doping of the μc-Si:H i-layer of the bottom cell if no reactor treatment is applied. In situ reactor treatment via an Ar flush and pumping step of 15 min applied at the n/p-interface of TRJ results in reduction of the μc-Si:H i-layer phosphorus concentration to values below 10{sup 17} cm{sup −3}. A conversion efficiency of 11.8% for such tandem cells is demonstrated. Shorter interface treatment time with phosphorus concentrations in the μc-Si:H i-layer of about 5 × 10{sup 17} cm{sup −3} results in lower conversion efficiencies of 10.6%, mainly due to the decrease of open-circuit voltage and fill factor. - Highlights: • Single-chamber process for a-Si:H/μc-Si:H solar cell is developed. • P- and B-contaminations at n/p interface and μc-Si:H i-layer are quantified by SIMS. • Reactor treatment is required at n/p interface for minimum dopant cross contamination. • Ar-flush pumping of reactor reduces P concentration in μc-Si:H i-layer to 10{sup 17} cm{sup −3}{sub .} • Conversion efficiency of 11.4% is reached at reactor treatment time of 17 min.

  10. Sol-gel derived C-SiC composites and protective coatings for sustained durability in the space environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruvy, Yair; Liedtke, Volker

    2003-09-01

    Composites and coatings were produced via the fast sol-gel process of a mixture of alkoxysilane precursors. The composites were comprised of carbon fibers, fabrics, or their precursors as reinforcement, and sol-gel-derived silicon carbide as matrix, aiming at high-temperature stable ceramics that can be utilized for re-entry structures. The protective coatings were comprised of fluorine-rich sol-gel derived resins, which exhibit high flexibility and coherence to provide sustained ATOX protection necessary for LEO space-exposed elements. For producing the composites, the sol-gel-derived resin is cast onto the reinforcement fibers/fabrics mat (carbon or its precursors) to produce a 'green' composite that is being cured. The 'green' composite is converted into a C-SiC composite via a gradual heat-pressure process under inert atmosphere, during which the organic substituents on the silicon atoms undergo internal oxidative pyrolysis via the schematic reaction: (SiRO3/2)n -> SiC + CO2 + H2O. The composition of the resultant silicon-oxi-carbide is tailorable via modifying the composition of the sol-gel reactants. The reinforcement, when made of carbon precursors, is converted into carbon during the heat-and-pressure processing as well. The C-SiC composites thus derived exhibit superior thermal stability and comparable thermal conductivity, combined with good mechanical strength features and failure resistance, which render them greatly applicable for re-entry shielding, heat-exchange pipes, and the like. Fluorine rich sol-gel derived coatings were developed as well, via the use of HF rich sol-gel process. These coatings provide oxidation-protection via the silica formation process, together with flexibility that allows 18,000 repetitive folding of the coating without cracking.

  11. Solving the critical thermal bowing in 3C-SiC/Si(111) by a tilting Si pillar architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albani, Marco; Marzegalli, Anna; Bergamaschini, Roberto; Mauceri, Marco; Crippa, Danilo; La Via, Francesco; von Känel, Hans; Miglio, Leo

    2018-05-01

    The exceptionally large thermal strain in few-micrometers-thick 3C-SiC films on Si(111), causing severe wafer bending and cracking, is demonstrated to be elastically quenched by substrate patterning in finite arrays of Si micro-pillars, sufficiently large in aspect ratio to allow for lateral pillar tilting, both by simulations and by preliminary experiments. In suspended SiC patches, the mechanical problem is addressed by finite element method: both the strain relaxation and the wafer curvature are calculated at different pillar height, array size, and film thickness. Patches as large as required by power electronic devices (500-1000 μm in size) show a remarkable residual strain in the central area, unless the pillar aspect ratio is made sufficiently large to allow peripheral pillars to accommodate the full film retraction. A sublinear relationship between the pillar aspect ratio and the patch size, guaranteeing a minimal curvature radius, as required for wafer processing and micro-crack prevention, is shown to be valid for any heteroepitaxial system.

  12. Innovative SiC/SiC composite for nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaffron, L.; Sauder, C.; Lorrette, C.; Briottet, L.; Michaux, A.; Gelebart, L.; Coupe, A.; Zabiego, M.; Le Flem, M.; Seran, J. L.

    2013-01-01

    Among various refractory materials, SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites (CMC) are of prime interest for fusion and advanced fission energy applications, due to their excellent irradiation tolerance and safety features (low activation, low tritium permeability,K). Initially developed as fuel cladding materials for the Fourth generation Gas cooled Fast Reactor (GFR), this material has been recently envisaged by CEA for different core structures of Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR) which combines fast neutrons and high temperature (500 deg.C). Regarding fuel cladding generic application, in the case of GFR, the first challenge facing this project is to demonstrate the feasibility of a fuel operating under very harsh conditions that are (i) temperatures of structures up to 700 deg.C in nominal and over 1600 deg.C in accidental conditions, (ii) irradiation damage higher than 60 dpa SiC , (iii) neutronic transparency, which disqualifies conventional refractory metals as structural core materials, (iv) mechanical behavior that guarantees in most circumstances the integrity of the first barrier (e.g.: ε> 0.5%), which excludes monolithic ceramics and therefore encourages the development of new types of fibrous composites SiC/SiC adapted to the fast reactor conditions. No existing material being capable to match all these requirements, CEA has launched an ambitious program of development of an advanced material satisfying the specifications [1]. This project, that implies many laboratories, inside and outside CEA, has permitted to obtain a very high quality compound that meets most of the challenging requirements. We present hereinafter few recent results obtained regarding the development of the composite. One of the most relevant challenges was to make a gas-tight composite up to the ultimate rupture. Indeed, multi-cracking of the matrix is the counterpart of the damageable behavior observed in these amazing compounds. Among different solutions envisaged, an innovative one has been

  13. ZnO transparent conductive oxide for thin film silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderström, T.; Dominé, D.; Feltrin, A.; Despeisse, M.; Meillaud, F.; Bugnon, G.; Boccard, M.; Cuony, P.; Haug, F.-J.; Faÿ, S.; Nicolay, S.; Ballif, C.

    2010-03-01

    There is general agreement that the future production of electric energy has to be renewable and sustainable in the long term. Photovoltaic (PV) is booming with more than 7GW produced in 2008 and will therefore play an important role in the future electricity supply mix. Currently, crystalline silicon (c-Si) dominates the market with a share of about 90%. Reducing the cost per watt peak and energy pay back time of PV was the major concern of the last decade and remains the main challenge today. For that, thin film silicon solar cells has a strong potential because it allies the strength of c-Si (i.e. durability, abundancy, non toxicity) together with reduced material usage, lower temperature processes and monolithic interconnection. One of the technological key points is the transparent conductive oxide (TCO) used for front contact, barrier layer or intermediate reflector. In this paper, we report on the versatility of ZnO grown by low pressure chemical vapor deposition (ZnO LP-CVD) and its application in thin film silicon solar cells. In particular, we focus on the transparency, the morphology of the textured surface and its effects on the light in-coupling for micromorph tandem cells in both the substrate (n-i-p) and superstrate (p-i-n) configurations. The stabilized efficiencies achieved in Neuchâtel are 11.2% and 9.8% for p-i-n (without ARC) and n-i-p (plastic substrate), respectively.

  14. Increasing the efficiency of silicon heterojunction solar cells and modules by light soaking

    KAUST Repository

    Kobayashi, Eiji

    2017-06-24

    Silicon heterojunction solar cells use crystalline silicon (c-Si) wafers as optical absorbers and employ bilayers of doped/intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) to form passivating contacts. Recently, we demonstrated that such solar cells increase their operating voltages and thus their conversion efficiencies during light exposure. We found that this performance increase is due to improved passivation of the a-Si:H/c-Si interface and is induced by injected charge carriers (either by light soaking or forward-voltage biasing of the device). Here, we discuss this counterintuitive behavior and establish that: (i) the performance increase is observed in solar cells as well as modules; (ii) this phenomenon requires the presence of doped a-Si:H films, but is independent from whether light is incident from the a-Si:H(p) or the a-Si:H(n) side; (iii) UV and blue photons do not play a role in this effect; (iv) the performance increase can be observed under illumination intensities as low as 20Wm (0.02-sun) and appears to be almost identical in strength when under 1-sun (1000Wm); (v) the underlying physical mechanism likely differs from annealing-induced surface passivation.

  15. InSitu SEM Investigation of Microstructural Damage Evolution and Strain Relaxation in a Melt Infiltrated SiC/SiC Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevener, Kathy; Chen, Zhe; Daly, Sam; Tracy, Jared; Kiser, Doug

    2016-01-01

    With CMC components poised to complete flight certification in turbine engines on commercial aircraft within the near future, there are many efforts within the aerospace community to model the mechanical and environmental degradation of CMCs. Direct observations of damage evolution are needed to support these modeling efforts and provide quantitative measures of damage parameters used in the various models. This study was performed to characterize the damage evolution during tensile loading of a melt infiltrated (MI) silicon carbide reinforced silicon carbide (SiC/SiC) composite. A SiC/SiC tensile coupon was loaded to a maximum global stress of 30 ksi in a tensile fixture within an SEM while observations were made at 5 ksi increments. Both traditional image analysis and DIC (digital image correlation) were used to quantify damage evolution. With the DIC analysis, microscale damage was observed at the fiber-matrix interfaces at stresses as low as 5 ksi. First matrix cracking took place between 20 and 25 ksi, accompanied by an observable relaxation in strain near matrix cracks. Matrix crack opening measurements at the maximum load ranged from 200 nm to 1.5 m. Crack opening along the fiber-matrix interface was also characterized as a function of load and angular position relative to the loading axis. This characterization was funded by NASA GRC and was performed to support NASA GRC modeling of SiC/SiC environmental degradation

  16. Characterization of defects in hydrogenated amorphous silicon deposited on different substrates by capacitance techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darwich, R.; Roca i Cabarrocas, P.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin films deposited on crystalline silicon and Corning glass substrate were analyzed using different capacitance techniques. The distribution of localized states and some electronic properties were studied using the temperature, frequency and bias dependence of the Schottky barrier capacitance and deep level transient spectroscopy. Our results show that the distribution of the gap states depends on the type of substrate. We have found that the films deposited on c-Si substrate represent only one positively charged or prerelaxed neutral deep state and one interface state, while the films deposited on glass substrate have one interface state and three types of deep defect states, positively or prerelaxed neutral, neutral and negatively charged.

  17. Reproduction of mouse-pup ultrasonic vocalizations by nanocrystalline silicon thermoacoustic emitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihara, Takashi; Harada, Toshihiro; Kato, Masahiro; Nakano, Kiyoshi; Murakami, Osamu; Kikusui, Takefumi; Koshida, Nobuyoshi

    2006-01-01

    As one of the functional properties of ultrasound generator based on efficient thermal transfer at the nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si) layer surface, its potential as an ultrasonic simulator of vocalization signals is demonstrated by using the acoustic data of mouse-pup calls. The device composed of a surface-heating thin-film electrode, an nc-Si layer, and a single-crystalline silicon (c-Si) wafer, exhibits an almost completely flat frequency response over a wide range without any mechanical surface vibration systems. It is shown that the fabricated emitter can reproduce digitally recorded ultrasonic mouse-pups vocalizations very accurately in terms of the call duration, frequency dispersion, and sound pressure level. The thermoacoustic nc-Si device provides a powerful physical means for the understanding of ultrasonic communication mechanisms in various living animals.

  18. High thermal conductivity SiC/SiC composites for fusion applications -- 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowbel, W.; Tsou, K.T.; Withers, J.C.; Youngblood, G.E.

    1998-01-01

    This report covers material presented at the IEA/Jupiter Joint International Workshop on SiC/SiC Composites for Fusion Structural Applications held in conjunction with ICFRM-8, Sendai, Japan, Oct. 23--24, 1997. An unirradiated SiC/SiC composite made with MER-developed CVR SiC fiber and a hybrid PIP/CVI SiC matrix exhibited room temperature transverse thermal conductivity of 45 W/mK. An unirradiated SiC/SiC composite made from C/C composite totally CVR-converted to a SiC/SiC composite exhibited transverse thermal conductivity values of 75 and 35 W/mK at 25 and 1000 C, respectively. Both types of SiC/SiC composites exhibited non-brittle failure in flexure testing

  19. Gas leak tightness of SiC/SiC composites at elevated temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayasaka, Daisuke, E-mail: hayasaka@oasis.muroran-it.ac.jp [OASIS, Muroran Institute of Technology, Muroran, Hokkaido (Japan); Graduate School of Engineering, Muroran Institute of Technology, Muroran, Hokkaido (Japan); Park, Joon-Soo. [OASIS, Muroran Institute of Technology, Muroran, Hokkaido (Japan); Kishimoto, Hirotatsu [OASIS, Muroran Institute of Technology, Muroran, Hokkaido (Japan); Graduate School of Engineering, Muroran Institute of Technology, Muroran, Hokkaido (Japan); Kohyama, Akira [OASIS, Muroran Institute of Technology, Muroran, Hokkaido (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • NITE-SiC/SiC has extremely densified microstructure compared with other SiC/SiC composite like CVI. • Excellent helium and hydrogen gas-leak tightness of SiC/SiC composites by DEMO-NITE method from prototype industrialization production line was presented. • The excellence against stainless steel and Zircaloy at elevated temperature, together with generic excellent properties of SiC will be inevitable for innovative blanket and divertors for DEMO- and power- fusion reactors. - Abstract: SiC/SiC composite materials are attractive candidates for high heat flux components and blanket of fusion reactor, mainly due to their high temperature properties, radiation damage tolerance and low induced radioactivity. One of the challenges for SiC/SiC application in fusion reactors is to satisfy sufficient gas leak tightness of hydrogen and helium isotopes. Although many efforts have been carried-out, SiC/SiC composites by conventional processes have not been successful to satisfy the requirements, except SiC/SiC composites by NITE-methods. Toward the early realization of SiC/SiC components into fusion reactor systems process development of NITE-process has been continued. Followed to the brief introduction of recently developed DEMO-NITE process, baseline properties and hydrogen and helium gas leak tightness is presented. SiC/SiC claddings with 10 mm in diameter and 1 mm in wall thickness are tested by gas leak tightness system developed. The leak tightness measurements are done room temperature to 400 °C. Excellent gas leak tightness equivalent or superior to Zircaloy claddings for light water fission reactors is confirmed. The excellent gas leak tightness suggests nearly perfect suppression of large gas leak path in DEMO-NITE SiC/SiC.

  20. The kinetics of solid phase epitaxy in As-doped buried amorphous silicon layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCallum, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    Ion implantation is the principal method used to introduce dopants into silicon for fabrication of semiconductor devices. During ion implantation, damage accumulates in the crystalline silicon lattice and amorphisation may occur over the depth range of the ions if the implant dose is sufficiently high. As device dimensions shrink, the need to produce shallower and shallower highly-doped layers increases and the probability of amorphisation also increases. To achieve dopant-activation, the amorphous or damaged material must be returned to the crystalline state by thermal annealing. Amorphous silicon layers can be crystallised by the solid-state process of solid phase epitaxy (SPE) in which the amorphous layer transforms to crystalline silicon (c-Si) layer by layer using the underlying c-Si as a seed. The atomic mechanism that is responsible for the crystallisation is thought to involve highly-localised bond-breaking and rearrangement processes at the amorphous/crystalline (a/c) interface but the defect responsible for these bond rearrangements has not yet been identified. Since the bond breaking process necessarily generates dangling bonds, it has been suggested that the crystallisation process may solely involve the formation and migration of dangling bonds at the interface. One of the key factors which may shed further light on the nature of the SPE defect is the observed dopant-dependence of the rate of crystallisation. It has been found that moderate concentrations of dopants enhance the SPE crystallisation rate while the presence of equal concentrations of an n-type and a p-type dopant (impurity compensation) returns the SPE rate to the intrinsic value. This provides crucial evidence that the SPE mechanism is sensitive to the position of the Fermi level in the bandgap of the crystalline and/or the amorphous silicon phases and may lead to identification of an energy level within the bandgap that can be associated with the defect. This paper gives details of SPE