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Sample records for crystalline iron oxides

  1. Unification of catalytic water oxidation and oxygen reduction reactions: amorphous beat crystalline cobalt iron oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indra, Arindam; Menezes, Prashanth W; Sahraie, Nastaran Ranjbar; Bergmann, Arno; Das, Chittaranjan; Tallarida, Massimo; Schmeißer, Dieter; Strasser, Peter; Driess, Matthias

    2014-12-17

    Catalytic water splitting to hydrogen and oxygen is considered as one of the convenient routes for the sustainable energy conversion. Bifunctional catalysts for the electrocatalytic oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) are pivotal for the energy conversion and storage, and alternatively, the photochemical water oxidation in biomimetic fashion is also considered as the most useful way to convert solar energy into chemical energy. Here we present a facile solvothermal route to control the synthesis of amorphous and crystalline cobalt iron oxides by controlling the crystallinity of the materials with changing solvent and reaction time and further utilize these materials as multifunctional catalysts for the unification of photochemical and electrochemical water oxidation as well as for the oxygen reduction reaction. Notably, the amorphous cobalt iron oxide produces superior catalytic activity over the crystalline one under photochemical and electrochemical water oxidation and oxygen reduction conditions.

  2. Isolation of microorganisms involved in reduction of crystalline iron(III oxides in natural environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoyuki eHori

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Reduction of crystalline Fe(III oxides is one of the most important electron sinks for organic compound oxidation in natural environments. Yet a limited number of isolates makes it difficult to understand physiology and ecological impact of the microorganisms involved. Here, two-staged cultivation was implemented to selectively enrich and isolate crystalline iron(III reducers in soils and sediments. Firstly, iron reducers were enriched and other untargeted eutrophs were depleted by two-year successive culture on a crystalline ferric iron oxide (i.e., goethite, lepidocrocite, hematite, or magnetite as electron acceptor. Fifty-eight out of 136 incubation conditions allowed the continued existence of microorganisms as confirmed by PCR amplification. High-throughput Illumina sequencing based on 16S rRNA genes revealed that the enrichment cultures on each of the ferric iron oxides contained bacteria belonging to the Deltaproteobacteria (mainly Geobacteraceae, followed by Firmicutes and Chloroflexi, which also comprised most of the operational taxonomic units (OTUs identified. The Venn diagrams indicated that the core OTUs enriched with all of the iron oxides were dominant in the Geobacteraceae. Secondly, 38 enrichment cultures including novel microorganisms were transferred to soluble-iron(III media in order to stimulate proliferation of the enriched iron reducers. Through extinction dilution-culture and single colony isolation, six strains within the Deltaproteobacteria were finally obtained; five strains belonged to the genus Geobacter and one strain to Pelobacter. These isolates had 94.8–98.1% sequence similarities of 16S rRNA genes to cultured relatives. All the isolates were able to grow on acetate and ferric iron but their physiological characteristics differed considerably in terms of growth rate. The results demonstrate the successful enrichment and isolation of novel iron(III reducers that were able to thrive by reducing highly

  3. Manipulating the dimensional assembly pattern and crystalline structures of iron oxide nanostructures with a functional polyolefin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qingliang; Yuan, Tingting; Wang, Yiran; Guleria, Abhishant; Wei, Suying; Zhang, Guoqi; Sun, Luyi; Liu, Jingjing; Yu, Jingfang; Young, David P; Lin, Hongfei; Khasanov, Airat; Guo, Zhanhu

    2016-01-28

    Controlled crystalline structures (α- and γ-phase) and assembly patterns (1-D, 2-D and 3-D) were achieved in the synthesized iron oxide (Fe2O3) nanoparticles (NPs) using polymeric surfactant-polypropylene grafted maleic anhydride (PP-g-MA) with different concentrations. In addition, the change of the crystalline structure from the α- and γ-phase also led to the significantly increased saturation magnetization and coercivity.

  4. Comparative electrochemical analysis of crystalline and amorphous anodized iron oxide nanotube layers as negative electrode for LIB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervez, Syed Atif; Kim, Doohun; Farooq, Umer; Yaqub, Adnan; Choi, Jung-Hee; Lee, You-Jin; Doh, Chil-Hoon

    2014-07-23

    This work is a comparative study of the electrochemical performance of crystalline and amorphous anodic iron oxide nanotube layers. These nanotube layers were grown directly on top of an iron current collector with a vertical orientation via a simple one-step synthesis. The crystalline structures were obtained by heat treating the as-prepared (amorphous) iron oxide nanotube layers in ambient air environment. A detailed morphological and compositional characterization of the resultant materials was performed via transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Raman spectroscopy. The XRD patterns were further analyzed using Rietveld refinements to gain in-depth information on their quantitative phase and crystal structures after heat treatment. The results demonstrated that the crystalline iron oxide nanotube layers exhibit better electrochemical properties than the amorphous iron oxide nanotube layers when evaluated in terms of the areal capacity, rate capability, and cycling performance. Such an improved electrochemical response was attributed to the morphology and three-dimensional framework of the crystalline nanotube layers offering short, multidirectional transport lengths, which favor rapid Li(+) ions diffusivity and electron transport.

  5. Thermal oxidation synthesis of crystalline iron-oxide nanowires on low-cost steel substrates for solar water splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlugosch, T.; Chnani, A.; Muralidhar, P.; Schirmer, A.; Biskupek, J.; Strehle, S.

    2017-08-01

    Iron-oxide and in particular its crystallographic phase hematite (α-Fe2O3) is a promising candidate for non-toxic, earth abundant and low cost photo-anodes in the field of photo-electrochemical water splitting. We report here on the synthesis of α-Fe2O3 nanowires by thermal oxidation of low-cost steel substrates. Nanowires grown in this manner exhibit often a blade-like shape but can also possess a wire-like geometry partly decorated at their tip with an iron-rich ellipsoidal head consisting also of crystalline iron-oxide. We show furthermore that these ellipsoidal heads represent suitable growth sites leading in some cases to an additional growth of so-called antenna nanowires. Besides nanowires also nanoflakes were frequently observed at the surface. We discuss the influence of the oxidation temperature and other synthesis parameters as well as dispute the current growth models. Finally, we show that our α-Fe2O3 nanostructures on steel are also photo-electrochemically active supporting in principle their use as photo-anode material.

  6. Types of Crystalline Iron Oxides and Phosphate Adsorption in Variable Charge Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUFAN; XUFENG-LIN; 等

    1994-01-01

    The types,contents and morphologies of crystalline Fe oxides and their relations to phosphate adsorption on the clay fractions in soils with varable charge in southern China were investigated by means of XRD,TEM,EMA and chemical analysis methods.Results indicated that the types and contents of crystalline Fe oxides varied with the soils examined.The dominant crystaline Fe oxide was hematite in the latosols and goethites in the red soils.In yellow-brown soils,the only crystalline Fe oxide was goethite.The difference between Ald and Alo came mainly from the Al Substituting for Fe in the Fe oxides.The crystal morphology of goethite appeared mainly as subrounded flat or iso-dimensional rather than acicular particles,Hematities occurred in plates of various thickness,Their MCDa/MCDc ratios in the latosols and red soils were generally above 1.5 and below 1.5,respectively.The MCD values of goethites and hematites were 15-25nm and 20-35nm,and their specific surface areas were 80-120m2/g and 35-75m2/g,respectively.The goethite crystals were generally smaller,Variations of the total amounts of crystalline Fe oxides in clay fractions were not related to plhophats adsorption.The types,contents and morphologies of crystalline Fe oxides in the soils remarkably affected phosphate adsorption characteristics of the soils.The phosphate adsorption of goethite was much greater than that of hematite,The higher th MCDa/MCDc ratio of hematite,the lower the phosphate adsorption.

  7. Phosphorus binding by poorly crystalline iron oxides in North Sea sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slomp, C.P.; Gaast, S. J. van der; Raaphorst, W. van

    1996-01-01

    Differential X-ray powder diffraction (DXRD) and extraction procedures were used to characterize the iron oxides present in four sediments from contrasting environments in the North Sea. Stations were located in depositional areas on the southern shelf (German Bight) and on the north-eastern

  8. Large-Scale Synthesis of Single-Crystalline Iron Oxide Magnetic Nanorings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jia, Chun-Jiang; Sun, Ling-Dong; Luo, Feng

    2008-01-01

    We present an innovative approach to the production of single-crystal iron oxide nanorings employing a solution-based route. Single-crystal hematite (alpha-Fe2O3) nanorings were synthesized using a double anion-assisted hydrothermal method (involving phosphate and sulfate ions), which can be divi...

  9. Phosphorus binding by poorly crystalline iron oxides in North Sea sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slomp, C.P.; Gaast, S. J. van der; Raaphorst, W. van

    1996-01-01

    Differential X-ray powder diffraction (DXRD) and extraction procedures were used to characterize the iron oxides present in four sediments from contrasting environments in the North Sea. Stations were located in depositional areas on the southern shelf (German Bight) and on the north-eastern shelf-s

  10. Synthesis and characterization of poly(divinylbenzene)-coated magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as precursor for the formation of air-stable carbon-coated iron crystalline nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boguslavsky, Yonit; Margel, Shlomo

    2008-01-01

    Maghemite (gamma-Fe2O3) nanoparticles of 15 +/- 3 nm diameter were prepared by nucleation of gelatin/iron oxide followed by growth of gamma-Fe2O3 films onto these nuclei. The gamma-Fe2O3 nanoparticles were coated with polydivinylbenzene (PDVB) by emulsion polymerization of divinylbenzene (DVB) in an aqueous continuous phase containing the gamma-Fe2O3 nanoparticles. The PDVB-coated gamma-Fe2O3 nanoparticles, dispersed in water, were separated from homo-PDVB nanoparticles using the high gradient magnetic field (HGMF) technique. The influence of DVB concentration on the amount of PDVB coating, on the size and size distribution of the coated gamma-Fe2O3 nanoparticles and on their magnetic properties, has been investigated. Air-stable carbon-coated iron (alpha-Fe/C) crystalline nanoparticles of 41 +/- 12 nm diameter have been prepared by annealing the PDVB-coated gamma-Fe2O3 nanoparticles at 1050 degrees C in an inert atmosphere. These nanoparticles exhibit high saturation magnetization value (83 emu g(-1)) and excellent resistance to oxidation. Characterization of the PDVB-coated gamma-Fe2O3 and of the alpha-Fe/C nanoparticles has been accomplished by TEM, HRTEM, DLS, FTIR, XRD, thermal analysis, zeta-potential, and magnetic measurements.

  11. The associations of heavy metals with crystalline iron oxides in the polluted soils around the mining areas in Guangdong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hui; Tan, Nianhao; Liu, Chuanping; Wang, Juju; Liang, Xiaoliang; Qu, Mingkai; Feng, Xionghan; Qiu, Guohong; Tan, Wenfeng; Liu, Fan

    2016-10-01

    In current selective sequential extraction (SSE) methods, heavy metals associated well-crystallized iron oxyhydroxides are not well defined and considered, and usually fall into residual forms, which actually make their mobility and environmental risk underestimated. This study compared various fractions of heavy metals in samples of mining tailings and nearby soils under different land uses in Guangdong Province of China. Iron oxides in these soils were mainly Al-substituted goethites and/or hematites. Independent of the land uses, the percentages of various Cd fractions in the soils decrease in the order of well-crystallized iron oxyhydroxides-associated (27.2-91.2%) > residual (2.1-37.0%) > reducible FeMn oxides (3.2-45.7%) > exchangeable (1.0-28.2%) > organic-associated form (0-5.1%). Pb mainly existes in the residual fraction (25.9-74.5%), followed by crystalline iron oxyhydroxides-associated (0.4-69.0%) and reducible fractions (2.4-40.4%). Zn mainly exists in the residual fraction (25.4-85.9%), followed by the well-crystallized iron oxyhydroxides-associated fraction (6.4-55.0%). However, Cu mainly existes in the residual form and the fractionation of Cu varies obviously between samples. The association of these metals with crystalline iron oxyhydroxides in the soils decreases in the sequence of Cd > Pb > Zn > Cu. These results suggest that in heavy-metal-polluted weathered soils in tropical and subtropical areas enriched with iron oxides, it is essential to assess potential bioavailability and toxicity of heavy metals bound to well-crystallized iron oxyhydroxides with appropriate procedures in the fractionation measurement. The modified Tessier method present here can be used to quantify the fractions of heavy metals in such areas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Crystalline mesoporous metal oxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenbo Yue; Wuzong Zhou

    2008-01-01

    Since the discovery of many types of mesoporous silicas, such as SBA-15, KIT-6, FDU-12 and SBA-16, porous crystalline transition metal oxides, such as Cr2O3, Co3O4, In2O3, NiO, CeO2, WO3, Fe2O3 and MnO2, have been synthesized using the mesoporous silicas as hard templates. Several synthetic methods have been developed. These new porous materials have high potential applications in catalysis, Li-ion rechargeable batteries and gas sensors. This article gives a brief review of the research of porous crystals of metal oxides in the last four years.

  13. Iron Oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qafoku, Nikolla; Amonette, James E.

    2016-09-19

    Abstract: Fe oxides are common clay-sized oxide, oxyhydroxide and hydroxide soil minerals. They are compounds of Fe, O, and H that have structures based on close-packed arrays of O. The octahedral and tetrahedral cavities within these arrays are filled with either Fe3+ or Fe2+ to form Fe(O/OH)6, FeO6, or FeO4 structural units. All of the naturally occurring Fe oxide minerals usually undergo some degree of isomorphous substitution of other metal ions for Fe in their structures. Relatively simple techniques may be used to identify Fe oxides in the field based on their typical colors and magnetic properties. In the laboratory, a variety of instrumental techniques can be used to confirm phase identity and to quantify amount. Of these, X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, electron microscopy, thermal analysis, and Mössbauer spectroscopy are the most commonly used techniques. As oxides, the functional groups on their surfaces may have positive, negative, or no charge depending on pH and on the concentration and nature of other ions in the contact solution. A net positive surface charge usually is observed in soils because Fe oxides have a point-of-zero-charge in the neutral or slightly basic pHs. The functional groups on the surface form complexes with cations and anions from the aqueous phase. Their sorption and electron-buffering properties significantly affect the geochemical cycles of almost all elements having agronomic or environmental significance.

  14. High temperature oxidation of iron-iron oxide core-shell nanowires composed of iron nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajewski, M; Brzozka, K; Lin, W S; Lin, H M; Tokarczyk, M; Borysiuk, J; Kowalski, G; Wasik, D

    2016-02-07

    This work describes an oxidation process of iron-iron oxide core-shell nanowires at temperatures between 100 °C and 800 °C. The studied nanomaterial was synthesized through a simple chemical reduction of iron trichloride in an external magnetic field under a constant flow of argon. The electron microscopy investigations allowed determining that the as-prepared nanowires were composed of self-assembled iron nanoparticles which were covered by a 3 nm thick oxide shell and separated from each other by a thin interface layer. Both these layers exhibited an amorphous or highly-disordered character which was traced by means of transmission electron microscopy and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The thermal oxidation was carried out under a constant flow of argon which contained the traces of oxygen. The first stage of process was related to slow transformations of amorphous Fe and amorphous iron oxides into crystalline phases and disappearance of interfaces between iron nanoparticles forming the studied nanomaterial (range: 25-300 °C). After that, the crystalline iron core and iron oxide shell became oxidized and signals for different compositions of iron oxide sheath were observed (range: 300-800 °C) using X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and Mössbauer spectroscopy. According to the thermal gravimetric analysis, the nanowires heated up to 800 °C under argon atmosphere gained 37% of mass with respect to their initial weight. The structure of the studied nanomaterial oxidized at 800 °C was mainly composed of α-Fe2O3 (∼ 93%). Moreover, iron nanowires treated above 600 °C lost their wire-like shape due to their shrinkage and collapse caused by the void coalescence.

  15. Chemical design of biocompatible iron oxide nanoparticles for medical applications.

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    Ling, Daishun; Hyeon, Taeghwan

    2013-05-27

    Iron oxide nanoparticles are one of the most versatile and safe nanomaterials used in medicine. Recent progress in nanochemistry enables fine control of the size, crystallinity, uniformity, and surface properties of iron oxide nanoparticles. In this review, the synthesis of chemically designed biocompatible iron oxide nanoparticles with improved quality and reduced toxicity is discussed for use in diverse biomedical applications.

  16. Transformation of hydroxycarbonate green rust into crystalline iron (hydr)oxides: Influences of reaction conditions and underlying mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Xiaoming; Liu, Fan; Tan, W.; Feng, Xionghan; Koopal, L.K.

    2013-01-01

    Green rusts (GRs) are found as intermediate products between FeII hydroxides and FeIII oxyhydroxides in various anoxic environments. The transformation of hydroxycarbonate green rust GR1(CO32-) by air oxidation at different conditions and the underlying mechanisms were investigated using X-ray diffr

  17. Relationship Between Iron Oxides and Surface Charge Characteristics in Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAOZONG-CHEN; WANGWEI-JUN

    1991-01-01

    The relationship between iron oxides and surface charge characteristics in variable charge soils (latosol and red earth) was studied in following three ways.(1)Remove free iron oxides (Fed) and amorphous iron oxides (Feo) from the soils with sodium dithionite and acid ammonium oxalate solution respectively.(2) Add 2% glucose (on the basis of air-dry soil weight) to soils and incubate under submerged condition to activate iron oxides,and then the mixtures are dehydrated and air-dried to age iron oxides.(3) Precipitate various crystalline forms of iron oxides onto kaolinite.The results showed that free iron oxides (Fed) were the chief carrier of variable positive charges.Of which crystalline iron oxides (Fed-Feo) presented mainly as discrete particles in the soils and could only play a role of the carrier of positive charges,and did little influence on negative charges.Whereas the amorphous iron oxides (Feo),which presented mainly fas a coating with a large specific surface area,not only had positive charges,but also blocked the negative charge sites in soils.Submerged incubation activated iron oxides in the soils,and increased the amount of amorphous iron oxides and the degree of activation of iron oxide,which resulted in the increase of positive and negative charges of soils.Dehydration and air-dry aged iron oxides in soils and decreased the amount of amorphous iron oxides and the degree of activation of iron oxide,and also led to the decrease of positive and negative charges.Both the submerged incubation and the dehydration and air-dry had no significant influence on net charges.Precipitation of iron oxides onto kaolinite markedly increased positive charges and decreased negative charges.Amorphous iron oxide having a larger surface area contributed more positive charge sites and blocked more negative charge sites in kaolinite than crystalline goethite.

  18. Novel bifunctional catalysts based on crystalline multi-oxide matrices containing iron ions for CO2 hydrogenation to liquid fuels and chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsis, N; Vidruk-Nehemya, R; Landau, M V; Herskowitz, M

    2016-07-04

    Seven solid mono-, bi- and tri-metallic oxide matrices where Fe(2+,3+) ions are distributed in different chemical/spatial environments were synthesized and characterized by XRD, N2-adsorption and EDAX methods. After basification with potassium, all matrices were activated by carburization or reduction-carburization under conditions selected based on the TPC/TPR spectra, tailoring the carburization extent of iron. The performances of the activated Fe-based catalysts with respect to CO2 conversion and C5+ selectivity were measured in a fixed-bed reactor under standard conditions in transient and continuous operation modes in units containing one or three reactors in series with water separations between the reactors. The catalysts were characterized by XRD, N2-adsorption, HRTEM-EELS and XPS before and after steady-state operation in the reactors. It was found that the rate of CO2 conversion is not limited by thermodynamic equilibrium but is strongly restricted by water inhibition and it depends on the nature of the Fe-oxide precursor. The ratio between the FTS and RWGS rates, which determines the C5+ hydrocarbons productivity, is strongly affected by the nature of the Fe-oxide matrix. The catalysts derived from the Fe-Al-O spinel and Fe-Ba-hexaaluminate precursors displayed the best balance of the two functions RFTS/RRWGS = 0.77-0.78. They were followed by magnetite, CuFe-delafossite, K-ferrite, Fe-La-hexaaluminate and LaFe-perovskite with a gradual lowering of RFTS/RRWGS from 0.60 to 0.15 and a gradual decrease in the C5+ productivity. The active sites that enhance the RWGS reaction are located on the surface of the Fe-oxide phases, while the FTS and methanation reactions occur on the surface of the Fe-carbide phases.

  19. Iron oxide surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Gareth S.

    2016-03-01

    The current status of knowledge regarding the surfaces of the iron oxides, magnetite (Fe3O4), maghemite (γ-Fe2O3), haematite (α-Fe2O3), and wüstite (Fe1-xO) is reviewed. The paper starts with a summary of applications where iron oxide surfaces play a major role, including corrosion, catalysis, spintronics, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), biomedicine, photoelectrochemical water splitting and groundwater remediation. The bulk structure and properties are then briefly presented; each compound is based on a close-packed anion lattice, with a different distribution and oxidation state of the Fe cations in interstitial sites. The bulk defect chemistry is dominated by cation vacancies and interstitials (not oxygen vacancies) and this provides the context to understand iron oxide surfaces, which represent the front line in reduction and oxidation processes. Fe diffuses in and out from the bulk in response to the O2 chemical potential, forming sometimes complex intermediate phases at the surface. For example, α-Fe2O3 adopts Fe3O4-like surfaces in reducing conditions, and Fe3O4 adopts Fe1-xO-like structures in further reducing conditions still. It is argued that known bulk defect structures are an excellent starting point in building models for iron oxide surfaces. The atomic-scale structure of the low-index surfaces of iron oxides is the major focus of this review. Fe3O4 is the most studied iron oxide in surface science, primarily because its stability range corresponds nicely to the ultra-high vacuum environment. It is also an electrical conductor, which makes it straightforward to study with the most commonly used surface science methods such as photoemission spectroscopies (XPS, UPS) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The impact of the surfaces on the measurement of bulk properties such as magnetism, the Verwey transition and the (predicted) half-metallicity is discussed. The best understood iron oxide surface at present is probably Fe3O4(100); the structure is

  20. Аnodic formation of nanoporous crystalline niobium oxide

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    LEONID SKATKOV

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The research results of anodic deposition of crystalline niobium oxide are presented in this work. The factors that have an impact on crystalline phase nucleation and its primary growth are revealed. Dependence of morphology and properties of nanoporous niobium oxide on modes of its formation is shown.

  1. Controlled oxidation of iron nanoparticles in chemical vapour synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruusunen, Jarno; Ihalainen, Mika; Koponen, Tarmo; Torvela, Tiina; Tenho, Mikko; Salonen, Jarno; Sippula, Olli; Joutsensaari, Jorma; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Lähde, Anna

    2014-02-01

    In the present study, iron oxide nanoparticles (primary particle size of 80-90 nm) with controlled oxidation state were prepared via an atmospheric pressure chemical vapour synthesis (APCVS) method. Iron pentacarbonyl [Fe(CO)5], a precursor material, was thermally decomposed to iron in the APCVS reactor. Subsequently, the iron was oxidized with controlled amount of oxygen in the reactor to produce nearly pure magnetite or haematite particles depending on the oxygen concentration. Size, morphology and crystal structure of the synthesized nanoparticles were studied with scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). In addition, thermodynamic equilibrium calculations and computational fluid dynamics model were used to predict the oxidation state of the iron oxides and the reaction conditions during mixing. Aggregates of crystalline particles were formed, determined as magnetite at the oxygen volumetric fraction of 0.1 % and haematite at volumetric fraction of 0.5 %, according to the XRD. The geometric mean electrical mobility diameter of the aggregates increased from 110 to 155 nm when the volumetric fraction of oxygen increased from 0.1 to 0.5 %, determined using the SMPS. The aggregates were highly sintered based on TEM analyses. As a conclusion, APCVS method can be used to produce nearly pure crystalline magnetite or haematite nanoparticles with controlled oxidation in a continuous one-stage gas-phase process.

  2. Accelerated dissolution of iron oxides in ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Jeong

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Iron dissolution from mineral dusts and soil particles is vital as a source of bioavailable iron in various environmental media. In this work, the dissolution of iron oxide particles trapped in ice was investigated as a~new pathway of iron supply. The dissolution experiments were carried out in the absence and presence of various organic complexing ligands under dark condition. In acidic pH conditions (pH 2, 3, and 4, the dissolution of iron oxides was greatly enhanced in the ice phase compared to that in water. The dissolved iron was mainly in the ferric form, which indicates that the dissolution is not a reductive process. The extent of dissolved iron was greatly affected by the kind of organic complexing ligands and the type of iron oxides. The iron dissolution was most pronounced with high surface area iron oxides and in the presence of strong iron binding ligands. The enhanced dissolution of iron oxides in ice is mainly ascribed to the "freeze concentration effect", which concentrates iron oxide particles, organic ligands, and protons in the liquid-like ice grain boundary region and accelerates the dissolution of iron oxides. The ice-enhanced dissolution effect gradually decreased when decreasing the freezing temperature from −10 °C to −196 °C, which implies that the presence and formation of the liquid-like ice grain boundary region play a critical role. The proposed phenomenon of enhanced dissolution of iron oxides in ice may provide a new pathway of bioavailable iron production. The frozen atmospheric ice with iron-containing dust particles in the upper atmosphere thaws upon descending and may provide bioavailable iron upon deposition onto the ocean surface.

  3. Accelerated dissolution of iron oxides in ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Jeong

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Iron dissolution from mineral dusts and soil particles is vital as a source of bioavailable iron in various environmental media. In this work, the dissolution of iron oxide particles trapped in ice was investigated as a new pathway of iron supply. The dissolution experiments were carried out in the absence and presence of various organic complexing ligands under dark condition. In acidic pH conditions (pH 2, 3, and 4, the dissolution of iron oxides was greatly enhanced in the ice phase compared to that in water. The dissolved iron was mainly in the ferric form, which indicates that the dissolution is not a reductive process. The extent of dissolved iron was greatly affected by the kind of organic complexing ligands and the surface area of iron oxides. The iron dissolution was most pronounced with high surface area iron oxides and in the presence of strong iron binding ligands. The enhanced dissolution of iron oxides in ice is mainly ascribed to the "freeze concentration effect", which concentrates iron oxide particles, organic ligands, and protons in the liquid like ice grain boundary region and accelerates the dissolution of iron oxides. The ice-enhanced dissolution effect gradually decreased when decreasing the freezing temperature from −10 to −196 °C, which implies that the presence and formation of the liquid-like ice grain boundary region play a critical role. The proposed phenomenon of enhanced dissolution of iron oxides in ice may provide a new pathway of bioavailable iron production. The frozen atmospheric ice with iron-containing dust particles in the upper atmosphere thaws upon descending and may provide bioavailable iron upon deposition onto the ocean surface.

  4. Iron, Oxidative Stress and Gestational Diabetes

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    Taifeng Zhuang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Both iron deficiency and hyperglycemia are highly prevalent globally for pregnant women. Iron supplementation is recommended during pregnancy to control iron deficiency. The purposes of the review are to assess the oxidative effects of iron supplementation and the potential relationship between iron nutrition and gestational diabetes. High doses of iron (~relative to 60 mg or more daily for adult humans can induce lipid peroxidation in vitro and in animal studies. Pharmaceutical doses of iron supplements (e.g., 10× RDA or more for oral supplements or direct iron supplementation via injection or addition to the cell culture medium for a short or long duration will induce DNA damage. Higher heme-iron intake or iron status measured by various biomarkers, especially serum ferritin, might contribute to greater risk of gestational diabetes, which may be mediated by iron oxidative stress though lipid oxidation and/or DNA damage. However, information is lacking about the effect of low dose iron supplementation (≤60 mg daily on lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and gestational diabetes. Randomized trials of low-dose iron supplementation (≤60 mg daily for pregnant women are warranted to test the relationship between iron oxidative stress and insulin resistance/gestational diabetes, especially for iron-replete women.

  5. Ferroxidase-Mediated Iron Oxide Biomineralization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeth, Kornelius; Hoiczyk, E.; Okuda, M.

    2016-01-01

    Iron oxide biomineralization occurs in all living organisms and typically involves protein compartments ranging from 5 to 100nm in size. The smallest iron-oxo particles are formed inside dodecameric Dps protein cages, while the structurally related ferritin compartments consist of twice as many......, translocation, oxidation, nucleation, and storage, that are mediated by ferroxidase centers. Thus, compartmentalized iron oxide biomineralization yields uniform nanoparticles strictly determined by the sizes of the compartments, allowing customization for highly diverse nanotechnological applications....

  6. Formation of silica iron oxide glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bawab, Abeer F.

    The microemulsion-gel method was developed as an alternative process in the production of room temperature glasses. This method is based on the formation of a microemulsion, to which is added a metal alkoxide that undergoes hydrolysis and condensation to form an oxide network, which is dried into glass. The goal of this work is to understand the sol-gel process upon addition of hydrate metal salts. The thermal transitions of the silica containing ferric nitrate hydrate were examined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). Using infrared (IR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The glasses with a less than 30 mol % iron nitrate were amorphous, while those higher concentration were crystalline. Based on XRD the thermal transitions did not alter the crystallinity. The IR spectra indicated the existence of Si-O-Fe bonds. Thermal analysis indicated similar transitions as exhibited by pure iron nitrate with minor modifications due to interactions with the silica. The reaction between tetraethoxysilane and chloral hydrate in ethanol was followed by NMR of the sp{29}Si nucleus at two different pHs. The sp{29}Si NMR spectra were similar to those reported for the reactions in alcohol between tetraethoxysilane and water of low pH, and for the reactions in the presence of inorganic hydrate. At pH 4, monomene silicon species were detected where at pH 2 the reaction was sufficiently rapid that multi hydroxy monomers were not detected as expected from the catalysts. The reaction proceeded without adding water. The reaction between aluminum chloride and methoxydimethyloctylsilane was investigated at room temperature using NMR and IR spectroscopy in addition to a molecular weight determination from the freezing point reduction in benzene. The structure as deduced from the experimental results was found to be a dimer containing two silicon atoms and two aluminum atoms of which the latter were tetrahedrally coordinated.

  7. Reactive oxygen species-related activities of nano-iron metal and nano-iron oxides

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    Haohao Wu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nano-iron metal and nano-iron oxides are among the most widely used engineered and naturally occurring nanostructures, and the increasing incidence of biological exposure to these nanostructures has raised concerns about their biotoxicity. Reactive oxygen species (ROS-induced oxidative stress is one of the most accepted toxic mechanisms and, in the past decades, considerable efforts have been made to investigate the ROS-related activities of iron nanostructures. In this review, we summarize activities of nano-iron metal and nano-iron oxides in ROS-related redox processes, addressing in detail the known homogeneous and heterogeneous redox mechanisms involved in these processes, intrinsic ROS-related properties of iron nanostructures (chemical composition, particle size, and crystalline phase, and ROS-related bio-microenvironmental factors, including physiological pH and buffers, biogenic reducing agents, and other organic substances.

  8. Dextran-modified iron oxide nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji(r)í Hradil; Alexander Pisarev; Michal Babi(c); Daniel Horák

    2007-01-01

    Dextran-modified iron oxide nanoparticles were prepared by precipitation of Fe(Ⅱ) and Fe(Ⅲ) salts with ammonium hydroxide by two methods.Iron oxide was precipitated either in the presence of dextran solution, or the dextran solution was added after precipitation. In the second method,the iron oxide particle size and size distribution could be controlled depending on the concentration of dextran in the solution. The nanoparticles were characterized by size-exclusion chromatography, transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. Optimal conditions for preparation of stable iron oxide colloid particles were determined. The dextran/iron oxide ratio 0-0.16 used in precipitation of iron salts can be recommended for synthesis of nanoparticles suitable for biomedical applications, as the colloid does not contain excess dextran and does not coagulate.

  9. Core-shell iron-iron oxide nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Luise Theil; Bojesen, A.; Timmermann, L.

    2004-01-01

    We present studies of the magnetic properties of core-shell iron-iron oxide nanoparticles. By combining Mossbauer and X-ray absorption spectroscopy we have been able to measure the change from a Fe3O4-like to a gamma-Fe2O3-like composition from the interface to the surface. Furthermore, we have...

  10. Indium Sorption to Iron Oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, S. J.; Sacco, S. A.; Hemond, H.; Hussain, F. A.; Runkel, R. L.; Walton-Day, K. E.; Kimball, B. A.; Shine, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    Indium is an increasingly important metal in semiconductors and electronics, and its use is growing rapidly as a semiconductive coating (as indium tin oxide) for liquid crystal displays (LCDs) and flat panel displays. It also has uses in important energy technologies such as light emitting diodes (LEDs) and photovoltaic cells. Despite its rapid increase in use, very little is known about the environmental behavior of indium, and concerns are being raised over the potential health effects of this emerging metal contaminant. One source of indium to the environment is acid mine drainage from the mining of lead, zinc, and copper sulfides. In our previous studies of a stream in Colorado influenced by acid mine drainage from lead and zinc mining activities, indium concentrations were found to be 10,000 times those found in uncontaminated rivers. However, the speciation and mobility of indium could not be reliably modeled because sorption constants to environmental sorbents have not been determined. In this study, we generate sorption constants for indium to ferrihydrite in the laboratory over a range of pHs, sorbent to sorbate ratios, and ionic strengths. Ferrihydrite is one of the most important sorbents in natural systems, and sorption to amorphous iron oxides such as ferrihydrite is thought to be one of the main removal mechanisms of metals from the dissolved phase in aqueous environments. Because of its relatively low solubility, we also find that indium hydroxide precipitation can dominate indium's partitioning at micromolar concentrations of indium. This precipitation may be important in describing indium's behavior in our study stream in Colorado, where modeling sorption to iron-oxides does not explain the complete removal of indium from the dissolved phase when the pH of the system is artificially raised to above 8. This study contributes much-needed data about indium's aqueous behavior, in order to better understand its fate, transport, and impacts in the

  11. Tannin biosynthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Becerra, R.; Rius, J. L.; Zorrilla, C.

    2010-08-01

    In this work, iron oxide nanoparticles synthesized with gallic acid and tannic acid are characterized using High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). Its size, form, and structure are compared with nanoparticles obtained previously using alfalfa biomass in order to find a simpler, consistent, and environmentally friendly method in the production of iron oxide nanoparticles.

  12. Analysis of iron oxidation at high temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slattery, J.C.; Peng, K.Y.; Gadalla, A.M.; Gadalla, N. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1995-10-01

    A new theory for the high-temperature oxidation of iron is proposed, in which the rate-limiting step is ternary diffusion of ferric, ferrous, and oxygen ions in the iron oxides that are formed. The predictions of this theory are compared with previously published experimental data. The only thermodynamic information required is a phase diagram.

  13. Magnetic and Mössbauer spectroscopy studies of nanocrystalline iron oxide aerogels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpenter, E.E.; Long, J.W.; Rolison, D.R.

    2006-01-01

    A sol-gel synthesis was used to produce iron oxide aerogels. These nanocrystalline aerogels have a pore-solid structure similar to silica aerogels but are composed entirely of iron oxides. Mössbauer experiments and x-ray diffraction showed that the as-prepared aerogel is an amorphous or poorly...... crystalline iron oxide, which crystallized as a partially oxidized magnetite during heating in argon. After further heat treatment in air, the nanocrystallites are fully converted to maghemite. The particles are superparamagnetic at high temperatures, but the magnetic properties are strongly influenced...

  14. Nanosized Iron Oxide Colloids Strongly Enhance Microbial Iron Reduction▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Julian; Heister, Katja; Hofmann, Thilo; Meckenstock, Rainer U.

    2010-01-01

    Microbial iron reduction is considered to be a significant subsurface process. The rate-limiting bioavailability of the insoluble iron oxyhydroxides, however, is a topic for debate. Surface area and mineral structure are recognized as crucial parameters for microbial reduction rates of bulk, macroaggregate iron minerals. However, a significant fraction of iron oxide minerals in the subsurface is supposed to be present as nanosized colloids. We therefore studied the role of colloidal iron oxides in microbial iron reduction. In batch growth experiments with Geobacter sulfurreducens, colloids of ferrihydrite (hydrodynamic diameter, 336 nm), hematite (123 nm), goethite (157 nm), and akaganeite (64 nm) were added as electron acceptors. The colloidal iron oxides were reduced up to 2 orders of magnitude more rapidly (up to 1,255 pmol h−1 cell−1) than bulk macroaggregates of the same iron phases (6 to 70 pmol h−1 cell−1). The increased reactivity was not only due to the large surface areas of the colloidal aggregates but also was due to a higher reactivity per unit surface. We hypothesize that this can be attributed to the high bioavailability of the nanosized aggregates and their colloidal suspension. Furthermore, a strong enhancement of reduction rates of bulk ferrihydrite was observed when nanosized ferrihydrite aggregates were added. PMID:19915036

  15. Ferrous iron oxidation by anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Widdel, Friedrich; Schnell, Sylvia; Heising, Silke; Ehrenreich, Armin; Assmus, Bernhard; Schink, Bernhard

    1993-01-01

    Natural oxidation of ferrous to ferric iron by bacteria such as Thiobacillus ferrooxidans or Gallionella ferruginea 1, or by chemical oxidation2,3 has previously been thought always to involve molecular oxygen as the electron acceptor. Anoxic photochemical reactions4 6 or a photobiological process involving two photosystems7 9 have also been discussed as mechanisms of ferrous iron oxidation. The knowledge of such processes has implications that bear on our understanding of the origin of Preca...

  16. Carbon-Supported Iron Oxide Particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meaz, T.; Mørup, Steen; Koch, C. Bender

    1996-01-01

    A carbon black ws impregnated with 6 wt% iron using an aqueous solution of iron nitrate. The impregnated carbon was initially dried at 125 C. The effect of heating of the iron oxide phase was investigated at temperatures between 200 and 600 C using Mossbauer spectroscopy. All heat treatments were...... done in an oxygen-containing atmosphere. Ferrihydrite is formed and is stable at and below a temperature of 300 C. At 600 C small particles of maghemite is the dominant iron oxide. A transformation reaction is suggested....

  17. Carbon-Supported Iron Oxide Particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meaz, T.; Mørup, Steen; Koch, C. Bender

    1996-01-01

    A carbon black ws impregnated with 6 wt% iron using an aqueous solution of iron nitrate. The impregnated carbon was initially dried at 125 C. The effect of heating of the iron oxide phase was investigated at temperatures between 200 and 600 C using Mossbauer spectroscopy. All heat treatments were...... done in an oxygen-containing atmosphere. Ferrihydrite is formed and is stable at and below a temperature of 300 C. At 600 C small particles of maghemite is the dominant iron oxide. A transformation reaction is suggested....

  18. Designed synthesis and surface engineering strategies of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Jiang, Chang Zhong; Roy, Vellaisamy A L

    2016-12-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) hold great promise for future biomedical applications because of their magnetic properties as well as other intrinsic properties such as low toxicity, colloidal stability, and surface engineering capability. Numerous related studies on iron oxide NPs have been conducted. Recent progress in nanochemistry has enabled fine control over the size, crystallinity, uniformity, and surface properties of iron oxide NPs. This review examines various synthetic approaches and surface engineering strategies for preparing naked and functional iron oxide NPs with different physicochemical properties. Growing interest in designed and surface-engineered iron oxide NPs with multifunctionalities was explored in in vitro/in vivo biomedical applications, focusing on their combined roles in bioseparation, as a biosensor, targeted-drug delivery, MR contrast agents, and magnetic fluid hyperthermia. This review outlines the limitations of extant surface engineering strategies and several developing strategies that may overcome these limitations. This study also details the promising future directions of this active research field.

  19. Bacterial adhesion on amorphous and crystalline metal oxide coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almaguer-Flores, Argelia [Facultad de Odontología, División de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigación, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito exterior s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 México D.F. (Mexico); Silva-Bermudez, Phaedra, E-mail: suriel21@yahoo.com [Unidad de Ingeniería de Tejidos, Terapia Celular y Medicina Regenerativa, Instituto Nacional de Rehabilitación, Calzada México-Xochimilco No. 289, Col. Arenal de Guadalupe, 14389 México D.F. (Mexico); Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 México D.F. (Mexico); Galicia, Rey; Rodil, Sandra E. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 México D.F. (Mexico)

    2015-12-01

    Several studies have demonstrated the influence of surface properties (surface energy, composition and topography) of biocompatible materials on the adhesion of cells/bacteria on solid substrates; however, few have provided information about the effect of the atomic arrangement or crystallinity. Using magnetron sputtering deposition, we produced amorphous and crystalline TiO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2} coatings with controlled micro and nanoscale morphology. The effect of the structure on the physical–chemical surface properties was carefully analyzed. Then, we studied how these parameters affect the adhesion of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Our findings demonstrated that the nano-topography and the surface energy were significantly influenced by the coating structure. Bacterial adhesion at micro-rough (2.6 μm) surfaces was independent of the surface composition and structure, contrary to the observation in sub-micron (0.5 μm) rough surfaces, where the crystalline oxides (TiO{sub 2} > ZrO{sub 2}) surfaces exhibited higher numbers of attached bacteria. Particularly, crystalline TiO{sub 2}, which presented a predominant acidic nature, was more attractive for the adhesion of the negatively charged bacteria. The information provided by this study, where surface modifications are introduced by means of the deposition of amorphous or crystalline oxide coatings, offers a route for the rational design of implant surfaces to control or inhibit bacterial adhesion. - Highlights: • Amorphous (a) and crystalline (c) TiO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2} coatings were deposited. • The atomic ordering influences the coatings surface charge and nano-topography. • The atomic ordering modifies the bacterial adhesion for the same surface chemistry. • S. aureus adhesion was lower on a-TiO{sub 2} and a-ZrO{sub 2} than on their c-oxide counterpart. • E. coli adhesion on a-TiO{sub 2} was lower than on the c-TiO{sub 2}.

  20. On the formation of iron(III) oxides via oxidation of iron(II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bongiovanni, R.; Pelizzetti, E. [Torino Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica Analitica; Borgarello, E. [Eniricerche SpA, Milan (Italy); Meisel, D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Formation of iron oxides in aqueous salt solutions is reviewed. The discussion is focused on the oxidation of iron(II) and the following hydrolysis process that leads to the formation of a solid phase from homogeneous solutions. Results from our own studies on the kinetics of the oxidation reactions and the ensuing growth processes are presented.

  1. EXPLORING MICROBIAL IRON OXIDATION IN WETLAND SOILS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.; Den Oudsten, F.; Meima-Franke, M.; Vollrath, S.; Muyzer, G.; Bodelier, P.L.E.; Laanbroek, H.J.

    2010-01-01

    The release of oxygen by the roots of wetland plants creates suboxic conditions that may favour the growth of iron-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB). Given their importance in iron cycling, little is known about the diversity or distribution of these bacteria. This is largely due to the lack of efficient me

  2. Ultrasound assisted phytosynthesis of iron oxide nanoparticle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathya, K; Saravanathamizhan, R; Baskar, G

    2017-11-01

    The present work deals with the ultrasound assisted green synthesis of iron oxide nano particle using Coriandrum sativum leaf extract as a reducing agent. The synthesized iron oxide nanoparticle was confirmed by UV spectra. The characterization was done to know more about morphology and size of the particle by SEM analysis which shows spherical particles with size ranging from 20 to 90nm. The antimicrobial activity of the leaf extract and the synthesized nanoparticles was studied against the pathogens Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus and Aspergillus niger. The ultrasound assisted iron oxide nanoparticle shows higher scavenging activity and antimicrobial activity compared with iron oxide nanoparticle synthesized by magnetic stirrer and Coriandrum sativum leaf extract. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Sophorolipids-functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Baccile, Niki; Noiville, Romain; Stievano, Lorenzo; Van Bogaert, Inge

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Functional iron oxide nanoparticles (NP) have been synthesized in a one and a two-step method using a natural functional glycolipid belonging to the family of sophorolipids (SL). These compounds, whose open acidic form is highly suitable for nanoparticle stabilization, are readily obtained by a fermentation process of the yeast Candida bombicola (polymorph Starmerella bombicola) in large amounts. The final carbohydrate coated iron oxide nanoparticles represent interest...

  4. PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF IRON OXIDE NANOPARTICLES ON DISACCHARIDE TEMPLATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B ANILREDDY

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We report here the preparation of nanoparticles of iron oxide in the presence of polysaccharidetemplates. Interaction between iron sulfate and template has been carried out in aqueous phase,followed by the selective and controlled removal of the template to achieve narrow distribution ofparticle size. Particles of iron oxide obtained have been characterized for their stability in solventmedia, size, size distribution and crystallinity and it was found that when the negative value of thezeta potential increases, particle size decreases. A narrow particle size distribution with D100 = 275nm was obtained with chitosan and starch templates. SEM measurements further confirm the particlesize measurement. Diffuse reflectance UV–VIS spectra values show that the template is completelyremoved from the final iron oxide particles and powder XRD measurements show that the peaks ofthe diffractogram are in agreement with the theoretical data of hematite. The salient observations ofour study shows that there occurs a direct correlation between zeta potential, polydispersity index,band gap energy and particle size. The crystallite size of the particles was found to be 30–35 nm. Alarge negative zeta potential was found to be advantageous for achieving lower particle sizes, as theparticles remained discrete without agglomeration.

  5. Enriched iron(III-reducing bacterial communities are shaped by carbon substrate and iron oxide mineralogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Lentini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Iron (Fe oxides exist in a spectrum of structures in the environment, with ferrihydrite widely considered the most bioavailable phase. Yet, ferrihydrite is unstable and rapidly transforms to more crystalline Fe(III oxides (e.g., goethite, hematite, which are poorly reduced by model dissimilatory Fe(III-reducing microorganisms. This begs the question, what processes and microbial groups are responsible for reduction of crystalline Fe(III oxides within sedimentary environments? Further, how do changes in Fe mineralogy shape oxide-hosted microbial populations? To address these questions, we conducted a large-scale cultivation effort using various Fe(III oxides (ferrihydrite, goethite, hematite and carbon substrates (glucose, lactate, acetate along a dilution gradient to enrich for microbial populations capable of reducing Fe oxides spanning a wide range of crystallinities and reduction potentials. While carbon source was the most important variable shaping community composition within Fe(III-reducing enrichments, both Fe oxide type and sediment dilution also had a substantial influence. For instance, with acetate as the carbon source, only ferrihydrite enrichments displayed a significant amount of Fe(III reduction and the well known dissimilatory metal reducer Geobacter sp. was the dominant organism enriched. In contrast, when glucose and lactate were provided, all three Fe oxides were reduced and reduction coincided with the presence of fermentative (e.g. Enterobacter spp. and sulfate-reducing bacteria (e.g. Desulfovibrio spp.. Thus, changes in Fe oxide structure and resource availability may shift Fe(III-reducing communities between dominantly metal-respiring to fermenting and/or sulfate-reducing organisms which are capable of reducing more recalcitrant Fe phases. These findings highlight the need for further targeted investigations into the composition and activity of speciation-directed metal-reducing populations within natural environments.

  6. Anisotropy-based crystalline oxide-on-semiconductor material

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Rodney Allen; Walker, Frederick Joseph

    2000-01-01

    A semiconductor structure and device for use in a semiconductor application utilizes a substrate of semiconductor-based material, such as silicon, and a thin film of a crystalline oxide whose unit cells are capable of exhibiting anisotropic behavior overlying the substrate surface. Within the structure, the unit cells of the crystalline oxide are exposed to an in-plane stain which influences the geometric shape of the unit cells and thereby arranges a directional-dependent quality of the unit cells in a predisposed orientation relative to the substrate. This predisposition of the directional-dependent quality of the unit cells enables the device to take beneficial advantage of characteristics of the structure during operation. For example, in the instance in which the crystalline oxide of the structure is a perovskite, a spinel or an oxide of similarly-related cubic structure, the structure can, within an appropriate semiconductor device, exhibit ferroelectric, piezoelectric, pyroelectric, electro-optic, ferromagnetic, antiferromagnetic, magneto-optic or large dielectric properties that synergistically couple to the underlying semiconductor substrate.

  7. Liquid crystallinity driven highly aligned large graphene oxide composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung Eun; Oh, Jung Jae; Yun, Taeyeong [Center for Nanomaterials and Chemical Reactions, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Chemistry, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Ouk, E-mail: sangouk.kim@kaist.ac.kr [Center for Nanomaterials and Chemical Reactions, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Chemistry, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    Graphene is an emerging graphitic carbon materials, consisting of sp{sup 2} hybridized two dimensinal honeycomb structure. It has been widely studied to incorporate graphene with polymer to utilize unique property of graphene and reinforce electrical, mechanical and thermal property of polymer. In composite materials, orientation control of graphene significantly influences the property of composite. Until now, a few method has been developed for orientation control of graphene within polymer matrix. Here, we demonstrate facile fabrication of high aligned large graphene oxide (LGO) composites in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) matrix exploiting liquid crystallinity. Liquid crystalline aqueous dispersion of LGO is parallel oriented within flat confinement geometry. Freeze-drying of the aligned LGO dispersion and subsequent infiltration with PDMS produce highly aligned LGO/PDMS composites. Owing to the large shape anisotropy of LGO, liquid crystalline alignment occurred at low concentration of 2 mg/ml in aqueous dispersion, which leads to the 0.2 wt% LGO loaded composites. - Graphical abstract: Liquid crystalline LGO aqueous dispersions are spontaneous parallel aligned between geometric confinement for highly aligned LGO/polymer composite fabrication. - Highlights: • A simple fabrication method for highly aligned LGO/PDMS composites is proposed. • LGO aqueous dispersion shows nematic liquid crystalline phase at 0.8 mg/ml. • In nematic phase, LGO flakes are highly aligned by geometric confinement. • Infiltration of PDMS into freeze-dried LGO allows highly aligned LGO/PDMS composites.

  8. Epitaxial growth of crystalline polyaniline on reduced graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Dipanwita; Baskey, Moni; Saha, Shyamal K

    2011-08-17

    Due to its unique electronic properties, graphene has already been identified as a promising material for future carbon based electronics. To develop graphene technology, the fabrication of a high quality P-N junction is a great challenge. Here, we describe a general technique to grow single crystalline polyaniline (PANI) films on graphene sheets using in situ polymerization via the oxidation-reduction of aniline monomer and graphene oxide, respectively, to fabricate a high quality P-N junction, which shows diode-like behavior with a remarkably low turn-on voltage (60 mV) and high rectification ratio (1880:1) up to a voltage of 0.2 V. The origin of these superior electronic properties is the preferential growth of a highly crystalline PANI film as well as lattice matching between the d-values [∼2.48 Å] of graphene and {120} planes of PANI.

  9. The irony of iron -- biogenic iron oxides as an iron source to the ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eEmerson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary productivity in at least a third of the sunlit open ocean is thought to be iron-limited. Primary sources of dissolved iron (dFe to the ocean are hydrothermal venting, flux from the sediments along continental margins, and airborne dust. This article provides a general review of sources of hydrothermal and sedimentary iron to the ocean, and speculates upon the role that iron-cycling microbes play in controlling iron dynamics from these sources. Special attention is paid to iron-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB that live by oxidizing iron and producing biogenic iron oxides as waste products. The presence and ubiquity of FeOB both at hydrothermal systems and in sediments is only beginning to be appreciated. The biogenic oxides they produce have unique properties that could contribute significantly to the dynamics of dFe in the ocean. Changes in the physical and chemical characteristics of the ocean due to climate change and ocean acidification will undoubtedly impact the microbial iron cycle. A better understanding of the contemporary role of microbes in the iron cycle will help in predicting how these changes could ultimately influence marine primary productivity.

  10. Thermodynamic constraints on microbial iron oxide reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneville, S.; Behrends, T.; Haese, R.; van Cappellen, P.

    2003-04-01

    Iron oxides are ubiquitous reactive constituents of soils, sediments and aquifers. They exhibit large surface areas which bind trace metals, nutrients and organic molecules. Under suboxic conditions, iron oxides can reductively dissolve via several abiotic and microbial pathways. In particular, they serve as terminal electron acceptors for the oxidation of organic matter by iron reducing bacteria. The aim of our study was to determine the thermodynamic energy yields of dissimilatory iron reduction for different Fe(III) substrates. We used the facultative anaerobic gram-positive bacterium Shewanella putrefaciens as model iron reducing bacterium, with ferrihydrite, hematite, goethite or Fe(III)-salicylate as electron acceptor, and lactate as electron donor. Experiments were conducted in an anaerobic pH-stat batch reactor, equipped with a polarographic electrode to monitor in situ the dissolved ferrous iron activity. The stoichiometry of total Fe(II) production and acid consumption during the experiments indicated that lactate was oxidized to acetate. From the Fe(II) activity and redox potential measurements, free energy yields were calculated for Fe(III) reduction coupled to lactate oxidation. The results showed that the redox potential of the overall reaction was poised by equilibrium between the Fe(III)-substrate and aqueous Fe(II). Hence, the energy yields decreased in the order ferrihydrite > Fe(III)-salicylate > hematite > goethite. Accumulation of Fe(II) in solution only caused small decreases in the energy yields over the course of the experiments. Cessation of iron reduction, which was observed in all experiments, was therefore not due to thermodynamic limitation, but more likely reflected the decline in cell level of activity.

  11. Recrystallization from a Three-Grain Crystalline Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The solid state recrystallization and grain boundary migrations in an iron nanoparticle Fe2616 with three grains were studied by a molecular dynamics simulation. It was found that nucleation rates could be determined as the smaller grains were consumed by the larger ones. Moreover, the grain disorder was more important than the misorientation angle in governing the rates. Suggestions about the critical nuclei for the recrystallization are proposed. No obvious interaction between the grain boundaries was observed in the example studied in this report.

  12. Water clustering on nanostructured iron oxide films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merte, Lindsay Richard; Bechstein, Ralf; Peng, G.;

    2014-01-01

    , but it is not well-understood how these hydroxyl groups and their distribution on a surface affect the molecular-scale structure at the interface. Here we report a study of water clustering on a moire-structured iron oxide thin film with a controlled density of hydroxyl groups. While large amorphous monolayer...... islands form on the bare film, the hydroxylated iron oxide film acts as a hydrophilic nanotemplate, causing the formation of a regular array of ice-like hexameric nanoclusters. The formation of this ordered phase is localized at the nanometre scale; with increasing water coverage, ordered and amorphous...

  13. Iron oxides in human spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopáni, Martin; Miglierini, Marcel; Lančok, Adriana; Dekan, Július; Čaplovicová, Mária; Jakubovský, Ján; Boča, Roman; Mrazova, Hedviga

    2015-10-01

    Iron is an essential element for fundamental cell functions and a catalyst for chemical reactions. Three samples extracted from the human spleen were investigated by scanning (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Mössbauer spectrometry (MS), and SQUID magnetometry. The sample with diagnosis of hemosiderosis (H) differs from that referring to hereditary spherocytosis and the reference sample. SEM reveals iron-rich micrometer-sized aggregate of various structures-tiny fibrils in hereditary spherocytosis sample and no fibrils in hemochromatosis. Hematite and magnetite particles from 2 to 6 μm in TEM with diffraction in all samples were shown. The SQUID magnetometry shows different amount of diamagnetic, paramagnetic and ferrimagnetic structures in the tissues. The MS results indicate contribution of ferromagnetically split sextets for all investigated samples. Their occurrence indicates that at least part of the sample is magnetically ordered below the critical temperature. The iron accumulation process is different in hereditary spherocytosis and hemosiderosis. This fact may be the reason of different iron crystallization.

  14. Iron-iron oxide core-shell nanoparticles synthesized by laser pyrolysis followed by superficial oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumitrache, F. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, P.O. Box MG-36, 077125 Bucharest (Romania)]. E-mail: fdumit@inflpr.ro; Morjan, I. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, P.O. Box MG-36, 077125 Bucharest (Romania); Alexandrescu, R. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, P.O. Box MG-36, 077125 Bucharest (Romania); Ciupina, V. [' Ovidius' University of Constanta, Bd. Mamaia 124, Constanta (Romania); Prodan, G. [' Ovidius' University of Constanta, Bd. Mamaia 124, Constanta (Romania); Voicu, I. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, P.O. Box MG-36, 077125 Bucharest (Romania); Fleaca, C. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, P.O. Box MG-36, 077125 Bucharest (Romania); Albu, L. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, P.O. Box MG-36, 077125 Bucharest (Romania); Savoiu, M. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, P.O. Box MG-36, 077125 Bucharest (Romania); Sandu, I. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, P.O. Box MG-36, 077125 Bucharest (Romania); Popovici, E. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, P.O. Box MG-36, 077125 Bucharest (Romania); Soare, I. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, P.O. Box MG-36, 077125 Bucharest (Romania)

    2005-07-15

    Iron-based core-shell nanostructures were synthesized by laser pyrolysis in a two-steps procedure. In a first step, using a cross-flow configuration, the laser radiation was heating a gas phase mixture containing iron pentacarbonyl (vapors) entrained by an ethylene flow, which plays also the role of an energy transfer agent. Secondly, a carefully controlled in situ passivation of the freshly formed pyrophoric iron nanoparticles created a protective iron oxide shell. The produced nanoparticles (22 nm size diameters) with core-shell features were analyzed by TEM, XRD, SAED and Raman spectroscopy. Majoritary iron and gamma iron oxide/magnetite and minoritary carbon phases were identified. In laser pyrolysis experiments in which the reaction temperature was increased, the catalyzed homogeneous nucleation and growth of carbon nanotubes in the gas phase was observed and is presented here for the first time.

  15. Iron iron oxide core shell nanoparticles synthesized by laser pyrolysis followed by superficial oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitrache, F.; Morjan, I.; Alexandrescu, R.; Ciupina, V.; Prodan, G.; Voicu, I.; Fleaca, C.; Albu, L.; Savoiu, M.; Sandu, I.; Popovici, E.; Soare, I.

    2005-07-01

    Iron-based core-shell nanostructures were synthesized by laser pyrolysis in a two-steps procedure. In a first step, using a cross-flow configuration, the laser radiation was heating a gas phase mixture containing iron pentacarbonyl (vapors) entrained by an ethylene flow, which plays also the role of an energy transfer agent. Secondly, a carefully controlled in situ passivation of the freshly formed pyrophoric iron nanoparticles created a protective iron oxide shell. The produced nanoparticles (22 nm size diameters) with core-shell features were analyzed by TEM, XRD, SAED and Raman spectroscopy. Majoritary iron and gamma iron oxide/magnetite and minoritary carbon phases were identified. In laser pyrolysis experiments in which the reaction temperature was increased, the catalyzed homogeneous nucleation and growth of carbon nanotubes in the gas phase was observed and is presented here for the first time.

  16. Defluoridation by Bacteriogenic Iron Oxides: Sorption Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, K.; Ferris, F.

    2009-05-01

    At concentrations above 1 mg/L, fluoride in drinking water can lead to dental and skeletal fluorosis, a disease that causes mottling of the teeth, calcification of ligaments, crippling bone deformities and many other physiological disorders that can, ultimately, lead to death. Conservative estimates are that fluorosis afflicts tens of millions of people worldwide. As there is no treatment for fluorosis, prevention is the only means of controlling the disease. While numerous defluoridation techniques have been explored, no single method has been found to be both effective and inexpensive enough to implement widely. Our research began in India, with a large-scale geochemical study of the groundwater in a fluoride-contaminated region of Orissa. Having developed a better understanding of the geochemical relationships that exist between fluoride and other parameters present in an affected area, as well as the complex relationships that arise among those parameters that can impact the presence of fluoride, we began investigating certain remediation scenarios involving iron oxides. A common approach to remediation involves the partitioning of fluoride from groundwater by sorption onto a variety of materials, one of the most effective of which is iron oxide whose surface area acts as a scavenger for fluoride. In the presence of iron oxidizing bacteria, the oxidation rate of iron has been shown to be ˜6 times greater than in their absence; fluoride should, therefore, be removed from an aqueous environment by bacteriogenic iron oxides (BIOS) much more quickly than by abiotic iron oxides. Most recently, sorption studies have been conducted using both BIOS and synthetic hydrous ferric oxides in order to compare the behavior between biotic and abiotic sorbents. These studies have provided sorption isotherms that allow comparison of fluoride removed by sorption to BIOS versus synthetic iron oxides. Sorption affinity constants have also been determined, which allow for the

  17. Ambient Pressure Synthesis of Nanostructured Tungsten Oxide Crystalline Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. X. Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the results of the ambient pressure synthesis of tungsten oxide nanowires and nanoparticles on AlN substrates using the hot filament CVD techniques. The morphologic surface, crystallographic structures, chemical compositions, and bond structures of the obtained samples have been investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX, and Raman scattering, respectively. Different morphologies were observed for different substrate temperatures, but otherwise identical growth conditions. The experimental measurements reveal the evolutions of the crystalline states and bond structures following the substrate temperatures. Besides, different substrate materials also affected the tungsten oxide nanostructures. Bundles of wire-type tungsten oxide nanowires with a length of up to 5 mm were obtained on Al2O3 substrate. Furthermore, the sensitive properties of the super long nanowires to the gas and different temperature were investigated. The dependence of the sensitivity of tungsten oxide nanowires to the methane as a function of the time was obtained. The sensitive properties of the tungsten oxide nanowires have almost linear relationship with the temperature.

  18. Mixed iron-manganese oxide nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lai, Jriuan; Shafi, Kurikka V.P.M.; Ulman, Abraham; Loos, Katja; Yang, Nan-Loh; Cui, Min-Hui; Vogt, Thomas; Estournès, Claude; Locke, Dave C.

    2004-01-01

    Designing nanoparticles for practical applications requires knowledge and control of how their desired properties relate to their composition and structure. Here, we present a detailed systematic study of mixed iron-manganese oxide nanoparticles, showing that ultrasonication provides the high-energy

  19. Acid monolayer functionalized iron oxide nanoparticle catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikenberry, Myles

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle functionalization is an area of intensely active research, with applications across disciplines such as biomedical science and heterogeneous catalysis. This work demonstrates the functionalization of iron oxide nanoparticles with a quasi-monolayer of 11-sulfoundecanoic acid, 10-phosphono-1-decanesulfonic acid, and 11-aminoundecanoic acid. The carboxylic and phosphonic moieties form bonds to the iron oxide particle core, while the sulfonic acid groups face outward where they are available for catalysis. The particles were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), potentiometric titration, diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS), and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The sulfonic acid functionalized particles were used to catalyze the hydrolysis of sucrose at 80° and starch at 130°, showing a higher activity per acid site than the traditional solid acid catalyst Amberlyst-15, and comparing well against results reported in the literature for sulfonic acid functionalized mesoporous silicas. In sucrose catalysis reactions, the phosphonic-sulfonic nanoparticles (PSNPs) were seen to be incompletely recovered by an external magnetic field, while the carboxylic-sulfonic nanoparticles (CSNPs) showed a trend of increasing activity over the first four recycle runs. Between the two sulfonic ligands, the phosphonates produced a more tightly packed monolayer, which corresponded to a higher sulfonic acid loading, lower agglomeration, lower recoverability through application of an external magnetic field, and higher activity per acid site for the hydrolysis of starch. Functionalizations with 11-aminoundecanoic acid resulted in some amine groups binding to the surfaces of iron oxide nanoparticles. This amine binding is commonly ignored in iron oxide

  20. In situ growth of capping-free magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles on liquid-phase exfoliated graphene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsoufis, T.; Syrgiannis, Z.; Akhtar, N.; Prato, M.; Katsaros, F.; Sideratou, Z.; Kouloumpis, A.; Gournis, D.; Rudolf, P.

    2015-01-01

    We report a facile approach for the in situ synthesis of very small iron oxide nanoparticles on the surface of high-quality graphene sheets. Our synthetic strategy involved the direct, liquid-phase exfoliation of highly crystalline graphite (avoiding any oxidation treatment) and the subsequent

  1. In situ growth of capping-free magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles on liquid-phase exfoliated graphene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsoufis, T.; Syrgiannis, Z.; Akhtar, N.; Prato, M.; Katsaros, F.; Sideratou, Z.; Kouloumpis, A.; Gournis, D.; Rudolf, P.

    2015-01-01

    We report a facile approach for the in situ synthesis of very small iron oxide nanoparticles on the surface of high-quality graphene sheets. Our synthetic strategy involved the direct, liquid-phase exfoliation of highly crystalline graphite (avoiding any oxidation treatment) and the subsequent chemi

  2. Preparation of iron oxides and oxihydroxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iveta Štyriaková

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Iron oxides are common minerals that occur in the environment, either naturally or as a result of human activities.The most common Fe(III-hydroxides and -oxides include ferrihydrite (Fe5HO8 .4H2O that transforms to hematite (a-Fe2O3 and/or goethite (a-FeOOH.That depends on the solution composition, temperature and pH. Depending on the composition of the solid and solution, oxidation can transform the green rust (a product formed by a metal corrosion to lepidocrocite (γ -FeOOH or magnetite (Fe(IIFe(III 2O4 . Weathering can degrade magnetite to maghemite (γ –Fe2O3 and all of the Fe-oxides are subject to an attack and dissolution by organic acids and ligands that are formed during the breakdown of biological material. Iron oxides can be prepared by hydrolysis of acidic Fe3+ solutions or by controlled oxidation of Fe2+ solutions. Goethite, lepidocrocite and magnetite were prepared by oxidation of Fe2+ solutions under slightly different values of pH, Fe concentrations and rates of oxidation. Maghemite was prepared by a thermal transformation from synthetic lepidocrocite heated in a furnace at 250 °C for 2h. Hematite was prepared by forced hydrolysis of Fe3+ solution from a chlorine system (FeCl3 at the temperature close to 100 °C under strongly acidic conditions (pH 1-2. Main mineral phases were confirmed by the RTG diffraction and IR spectroscopy method. Iron oxides are excellent, renewable adsorbents, and often control free metals through adsorption reaction.

  3. Structural characterization, antibacterial and catalytic effect of iron oxide nanoparticles synthesised using the leaf extract of Cynometra ramiflora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groiss, Silvia; Selvaraj, Raja; Varadavenkatesan, Thivaharan; Vinayagam, Ramesh

    2017-01-01

    In the present investigation, the leaf extract of Cynometra ramiflora was used to synthesize iron oxide nanoparticles. Within minutes of adding iron sulphate to the leaf extract, iron oxide nanoparticles were formed and thus, the method is very simple and fast. UV-VIS spectra showed the strong absorption band in the visible region. SEM images showed discrete spherical shaped particles and EDS spectra confirmed the iron and oxygen presence. The XRD results depicted the crystalline structure of iron oxide nanoparticles. FT-IR spectra portrayed the existence of functional groups of phytochemicals which are probably involved in the formation and stabilization of nanoparticles. The iron oxide nanoparticles exhibited effective inhibition against E. coli and S. epidermidis which may find its applications in the antibacterial drug development. Furthermore, the catalytic activity of the nanoparticles as Fenton-like catalyst was successfully investigated for the degradation of Rhodamine-B dye. This outcome could play a prominent role in the wastewater treatment.

  4. Physicochemical nature of iron oxidation in a damp atmospheric condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tongyan PAN; Yunpinq XI

    2011-01-01

    The surface oxidation patterns of iron or low-carbon steels are critical to their life when serving in typical damp environments.An accurate determination of the oxidation pattern entails tracking the iron atoms oxidized at the iron/steel-moisture interface.Using a quantum chemistry-based force field that is capable of simulating chemical reactions,this paper studies the process of iron oxidation under a typical moist condition. The oxidation of iron surface was found to be highly thermodynamic and dependent on the availability of reactants.A triplex structure was formed at the end of a three-stage oxidation process to reduce the overall oxidation speed.The results from this study shed light on the atomistic mechanism of iron oxidation; therefore can be used to guide the protection of general ferrous-based iron/steel structures.

  5. Chemical Forms of Heavy Metals in Carbonate—Derived Laterite and Enrichment of Its Iron Oxide Minerals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱立军; 漆亮

    1997-01-01

    In this paper the seven-step continuous extracting method was employed in the study of chemical forms of the six heavy metals Co,Zn,Pb,Cu,Cr and Mn,The result shows that the etals in the laterite are present in the chemical form of crystalline iron oxides and residues,and they are transformed towared organic and exchangeable forms in the surface soil.Linear regression analysis indicates that the above heavy metals have a positive correlation with the crystalline iron oxide minerals.The crystalline iron oxide minerals have a very important role to play in the enrichment of heavy metals,especially the solid components in the laterite.

  6. Nitric oxide and plant iron homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buet, Agustina; Simontacchi, Marcela

    2015-03-01

    Like all living organisms, plants demand iron (Fe) for important biochemical and metabolic processes. Internal imbalances, as a consequence of insufficient or excess Fe in the environment, lead to growth restriction and affect crop yield. Knowledge of signals and factors affecting each step in Fe uptake from the soil and distribution (long-distance transport, remobilization from old to young leaves, and storage in seeds) is necessary to improve our understanding of plant mineral nutrition. In this context, the role of nitric oxide (NO) is discussed as a key player in maintaining Fe homeostasis through its cross talk with hormones, ferritin, and frataxin and the ability to form nitrosyl-iron complexes.

  7. Generic process for preparing a crystalline oxide upon a group IV semiconductor substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Rodney A.; Walker, Frederick J.; Chisholm, Matthew F.

    2000-01-01

    A process for growing a crystalline oxide epitaxially upon the surface of a Group IV semiconductor, as well as a structure constructed by the process, is described. The semiconductor can be germanium or silicon, and the crystalline oxide can generally be represented by the formula (AO).sub.n (A'BO.sub.3).sub.m in which "n" and "m" are non-negative integer repeats of planes of the alkaline earth oxides or the alkaline earth-containing perovskite oxides. With atomic level control of interfacial thermodynamics in a multicomponent semiconductor/oxide system, a highly perfect interface between a semiconductor and a crystalline oxide can be obtained.

  8. Oxidation of Dodecanoate Intercalated Iron(II)–Iron(III) Layered Double Hydroxide to Form 2D Iron(III) (Hydr)oxide Layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Li‐Zhi; Ayala‐Luis, Karina B.; Fang, Liping;

    2013-01-01

    A planar trioctahedral iron(II)–iron(III) hydroxide (green rust, GR) intercalated with dodecanoate (GRC12) has been oxidized by dioxygen to produce the corresponding planar iron(III) (hydr)oxide. The formulae of GRC12 and the final iron(III) product (oxGRC12) were determined to be FeII2.00FeIII1...

  9. Method for preparing hydrous iron oxide gels and spherules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jack L.; Lauf, Robert J.; Anderson, Kimberly K.

    2003-07-29

    The present invention is directed to methods for preparing hydrous iron oxide spherules, hydrous iron oxide gels such as gel slabs, films, capillary and electrophoresis gels, iron monohydrogen phosphate spherules, hydrous iron oxide spherules having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form composite sorbents and catalysts, iron monohydrogen phosphate spherules having suspendable particles of at least one different sorbent homogeneously embedded within to form a composite sorbent, iron oxide spherules having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite of hydrous iron oxide fiber materials, iron oxide fiber materials, hydrous iron oxide fiber materials having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite, iron oxide fiber materials having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite, dielectric spherules of barium, strontium, and lead ferrites and mixtures thereof, and composite catalytic spherules of barium or strontium ferrite embedded with oxides of Mg, Zn, Pb, Ce and mixtures thereof. These variations of hydrous iron oxide spherules and gel forms prepared by the gel-sphere, internal gelation process offer more useful forms of inorganic ion exchangers, catalysts, getters, dielectrics, and ceramics.

  10. Oxidation Potentials in Iron and Steel Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matousek, J. W.

    2013-11-01

    The state of oxidation of a pyrometallurgical process given by the partial pressure of oxygen and the temperature (the oxidation potential) is one of the important properties monitored and controlled in the smelting and refining of iron and the nonferrous metals. Solid electrolyte sensors based on ZrO2 and a reference electrode such as Cr/Cr2O3 to measure the oxygen pressure found early application in the steel industry, followed soon after in copper, nickel, lead, and zinc smelting. Similar devices are installed in automobile postcombustion/exhaust trains as part of emission control systems. The current discussion reviews this technology as applied in the primary steps of iron and steel making and refining.

  11. Scalable Production of Iron Oxide Nanowhiskers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Macher

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We reported the scalable production of iron oxide nanowhiskers from 250 mL laboratory scale to 10 L reactor reaction. During the scale-up process, the reaction time was found to be a critical parameter to adjust for the production of iron oxide nanowhiskers with similar quality to that of the laboratory scale. Based on transmission electron microscopy and magnetometry analysis, the size, size distribution, and magnetic properties of the large scale products were comparable to those produced on laboratory scale. Subsequently, these nanowhiskers were transferred from organic solvents to aqueous solution using a 38-liter stainless steel tank. These water soluble nanowhiskers were well dispersed in water and the surface chemistry was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

  12. Ferrite grade iron oxides from ore rejects

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K S Rane; V M S Verenkar; P Y Sawant

    2001-06-01

    Iron oxyhydroxides and hydroxides were synthesized from chemically beneficiated high SiO2/Al2O3 low-grade iron ore (57.49% Fe2O3) rejects and heated to get iron oxides of 96–99.73% purity. The infrared band positions, isothermal weight loss and thermogravimetric and chemical analysis established the chemical formulas of iron-oxyhydroxides as -FeOOH.0.3H2O; -FeOOH.0.2H2O and amorphous FeOOH. The thermal products of all these were -Fe2O3 excepting that of -FeOOH.0.3H2O which gave mainly -Fe2O3 and some admixture of -Fe2O3. The hydrazinated iron hydroxides and oxyhydroxides, on the other hand, decomposed autocatalytically to mainly -Fe2O3. Hydrazine method modifies the thermal decomposition path of the hydroxides. The saturation magnetization, s, values were found to be in the range 60–71 emu g–1 which are close to the reported values for -Fe2O3. Mechanism of the -Fe2O3 formation by hydrazine method is discussed.

  13. Effects of coating spherical iron oxide nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    International audience; We investigate the effect of several coatings applied in biomedical applications to iron oxide nanoparticles on the size, structure and composition of the particles. The four structural techniques employed – TEM, DLS, VSM, SAXS and EXAFS – show no significant effects of the coatings on the spherical shape of the bare nanoparticles, the average sizes or the local order around the Fe atoms. The NPs coated with hydroxylmethylene bisphosphonate or catechol have a lower pro...

  14. Enhancing the crystalline degree of carbon nanotubes by acid treatment, air oxidization and heat treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chensha Li; Baoyou Zhang; Xingjuan Chen; Xiaoqing Hu; Ji Liang

    2005-01-01

    Three approaches of treating carbon nanotubes (CNTs) including acid treatment, air oxidization and heat treatment at high temperature were studied to enhance the crystalline degree of carbon nanotubes. High temperature heat-treatment elevates the crystalline degree of carbon nanotubes. Acid treatment removes parts of amorphous carbonaceous matter through its oxidization effect.Air oxidization disperses carbon nanotubes and amorphous carbonaceous matter. The treatment of combining acid treatment with heat-treatment further elevates the crystalline degree of carbon nanotubes comparing with acid treatment or heat-treatment. The combination of the three treatments creates the thorough effects of enhancing the crystalline degree of carbon nanotubes.

  15. Methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMS)-based silica-iron oxide superhydrophobic nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadargi, Digambar; Gurav, Jyoti; Marioni, Miguel A; Romer, Sara; Matam, Santhosh; Koebel, Matthias M

    2015-12-01

    We report a facile synthesis of superhydrophobic silica-iron oxide nanocomposites via a co-precursor sol-gel process. The choice of the silica precursor (Methyltrimethoxysilane, MTMS) in combination with iron nitrate altered the pore structure dramatically. The influence of iron oxide doping on the structural properties of pristine MTMS aerogel is discussed.

  16. Thermal and magnetic properties of chitosan-iron oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Paula I P; Machado, Diana; Laia, César; Pereira, Laura C J; Coutinho, Joana T; Ferreira, Isabel M M; Novo, Carlos M M; Borges, João Paulo

    2016-09-20

    Chitosan is a biopolymer widely used for biomedical applications such as drug delivery systems, wound healing, and tissue engineering. Chitosan can be used as coating for other types of materials such as iron oxide nanoparticles, improving its biocompatibility while extending its range of applications. In this work iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs) produced by chemical precipitation and thermal decomposition and coated with chitosan with different molecular weights were studied. Basic characterization on bare and chitosan-Fe3O4 NPs was performed demonstrating that chitosan does not affect the crystallinity, chemical composition, and superparamagnetic properties of the Fe3O4 NPs, and also the incorporation of Fe3O4 NPs into chitosan nanoparticles increases the later hydrodynamic diameter without compromising its physical and chemical properties. The nano-composite was tested for magnetic hyperthermia by applying an alternating current magnetic field to the samples demonstrating that the heating ability of the Fe3O4 NPs was not significantly affected by chitosan.

  17. Effects of Iron and Aluminum Oxides and Kaolinite on Adsorpion and Activities on Invertase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANGQIAOYUN; JIANGMINGHUA; 等

    1998-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to study the influences of synthetic bayerite,non-crystalline aluminum oxide(N-AlOH) ,geoethite,non-crystalline iron oxide (N-FeOH) and kaolinite on the adsorption,activity,kinetics and thermal stability of invertase.Adsorption of invertase on iron,aluminum oxides fitted Langmuir equation,The amount of invertase held on the minerals followed the sequence kaolinite>goethite>N-AlOH>bayerite>N-FeOH.No correlation was found between enzyme adsorption and the specific surface area of minerals exmined.The differences in the surface structure of minerals and the arrangement of enzymatic molecules on mineral surfaces led to the different capacities of minerals for enzyme adsorption. The adsorption of invertase on bayerite,N-AlOH,goethite ,H-FeOH and kaolinite was differently affected by pH.The order for the activity of invertase adsorbed on minerals was N-FeOH>N-AlOH>bayerite> goethite> kalinite.The inhibition effect of minerals on enzyme activity was kaolinite> crystalline oxides> non -crystalline oxides.The pH optimum of iron oxide-and aluminum oxide-invertase complexes was sililar to that of free enzyme(pH4.0),whereas the pH optimum of kaolinite-invertase complex was one pH unit highr than that of free enzyme.The affinity to substrate and the maximum reaction velocity as well as the thermal stability of combined inverthase were lower than those of the free enzyme.

  18. Production and characterization of the nanostructured hollow iron oxide spheres and nanoparticles by aerosol route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurmen, Sebahattin, E-mail: gurmen@itu.edu.t [Metallurgical and Materials Eng. Dept., Istanbul Technical University, 34469 Istanbul (Turkey); Ebin, Burcak [Metallurgical and Materials Eng. Dept., Istanbul Technical University, 34469 Istanbul (Turkey)

    2010-03-04

    Nanoshell hollow iron oxide ({alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) spheres and nanoparticles were produced by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP) method from iron(III) chloride salts. Iron oxide nanostructures were obtained by thermal decomposition of aerosol formed in the ultrasonic generator from aqueous solution of FeCl{sub 3} as a precursor. Hollow structure of iron oxide particles was controlled by reaction temperature changing between 600 and 200 {sup o}C and with the addition of the polyethylene glycol (PEG) iron oxide nanoparticles were fabricated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies and Scherrer crystalline size calculations show that the crystal sizes of the nanostructured iron oxide were between 33 and 18 nm. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) was performed to determine the chemical composition of the particles. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) investigation gave detailed information about particle size and morphology. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) was used to confirm the hollow structure of the particles and identify the thickness of the shell.

  19. Sol-gel synthesis and characterization of mesoporous iron-titanium mixed oxide for catalytic application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parida, K.M., E-mail: paridakulamani@yahoo.com [Colloids and Materials Chemistry Department, Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology, Bhubaneswar 751013, Orissa (India); Pradhan, Gajendra Kumar [Colloids and Materials Chemistry Department, Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology, Bhubaneswar 751013, Orissa (India)

    2010-10-01

    A mixed phase of mesoporous iron-titanium mixed oxide (ITMO) has been successfully synthesized by simple sol-gel technique by taking iron (II) sulphate and Ti-isopropoxide as the precursors and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) as the surfactant. The prepared catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), diffuse reflectance UV-vis spectra (UV-vis DRS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), N{sub 2} adsorption-desorptions isotherm, temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and gas chromatography (GC). Low-angle XRD (LAXRD) as well as surface area analysis confirms the mesoporosity nature of the catalysts. The phase and crystallinity were revealed by XRD study. The crystallinity of the catalysts increased with increase in calcinations temperature. Catalysts screening were performed for oxidation of cyclohexane to cyclohexanol and cyclohexanone.

  20. Computer simulation of the structure and properties of non-crystalline oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belashchenko, David K.

    1997-09-01

    The results of the studies of the structure and properties of non-crystalline (liquid and amorphous) oxide systems obtained using computer simulation methods are summarised. The models of simple oxides, homologous series of non-crystalline oxides and of binary and multi-component oxide systems are considered. The results of the simulation of the ion transfer are discussed. The ionic theory of oxides allows one to predict adequately the structural and thermodynamic properties of oxide systems except for the phosphate oxides and some other systems. The bibliography includes 222 references.

  1. Water Clustering on Nanostructured Iron Oxide Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merte, L. R.; Bechstein, Ralf; Peng, Guowen; Rieboldt, Felix; Farberow, Carrie A.; Zeuthen, Helene; Knudsen, Jan; Laegsgaard, E.; Wendt, Stefen; Mavrikakis, Manos; Besenbacher, Fleming

    2014-06-30

    The adhesion of water to solid surfaces is characterized by the tendency to balance competing molecule–molecule and molecule–surface interactions. Hydroxyl groups form strong hydrogen bonds to water molecules and are known to substantially influence the wetting behaviour of oxide surfaces, but it is not well-understood how these hydroxyl groups and their distribution on a surface affect the molecular-scale structure at the interface. Here we report a study of water clustering on a moire´-structured iron oxide thin film with a controlled density of hydroxyl groups. While large amorphous monolayer islands form on the are film, the hydroxylated iron oxide film acts as a hydrophilic nanotemplate, causing the formation of a regular array of ice-like hexameric nanoclusters. The formation of this ordered phase is localized at the nanometre scale; with increasing water coverage, ordered and amorphous water are found to coexist at adjacent hydroxylated and hydroxyl-free domains of the moire´ structure.

  2. Water clustering on nanostructured iron oxide films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merte, Lindsay R; Bechstein, Ralf; Peng, Guowen; Rieboldt, Felix; Farberow, Carrie A; Zeuthen, Helene; Knudsen, Jan; Lægsgaard, Erik; Wendt, Stefan; Mavrikakis, Manos; Besenbacher, Flemming

    2014-06-30

    The adhesion of water to solid surfaces is characterized by the tendency to balance competing molecule-molecule and molecule-surface interactions. Hydroxyl groups form strong hydrogen bonds to water molecules and are known to substantially influence the wetting behaviour of oxide surfaces, but it is not well-understood how these hydroxyl groups and their distribution on a surface affect the molecular-scale structure at the interface. Here we report a study of water clustering on a moiré-structured iron oxide thin film with a controlled density of hydroxyl groups. While large amorphous monolayer islands form on the bare film, the hydroxylated iron oxide film acts as a hydrophilic nanotemplate, causing the formation of a regular array of ice-like hexameric nanoclusters. The formation of this ordered phase is localized at the nanometre scale; with increasing water coverage, ordered and amorphous water are found to coexist at adjacent hydroxylated and hydroxyl-free domains of the moiré structure.

  3. Radiation hardness of single-crystalline zinc oxide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koike, Kazuto; Aoki, Takahiro; Fujimoto, Ryugo; Sasa, Shigehiko; Yano, Mitsuaki [Nanomaterials Microdevices Research Center, Osaka Institute of Technology, Ohmiya, Asahi-ku, Osaka 535-8585 (Japan); Gonda, Shun-ichi [The Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, Mihogaoka, Ibaraki-city, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Ishigami, Ryoya; Kume, Kyo [The Wakasa Wan Energy Research Center, Nagatani, Tsuruga-city, Fukui 914-0192 (Japan)

    2012-07-15

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a potential semiconductor to exhibit high radiation hardness since large threshold displacement energy for damage can be expected due to the small unit-cell volume and large bandgap energy. In order to study the radiation hardness, single-crystalline c-axis-oriented ZnO films with and without two-dimensional electron gas, and bulk crystals of ZnO and gallium nitride (GaN) for comparison, were irradiated with 8 MeV protons at the wide range of fluences from 2 x 10{sup 13} to 1 x 10{sup 17} p/cm{sup 2}. For both ZnO films, decrease of luminescence intensity followed by increase of electrical resistance was observed at larger fluences than {proportional_to}5 x 10{sup 14} p/cm{sup 2}. This threshold fluence was found to be much larger and larger than those of GaN and ZnO bulk crystals, respectively, indicating that ZnO thin films should be useful for such device applications as the electronics for space satellites and nuclear reactors. (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. Phase Formation Behavior in Ultrathin Iron Oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jõgi, Indrek; Jacobsson, T Jesper; Fondell, Mattis; Wätjen, Timo; Carlsson, Jan-Otto; Boman, Mats; Edvinsson, Tomas

    2015-11-17

    Nanostructured iron oxides, and especially hematite, are interesting for a wide range of applications ranging from gas sensors to renewable solar hydrogen production. A promising method for deposition of low-dimensional films is atomic layer deposition (ALD). Although a potent technique, ALD of ultrathin films is critically sensitive to the substrate and temperature conditions where initial formation of islands and crystallites influences the properties of the films. In this work, deposition at the border of the ALD window forming a hybrid ALD/pulsed CVD (pCVD) deposition is utilized to obtain a deposition less sensitive to the substrate. A thorough analysis of iron oxide phases formation on two different substrates, Si(100) and SiO2, was performed. Films between 3 and 50 nm were deposited and analyzed with diffraction techniques, high-resolution Raman spectroscopy, and optical spectroscopy. Below 10 nm nominal film thickness, island formation and phase dependent particle crystallization impose constraints for deposition of phase pure iron oxides on non-lattice-matching substrates. Films between 10 and 20 nm thickness on SiO2 could effectively be recrystallized into hematite whereas for the corresponding films on Si(100), no recrystallization occurred. For films thicker than 20 nm, phase pure hematite can be formed directly with ALD/pCVD with very low influence of the substrate on either Si or SiO2. For more lattice matched substrates such as SnO2:F, Raman spectroscopy indicated formation of the hematite phase already for films with 3 nm nominal thickness and clearly for 6 nm films. Analysis of the optical properties corroborated the analysis and showed a quantum confined blue-shift of the absorption edge for the thinnest films.

  5. The Sulfide Capacity of Iron Oxide-Rich Slags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motlagh, M.

    1988-03-01

    The relationship between the sulfide capacity of slags rich in iron oxide and the sulfur partition ratio between the metal and slag is strongly related to the slag's iron oxide concentration. For slags containing little or no lime, this relationship is linear for a constant concentration of iron oxide in the slag. The effect of silica on changes in the sulfide capacity of slags rich in iron oxide is similar to that of basic steel-making slags, particularly at low activity of silica in slag.

  6. Suspension Hydrogen Reduction of Iron Oxide Concentrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H.Y. Sohn

    2008-03-31

    The objective of the project is to develop a new ironmaking technology based on hydrogen and fine iron oxide concentrates in a suspension reduction process. The ultimate objective of the new technology is to replace the blast furnace and to drastically reduce CO2 emissions in the steel industry. The goals of this phase of development are; the performance of detailed material and energy balances, thermochemical and equilibrium calculations for sulfur and phosphorus impurities, the determination of the complete kinetics of hydrogen reduction and bench-scale testing of the suspension reduction process using a large laboratory flash reactor.

  7. Modified iron oxide nanomaterials: Functionalization and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Samira; Julkapli, Nurhidayatullaili Muhd

    2016-10-01

    Iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles have aroused the interest of researchers of materials' chemistry due to its exceptional properties such as decent magnetic, electric, catalytic, biocompatibility, and low toxicity. However, these magnetic nanoparticles are predisposed towards aggregation and forming larger particles, due to its strong anisotropic dipolar interactions, particularly in the aqueous phase, consequently depriving them of dispersibility and particular properties, ultimately degrading their performance. Hence, this review focuses on modified magnetic nanoparticles that are stable, easily synthesized, possess a high surface area and could be facile-separated via magnetic forces, and are of low toxicity and costs for applications such as catalyst/catalyst support, food security, biomedical, and pollutant remediation.

  8. Suspension Hydrogen Reduction of Iron Oxide Concentrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H.Y. Sohn

    2008-03-31

    The objective of the project is to develop a new ironmaking technology based on hydrogen and fine iron oxide concentrates in a suspension reduction process. The ultimate objective of the new technology is to replace the blast furnace and to drastically reduce CO2 emissions in the steel industry. The goals of this phase of development are; the performance of detailed material and energy balances, thermochemical and equilibrium calculations for sulfur and phosphorus impurities, the determination of the complete kinetics of hydrogen reduction and bench-scale testing of the suspension reduction process using a large laboratory flash reactor.

  9. The influence of thermal annealing on structure and oxidation of iron nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krajewski Marcin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Raman spectroscopy as well as Mössbauer spectroscopy were applied in order to study the phase composition of iron nanowires and its changes, caused by annealing in a neutral atmosphere at several temperatures ranging from 200°C to 800°C. As-prepared nanowires were manufactured via a simple chemical reduction in an external magnetic field. Both experimental techniques proved formation of the surface layer covered by crystalline iron oxides, with phase composition dependent on the annealing temperature (Ta. At higher Ta, hematite was the dominant phase in the nanowires.

  10. Radiation tolerance of iron phosphate: A study of amorphous and crystalline structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolley, Kenny; Smith, Roger

    2016-10-01

    Iron phosphate has been proposed as a candidate material for the encapsulation of nuclear waste. We studied amorphous and crystalline structures of Fe2+ Fe3+2(P2O7)2 and Fe3+(PO3)3. Amorphous Fe3+4(P2O7)3 , and two structures comparable with experimentally produced iron phosphate glass (IPG): 40 mol% Fe2O3 and 60 mol% P2O5, with 4% and 17% Fe2+ ion concentrations were also investigated. A series of constant volume molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of radiation cascades at 4 keV were performed. In the crystal structures, the cascades caused local amorphisation. For the glass structures, the cascades generally produced a rearrangement of atoms but did not significantly alter the overall atomic co-ordination or the ring statistics. Our work suggests that IPG, especially that with a low Fe2+ ion content, is resistant to radiation in the nuclear stopping regime. However, the crystalline material with its transition to a radiation tolerant glassy form, could also be a potential candidate for the containment of nuclear waste.

  11. Bacterial Oxidation and Reduction of Iron in the Processes of Creation and Treatment of Acid Mining Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kupka

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Acid mine drainages (AMDs arise at the weathering of sulphidic minerals. The occurrence of acidic streams is commonly associated with the human mining activities. Due to the disruption and excavation of sulphide deposits, the oxidation processes have initiated. Acidic products of sulphide oxidation accelerate the degradation of accompanying minerals. AMDs typically contain high concentrations of sulfuric acid and soluble metals and cause serious ecological problems due to the water pollution and the devastation of adjacent country. Microbial life in these extremely acidic environments may be considerably diverse. AMDs are abundant in bacteria capable to oxidize and/or to reduce iron. The rate of bacterial oxidation of ferrous iron released from pyrite surfaces is up to one million times faster than the chemical oxidation rate at low pH. Bacterial regeneration of ferric iron maintains the continuity of pyrite oxidation and the production of AMDs. Another group of microorganisms living in these environments are acidophilic ferric iron reducing bacteria. This group of microorganisms has been discovered only relatively recently. Acidophilic heterotrophic bacteria reduce ferric iron in either soluble or solid forms to ferrous iron. The reductive dissolution of ferric iron minerals brings about a mobilization of iron as well as associated heavy metals. The Bacterial oxidation and reduction of iron play an important role in the transformation of either crystalline or amorphous iron-containing minerals, including sulphides, oxides, hydroxysulfates, carbonates and silicates. This work discusses the role of acidophilic bacteria in the natural iron cycling and the genesis of acidic effluents. The possibilities of application of iron bacteria in the remediation of AMDs are also considered.

  12. Nitrate-dependent iron oxidation limits iron transport in anoxic ocean regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Florian; Löscher, Carolin R.; Fiskal, Annika; Sommer, Stefan; Hensen, Christian; Lomnitz, Ulrike; Wuttig, Kathrin; Göttlicher, Jörg; Kossel, Elke; Steininger, Ralph; Canfield, Donald E.

    2016-11-01

    Iron is an essential element for life on Earth and limits primary production in large parts of the ocean. Oxygen-free continental margin sediments represent an important source of bioavailable iron to the ocean, yet little of the iron released from the seabed reaches the productive sea surface. Even in the anoxic water of oxygen minimum zones, where iron solubility should be enhanced, most of the iron is rapidly re-precipitated. To constrain the mechanism(s) of iron removal in anoxic ocean regions we explored the sediment and water in the oxygen minimum zone off Peru. During our sampling campaign the water column featured two distinct redox boundaries separating oxic from nitrate-reducing (i.e., nitrogenous) water and nitrogenous from weakly sulfidic water. The sulfidic water mass in contact with the shelf sediment contained elevated iron concentrations >300 nM. At the boundary between sulfidic and nitrogenous conditions, iron concentrations dropped sharply to nitrate reduction (narG). Part of this upregulation was related to the activity of known iron-oxidizing bacteria. Collectively, our data suggest that iron oxidation and removal is induced by nitrate-reducing microbes, either enzymatically through anaerobic iron oxidation or by providing nitrite for an abiotic reaction. Given the important role that iron plays in nitrogen fixation, photosynthesis and respiration, nitrate-dependent iron oxidation likely represents a key-link between the marine biogeochemical cycles of nitrogen, oxygen and carbon.

  13. Toxicity of iron oxide nanoparticles against osteoblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi Sifeng [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Shanghai Sixth People' s Hospital (China); Jia Jingfu [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Chemistry and Chemical Technology (China); Guo Xiaokui [Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Institutes of Medical Sciences (China); Zhao Yaping [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Chemistry and Chemical Technology (China); Liu Boyu [Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Institutes of Medical Sciences (China); Chen Desheng; Guo Yongyuan; Zhang Xianlong, E-mail: zhangxianlong20101@163.com [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Shanghai Sixth People' s Hospital (China)

    2012-09-15

    Magnetic nanoparticles have been widely used for tissue repair, magnetic resonance imaging, immunoassays and drug delivery. They are very promising in orthopaedic applications and several magnetic nanoparticles have been exploited for the treatment of orthopaedic disease. Here, we conducted an in vitro study to examine the interaction of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with human osteoblasts to evaluate the dose-related toxicity of the nanoparticles on osteoblasts. A transmission electron microscope was used to visualise the internalised magnetic nanoparticles in osteoblasts. The CCK-8 results revealed increased cell viability (107.5 % vitality compared with the control group) when co-cultured at a low concentration (20 {mu}g/mL) and decreased cell viability (59.5 % vitality in a concentration of 300 {mu}g/mL and 25.9 % in 500 {mu}g/mL) when co-cultured in high concentrations. The flow cytometric detection revealed similar results with 5.48 % of apoptosis in a concentration of 20 {mu}g/mL, 23.40 % of apoptosis in a concentration of 300 {mu}g/mL and 28.49 % in a concentration of 500 {mu}g/mL. The disrupted cytoskeleton of osteoblasts was also revealed using a laser scanning confocal microscope. We concluded that use of a low concentration of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles is important to avoid damage to osteoblasts.

  14. Bismuth iron oxide thin films using atomic layer deposition of alternating bismuth oxide and iron oxide layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puttaswamy, Manjunath; Vehkamäki, Marko [University of Helsinki, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 55, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Kukli, Kaupo, E-mail: kaupo.kukli@helsinki.fi [University of Helsinki, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 55, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); University of Tartu, Institute of Physics, W. Ostwald 1, EE-50411 Tartu (Estonia); Dimri, Mukesh Chandra [National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Akadeemia tee 23, EE-12618 Tallinn (Estonia); Kemell, Marianna; Hatanpää, Timo; Heikkilä, Mikko J. [University of Helsinki, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 55, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Mizohata, Kenichiro [University of Helsinki, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 64, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Stern, Raivo [National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Akadeemia tee 23, EE-12618 Tallinn (Estonia); Ritala, Mikko; Leskelä, Markku [University of Helsinki, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 55, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2016-07-29

    Bismuth iron oxide films with varying contributions from Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} or Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} were prepared using atomic layer deposition. Bismuth (III) 2,3-dimethyl-2-butoxide, was used as the bismuth source, iron(III) tert-butoxide as the iron source and water vapor as the oxygen source. The films were deposited as stacks of alternate Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} layers. Films grown at 140 °C to the thickness of 200–220 nm were amorphous, but crystallized upon post-deposition annealing at 500 °C in nitrogen. Annealing of films with intermittent bismuth and iron oxide layers grown to different thicknesses influenced their surface morphology, crystal structure, composition, electrical and magnetic properties. Implications of multiferroic performance were recognized in the films with the remanent charge polarization varying from 1 to 5 μC/cm{sup 2} and magnetic coercivity varying from a few up to 8000 A/m. - Highlights: • Bismuth iron oxide thin films were grown by atomic layer deposition at 140 °C. • The major phase formed in the films upon annealing at 500 °C was BiFeO{sub 3}. • BiFeO{sub 3} films and films containing excess Bi favored electrical charge polarization. • Slight excess of iron oxide enhanced saturative magnetization behavior.

  15. Formation of crystalline nanoparticles by iron binding to pentapeptide (Asp-His-Thr-Lys-Glu) from egg white hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Na; Cui, Pengbo; Li, Dongmei; Jin, Ziqi; Zhang, Shuyu; Lin, Songyi

    2017-09-20

    A novel peptide from egg white, Asp-His-Thr-Lys-Glu (DHTKE), contains specific amino acids associated with iron binding. The present study aims to better understand the molecular basis of interactions between the DHTKE peptide and iron ions. The ultraviolet-visible and fluorescence spectra indicate an interaction between the DHTKE peptide and iron ions, which leads to the formation of a DHTKE-iron complex. Notably, Asp, Glu, His, and Lys in the DHTKE peptide play crucial roles in the formation of the DHTKE-iron complex, and the iron-binding site of the DHTKE peptide corresponds primarily to the amide and carboxyl groups. The DHTKE peptide can bind iron ions in a 1 : 2 ratio with a binding constant of 1.312 × 10(5) M(-1). Moreover, the DHTKE-iron complex belongs to thermodynamically stable nanoparticles that are present in the crystalline structure, which might be attributed to peptide folding induced by iron binding. Meanwhile, the DHTKE-iron complex exhibits a relatively high iron-releasing percentage and exerts excellent solubility in the human gastrointestinal tract in vitro. This suggests a potential application of peptides containing Asp, Glu, His, or Lys residues as potential iron supplements.

  16. Fabrication of Crystalline Indium Tin Oxide Nanobasket Electrodes using Aluminum Anodic Oxide Template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gou-Jen; Chen, He-Tsing; Yang, Hsihang

    2008-07-01

    Fabrication of crystalline indium tin oxide (ITO) nanobasket electrodes shaped by an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template for better electron conductivity is presented. ITO films were deposited on porous AAO templates by RF magnetron sputtering. The sputter-coated ITO films were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) to illustrate the nanobasket morphologies. The compositions of the ITO films were characterized by energy-dispersive X-ray (EDS) analysis. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was conducted to evaluate the crystallinity. The crystallinity can be enhanced by annealing at 300 °C. Although the conductivity of the ITO nanobasket film is larger than that of the conventional ITO thin film, the harvest efficiency can be markedly increased due to the nanobasket structure which enables most of the photoexcited electrons to reach their nearest electrode before losing their momentum. The presented ITO nanobasket films can be further used as a more effective electrode material for photovoltaics such as dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs).

  17. Battles with Iron: Manganese in Oxidative Stress Protection*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, J. Dafhne; Culotta, Valeria C.

    2012-01-01

    The redox-active metal manganese plays a key role in cellular adaptation to oxidative stress. As a cofactor for manganese superoxide dismutase or through formation of non-proteinaceous manganese antioxidants, this metal can combat oxidative damage without deleterious side effects of Fenton chemistry. In either case, the antioxidant properties of manganese are vulnerable to iron. Cellular pools of iron can outcompete manganese for binding to manganese superoxide dismutase, and through Fenton chemistry, iron may counteract the benefits of non-proteinaceous manganese antioxidants. In this minireview, we highlight ways in which cells maximize the efficacy of manganese as an antioxidant in the midst of pro-oxidant iron. PMID:22247543

  18. Novel magnetically separable AgCl/iron oxide composites with enhanced photocatalytic activity driven by visible light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Yanrong, E-mail: yanrong_zhang@hust.edu.cn; Tan, Jue

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •The AgCl/iron oxide composites were prepared by a chemical precipitation method. •The composites exhibited improved performances in the photodegradation of pollutants. •The visible light photocatalysts could be recycled easily by a magnet. -- Abstract: In this work, AgCl/iron oxide composites were synthesized by a simple chemical precipitation method and calcining process. The composition of the material and magnetic and optical properties of the composites were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and vibrating specimen magnetometer (VSM) techniques, which confirms the high crystalline and magnetic behavior of the composites. UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectral (DRS) studies showed that the AgCl/iron oxide composites were of much higher absorption in longer wavelength region compared to bare iron oxide. The AgCl/iron oxide composites showed better performance in the photodegradation of organic dyes Rhodamin B (RhB) under the fluorescent lamp irradiation, which is remarkably superior to the N-TiO{sub 2}. The degradation of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and phenol was also found to be good owing to its effective electron-hole separation at AgCl/iron oxide interface. The separation of AgCl/iron oxide composites from the treated water was achieved by an external magnetic field as γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} exhibits enough magnetic power to facilitate the separation.

  19. Biocompatible capped iron oxide nanoparticles for Vibrio cholerae detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anshu; Baral, Dinesh; Rawat, Kamla; Solanki, Pratima R.; Bohidar, H. B.

    2015-05-01

    We report the studies relating to fabrication of an efficient immunosensor for Vibrio cholerae detection. Magnetite (iron oxide (Fe3O4)) nanoparticles (NPs) have been synthesized by the co-precipitation method and capped by citric acid (CA). These NPs were electrophoretically deposited onto indium-tin-oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrate and used for immobilization of monoclonal antibodies against Vibrio cholerae (Ab) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) for Vibrio cholerae detection using an electrochemical technique. The structural and morphological studies of Fe3O4 and CA-Fe3O4/ITO were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and dynamic light scattering (DLS) techniques. The average crystalline size of Fe3O4, CA-Fe3O4 nanoparticles obtained were about 29 ± 1 nm and 37 ± 1 nm, respectively. The hydrodynamic radius of the nanoparticles was found to be 77.35 nm (Fe3O4) and 189.51 nm (CA-Fe3O4) by DLS measurement. The results of electrochemical response studies of the fabricated BSA/Ab/CA-Fe2O3/ITO immunosensor exhibits a good detection range of 12.5-500 ng mL-1 with a low detection limit of 0.32 ng mL-1, sensitivity 0.03 Ω/ng ml-1 cm-2, and reproducibility more than 11 times.

  20. Behaviour of Self-Standing CVD Diamond Film with Different Dominant Crystalline Surfaces in Thermal-Iron Plate Polishing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Guang-Chao; ZHOU Zu-Yuan; LI Bin; ZHOU You-Liang; J. Askri; LI Cheng-Ming; TANG Wei-Zhong; TONG Yu-Mei; LU Fan-Xiu

    2006-01-01

    @@ Self-standing CVD diamond films with different dominant crystalline surfaces are polished by the thermal-iron plate polishing method. The influence of the dominant crystalline surfaces on polishing efficiency is investigated by measuring the removal rate and final roughness. The smallest rms roughness of 0.14μm is measured with smallest removal rate in the films with the initial (220) dominant crystalline surface. Activation energy for the polishing is analysed by the Arrhenius relation. It is found that the values are 170kJ/mol, 222kJ/mol and 214kJ/mol for the film with t hree different dominant crystalline surfaces. Based on these values, the polishing cause is regarded as the graphitization-controlling process. In the experiment, we find that transformation of the dominant crystalline surfaces from (111) to (220) always appears in the polishing process when we polish the (111) dominant surface.

  1. Characterization of the oleic acid/iron oxide nanoparticle interface by magnetic resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masur, S., E-mail: sabrina.masur@uni-due.de; Zingsem, B.; Marzi, T.; Meckenstock, R.; Farle, M.

    2016-10-01

    The synthesis of colloidal nanoparticles involves surfactant molecules, which bind to the particle surface and stabilize nanoparticles against aggregation. In many cases these protecting shells also can be used for further functionalization. In this study, we investigated monodisperse single crystalline iron oxide core/shell nanoparticles (Fe{sub x}O{sub y}-NPs) in situ covered with an oleic acid layer which showed two electron spin resonance (ESR) signals. The nanoparticles with the ligands attached were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and ferro- and paramagnetic resonance (FMR, EPR). Infrared spectroscopy confirmed the presence of the functional groups and revealed that the oleic acid (OA) is chemisorbed as a carboxylate on the iron oxide and is coordinated symmetrically to the oxide atoms. We show that the EPR signal of the OA ligand molecule can be used as a local probe to determine the temperature changes at the surface of the nanoparticle. - Highlights: • Monodisperse single crystalline iron oxide core/shell nanoparticles (Fe{sub x}O{sub y}-NPs) in situ covered with an oleic acid layer two electron spin resonance (ESR) signals. • We show that the EPR signal of the OA ligand molecule can be used as a local probe to determine the temperature changes at the surface of the nanoparticle.

  2. Arsenite oxidation by a poorly-crystalline manganese oxide. 3. Arsenic and manganese desorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Brandon J; Ginder-Vogel, Matthew; Sparks, Donald L

    2011-11-01

    Arsenic (As) mobility in the environment is greatly affected by its oxidation state and the degree to which it is sorbed on metal oxide surfaces. Manganese oxides (Mn oxides) have the ability to decrease overall As mobility both by oxidizing toxic arsenite (As(III)) to less toxic arsenate (As(V)), and by sorbing As. However, the effect of competing ions on the mobility of As sorbed on Mn-oxide surfaces is not well understood. In this study, desorption of As(V) and As(III) from a poorly crystalline phyllomanganate (δ-MnO(2)) by two environmentally significant ions is investigated using a stirred-flow technique and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). As(III) is not observed in solution after desorption under any conditions used in this study, agreeing with previous studies showing As sorbed on Mn-oxides exists only as As(V). However, some As(V) is desorbed from the δ-MnO(2) surface under all conditions studied, while neither desorptive used in this study completely removes As(V) from the δ-MnO(2) surface.

  3. Structural and magnetic properties of core-shell iron-iron oxide nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Luise Theil; Bojesen, A.; Timmermann, L.

    2002-01-01

    We present studies of the structural and magnetic properties of core-shell iron-iron oxide nanoparticles. alpha-Fe nanoparticles were fabricated by sputtering and subsequently covered with a protective nanocrystalline oxide shell consisting of either maghaemite (gamma-Fe2O3) or partially oxidized...... magnetite (Fe3O4). We observed that the nanoparticles were stable against further oxidation, and Mossbauer spectroscopy at high applied magnetic fields and low temperatures revealed a stable form of partly oxidized magnetite. The nanocrystalline structure of the oxide shell results in strong canting...... of the spin structure in the oxide shell, which thereby modifies the magnetic properties of the core-shell nanoparticles....

  4. Single-crystalline Pd square nanoplates enclosed by {100} facets on reduced graphene oxide for formic acid electro-oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yi; Yan, Yucong; Chen, Wenlong; Khan, Yousaf; Wu, Jianbo; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Deren

    2016-12-06

    Single-crystalline Pd square nanoplates enclosed by {100} facets were generated on reduced graphene oxide and exhibited the substantially enhanced properties for the formic acid oxidation reaction. The combination of carbonyl groups formed on the surface of annealed graphene oxide and Br(-) ions played important roles in this synthesis.

  5. Synthesis and Characterization of Zinc Oxide and Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Using Sesbania grandiflora Leaf Extract as Reducing Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorna Prema Rajendran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this present study are to synthesize iron oxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles from different concentrations of Sesbania grandiflora leaf extract (5–20% using zinc nitrate and ferrous chloride as precursor materials and synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using UV-visible spectrometer, FTIR, X-ray diffraction, and SEM. The results showed that synthesized zinc oxide and iron oxide nanoparticles exhibited UV-visible absorption peaks at 235 nm and 220 nm, respectively, which indicated that both nanoparticles were photosensitive and the XRD study confirmed that both nanoparticles were crystalline in nature. In addition, FTIR was also used to analyze the various functional groups present in the synthesized nanoparticles. The SEM results reveal that zinc oxide nanoparticles were spherical in shape and having the particle size range of 15 to 35 nm whereas the iron oxide nanoparticles were nonspherical in shape with the size range of 25 to 60 nm. Application of synthesized nanoparticle on seafood effluent treatment was studied.

  6. DLTS properties of iron defects in crystalline silicon used in solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamadeh, H. [Department of Physics, Atomic Energy Commission of Syria, Solar Cell Group, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)]. E-mail: hhamadeh@aecs.org.sy; Darwich, R. [Department of Physics, Atomic Energy Commission of Syria, Solar Cell Group, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)

    2004-10-25

    Crystalline silicon used in solar cells has been investigated using deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS). In majority-carrier pulse sequence an interstitial iron deep level was observed. However, the investigation of this deep level peak with different filling pulsewidths shows that this level consists of two superimposed levels. The activation energies of these levels are 375 meV (F{sub 1}) and 480 meV (F{sub 2}). The capture cross section of the level (F{sub 1}) with the lower activation energy is nearly two orders of magnitude larger than the capture cross section of defect F{sub 2}. Both capture cross sections show, over a wide range, no temperature dependence indicating that nonradiative recombination mechanisms other than multiphonon emission are involved. The concentration ratio between both defects is nearly 1:2.

  7. Bio-inspired Iron Catalysts for Hydrocarbon Oxidations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Que, Jr., Lawrence [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2016-03-22

    Stereoselective oxidation of C–H and C=C bonds are catalyzed by nonheme iron enzymes. Inspired by these bioinorganic systems, our group has been exploring the use of nonheme iron complexes as catalysts for the oxidation of hydrocarbons using H2O2 as an environmentally friendly and atom-efficient oxidant in order to gain mechanistic insights into these novel transformations. In particular, we have focused on clarifying the nature of the high-valent iron oxidants likely to be involved in these transformations.

  8. Microbially Induced Iron Oxidation: What, Where, How

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SCHIERMEYER,ELISA M.; PROVENCIO,PAULA P.; NORTHUP,DIANA E.

    2000-08-15

    From the results of the different bacterial cells seen, it is fairly certain that Gallionella is present because of the bean-shaped cells and twisted stalks found with the TEM. The authors cannot confirm, though, what other iron-oxidizing genera exist in the tubes, since the media was only preferential and not one that isolated a specific genus of bacteria. Based on the environment in which they live and the source of the water, they believe their cultures contain Gallionella, Leptothrix, and possibly Crenothrix and Sphaerotilus. They believe the genus Leptothrix rather than Sphaerotilus exist in the tubes because the water source was fresh, unlike the polluted water in which Sphaerotilus are usually found. The TEM preparations worked well. The cryogenic method rapidly froze the cells in place and allowed them to view their morphology. The FAA method, as stated previously, was the best of the three methods because it gave the best contrast. The gluteraldehyde samples did not come out as well. It is possible that the gluteraldehyde the authors prepared was still too concentrated and did not mix well. Although these bacteria were collected from springs and then cultured in an environment containing a presumably pure iron-bearing metal, it seems the tube already containing Manganese Gradient Medium could be used with a piece of metal containing these bacteria. A small piece of corroding metal could then be inserted into the test tube and cultured to study the bacteria.

  9. Modified iron oxide nanomaterials: Functionalization and application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagheri, Samira; Julkapli, Nurhidayatullaili Muhd

    2016-10-15

    Iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles have aroused the interest of researchers of materials' chemistry due to its exceptional properties such as decent magnetic, electric, catalytic, biocompatibility, and low toxicity. However, these magnetic nanoparticles are predisposed towards aggregation and forming larger particles, due to its strong anisotropic dipolar interactions, particularly in the aqueous phase, consequently depriving them of dispersibility and particular properties, ultimately degrading their performance. Hence, this review focuses on modified magnetic nanoparticles that are stable, easily synthesized, possess a high surface area and could be facile-separated via magnetic forces, and are of low toxicity and costs for applications such as catalyst/catalyst support, food security, biomedical, and pollutant remediation. - Highlights: • Nanomagnetite is interesting due to its exceptional properties. • Nanomagnetite is predisposed towards aggregation and forming larger particles. • Modified nanomagnetite are stable, easily synthesized, possess high surface area. • Modified nanomagnetite got applications as catalyst/catalyst support.

  10. Multiple hearth furnace for reducing iron oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Mark M [Charlotte, NC; True, Bradford G [Charlotte, NC

    2012-03-13

    A multiple moving hearth furnace (10) having a furnace housing (11) with at least two moving hearths (20) positioned laterally within the furnace housing, the hearths moving in opposite directions and each moving hearth (20) capable of being charged with at least one layer of iron oxide and carbon bearing material at one end, and being capable of discharging reduced material at the other end. A heat insulating partition (92) is positioned between adjacent moving hearths of at least portions of the conversion zones (13), and is capable of communicating gases between the atmospheres of the conversion zones of adjacent moving hearths. A drying/preheat zone (12), a conversion zone (13), and optionally a cooling zone (15) are sequentially positioned along each moving hearth (30) in the furnace housing (11).

  11. Washing effect on superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura-Karina Mireles

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Much recent research on nanoparticles has occurred in the biomedical area, particularly in the area of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs; one such area of research is in their use as magnetically directed prodrugs. It has been reported that nanoscale materials exhibit properties different from those of materials in bulk or on a macro scale [1]. Further, an understanding of the batch-to-batch reproducibility and uniformity of the SPION surface is essential to ensure safe biological applications, as noted in the accompanying article [2], because the surface is the first layer that affects the biological response of the human body. Here, we consider a comparison of the surface chemistries of a batch of SPIONs, before and after the supposedly gentle process of dialysis in water.

  12. Effects of iron and aluminum oxides and clay content on penetration resistance of five Greek soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanos Stefanou

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of amorphous and crystalline iron (Fe and aluminum (Al oxides and oxy-hydroxides as well as clay on soil penetration resistance of five Greek soils, as a function of soil water suction was studied for the whole range of soil moisture. The soils tested were of loamy texture and were collected from cultivated and non-cultivated areas of north and central Greece (Macedonia and Thessaly. The study aimed at understanding the role of the above mentioned soil components on penetration resistance. The findings showed that the increase of iron and aluminum oxides and oxy-hydroxides content resulted in an increase of soil penetration resistance and the relationships between them were significant. Crystalline iron forms found to have a more profound effect on penetration resistance as compared to amorphous iron forms. Finally, positive and significant relationships were also found between penetration resistance and clay content. However, it is not entirely clear which of the two soil components plays the most important role in penetration resistance changes in soils.

  13. Ultrafine ferromagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: Facile synthesis by low temperature decomposition of iron glycerolate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartůněk, Vilém, E-mail: vilem.bartunek@vscht.cz [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Chemistry and Technology, Technická 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Průcha, David [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Chemistry and Technology, Technická 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Švecová, Marie [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemical Engineering, University of Chemistry and Technology, Technická 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Ulbrich, Pavel [Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Faculty of Food and Biochemical Technology, University of Chemistry and Technology, Technická 3, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Huber, Štěpán; Sedmidubský, David; Jankovský, Ondřej [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Chemistry and Technology, Technická 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

    2016-09-01

    We synthesized dark colored ultrafine – sub 10 nm iron oxide nanoparticles by a facile and low temperature process based on thermal decomposition of an affordable precursor – iron glycerolate. Simultaneous thermal analysis (STA) was used to study the thermal behaviour during the decomposition. The iron glycerolate was thoroughly analysed by various methods. The size of the iron nanoparticles was determined from XRD patterns and by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and their composition has been confirmed by XPS. Magnetic properties of the nanoparticles were studied by vibrating sample magnetometry. The prepared single phase material exhibiting ferromagnetic properties is usable in a wide range of applications and may be suitable even for large scale industrial applications. - Highlights: • Iron glycerolate prepared and characterised. • Iron oxide nanoparticles prepared by thermal decomposition of iron glycerolate. • STA used to study the decomposition. • Products characterised by XRD, XPS, FT-IR, SEM and TEM. • Magnetic behaviour of monophasic samples determined.

  14. Geochemical evolution of the banded iron formations of the Voronezh Crystalline Massif in the early Precambrian: Sources of matter and geochronological constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savko, K. A.; Bazikov, N. S.; Artemenko, G. V.

    2015-09-01

    The banded iron formations (BIFs) of the Voronezh Crystalline Massif occur at three stratigraphic levels: Mesoarchean, Neoarchean, and Paleoproterozoic. In comparison with Paleoproterozoic BIFs, the Archean BIFs are enriched in TiO2, Al2O3, Cr, Ni, and REEs. All the BIFs are characterized by positive Eu anomalies, absence of Ce anomalies, and predominance of HREEs over LREEs. The Paleoproterozoic BIFs show no evidence of clastic or hydrothermal contamination. The low Ni/Fe ratios indicate that the BIFs are younger than 2.7 Ga and their formation was followed by a sharp drop of the level of the mantle Ni supply. On the other hand, very low (iron accumulation—no later than the Great Oxidation Event of ~2.47 Ga.

  15. Mixed metal oxide crystalline powders and method for the synthesis thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joyce, I.H.; Blonski, R.P.; Maloney, J.J.; Welch, J.J.; Pipoly, R.A.; Byrne, C.J.

    1993-07-20

    A method is described for the solid state synthesis of mixed metal oxide crystalline powders comprising the steps of: preparing a raw material mixture containing at least two different metal cations; adding a template material to said mixture and blending it therewith; initiating formation of a mixed metal oxide by calcination of said mixture and said template material, whereby particles of the mixed metal oxides are formed in powder form; and thereafter recovering said mixed metal oxide particles.

  16. Iron photoreduction and oxidation in an acidic mountain stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, D M; Kimball, B A; Bencala, K E

    1988-04-29

    In a small mountain stream in Colorado that receives acidic mine drainage, photoreduction of ferric iron results in a well-defined increase in dissolved ferrous iron during the day. To quantify this process, an instream injection of a conservative tracer was used to measure discharge at the time that each sample was collected. Daytime production of ferrous iron by photoreduction was almost four times as great as nighttime oxidation of ferrous iron. The photoreduction process probably involves dissolved or colloidal ferric iron species and limited interaction with organic species because concentrations of organic carbon are low in this stream.

  17. Core/shell structured iron/iron-oxide nanoparticles as excellent MRI contrast enhancement agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khurshid, Hafsa, E-mail: hkhurshi@udel.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, 217 sharp lab, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Hadjipanayis, Costas G. [Department of Neurological Surgery, Emory University School of Medicine Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Chen, Hongwei [Department of Radiology, Emory University School of Medicine Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Li, Wanfeng [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, 217 sharp lab, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Mao, Hui [Department of Radiology, Emory University School of Medicine Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Machaidze, Revaz [Department of Neurological Surgery, Emory University School of Medicine Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Tzitzios, Vasilis [Institute of Materials Science, “Demokritos” 15310 Athens (Greece); Hadjipanayis, George C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, 217 sharp lab, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    We report the use of metallic iron-based nanoparticles for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) applications. Core/shell structured iron-based nanoparticles prepared by thermally decomposing organo-metallic compounds of iron at high temperature in the presence of hydrophobic surfactants were coated and stabilized in the aqueous solvent using the newly developed polysiloxane PEO–b–PγMPS (poly(ethylene oxide)–block–poly (γ methacryloxypropyl trimethyl oxysilane)) diblock copolymers. Particles are well suspended in water and retain their core–shell morphology after coating with the copolymer. In comparison to the conventionally used iron-oxide nanoparticles, core/shell structured iron/iron-oxide nanoparticles offer a much stronger T{sub 2} shortening effect than that of iron-oxide with the same core size due to their better magnetic properties. -- Highlights: ► Core/shell Fe/Fe-oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by organo-metallic synthesis. ► Water dispersibility was obtained by coating particles with a polysiloxane diblock copolymer. ► In comparison to Fe-oxide, Fe/Fe-oxide nanoparticles offer a much stronger T{sub 2} shortening effect.

  18. Neutrophilic iron oxidizers adapted to highly oxic environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gülay, Arda; Musovic, Sanin; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    indicate that neutrophilic iron oxidizers in highly oxic environments like drinking water treatment systems can be abundant (5 E+04 to 7 E+05 cells per gram of wet sand material). It was furthermore observed that the diversity of the cultivated dominant iron oxidizers differs substantially from those...... carbon) while oxygen (O2) is the electron acceptor provided during the aeration process. Numerous previous studies have described neutrophilic iron oxidizers as a bacterial guild with a special niche preference, especially the transition zone between aerobic and anoxic regions, where abiotic chemical...

  19. Growth and structure of nanometric iron oxide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guiot, E.; Gota, S.; Henriot, M.; Gautier-Soyer, M. [CEA SACLAY, Gif sur Yvette (France); Lefebvre, S. [Centre Univ. Paris Sud, Orsay (France)

    1998-12-31

    Nanometric films of iron oxides (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, {alpha} and {gamma} Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) of high crystalline order and purity are epitaxially grown on {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001) by atomic oxygen assisted MBE. A complete characterization of the films structure has been performed by in situ LEED and RHEED, and ex situ GIXRD using synchrotron radiation. The films grown at room temperature and post annealed at 400 C and 700 C (p{sub O{sub 2}} = 10{sup {minus}6} Torr) are respectively metastable {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (111) and {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (0001). For a substrate temperature of 450 C during growth, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} (111) is directly obtained. GIXRD shows an in-plane expansion of the films, which decreases with thickness (0.8 and 0.2% for film thickness of 20 and 80 {angstrom}, respectively).

  20. Application of novel iron core/iron oxide shell nanoparticles to sentinel lymph node identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousins, Aidan; Howard, Douglas; Henning, Anna M.; Nelson, Melanie R. M.; Tilley, Richard D.; Thierry, Benjamin

    2015-12-01

    Current `gold standard' staging of breast cancer and melanoma relies on accurate in vivo identification of the sentinel lymph node. By replacing conventional tracers (dyes and radiocolloids) with magnetic nanoparticles and using a handheld magnetometer probe for in vivo identification, it is believed the accuracy of sentinel node identification in nonsuperficial cancers can be improved due to increased spatial resolution of magnetometer probes and additional anatomical information afforded by MRI road-mapping. By using novel iron core/iron oxide shell nanoparticles, the sensitivity of sentinel node mapping via MRI can be increased due to an increased magnetic saturation compared to traditional iron oxide nanoparticles. A series of in vitro magnetic phantoms (iron core vs. iron oxide nanoparticles) were prepared to simulate magnetic particle accumulation in the sentinel lymph node. A novel handheld magnetometer probe was used to measure the relative signals of each phantom, and determine if clinical application of iron core particles can improve in vivo detection of the sentinel node compared to traditional iron oxide nanoparticles. The findings indicate that novel iron core nanoparticles above a certain size possess high magnetic saturation, but can also be produced with low coercivity and high susceptibility. While some modification to the design of handheld magnetometer probes may be required for particles with large coercivity, use of iron core particles could improve MRI and magnetometer probe detection sensitivity by up to 330 %.

  1. Nanocolumnar Crystalline Vanadium Oxide-Molybdenum Oxide Antireflective Smart Thin Films with Superior Nanomechanical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Arjun; Nayak, Manish Kumar; Esther, A Carmel Mary; Pradeepkumar, Maurya Sandeep; Porwal, Deeksha; Gupta, A K; Bera, Parthasarathi; Barshilia, Harish C; Mukhopadhyay, Anoop Kumar; Pandey, Ajoy Kumar; Khan, Kallol; Bhattacharya, Manjima; Kumar, D Raghavendra; Sridhara, N; Sharma, Anand Kumar

    2016-11-17

    Vanadium oxide-molybdenum oxide (VO-MO) thin (21-475 nm) films were grown on quartz and silicon substrates by pulsed RF magnetron sputtering technique by altering the RF power from 100 to 600 W. Crystalline VO-MO thin films showed the mixed phases of vanadium oxides e.g., V2O5, V2O3 and VO2 along with MoO3. Reversible or smart transition was found to occur just above the room temperature i.e., at ~45-50 °C. The VO-MO films deposited on quartz showed a gradual decrease in transmittance with increase in film thickness. But, the VO-MO films on silicon exhibited reflectance that was significantly lower than that of the substrate. Further, the effect of low temperature (i.e., 100 °C) vacuum (10(-5) mbar) annealing on optical properties e.g., solar absorptance, transmittance and reflectance as well as the optical constants e.g., optical band gap, refractive index and extinction coefficient were studied. Sheet resistance, oxidation state and nanomechanical properties e.g., nanohardness and elastic modulus of the VO-MO thin films were also investigated in as-deposited condition as well as after the vacuum annealing treatment. Finally, the combination of the nanoindentation technique and the finite element modeling (FEM) was employed to investigate yield stress and von Mises stress distribution of the VO-MO thin films.

  2. Nanocolumnar Crystalline Vanadium Oxide-Molybdenum Oxide Antireflective Smart Thin Films with Superior Nanomechanical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Arjun; Nayak, Manish Kumar; Esther, A. Carmel Mary; Pradeepkumar, Maurya Sandeep; Porwal, Deeksha; Gupta, A. K.; Bera, Parthasarathi; Barshilia, Harish C.; Mukhopadhyay, Anoop Kumar; Pandey, Ajoy Kumar; Khan, Kallol; Bhattacharya, Manjima; Kumar, D. Raghavendra; Sridhara, N.; Sharma, Anand Kumar

    2016-11-01

    Vanadium oxide-molybdenum oxide (VO-MO) thin (21-475 nm) films were grown on quartz and silicon substrates by pulsed RF magnetron sputtering technique by altering the RF power from 100 to 600 W. Crystalline VO-MO thin films showed the mixed phases of vanadium oxides e.g., V2O5, V2O3 and VO2 along with MoO3. Reversible or smart transition was found to occur just above the room temperature i.e., at ~45-50 °C. The VO-MO films deposited on quartz showed a gradual decrease in transmittance with increase in film thickness. But, the VO-MO films on silicon exhibited reflectance that was significantly lower than that of the substrate. Further, the effect of low temperature (i.e., 100 °C) vacuum (10-5 mbar) annealing on optical properties e.g., solar absorptance, transmittance and reflectance as well as the optical constants e.g., optical band gap, refractive index and extinction coefficient were studied. Sheet resistance, oxidation state and nanomechanical properties e.g., nanohardness and elastic modulus of the VO-MO thin films were also investigated in as-deposited condition as well as after the vacuum annealing treatment. Finally, the combination of the nanoindentation technique and the finite element modeling (FEM) was employed to investigate yield stress and von Mises stress distribution of the VO-MO thin films.

  3. Synthesis and in vitro cellular interactions of superparamagnetic iron nanoparticles with a crystalline gold shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandyopadhyay, Sulalit, E-mail: sulalit.bandyopadhyay@ntnu.no [Ugelstad Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering (Norway); Singh, Gurvinder [Ugelstad Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering (Norway); Sandvig, Ioanna [MI Lab and Department of Circulation and Medical Imaging, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), N-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Sandvig, Axel [MI Lab and Department of Circulation and Medical Imaging, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), N-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Department of Neurosurgery, Umeå University Hospital, Umeå (Sweden); Mathieu, Roland; Anil Kumar, P. [Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, Box 534, SE-75121 Uppsala (Sweden); Glomm, Wilhelm Robert [Ugelstad Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering (Norway); Sector for Biotechnology and Nanomedicine, SINTEF Materials and Chemistry, N-7465 Trondheim (Norway)

    2014-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A novel synthetic protocol for Fe@Au nanoparticles (NPs) has been optimized. • Surface functionalization and characterization of Fe@Au NPs. • NPs retain superparamagnetic properties after Au coating. • No toxic effects on two different cell types. • NPs suitable for theranostic applications. - Abstract: Fe@Au core–shell nanoparticles (NPs) exhibit multiple functionalities enabling their effective use in applications such as medical imaging and drug delivery. In this work, a novel synthetic method was developed and optimized for the synthesis of highly stable, monodisperse Fe@Au NPs of average diameter ∼24 nm exhibiting magneto-plasmonic characteristics. Fe@Au NPs were characterized by a wide range of experimental techniques, including scanning (transmission) electron microscopy (S(T)EM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and UV–vis spectroscopy. The formed particles comprise an amorphous iron core with a crystalline Au shell of tunable thickness, and retain the superparamagnetic properties at room temperature after formation of a crystalline Au shell. After surface modification, PEGylated Fe@Au NPs were used for in vitro studies on olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) and human neural stem cells (hNSCs). No adverse effects of the Fe@Au particles were observed post-labeling, both cell types retaining normal morphology, viability, proliferation, and motility. It can be concluded that no appreciable toxic effects on both cell types, coupled with multifunctionality and chemical stability make them ideal candidates for therapeutic as well as diagnostic applications.

  4. Biogenic Fabrication of Iron/Iron Oxide Nanoparticles and Their Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Khwaja Salahuddin; ur Rahman, Aziz; Tajuddin; Husen, Azamal

    2016-11-01

    Enshrined in this review are the biogenic fabrication and applications of coated and uncoated iron and iron oxide nanoparticles. Depending on their magnetic properties, they have been used in the treatment of cancer, drug delivery system, MRI, and catalysis and removal of pesticides from potable water. The polymer-coated iron and iron oxide nanoparticles are made biocompatible, and their slow release makes them more effective and lasting. Their cytotoxicity against microbes under aerobic/anaerobic conditions has also been discussed. The magnetic moment of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles changes with their interaction with biomolecules as a consequence of which their size decreases. Their biological efficacy has been found to be dependent on the shape, size, and concentration of these nanoparticles.

  5. Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles: Synthesis and Surface Functionalization Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Quanguo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Surface functionalized magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs are a kind of novel functional materials, which have been widely used in the biotechnology and catalysis. This review focuses on the recent development and various strategies in preparation, structure, and magnetic properties of naked and surface functionalized iron oxide NPs and their corresponding application briefly. In order to implement the practical application, the particles must have combined properties of high magnetic saturation, stability, biocompatibility, and interactive functions at the surface. Moreover, the surface of iron oxide NPs could be modified by organic materials or inorganic materials, such as polymers, biomolecules, silica, metals, etc. The problems and major challenges, along with the directions for the synthesis and surface functionalization of iron oxide NPs, are considered. Finally, some future trends and prospective in these research areas are also discussed.

  6. Iron Oxide Nanocrystals for Magnetic Hyperthermia Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale L. Huber

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic nanocrystals have been investigated extensively in the past several years for several potential applications, such as information technology, MRI contrast agents, and for drug conjugation and delivery. A specific property of interest in biomedicine is magnetic hyperthermia—an increase in temperature resulting from the thermal energy released by magnetic nanocrystals in an external alternating magnetic field. Iron oxide nanocrystals of various sizes and morphologies were synthesized and tested for specific losses (heating power using frequencies of 111.1 kHz and 629.2 kHz, and corresponding magnetic field strengths of 9 and 25 mT. Polymorphous nanocrystals as well as spherical nanocrystals and nanowires in paramagnetic to ferromagnetic size range exhibited good heating power. A remarkable 30 °C temperature increase was observed in a nanowire sample at 111 kHz and magnetic field of 25 mT (19.6 kA/m, which is very close to the typical values of 100 kHz and 20 mT used in medical treatments.

  7. Engineering Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Clinical Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aitziber L. Cortajarena

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs occupy a privileged position among magnetic nanomaterials with potential applications in medicine and biology. They have been widely used in preclinical experiments for imaging contrast enhancement, magnetic resonance, immunoassays, cell tracking, tissue repair, magnetic hyperthermia and drug delivery. Despite these promising results, their successful translation into a clinical setting is strongly dependent upon their physicochemical properties, toxicity and functionalization possibilities. Currently, IONPs-based medical applications are limited to the use of non-functionalized IONPs smaller than 100 nm, with overall narrow particle size distribution, so that the particles have uniform physical and chemical properties. However, the main entry of IONPs into the scene of medical application will surely arise from their functionalization possibilities that will provide them with the capacity to target specific cells within the body, and hence to play a role in the development of specific therapies. In this review, we offer an overview of their basic physicochemical design parameters, giving an account of the progress made in their functionalization and current clinical applications. We place special emphasis on past and present clinical trials.

  8. Modified Nanoemulsions with Iron Oxide for Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongyi Fan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A nanoemulsion (NE is a surfactant-based, oil-in-water, nanoscale, high-energy emulsion with a mean droplet diameter of 400–600 nm. When mixed with antigen and applied nasally, a NE acts as a mucosal adjuvant and induces mucosal immune responses. One possible mechanism for the adjuvant effect of this material is that it augments antigen uptake and distribution to lymphoid tissues, where the immune response is generated. Biocompatible iron oxide nanoparticles have been used as a unique imaging approach to study the dynamics of cells or molecular migration. To study the uptake of NEs and track them in vivo, iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized and dispersed in soybean oil to make iron oxide-modified NEs. Our results show that iron oxide nanoparticles can be stabilized in the oil phase of the nanoemulsion at a concentration of 30 µg/μL and the iron oxide-modified NEs have a mean diameter of 521 nm. In vitro experiments demonstrated that iron oxide-modified NEs can affect uptake by TC-1 cells (a murine epithelial cell line and reduce the intensity of magnetic resonance (MR images by shortening the T2 time. Most importantly, in vivo studies demonstrated that iron oxide-modified NE could be detected in mouse nasal septum by both transmission electron microscopy and MR imaging. Altogether these experiments demonstrate that iron oxide-modified NE is a unique tool that can be used to study uptake and distribution of NEs after nasal application.

  9. Selenium sorption and isotope fractionation: Iron(III) oxides versus iron(II) sulfides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mitchell, K.; Couture, R.-M.; Johnson, T.M.; Mason, P.R.D.; Van Cappellen, P.

    2013-01-01

    Sorption and reduction are important processes influencing the environmental mobility and cycling of Se. In this study, we determined the rates of reaction and isotopic fractionations of Se(IV) and Se(VI) during sorption to iron oxides (2-line ferrihydrite, hematite and goethite) and iron sulfides (

  10. Synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles of narrow size distribution on polysaccharide templates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Nidhin; R Indumathy; K J Sreeram; Balachandran Unni Nair

    2008-02-01

    We report here the preparation of nanoparticles of iron oxide in the presence of polysaccharide templates. Interaction between iron (II) sulfate and template has been carried out in aqueous phase, followed by the selective and controlled removal of the template to achieve narrow distribution of particle size. Particles of iron oxide obtained have been characterized for their stability in solvent media, size, size distribution and crystallinity and found that when the negative value of the zeta potential increases, particle size decreases. A narrow particle size distribution with 100 = 275 nm was obtained with chitosan and starch templates. SEM measurements further confirm the particle size measurement. Diffuse reflectance UV–vis spectra values show that the template is completely removed from the final iron oxide particles and powder XRD measurements show that the peaks of the diffractogram are in agreement with the theoretical data of hematite. The salient observations of our study shows that there occurs a direct correlation between zeta potential, polydispersity index, bandgap energy and particle size. The crystallite size of the particles was found to be 30–35 nm. A large negative zeta potential was found to be advantageous for achieving lower particle sizes, owing to the particles remaining discrete without agglomeration.

  11. Iron Oxide Silica Derived from Sol-Gel Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Diniz da Costa

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work we investigate the effect of iron oxide embedded in silica matrices as a function of Fe/Si molar ratio and sol pH. To achieve homogeneous dispersion of iron oxide particles, iron nitrate nonahydrate was dissolved in hydrogen peroxide and was mixed with tetraethyl orthosilicate and ethanol in a sol-gel synthesis method. Increasing the calcination temperature led to a reduction in surface area, although the average pore radius remained almost constant at about 10 Å, independent of the Fe/Si molar ratio or sol pH. Hence, the densification of the matrix was accompanied by similar reduction in pore volume. However, calcination at 700 °C resulted in samples with similar surface area though the iron oxide content increased from 5% to 50% Fe/Si molar ratio. As metal oxide particles have lower surface area than polymeric silica structures, these results strongly suggest that the iron oxides opposed the silica structure collapse. The effect of sol pH was found to be less significant than the Fe/Si molar ratio in the formation of molecular sieve structures derived from iron oxide silica.

  12. The Effect of PtRuIr Nanoparticle Crystallinity in Electrocatalytic Methanol Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Linkov

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Two structural forms of a ternary alloy PtRuIr/C catalyst, one amorphous and one highly crystalline, were synthesized and compared to determine the effect of their respective structures on their activity and stability as anodic catalysts in methanol oxidation. Characterization techniques included TEM, XRD, and EDX. Electrochemical analysis using a glassy carbon disk electrode for cyclic voltammogram and chronoamperometry were tested in a solution of 0.5 mol L−1 CH3OH and 0.5 mol L−1 H2SO4. Amorphous PtRuIr/C catalyst was found to have a larger electrochemical surface area, while the crystalline PtRuIr/C catalyst had both a higher activity in methanol oxidation and increased CO poisoning rate. Crystallinity of the active alloy nanoparticles has a big impact on both methanol oxidation activity and in the CO poisoning rate.

  13. Effects of iron and aluminum oxides and clay content on penetration resistance of five Greek soils

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The effect of amorphous and crystalline iron (Fe) and aluminum (Al) oxides and oxy-hydroxides as well as clay on soil penetration resistance of five Greek soils, as a function of soil water suction was studied for the whole range of soil moisture. The soils tested were of loamy texture and were collected from cultivated and non-cultivated areas of north and central Greece (Macedonia and Thessaly). The study aimed at understanding the role of the above mentioned soil components on penetration ...

  14. High pressure Moessbauer spectroscopy of perovskite iron oxide

    CERN Document Server

    Nasu, S; Morimoto, S; Kawakami, T; Kuzushita, K; Takano, M

    2003-01-01

    High-pressure sup 5 sup 7 Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy using a diamond anvil cell has been performed for perovskite iron oxides SrFeO sub 3 , CaFeO sub 3 and La sub 1 sub / sub 3 Sr sub 2 sub / sub 3 O sub 3. The charge states and the magnetic dependency to pressure were determined. Pressure magnetic phase diagrams of these perovskite iron oxides are determined up to about 70 GPa. To be clear the magnetic ordered state, they are measured up to 7.8 T external magnetic fields at 4.5K. The phase transition of these perovskite oxides to ferromagnetisms with high magnetic ordered temperature is observed. In higher pressure, high spin-low spin transition of oxides besides CaFeO sub 3 is generated. The feature of Moessbauer spectroscopy, perovskite iron oxide and Moessbauer spectroscopy under high pressure are explained. (S.Y.)

  15. Structural characterization of iron oxide/hydroxide nanoparticles in nine different parenteral drugs for the treatment of iron deficiency anaemia by electron diffraction (ED) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fütterer, S; Andrusenko, I; Kolb, U; Hofmeister, W; Langguth, P

    2013-12-01

    Drug products containing iron oxide and hydroxide nanoparticles (INPs) are important for the treatment of iron deficiency anaemia. Pharmaceuticals prepared by the complexation of different kinds of INPs and carbohydrates have different physicochemical and biopharmaceutic characteristics. The increasing number of parenteral non-biological complex drugs (NBCD) containing iron requires physicochemical methods for characterization and enabling of cross comparisons. In this context the structure and the level of crystallinity of the iron phases may be connected to the in vitro and in vivo dissolution rates, which etiologically determine the therapeutic and toxic effects. X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and electron diffraction (ED) methods were used in order to investigate the nine different parenteral iron formulations Ferumoxytol (Feraheme(®)), sodium ferric gluconate sucrose (Ferrlecit(®)), iron sucrose (Venofer(®)), low molecular weight iron dextran (CosmoFer(®)), low molecular weight iron dextran (Infed(®)), high molecular weight iron dextran (Ironate(®)), high molecular weight iron dextran (Dexferrum(®)), iron carboxymaltose (Ferinject(®)) and iron isomaltoside 1000 (Monofer(®)). The iron phase in CosmoFer(®), Ferinject(®), Monofer(®), Infed(®), Ironate(®) and Dexferrum(®) was identified as Akaganéite/Akaganéite-like (β-FeOOH), with low amounts of chloride. By combining results of both methods the iron oxide in Feraheme(®) was identified as Magnetite (Fe3O4) with spinel-like structure. Ferrlecit(®) and Venofer(®) were difficult to analyze due to the low degree of crystallinity, but the iron phase seems to fit Lepidocrocite/Lepidocrocite-like (γ-FeOOH) or an amorphous kind of structure. The structural information on the type of iron oxide or hydroxide together with the particle size allows predicting the stability of the different complexes including their labile iron content. The combination of ED and XRPD methods is a very helpful approach

  16. Body iron is a contributor to oxidative damage of DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka; Loft, Steffen; Nyyssönen, Kristiina

    2007-01-01

    The transition metal iron is catalytically highly active in vitro, and not surprisingly, body iron has been suggested to promote oxidative stress in vivo. In the current analysis we studied the association of serum ferritin concentration and serum soluble transferrin receptor concentration.......17 (95% CI 0.08-0.26, P = 0.001), and serum soluble transferrin receptor to ferritin concentration ratio (TfR/ferritin) predicted the excretion rate at B = - 0.13 (95% CI - 0.21 to - 0.05, P = 0.002). Our data suggest that body iron contributes to excess oxidative stress already at non-iron overload...... with daily urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine excretion, a marker of oxidative stress, in 48 mildly dyslipidemic men in East Finland. In multivariate linear regression analyses allowing for age, smoking, body mass index and physical exercise, serum ferritin concentration predicted the excretion rate at B = 0...

  17. Body iron is a contributor to oxidative damage of DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuomainen, T.P.; Loft, Steffen Huitfeldt; Nyyssonen, K.

    2007-01-01

    The transition metal iron is catalytically highly active in vitro, and not surprisingly, body iron has been suggested to promote oxidative stress in vivo. In the current analysis we studied the association of serum ferritin concentration and serum soluble transferrin receptor concentration...... with daily urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine excretion, a marker of oxidative stress, in 48 mildly dyslipidemic men in East Finland. In multivariate linear regression analyses allowing for age, smoking, body mass index and physical exercise, serum ferritin concentration predicted the excretion rate at B = 0.......17 (95% CI 0.08-0.26, P = 0.001), and serum soluble transferrin receptor to ferritin concentration ratio (TfR/ferritin) predicted the excretion rate at B = - 0.13 (95% CI - 0.21 to - 0.05, P = 0.002). Our data suggest that body iron contributes to excess oxidative stress already at non-iron overload...

  18. Iron accumulation with age, oxidative stress and functional decline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinze Xu

    Full Text Available Identification of biological mediators in sarcopenia is pertinent to the development of targeted interventions to alleviate this condition. Iron is recognized as a potent pro-oxidant and a catalyst for the formation of reactive oxygen species in biological systems. It is well accepted that iron accumulates with senescence in several organs, but little is known about iron accumulation in muscle and how it may affect muscle function. In addition, it is unclear if interventions which reduced age-related loss of muscle quality, such as calorie restriction, impact iron accumulation. We investigated non-heme iron concentration, oxidative stress to nucleic acids in gastrocnemius muscle and key indices of sarcopenia (muscle mass and grip strength in male Fischer 344 X Brown Norway rats fed ad libitum (AL or a calorie restricted diet (60% of ad libitum food intake starting at 4 months of age at 8, 18, 29 and 37 months of age. Total non-heme iron levels in the gastrocnemius muscle of AL rats increased progressively with age. Between 29 and 37 months of age, the non-heme iron concentration increased by approximately 200% in AL-fed rats. Most importantly, the levels of oxidized RNA in gastrocnemius muscle of AL rats were significantly increased as well. The striking age-associated increase in non-heme iron and oxidized RNA levels and decrease in sarcopenia indices were all attenuated in the calorie restriction (CR rats. These findings strongly suggest that the age-related iron accumulation in muscle contributes to increased oxidative damage and sarcopenia, and that CR effectively attenuates these negative effects.

  19. One step paired electrochemical synthesis of iron and iron oxide nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ordoukhanian Juliet

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a new one step paired electrochemical method is developed for simultaneous synthesis of iron and iron oxide nanoparticles. iron and iron oxide are prepared as cathodic and anodic products from iron (ii sulfate aqueous solution in a membrane divided electrolytic cell by the pulsed current electrosynthesis. Because of organic solvent-free and electrochemical nature of the synthesis, the process could be considered as green and environmentally friendly. The reduction of energy consumption and low cost are the other significant advantages of this new method that would have a great application potential in the chemical industry. The nanostructure of prepared samples was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The magnetic properties were studied by vibrating sample magnetometer (VsM.

  20. Dextran-modified iron oxide nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jií; Hradil

    2007-01-01

    [1]Anger,S.,Caldwell,K.,Mehnert,W.,& Muller,R.(1999).Coating of nanoparticles:Analysis of adsorption using sedimentation field-flow fractionation(SdFFF).Proceedings of International Symposium of Controlled Release of Bioactivated Materials,26,599-600.[2]Bonnemain,B.(1998).Superparamagnetic agents in magnetic resonance imaging:Physicochemical characteristics and clinical applications-A review.Journal of Drug Targeting,6(3),167-174.[3]Bootz,A.,Vogel,V.,Schubert,D.,& Kreuter,J.(2004).Comparison of scanning electron microscopy,dynamic light scattering and analytical ultracentrifugation for the sizing of poly(butyl cyanoacrylate) nanoparticles.European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics,57(2),369-375.[4]Browarzik,D.(1997).Continuous kinetics of dextran degradation.Journal of Macromolecular Science Pure and Applied Chemistry,34(3),397-404.[5]Cabasso,I.,& Yuan,Y.(1996).Nanoparticles in polymer and polymer dendrimers.In J.Fendler & I.Dekany (Eds.),NATO ASI Series.Part 18Nanoparticles in Solids and Solutions (pp.131-153).[6]Chastellain,M.,Petri,A.,& Hofmann,H.(2004).Particle size investigation of a multistep synthesis of PVA coated superparamagnetic nanoparticles.Journal of Colloid Interface Science,278(2),353-360.[7]Chmela,E.,Tijssen,R.,Blom,M.T.,Gardeniers,H.J.G.E.,& van den Berg,A.(2002).A chip system for size separation of macromolecules and particles by hydrodynamic chromatography.Analytical Chemistry,74(14),3470-3475.[8]Confer,D.R.,& Logan,B.E.(1997).Molecular weight distribution of hydrolysis product during the biodegradation of model macromolecules in suspended and biofilm cultures.Ⅱ:Dextran and dextrin.Water Research,31(9),2137-2145.[9]Griffiths,C.H.,O'Horo,M.P.,& Smith,T.W.(1979).The structure,magnetic characterization and oxidation of colloidal iron dispersions.Journal of Applied Physics,50(11),7108-7115.[10]Gupta,A.K.,& Gupta,M.(2005).Synthesis and surface engineering of iron oxide nanoparticles for biomedical applications.Biomaterials,26

  1. Stem cell tracking using iron oxide nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bull E

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth Bull,1 Seyed Yazdan Madani,1 Roosey Sheth,1 Amelia Seifalian,1 Mark Green,2 Alexander M Seifalian1,31UCL Centre for Nanotechnology and Regenerative Medicine, Division of Surgery and Interventional Science, University College London, London, 2Department of Physics, King’s College London, Strand Campus, London, UK; 3Royal Free London National Health Service Foundation Trust Hospital, London, UKAbstract: Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs are an exciting advancement in the field of nanotechnology. They expand the possibilities of noninvasive analysis and have many useful properties, making them potential candidates for numerous novel applications. Notably, they have been shown that they can be tracked by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and are capable of conjugation with various cell types, including stem cells. In-depth research has been undertaken to establish these benefits, so that a deeper level of understanding of stem cell migratory pathways and differentiation, tumor migration, and improved drug delivery can be achieved. Stem cells have the ability to treat and cure many debilitating diseases with limited side effects, but a main problem that arises is in the noninvasive tracking and analysis of these stem cells. Recently, researchers have acknowledged the use of SPIONs for this purpose and have set out to establish suitable protocols for coating and attachment, so as to bring MRI tracking of SPION-labeled stem cells into common practice. This review paper explains the manner in which SPIONs are produced, conjugated, and tracked using MRI, as well as a discussion on their limitations. A concise summary of recently researched magnetic particle coatings is provided, and the effects of SPIONs on stem cells are evaluated, while animal and human studies investigating the role of SPIONs in stem cell tracking will be explored.Keywords: stem cells, nanoparticle, magnetic

  2. Formation of crystalline TiO2 by anodic oxidation of titanium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zixue Su; Linjie Zhang; Feilong Jiang; Maochun Hongn

    2013-01-01

    Formation of crystalline TiO2 (anatase) films by anodic oxidation of titanium foils in ethylene glycol (EG) based electrolytes at room temperature has been investigated. By varying the anodizing parameters such as the amounts of water and NH4F added, applied voltage and anodization time, anodic TiO2 films with different crystalline structures were obtained. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) characterizations were employed to determine the morphologies and crystalline structures of as-prepared anodic TiO2 films. The results indicate that crystallization of anodic TiO2 films was generally facilitated by high fluoride concentration, high applied voltage and longer anodization time, and the formation of anodic TiO2 films with best crystallinity could only be achieved when optimized amounts of water were added.

  3. Stabilization and functionalization of iron oxide nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amstad, Esther; Textor, Marcus; Reimhult, Erik

    2011-07-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) are used in a rapidly expanding number of research and practical applications in the biomedical field, including magnetic cell labeling separation and tracking, for therapeutic purposes in hyperthermia and drug delivery, and for diagnostic purposes, e.g., as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging. These applications require good NP stability at physiological conditions, close control over NP size and controlled surface presentation of functionalities. This review is focused on different aspects of the stability of superparamagnetic iron oxide NPs, from its practical definition to its implementation by molecular design of the dispersant shell around the iron oxide core and further on to its influence on the magnetic properties of the superparamagnetic iron oxide NPs. Special attention is given to the selection of molecular anchors for the dispersant shell, because of their importance to ensure colloidal and functional stability of sterically stabilized superparamagnetic iron oxide NPs. We further detail how dispersants have been optimized to gain close control over iron oxide NP stability, size and functionalities by independently considering the influences of anchors and the attached sterically repulsive polymer brushes. A critical evaluation of different strategies to stabilize and functionalize core-shell superparamagnetic iron oxide NPs as well as a brief introduction to characterization methods to compare those strategies is given.Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) are used in a rapidly expanding number of research and practical applications in the biomedical field, including magnetic cell labeling separation and tracking, for therapeutic purposes in hyperthermia and drug delivery, and for diagnostic purposes, e.g., as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging. These applications require good NP stability at physiological conditions, close control over NP size and controlled surface

  4. Preparation of iron oxides using ammonium iron citrate precursor: Thin films and nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sangmoon

    2009-09-01

    Ammonium iron citrate (C 6H 8O 7·nFe ·nH 3N) was used as a precursor for preparing both iron-oxide thin films and nanoparticles. Thin films of iron oxides were fabricated on silicon (111) substrate using a successive-ionic-layer-adsorption-and-reaction (SILAR) method and subsequent hydrothermal or furnace annealing. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images of the iron-oxide films obtained under various annealing conditions show the changes of the micro-scale surface structures and the magnetic properties. Homogenous Fe 3O 4 nanoparticles around 4 nm in diameter were synthesized by hydrothermal reduction method at low temperature and investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

  5. Synthesis and characterization of L-carnosine coated iron oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durmus, Z. [Department of Chemistry, Fatih University, B. Cekmece, 34500 Istanbul (Turkey); Kavas, H. [Department of Physics, Fatih University, B. Cekmece, 34500 Istanbul (Turkey); Baykal, A., E-mail: hbaykal@fatih.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Fatih University, B. Cekmece, 34500 Istanbul (Turkey); Sozeri, H. [TUBITAK-UME, National Metrology Institute, PO Box 54, 41470 Gebze-Kocaeli (Turkey); Alpsoy, L. [Department of Biology, Fatih University, B. Cekmece, 34500 Istanbul (Turkey); Celik, S.U. [Department of Chemistry, Fatih University, B. Cekmece, 34500 Istanbul (Turkey); Toprak, M.S. [Department of Functional Materials, Royal Institute of Technology, SE16440 Kista-Stockholm (Sweden)

    2011-02-03

    Research highlights: > L-Carnosine coated iron oxide nanoparticles (CCIO NPs) have been prepared via co-precipitation of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} (magnetite) in the presence of L-carnosine. > FTIR analysis showed that the binding of carnosine onto the surface of iron oxide is through unidentate linkage of carboxyl group. > Magnetization measurements revealed that L-carnosine iron oxide composite has immeasurable coercivity and remanence with absence of hysteritic behavior, which implies superparamagnetic behaviour at room temperature. > The synthesized amino acid-coated magnetic nanoparticles might be applied to cell separation, diagnosis and targeted drug delivery for cancer therapy. - Abstract: L-Carnosine coated iron oxide nanoparticles (CCIO NPs) have been prepared via co-precipitation of iron oxide in the presence of L-carnosine. Crystalline phase was identified as magnetite with an average crystallite size of 8 nm as estimated from X-ray line profile fitting. Particle size estimated from TEM by log-normal fitting was {approx}11 nm. FTIR analysis showed that the binding of carnosine onto the surface of iron oxide is through unidentate linkage of carboxyl group. CCIO NPs showed superparamagnetic charactersitic at room temperature. The magnetic core size of superparamagnetic CCIO NPs was found slightly smaller than the size obtained from TEM, due to the presence of magnetically dead layer. Magnetization measurements revealed that L-carnosine iron oxide composite has immeasurable coercivity and remanence with absence of hysteritic behavior, which implies superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature. The low value of saturation magnetization compared to the bulk magnetite has been explained by spin canting. LDH activity tests showed slight cytotoxicity of high dose of CCIO NPs. The ac conductivity of CCIO NPs was found to be greater than that of carnosine and the effective conduction mechanism was found as correlated barrier hopping (CBH). dc activation energy of the

  6. Dosimetric response for crystalline and nanostructured aluminium oxide to a high-current pulse electron beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikiforov, S V; Kortov, V S

    2014-11-01

    The main thermoluminescent (TL) and dosimetric properties of the detectors based on anion-defective crystalline and nanostructured aluminium oxide after exposure to a high-current pulse electron beam are studied. TL peaks associated with deep-trapping centres are registered. It is shown that the use of deep-trap TL at 200-600°С allows registering absorbed doses up to 750 kGy for single-crystalline detectors and those up to 6 kGy for nanostructured ones. A wide range of the doses registered, high reproducibility of the TL signal and low fading contribute to a possibility of using single-crystalline and nanostructured aluminium oxide for the dosimetry of high-current pulse electron beams.

  7. Iron oxide nanoparticle synthesis in aqueous and membrane systems for oxidative degradation of trichloroethylene from water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gui Minghui; Smuleac, Vasile [University of Kentucky, Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering (United States); Ormsbee, Lindell E. [University of Kentucky, Department of Civil Engineering (United States); Sedlak, David L. [University of California at Berkeley, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering (United States); Bhattacharyya, Dibakar, E-mail: db@engr.uky.edu [University of Kentucky, Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering (United States)

    2012-05-15

    The potential for using hydroxyl radical (OH{sup Bullet }) reactions catalyzed by iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) to remediate toxic organic compounds was investigated. Iron oxide NPs were synthesized by controlled oxidation of iron NPs prior to their use for contaminant oxidation (by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} addition) at near-neutral pH values. Cross-linked polyacrylic acid (PAA) functionalized polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) microfiltration membranes were prepared by in situ polymerization of acrylic acid inside the membrane pores. Iron and iron oxide NPs (80-100 nm) were directly synthesized in the polymer matrix of PAA/PVDF membranes, which prevented the agglomeration of particles and controlled the particle size. The conversion of iron to iron oxide in aqueous solution with air oxidation was studied based on X-ray diffraction, Moessbauer spectroscopy and BET surface area test methods. Trichloroethylene (TCE) was selected as the model contaminant because of its environmental importance. Degradations of TCE and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} by NP surface generated OH{sup Bullet} were investigated. Depending on the ratio of iron and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, TCE conversions as high as 100 % (with about 91 % dechlorination) were obtained. TCE dechlorination was also achieved in real groundwater samples with the reactive membranes.

  8. Iron oxide nanoparticle synthesis in aqueous and membrane systems for oxidative degradation of trichloroethylene from water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Minghui; Smuleac, Vasile; Ormsbee, Lindell E.; Sedlak, David L.; Bhattacharyya, Dibakar

    2012-05-01

    The potential for using hydroxyl radical (OH•) reactions catalyzed by iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) to remediate toxic organic compounds was investigated. Iron oxide NPs were synthesized by controlled oxidation of iron NPs prior to their use for contaminant oxidation (by H2O2 addition) at near-neutral pH values. Cross-linked polyacrylic acid (PAA) functionalized polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) microfiltration membranes were prepared by in situ polymerization of acrylic acid inside the membrane pores. Iron and iron oxide NPs (80-100 nm) were directly synthesized in the polymer matrix of PAA/PVDF membranes, which prevented the agglomeration of particles and controlled the particle size. The conversion of iron to iron oxide in aqueous solution with air oxidation was studied based on X-ray diffraction, Mössbauer spectroscopy and BET surface area test methods. Trichloroethylene (TCE) was selected as the model contaminant because of its environmental importance. Degradations of TCE and H2O2 by NP surface generated OH• were investigated. Depending on the ratio of iron and H2O2, TCE conversions as high as 100 % (with about 91 % dechlorination) were obtained. TCE dechlorination was also achieved in real groundwater samples with the reactive membranes.

  9. RF Magnetron Sputtering Aluminum Oxide Film for Surface Passivation on Crystalline Silicon Wafers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siming Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum oxide films were deposited on crystalline silicon substrates by reactive RF magnetron sputtering. The influences of the deposition parameters on the surface passivation, surface damage, optical properties, and composition of the films have been investigated. It is found that proper sputtering power and uniform magnetic field reduced the surface damage from the high-energy ion bombardment to the silicon wafers during the process and consequently decreased the interface trap density, resulting in the good surface passivation; relatively high refractive index of aluminum oxide film is benefic to improve the surface passivation. The negative-charged aluminum oxide film was then successfully prepared. The surface passivation performance was further improved after postannealing by formation of an SiOx interfacial layer. It is demonstrated that the reactive sputtering is an effective technique of fabricating aluminum oxide surface passivation film for low-cost high-efficiency crystalline silicon solar cells.

  10. Formation and Transformation of Iron Oxide-Kaolinite Associations in the Presence of Iron(II)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, S.Y.; Liu, F.; Feng, X.H.; Tan, W.F.; Koopal, L.K.

    2011-01-01

    Iron oxide-kaolinite associations are important components of tropical and subtropical soils and have significant influence on the physical and chemical properties of soils. In this study, the formation and transformation of Fe oxide-kaolinite associations as a function of pH, temperature, and time

  11. Iron and oxidative stress in cardiomyopathy in thalassemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdoukas, Vasilios; Coates, Thomas D; Cabantchik, Zvi Ioav

    2015-11-01

    With repeated blood transfusions, patients with thalassemia major rapidly become loaded with iron, often surpassing hepatic metal accumulation capacity within ferritin shells and infiltrating heart and endocrine organs. That pathological scenario contrasts with the physiological one, which is characterized by an efficient maintenance of all plasma iron bound to circulating transferrin, due to a tight control of iron ingress into plasma by the hormone hepcidin. Within cells, most of the acquired iron becomes protein-associated, as once released from endocytosed transferrin, it is used within mitochondria for the synthesis of protein prosthetic groups or it is incorporated into enzyme active centers or alternatively sequestered within ferritin shells. A few cell types also express the iron extrusion transporter ferroportin, which is under the negative control of circulating hepcidin. However, that system only backs up the major cell regulated iron uptake/storage machinery that is poised to maintain a basal level of labile cellular iron for metabolic purposes without incurring potentially toxic scenarios. In thalassemia and other transfusion iron-loading conditions, once transferrin saturation exceeds about 70%, labile forms of iron enter the circulation and can gain access to various types of cells via resident transporters or channels. Within cells, they can attain levels that exceed their ability to chemically cope with labile iron, which has a propensity for generating reactive oxygen species (ROS), thereby inducing oxidative damage. This scenario occurs in the heart of hypertransfused thalassemia major patients who do not receive adequate iron-chelation therapy. Iron that accumulates in cardiomyocytes forms agglomerates that are detected by T2* MRI. The labile forms of iron infiltrate the mitochondria and damage cells by inducing noxious ROS formation, resulting in heart failure. The very rapid relief of cardiac dysfunction seen after intensive iron

  12. Oxidation of Silicon and Boron in Boron Containing Molten Iron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A new process of directly smelting boron steel from boron-containing pig iron has been established. The starting material boron-containing pig iron was obtained from ludwigite ore, which is very abundant in the eastern area of Liaoning Province of China. The experiment was performed in a medium-frequency induction furnace, and Fe2O3 powder was used as the oxidizing agent. The effects of temperature, addition of Fe2O3, basicity, stirring, and composition of melt on the oxidation of silicon and boron were investigated respectively. The results showed that silicon and boron were oxidized simultaneously and their oxidation ratio exceeded 90% at 1 400 ℃. The favorable oxidation temperature of silicon was about 1 300-1 350 C. High oxygen potential of slag and strong stirring enhanced the oxidation of silicon and boron.

  13. Nanostructured carbon-crystalline titania composites from microphase separation of poly(ethylene oxide-b-acrylonitrile) and titania sols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefik, Morgan; Lee, Jinwoo; Wiesner, Ulrich

    2009-05-14

    A simple "one-pot" method utilizing a graphitic carbon source containing poly(ethylene oxide-b-acrylonitrile) diblock copolymer as a structure directing agent was used to synthesize carbon-crystalline titania composites as well as crystalline mesoporous titania materials after oxidative carbon removal.

  14. Magnetic composites based on hybrid spheres of aluminum oxide and superparamagnetic nanoparticles of iron oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, Tiago P. [Langmuir - Laboratorio de Adsorcao e Catalise, Departamento de Quimica Analitica e Fisico-Quimica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, CP 6021, CEP 60455-970 Campus do Pici, Fortaleza (Brazil); Vasconcelos, Igor F. [Departamento de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Fortaleza (Brazil); Sasaki, Jose M. [Laboratorio de Raios X, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Campus do Pici, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Fabris, J.D.; Oliveira, Diana Q.L. de [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Valentini, Antoninho, E-mail: valent@ufc.b [Langmuir - Laboratorio de Adsorcao e Catalise, Departamento de Quimica Analitica e Fisico-Quimica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, CP 6021, CEP 60455-970 Campus do Pici, Fortaleza (Brazil)

    2010-03-15

    Materials containing hybrid spheres of aluminum oxide and superparamagnetic nanoparticles of iron oxides were obtained from a chemical precursor prepared by admixing chitosan and iron and aluminum hydroxides. The oxides were first characterized with scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Moessbauer spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy micrographs showed the size distribution of the resulting spheres to be highly homogeneous. The occurrence of nano-composites containing aluminum oxides and iron oxides was confirmed from powder X-ray diffraction patterns; except for the sample with no aluminum, the superparamagnetic relaxation due to iron oxide particles were observed from Moessbauer spectra obtained at 298 and 110 K; the onset six line-spectrum collected at 20 K indicates a magnetic ordering related to the blocking relaxation effect for significant portion of small spheres in the sample with a molar ratio Al:Fe of 2:1.

  15. A chameleon catalyst for nonheme iron-promoted olefin oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Shyam R; Javadi, Maedeh Moshref; Feng, Yan; Hyun, Min Young; Oloo, Williamson N; Kim, Cheal; Que, Lawrence

    2014-11-18

    We report the chameleonic reactivity of two nonheme iron catalysts for olefin oxidation with H2O2 that switch from nearly exclusive cis-dihydroxylation of electron-poor olefins to the exclusive epoxidation of electron-rich olefins upon addition of acetic acid. This switching suggests a common precursor to the nucleophilic oxidant proposed to Fe(III)-η(2)-OOH and electrophilic oxidant proposed to Fe(V)(O)(OAc), and reversible coordination of acetic acid as a switching pathway.

  16. The adsorption of nitrogen oxides on crystalline ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bartels

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The partitioning of nitrogen oxides between ice and air is of importance to the ozone budget in the upper troposphere. In the present study, adsorption of nitrogen oxides on ice was investigated at atmospheric pressure using a chromatographic technique with radioactively labelled nitrogen oxides at low concentrations. The measured retentions solely depended on molecular adsorption and were not influenced by dimerisation, formation of encapsulated hydrates on the ice surface, dissociation of the acids, nor by migration into a quasi-liquid layer or grain boundaries. Based on the chromatographic retention and the model of thermo-chromatography, the standard adsorption enthalpy of -20 kJ mol-1 for NO, -22kJ mol-1 for NO2, -30kJ mol-1 for peroxyacetyl nitrate, -32kJ mol-1 for HON} and -44 kJ mol-1 for HNO3 was calculated. To perform those calculations within the model of thermo-chromatography, the standard adsorption entropy was calculated based on statistical thermodynamics. In this work, two different choices of standard states were applied, and consequently different values of the standard adsorption entropy, of either between -39 kJ mol-1 and -45kJ mol-1, or -164 kJ mol-1 and -169 kJ mol-1 for each nitrogen oxide were derived. The standard adsorption enthalpy was identical for both standard adsorption entropies and thus shown to be independent of the choice of standard state. A brief outlook on environmental implications of our findings indicates that adsorption on ice might be an important removal process of HNO3. In addition, it might be of some importance for HONO and peroxyacetyl nitrate and irrelevant for NO and NO2.

  17. Iron oxide and gold nanoparticles in cancer therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gotman, Irena, E-mail: gotman@technion.ac.il; Gutmanas, Elazar Y., E-mail: gutmanas@technion.ac.il [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, 32000 Israel (Israel); Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Psakhie, Sergey G. [Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); Lozhkomoev, Aleksandr S. [Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-02

    Continuous research activities in the field of nanomedicine in the past decade have, to a great extent, been focused on nanoparticle technologies for cancer therapy. Gold and iron oxide nanoparticles (NP) are two of the most studied inorganic nanomaterials due to their unique optical and magnetic properties. Both types of NPs are emerging as promising systems for anti-tumor drug delivery and for nanoparticle-mediated thermal therapy of cancer. In thermal therapy, localized heating inside tumors or in proximity of tumor cells can be induced, for example, with Au NPs by radiofrequency ablation heating or conversion of photon energy (photothermal therapy) and in iron oxide magnetic NPs by heat generation through relaxation in an alternating magnetic field (magnetic hyperthermia). Furthermore, the superparamagnetic properties of iron oxide nanoparticles have led to their use as potent MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) contrast agents. Surface modification/coating can produce NPs with tailored and desired properties, such as enhanced blood circulation time, stability, biocompatibility and water solubility. To target nanoparticles to specific tumor cells, NPs should be conjugated with targeting moieties on the surface which bind to receptors or other molecular structures on the cell surface. The article presents several approaches to enhancing the specificity of Au and iron oxide nanoparticles for tumor tissue by appropriate surface modification/functionalization, as well as the effect of these treatments on the saturation magnetization value of iron oxide NPs. The use of other nanoparticles and nanostructures in cancer treatment is also briefly reviewed.

  18. Iron-oxidation processes in an electroflocculation (electrocoagulation) cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasson, Moshe Ben, E-mail: mosheinspain@hotmail.com [Department of Soil and Water Sciences, Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Calmano, Wolfgang [Institute of Environmental Technology and Energy Economics, Technical University of Hamburg-Harburg, 21073 Hamburg (Germany); Adin, Avner [Department of Soil and Water Sciences, Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot 76100 (Israel)

    2009-11-15

    The processes of iron oxidation in an electroflocculation cell were investigated for a pH range of 5-9 and electric currents of 0.05-0.4 A (equivalent current densities of 8.6-69 A/m{sup 2}). At all pH values and electric currents investigated, it was demonstrated and proven that for all practical purposes, the form of iron that dissolves from the anode is Fe{sup 2+} (ferrous). The difference between the amount of theoretical dissolution as calculated by Faraday's law and the amount of observed dissolved iron ions may indicate two phenomena in electrochemical cells. The first is possible dissolution of the anode even without the operation of an electric current; this led to higher theoretical dissolution rates at lower pH. The second is the participation of some of the electrons of the electric current in reactions other than anode dissolution which led to lower theoretical dissolution rates at higher pH. Those other reactions did not lead to an increase in the local oxidation saturation level near the anode and did not affect iron-oxidation rates in the electroflocculation processes. The oxidation rates of the dissolved Fe{sup 2+} (ferrous) to Fe{sup 3+} (ferric) ions in electroflocculation processes were strongly dependent on the pH and were similar to the known oxidation rates of iron in non-electrochemical cells.

  19. Iron oxide and gold nanoparticles in cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotman, Irena; Psakhie, Sergey G.; Lozhkomoev, Aleksandr S.; Gutmanas, Elazar Y.

    2016-08-01

    Continuous research activities in the field of nanomedicine in the past decade have, to a great extent, been focused on nanoparticle technologies for cancer therapy. Gold and iron oxide nanoparticles (NP) are two of the most studied inorganic nanomaterials due to their unique optical and magnetic properties. Both types of NPs are emerging as promising systems for anti-tumor drug delivery and for nanoparticle-mediated thermal therapy of cancer. In thermal therapy, localized heating inside tumors or in proximity of tumor cells can be induced, for example, with Au NPs by radiofrequency ablation heating or conversion of photon energy (photothermal therapy) and in iron oxide magnetic NPs by heat generation through relaxation in an alternating magnetic field (magnetic hyperthermia). Furthermore, the superparamagnetic properties of iron oxide nanoparticles have led to their use as potent MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) contrast agents. Surface modification/coating can produce NPs with tailored and desired properties, such as enhanced blood circulation time, stability, biocompatibility and water solubility. To target nanoparticles to specific tumor cells, NPs should be conjugated with targeting moieties on the surface which bind to receptors or other molecular structures on the cell surface. The article presents several approaches to enhancing the specificity of Au and iron oxide nanoparticles for tumor tissue by appropriate surface modification/functionalization, as well as the effect of these treatments on the saturation magnetization value of iron oxide NPs. The use of other nanoparticles and nanostructures in cancer treatment is also briefly reviewed.

  20. A pentanuclear iron catalyst designed for water oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, Masaya; Kondo, Mio; Kuga, Reiko; Kurashige, Yuki; Yanai, Takeshi; Hayami, Shinya; Praneeth, Vijayendran K. K.; Yoshida, Masaki; Yoneda, Ko; Kawata, Satoshi; Masaoka, Shigeyuki

    2016-02-01

    Although the oxidation of water is efficiently catalysed by the oxygen-evolving complex in photosystem II (refs 1 and 2), it remains one of the main bottlenecks when aiming for synthetic chemical fuel production powered by sunlight or electricity. Consequently, the development of active and stable water oxidation catalysts is crucial, with heterogeneous systems considered more suitable for practical use and their homogeneous counterparts more suitable for targeted, molecular-level design guided by mechanistic understanding. Research into the mechanism of water oxidation has resulted in a range of synthetic molecular catalysts, yet there remains much interest in systems that use abundant, inexpensive and environmentally benign metals such as iron (the most abundant transition metal in the Earth’s crust and found in natural and synthetic oxidation catalysts). Water oxidation catalysts based on mononuclear iron complexes have been explored, but they often deactivate rapidly and exhibit relatively low activities. Here we report a pentanuclear iron complex that efficiently and robustly catalyses water oxidation with a turnover frequency of 1,900 per second, which is about three orders of magnitude larger than that of other iron-based catalysts. Electrochemical analysis confirms the redox flexibility of the system, characterized by six different oxidation states between FeII5 and FeIII5; the FeIII5 state is active for oxidizing water. Quantum chemistry calculations indicate that the presence of adjacent active sites facilitates O-O bond formation with a reaction barrier of less than ten kilocalories per mole. Although the need for a high overpotential and the inability to operate in water-rich solutions limit the practicality of the present system, our findings clearly indicate that efficient water oxidation catalysts based on iron complexes can be created by ensuring that the system has redox flexibility and contains adjacent water-activation sites.

  1. Iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Bondo; Moen, I W; Mandrup-Poulsen, T

    2014-01-01

    The interest in the role of ferrous iron in diabetes pathophysiology has been revived by recent evidence of iron as an important determinant of pancreatic islet inflammation and as a biomarker of diabetes risk and mortality. The iron metabolism in the β-cell is complex. Excess free iron is toxic......, but at the same time, iron is required for normal β-cell function and thereby glucose homeostasis. In the pathogenesis of diabetes, iron generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) by participating in the Fenton chemistry, which can induce oxidative damage and apoptosis. The aim of this review is to present...... and discuss recent evidence, suggesting that iron is a key pathogenic factor in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes with a focus on inflammatory pathways. Pro-inflammatory cytokine-induced β-cell death is not fully understood, but may include iron-induced ROS formation resulting in dedifferentiation by activation...

  2. Spectral properties of oxide crystals free of iron ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvapil, J.; Perner, B.; Kvapil, J.; Manek, B.; Kubelka, J.; Blazek, K. (Monokrystaly, Turnov (Czechoslovakia)); Austrata, R.; Schauer, P. (Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, Brno. Inst. of Scientific Instruments); Vitamvas, Z. (Technical Univ., Liberec (Czechoslovakia))

    1982-07-01

    Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and YAG crystals were purified from traces of iron by the growth in reducing atmosphere. Luminescence output of such materials was substantially increased, but some undesirable properties as transient colour centre formation in YAG:Nd and low damage threshold of ruby laser rods were observed. Minimum concentration of iron ions which drastically change spectral properties of oxide crystals seems to be

  3. Methods of preparing deposits containing iron oxides for recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Lis

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The metallurgical industry is one of the largest sources of wastes. Some of them, however, owing to their content of metals such as zinc or iron, may become valuable secondary raw materials. In order to achieve that purpose, they require appropriate preparation. This article provides a discussion on the methods of preparation of scrap from steelworks, namely deposits containing iron oxides, enabling their recycling.

  4. Iron oxides as pedoenvironmental indicators: state of the art, answers and questions (Philippe Duchaufour Medal Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrent, J.

    2012-04-01

    The colour and magnetic properties of soils largely reflect the content and mineralogy of their iron oxides, which in turn relate to the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the soil environment. For more than 50 years, soil mineralogists and chemists have collected data for iron oxides in soils formed in widely different environments and tried to understand the complex nature of the different suites and formation pathways for these minerals via laboratory experiments. The discovery of ferrihydrite —the poorly crystalline precursor of most Fe oxides— in 1971, and the recognition of its common presence in soils, raised interest in deciphering the environmental factors that affect its transformation into goethite and hematite, the two most abundant crystalline iron oxides in soil. Field observations were consistent with laboratory experiments in which temperature, water activity, pH, foreign ions and organic matter were found to play a key role in the crystallization of ferrihydrite. Thus, the hematite/(hematite + goethite) ratio increased with increasing temperature and also with the likelihood of seasonal soil drying. Exploiting this ratio as a (pedo)environment indicator is, however, not devoid of problems derived from insufficient knowledge of the interactions between the influential chemical variables, difficulties in quantifying the two minerals and changes brought about by reductive dissolution. Soil formation usually leads to magnetic enhancement as a result of the production of magnetite and/or maghemite, which are ferrimagnetic iron oxides, and, possibly, an ordered ferrimagnetic ferrihydrite, as suggested by recent laboratory experiments. The concentration of pedogenic ferrimagnets as estimated via proxies such as magnetic susceptibility or frequency-dependent magnetic susceptibility has been found to relate to climate variables [particularly (paleo)rainfall] in many studies reported over the last 30 years. However, extracting accurate

  5. Gold-Iron Oxide Catalyst for CO Oxidation: Effect of Support Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Zhen Cui

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Gold-iron oxide (Au/FeOx is one of the highly active catalysts for CO oxidation, and is also a typical system for the study of the chemistry of gold catalysis. In this work, two different types of iron oxide supports, i.e., hydroxylated (Fe_OH and dehydrated iron oxide (Fe_O, have been used for the deposition of gold via a deposition-precipitation (DP method. The structure of iron oxide has been tuned by either selecting precipitated pH of 6.7–11.2 for Fe_OH or changing calcination temperature of from 200 to 600 °C for Fe_O. Then, 1 wt. % Au catalysts on these iron oxide supports were measured for low-temperature CO oxidation reaction. Both fresh and used samples have been characterized by multiple techniques including transmission electron microscopy (TEM and high-resolution TEM (HRTEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES and temperature-programmed reduction by hydrogen (H2-TPR. It has been demonstrated that the surface properties of the iron oxide support, as well as the metal-support interaction, plays crucial roles on the performance of Au/FeOx catalysts in CO oxidation.

  6. Neutrophilic iron oxidizers adapted to highly oxic environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gülay, Arda; Musovic, Sanin; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen;

    of iron oxidizing bacterial in the highly oxic environments found in typical rapid sand filters. The neutrophilic FeOB were enriched by the Fe2+/O2 opposing gradient technique and quantified by MPN methodology. Diversity fingerprints of the enrichment cultures were obtained with a 16S rRNA targeted DGGE...... oxidation of iron would be retarded. For that reason, no attempts have been documented to describe the density and diversity of iron oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) in oxic neutrophilic environments. Under low temperatures (5 to 10°C) conditions, as typically found in groundwater, extremely low rates of chemical...... technique, and dominant bands were isolated and sequenced for identification of dominant enrichment members. Enrichment were microscopically examined via CSLM in combination with FeOB specific or generic cytostains to verify enrichments, check cell morphologies and quantify cell densities. Our results...

  7. Comparison of Oxidative Stresses Mediated by Different Crystalline Forms and Surface Modification of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Samy El-Said

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs are manufactured worldwide for use in a wide range of applications. There are two common crystalline forms of TiO2 anatase and rutile with different physical and chemical characteristics. We previously demonstrated that an increased DNA damage response is mediated by anatase crystalline form compared to rutile. In the present study, we conjugated TiO2 NPs with polyethylene glycol (PEG in order to reduce the genotoxicity and we evaluated some oxidative stress parameters to obtain information on the cellular mechanisms of DNA damage that operate in response to TiO2 NPs different crystalline forms exposure in hepatocarcinoma cell lines (HepG2. Our results indicated a significant increase in oxidative stress mediated by the anatase form of TiO2 NPs compared to rutile form. On the other hand, PEG modified TiO2 NPs showed a significant decrease in oxidative stress as compared to TiO2 NPs. These data suggested that the genotoxic potential of TiO2 NPs varies with crystalline form and surface modification.

  8. Liquid crystalline polymer nanocomposites reinforced with in-situ reduced graphene oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pedrazzoli

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work liquid-crystalline polymer (LCP nanocomposites reinforced with in-situ reduced graphene oxide are investigated. Graphene oxide (GO was first synthesized by the Hummers method, and the kinetics of its thermal reduction was assessed. GO layers were then homogeneously dispersed in a thermotropic liquid crystalline polymer matrix (Vectran®, and an in-situ thermal reduction of GO into reduced graphene oxide (rGO was performed. Even at low rGO amount, the resulting nanocomposites exhibited an enhancement of both the mechanical properties and the thermal stability. Improvements of the creep stability and of the thermo-mechanical behavior were also observed upon nanofiller incorporation. Furthermore, in-situ thermal reduction of the insulating GO into the more electrically conductive rGO led to an important surface resistivity decrease in the nanofilled samples.

  9. Decorating multiwalled carbon nanotubes with zinc oxide nano-crystallines through hydrothermal growth process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI ChenSha; QIAO YingJie; LI YuMing

    2012-01-01

    Multiwalled-carbon nanotubes coated with nano-crystalline zinc oxide (ZnO) was prepared by in situ growth of nano zinc oxide on the surfaces of carbon nanotubes through hydrothermal method.X-ray diffraction,transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy analysis techniques were used to characterize the samples.It was observed that a layer of nano-crystalline ZnO with the wurtzite hexagonal crystal structure was uniformly coated on the nanotube surfaces with good adhesion,which resulted in the formation of a novel ZnO-nanotube nano composite.In this work,the carbon nanotubes decorated by metal oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple chemical-solution route which is suitable for the large-scale production with low cost.

  10. Use of triethylene glycol monobutyl ether in synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyaz, Seda [Department of Chemistry, Balikesir University, Balikesir 10145 (Turkey); Ozel, Fatmahan [Department of Physics, Balikesir University, Balıkesir 10145 (Turkey); Kockar, Hakan, E-mail: hkockar@balikesir.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Balikesir University, Balıkesir 10145 (Turkey); Tanrisever, Taner [Department of Chemistry, Balikesir University, Balikesir 10145 (Turkey)

    2014-06-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by thermal decomposition of iron–oleate complex using triethylene glycol monobutyl ether (TREGBE) as solvent for the first time for more mass of the nanoparticles. The effect of TREGBE on the properties of the nanoparticles was compared with that of 1-hexadecene. The impact of oleic acid concentration on the properties of the nanoparticles was also studied. On the use of TREGBE as compared with 1-hexadecene, the average crystal size reduced from 9.1±2.1 to 8.2±0.7 nm whereas the saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) increased from 53.6 to 58.0 emu/g. Moreover, more products can be synthesized using TREGBE. Besides, the interactions between particle surfaces and TREGBE are weaker than that of 1-hexadecene according to gravimetric analysis results. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that crystallinity and particle size scaled up with increasing oleic acid amount in TREGBE. The electron microscopy showed that dot-shaped particles turned into irregular particles with increasing amount of oleic acid molecules using TREGBE. The results disclosed that TREGBE is quite a suitable solvent to synthesize the superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with the desired size and M{sub s} for more mass production at low temperature. - Highlights: • Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by thermal decomposition of iron–oleate complex. • On the use of TREGBE, the average crystal size reduced from 9.1±2.1 to 8.2±0.7 nm. • The crystallinity and particle size scaled up with increasing oleic acid amount in TREGBE. • The saturation magnetization M{sub s} increased from 53.6 to 58.0 emu/g with the use of TREGBE. • The dot-shaped particles turned into irregular particles with increasing oleic acid molecules using TREGBE.

  11. Elucidation of the electrochromic mechanism of nanostructured iron oxides films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Lobato, M.A.; Martinez, Arturo I.; Castro-Roman, M. [Center for Research and Advanced Studies of the National Polytechnic Institute, Cinvestav Campus Saltillo, Carr. Saltillo-Monterrey Km. 13, Ramos Arizpe, Coah. 25900 (Mexico); Perry, Dale L. [Mail Stop 70A1150, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Zarate, R.A. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Catolica del Norte, Casilla 1280, Antofagasta (Chile); Escobar-Alarcon, L. (Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico)

    2011-02-15

    Nanostructured hematite thin films were electrochemically cycled in an aqueous solution of LiOH. Through optical, structural, morphological, and magnetic measurements, the coloration mechanism of electrochromic iron oxide thin films was elucidated. The conditions for double or single electrochromic behavior are given in this work. During the electrochemical cycling, it was found that topotactic transformations of hexagonal crystal structures are favored; i.e. {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} to Fe(OH){sub 2} and subsequently to {delta}-FeOOH. These topotactic redox reactions are responsible for color changes of iron oxide films. (author)

  12. Effect of surfactant for magnetic properties of iron oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haracz, S. [Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 89B, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Hilgendorff, M. [Freie Universität Berlin, Fachbereich Physik, Arnimalle 14, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Rybka, J.D. [Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 89B, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Giersig, M. [Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 89B, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Freie Universität Berlin, Fachbereich Physik, Arnimalle 14, 14195 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • Dynamic behavior of magnetic nanoparticles. • Synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles. • Effect of surfactant for magnetic properties. - Abstract: For different medical applications nanoparticles (NPs) with well-defined magnetic properties have to be used. Coating ligand can change the magnetic moment on the surface of nanostructures and therefore the magnetic behavior of the system. Here we investigated magnetic NPs in a size of 13 nm conjugated with four different kinds of surfactants. The surface anisotropy and the magnetic moment of the system were changed due to the presence of the surfactant on the surface of iron oxide NPs.

  13. Multifunctional superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: promising tools in cancer theranostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhosh, Poornima Budime; Ulrih, Nataša Poklar

    2013-08-09

    Iron-oxide nanoparticles of small dimensions that have superparamagnetic properties show immense potential to revolutionize the future of cancer theranostics, the combinatorial diagnosis and therapeutic approach towards cancer. Superparamagnetic iron-oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) have unique magnetic properties, due to which they show excellent tumor-targeting efficiency, and this paves the way for effective personalized cancer treatment. The aim of this review is to focus on the ability of SPIONs to perform multiple roles in the field of cancer biology, such as in diagnosis, monitoring, targeting and therapy. Also, other topics are discussed, including the synthesis of SPIONs, the challenges and recent advances.

  14. Microbial Oxidation of Iron Sulfides in Anaerobic Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaclavkova, Sarka

    processes in natural anoxic soils is supported by the fact that about 17 % of drinking water wells in Denmark were lately found to be contaminated by NO3- in concentrations exceeding the allowed limit of 50 mgL-1. This study experimentally documented potential for MISON in a range of anoxic aquatic......Abstract (shortened): Iron sulfides (FeSx), representing 0.04-10 % of Danish dry soil weight, oxidize in a presence of oxygen, releasing sulfuric acid and free iron. Environmental impact of FeSx oxidation is commonly seen on agricultural sites cultivated by drainage as acid sulfate soil formation...

  15. Atomic-Level Sculpting of Crystalline Oxides: Toward Bulk Nanofabrication with Single Atomic Plane Precision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesse, Stephen; He, Qian; Lupini, Andrew R; Leonard, Donovan N; Oxley, Mark P; Ovchinnikov, Oleg; Unocic, Raymond R; Tselev, Alexander; Fuentes-Cabrera, Miguel; Sumpter, Bobby G; Pennycook, Stephen J; Kalinin, Sergei V; Borisevich, Albina Y

    2015-11-25

    The atomic-level sculpting of 3D crystalline oxide nanostructures from metastable amorphous films in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) is demonstrated. Strontium titanate nanostructures grow epitaxially from the crystalline substrate following the beam path. This method can be used for fabricating crystalline structures as small as 1-2 nm and the process can be observed in situ with atomic resolution. The fabrication of arbitrary shape structures via control of the position and scan speed of the electron beam is further demonstrated. Combined with broad availability of the atomic resolved electron microscopy platforms, these observations suggest the feasibility of large scale implementation of bulk atomic-level fabrication as a new enabling tool of nanoscience and technology, providing a bottom-up, atomic-level complement to 3D printing.

  16. Size-dependent magnetic properties of iron oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patsula, Vitalii; Moskvin, Maksym; Dutz, Silvio; Horák, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Uniform iron oxide nanoparticles in the size range from 10 to 24 nm and polydisperse 14 nm iron oxide particles were prepared by thermal decomposition of Fe(III) carboxylates in the presence of oleic acid and co-precipitation of Fe(II) and Fe(III) chlorides by ammonium hydroxide followed by oxidation, respectively. While the first method produced hydrophobic oleic acid coated particles, the second one formed hydrophilic, but uncoated, nanoparticles. To make the iron oxide particles water dispersible and colloidally stable, their surface was modified with poly(ethylene glycol) and sucrose, respectively. Size and size distribution of the nanoparticles was determined by transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering and X-ray diffraction. Surface of the PEG-functionalized and sucrose-modified iron oxide particles was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and Raman spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Magnetic properties were measured by means of vibration sample magnetometry and specific absorption rate in alternating magnetic fields was determined calorimetrically. It was found, that larger ferrimagnetic particles showed higher heating performance than smaller superparamagnetic ones. In the transition range between superparamagnetism and ferrimagnetism, samples with a broader size distribution provided higher heating power than narrow size distributed particles of comparable mean size. Here presented particles showed promising properties for a possible application in magnetic hyperthermia.

  17. Iron oxides, dissolved silica, and regulation of marine phosphate concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planavsky, N.; Reinhard, C.; Lyons, T.

    2008-12-01

    Phosphorous concentrations in iron oxide-rich sediments reflect orthophosphate levels in the water column from which iron oxides precipitated. Sediment P/Fe ratios are also strongly influenced by the concentrations of dissolved species that inhibit orthophosphate-to-ferrihydrite sorption, most notably silica. It may, therefore, be possible to use P/Fe ratios in iron oxide-rich sediments to estimate past dissolved P concentrations, if one considers the evolution of the silica cycle. A compilation of Fe and P data in iron oxide-rich sediments through time reveals an increase in P/Fe ratios after the Jurassic. We propose that this trend indicates evolution of the iron-oxide phosphate removal mechanism caused by decreasing levels of sorption inhibition by dissolved silica. The large difference in P/Fe ratios in Cenozoic versus older iron-oxide rich sediments can be linked with Si drawdown caused by the proliferation of siliceous plankton in the Cretaceous. There is also a late Mesozoic or Cenozoic increase in V/Fe ratios, which provides additional evidence for lower ferrihydrite anion sorption efficiency prior to diatom radiation. P/Fe ratios in iron oxide-rich sediments from the early and middle Phanerozoic are comparable to the ratios in iron formations previously presented as evidence for an early Precambrian phosphate crisis (Bjerrum and Canfield, 2002, Nature, 417:159-162). Given the compelling evidence for higher Si concentrations in the Precambrian compared to the Phanerozoic and dissolved P concentrations comparable to modern levels throughout the Phanerozoic, the presented trend of P/Fe ratios suggests dissolved P concentrations were higher in Precambrian than Phanerozoic oceans. High dissolved P levels in the Precambrian may have been linked to inhibited carbonate fluorapatite (CFA) formation as a result of persistently high levels of carbonate supersaturation. Carbonate ion substitution into CFA scales with the ambient carbonate ion activity and increases

  18. The fate of arsenic adsorbed on iron oxides in the presence of arsenite-oxidizing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhennan; Yin, Naiyi; Du, Huili; Cai, Xiaolin; Cui, Yanshan

    2016-05-01

    Arsenic (As) is a redox-active metalloid whose toxicity and mobility in soil depend on its oxidation state. Arsenite [As(III)] can be oxidized by microbes and adsorbed by minerals in the soil. However, the combined effects of these abiotic and biotic processes are not well understood. In this study, the fate of arsenic in the presence of an isolated As(III)-oxidizing bacterium (Pseudomonas sp. HN-1, 10(9) colony-forming units (CFUs)·ml(-1)) and three iron oxides (goethite, hematite, and magnetite at 1.6 g L(-1)) was determined using batch experiments. The total As adsorption by iron oxides was lower with bacteria present and was higher with iron oxides alone. The total As adsorption decreased by 78.6%, 36.0% and 79.7% for goethite, hematite and magnetite, respectively, due to the presence of bacteria. As(III) adsorbed on iron oxides could also be oxidized by Pseudomonas sp. HN-1, but the oxidation rate (1.3 μmol h(-1)) was much slower than the rate in the aqueous phase (96.2 μmol h(-1)). Therefore, the results of other studies with minerals only might overestimate the adsorptive capacity of solids in natural systems; the presence of minerals might hinder As(III) oxidation by microbes. Under aerobic conditions, in the presence of iron oxides and As(III)-oxidizing bacteria, arsenic is adsorbed onto iron oxides within the adsorption capacity, and As(V) is the primary form in the solid and aqueous phases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Shape and size controlled synthesis of uniform iron oxide nanocrystals through new non-hydrolytic routes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenlu; Lee, Seung Soo; Wu, Jiewei; Hinton, Carl H.; Fortner, John D.

    2016-08-01

    New, non-hydrolytic routes to synthesize highly crystalline iron oxide nanocrystals (8-40 nm, magnetite) are described in this report whereby particle size and morphology were precisely controlled through reactant (precursor, e.g. (FeO(OH)) ratios, co-surfactant and organic additive, and/or reaction time. Particle size, with high monodispersivity (oxide nanocrystals can be reproducibly synthesized through simple one-pot thermal decomposition methods. High resolution transmission electron microscope, x-ray diffraction, and superconducting quantum interference device were used to characterize the size, structure and magnetic properties of the resulting nanocrystals. For aqueous applications, materials synthesized/purified in organic solvents are broadly water dispersible through a variety of phase (aqueous) transfer method(s).

  20. Temperature-driven oxidation behavior on pure iron surface investigated by time-resolved EXAFS measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doh, S.J.; Lee, J.M.; Je, J.H. [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Noh, D.Y. [K-JIST, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    1998-12-31

    The surface-front oxidation mechanism of iron was investigated by time-resolved, glancing-angle Fe K-edge fluorescence EXAFS measurements at various oxidation temperatures of 200--700 C. The glancing angle was chosen according to the depth of the oxide layer, roughly 1,500--2,000 {angstrom}. The oxidation behavior under rapid heating (up to 600 C within 10 minutes) was compared with the slowly heated oxidation process using the Quick-EXAFS measurements. In the slowly heated process, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} was the dominating phase at a relatively low temperature (300--400 C) initially. However, at a relatively high temperature (above 600 C), the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and FeO crystalline phases are gradually enriched as the successive oxidation process involving intrusive oxygen proceeded. Remarkably under a prolonged heat treatment above 600 C, the stable FeO phase that exists in a deep-lying interface structure and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} phase eventually dominates the thick front-surface structure. In a quickly heated process, however, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} phase is less dominating, which is contradictory to the commonly accepted oxidation models. The EXAFS results are discussed in conjunction with the x-ray diffraction features under the same heat treatment conditions.

  1. Synthesis and applications of nano-structured iron oxides/hydroxides

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... for their applications as catalytic materials, wastewater treatment adsorbents, ... This review outlines the work being carried out on synthesis of iron oxides in ... iron oxides, synthesis, catalysts, magnetic properties, biomedical application

  2. Iron as a catalyst of human low-density lipoprotein oxidation: Critical factors involved in its oxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapenna, Domenico; Ciofani, Giuliano; Obletter, Gabriele

    2017-05-01

    Iron-induced human LDL oxidation, which is relevant to atherosclerosis, has not yet been properly investigated. We addressed such issue using iron(II) and (III) basically in the presence of phosphates, which are present in vivo and influence iron oxidative properties, at pH 4.5 and 7.4, representative, respectively, of the lysosomal and plasma environment. In 10mM phosphate buffered saline (PBS), iron(II) induces substantial LDL oxidation at pH 4.5 at low micromolar concentrations, while at pH 7.4 has low oxidative effects; iron(III) promotes small LDL oxidation only at pH 4.5. In 10mM sodium acetate/NaCl buffer, pH 4.5, iron-induced LDL oxidation is far higher than in PBS, highlighting the relevance of phosphates in the inhibitory modulation of iron-induced LDL oxidation. LDL oxidation is related to iron binding to the protein and lipid moiety of LDL, and requires the presence of iron(II) bound to LDL together with iron(III). Chemical modification of LDL carboxyl groups, which could bind iron especially at pH 4.5, decreases significantly iron binding to LDL and iron-induced LDL oxidation. Hydroxyl radical scavengers are ineffective on iron-induced LDL oxidation, which is inhibited by metal chelation, scavengers of alkoxyl/peroxyl radicals, or removal of LDL lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH). Overall, substantial human LDL oxidation is induced LOOH-dependently by iron(II) at pH 4.5 even in the presence of phosphates, suggesting the occurrence of iron(II)-induced LDL oxidation in vivo within lysosomes, where pH is about 4.5, iron(II) and phosphates coexist, plasma with its antioxidants is absent, and glutathione peroxidase is poorly expressed resulting in LOOH accumulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Microbial Oxidation of Iron Sulfides in Anaerobic Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaclavkova, Sarka

    . Under anaerobic conditions FeSx serves as an electron donor in nitrate (NO3-) reduction processes. In this PhD thesis, unknown controls of microbial FeSx oxidation by NO3- (MISON), as a potentially important NO3- reducing process, were investigated. The importance of understanding the NO3- removal...... environments including sandy aquifer, freshwater peatland and moderately brackish muddy marine sediment. An apparent salinity limitation of MISON was shown in heavily brackish sediment, where FeSx oxidation was inhibited while other NO3-reduction processes did not appear to be affected by the salinity levels......Abstract (shortened): Iron sulfides (FeSx), representing 0.04-10 % of Danish dry soil weight, oxidize in a presence of oxygen, releasing sulfuric acid and free iron. Environmental impact of FeSx oxidation is commonly seen on agricultural sites cultivated by drainage as acid sulfate soil formation...

  4. Uptake and metabolism of iron oxide nanoparticles in brain cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petters, Charlotte; Irrsack, Ellen; Koch, Michael; Dringen, Ralf

    2014-09-01

    Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) are used for various applications in biomedicine, for example as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging, for cell tracking and for anti-tumor treatment. However, IONPs are also known for their toxic effects on cells and tissues which are at least in part caused by iron-mediated radical formation and oxidative stress. The potential toxicity of IONPs is especially important concerning the use of IONPs for neurobiological applications as alterations in brain iron homeostasis are strongly connected with human neurodegenerative diseases. Since IONPs are able to enter the brain, potential adverse consequences of an exposure of brain cells to IONPs have to be considered. This article describes the pathways that allow IONPs to enter the brain and summarizes the current knowledge on the uptake, the metabolism and the toxicity of IONPs for the different types of brain cells in vitro and in vivo.

  5. Oxidative stress, HDL functionality and effects of intravenous iron administration in women with iron deficiency anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meroño, Tomás; Dauteuille, Carolane; Tetzlaff, Walter; Martín, Maximiliano; Botta, Eliana; Lhomme, Marie; Saez, María Soledad; Sorroche, Patricia; Boero, Laura; Arbelbide, Jorge; Chapman, M John; Kontush, Anatol; Brites, Fernando

    2017-04-01

    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) affects around 20-30% of adults worldwide. An association between IDA and cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been reported. Oxidative stress, inflammation and low concentration of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) were implicated on endothelial dysfunction and CVD in IDA. We studied the effects of iron deficiency and of an intravenous iron administration on oxidative stress and HDL characteristics in IDA women. Two studies in IDA women are presented: a case-control study, including 18 patients and 18 age-matched healthy women, and a follow-up study 72hr after the administration of intravenous iron (n = 16). Lipids, malondialdehyde, cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), paraoxonase-1 (PON-1) and HDL chemical composition and functionality (cholesterol efflux and antioxidative activity) were measured. Cell cholesterol efflux from iron-deficient macrophages to a reference HDL was also evaluated. IDA patients showed higher triglycerides and CETP activity and lower HDL-C than controls (all p HDL particles from IDA patients showed higher triglyceride content (+30%,p HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux was similar between the patients and controls, iron deficiency provoked a significant reduction in macrophage cholesterol efflux (-25%,p HDL particles. It remains to be determined if such alterations suffice to impair endothelial function in IDA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  6. From iron coordination compounds to metal oxide nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihail Iacob

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Various types, shapes and sizes of iron oxide nanoparticles were obtained depending on the nature of the precursor, preparation method and reaction conditions. The mixed valence trinuclear iron acetate, [Fe2IIIFeIIO(CH3COO6(H2O3]·2H2O (FeAc1, μ3-oxo trinuclear iron(III acetate, [Fe3O(CH3COO6(H2O3]NO3∙4H2O (FeAc2, iron furoate, [Fe3O(C4H3OCOO6(CH3OH3]NO3∙2CH3OH (FeF, iron chromium furoate, FeCr2O(C4H3OCOO6(CH3OH3]NO3∙2CH3OH (FeCrF, and an iron complex with an original macromolecular ligand (FePAZ were used as precursors for the corresponding oxide nanoparticles. Five series of nanoparticle samples were prepared employing either a classical thermal pathway (i.e., thermal decomposition in solution, solvothermal method, dry thermal decomposition/calcination or using a nonconventional energy source (i.e., microwave or ultrasonic treatment to convert precursors into iron oxides. The resulting materials were structurally characterized by wide-angle X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared, Raman, energy-dispersive X-ray, and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopies, as well as thermogravimetric analysis. The morphology was characterized by transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The parameters were varied within each route to fine tune the size and shape of the formed nanoparticles.

  7. Oxidation resistant iron and nickel alloys for high temperature use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, V. L.; Misra, S. K.; Wheaton, H. L.

    1970-01-01

    Iron-base and nickel-base alloys exhibit good oxidation resistance and improved ductility with addition of small amounts of yttrium, tantalum /or hafnium/, and thorium. They can be used in applications above the operating temperatures of the superalloys, if high strength materials are not required.

  8. New Perspectives on Biomedical Applications of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magro, Massimiliano; Baratella, Davide; Bonaiuto, Emanuela; de Almeida Roger, Jessica; Vianello, Fabio

    2017-06-16

    Iron oxide nanomaterials are considered promising tools for improved therapeutic efficacy and diagnostic applications in biomedicine. Accordingly, engineered iron oxide nanomaterials are increasingly proposed in biomedicine, and the interdisciplinary researches involving physics, chemistry, biology (nanotechnology) and medicine have led to exciting developments in the last decades. The progresses of the development of magnetic nanoparticles with tailored physico-chemical and surface properties produced a variety of clinically relevant applications, spanning from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), drug delivery, magnetic hyperthermia, to in vitro diagnostics. Notwithstanding the well-known conventional synthetic procedures and their wide use, recent advances in the synthetic methods open the door to new generations of naked iron oxide nanoparticles possessing peculiar surface chemistries, suitable for other competitive biomedical applications. New abilities to rationally manipulate iron oxides and their physical, chemical, and biological properties, allow the emersion of additional possibilities for designing novel nanomaterials for theranostic applications. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. Moessbauer study of function of magnesium in iron oxide catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YangJie-Xin; MaoLian-Sheng; 等

    1997-01-01

    Moessbauer spectroscopy has been utilized for studying the action of Mg element in iron oxide catalysts used for the dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to sytrene.The experimental results show that the presence of opportune amount of Mg can enhance the stability and dispersion of catalysts,i.e.Mg is an sueful structure promoter in this kind of catalysts.

  10. Benzene Removal by Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Decorated Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aamir Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, carbon nanotubes (CNTs impregnated with iron oxide nanoparticles were employed for the removal of benzene from water. The adsorbents were characterized using scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, BET surface area, and thermogravimetric analysis. Batch adsorption experiments were carried out to study the adsorptive removal of benzene and the effect of parameters such as pH, contact time, and adsorbent dosage. The maximum removal of benzene was 61% with iron oxide impregnated CNTs at an adsorbent dosage 100 mg, shaking speed 200 rpm, contact time 2 hours, initial concentration 1 ppm, and pH 6. However, raw CNTs showed only 53% removal under same experimental conditions. Pseudo-first-order kinetic model was found well to describe the obtained data on benzene removal from water. Initial concentration was varied from 1 to 200 mg/L for isotherms study. Langmuir isotherm model was observed to best describe the adsorption data. The maximum adsorption capacities were 987.58 mg/g and 517.27 mg/g for iron oxide impregnated CNTs and raw CNTs, respectively. Experimental results revealed that impregnation with iron oxide nanoparticles significantly increased the removal efficiency of CNTs.

  11. Identification of Spinel Iron Oxide Nanoparticles by 57Fe NMR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SangGap Lee

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We have synthesized and studied monodisperse iron oxide nanoparticles of smaller than 10 nm to identify between the two spinel phases, magnetite and maghemite. It is shown that 57Fe NMR spectroscopy is a promising tool for distinguishing between the two phases.

  12. Thermal Plasma Synthesis of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lei, P.Y.; Boies, A.M.; Calder, S.A.; Girshick, S.L.

    2012-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by injecting ferrocene vapor and oxygen into an argon/helium DC thermal plasma. Size distributions of particles in the reactor exhaust were measured online using an aerosol extraction probe interfaced to a scanning mobility particle sizer,

  13. Hybrid Adsorptive and Oxidative Removal of Natural Organic Matter Using Iron Oxide-Coated Pumice Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sehnaz Sule Kaplan Bekaroglu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to combine adsorptive and catalytic properties of iron oxide surfaces in a hybrid process using hydrogen peroxide and iron oxide-coated pumice particles to remove natural organic matter (NOM in water. Experiments were conducted in batch, completely mixed reactors using various original and coated pumice particles. The results showed that both adsorption and catalytic oxidation mechanisms played role in the removal of NOM. The hybrid process was found to be effective in removing NOM from water having a wide range of specific UV absorbance values. Iron oxide surfaces preferentially adsorbed UV280-absorbing NOM fractions. Furthermore, the strong oxidants produced from reactions among iron oxide surfaces and hydrogen peroxide also preferentially oxidized UV280-absorbing NOM fractions. Preloading of iron oxide surfaces with NOM slightly reduced the further NOM removal performance of the hybrid process. Overall, the results suggested that the tested hybrid process may be effective for removal of NOM and control disinfection by-product formation.

  14. Mussel-Inspired Polydopamine Coated Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Biomedical Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangling Gu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mussel-inspired polydopamine (PDA coated iron oxide nanoparticles have served as a feasible, robust, and functional platform for various biomedical applications. However, there is scarcely a systemic paper reviewed about such functionalising nanomaterials to date. In this review, the synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles, the mechanism of dopamine self-oxidation, the interaction between iron oxide and dopamine, and the functionality and the safety assessment of dopamine modified iron oxide nanoparticles as well as the biomedical application of such nanoparticles are discussed. To enlighten the future research, the opportunities and the limitations of functionalising iron oxide nanoparticles coated with PDA are also analyzed.

  15. Enhancement in Mechanical and Shape Memory Properties for Liquid Crystalline Polyurethane Strengthened by Graphene Oxide

    OpenAIRE

    Yueting Li; Huiqin Lian; Yanou Hu; Wei Chang; Xiuguo Cui; Yang Liu

    2016-01-01

    Conventional shape memory polymers suffer the drawbacks of low thermal stability, low strength, and low shape recovery speed. In this study, main-chain liquid crystalline polyurethane (LCPU) that contains polar groups was synthesized. Graphene oxide (GO)/LCPU composite was fabricated using the solution casting method. The tensile strength of GO/LCPU was 1.78 times that of neat LCPU. In addition, shape recovery speed was extensively improved. The average recovery rate of sample with 20 wt % GO...

  16. Biogeochemistry of pyrite and iron sulfide oxidation in marine sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schippers, A.; Jørgensen, BB

    2002-01-01

    Pyrite (FeS2) and iron monosulfide (FeS) play a central role in the sulfur and iron cycles of marine sediments, They may be buried in the sediment or oxidized by O-2 after transport by bioturbation to the sediment surface. FeS2 and FeS may also be oxidized within the anoxic sediment in which NO3......-, Fe(III) oxides, or MnO2 are available as potential electron acceptors. In chemical experiments, FeS2 and FeS were oxidized by MnO2 but not with NO3- or amorphous Fe(III) oxide (Schippers and Jørgensen, 2001). Here we also show that in experiments with anoxic sediment slurries, a dissolution of tracer......-marked (FeS2)-Fe-55 occurred with MnO2 but not with NO3- or amorphous Fe(III) oxide as electron acceptor. To study a thermodynamically possible anaerobic microbial FeS, and FeS oxidation with NO3- or amorphous Fe(III) oxide as electron acceptor, more than 300 assays were inoculated with material from several...

  17. Simultaneous reductive dissolution of iron oxide and oxidation of iodide in ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kitae; Choi, Wonyong

    2015-04-01

    Iron is an important trace element controlling the metabolism and growth of all kinds of living species. Especially, the bio-availability of iron has been regarded as the limiting factor for primary productivity in HNLC (High Nutrients Low Chlorophyll) regions including Southern ocean. The dissolution of iron oxide provides enhanced the bio-availability of iron for phytoplankton growth. The halogen chemistry in polar regions is related to various important environmental processes such as Antarctic Ozone Depletion Event(ODE), mercury depletion, oxidative processes in atmosphere, and the formation of CCN (Cloud Condensation Nuclei). In this study, we investigated the reductive dissolution of iron oxide particles to produce Fe(II)aq and simultaneous oxidation of I- (iodide) to I3- (tri-iodide) in ice phase under UV irradiation or dark condition. The reductive generation of Fe(II)aq from iron oxides and oxidation of iodide to I3- were negligible in water but significantly accelerated in frozen solution both in the presence and absence of light. The enhanced reductive generation of Fe(II)aq and oxidative formation of I3- in ice were observed regardless of the various types of iron oxides [hematite (α-Fe2O3) maghemite (γ- Fe2O3), goethite (α-FeOOH), lepidocrocite (γ-FeOOH) and, magnetite (Fe3O4)]. We explained that the enhanced redox production of Fe(II)aq and I3- in ice is contributed to the freeze concentration of iodides, protons, and dissolved oxygen in the unfrozen solution. When the concentration of both iodides and protons were raised by 10-fold each, the formation of Fe(II)aq in water under UV irradiation was approached to those in ice. The outdoor experiments were carried out under ambient solar radiation in winter season of mid-latitude (Pohang, Korea: 36°N latitude) and also confirmed that the production of Fe(II)aq via reductive dissolution of iron oxide and I3- generation via I- oxidation were enhanced in frozen solution. These results suggest that iron

  18. Iron oxide nanotubes synthesized via template-based electrodeposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jin-Hee; Min, Seong-Gi; Malkinski, Leszek; Wiley, John B.

    2014-04-01

    Considerable effort has been invested in the development of synthetic methods for the preparation iron oxide nanostructures for applications in nanotechnology. While a variety of structures have been reported, only a few studies have focused on iron oxide nanotubes. Here, we present details on the synthesis and characterization of iron oxide nanotubes along with a proposed mechanism for FeOOH tube formation. The FeOOH nanotubes, fabricated via a template-based electrodeposition method, are found to exhibit a unique inner-surface. Heat treatment of these tubes under oxidizing or reducing atmospheres can produce either hematite (α-Fe2O3) or magnetite (Fe3O4) structures, respectively. Hematite nanotubes are composed of small nanoparticles less than 20 nm in diameter and the magnetization curves and FC-ZFC curves show superparamagnetic properties without the Morin transition. In the case of magnetite nanotubes, which consist of slightly larger nanoparticles, magnetization curves show ferromagnetism with weak coercivity at room temperature, while FC-ZFC curves exhibit the Verwey transition at 125 K.Considerable effort has been invested in the development of synthetic methods for the preparation iron oxide nanostructures for applications in nanotechnology. While a variety of structures have been reported, only a few studies have focused on iron oxide nanotubes. Here, we present details on the synthesis and characterization of iron oxide nanotubes along with a proposed mechanism for FeOOH tube formation. The FeOOH nanotubes, fabricated via a template-based electrodeposition method, are found to exhibit a unique inner-surface. Heat treatment of these tubes under oxidizing or reducing atmospheres can produce either hematite (α-Fe2O3) or magnetite (Fe3O4) structures, respectively. Hematite nanotubes are composed of small nanoparticles less than 20 nm in diameter and the magnetization curves and FC-ZFC curves show superparamagnetic properties without the Morin transition

  19. Iron (III oxide fabrication from natural clay with reference to phase transformation γ- → α-Fe2O3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šaponjić Aleksandra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Amorphous iron (III oxide was obtained from clay, using ammonium hydroxide as a precipitating agent. Influence of freeze drying under vacuum, as a drying method, on particle size, chemical composition, and crystallinity of obtained iron (III oxide powder was investigated. After freeze drying, precipitate was annealed in air at 500°C and 900°C. X-ray diffraction, particle size analysis, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis were used to characterize obtained iron (III oxide powder. All of three powders obtained by freeze drying and annealing, have low crystallinity and particles with irregular layered shape. Narrow particle size distribution was given by an average diameter value of around 50 μm for all observed powders. Iron-bearing materials like α-Fe2O3 and γ- Fe2O3 are obtained. Differential thermal analysis curve of obtained samples showed endothermic reaction at 620°C which could be ascribed to phase transition from cubic form γ- → α- Fe2O3. Thermal transformations of iron (III oxide, obtained from clay as a natural source, is suitable to explore in the framework of materials chemistry, and opens the possibility to synthesize materials based on Fe2O3 with specific magnetic behavior. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. III-45012, Grant no. OI-172045, Grant no. III-45015, Grant no. OI-176010, Grant no. OI-172056 and Grant no. III-45007

  20. Oxidation, carburization and/or sulfidation resistant iron aluminide alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikka, Vinod K.; Deevi, Seetharama C.; Fleischhauer, Grier S.; Hajaligol, Mohammad R.; Lilly, Jr., A. Clifton

    2003-08-19

    The invention relates generally to aluminum containing iron-base alloys useful as electrical resistance heating elements. The aluminum containing iron-base alloys have improved room temperature ductility, electrical resistivity, cyclic fatigue resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, low and high temperature strength, and/or resistance to high temperature sagging. The alloy has an entirely ferritic microstructure which is free of austenite and includes, in weight %, over 4% Al, .ltoreq.1% Cr and either .gtoreq.0.05% Zr or Zro.sub.2 stringers extending perpendicular to an exposed surface of the heating element or .gtoreq.0.1% oxide dispersoid particles. The alloy can contain 14-32% Al, .ltoreq.2% Ti, .ltoreq.2% Mo, .ltoreq.1% Zr, .ltoreq.1% C, .ltoreq.0.1% B. .ltoreq.30% oxide dispersoid and/or electrically insulating or electrically conductive covalent ceramic particles, .ltoreq.1% rare earth metal, .ltoreq.1% oxygen, .ltoreq.3% Cu, balance Fe.

  1. Oxidation Potential, Not Crystal Structure, Controls the Oxidation State of Iron in Perovskite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panero, W. R.; Pigott, J. S.; Watson, H. C.; Scharenberg, M.; Green, H. W.; McComb, D. W.; Williams, R. E.

    2013-12-01

    The mantle's oxidation state has broad implications on the state and evolution of the earth's interior. The relatively high oxidation potential of the upper mantle is such that iron is predominantly Fe2+ with small amounts of Fe3+ . Fe3+ is more stable than Fe2+ in the dominant lower mantle mineral, perovskite, despite the fact that the effect of pressure is to reduce the oxidizing potential of a system. It is therefore suggested that iron undergoes a disproportionation reaction of 3Fe2+ =2Fe3+ +Fe0 , controlled by the crystallography instead of oxidation potential. We crystallized synthetic enstatite glass with 5% Al2O3, 14% FeO, and 3% Fe2O3 in the laser-heated diamond anvil cell at 25-63 GPa and 1700-2800 K. We find that for temperatures nm iron precipitates on grain boundaries. The precipitates have small amounts of dissolved oxygen, but are Mg- and Al- free. We interpret that the stishovite is forming due to the oxidation of the ferric iron to ferrous iron according to (Mg2+,Al3+)(Fe3+,Si4+)O3 +SiO2 + Fe0 while the lower-temperature samples crystallizing as approximately (Mg2+ Fe2+ Al3+ )(Fe3+ Al3+ Si4+ )O3. We observe 2.8(2) Å3 volume expansion of the perovskite and a 28(2) GPa decrease in compressibility of the perovskite relative to the perovskite forming at lower temperature, consistent with the proposed compositions of the perovskites. As the increased temperature increases the oxidation potential of the system, we suggest that the oxidation state of iron in perovskite is dependent on oxidation potential as opposed to perovskite's crystal structure. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) coupled with Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS) show iron precipitation on grain boundaries supporting the conclusion. We present a discussion of the results and implications for core formation and lower mantle dynamics.

  2. Iron(III) species formed during iron(II) oxidation and iron-core formation in bacterioferritin of Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkins, C. [Sheffield Univ. (United Kingdom). Dep. of Physics; Treffry, A. [Sheffield Univ. (United Kingdom). Dep. of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology; Mackey, J.; Williams, J.M. [Sheffield Univ. (United Kingdom). Dep. of Physics; Andrews, S.C.; Guest, J.R.; Harrison, P.M. [Sheffield Univ. (United Kingdom). Dep. of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology

    1996-02-01

    This paper describes a preliminary investigation of the mechanisms of Fe(II) oxidation and storage of Fe(III) in the bacterioferritin of Escherichia coli (EcBFR). Using Moessbauer spectroscopy to examine the initial oxidation of iron by EcBFR it is confirmed that this ferritin exhibits ferroxidase activity and is shown that dimeric and monomeric iron species are produced as intermediates. The characteristics of ferroxidase activity in EcBFR is compare d with those of human H-chain ferritin (HuHF) and discuss the different Moessbauer parameters of their dimeric iron with reference to the structures of their di-metal sites. In addition, it is presented preliminary findings suggesting that after an initial {sup b}urst{sup ,} the rate of oxidation is greatly reduced, possibly due to blockage of the ferroxidase centre by bound iron. A new component, not found in HuHF and probably representing a small cluster of Fe(III) atoms, is reported.

  3. RECYCLING BLENDS OF WASTE PLASTICS AND BIOMASS AS REDUCING AGENT FOR THE PRODUCTION OF METALLIC IRON FROM IRON OXIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAMES RANSFORD DANKWAH

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory studies on the production of metallic iron from iron oxide using blends of palm nut shells (Elaes Guineanses and waste plastics as reducing agent have been performed through experiments conducted in a horizontal tube furnace. Composite pellets were formed from mixtures of iron oxide and carbonaceous materials consisting of chars of palm nut shells (PNS, high density polyethylene (HDPE and two blends of PNS with HDPE. Two sources of iron oxide were utilised in this investigation; reagent grade iron oxide (96.89 % Fe2O3 and EAF slag (47.1 % FeO. The iron oxide-carbonaceous material composites were heated rapidly at 1500°C in a continuous stream of argon and the off gas was analysed continuously using an infrared (IR gas analyser and a gas chromatographic (GC analyser. Elemental analyses of samples of the reduced metal were performed chemically for its carbon and oxygen contents using a LECO carbon/sulphur and oxygen/nitrogen analysers, respectively. The extent of reduction (after ten and fifteen minutes for reagent grade iron oxide and EAF slag, respectively and the level of carburisation were determined for each carbonaceous reductant. The results indicate that carburised metallic iron can be produced effectively from iron oxide using PNS, HDPE and blends of these carbonaceous materials as reductants. The extent of reduction improved significantly when PNS was blended with HDPE.

  4. Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Iron Aluminide by CVD Coated Powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asit Biswas Andrew J. Sherman

    2006-09-25

    This I &I Category2 program developed chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of iron, aluminum and aluminum oxide coated iron powders and the availability of high temperature oxidation, corrosion and erosion resistant coating for future power generation equipment and can be used for retrofitting existing fossil-fired power plant equipment. This coating will provide enhanced life and performance of Coal-Fired Boilers components such as fire side corrosion on the outer diameter (OD) of the water wall and superheater tubing as well as on the inner diameter (ID) and OD of larger diameter headers. The program also developed a manufacturing route for readily available thermal spray powders for iron aluminide coating and fabrication of net shape component by powder metallurgy route using this CVD coated powders. This coating can also be applid on jet engine compressor blade and housing, industrial heat treating furnace fixtures, magnetic electronic parts, heating element, piping and tubing for fossil energy application and automotive application, chemical processing equipment , heat exchanger, and structural member of aircraft. The program also resulted in developing a new fabrication route of thermal spray coating and oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) iron aluminide composites enabling more precise control over material microstructures.

  5. The facile synthesis of single crystalline palladium arrow-headed tripods and their application in formic acid electro-oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Na; Chen, Xueying; Ren, Yuanhang; Yue, Bin; Wang, Han; Cai, Wenbin; He, Heyong

    2015-04-28

    Single crystalline palladium arrow-headed tripods prepared via a simple one-pot strategy exhibit high electro-activity in formic acid oxidation, which could be a promising anodic catalyst for direct formic acid fuel cells.

  6. Mobility enhancement in crystalline In-Ga-Zn-oxide with In-rich compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsutsui, Kazuhiro; Matsubayashi, Daisuke; Ishihara, Noritaka; Takasu, Takako; Matsuda, Shinpei; Yamazaki, Shunpei [Semiconductor Energy Laboratory Co., Ltd., 398 Hase, Atsugi-shi 243-0036, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2015-12-28

    The electron mobility of In-Ga-Zn-oxide (IGZO) is known to be enhanced by higher In content. We theoretically investigated the mobility-enhancement mechanism by proposing an In-Ga-Zn-disorder scattering model for an In-rich crystalline IGZO (In{sub 1+x}Ga{sub 1−x}O{sub 3}(ZnO){sub m} (0 < x < 1, m > 0)) thin film. The obtained theoretical mobility was found to be in agreement with experimental Hall mobility for a crystalline In{sub 1.5}Ga{sub 0.5}O{sub 3}(ZnO) (or In{sub 3}GaZn{sub 2}O{sub 8}) thin film. The mechanism specific to In-rich crystalline IGZO thin films is based on three types of Coulomb scattering potentials that originate from effective valence differences. In this study, the In-Ga-Zn-disorder scattering model indicates that the effective valence of the In{sup 3+} ions in In-rich crystalline IGZO thin films significantly affects their electron mobility.

  7. Iron oxides in plinthic soils on sedimentary deposits in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Heck

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to examine the distribution and nature of Fe oxides in plinthic soils on the sediments of Barreiras Group (in the state of Piauí and Itapecuru Formation (in the state of Maranhão in Northeastern Brazil. Four pedons were selected: a "plinthic, dystrophic, epieutrophic Gray Podzolic with low activity clay" and a "dystrophic Plinthosol with low activity clay" (both Plinthic Kandiustalfs on the Barreiras sediments, as well as an "eutrophic Plinthosol with low activity clay" and an "allic Plinthosol with low activity clay" (both Plinthustalfs on the Itapecuru sediments. Soil samples were fractionated into > 2 mm (pisoliths, water-stable aggregates (plinthite and matrices; the aggregates and matrices were further fractionated into sand, silt and clay sizes. Dithionite extractable iron (Fe d and aluminum (Al d, as well as oxalate extractable iron (Fe o, were determined for all fractions, and X-ray diffraction analyses were performed on the pisoliths. It was observed that the Plinthustalfs contain more iron oxides, exhibit more extensive plinthite development and have a greater potential for further plinthite development than the Kandiustalfs. The distribution of values for the Fe d indicates that plinthite formation and induration in all soils were accompanied by an enrichment of Fe oxides in all particle size fractions. This Fe segregation was accompanied by aggregation of particles leading to a greater degree of crystallinity, as indicated by analysis of the ratios of Al d:Fe d. Larger ratios of goethite to hematite, and relatively smaller amounts of silicates in the more mature pisoliths were revealed by X-ray diffraction analysis. Ratios of Al d:Fe d were larger in the Kandiustalfs than in the Plinthustalfs, and also larger than expected for Al-substituted Fe oxides. According to ratios of Al d:Fe d, Fe mobilization in all soils has likely occurred under reducing conditions, facilitated by organic matter on the soil

  8. The reduction of iron oxides by volatiles in a rotary hearth furnace process: Part II. The reduction of iron oxide/carbon composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, I.; Fruehan, R. J.

    2006-04-01

    The reduction of iron oxide/carbon composite pellets with hydrogen at 900 °C to 1000 °C was studied. Compared to hydrogen, the reduction by carbon was negligible at 900 °C and below. However, significant carbon oxidation of the iron oxide/graphite pellets by H2O generated from the reduction of Fe2O3 by H2 was observed. At higher temperatures, reduction by carbon complicates the overall reduction mechanism, with the iron oxide/graphite composite pellet found to be more reactive than the iron oxide/char composite pellet. From the scanning electron micrographs, partially reduced composite pellets showed a typical topochemical interface with an intermediate region between an oxygen-rich unreacted core and an iron-rich outer shell. To determine the possibility of reduction by volatiles, a layer of iron oxide powders was spread on top of a high volatile containing bituminous coal and heated inside a reactor using infra-red radiation. By separating the individual reactions involved for an iron oxide/coal mixture where a complex set of reactions occur simultaneously, it was possible to determine the sole effect of volatile reduction. It was found that the light reducing gases evolve initially and react with the iron oxide, with complex hydrocarbons evolving at the later stages. The volatiles caused about 20 to 50 pct reduction of the iron oxide.

  9. Effects of pore topology and iron oxide core on doxorubicin loading and release from mesoporous silica nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronhovde, Cicily J.; Baer, John; Larsen, Sarah C.

    2017-06-01

    Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) have a network of pores that give rise to extremely high specific surface areas, making them attractive materials for applications such as adsorption and drug delivery. The pore topology can be readily tuned to achieve a variety of structures such as the hexagonally ordered Mobil Crystalline Material 41 (MCM-41) and the disordered "wormhole" (WO) mesoporous silica (MS) structure. In this work, the effects of pore topology and iron oxide core on doxorubicin loading and release were investigated using MSNs with pore diameters of approximately 3 nm and sub-100 nm particle diameters. The nanoparticles were loaded with doxorubicin, and the drug release into phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, 10 mM, pH 7.4) at 37 °C was monitored by fluorescence spectroscopy. The release profiles were fit using the Peppas model. The results indicated diffusion-controlled release for all samples. Statistically significant differences were observed in the kinetic host-guest parameters for each sample due to the different pore topologies and the inclusion of an iron oxide core. Applying a static magnetic field to the iron oxide core WO-MS shell materials did not have a significant impact on the doxorubicin release. This is the first time that the effects of pore topology and iron oxide core have been isolated from pore diameter and particle size for these materials.

  10. Direct Growth of Crystalline Tungsten Oxide Nanorod Arrays by a Hydrothermal Process and Their Electrochromic Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chih-Hao; Hon, Min Hsiung; Leu, Ing-Chi

    2016-12-01

    Transparent crystalline tungsten oxide nanorod arrays for use as an electrochromic layer have been directly prepared on fluorine-doped tin oxide-coated glass via a facile tungsten film-assisted hydrothermal process using aqueous tungsten hexachloride solution. X-ray diffraction analysis and field-emission scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the phase and morphology of the grown nanostructures. Arrays of tungsten oxide nanorods with diameter of ˜22 nm and length of ˜240 nm were obtained at 200°C after 8 h of hydrothermal reaction. We propose a growth mechanism for the deposition of the monoclinic tungsten oxide phase in the hydrothermal environment. The tungsten film was first oxidized to tungsten oxide to provide seed sites for crystal growth and address the poor connection between the growing tungsten oxide and substrate. Aligned tungsten oxide nanorod arrays can be grown by a W thin film-assisted heterogeneous nucleation process with NaCl as a structure-directing agent. The fabricated electrochromic device demonstrated optical modulation (coloration/bleaching) at 632.8 nm of ˜41.2% after applying a low voltage of 0.1 V for 10 s, indicating the potential of such nanorod array films for use in energy-saving smart windows.

  11. Direct Growth of Crystalline Tungsten Oxide Nanorod Arrays by a Hydrothermal Process and Their Electrochromic Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chih-Hao; Hon, Min Hsiung; Leu, Ing-Chi

    2017-04-01

    Transparent crystalline tungsten oxide nanorod arrays for use as an electrochromic layer have been directly prepared on fluorine-doped tin oxide-coated glass via a facile tungsten film-assisted hydrothermal process using aqueous tungsten hexachloride solution. X-ray diffraction analysis and field-emission scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the phase and morphology of the grown nanostructures. Arrays of tungsten oxide nanorods with diameter of ˜22 nm and length of ˜240 nm were obtained at 200°C after 8 h of hydrothermal reaction. We propose a growth mechanism for the deposition of the monoclinic tungsten oxide phase in the hydrothermal environment. The tungsten film was first oxidized to tungsten oxide to provide seed sites for crystal growth and address the poor connection between the growing tungsten oxide and substrate. Aligned tungsten oxide nanorod arrays can be grown by a W thin film-assisted heterogeneous nucleation process with NaCl as a structure-directing agent. The fabricated electrochromic device demonstrated optical modulation (coloration/bleaching) at 632.8 nm of ˜41.2% after applying a low voltage of 0.1 V for 10 s, indicating the potential of such nanorod array films for use in energy-saving smart windows.

  12. Altering the structure and properties of iron oxide nanoparticles and graphene oxide/iron oxide composites by urea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naghdi, Samira [Physics department, Bu-Ali Sina University, 65174 Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, Kyung Hee University, 446-701 Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Rhee, Kyong Yop, E-mail: rheeky@khu.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, Kyung Hee University, 446-701 Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Jaleh, Babak [Physics department, Bu-Ali Sina University, 65174 Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Park, Soo Jin [Chemistry, Colloge of Natural Science, Inha University, 402-751 Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-28

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Iron oxide (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanoparticles were directly grown on graphene oxide (GO) using a facile microwave assistant method. • The effect of urea concentration on Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles and GO/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite was examined. • Increasing urea concentration altered the morphology and decreased the particle size. • The increased concentration of urea induced a larger surface area with more active sites in the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles. • The increase in urea concentration led to decreased thermal stability of the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles. - Abstract: Iron oxide (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanoparticles were grown on graphene oxide (GO) using a simple microwave-assisted method. The effects of urea concentration on Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles and GO/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite were examined. The as-prepared samples were characterized using X-ray powder diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles were uniformly developed on GO sheets. The results showed that urea affects both Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} morphology and particle size. In the absence of urea, the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanostructures exhibited a rod-like morphology. However, increasing urea concentration altered the morphology and decreased the particle size. The Raman results of GO/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} showed that the intensity ratio of D band to G band (I{sub D}/I{sub G}) was decreased by addition of urea, indicating that urea can preserve the GO sheets during synthesis of the composite from exposing more defects. The surface area and thermal stability of GO/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} were compared using the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller method and thermal gravimetric analysis, respectively. The results showed that the increased concentration of urea induced a larger surface area with more active sites in the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles. However, the increase in urea

  13. Improved Aeration Process - Catalytic Role Of The Iron Oxides In Arsenic Oxidation And Coprecipitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kowalski, Krysztof; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen

    2013-01-01

    an improved aeration process that can also help in developing better arsenic removal treatment. The results present advantages of arsenic oxidation in an aeration process in the presence of ferrihydrite surface that have been shown to adsorb arsenic simultaneously to its oxidation. The presence...... of precipitated (ferrihydrite surface) and dissolved iron enhanced arsenic oxidation in comparison to solution with absence of precipitated iron in laboratory scale experiments. However, in the pilot scale studies the adsorption of arsenite on ferrihydrite was found to be the main process occurring during...... implementation of the process in the waterworks that are struggling with arsenic related issues....

  14. Optimization of oxidation processes to improve crystalline silicon solar cell emitters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Shen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Control of the oxidation process is one key issue in producing high-quality emitters for crystalline silicon solar cells. In this paper, the oxidation parameters of pre-oxidation time, oxygen concentration during pre-oxidation and pre-deposition and drive-in time were optimized by using orthogonal experiments. By analyzing experimental measurements of short-circuit current, open circuit voltage, series resistance and solar cell efficiency in solar cells with different sheet resistances which were produced by using different diffusion processes, we inferred that an emitter with a sheet resistance of approximately 70 Ω/□ performed best under the existing standard solar cell process. Further investigations were conducted on emitters with sheet resistances of approximately 70 Ω/□ that were obtained from different preparation processes. The results indicate that emitters with surface phosphorus concentrations between 4.96 × 1020 cm−3 and 7.78 × 1020 cm−3 and with junction depths between 0.46 μm and 0.55 μm possessed the best quality. With no extra processing, the final preparation of the crystalline silicon solar cell efficiency can reach 18.41%, which is an increase of 0.4%abs compared to conventional emitters with 50 Ω/□ sheet resistance.

  15. Laser-Induced Forward Transfer-printing of focused ion beam pre-machined crystalline magneto-optic yttrium iron garnet micro-discs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sones, C L; Feinaeugle, M; Sposito, A; Gholipour, B; Eason, R W

    2012-07-02

    We present femtosecond laser-induced forward transfer of focused ion beam pre-machined discs of crystalline magneto-optic yttrium iron garnet (YIG) films. Debris-free circular micro-discs with smooth edges and surface uniformity have been successfully printed. The crystalline nature of the printed micro-discs has not been altered by the LIFT printing process, as was confirmed via micro-Raman measurements.

  16. Oxidative effect of several intravenous iron complexes in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailie, George R; Schuler, Catherine; Leggett, Robert E; Li, Hsin; Li, Hsin-Dat; Patadia, Hiten; Levin, Robert

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the oxidative stress induced in rat internal organs by the administration of the following clinically used intravenous (IV) iron (Fe) containing compounds: iron sucrose (IS), iron dextran (ID), ferric carboxymaltose and ferumoxytol. Groups of six adult rats received 1 mg/kg of each compound weekly for 5 doses. Seven days following the last dose, animals were euthanized and tissue samples of heart, lung, liver, and kidney were obtained, washed in warmed saline and frozen under liquid nitrogen and stored at -80 °C for analysis for nitrotyrosine (NT) and dinitro phenyl (DNP) as markers of oxidative stress. All tissues showed a similar pattern of oxidative stress. All Fe products stimulated an increase in the tissue concentration of both NT and DNP. In general, DNP was stimulated significantly less than NT except for IS. DNP was stimulated to an equal degree except for ID where NT was significantly higher than the NT concentrations in all other Fe compounds. ID produced over 10-fold the concentration of NT than any other Fe. IV Fe compounds present a risk of oxidative stress to a variety of internal organs. However, we found that IS was the least damaging and ID was the worst.

  17. High temperature oxidation of iron-chromium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikkelsen, Lars

    2003-06-15

    The high temperature oxidation of the ferritic alloy Fe78Cr22 has been investigated in the present work. The effect of small alloying additions of cerium and/or silicon was also investigated. The alloys were oxidized at 973, 1173 and 1373 K in either air or a hydrogen/argon mixture. The various reaction atmospheres contained between 0.02 and 50% water vapour. The oxide scales formed on the various alloys at 973 K consisted of thin chromia layers. The oxide scales grown on the alloys at 1173 K also consisted of a chromia layer. The microstructure of the chromia scales was found to depend on the reaction atmosphere. The chromia scales grown in hydrogen/argon atmospheres formed oxide whiskers and oxide ridges at the surface of the scales, while the chromia scales grown in air formed larger oxide grains near the surface. This difference in oxide microstructure was due to the vaporization of chromium species from the chromia scales grown in air. Two different growth mechanisms are proposed for the growth of oxide whiskers. The growth rate of the chromia scales was independent of the oxygen activity. This is explained by a growth mechanism of the chromia scales, where the growth is governed by the diffusion of interstitial chromium. The addition of silicon to the iron-chromium alloy resulted in the formation of silica particles beneath the chromia scale. The presence of silicon in the alloy was found to decrease the growth rate of the chromia scale. This is explained by a blocking mechanism, where the silica particles beneath the chromia scale partly block the outwards diffusion of chromium from the alloy to the chromia scale. The addition of cerium to the iron-chromium alloy improved the adhesion of the chromia scale to the alloy and decreased the growth rate of chromia. It was observed that the minimum concentration of cerium in the alloy should be 0.3 at.% in order to observe an effect of the cerium addition. The effect of cerium is explained by the &apos

  18. High temperature oxidation of iron-chromium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikkelsen, Lars

    2003-06-15

    The high temperature oxidation of the ferritic alloy Fe78Cr22 has been investigated in the present work. The effect of small alloying additions of cerium and/or silicon was also investigated. The alloys were oxidized at 973, 1173 and 1373 K in either air or a hydrogen/argon mixture. The various reaction atmospheres contained between 0.02 and 50% water vapour. The oxide scales formed on the various alloys at 973 K consisted of thin chromia layers. The oxide scales grown on the alloys at 1173 K also consisted of a chromia layer. The microstructure of the chromia scales was found to depend on the reaction atmosphere. The chromia scales grown in hydrogen/argon atmospheres formed oxide whiskers and oxide ridges at the surface of the scales, while the chromia scales grown in air formed larger oxide grains near the surface. This difference in oxide microstructure was due to the vaporization of chromium species from the chromia scales grown in air. Two different growth mechanisms are proposed for the growth of oxide whiskers. The growth rate of the chromia scales was independent of the oxygen activity. This is explained by a growth mechanism of the chromia scales, where the growth is governed by the diffusion of interstitial chromium. The addition of silicon to the iron-chromium alloy resulted in the formation of silica particles beneath the chromia scale. The presence of silicon in the alloy was found to decrease the growth rate of the chromia scale. This is explained by a blocking mechanism, where the silica particles beneath the chromia scale partly block the outwards diffusion of chromium from the alloy to the chromia scale. The addition of cerium to the iron-chromium alloy improved the adhesion of the chromia scale to the alloy and decreased the growth rate of chromia. It was observed that the minimum concentration of cerium in the alloy should be 0.3 at.% in order to observe an effect of the cerium addition. The effect of cerium is explained by the &apos

  19. Single-crystalline zinc oxide nanowires as photoanode material for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Shu-Te; Hsiao, Ching-Lun; Lin, Hsin-Yu; Chen, Hsiang-An; Wang, Chiu-Yen; Lin, Heh-Nan

    2010-10-01

    This study reports the use of single-crystalline and well-aligned ZnO nanowires as photoanode material for dye-sensitized solar cells. The ZnO nanowires are grown on fluorine-doped tin oxide coated glass substrates without catalysts by thermal evaporation. In spite of low roughness factors of around 25 for the nanowire photoanodes, the fabricated solar cells yield power conversion efficiencies of around 1.3% under AM 1.5G (100 mW cm-2) illumination. Moreover, fill factors of around 0.5 have been achieved and are relatively high when compared with reported values from ZnO nanowire photoanodes. The results reveal the advantage of using single-crystalline nanowires as photoanode material and provide clues for the advancement of nanowire based dye-sensitized solar cells.

  20. Concurrent repletion of iron and zinc reduces intestinal oxidative damage in iron-and zinc-deficient rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To understand the interactions between iron and zinc during absorption in iron- and zinc-deficient rats,and their consequences on intestinal oxidant-antioxidant balance.METHODS: Twenty-four weanling Wistar-Kyoto rats fed an iron- and zinc-deficient diet (< 6.5 mg Fe and 4.0 mg Zn/kg diet) for 4 wk were randomly divided into three groups (n = 8, each) and orally gavaged with 4 mg iron, 3.3 mg zinc, or 4 mg iron + 3.3 mg zinc for 2wk. At the last day of repletion, 3 h before the animals were sacrificed, they received either 37 mBq of 55Fe or 65Zn, to study their localization in the intestine, using microautoradiography. Hemoglobin, iron and zinc content in plasma and liver were measured as indicators of iron and zinc status. Duodenal sections were used for immunochemical staining of ferritin and metallothionein.Duodenal homogenates (mitochondrial and cytosolic fractions), were used to assess aconitase activity,oxidative stress, functional integrity and the response of antioxidant enzymes.RESULTS: Concurrent repletion of iron- and zinc-deficient rats showed reduced localization of these minerals compared to rats that were teated with iron or zinc alone;these data provide evidence for antagonistic interactions.This resulted in reduced formation of lipid and protein oxidation products and better functional integrity of the intestinal mucosa. Further, combined repletion lowered iron-associated aconitase activity and ferritin expression,but significantly elevated metallothionein and glutathione levels in the intestinal mucosa. The mechanism of interactions during combined supplementation and its subsequent effects appeared to be due to through modulation of cytosolic aconitase, which in turn influenced the labile iron pool and metallothionein levels, and hence reduced intestinal oxidative damage.CONCLUSION: Concurrent administration of iron and zinc corrects iron and zinc deficiency, and also reduces the intestinal oxidative damage associated with iron

  1. Low Temperature CO oxidation over Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Decorating Internal Structures of a Mesoporous Alumina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Il Hee; Seo, Hyun Ook; Park, Eun Ji; Han, Sang Wook; Kim, Young Dok

    2017-01-01

    Using a chemical vapor deposition method with regulated sample temperatures under ambient pressure conditions, we were able to fully decorate the internal structure of a mesoporous Al2O3 bead (~1 mm in particle diameter) with iron oxide nanoparticles (with a mean lateral size of less than 1 nm). The iron oxide-decorated Al2O3 showed a high CO oxidation reactivity, even at room temperature. Very little deactivation of the CO oxidation activity was observed with increasing reaction time at ~100 °C. Additionally, this catalyst showed high CO oxidation activity, even after annealing at ~900 °C under atmospheric conditions (i.e., the structure of the catalysts could be maintained under very harsh treatment conditions). We show that our catalysts have potential for application as oxidation catalysts in industrial processes due to the simplicity of their fabrication process as well as the high and stable catalytic performance. PMID:28091561

  2. Thermogravimetric Analysis of the Zinc Concentrates Oxidation Containing Various Iron Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małecki S.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of oxidation of zinc concentrates containing various iron compounds. Using the thermogravimetry and thermal analysis methods it was shown that the influence of the iron form affects the thermal oxidation process. They influence the rate of, oxidation of zinc sulphide and consequently the resulting rate of oxidation of the concentrate.

  3. Iron oxide and iron carbide particles produced by the polyol method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Y., E-mail: yyasu@rs.kagu.tus.ac.jp; Shimizu, R. [Tokyo University of Science, Department of Chemistry (Japan); Kobayashi, Y. [The University of Electro-Communications, Graduate School of Informatics and Engineering (Japan)

    2016-12-15

    Iron oxide (γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and iron carbide (Fe{sub 3}C) particles were produced by the polyol method. Ferrocene, which was employed as an iron source, was decomposed in a mixture of 1,2-hexadecandiol, oleylamine, and 1-octadecene. Particles were characterized using Mössbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. It was found that oleylamine acted as a capping reagent, leading to uniform-sized (12-16 nm) particles consisting of γ-Fe {sub 2}O{sub 3}. On the other hand, 1-octadecene acted as a non-coordinating solvent and a carbon source, which led to particles consisting of Fe{sub 3}C and α-Fe with various sizes.

  4. Potential toxicity of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neenu Singh

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION are being widely used for various biomedical applications, for example, magnetic resonance imaging, targeted delivery of drugs or genes, and in hyperthermia. Although, the potential benefits of SPION are considerable, there is a distinct need to identify any potential cellular damage associated with these nanoparticles. Besides focussing on cytotoxicity, the most commonly used determinant of toxicity as a result of exposure to SPION, this review also mentions the importance of studying the subtle cellular alterations in the form of DNA damage and oxidative stress. We review current studies and discuss how SPION, with or without different surface coating, may cause cellular perturbations including modulation of actin cytoskeleton, alteration in gene expression profiles, disturbance in iron homeostasis and altered cellular responses such as activation of signalling pathways and impairment of cell cycle regulation. The importance of protein–SPION interaction and various safety considerations relating to SPION exposure are also addressed.

  5. Synthesis, Characterization, and Cytotoxicity of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kanagesan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the response of human breast cancer cells' exposure to nanoparticle, iron oxide (α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple low temperature combustion method using Fe(NO33·9H2O as raw material. X-ray diffraction studies confirmed that the resultant powders are pure α-Fe2O3. Transmission electron microscopy study revealed the spherical shape of the primary particles, and the size of the iron oxide nanoparticles is in the range of 19 nm. The magnetic hysteresis loops demonstrated that the sample exposed ferromagnetic behaviors with a relatively low coercivity. The cytotoxicity of α-Fe2O3 nanoparticle was also evaluated on human breast cancer cells to address the current deficient knowledge of cellular response to nanoparticle exposure.

  6. Iron aluminide alloy container for solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkins, Roddie Reagan (Knoxville, TN); Singh, Prabhakar (Export, PA); Sikka, Vinod Kumar (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2000-01-01

    A container for fuel cells is made from an iron aluminide alloy. The container alloy preferably includes from about 13 to about 22 weight percent Al, from about 2 to about 8 weight percent Cr, from about 0.1 to about 4 weight percent M selected from Zr and Hf, from about 0.005 to about 0.5 weight percent B or from about 0.001 to about 1 weight percent C, and the balance Fe and incidental impurities. The iron aluminide container alloy is extremely resistant to corrosion and metal loss when exposed to dual reducing and oxidizing atmospheres at elevated temperatures. The alloy is particularly useful for containment vessels for solid oxide fuel cells, as a replacement for stainless steel alloys which are currently used.

  7. Porous Iron oxide nanorods and their photothermal applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, George; Huang, Weijie; Zhao, Yiping; Hunyadi Murph, Simona E.

    2016-09-01

    Iron oxide is a unique semiconductor material, either as a single nanoparticle, or as a component of multifunctional nanoparticles. Its desirable properties, abundance, non-toxicity, and excellent magnetic properties make it a valuable for many applications. Porous iron oxide nanorods are able to transduce light into heat through the photothermal effect. Photothermal heating arises from the energy dissipated during light absorption leading to rapid temperature rise in close proximity to the surface of the nanoparticle. The heating effect can be efficiently harnessed to drive/promote different physical phenomena. In this report, we describe the synthesis and properties of porous Fe3O4 for photothermal applications. We then demonstrate their use as photothermally enhanced and recyclable materials for environmental remediation through sorption processes.

  8. Designing porous metallic glass compact enclosed with surface iron oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jae Young; Park, Hae Jin; Hong, Sung Hwan; Kim, Jeong Tae; Kim, Young Seok; Park, Jun-Young; Lee, Naesung [Hybrid Materials Center (HMC), Faculty of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Engineering, Sejong University, 209 Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Yongho [Graphene Research Institute (GRI) & HMC, Faculty of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Engineering, Sejong University, 209 Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin Man, E-mail: jinman_park@hotmail.com [Global Technology Center, Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd, 129 Samsung-ro, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do 443-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ki Buem, E-mail: kbkim@sejong.ac.kr [Hybrid Materials Center (HMC), Faculty of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Engineering, Sejong University, 209 Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-25

    Highlights: • Porous metallic glass compact was developed using electro-discharge sintering process. • Uniform PMGC can only be achieved when low electrical input energy was applied. • Functional iron-oxides were formed on the surface of PMGCs by hydrothermal technique. - Abstract: Porous metallic glass compact (PMGC) using electro-discharge sintering (EDS) process of gas atomized Zr{sub 41.2}Ti{sub 13.8}Cu{sub 12.5}Ni{sub 10}Be{sub 22.5} metallic glass powder was developed. The formation of uniform PMGC can only be achieved when low electrical input energy was applied. Functional iron-oxides were formed on the surface of PMGCs by hydrothermal technique. This finding suggests that PMGC can be applied in the new area such as catalyst via hydrothermal technique and offer a promising guideline for using the metallic glasses as a potential functional application.

  9. Noble Metal-Iron Oxide Hybrid Nanomaterials: Emerging Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ken Cham-Fai; Xuan, Shouhu

    2016-02-01

    This account provides an overview of current research activities that focus on the synthesis and applications of nanomaterials from noble metal (e.g., Au, Ag, Pd) and iron oxide (Fe3O4) hybrids. An introduction to the synthetic strategies that have been developed for generating M-Fe3O4 nanomaterials with different novel structures is presented. Surface functionalization and bioconjugation of these hybrid nanoparticles and nanocomposites are also reviewed. The utilization of the advantageous properties of both noble metals and iron oxide for a variety of applications, such as theranostics, gene delivery, biosensing, cell sorting, bioseparation, and catalysis, is discussed and highlighted. Finally, future trends and perspectives of these sophisticated nanocomposites are outlined. The fundamental requirements underpinning the effective preparation of M-Fex Oy hybrid nanomaterials shed light on the future development of heterogeneous catalysts, nanotheranostics, nanomedicines, and other chemical technologies.

  10. Promising iron oxide-based magnetic nanoparticles in biomedical engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Phuong Ha-Lien; Tran, Thao Truong-Dinh; Vo, Toi Van; Lee, Beom-Jin

    2012-12-01

    For the past few decades biomedical engineering has imprinted its significant impact on the map of science through its wide applications on many other fields. An important example obviously proving this fact is the versatile application of magnetic nanoparticles in theranostics. Due to preferable properties such as biocompatibility, non-toxicity compared to other metal derivations, iron oxide-based magnetic nanoparticles was chosen to be addressed in this review. Aim of this review is to give the readers a whole working window of these magnetic nanoparticles in the current context of science. Thus, preparation of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with the so-far techniques, methods of characterizing the nanoparticles as well as their most recent biomedical applications will be stated.

  11. Tetragonal-Like Phase in Core–Shell Iron Iron-Oxide Nanoclusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Maninder; McCloy, John S.; Kukkadapu, Ravi; Pearce, Carolyn; Tucek, Jiri; Bowden, Mark; Engelhard, Mark; Arenholz, Elke; Qiang, You

    2017-05-11

    Two sizes of iron/iron-oxide (Fe/Fe-oxide) nanoclusters (NCs) of 10 nm and 35 nm diameters were prepared using a cluster deposition technique. Both these NCs displayed XRD peaks due to body-centered cubic (bcc) Fe0 and magnetite-like phase. Mossbauer spectroscopy (MS) measurements: a) confirmed the core-shell nature of the NCs, b) the Fe-oxide shell to be nanocrystalline and partially oxidized, and c) the Fe-oxide spins are significantly canted. In addition to the bcc Fe and magnetite-like phases, a phase similar to tetragonal σ-Fe-Cr (8% Cr) was CLEARLY evident in the larger NC, based on X-ray diffraction. Origin of the tetragonallike phase in the larger NC was not clear but could be due to significant distortion of the Fe0 core lattice planes; subtle peaks due to this phase were also apparent in the smaller NC. Unambiguous evidence for the presence of such a phase, however, was not clear from MS, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, vibrating sample magnetometry, X-ray magnetic circular dichroism, nor transmission electron microscopy. To our knowledge, this is the first report of tetragonallike phase in the Fe/Fe-oxide core-shell systems.

  12. Reduction Behaviors of Carbon Composite Iron Oxide Briquette Under Oxidation Atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ki-Woo; Kim, Kang-Min; Kwon, Jae-Hong; Han, Jeong-Whan [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Son, Sang-Han [POSCO, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    The carbon composite iron oxide briquette (CCB) is considered a potential solution to the upcoming use of low grade iron resources in the ironmaking process. CCB is able to reduce raw material cost by enabling the use of low grade powdered iron ores and coal. Additionally, the fast reduction of iron oxides by direct contact with coal can be utilized. In this study, the reduction behaviors of CCB were investigated in the temperature range of 200-1200 ℃ under oxidizing atmosphere. Briquettes were prepared by mixing iron ore and coal in a weight ratio of 8:2. Then reduction experiments were carried out in a mixed gas atmosphere of N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and CO{sub 2}. Compressive strength tests and quantitative analysis were performed by taking samples at each target temperature. In addition, the reduction degree depending on the reaction time was evaluated by off-gas analysis during the reduction test. It was found that the compressive strength and the metallization degree of the reduced briquettes increased with increases in the reaction temperature and holding time. However, it tended to decrease when the re-oxidation phenomenon was caused by injected oxygen. The degree of reduction reached a maximum value in 26 minutes. Therefore, the re-oxidation phenomenon becomes dominant after 26 minutes.

  13. Acicular iron nanoparticles protected against sintering with aluminium oxide

    OpenAIRE

    Morales, M. P.; Serna, C. J.; Pozas, R.; Ocaña Jurado, Manuel

    2004-01-01

    [EN] Acicular iron nanoparticles have been obtained by thermal reduction with hydrogen of a goethite precursor protected against sintering with Al cations, either by doping during the synthesis or by a further coating and the relation between microstructure and magnetic properties of the final Fe particles has been studied in order to evaluate the efficiency of both protecting methods. Uniform goethite and Al-doped goethite precursors were prepared by oxidation with air of FeSO4 solu...

  14. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: magnetic nanoplatforms as drug carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahajuddin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Wahajuddin,1,2 Sumit Arora21Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism Division, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, 2Department of Pharmaceutics, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Rae Bareli, IndiaAbstract: A targeted drug delivery system is the need of the hour. Guiding magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with the help of an external magnetic field to its target is the principle behind the development of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs as novel drug delivery vehicles. SPIONs are small synthetic γ-Fe2O3 (maghemite or Fe3O4 (magnetite particles with a core ranging between 10 nm and 100 nm in diameter. These magnetic particles are coated with certain biocompatible polymers, such as dextran or polyethylene glycol, which provide chemical handles for the conjugation of therapeutic agents and also improve their blood distribution profile. The current research on SPIONs is opening up wide horizons for their use as diagnostic agents in magnetic resonance imaging as well as for drug delivery vehicles. Delivery of anticancer drugs by coupling with functionalized SPIONs to their targeted site is one of the most pursued areas of research in the development of cancer treatment strategies. SPIONs have also demonstrated their efficiency as nonviral gene vectors that facilitate the introduction of plasmids into the nucleus at rates multifold those of routinely available standard technologies. SPION-induced hyperthermia has also been utilized for localized killing of cancerous cells. Despite their potential biomedical application, alteration in gene expression profiles, disturbance in iron homeostasis, oxidative stress, and altered cellular responses are some SPION-related toxicological aspects which require due consideration. This review provides a comprehensive understanding of SPIONs with regard to their method of preparation, their utility as drug delivery vehicles, and some concerns which need to

  15. A review of non-oxidative dissolution of iron sulphides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsland, S.D.; Dawe, R.A.; Kelsall, G.H.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reviews the non-oxidative dissolution of mineral sulphides as a possible source of reservoir souring. It investigates the factors affecting the rate of dissolution/H/sub 2/S evolution and the mechanisms by which the process takes to place. From the information presented it is apparent that no exhaustive kinetic or thermodynamic studies have been carried out in this area. The paper indicates that the non-oxidative dissolution of mineral sulphides, and in particular iron sulphides, is a probable source of hydrogen sulphide generation under reservoir conditions.

  16. Preparation and crystalline phase of a TiO2 porous film by anodic oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei; TAO Jie; ZHANG Weiwei; TAO Haijun; WANG Ling

    2005-01-01

    Anatase titanium dioxide is an active photocatalyst, but it is difficult to immobilize on the substrate. A crystalline TiO2 porous film was prepared directly on the surface of pure titanium by anodic oxidation in this work. Constant voltage and constant current anodic oxidation were adopted with sulphuric acid used as the electrolyte, pure titanium as the anode and copper as the cathode. The morphology and structure of the porous film on the substrate were analyzed with the aid of Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The effects of the parameters of anodic oxidation (such as voltage, the concentration of sulphuric acid, anodization time and current density) on the aperture and the crystalline phase of the TiO2 porous film were systematically investigated. The results indicate that the increase of current density facilitates the augment of the aperture and the generation of anatase and rutile. In addition, the forming mechanism of anatase and rutile TiO2 porous films was discussed.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of single-crystalline zinc tin oxide nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jen-Bin; Wu, Po-Feng; Lin, Hsien-Sheng; Lin, Ya-Ting; Lee, Hsuan-Wei; Kao, Chia-Tze; Liao, Wei-Hsiang; Young, San-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Crystalline zinc tin oxide (ZTO; zinc oxide with heavy tin doping of 33 at.%) nanowires were first synthesized using the electrodeposition and heat treatment method based on an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane, which has an average diameter of about 60 nm. According to the field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) results, the synthesized ZTO nanowires are highly ordered and have high wire packing densities. The length of ZTO nanowires is about 4 μm, and the aspect ratio is around 67. ZTO nanowires with a Zn/(Zn + Sn) atomic ratio of 0.67 (approximately 2/3) were observed from an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). X-ray diffraction (XRD) and corresponding selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns demonstrated that the ZTO nanowire is hexagonal single-crystalline. The study of ultraviolet/visible/near-infrared (UV/Vis/NIR) absorption showed that the ZTO nanowire is a wide-band semiconductor with a band gap energy of 3.7 eV.

  18. Gentamicin coated iron oxide nanoparticles as novel antibacterial agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Proma; Neogi, Sudarsan

    2017-09-01

    Applications of different types of magnetic nanoparticles for biomedical purposes started a long time back. The concept of surface functionalization of the iron oxide nanoparticles with antibiotics is a novel technique which paves the path for further application of these nanoparticles by virtue of their property of superparamagnetism. In this paper, we have synthesized novel iron oxide nanoparticles surface functionalized with Gentamicin. The average size of the particles, concluded from the HR-TEM images, came to be around 14 nm and 10 nm for unmodified and modified nanoparticles, respectively. The magnetization curve M(H) obtained for these nanoparticles are typical of superparamagnetic nature and having almost zero values of coercivity and remanance. The release properties of the drug coated nanoparticles were studied; obtaining an S shaped profile, indicating the initial burst effect followed by gradual sustained release. In vitro investigations against various gram positive and gram negative strains viz Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis indicated significant antibacterial efficiency of the drug-nanoparticle conjugate. The MIC values indicated that a small amount like 0.2 mg ml‑1 of drug capped particles induce about 98% bacterial death. The novelty of the work lies in the drug capping of the nanoparticles, which retains the superparamagnetic nature of the iron oxide nanoparticles and the medical properties of the drug simultaneously, which is found to extremely blood compatible.

  19. Versatile ferrofluids based on polyethylene glycol coated iron oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brullot, W., E-mail: ward.brullot@fys.kuleuven.be [Department of Chemistry, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, 3001 Heverlee, Leuven (Belgium); Reddy, N.K. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Willem de Croylaan 46, 3001 Heverlee, Leuven (Belgium); Wouters, J.; Valev, V.K.; Goderis, B. [Department of Chemistry, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, 3001 Heverlee, Leuven (Belgium); Vermant, J. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Willem de Croylaan 46, 3001 Heverlee, Leuven (Belgium); Verbiest, T. [Department of Chemistry, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, 3001 Heverlee, Leuven (Belgium)

    2012-06-15

    Versatile ferrofluids based on polyethylene glycol coated iron oxide nanoparticles were obtained by a facile protocol and thoroughly characterized. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles synthesized using a modified forced hydrolysis method were functionalized with polyethylene glycol silane (PEG silane), precipitated and dried. These functionalized particles are dispersable in a range of solvents and concentrations depending on the desired properties. Examples of tunable properties are magnetic behavior, optical and magneto-optical response, thermal features and rheological behavior. As such, PEG silane functionalized particles represent a platform for the development of new materials that have broad applicability in e.g. biomedical, industrial or photonic environments. Magnetic, optical, magneto-optical, thermal and rheological properties of several ferrofluids based on PEG coated particles with different concentrations of particles dispersed in low molecular mass polyethylene glycol were investigated, establishing the applicability of such materials. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ferrofluids based on polyethylene glycol coated iron oxide nanoparticles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic, optical, magneto-optical, thermal and rheological characterization of ferrofluids. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tunable properties of versatile polyethylene glycol stabilized ferrofluids.

  20. Magnetic Signatures of Several Synthetic Iron Oxides Alteration Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyodo, Y.; Ona-Nguema, G.; Bonville, P.; Lagroix, F.

    2009-05-01

    The alteration of naturally occurring iron oxides and oxyhydroxides, under the influence of varying environmental conditions, including micro-environments and biological activity, is an important research topic because their connection to past climate variations remains to be elucidated. One approach to this subject matter is to perform laboratory experiments using synthetic iron oxides (sensus lato) subjected to specific physical and bio-chemical conditions. In our presentation, we will report on alteration experiments performed on synthetic lepidocrocite (γ-FeOOH) and maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) particles. A first approach consists in using the starting materials as electron acceptors in bio-reduction experiments involving the iron- reducing bacteria Shewanella putrefaciens and leading to the formation of magnetite (Fe3O4) particles. In a parallel approach, the starting materials are converted to magnetite by slow heating in CO/CO2 atmosphere. Further alteration can be done by slow heating in air, this time inducing aging and oxidation of the material. At various stages of our experiments, the samples are characterized using both magnetic (low-temperature, low-field and high-field magnetic measurements, Mossbaüer spectroscopy, etc.) and non-magnetic techniques (XRD, HRTEM, etc.). The various experiments conducted on these samples will allow us to study different pathways of magnetite formation and alteration in the environment, including solid-state conversion, partial or total dissolution/precipitation, and particles aggregation.

  1. Modulated self-reversed magnetic hysteresis in iron oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ji; Chen, Kezheng

    2017-02-01

    The steadfast rule of a ferromagnetic hysteresis loop claims its saturation positioned within the first and third quadrants, whereas its saturation positioned in the second and fourth quadrants (named as self-reversed magnetic hysteresis) is usually taken as an experimental artifact and is always intentionally ignored. In this report, a new insight in this unique hysteresis phenomenon and its modulation were discussed in depth. Different iron oxides (magnetite, maghemite and hematite) with varying dimensions were soaked in FeCl3 aqueous solution and absorbed Fe3+ cations due to their negative enough surface zeta potentials. These iron oxides@Fe3+ core-shell products exhibit well pronounced self-reversed magnetic hysteresis which concurrently have typical diamagnetic characteristics and essential ferromagnetic features. The presence of pre-magnetized Fe3+ shell and its negatively magnetic exchange coupling with post-magnetized iron-oxide core is the root cause for the observed phenomena. More strikingly, this self-reversed magnetic hysteresis can be readily modulated by changing the core size or by simply controlling Fe3+ concentration in aqueous solution. It is anticipated that this work will shed new light on the development of spintronics, magnetic recording and other magnetically-relevant fields.

  2. Reducing arsenic accumulation in rice grain through iron oxide amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrow, Eric M; Wang, Jianmin; Burken, Joel G; Shi, Honglan; Yan, Wengui; Yang, John; Hua, Bin; Deng, Baolin

    2015-08-01

    Effects of soil-arsenic (As), phosphorus and iron oxide on As accumulation in rice grain were investigated. Cultivars that have significantly different sensitivity to As, straighthead-resistant Zhe 733 and straighthead-susceptible Cocodrie, were used to represent different cultivar varieties. The grain accumulation of other elements of concern, selenium (Se), molybdenum (Mo), and cadmium (Cd) was also monitored. Results demonstrated that high soil-As not only resulted in high grain-As, but could also result in high grain-Se, and Zhe 733 had significantly less grain-As than Cocodrie did. However, soil-As did not impact grain-Mo and Cd. Among all elements monitored, iron oxide amendment significantly reduced grain-As for both cultivars, while the phosphate application only reduced grain-Se for Zhe 733. Results also indicated that cultivar type significantly impacted grain accumulation of all monitored trace elements. Therefore, applying iron oxide to As-contaminated land, in addition to choosing appropriate rice cultivar, can effectively reduce the grain accumulation of As.

  3. Effect of isochronal annealing on phase transformation studies of iron oxide nanoparticles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anjali J Deotale; R V Nandedkar; A K Sinha; Anuj Upadhyay; Puspen Mondal; A K Srivastava; S K Deb

    2015-06-01

    The effect of isochronal annealing on the phase transformation in iron oxide nanoparticles is reported in this work. Iron oxide nanoparticles were successfully synthesized using an ash supported technique followed by annealing for 2 h at various temperatures between 300 and 700° C. It was observed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) that as-grown samples have mixed phases of crystalline haematite (α-Fe2O3) and a minor phase of either maghemite (-Fe2O3) or magnetite (Fe3O4). On annealing, the minor phase transforms gradually to haematite. The phase transformation is complete at annealing temperature of 442° C as confirmed by differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) analysis. The unresolved phases in XRD were further analysed and confirmed to be maghemite from the X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) studies. The magnetic measurements showed that at room temperature nano--Fe2O3 is weak ferromagnetic, and its magnetization is larger than the bulk value. The mixed phase sample shows higher value of magnetization because of the presence of ferromagnetic -Fe2O3 phase.

  4. Thermal Growth and Nanomagnetism of the Quasi-one Dimensional Iron Oxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Minglong Zhong; Zhongwu Liu; Xichun Zhong; Hongya Yu; Dechang Zeng

    2011-01-01

    Quasi-one dimensional iron oxide nanowires with flat needle shape were synthesized on the iron powders by a rather simple catalyst-free thermal oxidation process in ambient atmosphere. The characterization by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) revealed that these nanos- tructures are single crystalline α-Fe2O3. The various dimensions with 40-170 nm in width and 1-8 μm in length were obtained by tuning the growth temperature from 280 to 480℃. A surface diffusion mechanism was proposed to account for the growth of quasi-one dimensional nanostructure. The typical α-Fe203 nanowires synthesized at 430℃ had a reduced Morin temperature TM of 131 K in comparison with their bulk counterpart. The coercivitis Hc of these nanowires are 321 and 65 Oe at 5 and 300 K, respectively. The temperature of synthesis also has important effects on the magnetic properties of these nanowires.

  5. Electron uptake by iron-oxidizing phototrophic bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bose, A; Gardel, EJ; Vidoudez, C; Parra, EA; Girguis, PR

    2014-02-26

    Oxidation-reduction reactions underlie energy generation in nearly all life forms. Although most organisms use soluble oxidants and reductants, some microbes can access solid-phase materials as electron-acceptors or -donors via extracellular electron transfer. Many studies have focused on the reduction of solid-phase oxidants. Far less is known about electron uptake via microbial extracellular electron transfer, and almost nothing is known about the associated mechanisms. Here we show that the iron-oxidizing photoautotroph Rhodopseudomonas palustris TIE-1 accepts electrons from a poised electrode, with carbon dioxide as the sole carbon source/electron acceptor. Both electron uptake and ruBisCo form I expression are stimulated by light. Electron uptake also occurs in the dark, uncoupled from photosynthesis. Notably, the pioABC operon, which encodes a protein system essential for photoautotrophic growth by ferrous iron oxidation, influences electron uptake. These data reveal a previously unknown metabolic versatility of photoferrotrophs to use extracellular electron transfer for electron uptake.

  6. Statement on the validity and robustness of information provided on irradiated iron oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Following a Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF notification concerning the use of an unauthorised irradiated colouring agent (brown iron oxide as coatings of food supplements, the European Commission asked EFSA to assess the scientific validity and robustness of three documents i two safety assessments from two pharmaceutical companies including information on the manufacturing process of iron oxides, and ii one safety assessment on gamma irradiated iron oxides in food supplements provided by a consultant. According to the supplier of iron oxides and hydroxides (E 172, the aim of the 60Co-gamma irradiation treatment was to eliminate microbiological contamination. Iron oxides and hydroxides (E 172 are authorised food additives in the EU. EFSA noted that the gamma irradiation of iron oxides (yellow, red, black and brown has not been previously evaluated by other Scientific Committees dealing with foodstuffs, pharmaceutical products or cosmetics and that the irradiation doses applied to iron oxides in this particular case are higher than the doses currently authorised in the EU for “other food and food ingredients”. EFSA also noted that some evidence is available in the literature demonstrating a reduction of iron(III to iron(II due to 60Co-gamma irradiation and, that the food additive black iron oxide, as authorised in the EU, contains iron in both (II and (III valence states. Therefore, an increase in the content of divalent iron would not be of safety concern per se. However, EFSA also notes that the information on irradiated iron oxides provided is very limited and insufficient to substantiate the claim that iron oxides are not expected to undergo any chemical transformation upon irradiation. In order to demonstrate the chemical stability of iron oxide during the 60Co-gamma irradiation treatment, EFSA recommends to carry out some further analyses.

  7. Non-oxidic nanoscale composites: single-crystalline titanium carbide nanocubes in hierarchical porous carbon monoliths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenburg, Kirstin; Smarsly, Bernd M; Brezesinski, Torsten

    2009-05-07

    We report the preparation of nanoscale carbon-titanium carbide composites with carbide contents of up to 80 wt%. The synthesis yields single-crystalline TiC nanocubes 20-30 nm in diameter embedded in a hierarchical porous carbon matrix. These composites were generated in the form of cylindrical monoliths but can be produced in various shapes using modern sol-gel and nanocasting methods in conjunction with carbothermal reduction. The monolithic material is characterized by a combination of microscopy, diffraction and physisorption. Overall, the results presented in this work represent a concrete design template for the synthesis of non-oxidic nanoscale composites with high surface areas.

  8. Iron oxide-based nanoparticles with different mean sizes obtained by the laser pyrolysis: structural and magnetic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morjan, I; Alexandrescu, R; Dumitrache, F; Birjega, R; Fleaca, C; Soare, I; Luculescu, C R; Filoti, G; Kuncer, V; Vekas, L; Popa, N C; Prodan, G; Ciupina, V

    2010-02-01

    Nano-sized iron oxide-based particles have been directly synthesized by the laser induced pyrolysis of a mixture containing iron pentacarbonyl/air (as oxidizer)/ethylene (as sensitizer). In this paper we further demonstrate the possibility to vary the chemical composition and the nanoparticle dimensions of the iron oxide-based materials by handling the oxidation procedure in the frame of the laser pyrolysis process. Thus, nanoparticles with major maghemite/magnetite content may change composition into mixtures with variable amounts of three components: major gamma-Fe2O3/Fe3O4 iron oxide, metallic Fe and cementite Fe3C. By X-ray diffraction (XRD) it is found that the relative proportion of these phases differs in function of the reaction temperature (laser power). As revealed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), mean particle sizes between about 4 nm and 6 nm and between about 9 and 11 nm may be prepared by varying the oxidation procedure and the laser power, respectively. By the controlled heating of samples (maximum temperature 185 degrees C), increased crystallinity for the gamma-Fe2O3/Fe3O4 oxide phase was found as well as an increase of the mean particle diameters. The examination of the magnetization curves for samples obtained for different laser powers indicates notable differences in the magnetic behavior and parameters. The temperature dependent Mossbauer measurements confirm the formation of larger particles at higher laser power densities as well as the presence of inter-particle magnetic interactions. On this basis, the estimation of phase composition for the different representative samples is given.

  9. Polyol synthesis, functionalisation, and biocompatibility studies of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as potential MRI contrast agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachani, Roxanne; Lowdell, Mark; Birchall, Martin; Hervault, Aziliz; Mertz, Damien; Begin-Colin, Sylvie; Thanh, Nguy&Ecirtil; N. Thi&Cmb. B. Dot; Kim

    2016-02-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) of low polydispersity were obtained through a simple polyol synthesis in high pressure and high temperature conditions. The control of the size and morphology of the nanoparticles was studied by varying the solvent used, the amount of iron precursor and the reaction time. Compared with conventional synthesis methods such as thermal decomposition or co-precipitation, this process yields nanoparticles with a narrow particle size distribution in a simple, reproducible and cost effective manner without the need for an inert atmosphere. For example, IONPs with a diameter of ca. 8 nm could be made in a reproducible manner and with good crystallinity as evidenced by X-ray diffraction analysis and high saturation magnetization value (84.5 emu g-1). The surface of the IONPs could be tailored post synthesis with two different ligands which provided functionality and stability in water and phosphate buffer saline (PBS). Their potential as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent was confirmed as they exhibited high r1 and r2 relaxivities of 7.95 mM-1 s-1 and 185.58 mM-1 s-1 respectively at 1.4 T. Biocompatibility and viability of IONPs in primary human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) was studied and confirmed.Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) of low polydispersity were obtained through a simple polyol synthesis in high pressure and high temperature conditions. The control of the size and morphology of the nanoparticles was studied by varying the solvent used, the amount of iron precursor and the reaction time. Compared with conventional synthesis methods such as thermal decomposition or co-precipitation, this process yields nanoparticles with a narrow particle size distribution in a simple, reproducible and cost effective manner without the need for an inert atmosphere. For example, IONPs with a diameter of ca. 8 nm could be made in a reproducible manner and with good crystallinity as evidenced by X-ray diffraction analysis and high

  10. Synthesis of A novel aminoalkoxide of iron by oxide one-pot process: Its sol-gel application to iron oxide powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manop Panapoy

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A low-cost and facile route to synthesize ferratrane complex, which can be employed as alkoxide precursor for iron oxide ordoped iron oxide via sol-gel technique, has been developed from the reaction of a very inexpensive and plentiful startingmaterials via the oxide one-pot synthesis (OOPS process. Ferratrane complex was directly synthesized from iron hydroxide,triethanolamine and ethylene glycol in the presence of triethylenetetramine as catalyst. The structure of resulting products was fully characterized using FTIR, 1H, 13C-NMR, elemental analysis, mass spectroscopy and TGA. Moreover, the influence ofcalcination temperature on the formation of iron oxide powders prepared by sol-gel route using the synthesized ferratranecomplex was investigated. The microstructure, morphology and electrical property of iron oxide obtained were also elucidated.

  11. Influence of copper in spheres of iron and aluminum oxide; Influencia do cobre nas propriedades texturais e estruturais de esferas de oxido de ferro e aluminio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, A.F. de; Gomes, E.C.C.; Valentini, A.; Longhinotti, E., E-mail: adfrsou@hotmail.co [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Analitica e Fisico-Quimica; Sales, F.A.M. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica

    2010-07-01

    The various applications of mesoporous materials in adsorption and catalysis have driven research for new synthetic routes to improve the structural and morphological characteristics of the compounds currently available. Spherical mesoporous materials of aluminum oxide and / or iron were synthesized in proportions of 10.30 and 50%, and then impregnated with copper oxide by wet impregnation method. Supporters of spherical iron oxide and aluminum before and after impregnation with copper were characterized by XRD, SEM, chemical analysis, BET and TPR. The analysis results of XRD showed the formation of crystalline phases AB{sub 2}O{sub 4} type, the results of TPR showed a shift of the band of iron reduction with the incorporation of copper and the samples indicated a decrease in porosity, possibly due to the closure of pores with the addition of copper. (author)

  12. Immobilization of bacterial S-layer proteins from Caulobacter crescentus on iron oxide-based nanocomposite: synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of zincite-coated Fe₂O₃ nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Neda

    2014-05-05

    Zinc oxide was coated on Fe2O3 nanoparticles using sol-gel spin-coating. Caulobacter crescentus have a crystalline surface layer (S-layer), which consist of one protein or glycoprotein species. The immobilization of bacterial S-layers obtained from C. crescentus on zincite-coated nanoparticles of iron oxide was investigated. The SDS PAGE results of S-layers isolated from C. crescentus showed the weight of 50 KDa. Nanoparticles of the Fe2O3 and zinc oxide were synthesized by a sol-gel technique. Fe2O3 nanoparticles with an average size of 50 nm were successfully prepared by the proper deposition of zinc oxide onto iron oxide nanoparticles surface annealed at 450 °C. The samples were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR).

  13. Nanopatterning of Crystalline Silicon Using Anodized Aluminum Oxide Templates for Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Tsu-An

    A novel thin film anodized aluminum oxide templating process was developed and applied to make nanopatterns on crystalline silicon to enhance the optical properties of silicon. The thin film anodized aluminum oxide was created to improve the conventional thick aluminum templating method with the aim for potential large scale fabrication. A unique two-step anodizing method was introduced to create high quality nanopatterns and it was demonstrated that this process is superior over the original one-step approach. Optical characterization of the nanopatterned silicon showed up to 10% reduction in reflection in the short wavelength range. Scanning electron microscopy was also used to analyze the nanopatterned surface structure and it was found that interpore spacing and pore density can be tuned by changing the anodizing potential.

  14. Altering the structure and properties of iron oxide nanoparticles and graphene oxide/iron oxide composites by urea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghdi, Samira; Rhee, Kyong Yop; Jaleh, Babak; Park, Soo Jin

    2016-02-01

    Iron oxide (Fe2O3) nanoparticles were grown on graphene oxide (GO) using a simple microwave-assisted method. The effects of urea concentration on Fe2O3 nanoparticles and GO/Fe2O3 composite were examined. The as-prepared samples were characterized using X-ray powder diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The Fe2O3 nanoparticles were uniformly developed on GO sheets. The results showed that urea affects both Fe2O3 morphology and particle size. In the absence of urea, the Fe2O3 nanostructures exhibited a rod-like morphology. However, increasing urea concentration altered the morphology and decreased the particle size. The Raman results of GO/Fe2O3 showed that the intensity ratio of D band to G band (ID/IG) was decreased by addition of urea, indicating that urea can preserve the GO sheets during synthesis of the composite from exposing more defects. The surface area and thermal stability of GO/Fe2O3 and Fe2O3 were compared using the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method and thermal gravimetric analysis, respectively. The results showed that the increased concentration of urea induced a larger surface area with more active sites in the Fe2O3 nanoparticles. However, the increase in urea concentration led to decreased thermal stability of the Fe2O3 nanoparticles. The magnetic properties of Fe2O3 nanoparticles were characterized by a vibrating sample magnetometer and results revealed that the magnetic properties of Fe2O3 nanoparticles are affected by the morphology.

  15. Control of preferred (222) crystalline orientation of sputtered indium tin oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham, Duy Phong [Laboratory of Advanced Materials, University of Science, Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh (Viet Nam); Phan, Bach Thang [Laboratory of Advanced Materials, University of Science, Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh (Viet Nam); Faculty of Materials Science, University of Science, Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh (Viet Nam); Hoang, Van Dung; Nguyen, Huu Truong [Laboratory of Advanced Materials, University of Science, Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh (Viet Nam); Ta, Thi Kieu Hanh [Faculty of Materials Science, University of Science, Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh (Viet Nam); Maenosono, Shinya [Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Nomi, Ishikawa (Japan); Tran, Cao Vinh, E-mail: tcvinh@hcmus.edu.vn [Laboratory of Advanced Materials, University of Science, Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh (Viet Nam)

    2014-11-03

    We report a two-step growth process for the fabrication of (222)-plane textured indium tin oxide (ITO) films. A thin ITO seed layer was grown in mixed Argon + Oxygen gases, followed by a thick ITO deposited in Argon gas. X-Ray diffraction shows that the sputtered ITO films exhibit strongly preferred (222) crystalline orientation. The (222)-plane textured ITO films have high transmittance above 80% in the visible range and carrier concentration, mobility and resistivity in the range of 10{sup 21} cm{sup −3}, 40 cm{sup 2}/Vs and 10{sup −4} Ω·cm, respectively. The surface roughness of our (222) textured ITO films is 1.4 nm, which is one of the smallest value obtained from sputtered ITO thin films. - Highlights: • Control of preferred (222) crystalline orientation of indium tin oxide (ITO) films • A thin oxygen rich seed layer activates (222) orientation growth of overhead ITO films. • The surface roughness of (222)-plane textured ITO films is about 1.4 nm. • Carrier concentration and resistivity are about 10{sup 21} cm{sup −3} and 10{sup −4} Ω·cm, respectively.

  16. Oxidation-Based Continuous Laser Writing in Vertical Nano-Crystalline Graphite Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loisel, Loïc; Florea, Ileana; Cojocaru, Costel-Sorin; Tay, Beng Kang; Lebental, Bérengère

    2016-05-01

    Nano and femtosecond laser writing are becoming very popular techniques for patterning carbon-based materials, as they are single-step processes enabling the drawing of complex shapes without photoresist. However, pulsed laser writing requires costly laser sources and is known to cause damages to the surrounding material. By comparison, continuous-wave lasers are cheap, stable and provide energy at a more moderate rate. Here, we show that a continuous-wave laser may be used to pattern vertical nano-crystalline graphite thin films with very few macroscale defects. Moreover, a spatially resolved study of the impact of the annealing to the crystalline structure and to the oxygen ingress in the film is provided: amorphization, matter removal and high oxygen content at the center of the beam; sp2 clustering and low oxygen content at its periphery. These data strongly suggest that amorphization and matter removal are controlled by carbon oxidation. The simultaneous occurrence of oxidation and amorphization results in a unique evolution of the Raman spectra as a function of annealing time, with a decrease of the I(D)/I(G) values but an upshift of the G peak frequency.

  17. Porous single-crystalline palladium nanoflowers with enriched {100} facets for highly enhanced ethanol oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Kun; Wang, Qiyu; Zheng, Weitao; Zhang, Wei; Cui, Xiaoqiang

    2014-11-01

    Palladium porous single-crystalline nanoflowers (PSNFs) with enriched high catalytic activity {100} facets were synthesized using a mild and controllable seed mediated growth method. The growth mechanism of the Pd PSNFs was investigated using time dependent morphology evolution through TEM imaging. Due to the specific structure, Pd PSNFs show highly enhanced ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR) activity, high EOR anti-poisoning and stability, much better than Pd nanocubes, {111} facets dominated dendritic urchin-like Pd nanoparticles and Pd black.Palladium porous single-crystalline nanoflowers (PSNFs) with enriched high catalytic activity {100} facets were synthesized using a mild and controllable seed mediated growth method. The growth mechanism of the Pd PSNFs was investigated using time dependent morphology evolution through TEM imaging. Due to the specific structure, Pd PSNFs show highly enhanced ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR) activity, high EOR anti-poisoning and stability, much better than Pd nanocubes, {111} facets dominated dendritic urchin-like Pd nanoparticles and Pd black. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr05761a

  18. Interactions of proteins with biogenic iron oxyhydroxides and a new culturing technique to increase biomass yields of neutrophilic, iron-oxidizing bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Barco, Roman A.; Edwards, Katrina J

    2014-01-01

    Neutrophilic, bacterial iron-oxidation remains one of the least understood energy-generating biological reactions to date. One of the reasons it remains under-studied is because there are inherent problems with working with iron-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB), including low biomass yields and interference from the iron oxides in the samples. In an effort to circumvent the problem of low biomass, a new large batch culturing technique was developed. Protein interactions with biogenic iron oxides wer...

  19. Investigation on steelmaking dust recycling and iron oxide red preparing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pingfeng Fu; Qiang Zhang

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the physical and chemical properties of the steelmaking dust, wet sieve separation, XRD, SEM, EDS, and traditional chemical analysis were carried out to obtain the particle size distribution, mineralogy, morphology, and the chemical composition of the dust. The dust with a total Fe content of 64.08wt% has coarse metallic iron, magnetite and hematite grains, while fine clay minerals with a size of <38 μm are mainly iosiderite, calcium silicate, and calcite, which are conglomerated to each other.By following the procedures of wet magnetic separation, acid leaching, and oxidization calcination, magnetic materials were recycled and further prepared as iron oxide red with a productivity of 0.54 ton per unit ton of the dust. Middle iron concentrate with an Fe content of 65.92wt% can be reused as feeding material in the ironmaking industry. Additionally, washed water from acid leaching with an Fe3+ ion content of less than 5 g·L-1 was recovered as feeding water in the wet magnetic separation procedure.

  20. Crystal structure of iron-oxide nanoparticles synthesized from ferritin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krispin, Michael, E-mail: michael.krispin@physik.uni-augsburg.de; Ullrich, Aladin, E-mail: aladin.ullrich@physik.uni-augsburg.de; Horn, Siegfried, E-mail: horn@physik.uni-augsburg.de [University of Augsburg, Institute of Physics (Germany)

    2012-02-15

    We have investigated the crystal structure of nanosized iron-oxide by X-ray diffraction (XRD), extended X-ray absorption fine structure measurements at the iron K-edge as well as by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Iron-oxide nanoparticles were produced by thermal treatment of horse spleen ferritin molecules. The structure of these particles was compared to {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanopowder references. The thermal treatment of a submonolayer film of ferritin molecules results in pure {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles, while for films above a certain thickness {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} coexist, exhibiting two different crystallite sizes. TEM shows a characteristic particle diameter of {approx}7 nm for {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} resulting from thermal treatment of monolayers, consistent with the crystallite size of the {gamma}-phase as obtained from XRD measurements on multi-layered samples. XRD shows the {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} phase to be characterized by a crystallite size of {approx}34 nm.

  1. Mercury removal in wastewater by iron oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez, E.; Campillo, G. E.; Morales, G.; Hincapié, C.; Osorio, J.; Arnache, O.; Uribe, J. I.; Jaramillo, F.

    2016-02-01

    Mercury is one of the persistent pollutants in wastewater; it is becoming a severe environmental and public health problem, this is why nowadays its removal is an obligation. Iron oxide nanoparticles are receiving much attention due to their properties, such as: great biocompatibility, ease of separation, high relation of surface-area to volume, surface modifiability, reusability, excellent magnetic properties and relative low cost. In this experiment, Fe3O4 and γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles were synthesized using iron salts and NaOH as precipitation agents, and Aloe Vera as stabilizing agent; then these nanoparticles were characterized by three different measurements: first, using a Zetasizer Nano ZS for their size estimation, secondly UV-visible spectroscopy which showed the existence of resonance of plasmon at λmax∼360 nm, and lastly by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to determine nanoparticles form. The results of this characterization showed that the obtained Iron oxides nanoparticles have a narrow size distribution (∼100nm). Mercury removal of 70% approximately was confirmed by atomic absorption spectroscopy measurements.

  2. Reductive dechlorination of chlorinated solvents by zero-valent iron, iron oxide and iron sulfide minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivavec, T.M.; Horney, D.P. [GE Corporate Research and Development, Schenectady, NY (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The degradation of chlorinated solvents by reduction at the surface of zero-valent metals and bimetallic systems has emerged as an important approach to the in-situ remediation of ground water. Reduction by iron metal was studied in batch and column systems to develop a mechanistic understanding of the reaction chemistry and to determine the factors that affect dechlorination rate and long term performance in field applications.

  3. Oxidation of phenolic acids by soil iron and manganese oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmann, R.G.; Cheng, H.H.; Harsh, J.B.

    Phenolic acids are intermediary metabolites of many aromatic chemicals and may be involved in humus formation, allelopathy, and nutrient availability. Depending on their structures, six phenolic acids were shown to react at different rates with oxidized forms of Fe and Mn in a Palouse soil (fine-silty, mixed, mesic Pachic Ultic Haploxeroll). Increasing methoxy substitution on the aromatic ring of phenolic acids increased the reaction rate. Reaction rate was also increased for longer carboxyl-containing side chains. After 4 h reaction, little of the applied (10 mg kg/sup -1/ soil) p-hydroxybenzoic or p-coumaric acids had reacted, while 0 to 5, 70, 90, and 100% of the vanillic, ferulic, syringic, and sinapic acids, respectively, had reacted. After 72 h under conditions limiting microbial growth, none of the p-hydroxybenzoic, 30% of the p-coumaric, and 50% of the vanillic acids had reacted. The reaction was shown to be predominantly chemical, and not biological, since phenolic acid extractabilities were similar for Palouse soil and for Palouse soil pretreated with LiOBr to remove organic matter. When the Palouse soil was pretreated with a sodium dithionite-citrate solution to remove Fe and Mn oxides, none of the phenolic acids reacted after 1 h. The reaction of sinapic acid with Palouse soil was shown to produce Fe(II) and soluble Mn as reaction products. The reaction of phenolic acids with soil was thus shown to be an oxidation of the phenolic acids, coupled with a reduction of soil Fe and Mn oxides.

  4. Evidence for Vacancy Injection during the Oxidation of Iron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D.G.LEES; R.FRANCIS

    2009-01-01

    Iron discs have been oxidised at 890 ℃ on one side only, with the other side protected by an inert gas. The scale-metal adhesion was very good. Initially, scale-metal adhesion was maintained by the scale relaxing towards the metal but after a time which depended upon the initial metal thickness, oxide relaxation ceased and the inert face moved towards the scale-metal interface. When the face which was normally inert was covered with a non-growing oxide layer, the scale-metal adhesion deteriorated. The results show that vacancies which were produced by oxidation were annihilated within the metal, that the inert face played a part and that the scale-metal interface is not a good sink for vacancies.

  5. Fabrication of TiO2 Crystalline Coatings by Combining Ti-6Al-4V Anodic Oxidation and Heat Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Laura Vera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The bio- and hemocompatibility of titanium alloys are due to the formation of a TiO2 layer. This natural oxide may have fissures which are detrimental to its properties. Anodic oxidation is used to obtain thicker films. By means of this technique, at low voltages oxidation, amorphous and low roughness coatings are obtained, while, above a certain voltage, crystalline and porous coatings are obtained. According to the literature, the crystalline phases of TiO2, anatase, and rutile would present greater biocompatibility than the amorphous phase. On the other hand, for hemocompatible applications, smooth and homogeneous surfaces are required. One way to obtain crystalline and homogeneous coatings is by heat treatments after anodic oxidation. The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of heat treatments on the thickness, morphology, and crystalline structure of the TiO2 anodic coatings. The characterization was performed by optical and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray reflectometry. Coatings with different colors of interference were obtained. There were no significant changes in the surface morphology and roughness after heat treatment of 500°C. Heat treated coatings have different proportions of the crystalline phases, depending on the voltage of anodic oxidation and the temperature of the heat treatment.

  6. Fabrication of TiO2 Crystalline Coatings by Combining Ti-6Al-4V Anodic Oxidation and Heat Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schvezov, Carlos Enrique; Ares, Alicia Esther

    2015-01-01

    The bio- and hemocompatibility of titanium alloys are due to the formation of a TiO2 layer. This natural oxide may have fissures which are detrimental to its properties. Anodic oxidation is used to obtain thicker films. By means of this technique, at low voltages oxidation, amorphous and low roughness coatings are obtained, while, above a certain voltage, crystalline and porous coatings are obtained. According to the literature, the crystalline phases of TiO2, anatase, and rutile would present greater biocompatibility than the amorphous phase. On the other hand, for hemocompatible applications, smooth and homogeneous surfaces are required. One way to obtain crystalline and homogeneous coatings is by heat treatments after anodic oxidation. The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of heat treatments on the thickness, morphology, and crystalline structure of the TiO2 anodic coatings. The characterization was performed by optical and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray reflectometry. Coatings with different colors of interference were obtained. There were no significant changes in the surface morphology and roughness after heat treatment of 500°C. Heat treated coatings have different proportions of the crystalline phases, depending on the voltage of anodic oxidation and the temperature of the heat treatment. PMID:25784939

  7. Anoxic photochemical oxidation of siderite generates molecular hydrogen and iron oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J Dongun; Yee, Nathan; Nanda, Vikas; Falkowski, Paul G

    2013-06-18

    Photochemical reactions of minerals are underappreciated processes that can make or break chemical bonds. We report the photooxidation of siderite (FeCO3) by UV radiation to produce hydrogen gas and iron oxides via a two-photon reaction. The calculated quantum yield for the reaction suggests photooxidation of siderite would have been a significant source of molecular hydrogen for the first half of Earth's history. Further, experimental results indicate this abiotic, photochemical process may have led to the formation of iron oxides under anoxic conditions. The reaction would have continued through the Archean to at least the early phases of the Great Oxidation Event, and provided a mechanism for oxidizing the atmosphere through the loss of hydrogen to space, while simultaneously providing a key reductant for microbial metabolism. We propose that the photochemistry of Earth-abundant minerals with wide band gaps would have potentially played a critical role in shaping the biogeochemical evolution of early Earth.

  8. Pulsed-laser deposition of nanostructured iron oxide catalysts for efficient water oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlandi, Michele; Caramori, Stefano; Ronconi, Federico; Bignozzi, Carlo A; El Koura, Zakaria; Bazzanella, Nicola; Meda, Laura; Miotello, Antonio

    2014-05-14

    Amorphous iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) for functionalization of indium-tin oxide surfaces, resulting in electrodes capable of efficient catalysis in water oxidation. These electrodes, based on earth-abundant and nonhazardous iron metal, are able to sustain high current densities (up to 20 mA/cm2) at reasonably low applied potential (1.64 V at pH 11.8 vs reversible hydrogen electrode) for more than 1 h when employed as anodes for electrochemical water oxidation. The good catalytic performance proves the validity of PLD as a method to prepare nanostructured solid-state materials for catalysis, enabling control over critical properties such as surface coverage and morphology.

  9. Rapid Spectrophotometric Technique for Quantifying Iron in Cells Labeled with Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles: Potential Translation to the Clinic

    OpenAIRE

    Dadashzadeh, Esmaeel R.; Hobson, Matthew; Bryant, L. Henry; Dean, Dana D.; Joseph A Frank

    2013-01-01

    Labeling cells with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles provides the ability to track cells by Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Quantifying intracellular iron concentration in SPIO labeled cells would allow for the comparison of agents and techniques used to magnetically label cells. Here we describe a rapid spectrophotometric technique (ST) to quantify iron content of SPIO labeled cells, circumventing the previous requirement of an overnight acid digestion. Following lysis with 10% ...

  10. Biological iron oxidation by Gallionella spp. in drinking water production under fully aerated conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vet, W W J M; Dinkla, I J T; Rietveld, L C; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2011-11-01

    Iron oxidation under neutral conditions (pH 6.5-8) may be a homo- or heterogeneous chemically- or a biologically-mediated process. The chemical oxidation is supposed to outpace the biological process under slightly alkaline conditions (pH 7-8). The iron oxidation kinetics and growth of Gallionella spp. - obligatory chemolithotrophic iron oxidizers - were assessed in natural, organic carbon-containing water, in continuous lab-scale reactors and full-scale groundwater trickling filters in the Netherlands. From Gallionella cell numbers determined by qPCR, balances were made for all systems. The homogeneous chemical iron oxidation occurred in accordance with the literature, but was retarded by a low water temperature (13 °C). The contribution of the heterogeneous chemical oxidation was, despite the presence of freshly formed iron oxyhydroxides, much lower than in previous studies in ultrapure water. This could be caused by the adsorption of natural organic matter (NOM) on the iron oxide surfaces. In the oxygen-saturated natural water with a pH ranging from 6.5 to 7.7, Gallionella spp. grew uninhibited and biological iron oxidation was an important, and probably the dominant, process. Gallionella growth was not even inhibited in a full-scale filter after plate aeration. From this we conclude that Gallionella spp. can grow under neutral pH and fully aerated conditions when the chemical iron oxidation is retarded by low water temperature and inhibition of the autocatalytic iron oxidation.

  11. Liquid Phase Plasma Synthesis of Iron Oxide/Carbon Composite as Dielectric Material for Capacitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heon Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron oxide/carbon composite was synthesized using a liquid phase plasma process to be used as the electrode of supercapacitor. Spherical iron oxide nanoparticles with the size of 5~10 nm were dispersed uniformly on carbon powder surface. The specific capacitance of the composite increased with increasing quantity of iron oxide precipitate on the carbon powder up to a certain quantity. When the quantity of the iron oxide precipitate exceeds the threshold, however, the specific capacitance was rather reduced by the addition of precipitate. The iron oxide/carbon composite containing an optimum quantity (0.33 atomic % of iron oxide precipitate exhibited the smallest resistance and the largest initial resistance slope.

  12. RGD-conjugated iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles for magnetic resonance imaging contrast enhancement and hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, S W; Huang, M; Hong, R Y; Deng, S M; Cheng, L F; Gao, B; Badami, D

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a specific targeting magnetic nanoparticle probe for magnetic resonance imaging and therapy in the form of local hyperthermia. Carboxymethyl dextran-coated ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with carboxyl groups were coupled to cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartic peptides for integrin α(v)β₃ targeting. The particle size, magnetic properties, heating effect, and stability of the arginine-glycine-aspartic-ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide were measured. The arginine-glycine-aspartic-ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide demonstrates excellent stability and fast magneto-temperature response. Magnetic resonance imaging signal intensity of Bcap37 cells incubated with arginine-glycine-aspartic-ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide was significantly decreased compared with that incubated with plain ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide. The preferential uptake of arginine-glycine-aspartic-ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide by target cells was further confirmed by Prussian blue staining and confocal laser scanning microscopy.

  13. Study of nanocomposites based on iron oxides and pectin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chistyakova, Nataliya I., E-mail: nchistyakova@yandex.ru; Shapkin, Alexey A., E-mail: nchistyakova@yandex.ru; Sirazhdinov, Ruslan R., E-mail: nchistyakova@yandex.ru; Gubaidulina, Tatiana V., E-mail: nchistyakova@yandex.ru; Kiseleva, Tatiana Yu., E-mail: nchistyakova@yandex.ru; Kazakov, Alexander P., E-mail: nchistyakova@yandex.ru; Rusakov, Vyacheslav S., E-mail: nchistyakova@yandex.ru [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics, Leninskie gory, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-10-27

    Mössbauer and X-ray diffraction study of nanocomposites based on iron oxides and pectin (PC) was carried out involving magnetization measurements. The concentrations of PC in nanocomposites varied from 0 to 10%. Mössbauer investigations of nanocomposites were carried out in the temperature range from 5 to 300 K. Many-state superparamagnetic relaxation model was used for spectra fitting. The magnetization, M(T,H), was measured in the temperature interval of 80-300 K and magnetic field up to 10 kOe. Formation of the 'iron-polymer' interface was not observed. Particle sizes were estimated using the Mössbauer and X-ray powder diffraction data.

  14. Study of nanocomposites based on iron oxides and pectin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chistyakova, Nataliya I.; Shapkin, Alexey A.; Sirazhdinov, Ruslan R.; Gubaidulina, Tatiana V.; Kiseleva, Tatiana Yu.; Kazakov, Alexander P.; Rusakov, Vyacheslav S.

    2014-10-01

    Mössbauer and X-ray diffraction study of nanocomposites based on iron oxides and pectin (PC) was carried out involving magnetization measurements. The concentrations of PC in nanocomposites varied from 0 to 10%. Mössbauer investigations of nanocomposites were carried out in the temperature range from 5 to 300 K. Many-state superparamagnetic relaxation model was used for spectra fitting. The magnetization, M(T,H), was measured in the temperature interval of 80-300 K and magnetic field up to 10 kOe. Formation of the "iron-polymer" interface was not observed. Particle sizes were estimated using the Mössbauer and X-ray powder diffraction data.

  15. Chitosan-Iron Oxide Coated Graphene Oxide Nanocomposite Hydrogel: A Robust and Soft Antimicrobial Biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konwar, Achyut; Kalita, Sanjeeb; Kotoky, Jibon; Chowdhury, Devasish

    2016-08-17

    We report a robust biofilm with antimicrobial properties fabricated from chitosan-iron oxide coated graphene oxide nanocomposite hydrogel. For the first time, the coprecipitation method was used for the successful synthesis of iron oxide coated graphene oxide (GIO) nanomaterial. After this, films were fabricated by the gel-casting technique aided by the self-healing ability of the chitosan hydrogel network system. Both the nanomaterial and the nanocomposite films were characterized by techniques such as scanning electron microscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and vibrating sample magnetometry. Measurements of the thermodynamic stability and mechanical properties of the films indictaed a significant improvement in their thermal and mechanical properties. Moreover, the stress-strain profile indicated the tough nature of the nanocomposite hydrogel films. These improvements, therefore, indicated an effective interaction and good compatibility of the GIO nanomaterial with the chitosan hydrogel matrix. In addition, it was also possible to fabricate films with tunable surface properties such as hydrophobicity simply by varying the loading percentage of GIO nanomaterial in the hydrogel matrix. Fascinatingly, the chitosan-iron oxide coated graphene oxide nanocomposite hydrogel films displayed significant antimicrobial activities against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli, and also against the opportunistic dermatophyte Candida albicans. The antimicrobial activities of the films were tested by agar diffusion assay and antimicrobial testing based on direct contact. A comparison of the antimicrobial activity of the chitosan-GIO nanocomposite hydrogel films with those of individual chitosan-graphene oxide and chitosan-iron oxide nanocomposite films demonstrated a higher antimicrobial activity for the former in both types of tests. In vitro hemolysis

  16. A new method for preparation of magnetite from iron oxyhydroxide or iron oxide and ferrous salt in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahani, S.A. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Kashan, Kashan 87317-51167 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: Kahani@kashanu.ac.ir; Jafari, M. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Kashan, Kashan 87317-51167 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-07-15

    In this study, a new method is proposed for the preparation of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} from iron oxyhydroxides (goethite, akaganeite, lepidocrocite, feroxyhyte and ferrihydrite) or iron oxide (hematite) and ferrous salt in aqueous solution. The product is magnetite with various particle sizes. Products are characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, IR spectra and vibrating sample magnetometery.

  17. SURFACE CHARACTER OF IRON OXIDE/CARBON NANOPARTICLES SYNTHESIZED BY SUBMERGED ARC DISCHARGE METHOD IN ETHANOL/UREA MEDIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teguh Endah Saraswati

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles modified with carbon has been successfully performed by submerged arc-discharge method in ethanol/urea medium. Iron oxide used in the fabrication process was prepared by iron electrolysis in an electrolyte solution of NaCl. Fabrication of nanoparticles in this method uses two graphite electrodes. One of them was made in a pointed shape and the other graphite electrodes hollowed out and filled with a mixture of iron oxide, graphite and glue silica (as binder with a ratio of 1:3:1 (w/w/w. The liquid medium used in this method is a mixture solution of ethanol 50% and urea (0%, 10%, 25% and 50% with a volume ratio of 1:1 (v/v. The crystalline of iron oxide was characterized using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD, compared to JCPDS No. 89-0597, No. 89-0691 and No. 39-1346. Variations in the urea concentration in the liquid medium provided the changes of the surface character of the synthesized nanoparticles. The changes of surface character were analyzed by the Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR spectra and nanoparticle dispersion in water and ethanol. FTIR spectra showed the absorption of Fe-O, CH, CN, C = O, OH and NH at 460-555 cm-1, 650-1000 cm-1, 1000-1350 cm-1, 1640-1680 cm-1, 2400-3400 cm-1, 3200-3400 cm-1, 3100-3500 cm-1, respectively. The best hydrophilic surface character achieved when the nanoparticle was synthesized in medium of ethanol 50% with the addition of urea50%. The existence of a functional group attached on the surface of nanoparticles synthesized in ethanol/urea makes these nanoparticles had better dispersion than nanoparticles synthesized in ethanol medium without urea addition.

  18. Aqueous dispersion of monodisperse magnetic iron oxide nanocrystals through phase transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, William W [Department of Chemistry, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Chang, Emmanuel [Department of Bioengineering, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Sayes, Christie M [Department of Chemistry, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Drezek, Rebekah [Department of Bioengineering, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Colvin, Vicki L [Department of Chemistry, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States)

    2006-09-14

    A facile method was developed for completely transferring high quality monodisperse iron oxide nanocrystals from organic solvents to water. The as-prepared aqueous dispersions of iron oxide nanocrystals were extremely stable and could be functionalized for bioconjugation with biomolecules. These iron oxide nanocrystals showed negligible cytotoxicity to human breast cancer cells (SK-BR-3) and human dermal fibroblast cells. This method is general and versatile for many organic solvent-synthesized nanoparticles, including fluorescent semiconductor nanocrystals.

  19. Facile fabrication of electrolyte-gated single-crystalline cuprous oxide nanowire field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoesser, Anna; von Seggern, Falk; Purohit, Suneeti; Nasr, Babak; Kruk, Robert; Dehm, Simone; Wang, Di; Hahn, Horst; Dasgupta, Subho

    2016-10-01

    Oxide semiconductors are considered to be one of the forefront candidates for the new generation, high-performance electronics. However, one of the major limitations for oxide electronics is the scarcity of an equally good hole-conducting semiconductor, which can provide identical performance for the p-type metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors as compared to their electron conducting counterparts. In this quest, here we present a bulk synthesis method for single crystalline cuprous oxide (Cu2O) nanowires, their chemical and morphological characterization and suitability as active channel material in electrolyte-gated, low-power, field-effect transistors (FETs) for portable and flexible logic circuits. The bulk synthesis method used in the present study includes two steps: namely hydrothermal synthesis of the nanowires and the removal of the surface organic contaminants. The surface treated nanowires are then dispersed on a receiver substrate where the passive electrodes are structured, followed by printing of a composite solid polymer electrolyte (CSPE), chosen as the gate insulator. The characteristic electrical properties of individual nanowire FETs are found to be quite interesting including accumulation-mode operation and field-effect mobility of 0.15 cm2 V-1 s-1.

  20. Iron oxide-based nanomagnets in nanomedicine: fabrication and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Meng Lin

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Iron oxide-based nanomagnets have attracted a great deal of attention in nanomedicine over the past decade. Down to the nanoscale, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles can only be magnetized in the presence of an external magnetic field, which makes them capable of forming stable colloids in a physio-biological medium. Their superparamagnetic property, together with other intrinsic properties, such as low cytotoxicity, colloidal stability, and bioactive molecule conjugation capability, makes such nanomagnets ideal in both in-vitro and in-vivo biomedical applications. In this review, a chemical, physical, and biological synthetic approach to prepare iron oxide-based nanomagnets with different physicochemical properties was illustrated and compared. The growing interest in iron oxide-based nanomagnets with multifunctionalities was explored in cancer diagnostics and treatment, focusing on their combined roles in a magnetic resonance contrast agent, hyperthermia, and magnetic force assisted drug delivery. Iron oxides as magnetic carriers in gene therapy were reviewed with a focus on the sophisticated design and construction of magnetic vectors. Finally, the iron oxide-based nanomagnet also represents a very promising tool in particle/cell interfacing in controlling cellular functionalities, such as adhesion, proliferation, differentiation, and cell patterning, in stem cell therapy and tissue engineering applications. Meng Meng Lin received a BSc in biotechnology at the University of Hong Kong, China in 2004 and an MSc in biomedical nanotechnology at Newcastle University, UK, in 2005. She is currently working toward her PhD at the Institute of Science and Technology in Medicine, Keele University, UK. She was a visiting student at the Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden, in 2006. Her research interests include nanoparticles preparation, cell/nanomaterials interface, and cancer-oriented drug delivery. Hyung-Hwan Kim received an MSc degree in

  1. Iron: the Redox-active center of oxidative stress in Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellani, Rudy J; Moreira, Paula I; Liu, Gang; Dobson, Jon; Perry, George; Smith, Mark A; Zhu, Xiongwei

    2007-10-01

    Although iron is essential in maintaining the function of the central nervous system, it is a potent source of reactive oxygen species. Excessive iron accumulation occurs in many neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer disease (AD), Parkinson's disease, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, raising the possibility that oxidative stress is intimately involved in the neurodegenerative process. AD in particular is associated with accumulation of numerous markers of oxidative stress; moreover, oxidative stress has been shown to precede hallmark neuropathological lesions early in the disease process, and such lesions, once present, further accumulate iron, among other markers of oxidative stress. In this review, we discuss the role of iron in the progression of AD.

  2. Synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles via sonochemical method and their characterization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amir Hassanjani-Roshan; Mohammad Reza Vaezi; Ali Shokuhfar; Zohreh Rajabali

    2011-01-01

    Preparation of iron oxide (α-Fe2O3) nanoparticles was carried out via a sonochemical process. The process parameters such as temperature,sonication time and power of ultrasonication play important roles in the size and morphology of the final products. The iron oxide nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy,X-ray powder diffraction,and thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses. From transmission electron microscopy observations,the size of the iron oxide nanoparticles is estimated to be significantly smaller than 19 nm. X-ray diffraction data of the powder after annealing provide direct evidence that the iron oxide was formed during the sonochemical process.

  3. Synthesis and Characterization of Holmium-Doped Iron Oxide Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten Bloemen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Rare earth atoms exhibit several interesting properties, for example, large magnetic moments and luminescence. Introducing these atoms into a different matrix can lead to a material that shows multiple interesting effects. Holmium atoms were incorporated into an iron oxide nanoparticle and the concentration of the dopant atom was changed in order to determine its influence on the host crystal. Its magnetic and magneto-optical properties were investigated by vibrating sample magnetometry and Faraday rotation measurements. The luminescent characteristics of the material, in solution and incorporated in a polymer thin film, were probed by fluorescence experiments.

  4. Catalytic effect of free iron ions and heme-iron on chromophore oxidation of a polyene antibiotic amphotericin B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czernel, Grzegorz; Typek, Rafał; Klimek, Katarzyna; Czuryło, Aleksandra; Dawidowicz, Andrzej L.; Gagoś, Mariusz

    2016-05-01

    Owing to the presence of a chromophore in the amphotericin B (AmB) structure, the molecule can undergo the oxidation process. In this research, AmB chromophore oxidation was catalysed by iron ions (iron(III) chloride (FeCl3), pH 2.5) and by heme-iron (methemoglobin (HbFe(III)), and hemin (heme-Fe(III)) at pH 7.0). Additionally, we compared oxidation processes induced by the aforementioned oxidizing agents with autoxidation by dioxygen (O2) naturally occurring in a sample. The effects of the interaction of the oxidizing agents with AmB were analysed using molecular spectroscopies (electronic absorption (UV-Vis), fluorescence) and LC-MS. The use of a 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) chelator facilitated unambiguous determination of the oxidative effect of free iron(III) ions (FeIII) in an acidic solution on the AmB molecules. Also, the changes in the spectra of fluorescence emission centred at ∼470 nm indicate iron-catalysed processes of AmB chromophore oxidation. Unexpectedly, we found a similar spectroscopic effect for AmB induced by methemoglobin and hemin at pH 7.0. Methemoglobin and hemin at a concentration of 8 × 10-7 M (physiological) significantly increases the rate of the processes of AmB chromophore oxidation relative to the process of autoxidation.

  5. Thermo-electric oxidization of iron in lithium niobate crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falk, Matthias

    2007-07-01

    Lithium niobate crystals (LiNbO{sub 3}) are a promising material for nonlinear-optical applications like frequency conversion to generate visible light, e.g., in laser displays, but their achievable output power is greatly limited by the ''optical damage'', i.e., light-induced refractive-index changes caused by excitation of electrons from iron impurities and the subsequent retrapping in unilluminated areas of the crystal. The resulting space-charge fields modify the refractive indices due to the electro-optic effect. By this ''photorefractive effect'' the phase-matching condition, i.e., the avoidance of destructive interference between light generated at different crystal positions due to the dispersion of the fundamental wave and the converted wave, is disturbed critically above a certain light intensity threshold. The influence of annealing treatments conducted in the presence of an externally applied electric field (''thermo-electric oxidization'') on the valence state of iron impurities and thereby on the optical damage is investigated. It is observed that for highly iron-doped LiNbO{sub 3} crystals this treatment leads to a nearly complete oxidization from Fe{sup 2+} to Fe{sup 3+} indicated by the disappearance of the absorption caused by Fe{sup 2+}. During the treatment an absorption front forms that moves through the crystal. The absorption in the visible as well as the electrical conductivity are decreased by up to five orders of magnitude due to this novel treatment. The ratio of the Fe{sup 2+} concentration to the total iron concentration - a measure for the strength of the oxidization - is in the order of 10{sup -6} for oxidized crystals whereas it is about 10{sup -1} for untreated samples. Birefringence changes are observed at the absorption front that are explained by the removal of hydrogen and lithium ions from the crystal that compensate for the charges of the also removed electrons from

  6. Reactions of metal ions at surfaces of hydrous iron oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hem, J.D.

    1977-01-01

    Cu, Ag and Cr concentrations in natural water may be lowered by mild chemical reduction involving ferric hydroxide-ferrous ion redox processes. V and Mo solubilities may be controlled by precipitation of ferrous vanadate or molybdate. Concentrations as low as 10-8.00 or 10-9.00 M are readily attainable for all these metals in oxygen-depleted systems that are relatively rich in Fe. Deposition of manganese oxides such as Mn3O4 can be catalyzed in oxygenated water by coupling to ferrous-ferric redox reactions. Once formed, these oxides may disproportionate, giving Mn4+ oxides. This reaction produces strongly oxidizing conditions at manganese oxide surfaces. The solubility of As is significantly influenced by ferric iron only at low pH. Spinel structures such as chromite or ferrites of Cu, Ni, and Zn, are very stable and if locally developed on ferric hydroxide surfaces could bring about solubilities much below 10-9.00 M for divalent metals near neutral pH. Solubilities calculated from thermodynamic data are shown graphically and compared with observed concentrations in some natural systems. ?? 1977.

  7. Crystalline Grain Interior Configuration Affects Lithium Migration Kinetics in Li-Rich Layered Oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haijun; So, Yeong-Gi; Kuwabara, Akihide; Tochigi, Eita; Shibata, Naoya; Kudo, Tetsuichi; Zhou, Haoshen; Ikuhara, Yuichi

    2016-05-11

    The electrode kinetics of Li-ion batteries, which are important for battery utilization in electric vehicles, are affected by the grain size, crystal orientation, and surface structure of electrode materials. However, the kinetic influences of the grain interior structure and element segregation are poorly understood, especially for Li-rich layered oxides with complex crystalline structures and unclear electrochemical phenomena. In this work, cross-sectional thin transmission electron microscopy specimens are "anatomized" from pristine Li1.2Mn0.567Ni0.167Co0.067O2 powders using a new argon ion slicer technique. Utilizing advanced microscopy techniques, the interior configuration of a single grain, multiple monocrystal-like domains, and nickel-segregated domain boundaries are clearly revealed; furthermore, a randomly distributed atomic-resolution Li2MnO3-like with an intergrown LiTMO2 (TM = transitional metals) "twin domain" is demonstrated to exist in each domain. Further theoretical calculations based on the Li2MnO3-like crystal domain boundary model reveal that Li(+) migration in the Li2MnO3-like structure with domain boundaries is sluggish, especially when the nickel is segregated in domain boundaries. Our work uncovers the complex configuration of the crystalline grain interior and provides a conceptual advance in our understanding of the electrochemical performance of several compounds for Li-ion batteries.

  8. Molecular modeling studies of oleate adsorption on iron oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rath, Swagat S. [CSIR-Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology, Bhubaneswar (India); Sinha, Nishant [Accelrys K.K, Bengaluru (India); Sahoo, Hrushikesh [CSIR-Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology, Bhubaneswar (India); Das, Bisweswar, E-mail: bdas@immt.res.in [CSIR-Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology, Bhubaneswar (India); Mishra, Barada Kanta [CSIR-Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology, Bhubaneswar (India)

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Plane wave periodic DFT study of oleate-iron oxide interaction. • Magnetite-oleate complex is more stable than hematite and goethite. • Flotation recovery of magnetite is more compared to the other two oxides. - Abstract: Comparative studies of oleate interaction with hematite, magnetite and goethite using density functional calculations are presented. The approach is illustrated by carrying out geometric optimization of oleate on the stable and most exposed planes of hematite, magnetite, and goethite. Interaction energies for oleate-mineral surface have been determined, based on which, magnetite is found to be forming the most stable complex with oleate. Trend as obtained from the quantum chemical calculations has been validated by contact angle measurements and flotation studies on hematite, magnetite and goethite with sodium oleate at different pH and collector concentrations.

  9. Influence of Au addition on magnetic properties of iron oxide in a silica–phosphate glass matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, K., E-mail: ksharma_iit@yahoo.co.in [Glass and Advanced Materials Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Prajapat, C.L. [Technical Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Meena, Sher Singh [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Singh, M.R. [Technical Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Yusuf, S.M. [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Montagne, L. [Université Lille Nord de France, UCCS – Unité de Catalyse et Chimie du Solide – UMR CNRS 8181, 59562 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Kothiyal, G.P. [Glass and Advanced Materials Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2013-11-15

    The influence of gold particle addition on structural and magnetic ordering of iron oxide in a glass matrix was studied. The silica–phosphate glasses containing iron oxide and Au were prepared by the melt quench technique. Evolution of crystalline phases was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Magnetic properties were investigated by means of a Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometer and room temperature Mössbauer spectroscopy. The microstructure exhibited the formation of 30–40 nm size particles. The samples showed the formation of magnetite and hematite as major crystalline phases. Magnetic studies revealed the relaxation of magnetic particles. Blocking temperature of investigated sample increased with an increase of Au content implying an increase in the strength of magnetic interactions. Mössbauer spectroscopy has shown the presence of both doublets and magnetic sextets. The magnetization value increased as Au content was increased, which is attributed to the increase in magnetic and structural ordering. - Highlights: • The grains of 30–40 nm size are obtained in glassy matrix. • Assembly of magnetic particles is found influenced by increase in Au content. • The magnetization and coercive field values are increased with an increase in Au content. • Relaxation of magnetic particles is observed.

  10. Optical properties and surface damage studies of crystalline silicon caused by swift iron ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubey, S.K., E-mail: skdubey@physics.mu.ac.in

    2016-05-15

    p-Type silicon samples irradiated with 70 MeV {sup 56}Fe{sup 5+} ions for various fluences varying between 5 × 10{sup 12} and 4 × 10{sup 14} ions cm{sup −2} have been studied using spectroscopic ellipsometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The microstructure of the irradiated samples was modeled from ellipsometric data, using a multilayer optical model and Bruggeman effective medium approximation. The values of pseudodielectric function, absorption coefficient and Penn gap energy were determined with respect to ion fluence. The effective medium analysis suggests that the superficial silicon layer can be explained as a mixture of crystalline and damaged silicon. The thickness of the damaged layer and percentage of voids present in the layer were found to increase with increase in the ion fluence. The effect of disorder on the interband optical spectra, especially on the critical point E{sub 1} at 3.4 eV was found to vary with ion fluence. A red shift in the critical point E{sub 1} with increasing ion fluence was observed. FTIR study showed of silicon samples irradiated with 70 MeV {sup 56}Fe{sup 5+} ions produced the oscillations in the spectral region 1000–400 cm{sup −1}. As irradiated sample showed more pronounced fringes, while contrast of the fringes and amplitude both were found to decrease with increase in depth.

  11. Monodisperse nonionic isoprenoid-type hexahydrofarnesyl ethylene oxide surfactants: high throughput lyotropic liquid crystalline phase determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Celesta; Weerawardena, Asoka; Sagnella, Sharon M; Mulet, Xavier; Krodkiewska, Irena; Chong, Josephine; Drummond, Calum J

    2011-03-15

    The neat and lyotropic phase behavior of eight new ethylene oxide amphiphiles (EO = 1-8) with a hexahydrofarnesyl chain (3,7,11-trimethyldodecyl) and narrow polydispersity (>98.5% purity) is reported. Below five EO units the behavior of the neat surfactants show only a glass transition, Tg ∼ -90 °C. Above four EO units, crystallization (Tcrys) and crystal-isotropic liquid (Tm) transitions are also observed that increase with degree of ethoxylation of the surfactant headgroup. The lyotropic liquid crystalline phase behavior spans a complex spectrum of surfactant-water interfacial curvatures. Specifically, inverse phases are present below ambient temperatures for EO ethoxylation, with the crossover to normal phases occurring at HFarn(EO)(7-8) which exhibits normal hexagonal (H(I)) and cubic (Q(I)) phases at ambient temperatures. The toxicity of colloidal dispersions of these EO amphiphiles was assayed against normal breast epithelial (HMEpiC) and breast cancer (MCF7) cell lines. The IC50 of the EO amphiphiles was similar in both cell lines with moderate toxicity ranging from ca. <5 to 140 μM in an in vitro cell viability assay. Observations are qualitatively rationalized in terms of the molecular geometry of the surfactant. The physicochemical behavior of the HFarnesyl ethylene oxide amphiphiles is compared to other ethylene oxide surfactants.

  12. New CVD-based method for the growth of high-quality crystalline zinc oxide layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Florian; Madel, Manfred; Reiser, Anton; Bauer, Sebastian; Thonke, Klaus

    2016-07-01

    High-quality zinc oxide (ZnO) layers were grown using a new chemical vapour deposition (CVD)-based low-cost growth method. The process is characterized by total simplicity, high growth rates, and cheap, less hazardous precursors. To produce elementary zinc vapour, methane (CH4) is used to reduce a ZnO powder. By re-oxidizing the zinc with pure oxygen, highly crystalline ZnO layers were grown on gallium nitride (GaN) layers and on sapphire substrates with an aluminum nitride (AlN) nucleation layer. Using simple CH4 as precursor has the big advantage of good controllability and the avoidance of highly toxic gases like nitrogen oxides. In photoluminescence (PL) measurements the samples show a strong near-band-edge emission and a sharp line width at 5 K. The good crystal quality has been confirmed in high resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) measurements. This new growth method has great potential for industrial large-scale production of high-quality single crystal ZnO layers.

  13. Pyroelectric response in crystalline hafnium zirconium oxide (Hf1-xZrxO2) thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S. W.; Kitahara, A. R.; Rodriguez, M. A.; Henry, M. D.; Brumbach, M. T.; Ihlefeld, J. F.

    2017-02-01

    Pyroelectric coefficients were measured for 20 nm thick crystalline hafnium zirconium oxide (Hf1-xZrxO2) thin films across a composition range of 0 ≤ x ≤ 1. Pyroelectric currents were collected near room temperature under zero applied bias and a sinusoidal oscillating temperature profile to separate the influence of non-pyroelectric currents. The pyroelectric coefficient was observed to correlate with zirconium content, increased orthorhombic/tetragonal phase content, and maximum polarization response. The largest measured absolute value was 48 μCm-2 K-1 for a composition with x = 0.64, while no pyroelectric response was measured for compositions which displayed no remanent polarization (x = 0, 0.91, and 1).

  14. Enhancement in Mechanical and Shape Memory Properties for Liquid Crystalline Polyurethane Strengthened by Graphene Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueting Li

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Conventional shape memory polymers suffer the drawbacks of low thermal stability, low strength, and low shape recovery speed. In this study, main-chain liquid crystalline polyurethane (LCPU that contains polar groups was synthesized. Graphene oxide (GO/LCPU composite was fabricated using the solution casting method. The tensile strength of GO/LCPU was 1.78 times that of neat LCPU. In addition, shape recovery speed was extensively improved. The average recovery rate of sample with 20 wt % GO loading was 9.2°/s, much faster than that of LCPU of 2.6°/s. The enhancement in mechanical property and shape memory behavior could be attributed to the structure of LCPU and GO, which enhanced the interfacial interactions between GO and LCPU.

  15. Iron and oxygen isotope fractionation during iron UV photo-oxidation: Implications for early Earth and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Nicole X.; Dauphas, Nicolas; Greenwood, Richard C.

    2017-01-01

    Banded iron formations (BIFs) contain appreciable amounts of ferric iron (Fe3+). The mechanism by which ferrous iron (Fe2+) was oxidized into Fe3+ in an atmosphere that was globally anoxic is highly debated. Of the three scenarios that have been proposed to explain BIF formation, photo-oxidation by UV photons is the only one that does not involve life (the other two are oxidation by O2 produced by photosynthesis, and anoxygenic photosynthesis whereby Fe2+ is directly used as electron donor in place of water). We experimentally investigated iron and oxygen isotope fractionation imparted by iron photo-oxidation at a pH of 7.3. The iron isotope fractionation between precipitated Fe3+-bearing lepidocrocite and dissolved Fe2+ follows a Rayleigh distillation with an instantaneous 56Fe/54Fe fractionation factor of + 1.2 ‰. Such enrichment in the heavy isotopes of iron is consistent with the values measured in BIFs. We also investigated the nature of the mass-fractionation law that governs iron isotope fractionation in the photo-oxidation experiments (i.e., the slope of the δ56Fe-δ57Fe relationship). The experimental run products follow a mass-dependent law corresponding to the high-T equilibrium limit. The fact that a ∼3.8 Gyr old BIF sample (IF-G) from Isua (Greenland) falls on the same fractionation line confirms that iron photo-oxidation in the surface layers of the oceans was a viable pathway to BIF formation in the Archean, when the atmosphere was largely transparent to UV photons. Our experiments allow us to estimate the quantum yield of the photo-oxidation process (∼0.07 iron atom oxidized per photon absorbed). This yield is used to model iron oxidation on early Mars. As the photo-oxidation proceeds, the aqueous medium becomes more acidic, which slows down the reaction by changing the speciation of iron to species that are less efficient at absorbing UV-photons. Iron photo-oxidation in centimeter to meter-deep water ponds would take months to years to

  16. Iron and manganese oxide mineralization in the Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, J.R.; Koschinsky, A.; Halbach, P.; Manheim, F. T.; Bau, M.; Kang, J.-K.; Lubick, N.

    1997-01-01

    Iron, manganese, and iron-manganese deposits occur in nearly all geomorphologic and tectonic environments in the ocean basins and form by one or more of four processes: (1) hydrogenetic precipitation from cold ambient seawater, (2) precipitation from hydrothermal fluids, (3) precipitation from sediment pore waters that have been modified from bottom water compositions by diagenetic reactions in the sediment column and (4) replacement of rocks and sediment. Iron and manganese deposits occur in five forms: nodules, crusts, cements, mounds and sediment-hosted stratabound layers. Seafloor oxides show a wide range of compositions from nearly pure iron to nearly pure manganese end members. Fe/Mn ratios vary from about 24 000 (up to 58% elemental Fe) for hydrothermal seamount ironstones to about 0.001 (up to 52% Mn) for hydrothermal stratabound manganese oxides from active volcanic arcs. Hydrogenetic Fe-Mn crusts that occur on most seamounts in the ocean basins have a mean Fe/Mn ratio of 0.7 for open-ocean seamount crusts and 1.2 for continental margin seamount crusts. Fe-Mn nodules of potential economic interest from the Clarion-Clipperton Zone have a mean Fe/Mn ratio of 0.3, whereas the mean ratio for nodules from elsewhere in the Pacific is about 0.7. Crusts are enriched in Co, Ni and Pt and nodules in Cu and Ni, and both have significant concentrations of Pb, Zn, Ba, Mo, V and other elements. In contrast, hydrothermal deposits commonly contain only minor trace metal contents, although there are many exceptions, for example, with Ni contents up to 0.66%, Cr to 1.2%, and Zn to 1.4%. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns generally show a positive Ce anomaly and abundant ΣREEs for hydrogenetic and mixed hydrogenetic-diagenetic deposits, whereas the Ce anomaly is negative for hydrothermal deposits and ΣREE contents are low. However, the Ce anomaly in crusts may vary from strongly positive in East Pacific crusts to slightly negative in West Pacific crusts, which may reflect

  17. Homogeneous, heterogeneous and biological oxidation of iron(II) in rapid sand filtration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van C.G.E.M.; Hiemstra, T.; Hofs, B.; Nederlof, M.M.; Paassen, van J.A.M.; Reijnen, G.K.

    2012-01-01

    Homogeneous, heterogeneous and biological oxidation may precipitate iron(II) as iron(III) hydroxides. In this paper we evaluate the conditions under which each of these processes is dominant in rapid sand filtration (RSF). It is demonstrated that in the presence of iron(III) hydroxide precipitates

  18. Homogeneous, heterogeneous and biological oxidation of iron(II) in rapid sand filtration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van C.G.E.M.; Hiemstra, T.; Hofs, B.; Nederlof, M.M.; Paassen, van J.A.M.; Reijnen, G.K.

    2012-01-01

    Homogeneous, heterogeneous and biological oxidation may precipitate iron(II) as iron(III) hydroxides. In this paper we evaluate the conditions under which each of these processes is dominant in rapid sand filtration (RSF). It is demonstrated that in the presence of iron(III) hydroxide precipitates h

  19. The Effects and Role of Polyvinylpyrrolidone on the Size and Phase Composition of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Prepared by a Modified Sol-Gel Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela F. Silva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fe2O3 nanoparticles (as maghemite and hematite mixtures were prepared using adapted sol-gel method from a polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP aqueous solution in various Fe3+ : PVP monomer ratios. Analysis of X-ray diffraction was obtained to evaluate the crystalline state, average crystallite size, and composition of iron oxide phases. The morphology and average nanoparticles size were evaluated by electronic transmission microscopy. Magnetic properties of iron oxide were analyzed at low and room temperatures. Optical characteristics were evaluated by UV-Vis photoacoustic spectroscopy and the Mössbauer spectrum was obtained in order to evaluate subtle changes in the nuclear environment of the iron atoms.

  20. Targeted magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for tumor imaging and therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-Hong Peng

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Xiang-Hong Peng1,4, Ximei Qian2,4, Hui Mao3,4, Andrew Y Wang5, Zhuo (Georgia Chen1,4, Shuming Nie2,4, Dong M Shin1,4*1Department of Medical Oncology/Hematology; 2Department of Biomedical Engineering; 3Department of Radiology; 4Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA; 5Ocean Nanotech, LLC, Fayetteville, AR, USAAbstract: Magnetic iron oxide (IO nanoparticles with a long blood retention time, biodegradability and low toxicity have emerged as one of the primary nanomaterials for biomedical applications in vitro and in vivo. IO nanoparticles have a large surface area and can be engineered to provide a large number of functional groups for cross-linking to tumor-targeting ligands such as monoclonal antibodies, peptides, or small molecules for diagnostic imaging or delivery of therapeutic agents. IO nanoparticles possess unique paramagnetic properties, which generate significant susceptibility effects resulting in strong T2 and T*2 contrast, as well as T1 effects at very low concentrations for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, which is widely used for clinical oncology imaging. We review recent advances in the development of targeted IO nanoparticles for tumor imaging and therapy.Keywords: iron oxide nanoparticles, tumor imaging, MRI, therapy

  1. Application of a novel plasma-induced CD/MWCNT/iron oxide composite in zinc decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shitong; Guo, Zhiqiang; Sheng, Guodong; Wang, Xiangke

    2012-10-01

    Herein, β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) was grafted onto magnetic MWCNT/iron oxide particles by using low temperature plasma-induced technique to synthesize a novel nanocomposite. The prepared composite (denoted as CD/MWCNT/iron oxide) exhibited high magnetic property (saturation magnetization M(s)=37.8 emu/g) and good dispersion property in aqueous solution. Batch experiments were conducted to evaluate the application potential of CD/MWCNT/iron oxide in the decontamination of Zn(II) from aqueous solutions. The sorption amount of Zn(II) on CD/MWCNT/iron oxide was higher than that of Zn(II) on MWCNT/iron oxides and oxidized MWCNTs, indicating that the grafted β-CD could enhance the sorption capacity of CD/MWCNT/iron oxide composite toward Zn(II) by providing multiple hydroxyl functional groups. Due to its high magnetic, CD/MWCNT/iron oxide could be easily separated from aqueous solution with an external magnetic field. Regeneration studies suggested that CD/MWCNT/iron oxide can support long term use as a cost-effective material in sewage treatment with minimum replacement costs.

  2. Polyethylene Glycol-Mediated Synthesis of Cubic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles with High Heating Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacovita, Cristian; Stiufiuc, Rares; Radu, Teodora; Florea, Adrian; Stiufiuc, Gabriela; Dutu, Alina; Mican, Sever; Tetean, Romulus; Lucaciu, Constantin M.

    2015-10-01

    Iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (IOMNPs) have been successfully synthesized by means of solvothermal reduction method employing polyethylene glycol (PEG200) as a solvent. The as-synthesized IOMNPs are poly-dispersed, highly crystalline, and exhibit a cubic shape. The size of IOMNPs is strongly dependent on the reaction time and the ration between the amount of magnetic precursor and PEG200 used in the synthesis method. At low magnetic precursor/PEG200 ratio, the cubic IOMNPs coexist with polyhedral IOMNPs. The structure and morphology of the IOMNPs were thoroughly investigated by using a wide range of techniques: TEM, XRD, XPS, FTIR, and RAMAN. XPS analysis showed that the IOMNPs comprise a crystalline magnetite core bearing on the outer surface functional groups from PEG200 and acetate. The presence of physisorbed PEG200 on the IOMNP surface is faintly detected through FT-IR spectroscopy. The surface of IOMNPs undergoes oxidation into maghemite as proven by RAMAN spectroscopy and the occurrence of satellite peaks in the Fe2p XP spectra. The magnetic studies performed on powder show that the blocking temperature (TB) of IOMNPs is around 300 K displaying a coercive field in between 160 and 170 Oe. Below the TB, the field-cooled (FC) curves turn concave and describe a plateau indicating that strong magnetic dipole-dipole interactions are manifested in between IOMNPs. The specific absorption rate (SAR) values increase with decreasing nanoparticle concentrations for the IOMNPs dispersed in water. The SAR dependence on the applied magnetic field, studied up to magnetic field amplitude of 60 kA/m, presents a sigmoid shape with saturation values up to 1700 W/g. By dispersing the IOMNPs in PEG600 (liquid) and PEG1000 (solid), it was found that the SAR values decrease by 50 or 75 %, indicating that the Brownian friction within the solvent was the main contributor to the heating power of IOMNPs.

  3. Mapping the Iron Oxidation State in Martian Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, A. M.; Treimann, A. H.; Righter, K.

    2017-01-01

    Several types of Martian igneous meteorites have been identified: clinopyroxenites (nakhlites), basaltic shergottites, peridotitic shergottites, dunites (chassignites) and orthopyroxenites [1,2]. In order to constrain the heterogeneity of the Martian mantle and crust, and their evolution through time, numerous studies have been performed on the iron oxidation state of these meteorites [3,4,5,6,7,8,9]. The calculated fO2 values all lie within the FMQ-5 to FMQ+0.5 range (FMQ representing the Fayalite = Magnetite + Quartz buffer); however, discrepancies appear between the various studies, which are either attributed to the choice of the minerals/melts used, or to the precision of the analytical/calculation method. The redox record in volcanic samples is primarily related to the oxidation state in the mantle source(s). However, it is also influenced by several deep processes: melting, crystallization, magma mixing [10], assimilation and degassing [11]. In addition, the oxidation state in Martian meteorites is potentially affected by several surface processes: assimilation of sediment/ crust during lava flowing at Mars' surface, low temperature micro-crystallization [10], weathering at the surface of Mars and low temperature reequilibration, impact processes (i.e. high pressure phase transitions, mechanical mixing, shock degassing and melting), space weathering, and weathering on Earth (at atmospheric conditions different from Mars). Decoding the redox record of Martian meteorites, therefore, requires large-scale quantitative analysis methods, as well as a perfect understanding of oxidation processes.

  4. Atomistic Simulations of Uranium Incorporation into Iron (Hydr)Oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Ilton, Eugene S.

    2011-04-29

    Atomistic simulations were carried out to characterize the coordination environments of U incorporated in three Fe-(hydr)oxide minerals: goethite, magnetite, and hematite. The simulations provided information on U-O and U-Fe distances, coordination numbers, and lattice distortion for U incorporated in different sites (e.g., unoccupied versus occupied sites, octahedral versus tetrahedral) as a function of the oxidation state of U and charge compensation mechanisms (i.e., deprotonation, vacancy formation, or reduction of Fe(III) to Fe(II)). For goethite, deprotonation of first shell hydroxyls enables substitution of U for Fe(III) with a minimal amount of lattice distortion, whereas substitution in unoccupied octahedral sites induced appreciable distortion to 7-fold coordination regardless of U oxidation states and charge compensation mechanisms. Importantly, U-Fe distances of ~3.6 Å were associated with structural incorporation of U and cannot be considered diagnostic of simple adsorption to goethite surfaces. For magnetite, the octahedral site accommodates U(V) or U(VI) with little lattice distortion. U substituted for Fe(III) in hematite maintained octahedral coordination in most cases. In general, comparison of the simulations with available experimental data provides further evidence for the structural incorporation of U in iron (hydr)oxide minerals.

  5. Uranium co-precipitation with iron oxide minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Martine C.; Coughlin, Jessica Urbanik; Hunter, Douglas B.

    2002-10-01

    In oxidizing environments, the toxic and radioactive element uranium (U) is most soluble and mobile in the hexavalent oxidation state. Sorption of U(VI) on Fe-oxides minerals (such as hematite [α-Fe 2O 3] and goethite [α-FeOOH]) and occlusion of U(VI) by Fe-oxide coatings are processes that can retard U transport in environments. In aged U-contaminated geologic materials, the transport and the biological availability of U toward reduction may be limited by coprecipitation with Fe-oxide minerals. These processes also affect the biological availability of U(VI) species toward reduction and precipitation as the less soluble U(IV) species by metal-reducing bacteria. To examine the dynamics of interactions between U(VI) and Fe oxides during crystallization, Fe-oxide phases (containing 0.5 to 5.4 mol% U/(U + Fe)) were synthesized by means of solutions of U(VI) and Fe(III). Wet chemical (digestions and chemical extractions) and spectroscopic techniques were used to characterize the synthesized Fe oxide coprecipitates after rinsing in deionized water. Leaching the high mol% U solids with concentrated carbonate solution (for sorbed and solid-phase U(VI) species) typically removed most of the U, leaving, on average, about 0.6 mol% U. Oxalate leaching of solids with low mol% U contents (about 1 mol% U or less) indicated that almost all of the Fe in these solids was crystalline and that most of the U was associated with these crystalline Fe oxides. X-ray diffraction and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic studies indicate that hematite formation is preferred over that of goethite when the amount of U in the Fe-oxides exceeds 1 mol% U (˜4 wt% U). FT-IR and room temperature continuous wave luminescence spectroscopic studies with unleached U/Fe solids indicate a relationship between the mol% U in the Fe oxide and the intensity or existence of the spectra features that can be assigned to UO 22+ species (such as the IR asymmetric υ 3 stretch for O = U = O for

  6. Iron isotope fractionation during microbial dissimilatory iron oxide reduction in simulated Archaean seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percak-Dennett, E M; Beard, B L; Xu, H; Konishi, H; Johnson, C M; Roden, E E

    2011-05-01

    The largest Fe isotope excursion yet measured in marine sedimentary rocks occurs in shales, carbonates, and banded iron formations of Neoarchaean and Paleoproterozoic age. The results of field and laboratory studies suggest a potential role for microbial dissimilatory iron reduction (DIR) in producing this excursion. However, most experimental studies of Fe isotope fractionation during DIR have been conducted in simple geochemical systems, using pure Fe(III) oxide substrates that are not direct analogues to phases likely to have been present in Precambrian marine environments. In this study, Fe isotope fractionation was investigated during microbial reduction of an amorphous Fe(III) oxide-silica coprecipitate in anoxic, high-silica, low-sulphate artificial Archaean seawater at 30 °C to determine if such conditions alter the extent of reduction or isotopic fractionations relative to those observed in simple systems. The Fe(III)-Si coprecipitate was highly reducible (c. 80% reduction) in the presence of excess acetate. The coprecipitate did not undergo phase conversion (e.g. to green rust, magnetite or siderite) during reduction. Iron isotope fractionations suggest that rapid and near-complete isotope exchange took place among all Fe(II) and Fe(III) components, in contrast to previous work on goethite and hematite, where exchange was limited to the outer few atom layers of the substrate. Large quantities of low-δ(56)Fe Fe(II) (aqueous and solid phase) were produced during reduction of the Fe(III)-Si coprecipitate. These findings shed new light on DIR as a mechanism for producing Fe isotope variations observed in Neoarchaean and Paleoproterozoic marine sedimentary rocks.

  7. The role of iron as a mediator of oxidative stress in Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellani, Rudy J; Moreira, Paula I; Perry, George; Zhu, Xiongwei

    2012-01-01

    Iron is both essential for maintaining a spectrum of metabolic processes in the central nervous system and elsewhere, and potent source of reactive oxygen species. Redox balance with respect to iron, therefore, may be critical to human neurodegenerative disease but is also in need of better understanding. Alzheimer disease (AD) in particular is associated with accumulation of numerous markers of oxidative stress; moreover, oxidative stress has been shown to precede hallmark neuropathological lesions early in the disease process, and such lesions, once present, further accumulate iron, among other markers of oxidative stress. In this review, we discuss the role of iron in the progression of AD.

  8. Oxygen vacancy promoted methane partial oxidation over iron oxide oxygen carriers in the chemical looping process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhuo; Qin, Lang; Guo, Mengqing; Xu, Mingyuan; Fan, Jonathan A; Fan, Liang-Shih

    2016-11-30

    We perform ab initio DFT+U calculations and experimental studies of the partial oxidation of methane to syngas on iron oxide oxygen carriers to elucidate the role of oxygen vacancies in oxygen carrier reactivity. In particular, we explore the effect of oxygen vacancy concentration on sequential processes of methane dehydrogenation, and oxidation with lattice oxygen. We find that when CH4 adsorbs onto Fe atop sites without neighboring oxygen vacancies, it dehydrogenates with CHx radicals remaining on the same site and evolves into CO2via the complete oxidation pathway. In the presence of oxygen vacancies, on the other hand, the formed methyl (CH3) prefers to migrate onto the vacancy site while the H from CH4 dehydrogenation remains on the original Fe atop site, and evolves into CO via the partial oxidation pathway. The oxygen vacancies created in the oxidation process can be healed by lattice oxygen diffusion from the subsurface to the surface vacancy sites, and it is found that the outward diffusion of lattice oxygen atoms is more favorable than the horizontal diffusion on the same layer. Based on the proposed mechanism and energy profile, we identify the rate-limiting steps of the partial oxidation and complete oxidation pathways. Also, we find that increasing the oxygen vacancy concentration not only lowers the barriers of CH4 dehydrogenation but also the cleavage energy of Fe-C bonds. However, the barrier of the rate-limiting step cannot further decrease when the oxygen vacancy concentration reaches 2.5%. The fundamental insight into the oxygen vacancy effect on CH4 oxidation with iron oxide oxygen carriers can help guide the design and development of more efficient oxygen carriers and CLPO processes.

  9. Identification of Iron Oxides Qualitatively/Quantitatively Formed during the High Temperature Oxidation of Superalloys in Air and Steam Environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.Siddique; N.Hussain; M.Shafi

    2009-01-01

    Mossbauer spectroscopy has been used to study the morphology of iron oxides formed during the oxidation of superalloys, such as SS-304L (1.4306S), Incoloy-800H, Incoloy-825, UBHA-25L, Sanicro-28 and Inconel-690, at 1200℃ exposed in air and steam environments for 400 h. The basic aim was to identify and compare the iron oxides qualitatively and quantitatively, formed during the oxidation of these alloys in two environments. The behaviour of alloy UBHA-25L in high temperature oxidation in both environments indicates that it has good oxidation resistance especially in steam, whereas Sanicro-28 has excellent corrosion resistance in steam environment. In air oxidation of lnconel-690 no iron oxide, with established Mossbauer parameters, was detected.

  10. Iron-oxide minerals affect extracellular electron-transfer paths of Geobacter spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Souichiro; Hashimoto, Kazuhito; Watanabe, Kazuya

    2013-01-01

    Some bacteria utilize (semi)conductive iron-oxide minerals as conduits for extracellular electron transfer (EET) to distant, insoluble electron acceptors. A previous study demonstrated that microbe/mineral conductive networks are constructed in soil ecosystems, in which Geobacter spp. share dominant populations. In order to examine how (semi)conductive iron-oxide minerals affect EET paths of Geobacter spp., the present study grew five representative Geobacter strains on electrodes as the sole electron acceptors in the absence or presence of (semi)conductive iron oxides. It was found that iron-oxide minerals enhanced current generation by three Geobacter strains, while no effect was observed in another strain. Geobacter sulfurreducens was the only strain that generated substantial amounts of currents both in the presence and absence of the iron oxides. Microscopic, electrochemical and transcriptomic analyses of G. sulfurreducens disclosed that this strain constructed two distinct types of EET path; in the absence of iron-oxide minerals, bacterial biofilms rich in extracellular polymeric substances were constructed, while composite networks made of mineral particles and microbial cells (without polymeric substances) were developed in the presence of iron oxides. It was also found that uncharacterized c-type cytochromes were up-regulated in the presence of iron oxides that were different from those found in conductive biofilms. These results suggest the possibility that natural (semi)conductive minerals confer energetic and ecological advantages on Geobacter, facilitating their growth and survival in the natural environment.

  11. HREM investigation of the constitution and the crystallography of thin thermal oxide layers on iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graat, P.C.J.; Brongers, M.P.H.; Zandbergen, H.W.

    1997-01-01

    Oxide layers formed at 573 K in O2 at atmospheric pressure, both on a clean iron surface and on an iron surface covered with an etching induced (hydro)oxide film, were investigated with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HREM). Cross-sections of oxidised samples were prepared by a ...

  12. Cell adhesion of Shewanella oneidensis to iron oxide minerals: Effect of different single crystal faces

    OpenAIRE

    Hochella Michael F; Bank Tracy L; Neal Andrew L; Rosso Kevin M

    2005-01-01

    The results of experiments designed to test the hypothesis that near-surface molecular structure of iron oxide minerals influences adhesion of dissimilatory iron reducing bacteria are presented. These experiments involved the measurement, using atomic force microscopy, of interaction forces generated between Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 cells and single crystal growth faces of iron oxide minerals. Significantly different adhesive force was measured between cells and the (001) face of hematite,...

  13. Synthesis, characterization, and cytotoxicity of glutathione-PEG-iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Paula S.; Santos, Marconi C.; de Guzzi Cassago, Carolina Aparecida; Bernardes, Juliana S.; de Jesus, Marcelo Bispo; Seabra, Amedea B.

    2016-12-01

    Recently, increasing interest is spent on the synthesis of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, followed by their characterization and evaluation of cytotoxicity towards tumorigenic cell lines. In this work, magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles were synthesized by the polyol method and coated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and glutathione (GSH), leading to the formation of PEG-Fe3O4 and GSH-PEG-Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were characterized by state-of-the-art techniques: dynamic light scattering (DLS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetic measurements. PEG-Fe3O4 and GSH-PEG-Fe3O4 nanoparticles have crystallite sizes of 10 and 5 nm, respectively, indicating compression in crystalline lattice upon addition of GSH on the nanoparticle surface. Both nanoparticles presented superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature, and AFM images revealed the regular spherical shape of the nanomaterials and the absence of particle aggregation. The average hydrodynamic sizes of PEG-Fe3O4 and GSH-PEG-Fe3O4 nanoparticles were 69 ± 37 and 124 nm ± 75 nm, respectively. The cytotoxicity of both nanoparticles was screened towards human prostatic carcinoma cells (PC-3). The results demonstrated a decrease in PC-3 viability upon treatment with PEG-Fe3O4 or GSH-PEG-Fe3O4 nanoparticles in a concentration-dependent manner. However, the cytotoxicity was not time-dependent. Due to the superparamagnetic behavior of PEG-Fe3O4 or GSH-PEG-Fe3O4 nanoparticles, upon the application of an external magnetic field, those nanoparticles can be guided to the target site yielding local toxic effects to tumor cells with minimal side effects to normal tissues, highlighting the promising uses of iron oxide nanoparticles in biomedical applications.

  14. A Versatile Route for the Synthesis of Single Crystalline Oxide Nanorods : Growth Behavior and Field Emission Characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Zhenguo; Pei, F.; Pei, Y.T.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De

    The exploration of novel synthetic methodologies that control both size and shape of functional nanostructures opens new avenues for the functional application of nanomaterials. Here we report a new and versatile approach to synthesize single crystalline oxides nanorods: thermal conversion from

  15. Nickel oxide crystalline nano flakes: synthesis, characterization and their use as anode in lithium-ion batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmadi, Majid; Younesi, Reza; Vegge, Tejs

    2014-01-01

    Nickel oxide crystalline nano flakes (NONFs)—only about 10 nm wide—were produced using a simple and inexpensive chemistry method followed by a short annealing in ambient air. In a first step, Ni(OH)2 sheets were synthesized by adding sodium hydroxide (NaOH) drop-wise in a Ni(NO3)2 aqueous solutio...

  16. Iron binding at specific sites within the octameric HbpS protects streptomycetes from iron-mediated oxidative stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Wedderhoff

    Full Text Available The soil bacterium Streptomyces reticuli secretes the octameric protein HbpS that acts as a sensory component of the redox-signalling pathway HbpS-SenS-SenR. This system modulates a genetic response on iron- and haem-mediated oxidative stress. Moreover, HbpS alone provides this bacterium with a defence mechanism to the presence of high concentrations of iron ions and haem. While the protection against haem has been related to its haem-binding and haem-degrading activity, the interaction with iron has not been studied in detail. In this work, we biochemically analyzed the iron-binding activity of a set of generated HbpS mutant proteins and present evidence showing the involvement of one internal and two exposed D/EXXE motifs in binding of high quantities of ferrous iron, with the internal E78XXE81 displaying the tightest binding. We additionally show that HbpS is able to oxidize ferrous to ferric iron ions. Based on the crystal structure of both the wild-type and the mutant HbpS-D78XXD81, we conclude that the local arrangement of the side chains from the glutamates in E78XXE81 within the octameric assembly is a pre-requisite for interaction with iron. The data obtained led us to propose that the exposed and the internal motif build a highly specific route that is involved in the transport of high quantities of iron ions into the core of the HbpS octamer. Furthermore, physiological studies using Streptomyces transformants secreting either wild-type or HbpS mutant proteins and different redox-cycling compounds led us to conclude that the iron-sequestering activity of HbpS protects these soil bacteria from the hazardous side effects of peroxide- and iron-based oxidative stress.

  17. The concept of delayed nucleation in nanocrystal growthdemonstrated for the case of iron oxide nanodisks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casula, Maria F.; Jun, Young-wook; Zaziski, David J.; Chan, EmoryM.; Corrias, Anna; Alivisatos, Paul A.

    2005-09-09

    A comprehensive study of iron oxide nanocrystal growth through non-hydrolitic, surfactant-mediated thermal reaction of iron pentacarbonyl and an oxidizer has been conducted, which includes size control, anisotropic shape evolution, and crystallographic phase transition of monodisperse iron oxide colloidal nanocrystals. The reaction was monitored by in situ UV-Vis spectroscopy taking advantage of the color change accompanying the iron oxide colloid formation allowing measurement of the induction time for nucleation. Features of the synthesis such as the size control and reproducibility are related to the occurrence of the observed delayed nucleation process. As a separate source of iron and oxygen is adopted, phase control could also be achieved by sequential injections of oxidizer.

  18. AlphaB-crystallin is involved in oxidative stress protection determined by VEGF in skeletal myoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercatelli, Neri; Dimauro, Ivan; Ciafré, Silvia Anna; Farace, Maria Giulia; Caporossi, Daniela

    2010-08-01

    Recent studies suggest that the effects of VEGF-A, the prototype VEGF ligand, may extend to a variety of cell types other than endothelial cells. The expression of VEGF-A and its main receptors, Flt-1/VEGFR-1 and KDR/Flk-1/VEGFR-2, was indeed detected in several cell types, including cardiac myocytes and regenerating myotubes. In addition to its proangiogenic activity, evidence indicates that VEGF-A can sustain skeletal muscle regeneration by enhancing the survival and migration of myogenic cells and by promoting the growth of myogenic fibers. In this study, our aim was to investigate whether VEGF could protect skeletal muscle satellite cells from apoptotic cell death triggered by reactive oxygen species and to identify the main molecular mechanisms. C2C12 mouse myoblasts, cultured in vitro in the presence of exogenous VEGF or stably transfected with a plasmid vector expressing VEGF-A, were subjected to oxidative stress and analyzed for cell growth and survival, induction of apoptosis, and molecular signaling. The results of our study demonstrated that VEGF protects C2C12 myoblasts from apoptosis induced by oxidative or hypoxic-like stress. This protection did not correlate with the modulation of the expression of VEGF receptors, but is clearly linked to the phosphorylation of the KDR/Flk-1 receptor, the activation of NF-kappaB, and/or the overexpression of the antiapoptotic protein alphaB-crystallin. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Structurally nanocrystalline-electrically single crystalline ZnO-reduced graphene oxide composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Woo Hyun; Kim, Bo Bae; Seo, Seul Gi; Lim, Young Soo; Kim, Jong-Young; Seo, Won-Seon; Choi, Won Kook; Park, Hyung-Ho; Lee, Jeong Yong

    2014-09-10

    ZnO, a wide bandgap semiconductor, has attracted much attention due to its multifunctionality, such as transparent conducting oxide, light-emitting diode, photocatalyst, and so on. To improve its performances in the versatile applications, numerous hybrid strategies of ZnO with graphene have been attempted, and various synergistic effects have been achieved in the ZnO-graphene hybrid nanostructures. Here we report extraordinary charge transport behavior in Al-doped ZnO (AZO)-reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanocomposites. Although the most challenging issue in semiconductor nanocomposites is their low mobilities, the AZO-RGO nanocomposites exhibit single crystal-like Hall mobility despite the large quantity of nanograin boundaries, which hinder the electron transport by the scattering with trapped charges. Because of the significantly weakened grain boundary barrier and the proper band alignment between the AZO and RGO, freely conducting electrons across the nanograin boundaries can be realized in the nanocomposites. This discovery of the structurally nanocrystalline-electrically single crystalline composite demonstrates a new route for enhancing the electrical properties in nanocomposites based on the hybrid strategy.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of mesoporous and nano-crystalline phosphate zirconium oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez Enriquez, J.M., E-mail: jmanuelher@hotmail.co [Instituto Tecnologico de Cd. Madero, Division de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigacion, Juventino Rosas y Jesus Urueta S/N, Col. Los Mangos, 89440 Cd. Madero, Tam. (Mexico); Cortez Lajas, L.A.; Garcia Alamilla, R.; Castillo Mares, A.; Sandoval Robles, G. [Instituto Tecnologico de Cd. Madero, Division de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigacion, Juventino Rosas y Jesus Urueta S/N, Col. Los Mangos, 89440 Cd. Madero, Tam. (Mexico); Garcia Serrano, L.A. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Escuela Superior de Ingenieria Textil, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional s/n, Edificio 8, Col. Linda Vista, Delegacion Gustavo A. Madero, 07738 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-08-26

    In this work the preparation and characterization of the materials such as zirconia (ZrO{sub 2}) and zirconia promoted with phosphate ion (ZrO{sub 2}-PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}) is presented. Pure zirconium hydroxide [Zr(OH){sub 4}] was synthesized by the sol-gel method using precursors such as zirconium n-butoxide and 1-butanol maintaining a pH 8 during the synthesis. Zr(OH){sub 4} was impregnated with 15 wt.% of the acid agent. Both were calcined in a dynamic air atmosphere for 3 h at 400, 500 and 600 deg. C. The supports were characterized by thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, nitrogen physisorption as well as infrared spectroscopy. The results showed a positive effect on the physicochemical properties of the catalytic supports after Zr(OH){sub 4} impregnation with the dopping agent (H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}). Phosphate zirconium oxides remained thermically stable after calcination. It was observed that the dopping agent remained firmly attached to the zirconium oxide surface, inhibiting the particle growth and delaying the syntherization of the material and the apparition of the monoclinic phase, obtaining mesoporous and nano-crystalline materials (crystallite size 1.0-6.5 nm) with high surface areas (210-329 m{sup 2}/g) and tetragonal structure defined for the calcination temperature of 600 deg. C.

  1. Dietary iron concentration may influence aging process by altering oxidative stress in tissues of adult rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Fernandes Arruda

    Full Text Available Iron is an essential element. However, in its free form, iron participates in redox-reactions, leading to the production of free radicals that increase oxidative stress and the risk of damaging processes. Living organisms have an efficient mechanism that regulates iron absorption according to their iron content to protect against oxidative damage. The effects of restricted and enriched-iron diets on oxidative stress and aging biomarkers were investigated. Adult Wistar rats were fed diets containing 10, 35 or 350 mg/kg iron (adult restricted-iron, adult control-iron and adult enriched-iron groups, respectively for 78 days. Rats aged two months were included as a young control group. Young control group showed higher hemoglobin and hematocrit values, lower levels of iron and lower levels of MDA or carbonyl in the major studied tissues than the adult control group. Restricted-iron diet reduced iron concentrations in skeletal muscle and oxidative damage in the majority of tissues and also increased weight loss. Enriched-iron diet increased hematocrit values, serum iron, gamma-glutamyl transferase, iron concentrations and oxidative stress in the majority of tissues. As expected, young rats showed higher mRNA levels of heart and hepatic L-Ferritin (Ftl and kidneys SMP30 as well as lower mRNA levels of hepatic Hamp and interleukin-1 beta (Il1b and also lower levels of liver protein ferritin. Restricted-iron adult rats showed an increase in heart Ftl mRNA and the enriched-iron adult rats showed an increase in liver nuclear factor erythroid derived 2 like 2 (Nfe2l2 and Il1b mRNAs and in gut divalent metal transporter-1 mRNA (Slc11a2 relative to the control adult group. These results suggest that iron supplementation in adult rats may accelerate aging process by increasing oxidative stress while iron restriction may retards it. However, iron restriction may also impair other physiological processes that are not associated with aging.

  2. Processing, Microstructure, and Oxidation Behavior of Iron Foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyeji; Noh, Yoonsook; Choi, Hyelim; Hong, Kicheol; Kwon, Kyungjung; Choe, Heeman

    2016-09-01

    With its historically long popularity in major structural applications, the use of iron (Fe) has also recently begun to be explored as an advanced functional material. For this purpose, it is more advantageous to use Fe as a porous structure, simply because it can provide a greater surface area and a higher reaction rate. This study uses a freeze-casting method, which consists of simple and low-cost processing steps, to produce Fe foam with a mean pore size of 10 μm. We examine the influences of various parameters ( i.e., mold bottom temperature, powder content, and sintering time) on the processing of Fe foam, along with its oxidation kinetics at 823 K (550 °C) with various heat-treatment times. We confirm that Fe2O3 and Fe3O4 oxide layers are successfully formed on the surface of Fe foam. With the Fe oxide layers as an active anode material, the Fe foam can potentially be used as a three-dimensional anode current collector for an advanced lithium-ion battery.

  3. Solution voltammetry of 4 nm magnetite iron oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Joseph J P; Westgard, John A; Cooper, Laura M; Murray, Royce W

    2014-07-30

    The voltammetry of solution-dispersed magnetite iron oxide Fe3O4 nanoparticles is described. Their currents are controlled by nanoparticle transport rates, as shown with potential step chronoamperometry and rotated disk voltammetry. In pH 2 citrate buffer with added NaClO4 electrolyte, solution cyclic voltammetry of these nanoparticles (average diameter 4.4 ± 0.9 nm, each containing ca. 30 Fe sites) displays an electrochemically irreversible oxidation with E(PEAK) at ca. +0.52 V and an irreversible reduction with E(PEAK) at ca. +0.2 V vs Ag/AgCl reference electrode. These processes are presumed to correspond to the formal potentials for one-electron oxidation of Fe(II) and reduction of Fe(III) at their different sites in the magnetite nanoparticle structure. The heterogeneous electrode reaction rates of the nanoparticles are very slow, in the 10(-5) cm/s range. The nanoparticles are additionally characterized by a variety of tools, e.g., TEM, UV/vis, and XPS spectroscopies.

  4. Iron and carbon metabolism by a mineral-oxidizing Alicyclobacillus-like bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahya, Adibah; Hallberg, Kevin B; Johnson, D Barrie

    2008-04-01

    A novel iron-oxidizing, moderately thermophilic, acidophilic bacterium (strain "GSM") was isolated from mineral spoil taken from a gold mine in Montana. Biomolecular analysis showed that it was most closely related to Alicyclobacillus tolerans, although the two bacteria differed in some key respects, including the absence (in strain GSM) of varpi-alicyclic fatty acids and in their chromosomal base compositions. Isolate GSM was able to grow in oxygen-free media using ferric iron as terminal electron acceptor confirming that it was a facultative anaerobe, a trait not previously described in Alicyclobacillus spp.. The acidophile used both organic and inorganic sources of energy and carbon, although growth and iron oxidation by isolate GSM was uncoupled in media that contained both fructose and ferrous iron. Fructose utilization suppressed iron oxidation, and oxidation of ferrous iron occurred only when fructose was depleted. In contrast, fructose catabolism was suppressed when bacteria were harvested while actively oxidizing iron, suggesting that both ferrous iron- and fructose-oxidation are inducible in this acidophile. Isolate GSM accelerated the oxidative dissolution of pyrite in liquid media either free of, or amended with, organic carbon, although redox potentials were significantly different in these media. The potential of this isolate for commercial mineral processing is discussed.

  5. Synthesis, characterization and mechanistic insights of mycogenic iron oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhargava, Arpit; Jain, Navin; Manju Barathi L [Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Centre for Biotechnology, Department of Biological Sciences (India); Akhtar, Mohd Sayeed [Jimma University, Department of Applied Microbiology, College of Natural Sciences (Ethiopia); Yun, Yeoung-Sang [Chonbuk National University, Division of Environmental and Chemical Engineering (Korea, Republic of); Panwar, Jitendra, E-mail: drjitendrapanwar@yahoo.co.in [Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Centre for Biotechnology, Department of Biological Sciences (India)

    2013-11-15

    In the present study, extracellular synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) was achieved using Aspergillus japonicus isolate AJP01. The isolate demonstrated its ability to hydrolyze the precursor salt solution, a mixture of iron cyanide complexes, under ambient conditions. Hydrolysis of these complexes released ferric and ferrous ions, which underwent protein-mediated coprecipitation and controlled nucleation resulting in the formation of IONPs. Transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction pattern, energy dispersive spectroscopy and grazing incidence X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the mycosynthesis of IONPs. The synthesized particles were cubic in shape with a size range of 60–70 nm with crystal structure corresponding to magnetite. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed the absence of IONPs on fungal biomass surface, indicating the extracellular nature of synthesis. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the presence of proteins on as-synthesised IONPs, which may confer their stability. Preliminary investigation indicated the role of proteins in the synthesis and stabilization of IONPs. On the basis of present findings, a probable mechanism for synthesis of IONPs is suggested. The simplicity and versatility of the present approach can be utilized for the synthesis of other nanomaterials.

  6. Dielectrical and structural characterization of iron oxide added to hydroxyapatite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C C Silva; F P Filho; M F P Graça; M A Valente; A S B Sombra

    2008-08-01

    In this work we report preparation, structural and dielectric analyses of iron oxide added in hydroxyapatite bioceramic (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 – HAP). Hydroxyapatite is the main mineral constituent of teeth and bones with excellent biocompatibility with hard and muscle tissues. The samples were prepared through a calcination procedure associated with dry high-energy ball milling process with different iron concentrations (1, 2.5 and 5 wt%). The dielectric analyses were made measuring the sample impedance in the frequency range 1 kHz–10 MHz, at room temperature. The relative permittivity of the ceramics, at 10 MHz, are between 7.13 ± 0.07 (1 wt%) and 6.20 ± 0.11 (5 wt%) while e″ are between 0.0795 ± 0.008 (1 wt%) and 0.067 ± 0.012 (5 wt%). These characteristics were related to the sample microstructures studied by X-ray diffraction and SEM.

  7. X-ray and electron microscopy studies on the biodistribution and biomodification of iron oxide nanoparticles in Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Dongwook; Nho, Hyun Woo; Yoon, Tae Hyun

    2014-10-01

    Biodistribution and biomodification of iron oxide (Fe3O4 and α-Fe2O3) nanoparticles (NPs) in a well-known toxicity test organism, Daphnia magna (D. magna), were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM). In addition to the morphological changes in the gut tissues of D. magna, biodistribution and biomodification of iron oxide NPs in the digestive tract of D. magna were also monitored in this study. Upon exposures to both iron oxide NPs, unique morphological changes (e.g., irregular shaped microvilli, epithelial cell protrusion, and dilatation of cytoplasmic inclusion) in the gut tissues of D. magna were observed along with bacterial colonization of the gut lumen. However, despite their heavy accumulations in the digesitive tract, TEM and STXM images confirmed us that both Fe3O4 and α-Fe2O3 NPs were not penetrating into the gut tissues of D. magna. Moreover, for the Fe3O4 NPs in direct contact with the gut microvilli of D. magna, slight but significant spectral changes were observed in their Fe L-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra, which indicated that there were biomodifications of Fe3O4 NPs, probably involving oxidative dissolution of Fe3O4 NPs followed by rapid precipitation of ferric oxide or hydroxide. However, no significant changes were observed in the Fe L-edge XANES spectra of the α-Fe2O3 NPs present in the gut lumen of D. magna. These X-ray and electron microscopic observations confirmed us that, despite similarities in core sizes and chemical compositions, NPs with different crystalline phase and dissolution rates can interact quite differently with their local environment, may result in different biodistribution and cause completely dissimilar toxicities.

  8. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) for targeted drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Vijayendra K.; Kuzmann, Erno; Sharma, Virender K.; Kumar, Arun; Oliveira, Aderbal C.

    2016-10-01

    Studies of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) have been extensively carried out. Since the earlier work on Mössbauer studies on SPIONs in 1970s, many biomedical applications and their uses in innovative methods to produce new materials with improved performance have appeared. Applications of SPIONs in environmental remediation are also forthcoming. Several different methods of synthesis and coating of the magnetic particles have been described in the literature, and Mössbauer spectroscopy has been an important tool in the characterization of these materials. It is quite possible that the interpretation of the Mössbauer spectra might not be entirely correct because the possible presence of maghemite in the end product of SPIONs might not have been taken into consideration. Nanotechnology is an emerging field that covers a wide range of new technologies under development in nanoscale (1 to 100 nano meters) to produce new products and methodology.

  9. Genotoxicity of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles in Granulosa Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Pöttler

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles that are aimed at targeting cancer cells, but sparing healthy tissue provide an attractive platform of implementation for hyperthermia or as carriers of chemotherapeutics. According to the literature, diverse effects of nanoparticles relating to mammalian reproductive tissue are described. To address the impact of nanoparticles on cyto- and genotoxicity concerning the reproductive system, we examined the effect of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs on granulosa cells, which are very important for ovarian function and female fertility. Human granulosa cells (HLG-5 were treated with SPIONs, either coated with lauric acid (SEONLA only, or additionally with a protein corona of bovine serum albumin (BSA; SEONLA-BSA, or with dextran (SEONDEX. Both micronuclei testing and the detection of γH2A.X revealed no genotoxic effects of SEONLA-BSA, SEONDEX or SEONLA. Thus, it was demonstrated that different coatings of SPIONs improve biocompatibility, especially in terms of genotoxicity towards cells of the reproductive system.

  10. Iron oxide nanoparticles stabilized inside highly ordered mesoporous silica

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Bhaumik; S Samanta; N K Mal

    2005-11-01

    Nanosized iron oxide, a moderately large band-gap semiconductor and an essential component of optoelectrical and magnetic devices, has been prepared successfully inside the restricted internal pores of mesoporous silica material through in-situ reduction during impregnation. The samples were characterized by powder XRD, TEM, SEM/EDS, N2 adsorption, FT-IR and UV–visible spectroscopies. Characterization data indicated well-dispersed isolated nanoclusters of (Fe2O3),` within the internal surface of 2D-hexagonal mesoporous silica structure. No occluded Fe/Fe2O3 crystallites were observed at the external surface of the mesoporous silica nanocomposites. Inorganic mesoporous host, such as hydrophilic silica in the pore walls, directs a physical constraint necessary to prevent the creation of large Fe2O3 agglomerates and enables the formation of nanosized Fe2O3 particles inside the mesopore.

  11. SURFACE-MODIFICATION OF FINE RED IRON OXIDE PIGMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuilin Zheng; Qinghui Zhang

    2003-01-01

    Surface-modification of fine red iron oxide pigment was carried out in an aqueous solution of sodium polyacrylate. The sedimentation time of modified samples in water increased from 1.05 to 264.4 hours while the particle size (d50) decreased from 1.09 to 0.85 μm, and the tinting strength increased from 100 to 115. The surface-modification as well as the dispersing and stabilizing mechanisms in aqueous solution of the samples were studied by means of IR,Thermal analysis and Zeta potential. The results showed that the modifier molecules acted on the surface of the particles by chemical and physical adsorption, and after the particles were dispersed in aqueous solution, endowing the particle surface with a relatively high negative Zeta potential, thus enhancing electrostatic and steric repulsion between particles for their effective stabilization.

  12. Ca alginate as scaffold for iron oxide nanoparticles synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Finotelli

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, nanotechnology has developed to a stage that makes it possible to process magnetic nanoparticles for the site-specific delivery of drugs. To this end, it has been proposed as biomaterial for drug delivery system in which the drug release rates would be activated by a magnetic external stimuli. Alginate has been used extensively in the food, pharmaceutical and biomedical industries for their gel forming properties in the presence of multivalent cations. In this study, we produced iron oxide nanoparticles by coprecipitation of Fe(III and Fe(II. The nanoparticles were entrapped in Ca alginate beads before and after alginate gelation. XRD analysis showed that particles should be associated to magnetite or maghemite with crystal size of 9.5 and 4.3 nm, respectively. Studies using Mössbauer spectroscopy corroborate the superparamagnetic behavior. The combination of magnetic properties and the biocompatibility of alginate suggest that this biomaterial may be used as biomimetic system.

  13. Synthesis of Monodisperse Iron Oxide Nanoparticles without Surfactants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Chen Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Monodisperse iron oxide nanoparticles could be successfully synthesized with two kinds of precipitants through a precipitation method. As-prepared nanoparticles in the size around 10 nm with regular spherical-like shape were achieved by adjusting pH values. NaOH and NH3·H2O were used as two precipitants for comparison. The average size of nanoparticles with NH3·H2O precipitant got smaller and represented better dispersibility, while nanoparticles with NaOH precipitant represented better magnetic property. This work provided a simple method without using any organic solvents, organic metal salts, or surfactants which could easily obtain monodisperse nanoparticles with tunable morphology.

  14. Spontaneous crystallinity loss of drugs in the disordered regions of poly(ethylene oxide) in the presence of water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsac, Patrick J; Romary, Daniel P; Shamblin, Sheri L; Baird, Jared A; Taylor, Lynne S

    2008-08-01

    The physical stability of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) formulated in the crystalline state may be compromised in the presence of excipients. In the present study, it is shown that at high relative humidity, several model crystalline drugs compacted into a matrix of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) may dissolve into the disordered regions of the polymer. The purpose of this project is to identify both the physicochemical properties of the API and the polymer which may lead to such a transformation and the mechanism of transformation. Crystalline drugs and PEO were physically mixed, compressed into tablets, and stored in a dessicator at 94% RH. The physical state of the drug and the polymer were determined using Raman spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction. The solubility of each drug in PEG 400 was measured by ultraviolet spectroscopy, the thermal properties of each compound were measured using differential scanning calorimetry, and the amount of water sorbed into these systems from the vapor phase was determined by gravimetric analysis. A spontaneous loss of crystallinity was observed for many of the model drugs when stored at high relative humidity and in the presence of PEO. In the absence of PEO, no changes in the crystalline material were observed. However, the structure of PEO was dramatically altered when exposed to high relative humidity. Specifically, it was found that PEO undergoes a very slow deliquescence increasing the disordered fraction of the polymer which facilitates the "dissolution" of the crystalline drug into these disordered regions. The degree of transformation, estimated from Raman spectroscopy, was found to qualitatively correlate with the aqueous solubility of the compounds. It can be concluded that for the systems studied here, the phase stability of the polymer was compromised at high relative humidity and the polymer underwent deliquescence. The equilibrium phase of several of the crystalline drugs studied here was then altered

  15. Water oxidation catalysis by birnessite@iron oxide core-shell nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmaci, Gökhan; Frey, Carolin E; Kurz, Philipp; Zümreoğlu-Karan, Birgül

    2015-03-16

    In this work, magnetic nanocomposite particles were prepared for water oxidation reactions. The studied catalysts consist of maghemite (γ-Fe2O3), magnetite (Fe3O4), and manganese ferrite (MnFe2O4) nanoparticles as cores coated in situ with birnessite-type manganese oxide shells and were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, thermal, chemical, and surface analyses, and magnetic measurements. The particles were found to be of nearly spherical core-shell architectures with average diameter of 150 nm. Water oxidation catalysis was examined using Ce(4+) as the sacrificial oxidant. All core-shell particles were found to be active water oxidation catalysts. However, the activity was found to depend on a variety of factors like the type of iron oxide core, the structure and composition of the shell, the coating characteristics, and the surface properties. Catalysts containing magnetite and manganese ferrite as core materials displayed higher catalytic activities per manganese ion (2650 or 3150 mmolO2 molMn(-1) h(-1)) or per mass than nanoiron oxides (no activity) or birnessite alone (1850 mmolO2 molMn(-1) h(-1)). This indicates synergistic effects between the MnOx shell and the FeOx core of the composites and proves the potential of the presented core-shell approach for further catalyst optimization. Additionally, the FeOx cores of the particles allow magnetic recovery of the catalyst and might also be beneficial for applications in water-oxidizing anodes because the incorporation of iron might enhance the overall conductivity of the material.

  16. Mutagenic Effects of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles on Biological Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissanayake, Niluka M; Current, Kelley M; Obare, Sherine O

    2015-09-30

    In recent years, there has been an increased interest in the design and use of iron oxide materials with nanoscale dimensions for magnetic, catalytic, biomedical, and electronic applications. The increased manufacture and use of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) in consumer products as well as industrial processes is expected to lead to the unintentional release of IONPs into the environment. The impact of IONPs on the environment and on biological species is not well understood but remains a concern due to the increased chemical reactivity of nanoparticles relative to their bulk counterparts. This review article describes the impact of IONPs on cellular genetic components. The mutagenic impact of IONPs may damage an organism's ability to develop or reproduce. To date, there has been experimental evidence of IONPs having mutagenic interactions on human cell lines including lymphoblastoids, fibroblasts, microvascular endothelial cells, bone marrow cells, lung epithelial cells, alveolar type II like epithelial cells, bronchial fibroblasts, skin epithelial cells, hepatocytes, cerebral endothelial cells, fibrosarcoma cells, breast carcinoma cells, lung carcinoma cells, and cervix carcinoma cells. Other cell lines including the Chinese hamster ovary cells, mouse fibroblast cells, murine fibroblast cells, Mytilus galloprovincialis sperm cells, mice lung cells, murine alveolar macrophages, mice hepatic and renal tissue cells, and vero cells have also shown mutagenic effects upon exposure to IONPs. We further show the influence of IONPs on microorganisms in the presence and absence of dissolved organic carbon. The results shed light on the OPEN ACCESS Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16 23483 transformations IONPs undergo in the environment and the nature of the potential mutagenic impact on biological cells.

  17. Biotic and abiotic oxidation and reduction of iron at circumneutral pH are inseparable processes under natural conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ionescu, Danny; Heim, Christine; Polerecky, L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370827929; Thiel, Volker; de Beer, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Oxidation and reduction of iron can occur through abiotic (chemical) and biotic (microbial) processes. Abiotic iron oxidation is a function of pH and O2 concentration. Biotic iron oxidation is carried out by a diverse group of bacteria, using O2 or NO3 as terminal electron acceptors. At circumneutra

  18. Biotic and abiotic oxidation and reduction of iron at circumneutral pH are inseparable processes under natural conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ionescu, Danny; Heim, Christine; Polerecky, L.; Thiel, Volker; de Beer, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Oxidation and reduction of iron can occur through abiotic (chemical) and biotic (microbial) processes. Abiotic iron oxidation is a function of pH and O2 concentration. Biotic iron oxidation is carried out by a diverse group of bacteria, using O2 or NO3 as terminal electron acceptors. At circumneutra

  19. Ultrasonic-assisted synthesis and magnetic studies of iron oxide/MCM-41 nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ursachi, Irina [Department of Physics ' Alexandru Ioan Cuza' University of Iasi, 11 Carol I Boulevard, 700506 Iasi (Romania); Vasile, Aurelia [Department of Chemistry, ' Alexandru Ioan Cuza' University of Iasi, 11 Carol I Boulevard, 700506 Iasi (Romania); Ianculescu, Adelina [Department of Oxide Materials and Engineering, Polytechnics University of Bucharest, 1-7 Gh. Polizu, 011061 Bucharest (Romania); Vasile, Eugeniu [METAV S.A., Research and Development, 31 C.A. Rosetti, 020011, Bucharest (Romania); Stancu, Alexandru, E-mail: alstancu@uaic.ro [Department of Physics ' Alexandru Ioan Cuza' University of Iasi, 11 Carol I Boulevard, 700506 Iasi (Romania)

    2011-11-01

    Highlights: {yields} A quick and facile route for the synthesis of iron oxide/MCM-41 nanocomposite. {yields} Magnetic nanoparticles were stabilized inside the pores of mesoporous silica MCM-41. {yields} The pore size of MCM-41 dictates the properties of iron oxide nanoparticles. {yields} The procedure provides a narrow size distribution of magnetic nanoparticles. - Abstract: Iron oxide nanoparticles were stabilized within the pores of mesoporous silica MCM-41 amino-functionalized by a sonochemical method. Formation of iron oxide nanoparticles inside the mesoporous channels of amino-functionalized MCM-41 was realized by wet impregnation using iron nitrate, followed by calcinations at 550 deg. C in air. The effect of functionalization level on structural and magnetic properties of obtained nanocomposites was studied. The resulting materials were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction (HRTEM and SAED), vibrating sample and superconducting quantum interface magnetometers (VSM and SQUID) and nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms measurements. The HRTEM images reveal that the most of the iron oxide nanoparticles were dispersed inside the mesopores of silica matrix and the pore diameter of the amino-functionalized MCM-41 matrix dictates the particle size of iron oxide nanoparticles. The obtained material possesses mesoporous structure and interesting magnetic properties. Saturation magnetization value of magnetic iron oxide nanopatricles stabilized in MCM-41 amino-functionalized by in situ sonochemical synthesis was 1.84 emu g{sup -1}. An important finding is that obtained magnetic nanocomposite materials exhibit enhanced magnetic properties than those of iron oxide/MCM-41 nanocomposite obtained by conventional method. The described method is providing a rather short preparation time and a narrow size distribution of iron oxide nanoparticles.

  20. How different oxidation states of crystalline myoglobin are influenced by X-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersleth, Hans-Petter; Andersson, K Kristoffer

    2011-06-01

    X-ray induced radiation damage of protein crystals is well known to occur even at cryogenic temperatures. Redox active sites like metal sites seem especially vulnerable for these radiation-induced reductions. It is essential to know correctly the oxidation state of metal sites in protein crystal structures to be able to interpret the structure-function relation. Through previous structural studies, we have tried to characterise and understand the reactions between myoglobin and peroxides. These reaction intermediates are relevant because myoglobin is proposed to take part as scavenger of reactive oxygen species during oxidative stress, and because these intermediates are similar among the haem peroxidases and oxygenases. We have in our previous studies shown that these different myoglobin states are influenced by the X-rays used. In this study, we have in detail investigated the impact that X-rays have on these different oxidation states of myoglobin. An underlying goal has been to find a way to be able to determine mostly unreduced states. We have by using single-crystal light absorption spectroscopy found that the different oxidation states of myoglobin are to a different extent influenced by the X-rays (e.g. ferric Fe(III) myoglobin is faster reduced than ferryl Fe(IV)═O myoglobin). We observe that the higher oxidation states are not reduced to normal ferrous Fe(II) or ferric Fe(III) states, but end up in some intermediate and possibly artificial states. For ferric myoglobin, it seems that annealing of the radiation-induced/reduced state can reversibly more or less give the starting point (ferric myoglobin). Both scavengers and different dose-rates might influence to which extent the different states are affected by the X-rays. Our study shows that it is essential to do a time/dose monitoring of the influence X-rays have on each specific redox-state with spectroscopic techniques like single-crystal light absorption spectroscopy. This will determine to which

  1. Environmental Factors Affecting Ammonium Oxidation Under Iron Reducing Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, P. R.; Huang, S.; Ruiz-Urigüen, M.

    2014-12-01

    Ammonium (NH4+) oxidation coupled to iron (Fe) reduction in the absence of oxygen and nitrate/nitrite (NO3-/NO2-) has been reported by several investigators and referred to as Feammox. Feammox is a biological reaction, where Fe(III) is the electron acceptor, which is reduced to Fe(II), and NH4+ is the electron donor, which is oxidized to NO2-. Through a 180-day anaerobic incubation experiment, and using PCR-DGGE, 454-pyosequecing and qPCR analysis, we have shown that an Acidimicrobiaceae bacterium A6, a previously unreported species in the Acidimicrobiaceae family, might be either responsible or plays a key role in the Feammox process, We have enriched these Feammox bacteria (65.8% in terms of cell numbers) in a membrane reactor, and isolated the pure Acidimicrobiaceae bacterium A6 strain in an autotrophic medium. In samples collected and then incubated from a series of local wetland-, upland-, as well as storm-water detention pond-sediments, Feammox activity was only detected in acidic soil environments that contain Fe oxides. Using primers we developed for this purpose, Acidimicrobiaceae bacterium A6 was detected in all incubations where Feammox was observed. Anaerobic incubations of Feammox enrichment cultures adjusted to different pH, revealed that the optimal pH for Feammox is 4 ~ 5, and the reaction does not proceed when pH > 7. Feammox was still proceeding at pH as low as 2. In Feammox culture amended with different Fe(III) sources, Feammox reaction proceeded only when Fe oxides (ferrihydrite or goethite ) were supplied, whereas samples incubated with ferric chloride or ferric citrate showed no measurable NH4+ oxidation. Furthermore, we have also determined from incubation experiments conducted with a temperature gradient (10 ~ 35℃), that the Feammox process was active when the temperature is above 15℃, and the optimal temperature is 20℃. Incubations of enrichment culture with 79% Feammox bacteria appeared to remove circa 8% more NH4+ at 20ºC than at

  2. Deposition and Characterization of Sisal Fiber Composite Prepare By Iron Oxide Synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif Jehan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Iron oxide synthesized through sintering route. The present research work deals with ferrite composite prepared using chemical reactions. Ferric nitrates and ammonium chloride doped with sisal fiber has been prepared. The comparative studies of ferric oxide were examined through few characterizations. The structural behavior of iron oxide was studied in XRD, FT/IR, TEM and SEM. This behavior showed ferrite nature of the sample.

  3. Oxidative Profile and δ-Aminolevulinate Dehydratase Activity in Healthy Pregnant Women with Iron Supplementation

    OpenAIRE

    Leidiane De Lucca; Fabiane Rodrigues; Letícia B. Jantsch; Neme, Walter S.; Gallarreta, Francisco M. P.; Gonçalves, Thissiane L.

    2016-01-01

    An oxidative burst occurs during pregnancy due to the large consumption of oxygen in the tissues and an increase in metabolic demands in response to maternal physiological changes and fetal growth. This study aimed to determine the oxidative profile and activity of δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (δ-ALA-D) in pregnant women who received iron supplementation. Oxidative stress parameters were evaluated in 25 pregnant women with iron supplementation, 25 pregnant women without supplementation and 2...

  4. Heterogeneous Photo-Fenton Reaction Catalyzed by Nanosized Iron Oxides for Water Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Great efforts have been exerted in overcoming the drawbacks of the Fenton reaction for water treatment applications. The drawbacks include pH confinement, handling of iron sludge, slow regeneration of Fe(II, and so forth. This paper highlights the recent developments in the heterogeneous photo-Fenton reaction which utilizes nanosized iron oxides as catalyst for maximizing the activity due to the enhanced physical or chemical properties brought about by the unique structures. This paper also summarizes the fundamentals of the Fenton reaction, which determine the inherent drawbacks and associated advances, to address the advantages of iron oxides and nanosized iron oxides. Tips for applying this method in water treatment are also provided. Given that the environmental effect of nanosized iron oxides is not yet well established, rapid research growth may occur in the near future to advance this promising technology toward water treatment once it is smartly coupled with conventional technologies.

  5. Effect of Iron Enriched Bread Intake on the Oxidative Stress Indices in Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharareh Heidari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Contrary to the proven benefits of iron, few concerns in producing the oxidative stress is remained problematic. Objectives The aim of the study was to evaluate the oxidative stress in the male Wistar rats fed bread supplemented with iron in different doses i.e., 35 (basic, 70 (two fold, 140 (four fold, and 210 mg/kg (six fold with or without NaHCO3 (250 mg/kg. Methods In this experimental study Iron, ceruloplasmin, ferritin, total iron binding capacity (TIBC, albumin, total protein, uric acid and plasma superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPX, catalase (CAT, malondialdehyde (MDA, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC, were evaluated in 30 rats at the first and last day of the experiment (day 30. In addition, phytic acid levels were detected in all baked breads. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and t test procedure though SPSS statistical software version 20. Results Serum iron level in rats that received basic level of iron plus NaHCO3 decreased significantly in the last day of the trial. Higher level of serum iron was seen in rats that received iron twofold, fourfold and sixfold and rats that received iron fourfold plus NaHCO3. Serum ceruloplasmin and ferritin in groups of rats that received fourfold level of iron plus NaHCO3 and rats that received iron sixfold showed a significant increase (P ≤ 0.05. Serum total protein and uric acid in rats that received basic level of iron plus NaHCO3 and rats that received twofold level of iron showed a significant decrease. Serum total protein levels in rats that received fourfold level of iron showed a significant decrease. Bread with NaHCO3 showed higher phytic acid levels than other groups. Conclusions These results indicate that oxidative stress was not induced, whereas some antioxidant activities were significantly changed in rats that received iron-enriched bread.

  6. Synthesis, surface morphology, and photoluminescence properties of anatase iron-doped titanium dioxide nano-crystalline films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinzhong; Chen, Xiangui; Shen, Yude; Li, Yawei; Hu, Zhigao; Chu, Junhao

    2011-07-28

    Iron (Fe)-doped (0 to 4%) TiO(2) nano-crystalline (nc) films with the grain size of about 25 nm have been deposited on n-type Si (100) substrates by a facile nonhydrolytic sol-gel processing. X-ray diffraction measurements prove that the films are polycrystalline and present the pure anatase phase. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra indicate that the chemical valent state of Fe element is +3 and the Fe(3+) ions replace the Ti(4+) sites. The Fe dopant effects on the surface morphology, microstructure, and dielectric functions of the nc-Fe/TiO(2) films have been studied by atomic force microscope, ultraviolet Raman scattering and spectroscopic ellipsometry. With increasing Fe composition, the intensity of Raman-active mode B(1g) increases, while that of the A(1g) phonon mode decreases. The dielectric functions have been uniquely extracted by fitting ellipsometric spectra with the Adachi's dielectric function model and a four-phase layered model. It is found that the real part of dielectric functions in the transparent region and the optical band gap slightly decrease with the Fe composition due to the introduction of acceptor level Fe t(2g). Finally, the composition and temperature dependence of the surface and lattice defects in the Fe/TiO(2) films have been investigated by photoluminescence spectra in detail. At room temperature, the emission intensities decrease with increasing Fe compositions since the Fe incorporation could prolong the radiative lifetime and/or shorten the non-radiative lifetime. By analyzing the low temperature photoluminescence spectra, the intensities and positions of five emission peaks and shoulder structure can be unambiguously assigned. The phenomena could be reasonably explained by the physical mechanisms such as oxygen vacancies, localized excitons, self-trapped excitons, and indirect transitions, which are strongly related to the electronic band structure perturbed by the Fe doping.

  7. Uncoupling and oxidative stress in liver mitochondria isolated from rats with acute iron overload

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardo Andreu, G.L. [Centro de Quimica Farmaceutica, Departamento de Investigaciones Biomedicas, Ciudad de La Habana (Cuba); Inada, N.M.; Vercesi, A.E. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Departamento de Patologia Clinica, Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Curti, C. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2009-01-15

    One hypothesis for the etiology of cell damage arising from iron overload is that its excess selectively affects mitochondria. Here we tested the effects of acute iron overload on liver mitochondria isolated from rats subjected to a single dose of i.p. 500 mg/kg iron-dextran. The treatment increased the levels of iron in mitochondria (from 21{+-}4 to 130{+-}7 nmol/mg protein) and caused both lipid peroxidation and glutathione oxidation. The mitochondria of iron-treated rats showed lower respiratory control ratio in association with higher resting respiration. The mitochondrial uncoupling elicited by iron-treatment did not affect the phosphorylation efficiency or the ATP levels, suggesting that uncoupling is a mitochondrial protective mechanism against acute iron overload. Therefore, the reactive oxygen species (ROS)/H{sup +} leak couple, functioning as a mitochondrial redox homeostatic mechanism could play a protective role in the acutely iron-loaded mitochondria. (orig.)

  8. A simple route to enhance the interface between graphite oxide nanoplatelets and a semi-crystalline polymer for stress transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Dongyu; Song, Mo

    2009-08-01

    This report shows that thermal treatment is a simple and effective approach to create a polymer crystalline layer on the surface of graphite oxide nanoplatelets (GONPs) in polycaprolactone (PCL) melts. It was found that the crystallization temperature of the PCL increased significantly by nearly 9 °C with the incorporation of 2 wt% GONPs. As the composite melts isothermally crystallized at the temperature that was 14 °C higher than the crystallization temperature, the polymer crystalline layer was optimized on the surface of the GONPs. At 2 wt% GONPs, the Young's modulus of the composite was nearly 1.5 times greater than for the pure PCL. In comparison with untreated composites, the improvement in the Young's modulus of treated composites nearly doubled. It confirmed that a non-covalent interface for stress transfer can be enhanced by the formation of the polymer crystalline layer bridging the GONPs and the polymer matrix.

  9. Non-covalent modification of reduced graphene oxide by a chiral liquid crystalline surfactant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pengcheng; Cong, Yuehua; Sun, Cong; Zhang, Baoyan

    2016-01-01

    In order to effectively disperse reduced graphene oxide (RGO) in functional materials and take full advantage of its exceptional physical and chemical properties, a novel and effective approach for non-covalent modification of RGO by a chiral liquid crystalline surfactant (CLCS) consisting of chiral mesogenic units, nematic mesogenic units with carboxyl groups and non-mesogenic units with a polycyclic conjugated structure is firstly established. The polycyclic conjugated structure can anchor onto the RGO surface via π-π interactions, the chiral mesogenic units possess affinity for chiral materials by joining the helical matrix of chiral material and the carboxyl groups in nematic mesogenic units are supposed to form coordination bonds with nano zinc oxide (ZnO) to fabricate functional nano hybrids. The transmittances of CLCS-RGO hybrids exhibit S-shaped nonlinear increase with the increase of wavelength, but the total transmittances from 220 nm to 800 nm show a linear decreasing trend with the increase of RGO content in the CLCS-RGO hybrid. Due to the superior thermal properties of RGO and the interactions between RGO and CLCS, the dispersed RGO can improve the glass transition and increase the thermal stability and decomposition activation energy of CLCS. The intercalation of RGO can decrease the thermochromism temperature and improve the pitch uniformity of CLCS. Furthermore, CLCS can promote the dispersion of RGO in chiral nematic liquid crystals (CNLCs), and the CNLC-RGO-CLCS hybrids present decreased driving voltage and accelerated electro-optical response. The CLCS non-covalently modified RGO can strengthen the photocatalytic degradation of ZnO by suppressing the aggregation of ZnO and RGO.In order to effectively disperse reduced graphene oxide (RGO) in functional materials and take full advantage of its exceptional physical and chemical properties, a novel and effective approach for non-covalent modification of RGO by a chiral liquid crystalline surfactant

  10. Concentration-dependent toxicity of iron oxide nanoparticles mediated by increased oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Naqvi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Saba Naqvi1, Mohammad Samim2, MZ Abdin3, Farhan Jalees Ahmed4, AN Maitra5, CK Prashant6, Amit K Dinda61Faculty of Engineering and Interdisciplinary Sciences, 2Department of Chemistry, 3Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, 4Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jamia Hamdard, Hamdard University, 5Department of Chemistry, University of Delhi, 6Department of Pathology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, IndiaAbstract: Iron oxide nanoparticles with unique magnetic properties have a high potential for use in several biomedical, bioengineering and in vivo applications, including tissue repair, magnetic resonance imaging, immunoassay, drug delivery, detoxification of biologic fluids, cell sorting, and hyperthermia. Although various surface modifications are being done for making these nonbiodegradable nanoparticles more biocompatible, their toxic potential is still a major concern. The current in vitro study of the interaction of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles of mean diameter 30 nm coated with Tween 80 and murine macrophage (J774 cells was undertaken to evaluate the dose- and time-dependent toxic potential, as well as investigate the role of oxidative stress in the toxicity. A 15–30 nm size range of spherical nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and zeta sizer. MTT assay showed >95% viability of cells in lower concentrations (25–200 µg/mL and up to three hours of exposure, whereas at higher concentrations (300–500 µg/mL and prolonged (six hours exposure viability reduced to 55%–65%. Necrosis-apoptosis assay by propidium iodide and Hoechst-33342 staining revealed loss of the majority of the cells by apoptosis. H2DCFDDA assay to quantify generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS indicated that exposure to a higher concentration of nanoparticles resulted in enhanced ROS generation, leading to cell injury and death. The cell membrane injury

  11. Catalytic performance of cerium iron complex oxides for partial oxidation of methane to synthesis gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Kongzhai; WANG Hua; WEI Yonggang; LIU Mingchun

    2008-01-01

    The cerium iron complex oxides oxygen carder was prepared by the co-precipitation method. The reactions between methane and lattice oxygen from the complex oxides were investigated in a fixed micro-reactor system. The reduced oxygen carrier could be re-oxidized by air and its initial state could be restored. The characterizations of the oxygen carriers were studied using XRD, O2-TPD, and H2-TPR. The results showed that the bulk lattice oxygen of CeO2-Fe2O3 was found to be suitable for the partial oxidation of methane to synthesis gas. There were two kinds of oxygen species on the oxygen carder: the stronger oxygen species that was responsible for the complete oxidation of methane, and the weaker oxygen species (bulk lattice oxygen) that was responsible for the selective oxidation of methane to CO and H2 at a higher temperature. Then, the lost bulk lattice oxygen could be selectively supplemented by air re-oxidation at an appropriate reaction con-dition. CeFeO3 appeared on the oxygen carrier after 10 successive redox cycles, however, it was not bad for the selectivity of CO and H2.

  12. Evaluation of the properties of iron oxide-filled castor oil polyurethane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Mussatti

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to obtain and evaluate the electrical, thermal and mechanical properties of iron oxide-filled castor oil polyurethane (PU/Fe2O3. The iron oxide used in this study was a residue derived from the steel pickling process of a Brazilian steel rolling industry. Polymeric composites with different iron oxide volume fractions (2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 and 12.5% were prepared through the casting process followed by compression molding at room temperature. The composites were analyzed by FTIR, XRD and densities, tensile strength, Young's modulus, electrical and thermal conductivities measurements. By increasing the iron oxide content, the apparent density, tensile strength, Young's modulus and electrical conductivity values of the composites were also increased. The iron oxide additions did not change significantly the value of thermal conductivity (from 0.191 W.mK-1 for PU up to 0.340 W.mK-1 for PU enriched with 12.5% v/v of iron oxide. Thus, even at the higher iron oxide concentration, the compounds as well as the pure polyurethane can be classified as thermal insulators.

  13. Iron oxide nanoparticles synthesis through a benign approach and its catalytic application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henam Sylvia Devi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles was carried out through an environmental benign route using tannic acid as reducing and capping agent. The TEM image shows the details of the poly-dispersity in size of the iron oxide nanoparticle and average diameter of the particles range in between 30 and 50 nm. XRD result rule out that iron oxide nanoparticle is a mixed phase constituted by Fe+2 and Fe+3 ions. The average size of the particle determined from XRD data is 45.6 nm which is agreeable with the finding obtained from TEM images. This particle of iron oxide is used for the degradation of p-cresol and it successfully degraded p-cresol. Catalytic property of the iron oxide nanoparticle was also investigation using methylene blue as role model dye. Degradation of methylene blue dye was studied in presence of NaBH4 and the degradation reaction followed first order kinetics with rate constant value of 1.6 × 10−3 min−1. The rate constant of the reaction in absence of iron oxide nanoparticles is 4 × 10−4 min−1, this result confirmed the catalytic nature of as such prepared iron oxide nanoparticles.

  14. Tough and Thermosensitive Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)/Graphene Oxide Hydrogels with Macroscopically Oriented Liquid Crystalline Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhongcheng; Li, Yang; Xu, Hui; Peng, Xin; Chen, Ya-Nan; Shang, Cong; Zhang, Qin; Liu, Jiaqi; Wang, Huiliang

    2016-06-22

    Bulk graphene oxide (GO) nanocomposite materials with macroscopically oriented GO liquid crystalline (LC) structures exhibit interesting anisotropic properties, but their facile preparations remain challenging. This work reports for the first time the facile preparation of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM)/GO nanocomposite hydrogels with macroscopically oriented LC structures with the assistance of a flow field induced by vacuum degassing and the in situ polymerization accelerated by GO. The hydrogel prepared with a GO concentration of 5.0 mg mL(-1) exhibits macroscopically aligned LC structures, which endow the gels with anisotropic optical, mechanical properties, and dimensional changes during the phase transition. The hydrogels show dramatically enhanced tensile mechanical properties and phase transition rates. The oriented LC structures are not damaged during the phase transition of the PNIPAM/GO hydrogels, and hence their LC behavior undergoes reversible change. Moreover, highly oriented LC structures can also be formed when the gels are elongated, even for the gels which do not have macroscopically oriented LC structures. Very impressively, the oriented LC structures in the hydrogels can be permanently maintained by drying the gel samples elongated to and then kept at a constant tensile strain. The thermosensitive nature of PNIPAM and the angle-dependent nature of the macroscopically aligned GO LC structures allow the practical applications of the PNIPAM/GO hydrogels as optical switches, soft sensors, and actuators and so on.

  15. Multi-technique Approach for the Evaluation of the Crystalline Phase of Ultrathin High-k Gate Oxide Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersch, E.; LaRose, J. D.; Wells, I.; Consiglio, S.; Clark, R. D.; Leusink, G. J.; Matyi, R. J.; Diebold, A. C.

    2011-11-01

    In order to continue scaling metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) with HfO2 gate oxides, efforts are being made to further improve the deposited high-k film properties. Recently, a process whereby an HfO2 film is deposited through a series of depositions and anneals (so-called DADA process) has been shown to result in films that give rise to MOS capacitors (MOSCAPs) which are electrically scaled compared to MOSCAPs with HfO2 films that only received post deposition anneals (PDA) or no anneals. We have measured as-deposited, DADA and PDA HfO2 films using four measurement techniques, all of which are non-destructive and capable of being used for in-line processing, to evaluate their crystallinity and crystalline phases. Grazing incidence in-plane X-ray diffraction was used to determine the crystalline phases of the HfO2 films. We observed the crystalline phases of these films to be process dependent. Additionally, X-ray and UV photoelectron spectroscopy were used to show the presence of crystallinity in the films. As a fourth technique, spectroscopic ellipsometry was used to determine if the crystalline phases were monoclinic. The combination of techniques was useful in that XPS and UPS were able to confirm the amorphous nature of a 30 cycle DADA film, as measured by GIIXRD, and GIIXRD was able to help us interpret the SE data as being an indication of the monoclinic phase of HfO2.

  16. The complex interplay of iron metabolism, reactive oxygen species, and reactive nitrogen species: insights into the potential of various iron therapies to induce oxidative and nitrosative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskenkorva-Frank, Taija S; Weiss, Günter; Koppenol, Willem H; Burckhardt, Susanna

    2013-12-01

    Production of minute concentrations of superoxide (O2(*-)) and nitrogen monoxide (nitric oxide, NO*) plays important roles in several aspects of cellular signaling and metabolic regulation. However, in an inflammatory environment, the concentrations of these radicals can drastically increase and the antioxidant defenses may become overwhelmed. Thus, biological damage may occur owing to redox imbalance-a condition called oxidative and/or nitrosative stress. A complex interplay exists between iron metabolism, O2(*-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and NO*. Iron is involved in both the formation and the scavenging of these species. Iron deficiency (anemia) (ID(A)) is associated with oxidative stress, but its role in the induction of nitrosative stress is largely unclear. Moreover, oral as well as intravenous (iv) iron preparations used for the treatment of ID(A) may also induce oxidative and/or nitrosative stress. Oral administration of ferrous salts may lead to high transferrin saturation levels and, thus, formation of non-transferrin-bound iron, a potentially toxic form of iron with a propensity to induce oxidative stress. One of the factors that determine the likelihood of oxidative and nitrosative stress induced upon administration of an iv iron complex is the amount of labile (or weakly-bound) iron present in the complex. Stable dextran-based iron complexes used for iv therapy, although they contain only negligible amounts of labile iron, can induce oxidative and/or nitrosative stress through so far unknown mechanisms. In this review, after summarizing the main features of iron metabolism and its complex interplay with O2(*-), H2O2, NO*, and other more reactive compounds derived from these species, the potential of various iron therapies to induce oxidative and nitrosative stress is discussed and possible underlying mechanisms are proposed. Understanding the mechanisms, by which various iron formulations may induce oxidative and nitrosative stress, will help us

  17. Iron supplementation at high altitudes induces inflammation and oxidative injury to lung tissues in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salama, Samir A., E-mail: salama.3@buckeyemail.osu.edu [High Altitude Research Center, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, Taif 21974 (Saudi Arabia); Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Cairo 11751 (Egypt); Department of Pharmacology and GTMR Unit, College of Clinical Pharmacy, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, Taif 21974 (Saudi Arabia); Omar, Hany A. [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef 62514 (Egypt); Maghrabi, Ibrahim A. [Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Clinical Pharmacy, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, Taif 21974 (Saudi Arabia); AlSaeed, Mohammed S. [Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, Taif 21974 (Saudi Arabia); EL-Tarras, Adel E. [High Altitude Research Center, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, Taif 21974 (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to high altitudes is associated with hypoxia and increased vulnerability to oxidative stress. Polycythemia (increased number of circulating erythrocytes) develops to compensate the high altitude associated hypoxia. Iron supplementation is, thus, recommended to meet the demand for the physiological polycythemia. Iron is a major player in redox reactions and may exacerbate the high altitudes-associated oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to explore the potential iron-induced oxidative lung tissue injury in rats at high altitudes (6000 ft above the sea level). Iron supplementation (2 mg elemental iron/kg, once daily for 15 days) induced histopathological changes to lung tissues that include severe congestion, dilatation of the blood vessels, emphysema in the air alveoli, and peribronchial inflammatory cell infiltration. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α), lipid peroxidation product and protein carbonyl content in lung tissues were significantly elevated. Moreover, the levels of reduced glutathione and total antioxidant capacity were significantly reduced. Co-administration of trolox, a water soluble vitamin E analog (25 mg/kg, once daily for the last 7 days of iron supplementation), alleviated the lung histological impairments, significantly decreased the pro-inflammatory cytokines, and restored the oxidative stress markers. Together, our findings indicate that iron supplementation at high altitudes induces lung tissue injury in rats. This injury could be mediated through excessive production of reactive oxygen species and induction of inflammatory responses. The study highlights the tissue injury induced by iron supplementation at high altitudes and suggests the co-administration of antioxidants such as trolox as protective measures. - Highlights: • Iron supplementation at high altitudes induced lung histological changes in rats. • Iron induced oxidative stress in lung tissues of rats at high altitudes. • Iron

  18. Whey protein inhibits iron overload-induced oxidative stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungmi; Paik, Hyun-Dong; Yoon, Yoh-Chang; Park, Eunju

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effects of whey protein on oxidative stress in rats that were subjected to oxidative stress induced by iron overload. Thirty male rats were assigned to 3 groups: the control group (regular [50 mg/kg diet] dose of iron+20% casein), iron overload group (high [2,000 mg/kg] dose of iron+20% casein, IO), and whey protein group (high dose of iron+10% casein+10% whey protein, IO+whey). After 6 wk, the IO group showed a reduction in the plasma total radical trapping antioxidant parameter and the activity of erythrocyte superoxide dismutase and an increase in lipid peroxidation (determined from the proportion of conjugated dienes). However, whey protein ameliorated the oxidative changes induced by iron overload. The concentration of erythrocyte glutathione was significantly higher in the IO+whey group than in the IO group. In addition, whey protein supplementation fully inhibited iron overload-induced DNA damage in leukocytes and colonocytes. A highly significant positive correlation was observed between plasma iron levels and DNA damage in leukocytes and colonocytes. These results show the antioxidative and antigenotoxic effects of whey protein in an in vivo model of iron overload-induced oxidative stress.

  19. Biosynthesis of stable iron oxide nanoparticles in aqueous extracts of Hordeum vulgare and Rumex acetosa plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, Valentin V; Makarova, Svetlana S; Love, Andrew J; Sinitsyna, Olga V; Dudnik, Anna O; Yaminsky, Igor V; Taliansky, Michael E; Kalinina, Natalia O

    2014-05-27

    We report the synthesis and characterization of amorphous iron oxide nanoparticles from iron salts in aqueous extracts of monocotyledonous (Hordeum vulgare) and dicotyledonous (Rumex acetosa) plants. The nanoparticles were characterized by TEM, absorbance spectroscopy, SAED, EELS, XPS, and DLS methods and were shown to contain mainly iron oxide and iron oxohydroxide. H. vulgare extracts produced amorphous iron oxide nanoparticles with diameters of up to 30 nm. These iron nanoparticles are intrinsically unstable and prone to aggregation; however, we rendered them stable in the long term by addition of 40 mM citrate buffer pH 3.0. In contrast, amorphous iron oxide nanoparticles (diameters of 10-40 nm) produced using R. acetosa extracts are highly stable. The total protein content and antioxidant capacity are similar for both extracts, but pH values differ (H. vulgare pH 5.8 vs R. acetosa pH 3.7). We suggest that the presence of organic acids (such oxalic or citric acids) plays an important role in the stabilization of iron nanoparticles, and that plants containing such constituents may be more efficacious for the green synthesis of iron nanoparticles.

  20. Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside abrogates oxidative stress-induced damage in cardiac iron overload condition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Puukila

    Full Text Available Cardiac iron overload is directly associated with cardiac dysfunction and can ultimately lead to heart failure. This study examined the effect of secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG, a component of flaxseed, on iron overload induced cardiac damage by evaluating oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis in H9c2 cardiomyocytes. Cells were incubated with 50 μ5M iron for 24 hours and/or a 24 hour pre-treatment of 500 μ M SDG. Cardiac iron overload resulted in increased oxidative stress and gene expression of the inflammatory mediators tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-10 and interferon γ, as well as matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9. Increased apoptosis was evident by increased active caspase 3/7 activity and increased protein expression of Forkhead box O3a, caspase 3 and Bax. Cardiac iron overload also resulted in increased protein expression of p70S6 Kinase 1 and decreased expression of AMP-activated protein kinase. Pre-treatment with SDG abrogated the iron-induced increases in oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis, as well as the increased p70S6 Kinase 1 and decreased AMP-activated protein kinase expression. The decrease in superoxide dismutase activity by iron treatment was prevented by pre-treatment with SDG in the presence of iron. Based on these findings we conclude that SDG was cytoprotective in an in vitro model of iron overload induced redox-inflammatory damage, suggesting a novel potential role for SDG in cardiac iron overload.

  1. Mechanism of ferrous iron binding and oxidation by ferritin from a pennate diatom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaffen, Stephanie; Abdulqadir, Raz; Le Brun, Nick E; Murphy, Michael E P

    2013-05-24

    A novel ferritin was recently found in Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries (PmFTN), a marine pennate diatom that plays a major role in global primary production and carbon sequestration into the deep ocean. Crystals of recombinant PmFTN were soaked in iron and zinc solutions, and the structures were solved to 1.65-2.2-Å resolution. Three distinct iron binding sites were identified as determined from anomalous dispersion data from aerobically grown ferrous soaked crystals. Sites A and B comprise the conserved ferroxidase active site, and site C forms a pathway leading toward the central cavity where iron storage occurs. In contrast, crystal structures derived from anaerobically grown and ferrous soaked crystals revealed only one ferrous iron in the active site occupying site A. In the presence of dioxygen, zinc is observed bound to all three sites. Iron oxidation experiments using stopped-flow absorbance spectroscopy revealed an extremely rapid phase corresponding to Fe(II) oxidation at the ferroxidase site, which is saturated after adding 48 ferrous iron to apo-PmFTN (two ferrous iron per subunit), and a much slower phase due to iron core formation. These results suggest an ordered stepwise binding of ferrous iron and dioxygen to the ferroxidase site in preparation for catalysis and a partial mobilization of iron from the site following oxidation.

  2. Influence of Fe(2+)-catalysed iron oxide recrystallization on metal cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latta, Drew E; Gorski, Christopher A; Scherer, Michelle M

    2012-12-01

    Recent work has indicated that iron (oxyhydr-)oxides are capable of structurally incorporating and releasing metals and nutrients as a result of Fe2+-induced iron oxide recrystallization. In the present paper, we briefly review the current literature examining the mechanisms by which iron oxides recrystallize and summarize how recrystallization affects metal incorporation and release. We also provide new experimental evidence for the Fe2+-induced release of structural manganese from manganese-doped goethite. Currently, the exact mechanism(s) for Fe2+-induced recrystallization remain elusive, although they are likely to be both oxide-and metal-dependent. We conclude by discussing some future research directions for Fe2+-catalysed iron oxide recrystallization.

  3. Recent progress in magnetic iron oxide-semiconductor composite nanomaterials as promising photocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Changzhong Jiang, Affc; Roy, Vellaisamy A. L.

    2014-11-01

    Photocatalytic degradation of toxic organic pollutants is a challenging tasks in ecological and environmental protection. Recent research shows that the magnetic iron oxide-semiconductor composite photocatalytic system can effectively break through the bottleneck of single-component semiconductor oxides with low activity under visible light and the challenging recycling of the photocatalyst from the final products. With high reactivity in visible light, magnetic iron oxide-semiconductors can be exploited as an important magnetic recovery photocatalyst (MRP) with a bright future. On this regard, various composite structures, the charge-transfer mechanism and outstanding properties of magnetic iron oxide-semiconductor composite nanomaterials are sketched. The latest synthesis methods and recent progress in the photocatalytic applications of magnetic iron oxide-semiconductor composite nanomaterials are reviewed. The problems and challenges still need to be resolved and development strategies are discussed.

  4. Gold catalysts supported on nanosized iron oxide for low-temperature oxidation of carbon monoxide and formaldehyde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zheng; Zhang, Weidong; Li, Yi; Huang, Zuming; Guo, Huishan; Wu, Feng; Li, Jinjun

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to optimize synthesis of gold catalyst supported on nanosized iron oxide and to evaluate the activity in oxidation of carbon monoxide and formaldehyde. Nanosized iron oxide was prepared from a colloidal dispersion of hydrous iron oxide through a dispersion-precipitation method. Gold was adsorbed onto nanosized iron oxide under self-generated basic conditions. Characterization results indicate that the iron oxide consisted of hematite/maghemite composite with primary particle sizes of 6-8 nm. Gold was highly dispersed on the surface of the support. The catalysts showed good activity in the oxidation of airborne carbon monoxide and formaldehyde. The optimal pH for their synthesis was ∼7. The catalytic performance could be enhanced by extending the adsorption time of gold species on the support within 21 h. The optimized catalyst was capable of achieving complete oxidation of 1% carbon monoxide at -20 °C and 33% conversion of 450 ppm formaldehyde at ambient temperature. The catalyst may be applicable to indoor air purification.

  5. Environment friendly route of iron oxide nanoparticles from Zingiber officinale (ginger) root extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin Hui, Yau; Yi Peng, Teoh; Wei Wen, Liu; Zhong Xian, Ooi; Peck Loo, Kiew

    2016-11-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles were prepared from the reaction between the Zingiber officinale (ginger) root extracts and ferric chloride solution at 50°C for 2 h in mild stirring condition. The synthesized powder forms of nanoparticles were further characterized by using UV-Vis spectroscopy and X-ray Diffraction spectrometry. UV-Vis analysis shows the absorption peak of iron oxide nanoparticles is appeared at 370 nm. The calculation of crystallite size from the XRD showed that the average particle size of iron oxide nanoparticles was 68.43 nm. Therefore, this eco-friendly technique is low cost and large scale nanoparticles synthesis to fulfill the demand of various applications.

  6. An evaluation of iron oxide nanofluids in enhanced oil recovery application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Beh Hoe; Khalid, M. Hanafi M.; Matraji, Herman Hari; Chuan, Lee Kean; Soleimani, Hassan

    2014-10-01

    This paper evaluates the oil recover efficiency of Iron Oxide (Fe2O3) nanofluids in EOR. Iron Oxide nanoparticles were synthesized at two different temperatures via sol-gel method. TEM results show that the Fe2O3 prepared at 300°C and 600°C were ranged from 10-25nm and 30-90nm, respectively. Results showed that the nanofluid composed of Iron Oxide nanoparticles prepared at 300°C gives 10% increase in the oil recovery in comparison with Fe2O3 nanoparticles calcined at 600°C.

  7. Effect of Iron Oxides (Ordinary and Nano and Municipal Solid Waste Compost (MSWC Coated Sulfur on Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Plant Iron Concentration and Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Mazaherinia

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A greenhouse study was conducted to compare the effects of ordinary iron oxide (0.02-0.06 mm and nano iron oxide (25-250 nm and five levels of both iron oxides (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 %w/w and two levels of sulfurous granular compost (MSW (0 and 2% w/w on plant height, spike length, grain weight per spike, total plant dry matter weight and thousands grain weight of wheat. The experimental factors were combined in factorial arrangement in a completely randomized design with 3 replications. Results showed that nano iron oxide was superior over ordinary iron oxide in all parameters studied. Fe concentration, spike length, plant height, grain weight per spike, total plant dry weight and thousands grain weight showed increasing trend per increase in both of iron oxides levels. Also, all parameters studied in sulfurous granular compost (MSW treatment were superior over granular compost without sulfurous (MSW. This increase in all parameters were significantly higher when urban solid waste compost coated with sulfur coupled with nano iron oxide compared to urban sulfurous granular compost (MSW along with ordinary iron oxide. Keywords: Sulfurous granular compost (MSW, Nano and ordinary iron oxides, Wheat

  8. Acicular iron nanoparticles protected against sintering with aluminium oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pozas, R.

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Acicular iron nanoparticles have been obtained by thermal reduction with hydrogen of a goethite precursor protected against sintering with Al cations, either by doping during the synthesis or by a further coating and the relation between microstructure and magnetic properties of the final Fe particles has been studied in order to evaluate the efficiency of both protecting methods. Uniform goethite and Al-doped goethite precursors were prepared by oxidation with air of FeSO4 solutions, containing Al(NO33 when required, previously precipitated with Na2CO3, while the Al oxide coating on the undoped goethite precursor was carried out by heterocoagulation. In both protecting methods, Al cations were mainly concentrated in the particle outer layers of the goethite precursors and the final iron. Due to this Al enrichment, the growth of iron crystals during the reduction process is minimised resulting Fe particles with improved coercivity and squareness. Nevertheless, the coating procedure seems to be more effective giving rise to the iron particles with the largest coercivity, probably due to a better preservation of the acicular morphology in this case.

    Se han obtenido nanopartículas aciculares de hierro por reducción térmica con hidrógeno de un precursor acicular de goetita que fue protegido frente a la sinterización por la adición de cationes Al mediante dopado durante su síntesis o por recubrimiento posterior, estudiándose la relación entre la microestructura y las propiedades magnéticas de las partículas finales de α-Fe con objeto de evaluar la eficacia de ambos métodos de protección. Los precursores uniformes de goetita y de goetita dopada con Al se prepararon por oxidación con aire de disoluciones de FeSO4 o de FeSO4 y Al(NO33, previamente precipitadas por la adición de Na2CO3, mientras que el recubrimiento con óxido de aluminio sobre las partículas de goetita fue llevado a cabo por un procedimiento de heterocoagulaci

  9. Iron oxide nanoparticles fabricated by electric explosion of wire: focus on magnetic nanofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beketov, I. V.; Safronov, A. P.; Medvedev, A. I.; Alonso, J.; Kurlyandskaya, G. V.; Bhagat, S. M.

    2012-06-01

    Nanoparticles of iron oxides (MNPs) were prepared using the electric explosion of wire technique (EEW). The main focus was on the fabrication of de-aggregated spherical nanoparticles with a narrow size distribution. According to XRD the major crystalline phase was magnetite with an average diameter of MNPs, depending on the fraction. Further separation of air-dry EEW nanoparticles was performed in aqueous suspensions. In order to provide the stability of magnetite suspension in water, we found the optimum concentration of the electrostatic stabilizer (sodium citrate and optimum pH level) based on zeta-potential measurements. The stable suspensions still contained a substantial fraction of aggregates which were disintegrated by the excessive ultrasound treatment. The separation of the large particles out of the suspension was performed by centrifuging. The structural features, magnetic properties and microwave absorption of MNPs and their aqueous solutions confirm that we were able to obtain an ensemble in which the magnetic contributions come from the spherical MNPs. The particle size distribution in fractionated samples was narrow and they showed a similar behaviour to that expected of the superparamagnetic ensemble. Maximum obtained concentration was as high as 5 % of magnetic material (by weight). Designed assembly of de-aggregated nanoparticles is an example of on-purpose developed magnetic nanofluid.

  10. Iron oxide nanoparticles fabricated by electric explosion of wire: focus on magnetic nanofluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Beketov

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles of iron oxides (MNPs were prepared using the electric explosion of wire technique (EEW. The main focus was on the fabrication of de-aggregated spherical nanoparticles with a narrow size distribution. According to XRD the major crystalline phase was magnetite with an average diameter of MNPs, depending on the fraction. Further separation of air-dry EEW nanoparticles was performed in aqueous suspensions. In order to provide the stability of magnetite suspension in water, we found the optimum concentration of the electrostatic stabilizer (sodium citrate and optimum pH level based on zeta-potential measurements. The stable suspensions still contained a substantial fraction of aggregates which were disintegrated by the excessive ultrasound treatment. The separation of the large particles out of the suspension was performed by centrifuging. The structural features, magnetic properties and microwave absorption of MNPs and their aqueous solutions confirm that we were able to obtain an ensemble in which the magnetic contributions come from the spherical MNPs. The particle size distribution in fractionated samples was narrow and they showed a similar behaviour to that expected of the superparamagnetic ensemble. Maximum obtained concentration was as high as 5 % of magnetic material (by weight. Designed assembly of de-aggregated nanoparticles is an example of on-purpose developed magnetic nanofluid.

  11. Magnetic-Field-Assisted Assembly of Anisotropic Superstructures by Iron Oxide Nanoparticles and Their Enhanced Magnetism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chengpeng; Leung, Chi Wah; Pong, Philip W T

    2016-12-01

    Magnetic nanoparticle superstructures with controlled magnetic alignment and desired structural anisotropy hold promise for applications in data storage and energy storage. Assembly of monodisperse magnetic nanoparticles under a magnetic field could lead to highly ordered superstructures, providing distinctive magnetic properties. In this work, a low-cost fabrication technique was demonstrated to assemble sub-20-nm iron oxide nanoparticles into crystalline superstructures under an in-plane magnetic field. The gradient of the applied magnetic field contributes to the anisotropic formation of micron-sized superstructures. The magnitude of the applied magnetic field promotes the alignment of magnetic moments of the nanoparticles. The strong dipole-dipole interactions between the neighboring nanoparticles lead to a close-packed pattern as an energetically favorable configuration. Rod-shaped and spindle-shaped superstructures with uniform size and controlled spacing were obtained using spherical and polyhedral nanoparticles, respectively. The arrangement and alignment of the superstructures can be tuned by changing the experimental conditions. The two types of superstructures both show enhancement of coercivity and saturation magnetization along the applied field direction, which is presumably associated with the magnetic anisotropy and magnetic dipole interactions of the constituent nanoparticles and the increased shape anisotropy of the superstructures. Our results show that the magnetic-field-assisted assembly technique could be used for fabricating nanomaterial-based structures with controlled geometric dimensions and enhanced magnetic properties for magnetic and energy storage applications.

  12. Alternating magnetic field energy absorption in the dispersion of iron oxide nanoparticles in a viscous medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolkova, Ilona S.; Kazantseva, Natalia E.; Babayan, Vladimir; Smolka, Petr; Parmar, Harshida; Vilcakova, Jarmila; Schneeweiss, Oldrich; Pizurova, Nadezda

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were obtained by a coprecipitation method in a controlled growth process leading to the formation of uniform highly crystalline nanoparticles with average size of 13 nm, which corresponds to the superparamagnetic state. Nanoparticles obtained are a mixture of single-phase nanoparticles of magnetite and maghemite as well as nanoparticles of non-stoichiometric magnetite. The subsequent annealing of nanoparticles at 300 °C in air during 6 h leads to the full transformation to maghemite. It results in reduced value of the saturation magnetization (from 56 emu g-1 to 48 emu g-1) but does not affect the heating ability of nanoparticles. A 2-7 wt% dispersion of as-prepared and annealed nanoparticles in glycerol provides high heating rate in alternating magnetic fields allowed for application in magnetic hyperthermia; however the value of specific loss power does not exceed 30 W g-1. This feature of heat output is explained by the combined effect of magnetic interparticle interactions and the properties of the carrier medium. Nanoparticles coalesce during the synthesis and form aggregates showing ferromagnetic-like behavior with magnetization hysteresis, distinct sextets on Mössbauer spectrum, blocking temperature well about room temperature, which accounts for the higher energy barrier for magnetization reversal. At the same time, low specific heat capacity of glycerol intensifies heat transfer in the magnetic dispersion. However, high viscosity of glycerol limits the specific loss power value, since predominantly the Neel relaxation accounts for the absorption of AC magnetic field energy.

  13. Synthesis, phase composition, Mössbauer and magnetic characterization of iron oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarveena; Vargas, J M; Shukla, D K; Meneses, C T; Mendoza Zélis, P; Singh, M; Sharma, S K

    2016-04-14

    The present work describes the synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles by thermal decomposition of Fe-precursors in argon and vacuum environments with control over particle size distribution, phase composition and the resulting magnetic properties. The Rietveld refinement analysis of X-ray diffraction data revealed the crystallinity as well the single-phase of γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles prepared under vacuum, whereas the argon environment leads to the formation of multi-phase composition of γ-Fe2O3/Fe3O4 (90%) and wustite (10%). Synchrotron X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) indicates that the predominant phase in both samples is γ-Fe2O3, which is subsequently verified from the Mössbauer spectra. DC magnetic measurements indicate behavior typical of a superparamagnetic system validated by Mössbauer analysis. However, further investigation of ac susceptibility by typical Néel-Arrhenius and Vogel Fulcher magnetic models suggests an influence of interparticle interactions on the overall magnetic behavior of the system.

  14. Easy synthesis of bismuth iron oxide nanoparticles as photocatalyst for solar hydrogen generation from water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jinyi

    In this study, high purity bismuth iron oxide (BiFeO3/BFO) nanoparticles of size 50-80 nm have been successfully synthesized by a simple sol-gel method using urea and polyvinyl alcohol at low temperature. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement is used to optimize the synthetic process to get highly crystalline and pure phase material. Diffuse reflectance ultraviolet-visible (DRUV-Vis) spectrum indicates that the absorption cut-off wavelength of the nanoparticles is about 620 nm, corresponding to an energy band gap of 2.1 eV. Compared to BaTiO3, BFO has a better degradation of methyl orange under light radiation. Also, photocatalytic tests prove this material to be efficient towards water splitting under simulated solar light to generate hydrogen. The simple synthetic methodology adopted in this paper will be useful in developing low-cost semiconductor materials as effective photocatalysts for hydrogen generation. Photocatalytic tests followed by gas chromatography (GC) analyses show that BiFeO3 generates three times more hydrogen than commercial titania P25 catalyst under the same experimental conditions.

  15. Iron oxide nanoparticles as dielectric and piezoelectric enhancers for silicone elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacob, Mihail; Tugui, Codrin; Tiron, Vasile; Bele, Adrian; Vlad, Stelian; Vasiliu, Tudor; Cazacu, Maria; Vasiliu, Ana-Lavinia; Racles, Carmen

    2017-10-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles were prepared using an alkaline precipitation method to tune the reaction time so as to afford ferrihydrite with spherical morphology or goethite nanorods. These two nanoparticle types, surface-treated with a surfactant (Pluronic L81), were each incorporated in 10, 20 and 30 wt% within a polydimethylsiloxane-α,ω-diol (Mn = 60 000 g mol‑1). The mixtures were processed as films and crosslinked by condensation with tetraethoxysilane at room temperature. The aged films were investigated concerning filler distribution (by SEM coupled with an energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy module), mechanical (tensile strength, elongation and Young’s modulus), and dielectric properties (permittivity, loss, conductivity and strength). The results show that the fillers have a relatively homogeneous distribution within the matrix and, dependent on the filler nature and amount, generally manifest a mechanical reinforcing effect and act as dielectric permittivity and strength enhancers. In addition, it has been found that the crystalline nanoparticles induce a piezoelectric response, emphasized by piezoelectric force microscopy. The improved properties of the composites make them suitable for applications in mechanical/electrical energy conversion, as theoretical estimates showed.

  16. Structural characterization and adsorption properties of pluronic F127 onto iron oxides magnetic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehvari, Khalilalrahman; Lin, Kuen-Song; Wang, Steven S S

    2014-03-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles coated with polymers have shown low toxicity and chemical stability in physiological condition, thereby can be used to deliver encapsulated drugs throughout the body by external magnetic fields. In this study, magnetic nanoparticles were synthesized thorough co-precipitation method and their interaction with Pluronic F127 block copolymer as well as adsorption properties of polymer onto nanoparticles were investigated. Adsorption measurement revealed different adsorption behaviors below and above the polymer's critical micelle concentration. The Freundlich isotherm was found to better describe the adsorption behavior of Pluronic F127 onto SIONPs particles below the block copolymer critical micelle concentration. At higher concentration, the adsorbed amount is likely to diminish due to interpenetration of the adsorbed macromolecular micelles and volume-excluded effects for block copolymers. Furthermore, magnetic nanocomposites with different concentration of polymers were prepared through hydrothermal method. The crystalline structure, morphology, pore structure, and magnetic properties of magnetic nanoparticles/nanocomposites products at different pH and polymer concentration were studied. Results showed that due to the hematite impurities, magnetic nanocomposites synthesized at higher pH have lower magnetization.

  17. Shape-Dependent Magnetic Properties and Phase Transformation of Annealed Iron Oxide Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghdi, Samira; Rhee, Kyong Yop; Park, Soo Jin

    2017-08-01

    After investigation of different methods to synthesize magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), finding methods to control their magnetic properties and to optimize their characteristics remains challenging. Heat treatment has been introduced as a perfect method that can affect the shape and size of MNPs and thus their magnetic properties. In this work, iron oxide (Fe2O3) nanoparticles with various shapes were produced by means of a microwave-assisted method, with use of cost-effective and non-toxic chemicals. These particles were then annealed at different temperatures, i.e., 300°C, 500°C, and 800°C, for 2 h in the presence of air. The results indicated that heated samples exhibited weaker magnetic properties than those of non-heated samples. Both x-ray diffraction and Raman analysis results of the annealed samples indicated that the Fe2O3 particles were well crystalline, with transformation in phases. Transmission electron microscopy images indicated that all the annealed particles were spherical, regardless of their initial shapes.

  18. Synthesis and Characterization of Soy Lecithin Coated Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Magnetic Resonance Imaging Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh hosseini

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we report synthesis and characterization of soy lecithin (SL coated iron oxide nanoparticles by one step co precipitation method in an aqueous solution using ferrous and ferric salts (1:2, different values of SLP (0.0, 1.5 and 6 gr and ammonia to adjust pH=10. Characterization of the samples (labeled as SPION, SPION 1.5 and SPION6 carried out using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD patterns indicated formation of magnetite (Fe3O4 nanoparticles with a calculated average crystalline size of 25 nm for naked Fe3O4, 13 nm for SION 1.5 and 9 nm for SION6 nanoparticles by Sherrer's equation. FT–IR spectroscopy and Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA were used to investigate the presence of SL on the nanoparticles surface. The images and morphology of the samples were examined on scanning electron microscope (SEM. Detailed chemical analysis of the nanoparticles was obtained from energy dispersive X-ray (EDX data. To measure magnetic properties of the prepared samples, a Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM was used and a Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS instrument was finally used to measure hydrodynamic diameter of the nanoparticles. The results revealed that the soybean lecithin was coated on Fe3O4 nanoparticles surface and smaller particle size was obtained with increased concentrations of soybean lecithin.

  19. Early diagenetic quartz formation at a deep iron oxidation front in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meister, Patrick; Chapligin, Bernhard; Picard, Aude; Meyer, Hanno; Fischer, Cornelius; Rettenwander, Daniel; Amthauer, Georg; Vogt, Christoph; Aiello, Ivano

    2015-04-01

    The mechanisms of early diagenetic quartz formation under low-temperature conditions are still poorly understood. We studied lithified cherts consisting of microcrystalline quartz recovered from ODP Site 1226 in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific. The cherts occur near the base of a 420-m-thick Miocene-Holocene sequence within unlithified nannofossil and diatom ooze. Palaeo-temperatures reconstructed from δ18O values in the cherts are near to present porewater temperatures and a sharp depletion in dissolved silica occurs around 385 mbsf indicating that silica precipitation is still ongoing. Also a deep iron oxidation front occurs at the same depth, which is caused by upward diffusing nitrate from an oxic seawater aquifer in the underlying basaltic crust. Sequential iron extraction and analysis of the X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) revealed that iron in the cherts predominantly occurs as illite and amorphous iron oxide, whereas iron in the nannofossil and diatom ooze occurs mainly as smectites. Mössbauer spectroscopy confirmed that the illite iron in the cherts is largely oxidized. A possible mechanisms that may be operative is quartz precipitation initiated by adsorption of silica to freshly precipitated iron oxides. The decrease in porewater silica concentration below opal-A and opal-CT saturation then allows for the precipitation of the thermodynamically more stable phase: quartz. We suggest that the formation of early-diagenetic chert at iron oxidation fronts is an important process in suboxic zones of silica-rich sediments. The largest iron oxidation front ever occurred during the great oxidation event ca. 2.5 Ga ago, when large amounts of iron and chert beds were deposited.

  20. Degradation of paraoxon (VX chemical agent simulant) and bacteria by magnesium oxide depends on the crystalline structure of magnesium oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellik, A; Pollet, T; Ouvry, L; Briançon, S; Fessi, H; Hartmann, D J; Renaud, F N R

    2016-11-22

    In this work, our goal was to study the capability of a single metallic oxide to neutralize a chemical agent and to exhibit an antibacterial effect. We tested two types of magnesium oxides, MgO. The first MgO sample tested, which commercial data size characteristic was -325 mesh (MgO-1) destroyed in 3 h, 89.7% of paraoxon and 93.2% of 4-nitrophenol, the first degradation product. The second MgO sample, which commercial data size was <50 nm (MgO-2) neutralized in the same time, 19.5% of paraoxon and 10.9% of 4-nitrophenol. For MgO-1 no degradation products could be detected by GC-MS. MgO-1 had a bactericidal activity on Escherichia coli (6 log in 1 h), and showed a decrease of almost 3 log on a Staphylococcus aureus population in 3 h. MgO-2 caused a decrease of 2 log of a E.coli culture but had no activity against S. aureus. Neither of these two products had an activity on Bacillus subtilis spores. Analytical investigations showed that the real sizes of MgO nanoparticles were 11 nm for MgO-1 and 25 nm for MgO-2. Moreover, their crystalline structures were different. These results highlighted the importance of the size of the nanoparticles and their microscopic arrangements to detoxify chemical products and to inhibit or kill microbial strains.

  1. Physiological effects of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles towards watermelon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junli; Chang, Peter R; Huang, Jin; Wang, Yunqiang; Yuan, Hong; Ren, Hongxuan

    2013-08-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) have been exploited in a diverse range of products in the past decade or so. However, the biosafety/environmental impact or legislation pertaining to this newly created, highly functional composites containing NPs (otherwise called nanomaterials) is generally lagging behind their technological innovation. To advance the agenda in this area, our current primary interest is focused on using crops as model systems as they have very close relationship with us. Thus, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the biological effects of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles towards watermelon seedlings. We have systematically studied the physiological effects of Fe2O3 nanoparticles (nano-Fe2O3) on watermelon, and present the first evidence that a significant amount of Fe2O3 nanoparticles suspended in a liquid medium can be taken up by watermelon plants and translocated throughout the plant tissues. Changes in important physiological indicators, such as root activity, activity of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), chlorophyll and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, ferric reductase activity, root apoplastic iron content were clearly presented. Different concentrations of nano-Fe2O3 all increased seed germination, seedling growth, and enhanced physiological function to some degree; and the positive effects increased quickly and then slowed with an increase in the treatment concentrations. Changes in CAT, SOD and POD activities due to nano-Fe2O3 were significantly larger than that of the control. The 20 mg/L treatment had the most obvious effect on the increase of root activity. Ferric reductase activity, root apoplastic iron content, and watermelon biomass were significantly affected by exposure to nano-Fe2O3. Results of statistical analysis showed that there were significant differences in all the above indexes between the treatment at optimal concentration and the control. This proved that the proper concentration of nano

  2. Rare earth element partitioning between hydrous ferric oxides and acid mine water during iron oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verplanck, P.L.; Nordstrom, D.K.; Taylor, H.E.; Kimball, B.A.

    2004-01-01

    Ferrous iron rapidly oxidizes to Fe (III) and precipitates as hydrous Fe (III) oxides in acid mine waters. This study examines the effect of Fe precipitation on the rare earth element (REE) geochemistry of acid mine waters to determine the pH range over which REEs behave conservatively and the range over which attenuation and fractionation occur. Two field studies were designed to investigate REE attenuation during Fe oxidation in acidic, alpine surface waters. To complement these field studies, a suite of six acid mine waters with a pH range from 1.6 to 6.1 were collected and allowed to oxidize in the laboratory at ambient conditions to determine the partitioning of REEs during Fe oxidation and precipitation. Results from field experiments document that even with substantial Fe oxidation, the REEs remain dissolved in acid, sulfate waters with pH below 5.1. Between pH 5.1 and 6.6 the REEs partitioned to the solid phases in the water column, and heavy REEs were preferentially removed compared to light REEs. Laboratory experiments corroborated field data with the most solid-phase partitioning occurring in the waters with the highest pH. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of iron oxide nanoparticles using electrical discharge in solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Mohammadi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized for the first time using electrical arc discharge between a pair of highly pure titanium electrode without using metallic iron electrodes in iron chloride salt solution. The produced nanoparticles were characterized using various analyses such as X-ray Diffraction (XRD and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS. XRD and XPS analyses showed formation of α-Fe2O3 phase. Microscopic studies on the obtained samples revealed formation of rice like iron oxide nanostructures at 10 minutes of electrical discharge which changed to semi-spherical shape after calcination at 600 oC for 2 hours. The results of Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS analysis demonstrated formation of 24 nm particles with almost narrow distribution of 11nm, which are increased in size and distribution width by heat treatment. The obtained results verify the potential ability of this technique to achieve monodispersed iron oxide nanoparticles with narrow distribution in a very short time

  4. The Influence of Iron Ions on the Aqueous Photocatalytic Oxidation of Deicing Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Klauson

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental research into aqueous photocatalytic oxidation (PCO of the deicing compounds, 2-ethoxyethanol (2-EE, diethylene glycol monomethyl ether (DEGMME, and ethylene glycol (EG was undertaken. The addition of iron ions to the acidic aqueous solutions to be treated displayed complex influence on the oxidation efficiency of the above mentioned substances, resulting in a sharp increase of the PCO efficiency at smaller concentrations of iron ions followed by a drastic decrease with the increasing iron ion concentrations. The phenomena observed can be explained by the electron scavenging effect of the iron ions and the competitive adsorption of iron ions and the oxidized substances on titanium dioxide surface. The carbonic acids determined as the PCO by-products allow outlining some reaction pathways for the substances under consideration.

  5. Solvothermal synthesis and characterization of monodisperse superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Shichuan; Zhang, Tonglai; Tang, Runze; Qiu, Hao [State Key Laboratory of Explosion Science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Wang, Caiqin [Shandong Special Industry Group Co., Ltd, Shandong 255201 (China); Zhou, Zunning [State Key Laboratory of Explosion Science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2015-04-01

    A series of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticle clusters with different structure guide agents were synthesized by a modified solvothermal method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermogravimetric analyses (TG), a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). It is found that the superparamagnetic nanoparticles guided by NaCit (sodium citrate) have high saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) of 69.641 emu/g and low retentivity (M{sub r}) of 0.8 emu/g. Guiding to form superparamagnetic clusters with size range of 80–110 nm, the adherent small-molecule citrate groups on the surface prevent the prefabricated ferrite crystals growing further. In contrast, the primary small crystal guided and stabilized by the PVP long-chain molecules assemble freely to larger ones and stop growing in size range of 100–150 nm, which has saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) of 97.979 emu/g and retentivity (M{sub r}) of 46.323 emu/g. The relevant formation mechanisms of the two types of samples are proposed at the end. The superparamagnetic ferrite clusters guided by sodium citrate are expected to be used for movement controlling of passive interference particles to avoid aggregation and the sample guided by PVP will be a candidate of nanometer wave absorbing material. - Highlights: • A facile synthesis of two kinds of monodisperse iron oxide nano-particle clusters was performed via a modified one-step solvothermal method in this work. • The NaCit and PVP as different guiding agents are used to control the formation and aggregation of nano-crystals during reacting and the ripening processes. • The superparamagnetic NaCit–Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} samples have high saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) of 69.641 emu/g and low retentivity (M{sub r}) of 0.8 emu/g. • The relevant formation mechanisms of the two types of samples are proposed.

  6. Hawaiian submarine manganese-iron oxide crusts - A dating tool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.G.; Clague, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    Black manganese-iron oxide crusts form on most exposed rock on the ocean floor. Such crusts are well developed on the steep lava slopes of the Hawaiian Ridge and have been sampled during dredging and submersible dives. The crusts also occur on fragments detached from bedrock by mass wasting, on submerged coral reefs, and on poorly lithified sedimentary rocks. The thickness of the crusts was measured on samples collected since 1965 on the Hawaiian Ridge from 140 dive or dredge localities. Fifty-nine (42%) of the sites were collected in 2001 by remotely operated vehicles (ROVs). The thinner crusts on many samples apparently result from post-depositional breakage, landsliding, and intermittent burial of outcrops by sediment. The maximum crust thickness was selected from each dredge or dive site to best represent crusts on the original rock surface at that site. The measurements show an irregular progressive thickening of the crusts toward the northwest-i.e., progressive thickening toward the older volcanic features with increasing distance from the Hawaiian hotspot. Comparison of the maximum crust thickness with radiometric ages of related subaerial features supports previous studies that indicate a crust-growth rate of about 2.5 mm/m.y. The thickness information not only allows a comparison of the relative exposure ages of two or more features offshore from different volcanoes, but also provides specific age estimates of volcanic and landslide deposits. The data indicate that some of the landslide blocks within the south Kona landslide are the oldest exposed rock on Mauna Loa, Kilauea, or Loihi volcanoes. Crusts on the floors of submarine canyons off Kohala and East Molokai volcanoes indicate that these canyons are no longer serving as channelways for downslope, sediment-laden currents. Mahukona volcano was approximately synchronous with Hilo Ridge, both being younger than Hana Ridge. The Nuuanu landslide is considerably older than the Wailau landslide. The Waianae

  7. High Temperature Corrosion of Fe-C-S Cast Irons in Oxidizing and Sulfidizing Atmospheres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thuan-Dinh NGUYEN; Dong-Bok LEE

    2008-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of spheroidal graphite and flake graphite cast irons was studied in oxidizing and sulfidizing atmospheres between 600 and 800℃ for 50 h. The corrosion rate in the sulfidizing atmosphere was faster than that in air above 700℃, due to the formation of the Feo.975S sulfide. The corrosion rate of the spheroidal graphite cast iron was similar to that of the flake graphite cast iron.

  8. Ribosomal RNA in Alzheimer disease is oxidized by bound redox-active iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Kazuhiro; Smith, Mark A; Zhu, Xiongwei; Baus, Diane; Merrick, William C; Tartakoff, Alan M; Hattier, Thomas; Harris, Peggy L; Siedlak, Sandra L; Fujioka, Hisashi; Liu, Quan; Moreira, Paula I; Miller, Frank P; Nunomura, Akihiko; Shimohama, Shun; Perry, George

    2005-06-03

    Oxidative modification of cytoplasmic RNA in vulnerable neurons is an important, well documented feature of the pathophysiology of Alzheimer disease. Here we report that RNA-bound iron plays a pivotal role for RNA oxidation in vulnerable neurons in Alzheimer disease brain. The cytoplasm of hippocampal neurons showed significantly higher redox activity and iron(II) staining than age-matched controls. Notably, both were susceptible to RNase, suggesting a physical association of iron(II) with RNA. Ultrastructural analysis further suggested an endoplasmic reticulum association. Both rRNA and mRNA showed twice the iron binding as tRNA. rRNA, extremely abundant in neurons, was considered to provide the greatest number of iron binding sites among cytoplasmic RNA species. Interestingly, the difference of iron binding capacity disappeared after denaturation of RNA, suggesting that the higher order structure may contribute to the greater iron binding of rRNA. Reflecting the difference of iron binding capacity, oxidation of rRNA by the Fenton reaction formed 13 times more 8-hydroxyguanosine than tRNA. Consistent with in situ findings, ribosomes purified from Alzheimer hippocampus contained significantly higher levels of RNase-sensitive iron(II) and redox activity than control. Furthermore, only Alzheimer rRNA contains 8-hydroxyguanosine in reverse transcriptase-PCR. Addressing the biological significance of ribosome oxidation by redox-active iron, in vitro translation with oxidized ribosomes from rabbit reticulocyte showed a significant reduction of protein synthesis. In conclusion these results suggest that rRNA provides a binding site for redox-active iron and serves as a redox center within the cytoplasm of vulnerable neurons in Alzheimer disease in advance of the appearance of morphological change indicating neurodegeneration.

  9. Liquid Crystalline Graphene Oxide/PEDOT:PSS Self-Assembled 3D Architecture for Binder-Free Supercapacitor Electrodes

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, Md. Monirul; Chidembo, Alfred T.; Aboutalebi, Seyed Hamed; Cardillo, Dean; Liu, Hua Kun; Konstantinov, Konstantin; Dou, Shi Xue

    2014-01-01

    Binder-free self-assembled 3D architecture electrodes have been fabricated by a novel convenient method. Liquid crystalline graphene oxide was used as precursor to interact with poly(3,4-ethylene-dioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) in dispersion in order to form a conductive polymer entrapped, self-assembled layer-by-layer structure. This advanced network containing PEDOT:PSS enabled us to ascribe the superior electrochemical properties of particular graphene sheets. This layer...

  10. Liquid crystalline graphene oxide/PEDOT:PSS self-assembled 3D architecture for binder-free supercapacitor electrodes

    OpenAIRE

    Monirul eIslam; Alfred eChidembo; Hamed eAboutalebi; Dean eCardillo; Hua Kun Liu; Konstantin eKonstantinov; Shi Xue Dou

    2014-01-01

    Binder-free self-assembled 3D architecture electrodes have been fabricated by a novel convienient method. Liquid crystalline graphene oxide (LC GO) was used as precursor to interact with poly(3,4-ethylene-dioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) in dispersion in order to form a conductive polymer entrapped, self-assembled layer-by-layer structure. This advanced network containing PEDOT:PSS enabled us to ascribe the superior electrochemical properties of particular graphene sheets. T...

  11. Spectroscopic investigation and direct comparison of the reactivities of iron pyridyl oxidation catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yang; Mayes, Howard G.; Queensen, Matthew J.; Bauer, Eike B.; Dupureur, Cynthia M.

    2017-03-01

    The growing interest in green chemistry has fueled attention to the development and characterization of effective iron complex oxidation catalysts. A number of iron complexes are known to catalyze the oxidation of organic substrates utilizing peroxides as the oxidant. Their development is complicated by a lack of direct comparison of the reactivities of the iron complexes. To begin to correlate reactivity with structural elements, we compare the reactivities of a series of iron pyridyl complexes toward a single dye substrate, malachite green (MG), for which colorless oxidation products are established. Complexes with tetradentate, nitrogen-based ligands with cis open coordination sites were found to be the most reactive. While some complexes reflect sensitivity to different peroxides, others are similarly reactive with either H2O2 or tBuOOH, which suggests some mechanistic distinctions. [Fe(S,S-PDP)(CH3CN)2](SbF6)2 and [Fe(OTf)2(tpa)] transition under the oxidative reaction conditions to a single intermediate at a rate that exceeds dye degradation (PDP = bis(pyridin-2-ylmethyl) bipyrrolidine; tpa = tris(2-pyridylmethyl)amine). For the less reactive [Fe(OTf)2(dpa)] (dpa = dipicolylamine), this reaction occurs on a timescale similar to that of MG oxidation. Thus, the spectroscopic method presented herein provides information about the efficiency and mechanism of iron catalyzed oxidation reactions as well as about potential oxidative catalyst decomposition and chemical changes of the catalyst before or during the oxidation reaction.

  12. Carboxymethyl cellulose coating decreases toxicity and oxidizing capacity of nanoscale zerovalent iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lei; Thanh, Thao Le; Gong, Jianyu; Kim, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Eun-Ju; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2014-06-01

    Nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) with modified surface via coating with organic stabilizers has been documented with enhanced colloidal stability and dispersity. Therefore, the expanded application potential and accompanying intrinsic exposure of such nanoparticle can be anticipated. In our study, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)-stabilized NZVI (CNZVI) exerted minimized oxidative stress response and slower disruption of cell membrane integrity, resulting in mitigated cytotoxicity towards bacteria Agrobacterium sp. PH-08 as compared with the uncoated counterpart. The corrosive oxidation of both nanoparticles in oxygenic water provided a better understanding of coating effect. The decreased oxidative degradation of probe 4-chlorophenol with CNZVI than NZVI implicated a weaker oxidizing capacity, which might overweight massive adhesion-mediated redox damage and explain the different exposure outcome. However, enhanced evolution of iron oxide as well as the promoted production of hydrogen peroxide adversely demonstrated CMC-coating facilitated iron corrosion by oxygen, suggesting CMC was most likely to act as a radical scavenger and compete with organics or bacteria for oxidants. Moreover, XRD, XPS and TEM results showed that the spherical NZVI was oxidized to form needle-shaped iron oxide-hydroxide (γFeOOH) with no detectable oxidative stress for PH-08, alleviating worries regarding exotoxicological impact of iron nanotechnology.

  13. Corrosion Behavior of Pipeline Carbon Steel under Different Iron Oxide Deposits in the District Heating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Sang Kim

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion behavior of pipeline steel covered by iron oxides (α-FeOOH; Fe3O4 and Fe2O3 was investigated in simulated district heating water. In potentiodynamic polarization tests; the corrosion rate of pipeline steel is increased under the iron oxide but the increaseing rate is different due to the differnet chemical reactions of the covered iron oxides. Pitting corrosion was only observed on the α-FeOOH-covered specimen; which is caused by the crevice corrosion under the α-FeOOH. From Mott-Schottky and X-ray diffraction results; the surface reaction and oxide layer were dependent on the kind of iron oxides. The iron oxides deposit increases the failure risk of the pipeline and localized corrosion can be occurred under the α-FeOOH-covered region of the pipeline. Thus, prevention methods for the iron oxide deposit in the district pipeline system such as filtering or periodic chemical cleaning are needed.

  14. Freezing-Enhanced Dissolution of Iron Oxides: Effects of Inorganic Acid Anions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Daun; Kim, Kitae; Min, Dae Wi; Choi, Wonyong

    2015-11-03

    Dissolution of iron from mineral dust particles greatly depends upon the type and amount of copresent inorganic anions. In this study, we investigated the roles of sulfate, chloride, nitrate, and perchlorate on the dissolution of maghemite and lepidocrocite in ice under both dark and UV irradiation and compared the results with those of their aqueous counterparts. After 96 h of reaction, the total dissolved iron in ice (pH 3 before freezing) was higher than that in the aqueous phase (pH 3) by 6-28 times and 10-20 times under dark and UV irradiation, respectively. Sulfuric acid was the most efficient in producing labile iron under dark condition, whereas hydrochloric acid induced the most dissolution of the total and ferrous iron in the presence of light. This ice-induced dissolution result was also confirmed with Arizona Test Dust (AZTD). In the freeze-thaw cycling test, the iron oxide samples containing chloride, nitrate, or perchlorate showed a similar extent of total dissolved iron after each cycling while the sulfate-containing sample rapidly lost its dissolution activity with repeating the cycle. This unique phenomenon observed in ice might be related to the freeze concentration of protons, iron oxides, and inorganic anions in the liquid-like ice grain boundary region. These results suggest that the ice-enhanced dissolution of iron oxides can be a potential source of bioavailable iron, and the acid anions critically influence this process.

  15. Iron-dependent changes in cellular energy metabolism: influence on citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oexle, H; Gnaiger, E; Weiss, G

    1999-11-10

    Iron modulates the expression of the critical citric acid cycle enzyme aconitase via a translational mechanism involving iron regulatory proteins. Thus, the present study was undertaken to investigate the consequences of iron perturbation on citric acid cycle activity, oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial respiration in the human cell line K-562. In agreement with previous data iron increases the activity of mitochondrial aconitase while it is reduced upon addition of the iron chelator desferrioxamine (DFO). Interestingly, iron also positively affects three other citric acid cycle enzymes, namely citrate synthase, isocitric dehydrogenase, and succinate dehydrogenase, while DFO decreases the activity of these enzymes. Consequently, iron supplementation results in increased formation of reducing equivalents (NADH) by the citric acid cycle, and thus in increased mitochondrial oxygen consumption and ATP formation via oxidative phosphorylation as shown herein. This in turn leads to downregulation of glucose utilization. In contrast, all these metabolic pathways are reduced upon iron depletion, and thus glycolysis and lactate formation are significantly increased in order to compensate for the decrease in ATP production via oxidative phosphorylation in the presence of DFO. Our results point to a complex interaction between iron homeostasis, oxygen supply and cellular energy metabolism in human cells.

  16. Nitrate-dependent iron oxidation limits iron transport in anoxic ocean regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholz, Florian; Löscher, Carolin; Fiskal, Annika

    2016-01-01

    Iron is an essential element for life on Earth and limits primary production in large parts of the ocean. Oxygen-free continental margin sediments represent an important source of bioavailable iron to the ocean, yet little of the iron released from the seabed reaches the productive sea surface...

  17. Biological iron(II) oxidation as pre-treatment to limestone neutralisation of acid water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maree, JP

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron (II) should be oxidised to iron (III) before the neutralisation of acid water with limestone, otherwise the oxidation will occur downstream of the neutralisation plant with the formation of acid (reactions 1 and 2). This study aimed...

  18. Spatial patterns of iron- and methane-oxidizing bacterial communities in an irregularly flooded, riparian wetland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.; Krause, S.; Muyzer, G.; Meima-Franke, M.; Laanbroek, H.J.; Bodelier, P.L.E.

    2012-01-01

    Iron- and methane-cycling are important processes in wetlands with one connected to plant growth and the other to greenhouse gas emission, respectively. In contrast to acidic habitats, there is scarce information on the ecology of microbes oxidizing ferrous iron at circumneutral pH. The latter is

  19. Chemical fingerprint of iron oxides related to iron enrichment of banded iron formation from the Cauê Formation - Esperança Deposit, Quadrilátero Ferrífero, Brazil: a laser ablation ICP-MS study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oliveira, Lucilia Aparecida Ramos de; Rosière, Carlos Alberto; Rios, Francisco Javier; Andrade, Sandra; Moraes, Renato de

    2015-01-01

    ... Formation from Minas Supergroup. Variations of Mn, Mg and Sr content in different generations of iron oxides from dolomitic itabirite, high-grade iron ore and syn-mineralization quartz-carbonate-hematite veins denote the close...

  20. Sulfur Versus Iron Oxidation in an Iron-Thiolate Model Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A McDonald; M Bukowski; E Farquhar; T Jackson; K Koehntop; M Seo; R De Hont; A Stubna; J Halfen; E Munck

    2011-12-31

    In the absence of base, the reaction of [Fe{sup II}(TMCS)]PF{sub 6} (1, TMCS = 1-(2-mercaptoethyl)-4,8,11-trimethyl-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane) with peracid in methanol at -20 C did not yield the oxoiron(IV) complex (2, [Fe{sup IV}(O)(TMCS)]PF{sub 6}), as previously observed in the presence of strong base (KO{sup t}Bu). Instead, the addition of 1 equiv of peracid resulted in 50% consumption of 1. The addition of a second equivalent of peracid resulted in the complete consumption of 1 and the formation of a new species 3, as monitored by UV-vis, ESI-MS, and Moessbauer spectroscopies. ESI-MS showed 3 to be formulated as [Fe{sup II}(TMCS) + 2O]{sup +}, while EXAFS analysis suggested that 3 was an O-bound iron(II)-sulfinate complex (Fe-O = 1.95 {angstrom}, Fe-S = 3.26 {angstrom}). The addition of a third equivalent of peracid resulted in the formation of yet another compound, 4, which showed electronic absorption properties typical of an oxoiron(IV) species. Moessbauer spectroscopy confirmed 4 to be a novel iron(IV) compound, different from 2, and EXAFS (Fe{double_bond}O = 1.64 {angstrom}) and resonance Raman ({nu}{sub Fe{double_bond}O} = 831 cm{sup -1}) showed that indeed an oxoiron(IV) unit had been generated in 4. Furthermore, both infrared and Raman spectroscopy gave indications that 4 contains a metal-bound sulfinate moiety ({nu}{sub s}(SO{sub 2}) {approx} 1000 cm{sup -1}, {nu}{sub as}(SO{sub 2}) {approx} 1150 cm{sup -1}). Investigations into the reactivity of 1 and 2 toward H{sup +} and oxygen atom transfer reagents have led to a mechanism for sulfur oxidation in which 2 could form even in the absence of base but is rapidly protonated to yield an oxoiron(IV) species with an uncoordinated thiol moiety that acts as both oxidant and substrate in the conversion of 2 to 3.

  1. Leaching of pyrite by acidophilic heterotrophic iron-oxidizing bacteria in pure and mixed cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacelar-Nicolau, P.; Johnson, D.B. [Univ. of Wales, Bangor (United Kingdom). School of Biological Sciences

    1999-02-01

    Seven strains of heterotrophic iron-oxidizing acidophilic bacteria were examined to determine their abilities to promote oxidative dissolution of pyrite (FeS{sub 2}) when they were grown in pure cultures and in mixed cultures with sulfur-oxidizing Thiobacillus spp. Only one of the isolates (strain T-24) oxidized pyrite when it was grown in pyrite-basal salts medium. However, when pyrite-containing cultures were supplemented with 0.02% (wt/vol) yeast extract, most of the isolates oxidized pyrite, and one (strain T-24) promoted rates of mineral dissolution similar to the rates observed with the iron-oxidizing autotroph Thiobacillus ferroxidans. Pyrite oxidation by another isolate (strain T-21) occurred in cultures containing between 0.005 and 0.05% (wt/vol) yeast extract but was completely inhibited in cultures containing 0.5% yeast extract. Ferrous iron was also needed for mineral dissolution by the iron-oxidizing heterotrophs, indicating that these organisms oxidize pyrite via the indirect mechanism. Mixed cultures of three isolates (strains T-21, T-232, and T-24) and the sulfur-oxidizing autotroph Thiobacillus thiooxidans promoted pyrite dissolution; since neither strains T-21 and T-23 nor T. thiooxidans could oxidize this mineral in yeast extract-free media, this was a novel example of bacterial synergism. Mixed cultures of strains T-21 and T-23 and the sulfur-oxidizing mixotroph Thiobacillus acidophilus also oxidized pyrite but to a lesser extent than did mixed cultures containing T. thiooxidans. Pyrite leaching by strain T -23 grown in an organic compound-rich medium and incubated either shaken or unshaken was also assessed. The potential environmental significance of iron-oxidizing heterotrophs in accelerating pyrite oxidation is discussed.

  2. An autocatalytic radical chain pathway in formation of an iron(IV)-oxo complex by oxidation of an iron(II) complex with dioxygen and isopropanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Yuma; Lee, Yong-Min; Nam, Wonwoo; Fukuzumi, Shunichi

    2013-03-28

    Evidence of an autocatalytic radical chain pathway has been reported in formation of a non-heme iron(IV)-oxo complex by oxidation of an iron(II) complex with dioxygen and isopropanol in acetonitrile at 298 K. The radical chain reaction is initiated by hydrogen abstraction from isopropanol by the iron(IV)-oxo complex.

  3. Synthesis and Characterization of Mimosa Pudica Leaves Shaped α-Iron Oxide Nanostructures for Ethanol Chemical Sensor Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S H; Ibrahim, Ahmed A; Kumar, R; Umar, Ahmad; Abaker, M; Hwang, S W; Baskoutas, S

    2016-03-01

    Herein, the synthesis of mimosa pudica leaves shaped a-iron oxide (α-Fe2O3) nanostructures is reported through simple and facile hydrothermal process. The prepared α-Fe2O3 nanostructures were characterized in terms of their morphological, structural, compositional and optical properties through a variety of characterization techniques such as FESEM, EDS, XRD, FTIR and Raman spectroscopy. The detailed characterizations revealed the well-crystallinity and dense growth of mimosa pudica leaf shaped α-Fe2O3 nanostructures. Further, the prepared nanomaterials were used as efficient electron mediator to fabricate sensitive ethanol chemical sensor. The fabricated sensor exhibited a high sensitivity of -30.37 μAmM(-1) cm(-2) and low detection limit of -0.62 μM. The observed linear dynamic range (LDR) was in the range from 10 μM-0.625 μM.

  4. Magnetothermal release of payload from iron oxide/silica drug delivery agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, T. T.; Knoppe, S.; Bloemen, M.; Brullot, W.; Strobbe, R.; Locquet, J.-P.; Verbiest, T.

    2016-10-01

    The release of covalently bound Rhodamine B from iron oxide/mesoporous silica core/shell nanoparticles under magnetically induced heating was studied. The system acts as a model to study drug delivery and payload release under magnetothermal heating.

  5. On the electrical arc interruption by using PMMA/iron oxide nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doddapaneni, Venkatesh; Saleemi, Mohsin; Ye, Fei; Gati, Rudolf; Toprak, Muhammet S.

    2016-10-01

    An experimental study is undertaken on the fabrication of poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)/iron oxide nanocomposites to determine their potential use for electrical arc interruption in the electrical switching applications such as circuit breakers. Monodisperse iron oxide nanoparticles of average size ∼11 nm are synthesized via thermal decomposition method and then homogeneously dispersed in the PMMA matrix by in situ polymerization. PMMA/iron oxide nanocomposites with different nanoparticle loading have been fabricated to study the effect of loading content on the thermal energy absorption. Detailed physicochemical characterizations on synthesized material are performed using x-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, TEM, thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry at different processing stages. A test-setup was designed to evaluate the quality of the nanocomposites for electric arc interruption capability. The results showed that PMMA/iron oxide nanocomposites have a clear impact on the electric arc interruption and therefore should be considered as promising candidates for electrical switching applications.

  6. Colloidosome-based synthesis of a multifunctional nanostructure of silver and hollow iron oxide nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Pan, Yue

    2010-03-16

    Nanoparticles that self-assemble on a liquid-liquid interface serve as the building block for making heterodimeric nanostructures. Specifically, hollow iron oxide nanoparticles within hexane form colloidosomes in the aqueous solution of silver nitrate, and iron oxide exposed to the aqueous phase catalyzes the reduction of silver ions to afford a heterodimer of silver and hollow iron oxide nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, UV-vis spectroscopy, and SQUID were used to characterize the heterodimers. Interestingly, the formation of silver nanoparticles helps the removal of spinglass layer on the hollow iron oxide nanoparticles. This work demonstrates a powerful yet convenient strategy for producing sophisticated, multifunctional nanostructures. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  7. One-pot size and shape controlled synthesis of DMSO capped iron oxide nanoparticles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Debanjan Guin; Sunkara V Manorama; S Radha; A K Nigam

    2006-11-01

    We report here the capping of iron oxide nanoparticles with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to make chloroform soluble iron oxide nanoparticles. Size and shape of the capped iron oxide nanoparticles are well controlled by simply varying the reaction parameters. The synthesized nanocrystallites were characterized by thermal analysis (TG–DTA), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for evaluating phase, structure and morphology. 1H NMR spectra of the synthesized samples confirm DMSO, and the capping of DMSO on the ferrite samples. Shift of the S=O stretching frequency in Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectra indicates that the bonding between DMSO and ferrite is through an oxygen moiety. The magnetic measurements of all the synthesized samples were investigated with a SQUID magnetometer which shows that the magnetic properties are strongly dependent on the size as well as shape of the iron oxide.

  8. Iron homeostatis and oxidative stress in idiopathic pulmonary alveolar proteinosis: a case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Lung injury caused by both inhaled dusts and infectious agents depends on increased availability of iron and metal-catalyzed oxidative stress. Because inhaled particles, such as silica, and certain infections can cause secondary pulmonary alveolar proteinosi...

  9. Unusual phase transition in a natural heterostructure of iron pnictides and vanadium oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ok, Jong Mok; Baek, S.-H.; Eom, Man Jin; Hoch, C.; Kremer, R. K.; Kim, Dong-Hwan; Chang, Chun-Fu; Ko, Kyung-Tae; Park, Sang-Youn; Ji, Sung Dae; Büchner, B.; Park, Jae-Hoon; Shim, J. H.; Mazin, I. I.; Kim, Jun Sung

    We report the unusual phase transition in Sr2VO3FeAs single crystal, where the Mott-insulating vanadium oxides and the high-Tc superconducting iron pnictides form a natural heterostructure. Clear evidence of the phase transition at T0 = 155 K was observed in the iron pnictide layer, not in the vanadium oxide layer, using bulk and NMR measurements. Neither magnetic ordering with sufficient spin moment nor symmetry change in the crystal structure has been detected at T0. At Tmag ~ 45 K, far below T0, magnetic transition occurs in the iron pnictide layer, while the vanadium oxide layer remains nonmagnetic at low temperatures. The complex evolution of various phases in Sr2VO3FeAs is drastically distinct from the phase transitions found in other iron pnictides or vanadium oxides, highlighting the importance of the additional interlayer coupling between the layers. Equal contribution, corresponding author.

  10. Magnetic removal of Entamoeba cysts from water using chitosan oligosaccharide-coated iron oxide nanoparticles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shukla, Sudeep; Arora, Vikas; Jadaun, Alka; Kumar, Jitender; Singh, Nishant; Jain, Vinod Kumar

    2015-01-01

    .... Herein, we report on the use of chitosan oligosaccharide-functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles for efficient capture and removal of pathogenic protozoan cysts under the influence of an external magnetic field...

  11. Transformation of graphene oxide by ferrous iron: Environmental implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fanfan; Wang, Fang; Gao, Guandao; Chen, Wei

    2015-09-01

    Abiotic transformation of graphene oxide (GO) in aquatic environments can markedly affect the fate, transport, and effects of GO. The authors observed that ferrous iron (Fe[II])-an environmentally abundant, mild reductant-can significantly affect the physicochemical properties of GO (examined by treating aqueous GO suspensions with Fe(2+) at room temperature, with doses of 0.032 mM Fe(2+)  per mg/L, 0.08 mM Fe(2+)  per mg/L, and 0.32 mM Fe(2+)  per mg/L GO). Microscopy data showed stacking of GO nanosheets on Fe(2+) treatment. Spectroscopy evidence (X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared transmission, Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) showed significant changes in GO surface O-functionalities, in terms of loss of epoxy and carbonyl groups but increase of carboxyl group. The reduction mechanisms were verified by treating model organic molecules (styrene oxide, p-benzoquinone, and benzoic acid) resembling O-containing fragments of GO macromolecules with Fe(2+). With sedimentation and adsorption experiments (using bisphenol A as a model contaminant), the authors demonstrated that Fe(2+) reduced GOs still maintained relatively high colloidal stability, whereas their adsorption affinities were significantly enhanced. Thus, reduction of GO by mild reductants might be of greater environmental concerns than by stronger reducing agents (e.g., N2H4 and S(2-)), because the latter can result in too significant losses of surface O-functionalities and colloidal stability of GO. This interesting aspect should be given consideration in the risk assessment of GO. © 2015 SETAC.

  12. Are iron oxide nanoparticles safe? Current knowledge and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdiglesias, Vanessa; Fernández-Bertólez, Natalia; Kiliç, Gözde; Costa, Carla; Costa, Solange; Fraga, Sonia; Bessa, Maria Joao; Pásaro, Eduardo; Teixeira, João Paulo; Laffon, Blanca

    2016-12-01

    Due to their unique physicochemical properties, including superparamagnetism, iron oxide nanoparticles (ION) have a number of interesting applications, especially in the biomedical field, that make them one of the most fascinating nanomaterials. They are used as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging, in targeted drug delivery, and for induced hyperthermia cancer treatments. Together with these valuable uses, concerns regarding the onset of unexpected adverse health effects following exposure have been also raised. Nevertheless, despite the numerous ION purposes being explored, currently available information on their potential toxicity is still scarce and controversial data have been reported. Although ION have traditionally been considered as biocompatible - mainly on the basis of viability tests results - influence of nanoparticle surface coating, size, or dose, and of other experimental factors such as treatment time or cell type, has been demonstrated to be important for ION in vitro toxicity manifestation. In vivo studies have shown distribution of ION to different tissues and organs, including brain after passing the blood-brain barrier; nevertheless results from acute toxicity, genotoxicity, immunotoxicity, neurotoxicity and reproductive toxicity investigations in different animal models do not provide a clear overview on ION safety yet, and epidemiological studies are almost inexistent. Much work has still to be done to fully understand how these nanomaterials interact with cellular systems and what, if any, potential adverse health consequences can derive from ION exposure.

  13. Synthesizing Iron Oxide Nanostructures: The Polyethylenenemine (PEI Role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Lentijo Mozo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlled synthesis of anisotropic iron oxide nanoparticles is a challenge in the field of nanomaterial research that requires an extreme attention to detail. In particular, following up a previous work showcasing the synthesis of magnetite nanorods (NRs using a two-step approach that made use of polyethylenenemine (PEI as a capping ligand to synthesize intermediate β-FeOOH NRs, we studied the effect and influence of the capping ligand on the formation of β-FeOOH NRs. By comparing the results reported in the literature with those we obtained from syntheses performed (1 in the absence of PEI or (2 by using PEIs with different molecular weight, we showed how the choice of different PEIs determines the aspect ratio and the structural stability of the β-FeOOH NRs and how this affects the final products. For this purpose, a combination of XRD, HRTEM, and direct current superconducting quantum interference device (DC SQUID magnetometry was used to identify the phases formed in the final products and study their morphostructural features and related magnetic behavior.

  14. Magnetic hyperthermia in phosphate coated iron oxide nanofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiri, B. B.; Muthukumaran, T.; Philip, John

    2016-06-01

    We study the magnetic field induced hyperthermia in water based phosphate coated Fe3O4 nanofluids, synthesized by a co-precipitation method using ferrous and ferric salt solutions, ammonia and orthophosphoric acid. The specific absorption rate (SAR) values were measured at a fixed frequency of 126 kHz and at extremely low field amplitudes. The SAR values were determined from the initial rate of temperature rise curves under non-adiabatic conditions. It was observed that the SAR initially increases with sample concentration, attains a maximum at an optimum concentration and beyond which SAR decreases. The decrease in SAR values beyond the optimum concentration was attributed to the enhancement of dipolar interaction and agglomeration of the particles. The system independent intrinsic loss power (ILP) values, obtained by normalizing the SAR values with respect to field amplitude and frequency, were found to vary between 158-125 nHm2 kg-1, which were the highest benchmark values reported in the biologically safe experimental limit of 1.03-0.92×108 Am-1 s-1. The very high value of ILP observed in the bio-compatible phosphate coated iron oxide nanofluids may find practical applications for these nanoparticles in tumor targeted hyperthermia treatment.

  15. Synthesizing Iron Oxide Nanostructures: The Polyethylenenemine (PEI) Role

    KAUST Repository

    Mozo, Sergio Lentijo

    2017-01-12

    Controlled synthesis of anisotropic iron oxide nanoparticles is a challenge in the field of nanomaterial research that requires an extreme attention to detail. In particular, following up a previous work showcasing the synthesis of magnetite nanorods (NRs) using a two-step approach that made use of polyethylenenemine (PEI) as a capping ligand to synthesize intermediate β-FeOOH NRs, we studied the effect and influence of the capping ligand on the formation of β-FeOOH NRs. By comparing the results reported in the literature with those we obtained from syntheses performed (1) in the absence of PEI or (2) by using PEIs with different molecular weight, we showed how the choice of different PEIs determines the aspect ratio and the structural stability of the β-FeOOH NRs and how this affects the final products. For this purpose, a combination of XRD, HRTEM, and direct current superconducting quantum interference device (DC SQUID) magnetometry was used to identify the phases formed in the final products and study their morphostructural features and related magnetic behavior.

  16. Iron oxide nanoparticles in modern microbiology and biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinali, Ranmadugala; Ebrahiminezhad, Alireza; Manley-Harris, Merilyn; Ghasemi, Younes; Berenjian, Aydin

    2017-01-10

    Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONs) are one of the most developed and used nanomaterials in biotechnology and microbiology. These particles have unique physicochemical properties, which make them unique among nanomaterials. Therefore, many experiments have been conducted to develop facile synthesis methods for these particles and to make them biocompatible. Various effects of IONs on microorganisms have been reported. Depending on the microbial strain and nanoparticle (NP) concentration, IONs can stimulate or inhibit microbial growth. Due to the superparamagnetic properties of IONs, these NPs have used as nano sources of heat for hyperthermia in infected tissues. Antibiotic-loaded IONs are used for targeted delivery of chemical therapy direct to the infected organ and IONs have been used as a dirigible carrier for more potent antimicrobial nanomaterials such as silver nanoparticles. Magnetic NPs have been used for specific separation of pathogen and non-pathogen bacterial strains. Very recently, IONs were used as a novel tool for magnetic immobilization of microbial cells and process intensification in a biotechnological process. This review provides an overview of application of IONs in different microbial processes. Recommendations are also given for areas of future research.

  17. Correlation between structural and magnetic properties of sprayed iron oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Lobato, M.A. [Unidad Saltillo, Cinvestav, Carr. Saltillo-Monterrey Km. 13, Ramos Arizpe 25900 (Mexico); Martinez, Arturo I., E-mail: mtz.art@gmail.co [Unidad Saltillo, Cinvestav, Carr. Saltillo-Monterrey Km. 13, Ramos Arizpe 25900 (Mexico); Castro-Roman, M. [Unidad Saltillo, Cinvestav, Carr. Saltillo-Monterrey Km. 13, Ramos Arizpe 25900 (Mexico); Falcony, C. [Departamento de Fisica, Cinvestav, P.O. Box 14-7400, 7000 Mexico, DF (Mexico); Escobar-Alarcon, L. [Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 (Mexico)

    2011-04-01

    The structural, optical and magnetic properties of iron oxide films were investigated. Raman spectroscopy results demonstrate that different iron oxide polymorphs can coexist in the sprayed films. It also showed that thickness plays an important role in the development of mixed or pure hematite films. Among the phases detected in the films are feroxyhyte and maghemite. Additionally, the control of the magnetic properties by varying the deposition temperature and thickness is established in this work.

  18. Magnetic tumor targeting of β-Glucosidase immobilized iron oxide nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Jian; David, Allan E.; Yang, Victor C.

    2013-01-01

    Directed enzyme/prodrug therapy (DEPT) has promising application for cancer therapy. However, most current DEPT strategies face shortcomings such as the loss of enzyme activity during preparation, low delivery and transduction efficiency in vivo, difficult to be monitored. In current study, a novel magnetic directed enzyme/prodrug therapy (MDEPT) was set up by conjugating β-Glucosidase (β-Glu) to aminated, starch-coated, iron oxide magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MNP), abbreviated as β-Glu...

  19. Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as long wavelength photoinitiators for free radical polymerization

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Polymer Chemistry COMMUNICATION Cite this: Polym. Chem., 2015, 6, 1918 Received 1st December 2014, Accepted 7th January 2015 DOI: 10.1039/c4py01658k www.rsc.org/polymers Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as long wavelength photoinitiators for free radical polymerization† Sajjad Dadashi-Silab,a Yasemin Yar,b Havva Yagci Acarb and Yusuf Yagci*a,c Iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs) capped with lauric acid agents were synthesized and their photocatalyti...

  20. Poly(L-lysine)-modified iron oxide nanoparticles for stem cell labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babic, Michal; Horák, Daniel; Trchová, Miroslava; Jendelová, Pavla; Glogarová, Katerina; Lesný, Petr; Herynek, Vít; Hájek, Milan; Syková, Eva

    2008-03-01

    New surface-modified iron oxide nanoparticles were developed by precipitation of Fe(II) and Fe(III) salts with ammonium hydroxide and oxidation of the resulting magnetite with sodium hypochlorite, followed by the addition of poly( L-lysine) (PLL) solution. PLL of several molecular weights ranging from 146 ( L-lysine) to 579 000 was tested as a coating to boost the intracellular uptake of the nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were characterized by TEM, dynamic light scattering, FTIR, and ultrasonic spectrometry. TEM revealed that the particles were ca. 6 nm in diameter, while FTIR showed that their surfaces were well-coated with PLL. The interaction of PLL-modified iron oxide nanoparticles with DMEM culture medium was verified by UV-vis spectroscopy. Rat bone marrow stromal cells (rMSCs) and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) were labeled with PLL-modified iron oxide nanoparticles or with Endorem (control). Optical microscopy and TEM confirmed the presence of PLL-modified iron oxide nanoparticles inside the cells. Cellular uptake was very high (more than 92%) for PLL-modified nanoparticles that were coated with PLL (molecular weight 388 00) at a concentration of 0.02 mg PLL per milliliter of colloid. The cellular uptake of PLL-modified iron oxide was facilitated by its interaction with the negatively charged cell surface and subsequent endosomolytic uptake. The relaxivity of rMSCs labeled with PLL-modified iron oxide and the amount of iron in the cells were determined. PLL-modified iron oxide-labeled rMSCs were imaged in vitro and in vivo after intracerebral grafting into the contralateral hemisphere of the adult rat brain. The implanted cells were visible on magnetic resonance (MR) images as a hypointense area at the injection site and in the lesion. In comparison with Endorem, nanoparticles modified with PLL of an optimum molecular weight demonstrated a higher efficiency of intracellular uptake by MSC cells.

  1. Iron-oxidizing microbial ecosystems thrived in late Paleoproterozoic redox-stratified oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planavsky, Noah; Rouxel, Olivier; Bekker, Andrey; Shapiro, Russell; Fralick, Phil; Knudsen, Andrew

    2009-08-01

    We conducted a geochemical and petrographic study of the 1.89 billion year old Gunflint and Biwabik iron formations, with the goal of determining the importance of microbial iron-oxidation in the formation of iron- and microfossil-rich stromatolites. We used redox-sensitive tracers, such as iron isotopes and rare earth elements, to decipher whether these ancient microbial ecosystems harbored cyanobacteria or Fe-oxidizing bacteria as primary producers. Iron-rich stromatolites contain non-significant or positive Ce anomalies, which contrast with shallow water deposits having negative Ce anomalies. This trend in Ce anomalies indicates that the stromatolites formed in low oxygen conditions, which is the ideal setting for the proliferation of Fe-oxidizing bacterial ecosystems. The stromatolites yield a large range of δ 56Fe values, from -0.66 to +0.82‰, but contain predominantly positive values indicating the prevalence of partial Fe-oxidation. Based on modern analogues, Fe-oxides precipitated in cyanobacterial mats are expected to record an isotopic signature of quantitative oxidation, which in marine settings will yield negative δ 56Fe values. The stromatolite iron isotope data, therefore, provide evidence for the presence of Fe-oxidizing bacteria. The stromatolites can be traced for a distance of over 100 km in these iron formations, indicating that they record a pervasive rather than localized ecosystem. Their preservation in late Paleoproterozoic successions deposited along the margins of the Superior craton suggests that there was a global expansion of iron-oxidizing bacterial communities at shallow-water redox boundaries in late Paleoproterozoic oceans.

  2. Labeling transplanted mice islet with polyvinylpyrrolidone coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for in vivo detection by magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Hai; Xie Qiuping; Kang Muxing; Zhang Bo; Wu Yulian [Department of Surgery, 2nd Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310009 (China); Zhang Hui; Chen Jin; Zhai Chuanxin; Yang Deren [State Key Lab of Silicon Materials and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Jiang Biao, E-mail: wuyulian@medmail.com.c, E-mail: yulianwu2003@yahoo.c [Department of Radiology, 2nd Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310009 (China)

    2009-09-09

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIO) are emerging as a novel probe for noninvasive cell tracking with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and have potential wide usage in medical research. In this study, we have developed a method using high-temperature hydrolysis of chelate metal alkoxide complexes to synthesize polyvinylpyrrolidone coated iron oxide nanoparticles (PVP-SPIO), as a biocompatible magnetic agent that can efficiently label mice islet {beta}-cells. The size, crystal structure and magnetic properties of the as-synthesized nanoparticles have been characterized. The newly synthesized PVP-SPIO with high stability, crystallinity and saturation magnetization can be efficiently internalized into {beta}-cells, without affecting viability and function. The imaging of 100 PVP-SPIO-labeled mice islets in the syngeneic renal subcapsular model of transplantation under a clinical 3.0 T MR imager showed high spatial resolution in vivo. These results indicated the great potential application of the PVP-SPIO as an MRI contrast agent for monitoring transplanted islet grafts in the clinical management of diabetes in the near future.

  3. Electrodeposition of Polypyrrole/Reduced Graphene Oxide/Iron Oxide Nanocomposite as Supercapacitor Electrode Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. C. Eeu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Polypyrrole (PPy was reinforced with reduced graphene oxide (RGO and iron oxide to achieve electrochemical stability and enhancement. The ternary nanocomposite film was prepared using a facile one-pot chronoamperometry approach, which is inexpensive and experimentally friendly. The field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM image shows a layered morphology of the ternary nanocomposite film as opposed to the dendritic structure of PPy, suggesting hybridization of the three materials during electrodeposition. X-ray diffraction (XRD profile shows the presence of Fe2O3 in the ternary nanocomposite. Cyclic voltammetry (CV analysis illustrates enhanced current for the nanocomposite by twofold and fourfold compared to its binary (PPy/RGO and individual (PPy counterparts, respectively. The ternary nanocomposite film exhibited excellent specific capacitance retention even after 200 cycles of charge/discharge.

  4. Tunable room-temperature ferromagnet using an iron-oxide and graphene oxide nanocomposite

    KAUST Repository

    Lin, Aigu L.

    2015-06-23

    Magnetic materials have found wide application ranging from electronics and memories to medicine. Essential to these advances is the control of the magnetic order. To date, most room-temperature applications have a fixed magnetic moment whose orientation is manipulated for functionality. Here we demonstrate an iron-oxide and graphene oxide nanocomposite based device that acts as a tunable ferromagnet at room temperature. Not only can we tune its transition temperature in a wide range of temperatures around room temperature, but the magnetization can also be tuned from zero to 0.011 A m2/kg through an initialization process with two readily accessible knobs (magnetic field and electric current), after which the system retains its magnetic properties semi-permanently until the next initialization process. We construct a theoretical model to illustrate that this tunability originates from an indirect exchange interaction mediated by spin-imbalanced electrons inside the nanocomposite. © 2015 Scientific Reports.

  5. Long circulating reduced graphene oxide-iron oxide nanoparticles for efficient tumor targeting and multimodality imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Cheng; Shi, Sixiang; Feng, Liangzhu; Chen, Feng; Graves, Stephen A.; Ehlerding, Emily B.; Goel, Shreya; Sun, Haiyan; England, Christopher G.; Nickles, Robert J.; Liu, Zhuang; Wang, Taihong; Cai, Weibo

    2016-06-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) surface modification is one of the most widely used approaches to improve the solubility of inorganic nanoparticles, prevent their aggregation and prolong their in vivo blood circulation half-life. Herein, we developed double-PEGylated biocompatible reduced graphene oxide nanosheets anchored with iron oxide nanoparticles (RGO-IONP-1stPEG-2ndPEG). The nanoconjugates exhibited a prolonged blood circulation half-life (~27.7 h) and remarkable tumor accumulation (>11 %ID g-1) via an enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. Due to the strong near-infrared absorbance and superparamagnetism of RGO-IONP-1stPEG-2ndPEG, multimodality imaging combining positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and photoacoustic (PA) imaging was successfully achieved. The promising results suggest the great potential of these nanoconjugates for multi-dimensional and more accurate tumor diagnosis and therapy in the future.

  6. Thrombopoietin Protects Cardiomyocytes from Iron-Overload Induced Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shing Chan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Thalassaemia accompanied with iron-overload is common in Hong Kong. Iron-overload induced cardiomyopathy is the commonest cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with β-thalassaemia. Chronic iron-overload due to blood transfusion can cause cardiac failure. Decreased antioxidant defence and increased ROS production may lead to oxidative stress and cell injury. Iron-overload may lead to heart tissue damage through lipid peroxidation in response to oxidative stress, and a great diversity of toxic aldehydes are formed when lipid hydroperoxides break down in heart and plasma. Methods: Iron entry into embryonic heart H9C2 cells was determined by calcein assay using a fluorometer. Reactive oxygen species (ROS production in cells treated with FeCl3 or thrombopoietin (TPO was monitored by using the fluorescent probe H2DCFDA. Changes in mitochondrial membrane potential of H9C2 cells were quantified by using flow cytometry. Results: We demonstrated that iron induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in cardiomyocytes, and that iron increased ROS production and reduced cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. Iron treatment increased the proportion of cells with JC-1 monomers, indicating a trend of drop in the mitochondrial membrane potential. TPO exerted a cardio-protective effect on iron-induced apoptosis. Conclusions: These findings suggest that iron-overload leads to the generation of ROS and further induces apoptosis in cardiomyocytes via mitochondrial pathways. TPO might exert a protective effect on iron-overload induced apoptosis via inhibiting oxidative stress and suppressing the mitochondrial pathways in cardiomyocytes.

  7. Persistent Microvascular Obstruction After Myocardial Infarction Culminates in the Confluence of Ferric Iron Oxide Crystals, Proinflammatory Burden, and Adverse RemodelingCLINICAL PERSPECTIVE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kali, Avinash; Cokic, Ivan; Tang, Richard; Dohnalkova, Alice; Kovarik, Libor; Yang, Hsin-Jung; Kumar, Andreas; Prato, Frank S.; Wood, John C.; Underhill, David; Marbán, Eduardo; Dharmakumar, Rohan

    2016-11-01

    Emerging evidence now supports the notion that persistent microvascular obstruction (PMO) may be more predictive of major adverse cardiovascular events than MI size itself. But, how PMO, a phenomenon limited to the acute/sub-acute period of MI, imparts adverse remodeling throughout the post MI period, particularly after its resolution, is incompletely understood. We hypothesized that PMOs resolve into chronic iron crystals within MI territories and actively impart a proinflammatory burden and adverse remodeling of infarction and LV in the chronic phase of MI. Canine models reperfused (n=20) and non-reperfused (n=20) with and without PMO were studied with serial cardiac MRI to characterize the spatiotemporal relationships between PMO, iron deposition, and infarct and LV remodeling indices between acute (day 7, post MI) and chronic (week 8, post MI). Histopathology and immunohistochemistry were used to validate the iron deposition, microscopically map and quantify the relationship between iron-rich chronic MI regions against pro-inflammatory macrophages, proinflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinase. Atomic resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to determine the crystallinity of iron and assess the physical effects of iron on lysosomes within macrophages, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) to identify the chemical composition of the iron composite. Results showed that PMOs lead to iron deposition within chronic MI and that the extent of chronic iron deposition is strongly related to PMO Volume (r>0.6, p<0.001). TEM and EDS analysis showed that iron within chronic MI is found within macrophages as aggregates of nanocrystals of ~2.5 nm diameter in ferric state. Correlative histological studies showed that iron content, proinflammatory burden and collagen degrading enzyme were highly correlated (r >0.7, p<0.001). Iron within chronic MI was significantly associated with infarct resorption (r>0.5, p<0.001) and adverse structural (r

  8. Synthesis of phase-pure and monodisperse iron oxide nanoparticles by thermal decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hufschmid, Ryan; Arami, Hamed; Ferguson, R. Matthew; Gonzales, Marcela; Teeman, Eric; Brush, Lucien N.; Browning, Nigel D.; Krishnan, Kannan M.

    2015-06-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are used for a wide range of biomedical applications requiring precise control over their physical and magnetic properties, which are dependent on their size and crystallographic phase. Here we present a comprehensive template for the design and synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles with control over size, size distribution, phase, and resulting magnetic properties. We investigate critical parameters for synthesis of monodisperse SPIONs by organic thermal decomposition. Three different, commonly used, iron containing precursors (iron oleate, iron pentacarbonyl, and iron oxyhydroxide) are evaluated under a variety of synthetic conditions. We compare the suitability of these three kinetically controlled synthesis protocols, which have in common the use of iron oleate as a starting precursor or reaction intermediate, for producing nanoparticles with specific size and magnetic properties. Monodisperse particles were produced over a tunable range of sizes from approximately 2-30 nm. Reaction parameters such as precursor concentration, addition of surfactant, temperature, ramp rate, and time were adjusted to kinetically control size and size-distribution, phase, and magnetic properties. In particular, large quantities of excess surfactant (up to 25 : 1 molar ratio) alter reaction kinetics and result in larger particles with uniform size; however, there is often a trade-off between large particles and a narrow size distribution. Iron oxide phase, in addition to nanoparticle size and shape, is critical for establishing magnetic properties such as differential susceptibility (dm/dH) and anisotropy. As an example, we show the importance of obtaining the required size and iron oxide phase for application to Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI), and describe how phase purity can be controlled. These results provide much of the information necessary to determine which iron oxide synthesis protocol is best suited to a particular

  9. Selective catalytic oxidation of H{sub 2}S over iron oxide supported on alumina-intercalated Laponite clay catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xin; Dou, Guangyu; Wang, Zhuo [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Li, Li [Australian Institute for Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia); Wang, Yufei; Wang, Hailin [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Hao, Zhengping, E-mail: zpinghao@rcees.ac.cn [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China)

    2013-09-15

    Graphical abstract: The catalytic reaction and deactivation mechanisms for H{sub 2}S selective oxidation over Fe/Al-Lap catalysts are shown in the illustration. The catalytic reaction follows Mars–van Krevelen mechanism. Moreover, the interaction between iron oxide and alumina, the strong acidity of the catalysts and the well dispersion of iron oxide improve the catalytic performance efficiently. Meanwhile, the catalyst deactivation is mainly due to the formation of Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} and elemental sulfur deposits on the surface. -- Highlights: • Fe/Al-Lap catalysts with mesoporous structure were synthesized. • Iron oxide mainly exists in form of isolate Fe{sup 3+} in an oxidic environment. •Fe/Al-Lap catalysts show high catalytic activities at low temperature. •The high catalytic activities are ascribed to the interaction between iron oxide and alumina. •The formed Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} and elemental sulfur deposits on surface cause catalyst deactivation. -- Abstract: A series of iron oxide supported on alumina-intercalated clay catalysts (named Fe/Al-Lap catalysts) with mesoporous structure and high specific surface area were prepared. The structural and chemical properties were studied by nitrogen sorption isotherms, X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra (UV–vis DRS), X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), H{sub 2} temperature-programmed reduction (H{sub 2}-TPR) and NH{sub 3} temperature-programmed desorption (NH{sub 3}-TPD) techniques. It was realized that iron oxide mainly existed in the form of isolated Fe{sup 3+} in an oxidic environment. Fe/Al-Lap catalysts showed high catalytic activities in the temperature range of 120–200 °C without the presence of excessive O{sub 2}. This can be attributed to the interaction between iron oxide and alumina, which improve the redox property of Fe{sup 3+} efficiently. In addition, the strong acidity of catalysts and good

  10. Adsorption of poly(vinyl formamide-co-vinyl amine) (PVFA-co-PVAm) polymers on zinc, zinc oxide, iron, and iron oxide surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Susan; Simon, Frank; Baumann, Giesela; Hietschold, Michael; Seifert, Andreas; Spange, Stefan

    2011-12-06

    The adsorption of poly(vinyl formamide) (PVFA) and the statistic copolymers poly(vinyl formamide-co-vinyl amine) (PVFA-co-PVAm) onto zinc and iron metal particles as well as their oxides was investigated. The adsorbates were characterized by means of XPS, DRIFT spectroscopy, wet chemical analysis, and solvatochromic probes. Dicyano-bis-(1,10-phenanthroline)-iron(II) (1), 3-(4-amino-3-methylphenyl)-7-phenyl-benzo-[1,2-b:4,5-b']difuran-2,6-dione (2), and 4-tert-butyl-2-(dicyano-methylene)-5-[4-(diethylamino)-benzylidene]-Δ(3)-thiazoline (3) as solvatochromic probes were coadsorbed onto zinc oxide to measure various effects of surface polarity. The experimental findings showed that the adsorption mechanism of PVFA and PVFA-co-PVAm strongly depends on the degree of hydrolysis of PVFA and pH values and also on the kind of metal or metal oxide surfaces that were employed as adsorbents. The adsorption mechanism of PVFA/PVFA-co-PVAm onto zinc oxide and iron oxide surfaces is mainly affected by electrostatic interactions. Particularly in the region of pH 5, the adsorption of PVFA/PVFA-co-PVAm onto zinc and iron metal particles is additionally influenced by redox processes, dissolution, and complexation reactions.

  11. Iron oxide deposits associated with the ectosymbiotic bacteria in the hydrothermal vent shrimp Rimicaris exoculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Compère

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The Rimicaris exoculata shrimp is considered as a primary consumer that dominates the fauna of most Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR hydrothermal ecosystems. These shrimps harbour in their gill chambers an important ectosymbiotic community of chemoautotrophic bacteria associated with iron oxide deposits. The structure and elemental composition of the mineral concretions associated with these bacteria have been investigated by using LM, ESEM, TEM STEM and EDX microanalyses. The nature of the iron oxides in shrimps obtained from the Rainbow vent field has also been determined by Mössbauer spectroscopy. This multidisciplinary approach has revealed that the three layers of mineral crust in the Rimicaris exoculata shrimps consist of large concretions formed by aggregated nanoparticles of two-line ferrihydrite and include other minor elements as Si, Ca, Mg, S and P, probably present as silicates cations, sulphates or phosphates respectively that may contribute to stabilise the ferrihydrite form of iron oxides. TEM-observations on the bacteria have revealed their close interactions with these minerals. Abiotic and biotic precipitation could occur within the gill chamber of Rimicaris exoculata, suggesting the biologically-mediated formation of the iron oxide deposits. The difference of the bacterial density in the three-mineral crust layers could be correlated to the importance of the iron oxide concretions and suggest that the first mineral particles precipitates on the lower layer which could be considered as the most likely location of iron-oxidizing bacteria.

  12. Vapour phase approach for iron oxide nanoparticle synthesis from solid precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Mandeep; Ulbrich, Pavel; Prokopec, Vadym [Institute of Chemical Technology Prague, Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Svoboda, Pavel [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Ke Karlovu 5, 120 00 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Šantavá, Eva [Institute of Physics ASCR, Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Štěpánek, František, E-mail: Frantisek.Stepanek@vscht.cz [Institute of Chemical Technology Prague, Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

    2013-04-15

    A new non-solution mediated approach to the synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles directly from solid FeCl{sub 2} salt precursors has been developed. The method is rapid, simple and scalable. The structural properties and the phase of the resulting iron oxide particles has been determined by a range of methods including XRD, FT-IR and Mössbauer spectroscopy, and the phase is shown to be maghemite (γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}). The magnetic properties of the iron oxide particles have been measured using SQUID, confirming superparamagnetic behaviour of the powder and a saturation magnetization of 53.0 emu g{sup −1} at 300 K. Aqueous dispersions at increasing concentrations were prepared and their heating rate under a 400 kHz alternating magnetic field measured. The specific absorption rate (SAR) of the iron oxide was found to be 84.8 W g{sup −1}, which makes the material suitable for the formulation of ferrofluids or ferrogels with RF heating properties. - Graphical Abstract: Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles obtained by a novel vapour phase approach. Highlights: ► Novel vapour phase (non-solvent) approach for iron oxide nanoparticle synthesis. ► Attractive alternative approach to the present co-precipitation method. ► Better magnetic properties with high coercivity of nanoparticles. ► A high specific absorption rate (SAR) for hyperthermia applications.

  13. Cytotoxic Effect of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles on Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells by MTT Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homa Mohseni Kouchesfehani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the wide range of applications, there is a serious lack of information on the impact of the nanoparticles on human health and the environment. The present study was done to determine the range of dangerous concentrations of iron oxide nanoparticle and their effects on mouse embryonic stem cells. Methods: Iron oxide nanoparticles with less than 20 nanometers diameter were encapsulated by a PEG-phospholipid. The suspension of iron oxide nanoparticles was prepared using the culture media and cell viability was determined by MTT assay. Results: MTT assay was used to examine the cytotoxicity of iron oxide nanoparticle s. Royan B1 cells were treated with medium containing different concentrations (10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60µg/ml of the iron oxide nanoparticle. Cell viability was determined at 12 and 24 hours after treatment which showed significant decreases when concentration and time period increased. Conclusion: The main mechanism of nanoparticles action is still unknown, but in vivo and in vitro studies in different environments suggest that they are capable of producing reactive oxygen species (ROS. Therefore, they may have an effect on the concentration of intracellular calcium, activation of transcription factors, and changes in cytokine. The results of this study show that the higher concentration and duration of treatment of cells with iron oxide nanoparticles increase the rate of cell death.

  14. In vitro toxicity assessment of chitosan oligosaccharide coated iron oxide nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudeep Shukla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron oxide nanoparticles (INPs have potential biological, biomedical and environmental applications. These applications require surface modification of the iron oxide nanoparticles, which makes it non-toxic, biocompatible, stable and non-agglomerative in natural and biological surroundings. In the present study, iron oxide nanoparticles (INPs and chitosan oligosaccharide coated iron oxide nanoparticles (CSO-INPs were synthesized to evaluate the effect of surface coating on the stability and toxicity of nanoparticles. Comparative in vitro cytotoxicity of nanoparticles was evaluated in HeLa (human cervix carcinoma, A549 (human lung carcinoma and Hek293 (human embryonic kidney cells by using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay along with flow cytometry study for cell viability, membrane integrity, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP and reactive oxygen species (ROS production. Morphological alteration in nanoparticles treated cells was analyzed by Acridine orange/ethidium bromide double staining and electron microscopy. Synthesized nanoparticles were found to be spherical in shape, well dispersed and stable at various pH values, making them suitable for biomedical and environmental applications. The present study also indicates that the chitosan oligosaccharide coating on iron oxide nanoparticles results in the decrease in cellular damage and moderate ROS production, thereby, significantly decreasing the cytotoxic impact of bare iron oxide nanoparticles.

  15. Dominance of Ferritrophicum populations at an AMD site with rapid iron oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grettenberger, C.; Pearce, A.; Bibby, K. J.; Burgos, W.; Jones, D. S.; Macalady, J.

    2015-12-01

    Acid mine drainage is a major environmental problem affecting watersheds across the globe. Bioremediation of AMD relies on microbial communities to oxidize and thus remove iron from the system. Iron-oxidation rates in AMD environments are highly variable across sites. At Scalp Level Run in Summerset County PA, iron-oxidation rates are five to eight times faster than other coal-associated AMD sites. We examined the microbial community at Scalp Level Run to determine whether a unique microbial community may be responsible for the observed rapid iron-oxidation rates. Using MiSeq sequence tags, 16S rRNA gene clone libraries, and fluorescence in situ hybridization, we found that Scalp Level Run sediments host microbial populations closely related to the betaproteobacterium Ferritrophicum radicicola, an iron-oxidizing species isolated from an acid mine drainage wetland in Virginia. Ferritrophicum spp. was not found at the four other coal-associated AMD sites in the study and is uncommon in the published literature. The influence of Ferritrophicum spp. populations in biogeochemical cycling, specifically their role in determining the iron-oxidation rate at Scalp Level Run is unknown. Therefore, we employed metagenomic sequencing to examine the metabolic potential of the microbial community at Scalp Level Run.

  16. Selective catalytic oxidation of NO over iron and manganese oxides supported on mesoporous silica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junfeng Zhang; Yan Huang; Xia Chen

    2008-01-01

    The selective catalytic oxidation (SCO)of NO was studied on a catalyst consisting of iron-manganese oxide supported on mesoporous silica (MPS) with different Mn/Fe ratios.Effects of the amount of manganese and iron,oxygen,and calcination temperature on NO conversion were also investigated.It was found that the Mn-Fe/MPS catalyst with a Mn/Fe molar ratio of l showed the highest activity at the calcination temperature of 400℃.The results showed that over this catalyst,NO conversion reached 70%under the condition of 280℃ and a space velocity of 5000 h-1.SO2 and H2O had no adverse impact on the reaction activity when the SCO reaction temperature was above 240℃.In addition,the SCO activity was suppressed gradually in the presence of SO2 and H2O below 240℃.and such an effect was reversible after heating treatment.

  17. Metal regeneration of iron chelates in nitric oxide scrubbing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, S.G.; Littlejohn, D.; Shi, Y.

    1997-08-19

    The present invention relates to a process of using metal particles to reduce NO to NH{sub 3}. More specifically, the invention concerns an improved process to regenerate iron (II) (CHELATE) by reduction of iron (II) (CHELATE) (NO) complex, which process comprises: (a) contacting an aqueous solution containing iron (II) (CHELATE) (NO) with metal particles at between about 20 and 90 C to reduce NO present, produce ammonia or an ammonium ion, and produce free iron (II) (CHELATE) at a pH of between about 3 and 8. The process is useful to remove NO from flue gas and reduce pollution. 34 figs.

  18. Mineral and iron oxidation at low temperatures by pure and mixed cultures of acidophilic microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dopson, Mark; Halinen, Anna-Kaisa; Rahunen, Nelli; Ozkaya, Bestamin; Sahinkaya, Erkan; Kaksonen, Anna H; Lindström, E Börje; Puhakka, Jaakko A

    2007-08-01

    An enrichment culture from a boreal sulfide mine environment containing a low-grade polymetallic ore was tested in column bioreactors for simulation of low temperature heap leaching. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed the enrichment culture contained an Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans strain with high 16S rRNA gene similarity to the psychrotolerant strain SS3 and a mesophilic Leptospirillum ferrooxidans strain. As the mixed culture contained a strain that was within a clade with SS3, we used the SS3 pure culture to compare leaching rates with the At. ferrooxidans type strain in stirred tank reactors for mineral sulfide dissolution at various temperatures. The psychrotolerant strain SS3 catalyzed pyrite, pyrite/arsenopyrite, and chalcopyrite concentrate leaching. The rates were lower at 5 degrees C than at 30 degrees C, despite that all the available iron was in the oxidized form in the presence of At. ferrooxidans SS3. This suggests that although efficient At. ferrooxidans SS3 mediated biological oxidation of ferrous iron occurred, chemical oxidation of the sulfide minerals by ferric iron was rate limiting. In the column reactors, the leaching rates were much less affected by low temperatures than in the stirred tank reactors. A factor for the relatively high rates of mineral oxidation at 7 degrees C is that ferric iron remained in the soluble phase whereas, at 21 degrees C the ferric iron precipitated. Temperature gradient analysis of ferrous iron oxidation by this enrichment culture demonstrated two temperature optima for ferrous iron oxidation and that the mixed culture was capable of ferrous iron oxidation at 5 degrees C.

  19. Iron chelators can protect against oxidative stress through ferryl heme reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, Brandon J; Hider, Robert C; Wilson, Michael T

    2008-02-01

    Iron chelators such as desferrioxamine have been shown to ameliorate oxidative damage in vivo. The mechanism of this therapeutic action under non-iron-overload conditions is, however, complex, as desferrioxamine has properties that can impact on oxidative damage independent of its capacity to act as an iron chelator. Desferrioxamine can act as a reducing agent to remove cytotoxic ferryl myoglobin and hemoglobin and has recently been shown to prevent the formation of a highly cytotoxic heme-to-protein cross-linked derivative of myoglobin. In this study we have examined the effects of a wide range of iron chelators, including the clinically used hydroxypyridinone CP20 (deferriprone), on the stability of ferryl myoglobin and on the formation of heme-to-protein cross-linking. We show that all hydroxypyridinones, as well as many other iron chelators, are efficient reducing agents of ferryl myoglobin. These compounds are also effective at preventing the formation of cytotoxic derivatives of myoglobin such as heme-to-protein cross-linking. These results show that the use of iron chelators in vivo may ameliorate oxidative damage under conditions of non-iron overload by at least two mechanisms. The antioxidant effects of chelators in vivo cannot, therefore, be attributed solely to iron chelation.

  20. Indefinitely stable iron(IV) cage complexes formed in water by air oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomyn, Stefania; Shylin, Sergii I.; Bykov, Dmytro; Ksenofontov, Vadim; Gumienna-Kontecka, Elzbieta; Bon, Volodymyr; Fritsky, Igor O.

    2017-01-01

    In nature, iron, the fourth most abundant element of the Earth's crust, occurs in its stable forms either as the native metal or in its compounds in the +2 or +3 (low-valent) oxidation states. High-valent iron (+4, +5, +6) compounds are not formed spontaneously at ambient conditions, and the ones obtained synthetically appear to be unstable in polar organic solvents, especially aqueous solutions, and this is what limits their studies and use. Here we describe unprecedented iron(IV) hexahydrazide clathrochelate complexes that are assembled in alkaline aqueous media from iron(III) salts, oxalodihydrazide and formaldehyde in the course of a metal-templated reaction accompanied by air oxidation. The complexes can exist indefinitely at ambient conditions without any sign of decomposition in water, nonaqueous solutions and in the solid state. We anticipate that our findings may open a way to aqueous solution and polynuclear high-valent iron chemistry that remains underexplored and presents an important challenge.

  1. Heterogeneous biomimetic catalysis using iron porphyrin for cyclohexane oxidation promoted by chitosan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guan; Liu, Yao; Cai, Jing Li; Chen, Xiang Feng; Zhao, Shu Kai; Guo, Yong An; Wei, Su Juan; Li, Xu

    2017-04-01

    This study investigates how ligands modulate metalloporphyrin activity with the goal of producing a practical biomimetic catalyst for use in the chemical industry. We immobilized iron porphyrinate [iron-tetrakis-(4-sulfonatophenyl)-porphyrin; Fe(III) (TPPS)] on powdered chitosan (pd-CTS) to form an immobilized catalyst Fe(III) (TPPS)/pd-CTS, which was characterized using modern spectroscopic techniques and used for catalytic oxidation of cyclohexane with O2. Amino coordination to iron porphyrin in Fe(III) (TPPS)/pd-CTS altered the electron cloud density around the iron cation, probably by reducing the activation energy of Fe(III) (TPPS) and raising the reactivity of the iron ion catalytic center, thereby improving the catalytic efficiency. One milligram of Fe(III) (TPPS) catalyst can be reused three times for the oxidation reaction to yield an average of 22.9 mol% of cyclohexanone and cyclohexanol.

  2. Interactions of proteins with biogenic iron oxyhydroxides and a new culturing technique to increase biomass yields of neutrophilic, iron-oxidizing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barco, Roman A; Edwards, Katrina J

    2014-01-01

    Neutrophilic, bacterial iron-oxidation remains one of the least understood energy-generating biological reactions to date. One of the reasons it remains under-studied is because there are inherent problems with working with iron-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB), including low biomass yields and interference from the iron oxides in the samples. In an effort to circumvent the problem of low biomass, a new large batch culturing technique was developed. Protein interactions with biogenic iron oxides were investigated confirming that such interactions are strong. Therefore, a protein extraction method is described to minimize binding of proteins to biogenic iron oxides. The combination of these two methods results in protein yields that are appropriate for activity assays in gels and for proteomic profiling.

  3. Role of descriptors in predicting the dissolution energy of embedded oxides and the bulk modulus of oxide-embedded iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Keisuke; Tanaka, Yuzuru

    2017-01-01

    Oxide-embedded bulk iron is investigated in terms of first principles calculations and data mining. Twenty-nine oxides are embedded into a vacancy site of iron where first principles calculations are performed and the resulting calculations are stored as a data set. A prediction of the dissolution energy of oxides within iron and the bulk modulus of oxide-embedded iron is performed using machine learning. In particular, support vector machine (SVM) and linear regression (LR) are implemented where descriptors for determining the dissolution energy and bulk modulus are revealed. With trained SVM and LR, the prediction of the dissolution energy for different oxides in iron and the inverse problem—deriving the corresponding descriptor variables from a desired bulk modulus—are achieved. The physical origin behind the chosen descriptors is also revealed where manipulating each individual descriptor within a multidimensional space allows for the prediction of the dissolution energy and bulk modulus. Thus, predictions of physical phenomena are, in principle, achievable if the appropriate descriptors are determined.

  4. Immobilization of bacterial S-layer proteins from Caulobacter crescentus on iron oxide-based nanocomposite: Synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of zincite-coated Fe2O3 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Neda

    Zinc oxide was coated on Fe2O3 nanoparticles using sol-gel spin-coating. Caulobacter crescentus have a crystalline surface layer (S-layer), which consist of one protein or glycoprotein species. The immobilization of bacterial S-layers obtained from C. crescentus on zincite-coated nanoparticles of iron oxide was investigated. The SDS PAGE results of S-layers isolated from C. crescentus showed the weight of 50 KDa. Nanoparticles of the Fe2O3 and zinc oxide were synthesized by a sol-gel technique. Fe2O3 nanoparticles with an average size of 50 nm were successfully prepared by the proper deposition of zinc oxide onto iron oxide nanoparticles surface annealed at 450 °C. The samples were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR).

  5. Iron oxidation and biomineralization by Mariprofundus ferrooxydans, a deep-sea microaerophilic lithoautotroph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, C. S.; Emerson, D.; Fakra, S.; Edwards, K. J.

    2007-12-01

    The ocean crust contains a large reservoir of reduced iron, available for microbial energy generation. Some of this ferrous iron is mobilized by fluids in hydrothermal fields at seamounts and mid-ocean ridges. A microaerophilic iron oxidizer, Mariprofundus ferrooxydans has been identified (by molecular methods and microscopy) at various sites, and appears to be a key iron-oxidizing bacterium (FeOB) in the deep sea. Originally isolated from microbial mats near vents at the Loihi Seamount in Hawaii, Mariprofundus is distinctive because it forms an extracellular iron-mineralized stalk-like structure. We aim to understand its metabolism and mineral formation using a multidisciplinary approach, including electron microscopy, x-ray spectroscopy, time-lapse light microscopic imaging of live cells, and genomic and biochemical analyses. Microscopy and spectroscopy work shows that as the cells grow, they excretes iron and organic-rich fibrils that make up the stalk, at a rate of ~2 microns/hr. Stalk growth appears to be parallel to the direction of Fe and oxygen gradients. The Mariprofundus genome contains several terminal oxidases/peroxidases, including two cbb3-type cytochrome oxidases with a high affinity for oxygen, consistent with the microaerophilic lifestyle of these organisms. However, we have not identified genes for metabolisms other than aerobic iron oxidation, nor have we found any genes similar to known or suspected iron oxidases, though the genome (2.87 Mb) is rich in cytochromes (32 of 2922 genes). Thus, we are performing experiments to extract and analyze proteins from both cultured and environmental samples in order to find ones that will oxidize iron. UV-Vis spectra of extracts suggest that c-type cytochromes are particularly abundant, so these are candidates for further investigation. In combination with the microscopy and spectroscopy studies, these are the first steps towards understanding the complete pathway of iron from uptake through mineral

  6. Iron metabolism and oxidative profile of dogs naturally infected by Ehrlichia canis: Acute and subclinical disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottari, Nathieli B; Crivellenti, Leandro Z; Borin-Crivellenti, Sofia; Oliveira, Jéssica R; Coelho, Stefanie B; Contin, Catarina M; Tatsch, Etiane; Moresco, Rafael N; Santana, Aureo E; Tonin, Alexandre A; Tinucci-Costa, Mirela; Da Silva, Aleksandro S

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the oxidant profile and iron metabolism in serum of dogs infected by Ehrlichia canis. Banked sera samples of dogs were divided into two groups: negative control (n = 17) and infected by E. canis on acute (n = 24), and subclinical (n = 18) phases of the disease. The eritrogram, leucogram, and platelet counts were evaluate as well as iron, ferritin, and transferrin levels, latent iron binding capacity (LIBC), and transferrin saturation index (TSI) concentration. In addition, the advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) in sera were also analyzed. Blood samples were examined for the presence of E. canis by PCR techniques. History and clinical signals were recorded for each dog. During the acute phase of the disease, infected animals showed thrombocytopenia and anemia when compared to healthy animals (P canis showed changes in the iron metabolism and developed an oxidant status in consequence of disease pathophysiology.

  7. Shape control of the magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles under different chain length of reducing agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngoi, Kuan Hoon; Chia, Chin-Hua, E-mail: chia@ukm.edu.my; Zakaria, Sarani [School of Applied Physics, Faculty Science and Technology, University Kebangsaan Malaysia 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Chiu, Wee Siong [Low Dimensional Materials Research Centre, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Lembah Pantai, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    We report on the effect of using reducing agents with different chain-length on the synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles by thermal decomposition of iron (III) acetylacetonate in 1-octadecene. This modification allows us to control the shape of nanoparticles into spherical and cubic iron oxide nanoparticles. The highly monodisperse 14 nm spherical nanoparticles are obtained under 1,2-dodecanediol and average 14 nm edge-length cubic iron oxide nanoparticles are obtained under 1,2-tetradecanediol. The structural characterization such as transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows similar properties between two particles with different shapes. The vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) shows no significant difference between spherical and cubic nanoparticles, which are 36 emu/g and 37 emu/g respectively and superparamagnetic in nature.

  8. N-butylamine functionalized graphene oxide for detection of iron(III) by photoluminescence quenching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Javad; Manteghian, Mehrdad; Badiei, Alireza; Ueda, Hiroshi; Javanbakht, Mehran

    2016-02-01

    An N-butylamine functionalized graphene oxide nanolayer was synthesized and characterized by ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Detection of iron(III) based on photoluminescence spectroscopy was investigated. The N-butylamine functionalized graphene oxide was shown to specifically interact with iron (III), compared with other cationic trace elements including potassium (I), sodium (I), calcium (II), chromium (III), zinc (II), cobalt (II), copper (II), magnesium (II), manganese (II), and molybdenum (VI). The quenching effect of iron (III) on the luminescence emission of N-butylamine functionalized graphene oxide layer was used to detect iron (III). The limit of detection (2.8 × 10(-6)  M) and limit of quantitation (2.9 × 10(-5)  M) were obtained under optimal conditions.

  9. Cell adhesion of Shewanella oneidensis to iron oxide minerals: Effect of different single crystal faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hochella Michael F

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of experiments designed to test the hypothesis that near-surface molecular structure of iron oxide minerals influences adhesion of dissimilatory iron reducing bacteria are presented. These experiments involved the measurement, using atomic force microscopy, of interaction forces generated between Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 cells and single crystal growth faces of iron oxide minerals. Significantly different adhesive force was measured between cells and the (001 face of hematite, and the (100 and (111 faces of magnetite. A role for electrostatic interactions is apparent. The trend in relative forces of adhesion generated at the mineral surfaces is in agreement with predicted ferric site densities published previously. These results suggest that near-surface structure does indeed influence initial cell attachment to iron oxide surfaces; whether this is mediated via specific cell surface-mineral surface interactions or by more general interfacial phenomena remains untested.

  10. Mutual effects of nitric oxide and iron on the growth of marine algae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Experiments on the effects of nitric oxide (NO) and iron on the growth of marine microalgae Skeletonema costatum were conducted.The results are as follows: exogenous NO could increase the growth rate of marine algae and raise the biomass remarkably under iron-deficient conditions. But it was a complicated process that the phytoplankton growth was influenced by NO and iron, which was controlled by the NO concentration, the nutrition level of the culture medium and the iron concentration, etc. Meanwhile, the iron concentration in the medium also has a direct influence on the growth and NO release capacity of the algae. Therefore, the effects of NO and iron on the growth of marine phytoplankton were mutual.

  11. Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron is a mineral that our bodies need for many functions. For example, iron is part of hemoglobin, a protein which carries ... It helps our muscles store and use oxygen. Iron is also part of many other proteins and ...

  12. Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of iron stored in the body become low, iron deficiency anemia sets in. Red blood cells become smaller and ... from the lungs throughout the body. Symptoms of iron deficiency anemia include tiredness and lack of energy, GI upset, ...

  13. Magnetic iron oxides in the cementation technology of the boron-containing radioactive waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedotov, M. A.; Gorbunova, O. A.; Fedorova, O. V.; Folmanis, G. E.; Kovalenko, L. V.

    2015-04-01

    Two ways of synthesis of non-detachable dispersed particles of magnetic materials useful for the boron-containing waste cementation process regulation were developed. Powder XRD showed that the method of carbothermic recovery of nanoscale iron hydroxide allows obtaining a mixture of iron oxides with content of the magnetic phase up to 70%. Method of low-temperature hydrogen reduction of the raw materials allows obtaining various compositions of a-iron and iron oxides with the possibility to change the size of the final particles in a wide range. The possibility of using composites of magnetic iron oxides and metal oxide compositions instead of ferromagnetic rods with VEP of boron-containing liquid radioactive waste in the fluidized field was studied. It was shown that the use of fine and nano particles of the iron oxides in the pre-treatment of the boron-containing LRW increases the strength of the final compounds and accelerates the cement setting compounds from 13 to 5-9 days.

  14. Properties of highly crystalline NiO and Ni nanoparticles prepared by high-temperature oxidation and reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feygenson, Mikhail; Kou, Angela; Kreno, Lauren E.; Tiano, Amanda L.; Patete, Jonathan M.; Zhang, Fen; Kim, Moo Sung; Solovyov, Vyacheslav; Wong, Stanislaus S.; Aronson, Meigan C.

    2010-01-01

    We describe here the use of high-temperature oxidation and reduction to produce highly crystalline nanoparticles of Ni and NiO. Starting with an amorphous Ni powder, we demonstrate that oxidation at 900°C produces faceted NiO nanocrystals with sizes ranging from 20 to 60 nm. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy measurements indicate near-perfect atomic order, truncated by (200) surfaces. Magnetization measurements reveal that the Néel temperature of these NiO nanoparticles is 480 K, substantially reduced by finite-size effects from the bulk value of 523 K. The magnetization of these faceted NiO nanoparticles does not saturate in fields as large as 14 T while a loop offset is observed which increases from 1000 Oe at 300 K to its maximum value of 3500 Oe at 50 K. We have used high-temperature reduction to transform the faceted NiO nanoparticles into highly ordered Ni nanoparticles, with a Curie temperature of 720 K and blocking temperatures in excess of 350 K. Subsequent efforts to reoxidize these Ni nanoparticles into the core-shell morphology found that the Ni nanoparticles are much more resistant to oxidation than the original Ni powder, perhaps due to the relative crystalline perfection of the former. At 800°C , an unusual surface roughening and subsequent instability was observed, where 50-nm-diameter NiO rods grow from the Ni surfaces. We have demonstrated that high-temperature oxidation and reduction in Ni and NiO are both reversible to some extent and are highly effective for creating the highly crystalline nanomaterials required for applications such as exchange-bias devices.

  15. Properties of Highly Crystalline NiO and Ni Nanoparticles Prepared by High-temperature Oxidation and Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feygenson, M.; Kou, A.; Kreno, L.E.; Tiano, A.L.; Patete, J.M.; Zhang, F.; Kim, M.S.; Solovyov, V.; Wong, S.S.; Aronson, M.C.

    2010-01-26

    We describe here the use of high-temperature oxidation and reduction to produce highly crystalline nanoparticles of Ni and NiO. Starting with an amorphous Ni powder, we demonstrate that oxidation at 900 C produces faceted NiO nanocrystals with sizes ranging from 20 to 60 nm. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy measurements indicate near-perfect atomic order, truncated by (200) surfaces. Magnetization measurements reveal that the Neel temperature of these NiO nanoparticles is 480 K, substantially reduced by finite-size effects from the bulk value of 523 K. The magnetization of these faceted NiO nanoparticles does not saturate in fields as large as 14 T while a loop offset is observed which increases from 1000 Oe at 300 K to its maximum value of 3500 Oe at 50 K. We have used high-temperature reduction to transform the faceted NiO nanoparticles into highly ordered Ni nanoparticles, with a Curie temperature of 720 K and blocking temperatures in excess of 350 K. Subsequent efforts to reoxidize these Ni nanoparticles into the core-shell morphology found that the Ni nanoparticles are much more resistant to oxidation than the original Ni powder, perhaps due to the relative crystalline perfection of the former. At 800 C, an unusual surface roughening and subsequent instability was observed, where 50-nm-diameter NiO rods grow from the Ni surfaces. We have demonstrated that high-temperature oxidation and reduction in Ni and NiO are both reversible to some extent and are highly effective for creating the highly crystalline nanomaterials required for applications such as exchange-bias devices.

  16. Effect of iron oxide loading on the phase transformation and physicochemical properties of nanosized mesoporous ZrO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basahel, S.N. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, 21589 Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Ali, Tarek T. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, 21589 Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Sohag University, 82524 Sohag (Egypt); Narasimharao, K. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, 21589 Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Bagabas, A.A. [Petrochemicals Research Institute (PRI), King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST), P.O. Box 6086, 11442 Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Mokhtar, M., E-mail: mmokhtar2000@yahoo.com [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, 21589 Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: ► Modified preparation method for nanosized iron oxide supported ZrO{sub 2} catalysts. ► Systematic study of effect of high iron oxide loading over ZrO{sub 2}. ► Influence of iron oxide on the stabilization of tetragonal ZrO{sub 2} phase. ► A mesoporous nature of zirconia changed upon changing iron oxide loading. ► Surface to bulk migration of iron oxide evidenced by XPS technique. -- Abstract: Mesoporous ZrO{sub 2}-supported iron oxide materials were prepared with nominal loadings of iron oxide of 5, 10, 15 and 20 wt.% using a modified co-precipitation method. The physicochemical properties of the catalysts were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, N{sub 2} adsorption, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopy methods. A delay in the ZrO{sub 2} phase transformation as a result of the incorporation of iron was determined using TG/DSC measurements. XRD, Raman spectroscopy and HRTEM results revealed that an increase of iron oxide loading from 5 to 15 wt.% enhanced the transformation of the monoclinic to tetragonal phase. Unexpectedly, 20 wt.% iron oxide loading was required for complete tetragonal structure stabilization due to the mesoporosity of the ZrO{sub 2} support. Iron oxide loadings from 5 to 15 wt.% showed an increase in the BET-surface area due to the presence of amorphous iron oxide on the surface. XPS and FTIR results indicated that increasing the iron oxide content to 20 wt.% resulted in stabilization of the tetragonal zirconia phase as a result of surface-to-bulk migration and incorporation of Fe{sup 3+} ions in the ZrO{sub 2} lattice.

  17. Sea-urchin-like iron oxide nanostructures for water treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyun Uk, E-mail: leeho@kbsi.re.kr [Division of Materials Science, Korea Basic Science Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Soon Chang [Department of Fine Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young-Chul [Department of Biological Engineering, College of Engineering, Inha University, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Vrtnik, Stane; Kim, Changsoo; Lee, SangGap [Division of Materials Science, Korea Basic Science Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Boo; Nam, Bora [Jeonju Center, Korea Basic Science Institute, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Won [Department of Energy Engineering, Dankook University, Cheonan 330-714 (Korea, Republic of); Park, So Young; Lee, Sang Moon [Division of Materials Science, Korea Basic Science Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jouhahn, E-mail: jouhahn@kbsi.re.kr [Division of Materials Science, Korea Basic Science Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • The u-MFN were synthesized via a ultrasound irradiation and/or calcinations process. • The u-MFN exhibited excellent adsorption capacities. • The u-MFN also displayed excellent adsorption of organic polluent after recycling. • The u-MFN has the potential to be used as an efficient adsorbent material. -- Abstract: To obtain adsorbents with high capacities for removing heavy metals and organic pollutants capable of quick magnetic separation, we fabricated unique sea-urchin-like magnetic iron oxide (mixed γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} phase) nanostructures (called u-MFN) with large surface areas (94.1 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}) and strong magnetic properties (57.9 emu g{sup −1}) using a simple growth process and investigated their potential applications in water treatment. The u-MFN had excellent removal capabilities for the heavy metals As(V) (39.6 mg g{sup −1}) and Cr(VI) (35.0 mg g{sup −1}) and the organic pollutant Congo red (109.2 mg g{sup −1}). The u-MFN also displays excellent adsorption of Congo red after recycling. Because of its high adsorption capacity, fast adsorption rate, and quick magnetic separation from treated water, the u-MFN developed in the present study is expected to be an efficient magnetic adsorbent for heavy metals and organic pollutants in aqueous solutions.

  18. Magnetic field calculations for iron oxide nanoparticles for MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Ricardo; Mendez Rojas, Miguel; Dies Suarez, Pilar; Hidalgo Tobón, Silvia

    2014-11-01

    The susceptibility effects of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) functionalized with triethylenglycol (TREG) and Polyethylen Glycol (PEG) has been studied, those nanoparticles have the necessary properties to be used in the clinic as contrast media in imaging by MRI[1-3]. We are considering the behavior of the magnetic field as plane wave to explain the electrical and magnetic field produced by SPIONs. Images were acquired on a 1.5T imager Philips, using mFFE Sequence. Three glass capillary tubes with a) TREG (10nm) concentration of 300 μg/ml, and PEGCOOH 6000(10nm) with 300 μg/ml, and 2% agarosa. Magnetic field simulations were calculated in Matlab. The plane wave that comes in contact with a sphere of radius a, an propagation constant k1, and it is in an homogeneous space k2. We consider that the electric field is linearly polarized on x-direction, with a propagation on z-positive-axis. The secondary induced field can be explained from the interior of the sphere and valid exterior points. The referred waves are transmitted and reflected, this is valid only when the wavelength is smaller than the radius of the sphere. The obtained vibrational mode is an answer of the electrical oscillation and this is projection of the disturbed magnetic field. TREG-SPIONs produce more serious susceptibility artefacts compared to PEG-SPIONs. This study is promissory due to the concordance of the results of the simulations and the inhomogeneities showed in the MR images.

  19. Ultrasonic computed tomography imaging of iron oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Or; Azhari, Haim

    2017-02-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) are becoming increasingly used and intensively investigated in the field of medical imaging. They are currently FDA approved for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and it would be highly desirable to visualize them by ultrasound as well. Previous reports using the conventional ultrasound B-scan (pulse-echo) imaging technique have shown very limited detectability of these particles. The aim of this study is to explore the feasibility of imaging IONPs using the through-transmission ultrasound methodology and demonstrate their detectability using ultrasonic computed tomography (UCT). Commercially available IONPs were acoustically analysed to quantify their effect on the speed of sound (SOS) and acoustic attenuation as a function of concentration. Next, through-transmission projection and UCT imaging were performed on a breast mimicking phantom and on an ex vivo tissue model, to which IONPs were injected. Finally, an MRI scan was performed to verify that the same particles examined in the ultrasound experiment can be imaged by magnetic resonance, using the same clinically relevant concentrations. The results have shown a consistent concentration dependent speed of sound increase (1.86 \\text{m}{{\\text{s}}^{-1}} rise per 100 µg · ml-1 IONPs). Imaging based on this property has shown a substantial contrast-to-noise ratio improvement (up to 5 fold, p  <  0.01). The SOS-related effect generated a well discernible image contrast and allowed the detection of the particles existence and location, in both raster-scan projection and UCT imaging. Conversely, no significant change in the acoustic attenuation coefficient was noted. Based on these findings, it is concluded that IONPs can be used as an effective SOS-based contrast agent, potentially useful for ultrasonic breast imaging. Furthermore, the particle offers the capacity of significantly enhancing diagnosis accuracy using multimodal MRI-ultrasound imaging capabilities.

  20. The responses of immune cells to iron oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yaolin; Sherwood, Jennifer A; Lackey, Kimberly H; Qin, Ying; Bao, Yuping

    2016-04-01

    Immune cells play an important role in recognizing and removing foreign objects, such as nanoparticles. Among various parameters, surface coatings of nanoparticles are the first contact with biological system, which critically affect nanoparticle interactions. Here, surface coating effects on nanoparticle cellular uptake, toxicity and ability to trigger immune response were evaluated on a human monocyte cell line using iron oxide nanoparticles. The cells were treated with nanoparticles of three types of coatings (negatively charged polyacrylic acid, positively charged polyethylenimine and neutral polyethylene glycol). The cells were treated at various nanoparticle concentrations (5, 10, 20, 30, 50 μg ml(-1) or 2, 4, 8, 12, 20 μg cm(-2)) with 6 h incubation or treated at a nanoparticle concentration of 50 μg ml(-1) (20 μg cm(-2)) at different incubation times (6, 12, 24, 48 or 72 h). Cell viability over 80% was observed for all nanoparticle treatment experiments, regardless of surface coatings, nanoparticle concentrations and incubation times. The much lower cell viability for cells treated with free ligands (e.g. ~10% for polyethylenimine) suggested that the surface coatings were tightly attached to the nanoparticle surfaces. The immune responses of cells to nanoparticles were evaluated by quantifying the expression of toll-like receptor 2 and tumor necrosis factor-α. The expression of tumor necrosis factor-α and toll-like receptor 2 were not significant in any case of the surface coatings, nanoparticle concentrations and incubation times. These results provide useful information to select nanoparticle surface coatings for biological and biomedical applications.

  1. How Geochemistry Provides Habitability: A Case Study of Iron Oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Clair, B.; Shock, E.

    2016-12-01

    Two things have to be true for chemotrophic microbes to gain chemical energy from their environment. First, there must be a source of energy, provided by compounds in differing oxidation states that are out of thermodynamic equilibrium with one another. Second, there must be mechanistic difficulties that are keeping those compounds from reacting, preventing chemical energy from dissipating on its own. Using this energetic reference frame, geochemical habitability requires the combined presence of energy sources and kinetic barriers, which are determined by numerous variables including temperature, pH, and concentrations of reactants and products. Here we present habitable geochemical space visually as habitability diagrams. As an example, the pH and temperature ranges that can sustain life for a specific reaction can be delineated by the aforementioned kinetic and energetic boundaries, together with commonly attainable pH / temperatures of environments at Earth's surface. Other habitability diagrams can be constructed for any combination of relevant geochemical variables to better illustrate the inherently multidimensional problem. We have chosen iron oxidation reactions to illustrate this point, as kinetic and energetic boundaries can be found at conditions readily attainable in natural systems. By calculating energy availability (as affinity, A) in each system from compositional data where concentrations of all reactants and products are known, the energy boundary is defined by A=0. Evaluating the kinetic boundary means measuring the relative rates of the biotic and abiotic processes in situ, which we have done in Yellowstone hot springs, acid mine drainage in Arizona, and cold springs in the Swiss Alps. Many experiments have yielded biological rates, and all have yielded abiotic rates, which range from inconsequential to rates too rapid for biology to compete. These results encompass both sides of the kinetic boundary, defining its trajectory. When plotted in p

  2. Water oxidation catalysis with nonheme iron complexes under acidic and basic conditions: homogeneous or heterogeneous?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Dachao; Mandal, Sukanta; Yamada, Yusuke; Lee, Yong-Min; Nam, Wonwoo; Llobet, Antoni; Fukuzumi, Shunichi

    2013-08-19

    Thermal water oxidation by cerium(IV) ammonium nitrate (CAN) was catalyzed by nonheme iron complexes, such as Fe(BQEN)(OTf)2 (1) and Fe(BQCN)(OTf)2 (2) (BQEN = N,N'-dimethyl-N,N'-bis(8-quinolyl)ethane-1,2-diamine, BQCN = N,N'-dimethyl-N,N'-bis(8-quinolyl)cyclohexanediamine, OTf = CF3SO3(-)) in a nonbuffered aqueous solution; turnover numbers of 80 ± 10 and 20 ± 5 were obtained in the O2 evolution reaction by 1 and 2, respectively. The ligand dissociation of the iron complexes was observed under acidic conditions, and the dissociated ligands were oxidized by CAN to yield CO2. We also observed that 1 was converted to an iron(IV)-oxo complex during the water oxidation in competition with the ligand oxidation. In addition, oxygen exchange between the iron(IV)-oxo complex and H2(18)O was found to occur at a much faster rate than the oxygen evolution. These results indicate that the iron complexes act as the true homogeneous catalyst for water oxidation by CAN at low pHs. In contrast, light-driven water oxidation using [Ru(bpy)3](2+) (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine) as a photosensitizer and S2O8(2-) as a sacrificial electron acceptor was catalyzed by iron hydroxide nanoparticles derived from the iron complexes under basic conditions as the result of the ligand dissociation. In a buffer solution (initial pH 9.0) formation of the iron hydroxide nanoparticles with a size of around 100 nm at the end of the reaction was monitored by dynamic light scattering (DLS) in situ and characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) measurements. We thus conclude that the water oxidation by CAN was catalyzed by short-lived homogeneous iron complexes under acidic conditions, whereas iron hydroxide nanoparticles derived from iron complexes act as a heterogeneous catalyst in the light-driven water oxidation reaction under basic conditions.

  3. Characterization of iron in airborne particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, F. V. F.; Ardisson, J. D.; Rodrigues, P. C. H.; Brito, W.; Macedo, W. A. A.; Jacomino, V. M. F.

    2014-01-01

    In this work soil samples, iron ore and airborne atmospheric particulate matter (PM) in the Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte (MRBH), State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, are investigated with the aim of identifying if the sources of the particulate matter are of natural origin, such as, resuspension of particles from soil, or due to anthropogenic origins from mining and processing of iron ore. Samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence and 57Fe-Mössbauer spectroscopy. The results showed that soil samples studied are rich in quartz and have low contents of iron mainly iron oxide with low crystallinity. The samples of iron ore and PM have high concentration of iron, predominantly well crystallized hematite. 57Fe-Mössbauer spectroscopy confirmed the presence of similar iron oxides in samples of PM and in the samples of iron ore, indicating the anthropogenic origin in the material present in atmosphere of the study area.

  4. Selective catalytic oxidation of H₂S over iron oxide supported on alumina-intercalated Laponite clay catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Dou, Guangyu; Wang, Zhuo; Li, Li; Wang, Yufei; Wang, Hailin; Hao, Zhengping

    2013-09-15

    A series of iron oxide supported on alumina-intercalated clay catalysts (named Fe/Al-Lap catalysts) with mesoporous structure and high specific surface area were prepared. The structural and chemical properties were studied by nitrogen sorption isotherms, X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-vis DRS), X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), H₂ temperature-programmed reduction (H₂-TPR) and NH₃ temperature-programmed desorption (NH3-TPD) techniques. It was realized that iron oxide mainly existed in the form of isolated Fe(3+) in an oxidic environment. Fe/Al-Lap catalysts showed high catalytic activities in the temperature range of 120-200 °C without the presence of excessive O₂. This can be attributed to the interaction between iron oxide and alumina, which improve the redox property of Fe(3+) efficiently. In addition, the strong acidity of catalysts and good dispersion of iron oxide were also beneficial to oxidation reaction. Among them, 7% Fe/Al-Lap catalyst presented the best catalytic performance at 180 °C. Finally, the catalytic and deactivation mechanisms were explored.

  5. Cadmium removal from aqueous solution by green synthesis iron oxide nanoparticles with tangerine peel extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrampoush, Mohammad Hassan; Miria, Mohammad; Salmani, Mohammad Hossien; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

    2015-01-01

    The adsorption process by metal oxide nanoparticles has been investigated an effective agent for removing organic and inorganic contaminants from water and wastewater. In this study, iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized in the presence of tangerine peel extract as adsorbent for cadmium ions removal from contaminated solution. Iron oxide nanoparticles prepared by co-precipitation method and tangerine peel extract was used to prevent accumulation and reduce the diameter of the particles. Effect of various parameters such as contact time, pH, metal concentration and adsorbent dosage was determined on the removal efficiency. The different concentrations of tangerine peel had an impact on the size of nanoparticles. As, increasing the concentration of tangerine peel extract from 2 to 6 % the average size of synthesized iron oxide nanoparticles decreased 200 nm to 50 nm. The maximum removal of cadmium ions (90 %) occurred at pH of 4 and adsorbent dose of 0.4 g/100 ml. Adsorption of cadmium ions by synthesized iron oxide nanoparticles followed Freundlich adsorption model and pseudo-second-order equation. The cadmium ions are usually soluble in acidic pH and the maximum removal of cadmium by green synthesis iron oxide nanoparticles was obtained in the pH of 4, so these nanoparticles can be a good adsorbent for the removal of cadmium from wastewater.

  6. Discovery of Fe7O9: a new iron oxide with a complex monoclinic structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinmyo, Ryosuke; Bykova, Elena; Ovsyannikov, Sergey V.; McCammon, Catherine; Kupenko, Ilya; Ismailova, Leyla; Dubrovinsky, Leonid

    2016-09-01

    Iron oxides are fundamentally important compounds for basic and applied sciences as well as in numerous industrial applications. In this work we report the synthesis and investigation of a new binary iron oxide with the hitherto unknown stoichiometry of Fe7O9. This new oxide was synthesized at high-pressure high-temperature (HP-HT) conditions, and its black single crystals were successfully recovered at ambient conditions. By means of single crystal X-ray diffraction we determined that Fe7O9 adopts a monoclinic C2/m lattice with the most distorted crystal structure among the binary iron oxides known to date. The synthesis of Fe7O9 opens a new portal to exotic iron-rich (M,Fe)7O9 oxides with unusual stoichiometry and distorted crystal structures. Moreover, the crystal structure and phase relations of such new iron oxide groups may provide new insight into the cycling of volatiles in the Earth’s interior.

  7. Oxidative Profile and δ-Aminolevulinate Dehydratase Activity in Healthy Pregnant Women with Iron Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lucca, Leidiane; Rodrigues, Fabiane; Jantsch, Letícia B; Neme, Walter S; Gallarreta, Francisco M P; Gonçalves, Thissiane L

    2016-05-03

    An oxidative burst occurs during pregnancy due to the large consumption of oxygen in the tissues and an increase in metabolic demands in response to maternal physiological changes and fetal growth. This study aimed to determine the oxidative profile and activity of δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (δ-ALA-D) in pregnant women who received iron supplementation. Oxidative stress parameters were evaluated in 25 pregnant women with iron supplementation, 25 pregnant women without supplementation and 25 non-pregnant women. The following oxidative stress parameters were evaluated: thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), protein thiol groups (P-SH), non-protein thiol levels (NP-SH), vitamin C levels, catalase and δ-ALA-D activity. Markers of oxidative stress and cell damage, such as TBARS in plasma were significantly higher in pregnant women without supplementation. Levels of P-SH, NP-SH and δ-ALA-D activity were significantly lower in pregnant women without supplementation compared to non-pregnant and pregnant women with supplementation, while vitamin C levels were significantly lower in pregnant women without supplementation when compared to non-pregnant women. The increase in the generation of oxidative species and decrease of antioxidants suggest the loss of physiological oxidative balance during normal pregnancy, which was not observed in pregnant women with iron supplementation, suggesting a protective effect of iron against oxidative damage.

  8. Iron-oxide-supported nanocarbon in lithium-ion batteries, medical, catalytic, and environmental applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuček, Jiří; Kemp, Kingsley Christian; Kim, Kwang Soo; Zbořil, Radek

    2014-08-26

    Owing to the three different orbital hybridizations carbon can adopt, the existence of various carbon nanoallotropes differing also in dimensionality has been already affirmed with other structures predicted and expected to emerge in the future. Despite numerous unique features and applications of 2D graphene, 1D carbon nanotubes, or 0D fullerenes, nanodiamonds, and carbon quantum dots, which have been already heavily explored, any of the existing carbon allotropes do not offer competitive magnetic properties. For challenging applications, carbon nanoallotropes are functionalized with magnetic species, especially of iron oxide nature, due to their interesting magnetic properties (superparamagnetism and strong magnetic response under external magnetic fields), easy availability, biocompatibility, and low cost. In addition, combination of iron oxides (magnetite, maghemite, hematite) and carbon nanostructures brings enhanced electrochemical performance and (photo)catalytic capability due to synergetic and cooperative effects. This work aims at reviewing these advanced applications of iron-oxide-supported nanocarbon composites where iron oxides play a diverse role. Various architectures of carbon/iron oxide nanocomposites, their synthetic procedures, physicochemical properties, and applications are discussed in details. A special attention is devoted to hybrids of carbon nanotubes and rare forms (mesoporous carbon, nanofoam) with magnetic iron oxide carriers for advanced environmental technologies. The review also covers the huge application potential of graphene/iron oxide nanocomposites in the field of energy storage, biomedicine, and remediation of environment. Among various discussed medical applications, magnetic composites of zero-dimensional fullerenes and carbon dots are emphasized as promising candidates for complex theranostics and dual magneto-fluorescence imaging.

  9. DLVO and XDLVO calculations for bacteriophage MS2 adhesion to iron oxide particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong-Ann; Kim, Song-Bae

    2015-10-01

    In this study, batch experiments were performed to examine the adhesion of bacteriophage MS2 to three iron oxide particles (IOP1, IOP2 and IOP3) with different particle properties. The characteristics of MS2 and iron oxides were analyzed using various techniques to construct the classical DLVO and XDLVO potential energy profiles between MS2 and iron oxides. X-ray diffractometry peaks indicated that IOP1 was mainly composed of maghemite (γ-Fe2O3), but also contained some goethite (α-FeOOH). IOP2 was composed of hematite (α-Fe2O3) and IOP3 was composed of iron (Fe), magnetite (Fe3O4) and iron oxide (FeO). Transmission electron microscope images showed that the primary particle size of IOP1 (γ-Fe2O3) was 12.3±4.1nm. IOP2 and IOP3 had primary particle sizes of 167±35nm and 484±192nm, respectively. A surface angle analyzer demonstrated that water contact angles of IOP1, IOP2, IOP3 and MS2 were 44.83, 64.00, 34.33 and 33.00°, respectively. A vibrating sample magnetometer showed that the magnetic saturations of IOP1, IOP2 and IOP3 were 176.87, 17.02 and 946.85kA/m, respectively. Surface potentials measured in artificial ground water (AGW; 0.075mM CaCl2, 0.082mM MgCl2, 0.051mM KCl, and 1.5mM NaHCO3; pH7.6) indicated that iron oxides and MS2 were negatively charged in AGW (IOP1=-0.0185V; IOP2=-0.0194V; IOP3=-0.0301V; MS2=-0.0245V). Batch experiments demonstrated that MS2 adhesion to iron oxides was favorable in the order of IOP1>IOP2>IOP3. This tendency was well predicted by the classical DLVO model. In the DLVO calculations, both the sphere-plate and sphere-sphere geometries predicted the same trend of MS2 adhesion to iron oxides. Additionally, noticeable differences were not found between the DLVO and XDLVO interaction energy profiles, indicating that hydrophobic interactions did not play a major role; electrostatic interactions, however, did influence MS2 adhesion to iron oxides. Furthermore, the aggregation of iron oxides was investigated with a modified XDLVO

  10. Discovery of Fe7O9: a new iron oxide with a complex monoclinic structure

    OpenAIRE

    Ryosuke Sinmyo; Elena Bykova; Ovsyannikov, Sergey V.; Catherine McCammon; Ilya Kupenko; Leyla Ismailova; Leonid Dubrovinsky

    2016-01-01

    Iron oxides are fundamentally important compounds for basic and applied sciences as well as in numerous industrial applications. In this work we report the synthesis and investigation of a new binary iron oxide with the hitherto unknown stoichiometry of Fe7O9. This new oxide was synthesized at high-pressure high-temperature (HP-HT) conditions, and its black single crystals were successfully recovered at ambient conditions. By means of single crystal X-ray diffraction we determined that Fe7O9 ...

  11. Geochemical niches of iron-oxidizing acidophiles in acidic coal mine drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Daniel S; Kohl, Courtney; Grettenberger, Christen; Larson, Lance N; Burgos, William D; Macaladya, Jennifer L

    2015-02-01

    A legacy of coal mining in the Appalachians has provided a unique opportunity to study the ecological niches of iron-oxidizing microorganisms. Mine-impacted, anoxic groundwater with high dissolved-metal concentrations emerges at springs and seeps associated with iron oxide mounds and deposits. These deposits are colonized by iron-oxidizing microorganisms that in some cases efficiently remove most of the dissolved iron at low pH, making subsequent treatment of the polluted stream water less expensive. We used full-cycle rRNA methods to describe the composition of sediment communities at two geochemically similar acidic discharges, Upper and Lower Red Eyes in Somerset County, PA, USA. The dominant microorganisms at both discharges were acidophilic Gallionella-like organisms, “Ferrovum” spp., and Acidithiobacillus spp. Archaea and Leptospirillum spp. accounted for less than 2% of cells. The distribution of microorganisms at the two sites could be best explained by a combination of iron(II) concentration and pH. Populations of the Gallionella-like organisms were restricted to locations with pH>3 and iron(II) concentration of >4 mM, while Acidithiobacillus spp. were restricted to pHiron(II) concentration of iron(II) concentration of >4 mM. Our findings offer a predictive framework that could prove useful for describing the distribution of microorganisms in acid mine drainage, based on readily accessible geochemical parameters.

  12. Aging of iron (hydr)oxides by heat treatment and effects on heavy metal binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette Abildgaard; Starckpoole, M. M.; Frenkel, A. I.

    2000-01-01

    Amorphous iron (hydr)oxides are used to remove heavy metals from wastewater and in the treatment of air pollution control residues generated in waste incineration. In this study, iron oxides containing heavy metals (e.g., Pb, Hg, Cr, and Cd) were treated at 50, 600, and 900 °C to simulate...... oxides were transformed to hematite, which had a greater thermodynamic stability but less surface area than the initial products. Heat treatment also caused some volatilization of heavy metals (most notably, Hg). Leaching with water at pH 9 (L/S 10, 24 h) and weak acid extraction showed that heat...... of iron oxides may be advantageous to improve the thermodynamic stability of the product but that thermal treatment at both 600 and 900 °C significantly reduced the binding capacity for heavy metals....

  13. Degradation of organophosphorus pesticide parathion methyl on nanostructured titania-iron mixed oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henych, Jiří; Štengl, Václav; Slušná, Michaela; Matys Grygar, Tomáš; Janoš, Pavel; Kuráň, Pavel; Štastný, Martin

    2015-07-01

    Titania-iron mixed oxides with various Ti:Fe ratio were prepared by homogeneous hydrolysis of aqueous solutions of titanium(IV) oxysulphate and iron(III) sulphate with urea as a precipitating agent. The synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman and infrared spectroscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, XRF analysis, specific surface area (BET) and porosity determination (BJH). These oxides were used for degradation of organophosporus pesticide parathion methyl. The highest degradation efficiency approaching degraded on the surfaces of pure oxides. In general, the highest degradation rate exhibited samples consisted of the iron or titanium oxide containing a moderate amount of the admixture. However, distinct correlations between the degradation rate and the sorbent composition were not identified.

  14. Risk of Oxidative Damage to Bone from Increased Iron Stores During Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwart, S. R.; Smith, S. M.

    2014-01-01

    Iron stores are increased secondary to neocytolysis of red blood cells and a high dietary intake of iron during space flight. This raises concerns about the risk of excess iron causing oxidative damage in many tissues, including bone. Biomarkers of iron status, oxidative damage, and bone resorption during space flight were analyzed for 23 (16 M/7 F) International Space Station crewmembers as part of the Nutrition SMO project. Up to 5 in-flight blood samples and 24-h urine pools were collected over the course of the 4-6 month missions. Serum iron increased slightly during space flight and was decreased at landing (P diet (45 mg iron (ferric citrate)/kg diet) for 3 wk and then assigned to one of four groups: adequate iron (Fe) diet/no radiation, adequate Fe diet/ radiation, moderately high Fe diet (650 mg Fe (ferric citrate)/kg diet)/no radiation, and moderately high Fe diet/radiation. Animals remained on the assigned diet for 4 wk. Starting on day 14 of experimental diet treatment, animals were exposed to a fractionated dose (0.375 Gy) of Cs-137 every other day (3 Gy total dose). On day 29 (24 h after last radiation exposure), animals were euthanized. Oxidative stress markers in the liver, bone, eyes, and serum were assessed. There was evidence that the iron diet contributed to DNA damage as well as radiation exposure in the liver, eyes, and bone. Together, the results suggest that increased iron stores do constitute a risk factor for oxidative damage and bone resorption, during space flight and on Earth. Funded by the Human Health and Countermeasures Element of the NASA Human Research Program.

  15. Iron is a signal for Stenotrophomonas maltophilia biofilm formation, oxidative stress response, OMPs expression and virulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Adrian Garcia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an emerging nosocomial pathogen. In many bacteria iron availability regulates, trough the Fur system, not only iron homeostasis but also virulence. The aim of this work was to assess the role of iron on S. maltophilia biofilm formation, EPS production, oxidative stress response, OMPs regulation, quorum sensing (QS, and virulence. Studies were done on K279 and its isogenic fur mutant F60 cultured in the presence or absence of dipyridyl. This is the first report of spontaneous fur mutants obtained in S. maltophilia. F60 produced higher amounts of biofilms than K279a and CLSM analysis demonstrated improved adherence and biofilm organization. Under iron restricted conditions, K279a produced biofilms with more biomass and enhanced thickness. In addition, F60 produced higher amounts of EPS than K279a but with a similar composition, as revealed by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. With respect to the oxidative stress response, MnSOD was the only SOD isoenzyme detected in K279a. F60 presented higher SOD activity than the wt strain in planktonic and biofilm cultures, and iron deprivation increased K279a SOD activity. Under iron starvation, SDS-PAGE profile from K279a presented two iron-repressed proteins. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed homology with FepA and another putative TonB-dependent siderophore receptor of K279a. In silico analysis allowed the detection of potential Fur boxes in the respective coding genes. K279a encodes the QS diffusible signal factor (DSF. Under iron restriction K279a produced higher amounts of DSF than under iron rich condition. Finally, F60 was more virulent than K279a in the Galleria mellonella killing assay. These results put in evidence that iron levels regulate, likely through the Fur system, S. maltophilia biofilm formation, oxidative stress response, OMPs expression, DSF production and virulence.

  16. In-Situ Incubation of Iron-Sulfide Mineral in Seawater Reveals Colonization by Iron-Oxidizing Gammaproteobacteria and Zetaproteobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barco, R. A.; Ramírez, G. A.; Sylvan, J. B.; Edwards, K. J.

    2015-12-01

    Sulfide mineral precipitation occurs at mid-ocean ridge (MOR) spreading centers, both in the form of plume particles and massive sulfide structures. A common constituent of MOR sulfide mineral is pyrrhotite (Fe1-xS). This mineral was chosen as a substrate for in-situ incubation studies in the shallow waters of Catalina Islands, CA to investigate the colonization of iron-oxidizing bacteria. Gammaproteobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria largely dominated the bacterial community on pyrrhotite samples incubated in the water column. Pyrrhotite samples incubated at the sediment/water column interface showed more even dominance by Gammaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Cultivations that originated from these pyrrhotite samples resulted in the enrichment of Zetaproteobacteria with either twisted-stalks (Mariprofundus) or sheath structures. Additionally, a candidate novel Gammaproteobacterium was isolated and shown to grow autotrophically via the oxidation of iron.

  17. Highly conducting and crystalline doubly doped tin oxide films fabricated using a low-cost and simplified spray technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravichandran, K., E-mail: kkr1365@yahoo.co [P.G. and Research Department of Physics, AVVM. Sri Pushpum College