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Sample records for crystalline nanoparticles microbially

  1. Biocompatibility of crystalline opal nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Ortiz, Marlen; Acosta-Torres, Laura S; Hernández-Padrón, Genoveva; Mendieta, Alicia I; Bernal, Rodolfo; Cruz-Vázquez, Catalina; Castaño, Victor M

    2012-10-22

    Silica nanoparticles are being developed as a host of biomedical and biotechnological applications. For this reason, there are more studies about biocompatibility of silica with amorphous and crystalline structure. Except hydrated silica (opal), despite is presents directly and indirectly in humans. Two sizes of crystalline opal nanoparticles were investigated in this work under criteria of toxicology. In particular, cytotoxic and genotoxic effects caused by opal nanoparticles (80 and 120 nm) were evaluated in cultured mouse cells via a set of bioassays, methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium-bromide (MTT) and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU). 3T3-NIH cells were incubated for 24 and 72 h in contact with nanocrystalline opal particles, not presented significant statistically difference in the results of cytotoxicity. Genotoxicity tests of crystalline opal nanoparticles were performed by the BrdU assay on the same cultured cells for 24 h incubation. The reduction of BrdU-incorporated cells indicates that nanocrystalline opal exposure did not caused unrepairable damage DNA. There is no relationship between that particles size and MTT reduction, as well as BrdU incorporation, such that the opal particles did not induce cytotoxic effect and genotoxicity in cultured mouse cells.

  2. Bicontinuous cubic liquid crystalline nanoparticles for oral delivery of Doxorubicin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swarnakar, Nitin K; Thanki, Kaushik; Jain, Sanyog

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: The present study explores the potential of bicontinous cubic liquid crystalline nanoparticles (LCNPs) for improving therapeutic potential of doxorubicin. METHODS: Phytantriol based Dox-LCNPs were prepared using hydrotrope method, optimized for various formulation components, process...

  3. Size and Crystallinity in Protein-Templated Inorganic Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolley, Craig C.; Uchida, Masaki; Reichhardt, Courtney; Harrington, Richard; Kang, Sebyung; Klem, Michael T.; Parise, John B.; Douglas, Trevor (SBU); (Montana)

    2010-12-01

    Protein cages such as ferritins and virus capsids have been used as containers to synthesize a wide variety of protein-templated inorganic nanoparticles. While identification of the inorganic crystal phase has been successful in some cases, very little is known about the detailed nanoscale structure of the inorganic component. We have used pair distribution function analysis of total X-ray scattering to measure the crystalline domain size in nanoparticles of ferrihydrite, {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4}, CoPt, and FePt grown inside 24-meric ferritin cages from H. sapiens and P. furiosus. The material properties of these protein-templated nanoparticles are influenced by processes at a variety of length scales: the chemistry of the material determines the precise arrangement of atoms at very short distances, while the interior volume of the protein cage constrains the maximum nanoparticle size attainable. At intermediate length scales, the size of coherent crystalline domains appears to be constrained by the arrangement of crystal nucleation sites on the interior of the cage. On the basis of these observations, some potential synthetic strategies for the control of crystalline domain size in protein-templated nanoparticles are suggested.

  4. Quantitative Analysis of Matrine in Liquid Crystalline Nanoparticles by HPLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinsheng Peng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed to quantitatively determine matrine in liquid crystal nanoparticles. The chromatographic method is carried out using an isocratic system. The mobile phase was composed of methanol-PBS(pH6.8-triethylamine (50 : 50 : 0.1% with a flow rate of 1 mL/min with SPD-20A UV/vis detector and the detection wavelength was at 220 nm. The linearity of matrine is in the range of 1.6 to 200.0 μg/mL. The regression equation is y=10706x-2959 (R2=1.0. The average recovery is 101.7%; RSD=2.22%  (n=9. This method provides a simple and accurate strategy to determine matrine in liquid crystalline nanoparticle.

  5. Time-dependent growth of crystalline Au0-nanoparticles in cyanobacteria as self-reproducing bioreactors: 2. Anabaena cylindrica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz M. Rösken

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Microbial biosynthesis of metal nanoparticles as needed in catalysis has shown its theoretical ability as an extremely environmentally friendly production method in the last few years, even though the separation of the nanoparticles is challenging. Biosynthesis, summing up biosorption and bioreduction of diluted metal ions to zero valent metals, is especially ecofriendly, when the bioreactor itself is harmless and needs no further harmful reagents. The cyanobacterium Anabaena cylindrica (SAG 1403.2 is able to form crystalline Au0-nanoparticles from Au3+ ions and does not release toxic anatoxin-a. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS are applied to monitor the time-dependent development of gold nanoparticles for up to 40 hours. Some vegetative cells (VC are filled with nanoparticles within minutes, while the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS of vegetative cells and the heterocyst polysaccharide layer (HEP are the regions, where the first nanoparticles are detected on most other cells. The uptake of gold starts immediately after incubation and within four hours the average size remains constant around 10 nm. Analyzing the TEM images with an image processing program reveals a wide distribution for the diameter of the nanoparticles at all times and in all regions of the cyanobacteria. Finally, the nanoparticle concentration in vegetative cells of Anabaena cylindrica is about 50% higher than in heterocysts (HC. These nanoparticles are found to be located along the thylakoid membranes.

  6. Time-dependent growth of crystalline Au(0)-nanoparticles in cyanobacteria as self-reproducing bioreactors: 2. Anabaena cylindrica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rösken, Liz M; Cappel, Felix; Körsten, Susanne; Fischer, Christian B; Schönleber, Andreas; van Smaalen, Sander; Geimer, Stefan; Beresko, Christian; Ankerhold, Georg; Wehner, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Microbial biosynthesis of metal nanoparticles as needed in catalysis has shown its theoretical ability as an extremely environmentally friendly production method in the last few years, even though the separation of the nanoparticles is challenging. Biosynthesis, summing up biosorption and bioreduction of diluted metal ions to zero valent metals, is especially ecofriendly, when the bioreactor itself is harmless and needs no further harmful reagents. The cyanobacterium Anabaena cylindrica (SAG 1403.2) is able to form crystalline Au(0)-nanoparticles from Au(3+) ions and does not release toxic anatoxin-a. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) are applied to monitor the time-dependent development of gold nanoparticles for up to 40 hours. Some vegetative cells (VC) are filled with nanoparticles within minutes, while the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of vegetative cells and the heterocyst polysaccharide layer (HEP) are the regions, where the first nanoparticles are detected on most other cells. The uptake of gold starts immediately after incubation and within four hours the average size remains constant around 10 nm. Analyzing the TEM images with an image processing program reveals a wide distribution for the diameter of the nanoparticles at all times and in all regions of the cyanobacteria. Finally, the nanoparticle concentration in vegetative cells of Anabaena cylindrica is about 50% higher than in heterocysts (HC). These nanoparticles are found to be located along the thylakoid membranes.

  7. Magnetic properties of crystalline nanoparticles with different sizes and shapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Ana T.A. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Caixa Postal 6030, Campus do Pici, 60455-760 Fortaleza, Ceará (Brazil); Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido, Campus de Caraubas, RN 333, Rio Grande do Norte (Brazil); Dantas, Ana L.; Almeida, N.S. [Departamento de Física, Universidade do Estado do Rio Grande do Norte, 59610-210 Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte (Brazil)

    2017-03-01

    The effects of shape and finite size on the physical behavior of nanostructured antiferromagnetic particles are investigated. They were modeled as ellipsoidal systems which preserve the crystalline structure of the correspondent bulk material. In our analysis we consider nanoparticles composed by magnetic ions which are themselves insensitive to the presence of surfaces and/or interfaces. Results are shown for structures similar to MnF{sub 2} and NiO crystals. Special attention is given to these last once their singular magnetic arrangement, as well as, their use at different technological and/or biomedical applications, has motivated intense experimental studies at different laboratories. We use the parameters that describe the correspondent bulk material to discuss the magnetic behavior of these particles for different volumes and shapes. - Highlights: • The number of magnetic phases of tetragonal AFM nanoparticles depends on their shape. • Hysteresis loops of NiO particles depends on the direction of the dc magnetic field. • The high frequencies normal modes of NiO particles are insensitive to their geometry.

  8. Microbial deposition of gold nanoparticles by the metal-reducing bacterium Shewanella algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Y.; Tsukiyama, T.; Tachimi, T.; Saitoh, N.; Nomura, T.; Nagamine, S.

    2007-01-01

    Microbial reduction and deposition of gold nanoparticles was achieved at 25 deg. C over the pH range 2.0-7.0 using the mesophilic bacterium Shewanella algae in the presence of H 2 as the electron donor. The reductive deposition of gold by the resting cells of S. algae was a fast process: 1 mM AuCl 4 - ions were completely reduced to elemental gold within 30 min. At a solution pH of 7, gold nanoparticles 10-20 nm in size were deposited in the periplasmic space of S. algae cells. At pH 2.8, gold nanoparticles 15-200 nm in size were deposited on the bacterial cells, and the biogenic nanoparticles exhibited a variety of shapes that included nanotriangles: in particular, single crystalline gold nanotriangles 100-200 nm in size were microbially deposited. At a solution pH of 2.0, gold nanoparticles about 20 nm in size were deposited intracellularly, and larger gold particles approximately 350 nm in size were deposited extracellularly. The solution pH was an important factor in controlling the morphology of the biogenic gold particles and the location of gold deposition. Microbial deposition of gold nanoparticles is potentially attractive as an environmentally friendly alternative to conventional methods

  9. Technology for microbial synthesis of nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunyadi, M.; Gacsi, Z.; Szuecs, Z.; Csik, A.; Prokisch, J.

    2009-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Nanotechnology has a high potential to engineer and alter basic properties of materials, and to exploit unusual phenomena observed on the nanometer scale. Consequently, the development of nanomaterials is already involved in a vast range of application fields, however, most of their characteristics are still underexamined, and relevance of studies on their environmental fate, toxic effects and other health risks have just been recognized. Besides, environmental effects and high costs of present production technologies definitely outline a need of both competitive and eco-friendly alternatives. It is well known that microbial production of nanoparticles may offer new perspectives in the field of bionanotechnology since it provides clean, inexpensive and 'green chemistry' techniques, which are especially desired in the future when technology transfer to large-scale production is concerned. In the last years the development of biosynthetic methods was an exponentially growing field, which focused on nanoparticles of noble metals, elemental and composite semiconductors with diameters in the range of 5-100 nm. We initiated the set-up of a new laboratory for studying biosynthesis processes of nanoparticles. The primary goal of this project is to realize the ability of controlling the size of nanoparticles by the conditions of the synthesis, which is motivated by the fact that the optoelectronic and chemical properties are sensitively dependent on this single parameter in addition to their elemental composition. In general, the characterization of nanoparticles, as well as measurements of structural properties require the presence of dedicated analytical infrastructure. The local availability of techniques like TEM, SEM, EDX, XPS, EELS, SIMS/SNMS, AFS, ICP-MS and spectrophotometry provides an advantageous background to consolidate bionanotechnological programs in our institute. As a result of our first test experiments selenium

  10. Microbial biosynthesis of nontoxic gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Swarup; Das, Tapan Kumar; Maiti, Guru Prasad; Basu, Utpal

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The manuscript deals with the fungus mediated optimized biologically synthesized GNPs using Aspergillus foetidus and characterization of biosynthesized GNPs using various physico-chemical methods. The fairly stable synthesized nanoparticles have size in the range of 10–40 nm. Cytotoxicity study of biosynthesized GNPs on Human lung cancer cell line A549 showed no significant toxicity of GNPs. - Highlights: • A novel biosynthesis process of GNPs using Aspergillus foetidus. • Biosynthesized GNPs are in the range of 10–40 nm as observed from TEM. • This process of synthesis is an optimized biosynthesis process of GNPs. • Biosynthesized GNPs are noncytotoxic against A549 cell line. - Abstract: We study the extracellular biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) using the fungal species Aspergillus foetidus. The formation of GNPs were initially monitored by visual observation and then characterized with the help of various characterization techniques. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results revealed distinctive formation of face centered cubic crystalline GNPs. From field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) the morphology of the nanoparticles were found to be roughly spherical and within the size range of 30–50 nm. The spherical and polydispersed GNPs in the range of 10–40 nm were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. It was established that alkaline pH, 1 mM gold salt concentration and 75 °C temperature were the respective optimum parameter for biosynthesis of GNPs. Cell cytotoxicity of GNP was compared with that of normal gold salt solution on A549 cell. The A549 cell growth in presence of GNPs was found to be comparatively less toxic than the gold ion.

  11. Microbial biosynthesis of nontoxic gold nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Swarup, E-mail: swaruproy@klyuniv.ac.in [Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Kalyani, Kalyani 741235, West Bengal (India); Das, Tapan Kumar [Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Kalyani, Kalyani 741235, West Bengal (India); Maiti, Guru Prasad [Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of Kalyani, Kalyani 741235, West Bengal (India); Department of Anesthesiology, Texas Tech University Health science Center, 3601 4th Street, Lubbock, TX 79430 (United States); Basu, Utpal [Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of Kalyani, Kalyani 741235, West Bengal (India)

    2016-01-15

    Graphical abstract: The manuscript deals with the fungus mediated optimized biologically synthesized GNPs using Aspergillus foetidus and characterization of biosynthesized GNPs using various physico-chemical methods. The fairly stable synthesized nanoparticles have size in the range of 10–40 nm. Cytotoxicity study of biosynthesized GNPs on Human lung cancer cell line A549 showed no significant toxicity of GNPs. - Highlights: • A novel biosynthesis process of GNPs using Aspergillus foetidus. • Biosynthesized GNPs are in the range of 10–40 nm as observed from TEM. • This process of synthesis is an optimized biosynthesis process of GNPs. • Biosynthesized GNPs are noncytotoxic against A549 cell line. - Abstract: We study the extracellular biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) using the fungal species Aspergillus foetidus. The formation of GNPs were initially monitored by visual observation and then characterized with the help of various characterization techniques. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results revealed distinctive formation of face centered cubic crystalline GNPs. From field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) the morphology of the nanoparticles were found to be roughly spherical and within the size range of 30–50 nm. The spherical and polydispersed GNPs in the range of 10–40 nm were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. It was established that alkaline pH, 1 mM gold salt concentration and 75 °C temperature were the respective optimum parameter for biosynthesis of GNPs. Cell cytotoxicity of GNP was compared with that of normal gold salt solution on A549 cell. The A549 cell growth in presence of GNPs was found to be comparatively less toxic than the gold ion.

  12. Microbial exopolysaccharide-mediated synthesis and stabilization of metal nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathiyanarayanan, Ganesan; Dineshkumar, Krishnamoorthy; Yang, Yung-Hun

    2017-11-01

    Exopolysaccharides (EPSs) are structurally and functionally valuable biopolymer secreted by different prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms in response to biotic/abiotic stresses and to survive in extreme environments. Microbial EPSs are fascinating in various industrial sectors due to their excellent material properties and less toxic, highly biodegradable, and biocompatible nature. Recently, microbial EPSs have been used as a potential template for the rapid synthesis of metallic nanoparticles and EPS-mediated metal reduction processes are emerging as simple, harmless, and environmentally benign green chemistry approaches. EPS-mediated synthesis of metal nanoparticles is a distinctive metabolism-independent bio-reduction process due to the formation of interfaces between metal cations and the polyanionic functional groups (i.e. hydroxyl, carboxyl and amino groups) of the EPS. In addition, the range of physicochemical features which facilitates the EPS as an efficient stabilizing or capping agents to protect the primary structure of the metal nanoparticles with an encapsulation film in order to separate the nanoparticle core from the mixture of composites. The EPS-capping also enables the further modification of metal nanoparticles with expected material properties for multifarious applications. The present review discusses the microbial EPS-mediated green synthesis/stabilization of metal nanoparticles, possible mechanisms involved in EPS-mediated metal reduction, and application prospects of EPS-based metal nanoparticles.

  13. Production of TiO2 crystalline nanoparticles by laser ablation in ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutinguiza, M.; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, B.; Val, J. del; Comesaña, R.; Lusquiños, F.; Pou, J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Nanoparticles of TiO 2 have been obtained by laser ablation of Ti submerged in ethanol using CW laser. ► The use of CW laser contributes to control the size distribution and to complete oxidation. ► The particles formation mechanism is the melting and rapid solidification. - Abstract: TiO 2 nanoparticles have received a special attention due to their applications in many different fields, such as catalysis, biomedical engineering, and energy conversion in solar cells. In this paper we report on the production of TiO 2 nanoparticles by means of a pulsed laser to ablate titanium metallic target submerged in ethanol. The results show that titanium crystalline dioxide nanoparticles can be obtained in a narrow size distribution. Crystalline phases, morphology and optical properties of the obtained colloidal nanoparticles were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and UV/vis absorption spectroscopy. The produced particles consisted mainly of titanium oxide crystalline nanoparticles showing spherical shape with most diameters ranging from 5 to 50 nm. Nanoparticles are polycrystalline exhibiting the coexistence of the three main phases with the predominance of brookite.

  14. Luminescence and host lattice structure of crystalline micro and nanoparticles co-doped with lanthanide ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zurba, Nadia Khaled; Ferreira, Jose Maria da Fonte

    2012-01-01

    This article reports the investigation of crystalline micro and nanoparticles codoped with lanthanide ions, aiming at correlate their host lattice structure and chemical composition to the luminescence features. For this purpose, five phosphors were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy coupled to energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, namely performed by their chromatic coordinates, radiance, luminance and PL emission spectra. This type of investigation concerning the optical characterization of luminescent crystalline micro and nanoparticles doped with lanthanide ions might be useful for scientific and practical applications, such as in light-emitting devices, luminescent paintings, ceramics, sensors, in nanoscience and nanotechnology. (author)

  15. Biogenic metallic nanoparticles as catalyst for bioelectricity production: A novel approach in microbial fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saravanakumar, Kandasamy, E-mail: saravana732@gmail.com [School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); State Key Laboratory of Microbial Metabolism, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture (South), Ministry of Agriculture, Shanghai (China); MubarakAli, Davoodbasha [Microbial Genetic Engineering Laboratory, Division of Bioengineering, College of Life Science and Bioengineering, Incheon National University, Songdo 406772, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Department of Microbiology, School of Lifesciences, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620024 (India); Kathiresan, Kandasamy [Centre of Advanced Study in Marine Biology, Faculty of Marine Sciences, Annamalai University, Parangipettai 608 502, Tamil Nadu (India); Thajuddin, Nooruddin [Department of Microbiology, School of Lifesciences, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620024 (India); Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Alharbi, Naiyf S. [Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Chen, Jie, E-mail: jiechen59@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); State Key Laboratory of Microbial Metabolism, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture (South), Ministry of Agriculture, Shanghai (China)

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • Trichoderma sp., showed an abilities to synthesis of AgNPs and AuNPs with an excellent stability. • AuNPs significantly enhanced the bioelectricity production by MFC of anaerobic fermentation as catalyst. • Maximum bioelectricity production was optimized and obtained the voltage of 432.80 mA using RSM. - Abstract: The present work aimed to use the biogenic metallic nanoparticles as catalyst for bioelectricity production in microbial fuel cell (MFC) approach under anaerobic condition. Silver and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were synthesized using Trichoderma sp. Particle size and cystallinity were measured by X-ray diffraction revealed the crystalline structure with average size of 36.17 nm. Electron microscopic studies showed spherical shaped silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and cubical shaped AuNPs with size ranges from 50 to 150 nm. The concentration of biogenic metallic nanoparticles as catalyst for enhanced bioelectricity generations and estimated by response surface methodology (RSM) and found at the greatest of 342.80 mA under optimized conditions are time interval, temperature, nanoparticles used as 63 h, 28 ± 2.0 °C, 22.54 mg l{sup −1} (AgNPs) and 25.62 mg l{sup −1} (AuNPs) in a batch reactor. AuNPs acted as an excellent catalyst to enhance the bioelectricity production. This novel technique could be used for eco-friendly, economically feasible and facile electricity production.

  16. Biogenic metallic nanoparticles as catalyst for bioelectricity production: A novel approach in microbial fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saravanakumar, Kandasamy; MubarakAli, Davoodbasha; Kathiresan, Kandasamy; Thajuddin, Nooruddin; Alharbi, Naiyf S.; Chen, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Trichoderma sp., showed an abilities to synthesis of AgNPs and AuNPs with an excellent stability. • AuNPs significantly enhanced the bioelectricity production by MFC of anaerobic fermentation as catalyst. • Maximum bioelectricity production was optimized and obtained the voltage of 432.80 mA using RSM. - Abstract: The present work aimed to use the biogenic metallic nanoparticles as catalyst for bioelectricity production in microbial fuel cell (MFC) approach under anaerobic condition. Silver and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were synthesized using Trichoderma sp. Particle size and cystallinity were measured by X-ray diffraction revealed the crystalline structure with average size of 36.17 nm. Electron microscopic studies showed spherical shaped silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and cubical shaped AuNPs with size ranges from 50 to 150 nm. The concentration of biogenic metallic nanoparticles as catalyst for enhanced bioelectricity generations and estimated by response surface methodology (RSM) and found at the greatest of 342.80 mA under optimized conditions are time interval, temperature, nanoparticles used as 63 h, 28 ± 2.0 °C, 22.54 mg l"−"1 (AgNPs) and 25.62 mg l"−"1 (AuNPs) in a batch reactor. AuNPs acted as an excellent catalyst to enhance the bioelectricity production. This novel technique could be used for eco-friendly, economically feasible and facile electricity production.

  17. Nanomodification of the electrodes in microbial fuel cell: impact of nanoparticle density on electricity production and microbial community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al Atraktchi, Fatima Al-Zahraa; Zhang, Yifeng; Angelidaki, Irini

    2014-01-01

    The nano-decoration of electrode with nanoparticles is one effective way to enhance power output of microbial fuel cells (MFCs). However, the amount of nanoparticles used for decoration has not been optimized yet, and how it affects the microbial community is still unknown. In this study, differe...

  18. Thermoelectric Performance Enhancement by Surrounding Crystalline Semiconductors with Metallic Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Jung; King, Glen C.; Park, Yeonjoon; Lee, Kunik; Choi, Sang H.

    2011-01-01

    Direct conversion of thermal energy to electricity by thermoelectric (TE) devices may play a key role in future energy production and utilization. However, relatively poor performance of current TE materials has slowed development of new energy conversion applications. Recent reports have shown that the dimensionless Figure of Merit, ZT, for TE devices can be increased beyond the state-of-the-art level by nanoscale structuring of materials to reduce their thermal conductivity. New morphologically designed TE materials have been fabricated at the NASA Langley Research Center, and their characterization is underway. These newly designed materials are based on semiconductor crystal grains whose surfaces are surrounded by metallic nanoparticles. The nanoscale particles are used to tailor the thermal and electrical conduction properties for TE applications by altering the phonon and electron transport pathways. A sample of bismuth telluride decorated with metallic nanoparticles showed less thermal conductivity and twice the electrical conductivity at room temperature as compared to pure Bi2Te3. Apparently, electrons cross easily between semiconductor crystal grains via the intervening metallic nanoparticle bridges, but phonons are scattered at the interfacing gaps. Hence, if the interfacing gap is larger than the mean free path of the phonon, thermal energy transmission from one grain to others is reduced. Here we describe the design and analysis of these new materials that offer substantial improvements in thermoelectric performance.

  19. Microbially Induced Precipitation of Gold(0) Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Yu; Kang, Serku; Park, Bitna; Kim, Yumi

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to synthesize gold nanoparticles by biomineralization using metal-reducing bacteria and to characterize their mineralogical properties. The metal-reducing bacteria were able to reduce Au(III) to Au(0) with organic fatty acids as electron donors, as indicated by the color change of the culture solution from colorless gold ions to black precipitates at 25 degrees C. XRD, SEM- and TEM-EDS analyses of the precipitates showed that Au(0) was precipitated and formed at either the cell membrane or extracellularly. The Au(0) nanoparticles were about 200 nm in size and ball-shaped. Biomineralization for elemental Au(0) nanoparticle synthesis may be useful for the recovery of natural gold in natural environments.

  20. Dry Powder Precursors of Cubic Liquid Crystalline Nanoparticles (cubosomes)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spicer, Patrick T.; Small, William B.; Small, William B.; Lynch, Matthew L.; Burns, Janet L.

    2002-01-01

    Cubosomes are dispersed nanostructured particles of cubic phase liquid crystal that have stimulated significant research interest because of their potential for application in controlled-release and drug delivery. Despite the interest, cubosomes can be difficult to fabricate and stabilize with current methods. Most of the current work is limited to liquid phase processes involving high shear dispersion of bulk cubic liquid crystalline material into sub-micron particles, limiting application flexibility. In this work, two types of dry powder cubosome precursors are produced by spray-drying: (1) starch-encapsulated monoolein is produced by spray-drying a dispersion of cubic liquid crystalline particles in an aqueous starch solution and (2) dextran-encapsulated monoolein is produced by spray-drying an emulsion formed by the ethanol-dextran-monoolein-water system. The encapsulants are used to decrease powder cohesion during drying and to act as a soluble colloidal stabilizer upon hydration of the powders. Both powders are shown to form (on average) 0.6 μm colloidally-stable cubosomes upon addition to water. However, the starch powders have a broader particle size distribution than the dextran powders because of the relative ease of spraying emulsions versus dispersions. The developed processes enable the production of nanostructured cubosomes by end-users rather than just specialized researchers and allow tailoring of the surface state of the cubosomes for broader application

  1. Structure and crystallinity of water dispersible photoactive nanoparticles for organic solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Emil Bøje Lind; Pedersen, M.C.; Simonsen, Søren Bredmose

    2015-01-01

    Water based inks would be a strong advantage for large scale production of organic photovoltaic devices. Formation of water dispersible nanoparticles produced by the Landfester method is a promising route to achieve such inks. We provide new insights into the key ink properties of poly(3-hexylthi......Water based inks would be a strong advantage for large scale production of organic photovoltaic devices. Formation of water dispersible nanoparticles produced by the Landfester method is a promising route to achieve such inks. We provide new insights into the key ink properties of poly(3......-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) nanoparticles such as the internal structure and crystallinity of the dispersed nanoparticles and the previously unreported drastic changes that occur when the inks are cast into a film. We observe through transmission electron...

  2. Gold nanoparticles in plastic columnar discotic liquid crystalline material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Mukesh, E-mail: mukeshphysics927@gmail.com [Center of Material Sciences, Institute of Interdisciplinary Studies, University of Allahabad, Allahabad 211002 (India); Kumar, Sandeep [Raman Research Institute, C.V. Raman Avenue, Sadashivanagar, Bangalore 560080 (India); Dhar, Ravindra, E-mail: dr.ravindra.dhar@gmail.com [Center of Material Sciences, Institute of Interdisciplinary Studies, University of Allahabad, Allahabad 211002 (India)

    2016-05-10

    Highlights: • Dispersion of Gold nanoparticles in a discotic liquid crystal has been studied. • σ{sub i} increases by seven orders of magnitude in the case of 1.2 wt% GNPs composites. • X-ray scattering results revel that a decrement in the core–core separation. • Study suggests that dispersion at low concentrations is uniform. • Band gap has decreased due to dispersion of GNPs in HAT4. - Abstract: We have studied the effect of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) on the thermodynamical, optical and dielectrical parameters of a discotic liquid crystal (DLC) namely hexabutyloxytriphenylene (HAT4). It has been observed that with the increase of GNPs concentration in DLC, composites shows two different regions. In the first regions i.e. low concentrations (<1 wt%), columnar hexagonal-isotropic (Col{sub hp}-I{sub L}) transition temperature and enthalpy (ΔH) decrease rapidly while in the second region i.e. higher concentrations (>1 wt%) Col{sub hp}-I{sub L} transition temperature and ΔH are approximately constant. It has been observed that, in the case of composites having 0.2 and 0.6 wt% of GNPs, conductivity has enhanced but it is poor as compared to the composite having 1.2 wt% of GNPs. For 1.2 wt% of GNPs, conductivity has increased by seven orders of magnitude as compared to the DLC. Optical study suggests that band gap of nanocomposites has decreased due to dispersion of GNPs.

  3. Microbial Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles in Different Culture Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ke; Jung, Samuel; Park, Kyu-Hwan; Kim, Young-Rok

    2018-01-31

    Microbial biosynthesis of metal nanoparticles has been extensively studied for the applications in biomedical sciences and engineering. However, the mechanism for their synthesis through microorganism is not completely understood. In this study, several culture media were investigated for their roles in the microbial biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The size and morphology of the synthesized AgNPs were analyzed by UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier-transform-infrared (FT-IR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The results demonstrated that nutrient broth (NB) and Mueller-Hinton broth (MHB) among tested media effectively reduced silver ions to form AgNPs with different particle size and shape. Although the involved microorganism enhanced the reduction of silver ions, the size and shape of the particles were shown to mainly depend on the culture media. Our findings suggest that the growth media of bacterial culture play an important role in the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles with regard to their size and shape. We believe our findings would provide useful information for further exploration of microbial biosynthesis of AgNPs and their biomedical applications.

  4. Studying the Kinetics of Crystalline Silicon Nanoparticle Lithiation with In Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    McDowell, Matthew T.

    2012-09-04

    In situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is used to study the electrochemical lithiation of high-capacity crystalline Si nanoparticles for use in Li-ion battery anodes. The lithiation reaction slows down as it progresses into the particle interior, and analysis suggests that this behavior is due not to diffusion limitation but instead to the influence of mechanical stress on the driving force for reaction. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Studying the Kinetics of Crystalline Silicon Nanoparticle Lithiation with In Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    McDowell, Matthew T.; Ryu, Ill; Lee, Seok Woo; Wang, Chongmin; Nix, William D.; Cui, Yi

    2012-01-01

    In situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is used to study the electrochemical lithiation of high-capacity crystalline Si nanoparticles for use in Li-ion battery anodes. The lithiation reaction slows down as it progresses into the particle interior, and analysis suggests that this behavior is due not to diffusion limitation but instead to the influence of mechanical stress on the driving force for reaction. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Enhanced bioavailability of nerve growth factor with phytantriol lipid-based crystalline nanoparticles in cochlea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bu M

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Meng Bu,1,2 Jingling Tang,3 Yinghui Wei,4 Yanhui Sun,1 Xinyu Wang,1 Linhua Wu,2 Hongzhuo Liu1 1School of Pharmacy, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Pharmacy, the Second Affiliated Hospital, 3School of Pharmacy, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, People’s Republic of China; 4College of Pharmaceutical Science, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of China Purpose: Supplementation of exogenous nerve growth factor (NGF into the cochlea of deafened animals rescues spiral ganglion cells from degeneration. However, a safe and potent delivery of therapeutic proteins, such as NGF, to spiral ganglion cells remains one of the greatest challenges. This study presents the development of self-assembled cubic lipid-based crystalline nanoparticles to enhance inner ear bioavailability of bioactive NGF via a round window membrane route.Methods: A novel nanocarrier-entrapped NGF was developed based on phytantriol by a liquid precursor dilution, with Pluronic® F127 and propylene glycol as the surfactant and solubilizer, respectively. Upon dilution of the liquid lipid precursors, monodispersed submicron-sized particles with a slight negative charge formed spontaneously.Results: Biological activity of entrapped NGF was assessed using pheochromocytoma cells with NGF-loaded reservoirs to induce significant neuronal outgrowth, similar to that seen in free NGF-treated controls. Finally, a 3.28-fold increase in inner ear bioavailability was observed after administration of phytantriol lipid-based crystalline nanoparticles as compared to free drug, contributing to an enhanced drug permeability of the round window membrane. Conclusion: Data presented here demonstrate the potential of lipid-based crystalline nanoparticles to improve the outcomes of patients bearing cochlear implants. Keywords: nerve growth factor, lipid-based crystalline nanoparticles, PC12 cells, inner ear drug

  7. The Effect of PtRuIr Nanoparticle Crystallinity in Electrocatalytic Methanol Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Linkov

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Two structural forms of a ternary alloy PtRuIr/C catalyst, one amorphous and one highly crystalline, were synthesized and compared to determine the effect of their respective structures on their activity and stability as anodic catalysts in methanol oxidation. Characterization techniques included TEM, XRD, and EDX. Electrochemical analysis using a glassy carbon disk electrode for cyclic voltammogram and chronoamperometry were tested in a solution of 0.5 mol L−1 CH3OH and 0.5 mol L−1 H2SO4. Amorphous PtRuIr/C catalyst was found to have a larger electrochemical surface area, while the crystalline PtRuIr/C catalyst had both a higher activity in methanol oxidation and increased CO poisoning rate. Crystallinity of the active alloy nanoparticles has a big impact on both methanol oxidation activity and in the CO poisoning rate.

  8. Genus-wide physicochemical evidence of extracellular crystalline silver nanoparticles biosynthesis by Morganella spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasesh Y Parikh

    Full Text Available This study was performed to determine whether extracellular silver nanoparticles (AgNPs production is a genus-wide phenotype associated with all the members of genus Morganella, or only Morganella morganii RP-42 isolate is able to synthesize extracellular Ag nanoparticles. To undertake this study, all the available Morganella isolates were exposed to Ag+ ions, and the obtained nanoproducts were thoroughly analyzed using physico-chemical characterization tools such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM, UV-visible spectrophotometry (UV-vis, and X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis. It was identified that extracellular biosynthesis of crystalline silver nanoparticles is a unique biochemical character of all the members of genus Morganella, which was found independent of environmental changes. Significantly, the inability of other closely related members of the family Enterobacteriaceae towards AgNPs synthesis strongly suggests that AgNPs synthesis in the presence of Ag+ ions is a phenotypic character that is uniquely associated with genus Morganella.

  9. Diffusion of nanoparticles into the capsule and cortex of a crystalline lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schachar, Ronald A; Chen Wei; Woo, Boon K; Pierscionek, Barbara K; Zhang, Xing; Ma, Lun

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the ability of fluorescent nanoparticles to diffuse into a crystalline lens. Intact porcine lenses from five-month-old pigs, intact human lenses obtained from three donors aged 41, 42 and 45 years, and sections of human lens cortex obtained from four donors aged 11, 19, 32, and 34 years were incubated for 72 h at 7 deg. C in aqueous solutions of green (566 nm) and red (652 nm) fluorescent water soluble cadmium tellurium (CdTe) nanoparticles. As demonstrated by fluorescent and confocal microscopy, the CdTe nanoparticles diffused into the porcine and human lens capsule and into human cortical lens fibres; however, the nanoparticles did not pass through the intact lens capsule. Nanoparticles can be used as a method for studying intracellular structure and biochemical pathways within the lens capsule and cortical lens fibres to further understand cataractogenesis and may serve as a carrier for chemotherapeutic agents for the potential treatment of primary and secondary cataracts

  10. Photoconductivity studies on amorphous and crystalline TiO{sub 2} films doped with gold nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valverde-Aguilar, G.; Garcia-Macedo, J.A. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Departamento de Estado Solido, Instituto de Fisica, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Renteria-Tapia, V. [Universidad de Guadalajara, Centro Universitario de los Valles, Departamento de Ciencias Naturales y Exactas, Ameca, Jalisco (Mexico); Aguilar-Franco, M. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Departamento de Fisica Quimica, Instituto de Fisica, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2011-06-15

    In this work, amorphous and crystalline TiO{sub 2} films were synthesized by the sol-gel process at room temperature. The TiO{sub 2} films were doped with gold nanoparticles. The films were spin-coated on glass wafers. The crystalline samples were annealed at 100 C for 30 minutes and sintered at 520 C for 2 h. All films were characterized using X-ray diffraction, transmission electronic microscopy and UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. Two crystalline phases, anatase and rutile, were formed in the matrix TiO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2}/Au. An absorption peak was located at 570 nm (amorphous) and 645 nm (anatase). Photoconductivity studies were performed on these films. The experimental data were fitted with straight lines at darkness and under illumination at 515 nm and 645 nm. This indicates an ohmic behavior. Crystalline TiO{sub 2}/Au films are more photoconductive than the amorphous ones. (orig.)

  11. Comparison of Oxidative Stresses Mediated by Different Crystalline Forms and Surface Modification of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Samy El-Said

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs are manufactured worldwide for use in a wide range of applications. There are two common crystalline forms of TiO2 anatase and rutile with different physical and chemical characteristics. We previously demonstrated that an increased DNA damage response is mediated by anatase crystalline form compared to rutile. In the present study, we conjugated TiO2 NPs with polyethylene glycol (PEG in order to reduce the genotoxicity and we evaluated some oxidative stress parameters to obtain information on the cellular mechanisms of DNA damage that operate in response to TiO2 NPs different crystalline forms exposure in hepatocarcinoma cell lines (HepG2. Our results indicated a significant increase in oxidative stress mediated by the anatase form of TiO2 NPs compared to rutile form. On the other hand, PEG modified TiO2 NPs showed a significant decrease in oxidative stress as compared to TiO2 NPs. These data suggested that the genotoxic potential of TiO2 NPs varies with crystalline form and surface modification.

  12. Structural, Optical, Morphological and Microbial Studies on SnO₂ Nanoparticles Prepared by Co-Precipitation Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arularasu, M V; Anbarasu, M; Poovaragan, S; Sundaram, R; Kanimozhi, K; Magdalane, C Maria; Kaviyarasu, K; Thema, F T; Letsholathebe, D; Mola, Genene T; Maaza, M

    2018-05-01

    Nanoparticles of tin oxide (SnO2) powders were prepared by co-precipitation method at 500 °C, 700 °C and 900 °C temperature. The sintered SnO2 nanoparticles, structural, optical, magnetic, morphological properties and microbial activity have been studied. XRD studies reveals that sintered powder which exhibits tetragonal crystal structure and both crystallinity as well as crystal size increase with increase in temperature. The morphological studies reveal randomly arranged grains with compact nature grain size increases with sintering temperature. The compositional analyses of SnO2 nanoparticles have been studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. The optical band gap values of SnO2 nanoparticles were calculated to be about 4.3 eV in the temperature 500 °C, comparing with that of the bulk SnO2 3.78 eV, by optical absorption measurement. Room temperature M-H curve for pure SnO2 nanoparticles exhibits ferromagnetic behaviour. The tin oxide nanoparticles are acted as potential candidate material for bacterial and fungal activity.

  13. Preparation of crystalline starch nanoparticles using cold acid hydrolysis and ultrasonication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee-Young; Park, Dong June; Kim, Jong-Yea; Lim, Seung-Taik

    2013-10-15

    Waxy maize starch in an aqueous sulfuric acid solution (3.16 M, 14.7% solids) was hydrolyzed for 2-6 days, either isothermally at 40 °C or 4 °C, or at cycled temperatures of 4 and 40 °C (1 day each). The starch hydrolyzates were recovered as precipitates after centrifuging the dispersion (10,000 rpm, 10 min). The yield of starch hydrolyzates depended on the hydrolysis temperature and time, which varied from 6.8% to 78%. The starch hydrolyzed at 40 °C or 4/40 °C exhibited increased crystallinity determined by X-ray diffraction analysis, but melted in broader temperature range (from 60 °C to 110 °C). However, the starch hydrolyzed at 4 °C displayed the crystallinity and melting endotherm similar to those of native starch. The starch hydrolyzates recovered by centrifugation were re-dispersed in water (15% solids), and the dispersion was treated by an ultrasonic treatment (60% amplitude, 3min). The ultrasonication effectively fragmented the starch hydrolyzates to nanoparticles. The hydrolyzates obtained after 6 days of hydrolysis were more resistant to the ultrasonication than those after 2 or 4 days, regardless of hydrolysis temperatures. The starch nanoparticles could be prepared with high yield (78%) and crystallinity by 4 °C hydrolysis for 6 days followed by ultrasonication. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the starch nanoparticles had globular shapes with diameters ranging from 50 to 90 nm. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cubic liquid crystalline nanoparticles containing a polysaccharide from Ulva fasciata with potent antihyperlipidaemic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azza A. Matloub

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study involves the preparation of cubic liquid crystalline nanoparticles (cubsomes for liver targeting to assess the potential of a formulated bioactive polysaccharide isolated from the hot aqueous extract of Ulva fasciata as an alternative natural agent with anti-hyperlipidaemic activity. Cubosomal nanoparticles were prepared by disrupting the cubic gel phase of the polysaccharide and water in the presence of a surfactant. Different lipid matrices and stabilizers were tested. All the formulations were in the nanosize range and showed sufficient negative charge to inhibit the aggregation of the cubosomes. Drug entrapment efficiencies (EEs% were determined and in vitro release studies were performed. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM and differential scanning calorimetry were used to analyze the loaded cubosomal nanoparticles containing glyceryl monostearate (GMO 2.25 g, poloxamer 407 (0.25 g and 50 mg of the polysaccharide. A preclinical study comparing the cubic liquid crystalline nanoparticles containing polysaccharide to fluvastatin as a reference drug in hyperlipidaemic rats was conducted. The rats treated with the polysaccharide- loaded cubosomes showed significant decreases in total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG and total lipid (TL compared to the untreated HL rats. In addition, oxidative stress and antioxidant biomarkers were measured in the HL rats. Compared to the untreated HL rats, the cubosome treated rats showed a significant reduction in malondialdehyde (MDA, whereas insignificant changes were detected in nitric oxide (NO, glutathione (GSH levels and total antioxidant capacity (TAC. Further, vascular and intercellular adhesion molecules (VCAM, ICAM, and myeloperoxidase were demonstrated. A histopathological examination was conducted to study the alterations in histopathological lesions and to document the biochemical results. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the superiority of using a natural lipid

  15. Size Tunable Synthesis of Highly Crystalline BaTiO3 Nanoparticles using Salt-Assisted Spray Pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Yoshifumi; Lenggoro, I. Wuled; Okuyama, Kikuo; Maedler, Lutz; Pratsinis, Sotiris E.

    2003-01-01

    Highly crystalline, dense BaTiO 3 nanoparticles in a size range from 30 to 360nm with a narrow size distribution (σ g = 1.2-1.4) were prepared at various synthesis temperatures using a salt-assisted spray pyrolysis (SASP) method without the need for post-annealing. The effect of synthesis temperature on particle size, crystallinity and surface morphology of the nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning/transmission electron microscopy. The nature of the crystalline structure was analyzed by Rietveld refinement and Raman spectroscopy. The particle size decreased with decreasing operation temperature. The crystal phase was transformed from tetragonal to cubic at a particles size of about 50nm at room temperature. SASP can be used to produce high weight fraction of tetragonal BaTiO 3 nanoparticles down to 64nm in a single step

  16. Perturbation of an arctic soil microbial community by metal nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Niraj [Department of Biology, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6 (Canada); Shah, Vishal [Department of Biology, Dowling College, Oakdale, NY 11769 (United States); Walker, Virginia K., E-mail: walkervk@queensu.ca [Department of Biology, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6 (Canada); Department of Biology, School of Environmental Studies and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6 (Canada)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: {yields} Silver, copper and silica nanoparticles had an impact on arctic soil {yields} A microbial community toxicity indicator was developed {yields} Community surveys using pyrosequencing confirmed a shift in bacterial biodiversity {yields} Troublingly, silver nanoparticles were highly toxic to a plant beneficial bacterium - Abstract: Technological advances allowing routine nanoparticle (NP) manufacture have enabled their use in electronic equipment, foods, clothing and medical devices. Although some NPs have antibacterial activity, little is known about their environmental impact and there is no information on the influence of NPs on soil in the possibly vulnerable ecosystems of polar regions. The potential toxicity of 0.066% silver, copper or silica NPs on a high latitude (>78{sup o}N) soil was determined using community level physiological profiles (CLPP), fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) assays and DNA analysis, including sequencing and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The results of these different investigations were amalgamated in order to develop a community toxicity indicator, which revealed that of the three NPs examined, silver NPs could be classified as highly toxic to these arctic consortia. Subsequent culture-based studies confirmed that one of the community-identified plant-associating bacteria, Bradyrhizobium canariense, appeared to have a marked sensitivity to silver NPs. Thus, NP contamination of arctic soils particularly by silver NPs is a concern and procedures for mitigation and remediation of such pollution should be a priority for investigation.

  17. Perturbation of an arctic soil microbial community by metal nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Niraj; Shah, Vishal; Walker, Virginia K.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Silver, copper and silica nanoparticles had an impact on arctic soil → A microbial community toxicity indicator was developed → Community surveys using pyrosequencing confirmed a shift in bacterial biodiversity → Troublingly, silver nanoparticles were highly toxic to a plant beneficial bacterium - Abstract: Technological advances allowing routine nanoparticle (NP) manufacture have enabled their use in electronic equipment, foods, clothing and medical devices. Although some NPs have antibacterial activity, little is known about their environmental impact and there is no information on the influence of NPs on soil in the possibly vulnerable ecosystems of polar regions. The potential toxicity of 0.066% silver, copper or silica NPs on a high latitude (>78 o N) soil was determined using community level physiological profiles (CLPP), fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) assays and DNA analysis, including sequencing and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The results of these different investigations were amalgamated in order to develop a community toxicity indicator, which revealed that of the three NPs examined, silver NPs could be classified as highly toxic to these arctic consortia. Subsequent culture-based studies confirmed that one of the community-identified plant-associating bacteria, Bradyrhizobium canariense, appeared to have a marked sensitivity to silver NPs. Thus, NP contamination of arctic soils particularly by silver NPs is a concern and procedures for mitigation and remediation of such pollution should be a priority for investigation.

  18. Synthesis and magnetic properties of single-crystalline BaFe12O19 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Jiangying; Tang Shaolong; Zhai Lin; Shi Yangguang; Du Youwei

    2009-01-01

    Rod-like and platelet-like nanoparticles of simple-crystalline barium hexaferrite (BaFe 12 O 19 ) have been synthesized by the molten salt method. Both particle size and morphology change with the reaction temperature and time. The easy magnetization direction (0 0 l) of the BaFe 12 O 19 nanoparticles has been observed directly by performing X-ray diffraction on powders aligned at 0.5 T magnetic field. The magnetic properties of the BaFe 12 O 19 magnet were investigated with various sintering temperatures. The maximum values of saturation magnetization (σ s =65.8 emu/g), remanent magnetization (σ r =56 emu/g) and coercivity field (H ic =5251 Oe) of the aligned samples occurred at the sintering temperatures of 1100 deg. C. These results indicate that BaFe 12 O 19 nanoparticles synthesized by the molten salt method should enable detailed investigation of the size-dependent evolution of magnetism, microwave absorption, and realization of a nanodevice of magnetic media.

  19. Isotopic Evidence for Microbial Activity in Crystalline Bedrock Fractures - a Case Study from Olkiluoto, SW Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlstedt, E. K.; Karhu, J.; Pitkänen, P.

    2015-12-01

    Changes in the geochemical environment in crystalline bedrock fractures were investigated using the stable isotopes of C, O and S in fracture filling minerals as tracers. Of special interest were the possible changes which may occur in the subsurface at low temperatures. Especially, the influence of microbial activity was recognized as a catalyst for inducing changes in the geochemical environment. The study site is the Olkiluoto island located on the western coast of Finland, planned to host a geological repository for nuclear waste. Fracture surfaces were investigated to recognize the latest mineralizations at the site. These fillings were comprised of thin plates or small euhedral crystals of calcite and pyrite. The carbon and sulfur isotope compositions of calcite and pyrite were measured from bulk material by conventional IRMS, and in situ by secondary ion mass spectrometry. A notable feature of the late-stage fillings was high variabilities in the δ13C values of calcite and the δ34S values of pyrite, which ranged from -53.8 ‰ to +31.6 ‰ and from -50.4 ‰ to +77.7 ‰, respectively. Based on the isotopic compositions of the fillings, several features in the past hydrogeochemical environment could be recognized. The isotopic composition of the fracture fillings indicate an environment which was stratified with respect to depth. Characteristic features include bacterial sulfate reduction (BSR) occurring at depths 50 m. It appears that methanic conditions were replaced by sulfate reduction at depths >50 m likely due to infiltration of SO42--rich brackish waters. Sulfate reducing bacteria used mainly surface derived organic carbon as electron donors. Some indication of minor methanotrophic activity was recognized in anomalously low δ13C values of calcite, down to -53.8 ‰, at the depth range of 34-54 m. This methanotrophic activity may have been related to bacteria using CH4 as an electron donor in BSR.

  20. Microbially-Mediated Precipitation of Calcium Carbonate Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ser Ku; Roh, Yul

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the biomineralization of carbonate minerals using microorganisms (Wu Do-1) enriched from rhodoliths. A 16S rRNA sequence analysis showed that Wu Do-1 mainly contained Proteus mirabilis. The pH decreased from 6.5 to 5.3 over the first 4 days of incubation due to microbial oxidation of organic acids, after which it increased to 7.8 over the remaining incubation period. XRD analysis showed that the precipitates were Mg-rich cal- cite (MgxCa(1-x)CO3), whereas no precipitates were formed without the addition of Wu Do-1 in D-1 medium. SEM-EDS analyses showed that the Mg-rich calcite had a rhombohedron shape and consisted of Ca, Si and Mg with an extracelluar polymeric substance (EPS). In addition, TEM-EDS analyses revealed they were hexagon in shape, 500-700 nm in size, and composed of Ca, Mg, C, and O. These results indicated that Wu Do-1 induced precipitation of Mg-rich calcite on the cell walls and EPS via the accumulation of Ca and/or Mg ions. Therefore, microbial precipitation of carbonate nanoparticles may play an important role in metal and carbon biogeochemistry, as well as in carbon sequestration in natural environments.

  1. Approaches to contactless optical thermometer in the NIR spectral range based on Nd{sup 3+} doped crystalline nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaldvee, K.; Nefedova, A.V. [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, W. Ostwaldi st. 1, Tartu 50411 (Estonia); Fedorenko, S.G. [Voevodsky Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Vanetsev, A.S. [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, W. Ostwaldi st. 1, Tartu 50411 (Estonia); Prokhorov General Physics Institute RAS, Vavilov st. 38, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Orlovskaya, E.O. [Prokhorov General Physics Institute RAS, Vavilov st. 38, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Puust, L.; Pärs, M.; Sildos, I. [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, W. Ostwaldi st. 1, Tartu 50411 (Estonia); Ryabova, A.V. [Prokhorov General Physics Institute RAS, Vavilov st. 38, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, Kashirskoe Highway, 31, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); Orlovskii, Yu.V., E-mail: orlovski@Lst.gpi.ru [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, W. Ostwaldi st. 1, Tartu 50411 (Estonia); Prokhorov General Physics Institute RAS, Vavilov st. 38, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    The fluorescence kinetics and spectral intensity ratio (FIR) methods for contactless optical temperature measurement in the NIR spectral range with Nd{sup 3+} doped YAG micro- and YPO{sub 4} nanocrystals are considered and the problems are revealed. The requirements for good temperature RE doped crystalline nanoparticles sensor are formulated.

  2. Synthesis of Ag and Au nanoparticles embedded in carbon film: Optical, crystalline and topography analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholamali, Hediyeh; Shafiekhani, Azizollah; Darabi, Elham; Elahi, Seyed Mohammad

    2018-03-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images give valuable information about surface roughness of thin films based on the results of power spectral density (PSD) through the fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithms. In the present work, AFM data are studied for silver and gold nanoparticles (Ag NPs a-C: H and Au NPs a-C: H) embedded in amorphous hydrogenated carbon films and co-deposited on glass substrate via of RF-Sputtering and RF-Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition methods. Here, the working gas is acetylene and the targets are Ag and Au. While time and power are constant, the only variable parameter in this study is initial pressure. In addition, the crystalline structure of Ag NPs a-C: H and Au NPs a-C: H are studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD). UV-visible spectrophotometry will also investigate optical properties and localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of samples.

  3. Seed-mediated shape evolution of gold nanomaterials: from spherical nanoparticles to polycrystalline nanochains and single-crystalline nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Penghe; Mao Chuanbin

    2009-01-01

    We studied the kinetics of the reduction of a gold precursor (HAuCl 4 ) and the effect of the molar ratio (R) of sodium citrate, which was introduced from a seed solution, and the gold precursor on the shape evolution of gold nanomaterials in the presence of preformed 13 nm gold nanoparticles as seeds. The reduction of the gold precursor by sodium citrate was accelerated due to the presence of gold seeds. Nearly single-crystalline gold nanowires were formed at a very low R value (R = 0.16) in the presence of the seeds as a result of the oriented attachment of the growing gold nanoparticles. At a higher R value (R = 0.33), gold nanochains were formed due to the non-oriented attachment of gold nanoparticles. At a much higher R value (R = 1.32), only larger spherical gold nanoparticles grown from the seeds were found. In the absence of gold seeds, no single-crystalline nanowires were formed at the same R value. Our results indicate that the formation of the 1D nanostructures (nanochains and nanowires) at low R values is due to the attachment of gold nanoparticles along one direction, which is driven by the surface energy reduction, nanoparticle attraction, and dipole-dipole interaction between adjacent nanoparticles.

  4. Obtaining Highly Crystalline Barium Sulphate Nanoparticles via Chemical Precipitation and Quenching in Absence of Polymer Stabilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángela B. Sifontes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we report the synthesis of barium sulphate (BaSO4 nanoparticles from Ba(OH2/BaCl2 solutions by a combined method of precipitation and quenching in absence of polymer stabilizers. Transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM, Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, and X-ray diffraction (XRD were employed to characterize the particles. The Scherrer formula was applied to estimate the particle size using the width of the diffraction peaks. The obtained results indicate that the synthesized material is mainly composed of nanocrystalline barite, with nearly spherical morphology, and diameters ranging from 4 to 92 nm. The lattice images of nanoparticles were clearly observed by HRTEM, indicating a high degree of crystallinity and phase purity. In addition, agglomerates with diameters between 20 and 300 nm were observed in both lattice images and dynamic light scattering measurements. The latter allowed obtaining the particle size distribution, the evolution of the aggregate size in time of BaSO4 in aqueous solutions, and the sedimentation rate of these solutions from turbidimetry measurements. A short discussion on the possible medical applications is presented.

  5. Optical properties of highly crystalline Y2O3:Er,Yb nanoparticles prepared by laser ablation in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunokawa, Takashi; Odawara, Osamu; Wada, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Y 2 O 3 :Er,Yb nanoparticles were prepared by laser ablation in water. We investigated crystallinity, distribution of dopant, and optical properties of the prepared nanoparticles. The full-width half-maximum (FWHD) of the crystalline peak of nanoparticles measured by an x-ray diffractometer (XRD) barely changed. Further, using scanning transmission electron microscopy–energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (STEM–EDX), we confirmed the peaks of Y, Er, Yb, and O. Moreover, on the basis of the optical properties of the nanoparticles, the emission of red ( 2 F 9/2  →  4 I 15/2 ) and green ( 2 H 11/2 , 4 S 3/2  →  4 I 15/2 ) was confirmed. We also investigated the emission intensity as a function of the excitation power of 980 nm LD in the prepared nanoparticles. The photon avalanche effect was observed at the excitation power of 100 mW. These results confirmed that uniformly Er-Yb-doped Y 2 O 3 nanoparticles were successfully prepared by laser ablation in water. (paper)

  6. Effects of heating atmosphere on formation of crystalline citrate-derived LaAlO3 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Hsuan-Fu; Guo, Yu-Man

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → LaAlO 3 can be crystallized at 550 deg. C in an oxygen-enriched atmosphere. → Calcining the citrate precursor in oxygen atmosphere lowers the reaction temperatures to form crystalline LaAlO 3 . → In oxygen atmosphere, pure citrate-derived LaAlO 3 nanoparticles can be produced at 700 deg. C. - Abstract: Crystalline LaAlO 3 nanoparticles were synthesized at relative low temperatures, using a citrate-precursor technique. La(NO 3 ) 3 , Al(NO 3 ) 3 , and C 3 H 4 (OH)(COOH) 3 , in a molar ratio of 1:1:1, were dissolved in deionized water. NH 4 OH was used to adjust the aqueous solution to pH 7. After drying, the citrate precursors were charred at 350 deg. C, followed by calcination at different temperatures, in air or oxygen atmosphere. The thermochemical properties of the resultant particles were analyzed using thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffractometry, infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Effects of calcination temperature and heating atmosphere on the formation of crystalline LaAlO 3 nanoparticles were investigated. In O 2 atmosphere, clacining the citrate-derived charred solid precursor at 700 deg. C for 3 h can decompose all intermediates to produce pure LaAlO 3 nanoparticles (particle sizes ≤ 100 nm) with an average crystallite size of about 24 nm and possessing high sinterability.

  7. Toxicity of zero-valent iron nanoparticles to a trichloroethylene-degrading groundwater microbial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabetakis, Kara M; Niño de Guzmán, Gabriela T; Torrents, Alba; Yarwood, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    The microbiological impact of zero-valent iron used in the remediation of groundwater was investigated by exposing a trichloroethylene-degrading anaerobic microbial community to two types of iron nanoparticles. Changes in total bacterial and archaeal population numbers were analyzed using qPCR and were compared to results from a blank and negative control to assess for microbial toxicity. Additionally, the results were compared to those of samples exposed to silver nanoparticles and iron filings in an attempt to discern the source of toxicity. Statistical analysis revealed that the three different iron treatments were equally toxic to the total bacteria and archaea populations, as compared with the controls. Conversely, the silver nanoparticles had a limited statistical impact when compared to the controls and increased the microbial populations in some instances. Therefore, the findings suggest that zero-valent iron toxicity does not result from a unique nanoparticle-based effect.

  8. Hydrothermal synthesis of histidine-functionalized single-crystalline gold nanoparticles and their pH-dependent UV absorption characteristic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiguo; Zu, Yuangang; Fu, Yujie; Meng, Ronghua; Guo, Songling; Xing, Zhimin; Tan, Shengnan

    2010-03-01

    L-Histidine capped single-crystalline gold nanoparticles have been synthesized by a hydrothermal process under a basic condition at temperature between 65 and 150 degrees C. The produced gold nanoparticles were spherical with average diameter of 11.5+/-2.9nm. The synthesized gold colloidal solution was very stable and can be stored at room temperature for more than 6 months. The color of the colloidal solution can change from wine red to mauve, purple and blue during the acidifying process. This color changing phenomenon is attributed to the aggregation of gold nanoparticles resulted from hydrogen bond formation between the histidines adsorbed on the gold nanoparticles surfaces. This hydrothermal synthetic method is expected to be used for synthesizing some other amino acid functionalized gold nanomaterials.

  9. Metagenomic analysis of microbial communities yields insight into impacts of nanoparticle design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metch, Jacob W.; Burrows, Nathan D.; Murphy, Catherine J.; Pruden, Amy; Vikesland, Peter J.

    2018-01-01

    Next-generation DNA sequencing and metagenomic analysis provide powerful tools for the environmentally friendly design of nanoparticles. Herein we demonstrate this approach using a model community of environmental microbes (that is, wastewater-activated sludge) dosed with gold nanoparticles of varying surface coatings and morphologies. Metagenomic analysis was highly sensitive in detecting the microbial community response to gold nanospheres and nanorods with either cetyltrimethylammonium bromide or polyacrylic acid surface coatings. We observed that the gold-nanoparticle morphology imposes a stronger force in shaping the microbial community structure than does the surface coating. Trends were consistent in terms of the compositions of both taxonomic and functional genes, which include antibiotic resistance genes, metal resistance genes and gene-transfer elements associated with cell stress that are relevant to public health. Given that nanoparticle morphology remained constant, the potential influence of gold dissolution was minimal. Surface coating governed the nanoparticle partitioning between the bioparticulate and aqueous phases.

  10. Preparation of high crystalline nanoparticles of rare-earth based complex pervoskites and comparison of their structural and magnetic properties with bulk counterparts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basith, M. A.; Islam, M. A.; Ahmmad, Bashir

    2017-01-01

    of crystalline and amorphous phases. FESEM images demonstrate the formation of nanoparticles with average particle size in the range of 50–100 nm for both ultrasonication and 4 h (h) of ball milling. The bulk materials and nanoparticles synthesized by both ultrasonication and 4 h ball milling exhibit...... of the nanoparticles due to ball milling particularly for milling time exceeding 8 h. This investigation demonstrates the potential of ultrasonication as a simple route to prepare high crystalline rare-earth based manganite nanoparticles with improved control compared to the traditional ball milling technique....

  11. Microbially supported synthesis of catalytically active bimetallic Pd-Au nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseinkhani, Baharak; Søbjerg, Lina Sveidal; Rotaru, Amelia-Elena

    2012-01-01

    Transformation (FFT) analyses confirmed that the nanoparticles indeed were bimetallic. The bimetallic nanoparticles did not have a core-shell structure, but were superior to monometallic particles at reducing p-nitrophenol to p-aminophenol. Hence, formation of microbially supported nanoparticles may be a cheap......(II) to the bio-supported particles resulted in increased particle size. UV-Vis spectrophotometry and HR-TEM analyses indicated that the previously monometallic nanoparticles had become fully or partially covered by Au(0) or Pd(0), respectively. Furthermore, Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (EDS) and Fast Fourier...

  12. Solution-Processible Crystalline NiO Nanoparticles for High-Performance Planar Perovskite Photovoltaic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Uisik; Kim, Bong-Gi; Nguyen, Duc Cuong; Park, Jong-Hyeon; Ha, Na Young; Kim, Seung-Joo; Ko, Seung Hwan; Lee, Soonil; Lee, Daeho; Park, Hui Joon

    2016-07-28

    In this work, we report on solution-based p-i-n-type planar-structured CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite photovoltaic (PV) cells, in which precrystallized NiO nanoparticles (NPs) without post-treatment are used to form a hole transport layer (HTL). X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy showed the crystallinity of the NPs, and atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy confirmed the uniform surfaces of the resultant NiO thin film and the subsequent perovskite photoactive layer. Compared to the conventional poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) ( PSS) HTL, the NiO HTL had excellent energy-level alignment with that of CH3NH3PbI3 and improved electron-blocking capability, as analyzed by photoelectron spectroscopy and diode modeling, resulting in Voc ~0.13 V higher than conventional PSS-based devices. Consequently, a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 15.4% with a high fill factor (FF, 0.74), short-circuit current density (Jsc, 20.2 mA·cm(-2)), and open circuit voltage (Voc, 1.04 V) having negligible hysteresis and superior air stability has been achieved.

  13. Lipid-Based Liquid Crystalline Nanoparticles Facilitate Cytosolic Delivery of siRNA via Structural Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shufang; Fan, Weiwei; Wu, Na; Zhu, Jingjing; Miao, Yunqiu; Miao, Xiaran; Li, Feifei; Zhang, Xinxin; Gan, Yong

    2018-04-11

    RNA interference (RNAi) technology has shown great promise for the treatment of cancer and other genetic disorders. Despite the efforts to increase the target tissue distribution, the safe and effective delivery of siRNA to the diseased cells with sufficient cytosolic transport is another critical factor for successful RNAi clinical application. Here, the constructed lipid-based liquid crystalline nanoparticles, called nano-Transformers, can transform thestructure in the intracellular acidic environment and perform high-efficient siRNA delivery for cancer treatment. The developed nano-Transformers have satisfactory siRNA loading efficiency and low cytotoxicity. Different from the traditional cationic nanocarriers, the endosomal membrane fusion induced by the conformational transition of lipids contributes to the easy dissociation of siRNA from nanocarriers and direct release of free siRNA into cytoplasm. We show that transfection with cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1)-siRNA-loaded nano-Transformers causes up to 95% reduction of relevant mRNA in vitro and greatly inhibits the tumor growth without causing any immunogenic response in vivo. This work highlights that the lipid-based nano-Transformers may become the next generation of siRNA delivery system with higher efficacy and improved safety profiles.

  14. Mesophase and size manipulation of itraconazole liquid crystalline nanoparticles produced via quasi nanoemulsion precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugheirbi, Naila A; Tajber, Lidia

    2015-10-01

    The fabrication of drug nanoparticles (NPs) with process-mediated tunable properties and performances continues to grow rapidly during the last decades. This study investigates the synthesis and phase tuning of nanoparticulate itraconazole (ITR) mesophases using quasi nanoemulsion precipitation from acetone/water systems to seek out an alternative pathway to the nucleation-based NP formation. ITR liquid crystalline (LC) phases were formed and nematic-smectic mesomorphism was achieved via controlling solvent:antisolvent temperature difference (ΔTS:AS). The use of ΔTS:AS=49.5°C was associated with a nematic assembly, while intercalated smectic A layering was observed at ΔTS:AS=0°C, with both phases confined in the nanospheres at room temperature. The quasi emulsion system has not been investigated at the nanoscale to date and in contrary to the microscale, quasi nanoemulsion was observed over the solvent:antisolvent viscosity ratios of 1:7-1:1.4. Poly(acrylic acid) in the solvent phase exhibited a concentration dependent interaction when ITR formed NPs. This nanodroplet-based approach enabled the preparation of a stable ITR nanodispersion using Poloxamer 407 at 80°C, which was unachievable before using precipitation via nucleation. Findings of this work lay groundwork in terms of rationalised molecular assembly as a tool in designing pharmaceutical LC NPs with tailored properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Lyotropic Liquid Crystalline Nanoparticles of Amphotericin B: Implication of Phytantriol and Glyceryl Monooleate on Bioavailability Enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sanyog; Yadav, Pooja; Swami, Rajan; Swarnakar, Nitin Kumar; Kushwah, Varun; Katiyar, Sameer S

    2018-05-01

    Implication of different dietary specific lipids such as phytantriol (PT) and glyceryl monooleate (GMO) on enhancing the oral bioavailability of amphotericin B (AmB) was examined. Liquid crystalline nanoparticles (LCNPs) were prepared using hydrotrope method, followed by in vitro characterization, Caco-2 cell monolayer uptake, and in vivo pharmacokinetic and toxicity evaluation. Optimized AmB-LCNPs displayed small particle size (< 210 nm) with a narrow distribution (~ 0.2), sustained drug release and high gastrointestinal stability, and reduced hemolytic toxicity. PLCNPs presented slower release, i.e., ~ 80% as compared to ~ 90% release in case of GLCNPs after 120 h. Significantly higher uptake in Caco-2 monolayer substantiated the role of LCNPs in increasing the intestinal permeability followed by increased drug titer in plasma. Pharmacokinetic studies demonstrated potential of PT in enhancing the bioavailability (approximately sixfold) w.r.t. of its native counterpart with reduced nephrotoxicity as presented by reduced nephrotoxicity biomarkers and histology studies. These studies established usefulness of PLCNPs over GLCNPs and plain drug. It can be concluded that acid-resistant lipid, PT, can be utilized efficiently as an alternate lipid for the preparation of LCNPs to enhance bioavailability and to reduce nephrotoxicity of the drug as compared to other frequently used lipid, i.e., GMO.

  16. Structure, morphology, and magnetic properties of Fe nanoparticles deposited onto single-crystalline surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Kleibert

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Magnetic nanostructures and nanoparticles often show novel magnetic phenomena not known from the respective bulk materials. In the past, several methods to prepare such structures have been developed – ranging from wet chemistry-based to physical-based methods such as self-organization or cluster growth. The preparation method has a significant influence on the resulting properties of the generated nanostructures. Taking chemical approaches, this influence may arise from the chemical environment, reaction kinetics and the preparation route. Taking physical approaches, the thermodynamics and the kinetics of the growth mode or – when depositing preformed clusters/nanoparticles on a surface – the landing kinetics and subsequent relaxation processes have a strong impact and thus need to be considered when attempting to control magnetic and structural properties of supported clusters or nanoparticles.Results: In this contribution we focus on mass-filtered Fe nanoparticles in a size range from 4 nm to 10 nm that are generated in a cluster source and subsequently deposited onto two single crystalline substrates: fcc Ni(111/W(110 and bcc W(110. We use a combined approach of X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD, reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM to shed light on the complex and size-dependent relation between magnetic properties, crystallographic structure, orientation and morphology. In particular XMCD reveals that Fe particles on Ni(111/W(110 have a significantly lower (higher magnetic spin (orbital moment compared to bulk iron. The reduced spin moments are attributed to the random particle orientation being confirmed by RHEED together with a competition of magnetic exchange energy at the interface and magnetic anisotropy energy in the particles. The RHEED data also show that the Fe particles on W(110 – despite of the large lattice mismatch between iron and tungsten – are

  17. Crystalline phase-dependent eco-toxicity of titania nanoparticles to freshwater biofilms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Kun; Qian, Jin; Wang, Peifang; Wang, Chao; Liu, Jingjing; Tian, Xin; Lu, Bianhe; Shen, Mengmeng

    2017-01-01

    The potential toxic impacts of different crystal phases of titania nanoparticles (TNPs) on freshwater biofilms, especially under ultraviolet C irradiation (UVC), are unknown. Here, adverse impacts of three phases (anatase, rutile, and P25, 50 mg L −1 respectively) with UVC irradiation (An-UV, Ru-UV, and P25-UV) on freshwater biofilms were conducted. Characterization experiments revealed that rutile TNPs had a higher water environment stability than anatase and P25 TNPs, possessing a stronger photocatalytic activity under UVC irradiation. Phase-dependent inhibition of cell viability and significant decreases of four- and five-fold in algal biomass at 12 h of exposure were observed compared with unexposed biofilms. Moreover, phase-dependent oxidative stress resulted in remarkably significant reductions (P < 0.01) of the photosynthetic yields of the biofilms, to 40.32% (P25-UV), 48.39% (An-UV), and 46.77% (Ru-UV) of the plateau value obtained in the unexposed biofilms. A shift in community composition that manifested as a strong reduction in diatoms, indicating cyanobacteria and green algae were more tolerant than diatoms when exposed to TNPs. In terms of the toxic mechanisms, rutile TNPs resulted in apoptosis by inducing excessive intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, whereas P25 and anatase TNPs tended to catalyze enormous acellular ROS lead to cell necrosis under UVC irradiation. - Highlights: • Phase-dependent response of freshwater biofilms to three TNPs was studied with UVC. • Rutile is more stable yet P25 and anatase own better photooxidation level in water. • Decrease in Chl-a and φM and a shift in algae bio-cenosis were phase-dependent. • Phase-dependent stress induced cellular or acellular ROS to reduce cells viability. • Rutile tend to induced apoptosis yet P25 and anatase prefer to cause cell necrosis. - Crystalline-dependent eco-toxicity of TNPs to freshwater biofilms show allotrope of nanoparticles must be considered

  18. Antimicrobial drugs encapsulated in fibrin nanoparticles for treating microbial infested wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alphonsa, B Maria; Sudheesh Kumar, P T; Praveen, G; Biswas, Raja; Chennazhi, K P; Jayakumar, R

    2014-05-01

    In vitro evaluation of antibacterial and antifungal drugs encapsulated fibrin nanoparticles to prove their potential prospect of using these nanocomponent for effective treatment of microbial infested wounds. Surfactant-free oil-in-water emulsification-diffusion method was adopted to encapsulate 1 mg/ml each of antimicrobial drugs (Ciprofloxacin and Fluconazole) in 4 ml of aqueous fibrinogen suspension and subsequent thrombin mediated cross linking to synthesize drug loaded fibrin nanoparticles. Ciprofloxacin loaded fibrin nanoparticles (CFNPs) showed size range of 253 ± 6 nm whereas that of Fluconazole loaded fibrin nanoparticles (FFNPs) was 260 ± 10 nm. Physico chemical characterizations revealed the firm integration of antimicrobial drugs within fibrin nanoparticles. Drug release studies performed at physiological pH 7.4 showed a release of 16% ciprofloxacin and 8% of fluconazole while as the release of ciprofloxacin at alkaline pH 8.5, was 48% and that of fluconazole was 37%. The antimicrobial activity evaluations of both drug loaded systems independently showed good antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (E.coli), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and antifungal activity against Candida albicans (C. albicans). The in vitro toxicity of the prepared drug loaded nanoparticles were further analyzed using Human dermal fibroblast cells (HDF) and showed adequate cell viability. The efficacies of both CFNPs and FFNPs for sustained delivery of encapsulated anti microbial drugs were evaluated in vitro suggesting its potential use for treating microbial infested wounds (diabetic foot ulcer).

  19. Immobilization of nanoparticles by occlusion into microbial calcite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skuce, Rebecca L.; Tobler, Dominique Jeanette; MacLaren, Ian

    2017-01-01

    systems. In this study, the ureolytic bacteria Sporosarcina pasteurii was used to induce calcium carbonate precipitation in the presence of organo-metallic manufactured nanoparticles. As calcite crystals grew the nanoparticles in the solution became trapped inside these crystals. Capture of NPs within...

  20. Effects of crystalline grain size and packing ratio of self-forming core/shell nanoparticles on magnetic properties at up to GHz bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suetsuna, Tomohiro; Suenaga, Seiichi; Sakurada, Shinya; Harada, Koichi; Tomimatsu, Maki; Takahashi, Toshihide

    2011-01-01

    Self-forming core/shell nanoparticles of magnetic metal/oxide with crystalline grain size of less than 40 nm were synthesized. The nanoparticles were highly concentrated in an insulating matrix to fabricate a nanocomposite, whose magnetic properties were investigated. The crystalline grain size of the nanoparticles strongly influenced the magnetic anisotropy field, magnetic coercivity, relative permeability, and loss factor (tan δ=μ''/μ') at high frequency. The packing ratio of the magnetic metallic phase in the nanocomposite also influenced those properties. High permeability with low tan δ of less than 1.5% at up to 1 GHz was obtained in the case of the nanoparticles with crystalline grain size of around 15 nm with large packing ratio of the nanoparticles. - Research highlights: → Self-forming core/shell nanoparticles of magnetic metal/oxide were synthesized. → Crystalline grain size of the nanoparticle and its packing ratio were controlled. → Magnetic properties changed according to the size and packing ratio.

  1. The effect of cetyl palmitate crystallinity on physical properties of gamma-oryzanol encapsulated in solid lipid nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruktanonchai, Uracha; Limpakdee, Surachai; Meejoo, Siwaporn; Sakulkhu, Usawadee; Bunyapraphatsara, Nuntavan; Junyaprasert, Varaporn; Puttipipatkhachorn, Satit

    2008-03-05

    This present study was aimed at investigating the effect of the crystallinity of cetyl palmitate based solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) on the physical properties of γ-oryzanol-loaded SLNs. SLNs consisting of varying ratios of cetyl palmitate and γ-oryzanol were prepared. Their hydrodynamic diameters were in the range 210-280 nm and the zeta potentials were in the range -27 to -35 mV. The size of SLNs increased as the amount of cetyl palmitate decreased whereas no significant change of zeta potentials was found. Atomic force microscopy pictures indicated the presence of disc-like particles. The crystallinity of SLNs, determined by differential scanning calorimetry and powder x-ray diffraction, was directly dependent on the ratio of cetyl palmitate to γ-oryzanol and decreased with decreasing cetyl palmitate content in the lipid matrix. Varying this ratio in the lipid mix resulted in a shift in the melting temperature and enthalpy, although the SLN structure remained unchanged as an orthorhombic lamellar lattice. This has been attributed to a potential inhibition by γ-oryzanol during lipid crystal growth as well as a less ordered structure of the SLNs. The results revealed that the crystallinity of the SLNs was mainly dependent on the solid lipid, and that the crystallinity has an important impact on the physical characteristics of active-loaded SLNs.

  2. The effect of cetyl palmitate crystallinity on physical properties of gamma-oryzanol encapsulated in solid lipid nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruktanonchai, Uracha; Sakulkhu, Usawadee; Limpakdee, Surachai; Meejoo, Siwaporn; Bunyapraphatsara, Nuntavan; Junyaprasert, Varaporn; Puttipipatkhachorn, Satit

    2008-01-01

    This present study was aimed at investigating the effect of the crystallinity of cetyl palmitate based solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) on the physical properties of γ-oryzanol-loaded SLNs. SLNs consisting of varying ratios of cetyl palmitate and γ-oryzanol were prepared. Their hydrodynamic diameters were in the range 210-280 nm and the zeta potentials were in the range -27 to -35 mV. The size of SLNs increased as the amount of cetyl palmitate decreased whereas no significant change of zeta potentials was found. Atomic force microscopy pictures indicated the presence of disc-like particles. The crystallinity of SLNs, determined by differential scanning calorimetry and powder x-ray diffraction, was directly dependent on the ratio of cetyl palmitate to γ-oryzanol and decreased with decreasing cetyl palmitate content in the lipid matrix. Varying this ratio in the lipid mix resulted in a shift in the melting temperature and enthalpy, although the SLN structure remained unchanged as an orthorhombic lamellar lattice. This has been attributed to a potential inhibition by γ-oryzanol during lipid crystal growth as well as a less ordered structure of the SLNs. The results revealed that the crystallinity of the SLNs was mainly dependent on the solid lipid, and that the crystallinity has an important impact on the physical characteristics of active-loaded SLNs

  3. Temperature, Crystalline Phase and Influence of Substrate Properties in Intense Pulsed Light Sintering of Copper Sulfide Nanoparticle Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, Michael; Gao, Zhongwei; Bansal, Shalu; Chang, Chih-Hung; Malhotra, Rajiv

    2018-02-02

    Intense Pulsed Light sintering (IPL) uses pulsed, visible light to sinter nanoparticles (NPs) into films used in functional devices. While IPL of chalcogenide NPs is demonstrated, there is limited work on prediction of crystalline phase of the film and the impact of optical properties of the substrate. Here we characterize and model the evolution of film temperature and crystalline phase during IPL of chalcogenide copper sulfide NP films on glass. Recrystallization of the film to crystalline covellite and digenite phases occurs at 126 °C and 155 °C respectively within 2-7 seconds. Post-IPL films exhibit p-type behavior, lower resistivity (~10 -3 -10 -4  Ω-cm), similar visible transmission and lower near-infrared transmission as compared to the as-deposited film. A thermal model is experimentally validated, and extended by combining it with a thermodynamic approach for crystal phase prediction and via incorporating the influence of film transmittivity and optical properties of the substrate on heating during IPL. The model is used to show the need to a-priori control IPL parameters to concurrently account for both the thermal and optical properties of the film and substrate in order to obtain a desired crystalline phase during IPL of such thin films on paper and polycarbonate substrates.

  4. Effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on soil microbial communities and wheat biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moll, Janine; Klingenfuss, Florian; Widmer, Franco; Gogos, Alexander; Bucheli, Thomas D.; Hartmann, Martin; van der Heijden, Marcel G.A.

    2017-01-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are the most produced NPs worldwide and have great potential to be utilized in agriculture as additives for plant protection products. However, concerns have been raised that some NPs may negatively affect crops and soil microbial communities, including

  5. Mechanism of charge transport in ligand-capped crystalline CdTe nanoparticles according to surface photovoltaic and photoacoustic results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Kuiying, E-mail: kuiyingli@ysu.edu.cn [National Laboratory of Metastable Materials Manufacture Technology and Science, Yanshan University, Hebei Str. 438, Qinhuangdao, Hebei Province 066004 (China); Zhang Hao [Key Laboratory for Supramolecular Structure and Materials, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Yang Weiyong; Wei Sailing [National Laboratory of Metastable Materials Manufacture Technology and Science, Yanshan University, Hebei Str. 438, Qinhuangdao, Hebei Province 066004 (China); Wang Dayang, E-mail: dayang@mpikg-golm.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Potsdam 14424 (Germany)

    2010-09-01

    By combining surface photovoltaic and photoacoustic techniques, we probed the photogenerated charge transport channels of 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA)- and 2-mercaptoethylamine (MA)-capped crystalline CdTe nanoparticles on illumination with UV-near IR light. The results experimentally confirmed the presence of a CdS shell outside the CdTe core that formed through the self-assembly and decomposition of mercapto ligands during CdTe preparation. The data revealed that the CdS layer was partly responsible for the deexcitation behavior of the photogenerated carriers, which is related to the quantum tunnel effect. Experiments demonstrated that two quantum wells were located at wavelengths of 440 and 500 nm in buried interfacial space-charge regions, whereas the formation of a ligand layer obstructed charge transfer transitions of the core CdTe nanoparticles to a certain extent.

  6. Microbial mediated preparation, characterization and optimization of gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barabadi, Hamed; Honary, Soheila; Ebrahimi, Pouneh; Mohammadi, Milad Ali; Alizadeh, Ahad; Naghibi, Farzaneh

    2014-01-01

    The need for eco-friendly and cost effective methods for nanoparticles synthesis is developing interest in biological approaches which are free from the use of toxic chemicals as byproducts. This study aimed to biosynthesize and optimize the size of gold nanoparticles which produced by biotechnological method using Penicillium crustosum isolated from soil. Initially, Penicillium crustosum was grown in fluid czapek dox broth on shaker at 28 °C and 200 rpm for ten days and then the supernatant was separated from the mycelia to convert AuCl₄ solution into gold nanoparticles. The synthesized nanoparticles in the optimum conditions were formed with fairly well-defined dimensions and good monodispersity. The characterizations were done by using different methods (UV-Visible Spectroscopy, Fluorescence, FT-IR, AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy) and DLS (Dynamic Light Scattering). The bioconversion was optimized by Box-Behnken experimental design. The results show that the effective factors in this process were concentration of AuCl₄, pH of medium and temperature of shaker incubator. The R(2) value was calculated to be 0.9999 indicating the accuracy and ability of the polynomial model. It can be concluded that the use of multivariate analysis facilitated to find out the optimum conditions for the biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles induced by Penicillium crustosum in a time and cost effective process. The current approach suggested that rapid synthesis of gold nanoparticles would be suitable for developing a biological process for mass scale production of formulations.

  7. Systems-level analysis of Escherichia coli response to silver nanoparticles: the roles of anaerobic respiration in microbial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Huamao; Lo, Tat-Ming; Sitompul, Johnner; Chang, Matthew Wook

    2012-08-10

    Despite extensive use of silver nanoparticles for antimicrobial applications, cellular mechanisms underlying microbial response to silver nanoparticles remain to be further elucidated at the systems level. Here, we report systems-level response of Escherichia coli to silver nanoparticles using transcriptome-based biochemical and phenotype assays. Notably, we provided the evidence that anaerobic respiration is induced upon exposure to silver nanoparticles. Further we showed that anaerobic respiration-related regulators and enzymes play an important role in E. coli resistance to silver nanoparticles. In particular, our results suggest that arcA is essential for resistance against silver NPs and the deletion of fnr, fdnH and narH significantly increases the resistance. We envision that this study offers novel insights into modes of antimicrobial action of silver nanoparticles, and cellular mechanisms contributing to the development of microbial resistance to silver nanoparticles. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Microbial synthesis of silver nanoparticles by Streptomyces glaucus and Spirulina platensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsibakhashvili, N.Ya.; Kirkesali, E.I.; Pataraya, D.T.

    2011-01-01

    For the first time in Georgia a novel actinomycete strain Streptomyces glaucus 71 MD isolated from a soy rhizosphere has been used for microbial synthesis of silver nanoparticles. The Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) images revealed that most of the particles produced by these microorganisms from AgNO 3 are spherical-like in shape with an average size of 13 nm. The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) allowed one to observe extracellular synthesis of nanoparticles, which has many advantages from the point of view of applications. Production of silver nanoparticles proceeds extracellularly with the participation of another microorganism, blue-green microalgae Spirulina platensis. It is shown that the production rate of the nanoparticles depends not only on the initial concentration of AgNO 3 but also varies with time in a no monotonic way

  9. Microbial synthesis of chalcogenide semiconductor nanoparticles: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Jaya Mary; Lens, Piet N L; Balakrishnan, Raj Mohan

    2016-01-01

    Chalcogenide semiconductor quantum dots are emerging as promising nanomaterials due to their size tunable optoelectronic properties. The commercial synthesis and their subsequent integration for practical uses have, however, been contorted largely due to the toxicity and cost issues associated with the present chemical synthesis protocols. Accordingly, there is an immediate need to develop alternative environment-friendly synthesis procedures. Microbial factories hold immense potential to achieve this objective. Over the past few years, bacteria, fungi and yeasts have been experimented with as eco-friendly and cost-effective tools for the biosynthesis of semiconductor quantum dots. This review provides a detailed overview about the production of chalcogen-based semiconductor quantum particles using the inherent microbial machinery. © 2015 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Self-assembled liquid crystalline nanoparticles as a novel ophthalmic delivery system for dexamethasone: Improving preocular retention and ocular bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Li; Han, Shun; Shen, Jinqiu; Zhu, Jiabi; Zhu, Chunliu; Zhang, Xinxin; Gan, Yong

    2010-08-30

    The object of this study was to design novel self-assembled liquid crystalline nanoparticles (cubosomes) as an ophthalmic delivery system for dexamethasone (DEX) to improve its preocular retention and ocular bioavailability. DEX cubosome particles were produced by fragmenting a cubic crystalline phase of monoolein and water in the presence of stabilizer Poloxamer 407. Small angle X-ray diffraction (SAXR) profiles revealed its internal structure as Pn3m space group, indicating the diamond cubic phase. In vitro, the apparent permeability coefficient of DEX administered in cubosomes exhibited a 4.5-fold (F1) and 3.5-fold (F2) increase compared to that of Dex-Na phosphate eye drops. Preocular retention studies revealed that the retention of cubosomes was significantly longer than that of solution and carbopol gel, with AUC(0-->180min) of Rh B cubosomes being 2-3-fold higher than that of the other two formulations. In vivo pharmacokinetics in aqueous humor was evaluated by microdialysis, which indicated a 1.8-fold (F1) increase in AUC(0-->240min) of DEX administered in cubosomes relative to that of Dex-Na phosphate eye drops, with about an 8-fold increase compared to that of DEX suspension. Corneal cross-sections after incubation with DEX cubosomes demonstrated an unaffected corneal structure and tissue integrity, which indicated the good biocompatibility of DEX cubosomes. In conclusion, self-assembled liquid crystalline nanoparticles might represent a promising vehicle for effective ocular drug delivery. Crown Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Formation of palladium(0) nanoparticles at microbial surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunge, Michael; Søbjerg, Lina S; Rotaru, Amelia-Elena

    2010-01-01

    ) nanoparticles were still deposited on autoclaved cells of C. necator that had no hydrogenase activity, suggesting a hydrogenase-independent formation mechanism. The catalytic properties of Pd(0) and bioPd(0) were determined by the amount of hydrogen released in a reaction with hypophosphite. Generally, bioPd(0...... potential. Hitherto, bacteria with the property of dissimilatory metal reduction have been in focus, although the biochemical reactions linking enzymatic Pd(II) reduction and Pd(0) deposition have not yet been identified. In this study we investigated Pd(II) reduction with formate as the electron donor......) demonstrated a lower level of activity than the Pd(0) control, possibly due to the inaccessibility of the Pd(0) fraction embedded in the cell envelope. Our results demonstrate the suitability of bacterial cells for the recovery of Pd(0), and formation and immobilization of Pd(0) nanoparticles inside the cell...

  12. A transparent conductive oxide electrode with highly enhanced flexibility achieved by controlled crystallinity by incorporating Ag nanoparticles on substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triambulo, Ross E.; Cheong, Hahn-Gil; Lee, Gun-Hwan; Yi, In-Sook; Park, Jin-Woo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We developed a composite transparent electrode with Ag nanoparticles and indium-tin-oxide. • Transmittance of AgNPs was improved by formation of oxide layers by O 2 plasma treatment. • Ag nanoparticles became crystalline seeds to grow strong ITO with a uniform growth orientation. • The hybrid electrode is highly more conductive and stable under bending than ITO. - Abstract: We report the synthesis of highly flexible indium tin oxide (ITO) on a polymer substrate whose surface was engineered by oxide-coated Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) smaller than 20 nm in diameter. Polyimide (PI) substrates were spin coated with Ag ion ink and were subsequently heat treated to form AgNP coatings. The Ag oxide was formed by O 2 plasma treatment to reduce the light absorbance by AgNPs. ITO was dc magnetron sputter-deposited atop the AgNPs. The ITO on the AgNPs was crystalline grown primarily with (2 2 2) growth orientation. This contrasts to the typical microstructure of ITO grown on the polymer, which is that growing c-ITO nucleates are embedded in an amorphous ITO (a-ITO) matrix like a particulate composite. The surface roughness of ITO on AgNPs was as small as the ITO on PI without AgNPs. The crystalline nature of the ITO on the AgNP-coated polymer resulted in the decrease of electric resistivity (ρ) by 65% compared to that of ITO on the bare PI. Furthermore, an electric resistivity change (Δρ) of the ITO on the AgNPs was only 8% at a bending radius (r b ) down to 4 mm, whereas the ITO on the non-coated polymer became almost insulating at an r b of 10 mm, owing to a drastic increase in the number of cracks. To validate the potential application in the displays, flexible organic light emitting diodes (f-OLEDs) were fabricated on the ITO on AgNPs and the performances was compared with the f-OLED on ITO on the bare PI

  13. A transparent conductive oxide electrode with highly enhanced flexibility achieved by controlled crystallinity by incorporating Ag nanoparticles on substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triambulo, Ross E.; Cheong, Hahn-Gil [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Gun-Hwan [Advanced Thin Film Research Group, Korea Institute of Materials Science (KIMS), Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Yi, In-Sook [R and D Center, InkTec Co., Ltd., Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin-Woo, E-mail: jwpark09@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-25

    Highlights: • We developed a composite transparent electrode with Ag nanoparticles and indium-tin-oxide. • Transmittance of AgNPs was improved by formation of oxide layers by O{sub 2} plasma treatment. • Ag nanoparticles became crystalline seeds to grow strong ITO with a uniform growth orientation. • The hybrid electrode is highly more conductive and stable under bending than ITO. - Abstract: We report the synthesis of highly flexible indium tin oxide (ITO) on a polymer substrate whose surface was engineered by oxide-coated Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) smaller than 20 nm in diameter. Polyimide (PI) substrates were spin coated with Ag ion ink and were subsequently heat treated to form AgNP coatings. The Ag oxide was formed by O{sub 2} plasma treatment to reduce the light absorbance by AgNPs. ITO was dc magnetron sputter-deposited atop the AgNPs. The ITO on the AgNPs was crystalline grown primarily with (2 2 2) growth orientation. This contrasts to the typical microstructure of ITO grown on the polymer, which is that growing c-ITO nucleates are embedded in an amorphous ITO (a-ITO) matrix like a particulate composite. The surface roughness of ITO on AgNPs was as small as the ITO on PI without AgNPs. The crystalline nature of the ITO on the AgNP-coated polymer resulted in the decrease of electric resistivity (ρ) by 65% compared to that of ITO on the bare PI. Furthermore, an electric resistivity change (Δρ) of the ITO on the AgNPs was only 8% at a bending radius (r{sub b}) down to 4 mm, whereas the ITO on the non-coated polymer became almost insulating at an r{sub b} of 10 mm, owing to a drastic increase in the number of cracks. To validate the potential application in the displays, flexible organic light emitting diodes (f-OLEDs) were fabricated on the ITO on AgNPs and the performances was compared with the f-OLED on ITO on the bare PI.

  14. Combined toxicity of two crystalline phases (anatase and rutile) of Titania nanoparticles towards freshwater microalgae: Chlorella sp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iswarya, V.; Bhuvaneshwari, M.; Alex, Sruthi Ann; Iyer, Siddharth; Chaudhuri, Gouri [Centre for Nanobiotechnology, VIT University, Vellore (India); Chandrasekaran, Prathna Thanjavur [Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore (India); Bhalerao, Gopalkrishna M.; Chakravarty, Sujoy [UGC-DAE CSR, Kalpakkam Node, Kokilamedu (India); Raichur, Ashok M. [Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore (India); Chandrasekaran, N. [Centre for Nanobiotechnology, VIT University, Vellore (India); Mukherjee, Amitava, E-mail: amit.mookerjea@gmail.com [Centre for Nanobiotechnology, VIT University, Vellore (India)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Toxicity of two crystalline phases of titania NPs on freshwater microalgae studied. • (Anatase, Rutile) mixture showed additive and antagonistic effect on microalgae. • Rutile had more colloidal stability than anatase and binary mixtures. • ROS generation varied with the crystallinity of the NPs. • Ultrastructural damages observed in TEM images. - Abstract: In view of the increasing usage of anatase and rutile crystalline phases of titania NPs in the consumer products, their entry into the aquatic environment may pose a serious risk to the ecosystem. In the present study, the possible toxic impact of anatase and rutile nanoparticles (individually and in binary mixture) was investigated using freshwater microalgae, Chlorella sp. at low exposure concentrations (0.25, 0.5 and 1 mg/L) in freshwater medium under UV irradiation. Reduction of cell viability as well as a reduction in chlorophyll content were observed due to the presence of NPs. An antagonistic effect was noted at certain concentrations of binary mixture such as (0.25, 0.25), (0.25, 0.5), and (0.5, 0.5) mg/L, and an additive effect for the other combinations, (0.25, 1), (0.5, 0.25), (0.5, 1), (1, 0.25), (1, 0.5), and (1, 1) mg/L. The hydrodynamic size analyses in the test medium revealed that rutile NPs were more stable in lake water than the anatase and binary mixtures [at 6 h, the sizes of anatase (1 mg/L), rutile NPs (1 mg/L), and binary mixture (1, 1 mg/L) were 948.83 ± 35.01 nm, 555.74 ± 19.93 nm, and 1620.24 ± 237.87 nm, respectively]. The generation of oxidative stress was found to be strongly dependent on the crystallinity of the nanoparticles. The transmission electron microscopic images revealed damages in the nucleus and cell membrane of algal cells due to the interaction of anatase NPs, whereas rutile NPs were found to cause chloroplast and internal organelle damages. Mis-shaped chloroplasts, lack of nucleus, and starch-pyrenoid complex were noted in binary

  15. Anti-microbial surfaces: An approach for deposition of ZnO nanoparticles on PVA-Gelatin composite film by screen printing technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meshram, J.V.; Koli, V.B.; Phadatare, M.R.; Pawar, S.H., E-mail: shpawar1946@gmail.com

    2017-04-01

    Initially micro-organisms get exposed to the surfaces, this demands development of anti-microbial surfaces to inhibit their proliferation. Therefore, herein, we attempt screen printing technique for development of PVA-GE/ZnO nanocomposite (PG/ZnO) films. The synthesis of PG/ZnO nanocomposite includes two steps as: (i) Coating of Zinc Oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) by poly ethylene glycol in order to be compatible with organic counterparts. (ii) Deposition of coated nanoparticles on the PG film surface. The results suggest the enhancement in anti-microbial activity of PG/ZnO nanocomposite over pure ZnO NPs against both Gram positive Bacillus subtilis and Gram negative Escherichia coli from zone of inhibition. The uniformity in deposition is further confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. The phase identification of ZnO NPs and formation of PG/ZnO nanocomposite has been confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and UV–vis spectroscopy (UV–vis). The Attenuated total reflection Spectroscopy (ATR) analysis indicates the ester bond between PVA and gelatin molecules. The thermal stability of nanocomposite is studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) revealing increase in crystallinity due to ZnO NPs which could be utilized to inhibit the growth of micro-organisms. The tensile strength is found to be higher and percent elongation is double of PG/ZnO nanocomposite than PG composite film. - Highlights: • Synthesis of PG/ZnO nanocomposite by screen printing technique • Antimicrobial activity is due presence of ZnO nanoparticles on PG composite. • Improved tensile strength due to ZnO nanoparticles.

  16. Entrapment of curcumin into monoolein-based liquid crystalline nanoparticle dispersion for enhancement of stability and anticancer activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baskaran R

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Rengarajan Baskaran,1 Thiagarajan Madheswaran,2 Pasupathi Sundaramoorthy,1 Hwan Mook Kim,1 Bong Kyu Yoo1 1College of Pharmacy, Gachon University, Incheon, South Korea; 2College of Pharmacy Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, South Korea Abstract: Despite the promising anticancer potential of curcumin, its therapeutic application has been limited, owing to its poor solubility, bioavailability, and chemical fragility. Therefore, various formulation approaches have been attempted to address these problems. In this study, we entrapped curcumin into monoolein (MO-based liquid crystalline nanoparticles (LCNs and evaluated the physicochemical properties and anticancer activity of the LCN dispersion. The results revealed that particles in the curcumin-loaded LCN dispersion were discrete and monodispersed, and that the entrapment efficiency was almost 100%. The stability of curcumin in the dispersion was surprisingly enhanced (about 75% of the curcumin survived after 45 days of storage at 40°C, and the in vitro release of curcumin was sustained (10% or less over 15 days. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS analysis using a human colon cancer cell line (HCT116 exhibited 99.1% fluorescence gating for 5 µM curcumin-loaded LCN dispersion compared to 1.36% for the same concentration of the drug in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, indicating markedly enhanced cellular uptake. Consistent with the enhanced cellular uptake of curcumin-loaded LCNs, anticancer activity and cell cycle studies demonstrated apoptosis induction when the cells were treated with the LCN dispersion; however, there was neither noticeable cell death nor significant changes in the cell cycle for the same concentration of the drug in DMSO. In conclusion, entrapping curcumin into MO-based LCNs may provide, in the future, a strategy for overcoming the hurdles associated with both the stability and cellular uptake issues of the drug in the treatment of various cancers. Keywords: liquid

  17. Facile synthesis of both needle-like and spherical hydroxyapatite nanoparticles: Effect of synthetic temperature and calcination on morphology, crystallite size and crystallinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijesinghe, W.P.S.L.; Mantilaka, M.M.M.G.P.G.; Premalal, E.V.A.; Herath, H.M.T.U.; Mahalingam, S.; Edirisinghe, M.; Rajapakse, R.P.V.J.; Rajapakse, R.M.G.

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles, that mimic natural HA, are widely used as biocompatible coatings on prostheses to repair and substitute human bones. In this study, HA nanoparticles are prepared by precipitating them from a precursor solution containing calcium sucrate and ammonium dihydrogen orthophosphate, at a Ca/P mole ratio of 1.67:1, at temperatures, ranging from 10 °C to 95 °C. A set of products, prepared at different temperatures, is analyzed for their crystallinity, crystallite size, morphology, thermal stability and composition, by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic techniques, while the other set is analyzed after calcining the respective products, soon after their synthesis, for 3 h, at 700 °C. The as-prepared products, after 2 h of drying, without any calcination, are not crystalline, but they grow very slowly into needle-like morphologies, as they are ripened with time. The percentage crystallinity of the final products increases from 15% to 52%, with increasing the preparative temperature. The calcined samples always produce spherical nanoparticles of essentially the same diameter, between 90 nm and 100 nm, which does not change due to aging and preparative temperatures. Therefore, the same method can be utilized to synthesize both spherical and needle-like nanoparticles of hydroxyapatite, with well-defined sizes and shapes. The ability to use readily available cheap raw materials, for the synthesis of such well-defined crystallites of hydroxyapatite, is an added advantage of this method, which may be explored further for the scaling up of the procedures to suit to industrial scale synthesis of such hydroxyapatite nanoparticles. - Highlights: • Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles are synthesized using a simple precipitation method. • Both needle-like and spherical hydroxyapatite nanoparticles are synthesized. • The prepared

  18. Facile synthesis of both needle-like and spherical hydroxyapatite nanoparticles: Effect of synthetic temperature and calcination on morphology, crystallite size and crystallinity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijesinghe, W.P.S.L.; Mantilaka, M.M.M.G.P.G. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya 20400 (Sri Lanka); Post-graduate Institute of Science, P.O. Box: 25, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya 20400 (Sri Lanka); Premalal, E.V.A. [Department of Materials Science, Shizuoka University, Johoku, Naka-ku Hamamatsu, 432-8011 (Japan); Herath, H.M.T.U. [Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya 20400 (Sri Lanka); Mahalingam, S.; Edirisinghe, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University College London, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Rajapakse, R.P.V.J. [Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya 20400 (Sri Lanka); Rajapakse, R.M.G., E-mail: rmgr@pdn.ac.lk [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya 20400 (Sri Lanka); Post-graduate Institute of Science, P.O. Box: 25, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya 20400 (Sri Lanka)

    2014-09-01

    Synthetic hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles, that mimic natural HA, are widely used as biocompatible coatings on prostheses to repair and substitute human bones. In this study, HA nanoparticles are prepared by precipitating them from a precursor solution containing calcium sucrate and ammonium dihydrogen orthophosphate, at a Ca/P mole ratio of 1.67:1, at temperatures, ranging from 10 °C to 95 °C. A set of products, prepared at different temperatures, is analyzed for their crystallinity, crystallite size, morphology, thermal stability and composition, by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic techniques, while the other set is analyzed after calcining the respective products, soon after their synthesis, for 3 h, at 700 °C. The as-prepared products, after 2 h of drying, without any calcination, are not crystalline, but they grow very slowly into needle-like morphologies, as they are ripened with time. The percentage crystallinity of the final products increases from 15% to 52%, with increasing the preparative temperature. The calcined samples always produce spherical nanoparticles of essentially the same diameter, between 90 nm and 100 nm, which does not change due to aging and preparative temperatures. Therefore, the same method can be utilized to synthesize both spherical and needle-like nanoparticles of hydroxyapatite, with well-defined sizes and shapes. The ability to use readily available cheap raw materials, for the synthesis of such well-defined crystallites of hydroxyapatite, is an added advantage of this method, which may be explored further for the scaling up of the procedures to suit to industrial scale synthesis of such hydroxyapatite nanoparticles. - Highlights: • Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles are synthesized using a simple precipitation method. • Both needle-like and spherical hydroxyapatite nanoparticles are synthesized. • The prepared

  19. Morphological evolution in single-crystalline Bi2Te3 nanoparticles ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    to have ZT exceeding 5 (Lin et al 2000). ... as nanoparticles (NPs) (Jiang and Zhu 2007; Cao et al. 2008a, b) ... als, semimetals, alloys and other compounds (Chen and ..... Cao Y Q, Zhao X B, Zhu T J, Zhang X B and Tu J P 2008a Appl. Phys.

  20. A systematic study of the controlled generation of crystalline iron oxide nanoparticles on graphene using a chemical etching process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Krauß

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemical vapor deposition (CVD of carbon precursors employing a metal catalyst is a well-established method for synthesizing high-quality single-layer graphene. Yet the main challenge of the CVD process is the required transfer of a graphene layer from the substrate surface onto a chosen target substrate. This process is delicate and can severely degrade the quality of the transferred graphene. The protective polymer coatings typically used generate residues and contamination on the ultrathin graphene layer. In this work, we have developed a graphene transfer process which works without a coating and allows the transfer of graphene onto arbitrary substrates without the need for any additional post-processing. During the course of our transfer studies, we found that the etching process that is usually employed can lead to contamination of the graphene layer with the Faradaic etchant component FeCl3, resulting in the deposition of iron oxide FexOy nanoparticles on the graphene surface. We systematically analyzed the removal of the copper substrate layer and verified that crystalline iron oxide nanoparticles could be generated in controllable density on the graphene surface when this process is optimized. It was further confirmed that the FexOy particles on graphene are active in the catalytic growth of carbon nanotubes when employing a water-assisted CVD process.

  1. Structural and magnetic properties of single-crystalline Co-doped barium titanate nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hongxue; Cao Baobao; O'Connor, Charles J.

    2010-01-01

    Undoped and Co-doped BaTiO 3 nanoparticles were synthesized by a one-step sol-precipitation method. For all the samples, X-ray diffraction showed characteristic diffraction lines for BaTiO 3 without the indication of secondary phases. High-resolution transition electron microscopy images showed that BaTiO 3 nanoparticles exhibit the nature of single-crystal. Magnetometry revealed that all the Co-doped BaTiO 3 samples show paramagnetic behaviors and Co ions in BaTiO 3 are present as isolated paramagnetic centers. This is contrasted to several reported cases of ferromagnetism in Co-doped BaTiO 3 .

  2. Microbial glycolipoprotein-capped silver nanoparticles as emerging antibacterial agents against cholera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahlawat, Geeta; Shikha, Sristy; Chaddha, Baldev Singh; Chaudhuri, Saumya Ray; Mayilraj, Shanmugam; Choudhury, Anirban Roy

    2016-02-01

    With the increased number of cholera outbreaks and emergence of multidrug resistance in Vibrio cholerae strains it has become necessary for the scientific community to devise and develop novel therapeutic approaches against cholera. Recent studies have indicated plausibility of therapeutic application of metal nano-materials. Among these, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have emerged as a potential antimicrobial agent to combat infectious diseases. At present nanoparticles are mostly produced using physical or chemical techniques which are toxic and hazardous. Thus exploitation of microbial systems could be a green eco-friendly approach for the synthesis of nanoparticles having similar or even better antimicrobial activity and biocompatibility. Hence, it would be worth to explore the possibility of utilization of microbial silver nanoparticles and their conjugates as potential novel therapeutic agent against infectious diseases like cholera. The present study attempted utilization of Ochrobactrum rhizosphaerae for the production of AgNPs and focused on investigating their role as antimicrobial agents against cholera. Later the exopolymer, purified from the culture supernatant, was used for the synthesis of spherical shaped AgNPs of around 10 nm size. Further the exopolymer was characterized as glycolipoprotein (GLP). Antibacterial activity of the novel GLP-AgNPs conjugate was evaluated by minimum inhibitory concentration, XTT reduction assay, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and growth curve analysis. SEM studies revealed that AgNPs treatment resulted in intracellular contents leakage and cell lysis. The potential of microbially synthesized nanoparticles, as novel therapeutic agents, is still relatively less explored. In fact, the present study first time demonstrated that a glycolipoprotein secreted by the O. rhizosphaerae strain can be exploited for production of AgNPs which can further be employed to treat infectious diseases. Although this type of polymer has

  3. Molecular tilt near nanoparticles in the smectic A phase of de Vries liquid-crystalline compound

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lejček, Lubor; Novotná, Vladimíra; Glogarová, Milada

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 1 (2014), "012505-1"-"012505-6" ISSN 1539-3755 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP204/11/0723 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : liquid crystals * smectic phases * nanoparticles * deVries behaviour Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials Impact factor: 2.288, year: 2014 http://pre. aps .org/abstract/PRE/v89/i1/e012505

  4. Interaction of fibrinogen and albumin with titanium dioxide nanoparticles of different crystalline phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marucco, Arianna; Fenoglio, Ivana; Turci, Francesco; Fubini, Bice

    2013-01-01

    TiO 2 nanoparticles (NPs) are contained in different kinds of industrial products including paints, self-cleaning glasses, sunscreens. TiO 2 is also employed in photocatalysis and it has been proposed for waste water treatment. Micrometric TiO 2 is generally considered a safe material, while there is concern on the possible health effects of nanometric titania. Due to their small size NPs may migrate within the human body possibly entering in the blood stream. Therefore studies on the interaction of NPs with plasma proteins are needed. In fact, the interaction with proteins is believed to ultimately influences the NPs biological fate. Fibrinogen and albumin are two of the most abundant plasma proteins. They are involved in several important physiological functions. Furthermore, fibrinogen is known to trigger platelet adhesion and inflammation. For these reasons the study of the interaction between these protein and nanoparticles is an important step toward the understanding of the behavior of NPs in the body. In this study we investigated the interaction of albumin and fibrinogen with TiO 2 nanoparticles of different crystal phases (rutile and anatase) using an integrated set of techniques. The amount of adsorbed fibrinogen and albumin for each TiO 2 surface was investigated by using the bicinchoninic acid assay (BCA). The variation of the surface charge of the NP-protein conjugates respect to the naked NPs was used to indirectly estimate both surface coverage and reversibility of the adsorption upon dilution. Surface charge was monitored by measuring the ζ potential with a conventional electrophoretic light scattering (ELS) system. The extent of protein deformation was evaluated by Raman Spectroscopy. We found that both proteins adsorb irreversibly against electrostatic repulsion, likely undergoing conformational changes or selective orientation upon adsorption. The size of primary particles and the particles aggregation rather than the crystal phase modulate the

  5. Studies on magnetic properties of chemically synthesized crystalline calcium ferrite nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debnath, A., E-mail: debnathanimesh@gmail.com [Department of Civil Engineering, National Institute of Technology Agartala, Jirania, West Tripura, 799046 India (India); Bera, A.; Saha, B. [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Agartala, Jirania, West Tripura 799046 (India); Chattopadhyay, K. K. [Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Spinel-type ferrites have taken a very important role for modern electronic industry. Most of these ferrites exhibit low-loss dielectric properties, high resistivity, low eddy current and also high temperature ferromagnetism. Calcium ferrite is one such important metal oxide which is environmentally safe, chemically stable, low cost and greatly abundant. This outstanding material of calcium ferrite is synthesized by a simple chemical precipitation method using NaOH as the precipitating agent. Ferric chloride anhydrous (FeCl{sub 3}) and Calcium chloride dihydrate (CaCl{sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O) were used as iron and calcium sources respectively. The samples were heated at 200°C for 8h to obtain homogeneous powder of Calcium ferrite. The powders were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), Transmission electrical microscopy (TEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic (FTIR) measurements. The polycrystalline nature of the sample was confirmed by X-ray diffraction study. The magnetic properties of the sample were investigated by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) measurements. Magnetization curve of the prepared sample depicts that as synthesized calcium ferrite nanoparticles have saturation magnetic moment of 1.74 emu/g and the coercivity of 35.08 Oe with superparamagnetic behavior. The synthesized calcium ferrite nanoparticles with such magnetic properties will be a candidate material for different applications in electronics and exploring its functionality in the field of recently developing semiconductor device physics and spintronics.

  6. Studies on magnetic properties of chemically synthesized crystalline calcium ferrite nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debnath, A.; Bera, A.; Saha, B.; Chattopadhyay, K. K.

    2016-01-01

    Spinel-type ferrites have taken a very important role for modern electronic industry. Most of these ferrites exhibit low-loss dielectric properties, high resistivity, low eddy current and also high temperature ferromagnetism. Calcium ferrite is one such important metal oxide which is environmentally safe, chemically stable, low cost and greatly abundant. This outstanding material of calcium ferrite is synthesized by a simple chemical precipitation method using NaOH as the precipitating agent. Ferric chloride anhydrous (FeCl_3) and Calcium chloride dihydrate (CaCl_2.2H_2O) were used as iron and calcium sources respectively. The samples were heated at 200°C for 8h to obtain homogeneous powder of Calcium ferrite. The powders were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), Transmission electrical microscopy (TEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic (FTIR) measurements. The polycrystalline nature of the sample was confirmed by X-ray diffraction study. The magnetic properties of the sample were investigated by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) measurements. Magnetization curve of the prepared sample depicts that as synthesized calcium ferrite nanoparticles have saturation magnetic moment of 1.74 emu/g and the coercivity of 35.08 Oe with superparamagnetic behavior. The synthesized calcium ferrite nanoparticles with such magnetic properties will be a candidate material for different applications in electronics and exploring its functionality in the field of recently developing semiconductor device physics and spintronics.

  7. STUDY OF SUBCELLULAR DISTRIBUTION OF CRYSTALLINE MESO-TETRA(3-PYRIDYLBACTERIOCHLORIN NANOPARTICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. S. Maklygina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of the study of subcellular distribution of molecular meso-tetra(3-pyridylbacteriochlorin nanocrystals proposed as therapeutic agents for photodynamic therapy are represented in the article. Investigations and measurement of spectroscopic properties of molecular crystals of near-infrared photosensitizer were conducted using special device complex based on fiber-optic spectrometer. Investigation and analysis of the pattern of subcellular accumulation of meso-tetra(3-pyridylbacteriochlorin in molecular (dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO as solvent and nanocrystalline forms on different cell lines: human monocytes (THP-1, human cervical cancer cells (HeLa and mouse malignant brain tumor cells (glioma C6. The dynamics of subcellylar accumulation of the agent at concentration of 5 and 10 mg/l was assessed with laser microscope-spectrum analyzer and by confocal microscopy. The study showed that in the course of interaction with cell lines molecular nanocrystals of the agent developed ability to fluorescence. Hence, in the cellular environment meso-tetra(3-pyridyl bacteriochlorin nanoparticles became phototoxic giving opportunities for their use for fluorescence diagnosis and photodynamic therapy. Specific role of meso-tetra(3-pyridylbacteriochlorin in the range of photosensitizers is determined by its spectral characteristics, i.e. absorption and fluorescence in near-infrared band, which allows measuring and affecting on deeper layers of biotissue. Thus, the use of meso-tetra(3-pyridylbacteriochlorin nanoparticles as nanophotosensitizers may improve the efficacy of diagnosis and treatment of deep-seated tumors.

  8. Microbially-mediated method for synthesis of non-oxide semiconductor nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phelps, Tommy J.; Lauf, Robert J.; Moon, Ji-Won; Rondinone, Adam Justin; Love, Lonnie J.; Duty, Chad Edward; Madden, Andrew Stephen; Li, Yiliang; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Rawn, Claudia Jeanette

    2017-09-19

    The invention is directed to a method for producing non-oxide semiconductor nanoparticles, the method comprising: (a) subjecting a combination of reaction components to conditions conducive to microbially-mediated formation of non-oxide semiconductor nanoparticles, wherein said combination of reaction components comprises i) anaerobic microbes, ii) a culture medium suitable for sustaining said anaerobic microbes, iii) a metal component comprising at least one type of metal ion, iv) a non-metal component comprising at least one non-metal selected from the group consisting of S, Se, Te, and As, and v) one or more electron donors that provide donatable electrons to said anaerobic microbes during consumption of the electron donor by said anaerobic microbes; and (b) isolating said non-oxide semiconductor nanoparticles, which contain at least one of said metal ions and at least one of said non-metals. The invention is also directed to non-oxide semiconductor nanoparticle compositions produced as above and having distinctive properties.

  9. Microbially-mediated method for synthesis of non-oxide semiconductor nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, Tommy J.; Lauf, Robert J.; Moon, Ji Won; Rondinone, Adam J.; Love, Lonnie J.; Duty, Chad Edward; Madden, Andrew Stephen; Li, Yiliang; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Rawn, Claudia Jeanette

    2014-06-24

    The invention is directed to a method for producing non-oxide semiconductor nanoparticles, the method comprising: (a) subjecting a combination of reaction components to conditions conducive to microbially-mediated formation of non-oxide semiconductor nanoparticles, wherein said combination of reaction components comprises i) anaerobic microbes, ii) a culture medium suitable for sustaining said anaerobic microbes, iii) a metal component comprising at least one type of metal ion, iv) a non-metal component containing at least one non-metal selected from the group consisting of S, Se, Te, and As, and v) one or more electron donors that provide donatable electrons to said anaerobic microbes during consumption of the electron donor by said anaerobic microbes; and (b) isolating said non-oxide semiconductor nanoparticles, which contain at least one of said metal ions and at least one of said non-metals. The invention is also directed to non-oxide semiconductor nanoparticle compositions produced as above and having distinctive properties.

  10. Gold nanoparticles produced in situ mediate bioelectricity and hydrogen production in a microbial fuel cell by quantized capacitance charging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalathil, Shafeer; Lee, Jintae; Cho, Moo Hwan

    2013-02-01

    Oppan quantized style: By adding a gold precursor at its cathode, a microbial fuel cell (MFC) is demonstrated to form gold nanoparticles that can be used to simultaneously produce bioelectricity and hydrogen. By exploiting the quantized capacitance charging effect, the gold nanoparticles mediate the production of hydrogen without requiring an external power supply, while the MFC produces a stable power density. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Thermal Characterization of Fe3O4 Nanoparticles Formed from Poorly Crystalline Siderite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, H. V., Jr.; Ming, D. W.; Golden, D. C.

    2005-01-01

    Increasing interest in environmental geochemistry has led to the recognition that crystals with sizes in the nanometer range (e.g., colloids and nanoscale precipitates) and poorly crystalline compounds (e.g., ferrihydrites) may comprise the majority of reactive mineral surface area near the Earth s surface. When the diameters of individual particles are in the range of 100 nm or less, the surface energy contribution to the free energy modifies phase stability. This results in stabilization of polymorphs not normally encountered in the macrocrystal domain. These phases potentially have very different surface-site geometries, adsorptive properties, and growth mechanisms, and exhibit size-dependent kinetic behavior. Thus nanophases dramatically modify the physical and chemical properties of soils and sediments. In a more general sense, the characteristics of nanocrystals are of intense technological interest because small particle size confers novel chemical, optical, and electronic properties. Thus, nanocrystalline materials are finding applications as catalytic substrates, gas phase separation materials, and even more importantly in the field of medicine. This is an opportune time for mineral physicists working on nanocrystalline materials to develop collaborative efforts with materials scientists, chemists, and others working on nanophase materials of technological interest (e.g., for magnetic memories). Our objective in this study was to synthesize submicron (properties.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of new crystalline mesoporous beta-tricalcium phosphate nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, F.R.O.; Yoshito, W.K.; Cosentino, I.C.; Bressiani, A.H.A.; Lima, N.B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: Calcium phosphates, including hydroxyapatite [HA, Ca10 (PO4)6(OH)2] and beta-tricalcium phosphate [B-TCP, Ca3(PO4)2], are the main mineral component of bone tissue and teeth. The synthetic calcium phosphates are of special interest in medicine because of their biocompatibility, bioactivity and non-toxicity. B-TCP is advantageous to HA for drug delivery system due to their high solubility and controllable bioresorption rate. To obtain B-TCP, the literature reports the transformation of calcium deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA) to ?-TCP since it couldnot be synthesized directly in aqueous solution, until now. For the first time, B-TCP have been successfully synthesized by wet precipitation method at room temperature with a Ca/P molar ratio equal to 1.5 and pH at 6. The present work is concerned with the preparation of B-TCP and it characterization through XRD, BET and TEM analysis. The results showed well-characterized peaks of crystalline pure B-TCP (JCPDS 09-0169) for the dried powder, with a high BET surface area of 574 ± 7 (m2/g). The TEM micrographs exhibits mesoporous structure, which is suitable as a drug carrier. (author)

  13. Potential of ITO nanoparticles formed by hydrogen treatment in PECVD for improved performance of back grid contact crystalline silicon solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandal, Sourav; Mitra, Suchismita; Dhar, Sukanta; Ghosh, Hemanta; Banerjee, Chandan, E-mail: chandanbanerjee74@gmail.com; Datta, Swapan K.; Saha, Hiranmoy

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Indium tin oxide (ITO) nanoparticles as back scatterers in c-Si solar cells. • ITO NP have comparatively low dissipative losses and tunable optical properties. • ITO NP formed by hydrogen plasma treatment on sputtered ITO film. • Enhanced absorption and carrier collection at longer wavelengths due to enhanced light trapping. - Abstract: This paper discusses the prospect of using indium tin oxide (ITO) nanoparticles as back scatterers in crystalline silicon solar cells instead of commonly used metal nanoparticles as ITO nanoparticles have comparatively low dissipative losses and tunable optical properties. ITO nanoparticles of ∼5–10 nm size is developed on the rear side of the solar cell by deposition of ∼5–10 nm thick ITO layer by DC magnetron sputtering followed by hydrogen treatment in PECVD. The silicon solar cell is fabricated in the laboratory using conventional method with grid metal contact at the back surface. Various characterizations like FESEM, TEM, AFM, XRD, EQE and IV characteristics are performed to analyze the morphology, chemical composition, optical characteristics and electrical performance of the device. ITO nanoparticles at the back surface of the solar cell significantly enhances the short circuit current, open circuit voltage and efficiency of the solar cell. These enhancements may be attributed to the increased absorption and carrier collection at longer wavelengths of solar spectrum due to enhanced light trapping by the ITO nanoparticles and surface passivation by the hydrogen treatment of the back surface.

  14. Hydrothermal synthesis of highly crystalline RuS2 nanoparticles as cathodic catalysts in the methanol fuel cell and hydrochloric acid electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yanjuan; Li, Nan; Yanagisawa, Kazumichi; Li, Xiaotian; Yan, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Highly crystalline RuS 2 nanoparticles have been first synthesized by a “one-step” hydrothermal method. • The product presents a pure cubic phase of stoichiometric ratio RuS 2 with average particle size of 14.8 nm. • RuS 2 nanoparticles were used as cathodic catalysts in methanol fuel cell and hydrochloric acid electrolysis. • The catalyst outperforms commercial Pt/C in methanol tolerance and stability towards Cl − . - Abstract: Highly crystalline ruthenium sulfide (RuS 2 ) nanoparticles have been first synthesized by a “one-step” hydrothermal method at 400 °C, using ruthenium chloride and thiourea as reactants. The products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy/energy disperse spectroscopy (SEM/EDS), thermo gravimetric-differential thermal analyze (TG-DTA), transmission electron microscopy equipped with selected area electron diffraction (TEM/SAED). Fourier transform infrared spectra (IR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). XRD result illustrates that the highly crystalline product presents a pure cubic phase of stoichiometric ratio RuS 2 and the average particle size is 14.8 nm. SEM and TEM images display the products have irregular shape of 6–25 nm. XPS analyst indicates that the sulfur exists in the form of S 2 2− . Cyclic voltammetry (CV), rotating disk electrode (RDE), chronoamperometry (CA) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements are conducted to evaluate the electrocatalytic activity and stability of the highly crystalline RuS 2 nanoparticles in oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) for methanol fuel cell and hydrochloric acid electrolysis. The results illustrate that RuS 2 is active towards oxygen reduction reaction. Although the activity of RuS 2 is lower than that of Pt/C, the RuS 2 catalyst outperforms commercial Pt/C in methanol tolerance and stability towards Cl −

  15. Formation of crystalline nanoparticles by iron binding to pentapeptide (Asp-His-Thr-Lys-Glu) from egg white hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Na; Cui, Pengbo; Li, Dongmei; Jin, Ziqi; Zhang, Shuyu; Lin, Songyi

    2017-09-20

    A novel peptide from egg white, Asp-His-Thr-Lys-Glu (DHTKE), contains specific amino acids associated with iron binding. The present study aims to better understand the molecular basis of interactions between the DHTKE peptide and iron ions. The ultraviolet-visible and fluorescence spectra indicate an interaction between the DHTKE peptide and iron ions, which leads to the formation of a DHTKE-iron complex. Notably, Asp, Glu, His, and Lys in the DHTKE peptide play crucial roles in the formation of the DHTKE-iron complex, and the iron-binding site of the DHTKE peptide corresponds primarily to the amide and carboxyl groups. The DHTKE peptide can bind iron ions in a 1 : 2 ratio with a binding constant of 1.312 × 10 5 M -1 . Moreover, the DHTKE-iron complex belongs to thermodynamically stable nanoparticles that are present in the crystalline structure, which might be attributed to peptide folding induced by iron binding. Meanwhile, the DHTKE-iron complex exhibits a relatively high iron-releasing percentage and exerts excellent solubility in the human gastrointestinal tract in vitro. This suggests a potential application of peptides containing Asp, Glu, His, or Lys residues as potential iron supplements.

  16. Facile synthesis of both needle-like and spherical hydroxyapatite nanoparticles: effect of synthetic temperature and calcination on morphology, crystallite size and crystallinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesinghe, W P S L; Mantilaka, M M M G P G; Premalal, E V A; Herath, H M T U; Mahalingam, S; Edirisinghe, M; Rajapakse, R P V J; Rajapakse, R M G

    2014-09-01

    Synthetic hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles, that mimic natural HA, are widely used as biocompatible coatings on prostheses to repair and substitute human bones. In this study, HA nanoparticles are prepared by precipitating them from a precursor solution containing calcium sucrate and ammonium dihydrogen orthophosphate, at a Ca/P mole ratio of 1.67:1, at temperatures, ranging from 10°C to 95°C. A set of products, prepared at different temperatures, is analyzed for their crystallinity, crystallite size, morphology, thermal stability and composition, by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic techniques, while the other set is analyzed after calcining the respective products, soon after their synthesis, for 3h, at 700°C. The as-prepared products, after 2h of drying, without any calcination, are not crystalline, but they grow very slowly into needle-like morphologies, as they are ripened with time. The percentage crystallinity of the final products increases from 15% to 52%, with increasing the preparative temperature. The calcined samples always produce spherical nanoparticles of essentially the same diameter, between 90 nm and 100 nm, which does not change due to aging and preparative temperatures. Therefore, the same method can be utilized to synthesize both spherical and needle-like nanoparticles of hydroxyapatite, with well-defined sizes and shapes. The ability to use readily available cheap raw materials, for the synthesis of such well-defined crystallites of hydroxyapatite, is an added advantage of this method, which may be explored further for the scaling up of the procedures to suit to industrial scale synthesis of such hydroxyapatite nanoparticles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Liquid Crystalline Nanoparticles as an Ophthalmic Delivery System for Tetrandrine: Development, Characterization, and In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Wang, Shuangshuang; Fang, Shiming; Wang, Jialu; Chen, Jingjing; Huang, Xingguo; He, Xin; Liu, Changxiao

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop novel liquid crystalline nanoparticles (LCNPs) that display improved pre-ocular residence time and ocular bioavailability and that can be used as an ophthalmic delivery system for tetrandrine (TET). The delivery system consisted of three primary components, including glyceryl monoolein, poloxamer 407, and water, and two secondary components, including Gelucire 44/14 and amphipathic octadecyl-quaternized carboxymethyl chitosan. The amount of TET, the amount of glyceryl monoolein, and the ratio of poloxamer 407 to glyceryl monoolein were selected as the factors that were used to optimize the dependent variables, which included encapsulation efficiency and drug loading. A three-factor, five-level central composite design was constructed to optimize the formulation. TET-loaded LCNPs (TET-LCNPs) were characterized to determine their particle size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, drug loading capacity, particle morphology, inner crystalline structure, and in vitro drug release profile. Corneal permeation in excised rabbit corneas was evaluated. Pre-ocular retention was determined using a noninvasive fluorescence imaging system. Finally, pharmacokinetic study in the aqueous humor was performed by microdialysis technique. The optimal formulation had a mean particle size of 170.0 ± 13.34 nm, a homogeneous distribution with polydispersity index of 0.166 ± 0.02, a positive surface charge with a zeta potential of 29.3 ± 1.25 mV, a high entrapment efficiency of 95.46 ± 4.13 %, and a drug loading rate of 1.63 ± 0.07 %. Transmission electron microscopy showed spherical particles that had smooth surfaces. Small-angle X-ray scattering profiles revealed an inverted hexagonal phase. The in vitro release assays showed a sustained drug release profile. A corneal permeation study showed that the apparent permeability coefficient of the optimal formulation was 2.03-fold higher than that of the TET solution. Pre-ocular retention

  18. γ-Irradiation assisted synthesis of graphene oxide sheets supported Ag nanoparticles with single crystalline structure and parabolic distribution from interlamellar limitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yue, Yunhao; Zhou, Baoming; Shi, Jie; Chen, Cheng; Li, Nan; Xu, Zhiwei, E-mail: xuzhiwei@tjpu.edu.cn; Liu, Liangsen; Kuang, Liyun; Ma, Meijun; Fu, Hongjun

    2017-05-01

    Highlights: • Graphene oxide sheets supported Ag nanoparticles composites are successfully prepared via γ-irradiation without surfactant or functional agent. • Ag nanoparticles exhibit single crystalline structure and parabolic distribution on the surface of graphene oxide sheets. • Proposing a view that the growth of intercellular AgNPs can be limited by graphite oxide. - Abstract: This paper reported a method to fabricate graphene oxide sheets supported Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs/GOS) with single crystalline structure and parabolic distribution without surfactant or functional agent. We used imidazole silver nitrate as intercalation precursor into the layers of graphite oxide, and subsequently reduction and growth of interlamellar AgNPs were induced via γ-irradiation. The results illustrated that the synergism of interlamellar limitation of graphite oxide and fragmentation ability of γ-irradiation could prevent coalescent reaction of AgNPs with other oligomeric clusters, and the single crystalline and small-sized (below 13.9 nm) AgNPs were prepared. Moreover, the content and size of AgNPs exhibited parabolic distribution on GOS surface because the graphite oxide exfoliated to GOS from the edge to the central area of layers. In addition, complete exfoliation degree of GOS and large-sized AgNPs were obtained simultaneously under suitable silver ions concentration. Optimized composites exhibited outstanding surface-enhanced Raman scattering properties for crystal violet with enhancement factor of 1.3 × 10{sup 6} and detection limit of 1.0 × 10{sup −7} M, indicating that the AgNPs/GOS composites could be applied to trace detection of organic dyes molecules. Therefore, this study presented a strategy for developing GOS supported nanometal with single crystalline structure and parabolic distribution based on γ-irradiation.

  19. γ-Irradiation assisted synthesis of graphene oxide sheets supported Ag nanoparticles with single crystalline structure and parabolic distribution from interlamellar limitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue, Yunhao; Zhou, Baoming; Shi, Jie; Chen, Cheng; Li, Nan; Xu, Zhiwei; Liu, Liangsen; Kuang, Liyun; Ma, Meijun; Fu, Hongjun

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Graphene oxide sheets supported Ag nanoparticles composites are successfully prepared via γ-irradiation without surfactant or functional agent. • Ag nanoparticles exhibit single crystalline structure and parabolic distribution on the surface of graphene oxide sheets. • Proposing a view that the growth of intercellular AgNPs can be limited by graphite oxide. - Abstract: This paper reported a method to fabricate graphene oxide sheets supported Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs/GOS) with single crystalline structure and parabolic distribution without surfactant or functional agent. We used imidazole silver nitrate as intercalation precursor into the layers of graphite oxide, and subsequently reduction and growth of interlamellar AgNPs were induced via γ-irradiation. The results illustrated that the synergism of interlamellar limitation of graphite oxide and fragmentation ability of γ-irradiation could prevent coalescent reaction of AgNPs with other oligomeric clusters, and the single crystalline and small-sized (below 13.9 nm) AgNPs were prepared. Moreover, the content and size of AgNPs exhibited parabolic distribution on GOS surface because the graphite oxide exfoliated to GOS from the edge to the central area of layers. In addition, complete exfoliation degree of GOS and large-sized AgNPs were obtained simultaneously under suitable silver ions concentration. Optimized composites exhibited outstanding surface-enhanced Raman scattering properties for crystal violet with enhancement factor of 1.3 × 10"6 and detection limit of 1.0 × 10"−"7 M, indicating that the AgNPs/GOS composites could be applied to trace detection of organic dyes molecules. Therefore, this study presented a strategy for developing GOS supported nanometal with single crystalline structure and parabolic distribution based on γ-irradiation.

  20. Spatial Autocorrelation, Source Water and the Distribution of Total and Viable Microbial Abundances within a Crystalline Formation to a Depth of 800 m

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D. Beaton

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Proposed radioactive waste repositories require long residence times within deep geological settings for which we have little knowledge of local or regional subsurface dynamics that could affect the transport of hazardous species over the period of radioactive decay. Given the role of microbial processes on element speciation and transport, knowledge and understanding of local microbial ecology within geological formations being considered as host formations can aid predictions for long term safety. In this relatively unexplored environment, sampling opportunities are few and opportunistic. We combined the data collected for geochemistry and microbial abundances from multiple sampling opportunities from within a proposed host formation and performed multivariate mixing and mass balance (M3 modeling, spatial analysis and generalized linear modeling to address whether recharge can explain how subsurface communities assemble within fracture water obtained from multiple saturated fractures accessed by boreholes drilled into the crystalline formation underlying the Chalk River Laboratories site (Deep River, ON, Canada. We found that three possible source waters, each of meteoric origin, explained 97% of the samples, these are: modern recharge, recharge from the period of the Laurentide ice sheet retreat (ca. ∼12000 years before present and a putative saline source assigned as Champlain Sea (also ca. 12000 years before present. The distributed microbial abundances and geochemistry provide a conceptual model of two distinct regions within the subsurface associated with bicarbonate – used as a proxy for modern recharge – and manganese; these regions occur at depths relevant to a proposed repository within the formation. At the scale of sampling, the associated spatial autocorrelation means that abundances linked with geochemistry were not unambiguously discerned, although fine scale Moran’s eigenvector map (MEM coefficients were correlated with

  1. Entrapment of curcumin into monoolein-based liquid crystalline nanoparticle dispersion for enhancement of stability and anticancer activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskaran, Rengarajan; Madheswaran, Thiagarajan; Sundaramoorthy, Pasupathi; Kim, Hwan Mook; Yoo, Bong Kyu

    2014-01-01

    Despite the promising anticancer potential of curcumin, its therapeutic application has been limited, owing to its poor solubility, bioavailability, and chemical fragility. Therefore, various formulation approaches have been attempted to address these problems. In this study, we entrapped curcumin into monoolein (MO)-based liquid crystalline nanoparticles (LCNs) and evaluated the physicochemical properties and anticancer activity of the LCN dispersion. The results revealed that particles in the curcumin-loaded LCN dispersion were discrete and monodispersed, and that the entrapment efficiency was almost 100%. The stability of curcumin in the dispersion was surprisingly enhanced (about 75% of the curcumin survived after 45 days of storage at 40°C), and the in vitro release of curcumin was sustained (10% or less over 15 days). Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis using a human colon cancer cell line (HCT116) exhibited 99.1% fluorescence gating for 5 μM curcumin-loaded LCN dispersion compared to 1.36% for the same concentration of the drug in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), indicating markedly enhanced cellular uptake. Consistent with the enhanced cellular uptake of curcumin-loaded LCNs, anticancer activity and cell cycle studies demonstrated apoptosis induction when the cells were treated with the LCN dispersion; however, there was neither noticeable cell death nor significant changes in the cell cycle for the same concentration of the drug in DMSO. In conclusion, entrapping curcumin into MO-based LCNs may provide, in the future, a strategy for overcoming the hurdles associated with both the stability and cellular uptake issues of the drug in the treatment of various cancers. PMID:25061290

  2. Glyceryl monooleyl ether-based liquid crystalline nanoparticles as a transdermal delivery system of flurbiprofen: characterization and in vitro transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchino, Tomonobu; Murata, Akiko; Miyazaki, Yasunori; Oka, Toshihiko; Kagawa, Yoshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Liquid crystalline nanoparticles (LCNs) were prepared using glyceryl monooleyl ether (GME) by the modified film rehydration method. Hydrogenated lecithin (HL), 1,3-butylene glycol (1,3-BG), and Poloxamer 407 were used as additives. The prepared LCN formulations were evaluated based on particle size, small-angle X-ray diffraction (SAXS) analysis, (1)H- and (19)F-NMR spectra, and in vitro skin permeation across Yucatan micropig skin. The composition (weight percent) of the LCN formulations were GME-HL-1,3-BG (4 : 1 : 15), 4% GME-based LCN and GME-HL-1,3-BG (8 : 1 : 15), 8% GME-based LCN and their mean particle sizes were 130-175 nm. Flurbiprofen 5 and 10 mg was loaded into 4% GME-based LCN and 8% GME-based LCN systems, respectively. The results of SAXS and NMR suggested that both flurbiprofen-loaded formulations consist of particles with reverse type hexagonal phase (formation of hexosome) and flurbiprofen molecules were localized in the lipid domain through interaction of flurbiprofen with the lipid components. Flurbiprofen transport from the LCN systems across the Yucatan micropig skin was increased compared to flurbiprofen in citric buffer (pH=3.0). The 8% GME-based LCN systems was superior to the 4% GME-based LCN for flurbiprofen transport. Since the internal hexagonal phase in the 8% GME-based LCN systems had a higher degree of order compared to the 4% GME-based LCN in SAXS patterns, the 8% GME-based LCN system had a larger surface area, which might influence flurbiprofen permeation. These results indicated that the GME-based LCN system is effective in improving the skin permeation of flurbiprofen across the skin.

  3. Water flattens graphene wrinkles: laser shock wrapping of graphene onto substrate-supported crystalline plasmonic nanoparticle arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yaowu; Lee, Seunghyun; Kumar, Prashant; Nian, Qiong; Wang, Wenqi; Irudayaraj, Joseph; Cheng, Gary J

    2015-12-21

    Hot electron injection into an exceptionally high mobility material can be realized in graphene-plasmonic nanoantenna hybrid nanosystems, which can be exploited for several front-edge applications including photovoltaics, plasmonic waveguiding and molecular sensing at trace levels. Wrinkling instabilities of graphene on these plasmonic nanostructures, however, would cause reactive oxygen or sulfur species to diffuse and react with the materials, decrease charge transfer rates and block intense hot-spots. No ex situ graphene wrapping technique has been explored so far to control these wrinkles. Here, we present a method to generate seamless integration by using water as a flyer to transfer the laser shock pressure to wrap graphene onto plasmonic nanocrystals. This technique decreases the interfacial gap between graphene and the covered substrate-supported plasmonic nanoparticle arrays by exploiting a shock pressure generated by the laser ablation of graphite and the water impermeable nature of graphene. Graphene wrapping of chemically synthesized crystalline gold nanospheres, nanorods and bipyramids with different field confinement capabilities is investigated. A combined experimental and computational method, including SEM and AFM morphological investigation, molecular dynamics simulation, and Raman spectroscopy characterization, is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of this technique. Graphene covered gold bipyramid exhibits the best result among the hybrid nanosystems studied. We have shown that the hybrid system fabricated by laser shock can be used for enhanced molecular sensing. The technique developed has the characteristics of tight integration, and chemical/thermal stability, is instantaneous in nature, possesses a large scale and room temperature processing capability, and can be further extended to integrate other 2D materials with various 0-3D nanomaterials.

  4. In-vitro bio-fabrication of silver nanoparticle using Adhathoda vasica leaf extract and its anti-microbial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazeruddin, G. M.; Prasad, N. R.; Prasad, S. R.; Garadkar, K. M.; Nayak, Arpan Kumar

    2014-07-01

    It is well known that on treating the metallic salt solution with some plant extracts, a rapid reduction occurs leading to the formation of highly stable metal nanoparticles. Extracellular synthesis of metal nanoparticles using extracts of plants like Azadirachta indica (Neem), and Zingiber officinale (Ginger) has been reported to be successfully carried out. In this study we have developed a novel method to synthesize silver nanoparticles by mixing silver salt solution with leaf extract of Adhathoda vasica (Adulsa) without using any surfactant or external energy. By this method physiologically stable, bio-compatible Ag nanoparticles were formed which could be used for a variety of applications such as targeted drug delivery which ensures enhanced therapeutic efficacy and minimal side effects. With this method rapid synthesis of nanoparticles was observed to occur; i.e. reaction time was 1-2 h as compared to 2-4 days required by microorganisms. These nanoparticles were analyzed by various characterization techniques to reveal their morphology, chemical composition, and antimicrobial activity. TEM image of these NPs indicated the formation of spherical, non-uniform, poly-dispersed nanoparticles. A detailed study of anti-microbial activity of nanoparticles was carried out.

  5. Luminescence enhancement of ZnO-poly(methylmethacrylate) nanocomposite films by incorporation of crystalline BaTiO_3 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanamori, Tsuyoshi; Han, Yu; Nagao, Daisuke; Kamezawa, Nao; Ishii, Haruyuki; Konno, Mikio

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Dielectric barium titanate (BT) nanoparticles incorporated into luminescence films. • Luminescence intensities increased by the BT nanoparticle incorporation. • Incorporation of highly dielectric nanoparticles effective for luminescence enhancement. - Abstract: Incorporation of highly dielectric nanoparticles into luminescent ZnO-polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) nanocomposite films was undertaken to examine the effect of nanoparticle incorporation on luminescence intensity of the nanocomposite films. ZnO nanoparticles were prepared as inorganic phosphors by a precipitation method. The ZnO nanoparticles were then surface-modified with 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS) to be used for fabrication of the ZnO-PMMA nanocomposite film. Barium titanate (BT) nanoparticles were synthesized with a sol-gel method as the highly dielectric nanoparticles, which were also surface-modified with the MPTMS for the incorporation into the nanocomposite films. Luminescence intensity of the nanocomposite films was successfully increased by the nanoparticle incorporation up to a BT content around 15 vol%. The luminescence intensity higher than that measured for the nanocomposite films incorporating SiO_2 nanoparticles indicated that the incorporation of highly dielectric nanoparticles was an effective approach to enhance the luminescence of ZnO nanoparticles in the polymer thin films.

  6. One-pot synthesis of CoNiO{sub 2} single-crystalline nanoparticles as high-performance electrode materials of asymmetric supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Weimin, E-mail: dwmchem@163.com; Gao, Yanping; Tian, Qingqing; Li, Dan; Zhang, Zhenhu; Guo, Jiaojiao [Anyang Normal University, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (China); Qian, Xuefeng [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Chemistry and Chemical Technology (China)

    2015-09-15

    A facile one-pot solvothermal method has been developed to synthesize CoNiO{sub 2} single-crystalline nanoparticles. Crystal phase, morphology, crystal lattice, and composition of the obtained products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, respectively. Results revealed that the as-synthesized CoNiO{sub 2} nanoparticles belong to cubic structure with narrow size-distribution (8–10 nm). Subsequently, new asymmetric supercapacitors were successfully assembled with CoNiO{sub 2} nanoparticles as positive electrode and activated carbon as negative electrode. The electrochemical results show that asymmetric supercapacitors based on CoNiO{sub 2} nanoparticles possess excellent supercapacitor properties, i.e., a stable electrochemical window of 0–1.7 V, higher energy density of 24.0 Wh/kg at a power density of 415.4 W/kg, and excellent cycling stability (96.8 % capacitance retention after 5000 charge–discharge cycles). Meanwhile, both a light-emitting diode and a mini fan can be powered by two series connection asymmetric supercapacitors. These results imply that the present asymmetric supercapacitors based on CoNiO{sub 2} nanoparticles possess the promising potential application in the field of high-performance energy storage.

  7. One-pot synthesis of CoNiO2 single-crystalline nanoparticles as high-performance electrode materials of asymmetric supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Weimin; Gao, Yanping; Tian, Qingqing; Li, Dan; Zhang, Zhenhu; Guo, Jiaojiao; Qian, Xuefeng

    2015-09-01

    A facile one-pot solvothermal method has been developed to synthesize CoNiO2 single-crystalline nanoparticles. Crystal phase, morphology, crystal lattice, and composition of the obtained products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, respectively. Results revealed that the as-synthesized CoNiO2 nanoparticles belong to cubic structure with narrow size-distribution (8-10 nm). Subsequently, new asymmetric supercapacitors were successfully assembled with CoNiO2 nanoparticles as positive electrode and activated carbon as negative electrode. The electrochemical results show that asymmetric supercapacitors based on CoNiO2 nanoparticles possess excellent supercapacitor properties, i.e., a stable electrochemical window of 0-1.7 V, higher energy density of 24.0 Wh/kg at a power density of 415.4 W/kg, and excellent cycling stability (96.8 % capacitance retention after 5000 charge-discharge cycles). Meanwhile, both a light-emitting diode and a mini fan can be powered by two series connection asymmetric supercapacitors. These results imply that the present asymmetric supercapacitors based on CoNiO2 nanoparticles possess the promising potential application in the field of high-performance energy storage.

  8. One-pot synthesis of CoNiO2 single-crystalline nanoparticles as high-performance electrode materials of asymmetric supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Weimin; Gao, Yanping; Tian, Qingqing; Li, Dan; Zhang, Zhenhu; Guo, Jiaojiao; Qian, Xuefeng

    2015-01-01

    A facile one-pot solvothermal method has been developed to synthesize CoNiO 2 single-crystalline nanoparticles. Crystal phase, morphology, crystal lattice, and composition of the obtained products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, respectively. Results revealed that the as-synthesized CoNiO 2 nanoparticles belong to cubic structure with narrow size-distribution (8–10 nm). Subsequently, new asymmetric supercapacitors were successfully assembled with CoNiO 2 nanoparticles as positive electrode and activated carbon as negative electrode. The electrochemical results show that asymmetric supercapacitors based on CoNiO 2 nanoparticles possess excellent supercapacitor properties, i.e., a stable electrochemical window of 0–1.7 V, higher energy density of 24.0 Wh/kg at a power density of 415.4 W/kg, and excellent cycling stability (96.8 % capacitance retention after 5000 charge–discharge cycles). Meanwhile, both a light-emitting diode and a mini fan can be powered by two series connection asymmetric supercapacitors. These results imply that the present asymmetric supercapacitors based on CoNiO 2 nanoparticles possess the promising potential application in the field of high-performance energy storage.

  9. Enhanced antitumor efficacy and counterfeited cardiotoxicity of combinatorial oral therapy using Doxorubicin- and Coenzyme Q10-liquid crystalline nanoparticles in comparison with intravenous Adriamycin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swarnakar, Nitin K; Thanki, Kaushik; Jain, Sanyog

    2014-01-01

    and strong synergism for combination at 1:10 dose ratio owing to higher cellular uptake, nuclear colocalization, higher apoptotic index and 8-OHdG levels. The prophylactic antitumor efficacy of the CoQ10-LCNPs was also established using tumor induction and progression studies. Finally, therapeutic antitumor......, with Dox-induced-cardiotoxicity was completely counterfeited in combination. In nutshell, LCNPs pose great potential in improving the therapeutic efficacy of drugs by oral route of administration. FROM THE CLINICAL EDITOR: This study describes the use of liquid crystalline nanoparticles containing coenzyme...

  10. Hydrothermal synthesis of highly crystalline RuS{sub 2} nanoparticles as cathodic catalysts in the methanol fuel cell and hydrochloric acid electrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yanjuan [Key Laboratory of Marine Chemistry Theory and Technology, Minisry of Education Ocean University of China, Qingdao, 266100 (China); College of Material Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory of Automobile Materials of Ministry of Education, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012 (China); Li, Nan, E-mail: lin@jlu.edu.cn [College of Material Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory of Automobile Materials of Ministry of Education, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012 (China); Yanagisawa, Kazumichi [Research Laboratory of Hydrothermal Chemistry, Kochi University, Kochi 780-8520 (Japan); Li, Xiaotian [College of Material Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory of Automobile Materials of Ministry of Education, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012 (China); Yan, Xiao [Key Laboratory of Physics and Technology for Advanced Batteries (Ministry of Education), College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Highly crystalline RuS{sub 2} nanoparticles have been first synthesized by a “one-step” hydrothermal method. • The product presents a pure cubic phase of stoichiometric ratio RuS{sub 2} with average particle size of 14.8 nm. • RuS{sub 2} nanoparticles were used as cathodic catalysts in methanol fuel cell and hydrochloric acid electrolysis. • The catalyst outperforms commercial Pt/C in methanol tolerance and stability towards Cl{sup −}. - Abstract: Highly crystalline ruthenium sulfide (RuS{sub 2}) nanoparticles have been first synthesized by a “one-step” hydrothermal method at 400 °C, using ruthenium chloride and thiourea as reactants. The products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy/energy disperse spectroscopy (SEM/EDS), thermo gravimetric-differential thermal analyze (TG-DTA), transmission electron microscopy equipped with selected area electron diffraction (TEM/SAED). Fourier transform infrared spectra (IR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). XRD result illustrates that the highly crystalline product presents a pure cubic phase of stoichiometric ratio RuS{sub 2} and the average particle size is 14.8 nm. SEM and TEM images display the products have irregular shape of 6–25 nm. XPS analyst indicates that the sulfur exists in the form of S{sub 2}{sup 2−}. Cyclic voltammetry (CV), rotating disk electrode (RDE), chronoamperometry (CA) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements are conducted to evaluate the electrocatalytic activity and stability of the highly crystalline RuS{sub 2} nanoparticles in oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) for methanol fuel cell and hydrochloric acid electrolysis. The results illustrate that RuS{sub 2} is active towards oxygen reduction reaction. Although the activity of RuS{sub 2} is lower than that of Pt/C, the RuS{sub 2} catalyst outperforms commercial Pt/C in methanol tolerance and stability towards Cl{sup −}.

  11. Improved microbial growth inhibition activity of bio-surfactant induced Ag–TiO{sub 2} core shell nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nithyadevi, D. [Department of Nanoscience and Technology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641 046 (India); Kumar, P. Suresh [Thin Film and Nanomaterials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641 046 (India); Mangalaraj, D., E-mail: dmraj800@yahoo.com [Department of Nanoscience and Technology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641 046 (India); Ponpandian, N.; Viswanathan, C. [Department of Nanoscience and Technology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641 046 (India); Meena, P. [Department of Physics, PSGR Krishnammal college for women, Coimbatore 641 004 (India)

    2015-02-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrolysis process and Ag nanoparticles were prepared by using hydrazine reduction method. • Ag–TiO{sub 2} core shell nanoparticles were synthesized by reverse micelle method. • Coatings of TiO{sub 2} shell leads to decrease the usage of silver particles and also it reduces the release of silver ions from the matrix. • Optimum ratio of TiO{sub 2} particles: Ag atoms are needed for better antibacterial activity. • Sodium alginate (Bio-copolymer) induced core shell nanoparticles results 100% cell growth inhibition toward Staphylococcus aureus. - Abstract: Surfactant induced silver–titanium dioxide core shell nanoparticles within the size range of 10–50 nm were applied in the antibacterial agent to inhibit the growth of bacterial cells. The single crystalline silver was located in the core part of the composite powder and the titanium dioxide components were uniformly distributed in the shell part. HRTEM and XRD results indicated that silver was completely covered by titanium dioxide and its crystal structure was not affected after being coated by titanium dioxide. The effect of silver–titanium dioxide nanoparticles in the inhibition of bacterial cell growth was studied by means of disk diffusion method. The inhibition zone results reveal that sodium alginate induced silver–titanium dioxide nanoparticles exhibit 100% more antibacterial activity than that with cetyltrimethylbromide or without surfactant. UV–vis spectroscopic analysis showed a large concentration of silver was rapidly released into phosphate buffer solution (PBS) within a period of 1 day, with a much smaller concentration being released after this 1-day period. It was concluded that sodium alginate induced silver–titanium dioxide core shell nanoparticles could enhance long term cell growth inhibition in comparison with cetyltrimethylbromide or without surfactant. The surfactant mediated core shell

  12. In-Situ Synchrotron Radiation Study of Formation and Growth of Crystalline CexZr1-xO2 Nanoparticles Synthesized in Supercritical Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyrsted, Christoffer; Becker-Christensen, Jacob; Hald, Peter

    2010-01-01

    -zirconia system, the growth of ceria and zirconia nanoparticles is fundamentally different under supercritical water conditions. For comparison, ex situ synthesis has also been performed using an in-house supercritical flow reactor. The resulting samples were analyzed using PXRD, small-angle X-ray scattering......In situ synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) measurements have been conducted to follow the nucleation and growth of crystalline CexZr1-xO2 nanoparticles synthesized in supercritical water with a full substitution variation (x = 0, 0.2, 0.5, 0.8, and 1.0). Direction-dependent growth curves...... are determined and described using reaction kinetic models. A distinct change in growth kinetics is observed with increasing cerium content. For x = 0.8 and 1.0 (high cerium content), the growth is initially limited by the surface reaction kinetics; however, at a size of ∼6 nm, the growth changes and becomes...

  13. Effect of cerium dioxide, titanium dioxide, silver, and gold nanoparticles on the activity of microbial communities intended in wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García, Ana; Delgado, Lucía; Torà, Josep A.; Casals, Eudald; González, Edgar; Puntes, Víctor; Font, Xavier; Carrera, Julián; Sánchez, Antoni

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Toxicity of TiO 2 , CeO 2 , Ag and Au nanoparticles (NP) has been studied. ► NP were synthesized in the lab and stabilized to prevent agglomeration. ► Toxicity was studied in all the communities used for the wastewater treatment. ► Heterotrophic, nitrifying and anaerobic organisms were studied for nanotoxicology. ► Au and TiO 2 NP were not toxic, but Ag and CeO 2 NP were inhibitory. - Abstract: Growth in production and use of nanoparticles (NPs) will result increased concentrations of these in industrial and urban wastewaters and, consequently, in wastewater-treatment facilities. The effect of this increase on the performance of the wastewater-treatment process has not been studied systematically and including all the microbial communities involved in wastewater treatment. The present work investigates, by using respiration tests and biogas-production analysis, the inhibitory effect of four different commonly used metal oxide (CeO 2 and TiO 2 ) and zero-valent metal (Ag and Au) nanoparticles on the activity of the most important microbial communities present in a modern wastewater-treatment plant. Specifically, the actions of ordinary heterotrophic organisms, ammonia oxidizing bacteria, and thermophilic and mesophilic anaerobic bacteria were tested in the presence and absence of the nanoparticles. In general, CeO 2 nanoparticles caused the greatest inhibition in biogas production (nearly 100%) and a strong inhibitory action of other biomasses; Ag nanoparticles caused an intermediate inhibition in biogas production (within 33–50%) and a slight inhibition in the action of other biomasses, and Au and TiO 2 nanoparticles caused only slight or no inhibition for all tested biomasses.

  14. Nonadhesive, silica nanoparticles-based brush-coated contact lens casesCompromising between ease of cleaning and microbial transmission to contact lenses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qu, Wenwen; Hooymans, Johanna M. M.; Qiu, Jun; de-Bont, Nik; Gelling, Onko-Jan; van der Mei, Henny C.; Busscher, Henk J.

    Surface properties of lens cases are determinant for their cleanability and for microbial transmission from lens cases to contact lenses (CLs). PEG-polymer-brush-coatings are known to decrease microbial adhesion more than other surface-coatings. Here, we applied a robust, silica nanoparticles-based

  15. γ-Irradiation assisted synthesis of graphene oxide sheets supported Ag nanoparticles with single crystalline structure and parabolic distribution from interlamellar limitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Yunhao; Zhou, Baoming; Shi, Jie; Chen, Cheng; Li, Nan; Xu, Zhiwei; Liu, Liangsen; Kuang, Liyun; Ma, Meijun; Fu, Hongjun

    2017-05-01

    This paper reported a method to fabricate graphene oxide sheets supported Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs/GOS) with single crystalline structure and parabolic distribution without surfactant or functional agent. We used imidazole silver nitrate as intercalation precursor into the layers of graphite oxide, and subsequently reduction and growth of interlamellar AgNPs were induced via γ-irradiation. The results illustrated that the synergism of interlamellar limitation of graphite oxide and fragmentation ability of γ-irradiation could prevent coalescent reaction of AgNPs with other oligomeric clusters, and the single crystalline and small-sized (below 13.9 nm) AgNPs were prepared. Moreover, the content and size of AgNPs exhibited parabolic distribution on GOS surface because the graphite oxide exfoliated to GOS from the edge to the central area of layers. In addition, complete exfoliation degree of GOS and large-sized AgNPs were obtained simultaneously under suitable silver ions concentration. Optimized composites exhibited outstanding surface-enhanced Raman scattering properties for crystal violet with enhancement factor of 1.3 × 106 and detection limit of 1.0 × 10-7 M, indicating that the AgNPs/GOS composites could be applied to trace detection of organic dyes molecules. Therefore, this study presented a strategy for developing GOS supported nanometal with single crystalline structure and parabolic distribution based on γ-irradiation.

  16. Role of the crystalline form of titanium dioxide nanoparticles: Rutile, and not anatase, induces toxic effects in Balb/3T3 mouse fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uboldi, Chiara; Urbán, Patricia; Gilliland, Douglas; Bajak, Edyta; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia; Ponti, Jessica; Rossi, François

    2016-03-01

    The wide use of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) in industrial applications requires the investigation of their effects on human health. In this context, we investigated the effects of nanosized and bulk titania in two different crystalline forms (anatase and rutile) in vitro. By colony forming efficiency assay, a dose-dependent reduction of the clonogenic activity of Balb/3T3 mouse fibroblasts was detected in the presence of rutile, but not in the case of anatase NPs. Similarly, the cell transformation assay and the micronucleus test showed that rutile TiO2 NPs were able to induce type-III foci formation in Balb/3T3 cells and appeared to be slightly genotoxic, whereas anatase TiO2 NPs did not induce any significant neoplastic or genotoxic effect. Additionally, we investigated the interaction of TiO2 NPs with Balb/3T3 cells and quantified the in vitro uptake of titania using mass spectrometry. Results showed that the internalization was independent of the crystalline form of TiO2 NPs but size-dependent, as nano-titania were taken up more than their respective bulk materials. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the cytotoxic, neoplastic and genotoxic effects triggered in Balb/3T3 cells by TiO2 NPs depend on the crystalline form of the nanomaterial, whereas the internalization is regulated by the particle size. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Silver nanoparticles uptake by salt marsh plants - Implications for phytoremediation processes and effects in microbial community dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Joana P; Mucha, Ana P; Francisco, Telmo; Gomes, Carlos Rocha; Almeida, C Marisa R

    2017-06-15

    This study investigated the uptake of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by a salt marsh plant, Phragmites australis, as well as AgNPs effects on rhizospheric microbial community, evaluating the implications for phytoremediation processes. Experiments were carried out with elutriate solution doped with Ag, either in ionic form or in NP form. Metal uptake was evaluated in plant tissues, elutriate solutions and sediments (by AAS) and microbial community was characterized in terms of bacterial community structure (evaluated by ARISA). Results showed Ag accumulation but only in plant belowground tissues and only in the absence of rhizosediment, the presence of sediment reducing Ag availability. But in plant roots Ag accumulation was higher when Ag was in NP form. Multivariate analysis of ARISA profiles showed significant effect of the absence/presence of Ag either in ionic or NP form on microbial community structure, although without significant differences among bacterial richness and diversity. Overall, P. australis can be useful for phytoremediation of medium contaminated with Ag, including with AgNPs. However, the presence of Ag in either forms affected the microbial community structure, which may cause disturbances in ecosystems function and compromise phytoremediation processes. Such considerations need to be address regarding environmental management strategies applied to the very important estuarine areas. The form in which the metal was added affected metal uptake by Phragmites australis and rhizosediment microbial community structure, which can affect phytoremediation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Atomic-scale microstructural characterization and dielectric properties of crystalline cubic pyrochlore Bi1.5MgNb1.5O7 nanoparticles synthesized by sol-gel method

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Yuan; Zhu, Xinhua; Zhou, Shunhua; Zhu, Jianmin; Liu, Zhiguo; Al-Kassab, Talaat

    2013-01-01

    Here, we report the atomic-scale microstructural characterization and dielectric properties of crystalline cubic pyrochlore Bi1.5MgNb 1.5O7 (BMN) nanoparticles with mean size of 70 nm, which were synthesized by sol-gel method. The crystallinity, phase formation, morphology, and surface microstructure of the BMN nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectra, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), respectively. The phase evolution of the BMN nanoparticles investigated by XRD patterns showed that uniform cubic pyrochlore BMN nanoparticles were obtained after calcination at temperature of 800 C, and their structural information was revealed by Raman spectrum. TEM images demonstrated that the BMN nanoparticles had a spherical morphology with an average particle size of 70 nm, and their crystalline nature was revealed by HRTEM images. In addition, HRTEM images also demonstrate a terrace-ledge-kink (TLK) surface structure at the edges of rough BMN nanoparticles, where the terrace was on the (100) plane, and the ledge on the (001) plane. The formation of such a TLK surface structure can be well explained by a theory of periodic bond chains. Due to the surface structural reconstruction in the BMN nanoparticles, the formation of a tetragonal structure in a rough BMN nanoparticle was also revealed by HRTEM image. The BMN nanoparticles exhibited dielectric constants of 50 at 100 kHz and 30 at 1 MHz, and the dielectric loss of 0.19 at 1 MHz. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  19. Atomic-scale microstructural characterization and dielectric properties of crystalline cubic pyrochlore Bi1.5MgNb1.5O7 nanoparticles synthesized by sol-gel method

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Yuan

    2013-12-24

    Here, we report the atomic-scale microstructural characterization and dielectric properties of crystalline cubic pyrochlore Bi1.5MgNb 1.5O7 (BMN) nanoparticles with mean size of 70 nm, which were synthesized by sol-gel method. The crystallinity, phase formation, morphology, and surface microstructure of the BMN nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectra, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), respectively. The phase evolution of the BMN nanoparticles investigated by XRD patterns showed that uniform cubic pyrochlore BMN nanoparticles were obtained after calcination at temperature of 800 C, and their structural information was revealed by Raman spectrum. TEM images demonstrated that the BMN nanoparticles had a spherical morphology with an average particle size of 70 nm, and their crystalline nature was revealed by HRTEM images. In addition, HRTEM images also demonstrate a terrace-ledge-kink (TLK) surface structure at the edges of rough BMN nanoparticles, where the terrace was on the (100) plane, and the ledge on the (001) plane. The formation of such a TLK surface structure can be well explained by a theory of periodic bond chains. Due to the surface structural reconstruction in the BMN nanoparticles, the formation of a tetragonal structure in a rough BMN nanoparticle was also revealed by HRTEM image. The BMN nanoparticles exhibited dielectric constants of 50 at 100 kHz and 30 at 1 MHz, and the dielectric loss of 0.19 at 1 MHz. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  20. Modified Gold Electrode and Hollow Mn3O4 Nanoparticles as Electrode Materials for Microbial Fuel Cell Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhungana, Pramod

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology has attracted great attention in the scientific community as it offers the possibility of extraction of electricity from wide range of soluble and dissolved organic waste or renewable biomass, including sludge, waste water and cellulosic biomass. Microbial fuel cells are devices that utilize microbial metabolic processes to convert chemical energy via the oxidation of organic substances to produce electric current. MFCs consist of two chambers, an anode and cathode, separated by ion-permeable materials. The efficiency of producing electricity using the MFC depends on several factors such as immobilization of microorganisms on anode, mode of electron transfer, types of substrate/fuel and effectiveness of cathode materials for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). In this work, in order to immobilize the microorganisms on anode materials, we have investigated the surface modification of gold electrode (anode) using alkyl dithiol and aryl thiol with glucose. The modification processes were characterized by using contact angle measurements and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). In order to study the effectiveness of cathode materials for ORR, we have synthesized hollow Mn3O 4 nanoparticles which are electrically very poor. Therefore, the hollow nanoparticles were mixed with electrically conductive multi-walled carbon nanotube as support and optimized the mixing process. This composite material shows enhanced ORR activity in all types of pH conditions. In future, we will focus to integrate anode and cathode in MFC to check its efficiency to produce electricity.

  1. Towards single crystalline, highly monodisperse and catalytically active gold nanoparticles capped with probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum derived lipase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Imran; Nagarjuna, Ravikiran; Ray Dutta, Jayati; Ganesan, Ramakrishnan

    2018-03-01

    Owing to the eco-friendly nature of biomolecules, there lies a huge interest in exploring them as capping agents for nanoparticles to achieve stability and biocompatibility. Lipase extracted from the probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum is utilized for the first time to study its efficacy in capping gold nanoparticles (GNPs) in the room temperature synthesis using HAuCl4. The synthesized lipase-capped GNPs are characterized using UV-visible spectroscopy, FT-IR, HR-TEM, DLS and zeta potential measurements. Importantly, selected area electron diffraction (SAED) studies with HR-TEM have revealed the effect of lipase capping in tuning the polycrystallinity of the GNPs. The lipase-capped GNPs are explored for their catalytic efficiency towards an environmentally and industrially important conversion of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol. Exploiting the amine functional groups in the protein, the recoverability and reusability of the GNPs have been demonstrated through immobilization over amine-functionalized Fe3O4 nanoparticles.

  2. Effect of cobalt doping on crystallinity, stability, magnetic and optical properties of magnetic iron oxide nano-particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anjum, Safia; Tufail, Rabia; Rashid, Khalid; Zia, Rehana; Riaz, S.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The stability of Co x Fe (2-x) O 3 nanoparticles enhances. • Energy losses increases. • Anisotropy of NP is high. - Abstract: This paper is dedicated to investigate the effect of Co 2+ ions in magnetite Fe 3 O 4 nano-particles with stoichiometric formula Co x Fe 3-x O 4 where (x = 0, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.15) prepared by co-precipitation method. The structural, thermal, morphological, magnetic and optical properties of magnetite and Co 2+ doped magnetite nanoparticles have been carried out using X-ray Diffractometer, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Themogravimetric Analysis, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) and UV–Vis Spectrometer (UV–Vis) respectively. Structural analysis verified the formation of single phase inverse spinel cubic structure with decrease in lattice parameters due to increase in cobalt content. FTIR analysis confirms the single phase of Co x Fe 3-x O 4 nanoparticles with the major band at 887 cm −1 , which might be due to the stretching vibrations of metal-oxide bond. The DSC results corroborate the finding of an increase in the maghemite to hematite phase transition temperature with increase in Co 2+ content. The decrease in enthalpy with increase in Co 2+ concentration attributed to the fact that the degree of conversion from maghemite to hematite decrease which shows that the stability increases with increasing Co 2+ content in B-site of Fe 3 O 4 structure. SEM analysis demonstrated the formation of spherical shaped nanoparticles with least agglomeration. The magnetic measurements enlighten that the coercivity and anisotropy of Co x Fe 3-x O 4 nanoparticles are significantly increased. From UV–Vis analysis it is revealed that band gap energy increases with decreasing particle size. This result has a great interest for magnetic fluid hyperthermia application (MPH).

  3. Aged-engineered nanoparticles effect on sludge anaerobic digestion performance and associated microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eduok, Samuel; Ferguson, Robert; Jefferson, Bruce; Villa, Raffaella; Coulon, Frédéric

    2017-12-31

    To investigate the potential effect of aged engineered nanoparticles (a-ENPs) on sludge digestion performance, 150L pilot anaerobic digesters (AD) were fed with a blend of primary and waste activated sludge spiked either with a mixture of silver oxide, titanium dioxide and zinc oxide or a mixture of their equivalent bulk metal salts to achieve a target concentration of 250, 2000, and 2800mgkg -1 dry weight, respectively. Volatile fatty acids (VFA) were 1.2 times higher in the spiked digesters and significantly different (p=0.05) from the control conditions. Specifically, isovaleric acid concentration was 2 times lower in the control digester compared to the spiked digesters, whereas hydrogen sulfide was 2 times lower in the ENPs spiked digester indicating inhibitory effect on sulfate reducing microorganisms. Based on the ether-linked isoprenoids concentration, the total abundance of methanogens was 1.4 times lower in the ENPs spiked digester than in the control and metal salt spiked digesters. Pyrosequencing indicated 80% decrease in abundance and diversity of methanogens in ENPs spiked digester compared to the control digester. Methanosarcina acetivorans and Methanosarcina barkeri were identified as nano-tolerant as their relative abundance increased by a factor of 6 and 11, respectively, compared to the other digesters. The results further provide compelling evidence on the resilience of Fusobacteria, Actinobacteria and the Trojan horse-like effect of ENPs which offered a competitive advantage to some organisms while reducing microbial abundance and diversity. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Deposition of Crystalline Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles on Y-TZP Ceramic: A Potential Solution to Enhance Bonding Characteristics of Y-TZP Ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Azari

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Many advantages have been attributed to dental zirconia ceramics in terms of mechanical and physical properties; however, the bonding ability of this material to dental structure and/or veneering ceramics has always been a matter of concern. On the other hand, hydroxyapatite (HA shows excellent biocompatibility and good bonding ability to tooth structure, with mechanically unstable and brittle characteristics, that make it clinically unacceptable for use in high stress bearing areas. The main purpose of this study was to introduce two simple yet practical methods to deposit the crystalline HA nanoparticles on zirconia ceramics. Materials and Methods: zirconia blocks were treated with HA via two different deposition methods namely thermal coating and air abrasion. Specimens were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS and X-ray diffraction (XRD.Results: In both groups, the deposition techniques used were successfully accomplished, while the substrate showed no structural change. However, thermal coating group showed a uniform deposition of crystalline HA but in air abrasion method, there were dispersed thin islands of HA.Conclusions: Thermal coating method has the potential to significantly alter the surface characteristics of zirconia. The simple yet practical nature of the proposed method may be able to shift the bonding paradigm of dental zirconia ceramics. This latter subject needs to be addressed in future investigations.Keywords: Zirconium Oxide; Hydroxyapatites; Dental Bonding; Microscopy, Electron, Scanning; X-Ray Diffraction; Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission

  5. Structural, spectroscopic and anti-microbial inspection of PEG capped ZnO nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshram, J. V.; Koli, V. B.; Kumbhar, S. G.; Borde, L. C.; Phadatare, M. R.; Pawar, S. H.

    2018-04-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) have a wide range of biomedical applications. Present study demonstrates the new methodology in sol-gel technology for synthesizing Polyethylene glycol (PEG) capped ZnO NPs and its size effect on anti-microbial activity. The reaction time was increased from 1 h to 5 h for the synthesis of ZnO NPs at 130 °C. The size of PEG capped ZnO NPs is increased from 10 to 84 nm by increasing the reaction upto 5 h. The x-ray diffraction studies and transmission electron microscopy analysis reveals the phase purity and hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure with uniform PEG capping on the surface of ZnO NPs. UV–visible spectroscopy exhibits the peak at 366 nm which is attributed to ZnO NPs. No adverse effect is observed in case of absorbance spectroscopy. Further, Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy and thermo gravimetric analysis depicts the adsorption of PEG molecules on the ZnO NPs surface. The anti-microbial activities for both Gram-positive (S. aureus) and Gram-negative (E. coli) bacteria were studied by optical density (OD) mesurement. The remarkable anti-microbial activity was observed for PEG capped ZnO NPs synthesized at 1 h reaction time showing higher activity in comparison with that synthesized from 2 h to 5 h reaction time. The microbial growth was found to be inhibited after 10 h OD measurement for both the bacteria. The anti-microbial activity may be attributed to the generation of ROS and H2O2. However, these generated species plays a vital role in inhibition of microbial growth. Hence, PEG capped ZnO NPs has promising biomedical applications.

  6. Influence of Silver and Gold Nanoparticles and Thin Layers on Charge Carrier Generation in InGaN/GaN Multiple Quantum Well Structures and Crystalline Zinc Oxide Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezdrogina, M. M.; Vinogradov, A. Ya.; Kozhanova, Yu. V.; Levitskii, V. S.

    2018-04-01

    It has been shown that Ag and Au nanoparticles and thin layers influence charge carrier generation in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well structures and crystalline ZnO films owing to the surface morphology heterogeneity of the semiconductors. When nanoparticles 10 films, the radiation intensity has turned out to grow considerably because of a plasmon resonance with the participation of localized plasmons. The application of Ag or Au layers on the surface of the structures strongly attenuates the radiation. When Ag and Au nanoparticles are applied on crystalline ZnO films obtained by rf magnetron sputtering, the radiation intensity in the short-wavelength part of the spectrum increases insignificantly because of their highly heterogeneous surface morphology.

  7. Effect of metallic silver nanoparticles on the alignment and relaxation behaviour of liquid crystalline material in smectic C* phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimal, Tripti; Kumar Gupta, Swadesh; Katiyar, Rohit; Srivastava, Atul; Czerwinski, Michal; Krup, Katarzyna; Kumar, Sandeep; Manohar, Rajiv

    2017-09-01

    The influence of silver nanoparticles dispersed in a Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal (FLC) on the properties of the resultant composite system has been investigated by thermal, electro-optical, and dielectric methods. We show that the concentration of thiol capped silver nanoparticles is a critical factor in governing the alignment of nanoparticles (NPs) in the host FLC. The orientation of NPs in composite samples affects the ordering of the LC (Liquid Crystal) phase and consequently changes the various phase transition temperatures of the host LC. Formation of self-assembled 2D (two dimensional) arrays of nanoparticles is observed for high concentration of dopant in the LC, oriented perpendicular to the direction of rubbing. We propose that the molecular interaction between the thiol capped NPs and LC molecules is the key factor behind such an arrangement of NPs. Orientation of NPs has affected the relaxation behaviour and various other material parameters, significantly. A noteworthy change in DC conductivity articulates our proposed idea of the formation of 2D array of NPs perpendicular to the direction of rubbing. This comprehensive study endorses the importance of dopant concentration in modifying the properties of the host LC material.

  8. Anti-microbial and skin wound dressing application of molecular iodine nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Kaliyaperumal; Bharathi Babu, Divya; Jayakumar, Gomathi; Dhinakar Raj, Gopal

    2017-10-01

    In this study, iodine nanoparticles were synthesized without use of any stabilizer by a new co-precipitation process using polyvinyl pyrolidone, calcium lactate, disodium hydrogen phosphate and iodine solution as precursor and the reaction was catalyzed by sodium hydroxide. Ten mg of the synthesized nanoparticles killed 95% of bacteria and inhibited 90% of bio film formation. Assays on membrane disintegration activities of the nanoparticles indicated that these nanoparticles destroyed the extracellular membrane of the bacteria. The wound healing application evaluated using mice model showed that it was hastened by iodine nanoparticles.

  9. Controllable synthesis, growth mechanism and optical properties of the ZnSe quantum dots and nanoparticles with different crystalline phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Bo [Key Laboratory of Excited State Physics, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 3888 Eastern Nan-Hu Road, Changchun 130033 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Institute of Condensed State Physics, Jilin Normal University, Siping 136000 (China); Yang, Jinghai, E-mail: jhyang1@jlnu.edu.cn [Institute of Condensed State Physics, Jilin Normal University, Siping 136000 (China); Cao, Jian; Yang, Lili; Gao, Ming; Wei, Maobin; Liu, Yang [Institute of Condensed State Physics, Jilin Normal University, Siping 136000 (China); Song, Hang [Key Laboratory of Excited State Physics, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 3888 Eastern Nan-Hu Road, Changchun 130033 (China)

    2013-03-15

    Graphical abstract: The ZnSe quantum dots (3.5 nm) with the wurtzite structure exhibited a strong near band-edge emission (NBE) peak centered at 422 nm. The zinc blende ZnSe nanoparticles (21 nm) exhibited near-band-edge luminescence peak centered at 472 nm. Highlights: ► The results of TEM showed that the ZnSe quantum dots were about 3.5 nm. ► The ZnSe quantum dots exhibited a near band-edge emission peak centered at 422 nm. ► The ZnSe nanoparticles exhibited near-band-edge luminescence peak centered at 472 nm. - Abstract: ZnSe precursors were prepared by a solvothermal method at 180 °C without any surface-active agents. ZnSe quantum dots and nanoparticles were obtained by annealing the precursors at 300 °C for 2 h in argon atmosphere. The ZnSe quantum dots were about 3.5 nm, while the ZnSe nanoparticles were about 21 nm, as observed using TEM. The growth mechanisms for the two samples were discussed; this proved that the high coordination ability of ethylenediamine to zinc played an important role in the final phase of the products. The ZnSe quantum dots with the wurtzite structure exhibited a strong near band-edge emission (NBE) peak centered at 422 nm, which was blue-shifted in comparison to that of the bulk ZnSe, which was mainly caused by the quantum confinement effect. However, the zinc blende ZnSe nanoparticles exhibited a near-band-edge luminescence peak centered at 472 nm.

  10. Nanoparticles with high payloads of pipemidic acid, a poorly soluble crystalline drug: drug-initiated polymerization and self-assembly approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Pancani

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, biodegradable polymers such as poly(lactic acid (PLA, poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA and poly(ε-caprolactone (PCL remain the most common biomaterials to produce drug-loaded nanoparticles (NPs. Pipemidic acid (PIP is a poorly soluble antibiotic with a strong tendency to crystallize. PIP incorporation in PLA/PLGA NPs was challenging because of PIP crystals formation and burst release. As PIP had a poor affinity for the NPs, an alternative approach to encapsulation was used, consisting in coupling PIP to PCL. Thus, a PCL–PIP conjugate was successfully synthesized by an original drug-initiated polymerization in a single step without the need of catalyst. PCL–PIP was characterized by NMR, IR, SEC and mass spectrometry. PCL–PIP was used to prepare self-assembled NPs with PIP contents as high as 27% (w/w. The NPs were characterized by microscopy, DLS, NTA and TRPS. This study paves the way towards the production of NPs with high antibiotic payloads by drug-initiated polymerization. Further studies will deal with the synthesis of novel polymer–PIP conjugates with ester bonds between the drug and PCL. PIP can be considered as a model drug and the strategy developed here could be extended to other challenging antibiotics or anticancer drugs and employed to efficiently incorporate them in NPs. KEY WORDS: Pipemidic acid, Nanoparticle, Antibiotic, Nanoprecipitation, Crystalline drug, Drug-initiated   polymerization

  11. Effect of cobalt doping on crystallinity, stability, magnetic and optical properties of magnetic iron oxide nano-particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anjum, Safia, E-mail: safia_anjum@hotmail.com [Department of Physics, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore (Pakistan); Tufail, Rabia [Department of Physics, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore (Pakistan); Rashid, Khalid [PCSIR Laboratories Lahore (Pakistan); Zia, Rehana [Department of Physics, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore (Pakistan); Riaz, S. [Centre for Solid State Physics, University of the Punjab, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • The stability of Co{sub x}Fe{sub (2-x)}O{sub 3} nanoparticles enhances. • Energy losses increases. • Anisotropy of NP is high. - Abstract: This paper is dedicated to investigate the effect of Co{sup 2+} ions in magnetite Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nano-particles with stoichiometric formula Co{sub x}Fe{sub 3-x}O{sub 4} where (x = 0, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.15) prepared by co-precipitation method. The structural, thermal, morphological, magnetic and optical properties of magnetite and Co{sup 2+} doped magnetite nanoparticles have been carried out using X-ray Diffractometer, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Themogravimetric Analysis, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) and UV–Vis Spectrometer (UV–Vis) respectively. Structural analysis verified the formation of single phase inverse spinel cubic structure with decrease in lattice parameters due to increase in cobalt content. FTIR analysis confirms the single phase of Co{sub x}Fe{sub 3-x}O{sub 4} nanoparticles with the major band at 887 cm{sup −1}, which might be due to the stretching vibrations of metal-oxide bond. The DSC results corroborate the finding of an increase in the maghemite to hematite phase transition temperature with increase in Co{sup 2+} content. The decrease in enthalpy with increase in Co{sup 2+} concentration attributed to the fact that the degree of conversion from maghemite to hematite decrease which shows that the stability increases with increasing Co{sup 2+} content in B-site of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} structure. SEM analysis demonstrated the formation of spherical shaped nanoparticles with least agglomeration. The magnetic measurements enlighten that the coercivity and anisotropy of Co{sub x}Fe{sub 3-x}O{sub 4} nanoparticles are significantly increased. From UV–Vis analysis it is revealed that band gap energy increases with decreasing particle size. This result has a great interest for magnetic fluid hyperthermia application (MPH).

  12. Nanoparticles within WWTP sludges have minimal impact on leachate quality and soil microbial community structure and function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durenkamp, Mark; Pawlett, Mark; Ritz, Karl; Harris, Jim A.; Neal, Andrew L.; McGrath, Steve P.

    2016-01-01

    One of the main pathways by which engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) enter the environment is through land application of waste water treatment plant (WWTP) sewage sludges. WWTP sludges, enriched with Ag and ZnO ENPs or their corresponding soluble metal salts during anaerobic digestion and subsequently mixed with soil (targeting a final concentration of 1400 and 140 mg/kg for Zn and Ag, respectively), were subjected to 6 months of ageing and leaching in lysimeter columns outdoors. Amounts of Zn and Ag leached were very low, accounting for <0.3% and <1.4% of the total Zn and Ag, respectively. No differences in total leaching rates were observed between treatments of Zn or Ag originally input to WWTP as ENP or salt forms. Phospholipid fatty acid profiling indicated a reduction in the fungal component of the soil microbial community upon metal exposure. However, overall, the leachate composition and response of the soil microbial community following addition of sewage sludge enriched either with ENPs or metal salts was very similar. - Highlights: • Adding nanoparticles (NPs) to influent of a WWTP provides a realistic exposure route. • ZnO and Ag NP and metal salt soil/sludges were aged 6 months in outdoor columns. • Amounts of Zn and Ag leached were very low in NP and metal salt treatments. • Both types of metal exposure reduced the fungal component of the soil microbial community. • Responses in NP and metal salt soil/sludges were very similar overall. - The fate and effects of ENPs are studied under realistic conditions: ENPs were added to the influent of a Waste Water Treatment Plant and the resulting sewage sludges mixed with soil in lysimeters.

  13. Structural transformations of mechanically induced top-down approach BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} nanoparticles synthesized from high crystallinity bulk materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Low, Zhi Huang [Institute of Advanced Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Chen, Soo Kien [Institute of Advanced Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Ismail, Ismayadi, E-mail: kayzen@gmail.com [Institute of Advanced Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Tan, Kim Song [Advanced Imaging Centre, Malaysian Rubber Board, RRIM Sungai Buloh, 47000 Selangor (Malaysia); Liew, J.Y.C. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2017-05-01

    In this work, a top-down approach was applied to high crystallinity BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} bulks, breaking them into smaller nanoparticles by mechanochemical route. The effects of milling time, reaction mechanisms and structural information were investigated. Interestingly, three distinct stages of the mechanochemical mechanism were observed. The XRD results indicated that the BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} phase existed even though the mechanical energy had induced the formation of an amorphous phase in the material. The average crystallite size decreased during the first stage and the intermediate stage, and increased during the final stage of the mechanical alloying. A Rietveld refinement analysis suggested the deformation of a mechanically-triggered polyhedral in the magnetoplumbite structure. FESEM micrographs indicated that fragmentation predominated during the first and intermediate stages, until a steady equilibrium state was achieved at in the final stage, where a narrow particle size distribution was observed. HRTEM micrographs suggested the formation of a non-uniform nanostructure shell surrounding the ordered core materials at the edge-interface region. The thickness of the amorphous surface layer extended up to 12 nm during the first and intermediate stages, and diminished to approximately 3 nm after 20 h milling. VSM results showed a mixture of ferromagnetic, superparamagnetic, and paramagnetic behaviours. However, different magnetic behaviours predominated at different milling time, which strongly related to the defects, distorted polyhedra, and non-equilibrium amorphous layers of the material. - Highlights: • Nanoparticles of BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} are successfully prepared. • Morphological and structural properties rely on mechanochemical mechanism. • Three stages of mechanochemical mechanism was observed. • Core shell structures (3–12 nm) was found during by extending the milling time. • Magnetic properties were strongly related with the

  14. Structural transformations of mechanically induced top-down approach BaFe12O19 nanoparticles synthesized from high crystallinity bulk materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, Zhi Huang; Chen, Soo Kien; Ismail, Ismayadi; Tan, Kim Song; Liew, J.Y.C.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, a top-down approach was applied to high crystallinity BaFe 12 O 19 bulks, breaking them into smaller nanoparticles by mechanochemical route. The effects of milling time, reaction mechanisms and structural information were investigated. Interestingly, three distinct stages of the mechanochemical mechanism were observed. The XRD results indicated that the BaFe 12 O 19 phase existed even though the mechanical energy had induced the formation of an amorphous phase in the material. The average crystallite size decreased during the first stage and the intermediate stage, and increased during the final stage of the mechanical alloying. A Rietveld refinement analysis suggested the deformation of a mechanically-triggered polyhedral in the magnetoplumbite structure. FESEM micrographs indicated that fragmentation predominated during the first and intermediate stages, until a steady equilibrium state was achieved at in the final stage, where a narrow particle size distribution was observed. HRTEM micrographs suggested the formation of a non-uniform nanostructure shell surrounding the ordered core materials at the edge-interface region. The thickness of the amorphous surface layer extended up to 12 nm during the first and intermediate stages, and diminished to approximately 3 nm after 20 h milling. VSM results showed a mixture of ferromagnetic, superparamagnetic, and paramagnetic behaviours. However, different magnetic behaviours predominated at different milling time, which strongly related to the defects, distorted polyhedra, and non-equilibrium amorphous layers of the material. - Highlights: • Nanoparticles of BaFe 12 O 19 are successfully prepared. • Morphological and structural properties rely on mechanochemical mechanism. • Three stages of mechanochemical mechanism was observed. • Core shell structures (3–12 nm) was found during by extending the milling time. • Magnetic properties were strongly related with the mechanically induced defects.

  15. Antimicrobial effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles modified with silver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, Rayssa Souza; Arantes, Tatiane Moraes

    2016-01-01

    Full text: With the emergence of resistant microbial organisms to multiple antibiotics, different shapes of silver nanoparticles are among the most promising antimicrobial agents that have been developed from nanotechnology. Besides the silver nanoparticles oxide nanoparticles such as zinc oxide (ZnO) is gaining prominence due to its bactericidal properties. [1-3]. Thus, this study aims to develop biomaterials from zinc oxide nanoparticles modified with silver with antimicrobial properties. The ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrothermal processing by alkaline hydrolysis zinc acetate. Colloidal dispersions of silver nanoparticles were synthesized by the Turkevich method using sodium citrate to reduce silver nitrate at high pH and at 90 °C in the presence of zinc oxide nanoparticles. Both nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), FTIR and Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The XRD and Raman spectra showed crystalline ZnO colloidal nanoparticles were obtained in the hexagonal phase. XRD measure showed cubic silver diffraction peaks cubic phase confirmed the presence of the silver nanoparticles decorated zinc oxide nanoparticles. SEM images showed ZnO nanoparticles presented a nanorod shapes with length around 80 nm decorated with spherical silver nanoparticles about 20 nm in diameter The results showed that crystalline zinc oxide colloidal nanoparticles with rod-like morphology and uniform decorated with silver spherical nanoparticles size were obtained by hydrothermal synthesis. Results of antibacterial tests indicate that the ZnO/Ag nanoparticles have antibacterial properties against both Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The results demonstrated that the ZnO/Ag nanoparticles have potential use as biomaterials in medical/odontological applications. (author)

  16. Antimicrobial effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles modified with silver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Rayssa Souza; Arantes, Tatiane Moraes, E-mail: rayssasouza.net@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiania (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: With the emergence of resistant microbial organisms to multiple antibiotics, different shapes of silver nanoparticles are among the most promising antimicrobial agents that have been developed from nanotechnology. Besides the silver nanoparticles oxide nanoparticles such as zinc oxide (ZnO) is gaining prominence due to its bactericidal properties. [1-3]. Thus, this study aims to develop biomaterials from zinc oxide nanoparticles modified with silver with antimicrobial properties. The ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrothermal processing by alkaline hydrolysis zinc acetate. Colloidal dispersions of silver nanoparticles were synthesized by the Turkevich method using sodium citrate to reduce silver nitrate at high pH and at 90 °C in the presence of zinc oxide nanoparticles. Both nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), FTIR and Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The XRD and Raman spectra showed crystalline ZnO colloidal nanoparticles were obtained in the hexagonal phase. XRD measure showed cubic silver diffraction peaks cubic phase confirmed the presence of the silver nanoparticles decorated zinc oxide nanoparticles. SEM images showed ZnO nanoparticles presented a nanorod shapes with length around 80 nm decorated with spherical silver nanoparticles about 20 nm in diameter The results showed that crystalline zinc oxide colloidal nanoparticles with rod-like morphology and uniform decorated with silver spherical nanoparticles size were obtained by hydrothermal synthesis. Results of antibacterial tests indicate that the ZnO/Ag nanoparticles have antibacterial properties against both Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The results demonstrated that the ZnO/Ag nanoparticles have potential use as biomaterials in medical/odontological applications. (author)

  17. Synthesis of barium titanate crystalline nanoparticles using hydrothermal microwave method; Obtencao de nanoparticulas cristalinas de titanato de bario usando metodo hidrotermal assistido por microondas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, A.E.; Silva, R.A.; Teixeira, S.R. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (DFQB/FCT/UNESP), Presidente Prudente, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica, Quimica e Biologia. Lab. de Compositos e Ceramicas Funcionais; Moreira, M.L. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (LiEC/UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Lab. Interdisciplinar de Eletroquimica e Ceramica; Volanti, D.P.; Longo, E. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (LiEC/UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Lab. Interdisciplinar de Eletroquimica e Ceramica

    2009-07-01

    The hydrothermal microwave method (HTMW) was used in the synthesis of barium titanate (BaTiO{sub 3}) nanoparticles. The solution was prepared in deionized water by using titanium (IV) isopropoxide (C{sub 12}H{sub 28}O{sub 4}Ti), barium chloride (BaCl{sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O) and potassium hydroxide (KOH). Afterwards it was heated in an adapted conventional microwave oven. The system is composed of a temperature controller with thermocouple, a hermetic camera of reaction made of teflon, a manometer and a safety valve. The solution was heated to 140 deg C, at a 140 deg C/min heating rate, and maintained at this temperature for 40 minutes. The obtained ceramic powder was characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The XRD data confirms the formation of a high crystalline ceramic material with perovskite structure. The FE-SEM images reveal morphologies with dimensions varying from 27 to 54 nm. (author)

  18. The impact of zero-valent iron nanoparticles upon soil microbial communities is context dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlett, Mark; Ritz, Karl; Dorey, Robert A; Rocks, Sophie; Ramsden, Jeremy; Harris, Jim A

    2013-02-01

    Nanosized zero-valent iron (nZVI) is an effective land remediation tool, but there remains little information regarding its impact upon and interactions with the soil microbial community. nZVI stabilised with sodium carboxymethyl cellulose was applied to soils of three contrasting textures and organic matter contents to determine impacts on soil microbial biomass, phenotypic (phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA)), and functional (multiple substrate-induced respiration (MSIR)) profiles. The nZVI significantly reduced microbial biomass by 29 % but only where soil was amended with 5 % straw. Effects of nZVI on MSIR profiles were only evident in the clay soils and were independent of organic matter content. PLFA profiling indicated that the soil microbial community structure in sandy soils were apparently the most, and clay soils the least, vulnerable to nZVI suggesting a protective effect imparted by clays. Evidence of nZVI bactericidal effects on Gram-negative bacteria and a potential reduction of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are presented. Data imply that the impact of nZVI on soil microbial communities is dependent on organic matter content and soil mineral type. Thereby, evaluations of nZVI toxicity on soil microbial communities should consider context. The reduction of AM fungi following nZVI application may have implications for land remediation.

  19. HIGHLY MICROBIAL RESISTANT GRAPHEME OXIDE NANOPARTICLES: SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND ITS ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY

    OpenAIRE

    Vijaylaxmee Mishra; Richa Sharma

    2014-01-01

    The present work deigned to prepare graphene oxide nanoparticles and their antimicrobial activity has been evaluated. Graphene oxide is a singal layer of carbon arranged in a hexagonal pattern the basal planes and the edges of graphene oxide nanoparticles contain functional exogenous groups such as hydroxyl, carbonyl and epoxy group, which not only expand the interlayer distance but also make the atomic thick layer hydrophilic. Most important application in area related to transparent conduct...

  20. Gold nano-particle formation from crystalline AuCN: Comparison of thermal, plasma- and ion-beam activated decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, Mihály T.; Bertóti, Imre, E-mail: bertoti.imre@ttk.mta.hu; Mohai, Miklós; Németh, Péter; Jakab, Emma; Szabó, László; Szépvölgyi, János

    2017-02-15

    In this work, in addition to the conventional thermal process, two non-conventional ways, the plasma and ion beam activations are described for preparing gold nanoparticles from microcrystalline AuCN precursor. The phase formation at plasma and ion beam treatments was compared with that at thermal treatments and the products and transformations were characterized by thermogravimetry-mass-spectrometry (TG-MS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TG-MS measurements in Ar atmosphere revealed that AuCN decomposition starts at 400 °C and completes at ≈700 °C with evolution of gaseous (CN){sub 2}. XPS and TEM show that in heat treatment at 450 °C for 1 h in Ar, loss of nitrogen and carbon occurs and small, 5–30 nm gold particles forms. Heating at 450 °C for 10 h in sealed ampoule, much larger, 60–200 nm size and well faceted Au particles develop together with a fibrous (CN){sub n} polymer phase, and the Au crystallites are covered by a 3–5 nm thick polymer shell. Low pressure Ar plasma treatment at 300 eV energy results in 4–20 nm size Au particles and removes most of the nitrogen and part of carbon. During Ar{sup +} ion bombardment with 2500 eV energy, 5–30 nm size Au crystallites form already in 10 min, with preferential loss of nitrogen and with increased amount of carbon residue. The results suggest that plasma and ion beam activation, acting similarly to thermal treatment, may be used to prepare Au nanoparticles from AuCN on selected surface areas either by depositing AuCN precursors on selected regions or by focusing the applied ionized radiation. Thus they may offer alternative ways for preparing tailor-made catalysts, electronic devices and sensors for different applications. - Graphical abstract: Proposed scheme of the decomposition mechanism of AuCN samples: heat treatment in Ar flow (a) and in sealed ampoule (b); Ar{sup +} ion treatment at 300 eV (c) and at 2500 eV (d). Cross section sketches

  1. Extracellular Saccharide-Mediated Reduction of Au3+ to Gold Nanoparticles: New Insights for Heavy Metals Biomineralization on Microbial Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Fuxing; Qu, Xiaolei; Alvarez, Pedro J J; Zhu, Dongqiang

    2017-03-07

    Biomineralization is a critical process controlling the biogeochemical cycling, fate, and potential environmental impacts of heavy metals. Despite the indispensability of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) to microbial life and their ubiquity in soil and aquatic environments, the role played by EPS in the transformation and biomineralization of heavy metals is not well understood. Here, we used gold ion (Au 3+ ) as a model heavy metal ion to quantitatively assess the role of EPS in biomineralization and discern the responsible functional groups. Integrated spectroscopic analyses showed that Au 3+ was readily reduced to zerovalent gold nanoparticles (AuNPs, 2-15 nm in size) in aqueous suspension of Escherichia coli or dissolved EPS extracted from microbes. The majority of AuNPs (95.2%) was formed outside Escherichia coli cells, and the removal of EPS attached to cells pronouncedly suppressed Au 3+ reduction, reflecting the predominance of the extracellular matrix in Au 3+ reduction. XPS, UV-vis, and FTIR analyses corroborated that Au 3+ reduction was mediated by the hemiacetal groups (aldehyde equivalents) of reducing saccharides of EPS. Consistently, the kinetics of AuNP formation obeyed pseudo-second-order reaction kinetics with respect to the concentrations of Au 3+ and the hemiacetal groups in EPS, with minimal dependency on the source of microbial EPS. Our findings indicate a previously overlooked, universally significant contribution of EPS to the reduction, mineralization, and potential detoxification of metal species with high oxidation state.

  2. Recording-media-related morphology and magnetic properties of crystalline CoPt{sub 3} and CoPt{sub 3}-Au core-shell nanoparticles synthesized via reverse microemulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahmanrokh, Ghazaleh, E-mail: ghazalehbahmanrokh@yahoo.com; Hashim, Mansor; Matori, Khamirul Amin; Kanagesan, Samikannu; Sabbaghizadeh, Rahim; Ezzad Shafie, Mohd Shamsul [Materials Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Navasery, Manizheh; Soltani, Nayereh [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Vaziri, Parisa [Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-09-07

    A comparative experimental study of the magnetic properties of CoPt{sub 3} and CoPt{sub 3}/Au nanoparticles as well as a detailed study of the structural properties of the samples by X-ray diffraction, Transmission electron microscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometer is presented in this work. In addition, the effect of particle size on the structure and magnetic properties of nanoparticles prepared by microemulsion is studied. The correlation between particle size, crystallinity, and magnetization was studied as well. CoPt nanoparticles have been studied intensively over the last decade because of their increased magnetic anisotropy in the ordered phase that can be interesting for high density magnetic recording. A significant high coercivity for as-prepared CoPt{sub 3} and CoPt{sub 3}-Au nanoparticles was obtained at room temperature and enhanced after annealing. The focused aim of our study is to obtain high coercivity at room temperature that follows the Curie-Weiss law. This indicates an interacting system in which the nanoparticles behave like single domain ferromagnetic materials in the particle size range of 8 to 35 nm. In addition, the interaction increases by cooling the samples to low temperature around 15 K. Temperature dependence 1/M graph was obtained to investigate the behavior of nanoparticles at low temperature and shows the best fit with Curie-Weis mode.

  3. Lamellar crystalline self-assembly behaviour and solid lipid nanoparticles of a palmityl prodrug analogue of Capecitabine—A chemotherapy agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Xiaojuan; Moghaddam, Minoo J.; Sagnella, Sharon M.; Conn, Charlotte E.; Danon, Stephen J.; Waddington, Lynne J.; Drummond, Calum J. [CSIRO/MSE

    2014-09-24

    An amphiphile prodrug, 5'-deoxy-5-fluoro-N4-(palmityloxycarbonyl) cytidine or 5'-deoxy-5-fluoro-N4-(hexadecanaloxycarbonyl) cytidine (5-FCPal), consisting of the same head group as the commercially available chemotherapeutic agent Capecitabine, linked to a palmityl hydrocarbon chain via a carbamate bond is reported. Thermal analysis of this prodrug indicates that it melts at ~115 °C followed quickly by degradation beginning at ~120 °C. The neat solid 5-FCPal amphiphile acquires a lamellar crystalline arrangement with a d-spacing of 28.6 ± 0.3 Å, indicating interdigitation of the hydrocarbon chains. Under aqueous conditions, solid 5-FCPal is non-swelling and no lyotropic liquid crystalline phase formation is observed. In order to assess the in vitro toxicity and in vivo efficacy in colloidal form, solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) with an average size of ~700 nm were produced via high pressure homogenization. The in vitro toxicity of the 5-FCPal SLNs against several different cancer and normal cell types was assessed over a 48 h period, and IC50 values were comparable to those observed for Capecitabine. The in vivo efficacy of the 5-FCPal SLNs was then assessed against the highly aggressive mouse 4T1 breast cancer model. To do so, the prodrug SLNs were administered orally at 3 different dosages (0.1, 0.25, 0.5 mmol/mouse/day) and compared to Capecitabine delivered at the same dosages. After 21 days of receiving the treatments, the 0.5 mmol dose of 5-FCPal exhibited the smallest average tumour volume. Since 5-FCPal is activated in a similar manner to Capecitabine via a 3 step enzymatic pathway with the final step occurring preferentially at the tumour site, formulation of the prodrug into SLNs combines the advantage of selective, localized activation with the sustained release properties of nanostructured amphiphile self-assembly and multiple payload materials thereby potentially creating a more effective anticancer agent.

  4. Effects of Engineered Nanoparticles on Crops, their Symbionts, and Soil Microbial Communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moll, Janine

    2016-01-01

    Engineered nanoparticles (NPs) are small particles (< 100 nm) that are widely used in electronics, paints, cosmetics, and composite materials. As a result of the production and use of NP containing materials, NPs are released into the environment. For future risk assessment it is, therefore,

  5. Influence of Silver nanoparticles on nutrient removal and microbial communities in SBR process after long-term exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhaohan [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, No73, Huanghe Road, Nangang District, Harbin 150090 (China); Heilongjiang River Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, No 43, Songfa Street, Daoli District, Harbin 150001 (China); Gao, Peng, E-mail: hitzzh@hit.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, No73, Huanghe Road, Nangang District, Harbin 150090 (China); Li, Moqing; Cheng, Jiaqi [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, No73, Huanghe Road, Nangang District, Harbin 150090 (China); Liu, Wei [Heilongjiang River Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, No 43, Songfa Street, Daoli District, Harbin 150001 (China); Feng, Yujie, E-mail: yujief@hit.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, No73, Huanghe Road, Nangang District, Harbin 150090 (China)

    2016-11-01

    The widespread utilization of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in industrial and commercial products inevitably raises the release into wastewater that might cause potential negative impacts on sewage treatment system. In this paper, long-term exposure experiments at four levels were conducted to determine whether AgNPs caused adverse impacts on nutrient removals in sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) and changes of microbial community structure. Compared with the control reactor (without AgNPs), carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus removal in presence of 0.1 mg/L AgNPs was no difference. However, presence of 1.0 and 10 mg/L AgNPs decreased the average removal efficiencies of COD from 95.4% to 85.2% and 68.3%, ammonia nitrogen from 98.8% to 71.2% and 49%, SOP from 97.6% to 75.5% and 54.1%, respectively. It was found that AgNPs could accumulate in sludge with the distribution coefficients of 39.2–114 L/g, inhibit the protein and polysaccharide production in EPS, reduce the SOUR of sludge, and greatly increase LDH release from microbial cells. The illumina high-throughput sequencing results indicated that AgNPs concentration changed the structures of bacterial communities, associating with the effects of AgNPs on reactor performance. Sequence analyses showed that Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Acidobacteria were the dominant phyla. It was notable that AgNPs addition reduced the contents of several nitrifying bacteria at genera level in sludge, leading to the lower removal of nitrogen. - Highlights: • More than 1.0 mg/L AgNPs evidently reduce COD, NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N and SOP removal in SBR process. • AgNPs decrease the protein and polysaccharide contents of EPS. • AgNPs increase LDH release for 1.46–2.41 times. • AgNPs are apt to accumulate on surface and even into microbial cells. • AgNPs levels affect microbial community structure and composition.

  6. Influence of Silver nanoparticles on nutrient removal and microbial communities in SBR process after long-term exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhaohan; Gao, Peng; Li, Moqing; Cheng, Jiaqi; Liu, Wei; Feng, Yujie

    2016-01-01

    The widespread utilization of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in industrial and commercial products inevitably raises the release into wastewater that might cause potential negative impacts on sewage treatment system. In this paper, long-term exposure experiments at four levels were conducted to determine whether AgNPs caused adverse impacts on nutrient removals in sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) and changes of microbial community structure. Compared with the control reactor (without AgNPs), carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus removal in presence of 0.1 mg/L AgNPs was no difference. However, presence of 1.0 and 10 mg/L AgNPs decreased the average removal efficiencies of COD from 95.4% to 85.2% and 68.3%, ammonia nitrogen from 98.8% to 71.2% and 49%, SOP from 97.6% to 75.5% and 54.1%, respectively. It was found that AgNPs could accumulate in sludge with the distribution coefficients of 39.2–114 L/g, inhibit the protein and polysaccharide production in EPS, reduce the SOUR of sludge, and greatly increase LDH release from microbial cells. The illumina high-throughput sequencing results indicated that AgNPs concentration changed the structures of bacterial communities, associating with the effects of AgNPs on reactor performance. Sequence analyses showed that Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Acidobacteria were the dominant phyla. It was notable that AgNPs addition reduced the contents of several nitrifying bacteria at genera level in sludge, leading to the lower removal of nitrogen. - Highlights: • More than 1.0 mg/L AgNPs evidently reduce COD, NH_4"+-N and SOP removal in SBR process. • AgNPs decrease the protein and polysaccharide contents of EPS. • AgNPs increase LDH release for 1.46–2.41 times. • AgNPs are apt to accumulate on surface and even into microbial cells. • AgNPs levels affect microbial community structure and composition.

  7. Luminescence enhancement of ZnO-poly(methylmethacrylate) nanocomposite films by incorporation of crystalline BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanamori, Tsuyoshi; Han, Yu; Nagao, Daisuke, E-mail: dnagao@tohoku.ac.jp; Kamezawa, Nao; Ishii, Haruyuki; Konno, Mikio

    2016-09-15

    Highlights: • Dielectric barium titanate (BT) nanoparticles incorporated into luminescence films. • Luminescence intensities increased by the BT nanoparticle incorporation. • Incorporation of highly dielectric nanoparticles effective for luminescence enhancement. - Abstract: Incorporation of highly dielectric nanoparticles into luminescent ZnO-polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) nanocomposite films was undertaken to examine the effect of nanoparticle incorporation on luminescence intensity of the nanocomposite films. ZnO nanoparticles were prepared as inorganic phosphors by a precipitation method. The ZnO nanoparticles were then surface-modified with 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS) to be used for fabrication of the ZnO-PMMA nanocomposite film. Barium titanate (BT) nanoparticles were synthesized with a sol-gel method as the highly dielectric nanoparticles, which were also surface-modified with the MPTMS for the incorporation into the nanocomposite films. Luminescence intensity of the nanocomposite films was successfully increased by the nanoparticle incorporation up to a BT content around 15 vol%. The luminescence intensity higher than that measured for the nanocomposite films incorporating SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles indicated that the incorporation of highly dielectric nanoparticles was an effective approach to enhance the luminescence of ZnO nanoparticles in the polymer thin films.

  8. Silver nanoparticles: green synthesis using Phoenix dactylifera fruit extract, characterization, and anti-oxidant and anti-microbial activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Anas Ejaz; Satardekar, Kshitij Vasant; Khan, Rummana Rehman; Tarte, Nanda Amit; Barve, Siddhivinayak Satyasandha

    2018-03-01

    Hydro-alcoholic (2:8 v/v) extract of the pulp of Phoenix dactylifera fruit pulp obtained using Soxhlet extraction (70 °C, 6 h) was found to contain alkaloids, sterols, tannins, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, proteins, and carbohydrates. An aqueous solution (20% v/v) of the extract led to the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from 0.01 M AgNO3 solution as confirmed by the surface plasmon resonance at 445 nm determined using UV-visible spectroscopy after 24 h. The synthesized AgNPs were found to be mostly spherical and complexed with phytochemicals from the extract. The size of AgNPs ranged from 12.2-140.2 nm with mean diameter of 47.0 nm as characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The elemental composition of the AgNPs complexed with the phytochemicals was found to be 80.49% silver (Ag), 15.21% carbon (C), and 4.30% oxygen (O) on a weight basis by energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Using the α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, an anti-oxidant activity of 89.15% for 1 µg L-1 ultrasonically homogenized ethanolic solution of complexed AgNPs was obtained (equivalent to 0.20 mg mL-1 gallic acid solution), while methanolic solution of plant extract possessed an EC50 value of 3.45% (v/v) (equivalent to 0.11 mg mL-1 gallic acid solution). The plant-nanosilver broth was also found to possess effective anti-microbial activity against Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, and Candida albicans ATCC 10231 as assessed by the disc diffusion assay. However, the plant extract showed negligible anti-microbial activity.

  9. Effect of silver nanoparticles on growth performance, metabolism and microbial profile of broiler chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pineda, Lane Manalili; Chwalibog, André; Sawosz, Ewa

    2012-01-01

    and intestinal content were collected to evaluate the effects of AgNano on plasma concentration of immunoglobulins and the intestinal microflora, respectively. The provision of water solutions containing different concentrations of AgNano had no effect on postnatal growth performance and the energy metabolism...... (IgG) in the blood plasma of broilers supplemented with AgNano decreased at day 36 (p = 0.012). The results demonstrated that AgNano affects N utilisation and plasma IgG concentration; however, it does not influence the microbial populations in the digestive tract, the energy metabolism and growth...

  10. Effect of metal oxide nanoparticles on microbial community structure and function in two different soil types.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sammy Frenk

    Full Text Available Increased availability of nanoparticle-based products will, inevitably, expose the environment to these materials. Engineered nanoparticles (ENPs may thus find their way into the soil environment via wastewater, dumpsters and other anthropogenic sources; metallic oxide nanoparticles comprise one group of ENPs that could potentially be hazardous for the environment. Because the soil bacterial community is a major service provider for the ecosystem and humankind, it is critical to study the effects of ENP exposure on soil bacteria. These effects were evaluated by measuring bacterial community activity, composition and size following exposure to copper oxide (CuO and magnetite (Fe3O4 nanosized (<50 nm particles. Two different soil types were examined: a sandy loam (Bet-Dagan and a sandy clay loam (Yatir, under two ENP concentrations (1%, 0.1%. Results indicate that the bacterial community in Bet-Dagan soil was more susceptible to change due to exposure to these ENPs, relative to Yatir soil. More specifically, CuO had a strong effect on bacterial hydrolytic activity, oxidative potential, community composition and size in Bet-Dagan soil. Few effects were noted in the Yatir soil, although 1% CuO exposure did cause a significant decreased oxidative potential and changes to community composition. Fe3O4 changed the hydrolytic activity and bacterial community composition in Bet-Dagan soil but did not affect the Yatir soil bacterial community. Furthermore, in Bet-Dagan soil, abundance of bacteria annotated to OTUs from the Bacilli class decreased after addition of 0.1% CuO but increased with 1% CuO, while in Yatir soil their abundance was reduced with 1% CuO. Other important soil bacterial groups, including Rhizobiales and Sphingobacteriaceae, were negatively affected by CuO addition to soil. These results indicate that both ENPs are potentially harmful to soil environments. Furthermore, it is suggested that the clay fraction and organic matter in

  11. Effect of Gamma Radiation on The Microbial Production of Selenium Nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Zahaby, D.A.T.M.

    2014-01-01

    Selenium is a trace element commonly found in materials of the earth's crust. Selenium is well known for its photoelectric, semiconductor, free-radical scavenging (HUANG et al., 2003), anti-oxidant(El-Batal et al., 2012 a) and anti-cancer properties(El-Batal et al., 2012 b ; El-Batal et al., 2012 c; Mansour et al., 2010; Zhang et al., 2004). Selenium occurs in different forms as red amorphous selenium (Se"0), highly water soluble selenate(SeO_4"2"-) and Selenite(SeO_3"2"-), and as gaseous selenide(Se"2"-). Amongst its various forms, the SeO_3"2"- is highly toxic, which adversely affect the cellular respiration and antioxidant system causes protein inactivation and DNA repair inhibition (Dong et al., 2003; Eustice et al., 1981; Turner et al., 1998). Therefore, detoxification of SeO_3"2"- has attracted a great deal of attention, particularly the reduction of this oxy anion by the microorganisms(Dwivedi et al., 2013). Most methods used to synthesize selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) are physical and chemical methods, they are characterized by elevated temperatures, long growth times, high pressures, low yields and are also environmentally hazardous (Li et al., 2007). There is an interesting and exciting biogenic synthesis to prepare SeNPs, the synthesis of SeNPs by biological systems occurs at close to ambient temperatures and pressures and at neutral ph(Bharde et al., 2006). This method is a clean, nontoxic and environmentally friendly procedure. In addition, biological synthesis can present extra advantages over chemical methods such as higher productivity and lower cost (Parikh et al., 2008). Attempts have been made to synthesize SeNPs from such microorganisms as bacteria, fungi (Zare et al., 2013) and yeast (Hariharan et al., 2012). However, a bacterial system is preferred mainly due to reduced time of reaction, ease in handling, and easy genetic manipulation (Wang et al., 2010). The majority of studies on the biogenesis of SeNPs have focused on anaerobic systems

  12. Application of Multi-Species Microbial Bioassay to Assess the Effects of Engineered Nanoparticles in the Aquatic Environment: Potential of a Luminous Microbial Array for Toxicity Risk Assessment (LumiMARA on Testing for Surface-Coated Silver Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YounJung Jung

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Four different manufactured surface-coated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs with coating of citrate, tannic acid, polyethylene glycol, and branched polyethylenimine were used in this study. The toxicity of surface-coated AgNPs was evaluated by a luminous microbial array for toxicity risk assessment (LumiMARA using multi-species of luminescent bacteria. The salt stability of four different AgNPs was measured by UV absorbance at 400 nm wavelength, and different surface-charged AgNPs in combination with bacteria were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Both branched polyethylenimine (BPEI-AgNPs and polyethylene glycol (PEG-AgNPs were shown to be stable with 2% NaCl (non-aggregation, whereas both citrate (Cit-AgNPs and tannic acid (Tan-AgNPs rapidly aggregated in 2% NaCl solution. The values of the 50% effective concentration (EC50 for BPEI-AgNPs in marine bacteria strains (1.57 to 5.19 mg/L were lower than those for the other surface-coated AgNPs (i.e., Cit-AgNPs, Tan-AgNPs, and PEG-AgNPs. It appears that the toxicity of AgNPs could be activated by the interaction of positively charged AgNPs with the negatively charged bacterial cell wall from the results of LumiMARA. LumiMARA for toxicity screening has advantageous compared to a single-species bioassay and is applicable for environmental samples as displaying ranges of assessment results.

  13. Efficient synthesis of silver nanoparticles from Prosopis juliflora leaf extract and its antimicrobial activity using sewage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, K; Saravanakumar, A; Vijayakumar, R

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, aqueous extract of fresh leaves of Prosopis juliflora was used for the synthesis of silver (Ag) nanoparticles. UV-Vis spectroscopy studies were carried out to asses silver nanoparticles formation within 5 min, scanning electron microscopic was used to characterize shape of the Ag nanoparticles, X-ray diffraction analysis confirms the nanoparticles as crystalline silver and facecentered cubic type and Fourier transform infra-red assed that shows biomolecule compounds which are responsible for reduction and capping material of silver nanoparticles. The anti microbial activity of silver nanoparticle was performed using sewage. The approach of plant-mediated synthesis appears to be cost efficient, eco-friendly and easy methods. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Efficient synthesis of silver nanoparticles from Prosopis juliflora leaf extract and its antimicrobial activity using sewage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, K.; Saravanakumar, A.; Vijayakumar, R.

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, aqueous extract of fresh leaves of Prosopis juliflora was used for the synthesis of silver (Ag) nanoparticles. UV-Vis spectroscopy studies were carried out to asses silver nanoparticles formation within 5 min, scanning electron microscopic was used to characterize shape of the Ag nanoparticles, X-ray diffraction analysis confirms the nanoparticles as crystalline silver and facecentered cubic type and Fourier transform infra-red assed that shows biomolecule compounds which are responsible for reduction and capping material of silver nanoparticles. The anti microbial activity of silver nanoparticle was performed using sewage. The approach of plant-mediated synthesis appears to be cost efficient, eco-friendly and easy methods.

  15. Microbes make average 2 nanometer diameter crystalline UO2 particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Y.; Kelly, S. D.; Kemner, K. M.; Banfield, J. F.

    2001-12-01

    It is well known that phylogenetically diverse groups of microorganisms are capable of catalyzing the reduction of highly soluble U(VI) to highly insoluble U(IV), which rapidly precipitates as uraninite (UO2). Because biological uraninite is highly insoluble, microbial uranyl reduction is being intensively studied as the basis for a cost-effective in-situ bioremediation strategy. Previous studies have described UO2 biomineralization products as amorphous or poorly crystalline. The objective of this study is to characterize the nanocrystalline uraninite in detail in order to determine the particle size, crystallinity, and size-related structural characteristics, and to examine the implications of these for reoxidation and transport. In this study, we obtained U-contaminated sediment and water from an inactive U mine and incubated them anaerobically with nutrients to stimulate reductive precipitation of UO2 by indigenous anaerobic bacteria, mainly Gram-positive spore-forming Desulfosporosinus and Clostridium spp. as revealed by RNA-based phylogenetic analysis. Desulfosporosinus sp. was isolated from the sediment and UO2 was precipitated by this isolate from a simple solution that contains only U and electron donors. We characterized UO2 formed in both of the experiments by high resolution-TEM (HRTEM) and X-ray absorption fine structure analysis (XAFS). The results from HRTEM showed that both the pure and the mixed cultures of microorganisms precipitated around 1.5 - 3 nm crystalline UO2 particles. Some particles as small as around 1 nm could be imaged. Rare particles around 10 nm in diameter were also present. Particles adhere to cells and form colloidal aggregates with low fractal dimension. In some cases, coarsening by oriented attachment on \\{111\\} is evident. Our preliminary results from XAFS for the incubated U-contaminated sample also indicated an average diameter of UO2 of 2 nm. In nanoparticles, the U-U distance obtained by XAFS was 0.373 nm, 0.012 nm

  16. Nonadhesive, silica nanoparticles-based brush-coated contact lens cases--compromising between ease of cleaning and microbial transmission to contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Wenwen; Hooymans, Johanna M M; Qiu, Jun; de-Bont, Nik; Gelling, Onko-Jan; van der Mei, Henny C; Busscher, Henk J

    2013-05-01

    Surface properties of lens cases are determinant for their cleanability and for microbial transmission from lens cases to contact lenses (CLs). PEG-polymer-brush-coatings are known to decrease microbial adhesion more than other surface-coatings. Here, we applied a robust, silica nanoparticles-based brush-coating to polypropylene cases to evaluate their ease of cleaning and probability of bacterial transmission to CLs. Adhesion forces of nine bacterial strains (Pseudomonas, Staphylococci, and Serratia) to rigid CLs, polypropylene, and silica nanoparticles-based brush-coated polypropylene were measured using atomic-force-microscopy and subjected to Weibull analyses to yield bacterial transmission probabilities. Biofilms of each strain were grown in coated and uncoated cases and rinsed with a NaCl or antimicrobial lens care solution. Residual, viable organisms were quantified. Bacterial adhesion forces of all strains were significantly, up to tenfold smaller on brush-coated than on uncoated polypropylene. This yielded, higher transmission probabilities to a CL, but mild-rinsing yielded 10-100 fold higher removal of bacteria from brush-coated than from polypropylene cases. Moreover, due to weak adhesion forces, bacteria on brush-coated cases were two-to-three fold more susceptible to an antimicrobial lens care solution than on polypropylene cases. Therewith, the design of lens case surfaces is a compromise between ease of cleaning and transmission probability to CLs. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Biogenic selenium and tellurium nanoparticles synthesized by environmental microbial isolates efficaciously inhibit bacterial planktonic cultures and biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele eZonaro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with Se0- and Te0-based nanoparticles bio-synthesized by two selenite- and tellurite-reducing bacterial strains, namely Stenotrophomonas maltophilia SeITE02 and Ochrobactrum sp. MPV1, isolated from polluted sites. We discovered that, by regulating culture conditions and exposure time to the selenite and tellurite oxyanions, differently sized zero-valent Se and Te nanoparticles were produced. The results revealed that these Se0 and Te0 nanoparticles possess antimicrobial and biofilm eradication activity against E. coli JM109, P. aeruginosa PAO1, and S. aureus ATCC 25923. In particular, Se0 nanoparticles exhibited antimicrobial activity at quite low concentrations, below that of selenite. Toxic effects of both Se0 and Te0 nanoparticles can be related to the production of reactive oxygen species upon exposure of the bacterial cultures. Evidence so far achieved suggests that the antimicrobial activity seems to be strictly linked to the dimensions of the nanoparticles: indeed, the highest activity was shown by nanoparticles of smaller sizes. In particular, it is worth noting how the bacteria tested in biofilm mode responded to the treatment by Se0 and Te0 nanoparticles with a susceptibility similar to that observed in planktonic cultures. This suggests a possible exploitation of both Se0 and Te0 nanoparticles as efficacious antimicrobial agents with a remarkable biofilm eradication capacity.

  18. Green recovery of silver as crystalline Nano-particles from corresponding waste solutions by Lime Juice as compared with Ascorbic acid and Citric acid

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid Reza Safaei

    2017-01-01

    Different biological methods are gaining recognition for the production of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs), However, none of them have concerned to do recovery, removal and separation as a goal. In this study silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) were recovered from fixer effluent solution as waste solution of silver by interacting with Lime juice as a bio-reducing and bio-capping agent. The best conditions for obtaining Ag NPs were determined by UV-Visible, FT-IR spectroscopy, DLS technique, SEM and X...

  19. Role of dopant concentration, crystal phase and particle size on microbial inactivation of Cu-doped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahu, Manoranjan; Wu Bing; Zhu Liying; Jacobson, Craig; Wang Weining; Jones, Kristen; Goyal, Yogesh; Tang, Yinjie J; Biswas, Pratim, E-mail: pbiswas@wustl.edu [Department of Energy, Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Washington University in St Louis, St Louis, MO 63130 (United States)

    2011-10-14

    The properties of Cu-doped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (NPs) were independently controlled in a flame aerosol reactor by varying the molar feed ratios of the precursors, and by optimizing temperature and time history in the flame. The effect of the physico-chemical properties (dopant concentration, crystal phase and particle size) of Cu-doped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles on inactivation of Mycobacterium smegmatis (a model pathogenic bacterium) was investigated under three light conditions (complete dark, fluorescent light and UV light). The survival rate of M. smegmatis (in a minimal salt medium for 2 h) exposed to the NPs varied depending on the light irradiation conditions as well as the dopant concentrations. In dark conditions, pristine TiO{sub 2} showed insignificant microbial inactivation, but inactivation increased with increasing dopant concentration. Under fluorescent light illumination, no significant effect was observed for TiO{sub 2}. However, when TiO{sub 2} was doped with copper, inactivation increased with dopant concentration, reaching more than 90% (>3 wt% dopant). Enhanced microbial inactivation by TiO{sub 2} NPs was observed only under UV light. When TiO{sub 2} NPs were doped with copper, their inactivation potential was promoted and the UV-resistant cells were reduced by over 99%. In addition, the microbial inactivation potential of NPs was also crystal-phase-and size-dependent under all three light conditions. A lower ratio of anatase phase and smaller sizes of Cu-doped TiO{sub 2} NPs resulted in decreased bacterial survival. The increased inactivation potential of doped TiO{sub 2} NPs is possibly due to both enhanced photocatalytic reactions and leached copper ions.

  20. A novel photo-biological engineering method for Salvia miltiorrhiza-mediated fabrication of silver nanoparticles using LED lights sources and its effectiveness against Aedes aegypti mosquito larvae and microbial pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, Salvia miltiorrhiza-synthesized Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) fabricated using sunlight or various LED lights were studied for their biophysical features and evaluated as larvicides against Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and growth inhibitors on different species of microbial pathogens. AgNPs pr...

  1. Microbial Precipitation of Cr(III)-Hydroxide and Se(0) Nanoparticles During Anoxic Bioreduction of Cr(VI)- and Se(VI)-Contaminated Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yumi; Oh, Jong-Min; Roh, Yul

    2017-04-01

    This study examined the microbial precipitations of Cr(III)-hydroxide and Se(0) nanoparticles during anoxic bioreductions of Cr(VI) and Se(VI) using metal-reducing bacteria enriched from groundwater. Metal-reducing bacteria enriched from groundwater at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) Underground Research Tunnel (KURT), Daejeon, S. Korea were used. Metal reduction and precipitation experiments with the metal-reducing bacteria were conducted using Cr(VI)- and Se(VI)-contaminated water and glucose as a carbon source under an anaerobic environment at room temperature. XRD, SEM-EDX, and TEM-EDX analyses were used to characterize the mineralogy, crystal structure, chemistry, shape, and size distribution of the precipitates. The metal-reducing bacteria reduced Cr(VI) of potassium chromate (K₂CrO₄) to Cr(III) of chromium hydroxide [Cr(OH)3], and Se(VI) of sodium selenate (Na₂SeO₄) to selenium Se(0), with changes of color and turbidity. XRD, SEM-EDX, and TEM-EDX analyses revealed that the chromium hydroxide [Cr(OH)₃] was formed extracellularly with nanoparticles of 20–30 nm in size, and elemental selenium Se(0) nanoparticles had a sphere shape of 50–250 nm in size. These results show that metal-reducing bacteria in groundwater can aid or accelerate precipitation of heavy metals such as Cr(VI) and Se(VI) via bioreduction processes under anoxic environments. These results may also be useful for the recovery of Cr and Se nanoparticles in natural environments.

  2. nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreu-Cabedo, Patricia; Mondragon, Rosa; Hernandez, Leonor; Martinez-Cuenca, Raul; Cabedo, Luis; Julia, J. Enrique

    2014-10-01

    Thermal energy storage (TES) is extremely important in concentrated solar power (CSP) plants since it represents the main difference and advantage of CSP plants with respect to other renewable energy sources such as wind, photovoltaic, etc. CSP represents a low-carbon emission renewable source of energy, and TES allows CSP plants to have energy availability and dispatchability using available industrial technologies. Molten salts are used in CSP plants as a TES material because of their high operational temperature and stability of up to 500°C. Their main drawbacks are their relative poor thermal properties and energy storage density. A simple cost-effective way to improve thermal properties of fluids is to dope them with nanoparticles, thus obtaining the so-called salt-based nanofluids. In this work, solar salt used in CSP plants (60% NaNO3 + 40% KNO3) was doped with silica nanoparticles at different solid mass concentrations (from 0.5% to 2%). Specific heat was measured by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). A maximum increase of 25.03% was found at an optimal concentration of 1 wt.% of nanoparticles. The size distribution of nanoparticle clusters present in the salt at each concentration was evaluated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and image processing, as well as by means of dynamic light scattering (DLS). The cluster size and the specific surface available depended on the solid content, and a relationship between the specific heat increment and the available particle surface area was obtained. It was proved that the mechanism involved in the specific heat increment is based on a surface phenomenon. Stability of samples was tested for several thermal cycles and thermogravimetric analysis at high temperature was carried out, the samples being stable.

  3. Crystalline and Crystalline International Disposal Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanathan, Hari S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chu, Shaoping [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Reimus, Paul William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Makedonska, Nataliia [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hyman, Jeffrey De' Haven [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Karra, Satish [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dittrich, Timothy M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-12-21

    This report presents the results of work conducted between September 2014 and July 2015 at Los Alamos National Laboratory in the crystalline disposal and crystalline international disposal work packages of the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) for DOE-NE’s Fuel Cycle Research and Development program.

  4. Repairing Nanoparticle Surface Defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marino, Emanuele; Kodger, Thomas E.; Crisp, R.W.; Timmerman, Dolf; MacArthur, Katherine E.; Heggen, Marc; Schall, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Solar devices based on semiconductor nanoparticles require the use of conductive ligands; however, replacing the native, insulating ligands with conductive metal chalcogenide complexes introduces structural defects within the crystalline nanostructure that act as traps for charge carriers. We

  5. Synthesis of PANi-SiO2 Nanocomposite with In-Situ Polymerization Method: Nanoparticle Silica (NPS) Amorphous and Crystalline Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munasir; Luvita, N. R. D.; Kusumawati, D. H.; Putri, N. P.; Triwikantoro; Supardi, Z. A. I.

    2018-03-01

    Silica which is synthesized from natural materials such as Bancar Tuban’s sand composited with Polyaniline (PANi), where the silica used are silica has an amorphous phase and cristobalite phase. In this research, the composite method used is in- situ polymerization, which is silica entered during the fabrication of PANi, then automatically silica will be substitute into the chain bonding of PANi. The aim of this research is to find out the results of a composite process using in-situ methods as well as differences in the morphology of PANi/a- SiO2 and PANi/c-SiO2. For the characterization of samples tested in the form of FTIR to determine the functional groups of the composite and SEM to determine the morphology of the sample. From the test results of FTIR are known composite possibility has occurred because there are several functional groups belonging to silica also functional groups belonging polyaniline, functional group that’s happened in wave numbers were almost identical between PANi/a-SiO2 and PANi/c-SiO2, but there are little differences were seen in the form of a graph generated from the peak and intensity that occurred charts for PANi/c-SiO2 has peak more pointed or sharp compared to PANi/a-SiO2 because that bond of crystal is strong, stiff and has a larger particle size than the amorphous composite. Then from the data of SEM seen clearly their morphological differences between PANi/a-SiO2 and PANi/c-SiO2 where polyaniline is composited with amorphous silica will have a fault that is not uniform or irregular different from PANi/c -SiO2 has a regular fault and this is corresponding with the nature of the typical structure of amorphous and crystalline.

  6. The use of surfactants to enhance the solubility and stability of the water-insoluble anticancer drug SN38 into liquid crystalline phase nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranneh, Abdul-Hackam; Iwao, Yasunori; Noguchi, Shuji; Oka, Toshihiko; Itai, Shigeru

    2016-12-30

    Cubosomes were used to increase the aqueous solubility of the water insoluble anticancer drug SN38. The results showed that the use of a common cubosome formulation consisting of phytantriol (PHYT) as the matrix amphiphile (PHYT-cubosome) led to a 6-fold increase in the solubility of SN38. However, mean hydrodynamic diameter (D H ) and polydispersity index (PDI) of these PHYT-cubosome particles were 345±49nm and 0.37±0.05, respectively, making them unsuitable for intravenous applications. Several additives were investigated to increase the solubility of SN38 and reduce the D H and PDI values of the resulting particles. Charged additives such as didodecyldimethyl ammonium bromide (DDAB) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) led to improvements in the physiochemical properties of the cubosomes. Notably, the PHYT-DDAB and PHT-SDS cubosomes led to 15- and 14-fold increases in the aqueous solubility of SN38, respectively. Moreover, the SN38 loaded into the PHYT-DDAB and PHYT-SDS cubosomes was found to be highly stable, with very little hydrolysis to its inactive acid form. In summary, the addition of DDAB and SDS to PHYT-cubosome nanoparticle drug delivery systems not only led to considerable improvements in their physiochemical properties, but also enhanced the aqueous solubility of SN38 and increased its chemical stability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles obtained by laser ablation in water: Influence of pulse energy and duration on the crystalline phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giorgetti, E., E-mail: emilia.giorgetti@fi.isc.cnr.it [Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi (ISC) CNR, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Muniz Miranda, M.; Caporali, S. [Dipartimento di Chimica “Ugo Schiff”, Università di Firenze, Via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Canton, P. [Dipartimento di Scienze Molecolari e Nanosistemi, Università Ca’ Foscari, Via Torino, 30170 Venezia-Mestre (Italy); Marsili, P. [Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi (ISC) CNR, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa, Largo Bruno Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Vergari, C.; Giammanco, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa, Largo Bruno Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Laser ablation of Ti in water at 1064 nm and comparison of ns and ps temporal regimes. • Structural and spectroscopic characterization of the colloids: TiO{sub 2} is the predominant phase. • Determination of an energy window where ps ablation produces more anatase than rutile. • Modelling of the experimental dependence of anatase/rutile yield on pulse length and energy. - Abstract: We fabricated Ti oxide nanoparticles by laser ablation of a Ti target in doubly deionized water with ps or ns pulses at a laser wavelength of 1064 nm. Electron microscopy, Raman, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that, while with ns pulses the dominant oxide phase is rutile, with ps pulses anatase is the most abundant form in an intermediate energy window centered around 25 mJ per pulse. This experimental behavior can be described by a theoretical model which calculates the pressure and temperature evolution of the ablated material and, from this, the rutile and anatase yield.

  8. Biosynthesis, antimicrobial and cytotoxic effect of silver nanoparticles using a novel Nocardiopsis sp. MBRC-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manivasagan, Panchanathan; Venkatesan, Jayachandran; Senthilkumar, Kalimuthu; Sivakumar, Kannan; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2013-01-01

    The biosynthesis of nanoparticles has been proposed as a cost effective environmental friendly alternative to chemical and physical methods. Microbial synthesis of nanoparticles is under exploration due to wide biomedical applications, research interest in nanotechnology and microbial biotechnology. In the present study, an ecofriendly process for the synthesis of nanoparticles using a novel Nocardiopsis sp. MBRC-1 has been attempted. We used culture supernatant of Nocardiopsis sp. MBRC-1 for the simple and cost effective green synthesis of silver nanoparticles. The reduction of silver ions occurred when silver nitrate solution was treated with the Nocardiopsis sp. MBRC-1 culture supernatant at room temperature. The nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible, TEM, FE-SEM, EDX, FTIR, and XRD spectroscopy. The nanoparticles exhibited an absorption peak around 420 nm, a characteristic surface plasmon resonance band of silver nanoparticles. They were spherical in shape with an average particle size of 45 ± 0.15 nm. The EDX analysis showed the presence of elemental silver signal in the synthesized nanoparticles. The FTIR analysis revealed that the protein component in the form of enzyme nitrate reductase produced by the isolate in the culture supernatant may be responsible for reduction and as capping agents. The XRD spectrum showed the characteristic Bragg peaks of 1 2 3, 2 0 4, 0 4 3, 1 4 4, and 3 1 1 facets of the face centered cubic silver nanoparticles and confirms that these nanoparticles are crystalline in nature. The prepared silver nanoparticles exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against bacteria and fungi. Cytotoxicity of biosynthesized AgNPs against in vitro human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa) showed a dose-response activity. IC50 value was found to be 200 μg/mL of AgNPs against HeLa cancer cells. Further studies are needed to elucidate the toxicity and the mechanism involved with antimicrobial and anticancer activity of the synthesized AgNPs as

  9. Inactivation of microbial infectiousness by silver nanoparticles-coated condom: a new approach to inhibit HIV- and HSV-transmitted infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Fayaz A

    2012-09-01

    anti-HIV activity was primarily mediated by the Ag-NPs, which are associated with the PUC. In addition, the data showed that both macrophage (M-tropic and T lymphocyte (T-tropic strains of HIV-1 were highly sensitive to the Ag-NPs-coated PUC. Furthermore, we also showed that the Ag-NPs-coated PUC was able to inhibit the growth of bacteria and fungi. These results demonstrated that the Ag-NPs-coated PUC is able to directly inactivate the microbe’s infectious ability and provides another defense line against these sexually transmitted microbial infections.Keywords: silver nanoparticles, condom, HIV-1, HSV-1/2, antimicrobial

  10. The competing effects of microbially derived polymeric and low molecular-weight substances on the dispersibility of CeO2 nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, Yuriko; Ochiai, Asumi; Kawamoto, Keisuke; Takeda, Ayaka; Ichiyoshi, Kenta; Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Hochella, Michael F.; Utsunomiya, Satoshi

    2018-02-26

    To understand the competing effects of the components in extracellular substances (ES), polymeric substances (PS) and low-molecular-weight small substances (SS) <1 kDa derived from microorganisms, on the colloidal stability of cerium dioxide nanoparticles (CeNPs), we investigated their adsorption to sparingly soluble CeNPs at room temperature at pH 6.0. The ES was extracted from the fungus S. cerevisiae. The polypeptides and phosphates in all components preferentially adsorbed onto the CeNPs. The zeta potentials of ES + CeNPs, PS + CeNPs, and SS + CeNPs overlapped on the plot of PS itself, indicating the surface charge of the polymeric substances controls the zeta potentials. The sizes of the CeNP aggregates, 100–1300 nm, were constrained by the zeta potentials. The steric barrier derived from the polymers, even in SS, enhanced the CeNP dispersibility at pH 1.5–10. Consequently, the PS and SS had similar effects on modifying the CeNP surfaces. The adsorption of ES, which contains PS + SS, can suppress the aggregation of CeNPs over a wider pH range than that for PS only. The present study addresses the non-negligible effects of small-sized molecules derived from microbial activity on the migration of CeNP in aquatic environments, especially where bacterial consortia prevail.

  11. Combined Study of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticle Transport and Toxicity on Microbial Nitrifying Communities under Single and Repeated Exposures in Soil Columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonin, Marie; Martins, Jean M F; Uzu, Gaëlle; Vince, Erwann; Richaume, Agnès

    2016-10-04

    Soils are exposed to nanoparticles (NPs) as a result of their increasing use in many commercial products. Adverse effects of NPs on soil microorganisms have been reported in several ecotoxicological studies using microcosms. Although repeated exposures are more likely to occur in soils, most of these previous studies were performed as a single exposure to NPs. Contrary to single contamination, the study of multiple NP contaminations in soils requires the use of specialized setups. Using a soil column experiment, we compared the influence of single and repeated exposures (one, two, or three exposures that resulted in the same final concentration applied) on the transport of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) NPs through soil and the effect of these different exposure scenarios on the abundance and activity of soil nitrifying microbial communities after a 2 month incubation. The transport of TiO 2 NPs was very limited under both single and repeated exposures and was highest for the lowest concentration injected during the first application. Significant decreases in nitrification activity and ammonia-oxidizing archaea and bacteria populations were observed only for the repeated exposure scenario (three TiO 2 NP contaminations). These results suggest that, under repeated exposures, the transport of TiO 2 NPs to deep soil layers and groundwater is limited and that a chronic contamination is more harmful for the soil microbiological functioning than a single exposure.

  12. Crystalline and Crystalline International Disposal Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanathan, Hari S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chu, Shaoping [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dittrich, Timothy M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hyman, Jeffrey De' Haven [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Karra, Satish [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Makedonska, Nataliia [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Reimus, Paul William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-06

    This report presents the results of work conducted between September 2015 and July 2016 at Los Alamos National Laboratory in the crystalline disposal and crystalline international disposal work packages of the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) for DOE-NE’s Fuel Cycle Research and Development program. Los Alamos focused on two main activities during this period: Discrete fracture network (DFN) modeling to describe flow and radionuclide transport in complex fracture networks that are typical of crystalline rock environments, and a comprehensive interpretation of three different colloid-facilitated radionuclide transport experiments conducted in a fractured granodiorite at the Grimsel Test Site in Switzerland between 2002 and 2013. Chapter 1 presents the results of the DFN work and is divided into three main sections: (1) we show results of our recent study on the correlation between fracture size and fracture transmissivity (2) we present an analysis and visualization prototype using the concept of a flow topology graph for characterization of discrete fracture networks, and (3) we describe the Crystalline International work in support of the Swedish Task Force. Chapter 2 presents interpretation of the colloidfacilitated radionuclide transport experiments in the crystalline rock at the Grimsel Test Site.

  13. Crystalline Silica Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1992-01-01

    Crystalline silica is the scientific name for a group of minerals composed of silicon and oxygen. The term crystalline refers to the fact that the oxygen and silicon atoms are arranged in a threedimensional repeating pattern. This group of minerals has shaped human history since the beginning of civilization. From the sand used for making glass to the piezoelectric quartz crystals used in advanced communication systems, crystalline silica has been a part of our technological development. Crystalline silica's pervasiveness in our technology is matched only by its abundance in nature. It's found in samples from every geologic era and from every location around the globe. Scientists have known for decades that prolonged and excessive exposure to crystalline silica dust in mining environments can cause silicosis, a noncancerous lung disease. During the 1980's, studies were conducted that suggested that crystalline silica also was a carcinogen. As a result of these findings, crystalline silica has been regulated under the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) Hazard Communication Standard (HCS). Under HCS, OSHAregulated businesses that use materials containing 0.1% or more crystalline silica must follow Federal guidelines concerning hazard communication and worker training. Although the HCS does not require that samples be analyzed for crystalline silica, mineral suppliers or OSHAregulated

  14. What Is Crystalline Silica?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and ceramic manufacturing and the tool and die, steel and foundry industries. Crystalline silica is used in manufacturing, household abrasives, adhesives, paints, soaps, and glass. Additionally, ...

  15. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by Aspergillus niger , Fusarium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... scanning electron microscope (SEM). Results indicate the synthesis of silver nanoparticles in the reaction mixture. The synthesis of nanoparticles would be suitable for developing a microbial nanotechnology biosynthesis process for mass scale production. Keywords: Silver nanoparticles, biosynthesis, fungi, Aspergillus.

  16. Extracellular synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles by Sporosarcina koreensis DC4 and their biological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Priyanka; Singh, Hina; Kim, Yeon Ju; Mathiyalagan, Ramya; Wang, Chao; Yang, Deok Chun

    2016-05-01

    The present study highlights the microbial synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles by Sporosarcina koreensis DC4 strain, in an efficient way. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry, which displayed maximum absorbance at 424nm and 531nm for silver and gold nanoparticles, respectively. The spherical shape of nanoparticles was characterized by field emission transmission electron microscopy. The energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and elemental mapping were displayed the purity and maximum elemental distribution of silver and gold elements in the respective nanoproducts. The X-ray diffraction spectroscopy results demonstrate the crystalline nature of synthesized nanoparticles. The particle size analysis demonstrate the nanoparticles distribution with respect to intensity, volume and number of nanoparticles. For biological applications, the silver nanoparticles have been explored in terms of MIC and MBC against pathogenic microorganisms such as Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus. Moreover, the silver nanoparticles in combination with commercial antibiotics, such as vancomycin, rifampicin, oleandomycin, penicillin G, novobiocin, and lincomycin have been explored for the enhancement of antibacterial activity and the obtained results showed that 3μg concentration of silver nanoparticles sufficiently enhance the antimicrobial efficacy of commercial antibiotics against pathogenic microorganism. Furthermore, the silver nanoparticles potential has been reconnoitered for the biofilm inhibition by S. aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and E. coli and the results revealed sufficient activity at 6μg concentration. In addition, gold nanoparticles have been applied for catalytic activity, for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol using sodium borohydride and positive results were attained. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All

  17. Production of electrospun polyvinyl alcohol/microbial synthesized silver nanoparticles scaffold for the treatment of fungating wounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahyaei, Behrooz; Manafi, Sahebali; Fahimi, Bijan; Arabzadeh, Sepideh; Pourali, Parastoo

    2018-03-01

    Fungating wounds usually develop in patients with advanced cancer, which responds poorly to treatments. Such wounds can be treated using suitable dressings. For this purpose, a recent research produced a new type of wound dressing with antibacterial and anticancer properties. The culture supernatant of Fusarium oxysporum was challenged with silver nitrate and heated for 5 min. Production of silver nanoparticles (SNPs) was confirmed using spectrophotometer, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. A solution of 10% (w/w) poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) and different volumes of SNP solutions were provided, where each solution was separately used for electrospinning. The obtained PVA/SNPs film evaluated under morphological characterization using field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and its antibacterial and anticancer activities were measured. Results confirmed the presence of SNPs in the reaction mixture with sizes less than 50 nm, spherical and oval in shapes. FE-SEM results confirmed that SNPs were seen inside and entrapped between PVA in the PVA/SNPs membrane, composed of 50% of each material. This film had acceptable antibacterial properties against four different bacterial strains and a good anticancer activity against the human melanoma cell line (COLO 792) in contrast to the control one. A recent research introduced a new and fast biological method for the synthesis of SNPs, having acceptable antibacterial and anticancer activities. Further studies are needed to support the obtained results.

  18. Shifts in the metabolic function of a benthic estuarine microbial community following a single pulse exposure to silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echavarri-Bravo, Virginia; Paterson, Lynn; Aspray, Thomas J.; Porter, Joanne S.; Winson, Michael K.; Thornton, Barry; Hartl, Mark G.J.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) as a biocidal agent and their potential accumulation in sediments may threaten non-target natural environmental bacterial communities. In this study a microcosm approach was established to investigate the effects of well characterized OECD AgNPs (NM-300) on the function of the bacterial community inhabiting marine estuarine sediments (salinity 31‰). The results showed that a single pulse of NM-300 AgNPs (1 mg L −1 ) that led to sediment concentrations below 6 mg Ag kg −1 dry weight inhibited the bacterial utilization of environmentally relevant carbon substrates. As a result, the functional diversity changed, but recovered after 120 h under the experimental conditions. This microcosm study suggests that AgNPs under environmentally relevant experimental conditions can negatively affect bacterial function and provides an insight into the understanding of the bacterial community response and resilience to AgNPs exposure, important for informing relevant regulatory measures. - Highlights: • AgNPs affected the bacterial community function in estuarine marine sediments. • AgNPs inhibited the bacterial utilization of environmentally relevant substrates. • Heterotrophic bacterial groups showed resilience to AgNPs after 120 h exposure. • AgNPs did not affect the bacterial community structure in sediments. - AgNPs inhibited the bacterial utilization of environmentally relevant substrates and caused temporary shifts in the bacterial functional diversity in marine estuarine sediments

  19. Eco-friendly microbial route to synthesize cobalt nanoparticles using Bacillus thuringiensis against malaria and dengue vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marimuthu, Sampath; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Kirthi, Arivarasan Vishnu; Santhoshkumar, Thirunavukkarasu; Jayaseelan, Chidambaram; Rajakumar, Govindasamy

    2013-12-01

    The developments of resistance and persistence to chemical insecticides and concerns about the non-target effects have prompted the development of eco-friendly mosquito control agents. The aim of this study was to investigate the larvicidal activities of synthesized cobalt nanoparticles (Co NPs) using bio control agent, Bacillus thuringiensis against malaria vector, Anopheles subpictus and dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). The synthesized Co NPs were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). XRD analysis showed three distinct diffraction peaks at 27.03°, 31.00°, and 45.58° indexed to the planes 102, 122, and 024, respectively on the face-centered cubic cobalt acetate with an average size of 85.3 nm. FTIR spectra implicated role of the peak at 3,436 cm(-1) for O-H hydroxyl group, 2924 cm(-1) for methylene C-H stretch in the formation of Co NPs. FESEM analysis showed the topological and morphological appearance of NPs which were found to be spherical and oval in shape. TEM analysis showed polydispersed and clustered NPs with an average size of 84.81 nm. The maximum larvicidal mortality was observed in the cobalt acetate solution, B. thuringiensis formulation, and synthesized Co NPs against fourth instar larvae of A. subpictus and A. aegypti with LC50 values of 29.16, 8.12, 3.59 mg/L; 34.61, 6.94, and 2.87 mg/L; r (2) values of 0.986, 0.933, 0.942; 0.962, 0.957, and 0.922, respectively.

  20. Structural and magnetic properties of cobalt-doped iron oxide nanoparticles prepared by solution combustion method for biomedical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesan K

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Kaliyamoorthy Venkatesan,1 Dhanakotti Rajan Babu,1 Mane Prabhu Kavya Bai,2 Ravi Supriya,2 Radhakrishnan Vidya,2 Saminathan Madeswaran,1 Pandurangan Anandan,3 Mukannan Arivanandhan,3 Yasuhiro Hayakawa3 1School of Advanced Sciences, 2School of Bio Sciences and Technology, VIT University, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India; 3Research Institute of Electronics, Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu, Japan Abstract: Cobalt-doped iron oxide nanoparticles were prepared by solution combustion technique. The structural and magnetic properties of the prepared samples were also investigated. The average crystallite size of cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4 magnetic nanoparticle was calculated using Scherrer equation, and it was found to be 16±5 nm. The particle size was measured by transmission electron microscope. This value was found to match with the crystallite size calculated by Scherrer equation corresponding to the prominent intensity peak (311 of X-ray diffraction. The high-resolution transmission electron microscope image shows clear lattice fringes and high crystallinity of cobalt ferrite magnetic nanoparticles. The synthesized magnetic nanoparticles exhibited the saturation magnetization value of 47 emu/g and coercivity of 947 Oe. The anti-microbial activity of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles showed better results as an anti-bacterial agent. The affinity constant was determined for the nanoparticles, and the cytotoxicity studies were conducted for the cobalt ferrite nanoparticles at different concentrations and the results are discussed. Keywords: cytotoxicity, HR-TEM, magnetic nanoparticles, VSM 

  1. Characterisation of Microbial Cellulose Modified by Graft Copolymerization Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tita Puspitasari; Cynthia Linaya Radiman

    2008-01-01

    Chemical and phisycal modifications of polymer can be carried out by radiation induced graft copolymerization. This research was carried out to study the morphology and crystallinity of microbial cellulose copolymer grafted by acrylic acid (MC-g-AAC). The SEM microstructural analysis proved that the acrylic acid could diffuse into the microbial celullose and resulted a dense structure. Crystallinity measurement showded that the crystalinity of microbial cellulose increase from 50 % to 53 % after modification. (author)

  2. Crystalline color superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alford, Mark; Bowers, Jeffrey A.; Rajagopal, Krishna

    2001-01-01

    In any context in which color superconductivity arises in nature, it is likely to involve pairing between species of quarks with differing chemical potentials. For suitable values of the differences between chemical potentials, Cooper pairs with nonzero total momentum are favored, as was first realized by Larkin, Ovchinnikov, Fulde, and Ferrell (LOFF). Condensates of this sort spontaneously break translational and rotational invariance, leading to gaps which vary periodically in a crystalline pattern. Unlike the original LOFF state, these crystalline quark matter condensates include both spin-zero and spin-one Cooper pairs. We explore the range of parameters for which crystalline color superconductivity arises in the QCD phase diagram. If in some shell within the quark matter core of a neutron star (or within a strange quark star) the quark number densities are such that crystalline color superconductivity arises, rotational vortices may be pinned in this shell, making it a locus for glitch phenomena

  3. Dissolution of crystalline ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, W.B.

    1982-01-01

    The present program objectives are to lay out the fundamentals of crystalline waste form dissolution. Nuclear waste ceramics are polycrystalline. An assumption of the work is that to the first order, the release rate of a particular radionuclide is the surface-weighted sum of the release rates of the radionuclide from each crystalline form that contains it. In the second order, of course, there will be synergistic effects. There will be also grain boundary and other microstructural influences. As a first approximation, we have selected crystalline phases one at a time. The sequence of investigations and measurements is: (i) Identification of the actual chemical reactions of dissolution including identification of the solid reaction products if such occur. (ii) The rates of these reactions are then determined empirically to give what may be called macroscopic kinetics. (iii) Determination of the rate-controlling mechanisms. (iv) If the rate is controlled by surface reactions, the final step would be to determine the atomic kinetics, that is the specific atomic reactions that occur at the dissolving interface. Our concern with the crystalline forms are in two areas: The crystalline components of the reference ceramic waste form and related ceramics and the alumino-silicate phases that appear in some experimental waste forms and as waste-rock interaction products. Specific compounds are: (1) Reference Ceramic Phases (zirconolite, magnetoplumbite, spinel, Tc-bearing spinel and perovskite); (2) Aluminosilicate phases (nepheline, pollucite, CsAlSi 5 O 12 , Sr-feldspar). 5 figures, 1 table

  4. Thermodynamics of Crystalline States

    CERN Document Server

    Fujimoto, Minoru

    2010-01-01

    Thermodynamics is a well-established discipline of physics for properties of matter in thermal equilibrium surroundings. Applying to crystals, however, the laws encounter undefined properties of crystal lattices, which therefore need to be determined for a clear and well-defined description of crystalline states. Thermodynamics of Crystalline States explores the roles played by order variables and dynamic lattices in crystals in a wholly new way. This book is divided into three parts. The book begins by clarifying basic concepts for stable crystals. Next, binary phase transitions are discussed to study collective motion of order variables, as described mostly as classical phenomena. In the third part, the multi-electron system is discussed theoretically, as a quantum-mechanical example, for the superconducting state in metallic crystals. Throughout the book, the role played by the lattice is emphasized and examined in-depth. Thermodynamics of Crystalline States is an introductory treatise and textbook on meso...

  5. Liquid crystalline dihydroazulene photoswitches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ugleholdt; Jevric, Martyn; Mandle, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    A large selection of photochromic dihydroazulene (DHA) molecules incorporating various substituents at position 2 of the DHA core was prepared and investigated for their ability to form liquid crystalline phases. Incorporation of an octyloxy-substituted biphenyl substituent resulted in nematic...... phase behavior and it was possible to convert one such compound partly into its vinylheptafulvene (VHF) isomer upon irradiation with light when in the liquid crystalline phase. This conversion resulted in an increase in the molecular alignment of the phase. In time, the meta-stable VHF returns...... to the DHA where the alignment is maintained. The systematic structural variation has revealed that a biaryl spacer between the DHA and the alkyl chain is needed for liquid crystallinity and that the one aromatic ring in the spacer cannot be substituted by a triazole. This work presents an important step...

  6. Influence of in ovo injection and subsequent provision of silver nanoparticles on growth performance, microbial profile, and immune status of broiler chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pineda, Lane Manalili; Sawosz, Ewa; Lauridsen, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    -hatching, drinking water containing three silver nanoparticle concentrations (0, 10, and 20 mg/kg) was offered for 4 weeks. Body weight and feed consumption were measured weekly. At days 22 and 36, blood samples and intestinal contents were collected to evaluate the effects of the silver nanoparticles on plasma...

  7. Growth and Brilliant Photo-Emission of Crystalline Hexagonal Column of Alq3 Microwires

    OpenAIRE

    Seokho Kim; Do Hyoung Kim; Jinho Choi; Hojin Lee; Sun-Young Kim; Jung Woon Park; Dong Hyuk Park

    2018-01-01

    We report the growth and nanoscale luminescence characteristics of 8-hydroxyquinolinato aluminum (Alq3) with a crystalline hexagonal column morphology. Pristine Alq3 nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared using a conventional reprecipitation method. Crystal hexagonal columns of Alq3 were grown by using a surfactant-assisted self-assembly technique as an adjunct to the aforementioned reprecipitation method. The formation and structural properties of the crystalline and non-crystalline Alq3 NPs were...

  8. Structural and magnetic properties of cobalt-doped iron oxide nanoparticles prepared by solution combustion method for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, Kaliyamoorthy; Rajan Babu, Dhanakotti; Kavya Bai, Mane Prabhu; Supriya, Ravi; Vidya, Radhakrishnan; Madeswaran, Saminathan; Anandan, Pandurangan; Arivanandhan, Mukannan; Hayakawa, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Cobalt-doped iron oxide nanoparticles were prepared by solution combustion technique. The structural and magnetic properties of the prepared samples were also investigated. The average crystallite size of cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) magnetic nanoparticle was calculated using Scherrer equation, and it was found to be 16±5 nm. The particle size was measured by transmission electron microscope. This value was found to match with the crystallite size calculated by Scherrer equation corresponding to the prominent intensity peak (311) of X-ray diffraction. The high-resolution transmission electron microscope image shows clear lattice fringes and high crystallinity of cobalt ferrite magnetic nanoparticles. The synthesized magnetic nanoparticles exhibited the saturation magnetization value of 47 emu/g and coercivity of 947 Oe. The anti-microbial activity of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles showed better results as an anti-bacterial agent. The affinity constant was determined for the nanoparticles, and the cytotoxicity studies were conducted for the cobalt ferrite nanoparticles at different concentrations and the results are discussed.

  9. The effects of bacteria on crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    Many reactions involving inorganic minerals at water-rock interfaces have now been recognized to be bacterially mediated; these reactions could have a significant effect in the excavation of vaults for toxic and radioactive waste disposal. To investigate the role that bacteria play in the natural aqueous environment of crystalline rock the microbial growth factors of nutrition, energy and environment are described. Microbial activity has been investigated in Atomic Energy of Canada's Underground Research Laboratory (URL), situated in the Archean granitic Lac du Bonnet Batholith, Winnipeg, Manitoba. Faults, initiated in the Early Proterozoic, and later-formed fractures, provide ground-water pathways. Planktonic bacteria, free-swimming in the groundwater, have been observed in over 100 underground borehole samples. The number of bacteria varied from 10 3 to 10 5 mL -1 and appeared to decrease with depth and with increased salinity of the water. However, in the natural environment of deep (100-500 m) crystalline rocks, where nutrition is limited, formation of biofilms by sessile bacteria is a successful survival strategy. Natural biofilms at the URL and biofilms grown in bioreactors have been studied. The biofilms can accumulate different elements, depending upon the local environment. Precipitates of iron have been found in all the biofilms studied, where they are either passively accumulated or utilized as an energy source. Within the biofilm active and extensive biogeochemical immobilization of dissolved elements is controlled by distinct bacterial activities which are sufficiently discrete for hematite and siderite to be precipitated in close proximity

  10. Supercooled smectic nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuntsche, Judith; Westesen, K; Drechsler, M

    2004-01-01

    The possibility of preparing nanoparticles in the supercooled thermotropic liquid crystalline state from cholesterol esters with saturated acyl chains as well as the incorporation of model drugs into the dispersions was investigated using cholesteryl myristate (CM) as a model cholesterol ester....

  11. Crystalline structure of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holas, A.

    1972-01-01

    An attempt is made to find the crystalline structure of metals on the basis of the existing theory of metals. The considerations are limited to the case of free crystals, that is, not subjected to any stresses and with T=0. The energy of the crystal lattice has been defined and the dependence of each term on structures and other properties of metals has been described. The energy has been used to find the values of crystalline structure parameters as the values at which the energy has an absolute minimum. The stability of the structure has been considered in cases of volume changes and shearing deformations. A semiqualitative description has been obtained which explains characteristic properties of one-electron metals. (S.B.)

  12. Thermodynamics of Crystalline States

    CERN Document Server

    Fujimoto, Minoru

    2013-01-01

    Thermodynamics is a well-established discipline of physics for properties of matter in thermal equilibrium with the surroundings. Applying to crystals, however, the laws encounter undefined properties of crystal lattice, which therefore need to be determined for a clear and well-defined description of crystalline states. Thermodynamics of Crystalline States explores the roles played by order variables and dynamic lattices in crystals in a wholly new way. The book begins by clarifying basic concepts for stable crystals. Next, binary phase transitions are discussed to study collective motion of order variables, as described mostly as classical phenomena. New to this edition is the examination of magnetic crystals, where magnetic symmetry is essential for magnetic phase transitions. The multi-electron system is also discussed  theoretically, as a quantum-mechanical example, for superconductivity in metallic crystals. Throughout the book, the role played by the lattice is emphasized and studied in-depth. Thermod...

  13. Crystalline beam ground state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Jie; Li, Xiao-Ping

    1993-01-01

    In order to employ molecular dynamics (MD) methods, commonly used in condensed matter physics, we have derived the equations of motion for a beam of charged particles in the rotating rest frame of the reference particle. We include in the formalism that the particles are confined by the guiding and focusing magnetic fields, and that they are confined in a conducting vacuum pipe while interacting with each other via a Coulomb force. Numerical simulations using MD methods has been performed to obtain the equilibrium crystalline beam structure. The effect of the shearing force, centrifugal force, and azimuthal variation of the focusing strength are investigated. It is found that a constant gradient storage ring can not give a crystalline beam, but that an alternating-gradient (AG) structure can. In such a machine the ground state is, except for one-dimensional (1-D) crystals, time dependent. The ground state is a zero entropy state, despite the time-dependent, periodic variation of the focusing force. The nature of the ground state, similar to that found by Schiffer et al. depends upon the density and the relative focusing strengths in the transverse directions. At low density, the crystal is 1-D. As the density increases, it transforms into various kinds of 2-D and 3-D crystals. If the energy of the beam is higher than the transition energy of the machine, the crystalline structure can not be formed for lack of radial focusing

  14. Tapioca starch: An efficient fuel in gel-combustion synthesis of photocatalytically and anti-microbially active ZnO nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramasami, Alamelu K. [Centre for Nano and Material Sciences, Jain University, Jakkasandra, Kanakapura (T) (India); Raja Naika, H. [Dept. of Biotechnology, University College of Science, Tumkur University, Tumkur (India); Nagabhushana, H. [CNR Rao Centre for Advanced Materials, Tumkur University, Tumkur (India); Ramakrishnappa, T.; Balakrishna, Geetha R. [Centre for Nano and Material Sciences, Jain University, Jakkasandra, Kanakapura (T) (India); Nagaraju, G., E-mail: nagarajugn@rediffmail.com [Centre for Nano and Material Sciences, Jain University, Jakkasandra, Kanakapura (T) (India); Dept. of Chemistry, Siddaganga Institute of Technology, Tumkur (India)

    2015-01-15

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by gel-combustion method using novel bio-fuel tapioca starch pearls, derived from the tubers of Manihotesculenta. The product is characterized using various techniques. The X-ray diffraction pattern correspond to a hexagonal zincite structure. Fourier transform infrared spectrum showed main absorption peaks at 394 and 508 cm{sup −} {sup 1} due to stretching vibration of Zn–O. Ultravoilet–visible spectrum of zinc oxide nanoparticles showed absorption maximum at 373 nm whereas the maximum of the bulk zinc oxide was 377 nm. The morphology of the product was studied using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The scanning electron microscopic images showed that the products are agglomerated and porous in nature. The transmission electron microscopic images revealed spherical particles of 40–50 nm in diameter. The photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue was examined using zinc oxide nanoparticles and found more efficient in sunlight than ultra-violet light due to reduced band gap. The antibacterial properties of zinc oxide nanoparticles were investigated against four bacterial strains Klebsiella aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aereus, where Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aereus exhibited significant antibacterial activity in agar well diffusion method when compared to positive control. - Highlights: • ZnO nanoparticles have been prepared from a new bio-fuel, tapioca starch by gel combustion method. • XRD pattern revealed hexagonal zincite crystal structure with crystallite size 33 nm. • ZnO nanoparticles exhibited a band gap of 2.70 eV. • The ZnO nanoparticles exhibited superior degradation in sunlight in comparison with UV light. • The product showed a good anti-bacterial activity against two bacterial strains.

  15. Process variables in biomimetic synthesis of silver nanoparticles by aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica (Neem) leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathy, A. [VIT University, School of Biotechnology, Chemical and Biomedical Engineering (India); Raichur, Ashok M. [Indian Institute of Science, Department of Materials Engineering (India); Chandrasekaran, N.; Prathna, T. C.; Mukherjee, Amitava, E-mail: amit.mookerjea@gmail.co [VIT University, School of Biotechnology, Chemical and Biomedical Engineering (India)

    2010-01-15

    Owing to widespread applications, synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles is recently attracting considerable attention. Increasing environmental concerns over chemical synthesis routes have resulted in attempts to develop biomimetic approaches. One of them is synthesis using plant parts, which eliminates the elaborate process of maintaining the microbial culture and often found to be kinetically favourable than other bioprocesses. The present study deals with investigating the effect of process variables like reductant concentrations, reaction pH, mixing ratio of the reactants and interaction time on the morphology and size of silver nanoparticles synthesized using aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica (Neem) leaves. The formation of crystalline silver nanoparticles was confirmed using X-ray diffraction analysis. By means of UV spectroscopy, Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy techniques, it was observed that the morphology and size of the nanoparticles were strongly dependent on the process parameters. Within 4 h interaction period, nanoparticles below 20-nm-size with nearly spherical shape were produced. On increasing interaction time (ageing) to 66 days, both aggregation and shape anisotropy (ellipsoidal, polyhedral and capsular) of the particles increased. In alkaline pH range, the stability of cluster distribution increased with a declined tendency for aggregation of the particles. It can be inferred from the study that fine tuning the bioprocess parameters will enhance possibilities of desired nano-product tailor made for particular applications.

  16. Process variables in biomimetic synthesis of silver nanoparticles by aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica (Neem) leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathy, A.; Raichur, Ashok M.; Chandrasekaran, N.; Prathna, T. C.; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2010-01-01

    Owing to widespread applications, synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles is recently attracting considerable attention. Increasing environmental concerns over chemical synthesis routes have resulted in attempts to develop biomimetic approaches. One of them is synthesis using plant parts, which eliminates the elaborate process of maintaining the microbial culture and often found to be kinetically favourable than other bioprocesses. The present study deals with investigating the effect of process variables like reductant concentrations, reaction pH, mixing ratio of the reactants and interaction time on the morphology and size of silver nanoparticles synthesized using aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica (Neem) leaves. The formation of crystalline silver nanoparticles was confirmed using X-ray diffraction analysis. By means of UV spectroscopy, Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy techniques, it was observed that the morphology and size of the nanoparticles were strongly dependent on the process parameters. Within 4 h interaction period, nanoparticles below 20-nm-size with nearly spherical shape were produced. On increasing interaction time (ageing) to 66 days, both aggregation and shape anisotropy (ellipsoidal, polyhedral and capsular) of the particles increased. In alkaline pH range, the stability of cluster distribution increased with a declined tendency for aggregation of the particles. It can be inferred from the study that fine tuning the bioprocess parameters will enhance possibilities of desired nano-product tailor made for particular applications.

  17. WORKSHOP: Crystalline beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    Following pioneer work by specialists at the Soviet Novosibirsk Laboratory some ten years ago, interest developed in the possibility of 'freezing' ion beams in storage rings by pushing cooling (to smooth out beam behaviour) to its limits, the final goal being to lock the ions into a neat crystal pattern. After advances by groups working on laser cooled ions in traps, and with several cooling rings now in operation, a workshop on crystalline ion beams was organized recently by the GSI (Darmstadt) Laboratory and held at Wertheim in Germany

  18. Microbial-Physical Synthesis of Fe and Fe3O4 Magnetic Nanoparticles Using Aspergillus niger YESM1 and Supercritical Condition of Ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai Abdeen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic Fe and Fe3O4 (magnetite nanoparticles are successfully synthesized using Aspergillus niger YESM 1 and supercritical condition of liquids. Aspergillus niger is used for decomposition of FeSO4 and FeCl3 to FeS and Fe2O3, respectively. The produced particles are exposed to supercritical condition of ethanol for 1 hour at 300°C and pressure of 850 psi. The phase structure and the morphology measurements yield pure iron and major Fe3O4 spherical nanoparticles with average size of 18 and 50 nm, respectively. The crystal size amounts to 9 nm for Fe and 8 nm for Fe3O4. The magnetic properties are measured to exhibit superparamagnetic- and ferromagnetic-like behaviors for Fe and Fe3O4 nanoparticles, respectively. The saturation magnetization amounts to 112 and 68 emu/g for Fe and Fe3O4, respectively. The obtained results open new route for using the biophysical method for large-scale production of highly magnetic nanoparticles to be used for biomedical applications.

  19. Microbial-Physical Synthesis of Fe and Fe_3O_4 Magnetic Nanoparticles Using Aspergillus niger YESM1 and Supercritical Condition of Ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdeen, M.; Sabry, S.; Ghozlan, H.; El-Gendy, A. A.; Carpenter, E.E.; El-Gendy, A. A.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic Fe and Fe_3O_4 (magnetite) nanoparticles are successfully synthesized using Aspergillus niger YESM 1 and supercritical condition of liquids. Aspergillus niger is used for decomposition of FeSO_4 and FeCl_3 to FeS and Fe_2O_3, respectively. The produced particles are exposed to supercritical condition of ethanol for 1 hour at 300 degree and pressure of 850 psi. The phase structure and the morphology measurements yield pure iron and major Fe_3O_4 spherical nanoparticles with average size of 18 and 50 nm, respectively. The crystal size amounts to 9 nm for Fe and 8 nm for Fe_3O_4. The magnetic properties are measured to exhibit superparamagnetic- and ferromagnetic-like behaviors for Fe and Fe_3O_4 nanoparticles, respectively. The saturation magnetization amounts to 112 and 68 emu/g for Fe and Fe_3O_4, respectively. The obtained results open new route for using the biophysical method for large-scale production of highly magnetic nanoparticles to be used for biomedical applications

  20. Crystalline beam ground state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Jie; Li, Xiao-Ping; Sessler, A.M.

    1993-01-01

    In order to employ Molecular Dynamics method, commonly used in condensed matter physics, we have derived the equations of motion for a beam of charged particles in the rotating rest frame of the reference particle. We include in the formalism that the particles are confined by the guiding and focusing magnetic fields, and that they are confined in a conducting vacuum pipe while interacting with each other via a Coulomb force. Numerical simulations has been performed to obtain the equilibrium structure. The effects of the shearing force, centrifugal force, and azimuthal variation of the focusing strength are investigated. It is found that a constant gradient storage ring can not give a crystalline beam, but that an alternating-gradient (AG) structure can. In such a machine the ground state is, except for one-dimensional (1-D) crystals, time-dependent. The ground state is a zero entropy state, despite the time-dependent, periodic variation of the focusing force. The nature of the ground state, similar to that found by Rahman and Schiffer, depends upon the density and the relative focusing strengths in the transverse directions. At low density, the crystal is 1-D. As the density increases, it transforms into various kinds of 2-D and 3-D crystals. If the energy of the beam is higher than the transition energy of the machine, the crystalline structure can not be formed for lack of radial focusing

  1. Crystalline beam ground state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, J.; Li, X.P.

    1993-01-01

    In order to employ the Molecular Dynamics method, commonly used in condensed matter physics, the authors have derived the equations of motion for a beam of charged particles in the rotating rest frame of the reference particle. They include in the formalism that the particles are confined by the guiding and focusing magnetic fields, and that they are confined in a conducting vacuum pipe while interacting with each other via a Coulomb force. Numerical simulations has been performed to obtain the equilibrium structure. The effects of the shearing force, centrifugal force, and azimuthal variation of the focusing strength are investigated. It is found that a constant gradient storage ring can not give a crystalline beam, but that an alternating-gradient (AG) structure can. In such a machine the ground state is, except for one-dimensional (1-D) crystals, time-dependent. The ground state is a zero entropy state, despite the time-dependent, periodic variation of the focusing force. The nature of the ground state, similar to that found by Rahman and Schiffer, depends upon the density and the relative focusing strengths in the transverse directions. At low density, the crystal is 1-D. As the density increases, it transforms into various kinds of 2-D and 3-D crystals. If the energy of the beam is higher than the transition energy of the machine, the crystalline structure can not be formed for lack of radial focusing

  2. Liquid crystalline order in polymers

    CERN Document Server

    Blumstein, Alexandre

    1978-01-01

    Liquid Crystalline Order in Polymers examines the topic of liquid crystalline order in systems containing rigid synthetic macromolecular chains. Each chapter of the book provides a review of one important area of the field. Chapter 1 discusses scattering in polymer systems with liquid crystalline order. It also introduces the field of liquid crystals. Chapter 2 treats the origin of liquid crystalline order in macromolecules by describing the in-depth study of conformation of such macromolecules in their unassociated state. The chapters that follow describe successively the liquid crystalli

  3. Crystalline lens radioprotectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belkacemi, Y.; Pasquier, D.; Castelain, B.; Lartigau, E.; Warnet, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    During more than a half of century, numerous compounds have been tested in different models against radiation-induced cataract. In this report, we will review the radioprotectors that have been already tested for non-human crystalline lens protection. We will focus on the most important published studies in this topic and the mechanisms of cyto-protection reported in. vitro and in. vivo from animals. The most frequent mechanisms incriminated in the cyto-protective effect are: free radical scavenging, limitation of lipid peroxidation, modulation of cycle progression increase of intracellular reduced glutathione pool, reduction of DNA strand breaks and limitation of apoptotic cell death. Arnifostine (or Ethyol) and anethole dithiolethione (or Sulfarlem), already used clinically as chemo- and radio-protectants, could be further test?r for ocular radioprotection particularly for radiation-induced cataract. (author)

  4. Groundwater in crystalline bedrock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmqvist, K.

    1990-06-01

    The aim of this project was to make detailed descriptions of the geological conditions and the different kinds of leakage in some tunnels in Sweden, to be able to describe the presence of ground water in crystalline bedrock. The studies were carried out in TBM tunnels as well as in conventionally drilled and blasted tunnels. Thanks to this, it has been possible to compare the pattern and appearance of ground water leakage in TBM tunnels and in blasted tunnels. On the basis of some experiments in a TBM tunnel, it has been confirmed that a detailed mapping of leakage gives a good picture of the flow paths and their aquiferous qualities in the bedrock. The same picture is found to apply even in cautious blasted tunnels. It is shown that the ground water flow paths in crystalline bedrock are usually restricted to small channels along only small parts of the fractures. This is also true for fracture zones. It has also been found that the number of flow paths generally increases with the degree of tectonisation, up to a given point. With further tectonisation the bedrock is more or less crushed which, along with mineral alteration, leaves only a little space left for the formation of water channels. The largest individual flow paths are usually found in fracture zones. The total amount of ground water leakage per m tunnel is also greater in fracture zones than in the bedrock between the fracture zones. In mapping visible leakage, five classes have been distinguished according to size. Where possible, the individual leak inflow has been measured during the mapping process. The quantification of the leakage classes made in different tunnels are compared, and some quantification standards suggested. A comparison of leakage in different rock types, tectonic zones, fractures etc is also presented. (author)

  5. Effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles synthesized by a precipitation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by a precipitation method in aqueous media from zinc nitrate hexahydrate and sodium hydroxide. The synthesized ZnO nanoparticles exhibited a crystalline structure with hexagonal structure of the wurtzite. The morphology of the synthesized ZnO nanoparticles presented a spherical ...

  6. Crystalline Bioceramic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Aza, P. N.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A strong interest in the use of ceramics for biomedical engineering applications developed in the late 1960´s. Used initially as alternatives to metallic materials in order to increase the biocompatibility of implants, bioceramics have become a diverse class of biomaterials, presently including three basic types: relatively bioinert ceramics; bioactive or surface reactive bioceramics and bioresorbable ceramics. This review will only refer to bioceramics “sensus stricto”, it is to say, those ceramic materials constituted for nonmetallic inorganic compounds, crystallines and consolidated by thermal treatments of powders to high temperatures. Leaving bioglasses, glass-ceramics and biocements apart, since, although all of them are obtained by thermal treatments to high temperatures, the first are amorphous, the second are obtained by desvitrification of a glass and in them vitreous phase normally prevails on the crystalline phases and the third are consolidated by means of a hydraulic or chemical reaction to room temperature. A review of the composition, physiochemical properties and biological behaviour of the principal types of crystalline bioceramics is given, based on the literature data and on the own experience of the authors.

    A finales de los años sesenta se despertó un gran interés por el uso de los materiales cerámicos para aplicaciones biomédicas. Inicialmente utilizados como una alternativa a los materiales metálicos, con el propósito de incrementar la biocompatibilidad de los implantes, las biocerámicas se han convertido en una clase diversa de biomateriales, incluyendo actualmente tres tipos: cerámicas cuasi inertes; cerámicas bioactivas o reactivas superficialmente y cerámicas reabsorbibles o biodegradables. En la presente revisión se hace referencia a las biocerámicas en sentido estricto, es decir, a aquellos materiales constitutitos por compuestos inorgánicos no metálicos, cristalinos y consolidados

  7. Synthesis and characterization of cobalt/gold bimetallic nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Guangjun; Hight Walker, Angela R.

    2007-01-01

    Cobalt/gold (Co/Au) bimetallic nanoparticles are prepared by chemically reducing gold (III) chloride to gold in the presence of pre-synthesized Co nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption spectrometry, and a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer have been used to characterize as-prepared bimetallic nanoparticles. Our findings demonstrate Au not only grows onto Co nanoparticles, forming a surface coating, but also diffuses into Co nanoparticles. The introduction of Au alters the crystalline structure of Co nanoparticles and changes their magnetic properties. Dodecanethiols induce a reorganization of as-prepared Co/Au bimetallic nanoparticles

  8. Neutron transmission through crystalline Fe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adib, M.; Habib, N.; Kilany, M.; El-Mesiry, M.S.

    2004-01-01

    The neutron transmission through crystalline Fe has been calculated for neutron energies in the range 10 4 < E<10 eV using an additive formula. The formula permits calculation of the nuclear capture, thermal diffuse and Bragg scattering cross-section as a function of temperature and crystalline form. The obtained agreement between the calculated values and available experimental ones justifies the applicability of the used formula. A feasibility study on using poly-crystalline Fe as a cold neutron filter and a large Fe single crystal as a thermal one is given

  9. Amorphous nanoparticles — Experiments and computer simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoang, Vo Van; Ganguli, Dibyendu

    2012-01-01

    The data obtained by both experiments and computer simulations concerning the amorphous nanoparticles for decades including methods of synthesis, characterization, structural properties, atomic mechanism of a glass formation in nanoparticles, crystallization of the amorphous nanoparticles, physico-chemical properties (i.e. catalytic, optical, thermodynamic, magnetic, bioactivity and other properties) and various applications in science and technology have been reviewed. Amorphous nanoparticles coated with different surfactants are also reviewed as an extension in this direction. Much attention is paid to the pressure-induced polyamorphism of the amorphous nanoparticles or amorphization of the nanocrystalline counterparts. We also introduce here nanocomposites and nanofluids containing amorphous nanoparticles. Overall, amorphous nanoparticles exhibit a disordered structure different from that of corresponding bulks or from that of the nanocrystalline counterparts. Therefore, amorphous nanoparticles can have unique physico-chemical properties differed from those of the crystalline counterparts leading to their potential applications in science and technology.

  10. Phyto-assisted synthesis of bio-functionalised silver nanoparticles and their potential anti-oxidant, anti-microbial and wound healing activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanta, Yugal Kishore; Biswas, Kunal; Panda, Sujogya Kumar; Bandyopadhyay, Jaya; De, Debashis; Jayabalan, Rasu; Bastia, Akshaya Kumar; Mohanta, Tapan Kumar

    2017-12-01

    Bio- synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was made by using the aqueous leaf extract of Ardisia solanacea. Rapid formation of AgNPs was observed from silver nitrate upon treatment with the aqueous extract of A. solanacea leaf. The formation and stability of the AgNPs in the colloidal solution were monitored by UV-visible spectrophotometer. The mean particle diameter of AgNPs was calculated from the DLS with an average size ∼4 nm and ∼65 nm. ATR-FTIR spectroscopy confirmed the presence of alcohols, aldehydes, flavonoids, phenols and nitro compounds in the leaf which act as the stabilizing agent. Antimicrobial activity of the synthesized AgNPs was performed using agar well diffusion and broth dilution method against the Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Further, robust anti-oxidative potential was evaluated by DPPH assay. The highest antimicrobial activity of synthesized AgNPs was found against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (28.2 ± 0.52 mm) whereas moderate activity was found against Bacillus subtilis (16.1 ± 0.76), Candida kruseii (13.0 ± 1.0), and Trichophyton mentagrophytes (12.6 ± 1.52). Moreover, the potential wound healing activity was observed against the BJ-5Ta normal fibroblast cell line. Current research revealed that A. solanacea was found to be a suitable source for the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles.

  11. ATMP-stabilized iron nanoparticles: chelator-controlled nanoparticle synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenlee, Lauren F.; Rentz, Nikki S.

    2014-11-01

    In this study, we characterize iron nanoparticles synthesized in water in the presence of a phosphonate chelator, amino tris(methylene phosphonic acid) (ATMP) for a range of molar ratios of ATMP to iron. An increase in the molar ratio from 0.05 to 0.8 decreases nanoparticle size from approximately 150 nm to less than 10 nm. Zeta potential measurements were used to evaluate colloidal stability. Zeta potential values varied as a function of pH, and zeta potential values decreased with increasing pH. At lower molar ratios of ATMP to iron, the zeta potential varied between 15 and -40 mV, passing through an isoelectric point at pH 7.5. At higher ratios, the zeta potential was negative across the measured pH range of 2-12 and varied from -2 to -55 mV. Diffraction analysis indicates that ATMP-stabilized iron nanoparticles may have a nano-crystalline structure, potentially with regions of amorphous iron. Characterization results of ATMP-stabilized iron nanoparticles are compared to results obtained for carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)-stabilized iron nanoparticles. CMC stabilization caused similar peak broadening in diffraction spectra as for ATMP, suggesting similar nano-crystalline/amorphous structure; however, an increase in the molar ratio of CMC to iron did not cause the same reduction in nanoparticle size as was observed for ATMP-stabilized iron nanoparticles.

  12. Microbial biosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Yu; Chen, Wilfred; Mulchandani, Ashok

    2006-01-01

    A microbial biosensor is an analytical device that couples microorganisms with a transducer to enable rapid, accurate and sensitive detection of target analytes in fields as diverse as medicine, environmental monitoring, defense, food processing and safety. The earlier microbial biosensors used the respiratory and metabolic functions of the microorganisms to detect a substance that is either a substrate or an inhibitor of these processes. Recently, genetically engineered microorganisms based on fusing of the lux, gfp or lacZ gene reporters to an inducible gene promoter have been widely applied to assay toxicity and bioavailability. This paper reviews the recent trends in the development and application of microbial biosensors. Current advances and prospective future direction in developing microbial biosensor have also been discussed

  13. Exploiting fruit byproducts for eco-friendly nanosynthesis: Citrus × clementina peel extract mediated fabrication of silver nanoparticles with high efficacy against microbial pathogens and rat glial tumor C6 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saratale, Rijuta Ganesh; Shin, Han-Seung; Kumar, Gopalakrishnan; Benelli, Giovanni; Ghodake, Gajanan S; Jiang, Yuan Yuan; Kim, Dong Su; Saratale, Ganesh Dattatraya

    2018-04-01

    Process byproducts from the fruit industry may represent a cheap and reliable source of green reducing agents to be used in current bio-nanosynthesis. This study reports the use of orange (Citrus × clementina) peel aqueous extract (OPE) for one-pot green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with high effectiveness against various microbial pathogens as well as rat glial tumor C6 cells. The effects of various operational parameters on the synthesis of AgNPs were systematically investigated. The morphology, particle size, and properties of synthesized AgNPs were characterized using UV-visible spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy shows that the nanoparticles are mostly spherical in shape and monodispersed, with an average particle size of 15-20 nm. Notably, the OPE-synthesized AgNPs were stable up to 6 months without change in their properties. Low doses of OPE-AgNPs inhibited the growth of human pathogens Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, and Staphylococcus aureus. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of AgNPs against selected pathogenic bacteria were determined. OPE-AgNPs exhibited strong antioxidant activity in terms of ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) radical scavenging (IC 50 49.6 μg/mL) and DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging (IC 50 63.4 μg/mL). OPE-AgNPs showed dose-dependent response against rat glial tumor C6 cells (LD 50 60 μg/mL) showing a promising potential as anticancer agents. Overall, the current investigation highlighted a cheap green technology route to synthesize AgNPs using OPE byproducts and could potentially be utilized in biomedical, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industry.

  14. The make up of crystalline bedrock - crystalline body and blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, M.; Huber, A.

    1986-01-01

    Statements of a geological nature can be made on the basis of investigations of the bedrock exposed in southern Black Forest and these can, in the form of prognoses, be applied to the crystalline Basement of northern Switzerland. Such statements relate to the average proportions of the main lithological groups at the bedrock surface and the surface area of the granite body. Some of the prognoses can be compared and checked with the results from the deep drilling programme in northern Switzerland. Further, analogical interferences from the situation in the southern Black Forest allow predictions to be made on the anticipated block structure of the crystalline Basement. (author)

  15. neutron transmission through crystalline materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Mesiry, M.S.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to study the neutron transmission through crystalline materials. Therefore a study of pyrolytic graphite (PG) as a highly efficient selective thermal neutron filter and Iron single crystal as a whole one, as well as the applicability of using their polycrystalline powders as a selective cold neutron filters is given. Moreover, the use of PG and iron single crystal as an efficient neutron monochromator is also investigated. An additive formula is given which allows calculating the contribution of the total neutron cross-section including the Bragg scattering from different )(hkl planes to the neutron transmission through crystalline iron and graphite. The formula takes into account their crystalline form. A computer CFe program was developed in order to provide the required calculations for both poly- and single-crystalline iron. The validity of the CFe program was approved from the comparison of the calculated iron cross-section data with the available experimental ones. The CFe program was also adapted to calculate the reflectivity from iron single crystal when it used as a neutron monochromator The computer package GRAPHITE, developed in Neutron Physics laboratory, Nuclear Research Center, has been used in order to provide the required calculations for crystalline graphite in the neutron energy range from 0.1 meV to 10 eV. A Mono-PG code was added to the computer package GRAPHITE in order to calculate the reflectivity from PG crystal when it used as a neutron monochromator.

  16. Diverse topics in crystalline beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Jie; Draeseke, A.; Sessler, A.M.; Li, Xiao-Ping

    1995-01-01

    Equations of motion are presented, appropriate to interacting charged particles of diverse charge and mass, subject to the external forces produced by various kinds of magnetic fields and radio-frequency (rf) electric fields in storage rings. These equations are employed in the molecular dynamics simulations to study the properties of crystalline beams. The two necessary conditions for the formation and maintenance of crystalline beams are summarized. The transition from ID to 2D, and from 2D to 3D is explored, and the scaling behavior of the heating rates is discussed especially in the high temperature limit. The effectiveness of various cooling techniques in achieving crystalline states has been investigated. Crystalline beams made of two different species of ions via sympathetic cooling are presented, as well as circulating ''crystal balls'' bunched in all directions by magnetic focusing and rf field. By numerically reconstructing the original experimental conditions of the NAP-M ring, it is found that only at extremely low beam intensities, outside of the range of the original measurement, proton particles can form occasionally-passing disks. The proposed New ASTRID ring is shown to be suitable for the formation and maintenance of crystalline beams of all dimensions

  17. Effect of hydroxyapatite particle size, morphology and crystallinity on proliferation of colon cancer HCT116 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dey, Sangeeta; Das, Mitun, E-mail: mitun@cgcri.res.in; Balla, Vamsi Krishna

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the present work is to chemically and physically characterize the synthesized Hydroxyapatite (HAp) micro and nanoparticles and to explore the inhibitory effect of nano-HAps on the in vitro growth of human colon cancerous cells HCT116. HAp powder was synthesized using three different routes to achieve micro and nanosized powders, with different morphologies and crystallinity. The synthesized powders were characterized using X-ray diffraction, FTIR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope. The results showed that the average crystallite size of HAp powder varies from 11 nm to 177 nm and respective crystallinity of powder found to be in the range of 0.12 and 0.92. The effect of these physico-chemical properties of HAp powders on human colon cancer HCT116 cells inhibition was determined in vitro. It was found that decreasing the HAp powder crystallite size between 11 nm and 22 nm significantly increases the HCT116 cell inhibition. Our results demonstrate that apart from HAp powder size their crystallinity and morphology also play an important role in cellular inhibition of human colon cancer cells. - Highlights: • Chemically synthesized hydroxyapatite micro and nano-particles with different morphologies and crystallinity. • In vitro cell–material interaction showed that hydroxyapatite nano-particles inhibit colon cancer cells. • Human colon cancer cell inhibition also depends on crystallinity and morphology of HAp powder.

  18. Verification of resistance to three mediated microbial strains and cancerous defense against MCF7 compared to HepG2 through microwave synthesized plant-mediated silver nanoparticle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Fattah, W. I.; Eid, M. M.; Hanafy, M. F.; Hussein, M.; Abd El-Moez, Sh I.; El-Hallouty, S. M.; Mohamed, E.

    2015-09-01

    The antimicrobial and anticancer efficiencies of green synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) through biogenic extracts were assessed on three bacterial strains and two cancer cell lines. Bio-synthesized AgNPs were achieved through domestic microwave generator for obtaining extracts from Asian nuts and Egyptian blackberry fruits. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) ˜435 nm demonstrated AgNPs earlier formation by the fruit extract. Capping by triglycerides/almond and phenols/berry extracts were responsible for the reduction proved by FTIR. XRD calculated particle sizes were 18 and 42 nm while TEM sizes are 24.5 and 21.5 nm for AgNPs from almond nut and blackberry fruits extracts (Alm.N.Ext. and BB.F.Ext.), respectively. Ag 3d5/2 was recorded at 368.12 eV for both samples through XPS. The monodispersed AgNPs recorded 0.727 and 0.5 polydispersity indices (PdI) for almond/Ag and berry/Ag, respectively. Zeta potential ˜ -31 and -13.2 for the same sequence confirmed the higher stability of the former. Reaction kinetics confirmed the advantage of fruit extract consuming only six minutes compared to nuts, consuming twice. Bactericidal effect of the extracts seldomly presented remarkable inhibition compared to extracts/Ag against the three species. In addition, Alm.N.Ext. showed the highest inhibition against staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) at 4 mM. The anti-cancerous effect of Ag/berry against HepG2 is stronger than Ag/almond, and similarly for MCF7.

  19. Verification of resistance to three mediated microbial strains and cancerous defense against MCF7 compared to HepG2 through microwave synthesized plant-mediated silver nanoparticle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Fattah, W I; Eid, M M; Hanafy, M F; Hussein, M; Mohamed, E; Abd El-Moez, Sh I; El-Hallouty, S M

    2015-01-01

    The antimicrobial and anticancer efficiencies of green synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) through biogenic extracts were assessed on three bacterial strains and two cancer cell lines. Bio-synthesized AgNPs were achieved through domestic microwave generator for obtaining extracts from Asian nuts and Egyptian blackberry fruits. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) ∼435 nm demonstrated AgNPs earlier formation by the fruit extract. Capping by triglycerides/almond and phenols/berry extracts were responsible for the reduction proved by FTIR. XRD calculated particle sizes were 18 and 42 nm while TEM sizes are 24.5 and 21.5 nm for AgNPs from almond nut and blackberry fruits extracts (Alm.N.Ext. and BB.F.Ext.), respectively. Ag 3d5/2 was recorded at 368.12 eV for both samples through XPS. The monodispersed AgNPs recorded 0.727 and 0.5 polydispersity indices (PdI) for almond/Ag and berry/Ag, respectively. Zeta potential ∼ −31 and −13.2 for the same sequence confirmed the higher stability of the former. Reaction kinetics confirmed the advantage of fruit extract consuming only six minutes compared to nuts, consuming twice. Bactericidal effect of the extracts seldomly presented remarkable inhibition compared to extracts/Ag against the three species. In addition, Alm.N.Ext. showed the highest inhibition against staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) at 4 mM. The anti-cancerous effect of Ag/berry against HepG2 is stronger than Ag/almond, and similarly for MCF7. (paper)

  20. Controlling growth density and patterning of single crystalline silicon nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Tung-Hao; Chang, Yu-Cheng; Liu, Fu-Ken; Chu, Tieh-Chi

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the usage of well-patterned Au nanoparticles (NPs) as a catalyst for one-dimensional growth of single crystalline Si nanowires (NWs) through the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism. The study reports the fabrication of monolayer Au NPs through the self-assembly of Au NPs on a 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS)-modified silicon substrate. Results indicate that the spin coating time of Au NPs plays a crucial role in determining the density of Au NPs on the surface of the silicon substrate and the later catalysis growth of Si NWs. The experiments in this study employed optical lithography to pattern Au NPs, treating them as a catalyst for Si NW growth. The patterned Si NW structures easily produced and controlled Si NW density. This approach may be useful for further studies on single crystalline Si NW-based nanodevices and their properties.

  1. Preparation and antibacterial activities of Ag/Ag+/Ag3+ nanoparticle composites made by pomegranate (Punica granatum) rind extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Ren, Yan-yu; Wang, Tao; Wang, Chuang

    Nano-silver and its composite materials are widely used in medicine, food and other industries due to their strong conductivity, size effect and other special performances. So far, more microbial researches have been applied, but a plant method is rarely reported. In order to open up a new way to prepare AgNP composites, pomegranate peel extract was used in this work to reduce Ag+ to prepare Ag/Ag+/Ag3+ nanoparticle composites. UV-Vis was employed to detect and track the reduction of Ag+ and the forming process of AgNPs. The composition, structure and size of the crystal were analyzed by XRD and TEM. Results showed that, under mild conditions, pomegranate peel extract reacted with dilute AgNO3 solution to produce Ag/Ag+/Ag3+ nanoparticle composites. At pH = 8 and 10 mmol/L of AgNO3 concentration, the size of the achieved composites ranged between 15 and 35 nm with spherical shapes and good crystallinity. The bactericidal experiment indicated that the prepared Ag/Ag+/Ag3+ nanoparticles had strong antibacterial activity against gram positive bacteria and gram negative bacteria. FTIR analysis revealed that biological macromolecules with groups of sbnd NH2, sbnd OH, and others were distributed on the surface of the newly synthesized Ag/Ag+/Ag3+ nanoparticles. This provided a useful clue to further study the AgNP biosynthesis mechanism.

  2. Understanding Mechanism of Photocatalytic Microbial Decontamination of Environmental Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chhabilal Regmi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Several photocatalytic nanoparticles are synthesized and studied for potential application for the degradation of organic and biological wastes. Although these materials degrade organic compounds by advance oxidation process, the exact mechanisms of microbial decontamination remains partially known. Understanding the real mechanisms of these materials for microbial cell death and growth inhibition helps to fabricate more efficient semiconductor photocatalyst for large-scale decontamination of environmental wastewater or industries and hospitals/biomedical labs generating highly pathogenic bacteria and toxic molecules containing liquid waste by designing a reactor. Recent studies on microbial decontamination by photocatalytic nanoparticles and their possible mechanisms of action is highlighted with examples in this mini review.

  3. Room-temperature deposition of crystalline patterned ZnO films by confined dewetting lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepulveda-Guzman, S., E-mail: selene.sepulvedagz@uanl.edu.mx [Centro de Innovacion, Investigacion y Desarrollo en Ingenieria y Tecnologia. UANL, PIIT Monterrey, CP 66629, Apodaca NL (Mexico); Reeja-Jayan, B. [Texas Materials Institute, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); De la Rosa, E. [Centro de Investigacion en Optica, Loma del Bosque 115 Col. Lomas del Campestre C.P. 37150 Leon, Gto. Mexico (Mexico); Ortiz-Mendez, U. [Centro de Innovacion, Investigacion y Desarrollo en Ingenieria y Tecnologia. UANL, PIIT Monterrey, CP 66629, Apodaca NL (Mexico); Reyes-Betanzo, C. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica Optica y Electronica, Calle Luis Enrique Erro No. 1, Santa Maria Tonanzintla, Puebla. Apdo. Postal 51 y 216, C.P. 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Cruz-Silva, R. [Centro de Investigacion en Ingenieria y Ciencias Aplicadas, UAEM. Av. Universidad 1001, Col. Chamilpa, CP 62210 Cuernavaca, Mor. (Mexico); Jose-Yacaman, M. [Physics and Astronomy Department University of Texas at San Antonio 1604 campus San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States)

    2010-03-15

    In this work patterned ZnO films were prepared at room-temperature by deposition of {approx}5 nm size ZnO nanoparticles using confined dewetting lithography, a process which induces their assembly, by drying a drop of ZnO colloidal dispersion between a floating template and the substrate. Crystalline ZnO nanoparticles exhibit a strong visible (525 nm) light emission upon UV excitation ({lambda} = 350 nm). The resulting films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM). The method described herein presents a simple and low cost method to prepare crystalline ZnO films with geometric patterns without additional annealing. Such transparent conducting films are attractive for applications like light emitting diodes (LEDs). As the process is carried out at room temperature, the patterned crystalline ZnO films can even be deposited on flexible substrates.

  4. Room-temperature deposition of crystalline patterned ZnO films by confined dewetting lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sepulveda-Guzman, S.; Reeja-Jayan, B.; De la Rosa, E.; Ortiz-Mendez, U.; Reyes-Betanzo, C.; Cruz-Silva, R.; Jose-Yacaman, M.

    2010-01-01

    In this work patterned ZnO films were prepared at room-temperature by deposition of ∼5 nm size ZnO nanoparticles using confined dewetting lithography, a process which induces their assembly, by drying a drop of ZnO colloidal dispersion between a floating template and the substrate. Crystalline ZnO nanoparticles exhibit a strong visible (525 nm) light emission upon UV excitation (λ = 350 nm). The resulting films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM). The method described herein presents a simple and low cost method to prepare crystalline ZnO films with geometric patterns without additional annealing. Such transparent conducting films are attractive for applications like light emitting diodes (LEDs). As the process is carried out at room temperature, the patterned crystalline ZnO films can even be deposited on flexible substrates.

  5. Biphenyl liquid crystalline epoxy resin as a low-shrinkage resin-based dental restorative nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Sheng-Hao; Chen, Rung-Shu; Chang, Yuan-Ling; Chen, Min-Huey; Cheng, Kuo-Chung; Su, Wei-Fang

    2012-11-01

    Low-shrinkage resin-based photocurable liquid crystalline epoxy nanocomposite has been investigated with regard to its application as a dental restoration material. The nanocomposite consists of an organic matrix and an inorganic reinforcing filler. The organic matrix is made of liquid crystalline biphenyl epoxy resin (BP), an epoxy resin consisting of cyclohexylmethyl-3,4-epoxycyclohexanecarboxylate (ECH), the photoinitiator 4-octylphenyl phenyliodonium hexafluoroantimonate and the photosensitizer champhorquinone. The inorganic filler is silica nanoparticles (∼70-100 nm). The nanoparticles were modified by an epoxy silane of γ-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane to be compatible with the organic matrix and to chemically bond with the organic matrix after photo curing. By incorporating the BP liquid crystalline (LC) epoxy resin into conventional ECH epoxy resin, the nanocomposite has improved hardness, flexural modulus, water absorption and coefficient of thermal expansion. Although the incorporation of silica filler may dilute the reinforcing effect of crystalline BP, a high silica filler content (∼42 vol.%) was found to increase the physical and chemical properties of the nanocomposite due to the formation of unique microstructures. The microstructure of nanoparticle embedded layers was observed in the nanocomposite using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. This unique microstructure indicates that the crystalline BP and nanoparticles support each other and result in outstanding mechanical properties. The crystalline BP in the LC epoxy resin-based nanocomposite was partially melted during exothermic photopolymerization, and the resin expanded via an order-to-disorder transition. Thus, the post-gelation shrinkage of the LC epoxy resin-based nanocomposite is greatly reduced, ∼50.6% less than in commercialized methacrylate resin-based composites. This LC epoxy nanocomposite demonstrates good physical and chemical properties and good biocompatibility

  6. Stabilization of antimicrobial silver nanoparticles by a polyhydroxyalkanoate obtained from mixed bacterial culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Mayorga, J L; Martínez-Abad, A; Fabra, M J; Olivera, Catarina; Reis, M; Lagarón, J M

    2014-11-01

    The incorporation of antimicrobials into polymer matrices is a promising technology in the food packaging and biomedical areas. Among the most widely used antimicrobials, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have emerged as one of the most researched technologies to prevent microbial outbreaks. However, it is known that AgNPs are rather unstable and present patterns of agglomeration that might limit their application. In this work, AgNPs were produced by chemical reduction in suspensions of an unpurified poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate (PHBV) which was previously obtained from a mixed culture fermentation using a synthetic medium mimicking fermented cheese whey. The synthesis of AgNPs was carried out within the unpurified PHBV suspension (in situ) and by physical mixing (mix). The stability of crystalline and spherical nanoparticles (7±3nm) obtained in situ was found to be stable during at least 40 days. The results suggest that the unpurified PHBV appears to be a very efficient capping agent, preventing agglomeration and, thereby, stabilizing successfully the silver nanoparticles. The in situ obtained AgNP-PHBV materials were also found to exhibit a strong antibacterial activity against Salmonella enterica at low concentration (0.1-1ppm). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Glycation precedes lens crystallin aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swamy, M.S.; Perry, R.E.; Abraham, E.C.

    1987-01-01

    Non-enzymatic glycosylation (glycation) seems to have the potential to alter the structure of crystallins and make them susceptible to thiol oxidation leading to disulfide-linked high molecular weight (HMW) aggregate formation. They used streptozotocin diabetic rats during precataract and cataract stages and long-term cell-free glycation of bovine lens crystallins to study the relationship between glycation and lens crystallin aggregation. HMW aggregates and other protein components of the water-soluble (WS) and urea-soluble (US) fractions were separated by molecular sieve high performance liquid chromatography. Glycation was estimated by both [ 3 H]NaBH 4 reduction and phenylboronate agarose affinity chromatography. Levels of total glycated protein (GP) in the US fractions were about 2-fold higher than in the WS fractions and there was a linear increase in GP in both WS and US fractions. This increase was parallelled by a corresponding increase in HMW aggregates. Total GP extracted by the affinity method from the US fraction showed a predominance of HMW aggregates and vice versa. Cell-free glycation studies with bovine crystallins confirmed the results of the animals studies. Increasing glycation caused a corresponding increase in protein insolubilization and the insoluble fraction thus formed also contained more glycated protein. It appears that lens protein glycation, HMW aggregate formation, and protein insolubilization are interrelated

  8. Formation of gold nanoparticles by glycolipids of Lactobacillus casei

    OpenAIRE

    Kikuchi, Fumiya; Kato, Yugo; Furihata, Kazuo; Kogure, Toshihiro; Imura, Yuki; Yoshimura, Etsuro; Suzuki, Michio

    2016-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles have particular properties distinct from those of bulk gold crystals, and such nanoparticles are used in various applications in optics, catalysis, and drug delivery. Many reports on microbial synthesis of gold nanoparticles have appeared. However, the molecular details (reduction and dispersion) of such synthesis remain unclear. In the present study, we studied gold nanoparticle synthesis by Lactobacillus casei. A comparison of L. casei components before and after addition...

  9. Microbial glycoproteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halim, Adnan; Anonsen, Jan Haug

    2017-01-01

    Mass spectrometry-based "-omics" technologies are important tools for global and detailed mapping of post-translational modifications. Protein glycosylation is an abundant and important post translational modification widespread throughout all domains of life. Characterization of glycoproteins...... and research in this area is rapidly accelerating. Here, we review recent developments in glycoproteomic technologies with a special focus on microbial protein glycosylation....

  10. Generic Crystalline Disposal Reference Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Painter, Scott Leroy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chu, Shaoping [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Harp, Dylan Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Perry, Frank Vinton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wang, Yifeng [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-20

    A generic reference case for disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in crystalline rock is outlined. The generic cases are intended to support development of disposal system modeling capability by establishing relevant baseline conditions and parameters. Establishment of a generic reference case requires that the emplacement concept, waste inventory, waste form, waste package, backfill/buffer properties, EBS failure scenarios, host rock properties, and biosphere be specified. The focus in this report is on those elements that are unique to crystalline disposal, especially the geosphere representation. Three emplacement concepts are suggested for further analyses: a waste packages containing 4 PWR assemblies emplaced in boreholes in the floors of tunnels (KBS-3 concept), a 12-assembly waste package emplaced in tunnels, and a 32-assembly dual purpose canister emplaced in tunnels. In addition, three failure scenarios were suggested for future use: a nominal scenario involving corrosion of the waste package in the tunnel emplacement concepts, a manufacturing defect scenario applicable to the KBS-3 concept, and a disruptive glaciation scenario applicable to both emplacement concepts. The computational approaches required to analyze EBS failure and transport processes in a crystalline rock repository are similar to those of argillite/shale, with the most significant difference being that the EBS in a crystalline rock repository will likely experience highly heterogeneous flow rates, which should be represented in the model. The computational approaches required to analyze radionuclide transport in the natural system are very different because of the highly channelized nature of fracture flow. Computational workflows tailored to crystalline rock based on discrete transport pathways extracted from discrete fracture network models are recommended.

  11. Effect of annealing on the structure of chemically synthesized SnO_2 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Kulwinder; Kumar, Akshay; Kumar, Virender; Vij, Ankush; Kumari, Sudesh; Thakur, Anup

    2016-01-01

    Tin oxide (SnO_2) nanoparticles have been synthesized by co-precipitation method. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. XRD analysis confirmed the single phase formation of SnO_2 nanoparticles. The Raman shifts showed the typical feature of the tetragonal phase of the as-synthesized SnO_2 nanoparticles. At low annealing temperature, a strong distortion of the crystalline structure and high degree of agglomeration was observed. It is concluded that the crystallinity of SnO_2 nanoparticles improves with the increase in annealing temperature.

  12. (BDMCA) Nanoparticles

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Available online at http://www.tjpr.org. Research Article ... Methods: Nanoparticle formulations were fabricated by a double emulsion solvent evaporation technique using .... Characterization of BDMCA nanoparticles. The nanoparticle ...

  13. Compaction simulation of nano-crystalline metals with molecular dynamics analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoei A.R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The molecular-dynamics analysis is presented for 3D compaction simulation of nano-crystalline metals under uniaxial compaction process. The nano-crystalline metals consist of nickel and aluminum nano-particles, which are mixed with specified proportions. The EAM pair-potential is employed to model the formation of nano-particles at different temperatures, number of nano-particles, and mixing ratio of Ni and Al nano-particles to form the component into the shape of a die. The die-walls are modeled using the Lennard-Jones inter-atomic potential between the atoms of nano-particles and die-walls. The forming process is model in uniaxial compression, which is simulated until the full-dense condition is attained at constant temperature. Numerical simulations are performed by presenting the densification of nano-particles at different deformations and distribution of dislocations. Finally, the evolutions of relative density with the pressure as well as the stress-strain curves are depicted during the compaction process.

  14. Microbial xanthophylls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhosale, Prakash; Bernstein, Paul S

    2005-09-01

    Xanthophylls are oxygenated carotenoids abundant in the human food supply. Lutein, zeaxanthin, and cryptoxanthin are major xanthophyll carotenoids in human plasma. The consumption of these xanthophylls is directly associated with reduction in the risk of cancers, cardiovascular disease, age-related macular degeneration, and cataract formation. Canthaxanthin and astaxanthin also have considerable importance in aquaculture for salmonid and crustacean pigmentation, and are of commercial interest for the pharmaceutical and food industries. Chemical synthesis is a major source for the heavy demand of xanthophylls in the consumer market; however, microbial producers also have potential as commercial sources. In this review, we discuss the biosynthesis, commercial utility, and major microbial sources of xanthophylls. We also present a critical review of current research and technologies involved in promoting microbes as potential commercial sources for mass production.

  15. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using tannins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Pandian Bothi; Rahim, Afidah Abdul; Qureshi, Ahmad Kaleem; Awang, Khalijah

    2014-09-01

    Colloidal silver nanoparticles were prepared by rapid green synthesis using different tannin sources as reducing agent viz. chestnut (CN), mangrove (MG) and quebracho (QB). The aqueous silver ions when exposed to CN, MG and QB tannins were reduced which resulted in formation of silver nanoparticles. The resultant silver nanoparticles were characterized using UV-Visible, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDX), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. Furthermore, the possible mechanism of nanoparticles synthesis was also derived using FT-IR analysis. Spectroscopy analysis revealed that the synthesized nanoparticles were within 30 to 75 nm in size, while XRD results showed that nanoparticles formed were crystalline with face centered cubic geometry.

  16. Ferrofluids in liquid crystalline systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo Neto, A.M.; Liebert, L.

    1989-08-01

    It is a well-known fact that intermediate or mesomorphic phase may exist between the crystalline and the isotropic liquid phases. The symmetry properties of these mesophases are intermediate between those of a crystal and a liquid. In this paper, some aspects of the use of ferrofluids in thermotropic and lyotropic systems are studied both the experimental difficulties as well as the fundamental phypical phenomena involved. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  17. EELS from organic crystalline materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brydson, R; Seabourne, C R; Hondow, N; Eddleston, M D; Jones, W

    2014-01-01

    We report the use of the electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) for providing light element chemical composition information from organic, crystalline pharmaceutical materials including theophylline and paracetamol and discuss how this type of data can complement transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging and electron diffraction when investigating polymorphism. We also discuss the potential for the extraction of bonding information using electron loss near-edge structure (ELNES)

  18. Soliton structure in crystalline acetanilide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eilbeck, J.C.; Lomdahl, P.S.; Scott, A.C.

    1984-01-01

    The theory of self-trapping of amide I vibrational energy in crystalline acetanilide is studied in detail. A spectrum of stationary, self-trapped (soliton) solutions is determined and tested for dynamic stability. Only those solutions for which the amide I energy is concentrated near a single molecule were found to be stable. Exciton modes were found to be unstable to decay into solitons

  19. Graphene on insulating crystalline substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akcoeltekin, S; El Kharrazi, M; Koehler, B; Lorke, A; Schleberger, M

    2009-01-01

    We show that it is possible to prepare and identify ultra-thin sheets of graphene on crystalline substrates such as SrTiO 3 , TiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 and CaF 2 by standard techniques (mechanical exfoliation, optical and atomic force microscopy). On the substrates under consideration we find a similar distribution of single layer, bilayer and few-layer graphene and graphite flakes as with conventional SiO 2 substrates. The optical contrast C of a single graphene layer on any of those substrates is determined by calculating the optical properties of a two-dimensional metallic sheet on the surface of a dielectric, which yields values between C = -1.5% (G/TiO 2 ) and C = -8.8% (G/CaF 2 ). This contrast is in reasonable agreement with experimental data and is sufficient to make identification by an optical microscope possible. The graphene layers cover the crystalline substrate in a carpet-like mode and the height of single layer graphene on any of the crystalline substrates as determined by atomic force microscopy is d SLG = 0.34 nm and thus much smaller than on SiO 2 .

  20. Laser engineering of microbial systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusupov, V. I.; Gorlenko, M. V.; Cheptsov, V. S.; Minaev, N. V.; Churbanova, E. S.; Zhigarkov, V. S.; Chutko, E. A.; Evlashin, S. A.; Chichkov, B. N.; Bagratashvili, V. N.

    2018-06-01

    A technology of laser engineering of microbial systems (LEMS) based on the method of laser-induced transfer of heterogeneous mixtures containing microorganisms (laser bioprinting) is described. This technology involves laser printing of soil microparticles by focusing near-infrared laser pulses on a specially prepared gel/soil mixture spread onto a gold-coated glass plate. The optimal range of laser energies from the point of view of the formation of stable jets and droplets with minimal negative impact on living systems of giant accelerations, laser pulse irradiation, and Au nanoparticles was found. Microsamples of soil were printed on glucose-peptone-yeast agar plates to estimate the LEMS process influence on structural and morphological microbial diversity. The obtained results were compared with traditionally treated soil samples. It was shown that LEMS technology allows significantly increasing the biodiversity of printed organisms and is effective for isolating rare or unculturable microorganisms.

  1. Highly crystalline zinc incorporated hydroxyapatite nanorods' synthesis, characterization, thermal, biocompatibility, and antibacterial study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udhayakumar, Gayathri; Muthukumarasamy, N.; Velauthapillai, Dhayalan; Santhosh, Shanthi Bhupathi

    2017-10-01

    Highly crystalline zinc incorporated hydroxyapatite (Zn-HAp) nanorods have been synthesized using microwave irradiation method. To improve bioactivity and crystallinity of pure HAp, zinc was incorporated into it. As-synthesized samples were characterized by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and the thermal and crystallinity behavior of Zn-HAp nanoparticle were studied by thermogravimetry (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Antibacterial activity of the as-synthesized nanorods was evaluated against two prokaryotic strains ( Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus). The FT-IR studies show the presence of hydroxide and phosphate functional groups. HRTEM and FESEM images showed highly crystalline rod-shaped nanoparticles with the diameter of about 50-60 nm. EDAX revealed the presence of Ca, Zn, P, and O in the prepared samples. The crystallinity and thermal stability were further confirmed by TGA-DSC analysis. The biocompatibility evaluation results promoted that the Zn-HAp nanorods are biologically active apatites and potentially promising bone-substitute biomaterials for orthopaedic application.

  2. DNA-guided nanoparticle assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gang, Oleg; Nykypanchuk, Dmytro; Maye, Mathew; van der Lelie, Daniel

    2013-07-16

    In some embodiments, DNA-capped nanoparticles are used to define a degree of crystalline order in assemblies thereof. In some embodiments, thermodynamically reversible and stable body-centered cubic (bcc) structures, with particles occupying <.about.10% of the unit cell, are formed. Designs and pathways amenable to the crystallization of particle assemblies are identified. In some embodiments, a plasmonic crystal is provided. In some aspects, a method for controlling the properties of particle assemblages is provided. In some embodiments a catalyst is formed from nanoparticles linked by nucleic acid sequences and forming an open crystal structure with catalytically active agents attached to the crystal on its surface or in interstices.

  3. Lyotropic liquid crystalline nanoparticles of CoQ10

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swarnakar, Nitin K; Thanki, Kaushik; Jain, Sanyog

    2014-01-01

    . The developed formulations were also found to be stable in simulated gastrointestinal fluids for the stipulated period of time. The in vitro drug release studies revealed a bimodal sustained release drug profile with Higuchi type release kinetics as the best fit release model for both the formulations. The best...

  4. Template synthesis of highly crystalline and monodisperse iron oxide pigments of nanosize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreeram, Kalarical Janardhanan; Indumathy, Ramasamy; Rajaram, Ananthanarayanan; Nair, Balachandran Unni; Ramasami, Thirumalachari

    2006-01-01

    Synthesis of highly crystalline and monodisperse iron oxide nanoparticles is reported. The separation of Fe centers through site-specific binding to a polysaccharide-alginate matrix enables the generation of particles with a monodisperse or narrow size distribution character, resulting in transparent pigments. Site-specific interactions coupled with gel like character of alginate is proposed as the mechanism behind generation of lower particle sizes. Alginate-Fe complexes developed were subjected to heat treatment to provide for crystalline character and development of hematite (α-Fe 2 O 3 ). Conditions most ideal for achieving monodispersity and lower sizes have been optimized and confirmed through microscopic and photon correlation spectroscopic measurements

  5. Microbial effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharpe, V.J.

    1985-10-01

    The long term safety and integrity of radioactive waste disposal sites proposed for use by Ontario Hydro may be affected by the release of radioactive gases. Microbes mediate the primary pathways of waste degradation and hence an assessment of their potential to produce gaseous end products from the breakdown of low level waste was performed. Due to a number of unknown variables, assumptions were made regarding environmental and waste conditions that controlled microbial activity; however, it was concluded that 14 C and 3 H would be produced, albeit over a long time scale of about 1500 years for 14 C in the worst case situation

  6. Saline groundwater in crystalline bedrock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lampen, P.

    1992-11-01

    The State-of-art report describes research made on deep saline groundwaters and brines found in crystalline bedrock, mainly in site studies for nuclear waste disposal. The occurrence, definitions and classifications of saline groundwaters are reviewed with a special emphasis on the different theories concerning the origins of saline groundwaters. Studies of the saline groundwaters in Finland and Sweden have been reviewed more thoroughly. Also the mixing of different bodies of groundwaters, observations of the contact of saline groundwaters and permafrost, and the geochemical modelling of saline groundwaters as well as the future trends of research have been discussed. (orig.)

  7. Crystalline beams: The vertical zigzag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haffmans, A.F.; Maletic, D.; Ruggiero, A.G.

    1994-01-01

    This note is the continuation of our comprehensive investigation of Crystalline Beams. After having determined the equations of motion and the conditions for the formation of the simplest configuration, i.e. the string, we study the possibility of storing an intense beam of charged particles in a storage ring where they form a vertical zigzag. We define the equilibrium configuration, and examine the confinement conditions. Subsequently, we derive the transfer matrix for motion through various elements of the storage ring. Finally we investigate the stability conditions for such a beam

  8. Crystalline cerium(IV) phosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, R.G.; Clearfield, A.

    1976-01-01

    The ion exchange behaviour of seven crystalline cerium(IV) phosphates towards some of the alkali metal cations is described. Only two of the compounds (A and C) possess ion exchange properties in acidic solutions. Four others show some ion exchange characteristics in basic media with some of the alkali cations. Compound G does not behave as an ion exchanger in solutions of pH + , but show very little Na + uptake. Compound E undergoes ion exchange with Na + and Cs + , but not with Li+. Both Li + and Na + are sorbed by compounds A and C. The results are indicative of structures which show steric exclusion phenomena. (author)

  9. Enhancement of polar crystalline phase formation in transparent PVDF-CaF{sub 2} composite films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Goo; Ha, Jong-Wook, E-mail: jongwook@krict.re.kr; Sohn, Eun-Ho; Park, In Jun; Lee, Soo-Bok

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • The crystalline phase in transparent PVDF-CaF{sub 2} composite films was investigated. • CaF{sub 2} promoted the formation of polar crystalline phases in PVDF matrix. • Ordered γ-phase was obtained by thermal treatment of as-cast films at the vicinity of its melting temperature. - Abstract: We consider the influence of calcium fluoride (CaF{sub 2}) nanoparticles on the crystalline phase formation of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) for the first time. The transparent PVDF-CaF{sub 2} composite films were prepared by casting on PET substrates using N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc) as a solvent. It was found that CaF{sub 2} promoted the formation of polar crystalline phase of PVDF in composites, whereas nonpolar α-phase was dominant in the neat PVDF film prepared at the same condition. The portion of polar crystalline phase increased in proportional to the weight fraction of CaF{sub 2} in the composite films up to 10 wt%. Further addition of CaF{sub 2} suppressed completely the α-phase formation. Polar crystalline phase observed in as-cast composite films was a mixture of β- and γ-polymorph structures. It was also shown that much ordered γ-phase could be obtained through thermal treatment of as-cast PVDF-CaF{sub 2} composite film at the temperatures above the melting temperature of the composite films, but below that of γ-phase.

  10. Growth and Brilliant Photo-Emission of Crystalline Hexagonal Column of Alq3 Microwires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seokho Kim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We report the growth and nanoscale luminescence characteristics of 8-hydroxyquinolinato aluminum (Alq3 with a crystalline hexagonal column morphology. Pristine Alq3 nanoparticles (NPs were prepared using a conventional reprecipitation method. Crystal hexagonal columns of Alq3 were grown by using a surfactant-assisted self-assembly technique as an adjunct to the aforementioned reprecipitation method. The formation and structural properties of the crystalline and non-crystalline Alq3 NPs were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The nanoscale photoluminescence (PL characteristics and the luminescence color of the Alq3 single NPs and their crystal microwires (MWs were evaluated from color charge-coupled device images acquired using a high-resolution laser confocal microscope. In comparison with the Alq3 NPs, the crystalline MWs exhibited a very bright and sharp emission. This enhanced and sharp emission from the crystalline Alq3 single MWs originated from effective π-π stacking of the Alq3 molecules due to strong interactions in the crystalline structure.

  11. Lateral topological crystalline insulator heterostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qilong; Dai, Ying; Niu, Chengwang; Ma, Yandong; Wei, Wei; Yu, Lin; Huang, Baibiao

    2017-06-01

    The emergence of lateral heterostructures fabricated by two-dimensional building blocks brings many exciting realms in material science and device physics. Enriching available nanomaterials for creating such heterostructures and enabling the underlying new physics is highly coveted for the integration of next-generation devices. Here, we report a breakthrough in lateral heterostructure based on the monolayer square transition-metal dichalcogenides MX2 (M  =  W, X  =  S/Se) modules. Our results reveal that the MX2 lateral heterostructure (1S-MX2 LHS) can possess excellent thermal and dynamical stability. Remarkably, the highly desired two-dimensional topological crystalline insulator phase is confirmed by the calculated mirror Chern number {{n}\\text{M}}=-1 . A nontrivial band gap of 65 meV is obtained with SOC, indicating the potential for room-temperature observation and applications. The topologically protected edge states emerge at the edges of two different nanoribbons between the bulk band gap, which is consistent with the mirror Chern number. In addition, a strain-induced topological phase transition in 1S-MX2 LHS is also revealed, endowing the potential utilities in electronics and spintronics. Our predictions not only introduce new member and vitality into the studies of lateral heterostructures, but also highlight the promise of lateral heterostructure as appealing topological crystalline insulator platforms with excellent stability for future devices.

  12. Preparation and antibacterial activities of Ag/Ag+/Ag3+ nanoparticle composites made by pomegranate (Punica granatum rind extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Yang

    Full Text Available Nano-silver and its composite materials are widely used in medicine, food and other industries due to their strong conductivity, size effect and other special performances. So far, more microbial researches have been applied, but a plant method is rarely reported. In order to open up a new way to prepare AgNP composites, pomegranate peel extract was used in this work to reduce Ag+ to prepare Ag/Ag+/Ag3+ nanoparticle composites. UV–Vis was employed to detect and track the reduction of Ag+ and the forming process of AgNPs. The composition, structure and size of the crystal were analyzed by XRD and TEM. Results showed that, under mild conditions, pomegranate peel extract reacted with dilute AgNO3 solution to produce Ag/Ag+/Ag3+ nanoparticle composites. At pH = 8 and 10 mmol/L of AgNO3 concentration, the size of the achieved composites ranged between 15 and 35 nm with spherical shapes and good crystallinity. The bactericidal experiment indicated that the prepared Ag/Ag+/Ag3+ nanoparticles had strong antibacterial activity against gram positive bacteria and gram negative bacteria. FTIR analysis revealed that biological macromolecules with groups of NH2, OH, and others were distributed on the surface of the newly synthesized Ag/Ag+/Ag3+ nanoparticles. This provided a useful clue to further study the AgNP biosynthesis mechanism. Keywords: Pomegranate rind, Biosynthesis, Ag/Ag+/Ag3+ nanoparticle composites, Antibacterial activity

  13. Anisotropy of the elastic properties of crystalline cellulose Iß from first principles density functional theory with Van der Waals interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando L. Dri; Louis G. Jr. Hector; Robert J. Moon; Pablo D. Zavattieri

    2013-01-01

    In spite of the significant potential of cellulose nanocrystals as functional nanoparticles for numerous applications, a fundamental understanding of the mechanical properties of defect-free, crystalline cellulose is still lacking. In this paper, the elasticity matrix for cellulose Iß with hydrogen bonding network A was calculated using ab initio...

  14. Hydrothermal synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles decorated with silver nanoparticles for application in biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assis, Jordanna Fernandes; Arantes, Tatiane Moraes; Cristovan, F.H.; Tada, Dayane Batista

    2016-01-01

    Full text: The hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HA) have research attention because are material that exhibit biocompatibility with bone mineral phase of human body is great interest in the scientific community. Synthetic hydroxyapatite nanoparticles have excellent biocompatibility and bioactivity, due biocompatibility and osteo inducibility [1-3]. The hydroxyapatite nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrothermal processing and were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The XRD and Raman spectra showed crystalline hydroxyapatite colloidal nanoparticles were obtained in the hexagonal phase. XRD measure showed silver diffraction peaks cubic phase confirmed the presence of the silver nanoparticles decorated hydroxyapatite surface. TEM images showed HA nanoparticles presented a well defined nanorod shapes and narrow size distributions with dimensions (width and length) around of 5 nm and 50 nm decorated with silver nanoparticles of spherical shape about 20 nm in diameter The results showed that crystalline hydroxyapatite colloidal nanoparticles with rod-like morphology and uniform decorated with silver spherical nanoparticles size were obtained by hydrothermal synthesis. These nanoparticles The cell viability of the HA and HA/Ag was analyzed by reduction of the tetrazolium salt (MTT test). Embryonic mouse fibroblast cells were grown in the presence of nanoparticles for a total period of 96 hours. Analyses were made in 24h, 48h, 72h and 96h. The suspensions at the end of each period were analyzed in spectrophotometer. The 24h experiments were the most conclusive, with the silver presence in the HA, there is an increased in cellular proliferation. The results demonstrated that the HA/Ag nanoparticles have potential use as biomaterials in medical/odontological applications. (author)

  15. Hydrothermal synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles decorated with silver nanoparticles for application in biomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assis, Jordanna Fernandes; Arantes, Tatiane Moraes, E-mail: fernandes.jordanna9@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiania (Brazil); Cristovan, F.H.; Tada, Dayane Batista [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: The hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HA) have research attention because are material that exhibit biocompatibility with bone mineral phase of human body is great interest in the scientific community. Synthetic hydroxyapatite nanoparticles have excellent biocompatibility and bioactivity, due biocompatibility and osteo inducibility [1-3]. The hydroxyapatite nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrothermal processing and were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The XRD and Raman spectra showed crystalline hydroxyapatite colloidal nanoparticles were obtained in the hexagonal phase. XRD measure showed silver diffraction peaks cubic phase confirmed the presence of the silver nanoparticles decorated hydroxyapatite surface. TEM images showed HA nanoparticles presented a well defined nanorod shapes and narrow size distributions with dimensions (width and length) around of 5 nm and 50 nm decorated with silver nanoparticles of spherical shape about 20 nm in diameter The results showed that crystalline hydroxyapatite colloidal nanoparticles with rod-like morphology and uniform decorated with silver spherical nanoparticles size were obtained by hydrothermal synthesis. These nanoparticles The cell viability of the HA and HA/Ag was analyzed by reduction of the tetrazolium salt (MTT test). Embryonic mouse fibroblast cells were grown in the presence of nanoparticles for a total period of 96 hours. Analyses were made in 24h, 48h, 72h and 96h. The suspensions at the end of each period were analyzed in spectrophotometer. The 24h experiments were the most conclusive, with the silver presence in the HA, there is an increased in cellular proliferation. The results demonstrated that the HA/Ag nanoparticles have potential use as biomaterials in medical/odontological applications. (author)

  16. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by plants crude extracts and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    and bioactive silver-containing Na2O CaO 2SiO2 glass prepared by sol-gel method. J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. 15(7):831-837. Chanda S (2014). Silver nanoparticles (medicinal plants mediated): a new generation of antimicrobials to combat microbial pathogens – a review. In: Mendez-Vilas, A. (Ed.), Microbial Pathogens ...

  17. Vehicles of inverted hexagonal liquid crystalline lipid phases self-assembled at room temperature

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Angelov, Borislav; Angelova, A.; Garamus, V. M.; Lesieur, S.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 15, 3/4 (2013), s. 211-215 ISSN 1454-4164 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP208/10/1600 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : liquid crystalline lipid nanoparticles * small angle X-ray scattering * cross-polarised light optical microscopy Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.563, year: 2013 http://joam.inoe.ro/index.php?option=magazine&op=view&idu=3179&catid=76

  18. Schottky spectra and crystalline beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pestrikov, D.V.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we revise the current dependence of the Schottky noise power of a cooled proton beam previously measured at NAP-M. More careful study of experimental data indicates a linear decrease in the inverse Schottky noise power with an increase in the beam intensity (N). The root of this function determines a threshold current which occurs at N = N th ≅1.2 x 10 8 particles. The inspection of measured Schottky spectra shows that this threshold does not correspond to some collective instability of the measured harmonic of the linear beam density. The found value of N th does not depend on the longitudinal beam temperature. For the case of NAP-M lattice, the study of the spectral properties of the Schottky noise in the crystalline string predicts the current dependence of the equilibrium momentum spread of the beam, which qualitatively agrees with that, recalculated from the NAP-M data. (orig.)

  19. Facile solid-state synthesis of oxidation-resistant metal nanoparticles at ambient conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyu Hyung; Jung, Hyuk Joon; Lee, Ju Hee; Kim, Kyungtae; Lee, Byeongno; Nam, Dohyun; Kim, Chung Man; Jung, Myung-Hwa; Hur, Nam Hwi

    2018-05-01

    A simple and scalable method for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles in the solid-state was developed, which can produce nanoparticles in the absence of solvents. Nanoparticles of coinage metals were synthesized by grinding solid hydrazine and the metal precursors in their acetates and oxides at 25 °C. The silver and gold acetates converted completely within 6 min into Ag and Au nanoparticles, respectively, while complete conversion of the copper acetate to the Cu sub-micrometer particles took about 2 h. Metal oxide precursors were also converted into metal nanoparticles by grinding alone. The resulting particles exhibit distinctive crystalline lattice fringes, indicating the formation of highly crystalline phases. The Cu sub-micrometer particles are better resistant to oxidation and exhibit higher conductivity compared to conventional Cu nanoparticles. This solid-state method was also applied for the synthesis of platinum group metals and intermetallic Cu3Au, which can be further extended to synthesize other metal nanoparticles.

  20. Alpha-crystallin-type heat shock proteins: socializing minichaperones in the context of a multichaperone network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narberhaus, Franz

    2002-03-01

    Alpha-crystallins were originally recognized as proteins contributing to the transparency of the mammalian eye lens. Subsequently, they have been found in many, but not all, members of the Archaea, Bacteria, and Eucarya. Most members of the diverse alpha-crystallin family have four common structural and functional features: (i) a small monomeric molecular mass between 12 and 43 kDa; (ii) the formation of large oligomeric complexes; (iii) the presence of a moderately conserved central region, the so-called alpha-crystallin domain; and (iv) molecular chaperone activity. Since alpha-crystallins are induced by a temperature upshift in many organisms, they are often referred to as small heat shock proteins (sHsps) or, more accurately, alpha-Hsps. Alpha-crystallins are integrated into a highly flexible and synergistic multichaperone network evolved to secure protein quality control in the cell. Their chaperone activity is limited to the binding of unfolding intermediates in order to protect them from irreversible aggregation. Productive release and refolding of captured proteins into the native state requires close cooperation with other cellular chaperones. In addition, alpha-Hsps seem to play an important role in membrane stabilization. The review compiles information on the abundance, sequence conservation, regulation, structure, and function of alpha-Hsps with an emphasis on the microbial members of this chaperone family.

  1. Microbial micropatches within microbial hotspots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Renee J.; Tobe, Shanan S.; Paterson, James S.; Seymour, Justin R.; Oliver, Rod L.; Mitchell, James G.

    2018-01-01

    The spatial distributions of organism abundance and diversity are often heterogeneous. This includes the sub-centimetre distributions of microbes, which have ‘hotspots’ of high abundance, and ‘coldspots’ of low abundance. Previously we showed that 300 μl abundance hotspots, coldspots and background regions were distinct at all taxonomic levels. Here we build on these results by showing taxonomic micropatches within these 300 μl microscale hotspots, coldspots and background regions at the 1 μl scale. This heterogeneity among 1 μl subsamples was driven by heightened abundance of specific genera. The micropatches were most pronounced within hotspots. Micropatches were dominated by Pseudomonas, Bacteroides, Parasporobacterium and Lachnospiraceae incertae sedis, with Pseudomonas and Bacteroides being responsible for a shift in the most dominant genera in individual hotspot subsamples, representing up to 80.6% and 47.3% average abundance, respectively. The presence of these micropatches implies the ability these groups have to create, establish themselves in, or exploit heterogeneous microenvironments. These genera are often particle-associated, from which we infer that these micropatches are evidence for sub-millimetre aggregates and the aquatic polymer matrix. These findings support the emerging paradigm that the microscale distributions of planktonic microbes are numerically and taxonomically heterogeneous at scales of millimetres and less. We show that microscale microbial hotspots have internal structure within which specific local nutrient exchanges and cellular interactions might occur. PMID:29787564

  2. Crystalline silicotitanate gate review analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlahta, S.N.; Carreon, R.; Gentilucci, J.A.

    1997-11-01

    Crystalline silicotitanate (CST) is an ion-exchange method for removing radioactive cesium from tank waste to allow the separation of the waste into high- and low-level fractions. The CST, originally developed Sandia National Laboratories personnel in association with Union Oil Products Corporation, has both a high affinity and selectivity for sorbing cesium-137 from highly alkaline or acidic solutions. For several years now, the U.S. Department of Energy has funded work to investigate applying CST to large-scale removal of cesium-137 from radioactive tank wastes. In January 1997, an expert panel sponsored by the Tanks Focus Area met to review the current state of the technology and to determine whether it was ready for routine use. The review also sought to identify any technical issues that must be resolved or additional CST development that must occur before full implementation by end-users. The CST Gate Review Group concluded that sufficient work has been done to close developmental work on CST and turn the remaining site-specific tasks over to the users. This report documents the review group''s findings, issues, concerns, and recommendations as well as responses from the Tanks Focus Area expert staff to specific pretreatment and immobilization issues

  3. Nano-sized crystalline drug production by milling technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moribe, Kunikazu; Ueda, Keisuke; Limwikrant, Waree; Higashi, Kenjirou; Yamamoto, Keiji

    2013-01-01

    Nano-formulation of poorly water-soluble drugs has been developed to enhance drug dissolution. In this review, we introduce nano-milling technology described in recently published papers. Factors affecting the size of drug crystals are compared based on the preparation methods and drug and excipient types. A top-down approach using the comminution process is a method conventionally used to prepare crystalline drug nanoparticles. Wet milling using media is well studied and several wet-milled drug formulations are now on the market. Several trials on drug nanosuspension preparation using different apparatuses, materials, and conditions have been reported. Wet milling using a high-pressure homogenizer is another alternative to preparing production-scale drug nanosuspensions. Dry milling is a simple method of preparing a solid-state drug nano-formulation. The effect of size on the dissolution of a drug from nanoparticles is an area of fundamental research, but it is sometimes incorrectly evaluated. Here, we discuss evaluation procedures and the associated problems. Lastly, the importance of quality control, process optimization, and physicochemical characterization are briefly discussed.

  4. Anaerobic Toxicity of Cationic Silver Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    The microbial toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) stabilized with different capping agents was compared to that of Ag+ under anaerobic conditions. Three AgNPs were investigated: (1) negatively charged citrate-coated AgNPs (citrate-AgNPs), (2) minimally charged p...

  5. Microbial Transglutaminase in Noodle and Pasta Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gharibzahedi, Seyed Mohammad Taghi; Yousefi, Shima; Chronakis, Ioannis S.

    2017-01-01

    -formulations for noodles and pasta products based on microbial transglutaminase (MTGase) can guarantee the shelf life extension with minimum quality losses. The current review focuses on recent trends and future prospects of MTGase utilization in the structural matrix of noodles and pasta products and represents......Nowadays, there is an aggressive rate in consumption of noodles and pasta products throughout the world. Consumer acceptability and preference of these functional products can be promoted by the discovery of novel knowledge to improve their formulation and quality. The development of fortified...... from new microbial sources. The high potential of MTGase in developing commercial noodles and pasta products is successfully demonstrated. MTGase by modifying the crystallinity or molecular structure via covalent crosslinks between protein molecules strengthens the doughs stability and the textural...

  6. Hydraulic testing in crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almen, K.E.; Andersson, J.E.; Carlsson, L.; Hansson, K.; Larsson, N.A.

    1986-12-01

    Swedish Geolocical Company (SGAB) conducted and carried out single-hole hydraulic testing in borehole Fi 6 in the Finnsjoen area of central Sweden. The purpose was to make a comprehensive evaluation of different methods applicable in crystalline rocks and to recommend methods for use in current and scheduled investigations in a range of low hydraulic conductivity rocks. A total of eight different methods of testing were compared using the same equipment. This equipment was thoroughly tested as regards the elasticity of the packers and change in volume of the test section. The use of a hydraulically operated down-hole valve enabled all the tests to be conducted. Twelve different 3-m long sections were tested. The hydraulic conductivity calculated ranged from about 5x10 -14 m/s to 1x10 -6 m/s. The methods used were water injection under constant head and then at a constant rate-of-flow, each of which was followed by a pressure fall-off period. Water loss, pressure pulse, slug and drill stem tests were also performed. Interpretation was carried out using standard transient evaluation methods for flow in porous media. The methods used showed themselves to be best suited to specific conductivity ranges. Among the less time-consuming methods, water loss, slug and drill stem tests usually gave somewhat higher hydraulic conductivity values but still comparable to those obtained using the more time-consuming tests. These latter tests, however, provided supplementary information on hydraulic and physical properties and flow conditions, together with hydraulic conductivity values representing a larger volume of rock. (orig./HP)

  7. Effect of substrate bias on deposition behaviour of charged silicon nanoparticles in ICP-CVD process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Seung-Wan; Kim, Jung-Hyung; Seong, Dae-Jin; You, Shin-Jae; Seo, Byong-Hoon; Hwang, Nong-Moon

    2017-01-01

    The effect of a substrate bias on the deposition behaviour of crystalline silicon films during inductively coupled plasma chemical vapour deposition (ICP-CVD) was analysed by consideration of non-classical crystallization, in which the building block is a nanoparticle rather than an individual atom or molecule. The coexistence of positively and negatively charged nanoparticles in the plasma and their role in Si film deposition are confirmed by applying bias voltages to the substrate, which is sufficiently small as not to affect the plasma potential. The sizes of positively and negatively charged nanoparticles captured on a carbon membrane and imaged using TEM are, respectively, 2.7–5.5 nm and 6–13 nm. The film deposited by positively charged nanoparticles has a typical columnar structure. In contrast, the film deposited by negatively charged nanoparticles has a structure like a powdery compact with the deposition rate about three times higher than that for positively charged nanoparticles. All the films exhibit crystallinity even though the substrate is at room temperature, which is attributed to the deposition of crystalline nanoparticles formed in the plasma. The film deposited by negatively charged nanoparticles has the highest crystalline fraction of 0.84. (paper)

  8. 11 Soil Microbial Biomass

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    186–198. Insam H. (1990). Are the soil microbial biomass and basal respiration governed by the climatic regime? Soil. Biol. Biochem. 22: 525–532. Insam H. D. and Domsch K. H. (1989). Influence of microclimate on soil microbial biomass. Soil Biol. Biochem. 21: 211–21. Jenkinson D. S. (1988). Determination of microbial.

  9. Molecular microbial ecology manual

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kowalchuk, G.A.; Bruijn, de F.J.; Head, I.M.; Akkermans, A.D.L.

    2004-01-01

    The field of microbial ecology has been revolutionized in the past two decades by the introduction of molecular methods into the toolbox of the microbial ecologist. This molecular arsenal has helped to unveil the enormity of microbial diversity across the breadth of the earth's ecosystems, and has

  10. Microbial Rechargeable Battery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, Sam D.; Mol, Annemerel R.; Sleutels, Tom H.J.A.; Heijne, Ter Annemiek; Buisman, Cees J.N.

    2016-01-01

    Bioelectrochemical systems hold potential for both conversion of electricity into chemicals through microbial electrosynthesis (MES) and the provision of electrical power by oxidation of organics using microbial fuel cells (MFCs). This study provides a proof of concept for a microbial

  11. Childhood microbial keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah G Al Otaibi

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Children with suspected microbial keratitis require comprehensive evaluation and management. Early recognition, identifying the predisposing factors and etiological microbial organisms, and instituting appropriate treatment measures have a crucial role in outcome. Ocular trauma was the leading cause of childhood microbial keratitis in our study.

  12. The quest for crystalline ion beams

    CERN Document Server

    Schramm, U; Bussmann, M; Habs, D

    2002-01-01

    The phase transition of an ion beam into its crystalline state has long been expected to dramatically influence beam dynamics beyond the limitations of standard accelerator physics. Yet, although considerable improvement in beam cooling techniques has been made, strong heating mechanisms inherent to existing high-energy storage rings have prohibited the formation of the crystalline state in these machines up to now. Only recently, laser cooling of low-energy beams in the table-top rf quadrupole storage ring PAaul Laser cooLing Acceleration System (PALLAS) has lead to the experimental realization of crystalline beams. In this article, the quest for crystalline beams as well as their unique properties as experienced in PALLAS will be reviewed.

  13. Mechanical dispersion in fractured crystalline rock systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafleur, D.W.; Raven, K.G.

    1986-12-01

    This report compiles and evaluates the hydrogeologic parameters describing the flow of groundwater and transport of solutes in fractured crystalline rocks. This report describes the processes of mechanical dispersion in fractured crystalline rocks, and compiles and evaluates the dispersion parameters determined from both laboratory and field tracer experiments. The compiled data show that extrapolation of the reliable test results performed over intermediate scales (10's of m and 10's to 100's of hours) to larger spatial and temporal scales required for performance assessment of a nuclear waste repository in crystalline rock is not justified. The reliable measures of longitudinal dispersivity of fractured crystalline rock are found to range between 0.4 and 7.8 m

  14. Excimer fluorescence of liquid crystalline systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhno, Tamara V.; Khakhel, Oleg A.; Barashkov, Nikolay N.; Korotkova, Irina V.

    1996-04-01

    The method of synchronous scanning fluorescence spectroscopy shows a presence of dimers of pyrene in a polymeric matrix. The results suggest that excimer formation takes place with dimers in liquid crystalline systems.

  15. Syntheses, molecular and crystalline architectures, and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Syntheses, molecular and crystalline architectures, and luminescence behaviour of terephthalate bridged heptacoordinated dinuclear lead(II) complexes containing a pentadentate N-donor Schiff base. SUBHASIS ROYa, SOMNATH CHOUBEYa, SUMITAVA KHANa, KISHALAY BHARa,. PARTHA MITRAb and BARINDRA ...

  16. Electrochemical synthesis of highly crystalline copper nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Amandeep; Gupta, Tanish; Kumar, Akshay; Kumar, Sanjeev; Singh, Karamjeet; Thakur, Anup

    2015-01-01

    Copper nanowires were fabricated within the pores of anodic alumina template (AAT) by template synthesis method at pH = 2.9. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) were used to investigate the structure, morphology and composition of fabricated nanowires. These characterizations revealed that the deposited copper nanowires were highly crystalline in nature, dense and uniform. The crystalline copper nanowires are promising in application of future nanoelectronic devices and circuits

  17. Irradiation sterilization of semi-crystalline polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.; Dunn, T.; Stannett, V.

    1978-01-01

    A semi-crystalline polymer such as polypropylene, is sterilized by high energy irradiation, with the polymer containing a non-crystalline mobilizing additive which increases the free volume of the polymer, to prevent embrittlement of the polymer during and subsequent to the irradiation. The additive has a density of from 0.6 to 1.9 g/cm 3 and a molecular weight from 100 to 10,000 g/mole

  18. Opuntia ficus indica peel derived pectin mediated hydroxyapatite nanoparticles: Synthesis, spectral characterization, biological and antimicrobial activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopi, D.; Kanimozhi, K.; Kavitha, L.

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, we have adapted a facile and efficient green route for the synthesis of HAP nanoparticles using pectin as a template which was extracted from the peel of prickly pear (Opuntia ficus indica) fruits. The concentration of pectin plays a major role in the behavior of crystallinity, purity, morphology as well as biological property of the as-synthesized HAP nanoparticles. The extracted pectin and the as-synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by various analytical techniques. The in vitro apatite formation on the surface of the as-synthesized nanoparticles in simulated body fluid (SBF) for various days showed an enhanced bioactivity. Also, the antimicrobial activity was investigated using various microorganisms. All the results revealed the formation of pure, low crystalline and discrete granular like HAP nanoparticles of size around 25 nm with enhanced biological and antimicrobial activities. Hence the as-synthesized nanoparticles can act as a better bone regenerating material in the field of biomedicine.

  19. Synthesis, characterization and catalytic activity of silver nanoparticles using Tribulus terrestris leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashokkumar, S; Ravi, S; Kathiravan, V; Velmurugan, S

    2014-01-01

    Biomediated silver nanoparticles were synthesized with the aid of an eco-friendly biomaterial, namely, aqueous Tribulus terrestris extract. Silver nanoparticles were synthesized using a rapid, single step, and completely green biosynthetic method employing aqueous T. terrestris leaf extracts as both the reducing and capping agent. Silver ions were rapidly reduced by aqueous T. terrestris leaf extracts, leading to the formation of highly crystalline silver nanoparticles. An attempt has been made and formation of the silver nanoparticles was verified by surface plasmon spectra using an UV-vis (Ultra violet), spectrophotometer. Morphology and crystalline structure of the prepared silver nanoparticles were characterized by TEM (Transmission Electron Microscope) and XRD (X-ray Diffraction), techniques, respectively. FT-IR (Fourier Transform Infrared), analysis suggests that the obtained silver nanoparticles might be stabilized through the interactions of carboxylic groups, carbonyl groups and the flavonoids present in the T. terrestris extract. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Repairing Nanoparticle Surface Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Emanuele; Kodger, Thomas E; Crisp, Ryan W; Timmerman, Dolf; MacArthur, Katherine E; Heggen, Marc; Schall, Peter

    2017-10-23

    Solar devices based on semiconductor nanoparticles require the use of conductive ligands; however, replacing the native, insulating ligands with conductive metal chalcogenide complexes introduces structural defects within the crystalline nanostructure that act as traps for charge carriers. We utilized atomically thin semiconductor nanoplatelets as a convenient platform for studying, both microscopically and spectroscopically, the development of defects during ligand exchange with the conductive ligands Na 4 SnS 4 and (NH 4 ) 4 Sn 2 S 6 . These defects can be repaired via mild chemical or thermal routes, through the addition of L-type ligands or wet annealing, respectively. This results in a higher-quality, conductive, colloidally stable nanomaterial that may be used as the active film in optoelectronic devices. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  1. A comparative study of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles synthesized by different routes

    OpenAIRE

    Paz, Adrian; Guadarrama, Dainelys; López, Mónica; E. González, Jesús; Brizuela, Nayrim; Aragón, Javier

    2012-01-01

    In this study, bioactive hydroxyapatite nanoparticles were prepared by two different methods: wet chemical precipitation and biomimetic precipitation. The aim was to evaluate the morphology, particle-size, crystallinity and phases of the powders obtained by traditional wet chemical precipitation and the novel biomimetic precipitation using a supersaturated calcium solution. The nanoparticles were investigated by transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-r...

  2. Whey protein isolate/cellulose nanofibre/TiO2 nanoparticle/rosemary essential oil nanocomposite film: Its effect on microbial and sensory quality of lamb meat and growth of common foodborne pathogenic bacteria during refrigeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh Sani, Mahmood; Ehsani, Ali; Hashemi, Mohammad

    2017-06-19

    The use of biodegradable nanocomposite films in active packaging is of great importance since they can have a controlled release of antimicrobial compounds. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of whey protein isolate (WPI)/cellulose nanofibre (CNF) nanocomposite films containing 1.0% (w/w) titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) and 2.0% (w/v) rosemary essential oil (REO) in preserving the microbial and sensory quality of lamb meat during the storage at 4±1°C. Initially, the best concentration of each compound to be added to the film was determined by micro-dilution and disc diffusion methods. The microbial and sensory properties of lamb meat were controlled in two groups (control and treatment) over 15days of storage. Then, the samples were analysed for total viable count (TVC), Pseudomonas spp. count, Enterobacteriaceae count, Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) count, inoculated Staphylococcus aureus count, Listeria monocytogenes count, and Escherichia coli O 157 :H 7 count. Microbial analysis and nine-point hedonic scale was applied for the sensory analysis. Results indicated that the use of nanocomposite films significantly reduced the bacterial counts of treatment group. Higher inhibition effect was observed on Gram-positive bacteria than on Gram-negative bacteria (Psensory evaluations also showed that the use of nanocomposite films significantly increased the shelf life of treated meat (15days) compared to the control meat (6days). Based on the results of this study, the edible nanocomposite films were effective in preserving the microbial and sensory qualities of lamb meat; therefore, this application is recommended in meat especially red meat. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Facile Large-scale synthesis of stable CuO nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, P.; Abdollahi-Nejand, B.; Eskandari, M.; Kohnehpoushi, S.

    2018-04-01

    In this work, a novel approach in synthesizing the CuO nanoparticles was introduced. A sequential corrosion and detaching was proposed in the growth and dispersion of CuO nanoparticles in the optimum pH value of eight. The produced CuO nanoparticles showed six nm (±2 nm) in diameter and spherical feather with a high crystallinity and uniformity in size. In this method, a large-scale production of CuO nanoparticles (120 grams in an experimental batch) from Cu micro-particles was achieved which may met the market criteria for large-scale production of CuO nanoparticles.

  4. Stabilized amorphous glibenclamide nanoparticles by high-gravity technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Lei; Li Caixia; Le Yuan; Chen Jianfeng; Zou Haikui

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: · Amorphous glibenclamide nanoparticles of 220 nm are obtained using the high-gravity technique. · The dissolution rate of these nanoparticles achieves 85% in 5 min, while those of the raw glibenclamide and the commercial glibenclamide tablet only reach 35% and 55% respectively during the same period. · The morphology, particle size, crystalline form and dissolution rate of these nanoparticles almost remain constant after keeping more than 70 days. - Abstract: The stable amorphous glibenclamide nanoparticles was obtained via anti-solvent precipitation using the high-gravity technique in this study. The effects of operating variables on the particle size were investigated. The properties of glibenclamide nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dissolution test. The prepared glibenclamide nanoparticles had a mean size of 220 nm within a narrow distribution. The dissolution rate of glibenclamide nanoparticles was obviously faster than that of the raw glibenclamide or the commercial glibenclamide tablet. It achieved 85% in 5 min, while those of the raw glibenclamide and the commercial glibenclamide tablet achieved 35% and 55% respectively during the same period. The physical stability of the nanoparticles was tested after storing for more than 70 days at room conditions. Their morphology, particle size, crystalline form and dissolution rate almost remained constant during storage.

  5. Synthesis of molybdenum oxide (MoO3) nanoparticles by hydrolysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfons, M.; Manoj, V.; Karthika, M.; Karn, R.K.; John Bosco Balaguru, R.; Jeyadheepan, K.; Pandiyan, S.K.; Boomadevi, S.

    2013-01-01

    A pure crystalline MoO 3 nanoparticles were synthesized using Ammonium molybdate (NH 4 ) 6 Mo 7 O 24. 4H 2 O precursor and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) capping agent. Various reaction parameters such as the additive/Mo molar ratio and temperature of the synthesis media were optimized to analyze the morphology and size of the nanoparticles. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM). (author)

  6. Poorly crystalline hydroxyapatite: A novel adsorbent for enhanced fulvic acid removal from aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Yang, Lei; Zhong, Wenhui; Cui, Jing; Wei, Zhenggui

    2015-03-01

    In this study, poorly crystalline hydroxyapatite (HAP) was developed as an efficient adsorbent for the removal of fulvic acid (FA) from aqueous solution. Surface functionality, crystallinity, and morphology of the synthetic adsorbent were studied by Fourier-transformation infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The effects of various parameters such as crystallinity of adsorbent, contact time, adsorbent dosage, pH, initial adsorbate concentration, temperature, ionic strength and the presence of alkaline earth metal ions on FA adsorption were investigated. Results indicated that the nanosized HAP calcined at lower temperature was poorly crystalline (Xc = 0.23) and had better adsorption capacity for FA than those (Xc = 0.52, 0.86) calcined at higher temperature. FA removal was increased with increases of adsorbent dosage, temperature, ionic strength and the presence of alkali earth metal ions, but decreased as the pH increased. Kinetic studies showed that pseudo-second-order kinetic model better described the adsorption process. Equilibrium data were best described by Sips models, and the estimated maximum adsorption capacity of poorly crystalline HAP was 90.20 mg/g at 318 K, displaying higher efficiency for FA removal than previously reported adsorbents. FT-IR results revealed that FA adsorption over the adsorbent could be attributed to the surface complexation between the oxygen atom of functional groups of FA and calcium ions of HAP. Regeneration studies indicated that HAP could be recyclable for a long term. Findings of the present work highlight the potential for using poorly crystalline HAP nanoparticles as an effective and recyclable adsorbent for FA removal from aqueous solution.

  7. Electro-purification of carbon nanotube networks without damaging the assembly structure and crystallinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xueqin; Yang, Ming; Zhang, Huichao; Zhao, Jingna; Zhang, Xiaohua; Li, Qingwen

    2018-06-01

    Fe-containing nanoparticles are of a high mass fraction in the as-grown carbon nanotube (CNT) network. By controlling the S-to-Fe atom ratio in the growth feedstock and introducing water as a weak oxidant, highly crystalline few-walled CNT network can be obtained, with a mass fraction of over 20 wt% for the Fe-containing nanoparticles. We report here an electron-oxidation-based purification method to efficiently remove the Fe-containing nanoparticles without inducing clear damage to either the assembly structure or the tube crystallinity. The purification could increase the ratio between Raman D and G peak intensities slightly from 0.08 to 0.12, decrease the specific conductivity from 0.31 to 0.24 S m2/g and the Fe content from >20 wt% to ≈1 wt%, and modify the capacitance just by about 13 F/g. All these indicate that the CNT network was well maintained by such gentle electro-oxidation-based purification. In addition, the purified CNT network can exhibit advantages in mechanical and electrical applications.

  8. Green engineered biomolecule-capped silver and copper nanohybrids using Prosopis cineraria leaf extract: Enhanced antibacterial activity against microbial pathogens of public health relevance and cytotoxicity on human breast cancer cells (MCF-7).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinu, U; Gomathi, M; Saiqa, I; Geetha, N; Benelli, G; Venkatachalam, P

    2017-04-01

    This research focused on green engineering and characterization of silver (PcAgNPs) and copper nanoparticles (PcCuNPs) using Prosopis cineraria (Pc) leaf extract prepared by using microwave irradiation. We studied their enhanced antimicrobial activity on human pathogens as well as cytotoxicity on breast cancer cells (MCF-7). Biofabricated silver and copper nanoparticles exhibited UV-Visible absorbance peaks at 420 nm and 575 nm, confirming the bioreduction and stabilization of nanoparticles. Nanoparticles were characterized by FTIR, XRD, FESEM, and EDX analysis. FTIR results indicated the presence of alcohols, alkanes, aromatics, phenols, ethers, benzene, amines and amides that were possibly involved in the reduction and capping of silver and copper ions. XRD analysis was performed to confirm the crystalline nature of the silver and copper nanoparticles. FESEM analysis suggested that the nanoparticles were hexagonal or spherical in shape with size ranging from 20 to 44.49 nm and 18.9-32.09 nm for AgNPs and CuNPs, respectively. EDX analysis confirmed the presence of silver and copper elemental signals in the nanoparticles. The bioengineered silver and copper nanohybrids showed enhanced antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative MDR human pathogens. MTT assay results indicated that CuNPs show potential cytotoxic effect followed by AgNPs against MCF-7 cancer cell line. IC 50 were 65.27 μg/ml, 37.02 μg/ml and 197.3 μg/ml for PcAgNPs, PcCuNPs and P. cineraria leaf extracts, respectively, treated MCF-7 cells. The present investigation highlighted an effective protocol for microwave-assisted synthesis of biomolecule-loaded silver and copper nanoparticles with enhanced antibacterial and anticancer activity. Results strongly suggested that bioengineered AgNPs and CuNPs could be used as potential tools against microbial pathogens and cancer cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Extracellular Palladium Nanoparticle Production using Geobacter sulfurreducens

    KAUST Repository

    Yates, Matthew D.

    2013-09-03

    Sustainable methods are needed to recycle precious metals and synthesize catalytic nanoparticles. Palladium nanoparticles can be produced via microbial reduction of soluble Pd(II) to Pd(0), but in previous tests using dissimilatory metal reducing bacteria (DMRB), the nanoparticles were closely associated with the cells, occupying potential reductive sites and eliminating the potential for cell reuse. The DMRB Geobacter sulfurreducens was shown here to reduce soluble Pd(II) to Pd(0) nanoparticles primarily outside the cell, reducing the toxicity of metal ions, and allowing nanoparticle recovery without cell destruction that has previously been observed using other microorganisms. Cultures reduced 50 ± 3 mg/L Pd(II) with 1% hydrogen gas (v/v headspace) in 6 h incubation tests [100 mg/L Pd(II) initially], compared to 8 ± 3 mg/L (10 mM acetate) without H2. Acetate was ineffective as an electron donor for palladium removal in the presence or absence of fumarate as an electron acceptor. TEM imaging verified that Pd(0) nanoparticles were predominantly in the EPS surrounding cells in H2-fed cultures, with only a small number of particles visible inside the cell. Separation of the cells and EPS by centrifugation allowed reuse of the cell suspensions and effective nanoparticle recovery. These results demonstrate effective palladium recovery and nanoparticle production using G. sulfurreducens cell suspensions and renewable substrates such as H2 gas. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  10. (BDMCA) Nanoparticles

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Nanoparticle formulations were fabricated by a double emulsion solvent evaporation technique using polycaprolactone as the polymer. The nanoparticles were characterised for drug content, particles size, in vitro drug release and the drug-polymer interaction. The in vivo properties of the formulations in male ...

  11. Intermetallic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Dileep; Yusufoglu, Yusuf; Timofeeva, Elena; Routbort, Jules

    2015-07-14

    A process for preparing intermetallic nanoparticles of two or more metals is provided. In particular, the process includes the steps: a) dispersing nanoparticles of a first metal in a solvent to prepare a first metal solution, b) forming a reaction mixture with the first metal solution and a reducing agent, c) heating the reaction mixture to a reaction temperature; and d) adding a second metal solution containing a salt of a second metal to the reaction mixture. During this process, intermetallic nanoparticles, which contain a compound with the first and second metals are formed. The intermetallic nanoparticles with uniform size and a narrow size distribution is also provided. An electrochemical device such as a battery with the intermetallic nanoparticles is also provided.

  12. Comparative Community Proteomics Demonstrates the Unexpected Importance of Actinobacterial Glycoside Hydrolase Family 12 Protein for Crystalline Cellulose Hydrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiras, Jennifer; Wu, Yu-Wei; Deng, Kai; Nicora, Carrie D.; Aldrich, Joshua T.; Frey, Dario; Kolinko, Sebastian; Robinson, Errol W.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Adams, Paul D.; Northen, Trent R.; Simmons, Blake A.; Singer, Steven W.

    2016-08-23

    ABSTRACT

    Glycoside hydrolases (GHs) are key enzymes in the depolymerization of plant-derived cellulose, a process central to the global carbon cycle and the conversion of plant biomass to fuels and chemicals. A limited number of GH families hydrolyze crystalline cellulose, often by a processive mechanism along the cellulose chain. During cultivation of thermophilic cellulolytic microbial communities, substantial differences were observed in the crystalline cellulose saccharification activities of supernatants recovered from divergent lineages. Comparative community proteomics identified a set of cellulases from a population closely related to actinobacteriumThermobispora bisporathat were highly abundant in the most active consortium. Among the cellulases fromT. bispora, the abundance of a GH family 12 (GH12) protein correlated most closely with the changes in crystalline cellulose hydrolysis activity. This result was surprising since GH12 proteins have been predominantly characterized as enzymes active on soluble polysaccharide substrates. Heterologous expression and biochemical characterization of the suite ofT. bisporahydrolytic cellulases confirmed that the GH12 protein possessed the highest activity on multiple crystalline cellulose substrates and demonstrated that it hydrolyzes cellulose chains by a predominantly random mechanism. This work suggests that the role of GH12 proteins in crystalline cellulose hydrolysis by cellulolytic microbes should be reconsidered.

    IMPORTANCECellulose is the most abundant organic polymer on earth, and its enzymatic hydrolysis is a key reaction in the global carbon cycle and the conversion of plant biomass to biofuels. The glycoside hydrolases that depolymerize crystalline cellulose have been primarily characterized from isolates. In this study, we demonstrate that adapting microbial consortia from compost to grow on crystalline cellulose

  13. Biosurfactants as green stabilizers for the biological synthesis of nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiran, G Seghal; Selvin, Joseph; Manilal, Aseer; Sujith, S

    2011-12-01

    Taking into consideration the needs of greener bioprocesses and novel enhancers for synthesis using microbial processes, biosurfactants, and/or biosurfactant producing microbes are emerging as an alternate source for the rapid synthesis of nanoparticles. A microemulsion technique using an oil-water-surfactant mixture was shown to be a promising approach for nanoparticle synthesis. Biosurfactants are natural surfactants derived from microbial origin composed mostly of sugar and fatty acid moieties, they have higher biodegradability, lower toxicity, and excellent biological activities. The biosurfactant mediated process and microbial synthesis of nanoparticles are now emerging as clean, nontoxic, and environmentally acceptable "green chemistry" procedures. The biosurfactant-mediated synthesis is superior to the methods of bacterial- or fungal-mediated nanoparticle synthesis, since biosurfactants reduce the formation of aggregates due to the electrostatic forces of attraction and facilitate a uniform morphology of the nanoparticles. In this review, we highlight the biosurfactant mediated synthesis of nanoparticles with relevant details including a greener bioprocess, sources of biosurfactants, and biological synthesized nanoparticles based on the available literature and laboratory findings.

  14. Fabrication of single-crystalline plasmonic nanostructures on transparent and flexible amorphous substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Tomohiro; Mori, Takeshi; Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Suzaki, Yoshifumi; Yamaguchi, Kenzo

    2017-02-01

    A new experimental technique is developed for producing a high-performance single-crystalline Ag nanostructure on transparent and flexible amorphous substrates for use in plasmonic sensors and circuit components. This technique is based on the epitaxial growth of Ag on a (001)-oriented single-crystalline NaCl substrate, which is subsequently dissolved in ultrapure water to allow the Ag film to be transferred onto a wide range of different substrates. Focused ion beam milling is then used to create an Ag nanoarray structure consisting of 200 cuboid nanoparticles with a side length of 160 nm and sharp, precise edges. This array exhibits a strong signal and a sharp peak in plasmonic properties and Raman intensity when compared with a polycrystalline Ag nanoarray.

  15. Synthesis of iron nanoparticles from hemoglobin and myoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayyad, Arshad S; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Balakrishnan, Kaushik; Ci, Lijie; Kabbani, Ahmad T; Vajtai, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Stable iron nanoparticles have been synthesized from naturally occurring and abundant Fe-containing bio-precursors, namely hemoglobin and myoglobin. The formation of stable iron nanoparticles was achieved through a one-pot, single-phase chemical reduction approach. The reduction of iron ions present in the bio-precursors was carried out at room temperature and avoids the use of harsh chemical reagents. The size distribution of the product falls into the narrow 2–5 nm range and the particles were found to be crystalline. This method can be a valuable synthetic approach for producing bio-conjugated nanoparticle systems for biological applications. (paper)

  16. Bio-based liquid crystalline polyesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilsens, Carolus; Rastogi, Sanjay; Dutch Collaboration

    2013-03-01

    The reported thin-film polymerization has been used as a screening method in order to find bio-based liquid crystalline polyesters with convenient melting temperatures for melt-processing purposes. An in depth study of the structural, morphological and chemical changes occurring during the ongoing polycondensation reactions of these polymers have been performed. Structural and conformational changes during polymerization for different compositions have been followed by time resolved X-ray and Infrared spectroscopy. In this study, bio-based monomers such as vanillic acid and 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid are successfully incorporated in liquid crystalline polyesters and it is shown that bio-based liquid crystalline polymers with high aromatic content and convenient processing temperatures can be synthesized. Special thanks to the Dutch Polymer Institute for financial support

  17. Irreducible tensor operators and crystalline potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutron, F.; Saint-James, D.

    1961-01-01

    It is often accepted that the effects of its neighbourhood on the quantum state of an ion A may be obtained by the model of the crystalline effective field approximation. Within this assumption Stevens has developed a method which provides equivalent operators that facilitate the calculation of the matrix elements of the crystalline field in a given multiplicity. This method has been extended here. We demonstrate that in the expansion of the crystalline field in powers of the electrons coordinates of the ion A - for electrons of the same sub-shell of A - only even terms can contribute. Equivalent operators and matrix elements, in a given multiplicity, are given for these development terms - up to order 6 - and for potential invariant by the operations of one of the thirty-two point-groups. (author) [fr

  18. ARSENIC REMOVAL USING SOL-GEL SYNTHESIZED TITANIUM DIOXIDE NANOPARTICLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, the effectiveness of TiO2 nanoparticles in arsenic adsorption was examined. TiO2 particles (LS) were synthesized via sol-gel techniques and characterized for their crystallinity, surface area and pore volume. Batch adsorption studies were perf...

  19. MOS structures containing silicon nanoparticles for memory device applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedev, N; Zlatev, R; Nesheva, D; Manolov, E; Levi, Z; Brueggemann, R; Meier, S

    2008-01-01

    Metal-oxide-silicon structures containing layers with amorphous or crystalline silicon nanoparticles in a silicon oxide matrix are fabricated by sequential physical vapour deposition of SiO x (x = 1.15) and RF sputtering of SiO 2 on n-type crystalline silicon, followed by high temperature annealing in an inert gas ambient. Depending on the annealing temperature, 700 deg. C or 1000 deg. C, amorphous or crystalline silicon nanoparticles are formed in the silicon oxide matrix. The annealing process is used not only for growing nanoparticles but also to form a dielectric layer with tunnelling thickness at the silicon/insulator interface. High frequency C-V measurements demonstrate that both types of structures can be charged negatively or positively by applying a positive or negative voltage on the gate. The structures with amorphous silicon nanoparticles show several important advantages compared to the nanocrystal ones, such as lower defect density at the interface between the crystalline silicon wafer and the tunnel silicon oxide, better retention characteristics and better reliability

  20. Control surface wettability with nanoparticles from phase-change materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Brink, G. H.; van het Hof, P. J.; Chen, B.; Sedighi, M.; Kooi, B. J.; Palasantzas, G.

    2016-01-01

    The wetting state of surfaces can be controlled physically from the highly hydrophobic to hydrophilic states using the amorphous-to-crystalline phase transition of Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) nanoparticles as surfactant. Indeed, contact angle measurements show that by increasing the surface coverage of the

  1. Microbial electrosynthetic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Harold D.; Marshall, Christopher W.; Labelle, Edward V.

    2018-01-30

    Methods are provided for microbial electrosynthesis of H.sub.2 and organic compounds such as methane and acetate. Method of producing mature electrosynthetic microbial populations by continuous culture is also provided. Microbial populations produced in accordance with the embodiments as shown to efficiently synthesize H.sub.2, methane and acetate in the presence of CO.sub.2 and a voltage potential. The production of biodegradable and renewable plastics from electricity and carbon dioxide is also disclosed.

  2. Used fuel disposition in crystalline rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hadgu, Teklu [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kalinina, Elena Arkadievna [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jerden, James L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Copple, Jacqueline M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Cruse, T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Ebert, W. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Buck, E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Eittman, R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tinnacher, R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Tournassat, Christophe. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Davis, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Viswanathan, H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chu, S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dittrich, T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hyman, F. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Karra, S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Makedonska, N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Reimus, P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Zavarin, Mavrik [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Joseph, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy, Office of Fuel Cycle Technology established the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) in fiscal year 2010 (FY10) to conduct the research and development (R&D) activities related to storage, transportation and disposal of used nuclear fuel and high level nuclear waste. The objective of the Crystalline Disposal R&D Work Package is to advance our understanding of long-term disposal of used fuel in crystalline rocks and to develop necessary experimental and computational capabilities to evaluate various disposal concepts in such media.

  3. Irradiation induced crystalline to amorphous transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgoin, J.

    1980-01-01

    Irradiation of a crystalline solid with energetic heavy particles results in cascades of defects which, with increasing dose, overlap and form a continuous disordered layer. In semiconductors the physical properties of such disordered layers are found to be similar to those of amorphous layers produced by evaporation. It is shown in the case of silicon, that the transition from a disordered crystalline (X) layer to an amorphous (α) layer occurs when the Gibbs energy of the X phase and of the defects it contains becomes larger than the Gibbs energy of the α phase. (author)

  4. Electronic processes in non-crystalline materials

    CERN Document Server

    Mott, Nevill Francis

    2012-01-01

    Since the first edition of this highly successful book the field saw many great developments both in experimental and theoretical studies of electrical properties of non-crystalline solids. It became necessary to rewrite nearly the whole book, while the aims of the second edition remained the same: to set out the theoretical concepts, to test them by comparison with experiment for a wide variety of phenomena, and to apply them to non-crystalline materials. Sir Nevill Mott shared the1977 Nobel Prize for Physics, awarded for his research work in this field. The reissue of this book as part of th

  5. Hyaluronan- and heparin-reduced silver nanoparticles with antimicrobial properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Melissa M; Kumar, Ashavani; Clement, Dylan; Ajayan, Pulickel; Mousa, Shaker

    2009-01-01

    Aims Silver nanoparticles exhibit unique antibacterial properties that make these ideal candidates for biological and medical applications. We utilized a clean method involving a single synthetic step to prepare silver nanoparticles that exhibit antimicrobial activity. Materials & methods These nanoparticles were prepared by reducing silver nitrate with diaminopyridinylated heparin (DAPHP) and hyaluronan (HA) polysaccharides and tested for their efficacy in inhibiting microbial growth. Results & discussion The resulting silver nanoparticles exhibit potent antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and modest activity against Escherichia coli. Silver–HA showed greater antimicrobial activity than silver–DAPHP, while silver–glucose nanoparticles exhibited very weak antimicrobial activity. Neither HA nor DAPHP showed activity against S. aureus or E. coli. Conclusion These results suggest that DAPHP and HA silver nanoparticles have potential in antimicrobial therapeutic applications. PMID:19505245

  6. Antifungal activity of gold nanoparticles prepared by solvothermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Tokeer, E-mail: tahmad3@jmi.ac.in [Nanochemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025 (India); Wani, Irshad A.; Lone, Irfan H.; Ganguly, Aparna [Nanochemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025 (India); Manzoor, Nikhat; Ahmad, Aijaz [Department of Biosciences, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025 (India); Ahmed, Jahangeer [Department of Chemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Al-Shihri, Ayed S. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, Abha 61413, P.O. Box 9004 (Saudi Arabia)

    2013-01-15

    Graphical abstract: Gold nanoparticles (7 and 15 nm) of very high surface area (329 and 269 m{sup 2}/g) have been successfully synthesized through solvothermal method by using tin chloride and sodium borohydride as reducing agents. As-prepared gold nanoparticles shows very excellent antifungal activity against Candida isolates and activity increases with decrease in the particle size. Display Omitted Highlights: ► Effect of reducing agents on the morphology of gold nanoparticles. ► Highly uniform and monodisperse gold nanoparticles (7 nm). ► Highest surface area of gold nanoparticles (329 m{sup 2/}g). ► Excellent antifungal activity of gold nanoparticles against Candida strains. -- Abstract: Gold nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized by solvothermal method using SnCl{sub 2} and NaBH{sub 4} as reducing agents. X-ray diffraction studies show highly crystalline and monophasic nature of the gold nanoparticles with face centred cubic structure. The transmission electron microscopic studies show the formation of nearly spherical gold nanoparticles of average size of 15 nm using SnCl{sub 2}, however, NaBH{sub 4} produced highly uniform, monodispersed and spherical gold nanoparticles of average grain size of 7 nm. A high surface area of 329 m{sup 2}/g for 7 nm and 269 m{sup 2}/g for 15 nm gold nanoparticles was observed. UV–vis studies assert the excitations over the visible region due to transverse and longitudinal surface plasmon modes. The gold nanoparticles exhibit excellent size dependant antifungal activity and greater biocidal action against Candida isolates for 7 nm sized gold nanoparticles restricting the transmembrane H{sup +} efflux of the Candida species than 15 nm sized gold nanoparticles.

  7. Antifungal activity of gold nanoparticles prepared by solvothermal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Tokeer; Wani, Irshad A.; Lone, Irfan H.; Ganguly, Aparna; Manzoor, Nikhat; Ahmad, Aijaz; Ahmed, Jahangeer; Al-Shihri, Ayed S.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Gold nanoparticles (7 and 15 nm) of very high surface area (329 and 269 m 2 /g) have been successfully synthesized through solvothermal method by using tin chloride and sodium borohydride as reducing agents. As-prepared gold nanoparticles shows very excellent antifungal activity against Candida isolates and activity increases with decrease in the particle size. Display Omitted Highlights: ► Effect of reducing agents on the morphology of gold nanoparticles. ► Highly uniform and monodisperse gold nanoparticles (7 nm). ► Highest surface area of gold nanoparticles (329 m 2/ g). ► Excellent antifungal activity of gold nanoparticles against Candida strains. -- Abstract: Gold nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized by solvothermal method using SnCl 2 and NaBH 4 as reducing agents. X-ray diffraction studies show highly crystalline and monophasic nature of the gold nanoparticles with face centred cubic structure. The transmission electron microscopic studies show the formation of nearly spherical gold nanoparticles of average size of 15 nm using SnCl 2 , however, NaBH 4 produced highly uniform, monodispersed and spherical gold nanoparticles of average grain size of 7 nm. A high surface area of 329 m 2 /g for 7 nm and 269 m 2 /g for 15 nm gold nanoparticles was observed. UV–vis studies assert the excitations over the visible region due to transverse and longitudinal surface plasmon modes. The gold nanoparticles exhibit excellent size dependant antifungal activity and greater biocidal action against Candida isolates for 7 nm sized gold nanoparticles restricting the transmembrane H + efflux of the Candida species than 15 nm sized gold nanoparticles.

  8. Microbial reduction of uranium using cellulosic substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thombre, M.S.; Thomson, B.M.; Barton, L.L.

    1996-01-01

    Previous work at the University of New Mexico and elsewhere has shown that sulfate-reducing bacteria are capable of reducing uranium from the soluble +6 oxidation state to the insoluble +4 oxidation state. This chemistry forms the basis of a proposed ground water remediation strategy in which microbial reduction would be used to immobilize soluble uranium. One such system would consist of a subsurface permeable barrier which would stimulate microbial growth resulting in the reduction of sulfate and nitrate and immobilization of metals while permitting the unhindered flow of ground water through it. This research investigated some of the engineering considerations associated with a microbial reducing barrier such as identifying an appropriate biological substrate, estimating the rate of substrate utilization, and identifying the final fate of the contaminants concentrated in the barrier matrix. The performance of batch reactors and column systems that treated simulated plume water was evaluated using cellulose, wheat straw, alfalfa hay, sawdust, and soluble starch as substrates. The concentrations of sulfate, nitrate, and U(VI) were monitored over time. Precipitates from each system were collected, and the precipitated U(IV) was determined to be crystalline UO 2(s) by x-ray diffraction. The results of this study support the proposed use of cellulosic substrates as candidate barrier materials

  9. Constructing MnO{sub 2}/single crystalline ZnO nanorod hybrids with enhanced photocatalytic and antibacterial activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Weiwei [College of Physics and Electronic Science, Changsha University of Science and Technology, Changsha 410114 (China); Liu, Tiangui, E-mail: tianguiliu@gmail.com [College of Physics and Microelectronics Science, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Cao, Shiyi; Wang, Chen [College of Physics and Electronic Science, Changsha University of Science and Technology, Changsha 410114 (China); Chen, Chuansheng, E-mail: 1666423158@qq.com [College of Physics and Electronic Science, Changsha University of Science and Technology, Changsha 410114 (China)

    2016-07-15

    In order to improve the photocatalytic and antibacterial activity of ZnO nanorods, ZnO nanorods decorated with MnO{sub 2} nanoparticles (MnO{sub 2}/ZnO nanorod hybrids) were prepared by using microwave assisted coprecipitation method under the influence of hydrogen peroxide, and the structure, photocatalytic activity and antibacterial property of the products were studied. Experimental results indicated that MnO{sub 2} nanoparticles are decorated on the surface of single crystalline ZnO nanorods. Moreover, the resultant MnO{sub 2}/ZnO nanorod hybrids have been proven to possess good photocatalytic and antibacterial activity, which their degradated efficiency for Rhodamin B (RhB) is twice as the pure ZnO nanorods. Enhancement for photocatalytic and antibacterial activity is mainly attributed to the low band gap energy and excellent electrochemical properties of MnO{sub 2} nanoparticles. - Graphical abstract: The MnO{sub 2}/single crystalline ZnO nanorods hybrids, which MnO{sub 2} nanoparticles are loaded on the surface of ZnO nanorods, were prepared by the step-by-step precipitation method under the assistance of ammonia and hydrogen peroxide. Display Omitted - Highlights: • MnO{sub 2}/ZnO nanorod hybrids were prepared by the step-by-step assembly method. • Single crystalline ZnO nanorods can be decorated by MnO{sub 2} nanoparticles. • MnO{sub 2}/ZnO nanorod hybrids possess good photocatalytic and antibacterial activity. • MnO{sub 2} can improve the photocatalytic activity of ZnO nanorods under visible light.

  10. Determination of crystallinity of ceramic materials from the Ruland Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kniess, C.T.; Prates, P.B.; Gomes Junior, J.C.; Lima, J.C. de; Riella, H.G.; Kuhnen, N.C.

    2011-01-01

    Some methods found in literature approach the different characteristics between crystalline and amorphous phases by X ray diffraction technique. These methods use the relation between the intensities of the crystalline peaks and background amorphous or the absolute intensity of one of these to determine the relative amount of crystalline and amorphous material. However, a crystalline substance presents shows coherent diffuse scattering and a loss in the intensity of the peaks of diffraction in function of thermal vibrations of atoms and imperfections in the crystalline structure. A correct method for the determination of the crystallinity must take in account these effects. This work has as objective to determine the crystallinity of ceramic materials obtained with the addition of mineral coal bottom ashes, using the X ray diffraction technique and the Ruland Method, that considers the diminution of the intensity of the crystalline peak because of the disorder affects. The Ruland Method shows adequate for the determination of the crystallinity of the ceramic materials. (author)

  11. (shell) nanoparticles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the quasistatic approximation shows good agreement with the Mie theory results. .... medium, respectively, and f = (rcore/rshell)1/3 is the fraction of the total particle ..... [27] Michael Quinten, Optical properties of nanoparticle systems: Mie and ...

  12. Optical nonlinear absorption characteristics of Sb2Se3 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralikrishna, Molli; Kiran, Aditha Sai; Ravikanth, B.; Sowmendran, P.; Muthukumar, V. Sai; Venkataramaniah, Kamisetti

    2014-04-01

    In this work, we report for the first time, the nonlinear optical absorption properties of antimony selenide (Sb2Se3) nanoparticles synthesized through solvothermal route. X-ray diffraction results revealed the crystalline nature of the nanoparticles. Electron microscopy studies revealed that the nanoparticles are in the range of 10 - 40 nm. Elemental analysis was performed using EDAX. By employing open aperture z-scan technique, we have evaluated the effective two-photon absorption coefficient of Sb2Se3 nanoparticles to be 5e-10 m/W at 532 nm. These nanoparticles exhibit strong intensity dependent nonlinear optical absorption and hence could be considered to have optical power limiting applications in the visible range.

  13. Lecithin-based wet chemical precipitation of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michał, Wojasiński; Ewa, Duszyńska; Tomasz, Ciach

    Hydroxyapatite Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized by the wet chemical precipitation method at 60 °C in the presence of biocompatible natural surfactant-lecithin. The composition and morphology of nanoparticles of hydroxyapatite synthesized with lecithin (nHAp-PC) was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Size distribution for nanoparticles was measured by nanoparticle tracking analysis in NanoSight system. We discuss in details influence of lecithin concentration in reaction system on nHAp-PC morphology, as well as on size distributions and suspendability of nanoparticles. Product exhibits crystalline structure and chemical composition of hydroxyapatite, with visible traces of lecithin. Difference in surfactant amounts results in changes in particles morphology and their average size.

  14. Preparation of gold nanoparticles by arc discharge in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung, Jen-Kuang; Huang, Jen-Chuen; Tien, Der-Chi; Liao, Chih-Yu; Tseng, Kuo-Hsiung; Tsung, Tsing-Tshin; Kao, Wen-Shiow; Tsai, Teh-Hua; Jwo, Ching-Song; Lin, Hong-Ming; Stobinski, Leszek

    2007-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles have been attracting attention due to their extensive application in chemistry, physics, material science, electronics, catalysis and bionanotechnology. Synthesis of gold nanoparticles often involves toxic and expensive physical-chemistry methods. Preparation of gold nanoparticles by arc discharge in water is proposed for the first time. Fabrication of gold nanostructures in deionized water has been successfully established. The evidence of gold particles' light absorbance reveals a unique surface plasmon resonance for Au nanoparticles suspended in deionized water. Gold nanostructures uniformly dispersed in water, their UV-Vis absorption and crystalline size are shown. Our experimental results demonstrate that fabrication of gold nanoparticles by arc discharge in water is an alternative, cheap, effective and environmentally friendly method

  15. Metamict state radiation damage in crystalline materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haaker, R.F.; Ewing, R.C.

    1979-01-01

    Metamict minerals provide an excellent basis for the evaluation of long-term radiation damage effects, particularly such changes in physical and chemical properties as microfracturing, hydrothermal alteration, and solubility. This paper summarizes pertinent literature on metamictization and proposes experiments that are critical to the elucidation of structural controls on radiation damage in crystalline phases

  16. Crystalline amino acids and nitrogen emission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstegen, M.W.A.; Jongbloed, A.W.

    2003-01-01

    Reductions in dietary protein level and supplementation with certain crystalline amino acids is a well-established method of formulating diets to achieve a more ideal amino acid pattern and to reduce nitrogen excretion. Up to 35% reduction in nitrogen excretion may be achieved by supplementing pig

  17. Attenuation of Thermal Neutrons by Crystalline Silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adib, M.; Habib, N.; Ashry, A.; Fathalla, M.

    2002-01-01

    A simple formula is given which allows to calculate the contribution of the total neutron cross - section including the Bragg scattering from different (hkt) planes to the neutron * transmission through a solid crystalline silicon. The formula takes into account the silicon form of poly or mono crystals and its parameters. A computer program DSIC was developed to provide the required calculations. The calculated values of the total neutron cross-section of perfect silicon crystal at room and liquid nitrogen temperatures were compared with the experimental ones. The obtained agreement shows that the simple formula fits the experimental data with sufficient accuracy .A good agreement was also obtained between the calculated and measured values of polycrystalline silicon in the energy range from 5 eV to 500μ eV. The feasibility study on using a poly-crystalline silicon as a cold neutron filter and mono-crystalline as a thermal neutron one is given. The optimum crystal thickness, mosaic spread, temperature and cutting plane for efficiently transmitting the thermal reactor neutrons, while rejecting both fast neutrons and gamma rays accompanying the thermal ones for the mono crystalline silicon are also given

  18. Gamma crystallins of the human eye lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendra, Venkata Pulla Rao; Khan, Ismail; Chandani, Sushil; Muniyandi, Anbukkarasi; Balasubramanian, Dorairajan

    2016-01-01

    Protein crystallins co me in three types (α, β and γ) and are found predominantly in the eye, and particularly in the lens, where they are packed into a compact, plastic, elastic, and transparent globule of proper refractive power range that aids in focusing incoming light on to the retina. Of these, the γ-crystallins are found largely in the nuclear region of the lens at very high concentrations (>400 mg/ml). The connection between their structure and inter-molecular interactions and lens transparency is an issue of particular interest. We review the origin and phylogeny of the gamma crystallins, their special structure involving the use of Greek key supersecondary structural motif, and how they aid in offering the appropriate refractive index gradient, intermolecular short range attractive interactions (aiding in packing them into a transparent ball), the role that several of the constituent amino acid residues play in this process, the thermodynamic and kinetic stability and how even single point mutations can upset this delicate balance and lead to intermolecular aggregation, forming light-scattering particles which compromise transparency. We cite several examples of this, and illustrate this by cloning, expressing, isolating and comparing the properties of the mutant protein S39C of human γS-crystallin (associated with congenital cataract-microcornea), with those of the wild type molecule. In addition, we note that human γ-crystallins are also present in other parts of the eye (e.g., retina), where their functions are yet to be understood. There are several 'crucial' residues in and around the Greek key motifs which are essential to maintain the compact architecture of the crystallin molecules. We find that a mutation that replaces even one of these residues can lead to reduction in solubility, formation of light-scattering particles and loss of transparency in the molecular assembly. Such a molecular understanding of the process helps us construct the

  19. Preparation and characterization of polymeric nanoparticles from Gadong starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisika, Regina; Ahmad, Wan Yaacob Wan; Fazry, Shazrul; Lazim, Azwan Mat

    2015-09-01

    Dioscorea hispida (Gadong tuber) was seldom used and forgotten as a food source due to their toxicity. In contrast to that, the Gadong tuber can be a source of polysaccharides which can be manipulated as an alternative source for industrial applications. This research reported on how to synthesize starch nanoparticles from Gadong tuber by using a simple acid hydrolysis process. The yield of starch nanoparticles obtained from seven days of acid hydrolysis was reduced to 13%. The X-ray diffraction measurements showed that the native Gadong starch particle is of the C-crystalline type, and that the synthesized nanoparticles showed an increase in crystallinity compared to the native particles. Transmission electron microscopy results demonstrated that the starch particle morphologies were either round or irregular shape, with diameters ranging from 96-110 nm.

  20. Preparation and characterization of polymeric nanoparticles from Gadong starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisika, Regina; Ahmad, Wan Yaacob Wan; Lazim, Azwan Mat; Fazry, Shazrul

    2015-01-01

    Dioscorea hispida (Gadong tuber) was seldom used and forgotten as a food source due to their toxicity. In contrast to that, the Gadong tuber can be a source of polysaccharides which can be manipulated as an alternative source for industrial applications. This research reported on how to synthesize starch nanoparticles from Gadong tuber by using a simple acid hydrolysis process. The yield of starch nanoparticles obtained from seven days of acid hydrolysis was reduced to 13%. The X-ray diffraction measurements showed that the native Gadong starch particle is of the C-crystalline type, and that the synthesized nanoparticles showed an increase in crystallinity compared to the native particles. Transmission electron microscopy results demonstrated that the starch particle morphologies were either round or irregular shape, with diameters ranging from 96-110 nm

  1. Preparation and characterization of polymeric nanoparticles from Gadong starch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sisika, Regina; Ahmad, Wan Yaacob Wan; Lazim, Azwan Mat [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Fazry, Shazrul [School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    Dioscorea hispida (Gadong tuber) was seldom used and forgotten as a food source due to their toxicity. In contrast to that, the Gadong tuber can be a source of polysaccharides which can be manipulated as an alternative source for industrial applications. This research reported on how to synthesize starch nanoparticles from Gadong tuber by using a simple acid hydrolysis process. The yield of starch nanoparticles obtained from seven days of acid hydrolysis was reduced to 13%. The X-ray diffraction measurements showed that the native Gadong starch particle is of the C-crystalline type, and that the synthesized nanoparticles showed an increase in crystallinity compared to the native particles. Transmission electron microscopy results demonstrated that the starch particle morphologies were either round or irregular shape, with diameters ranging from 96-110 nm.

  2. Characterization and use of crystalline bacterial cell surface layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleytr, Uwe B.; Sára, Margit; Pum, Dietmar; Schuster, Bernhard

    2001-10-01

    Crystalline bacterial cell surface layers (S-layers) are one of the most common outermost cell envelope components of prokaryotic organisms (archaea and bacteria). S-layers are monomolecular arrays composed of a single protein or glycoprotein species and represent the simplest biological membranes developed during evolution. S-layers as the most abundant of prokaryotic cellular proteins are appealing model systems for studying the structure, synthesis, genetics, assembly and function of proteinaceous supramolecular structures. The wealth of information existing on the general principle of S-layers have revealed a broad application potential. The most relevant features exploited in applied S-layer research are: (i) pores passing through S-layers show identical size and morphology and are in the range of ultrafiltration membranes; (ii) functional groups on the surface and in the pores are aligned in well-defined positions and orientations and accessible for chemical modifications and binding functional molecules in very precise fashion; (iii) isolated S-layer subunits from a variety of organisms are capable of recrystallizing as closed monolayers onto solid supports (e.g., metals, polymers, silicon wafers) at the air-water interface, on lipid films or onto the surface of liposomes; (iv) functional domains can be incorporated in S-layer proteins by genetic engineering. Thus, S-layer technologies particularly provide new approaches for biotechnology, biomimetics, molecular nanotechnology, nanopatterning of surfaces and formation of ordered arrays of metal clusters or nanoparticles as required for nanoelectronics.

  3. Microbial accumulation of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wei; Dong Faqin; Dai Qunwei

    2005-01-01

    The mechanism of microbial accumulation of uranium and the effects of some factors (including pH, initial uranium concentration, pretreatment of bacteria, and so on) on microbial accumulation of uranium are discussed briefly. The research direction and application prospect are presented. (authors)

  4. MICROBIAL FUEL CELL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    A novel microbial fuel cell construction for the generation of electrical energy. The microbial fuel cell comprises: (i) an anode electrode, (ii) a cathode chamber, said cathode chamber comprising an in let through which an influent enters the cathode chamber, an outlet through which an effluent...

  5. Microbial control of pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, J C; Gadd, G M; Herbert, R A; Jones, C W; Watson-Craik, I A [eds.

    1992-01-01

    12 papers are presented on the microbial control of pollution. Topics covered include: bioremediation of oil spills; microbial control of heavy metal pollution; pollution control using microorganisms and magnetic separation; degradation of cyanide and nitriles; nitrogen removal from water and waste; and land reclamation and restoration.

  6. Heating efficiency in magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deatsch, Alison E.; Evans, Benjamin A.

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles for hyperthermic treatment of cancers have gained significant attention in recent years. In magnetic hyperthermia, three independent mechanisms result in thermal energy upon stimulation: Néel relaxation, Brownian relaxation, and hysteresis loss. The relative contribution of each is strongly dependent on size, shape, crystalline anisotropy, and degree of aggregation or agglomeration of the nanoparticles. We review the effects of each of these physical mechanisms in light of recent experimental studies and suggest routes for progress in the field. Particular attention is given to the influence of the collective behaviors of nanoparticles in suspension. A number of recent studies have probed the effect of nanoparticle concentration on heating efficiency and have reported superficially contradictory results. We contextualize these studies and show that they consistently indicate a decrease in magnetic relaxation time with increasing nanoparticle concentration, in both Brownian- and Néel-dominated regimes. This leads to a predictable effect on heating efficiency and alleviates a significant source of confusion within the field. - Highlights: • Magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia. • Heating depends on individual properties and collective properties. • We review recent studies with respect to loss mechanisms. • Collective behavior is a key source of confusion in the field. • We contextualize recent studies to elucidate consistencies and alleviate confusion

  7. Butea monosperma bark extract mediated green synthesis of silver nanoparticles: Characterization and biomedical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutanuka Pattanayak

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The work deals with an environmentally benign process for the synthesis of silver nanoparticle using Butea monosperma bark extract which is used both as a reducing as well as capping agent at room temperature. The reaction mixture turned brownish yellow after about 24 h and an intense surface plasmon resonance (SPR band at around 424 nm clearly indicates the formation of silver nanoparticles. Fourier transform-Infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy showed that the nanoparticles were capped with compounds present in the plant extract. Formation of crystalline fcc silver nanoparticles is analysed by XRD data and the SAED pattern obtained also confirms the crystalline behaviour of the Ag nanoparticles. The size and morphology of these nanoparticles were studied using High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM which showed that the nanoparticles had an average dimension of ∼35 nm. A larger DLS data of ∼98 nm shows the presence of the stabilizer on the nanoparticles surface. The bio-synthesized silver nanoparticles revealed potent antibacterial activity against human bacteria of both Gram types. In addition these biologically synthesized nanoparticles also proved to exhibit excellent cytotoxic effect on human myeloid leukemia cell line, KG-1A with IC50 value of 11.47 μg/mL.

  8. Multiscale study of metal nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byeongchan

    Extremely small structures with reduced dimensionality have emerged as a scientific motif for their interesting properties. In particular, metal nanoparticles have been identified as a fundamental material in many catalytic activities; as a consequence, a better understanding of structure-function relationship of nanoparticles has become crucial. The functional analysis of nanoparticles, reactivity for example, requires an accurate method at the electronic structure level, whereas the structural analysis to find energetically stable local minima is beyond the scope of quantum mechanical methods as the computational cost becomes prohibitingly high. The challenge is that the inherent length scale and accuracy associated with any single method hardly covers the broad scale range spanned by both structural and functional analyses. In order to address this, and effectively explore the energetics and reactivity of metal nanoparticles, a hierarchical multiscale modeling is developed, where methodologies of different length scales, i.e. first principles density functional theory, atomistic calculations, and continuum modeling, are utilized in a sequential fashion. This work has focused on identifying the essential information that bridges two different methods so that a successive use of different methods is seamless. The bond characteristics of low coordination systems have been obtained with first principles calculations, and incorporated into the atomistic simulation. This also rectifies the deficiency of conventional interatomic potentials fitted to bulk properties, and improves the accuracy of atomistic calculations for nanoparticles. For the systematic shape selection of nanoparticles, we have improved the Wulff-type construction using a semi-continuum approach, in which atomistic surface energetics and crystallinity of materials are added on to the continuum framework. The developed multiscale modeling scheme is applied to the rational design of platinum

  9. Pengaruh Kecepatan Pendinginan Terhadap Perubahan Volume Leburan Polymer Crystalline dan Non-Crystalline

    OpenAIRE

    Fahrurrozi, Mohammad; Moristanto, Bagus Senowulung dan

    2003-01-01

    AbstractThe study was directed to develop a method to predict the influence of the rate of cooling to the degree of crystallittitv (DOC) and volume change of crystalline polymers. Crystalline polymer melts exhibit volume shrinkage on cooling below melting point due to crystallization. Crystallization and volunrc shrinkage will proceed with varies rate as long as the temperature is above the glass tansition temperatrre. DOC achieved by polymer is not only determined by the inherent crystallini...

  10. Can nanotechnology deliver the promised benefits without negatively impacting soil microbial life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimkpa, Christian O

    2014-09-01

    Nanotechnology exploits the enhanced reactivity of materials at the atomic scale to improve various applications for humankind. In agriculture, potential nanotechnology applications include crop protection and fertilization. However, such benefits could come with risks for the environment: non-target plants, plant-beneficial soil microbes and other life forms could be impacted if nanoparticles (nanomaterials) contaminate the environment. This review evaluates the impact of the major metallic nanoparticles (Ag, ZnO, CuO, CeO2 , TiO2 , and FeO-based nanoparticles) on soil microbes involved in agricultural processes. The current literature indicate that in addition to population and organismal-scale effects on microbes, other subtle impacts of nanoparticles are seen in the nitrogen cycle, soil enzyme activities, and processes involved in iron metabolism, phytohormone, and antibiotic production. These effects are negative or positive, the outcome being dependent on specific nanoparticles. Collectively, published results suggest that nanotechnology portends considerable, many negative, implications for soil microbes and, thus, agricultural processes that are microbially driven. Nonetheless, the potential of plant and soil microbial processes to mitigate the bioreactivity of nanoparticles also are observed. Whereas the roots of most terrestrial plants are associated with microbes, studies of nanoparticle interactions with plants and microbes are generally conducted separately. The few studies in actual microbe-plant systems found effects of nanoparticles on the functioning of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, nitrogen fixation, as well as on the production of microbial siderophores in the plant rhizosphere. It is suggested that a better understanding of the agro-ecological ramifications of nanoparticles would require more in-depth interactive studies in combined plant-microbe-nanoparticle systems. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Enhancement of crystallinity and magnetization in Fe3O4 nanoferrites induced by a high synthesized magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xinxiu; Zhang, Zhanxian; Chen, Shijie; Lei, Wei; Xu, Yan; Lin, Jia; Luo, Xiaojing; Liu, Yongsheng

    2018-05-01

    A one-step hydrothermal method in different dc magnetic fields was used to prepare the Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Under the magnetic field, the average particle size decreased from 72.9 to 41.6 nm, meanwhile, the particle crystallinity is greatly improved. The magnetic field enhances its saturation magnetization and coercivity. The high magnetic field induce another magnetic structure. At room temperature, these nanoparticles exhibit superparamagnetism whose critical size (D sp) is about 26 nm. The Verwey transition is observed in the vicinity of 120 K of Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The effective magnetic anisotropy decreases with the increase of the test temperature because of the H c decreased.

  12. Synthesis of water soluble glycine capped silver nanoparticles and their surface selective interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agasti, Nityananda; Singh, Vinay K.; Kaushik, N.K.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Synthesis of water soluble silver nanoparticles at ambient reaction conditions. • Glycine as stabilizing agent for silver nanoparticles. • Surface selective interaction of glycine with silver nanoparticles. • Glycine concentration influences crystalinity and optical property of silver nanoparticles. - Abstract: Synthesis of biocompatible metal nanoparticles has been an area of significant interest because of their wide range of applications. In the present study, we have successfully synthesized water soluble silver nanoparticles assisted by small amino acid glycine. The method is primarily based on reduction of AgNO 3 with NaBH 4 in aqueous solution under atmospheric air in the presence of glycine. UV–vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X–ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) techniques used for characterization of resulting silver nanoparticles demonstrated that, glycine is an effective capping agent to stabilize silver nanoparticles. Surface selective interaction of glycine on (1 1 1) face of silver nanoparticles has been investigated. The optical property and crystalline behavior of silver nanoparticles were found to be sensitive to concentration of glycine. X–ray diffraction studies ascertained the phase specific interaction of glycine on silver nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles synthesized were of diameter 60 nm. We thus demonstrated an efficient synthetic method for synthesis of water soluble silver nanoparticles capped by amino acid under mild reaction conditions with excellent reproducibility

  13. Liquid Crystalline Perylene diimides : Architecture and Charge Carrier Mobilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struijk, C.W.; Sieval, A.B.; Dakhorst, J.E.J.; Dijk, van M.; Kimkes, P.; Koehorst, R.B.M.; Donker, H.

    2000-01-01

    The phase behavior of three N-alkyl-substituted perylene diimide derivatives is examined by differential scanning calorimetry and polarized optical microscopy. The occurrence of multiple phase transitions indicates several crystalline and several liquid crystalline phases. X-ray diffraction

  14. Poorly crystalline hydroxyapatite: A novel adsorbent for enhanced fulvic acid removal from aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Wei [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Materials Cycling and Pollution Control, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Jiangsu Center for Collaborative Innovation in Geographical Information Resource Development and Application, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Yang, Lei; Zhong, Wenhui; Cui, Jing [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Wei, Zhenggui, E-mail: weizhenggui@gmail.com [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Materials Cycling and Pollution Control, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Jiangsu Center for Collaborative Innovation in Geographical Information Resource Development and Application, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China)

    2015-03-30

    term. Findings of the present work highlight the potential for using poorly crystalline HAP nanoparticles as an effective and recyclable adsorbent for FA removal from aqueous solution.

  15. Electromagnetic processes in strong crystalline fields

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    We propose a number of new investigations on aspects of radiation from high energy electron and positron beams (10-300 GeV) in single crystals and amorphous targets. The common heading is radiation emission by electrons and positrons in strong electromagnetic fields, but as the setup is quite versatile, other related phenomena in radiation emission can be studied as well. The intent is to clarify the role of a number of important aspects of radiation in strong fields as e.g. observed in crystals. We propose to measure trident 'Klein-like' production in strong crystalline fields, 'crystalline undulator' radiation, 'sandwich' target phenomena, LPM suppression of pair production as well as axial and planar effects in contributions of spin to the radiation.

  16. Liquid Crystalline Semiconductors Materials, properties and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kelly, Stephen; O'Neill, Mary

    2013-01-01

    This is an exciting stage in the development of organic electronics. It is no longer an area of purely academic interest as increasingly real applications are being developed, some of which are beginning to come on-stream. Areas that have already been commercially developed or which are under intensive development include organic light emitting diodes (for flat panel displays and solid state lighting), organic photovoltaic cells, organic thin film transistors (for smart tags and flat panel displays) and sensors. Within the family of organic electronic materials, liquid crystals are relative newcomers. The first electronically conducting liquid crystals were reported in 1988 but already a substantial literature has developed. The advantage of liquid crystalline semiconductors is that they have the easy processability of amorphous and polymeric semiconductors but they usually have higher charge carrier mobilities. Their mobilities do not reach the levels seen in crystalline organics but they circumvent all of t...

  17. Application of thermodynamics to silicate crystalline solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, S. K.

    1972-01-01

    A review of thermodynamic relations is presented, describing Guggenheim's regular solution models, the simple mixture, the zeroth approximation, and the quasi-chemical model. The possibilities of retrieving useful thermodynamic quantities from phase equilibrium studies are discussed. Such quantities include the activity-composition relations and the free energy of mixing in crystalline solutions. Theory and results of the study of partitioning of elements in coexisting minerals are briefly reviewed. A thermodynamic study of the intercrystalline and intracrystalline ion exchange relations gives useful information on the thermodynamic behavior of the crystalline solutions involved. Such information is necessary for the solution of most petrogenic problems and for geothermometry. Thermodynamic quantities for tungstates (CaWO4-SrWO4) are calculated.

  18. Determination of chloride content in crystalline silicotitanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmarth, W.R.

    1999-01-01

    Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) is one of three options under evaluation to replace the In-Tank Precipitation process. This Salt Disposition Alternatives team identified three options for pretreatment of High Level Waste supernate: non-elutable ion exchange, precipitation with sodium tetraphenylborate or direct disposal in grout. The ion exchange option would use crystalline silicotitanate (CST). Researchers at Texas A and M and Sandia National Laboratory developed CST. The engineered form of CST was procured from UOP LLC under the trade name IONSIVreg s ign IE-911. Review of vendor literature and discussions with UOP personnel led to speculation concerning the fate of chloride ion during the manufacture process of IE-911. Walker proposed tests to examine the chloride content of CST and removal methods. This report describes the results of tests to determine the chloride levels in as received CST and washed CST

  19. Total scattering of disordered crystalline functional materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamoto, Shin-Ichi; Kodama, Katsuaki; Iikubo, Satoshi; Taguchi, Tomitsugu

    2009-01-01

    There are disorders in some modern functional materials. As an example, the crystalline phase of an optical recording material has low thermal conductivity but high electrical conductivity, simultaneously. This contradiction is a challenge to material scientists in designing good functional materials, which should have at least two types of crystallographic sites. One site limits thermal conductivity while the other site carries electrons or holes with high mobility. This problem exists with not only optical recording materials but also thermoelectric materials. The periodic boundary condition gets lost in the disordered parts. This therefore, makes atomic pair distribution function (PDF) analysis with a wide range of real space suitable for investigating the form and size of crystalline parts as well as disordered parts in the material. Pulsed neutron powder diffraction is one of the best tools for use in this new type of emerging research, together with synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction and electron diffraction.

  20. Plasmonic Physics of 2D Crystalline Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Torbatian

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Collective modes of doped two-dimensional crystalline materials, namely graphene, MoS 2 and phosphorene, both monolayer and bilayer structures, are explored using the density functional theory simulations together with the random phase approximation. The many-body dielectric functions of the materials are calculated using an ab initio based model involving material-realistic physical properties. Having calculated the electron energy-loss, we calculate the collective modes of each material considering the in-phase and out-of-phase modes for bilayer structures. Furthermore, owing to many band structures and intreband transitions, we also find high-energy excitations in the systems. We explain that the material-specific dielectric function considering the polarizability of the crystalline material such as MoS 2 are needed to obtain realistic plasmon dispersions. For each material studied here, we find different collective modes and describe their physical origins.

  1. Crystallinity evaluation of polyhydroxybutyrate and polycaprolactone blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavalcante, Maxwell P.; Rodrigues, Elton Jorge R.; Tavares, Maria Ines B.

    2015-01-01

    Polyhydroxybutyrate, PHB, is a polymer obtained through bacterial or synthetic pathways. It has been used in the biomedical field as a matrix for drug delivery, medical implants and as scaffold material for tissue engineering. PHB has high structural organization, which makes it highly crystalline and brittle, making biodegradation difficult, reducing its employability. In order to enhance the mechanical and biological properties of PHB, blends with other polymers, biocompatible or not, are researched and produced. In this regard, blends of PHB and polycaprolactone, PCL, another biopolymer widely used in the biomedical industry, were obtained via solution casting and were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and low field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR). Results have shown a dependence between PHB's crystallinity index and PCL quantity employed to obtain the blends.(author)

  2. University Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaics Research and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajeet Rohatgi; Vijay Yelundur; Abasifreke Ebong; Dong Seop Kim

    2008-08-18

    The overall goal of the program is to advance the current state of crystalline silicon solar cell technology to make photovoltaics more competitive with conventional energy sources. This program emphasizes fundamental and applied research that results in low-cost, high-efficiency cells on commercial silicon substrates with strong involvement of the PV industry, and support a very strong photovoltaics education program in the US based on classroom education and hands-on training in the laboratory.

  3. Reactions and Interactions in Liquid Crystalline Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-10-30

    nematic lyophases of potassium laurate, myristyl tri methylammonium bromide or sodium decylsulfate with 1-decanol and 23 water. A strong retardation of the...crystalline polyacrylate crosslinked elastomers were synthesized. 198c 0 0 96 0 0 0O-(CH12 ) 2 -0O(k 97 Crosslinking, up to 10% of structural units produced...in their isotropic state and they work as the transporting phase for the azo-crown ether molecules. The permeation of K+ from a potassium p

  4. The phase diagram of crystalline surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anagnostopoulos, K.N.; Bowick, M.J.; Catterall, S.M.

    1995-01-01

    We report the status of a high-statistics Monte Carlo simulation of non-self-avoiding crystalline surfaces with extrinsic curvature on lattices of size up to 128 2 nodes. We impose free boundary conditions. The free energy is a gaussian spring tethering potential together with a normal-normal bending energy. Particular emphasis is given to the behavior of the model in the cold phase where we measure the decay of the normal-normal correlation function

  5. Colloid properties in groundwaters from crystalline formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degueldre, C.A.

    1994-09-01

    Colloids are present in all groundwaters. The role they may play in the migration of safety-relevant radionuclides in the geosphere therefore must be studied. Colloid sampling and characterisation campaigns have been carried out in Switzerland. On the bases of the results from studies in the Grimsel area, Northern Switzerland and the Black Forest, as well as those obtained by other groups concerned with crystalline waters, a consistent picture is emerging. The groundwater colloids in crystalline formations are predominantly comprised of phyllosilicates and silica originating from the aquifer rock. Under constant hydrogeochemical conditions, the colloid concentration is not expected to exceed 100 ng.ml -1 when the calcium concentration is greater than 10 -4 . However, under transient chemical or physical conditions, such as geothermal or tectonic activity, colloid generation may be enhanced and the colloid concentration may reach 10 μg.ml -1 or more, if both the calcium and sodium concentrations are low. In the Nagra Crystalline Reference Water the expected colloid concentration is -1 . This can be compared, for example, to a colloid concentration of about 10 ng.ml -1 found in Zurzach water. The small colloid concentration in the reference water is a consequence of an attachment factor for clay colloids (monmorillonite) close to 1. A model indicates that at pH 8, the nuclide partition coefficients between water and colloid (K p ) must be smaller than 10 7 ml.g -1 if sorption takes place by surface complexation on colloids, = AIOH active groups forming the dominant sorption sites. This pragmatic model is based on the competition between the formation of nuclide hydroxo complexes in solution and their sorption on colloids. Experimental nuclide sorption data on colloids are compared with those obtained by applying this model. For a low colloid concentration, a sorption capacity of the order of 10 -9 M and reversible surface complexation, their presence in the

  6. Controlled synthesis of single-crystalline graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xueshen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the controlled synthesis of single-crystalline graphene on the back side of copper foil using CH4 as the precursor. The influence of growth time and the pressure ratio of CH4/H2 on the structure of graphene are examined. An optimized polymer-assisted method is used to transfer the synthesized graphene onto a SiO2/Si substrate. Scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy are used to characterize the graphene.

  7. Crystallinity in starch plastics: consequences for material properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soest, van J.J.G.; Vliegenthart, J.F.G.

    1997-01-01

    The processing of starches with biodegradable additives has made biodegradable plastics suitable for a number of applications. Starch plastics are partially crystalline as a result of residual crystallinity and the recrystallization of amylose and amylopectin. Such crystallinity is a key determinant

  8. The origin, source and cycling of methane in deep crystalline rock biosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riikka eKietäväinen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The emerging interest in using stable bedrock formations for industrial purposes, e.g. nuclear waste disposal, has increased the need for understanding microbiological and geochemical processes in deep crystalline rock environments, including the carbon cycle. Considering the origin and evolution of life on Earth, these environments may also serve as windows to the past. Various geological, chemical and biological processes can influence the deep carbon cycle. Conditions of CH4 formation, available substrates and time scales can be drastically different from surface environments. This paper reviews the origin, source and cycling of methane in deep terrestrial crystalline bedrock with an emphasis on microbiology. In addition to potential formation pathways of CH4, microbial consumption of CH4 is also discussed. Recent studies on the origin of CH4 in continental bedrock environments have shown that the traditional separation of biotic and abiotic CH4 by the isotopic composition can be misleading in substrate-limited environments, such as the deep crystalline bedrock. Despite of similarities between Precambrian continental sites in Fennoscandia, South Africa and North America, where deep methane cycling has been studied, common physicochemical properties which could explain the variation in the amount of CH4 and presence or absence of CH4 cycling microbes were not found. However, based on their preferred carbon metabolism, methanogenic microbes appeared to have similar spatial distribution among the different sites.

  9. The origin, source, and cycling of methane in deep crystalline rock biosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kietäväinen, Riikka; Purkamo, Lotta

    2015-01-01

    The emerging interest in using stable bedrock formations for industrial purposes, e.g., nuclear waste disposal, has increased the need for understanding microbiological and geochemical processes in deep crystalline rock environments, including the carbon cycle. Considering the origin and evolution of life on Earth, these environments may also serve as windows to the past. Various geological, chemical, and biological processes can influence the deep carbon cycle. Conditions of CH4 formation, available substrates and time scales can be drastically different from surface environments. This paper reviews the origin, source, and cycling of methane in deep terrestrial crystalline bedrock with an emphasis on microbiology. In addition to potential formation pathways of CH4, microbial consumption of CH4 is also discussed. Recent studies on the origin of CH4 in continental bedrock environments have shown that the traditional separation of biotic and abiotic CH4 by the isotopic composition can be misleading in substrate-limited environments, such as the deep crystalline bedrock. Despite of similarities between Precambrian continental sites in Fennoscandia, South Africa and North America, where deep methane cycling has been studied, common physicochemical properties which could explain the variation in the amount of CH4 and presence or absence of CH4 cycling microbes were not found. However, based on their preferred carbon metabolism, methanogenic microbes appeared to have similar spatial distribution among the different sites.

  10. Crystalline lens power and refractive error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iribarren, Rafael; Morgan, Ian G; Nangia, Vinay; Jonas, Jost B

    2012-02-01

    To study the relationships between the refractive power of the crystalline lens, overall refractive error of the eye, and degree of nuclear cataract. All phakic participants of the population-based Central India Eye and Medical Study with an age of 50+ years were included. Calculation of the refractive lens power was based on distance noncycloplegic refractive error, corneal refractive power, anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, and axial length according to Bennett's formula. The study included 1885 subjects. Mean refractive lens power was 25.5 ± 3.0 D (range, 13.9-36.6). After adjustment for age and sex, the standardized correlation coefficients (β) of the association with the ocular refractive error were highest for crystalline lens power (β = -0.41; P lens opacity grade (β = -0.42; P lens power (β = -0.95), lower corneal refractive power (β = -0.76), higher lens thickness (β = 0.30), deeper anterior chamber (β = 0.28), and less marked nuclear lens opacity (β = -0.05). Lens thickness was significantly lower in eyes with greater nuclear opacity. Variations in refractive error in adults aged 50+ years were mostly influenced by variations in axial length and in crystalline lens refractive power, followed by variations in corneal refractive power, and, to a minor degree, by variations in lens thickness and anterior chamber depth.

  11. Crystalline to amorphous transformation in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheruvu, S.M.

    1982-09-01

    In the present investigation, an attempt was made to understand the fundamental mechanism of crystalline-to-amorphous transformation in arsenic implanted silicon using high resolution electron microscopy. A comparison of the gradual disappearance of simulated lattice fringes with increasing Frenkel pair concentration with the experimental observation of sharp interfaces between crystalline and amorphous regions was carried out leading to the conclusion that when the defect concentration reaches a critical value, the crystal does relax to an amorphous state. Optical diffraction experiments using atomic models also supported this hypothesis. Both crystalline and amorphous zones were found to co-exist with sharp interfaces at the atomic level. Growth of the amorphous fraction depends on the temperature, dose rate and the mass of the implanted ion. Preliminary results of high energy electron irradiation experiments at 1.2 MeV also suggested that clustering of point defects occurs near room temperature. An observation in a high resolution image of a small amorphous zone centered at the core of a dislocation is presented as evidence that the nucleation of an amorphous phase is heterogeneous in nature involving clustering or segregation of point defects near existing defects

  12. The strength of crystalline color superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mannarelli, Massimo; Rajagopal, Krishna; Sharma, Rishi

    2007-01-01

    We present a study of the shear modulus of the crystalline color superconducting phase of quark matter, showing that this phase of dense, but not asymptotically dense, quark matter responds to shear stress as a very rigid solid. This phase is characterized by a gap parameter Δ that is periodically modulated in space and therefore spontaneously breaks translational invariance. We derive the effective action for the phonon fields that describe space- and time-dependent fluctuations of the crystal structure formed by Δ, and obtain the shear modulus from the coefficients of the spatial derivative terms. Within a Ginzburg-Landau approximation, we find shear moduli which are 20 to 1000 times larger than those of neutron star crusts. This phase of matter is thus more rigid than any known material in the universe, but at the same time the crystalline color superconducting phase is also superfluid. These properties raise the possibility that the presence of this phase within neutron stars may have distinct implications for their phenomenology. For example (some) pulsar glitches may originate in crystalline superconducting neutron star cores

  13. Crystalline beams: Theory, experiments, and proposals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, A.G.

    1995-01-01

    Crystalline Beams are an ordered state of an ensemble of ions, circulating in a storage ring, with very small velocity fluctuations. They can be obtained from ordinary warm ion beams with the application of intense cooling techniques (stochastic, electron, laser). A phase transition occurs when sufficiently small velocity spreads are reached, freezing the particle-to-particle spacing in strings, Zigzags, and helices ... The properties and the feasibility of Crystalline Beams depend on the choice of the lattice of the Storage Ring. There are three issues closely related to the design of the Storage Ring; namely: the determination of Equilibrium Configurations, Confinement Conditions, and Stability Conditions. Of particular concern is the effect of the trajectory curvature and of the beam momentum spread, since they set the requirements on the amount of momentum cooling, on the focussing, and on the distribution of bending in the lattice of the storage ring. The practical demonstration of Crystalline Beams may create the basis for an advanced technology for particle accelerators, where the limitations due to Coulomb intrabeam scattering and space-charge forces would finally be brought under control, so that beams of ions, more dense than normal, can be achieved for a variety of new applications

  14. Iron oxyhydroxide mineralization on microbial extracellular polysaccharides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Clara S.; Fakra, Sirine C.; Edwards, David C.; Emerson, David; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2010-06-22

    Iron biominerals can form in neutral pH microaerophilic environments where microbes both catalyze iron oxidation and create polymers that localize mineral precipitation. In order to classify the microbial polymers that influence FeOOH mineralogy, we studied the organic and mineral components of biominerals using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM), micro X-ray fluorescence ({mu}XRF) microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). We focused on iron microbial mat samples from a creek and abandoned mine; these samples are dominated by iron oxyhydroxide-coated structures with sheath, stalk, and filament morphologies. In addition, we characterized the mineralized products of an iron-oxidizing, stalk-forming bacterial culture isolated from the mine. In both natural and cultured samples, microbial polymers were found to be acidic polysaccharides with carboxyl functional groups, strongly spatially correlated with iron oxyhydroxide distribution patterns. Organic fibrils collect FeOOH and control its recrystallization, in some cases resulting in oriented crystals with high aspect ratios. The impact of polymers is particularly pronounced as the materials age. Synthesis experiments designed to mimic the biomineralization processes show that the polysaccharide carboxyl groups bind dissolved iron strongly but release it as mineralization proceeds. Our results suggest that carboxyl groups of acidic polysaccharides are produced by different microorganisms to create a wide range of iron oxyhydroxide biomineral structures. The intimate and potentially long-term association controls the crystal growth, phase, and reactivity of iron oxyhydroxide nanoparticles in natural systems.

  15. Electrospinning of microbial polyester for cell culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Oh Hyeong [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Kumoh National Institute of Technology, 1 Yangho-dong, Gumi, Gyeongbuk 730-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ik Sang [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Kumoh National Institute of Technology, 1 Yangho-dong, Gumi, Gyeongbuk 730-701 (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Young-Gwang [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Kumoh National Institute of Technology, 1 Yangho-dong, Gumi, Gyeongbuk 730-701 (Korea, Republic of); Meng, Wan [Department of Polymer Science, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyuk-dong, Buk-gu, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Kyung-Hye [Department of Polymer Science, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyuk-dong, Buk-gu, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Inn-Kyu [Department of Polymer Science, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyuk-dong, Buk-gu, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Ito, Yoshihiro [Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology, KSP East 309, Sakado 3-2-1, Takatsu-ku, Kawasaki 213-0012 (Japan)

    2007-03-01

    Biodegradable and biocompatible poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV), a copolymer of microbial polyester, was fabricated as a nanofibrous mat by electrospinning. The specific surface area and the porosity of electrospun PHBV nanofibrous mat were determined. When the mechanical properties of flat film and electrospun PHBV nanofibrous mats were investigated, both the tensile modulus and strength of electrospun PHBV were less than those of cast PHBV film. However, the elongation ratio of nanofiber mat was higher than that of the cast film. The structure of electrospun nanofibers using PHBV-trifluoroethanol solutions depended on the solution concentrations. When x-ray diffraction patterns of bulk PHBV before and after electrospinning were compared, the crystallinity of PHBV was not significantly affected by the electrospinning process. Chondrocytes adhered and grew on the electrospun PHBV nanofibrous mat better than on the cast PHBV film. Therefore, the electrospun PHBV was considered to be suitable for cell culture.

  16. ZnO doped SnO2 nanoparticles heterojunction photo-catalyst for environmental remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamba, Randeep; Umar, Ahmad; Mehta, S.K.; Kansal, Sushil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    ZnO doped SnO 2 nanoparticles were synthesized by facile and simple hydrothermal technique and used as an effective photocatalyst for the photocatalytic degradation of harmful and toxic organic dye. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized in detail using different techniques for morphological, structural and optical properties. The characterization results revealed that the synthesized nanoparticles possess both crystal phases of tetragonal rutile phase of pure SnO 2 and wurtzite hexagonal phase of ZnO. In addition, the nanoparticles were synthesized in very high quantity with good crystallinity. The photocatalytic activity of prepared nanoparticles was evaluated by the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) dye. Detailed photocatalytic experiments based on the effects of irradiation time, catalyst dose and pH were performed and presented in this paper. The detailed photocatalytic experiments revealed that the synthesized ZnO doped SnO 2 nanoparticles heterojunction photocatalyst exhibit best photocatalytic performance when the catalyst dose was 0.25 g/L and pH = 10. ZnO doped SnO 2 nanoparticles heterojunction photocatalyst was also compared with commercially available TiO 2 (PC-50), TiO 2 (PC-500) and SnO 2 and interestingly ZnO doped SnO 2 nanoparticles exhibited superior photocatalytic performance. The presented work demonstrates that the prepared ZnO doped SnO 2 nanoparticles are promising material for the photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes and toxic chemicals. - Highlights: • Synthesis of well-crystalline ZnO-doped SnO 2 nanoparticles. • Excellent morphological, crystalline and photoluminescent properties. • Efficient environmental remediation using ZnO-doped SnO 2 nanoparticles.

  17. Biopolymeric nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundar, Sushmitha; Kundu, Joydip; Kundu, Subhas C

    2010-01-01

    This review on nanoparticles highlights the various biopolymers (proteins and polysaccharides) which have recently revolutionized the world of biocompatible and degradable natural biological materials. The methods of their fabrication, including emulsification, desolvation, coacervation and electrospray drying are described. The characterization of different parameters for a given nanoparticle, such as particle size, surface charge, morphology, stability, structure, cellular uptake, cytotoxicity, drug loading and drug release, is outlined together with the relevant measurement techniques. Applications in the fields of medicine and biotechnology are discussed along with a promising future scope. (topical review)

  18. An improved amperometric L-lactate biosensor based on covalent immobilization of microbial lactate oxidase onto carboxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes/copper nanoparticles/polyaniline modified pencil graphite electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagar, Kusum; Pundir, C S

    2017-01-01

    An improved amperometric l-lactate biosensor was constructed based on covalent immobilization of lactate oxidase (LOx) from Pediococcus species onto carboxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (cMWCNT)/copper nanoparticles (CuNPs)/polyaniline (PANI) hybrid film electrodeposited on the surface of a pencil graphite electrode (PGE). The enzyme electrode was characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), while CuNPs synthesized by chemical reduction method, were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV spectrascopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The biosensor showed maximum response within 5s at pH 8.0 in 0.05M sodium phosphate buffer and 37°C, when operated at 20mVs -1 . The biosensor had a detection limit of 0.25μM with a wide working range between 1μM-2500μM. The biosensor was employed for measurement of l-lactic acid level in plasma of apparently healthy and diseased persons. Analytical recovery of added lactic acid in plasma was 95.5%. Within- and between-batch coefficients of variations were 6.24% and 4.19% respectively. There was a good correlation (R 2 =0.97) between plasma lactate values as measured by standard enzymatic spectrophotometric method and the present biosensor. The working enzyme electrode was used 180 times over a period of 140 days, when stored at 4°C. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Electrical transport in crystalline phase change materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woda, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, the electrical transport properties of crystalline phase change materials are discussed. Phase change materials (PCM) are a special class of semiconducting and metallic thin film alloys, typically with a high amount of the group five element antimony or the group six element tellurium, such as Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 . The unique property portfolio of this material class makes it suitable for memory applications. PCMs reveal fast switching between two stable room-temperature phases (amorphous and crystalline) realized by optical laser or electrical current pulses in memory devices. Additionally, a pronounced property contrast in form of optical reflectivity and electrical conductivity between the amorphous and crystalline phase is the characteristic fingerprint of PCMs. The emerging electrical solid state memory PCRAM is a very promising candidate to replace Flash memory in the near future or to even become a universal memory, which is non-volatile and shows the speed and cyclability of DRAM. One of the main technological challenges is the switching process into the amorphous state, which is the most power demanding step. In order to reduce the switching power, the crystalline resistivity needs to be increased at a given voltage. Thus understanding and tayloring of this property is mandatory. In this work, first the technological relevance, i.e. optical and electrical memory concepts based on PCMs are introduced. Subsequently a description of the physical properties of PCMs in four categories is given. Namely, structure, kinetics, optical properties and electrical properties are discussed. Then important recent developments such as the identification of resonant bonding in crystalline PCMs and a property predicting coordination scheme are briefly reviewed. The following chapter deals with the theoretical background of electrical transport, while the next chapter introduces the experimental techniques: Sputtering, XRR, XRD, DSC, thermal annealing

  20. Electrical transport in crystalline phase change materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woda, Michael

    2012-01-06

    In this thesis, the electrical transport properties of crystalline phase change materials are discussed. Phase change materials (PCM) are a special class of semiconducting and metallic thin film alloys, typically with a high amount of the group five element antimony or the group six element tellurium, such as Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5}. The unique property portfolio of this material class makes it suitable for memory applications. PCMs reveal fast switching between two stable room-temperature phases (amorphous and crystalline) realized by optical laser or electrical current pulses in memory devices. Additionally, a pronounced property contrast in form of optical reflectivity and electrical conductivity between the amorphous and crystalline phase is the characteristic fingerprint of PCMs. The emerging electrical solid state memory PCRAM is a very promising candidate to replace Flash memory in the near future or to even become a universal memory, which is non-volatile and shows the speed and cyclability of DRAM. One of the main technological challenges is the switching process into the amorphous state, which is the most power demanding step. In order to reduce the switching power, the crystalline resistivity needs to be increased at a given voltage. Thus understanding and tayloring of this property is mandatory. In this work, first the technological relevance, i.e. optical and electrical memory concepts based on PCMs are introduced. Subsequently a description of the physical properties of PCMs in four categories is given. Namely, structure, kinetics, optical properties and electrical properties are discussed. Then important recent developments such as the identification of resonant bonding in crystalline PCMs and a property predicting coordination scheme are briefly reviewed. The following chapter deals with the theoretical background of electrical transport, while the next chapter introduces the experimental techniques: Sputtering, XRR, XRD, DSC, thermal annealing

  1. Understanding the growth of micro and nano-crystalline AlN by thermal plasma process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanhe, Nilesh S.; Nawale, Ashok B.; Gawade, Rupesh L.; Puranik, Vedavati G.; Bhoraskar, Sudha V.; Das, Asoka K.; Mathe, Vikas L.

    2012-01-01

    We report the studies related to the growth of crystalline AlN in a DC thermal plasma reactor, operated by a transferred arc plasma torch. The reactor is capable of producing the nanoparticles of Al and AlN depending on the composition of the reacting gas. Al and AlN micro crystals are formed at the anode placed on the graphite and nano crystalline Al and AlN gets deposited on the inner surface of the plasma reactor. X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy analysis, single crystal X-ray diffraction and TGA-DTA techniques are used to infer the purity of post process crystals as a hexagonal AlN. The average particle size using SEM was found to be around 30 μm. The morphology of nanoparticles of Al and AlN, nucleated by gas phase condensation in a homogeneous medium were studied by transmission electron microscopy analysis. The particle ranged in size between 15 and 80 nm in diameter. The possible growth mechanism of crystalline AlN at the anode has been explained on the basis of non-equilibrium processes in the core of the plasma and steep temperature gradient near its periphery. The gas phase species of AlN and various constituent were computed using Murphy code based on minimization of free energy. The process provides 50% yield of microcrystalline AlN and remaining of Al at anode and that of nanocrystalline h-AlN and c-Al collected from the walls of the chamber is about 33% and 67%, respectively.

  2. Evolution of microbial pathogens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DiRita, Victor J; Seifert, H. Steven

    2006-01-01

    ... A. Hogan vvi ■ CONTENTS 8. Evolution of Pathogens in Soil Rachel Muir and Man-Wah Tan / 131 9. Experimental Models of Symbiotic Host-Microbial Relationships: Understanding the Underpinnings of ...

  3. Trapping shape-controlled nanoparticle nucleation and growth stages via continuous-flow chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    LaGrow, Alec P.; Besong, Tabot M.D.; AlYami, Noktan; Katsiev, Khabiboulakh; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Abdelkader, Ahmed; Da Costa, Pedro M. F. J.; Burlakov, Victor M.; Goriely, Alain; Bakr, Osman

    2017-01-01

    Continuous flow chemistry is used to trap the nucleation and growth stages of platinum-nickel nano-octahedra with second time resolution and high throughputs to probe their properties ex situ. The growth starts from poorly crystalline particles (nucleation) at 5 seconds, to crystalline 1.5 nm particles bounded by the {111}-facets at 7.5 seconds, followed by truncation and further growth to octahedral nanoparticles at 20 seconds.

  4. Trapping shape-controlled nanoparticle nucleation and growth stages via continuous-flow chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaGrow, Alec P; Besong, Tabot M D; AlYami, Noktan M; Katsiev, Khabiboulakh; Anjum, Dalaver H; Abdelkader, Ahmed; Costa, Pedro M F J; Burlakov, Victor M; Goriely, Alain; Bakr, Osman M

    2017-02-21

    Continuous flow chemistry is used to trap the nucleation and growth stages of platinum-nickel nano-octahedra with second time resolution and high throughputs to probe their properties ex situ. The growth starts from poorly crystalline particles (nucleation) at 5 seconds, to crystalline 1.5 nm particles bounded by the {111}-facets at 7.5 seconds, followed by truncation and further growth to octahedral nanoparticles at 20 seconds.

  5. Trapping shape-controlled nanoparticle nucleation and growth stages via continuous-flow chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    LaGrow, Alec P.

    2017-02-06

    Continuous flow chemistry is used to trap the nucleation and growth stages of platinum-nickel nano-octahedra with second time resolution and high throughputs to probe their properties ex situ. The growth starts from poorly crystalline particles (nucleation) at 5 seconds, to crystalline 1.5 nm particles bounded by the {111}-facets at 7.5 seconds, followed by truncation and further growth to octahedral nanoparticles at 20 seconds.

  6. Marine microorganisms as potential biofactories for synthesis of metallic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manivasagan, Panchanathan; Nam, Seung Yun; Oh, Junghwan

    2016-11-01

    The use of marine microorganisms as potential biofactories for green synthesis of metallic nanoparticles is a relatively new field of research with considerable prospects. This method is eco-friendly, time saving, and inexpensive and can be easily scaled up for large-scale synthesis. The increasing need to develop simple, nontoxic, clean, and environmentally safe production methods for nanoparticles and to decrease environmental impact, minimize waste, and increase energy productivity has become important in this field. Marine microorganisms are tiny organisms that live in marine ecosystems and account for >98% of biomass of the world's ocean. Marine microorganisms synthesize metallic nanoparticles either intracellularly or extracellularly. Marine microbially-produced metallic nanoparticles have received considerable attention in recent years because of their expected impact on various applications such as medicine, energy, electronic, and space industries. The present review discusses marine microorganisms as potential biofactories for the green synthesis of metallic nanoparticles and their potential applications.

  7. pH induced protein-scaffold biosynthesis of tunable shape gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaorong; He Xiaoxiao; Wang Kemin; Ren Fang; Qin Zhihe

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a pH-inductive protein-scaffold biosynthesis of shape-tunable crystalline gold nanoparticles at room temperature has been developed. By simple manipulation of the reaction solution's pH, anisotropic gold nanoparticles including spheres, triangles and cubes could be produced by incubating an aqueous solution of sodium tetrachloroaurate with Dolichomitriopsis diversiformis biomasses after immersion in ultrapure Millipore water overnight. A moss protein with molecular weight of about 71 kDa and pI of 4.9 was the primary biomolecule involved in the biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles. The secondary configuration of the proteins by CD spectrum implied that the moss protein could display different secondary configurations including random coil, α-helix and intermediate conformations between random coil and α-helix for the experimental pH solution. The growth process of gold nanoparticles further showed that the moss protein with different configurations provided the template scaffold for the shape-controlled biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles. The constrained shape of the gold nanoparticles, however, disappeared in boiled moss extract. The gold nanoparticles with designed morphology were successfully reconstructed using the moss protein purified from the gold nanoparticles. Structural characterizations by SEM, TEM and SAED showed that the triangular and cubic gold nanoparticles were single crystalline.

  8. Synthetic Electric Microbial Biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-10

    domains and DNA-binding domains into a single protein for deregulation of down stream genes of have been favored [10]. Initially experiments with... Germany DISTRIBUTION A. Approved for public release: distribution unlimited.   Talk title: “Synthetic biology based microbial biosensors for the...toolbox” in Heidelberg, Germany Poster title: “Anaerobic whole cell microbial biosensors” Link: http://phdsymposium.embl.org/#home   September, 2014

  9. Microbial bioinformatics 2020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallen, Mark J

    2016-09-01

    Microbial bioinformatics in 2020 will remain a vibrant, creative discipline, adding value to the ever-growing flood of new sequence data, while embracing novel technologies and fresh approaches. Databases and search strategies will struggle to cope and manual curation will not be sustainable during the scale-up to the million-microbial-genome era. Microbial taxonomy will have to adapt to a situation in which most microorganisms are discovered and characterised through the analysis of sequences. Genome sequencing will become a routine approach in clinical and research laboratories, with fresh demands for interpretable user-friendly outputs. The "internet of things" will penetrate healthcare systems, so that even a piece of hospital plumbing might have its own IP address that can be integrated with pathogen genome sequences. Microbiome mania will continue, but the tide will turn from molecular barcoding towards metagenomics. Crowd-sourced analyses will collide with cloud computing, but eternal vigilance will be the price of preventing the misinterpretation and overselling of microbial sequence data. Output from hand-held sequencers will be analysed on mobile devices. Open-source training materials will address the need for the development of a skilled labour force. As we boldly go into the third decade of the twenty-first century, microbial sequence space will remain the final frontier! © 2016 The Author. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Robust Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-21

    avenues for creating flexible conducting and semiconducting materials in a variety of simple or complex geometries. B. Conducting nanoparticle...coated with poly(MPC-co-DHLA) proved stable against challenging conditions, and resisted cyanide ion digestion. Au NRs coated with poly(MPC-co-DHLA

  11. Plasmonic and silicon spherical nanoparticle antireflective coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baryshnikova, K. V.; Petrov, M. I.; Babicheva, V. E.; Belov, P. A.

    2016-03-01

    Over the last decade, plasmonic antireflecting nanostructures have been extensively studied to be utilized in various optical and optoelectronic systems such as lenses, solar cells, photodetectors, and others. The growing interest to all-dielectric photonics as an alternative optical technology along with plasmonics motivates us to compare antireflective properties of plasmonic and all-dielectric nanoparticle coatings based on silver and crystalline silicon respectively. Our simulation results for spherical nanoparticles array on top of amorphous silicon show that both silicon and silver coatings demonstrate strong antireflective properties in the visible spectral range. For the first time, we show that zero reflectance from the structure with silicon coatings originates from the destructive interference of electric- and magnetic-dipole responses of nanoparticle array with the wave reflected from the substrate, and we refer to this reflection suppression as substrate-mediated Kerker effect. We theoretically compare the silicon and silver coating effectiveness for the thin-film photovoltaic applications. Silver nanoparticles can be more efficient, enabling up to 30% increase of the overall absorbance in semiconductor layer. Nevertheless, silicon coatings allow up to 64% absorbance increase in the narrow band spectral range because of the substrate-mediated Kerker effect, and band position can be effectively tuned by varying the nanoparticles sizes.

  12. Effect of Polyamide 6 on Crystalline Structure of Polymer in PVDF-Nanoclay Nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Yousefi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The  effect  of  nanocaly  on  crystalline  structure  of  poly(vinylidene  fuoride, PVDF, and the morphology of the resulting nano-composite were investigated using  different  characterization  techniques.  The  presence  of  3wt%  Cloisite 30B in PVDF matrix results in 11 fold increase in the percentage of beta crystalline content of the polymer. This was found to be attributed to the epitaxial effect of the clay  surface. The  beta  crystalline  content  of  the  pure  polymer  (6% was  raised  to 68% in the composite. Addition of 5wt% polyamide 6 (PA6 improved dispersion of nanoclay which led to augmentation of the viscosity and displacement of the crossover frequency of the compatibilized composite towards lower frequencies. However, due to stronger affnity of the PA6 towards organically modifed clay the epitaxial effect of  the  clay on  crystalline  structure of PVDF was  totally  eliminated. The  reduction of  viscosity  in  incompatibilized  nanocomposite was  attributed  to  reduced  number of PVDF chain entanglements  in  the presence of nanoclay. Meanwhile,  increase  in viscosity and displacement of crossover  frequency  towards  lower  frequencies were attributed to formation of clay-PA nanoparticles and PVDF-polyamide 6 interactions. It is expected that the presence of polyamide 6 promotes the formation of oriented-beta crystals in PVDF, which in turn improves the piezoelectric properties of the polymer.

  13. Spectral luminescent properties of bacteriochlorin and aluminum phthalocyanine nanoparticles as hydroxyapatite implant surface coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. S. Maklygina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The development and the spectral research of unique coating as crystalline nanoparticles of IR photosensitizers were performed for the creation of hydroxyapatite implants with photobactericidal properties. It has been proved that by the interaction of nanoparticles covering implant with the polar solvent, which simulates the interaction of the implant with the biocomponents in vivo (fast proliferating and with immunocompetent cells, photosensitizers nanoparticles change the spectroscopic properties, becoming fluorescent and phototoxic. Thus, the developed coating based on crystalline photosensitizer nanoparticles with studied specific properties should have antibacterial, anti-inflammatory effect by the photodynamic treatment in the near implant area. This research opens the prospect of the local prevention of inflammatory and autoimmune reactions in the area of implantation. The results of the study suggest a promising this technology in order to create implants with photobactericidal properties.

  14. Synthesis of Titanium Dioxide nanoparticles via sucrose ester micelle-mediated hydrothermal processing route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, N.S.; Kassim, A.; Lim, H.N.; Zakarya, S.A.; Huang, N.M.

    2010-01-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles were synthesized via low-temperature sucrose ester micelle-mediated hydrothermal processing route using titanium isopropoxide as the precursor. X-ray diffractometer revealed that the samples possessed a mixed crystalline phases consisting of anatase and brookite in which anatase was the main phase. Upon increasing the hydrothermal reaction temperature, the degree of crystallinity of the nanoparticles improved and their morphology transformed from bundles of needles to rods and to spheres. Photo catalytic behaviour of the as-synthesized nanoparticles was investigated by photodegradation of methylene blue solution in an ultraviolet A irradiating photo reactor. The as-synthesized nanoparticles exhibited higher photo catalytic performance as compared to the commercial counterpart. (author)

  15. Biomimetic processing of oriented crystalline ceramic layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesarano, J.; Shelnutt, J.A.

    1997-10-01

    The aim of this project was to develop the capabilities for Sandia to fabricate self assembled Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films of various materials and to exploit their two-dimensional crystalline structure to promote the growth of oriented thin films of inorganic materials at room temperature. This includes the design and synthesis of Langmuir-active (amphiphilic) organic molecules with end groups offering high nucleation potential for various ceramics. A longer range goal is that of understanding the underlying principles, making it feasible to use the techniques presented in this report to fabricate unique oriented films of various materials for electronic, sensor, and membrane applications. Therefore, whenever possible, work completed in this report was completed with the intention of addressing the fundamental phenomena underlying the growth of crystalline, inorganic films on template layers of highly organized organic molecules. This problem was inspired by biological processes, which often produce exquisitely engineered structures via templated growth on polymeric layers. Seashells, for example, exhibit great toughness owing to their fine brick-and-mortar structure that results from templated growth of calcium carbonate on top of layers of ordered organic proteins. A key goal in this work, therefore, is to demonstrate a positive correlation between the order and orientation of the template layer and that of the crystalline ceramic material grown upon it. The work completed was comprised of several parallel efforts that encompassed the entire spectrum of biomimetic growth from solution. Studies were completed on seashells and the mechanisms of growth for calcium carbonate. Studies were completed on the characterization of LB films and the capability developed for the in-house fabrication of these films. Standard films of fatty acids were studied as well as novel polypeptides and porphyrins that were synthesized.

  16. Deep subsurface microbial processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovley, D.R.; Chapelle, F.H.

    1995-01-01

    Information on the microbiology of the deep subsurface is necessary in order to understand the factors controlling the rate and extent of the microbially catalyzed redox reactions that influence the geophysical properties of these environments. Furthermore, there is an increasing threat that deep aquifers, an important drinking water resource, may be contaminated by man's activities, and there is a need to predict the extent to which microbial activity may remediate such contamination. Metabolically active microorganisms can be recovered from a diversity of deep subsurface environments. The available evidence suggests that these microorganisms are responsible for catalyzing the oxidation of organic matter coupled to a variety of electron acceptors just as microorganisms do in surface sediments, but at much slower rates. The technical difficulties in aseptically sampling deep subsurface sediments and the fact that microbial processes in laboratory incubations of deep subsurface material often do not mimic in situ processes frequently necessitate that microbial activity in the deep subsurface be inferred through nonmicrobiological analyses of ground water. These approaches include measurements of dissolved H2, which can predict the predominant microbially catalyzed redox reactions in aquifers, as well as geochemical and groundwater flow modeling, which can be used to estimate the rates of microbial processes. Microorganisms recovered from the deep subsurface have the potential to affect the fate of toxic organics and inorganic contaminants in groundwater. Microbial activity also greatly influences 1 the chemistry of many pristine groundwaters and contributes to such phenomena as porosity development in carbonate aquifers, accumulation of undesirably high concentrations of dissolved iron, and production of methane and hydrogen sulfide. Although the last decade has seen a dramatic increase in interest in deep subsurface microbiology, in comparison with the study of

  17. Variation in Structural and Optical Properties of Al Doped ZnO Nanoparticles Synthesized by Sol-gel Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanaja Aravapalli

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on analyzing structural and optical properties of Al doped ZnO (AZO synthesized with two different precursors aluminum chloride and aluminum nitrate. The nanoparticles were successfully fabricated and characterized at room temperature by sol-gel process. The objective of improving properties of ZnO nanoparticles by introducing dopants was successful with formation of nanoparticles having different crystalline sizes, optical absorption and luminescence properties. The two different sources influenced properties of ZnO. The particles with less crystalline size obtained from aluminum nitrate. Change in morphology from spherical to bar like morphology proved from SEM spectra. Presence of functional groups predicted from FTIR spectra. PL spectra proved UV emission and visible emission for AZO nanoparticles synthesized using dopant sources aluminum chloride and aluminum nitrate respectively. The obtained properties prove successful utilization of AZO nanoparticles as building materials in fabrication of optoelectronic devices.

  18. Flow rate effect on the structure and morphology of molybdenum oxide nanoparticles deposited by atmospheric-pressure microplasma processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bose, Arumugam Chandra; Shimizu, Yoshiki; Mariotti, Davide; Sasaki, Takeshi; Terashima, Kazuo; Koshizaki, Naoto

    2006-01-01

    Nanoparticles of crystalline molybdenum oxide were prepared by changing the flow rate of plasma gas (2% oxygen balanced by Ar) using an atmospheric-pressure microplasma technique. The morphology and crystalline structure of the nanoparticles were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The FESEM results revealed that the shape of the deposited nanoparticles depended on the plasma gas flow rate. The TEM results supported the FESEM observations. The transmission electron diffraction (TED) pattern revealed that the obtained nanoparticles changed from MoO 2 to MoO 3 with the flow-rate increase, and correspondingly the nanoparticle size drastically decreased. A process mechanism is proposed from the observations of optical emission spectroscopy (OES) during the process and consumed wire surface analysis from x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and FESEM studies

  19. Temperature influence in crystallinity of polymer microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezende, Cristiane de P.; Novack, Katia M.

    2011-01-01

    Drug delivery technology is evolving through the creation of new techniques of drug delivery effectively. The new methods used in drugs administration are based in microencapsulation process. Microsphere encapsulation modifies drug delivery bringing benefits and efficiency. In this work has been evaluated the influence of temperature in microspheres preparation. Microspheres were obtained by PMMA-co-PEG (COP) copolymer with indomethacin inserted in polymer matrix. Samples were characterized by SEM, DSC and XRD. SEM micrographs confirmed the formation of different sizes of microspheres and it was verified that higher temperatures make more crystalline microspheres. (author)

  20. He implantation induced nanovoids in crystalline Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilpelaeinen, S.; Kuitunen, K.; Slotte, J.; Tuomisto, F.; Bruno, E.; Mirabella, S.; Priolo, F.

    2009-01-01

    Positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) in Doppler broadening mode was used to study the vacancy profile of crystalline Si after He and B implantation and subsequent annealing. In the He-implanted samples two different void layers were observed, one consisting of large voids at the projected range of He and another containing 'nanovoids' slightly larger than divacancies at roughly halfway between R p of He and the surface. The nanovoid layer was shown to be absent from samples co-implanted with B, implying that interstitials created during B implantation get trapped in the nanovoids and fill them, thus hindering interstitial-mediated B diffusion.

  1. Superacid Passivation of Crystalline Silicon Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, James; Kiriya, Daisuke; Grant, Nicholas; Azcatl, Angelica; Hettick, Mark; Kho, Teng; Phang, Pheng; Sio, Hang C; Yan, Di; Macdonald, Daniel; Quevedo-Lopez, Manuel A; Wallace, Robert M; Cuevas, Andres; Javey, Ali

    2016-09-14

    The reduction of parasitic recombination processes commonly occurring within the silicon crystal and at its surfaces is of primary importance in crystalline silicon devices, particularly in photovoltaics. Here we explore a simple, room temperature treatment, involving a nonaqueous solution of the superacid bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide, to temporarily deactivate recombination centers at the surface. We show that this treatment leads to a significant enhancement in optoelectronic properties of the silicon wafer, attaining a level of surface passivation in line with state-of-the-art dielectric passivation films. Finally, we demonstrate its advantage as a bulk lifetime and process cleanliness monitor, establishing its compatibility with large area photoluminescence imaging in the process.

  2. Quasi-crystalline geometry for architectural structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wester, Ture; Weinzieri, Barbara

    The quasi-crystal (QC) type of material was discovered in 1983 by Dan Schechtman from Technion, Haifa. This new crystalline structure of material broke totally with the traditional conception of crystals and geometry introducing non-periodic close packing of cells with fivefold symmetry in 3D space....... The quasi-crystal geometry can be constructed from two different cubic cells with identical rhombic facets, where the relation between the diagonals is the golden section. All cells have identical rhombic faces, identical edges and identical icosahedral/dodecahedral nodes....

  3. Singlet exciton interactions in crystalline naphthalene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heisel, F.; Miehe, J.A.; Sipp, B.

    1978-01-01

    The decay of prompt fluorescence in crystalline naphthalene at 300 K, excited by picosecond 266 nm pulse, has been studied as a function of excitation intensity. Experimental decay curves can be fitted only when the exponential distribution in depth of excitation and the radial (gaussian) intensity profile of the excitation are both taken into account. From analysis of decay at early time ( -10 cm 3 s -1 . If the reaction is diffusion-limited, this rate implies an average singlet diffusivity Dsub(S)=(2+-1)10 -4 cm 2 s -1

  4. New thermophilic anaerobes that decompose crystalline cellulose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taya, M; Hinoki, H; Suzuki, Y; Yagi, T; Yap, M G.S.; Kobayashi, T

    1985-01-01

    Two strains (designated as 25A and 3B) of cellulolytic, thermophilic, anaerobic, spore-forming bacteria were newly isolated from an alkaline hot spring through enrichment cultures at 60/sup 0/C. Though strain 25A was nearly identical to Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405 as a reference strain, strain 3B had some characteristics different from the reference; no flagellation, alkalophilic growth property (optimum pH of 7.5-8) and orange-colored pigmentation of the cell mass. Strain 3B effectively decomposed micro-crystalline cellulose (Avicel) and raw cellulosics (rice straw, newspaper, and bagasse) without physical or chemical pretreatments. 20 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  5. Highly crystalline carbon dots from fresh tomato: UV emission and quantum confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weijian; Li, Chun; Sun, Xiaobo; Pan, Wei; Yu, Guifeng; Wang, Jinping

    2017-12-01

    In this article, fresh tomatoes are explored as a low-cost source to prepare high-performance carbon dots by using microwave-assisted pyrolysis. Given that amino groups might act as nucleophiles for cleaving covalent bridging ester or ether in the crosslinked macromolecules in the biomass bulk, ethylenediamine (EDA) and urea with amino groups were applied as nucleophiles to modulate the chemical composites of the carbon nanoparticles in order to tune their fluorescence emission and enhance their quantum yields. Very interestingly, the carbon dots synthesized in the presence of urea had a highly crystalline nature, a low-degree amorphous surface and were smaller than 5 nm. Moreover, the doped N contributed to the formation of a cyclic form of core that resulted in a strong electron-withdrawing ability within the conjugated C plane. Therefore, this type of carbon dot exhibited marked quantum confinement, with the maximum fluorescence peak located in the UV region. Carbon nanoparticles greater than 20 nm in size, prepared using pristine fresh tomato and in the presence of EDA, emitted surface state controlled fluorescence. Additionally, carbon nanoparticles synthesized using fresh tomato pulp in the presence of EDA and urea were explored for bioimaging of plant pathogenic fungi and the detection of vanillin.

  6. Microbial conversion technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, P. [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Bioconversion and Sustainable Development

    2006-07-01

    Microbes are a biomass and an valuable resource. This presentation discussed microbial conversion technologies along with background information on microbial cells, their characteristics and microbial diversity. Untapped opportunities for microbial conversion were identified. Metagenomic and genome mining approaches were also discussed, as they can provide access to uncultivated or unculturable microorganisms in communal populations and are an unlimited resource for biocatalysts, novel genes and metabolites. Genome mining was seen as an economical approach. The presentation also emphasized that the development of microbial biorefineries would require significant insights into the relevant microorganisms and that biocatalysts were the ultimate in sustainability. In addition, the presentation discussed the natural fibres initiative for biochemicals and biomaterials. Anticipated outputs were identified and work in progress of a new enzyme-retting cocktail to provide diversity and/or consistency in fibre characteristics for various applications were also presented. It was concluded that it is necessary to leverage understanding of biological processes to produce bioproducts in a clean and sustainable manner. tabs., figs.

  7. Recent advances in cryo-TEM imaging of soft lipid nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helvig, Shen Yu; Mat Azmi, Intan Diana Binti; Moghimi, Seyed Moien

    2015-01-01

    Cryo-transmission electron microscopy (Cryo-TEM), and its technological variations thereof, have become a powerful tool for detailed morphological characterization and 3D tomography of soft lipid and polymeric nanoparticles as well as biological materials such as viruses and DNA without chemical...... fixation. Here, we review and discuss recent advances in Cryo-TEM analysis of lipid-based drug nanocarriers with particular emphasis on morphological and internal nanostructure characterization of lyotropic liquid crystalline nanoparticles such as cubosomes and hexosomes....

  8. Nanoscale crystallinity modulates cell proliferation on plasma sprayed surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Alan M. [School of Applied Sciences, University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield HD1 3DH (United Kingdom); Paxton, Jennifer Z.; Hung, Yi-Pei; Hadley, Martin J.; Bowen, James; Williams, Richard L. [School of Chemical Engineering, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Grover, Liam M., E-mail: l.m.grover@bham.ac.uk [School of Chemical Engineering, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2015-03-01

    Calcium phosphate coatings have been applied to the surface of metallic prostheses to mediate hard and soft tissue attachment for more than 40 years. Most coatings are formed of high purity hydroxyapatite, and coating methods are often designed to produce highly crystalline surfaces. It is likely however, that coatings of lower crystallinity can facilitate more rapid tissue attachment since the surface will exhibit a higher specific surface area and will be considerably more reactive than a comparable highly crystalline surface. Here we test this hypothesis by growing a population of MC3T3 osteoblast-like cells on the surface of two types of hip prosthesis with similar composition, but with differing crystallinity. The surfaces with lower crystallinity facilitated more rapid cell attachment and increased proliferation rate, despite having a less heterogeneous surface topography. This work highlights that the influence of the crystallinity of HA at the nano-scale is dominant over macro-scale topography for cell adhesion and growth. Furthermore, crystallinity could be easily adjusted by without compromising coating purity. These findings could facilitate designing novel coated calcium phosphate surfaces that more rapidly bond tissue following implantation. - Highlights: • Crystallinity of HA at the nano-scale was dominant over macro-scale topography. • Lower crystallinity caused rapid cell attachment and proliferation rate. • Crystallinity could be easily adjusted by without compromising coating purity.

  9. Nanoscale crystallinity modulates cell proliferation on plasma sprayed surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Alan M.; Paxton, Jennifer Z.; Hung, Yi-Pei; Hadley, Martin J.; Bowen, James; Williams, Richard L.; Grover, Liam M.

    2015-01-01

    Calcium phosphate coatings have been applied to the surface of metallic prostheses to mediate hard and soft tissue attachment for more than 40 years. Most coatings are formed of high purity hydroxyapatite, and coating methods are often designed to produce highly crystalline surfaces. It is likely however, that coatings of lower crystallinity can facilitate more rapid tissue attachment since the surface will exhibit a higher specific surface area and will be considerably more reactive than a comparable highly crystalline surface. Here we test this hypothesis by growing a population of MC3T3 osteoblast-like cells on the surface of two types of hip prosthesis with similar composition, but with differing crystallinity. The surfaces with lower crystallinity facilitated more rapid cell attachment and increased proliferation rate, despite having a less heterogeneous surface topography. This work highlights that the influence of the crystallinity of HA at the nano-scale is dominant over macro-scale topography for cell adhesion and growth. Furthermore, crystallinity could be easily adjusted by without compromising coating purity. These findings could facilitate designing novel coated calcium phosphate surfaces that more rapidly bond tissue following implantation. - Highlights: • Crystallinity of HA at the nano-scale was dominant over macro-scale topography. • Lower crystallinity caused rapid cell attachment and proliferation rate. • Crystallinity could be easily adjusted by without compromising coating purity

  10. Anticancer activity of Ficus religiosa engineered copper oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankar, Renu; Maheswari, Ramasamy; Karthik, Selvaraju; Shivashangari, Kanchi Subramanian; Ravikumar, Vilwanathan

    2014-01-01

    The design, synthesis, characterization and application of biologically synthesized nanomaterials have become a vital branch of nanotechnology. There is a budding need to develop a method for environmentally benign metal nanoparticle synthesis, that do not use toxic chemicals in the synthesis protocols to avoid adverse effects in medical applications. Here, it is a report on an eco-friendly process for rapid synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles using Ficus religiosa leaf extract as reducing and protecting agent. The synthesized copper oxide nanoparticles were confirmed by UV–vis spectrophotometer, absorbance peaks at 285 nm. The copper oxide nanoparticles were analyzed with field emission-scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectrum. The FE-SEM and DLS analyses exposed that copper oxide nanoparticles are spherical in shape with an average particle size of 577 nm. FT-IR spectral analysis elucidates the occurrence of biomolecules required for the reduction of copper oxide ions. Zeta potential studies showed that the surface charge of the formed nanoparticles was highly negative. The XRD pattern revealed that synthesized nanoparticles are crystalline in nature. Further, biological activities of the synthesized nanoparticles were confirmed based on its stable anti-cancer effects. The apoptotic effect of copper oxide nanoparticles is mediated by the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) involving the disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) in A549 cells. The observed characteristics and results obtained in our in vitro assays suggest that the copper nanoparticles might be a potential anticancer agent. - Highlights: • Biogenic synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles by leaf extract of Ficus religiosa • Characterized via UV–vis, FT-IR, DLS, FE-SEM with EDAX and XRD • Protein may act as an encapsulating, reducing and stabilizing

  11. Anticancer activity of Ficus religiosa engineered copper oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sankar, Renu; Maheswari, Ramasamy; Karthik, Selvaraju [Department of Biochemistry, School of Life Sciences, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620 024, Tamilnadu (India); Shivashangari, Kanchi Subramanian, E-mail: shivashangari@gmail.com [Regional Forensic Science Laboratory, Tiruchirapalli, Tamilnadu (India); Ravikumar, Vilwanathan, E-mail: ravikumarbdu@gmail.com [Department of Biochemistry, School of Life Sciences, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620 024, Tamilnadu (India)

    2014-11-01

    The design, synthesis, characterization and application of biologically synthesized nanomaterials have become a vital branch of nanotechnology. There is a budding need to develop a method for environmentally benign metal nanoparticle synthesis, that do not use toxic chemicals in the synthesis protocols to avoid adverse effects in medical applications. Here, it is a report on an eco-friendly process for rapid synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles using Ficus religiosa leaf extract as reducing and protecting agent. The synthesized copper oxide nanoparticles were confirmed by UV–vis spectrophotometer, absorbance peaks at 285 nm. The copper oxide nanoparticles were analyzed with field emission-scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectrum. The FE-SEM and DLS analyses exposed that copper oxide nanoparticles are spherical in shape with an average particle size of 577 nm. FT-IR spectral analysis elucidates the occurrence of biomolecules required for the reduction of copper oxide ions. Zeta potential studies showed that the surface charge of the formed nanoparticles was highly negative. The XRD pattern revealed that synthesized nanoparticles are crystalline in nature. Further, biological activities of the synthesized nanoparticles were confirmed based on its stable anti-cancer effects. The apoptotic effect of copper oxide nanoparticles is mediated by the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) involving the disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) in A549 cells. The observed characteristics and results obtained in our in vitro assays suggest that the copper nanoparticles might be a potential anticancer agent. - Highlights: • Biogenic synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles by leaf extract of Ficus religiosa • Characterized via UV–vis, FT-IR, DLS, FE-SEM with EDAX and XRD • Protein may act as an encapsulating, reducing and stabilizing

  12. ZrO2 nanoparticles' effects on split tensile strength of self compacting concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nazari

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, split tensile strength of self compacting concrete with different amount of ZrO2 nanoparticles has been investigated. ZrO2 nanoparticles with the average particle size of 15 nm were added partially to cement paste (Portland cement together with polycarboxylate superplasticizer and split tensile strength of the specimens has been measured. The results indicate that ZrO2 nanoparticles are able to improve split tensile strength of concrete and recover the negative effects of polycarboxylate superplasticizer. ZrO2 nanoparticle as a partial replacement of cement up to 4 wt. (% could accelerate C-S-H gel formation as a result of increased crystalline Ca(OH2 amount at the early age of hydration. The increased the ZrO2 nanoparticles' content more than 4 wt. (%, causes the reduced the split tensile strength because of unsuitable dispersion of nanoparticles in the concrete matrix.

  13. Phytosynthesis and Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles Using Callus of JATROPHA CURCAS: a Biotechnological Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demissie, A. G.; Lele, S. S.

    2013-06-01

    The present study reports a rapid plant-based biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using callus extract of Jatropha curcas L. The particle size and morphological analyses were carried out using Zetasizer, SEM, TEM. The physicochemical properties were monitored using UV-Vis spectroscopic, IR and DSC. The formation of silver nanoparticle was confirmed by using UV-Vis spectrophotometer and absorbance peaks at 421 nm. The silver nanoparticle was found to be a negatively charged with size ranging from 2 nm to 50 nm. The morphology of the nanoparticle is uniformly spherical and has a dispersion ratio of 0.14. The physicochemical study using DSC indicated significant thermal stability and crystalline nature of the nanoparticle. This intracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles is simple, cheap and eco-friendly than other mechanical and chemical approaches.

  14. Extracellular biosynthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles using Krishna tulsi ( Ocimum sanctum) leaf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Daizy; Unni, C.

    2011-05-01

    Aqueous extract of Ocimum sanctum leaf is used as reducing agent for the environmentally friendly synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were characterized using UV-vis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and FTIR analysis. These methods allow the synthesis of hexagonal gold nanoparticles having size ∼30 nm showing two surface plasmon resonance (SPR) bands by changing the relative concentration of HAuCl 4 and the extract. Broadening of SPR is observed at larger quantities of the extract possibly due to biosorption of gold ions. Silver nanoparticles with size in the range 10-20 nm having symmetric SPR band centered around 409 nm are obtained for the colloid synthesized at room temperature at a pH of 8. Crystallinity of the nanoparticles is confirmed from the XRD pattern. Biomolecules responsible for capping are different in gold and silver nanoparticles as evidenced by the FTIR spectra.

  15. Biosynthesis, characterization and antimicrobial action of silver nanoparticles from root bark extract of Berberislycium Royle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmood, Ansar; Murtaza, Ghulam; Bhatti, Tariq Mahmood; Kausar, Rehana; Ahmed, Muhammad Jamil

    2016-01-01

    Various biological methods are being recognized for the fabrication of silver nanoparticles, which are used in several fields. The phytosynthesis of nanoparticles came out as a cost effective and enviro-friendly approach. When root bark extract of Berberis lycium was treated with silver ions, they reduced to silver nanoparticles, which were spherical, crystalline, size ranged from 10-100nm and capped by biomolecules. Synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infra Red Spectroscopy (FTIR). The plant mediated synthesized silver nanoparticles showed pronounced antimicrobial activities against both Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebseilla pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and Gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis). The plant mediated process proved to be non-toxic and low cost contender as reducing agent for synthesizing stable silver nanoparticles.

  16. Palladium nanoparticles produced by CW and pulsed laser ablation in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boutinguiza, M., E-mail: mohamed@uvigo.es [Applied Physics Department, University of Vigo EEI, Lagoas-Marcosende, 9, Vigo 36310 (Spain); Comesaña, R. [Materials Engineering, Applied Mechanics and Construction Department, University of Vigo, EEI, Lagoas-Marcosende, Vigo 36310 (Spain); Lusquiños, F. [Applied Physics Department, University of Vigo EEI, Lagoas-Marcosende, 9, Vigo 36310 (Spain); Riveiro, A. [Applied Physics Department, University of Vigo EEI, Lagoas-Marcosende, 9, Vigo 36310 (Spain); Centro Universitario de la Defensa, Escuela Naval Militar, Plaza de España 2, 36920 Marín (Spain); Val, J. del; Pou, J. [Applied Physics Department, University of Vigo EEI, Lagoas-Marcosende, 9, Vigo 36310 (Spain)

    2014-05-01

    Palladium nanoparticles are receiving important interest due to its application as catalyst. In this work Pd nanoparticles have been obtained by ablating a Pd target submerged in de-ionized using both, pulsed as well as continuous wave (CW) laser. The influence of laser parameters involved in the formation in nanoparticles has been studied. Crystalline phases, morphology and optical properties of the obtained colloidal nanoparticles were characterized by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and UV/vis absorption spectroscopy. The obtained colloidal suspensions consisted of pure Pd nanoparticles showing spherical shape with diameters ranging from few nanometers to 5–60 nm. The moderate irradiance delivered by the CW laser favours high production of uniform nanoparticles.

  17. Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Alumina Nanoparticles Using Some Plants Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meisam Hasanpoor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In present study we used five green plants for microwave assisted synthesis of Alumina nanoparticles from Aluminum nitrate. Structural characterization was studied using x-ray diffraction that showed semi- crystalline and possibly, amorphous structure. Fourier infrared spectroscopy was used to determine Al-O bond and functional groups responsible for synthesis of nanoparticles. FTIR confirmed existence of Al-O band and bio-functional groups, originated from plant extract. Morphology and size of nanoparticles were investigated using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy techniques. It was observed that nanoparticles have near-spherical shape. Average size of clusters of nanoparticles varied with different routes from of 60 nm to 300 nm. AFM images showed that Individual nanoparticles were less than 10 nm.

  18. Structure of Oxide Nanoparticles in Fe-16Cr MA/ODS Ferritic Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsiung, L; Fluss, M; Kimura, A

    2010-04-06

    Oxide nanoparticles in Fe-16Cr ODS ferritic steel fabricated by mechanical alloying (MA) method have been examined using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) techniques. A partial crystallization of oxide nanoparticles was frequently observed in as-fabricated ODS steel. The crystal structure of crystalline oxide particles is identified to be mainly Y{sub 4}Al{sub 2}O{sub 9} (YAM) with a monoclinic structure. Large nanoparticles with a diameter larger than 20 nm tend to be incoherent and have a nearly spherical shape, whereas small nanoparticles with a diameter smaller than 10 nm tend to be coherent or semi-coherent and have faceted boundaries. The oxide nanoparticles become fully crystallized after prolonged annealing at 900 C. These results lead us to propose a three-stage formation mechanism of oxide nanoparticles in MA/ODS steels.

  19. Crystallinity and mechanical effects from annealing Parylene thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Nathan, E-mail: Nathan.Jackson@tyndall.ie [Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland); Stam, Frank; O' Brien, Joe [Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland); Kailas, Lekshmi [University of Limerick, Limerick (Ireland); Mathewson, Alan; O' Murchu, Cian [Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland)

    2016-03-31

    Parylene is commonly used as thin film polymer for MEMS devices and smart materials. This paper investigates the impact on bulk properties due to annealing various types of Parylene films. A thin film of Parylene N, C and a hybrid material consisting of Parylene N and C were deposited using a standard Gorham process. The thin film samples were annealed at varying temperatures from room temperature up to 300 °C. The films were analyzed to determine the mechanical and crystallinity effects due to different annealing temperatures. The results demonstrate that the percentage of crystallinity and the full-width-half-maximum value on the 2θ X-ray diffraction scan increases as the annealing temperature increases until the melting temperature of the Parylene films was achieved. Highly crystalline films of 85% and 92% crystallinity were achieved for Parylene C and N respectively. Investigation of the hybrid film showed that the individual Parylene films behave independently to each other, and the crystallinity of one film had no significant impact to the other film. Mechanical testing showed that the elastic modulus and yield strength increase as a function of annealing, whereas the elongation-to-break parameter decreases. The change in elastic modulus was more significant for Parylene C than Parylene N and this is attributed to the larger change in crystallinity that was observed. Parylene C had a 112% increase in crystallinity compared to a 61% increase for Parylene N, because the original Parylene N material was more crystalline than Parylene C so the change of crystallinity was greater for Parylene C. - Highlights: • A hybrid material consisting of Parylene N and C was developed. • Parylene N has greater crystallinity than Parylene C. • Phase transition of Parylene N due to annealing results in increased crystallinity. • Annealing caused increased crystallinity and elastic modulus in Parylene films. • Annealed hybrid Parylene films crystallinity behave

  20. Optical properties of crystalline semiconductors and dielectrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forouhi, A.R.; Bloomer, I.

    1988-01-01

    A new formulation for the complex index of refraction, N(E) = n(E)-ik(E), as a function of photon energy E, for crystalline semiconductors and dielectrics is developed based on our previous derivation of N(E) for amorphous materials. The extinction coefficient k(E) is deduced from a one-electron model with finite lifetime for the excited electron state. The refractive index n(E) is then derived from the Kramers-Kronig relation as the Hilbert transform of k(E). It is shown that n(∞)>1. Excellent agreement is found between our equations for n(E) and k(E) and published measured values for crystalline Si, Ge, GaP, GaAs, GaSb, InP, InAs, InSb, SiC, cubic C, and α-SiO 2 , over a wide range of energies (∼0--20 eV). Far fewer parameters, all of which have physical significance, are required and they can be determined for a particular material from the position and strength of the peaks in the k spectrum

  1. Active colloidal propulsion over a crystalline surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Udit; Straube, Arthur V.; Fischer, Peer; Gibbs, John G.; Höfling, Felix

    2017-12-01

    We study both experimentally and theoretically the dynamics of chemically self-propelled Janus colloids moving atop a two-dimensional crystalline surface. The surface is a hexagonally close-packed monolayer of colloidal particles of the same size as the mobile one. The dynamics of the self-propelled colloid reflects the competition between hindered diffusion due to the periodic surface and enhanced diffusion due to active motion. Which contribution dominates depends on the propulsion strength, which can be systematically tuned by changing the concentration of a chemical fuel. The mean-square displacements (MSDs) obtained from the experiment exhibit enhanced diffusion at long lag times. Our experimental data are consistent with a Langevin model for the effectively two-dimensional translational motion of an active Brownian particle in a periodic potential, combining the confining effects of gravity and the crystalline surface with the free rotational diffusion of the colloid. Approximate analytical predictions are made for the MSD describing the crossover from free Brownian motion at short times to active diffusion at long times. The results are in semi-quantitative agreement with numerical results of a refined Langevin model that treats translational and rotational degrees of freedom on the same footing.

  2. Molecular reorientations in a substance with liquid-crystalline and plastic-crystalline phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Xuan Phuc.

    1986-05-01

    Results of dielectric relaxation (DR), quasielastic neutron scattering (QNS), far infrared absorption (FIR), proton magnetic resonance (PMR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and preliminary X-ray diffraction measurements on the di-n-pentyloxyazoxybenzene (5.OAOB) are presented. The measurements carried out by all these methods showed that 5.OAOB exhibits a nontypical for liquid-crystalline materials phase diagram. It has two mesophases: a nematic (N) and an ''intermediate'' crystalline phase just below it. A complex interpretation of results obtained is given. All suggestions concerning the character of reorientational motions of the molecule as a whole as well as of its segments in mesomorphic phases are analyzed. From comparison of the DR and QNS studies one can conclude that in the N phase the molecule as a whole performs rotational diffusion around the long axis (τ DR ∼ 100 ps) and at the same time the two moieties perform faster independent reorientations around N - benzene rings bonds withτ QNS ∼ 5 ps. On the basis of various experimental data it is shown that the CrI phase is a plastic-crystalline phase for which the molecule and its segments perform fast stochastic unaxial reorientations. This is the first case where the existence of such a phase in liquid-crystalline materials has been experimentally confirmed. (author)

  3. Structure and nanotribology of thermally deposited gold nanoparticles on graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cihan, Ebru [UNAM - Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Özoğul, Alper [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Baykara, Mehmet Z., E-mail: mehmet.baykara@bilkent.edu.tr [UNAM - Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey)

    2015-11-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Structure and tribology of thermally deposited AuNPs on HOPG have been studied. • Well-faceted, hexagonal AuNPs are formed on HOPG upon post-deposition annealing. • The crystalline character of the AuNPs is confirmed via TEM measurements. • AFM measurements reveal a “2/3” power law dependence of friction on load on AuNPs. • Friction forces at AuNP edges evolve linearly with increasing height and load. - Abstract: We present experiments involving the structural and frictional characterization of gold nanoparticles (AuNP) thermally deposited on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG). The effect of thermal deposition amount, as well as post-deposition annealing on the morphology and distribution of gold on HOPG is studied via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements, while transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is utilized to confirm the crystalline character of the nanoparticles. Lateral force measurements conducted via atomic force microscopy (AFM) under ambient conditions are employed to investigate the nanotribological properties of the gold nanoparticles as a function of normal load. Finally, the increase in lateral force experienced at the edges of the nanoparticles is studied as a function of normal load, as well as nanoparticle height. As a whole, our results constitute a comprehensive structural and frictional characterization of the AuNP/HOPG material system, forming the basis for nanotribology experiments involving the lateral manipulation of thermally deposited AuNPs on HOPG via AFM under ambient conditions.

  4. Structure and nanotribology of thermally deposited gold nanoparticles on graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cihan, Ebru; Özoğul, Alper; Baykara, Mehmet Z.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Structure and tribology of thermally deposited AuNPs on HOPG have been studied. • Well-faceted, hexagonal AuNPs are formed on HOPG upon post-deposition annealing. • The crystalline character of the AuNPs is confirmed via TEM measurements. • AFM measurements reveal a “2/3” power law dependence of friction on load on AuNPs. • Friction forces at AuNP edges evolve linearly with increasing height and load. - Abstract: We present experiments involving the structural and frictional characterization of gold nanoparticles (AuNP) thermally deposited on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG). The effect of thermal deposition amount, as well as post-deposition annealing on the morphology and distribution of gold on HOPG is studied via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements, while transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is utilized to confirm the crystalline character of the nanoparticles. Lateral force measurements conducted via atomic force microscopy (AFM) under ambient conditions are employed to investigate the nanotribological properties of the gold nanoparticles as a function of normal load. Finally, the increase in lateral force experienced at the edges of the nanoparticles is studied as a function of normal load, as well as nanoparticle height. As a whole, our results constitute a comprehensive structural and frictional characterization of the AuNP/HOPG material system, forming the basis for nanotribology experiments involving the lateral manipulation of thermally deposited AuNPs on HOPG via AFM under ambient conditions.

  5. Nanoparticles migration in fractured rocks and affects on contaminant migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missana, Tiziana; Garcia-Gutierrez, Miguel; Alonso, Ursula

    2014-05-01

    In previous studies, the transport behavior of artificial (gold and latex) and natural (smectite clay) colloids, within a planar fracture in crystalline rock, was analyzed. In order to better understand the effects of colloid size, shape and surface charge on nanoparticle migration and especially on filtration processes on natural rock surfaces, different clay colloids and oxide nanoparticles were selected and their transport studied as a function of the residence time. In all the cases, (a fraction of) the nanoparticles travelled in the fracture as fast as or faster than water (with a retardation factor, Rf ≤ 1) and the observed Rf, was related to the Taylor dispersion coefficient, accounting for colloid size, water velocity and fracture width. However, under most of the cases, in contrast to the behavior of a conservative tracer, colloids recovery was much lower than 100 %. Differences in recovery between different nanoparticles, under similar residence times, were analyzed. In order to evaluate the possible consequences, on contaminant migration, of the presence of nanoparticles in the system, transport tests were carried out with both colloids and sorbing radionuclides. The overall capacity for colloids of enhancing radionuclide migration in crystalline rock fractures is discussed. Acknowledgments: The research leading to these results received funding from EU FP7/2007-2011 grant agreement Nº 295487 (BELBAR, Bentonite Erosion: effects on the Long term performance of the engineered Barrier and Radionuclide Transport) and by the Spanish Government under the project NANOBAG (CTM2011-2797).

  6. Anaerobic toxicity of cationic silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gitipour, Alireza; Thiel, Stephen W.; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Tolaymat, Thabet

    2016-01-01

    The microbial toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) stabilized with different capping agents was compared to that of Ag"+ under anaerobic conditions. Three AgNPs were investigated: (1) negatively charged citrate-coated AgNPs (citrate-AgNPs), (2) minimally charged polyvinylpyrrolidone coated AgNPs (PVP-AgNPs) and (3) positively charged branched polyethyleneimine coated AgNPs (BPEI-AgNPs). The AgNPs investigated in this experiment were similar in size (10–15 nm), spherical in shape, but varied in surface charge which ranged from highly negative to highly positive. While, at AgNPs concentrations lower than 5 mg L"−"1, the anaerobic decomposition process was not influenced by the presence of the nanoparticles, there was an observed impact on the diversity of the microbial community. At elevated concentrations (100 mg L"−"1 as silver), only the cationic BPEI-AgNPs demonstrated toxicity similar in magnitude to that of Ag"+. Both citrate and PVP-AgNPs did not exhibit toxicity at the 100 mg L"−"1 as measured by biogas evolution. These findings further indicate the varying modes of action for nanoparticle toxicity and represent one of the few studies that evaluate end-of-life management concerns with regards to the increasing use of nanomaterials in our everyday life. These findings also highlight some of the concerns with a one size fits all approach to the evaluation of environmental health and safety concerns associated with the use of nanoparticles. - Highlights: • At concentrations -1 the anaerobic decomposition process was not impacted. • An impact on the microbial community at concentrations -1 were observed. • At high concentrations (100 mg L"−"1), the cationic BPEI-AgNPs demonstrated toxicity. • Toxicity was demonstrated without the presence of oxidative dissolution of silver. • A one size fits all approach for the evaluation of NPs may not be accurate.

  7. Eco-friendly synthesis of Solanum trilobatum extract-capped silver nanoparticles is compatible with good antimicrobial activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Santheraleka; Gopinath, Subash C. B.; Anbu, Periasamy; Lakshmipriya, Thangavel; Kasim, Farizul Hafiz; Lee, Choul-Gyun

    2018-05-01

    This study focused on the evaluation of antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) after their green synthesis by means of a Solanum trilobatum bark extract. The obtained product with an intense surface plasmon resonance band at ∼442 nm with UV-visible spectroscopic analysis indicated the formation of AgNPs. The morphology of AgNPs was observed under transmission electron microscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy, displayed that the eco-friendly synthesized AgNPs have a spherical shape with an average size of ∼25 nm in diameter. X-ray powder diffraction and selected area electron diffraction analyses confirmed that the AgNPs are crystalline in nature. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicated that the AgNPs capped with active ingredients of the bark extract. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed elemental composition of the AgNPs. The performance of S. trilobatum bark extract-capped AgNPs in terms of inhibition of microbial growth was studied by disc diffusion and well diffusion assays. Eco-friendly synthesized S. trilobatum extract-capped AgNPs were found to possess enhanced antimicrobial properties: growth inhibition of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria and of fungal species. These results demonstrated the potential applications of the indigenous medicinal plants to the field of nanotechnology.

  8. Toxicity of silver nanoparticles against bacteria, yeast, and algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorobantu, Loredana S., E-mail: loredana@ualberta.ca; Fallone, Clara [University of Alberta, Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering (Canada); Noble, Adam J. [Trent University, Department of Biology (Canada); Veinot, Jonathan; Ma, Guibin [University of Alberta, Department of Chemistry (Canada); Goss, Greg G. [University of Alberta, Department of Biological Sciences (Canada); Burrell, Robert E. [University of Alberta, Department of Biomedical Engineering (Canada)

    2015-04-15

    The toxicity mechanism employed by silver nanoparticles against microorganisms has captivated scientists for nearly a decade and remains a debatable issue. The question most frequently asked is whether silver nanoparticles exert specific effects on microorganisms beyond the well-documented antimicrobial activity of Ag{sup +}. Here, we study the effects of citrate- (d = 17.5 ± 9.4 nm) and 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (d = 38.8 ± 3.6 nm)-capped silver nanoparticles on microorganisms belonging to various genera. The antimicrobial effect of Ag{sup +} was distinguished from that of nanosilver by monitoring microbial growth in the presence and absence of nanoparticles and by careful comparison of the responses of equimolar silver nitrate solution. The results show that when using equimolar silver solutions, silver nitrate has higher toxic potential on all microorganisms than both nanoparticles tested. Furthermore, some microorganisms are more susceptible to silver than others and the choice of capping agent is relevant in the toxicity. Atomic force microscopy disclosed that AgNO{sub 3} had a destructive effect on algae. The antimicrobial activity of nanosilver could be exploited to prevent microbial colonization of medical devices and to determine the fate of nanoparticles in the environment.

  9. Toxicity of silver nanoparticles against bacteria, yeast, and algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorobantu, Loredana S.; Fallone, Clara; Noble, Adam J.; Veinot, Jonathan; Ma, Guibin; Goss, Greg G.; Burrell, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    The toxicity mechanism employed by silver nanoparticles against microorganisms has captivated scientists for nearly a decade and remains a debatable issue. The question most frequently asked is whether silver nanoparticles exert specific effects on microorganisms beyond the well-documented antimicrobial activity of Ag + . Here, we study the effects of citrate- (d = 17.5 ± 9.4 nm) and 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (d = 38.8 ± 3.6 nm)-capped silver nanoparticles on microorganisms belonging to various genera. The antimicrobial effect of Ag + was distinguished from that of nanosilver by monitoring microbial growth in the presence and absence of nanoparticles and by careful comparison of the responses of equimolar silver nitrate solution. The results show that when using equimolar silver solutions, silver nitrate has higher toxic potential on all microorganisms than both nanoparticles tested. Furthermore, some microorganisms are more susceptible to silver than others and the choice of capping agent is relevant in the toxicity. Atomic force microscopy disclosed that AgNO 3 had a destructive effect on algae. The antimicrobial activity of nanosilver could be exploited to prevent microbial colonization of medical devices and to determine the fate of nanoparticles in the environment

  10. Room temperature inorganic polycondensation of oxide (Cu2O and ZnO) nanoparticles and thin films preparation by the dip-coating technique

    OpenAIRE

    Salek, Guillaume; Tenailleau, Christophe; Dufour, Pascal; Guillemet-Fritsch, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Oxide thin solid filmswere prepared by dip-coating into colloidal dispersions of oxide nanoparticles stabilized at room temperaturewithout the use of chelating or complex organic dispersing agents. Crystalline oxide nanoparticles were obtained by inorganic polycondensation and characterized by X-ray diffraction and field emission gun scanning electron microscopy. Water and ethanol synthesis and solution stabilization of oxide nanoparticle method was optimized to prepar...

  11. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Matricaria recutita (Babunah plant extract and its study as mercury ions sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Uddin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Silver (Ag nanoparticles comprise a highly selective approach for development of nanosensors for the detection of Hg2+ ions. When Ag nanoparticles mixes with Hg2+ ions, loses its UV–Vis absorption intensity. Here, green synthesis of Ag nanoparticles was done using plant extract of Matricaria recutita (Babunah under ambient conditions. Biosynthesized Ag nanoparticles are well-dispersed having quasi-spherical shape and average particle size of 11nm. XRD, SAED and HRTEM analysis showed that nanoparticles are well crystalline in nature and having cubic phase of geometry. We report here highly selective colorimetric detection of mercury ions (Hg2+ using biosynthesized Ag nanoparticles. Keywords: Herbal extract, Nanosensor, Biosynthesis, Matricaria recutita, Silver nanoparticles

  12. Ferrofluid synthesis using oleic acid coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles dispersed in mineral oil for heat transfer applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, Mohd; Rahman Ansari, Akhalakur; Hussain Shaik, Aabid; Abdulaziz; Hussain, Shahir; Khan, Afzal; Rehaan Chandan, Mohammed

    2018-03-01

    Ferrofluids are stable dispersion of iron oxide nanoparticles in a carrier fluid which find potential applications in heat transfer. Fe3O4 nanoparticles of mean size in the range of 5–10 nm were synthesized using conventional co-precipitation method. This work deals with the synthesis of ferrofluids using mineral oil as a carrier fluid and oleic acid coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles as dispersed phase. Morphology (shape and size) and crystallinity of the synthesized nanoparticle is captured using TEM and XRD. Oleic acid coating on nanoparticle is probed using FTIR for confirming the stability of ferrofluid. Thermal properties of mineral oil based ferrofluid with varying concentration of nanoparticles are evaluated in terms of thermal conductivity. It was found that the thermal conductivity of ferrofluid increases upto 2.5% (w/v) nanoparticle loading, where a maximum enhancement of ∼51% in thermal conductivity was recorded as compared to the base fluid.

  13. EVA Suit Microbial Leakage Investigation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this project is to collect microbial samples from various EVA suits to determine how much microbial contamination is typically released during...

  14. Characterization of crystalline structures in Opuntia ficus-indica

    OpenAIRE

    Contreras-Padilla, Margarita; Rivera-Muñoz, Eric M.; Gutiérrez-Cortez, Elsa; del López, Alicia Real; Rodríguez-García, Mario Enrique

    2014-01-01

    This research studies the crystalline compounds present in nopal (Opuntia ficus-indica) cladodes. The identification of the crystalline structures was performed using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, mass spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The crystalline structures identified were calcium carbonate (calcite) [CaCO3], calcium-magnesium bicarbonate [CaMg(CO3)2], magnesium oxide [MgO], calcium oxalate monohydrate [Ca(C2O4)•(H2O)], potassium peroxydiphosph...

  15. Dangling bonds and crystalline inclusions in amorphous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrari, L [Ferrara Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Matematica; Russo, G [Bologna Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica

    1981-02-07

    It is suggested that on the surface of crystalline inclusions dangling bond formation is favoured due to unbalanced local stresses. The energy for bond tearings is probably originated from the exothermic process leading to the crystalline inclusion configuration which is more stable than the original amorphous one. A thermodynamical calculation is performed giving the ratio nsub(k) of crystalline inclusions having k dangling bonds on their surface.

  16. Used Fuel Disposition in Crystalline Rocks: FY16 Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hadgu, Teklu [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kalinina, Elena Arkadievna [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jerden, James L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Copple, Jacqueline M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Cruse, T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Ebert, W. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Buck, E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Eittman, R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tinnacher, R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Tournassat, Christophe [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Davis, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Viswanathan, H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chu, S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dittrich, T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hyman, F. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Karra, S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Makedonska, N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Reimus, P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Zavarin, Mavrik [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Joseph, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-09-21

    The objective of the Crystalline Disposal R&D Work Package is to advance our understanding of long-term disposal of used fuel in crystalline rocks and to develop necessary experimental and computational capabilities to evaluate various disposal concepts in such media. FY16 continued to be a successful year in both experimental and modeling arenas in evaluation of used fuel disposal in crystalline rocks. The work covers a wide range of research topics identified in the R&D plan.

  17. United States Crystalline Repository Project - key research areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patera, E.S.

    1986-01-01

    The Crystalline Repository Project is responsible for siting the second high-level nuclear waste repository in crystalline rock for the US Department of Energy. A methodology is being developed to define data and information needs and a way to evaluate that information. The areas of research the Crystalline Repository Project is involved in include fluid flow in a fractured network, coupled thermal, chemical and flow processes and cooperation in other nations and OECD research programs

  18. Preparation of antimony-doped nanoparticles by hydrothermal method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Ming-xi; YANG Tian-zu; GU Ying-ying; DU Zuo-juan; LIU Jian-ling

    2005-01-01

    Antimony-doped tin oxide(ATO) nanoparticles were prepared by the mild hydrothermal method at 200 ℃ using sodium stannate, antimony oxide, sodium hydroxide and sulfuric acid as the starting materials. The doped powders were examined by differential thermal analysis(DTA), X-ray diffractometry(XRD) and transmission electron microscopy(TEM). The doping levels of antimony were determined by volumetric method and iodimetry.The results show that antimony is incorporated into the crystal lattice of tin oxide and the doping levels of antimony in the resulting powders are 2.4%, 4.3 % and 5.1 % (molar fraction). The mean particle size of ATO nanoparticles is in the range of 25 - 30 nm. The effects of antimony doping level on the crystalline size and crystallinity were also discussed.

  19. EVA/TiO2 nanocomposite: Study of the properties thermal and crystallinity of the EVA/TiO2 nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentim, Ana C.S.; Tavares, Maria I.B.; Silva, Emerson O. da

    2011-01-01

    The effect of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on the thermal properties and crystallinity of the ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) copolymer containing 28% vinyl acetate were investigated. The EVA/TiO 2 nanocomposite films with TiO 2 contents of 0,10-1% relative to the total mass of EVA, were prepared via solution. The prepared films were characterized using TG, and XRD methods. (author)

  20. Molecular ecology of microbial mats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, H.; Cretoiu, M.S.; Stal, L.J.

    2014-01-01

    Phototrophic microbial mats are ideal model systems for ecological and evolutionary analysis of highly diverse microbial communities. Microbial mats are small-scale, nearly closed, and self-sustaining benthic ecosystems that comprise the major element cycles, trophic levels, and food webs. The steep

  1. Food protein-based phytosterol nanoparticles: fabrication and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wen-Jun; Ou, Shi-Yi; Lin, Wei-Feng; Tang, Chuan-He

    2016-09-14

    The development of food-grade (nano)particles as a delivery system for poorly water soluble bioactives has recently attracted increasing attention. This work is an attempt to fabricate food protein-based nanoparticles as delivery systems for improving the water dispersion and bioaccessibility of phytosterols (PS) by an emulsification-evaporation method. The fabricated PS nanoparticles were characterized in terms of particle size, encapsulation efficiency (EE%) and loading amount (LA), and ξ-potential. Among all the test proteins, including soy protein isolate (SPI), whey protein concentrate (WPC) and sodium caseinate (SC), SC was confirmed to be the most suitable protein for the PS nano-formulation. Besides the type of protein, the particle size, EE% and LA of PS in the nanoparticles varied with the applied protein concentration in the aqueous phase and organic volume fraction. The freeze-dried PS nanoparticles with SC exhibited good water re-dispersion behavior and low crystallinity of PS. The LA of PS in the nanoparticles decreased upon storage, especially at high temperatures (e.g., >25 °C). The PS in the fabricated nanoparticles exhibited much better bioaccessibility than free PS. The findings would be of relevance for the fabrication of food-grade colloidal phytosterols, with great potential to be applied in functional food formulations.

  2. Quasi-crystalline geometry for architectural structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weizierl, Barbara; Wester, Ture

    2001-01-01

    Artikel på CD-Rom 8 sider. The quasi-crystal (QC) type of material was discovered in 1983 by Dan Schechtman from Technion, Haifa. This new crystalline structure of material broke totally with the traditional conception of crystals and geometry introducing non-periodic close packing of cells...... with fivefold symmetry in 3D space. The quasi-crystal geometry can be constructed from two different cubic cells with identical rhombic facets, where the relation between the diagonals is the golden section. All cells have identical rhombic faces, identical edges and identical icosahedral/dedecahedral nodes....... The purpose of the paper is to investigate some possibilities for the application of Quasi-Crystal geometry for structures in architecture. The basis for the investigations is A: to use the Golden Cubes (the two different hexahedra consisting of rhombic facets where the length of the diagonals has the Golden...

  3. (Preoxidation cleaning optimization for crystalline silicon)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    A series of controlled experiments has been performed in Sandia's Photovoltaic Device Fabrication Laboratory to evaluate the effect of various chemical surface treatments on the recombination lifetime of crystalline silicon wafers subjected to a high-temperature dry oxidation. From this series of experiments we have deduced a relatively simple yet effective cleaning sequence. We have also evaluated the effect of different chemical damage-removal etches for improving the recombination lifetime and surface smoothness of mechanically lapped wafers. This paper presents the methodology used, the experimental results obtained, and our experience with using this process on a continuing basis over a period of many months. 7 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Ground Water movement in crystalline rock aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serejo, A.N.C.; Freire, C.; Siqueira, H.B. de; Frischkorn, H.; Torquato, J.R.F.; Santiago, M.M.F.; Barbosa, P.C.

    1984-01-01

    Ground water movement studies were performed in crystalline rock aquifers from the upper Acarau River hydrographic basin, state of Ceara, Brazil. The studies included carbon-14, 18 O/ 16 O and tritium measurements as well as chemical analysis. A total of 35 wells were surveyed during drought seasons. Carbon-14 values displayed little variation which implied that the water use was adequate despite of the slower recharge conditions. Fairly constant isotopic 18 O/ 16 O ratio values in the wells and their similarity with rainwater values indicated that the recharge is done exclusively by pluvial waters. A decreasing tendency within the tritium concentration values were interpreted as a periodic rainwater renewal for these aquifers. The chemical analysis demonstrated that there is in fact no correlation between salinity and the time the water remains in the aquifer itself. (D.J.M.) [pt

  5. Mass transport in non crystalline metallic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limoge, Y.

    1986-08-01

    In order to improve our understanding of mass transport in non crystalline metallic alloys we have developed indirect studies of diffusion based on electron irradiation and hydrostatic pressure effects upon crystallization. In a first part we present the models of crystallization which are used, then we give the experimental results. The main point is the first experimental measurement of the activation volume for diffusion in a metallic glass: the value of which is roughly one atomic volume. We show also recent quantitative results concerning radiation enhanced diffusion in metallic glasses (FeNi) 8 (PB) 2 and Ni 6 Nb 4 . In a last part we discuss the atomic model needed to explain our results

  6. Nitrogen in highly crystalline carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducati, C; Koziol, K; Stavrinadis, A; Friedrichs, S; Windle, A H; Midgley, P A

    2006-01-01

    Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with an unprecedented degree of internal order were synthesised by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) adding a nitrogen-containing compound to the hydrocarbon feedstock. Ferrocene was used as the metal catalyst precursor. The remarkable crystallinity of these nanotubes lies both in the isochirality and in the crystallographic register of their walls, as demonstrated by electron diffraction and high resolution electron microscopy experiments. High resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis shows that the walls of the nanotubes consist of truncated stacked cones, instead of perfect cylinders, with a range of apex angles that appears to be related to the nitrogen concentration in the synthesis process. The structure of armchair, zigzag and chiral nanotubes is modelled and discussed in terms of density of topological defects, providing an interesting comparison with our microscopy experiments. A growth mechanism based on the interplay of base- and tip-growth is proposed to account for our experimental observations

  7. Liquid crystalline order of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Georgi; Ahlawat, Aditya; Mulkern, Brian; Doyle, Robert; Mongeau, Jennifer; Ogilvie, Alex

    2007-03-01

    Topological defects formed during phase transitions in liquid crystals provide a direct proof of the standard Cosmological model and are direct links to the Early Universe. On the other hand in Nanotechnology, carbon nanotubes can be manipulated and oriented directly by changing the liquid crystalline state of the nanotubes, in combination with organic liquid crystals. Currently there are no nano-assemblers, which makes the liquid crystal state of the nanotubes, one of the few ways of controlling them. We show the design of a fast and efficient polarized light ellipsometric system (a new modification of previous optical systems) that can provide fast quantitative real time measurements in two dimensions of the formation of topological defects in liquid crystals during phase transitions in lab settings. Our aim is to provide fundamental information about the formation of optically anisotropic structures in liquid crystals and the orientation of carbon nanotubes in electric field.

  8. Radionuclide migration in crystalline rock fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoelttae, P.

    2002-01-01

    Crystalline rock has been considered as a host medium for the repository of high radioactive spent nuclear fuel in Finland. The geosphere will act as an ultimate barrier retarding the migration of radionuclides to the biosphere if they are released through the technical barriers. Radionuclide transport is assumed to take place along watercarrying fractures, and retardation will occur both in the fracture and within the rock matrix. To be able to predict the transport and retardation of radionuclides in rock fractures and rock matrices, it is essential to understand the different phenomena involved. Matrix diffusion has been indicated to be an important mechanism, which will retard the transport of radionuclides in rock fractures. Both dispersion and matrix diffusion are processes, which can have similar influences on solute breakthrough curves in fractured crystalline rock. In this work, the migration of radionuclides in crystalline rock fractures was studied by means of laboratory scale column methods. The purpose of the research was to gain a better understanding of various phenomena - particularly matrix diffusion - affecting the transport and retardation behaviour of radionuclides in fracture flow. Interaction between radionuclides and the rock matrix was measured in order to test the compatibility of experimental retardation parameters and transport models used in assessing the safety of underground repositories for spent nuclear fuel. Rock samples of mica gneiss and of unaltered, moderately altered and strongly altered tonalite represented different rock features and porosities offering the possibility to determine experimental boundary limit values for parameters describing both the transport and retardation of radionuclides and rock matrix properties. The dominant matrix diffusion behaviour was demonstrated in porous ceramic column and gas diffusion experiments. Demonstration of the effects of matrix diffusion in crystalline rock fracture succeeded for the

  9. Semiclassical and quantum polarons in crystalline acetanilide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, P.; Tsironis, G. P.

    2007-08-01

    Crystalline acetanilide is a an organic solid with peptide bond structure similar to that of proteins. Two states appear in the amide I spectral region having drastically different properties: one is strongly temperature dependent and disappears at high temperatures while the other is stable at all temperatures. Experimental and theoretical work over the past twenty five years has assigned the former to a selftrapped state while the latter to an extended free exciton state. In this article we review the experimental and theoretical developments on acetanilide paying particular attention to issues that are still pending. Although the interpretation of the states is experimentally sound, we find that specific theoretical comprehension is still lacking. Among the issues that that appear not well understood is the effective dimensionality of the selftrapped polaron and free exciton states.

  10. Structural Analysis of Aromatic Liquid Crystalline Polyesters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpad Somogyi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory preparations of liquid crystalline prepolymers, distillates accompanying prepolymers, final polymers, and sublimates accompanying final polymers were examined. NaOD/D2O depolymerization of prepolymers and polymers back to monomers with integration of the 1H NMR spectra showed up to 6% excess of carboxyls over phenol groups, caused partly by loss of the low-boiling comonomer hydroquinone through distillation during prepolymerization and leaving anhydride units in the polymer chain. ESI− MS and MS/MS of hexafluoroisopropanol extracts of the prepolymer detected small molecules including some containing anhydride groups; ESI+ MS showed the presence of small cyclic oligomers. 1H NMR (including TOCSY spectra provided more quantitative analyses of these oligomers. The final polymerization increases the length of the polymer chains and sublimes out the small oligomers. Anhydride linkages remaining in the polymer must make LCP’s more susceptible to degradation by nucleophilic reagents such as water, alkalis, and amines.

  11. Nanodefects in ultrahard crystalline cubic boron nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nistor, S. V.; Stefan, M.; Goovaerts, E.; Schoemaker, D.

    2002-01-01

    Cubic boron nitride (cBN), the second hardest known material after diamond, exhibits high thermal conductivity and an excellent ability to be n or p doped, which makes it a strong candidate for the next generation of high-temperature micro optical and micro electronic devices. According to recent studies, cBN exhibits a better resistance to radiation damage than diamond, which suggests potential applications in extreme radiation environments. Crystalline cBN powders of up to 0.5 mm linear size is obtained in a similar way as diamond, by catalytic conversion of hexagonal BN (hBN) to cBN at even higher pressures (> 5GPa) and temperatures (∼ 1900 K). Considering the essential role played by the nanodefects (point defects and impurities) in determining its physical properties, it is surprising how limited is the amount of published data concerning the properties of nanodefects in this material, especially by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, the most powerful method for identification and characterization of nanodefects in both insulators and semiconductors. This seems to be due mainly to the absence of natural cBN gems and the extreme difficulties in producing even mm 3 sized synthetic crystals. We shall present our recent EPR studies on cBN crystalline powders, performed in a broad temperature range from room temperature (RT) down to 1.2 K on several sorts of large size cBN powder grits of yellow and amber color for industrial applications. Previous multifrequency (9.3 GHz and 95 GHz) EPR studies of brown to black cBN crystallites prepared with excess of boron, resulted in the discovery of two new types of paramagnetic point defects with different spectral properties, called the D1 and D2 centers. Our X(9.3 GHz)-band EPR investigations resulted in the observation in amber cBN crystalline powders of a spectrum with a strong temperature dependence of the lineshape. It was found that for high and low temperatures, respectively, the numerical

  12. Modeling of Crystalline Silicotitanate Ion Exchange Columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, D.D.

    1999-01-01

    Non-elutable ion exchange is being considered as a potential replacement for the In-Tank Precipitation process for removing cesium from Savannah River Site (SRS) radioactive waste. Crystalline silicotitanate (CST) particles are the reference ion exchange medium for the process. A major factor in the construction cost of this process is the size of the ion exchange column required to meet product specifications for decontaminated waste. To validate SRS column sizing calculations, SRS subcontracted two reknowned experts in this field to perform similar calculations: Professor R. G. Anthony, Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A ampersand 038;M University, and Professor S. W. Wang, Department of Chemical Engineering, Purdue University. The appendices of this document contain reports from the two subcontractors. Definition of the design problem came through several meetings and conference calls between the participants and SRS personnel over the past few months. This document summarizes the problem definition and results from the two reports

  13. Amorphous silicon crystalline silicon heterojunction solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Fahrner, Wolfgang Rainer

    2013-01-01

    Amorphous Silicon/Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells deals with some typical properties of heterojunction solar cells, such as their history, the properties and the challenges of the cells, some important measurement tools, some simulation programs and a brief survey of the state of the art, aiming to provide an initial framework in this field and serve as a ready reference for all those interested in the subject. This book helps to "fill in the blanks" on heterojunction solar cells. Readers will receive a comprehensive overview of the principles, structures, processing techniques and the current developmental states of the devices. Prof. Dr. Wolfgang R. Fahrner is a professor at the University of Hagen, Germany and Nanchang University, China.

  14. Anaerobic microbial dehalogenation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smidt, H.; Vos, de W.M.

    2004-01-01

    The natural production and anthropogenic release of halogenated hydrocarbons into the environment has been the likely driving force for the evolution of an unexpectedly high microbial capacity to dehalogenate different classes of xenobiotic haloorganics. This contribution provides an update on the

  15. Diazotrophic microbial mats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Severin, I.; Stal, L.J.; Seckbach, J.; Oren, A.

    2010-01-01

    Microbial mats have been the focus of scientific research for a few decades. These small-scale ecosystems are examples of versatile benthic communities of microorganisms, usually dominated by phototrophic bacteria (e.g., Krumbein et al., 1977; Jørgensen et al., 1983). They develop as vertically

  16. Microbial Energy Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, Merry [American Society for Microbiology (ASM), Washington, DC (United States); Wall, Judy D. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

    2006-10-01

    The American Academy of Microbiology convened a colloquium March 10-12, 2006, in San Francisco, California, to discuss the production of energy fuels by microbial conversions. The status of research into various microbial energy technologies, the advantages and disadvantages of each of these approaches, research needs in the field, and education and training issues were examined, with the goal of identifying routes for producing biofuels that would both decrease the need for fossil fuels and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Currently, the choices for providing energy are limited. Policy makers and the research community must begin to pursue a broader array of potential energy technologies. A diverse energy portfolio that includes an assortment of microbial energy choices will allow communities and consumers to select the best energy solution for their own particular needs. Funding agencies and governments alike need to prepare for future energy needs by investing both in the microbial energy technologies that work today and in the untested technologies that will serve the world’s needs tomorrow. More mature bioprocesses, such as ethanol production from starchy materials and methane from waste digestors, will find applications in the short term. However, innovative techniques for liquid fuel or biohydrogen production are among the longer term possibilities that should also be vigorously explored, starting now. Microorganisms can help meet human energy needs in any of a number of ways. In their most obvious role in energy conversion, microorganisms can generate fuels, including ethanol, hydrogen, methane, lipids, and butanol, which can be burned to produce energy. Alternatively, bacteria can be put to use in microbial fuel cells, where they carry out the direct conversion of biomass into electricity. Microorganisms may also be used some day to make oil and natural gas technologies more efficient by sequestering carbon or by assisting in the recovery of oil and

  17. Microbial electrosynthesis of biochemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bajracharya, S.

    2016-01-01

    Microbial electrosynthesis (MES) is an electricity-driven production of chemicals from low-value waste using microorganisms as biocatalysts. MES from CO2 comprises conversion of CO2 to multi-carbon compounds employing microbes at the cathode which use electricity as an energy source. This thesis

  18. Nonlinear optics of liquid crystalline materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoo, Iam Choon

    2009-01-01

    Liquid crystals occupy an important niche in nonlinear optics as a result of their unique physical and optical properties. Besides their broadband birefringence and transparency, abilities to self-assemble into various crystalline phases and to conform to various flexible forms and shapes, liquid crystals are compatible with almost all other optoelectronic materials and technology platforms. In both isotropic and ordered phases, liquid crystals possess extraordinarily large optical nonlinearities that stretch over multiple time scales. To date, almost all conceivable nonlinear optical phenomena have been observed in a very broad spectrum spanning the entire visible to infrared and beyond. In this review, we present a self-contained complete discussion of the optical nonlinearities of liquid crystals, and a thorough review of a wide range of nonlinear optical processes and phenomena enabled by these unique properties. Starting with a brief historical account of the development of nonlinear optical studies of the mesophases of liquid crystals, we then review various liquid crystalline materials and structures, and their nonlinear optical properties. Emphasis is placed on the nematic phase, which best exemplifies the dual nature of liquid crystals, although frequent references to other phases are also made. We also delve into recent work on novel structures such as photonic crystals, metamaterials and nanostructures and their special characteristics and emergent properties. The mechanisms and complex nonlocal dynamics of optical nonlinearities associated with laser induced director axis reorientation, thermal, density, and order parameter fluctuations, space charge field formation and photorefractivity are critically reviewed as a foundation for the discussions of various nonlinear optical processes detailed in this paper

  19. Quantum vibrational polarons: Crystalline acetanilide revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Peter; Edler, Julian

    2006-03-01

    We discuss a refined theoretical description of the peculiar spectroscopy of crystalline acetanilide (ACN). Acetanilide is a molecular crystal with quasi-one-dimensional chains of hydrogen-bonded units, which is often regarded as a model system for the vibrational spectroscopy of proteins. In linear spectroscopy, the CO stretching (amide I) band of ACN features a double-peak structure, the lower of which shows a pronounced temperature dependence which has been discussed in the context of polaron theory. In nonlinear spectroscopy, both of these peaks respond distinctly differently. The lower-frequency band exhibits the anharmonicity expected from polaron theory, while the higher-frequency band responds as if it were quasiharmonic. We have recently related the response of the higher-frequency band to that of a free exciton [J. Edler and P. Hamm, J. Chem. Phys. 117, 2415 (2002)]. However, as discussed in the present paper, the free exciton is not an eigenstate of the full quantum version of the Holstein polaron Hamiltonian, which is commonly used to describe these phenomena. In order to resolve this issue, we present a numerically exact solution of the Holstein polaron Hamiltonian in one dimension (1D) and 3D. In 1D, we find that the commonly used displaced oscillator picture remains qualitatively correct, even for relatively large exciton coupling. However, the result is not in agreement with the experiment, as it fails to explain the free-exciton band. In contrast, when taking into account the 3D nature of crystalline acetanilide, certain parameter regimes exist where the displaced oscillator picture breaks down and states appear in the spectrum that indeed exhibit the characteristics of a free exciton. The appearance of these states is a speciality of vibrational polarons, whose source of exciton coupling is transition dipole coupling which is expected to have opposite signs of interchain and intrachain coupling.

  20. Highly stable, protein capped gold nanoparticles as effective drug delivery vehicles for amino-glycosidic antibiotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastogi, Lori; Kora, Aruna Jyothi; Arunachalam, J.

    2012-01-01

    A method for the production of highly stable gold nanoparticles (Au NP) was optimized using sodium borohydride as reducing agent and bovine serum albumin as capping agent. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using UV–visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X‐ray diffraction (XRD) and dynamic light scattering techniques. The formation of gold nanoparticles was confirmed from the appearance of pink colour and an absorption maximum at 532 nm. These protein capped nanoparticles exhibited excellent stability towards pH modification and electrolyte addition. The produced nanoparticles were found to be spherical in shape, nearly monodispersed and with an average particle size of 7.8 ± 1.7 nm. Crystalline nature of the nanoparticles in face centered cubic structure is confirmed from the selected‐area electron diffraction and XRD patterns. The nanoparticles were functionalized with various amino-glycosidic antibiotics for utilizing them as drug delivery vehicles. Using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, the possible functional groups of antibiotics bound to the nanoparticle surface have been examined. These drug loaded nanoparticle solutions were tested for their antibacterial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial strains, by well diffusion assay. The antibiotic conjugated Au NP exhibited enhanced antibacterial activity, compared to pure antibiotic at the same concentration. Being protein capped and highly stable, these gold nanoparticles can act as effective carriers for drugs and might have considerable applications in the field of infection prevention and therapeutics. - Highlights: ► Method for NaBH 4 reduced and BSA capped gold nanoparticle was standardized. ► Nanoparticles were spherical and nearly monodispersed with a size of 7.8 nm. ► Nanoparticles are extremely stable towards pH modification and electrolyte addition. ► Antibiotic conjugated nanoparticles exhibited enhanced antibacterial activity

  1. Statistical analysis of support thickness and particle size effects in HRTEM imaging of metal nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    House, Stephen D., E-mail: sdh46@pitt.edu [Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, and Physics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Bonifacio, Cecile S.; Grieshaber, Ross V.; Li, Long; Zhang, Zhongfan [Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, and Physics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Ciston, Jim [National Center of Electron Microscopy, Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Stach, Eric A. [Center for Functional Nanomaterials, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Yang, Judith C. [Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, and Physics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States)

    2016-10-15

    High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) examination of nanoparticles requires their placement on some manner of support – either TEM grid membranes or part of the material itself, as in many heterogeneous catalyst systems – but a systematic quantification of the practical imaging limits of this approach has been lacking. Here we address this issue through a statistical evaluation of how nanoparticle size and substrate thickness affects the ability to resolve structural features of interest in HRTEM images of metallic nanoparticles on common support membranes. The visibility of lattice fringes from crystalline Au nanoparticles on amorphous carbon and silicon supports of varying thickness was investigated with both conventional and aberration-corrected TEM. Over the 1–4 nm nanoparticle size range examined, the probability of successfully resolving lattice fringes differed significantly as a function both of nanoparticle size and support thickness. Statistical analysis was used to formulate guidelines for the selection of supports and to quantify the impact a given support would have on HRTEM imaging of crystalline structure. For nanoparticles ≥1 nm, aberration-correction was found to provide limited benefit for the purpose of visualizing lattice fringes; electron dose is more predictive of lattice fringe visibility than aberration correction. These results confirm that the ability to visualize lattice fringes is ultimately dependent on the signal-to-noise ratio of the HRTEM images, rather than the point-to-point resolving power of the microscope. This study provides a benchmark for HRTEM imaging of crystalline supported metal nanoparticles and is extensible to a wide variety of supports and nanostructures. - Highlights: • The impact of supports on imaging nanoparticle lattice structure is quantified. • Visualization probabilities given particle size and support thickness are estimated. • Aberration-correction provided limited benefit

  2. Statistical analysis of support thickness and particle size effects in HRTEM imaging of metal nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    House, Stephen D.; Bonifacio, Cecile S.; Grieshaber, Ross V.; Li, Long; Zhang, Zhongfan; Ciston, Jim; Stach, Eric A.; Yang, Judith C.

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) examination of nanoparticles requires their placement on some manner of support – either TEM grid membranes or part of the material itself, as in many heterogeneous catalyst systems – but a systematic quantification of the practical imaging limits of this approach has been lacking. Here we address this issue through a statistical evaluation of how nanoparticle size and substrate thickness affects the ability to resolve structural features of interest in HRTEM images of metallic nanoparticles on common support membranes. The visibility of lattice fringes from crystalline Au nanoparticles on amorphous carbon and silicon supports of varying thickness was investigated with both conventional and aberration-corrected TEM. Over the 1–4 nm nanoparticle size range examined, the probability of successfully resolving lattice fringes differed significantly as a function both of nanoparticle size and support thickness. Statistical analysis was used to formulate guidelines for the selection of supports and to quantify the impact a given support would have on HRTEM imaging of crystalline structure. For nanoparticles ≥1 nm, aberration-correction was found to provide limited benefit for the purpose of visualizing lattice fringes; electron dose is more predictive of lattice fringe visibility than aberration correction. These results confirm that the ability to visualize lattice fringes is ultimately dependent on the signal-to-noise ratio of the HRTEM images, rather than the point-to-point resolving power of the microscope. This study provides a benchmark for HRTEM imaging of crystalline supported metal nanoparticles and is extensible to a wide variety of supports and nanostructures. - Highlights: • The impact of supports on imaging nanoparticle lattice structure is quantified. • Visualization probabilities given particle size and support thickness are estimated. • Aberration-correction provided limited benefit

  3. Toxicity of iron oxide nanoparticles to grass litter decomposition in a sandy soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Muhammad Imtiaz; Shahzad, Tanvir; Shahid, Muhammad; Imran, Muhammad; Dhavamani, Jeyakumar; Ismail, Iqbal M. I.; Basahi, Jalal M.; Almeelbi, Talal

    2017-02-01

    We examined time-dependent effect of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) at a rate of 2000 mg kg-1 soil on Cynodon dactylon litter (3 g kg-1) decomposition in an arid sandy soil. Overall, heterotrophic cultivable bacterial and fungal colonies, and microbial biomass carbon were significantly decreased in litter-amended soil by the application of nanoparticles after 90 and 180 days of incubation. Time dependent effect of nanoparticles was significant for microbial biomass in litter-amended soil where nanoparticles decreased this variable from 27% after 90 days to 49% after 180 days. IONPs decreased CO2 emission by 28 and 30% from litter-amended soil after 90 and 180 days, respectively. These observations indicated that time-dependent effect was not significant on grass-litter carbon mineralization efficiency. Alternatively, nanoparticles application significantly reduced mineral nitrogen content in litter-amended soil in both time intervals. Therefore, nitrogen mineralization efficiency was decreased to 60% after 180 days compared to that after 90 days in nanoparticles grass-litter amended soil. These effects can be explained by the presence of labile Fe in microbial biomass after 180 days in nanoparticles amendment. Hence, our results suggest that toxicity of IONPs to soil functioning should consider before recommending their use in agro-ecosystems.

  4. Preservation in microbial mats: mineralization by a talc-like phase of a fish embedded in a microbial sarcophagus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iniesto, Miguel; Zeyen, Nina; López-Archilla, Ana; Bernard, Sylvain; Buscalioni, Ángela; Guerrero, M. Carmen; Benzerara, Karim

    2015-09-01

    Microbial mats have been repeatedly suggested to promote early fossilization of macroorganisms. Yet, experimental simulations of this process remain scarce. Here, we report results of 5 year-long experiments performed onfish carcasses to document the influence of microbial mats on mineral precipitation during early fossilization. Carcasses were initially placed on top of microbial mats. After two weeks, fishes became coated by the mats forming a compact sarcophagus, which modified the microenvironment close to the corpses. Our results showed that these conditions favoured the precipitation of a poorly crystalline silicate phase rich in magnesium. This talc-like mineral phase has been detected in three different locations within the carcasses placed in microbial mats for more than 4 years: 1) within inner tissues, colonized by several bacillary cells; 2) at the surface of bones of the upper face of the corpse buried in the mat; and 3) at the surface of several bones such as the dorsal fin which appeared to be gradually replaced by the Mg-silicate phase. This mineral phase has been previously shown to promote bacteria fossilization. Here we provide first experimental evidence that such Mg-rich phase can also be involved in exceptional preservation of animals.

  5. Copper Nanoparticle Induced Cytotoxicity to Nitrifying Bacteria ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the inclusion of engineered nanomaterials in industrial processes and consumer products, wastewater treatments plants (WWTPs) will serve as a major sink for these emerging contaminants. Previous research has demonstrated that nanomaterials are potentially toxic to microbial communities utilized in biological wastewater treatment (BWT). Copper-based nanoparticles (CuNPs) are of particular interest based on their increasing use in wood treatment, paints, household products, coatings, and byproducts of semiconductor manufacturing. A critical step in BWT is nutrient removal via denitrification. This study examined the potential toxicity of bare and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) coated CuO, and Cu2O nanoparticles, as well as Cu ions to microbial communities responsible for nitrogen removal in BWT. Inhibition was inferred from changes to the specific oxygen uptake rate (sOUR) in the absence and presence of Cu ions and CuNPs. X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, with Linear Combination Fitting (LCF), was utilized to track changes to Cu speciation throughout exposure. Results indicate that the dissolution of Cu ions from CuNPs drive microbial inhibition. The presence of a PVP coating on CuNPs has little effect on inhibition. LCF fitting of the biomass combined with metal partitioning analysis supports the current hypothesis that Cu-induced cytotoxicity is primarily caused by reactive oxygen species formed from ionic Cu in solution via catalytic reaction inter

  6. [Antimicrobial activity of stable silver nanoparticles of a certain size].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukha, Iu P; Eremenko, A M; Smirnova, N P; Mikhienkova, A I; Korchak, G I; Gorchev, V F; Chunikhin, A Iu

    2013-01-01

    Conditions for obtaining stable silver nanoparticles smaller than 10 nm were developed using a binary stabilizer polyvinylpyrrolidone/sodium dodecylsulphate in optimal ratio. Optical spectra, morphology and dependence of size of the nanoparticles on the amount of reducing agent were studied. Colloidal solutions of nanosilver showed a high bactericidal activity against strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and fungicidal activity against Candida albicans. The mechanism of action of nanosized silver on microbial cell was examined by laser scanning confocal microscope using fluorescent label. First step of antimicrobial effect on microorganisms was membrane damage and penetration of silver nanoparticles into the cell. Prolonged stability of nanoparticles and their antimicrobial activity over the past two years were showed.

  7. Iron oxide nanoparticles in modern microbiology and biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinali, Ranmadugala; Ebrahiminezhad, Alireza; Manley-Harris, Merilyn; Ghasemi, Younes; Berenjian, Aydin

    2017-08-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONs) are one of the most developed and used nanomaterials in biotechnology and microbiology. These particles have unique physicochemical properties, which make them unique among nanomaterials. Therefore, many experiments have been conducted to develop facile synthesis methods for these particles and to make them biocompatible. Various effects of IONs on microorganisms have been reported. Depending on the microbial strain and nanoparticle (NP) concentration, IONs can stimulate or inhibit microbial growth. Due to the superparamagnetic properties of IONs, these NPs have used as nano sources of heat for hyperthermia in infected tissues. Antibiotic-loaded IONs are used for targeted delivery of chemical therapy direct to the infected organ and IONs have been used as a dirigible carrier for more potent antimicrobial nanomaterials such as silver nanoparticles. Magnetic NPs have been used for specific separation of pathogen and non-pathogen bacterial strains. Very recently, IONs were used as a novel tool for magnetic immobilization of microbial cells and process intensification in a biotechnological process. This review provides an overview of application of IONs in different microbial processes. Recommendations are also given for areas of future research.

  8. Formation of CdS nanoparticles using starch as capping agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, P. [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada-IPN, Legaria 694, Col. Irrigacion 11500, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Munoz-Aguirre, N. [Seccion de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigacion, ESIME-IPN Azcapotzalco, Av. Las Granjas 682, Col. Santa Catarina, 02550 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Martinez, E. San-Martin [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada-IPN, Legaria 694, Col. Irrigacion 11500, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Seccion de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigacion, ESIME-IPN Azcapotzalco, Av. Las Granjas 682, Col. Santa Catarina, 02550 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Departamento de Fisica, CINVESTAV-IPN, Apartado Postal 14-740, 07000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Gonzalez, G. [Departamento de Fisica, CINVESTAV-IPN, Apartado Postal 14-740, 07000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: bato@fis.cinvestav.mx; Zelaya, O.; Mendoza, J. [Departamento de Fisica, CINVESTAV-IPN, Apartado Postal 14-740, 07000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2008-11-30

    CdS nanoparticles have been synthesized using starch as capping agent in aqueous solution. The morphology and crystalline structure of such samples were measured by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, respectively. The average grain size of the nanoparticles determined by these techniques was of the order of 5 nm. Photoluminescence of CdS nanoparticles shows a strong emission peak below to the band gap bulk semiconductor attributed to center trap states, also the broadening peak was interpreted in terms of electron-phonon interaction.

  9. Toxicity of laser irradiated photoactive fluoride PrF3 nanoparticles toward bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pudovkin, M S; Korableva, S L; Krasheninnicova, A O; Nizamutdinov, A S; Semashko, V V; Zelenihin, P V; Alakshin, E M; Nevzorova, T A

    2014-01-01

    The article is devoted to exploration of biological effects of crystalline PrF 3 nanoparticles toward Salmonella typhimurium TA 98 bacteria under the laser irradiation. Obtained results show bactericidal activity of PrF 3 nanoparticles and optimal parameters of laser irradiation (power of laser irradiation, wavelength, diameter of the laser spoil, and exposure time) have been found under which the effects of bactericidal activity become the most significant. Survival of bacterial cells under laser irradiation with wavelength 532 nm in colloidal solution of PrF 3 nanoparticles was 39%, 34%, 20% for exposure times 5 minutes, 15 minutes and 30 minutes, correspondingly

  10. Influence of Irradiation Time on properties of CdS Nanoparticles Synthesized using Microwave Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayereh Soltani; Elias SSaion; Maryam Erfani; Mohd Zobir Hussein; Robiah Yunus

    2011-01-01

    Different sizes of cadmium sulfide nanoparticles which exhibit obvious quantum confinement effect have been synthesized of cadmium chloride and thioacetamide through the simple and rapid microwave method. The properties of these CdS nanoparticles were examined with varying irradiation time from 10 to 40 min using a pulse regime. The obtained CdS particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transition electron microscopy (TEM) and UV-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. The effects of irradiation time on the size, degree of crystallinity, yield of reaction and optical band gap of CdS nanoparticles are investigated. (author)

  11. Investigating the growth mechanism and optical properties of carbon-coated titanium dioxide nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Anjum, Dalaver H.; Memon, Nasir; Chung, Suk-Ho

    2013-01-01

    TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared using flame synthesis and then characterized using transmission electron microscopy. We found that the flame method yields both crystalline TiO2 and amorphous TiO 2 NPs. TEM analysis revealed that only

  12. Method of Creating Micro-scale Silver Telluride Grains Covered with Bismuth Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Jung (Inventor); Choi, Sang Hyouk (Inventor); King, Glen C. (Inventor); Park, Yeonjoon (Inventor); Lee, Kunik (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Provided is a method of enhancing thermoelectric performance by surrounding crystalline semiconductors with nanoparticles by contacting a bismuth telluride material with a silver salt under a substantially inert atmosphere and a temperature approximately near the silver salt decomposition temperature; and recovering a metallic bismuth decorated material comprising silver telluride crystal grains.

  13. Disposal of radioactive waste in Swedish crystalline rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greis Dahlberg, Christina; Wikberg, Peter

    2015-01-01

    SKB, Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company is tasked with managing Swedish nuclear and radioactive waste. Crystalline rock is the obvious alternative for deep geological disposal in Sweden. SKB is, since 1988, operating a near surface repository for short-lived low and intermediate-level waste, SFR. The waste in SFR comprises operational and decommissioning waste from nuclear plants, industrial waste, research-related waste and medical waste. Spent nuclear fuel is currently stored in an interim facility while waiting for a license to construct a deep geological repository. The Swedish long-lived low and intermediate-level waste consists mainly of BWR control rods, reactor internals and legacy waste from early research in the Swedish nuclear programs. The current plan is to dispose of this waste in a separate deep geological repository, SFL, sometimes after 2045. Understanding of the rock properties is the basis for the design of the repository concepts. Swedish crystalline rock is mechanical stable and suitable for underground constructions. The Spent Fuel Repository is planned at approximately 500 meters depth in the rock at the Forsmark site. The host rock will keep the spent fuel isolated from human and near-surface environment. The rock will also provide the stable chemical and hydraulic conditions that make it possible to select suitable technical barriers to support the containment provided by the rock. A very long lasting canister is necessary to avoid release and transport of radionuclides through water conducting fractures in the rock. A canister designed for the Swedish rock, consists of a tight, 5 cm thick corrosion barrier of copper and a load-bearing insert of cast iron. To restrict the water flow around the canister and by that prevent fast corrosion, a bentonite buffer will surround the canister. Secondary, the bentonite buffer will retard a potential release by its strong sorption of radionuclides. The SFR repository is situated in

  14. Disposal of radioactive waste in Swedish crystalline rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greis Dahlberg, Christina; Wikberg, Peter [Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-07-01

    SKB, Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company is tasked with managing Swedish nuclear and radioactive waste. Crystalline rock is the obvious alternative for deep geological disposal in Sweden. SKB is, since 1988, operating a near surface repository for short-lived low and intermediate-level waste, SFR. The waste in SFR comprises operational and decommissioning waste from nuclear plants, industrial waste, research-related waste and medical waste. Spent nuclear fuel is currently stored in an interim facility while waiting for a license to construct a deep geological repository. The Swedish long-lived low and intermediate-level waste consists mainly of BWR control rods, reactor internals and legacy waste from early research in the Swedish nuclear programs. The current plan is to dispose of this waste in a separate deep geological repository, SFL, sometimes after 2045. Understanding of the rock properties is the basis for the design of the repository concepts. Swedish crystalline rock is mechanical stable and suitable for underground constructions. The Spent Fuel Repository is planned at approximately 500 meters depth in the rock at the Forsmark site. The host rock will keep the spent fuel isolated from human and near-surface environment. The rock will also provide the stable chemical and hydraulic conditions that make it possible to select suitable technical barriers to support the containment provided by the rock. A very long lasting canister is necessary to avoid release and transport of radionuclides through water conducting fractures in the rock. A canister designed for the Swedish rock, consists of a tight, 5 cm thick corrosion barrier of copper and a load-bearing insert of cast iron. To restrict the water flow around the canister and by that prevent fast corrosion, a bentonite buffer will surround the canister. Secondary, the bentonite buffer will retard a potential release by its strong sorption of radionuclides. The SFR repository is situated in

  15. Definitions of terms relating to crystalline polymers (IUPAC Recommendations 2011)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Meille, S. V.; Allegra, G.; Geil, P. H.; He, J.; Hess, M.; Jin, J.-I.; Kratochvíl, Pavel; Mormann, W.; Stepto, R.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 83, č. 10 (2011), s. 1831-1871 ISSN 0033-4545 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : IUPAC Polymer Division * crystalline polymers * crystalline polymer conformation Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.789, year: 2011

  16. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic estimation of crystallinity in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    The crystallinity parameter is calculated by using a standard procedure which can be used to estimate the distribution of quartz in various rocks for mining purpose. The infrared ... The X-ray diffraction full ... crystallinity and trace mineral components of rocks (Partha- ... infrared techniques (Rice et al 1995). ... The absorption.

  17. Proceedings of the workshop on crystalline ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasse, R.W.; Hofmann, I.; Liesen, D.

    1989-04-01

    The workshop consisted of mainly invited and some contributed papers. More informal discussions took place in three working groups on the following topics: beam cooling techniques; diagnostics of crystalline beams; storage rings for crystalline beams. The present volume collects all papers as well as the summaries of the working groups. See hints under the relevant topics. (orig./HSI)

  18. Determination of cellulose I crystallinity by FT-Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh P. Agarwal; Richard S. Reiner; Sally A. Ralph

    2009-01-01

    Two new methods based on FT-Raman spectroscopy, one simple, based on band intensity ratio, and the other, using a partial least-squares (PLS) regression model, are proposed to determine cellulose I crystallinity. In the simple method, crystallinity in semicrystalline cellulose I samples was determined based on univariate regression that was first developed using the...

  19. Quantitative aspects of crystalline lactose in milk products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roetman, K.

    1982-01-01

    The occurrence of crystalline lactose in milk products and its influence on their physical properties are briefly reviewed. The importance of the quantitive determination of crystalline lactose for scientific and industrial purposes is indicated, and a summary is given of our earlier work. This

  20. Synthesis of self-assembly plasmonic silver nanoparticles with tunable luminescence color

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Ghamdi, Haifa S.; Mahmoud, Waleed E.

    2014-01-01

    Assembly is an elegant and effective bottom-up approach to prepare arrays of nanoparticles from nobel metals. Noble metal nanoparticles are perfect building blocks because they can be prepared with an adequate functionalization to allow their assembly and with controlled sizes. Herein, we report a novel recipe for the synthesis of self-assembled silver nanoparticles with tunable optical properties and sizes. The synthetic route followed here based on the covalent binding among silver nanoparticles by means of poly vinyl alcohol for the first time. The size of silver nanoparticle is governed by varying the amount of sodium borohydride. The as-synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, selected area electron diffraction and UV–vis spectroscopy. Results depicted that self-assembly of mono-dispersed silver nanoparticles with different sizes have been achieved. The silver nanostructure has a single crystalline faced centered cubic structure with growth orientation along (1 1 1) facet. These nanoparticles exhibited localized surface plasmon resonance at 403 nm. The luminescence peaks were red-sifted from violet to green due to the increase of the particle sizes. -- Highlights: • Self-assembled silver nanoparticles based PVA were synthesized. • NaBH 4 amount was found particle size dependent. • Silver nanoparticles strongly affected the surface plasmon resonance. • Highly symmetric luminescence emission band narrow width is obtained. • Dark field image showed a tunable color change from violet to green

  1. Novel lanthanide-labeled metal oxide nanoparticles improve the measurement of in vivo clearance and translocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abid Aamir D

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The deposition, clearance and translocation of europium-doped gadolinium oxide nanoparticles in a mouse lung were investigated experimentally. Nanoparticles were synthesized by spray flame pyrolysis. The particle size, crystallinity and surface properties were characterized. Following instillation, the concentrations of particles in organs were determined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The protein corona coating the nanoparticles was found to be similar to the coating on more environmentally relevant nanoparticles such as iron oxide. Measurements of the solubility of the nanoparticles in surrogates of biological fluids indicated very little propensity for dissolution, and the elemental ratio of particle constituents did not change, adding further support to the contention that intact nanoparticles were measured. The particles were intratracheally instilled into the mouse lung. After 24 hours, the target organs were harvested, acid digested and the nanoparticle mass in each organ was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS. The nanoparticles were detected in all the studied organs at low ppb levels; 59% of the particles remained in the lung. A significant amount of particles was also detected in the feces, suggesting fast clearance mechanisms. The nanoparticle system used in this work is highly suitable for quantitatively determining deposition, transport and clearance of nanoparticles from the lung, providing a quantified measure of delivered dose.

  2. Synthesis of Manganese Tetroxide Nanoparticles Using Precipitation and Study of Its Structure and Optical Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Shokoohi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering extensive applications of manganese tetroxide nanoparticles in various industries due to its special properties, conducting studies on how to achieve more suitable ways to produce smaller nanoparticles is of great importance. In this study, nanoparticles of manganese tetroxide (Mn3O4 were synthesized by a co-precipitation method. In order to determine the characteristics of the structure, size, and specific surface of the resulting nanoparticles, techniques such as XRD, BET, BJH, FESEM, and FTIR were employed. Also, the nanoparticles were quantified with EDS and their colony size was examined using DLS experiments. The findings revealed a production of crystalline manganese tetroxide nanoparticles with a space group of 141/amd (S.G. (141 and a molecular weight of 228.81 with the international code of ICSD Card # 89 - 4837. The specific surface area was 32.147 m2/g with a pore volume of 0.1041 cm3/g. The XRD and EDX analyses verify the production of the Mn3O4 nanoparticles. The size of the nanostructures is approximately 19 nm. The method used in this study could produce the Mn3O4 nanoparticles in a much easier way without the need for surfactants. Compared to the nanoparticles produced in other studies, the size of the nanoparticles produced in the present study is remarkably smaller. Moreover, less amount of the metal salt was used.

  3. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by Pseudomonas spp. isolated from effluent of an electroplating industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punjabi, Kapil; Yedurkar, Snehal; Doshi, Sejal; Deshapnde, Sunita; Vaidya, Shashikant

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to isolate and screen bacteria from soil and effluent of electroplating industries for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles and characterize the potential isolate. Soil and effluent of electroplating industries from Mumbai were screened for bacteria capable of synthesizing silver nanoparticles. From two soils and eight effluent samples 20 bacterial isolates were obtained, of these, one was found to synthesize silver nanoparticles. Synthesis of silver nanoparticle by bacteria was confirmed by undertaking characterization studies of nanoparticles that involved spectroscopy and electron microscopic techniques. The potential bacteria was found to be Gram-negative short rods with its biochemical test indicating Pseudomonas spp . Molecular characterization of the isolate by 16S r DNA sequencing was carried out which confirmed its relation to Pseudomonas hibiscicola ATCC 19867. Stable nanoparticles synthesized were 50 nm in size and variable shapes as seen in SEM micrographs. The XRD and FTIR confirmed the crystalline structure of nanoparticles and presence of biomolecules mainly proteins as agents for reduction and capping of nanoparticles. The study demonstrates synthesis of nanoparticles by bacteria from effluent of electroplating industry. This can be used for large scale synthesis of nanoparticles by cost effective and environmentally benign mode of synthesis.

  4. Ultra-small platinum and gold nanoparticles by arc plasma deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Hoon; Jeong, Young Eun; Ha, Heonphil; Byun, Ji Young; Kim, Young Dok

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Ultra-small (<2 nm) and bigger platinum and gold nanoparticles were produced by arc plasma deposition (APD). • Size and coverage of deposited nanoparticles were easily controlled with APD parameters. • Crystalline structures of deposited nanoparticles emerged only when the particle size was bigger than ∼2 nm. - Abstract: Ultra-small (<2 nm) nanoparticles of platinum and gold were produced by arc plasma deposition (APD) in a systematic way and the deposition behavior was studied. Nanoparticles were deposited on two dimensional amorphous carbon and amorphous titania thin films and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Deposition behavior of nanoparticles by APD was studied with discharge voltage (V), discharge condenser capacitance (C), and the number of plasma pulse shots (n) as controllable parameters. The average size of intrinsic nanoparticles generated by APD process was as small as 0.9 nm and deposited nanoparticles began to have crystal structures from the particle size of about 2 nm. V was the most sensitive parameter to control the size and coverage of generated nanoparticles compared to C and n. Size of APD deposited nanoparticles was also influenced by the nature of evaporating materials and substrates

  5. Alpha amylase assisted synthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles: Structural characterization and application as antibacterial agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Razi; Mohsin, Mohd; Ahmad, Tokeer; Sardar, Meryam

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Green synthesis of TiO 2 nanoparticles using an enzyme alpha amylase has been described. • The morphology and shape depends upon the concentration of the alpha amylase enzyme. • The biosynthesized nanoparticles show good bactericidal effect against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria. • The bactericidal effect was further confirmed by Confocal microscopy and TEM. - Abstract: The enzyme alpha amylase was used as the sole reducing and capping agent for the synthesis of TiO 2 nanoparticles. The biosynthesized nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) methods. The XRD data confirms the monophasic crystalline nature of the nanoparticles formed. TEM data shows that the morphology of nanoparticles depends upon the enzyme concentration used at the time of synthesis. The presence of alpha amylase on TiO 2 nanoparticles was confirmed by FTIR. The nanoparticles were investigated for their antibacterial effect on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The minimum inhibitory concentration value of the TiO 2 nanoparticles was found to be 62.50 μg/ml for both the bacterial strains. The inhibition was further confirmed using disc diffusion assay. It is evident from the zone of inhibition that TiO 2 nanoparticles possess potent bactericidal activity. Further, growth curve study shows effect of inhibitory concentration of TiO 2 nanoparticles against S. aureus and E. coli. Confocal microscopy and TEM investigation confirm that nanoparticles were disrupting the bacterial cell wall

  6. Preparation by a facile method and characterization of amorphous and crystalline nickel sulfide nanophases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagaveena, S., E-mail: nagaveena3@gmail.com; Mahadevan, C.K.

    2014-01-05

    Highlights: • Amorphous NiS, and crystalline NiS{sub 1.03}, β-NiS and α-NiS nanophases prepared. • Simple microwave assisted solvothermal method used. • Nanoparticles with low grain size, high phase purity and homogeneity obtained. • High coercivity observed indicates the applicability in data storage devices. -- Abstract: A simple solvothermal route using a domestic microwave oven has been developed to prepare the prominent nickel sulfide nanophases (amorphous NiS, and crystalline NiS{sub 1.03}, β-NiS and α-NiS). The prepared nanophases have been characterized chemically, structurally, optically, electrically, and magnetically by the available methods like thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses, X-ray powder diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopic, and transmission electron microscopic analyses, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopic, Fourier transform-infrared spectral, UV–Vis spectral and photoluminescence spectral analyses, AC and DC electrical measurements at various temperatures in the range 40–150 °C, and vibrating sample magnetometric measurements. The average particle sizes obtained through transmission electron microscopic analysis are 15, 17, 18, 20 nm respectively for the amorphous NiS, NiS{sub 1.03}, β-NiS and α-NiS nanophases. Results obtained in the present study indicates that the method adopted is found to be an effective and economical one for preparing these nanophases with high purity, reduced size, homogeneity, and useful optical, electrical and magnetic properties.

  7. Synthesis of CdSe nanoparticles and their effect on the antioxidant activity of Spirulina platensis and Porphyridium cruentum cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudic, V.; Cepoi, L.; Rudi, L.; Chiriac, T.; Nicorici, A.; Todosiciuc, A.; Gutsul, T.

    2011-01-01

    Single-crystalline cadmium selenide nanoparticles were obtained using high-temperature solution phase synthesis (HTSPS) synthesis. X-Ray powder diffraction and transmission electron microscopy were used to confirm the crystallinity and morphology of the resulting nanoparticles. To study the action of CdSe on antioxidant activity, we selected two biotechnological important strains of microalgae: cyanobacteria Spirulina platensis and red microalgae Porphyridium cruentum. In the case of Porphyridium cruentum, the obtained results demonstrated an increase in the productivity. For Spirulina platensis, the presence of the compound in the cultivating medium decreased the productivity of cyanobacteria.

  8. Diffractometric method for determining the degree of crystallinity of materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chukhchin, D. G., E-mail: dimatsch@mail.ru; Malkov, A. V.; Tyshkunova, I. V.; Mayer, L. V.; Novozhilov, E. V. [Lomonosov Northen (Arctic) Federal University (Russian Federation)

    2016-05-15

    A new method for determining the degree of crystallinity of a material from X-ray diffraction data has been developed. The method is based on estimating the rate of change in function I = f(2θ) in the entire range of scattering angles. A calculation is performed using the ratio of the integral modulus of the first derivative of intensity with respect to angle 2θ to the integral area under the diffraction pattern curve. The method was tested on two substances with known amorphous and crystalline components. A linear relationship is revealed between the specified ratio of crystalline and amorphous parts and the calculated crystallinity index. The proposed method allows one to estimate impartially and compare the degree of crystallinity for samples of different nature.

  9. Development of highly porous crystalline titania photocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marszewski, Michal

    The objectives of this dissertation are the design, synthesis, and characterization of titania materials with surface area, porosity, crystallinity and doping tailored toward photocatalytic applications. Ultimately, the research should result in a strategy allowing the synthesis of titania with all these important features. The synthetic methods investigated in this research will include: i) soft-templating, ii) hard-templating, and iii) modified precursor strategy. Soft-templating strategy uses organic templates--either block copolymers or surfactants--that under specific conditions assemble into micelles, and later, these micelles are used to template the desired material around them. The resulting organic-inorganic composite is then calcined in air to remove the organic template and recover the final material with high surface area and large pore volume. This work explores 1) synthesis of titania materials in the presence of polymer templates, and the effects of different synthetic conditions on the structure of the resulting materials. Hard-templating, in contrast to soft-templating, uses inorganic templates. The hard template is introduced during the synthesis to cast its shape onto the fabricated material and removed afterwards, when the material has formed. The final material is an inverse replica of the hard template used, typically with a well-developed mesostructure. This work explores 1) hard templating synthesis of titania materials using silica and alumina, and 2) the effects of the template amount and type. The modified precursor strategy is a novel synthetic method, developed in this research, and designed specifically to achieve titania material with high surface area, large pore volume, high crystallinity, and possibly doping. The modified precursors are prepared by reacting generic titania precursors, such as titanium isopropoxide (TIPO), with organic acids, which results in substitution of some or all alkoxide groups in TIPO structure. The goal

  10. Characterization of the oleic acid/iron oxide nanoparticle interface by magnetic resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masur, S., E-mail: sabrina.masur@uni-due.de; Zingsem, B.; Marzi, T.; Meckenstock, R.; Farle, M.

    2016-10-01

    The synthesis of colloidal nanoparticles involves surfactant molecules, which bind to the particle surface and stabilize nanoparticles against aggregation. In many cases these protecting shells also can be used for further functionalization. In this study, we investigated monodisperse single crystalline iron oxide core/shell nanoparticles (Fe{sub x}O{sub y}-NPs) in situ covered with an oleic acid layer which showed two electron spin resonance (ESR) signals. The nanoparticles with the ligands attached were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and ferro- and paramagnetic resonance (FMR, EPR). Infrared spectroscopy confirmed the presence of the functional groups and revealed that the oleic acid (OA) is chemisorbed as a carboxylate on the iron oxide and is coordinated symmetrically to the oxide atoms. We show that the EPR signal of the OA ligand molecule can be used as a local probe to determine the temperature changes at the surface of the nanoparticle. - Highlights: • Monodisperse single crystalline iron oxide core/shell nanoparticles (Fe{sub x}O{sub y}-NPs) in situ covered with an oleic acid layer two electron spin resonance (ESR) signals. • We show that the EPR signal of the OA ligand molecule can be used as a local probe to determine the temperature changes at the surface of the nanoparticle.

  11. Vapor-phase synthesis and characterization of ZnSe nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarigiannis, D.; Pawlowski, R. P.; Peck, J. D.; Mountziaris, T. J.; Kioseoglou, G.; Petrou, A.

    2002-06-01

    Compound semiconductor nanoparticles are an exciting class of materials whose unique optical and electronic properties can be exploited in a variety of applications, including optoelectronics, photovoltaics, and biophotonics. The most common route for synthesizing such nanoparticles has been via liquid-phase chemistry in reverse micelles. This paper discusses a flexible vapor-phase technique for synthesis of crystalline compound semiconductor nanoparticles using gas-phase condensation reactions near the stagnation point of a counterflow jet reactor. ZnSe nanoparticles were formed by reacting vapors of dimethylzinc: triethylamine adduct and hydrogen selenide at 120Torr and room temperature (28°C). No attempt was made to passivate the surface of the particles, which were collected as random aggregates on silicon wafers or TEM grids placed downstream of the reaction zone. Particle characterization using TEM, electron diffraction, Raman and EDAX revealed that the aggregates consisted of polycrystalline ZnSe nanoparticles, almost monodisperse in size (with diameters of ~40nm). The polycrystalline nanoparticles appear to have been formed by coagulation of smaller single-crystalline nanoparticles with characteristic size of 3-5 run.

  12. Rumen microbial genomics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, M.; Nelson, K.E.

    2005-01-01

    Improving microbial degradation of plant cell wall polysaccharides remains one of the highest priority goals for all livestock enterprises, including the cattle herds and draught animals of developing countries. The North American Consortium for Genomics of Fibrolytic Ruminal Bacteria was created to promote the sequencing and comparative analysis of rumen microbial genomes, offering the potential to fully assess the genetic potential in a functional and comparative fashion. It has been found that the Fibrobacter succinogenes genome encodes many more endoglucanases and cellodextrinases than previously isolated, and several new processive endoglucanases have been identified by genome and proteomic analysis of Ruminococcus albus, in addition to a variety of strategies for its adhesion to fibre. The ramifications of acquiring genome sequence data for rumen microorganisms are profound, including the potential to elucidate and overcome the biochemical, ecological or physiological processes that are rate limiting for ruminal fibre degradation. (author)

  13. Microbial Genomes Multiply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolittle, Russell F.

    2002-01-01

    The publication of the first complete sequence of a bacterial genome in 1995 was a signal event, underscored by the fact that the article has been cited more than 2,100 times during the intervening seven years. It was a marvelous technical achievement, made possible by automatic DNA-sequencing machines. The feat is the more impressive in that complete genome sequencing has now been adopted in many different laboratories around the world. Four years ago in these columns I examined the situation after a dozen microbial genomes had been completed. Now, with upwards of 60 microbial genome sequences determined and twice that many in progress, it seems reasonable to assess just what is being learned. Are new concepts emerging about how cells work? Have there been practical benefits in the fields of medicine and agriculture? Is it feasible to determine the genomic sequence of every bacterial species on Earth? The answers to these questions maybe Yes, Perhaps, and No, respectively.

  14. Degradation of microbial polyesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokiwa, Yutaka; Calabia, Buenaventurada P

    2004-08-01

    Microbial polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), one of the largest groups of thermoplastic polyesters are receiving much attention as biodegradable substitutes for non-degradable plastics. Poly(D-3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) is the most ubiquitous and most intensively studied PHA. Microorganisms degrading these polyesters are widely distributed in various environments. Although various PHB-degrading microorganisms and PHB depolymerases have been studied and characterized, there are still many groups of microorganisms and enzymes with varying properties awaiting various applications. Distributions of PHB-degrading microorganisms, factors affecting the biodegradability of PHB, and microbial and enzymatic degradation of PHB are discussed in this review. We also propose an application of a new isolated, thermophilic PHB-degrading microorganism, Streptomyces strain MG, for producing pure monomers of PHA and useful chemicals, including D-3-hydroxycarboxylic acids such as D-3-hydroxybutyric acid, by enzymatic degradation of PHB.

  15. Global Microbial Identifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wielinga, Peter; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2017-01-01

    ) will likely also enable a much better understanding of the pathogenesis of the infection and the molecular basis of the host response to infection. But the full potential of these advances will only transpire if the data in this area become transferable and thereby comparable, preferably in open-source...... of microorganisms, for the identification of relevant genes and for the comparison of genomes to detect outbreaks and emerging pathogens. To harness the full potential of WGS, a shared global database of genomes linked to relevant metadata and the necessary software tools needs to be generated, hence the global...... microbial identifier (GMI) initiative. This tool will ideally be used in amongst others in the diagnosis of infectious diseases in humans and animals, in the identification of microorganisms in food and environment, and to track and trace microbial agents in all arenas globally. This will require...

  16. Light trapping in a-Si/c-Si heterojunction solar cells by embedded ITO nanoparticles at rear surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Sukanta; Mandal, Sourav; Mitra, Suchismita; Ghosh, Hemanta; Mukherjee, Sampad; Banerjee, Chandan; Saha, Hiranmoy; Barua, A. K.

    2017-12-01

    The advantages of the amorphous silicon (a-Si)/crystalline silicon (c-Si) hetero junction technology are low temperature (oxide (ITO) nanoparticles embedded in amorphous silicon material at the rear side of the crystalline wafer. The nanoparticles were embedded in silicon to have higher scattering efficiency, as has been established by simulation studies. It has been shown that significant photocurrent enhancements (32.8 mA cm-2 to 35.1 mA cm-2) are achieved because of high scattering and coupling efficiency of the embedded nanoparticles into the silicon device, leading to an increase in efficiency from 13.74% to 15.22%. In addition, we have observed a small increase in open circuit voltage. This may be due to the surface passivation during the ITO nanoparticle formation with hydrogen plasma treatment. We also support our experimental results by simulation, with the help of a commercial finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) software solution.

  17. Goldstone bosons in a crystalline chiral phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, Marco

    2017-07-24

    The phase diagram of strong interaction matter is expected to exhibit a rich structure. Different models have shown, that crystalline phases with a spatially varying chiral condensate can occur in the regime of low temperatures and moderate densities, where they replace the first-order phase transition found for spatially constant order parameters. We investigate this inhomogeneous phase, where in addition to the chiral symmetry, translational and rotational symmetry are broken as well, in a two flavor Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model. The main goal of this work is to describe the Goldstone bosons in this phase, massless excitations that occur for spontaneously broken symmetries. We take one of the simplest possible modulations, the chiral density wave, and show how to derive the quark propagator of the theory analytically, by means of transformations in chiral and momentum space. We apply this to a test case for the gap equation. We show the derivation of Nambu-Goldstone modes in the inhomogeneous phase and find, that for our case only three different modes have to be taken into account. We proceed to calculate the Goldstone boson related to the breaking of spatial symmetry, which can be related to the neutral pion. By evaluating a Bethe-Salpeter equation, we can show, that we have indeed found a Goldstone boson and give its dispersion relation in terms of momenta perpendicular, as well as parallel to the mass modulation.

  18. Goldstone bosons in a crystalline chiral phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schramm, Marco

    2017-01-01

    The phase diagram of strong interaction matter is expected to exhibit a rich structure. Different models have shown, that crystalline phases with a spatially varying chiral condensate can occur in the regime of low temperatures and moderate densities, where they replace the first-order phase transition found for spatially constant order parameters. We investigate this inhomogeneous phase, where in addition to the chiral symmetry, translational and rotational symmetry are broken as well, in a two flavor Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model. The main goal of this work is to describe the Goldstone bosons in this phase, massless excitations that occur for spontaneously broken symmetries. We take one of the simplest possible modulations, the chiral density wave, and show how to derive the quark propagator of the theory analytically, by means of transformations in chiral and momentum space. We apply this to a test case for the gap equation. We show the derivation of Nambu-Goldstone modes in the inhomogeneous phase and find, that for our case only three different modes have to be taken into account. We proceed to calculate the Goldstone boson related to the breaking of spatial symmetry, which can be related to the neutral pion. By evaluating a Bethe-Salpeter equation, we can show, that we have indeed found a Goldstone boson and give its dispersion relation in terms of momenta perpendicular, as well as parallel to the mass modulation.

  19. Ion damage calculations in crystalline silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oen, O.S.

    1985-07-01

    Damage profiles in crystalline silicon produced by light (B) and heavy (Bi) ions with energies from 10 to 100 keV were studied using the computer program MARLOWE (version 12). The program follows not only the incident ion collision by collision, but also any Si target atom that is set into motion through an energetic collision. Thus, the transport effect of the complete cascade of recoiled target atoms is included in the damage profile. The influence of channeling was studied for Si(100) using beam tilt angles from the surface normal of 0 0 , 3 0 and 7 0 about the [001] or [011] axes. The effects of channeling on the damage profile are twofold: first, there is a large reduction of the central damage peak; second, there is a component of the damage profile that extends considerably deeper into the target than that found in conventional studies using a random target assemblage. The influence of amorphous overlayers of SiO 2 on the damage and implantation profiles in the Si(100) substrate has also been investigated

  20. Chaotic Fluid Mixing in Crystalline Sphere Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turuban, Regis; Lester, Daniel; Meheust, Yves; Le Borgne, Tanguy

    2017-11-01

    We study the Lagrangian dynamics of steady 3D Stokes flow over simple cubic (SC) and body-centered cubic (BCC) lattices of close-packed spheres, and uncover the mechanisms governing chaotic mixing. Due to the cusp-shaped sphere contacts, the topology of the skin friction field is fundamentally different to that of continuous (non-granular) media (e.g. open pore networks), with significant implications for fluid mixing. Weak symmetry breaking of the flow orientation with respect to the lattice symmetries imparts a transition from regular to strong chaotic mixing in the BCC lattice, whereas the SC lattice only exhibits weak mixing. Whilst the SC and BCC lattices share the same symmetry point group, these differences are explained in terms of their space groups, and we find that a glide symmetry of the BCC lattice generates chaotic mixing. These insights are used to develop accurate predictions of the Lyapunov exponent distribution over the parameter space of mean flow orientation, and point to a general theory of mixing and dispersion based upon the inherent symmetries of arbitrary crystalline structures. The authors acknowledge the support of ERC project ReactiveFronts (648377).

  1. Synthesis of crystalline ceramics for actinide immobilisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burakov, B.; Gribova, V.; Kitsay, A.; Ojovan, M.; Hyatt, N.C.; Stennett, M.C.

    2007-01-01

    Methods for the synthesis of ceramic wasteforms for the immobilization of actinides are common to those for non-radioactive ceramics: hot uniaxial pressing (HUP); hot isostatic pressing (HIP); cold pressing followed by sintering; melting (for some specific ceramics, such as garnet/perovskite composites). Synthesis of ceramics doped with radionuclides is characterized with some important considerations: all the radionuclides should be incorporated into crystalline structure of durable host-phases in the form of solid solutions and no separate phases of radionuclides should be present in the matrix of final ceramic wasteform; all procedures of starting precursor preparation and ceramic synthesis should follow safety requirements of nuclear industry. Synthesis methods that avoid the use of very high temperatures and pressures and are easily accomplished within the environment of a glove-box or hot cell are preferable. Knowledge transfer between the V. G. Khlopin Radium Institute (KRI, Russia) and Immobilisation Science Laboratory (ISL, UK) was facilitated in the framework of a joint project supported by UK Royal Society. In order to introduce methods of precursor preparation and ceramic synthesis we selected well-known procedures readily deployable in radiochemical processing plants. We accounted that training should include main types of ceramic wasteforms which are currently discussed for industrial applications. (authors)

  2. Hydrogen-related effects in crystalline semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haller, E.E.

    1988-08-01

    Recent experimental and theoretical information regarding the states of hydrogen in crystalline semiconductors is reviewed. The abundance of results illustrates that hydrogen does not preferentially occupy a few specific lattice sites but that it binds to native defects and impurities, forming a large variety of neutral and electrically active complexes. The study of hydrogen passivated shallow acceptors and donors and of partially passivated multivalent acceptors has yielded information on the electronic and real space structure and on the chemical composition of these complexes. Infrared spectroscopy, ion channeling, hydrogen isotope substitution and electric field drift experiments have shown that both static trigonal complexes as well as centers with tunneling hydrogen exist. Total energy calculations indicate that the charge state of the hydrogen ion which leads to passivation dominates, i.e., H + in p-type and H/sup /minus// in n-type crystals. Recent theoretical calculations indicate that is unlikely for a large fraction of the atomic hydrogen to exist in its neutral state, a result which is consistent with the total absence of any Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) signal. An alternative explanation for this result is the formation of H 2 . Despite the numerous experimental and theoretical results on hydrogen-related effects in Ge and Si there remains a wealth of interesting physics to be explored, especially in compound and alloy semiconductors. 6 refs., 6 figs

  3. Charge-density study of crystalline beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, R F [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, Pa. (USA). Dept. of Chemistry

    1977-01-01

    The X-ray structure factors for crystalline beryllium measured by Brown (Phil. Mag. (1972), 26, 1377) have been analyzed with multipole deformation functions for charge-density information. Single exponential radial functions were used for the valence charge density. A valence monopole plus the three harmonics, P/sup 3//sub 5/(cos theta) sin 3phi, P/sub 6/(cos theta) and P/sup 3//sub 7/(cos theta) sin 3phi, provide a least-squares fit to the data with Rsub(w)=0.0081. The superposition of these density functions describes a bonding charge density between Be atoms along the c axis through the tetrahedral vacancy. The results reported here are in qualitative agreement with a recent pseudo-potential calculation of metallic beryllium. The final residuals in the analysis are largest at high sin theta/lambda values. This suggests that core charge deformation is present and/or anharmonic motion of the nuclei is appreciable.

  4. Crystalline insoluble acid salts of tetravalent metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberti, G.; Bernasconi, M.G.; Casciola, M.; Costantino, U.

    1980-01-01

    Several titration curves of crystalline acid salts of tetravalent metals show an evident decrease in the pH of the supernatant solution with an increasing addition of metal hydroxide. This phenomenon, very unusual for common organic ion-exchangers, seems to be quite general for inorganic ion-exchangers with layered structure of α-type. In order to throw light on this phenomenon, a detailed investigation was carried out on the titration curves of α-Zr(HPO 4 ) 2 .H 2 O with various metal hydroxides, particularly KOH. To obtain the presence of a distinct minimum in the titration curve, three conditions seem to be necessary: (1) high activation energy for H + /Msup(Z+) exchange (which, in turn, depends on the relative size of Msup(Z+) and size of the windows connecting the cavities), (2) formation of solid solution having high M-content and (3) formation of a phase, with a large inter-layer distance, in the external parts of the crystals. This last point is particularly important since the enlargement of the external part of the crystals lowers the activation energy for the exchange of large cations. Thus, once started, the exchange can take place at lower pH' values. (author)

  5. Effects of grinding on certain crystalline structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tekiz, Y.

    1965-06-01

    The effects of grinding on certain crystalline substances (ZnO, ZnS, Sb), have been studied using X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. The treatments were carried out using a vibrating mill which involves a higher energy than more conventional equipment such as ball-mills. Various methods have been proposed for determining the width of the intrinsic profile (β). In the case of zinc oxide it has been shown possible to differentiate the respective contributions of the fragmentation effects and of lattice deformation effects to the overall effects of the grinding. For the two types of zinc sulfide (blend and Wurtzite) it has been shown that the blend-wurtzite) transition point is very much decreased, and that the rate of transformation of wurtzite into the stable form (blend) at room temperature is considerably increased by the grinding. In the case of antimony, the method of fragmentation shows the existence of an anisotropy which appears to be connected with easily cleavable planes. These observations show that in the case of grinding carried out with sufficient energy, the accumulation of this energy in the matter through the creation of lattice defects can accelerate the reaction rate or bring about physical transformations. (author) [fr

  6. Chaotic Fluid Mixing in Crystalline Sphere Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turuban, R.; Lester, D. R.; Le Borgne, T.; Méheust, Y.

    2017-12-01

    We study the Lagrangian dynamics of steady 3D Stokes flow over simple cubic (SC) and body-centered cubic (BCC) lattices of close-packed spheres, and uncover the mechanisms governing chaotic mixing. Due to the cusp-shaped sphere contacts, the topology of the skin friction field is fundamentally different to that of continuous (non-granular) media (e.g. open pore networks), with significant implications for fluid mixing. Weak symmetry breaking of the flow orientation with respect to the lattice symmetries imparts a transition from regular to strong chaotic mixing in the BCC lattice, whereas the SC lattice only exhibits weak mixing. Whilst the SC and BCC lattices share the same symmetry point group, these differences are explained in terms of their space groups, and we find that a glide symmetry of the BCC lattice generates chaotic mixing. These insight are used to develop accurate predictions of the Lyapunov exponent distribution over the parameter space of mean flow orientation, and point to a general theory of mixing and dispersion based upon the inherent symmetries of arbitrary crystalline structures.

  7. Crystalline silicotitanates -- novel commercial cesium ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, R.; Dangieri, T.J.; Fennelly, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    A new class of inorganic ion exchangers called crystalline silicotitanates (CST), invented by researchers at Sandia National Laboratories and Texas A ampersand M University, has been commercialized in a joint Sandia-UOP effort. The original developmental materials exhibited high selectivity for the ion exchange of cesium, strontium, and several other radionuclides from highly alkaline solutions containing molar concentrations of Na + . The materials also showed excellent chemical and radiation stability. These CST properties made them excellent candidates for treatment of solutions such as the Hanford tank supernates and other DOE radwastes. Sandia and UOP, under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), developed CSTs in the powdered form and in an engineered form suitable for column ion exchange use. A continuous-flow, column ion exchange process is expected to be used to remove Cs and other radionuclides from the Hanford supernatant. The powder material invented by Sandia and Texas A ampersand M consists of submicron-size particles. It is not designed for column ion exchange but may be used in other applications such as batch waste processing. Data are also presented confirming the excellent stability of the commercial CSTs over a broad pH range and the high radiation stability of the exchangers. In addition, data are provided that demonstrate the high physical strength and attrition resistance of IONSIV reg-sign IE-911, critical properties for column ion exchange applications

  8. Synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles by a novel ultrasonic assisted with mixed hollow sphere template method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopi, D.; Indira, J.; Kavitha, L.; Sekar, M.; Mudali, U. Kamachi

    Hydroxyapatite (HAP) is the main inorganic component of bone material and is widely used in various biomedical applications due to its excellent bioactivity and biocompatibility. In this paper, we have reported the synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles by a novel ultrasonic assisted mixed template directed method. In this method glycine-acrylic acid (GLY-AA) hollow spheres were used as an organic template which could be prepared by mixing of glycine with acrylic acid. The as-synthesized HAP nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and tunnelling electron microscope (TEM) to investigate the nature of bonding, crystallinity, size and shape. The thermal stability of as-synthesized nanoparticles was also investigated by the thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). The effect of ultrasonic irradiation time on the crystallinity and size of the HAP nanoparticles in presence of glycine-acrylic acid hollow spheres template were investigated. From the inspection of the above results it is confirmed that the crystallinity and size of the HAP nanoparticles decrease with increasing ultrasonic irradiation time. Hence the proposed synthesis strategy provides a facile pathway to obtain nano sized HAP with high quality, suitable size and morphology.

  9. Synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles by a novel ultrasonic assisted with mixed hollow sphere template method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopi, D; Indira, J; Kavitha, L; Sekar, M; Mudali, U Kamachi

    2012-07-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAP) is the main inorganic component of bone material and is widely used in various biomedical applications due to its excellent bioactivity and biocompatibility. In this paper, we have reported the synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles by a novel ultrasonic assisted mixed template directed method. In this method glycine-acrylic acid (GLY-AA) hollow spheres were used as an organic template which could be prepared by mixing of glycine with acrylic acid. The as-synthesized HAP nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and tunnelling electron microscope (TEM) to investigate the nature of bonding, crystallinity, size and shape. The thermal stability of as-synthesized nanoparticles was also investigated by the thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). The effect of ultrasonic irradiation time on the crystallinity and size of the HAP nanoparticles in presence of glycine-acrylic acid hollow spheres template were investigated. From the inspection of the above results it is confirmed that the crystallinity and size of the HAP nanoparticles decrease with increasing ultrasonic irradiation time. Hence the proposed synthesis strategy provides a facile pathway to obtain nano sized HAP with high quality, suitable size and morphology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Photodynamic therapy using upconversion nanoparticles prepared by laser ablation in liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikehata, Tomohiro; Onodera, Yuji; Nunokawa, Takashi [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Hirano, Tomohisa; Ogura, Shun-ichiro; Kamachi, Toshiaki [Graduate School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Odawara, Osamu [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Wada, Hiroyuki, E-mail: wada.h.ac@m.titech.ac.jp [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan)

    2015-09-01

    Highlights: • Highly crystalline upconversion nanoparticles were prepared by laser ablation in liquid. • Highly transparent near-IR irradiation generated singlet oxygen. • Viability of cancer cells was significantly decreased by near-IR irradiation. - Abstract: Upconversion nanoparticles were prepared by laser ablation in liquid, and the potential use of the nanoparticles for cancer treatment was investigated. A Nd:YAG/SHG laser (532 nm, 13 ns, 10 Hz) was used for ablation, and the cancer treatment studied was photodynamic therapy (PDT). Morphology and crystallinity of prepared nanoparticles were examined by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Red and green emissions resulting from near-infrared excitation were observed by a fluorescence spectrophotometer. Generation of singlet oxygen was confirmed by a photochemical method using 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran (DPBF). In vitro experiments using cultivated cancer cells were conducted to investigate PDT effects. Uptake of the photosensitizer by cancer cells and cytotoxicities of cancer cells were also examined. We conclude that the combination of PDT and highly crystalline nanoparticles, which were prepared by laser ablation in liquid, is an effective cancer treatment.

  11. Blending crystalline/liquid crystalline small molecule semiconductors: A strategy towards high performance organic thin film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chao; He, Yaowu; Li, Aiyuan; Zhang, Dongwei; Meng, Hong

    2016-10-01

    Solution processed small molecule polycrystalline thin films often suffer from the problems of inhomogeneity and discontinuity. Here, we describe a strategy to solve these problems through deposition of the active layer from a blended solution of crystalline (2-phenyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene, Ph-BTBT) and liquid crystalline (2-(4-dodecylphenyl) [1]benzothieno[3,2-b]benzothiophene, C12-Ph-BTBT) small molecule semiconductors with the hot spin-coating method. Organic thin film transistors with average hole mobility approaching 1 cm2/V s, much higher than that of single component devices, have been demonstrated, mainly due to the improved uniformity, continuity, crystallinity, and stronger intermolecular π-π stacking in blend thin films. Our results indicate that the crystalline/liquid crystalline semiconductor blend method is an effective way to enhance the performance of organic transistors.

  12. Synthesis and structural, optical and thermal properties of CdS:Zn2+ nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muruganandam, S.; Anbalagan, G.; Murugadoss, G.

    2014-12-01

    Undoped and Zn (1-5, 10 %) -doped CdS nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by chemical method and polyvinylpyrrolidone was used as capping agent. The morphology and crystalline structure of the samples were studied by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The average particle size of the spherical nanoparticles determined by these techniques was of the order of 2.5-6 nm. The functional groups of the capping agent on CdS:Zn2+ surface were identified by FT-IR study. The band gap of the nanoparticles was calculated using UV-visible absorption spectra and the result showed that the band gap values were dramatically blue shifted from the bulk CdS. The optimum concentration of the doping ions was selected through absorption study. Photoluminescence of the CdS:Zn2+ nanoparticle showed strong blue and green emission. The thermal properties of the nanoparticles were analyzed by thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis.

  13. Anthelmintic efficacy of gold nanoparticles derived from a phytopathogenic fungus, Nigrospora oryzae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradip Kumar Kar

    Full Text Available Exploring a green chemistry approach, this study brings to the fore, the anthelmintic efficacy of gold nanoparticles, highlighting the plausible usage of myconanotechnology. Gold nanoparticles of ∼6 to ∼18 nm diameter were synthesized by treating the mycelia-free culture filtrate of the phytopathogenic fungus with gold chloride. Their size and morphology were confirmed by UV-Vis spectroscopy, DLS data, AFM and TEM images. The XRD studies reveal a crystalline nature of the nanoparticles, which are in cubic phase. The FTIR spectroscopic studies before and after the formation of nanoparticles show the presence of possible functional groups responsible for the bio-reduction and capping of the synthesized gold nanoparticles. The latter were tested as vermifugal agents against a model cestode Raillietina sp., an intestinal parasite of domestic fowl. Further, ultrastructural and biochemical parameters were used to corroborate the efficacy study.

  14. Fabrication and Characterization of Zinc Sulfide Nanoparticles and Nanocomposites Prepared via a Simple Chemical Precipitation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambiz Hedayati

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this research zinc sulfide (ZnS nanoparticles and nanocomposites powders were prepared by chemical precipitation method using zinc acetate and various sulfur sources. The ZnS nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible and fourier transform infra