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Sample records for crystalline ceramics waste

  1. CRYSTALLINE CERAMIC WASTE FORMS: REFERENCE FORMULATION REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkman, K.; Fox, K.; Marra, J.

    2012-05-15

    The research conducted in this work package is aimed at taking advantage of the long term thermodynamic stability of crystalline ceramics to create more durable waste forms (as compared to high level waste glass) in order to reduce the reliance on engineered and natural barrier systems. Durable ceramic waste forms that incorporate a wide range of radionuclides have the potential to broaden the available disposal options and to lower the storage and disposal costs associated with advanced fuel cycles. Assemblages of several titanate phases have been successfully demonstrated to incorporate radioactive waste elements, and the multiphase nature of these materials allows them to accommodate variation in the waste composition. Recent work has shown that they can be successfully produced from a melting and crystallization process. The objective of this report is to explain the design of ceramic host systems culminating in a reference ceramic formulation for use in subsequent studies on process optimization and melt property data assessment in support of FY13 melter demonstration testing. The waste stream used as the basis for the development and testing is a combination of the projected Cs/Sr separated stream, the Trivalent Actinide - Lanthanide Separation by Phosphorous reagent Extraction from Aqueous Komplexes (TALSPEAK) waste stream consisting of lanthanide fission products, the transition metal fission product waste stream resulting from the transuranic extraction (TRUEX) process, and a high molybdenum concentration with relatively low noble metal concentrations. In addition to the combined CS/LN/TM High Mo waste stream, variants without Mo and without Mo and Zr were also evaluated. Based on the results of fabricating and characterizing several simulated ceramic waste forms, two reference ceramic waste form compositions are recommended in this report. The first composition targets the CS/LN/TM combined waste stream with and without Mo. The second composition targets

  2. Crystalline ceramics: Waste forms for the disposal of weapons plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewing, R.C.; Lutze, W.; Weber, W.J.

    1995-05-01

    At present, there are three seriously considered options for the disposition of excess weapons plutonium: (i) incorporation, partial burn-up and direct disposal of MOX-fuel; (ii) vitrification with defense waste and disposal as glass ''logs''; (iii) deep borehole disposal (National Academy of Sciences Report, 1994). The first two options provide a safeguard due to the high activity of fission products in the irradiated fuel and the defense waste. The latter option has only been examined in a preliminary manner, and the exact form of the plutonium has not been identified. In this paper, we review the potential for the immobilization of plutonium in highly durable crystalline ceramics apatite, pyrochlore, monazite and zircon. Based on available data, we propose zircon as the preferred crystalline ceramic for the permanent disposition of excess weapons plutonium

  3. Comparison of SRP high-level waste disposal costs for borosilicate glass and crystalline ceramic waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonell, W.R.

    1982-04-01

    An evaluation of costs for the immobilization and repository disposal of SRP high-level wastes indicates that the borosilicate glass waste form is less costly than the crystalline ceramic waste form. The wastes were assumed immobilized as glass with 28% waste loading in 10,300 reference 24-in.-diameter canisters or as crystalline ceramic with 65% waste loading in either 3400 24-in.-diameter canisters or 5900 18-in.-diameter canisters. After an interim period of onsite storage, the canisters would be transported to the federal repository for burial. Total costs in undiscounted 1981 dollars of the waste disposal operations, excluding salt processing for which costs are not yet well defined, were about $2500 million for the borosilicate glass form in reference 24-in.-diameter canisters, compared to about $2900 million for the crystalline ceramic form in 24-in.-diameter canisters and about $3100 million for the crystalline ceramic form in 18-in.-diameter canisters. No large differences in salt processing costs for the borosilicate glass and crystalline ceramic forms are expected. Discounting to present values, because of a projected 2-year delay in startup of the DWPF for the crystalline ceramic form, preserved the overall cost advantage of the borosilicate glass form. The waste immobilization operations for the glass form were much less costly than for the crystalline ceramic form. The waste disposal operations, in contrast, were less costly for the crystalline ceramic form, due to fewer canisters requiring disposal; however, this advantage was not sufficient to offset the higher development and processing costs of the crystalline ceramic form. Changes in proposed Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations to permit lower cost repository packages for defense high-level wastes would decrease the waste disposal costs of the more numerous borosilicate glass forms relative to the crystalline ceramic forms

  4. Crystalline Ceramic Waste Forms: Comparison Of Reference Process For Ceramic Waste Form Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkman, K. S. [Savannah River National Laboratory; Marra, J. C. [Savannah River National Laboratory; Amoroso, J. [Savannah River National Laboratory; Tang, M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2013-08-22

    The research conducted in this work package is aimed at taking advantage of the long term thermodynamic stability of crystalline ceramics to create more durable waste forms (as compared to high level waste glass) in order to reduce the reliance on engineered and natural barrier systems. Durable ceramic waste forms that incorporate a wide range of radionuclides have the potential to broaden the available disposal options and to lower the storage and disposal costs associated with advanced fuel cycles. Assemblages of several titanate phases have been successfully demonstrated to incorporate radioactive waste elements, and the multiphase nature of these materials allows them to accommodate variation in the waste composition. Recent work has shown that they can be produced from a melting and crystallization process. The objective of this report is to explore the phase formation and microstructural differences between lab scale melt processing in varying gas environments with alternative densification processes such as Hot Pressing (HP) and Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS). The waste stream used as the basis for the development and testing is a simulant derived from a combination of the projected Cs/Sr separated stream, the Trivalent Actinide - Lanthanide Separation by Phosphorous reagent Extraction from Aqueous Komplexes (TALSPEAK) waste stream consisting of lanthanide fission products, the transition metal fission product waste stream resulting from the transuranic extraction (TRUEX) process, and a high molybdenum concentration with relatively low noble metal concentrations. Melt processing as well as solid state sintering routes SPS and HP demonstrated the formation of the targeted phases; however differences in microstructure and elemental partitioning were observed. In SPS and HP samples, hollandite, pervoskite/pyrochlore, zirconolite, metallic alloy and TiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were observed distributed in a network of fine grains with small residual pores

  5. Dissolution of crystalline ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, W.B.

    1982-01-01

    The present program objectives are to lay out the fundamentals of crystalline waste form dissolution. Nuclear waste ceramics are polycrystalline. An assumption of the work is that to the first order, the release rate of a particular radionuclide is the surface-weighted sum of the release rates of the radionuclide from each crystalline form that contains it. In the second order, of course, there will be synergistic effects. There will be also grain boundary and other microstructural influences. As a first approximation, we have selected crystalline phases one at a time. The sequence of investigations and measurements is: (i) Identification of the actual chemical reactions of dissolution including identification of the solid reaction products if such occur. (ii) The rates of these reactions are then determined empirically to give what may be called macroscopic kinetics. (iii) Determination of the rate-controlling mechanisms. (iv) If the rate is controlled by surface reactions, the final step would be to determine the atomic kinetics, that is the specific atomic reactions that occur at the dissolving interface. Our concern with the crystalline forms are in two areas: The crystalline components of the reference ceramic waste form and related ceramics and the alumino-silicate phases that appear in some experimental waste forms and as waste-rock interaction products. Specific compounds are: (1) Reference Ceramic Phases (zirconolite, magnetoplumbite, spinel, Tc-bearing spinel and perovskite); (2) Aluminosilicate phases (nepheline, pollucite, CsAlSi 5 O 12 , Sr-feldspar). 5 figures, 1 table

  6. Economic comparison of crystalline ceramic and glass waste forms for HLW disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, R.W.; Daling, P.M.; Wiles, L.E.

    1983-05-01

    A titanate-based, crystalline ceramic produced by hot isostatic pressing has been proposed as a potentially more stable and improved waste form for high-level nuclear waste disposal compared to the currently favored borosilicate glass waste form. This paper describes the results of a study to evaluate the relative costs for disposal of high-level waste from a 70,000 metric ton equivalent (MTE) system. The entire waste management system, including waste processing and encapsulation, transportation, and final repository disposal, was included in this analysis. The repository concept is based on the current basalt waste isolation project (BWIP) reference design. A range of design basis alternatives is considered to determine if this would influence the relative economics of the two waste forms. A thermal analysis procedure was utilized to define optimum canister sizes to assure that each waste form was compared under favorable conditions. Repository costs are found to favor the borosilicate glass waste form while transportation costs greatly favor the crystalline ceramic waste form. The determining component in the cost comparison is the waste processing cost, which strongly favors the borosilicate glass process because of its relative simplicity. A net cost advantage on the order of 12% to 15% on a waste management system basis is indicated for the glass waste form

  7. Development of crystalline ceramic for immobilization of TRU wastes in V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burakov, B.E.; Anderson, E.B.

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses the Radium Institute's experience in the synthesis of crystalline ceramics based on two groups of actinide host-phases: 1) Zircon/zirconia-(Zn, Ac)SiO 4 /(Zr, Ac)O 2 , where Ac=Pu, Np, Am, Cm; 2) Garnet/perovskite-(Y, Gd, Ac) 3 (Al, Ga, Ac,..) 5 O 12 /(Y, Gd, Ac)(Al, Ga)O 3 . The zircon/zirconia ceramic was suggested as an universal waste form for the immobilization of TRU as well as weapon-grade Pu. Because the position of the Russian Ministry of Atomic Energy (Minatom) does not consider weapons Pu as a waste', the Radium Institute proposed the use of the same ceramic (mainly monophase zirconia ) as a Pu-fuel. The garnet/perovskite ceramic was suggested for the immobilization of military TRU wastes of complex chemical composition. The advantage of this ceramic is that Garnet and Perovskite host-phases can incorporate in their lattices not only actinides, but also other elements including neutron absorbers in a broad range of concentration and in different valence state. Sample of zircon/zirconia ceramic were prepared by hot uniaxial pressing (at temperature T=1300, 1400, 1500degC and pressure P=25 MPa) and sintering (at T=1450, 1490, 1500, 1600degC) methods using different types of initial precursor. Samples of garnet/perovskite ceramic were synthesized by melting method at T=2000degC. Ce, U, Gd were used as TRU stimulants for both types of ceramic. One sample of zircon/zirconia ceramic was doped with 10 wt.% of Pu 239 . Physico-chemical features of these ceramics are described. In conclusion we propose that the pressureless technology based on sintering or melting methods be used for the synthesis of ceramics for the immobilization of all types of TRU wastes. (author)

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF CRYSTALLINE CERAMICS FOR IMMOBILIZATION OF ADVANCED FUEL CYCLE REPROCESSING WASTES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K.; Brinkman, K.

    2011-09-22

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is developing crystalline ceramic waste forms to incorporate CS/LN/TM high Mo waste streams consisting of perovskite, hollandite, pyrochlore, zirconolite, and powellite phase assemblages. Simple raw materials, including Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CaO, and TiO{sub 2} were combined with simulated waste components to produce multiphase crystalline ceramics. Fiscal Year 2011 (FY11) activities included (i) expanding the compositional range by varying waste loading and fabrication of compositions rich in TiO{sub 2}, (ii) exploring the processing parameters of ceramics produced by the melt and crystallize process, (iii) synthesis and characterization of select individual phases of powellite and hollandite that are the target hosts for radionuclides of Mo, Cs, and Rb, and (iv) evaluating the durability and radiation stability of single and multi-phase ceramic waste forms. Two fabrication methods, including melting and crystallizing, and pressing and sintering, were used with the intent of studying phase evolution under various sintering conditions. An analysis of the XRD and SEM/EDS results indicates that the targeted crystalline phases of the FY11 compositions consisting of pyrochlore, perovskite, hollandite, zirconolite, and powellite were formed by both press and sinter and melt and crystallize processing methods. An evaluation of crystalline phase formation versus melt processing conditions revealed that hollandite, perovskite, zirconolite, and residual TiO{sub 2} phases formed regardless of cooling rate, demonstrating the robust nature of this process for crystalline phase development. The multiphase ceramic composition CSLNTM-06 demonstrated good resistance to proton beam irradiation. Electron irradiation studies on the single phase CaMoO{sub 4} (a component of the multiphase waste form) suggested that this material exhibits stability to 1000 years at anticipated self-irradiation doses (2 x 10{sup 10}-2 x 10{sup 11} Gy), but that

  9. Cold crucible induction melter test for crystalline ceramic waste form fabrication: A feasibility assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amoroso, Jake W., E-mail: jake.amoroso@srnl.doe.gov [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Marra, James; Dandeneau, Christopher S. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Brinkman, Kyle; Xu, Yun [Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); Tang, Ming [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Maio, Vince [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States); Webb, Samuel M. [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94086 (United States); Chiu, Wilson K.S. [University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269-3139 (United States)

    2017-04-01

    The first scaled proof-of-principle cold crucible induction melter (CCIM) test to process a multiphase ceramic waste form from a simulated combined (Cs/Sr, lanthanide and transition metal fission products) commercial used nuclear fuel waste stream was recently conducted in the United States. X-ray diffraction, 2-D X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy for Cs), and product consistency tests were used to characterize the fabricated CCIM material. Characterization analyses confirmed that a crystalline ceramic with a desirable phase assemblage was produced from a melt using a CCIM. Primary hollandite, pyrochlore/zirconolite, and perovskite phases were identified in addition to minor phases rich in Fe, Al, or Cs. The material produced in the CCIM was chemically homogeneous and displayed a uniform phase assemblage with acceptable aqueous chemical durability.

  10. Disposal costs for SRP high-level wastes in borosilicate glass and crystalline ceramic waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozsa, R.B.; Campbell, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose of this document is to compare and contrast the overall burial costs of the glass and ceramic waste forms, including processing, storage, transportation, packaging, and emplacement in a repository. Amount of waste will require approximately 10,300 standard (24 in. i.d. x 9-5/6 ft length) canisters of waste glass, each containing about 3260 lb of waste at 28% waste loading. The ceramic waste form requires about one-third the above number of standard canisters. Approximately $2.5 billion is required to process and dispose of this waste, and the total cost is independent of waste form (glass or ceramic). The major cost items (about 80% of the total cost) for all cases are capital and operating expenses. The capital and 20-year operating costs for the processing facility are the same order of magnitude, and their sum ranges from about one-half of the total for the reference glass case to two-thirds of the total for the ceramic cases

  11. Sol-gel technology applied to crystalline ceramic nuclear waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelini, P.; Bond, W.D.; Caputo, A.J.; Mack, J.E.; Lackey, W.J.; Lee, D.A.; Stinton, D.P.

    1980-01-01

    The sol-gel process is being developed for the solidification and isolation of high-level nuclear fuel waste. Three gelation methods are being developed for producing alternative waste forms. These include internal gelation for producing spheres of up to 1 mm diam suitable for coating, external gelation, and water extraction methods for producing material suitable for alternate ceramic processing. In this study internal gelation has been used to produce ceramic spheres of various alternative nuclear waste compositions. A gelation system capable of producing 100-g batches has been assembled and used for development. Waste forms containing up to 70 wt % simulated Savannah River Plant waste have been produced. Dopants such as Cs, Sr, Nd, Ru, and Mo were used in some experiments to observe side waste streams and sintering effects. Synroc microspheres were coated with both low-density carbon, high-density impermeable carbon, high-temperature dense SiC, and SiC deposited at temperatures near 900 0 C. Other gelation methods and other alternative waste forms are being developed

  12. Melt processed crystalline ceramic waste forms for advanced nuclear fuel cycles: CRP T21027 1813: Processing technologies for high level waste, formulation of matrices and characterization of waste forms, Task 17208: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amoroso, J. W. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Marra, J. C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-08-26

    A multi-phase ceramic waste form is being developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for treatment of secondary waste streams generated by reprocessing commercial spent nuclear. The envisioned waste stream contains a mixture of transition, alkali, alkaline earth, and lanthanide metals. Ceramic waste forms are tailored (engineered) to incorporate waste components as part of their crystal structure based on knowledge from naturally found minerals containing radioactive and non-radioactive species similar to the radionuclides of concern in wastes from fuel reprocessing. The ability to tailor ceramics to mimic naturally occurring crystals substantiates the long term stability of such crystals (ceramics) over geologic timescales of interest for nuclear waste immobilization [1]. A durable multi-phase ceramic waste form tailored to incorporate all the waste components has the potential to broaden the available disposal options and thus minimize the storage and disposal costs associated with aqueous reprocessing. This report summarizes results from three years of work on the IAEA Coordinated Research Project on “Processing technologies for high level waste, formulation of matrices and characterization of waste forms” (T21027), and specific task “Melt Processed Crystalline Ceramic Waste Forms for Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles” (17208).

  13. Melt processed crystalline ceramic waste forms for advanced nuclear fuel cycles: CRP T21027 1813: Processing technologies for high level waste, formulation of matrices and characterization of waste forms, task 17208: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amoroso, J. W. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Marra, J. C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-08-26

    A multi-phase ceramic waste form is being developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for treatment of secondary waste streams generated by reprocessing commercial spent nuclear. The envisioned waste stream contains a mixture of transition, alkali, alkaline earth, and lanthanide metals. Ceramic waste forms are tailored (engineered) to incorporate waste components as part of their crystal structure based on knowledge from naturally found minerals containing radioactive and non-radioactive species similar to the radionuclides of concern in wastes from fuel reprocessing. The ability to tailor ceramics to mimic naturally occurring crystals substantiates the long term stability of such crystals (ceramics) over geologic timescales of interest for nuclear waste immobilization [1]. A durable multi-phase ceramic waste form tailored to incorporate all the waste components has the potential to broaden the available disposal options and thus minimize the storage and disposal costs associated with aqueous reprocessing. This report summarizes results from three years of work on the IAEA Coordinated Research Project on “Processing technologies for high level waste, formulation of matrices and characterization of waste forms” (T21027), and specific task “Melt Processed Crystalline Ceramic Waste Forms for Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles” (17208).

  14. Effects of irradiation on structural properties of crystalline ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinard, F.W. Jr.; Hurley, G.F.

    1979-01-01

    Stability of crystalline ceramic nuclear waste may be degraded by self-irradiation damage. Changes in density, strength, thermal conductivity, and lattice structure are of concern. Structural damage of ceramics under various radiation conditions is discussed and related to possible effects in nuclear waste

  15. Effects of irradiation on structural properties of crystalline ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinard, F.W. Jr.; Hurley, G.F.

    1979-01-01

    Stability of crystalline ceramic nuclear waste may be degraded by self-irradiation damage. Changes in density, strength, thermal conductivity, and lattice structure are of concern. In this paper, structural damage of ceramics under various radiation conditions is discussed and related to possible effects in nuclear waste

  16. Hot isostatically-pressed aluminosilicate glass-ceramic with natural crystalline analogues for immobilizing the calcined high-level nuclear waste at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raman, S.

    1993-12-01

    The additives Si, Al, MgO, P 2 O 5 were mechanically blended with fluorinelsodium calcine in varying proportions. The batches were vacuum sealed in stainless steel canisters and hot isostatically pressed at 20,000 PSI and 1000 C for 4 hours. The resulting suite of glass-ceramic waste forms parallels the natural rocks in microstructural and compositional heterogeneity. Several crystalline phases ar analogous in composition and structure to naturally occurring minerals. Additional crystalline phases are zirconia and Ca-Mg borate. The glasses are enriched in silica and alumina. Approximately 7% calcine elements occur dissolved in this glass and the total glass content in the waste forms averages 20 wt%. The remainder of the calcine elements are partitioned into crystalline phases at 75 wt% calcine waste loading. The waste forms were tested for chemical durability in accordance with the MCC1-test procedure. The leach rates are a function of the relative proportions of additives and calcine, which in turn influence the composition and abundances of the glass and crystalline phases. The DOE leach rate criterion of less than 1 g/m 2 -day is met by all the elements B, Cs and Na are increased by lowering the melt viscosity. This is related to increased crystallization or devitrification with increases in MgO addition. This exploratory work has shown that the increases in waste loading occur by preferred partitioning of the calcine components among crystalline and glass phases. The determination of optimum processing parameters in the form of additive concentration levels, homogeneous blending among the components, and pressure-temperature stabilities of phases must be continued to eliminate undesirable effects of chemical composition, microstructure and glass devitrification

  17. Crystalline phase, microstructure, and aqueous stability of zirconolite-barium borosilicate glass-ceramics for immobilization of simulated sulfate bearing high-level liquid waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lang; Xiao, Jizong; Wang, Xin; Teng, Yuancheng; Li, Yuxiang; Liao, Qilong

    2018-01-01

    The crystalline phase, microstructure, and aqueous stability of zirconolite-barium borosilicate glass-ceramics with different content (0-30 wt %) of simulated sulfate bearing high-level liquid waste (HLLW) were evaluated. The sulfate phase segregation in vitrification process was also investigated. The results show that the glass-ceramics with 0-20 wt% of HLLW possess mainly zirconolite phase along with a small amount baddeleyite phase. The amount of perovskite crystals increases while the amount of zirconolite crystals decreases when the HLLW content increases from 20 to 30 wt%. For the samples with 20-30 wt% HLLW, yellow phase was observed during the vitrification process and it disappeared after melting at 1150 °C for 2 h. The viscosity of the sample with 16 wt% HLLW (HLLW-16) is about 27 dPa·s at 1150 °C. The addition of a certain amount (≤20 wt %) of HLLW has no significant change on the aqueous stability of glass-ceramic waste forms. After 28 days, the 90 °C PCT-type normalized leaching rates of Na, B, Si, and La of the sample HLLW-16 are 7.23 × 10-3, 1.57 × 10-3, 8.06 × 10-4, and 1.23 × 10-4 g·m-2·d-1, respectively.

  18. Synthesis of crystalline ceramics for actinide immobilisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burakov, B.; Gribova, V.; Kitsay, A.; Ojovan, M.; Hyatt, N.C.; Stennett, M.C.

    2007-01-01

    Methods for the synthesis of ceramic wasteforms for the immobilization of actinides are common to those for non-radioactive ceramics: hot uniaxial pressing (HUP); hot isostatic pressing (HIP); cold pressing followed by sintering; melting (for some specific ceramics, such as garnet/perovskite composites). Synthesis of ceramics doped with radionuclides is characterized with some important considerations: all the radionuclides should be incorporated into crystalline structure of durable host-phases in the form of solid solutions and no separate phases of radionuclides should be present in the matrix of final ceramic wasteform; all procedures of starting precursor preparation and ceramic synthesis should follow safety requirements of nuclear industry. Synthesis methods that avoid the use of very high temperatures and pressures and are easily accomplished within the environment of a glove-box or hot cell are preferable. Knowledge transfer between the V. G. Khlopin Radium Institute (KRI, Russia) and Immobilisation Science Laboratory (ISL, UK) was facilitated in the framework of a joint project supported by UK Royal Society. In order to introduce methods of precursor preparation and ceramic synthesis we selected well-known procedures readily deployable in radiochemical processing plants. We accounted that training should include main types of ceramic wasteforms which are currently discussed for industrial applications. (authors)

  19. Ceramics in nuclear waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chikalla, T D; Mendel, J E [eds.

    1979-05-01

    Seventy-three papers are included, arranged under the following section headings: national programs for the disposal of radioactive wastes, waste from stability and characterization, glass processing, ceramic processing, ceramic and glass processing, leaching of waste materials, properties of nuclear waste forms, and immobilization of special radioactive wastes. Separate abstracts were prepared for all the papers. (DLC)

  20. Phase relations in crystalline ceramic nuclear waste forms the system UO/sub 2 + x/-CeO2-ZrO2-ThO2 at 12000C in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepin, J.G.; McCarthy, G.J.

    1981-01-01

    Steady-state phase relations in the system UO/sub 2 + x/-CeO 2 -ZrO 2 -ThO 2 were determined for application to phase relations in the high-level crystalline ceramic nuclear waste form Supercalcine-Ceramics. Samples were treated at 1200 0 C at an oxygen partial pressure of 0.21 atm and a total pressure of 1 atm. Phase assemblages were found to be composed of cubic solid solutions of the flourite structure type, solid solutions based on ZrO 2 , and orthorhombic solid solutions based on U 3 O 8

  1. CERAMIC WASTE FORM DATA PACKAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amoroso, J.; Marra, J.

    2014-06-13

    The purpose of this data package is to provide information about simulated crystalline waste forms that can be used to select an appropriate composition for a Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM) proof of principle demonstration. Melt processing, viscosity, electrical conductivity, and thermal analysis information was collected to assess the ability of two potential candidate ceramic compositions to be processed in the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) CCIM and to guide processing parameters for the CCIM operation. Given uncertainties in the CCIM capabilities to reach certain temperatures throughout the system, one waste form designated 'Fe-MP' was designed towards enabling processing and another, designated 'CAF-5%TM-MP' was designed towards optimized microstructure. Melt processing studies confirmed both compositions could be poured from a crucible at 1600{degrees}C although the CAF-5%TM-MP composition froze before pouring was complete due to rapid crystallization (upon cooling). X-ray diffraction measurements confirmed the crystalline nature and phase assemblages of the compositions. The kinetics of melting and crystallization appeared to vary significantly between the compositions. Impedance spectroscopy results indicated the electrical conductivity is acceptable with respect to processing in the CCIM. The success of processing either ceramic composition will depend on the thermal profiles throughout the CCIM. In particular, the working temperature of the pour spout relative to the bulk melter which can approach 1700{degrees}C. The Fe-MP composition is recommended to demonstrate proof of principle for crystalline simulated waste forms considering the current configuration of INL's CCIM. If proposed modifications to the CCIM can maintain a nominal temperature of 1600{degrees}C throughout the melter, drain, and pour spout, then the CAF-5%TM-MP composition should be considered for a proof of principle demonstration.

  2. Biomimetic processing of oriented crystalline ceramic layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesarano, J.; Shelnutt, J.A.

    1997-10-01

    The aim of this project was to develop the capabilities for Sandia to fabricate self assembled Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films of various materials and to exploit their two-dimensional crystalline structure to promote the growth of oriented thin films of inorganic materials at room temperature. This includes the design and synthesis of Langmuir-active (amphiphilic) organic molecules with end groups offering high nucleation potential for various ceramics. A longer range goal is that of understanding the underlying principles, making it feasible to use the techniques presented in this report to fabricate unique oriented films of various materials for electronic, sensor, and membrane applications. Therefore, whenever possible, work completed in this report was completed with the intention of addressing the fundamental phenomena underlying the growth of crystalline, inorganic films on template layers of highly organized organic molecules. This problem was inspired by biological processes, which often produce exquisitely engineered structures via templated growth on polymeric layers. Seashells, for example, exhibit great toughness owing to their fine brick-and-mortar structure that results from templated growth of calcium carbonate on top of layers of ordered organic proteins. A key goal in this work, therefore, is to demonstrate a positive correlation between the order and orientation of the template layer and that of the crystalline ceramic material grown upon it. The work completed was comprised of several parallel efforts that encompassed the entire spectrum of biomimetic growth from solution. Studies were completed on seashells and the mechanisms of growth for calcium carbonate. Studies were completed on the characterization of LB films and the capability developed for the in-house fabrication of these films. Standard films of fatty acids were studied as well as novel polypeptides and porphyrins that were synthesized.

  3. Radiation damage in nuclear waste ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turcotte, R.P.; Roberts, F.P.; Rusin, J.M.; Wald, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    The text contains a number of specific observations about the radiation-induced changes in glass, glass-ceramic, and supercalcine nuclear waste forms. Other, more general conclusions can be summarized: Radiation-induced property changes follow an exponential ingrowth curve to saturation. Actinide host phases in both crystalline waste forms become X-ray amorphous. The magnitudes of the waste-form density changes observed could not be directly related to observed changes in the primary actinide phases. Although large crystal-structure changes occur in the materials studied, obvious physical degradation was not observed

  4. Determination of crystallinity of ceramic materials from the Ruland Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kniess, C.T.; Prates, P.B.; Gomes Junior, J.C.; Lima, J.C. de; Riella, H.G.; Kuhnen, N.C.

    2011-01-01

    Some methods found in literature approach the different characteristics between crystalline and amorphous phases by X ray diffraction technique. These methods use the relation between the intensities of the crystalline peaks and background amorphous or the absolute intensity of one of these to determine the relative amount of crystalline and amorphous material. However, a crystalline substance presents shows coherent diffuse scattering and a loss in the intensity of the peaks of diffraction in function of thermal vibrations of atoms and imperfections in the crystalline structure. A correct method for the determination of the crystallinity must take in account these effects. This work has as objective to determine the crystallinity of ceramic materials obtained with the addition of mineral coal bottom ashes, using the X ray diffraction technique and the Ruland Method, that considers the diminution of the intensity of the crystalline peak because of the disorder affects. The Ruland Method shows adequate for the determination of the crystallinity of the ceramic materials. (author)

  5. Ceramic and glass radioactive waste forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Readey, D.W.; Cooley, C.R. (comps.)

    1977-01-01

    This report contains 14 individual presentations and 6 group reports on the subject of glass and polycrystalline ceramic radioactive waste forms. It was the general consensus that the information available on glass as a waste form provided a good basis for planning on the use of glass as an initial waste form, that crystalline ceramic forms could also be good waste forms if much more development work were completed, and that prediction of the chemical and physical stability of the waste form far into the future would be much improved if the basic synergistic effects of low temperature, radiation and long times were better understood. Continuing development of the polycrystalline ceramic forms was recommended. It was concluded that the leach rate of radioactive species from the waste form is an important criterion for evaluating its suitability, particularly for the time period before solidified waste is permanently placed in the geologic isolation of a Federal repository. Separate abstracts were prepared for 12 of the individual papers; the remaining two were previously abstracted.

  6. Talc-silicon glass-ceramic waste forms for immobilization of high- level calcined waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinjamuri, K.

    1993-06-01

    Talc-silicon glass-ceramic waste forms are being evaluated as candidates for immobilization of the high level calcined waste stored onsite at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. These glass-ceramic waste forms were prepared by hot isostatically pressing a mixture of simulated nonradioactive high level calcined waste, talc, silicon and aluminum metal additives. The waste forms were characterized for density, chemical durability, and glass and crystalline phase compositions. The results indicate improved density and chemical durability as the silicon content is increased

  7. Glass Ceramic Waste Forms for Combined CS+LN+TM Fission Products Waste Streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Turo, Laura A.; Riley, Brian J.; Tang, Ming; Kossoy, Anna; Sickafus, Kurt E.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, glass ceramics were explored as an alternative waste form for glass, the current baseline, to be used for immobilizing alkaline/alkaline earth + lanthanide (CS+LN) or CS+LN+transition metal (TM) fission-product waste streams generated by a uranium extraction (UREX+) aqueous separations type process. Results from past work on a glass waste form for the combined CS+LN waste streams showed that as waste loading increased, large fractions of crystalline phases precipitated upon slow cooling.(1) The crystalline phases had no noticeable impact on the waste form performance by the 7-day product consistency test (PCT). These results point towards the development of a glass ceramic waste form for treating CS+LN or CS+LN+TM combined waste streams. Three main benefits for exploring glass ceramics are: (1) Glass ceramics offer increased solubility of troublesome components in crystalline phases as compared to glass, leading to increased waste loading; (2) The crystalline network formed in the glass ceramic results in higher heat tolerance than glass; and (3) These glass ceramics are designed to be processed by the same melter technology as the current baseline glass waste form. It will only require adding controlled canister cooling for crystallization into a glass ceramic waste form. Highly annealed waste form (essentially crack free) with up to 50X lower surface area than a typical High-Level Waste (HLW) glass canister. Lower surface area translates directly into increased durability. This was the first full year of exploring glass ceramics for the Option 1 and 2 combined waste stream options. This work has shown that dramatic increases in waste loading are achievable by designing a glass ceramic waste form as an alternative to glass. Table S1 shows the upper limits for heat, waste loading (based on solubility), and the decay time needed before treatment can occur for glass and glass ceramic waste forms. The improvements are significant for both combined waste

  8. Glass Ceramic Waste Forms for Combined CS+LN+TM Fission Products Waste Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Turo, Laura A.; Riley, Brian J.; Tang, Ming; Kossoy, Anna; Sickafus, Kurt E.

    2010-09-23

    In this study, glass ceramics were explored as an alternative waste form for glass, the current baseline, to be used for immobilizing alkaline/alkaline earth + lanthanide (CS+LN) or CS+LN+transition metal (TM) fission-product waste streams generated by a uranium extraction (UREX+) aqueous separations type process. Results from past work on a glass waste form for the combined CS+LN waste streams showed that as waste loading increased, large fractions of crystalline phases precipitated upon slow cooling.[1] The crystalline phases had no noticeable impact on the waste form performance by the 7-day product consistency test (PCT). These results point towards the development of a glass ceramic waste form for treating CS+LN or CS+LN+TM combined waste streams. Three main benefits for exploring glass ceramics are: (1) Glass ceramics offer increased solubility of troublesome components in crystalline phases as compared to glass, leading to increased waste loading; (2) The crystalline network formed in the glass ceramic results in higher heat tolerance than glass; and (3) These glass ceramics are designed to be processed by the same melter technology as the current baseline glass waste form. It will only require adding controlled canister cooling for crystallization into a glass ceramic waste form. Highly annealed waste form (essentially crack free) with up to 50X lower surface area than a typical High-Level Waste (HLW) glass canister. Lower surface area translates directly into increased durability. This was the first full year of exploring glass ceramics for the Option 1 and 2 combined waste stream options. This work has shown that dramatic increases in waste loading are achievable by designing a glass ceramic waste form as an alternative to glass. Table S1 shows the upper limits for heat, waste loading (based on solubility), and the decay time needed before treatment can occur for glass and glass ceramic waste forms. The improvements are significant for both combined waste

  9. Portland blended cements: demolition ceramic waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trezza, M.A.; Zito, S.; Tironi, A.; Irassar, E.F.; Rahhal, V.F.

    2017-01-01

    Demolition ceramic wastes (DCWs) were investigated in order to determine their potential use as supplementary cementitious materials in Portland Blended Cements (PBCs). For this purpose, three ceramic wastes were investigated. After characterization of the materials used, the effect of ceramic waste replacement (8, 24 and 40% by mass) was analyzed. Pozzolanic activity, hydration progress, workability and compressive strength were determined at 2, 7 and 28 days. The results showed that the ground wastes behave as filler at an early age, but as hydration progresses, the pozzolanic activity of ceramic waste contributes to the strength requirement. [es

  10. Polyphase ceramic and glass-ceramic forms for immobilizing ICPP high-level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harker, A.B.; Flintoff, J.F.

    1984-01-01

    Polyphase ceramic and glass-ceramic forms have been consolidated from simulated Idaho Chemical Processing Plant wastes by hot isostatic pressing calcined waste and chemical additives by 1000 0 C or less. The ceramic forms can contain over 70 wt% waste with densities ranging from 3.5 to 3.85 g/cm 3 , depending upon the formulation. Major phases are CaF 2 , CaZrTi 207 , CaTiO 3 , monoclinic ZrO 2 , and amorphous intergranular material. The relative fraction of the phases is a function of the chemical additives (TiO 2 , CaO, and SiO 2 ) and consolidation temperature. Zirconolite, the major actinide host, makes the ceramic forms extremely leach resistant for the actinide simulant U 238 . The amorphous phase controls the leach performance for Sr and Cs which is improved by the addition of SiO 2 . Glass-ceramic forms were also consolidated by HIP at waste loadings of 30 to 70 wt% with densities of 2.73 to 3.1 g/cm 3 using Exxon 127 borosilicate glass frit. The glass-ceramic forms contain crystalline CaF 2 , Al 203 , and ZrSi 04 (zircon) in a glass matrix. Natural mineral zircon is a stable host for 4+ valent actinides. 17 references, 3 figures, 5 tables

  11. Review of glass ceramic waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusin, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    Glass ceramics are being considered for the immobilization of nuclear wastes to obtain a waste form with improved properties relative to glasses. Improved impact resistance, decreased thermal expansion, and increased leach resistance are possible. In addition to improved properties, the spontaneous devitrification exhibited in some waste-containing glasses can be avoided by the controlled crystallization after melting in the glass-ceramic process. The majority of the glass-ceramic development for nuclear wastes has been conducted at the Hahn-Meitner Institute (HMI) in Germany. Two of their products, a celsian-based (BaAl 3 Si 2 O 8 ) and a fresnoite-based (Ba 2 TiSi 2 O 8 ) glass ceramic, have been studied at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). A basalt-based glass ceramic primarily containing diopsidic augite (CaMgSi 2 O 6 ) has been developed at PNL. This glass ceramic is of interest since it would be in near equilibrium with a basalt repository. Studies at the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) in Japan have favored a glass-ceramic product based upon diopside (CaMgSi 2 O 6 ). Compositions, processing conditions, and product characterization of typical commercial and nuclear waste glass ceramics are discussed. In general, glass-ceramic waste forms can offer improved strength and decreased thermal expansion. Due to typcially large residual glass phases of up to 50%, there may be little improvement in leach resistance

  12. Ceramic nuclear waste forms. II. A ceramic-waste composite prepared by hot pressing. Progress report and preprint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, G.J.

    1975-01-01

    A feasibility study was conducted to determine whether nuclear waste calcine and a crystalline ceramic matrix can be fabricated by hot pressing into a composite waste form with suitable leaching resistance and thermal stability. It was found that a hard, dense composite could be formed using the typical commercial waste formulation PW-4b and a matrix of α-quartz with a small amount of a lead borosilicate glass added as a consolidation aide. Its density, waste loading, and leaching resistance are comparable to the glasses currently being considered for fixation of nuclear wastes. The hot pressed composite offers a closer approach to thermodynamic stability and improved thermal stability (in monolithic form) compared to glass waste forms. Recommendations for further optimization of the hot pressed waste form are given. (U.S.)

  13. Crystalline matter for solidification of highly radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grauer, R.

    1984-02-01

    Highly active wastes from reprocessed nuclear fuels must be incorporated into a solid chemically resistant inorganic matrix prior to final storage. One possible alternative to glassification is to embed the complex oxide mixture in a crystalline ceramic. A discussion from the structural and chemical viewpoint is presented giving guidelines for the selection and development of such a product. The chemical and phase composition concerning the most important developments are described. SYNROC is the most highly developed solid ceramic that has been evaluated to date for power reactor wastes. However, its testing and development so far has been restricted to simulated inactive materials. One of the most important aspects of solid high activity wastes is their behaviour in water. SYNROC reacts more slowly than glasses with water at temperatures over 100 0 C. Its low release of actinides under these conditions is remarkable. At temperatures under 100 0 C the important nuclide Cs 137 is released from SYNROC and from glasses at comparable rates. These assertions concerning chemical stability are however based on short term experiments, which have not considered the possibly complex interactions occurring during final storage. The information is therefore insufficient to describe the basic model required to predict long term behaviour under final storage conditions. Finally the report makes recommendations for a further programme of work. (Auth.)

  14. Alternative High-Performance Ceramic Waste Forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundaram, S. K. [Alfred Univ., NY (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This final report (M5NU-12-NY-AU # 0202-0410) summarizes the results of the project titled “Alternative High-Performance Ceramic Waste Forms,” funded in FY12 by the Nuclear Energy University Program (NEUP Project # 12-3809) being led by Alfred University in collaboration with Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The overall focus of the project is to advance fundamental understanding of crystalline ceramic waste forms and to demonstrate their viability as alternative waste forms to borosilicate glasses. We processed single- and multiphase hollandite waste forms based on simulated waste streams compositions provided by SRNL based on the advanced fuel cycle initiative (AFCI) aqueous separation process developed in the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCR&D). For multiphase simulated waste forms, oxide and carbonate precursors were mixed together via ball milling with deionized water using zirconia media in a polyethylene jar for 2 h. The slurry was dried overnight and then separated from the media. The blended powders were then subjected to melting or spark plasma sintering (SPS) processes. Microstructural evolution and phase assemblages of these samples were studied using x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersion analysis of x-rays (EDAX), wavelength dispersive spectrometry (WDS), transmission electron spectroscopy (TEM), selective area x-ray diffraction (SAXD), and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). These results showed that the processing methods have significant effect on the microstructure and thus the performance of these waste forms. The Ce substitution into zirconolite and pyrochlore materials was investigated using a combination of experimental (in situ XRD and x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES)) and modeling techniques to study these single phases independently. In zirconolite materials, a transition from the 2M to the 4M polymorph was observed with increasing Ce content. The resulting

  15. Microstructural characterization of nuclear-waste ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryerson, F.J.; Clarke, D.R.

    1982-01-01

    Characterization of nuclear waste ceramics requires techniques possessing high spatial and x-ray resolution. XRD, SEM, electron microprobe, TEM and analytical EM techniques are applied to ceramic formulations designed to immobilize both commercial and defense-related reactor wastes. These materials are used to address the strengths and limitations of the techniques above. An iterative approach combining all these techniques is suggested. 16 figures, 2 tables

  16. Minimum additive waste stabilization using vitreous ceramics. Progress report, October 1994--September 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, X.; Hahn, W.K.; Gong, M.; Gong, W.; Wang, L.; Ewing, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    Vitreous ceramic waste forms are being developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory to complement glass waste forms in implementing the Minimum Additive Waste Stabilization (MAWS) Program to support the US Department of Energy's environmental restoration efforts. These vitreous ceramics are composed of various metal-oxide crystalline phases embedded in a silicate-glass phase. This work extends the success of vitreous ceramic waste forms to treat wastes with both high metal and high alkali contents. Two successful approaches are discussed: developing high-durability alkali-binding crystals in a durable glassy matrix, and developing water-soluble crystals in a durable and continuous glassy matrix. Nepheline-vitreous ceramics were demonstrated for the immobilization of high-alkali wastes with alkali contents up to 21 wt%. The chemical durability of the nepheline-vitreous ceramics is better than the corresponding glasses, especially in over longer times. Vitreous ceramics with Cs 2 O loading up to 35.4 wt% have been developed. Vitreous ceramic waste forms were developed from 90 and 100% Oak Ridge National Laboratory K-25 pond sludge. Heat treatment resulted in targeted crystal formation of spinels, potassium feldspar, and Ca-P phases. The K-25 pond sludge vitreous ceramics were up to 42 times more durable than high-level environmental assessments (EA) glass. The toxicity characteristics leach procedure (TCLP) concentration of LVC-6 is at least 2,000 times lower than US Environmental Protection Agency limits. Idaho Chemical Process Plant (ICPP) calcined wastes were immobilized into vitreous ceramics with calcine loading up to 88%. These ICPP-vitreous ceramics were more durable than the EA glass by factors of 5 to 30. Vitreous ceramic waste forms are being developed to complement, not to replace, glass waste forms

  17. Quantitative determination of the crystalline phases of the ceramic materials utilizing the Rietveld method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kniess, C.T.; Prates, P.B.; Lima, J.C. de; Kuhnen, N.C.; Riella, H.G.; Maliska, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Ceramic materials have properties defined by their chemical and micro-structural composition. The quantification of the crystalline phases is a fundamental stage in the determination of the structure, properties and applications of a ceramic material. Within this context, this study aims is the quantitative determination of the crystalline phases of the ceramic materials developed with addition of mineral coal bottom ash, utilizing the X ray diffraction technique, through the method proposed by Rietveld. For the formulation of the ceramic mixtures a {3,3} simplex-lattice design was used, giving ten formulations of three components (two different types of clays and coal bottom ash). The crystalline phases identified in the ceramic materials after sintering at 1150 deg C during two hours are: quartz, tridimite, mullite and hematite. The proposed methodology utilizing the Rietveld method for the quantification relating to crystalline phases of the materials was shown to be adequate and efficient. (author)

  18. Calcium phosphate nuclear materials: apatitic ceramics for separated wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpena, J.; Lacout, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    Is it feasible to elaborate conditioning materials for separated high activity nuclear wastes, as actinides or fission products? Specific materials have been elaborated so that the waste is incorporated within the crystalline structure of the most stable calcium phosphate, i.e. apatite. This mineral is able to sustain high irradiation doses assuming a well chosen chemical composition. Mainly two different ways of synthesis have been developed to produce hard apatite ceramics that can be used to condition nuclear wastes. Here we present a data synthesis regarding the elaboration of these apatite nuclear materials that includes experiments on crystallo-chemistry, chemical analysis, leaching and irradiation tests performed for the past fifteen years. (authors)

  19. Elaboration of new ceramic composites containing glass fibre production wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozenstrauha, I.; Sosins, G.; Krage, L.; Sedmale, G.; Vaiciukyniene, D.

    2013-01-01

    Two main by-products or waste from the production of glass fibre are following: sewage sludge containing montmorillonite clay as sorbent material and ca 50 % of organic matter as well as waste glass from aluminium borosilicate glass fibre with relatively high softening temperature (> 600 degree centigrade). In order to elaborate different new ceramic products (porous or dense composites) the mentioned by-products and illitic clay from two different layers of Apriki deposit (Latvia) with illite content in clay fraction up to 80-90 % was used as a matrix. The raw materials were investigated by differential-thermal (DTA) and XRD analysis. Ternary compositions were prepared from mixtures of 15 - 35 wt % of sludge, 20 wt % of waste glass and 45 - 65 wt % of clay and the pressed green bodies were thermally treated in sintering temperature range from 1080 to 1120 degree centigrade in different treatment conditions. Materials produced in temperature range 1090 - 1100 degree centigrade with the most optimal properties - porosity 38 - 52 %, water absorption 39 -47 % and bulk density 1.35 - 1.67 g/cm 3 were selected for production of porous ceramics and materials showing porosity 0.35 - 1.1 %, water absorption 0.7 - 2.6 % and bulk density 2.1 - 2.3 g/cm 3 - for dense ceramic composites. Obtained results indicated that incorporation up to 25 wt % of sewage sludge is beneficial for production of both ceramic products and glass-ceramic composites according to the technological properties. Structural analysis of elaborated composite materials was performed by scanning electron microscopy(SEM). By X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) the quartz, diopside and anorthite crystalline phases were detected. (Author)

  20. Development and characterization of basalt-glass ceramics for the immobilization of transuranic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokken, R.O.; Chick, L.A.; Thomas, L.E.

    1982-09-01

    Basalt-based waste forms were developed for the immobilization of transuranic (TRU) contaminated wastes. The specific waste studied is a 3:1 blend of process sludge and incinerator ash. Various amounts of TRU blended waste were melted with Pomona basalt powder. The vitreous products were subjected to a variety of heat treatment conditions to form glass ceramics. The total crystallinity of the glass ceramic, ranging from 20 to 45 wt %, was moderately dependent on composition and heat treatment conditions. Three parent glasses and four glass ceramics with varied composition and heat treatment were produced for detailed phase characterization and leaching. Both parent glasses and glass ceramics were mainly composed of a continuous, glassy matrix phase. This glass matrix entered into solution during leaching in both types of materials. The Fe-Ti rich dispersed glass phase was not significantly degraded by leaching. The glass ceramics, however, exhibited four to ten times less elemental releases during leaching than the parent glasses. The glass ceramic matrix probably contains higher Fe and Na and lower Ca and Mg relative to the parent glass matrix. The crystallization of augite in the glass ceramics is believed to contribute to the improved leach rates. Leach rates of the basalt glass ceramic are compared to those of other TRU nuclear waste forms containing 239 Pu

  1. Fabrication and characterization of glass–ceramics materials developed from steel slag waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Feng; Fang, Yu; Xie, Junlin; Xie, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Steelmaking slag (SS) is one of the most common industrial wastes. ► Glass–ceramics produced from SS is observed to have good properties. ► A large volume of raw SS can be recycled. ► The utilization of SS could reduce solid waste pollution. -- Abstract: In this study, glass–ceramic materials were produced from SS (steel slag) obtained from Wuhan Iron and Steel Corporation in China. The amount of SS used in glass batch was about 31–41 wt.% of the total batch mixture. On basis of differential thermal analysis (DTA) results, the nucleation and crystallization temperature of the parent glass samples were identified, respectively. X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed that multiple crystalline phases coexisted in the glass–ceramics, and the main crystalline phase was wollastonite (CaSiO 3 ). SEM observation indicated that there was an increase in the amount of crystalline phase in the glass–ceramics when the CaO content and crystallization time increased. It was also found that the glass–ceramics with fine microstructure enhance mechanical properties and erosion wear resistance. The obtained glass–ceramics showed a maximum bending strength of 145.6 MPa and very nice wear resistance. Therefore, it is feasible to produce nucleated glass–ceramics materials for building and decorative materials from SS.

  2. Use of waste ceramics in adsorption technologies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doušová, B.; Koloušek, D.; Keppert, M.; Machovic, V.; Lhotka, M.; Urbanová, Martina; Brus, Jiří; Holcova, L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 134, Part 2 (2016), s. 145-152 ISSN 0169-1317 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-24155S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : waste ceramics * brick dust * toxic cations Subject RIV: JN - Civil Engineering Impact factor: 3.101, year: 2016

  3. Preparation techniques for ceramic waste form powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hash, M.C.; Pereira, C.; Lewis, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    The electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuels result in a chloride waste salt requiring geologic disposal. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is developing ceramic waste forms which can incorporate this waste. Currently, zeolite- or sodalite-glass composites are produced by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) techniques. Powder preparations include dehydration of the raw zeolite powders, hot blending of these zeolite powders and secondary additives. Various approaches are being pursued to achieve adequate mixing, and the resulting powders have been HIPed and characterized for leach resistance, phase equilibria, and physical integrity

  4. Producing glass-ceramics from waste materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boccaccini, A.R.; Rawlings, R.D. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom)

    2002-10-01

    An overview is given of recent research at the Department of Materials of Imperial College, London, UK, concerning the production of useful glass-ceramic products from industrial waste materials. The new work, using controlled crystallisation to improve the properties of vitrified products, could help to solve the problem of what to do with increasing amounts of slag, fly ash and combustion dust. The results show, that it is possible to produce new materials with interesting magnetic and constructive properties.

  5. Use of solid waste from sand beneficiation process in the ceramic tile industry and its influence on the physical properties of the ceramic products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biff, Sergio; Silva, Manoel Ribeiro da

    2016-01-01

    The current paper had as main aim characterize and assess the use viability of a solid waste from sand beneficiation process in the production of ceramic tiles. To determine the main components the solid waste was characterized by X-ray fluorescence and the main crystalline phases were determined by X-ray diffraction. To evaluate the addition effects of the solid waste over the solid waste was introduced into a ceramic composition in proportions of 5% and 10%. The ceramics materials obtained were subjected to the linear retraction, water absorption and flexural strength analysis according to the Brazilian standard NBR 13818 (1997). Additionally, the solid waste and the ceramic materials obtained in this study were classified according to the Brazilian standard NBR 10004 (2004) to assess the potential environmental impact. The main solid waste constituents identified were silicon dioxide and aluminum oxide, respectively 50.2% e 19.2%, distributed in the crystal forms of quartz and kaolinite. The ceramic materials obtained after firing at 1100 deg C, without and with 10% of solid waste presented respectively flexural strength of 13.86 MPa and 14,52Mpa. The results of water absorption without and with addition of 10% of solid waste were respectively 16.96% and 16.63%, both appropriate performances for use in ceramic tiles according to the Brazilian standard NBR 13818 (1997). On the other hand, the ceramic materials obtained with the addition of 10% of solid waste were classified as inert materials according to Brazilian standard NBR 10004 (2004), showing the capability of incorporating solid waste in ceramic materials. (author)

  6. Relating structural parameters to leachability in a glass-bonded ceramic waste form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, S. M.; Johnson, S. G.; Moschetti, T. L.

    1998-01-01

    Lattice parameters for a crystalline material can be obtained by several methods, notably by analyzing x-ray powder diffraction patterns. By utilizing a computer program to fit a pattern, one can follow the evolution or subtle changes in a structure of a crystalline species in different environments. This work involves such a study for an essential component of the ceramic waste form that is under development at Argonne National Laboratory. Zeolite 4A and zeolite 5A are used to produce two different types of waste forms: a glass-bonded sodalite and a glass-bonded zeolite, respectively. Changes in structure during production of the waste forms are discussed. Specific salt-loadings in the sodalite waste form are related to relative peak intensities of certain reflections in the XRD patterns. Structural parameters for the final waste forms will also be given and related to leachability under standard conditions

  7. Ceramic transactions: Environmental and waste management issues in the ceramic industry. Volume 39

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellinger, G.B.

    1994-01-01

    A symposium on environmental and waste management issues in the ceramic industry took place in Cincinnati, Ohio, April 19-22, 1993. The symposium was held in conjunction with the 95th Annual Meeting of the American Ceramic Society and was sponsored by the Ceramic Manufacturing Council, Legislative and Regulatory Affairs Committee with the Glass and Optical Materials, Basic Science, Cements, Nuclear, Refractory Ceramics, Structural Clay Products, Whitewares, Design, Electronics, Engineering Ceramics, and Materials and Equipment Divisions. This volume documents several of the papers that were presented at the symposium. Papers presented in this volume are categorized under the following headings: vitrification of hazardous and mixed wastes; waste glass properties and microstructure; processing of nuclear waste disposal glasses; waste form qualification; glass dissolution: modeling and mechanisms; systems and field testing of waste forms

  8. Investigation of vitreous and crystalline ceramic materials for immobilization of alpha-contaminated residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, C.R.; Mellinger, G.B.; Rusin, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    Experimental investigations of two alternatives for immobilizing dispersible solid wastes contaminated with alpha-emitting radionuclides are reviewed. Borosilicate glasses and sintered silicate ceramics are being studied for such wastes, and results so far indicate both may offer attractive alternatives to waste generators. Waste oxide solubilities, de-vitrification behaviour and effects of residual carbon are examined for glasses incorporating incinerator ash and hydrated ferric oxide sludge. Glasses will accommodate these wastes at loadings of 30-60 wt% while maintaining good performance characteristics. A brief comparative evaluation of cold-pressed and sintered ceramics is also described. The effects on process and product properties of the choice of additives, waste loading and sintering temperature were determined. This approach also appears to promise economic waste loadings while achieving relatively durable waste forms. (author)

  9. The influence of glass composition on crystalline phase stability in glass-ceramic wasteforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maddrell, Ewan; Thornber, Stephanie; Hyatt, Neil C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Crystalline phase formation shown to depend on glass matrix composition. • Zirconolite forms as the sole crystalline phase only for most aluminous glasses. • Thermodynamics indicate that low silica activity glasses stabilise zirconolite. - Abstract: Zirconolite glass-ceramic wasteforms were prepared using a suite of Na 2 O–Al 2 O 3 –B 2 O 3 –SiO 2 glass matrices with variable Al:B ratios. Zirconolite was the dominant crystalline phase only for the most alumina rich glass compositions. As the Al:B ratio decreased zirconolite was replaced by sphene, zircon and rutile. Thermodynamic data were used to calculate a silica activity in the glass melt below which zirconolite is the favoured crystalline phase. The concept of the crystalline reference state of glass melts is then utilised to provide a physical basis for why silica activity varies with the Al:B ratio

  10. Glass-crystalline materials for active waste incorporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulichenko, V.V.; Krylova, N.V.; Vlasov, V.I.; Polyakov, A.S.

    1979-01-01

    This paper presents the results of investigations into the possibility and conditions for using glass-crystalline materials for the incorporation of radionuclides. Materials of a cast pyroxene type that are obtained by smelting calcined wastes with acid blast furnace slags are described. A study was also made of materials of a basalt type prepared from wastes with and without alkali metal salt. Changes in the structure and properties of materials in the process of storage at different temperatures have been studied

  11. Hydroxylated ceramic waste forms and the absurdity of leach tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, R; Odoj, R; Merz, E [eds.

    1981-06-01

    The repository pressure and temperature conditions during the thermal period projected in US repositories have been drastically lowered in the last year or two to new values of say 175 +- 50/sup 0/K. Using the argument that the evidence from natural models indicates the most stable mineral (= ceramic) hosts for radionuclides, one finds that under these new repository conditions such crystalline assemblages would be micas, clays, zeolites and other hydrated minerals, plus the tetravalent anhydrous oxide families. A waste form consisting of specific hydroxylated candidate phases can be made via a simple in-can technology (demonstrated by Oak Ridge) by reacting liquid wastes with precursor gels or phyllo or tektosilicates at <200/sup 0/C under modest pressure within the final disposal canister. The data on the rate of reaction of typical oxide materials to yield hydroxylated phases under these conditions show that the typical leach test (at 25 to 100/sup 0/C in deionized water) does not provide a simulation of the reactions which will occur. Hence such tests are not only totally meaningless with respect to qualifying a waste form for its role in a repository, they can be downright misleading.

  12. Hydroxylated ceramic waste forms and the absurdity of 'leach tests'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, R; Odoj, R; Merz, E [eds.

    1981-06-01

    The repository pressure and temperature conditions during the thermal period projected in U.S. repositories have been drastically lowered in the last year or two to new values of say 175 +- 50 K. Using the argument that the evidence from natural models indicates the most stable mineral (= ceramic) hosts for radionuclides, one finds that under these new repository conditions such crystalline assemblages would be micas, clays, zeolites, and other hydrated minerals, plus the tetravalent anhydrous oxide families. A waste form consisting of specific hydroxylated candidate phase can be made via a simple in-can technology (demonstrated by Oak Ridge) by reacting liquid wastes with precursor gels or phyllo or tektosilicates at <200/sup 0/C under modest pressure within the final disposal canister. The data on the rate of reaction of typical oxide materials to yield hydroxylated phases under these conditions show that the typical leach test (at 25-100/sup 0/C in deionized water) does not provide a simulation of the reactions which will occur. Hence such tests are not only totally meaningless with respect to qualifying a waste form for its role in a repository, they can be downright misleading.

  13. Ceramic waste form qualification using results from witness tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Holleran, T.P.; Johnson, S.G.; Bateman, K.J.

    2002-01-01

    A ceramic waste form has been developed to immobilize the salt waste stream from electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel. The ceramic waste form is prepared in a hot isostatic press (HIP). The use of small, easily fabricated HIP capsules called witness tubes has been proposed as a practical way to obtain representative samples of ceramic waste form material for process monitoring, waste form qualification, and archiving. Witness tubes are filled with the same material used to fill the corresponding HIP can, and are HIPed along with the HIP can. Relevant physical, chemical, and performance (leach test) data are analyzed and compared. Differences between witness tube and HIP can materials are shown to be statistically insignificant, demonstrating that witness tubes do provide ceramic waste form material representative of the material in the corresponding HIP can.

  14. Reusing Ceramic Tile Polishing Waste In Paving Block Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Giordano Penteado; Carmenlucia Santos; de Carvalho; Eduardo Viviani; Cecche Lintz; Rosa Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Ceramic companies worldwide produce large amounts of polishing tile waste, which are piled up in the open air or disposed of in landfills. These wastes have such characteristics that make them potential substitutes for cement and sand in the manufacturing of concrete products. This paper investigates the use of ceramic tile polishing waste as a partial substitute for cement and sand in the manufacturer of concrete paving blocks. A concrete mix design was defined and then the sand was replaced...

  15. Phosphate bonded ceramics as candidate final-waste-form materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, D.; Wagh, A.S.; Cunnane, J.; Sutaria, M.; Kurokawa, S.; Mayberry, J.

    1994-04-01

    Room-temperature setting phosphate-bonded ceramics were studied as candidate materials for stabilization of DOE low-level problem mixed wastes which cannot be treated by other established stabilization techniques. Phosphates of Mg, Mg-Na, Al and Zr were studied to stabilize ash surrogate waste containing RCRA metals as nitrates and RCRA organics. We show that for a typical loading of 35 wt.% of the ash waste, the phosphate ceramics pass the TCLP test. The waste forms have high compression strength exceeding ASTM recommendations for final waste forms. Detailed X-ray diffraction studies and differential thermal analyses of the waste forms show evidence of chemical reaction of the waste with phosphoric acid and the host matrix. The SEM studies show evidence of physical bonding. The excellent performance in the leaching tests is attributed to a chemical solidification and physical as well as chemical bonding of ash wastes in these phosphate ceramics

  16. Scale up issues involved with the ceramic waste form: ceramic-container interactions and ceramic cracking quantification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, K. J.; DiSanto, T.; Goff, K. M.; Johnson, S. G.; O'Holleran, T.; Riley, W. P. Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory is developing a process for the conditioning of spent nuclear fuel to prepare the material for final disposal. Two waste streams will result from the treatment process, a stainless steel based form and a ceramic based form. The ceramic waste form will be enclosed in a stainless steel container. In order to assess the performance of the ceramic waste form in a repository two factors must be examined, the surface area increases caused by waste form cracking and any ceramic/canister interactions that may release toxic material. The results indicate that the surface area increases are less than the High Level Waste glass and any toxic releases are below regulatory limits

  17. Characterization of quartzite waste and their application on red ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babisk, M.P.; Vidal, F.W.H.; Vieira, C.M.F.; Ribeiro, W.S.

    2012-01-01

    The incorporation of industrial waste into red ceramic have been used currently in the search for alternative raw materials, and also seeking for an environmentally friendly waste disposal that pollute. During the process of beneficiation of dimension stone, there are significant losses of material and waste generation, which have been placed inappropriately in nature, with no provision for use or reuse. The quartzite is geologically classified as a metamorphic rock composed almost entirely of quartz grains. The aim of this study is to characterize and evaluate the applicability of quartzite waste in the red ceramic. Incorporations were studied up to 40% by weight of waste in the ceramics body and the results indicated that the residue of quartz is a material with great potential to be used as a component in a red ceramic. (author)

  18. Naturally occurring crystalline phases: analogues for radioactive waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haaker, R.F.; Ewing, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    Naturally occurring mineral analogues to crystalline phases that are constituents of crystalline radioactive waste forms provide a basis for comparison by which the long-term stability of these phases may be estimated. The crystal structures and the crystal chemistry of the following natural analogues are presented: baddeleyite, hematite, nepheline; pollucite, scheelite;sodalite, spinel, apatite, monazite, uraninite, hollandite-priderite, perovskite, and zirconolite. For each phase in geochemistry, occurrence, alteration and radiation effects are described. A selected bibliography for each phase is included

  19. Naturally occurring crystalline phases: analogues for radioactive waste forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haaker, R.F.; Ewing, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    Naturally occurring mineral analogues to crystalline phases that are constituents of crystalline radioactive waste forms provide a basis for comparison by which the long-term stability of these phases may be estimated. The crystal structures and the crystal chemistry of the following natural analogues are presented: baddeleyite, hematite, nepheline; pollucite, scheelite;sodalite, spinel, apatite, monazite, uraninite, hollandite-priderite, perovskite, and zirconolite. For each phase in geochemistry, occurrence, alteration and radiation effects are described. A selected bibliography for each phase is included.

  20. Characterization of granite waste for use in red ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguiar, M.C.; Monteiro, S.N.; Vieira, C.M.F.; Borlini, M.C.

    2011-01-01

    This work aims to study the characterization of the granite waste from the city of Santo Antonio de Padua-RJ for the use in red ceramic. The chemical, physical and morphological characterization of the waste was performed by chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction, particle size distribution, thermal analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results indicated that this waste is a material with great potential to be used as a component of ceramic body due to its capacity to act as flux during the firing, and to improve the properties of the ceramic when is incorporate. (author)

  1. Characterization of glass and glass ceramic nuclear waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutze, W.; Borchardt, J.; De, A.K.

    1979-01-01

    Characteristics of solidified nuclear waste forms, glass and glass ceramic compositions and the properties (composition, thermal stability, crystallization, phase behavior, chemical stability, mechanical stability, and radiation effects) of glasses and glass ceramics are discussed. The preparation of glass ceramics may be an optional step for proposed vitrification plants if tailored glasses are used. Glass ceramics exhibit some improved properties with respect to glasses. The overall leach resistance is similar to that of glasses. An increased leach resistance may become effective for single radionuclides being hosted in highly insoluble crystal phases mainly when higher melting temperatures are applicable in order to get more leach resistant residual glass phases. The development of glass ceramic is going on. The technological feasibility is still to be demonstrated. The potential gain of stability when using glass ceramics qualifies the material as an alternative nuclear waste form

  2. Designing Advanced Ceramic Waste Forms for Electrochemical Processing Salt Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebert, W. L.; Snyder, C. T.; Frank, Steven; Riley, Brian

    2016-01-01

    This report describes the scientific basis underlying the approach being followed to design and develop ''advanced'' glass-bonded sodalite ceramic waste form (ACWF) materials that can (1) accommodate higher salt waste loadings than the waste form developed in the 1990s for EBR-II waste salt and (2) provide greater flexibility for immobilizing extreme waste salt compositions. This is accomplished by using a binder glass having a much higher Na_2O content than glass compositions used previously to provide enough Na+ to react with all of the Cl- in the waste salt and generate the maximum amount of sodalite. The phase compositions and degradation behaviors of prototype ACWF products that were made using five new binder glass formulations and with 11-14 mass% representative LiCl/KCl-based salt waste were evaluated and compared with results of similar tests run with CWF products made using the original binder glass with 8 mass% of the same salt to demonstrate the approach and select a composition for further studies. About twice the amount of sodalite was generated in all ACWF materials and the microstructures and degradation behaviors confirmed our understanding of the reactions occurring during waste form production and the efficacy of the approach. However, the porosities of the resulting ACWF materials were higher than is desired. These results indicate the capacity of these ACWF waste forms to accommodate LiCl/KCl-based salt wastes becomes limited by porosity due to the low glass-to-sodalite volume ratio. Three of the new binder glass compositions were acceptable and there is no benefit to further increasing the Na content as initially planned. Instead, further studies are needed to develop and evaluate alternative production methods to decrease the porosity, such as by increasing the amount of binder glass in the formulation or by processing waste forms in a hot isostatic press. Increasing the amount of binder glass to eliminate porosity will decrease the waste

  3. Designing Advanced Ceramic Waste Forms for Electrochemical Processing Salt Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, W. L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Snyder, C. T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Frank, Steven [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Riley, Brian [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-03-01

    This report describes the scientific basis underlying the approach being followed to design and develop “advanced” glass-bonded sodalite ceramic waste form (ACWF) materials that can (1) accommodate higher salt waste loadings than the waste form developed in the 1990s for EBR-II waste salt and (2) provide greater flexibility for immobilizing extreme waste salt compositions. This is accomplished by using a binder glass having a much higher Na2O content than glass compositions used previously to provide enough Na+ to react with all of the Cl– in the waste salt and generate the maximum amount of sodalite. The phase compositions and degradation behaviors of prototype ACWF products that were made using five new binder glass formulations and with 11-14 mass% representative LiCl/KCl-based salt waste were evaluated and compared with results of similar tests run with CWF products made using the original binder glass with 8 mass% of the same salt to demonstrate the approach and select a composition for further studies. About twice the amount of sodalite was generated in all ACWF materials and the microstructures and degradation behaviors confirmed our understanding of the reactions occurring during waste form production and the efficacy of the approach. However, the porosities of the resulting ACWF materials were higher than is desired. These results indicate the capacity of these ACWF waste forms to accommodate LiCl/KCl-based salt wastes becomes limited by porosity due to the low glass-to-sodalite volume ratio. Three of the new binder glass compositions were acceptable and there is no benefit to further increasing the Na content as initially planned. Instead, further studies are needed to develop and evaluate alternative production methods to decrease the porosity, such as by increasing the amount of binder glass in the formulation or by processing waste forms in a hot isostatic press. Increasing the amount of binder glass to eliminate porosity will decrease

  4. Oxidation studies of β-sialon ceramics containing amorphous and / or crystalline intergranular phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, J.; Kall, P.O.; Jansson, K.; Nygren, M.

    1992-01-01

    β-sialon ceramics of equal overall compositions but containing amorphous, partly crystalline and almost completely crystalline intergranular phase(s) have been oxidized in oxygen at 1350 deg C for 20 hours. The obtained weight gain curves do not follow the parabolic rate law (ΔW/A 0 ) 2 = k p t + β. To the extent that crystallization occurs in the oxide scale during the oxidation experiment, the amorphous cross section area through which oxygen most easily diffuses will decrease with time. A brief description of this new rate law is given, and the obtained oxidation curves will be discussed within that framework. 4 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  5. Immobilization of fission products in phosphate ceramic waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, D.

    1996-01-01

    The goal of this project is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a novel low-temperature solidification/stabilization (S/S) technology for immobilizing waste streams containing fission products such as cesium, strontium, and technetium in a chemically bonded phosphate ceramic. This technology can immobilize partitioned tank wastes and decontaminate waste streams containing volatile fission products

  6. Decontamination factors of ceramic filter in radioactive waste incineration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanbe, Hiromi; Mayuzumi, Masami; Ono, Tetsuo; Yoshiki, Shinya; Kouyama, Hiroaki; Nagae, Madoka; Sekiguchi, Ryosaku; Takaoku, Yoshinobu; Hozumi, Masahiro.

    1987-01-01

    A suspension-firing type radioactive waste incineration system is developed and cold demonstration testing of ceramic filters for the system are carried out. The incineration system, which is useful for a wide variety of waste materials, can serve to simplify the facilities and to reduce the costs for waste disposal. The incineration system can be used for drying-processing of concentrated waste liquids and disposal of flame resistant materials including ion exchange resins and rubber, as well as for ordinary combustible solid materials. An on-line backwash system is adopted to allow the ceramic filters to operate stably for a long period of time. For one-step filtering using the ceramic filter, the decontamination factor is greater than 10 5 for the processing of various wastes. In a practical situation, there exist vapor produced by the spray drier and the cladding in used ion exchange resin, which act to increase the decontamination performance of the ceramic filters to ensure safe operation. For the waste incineration system equipped with a waste gas processing apparatus consisting of a ceramic filter and HEPA filter, the overall decontamination factor is expected to be greater than 10 6 at portions down to the outlet of the ceramic filter and greater than 10 8 at portions down to the outlet of the HEPA filter. (Nogami, K.)

  7. Solidification of TRU wastes in a ceramic matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loida, A.; Schubert, G.

    1991-01-01

    Aluminumsilicate based ceramic materials have been evaluated as an alternative waste form for the incorporation of TRU wastes. These waste forms are free of water and - cannot generate hydrogen radiolyticly, - they show good compatibility between the compounds of the waste and the matrix, - they are resistent against aqueous solutions, heat and radiation. R and D-work has been performed to demonstrate the suitability of this waste form for the immobilization of TRU-wastes. Four kinds of original TRU-waste streams and a mixture of all of them have been immobilized by ceramization, using glove box and remote operation technique as well. Clay minerals, (kaolinite, bentonite) and reactive corundum were selected as ceramic raw materials (KAB 78) in an appropriate ratio yielding 78 wt% Al 2 O 3 and 22 wt%SiO 2 . The main process steps are (i) pretreatment of the liquid waste (concentration, denitration, neutralization, solid- liquid separation), (ii) mixing with ceramic raw materials and forming, (iii) heat treatment with T max. of 1300 0 C for 15 minutes. The waste load of the ceramic matrix has been increased gradually from 20 to 50, in some cases to 60 wt.%

  8. Scintillation properties of transparent ceramic and single crystalline Nd:YAG scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagida, Takayuki; Kamada, Kei; Fujimoto, Yutaka; Yokota, Yuui; Yoshikawa, Akira; Yagi, Hideki; Yanagitani, Takagimi

    2011-01-01

    Nd 0.1, 1.1, 2, 4, and 6 mol% doped YAG transparent ceramics are manufactured by the sintering method and their scintillation properties are compared with those of single crystalline Nd 1 mol% doped YAG grown by the micro-pulling down method. They show ∼80% transmittance at wavelengths longer than 300 nm and strong emission lines due to Nd 3+ 4f-4f emission in their radio-luminescence spectra. Among them, the single crystalline sample shows the highest light yield of 11,000 ph/MeV under γ-ray excitation and the second highest one is from Nd 1.1 mol% doped transparent ceramic, which shows 6000 ph/MeV. In these scintillators, dominant decay time constant is around 2-3 μs due to Nd 3+ 4f-4f transitions.

  9. Scintillation properties of transparent ceramic and single crystalline Nd:YAG scintillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagida, Takayuki, E-mail: t_yanagi@tagen.tohoku.ac.j [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Kamada, Kei; Fujimoto, Yutaka; Yokota, Yuui [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Yoshikawa, Akira [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); New Industry Creation Hatchery Center (NICHe), Tohoku University, 6-6-10 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Yagi, Hideki; Yanagitani, Takagimi [Konoshima Chemical Co., Ltd., 80 Kouda, Takuma, Mitoyo-gun, Kagawa 769-1103 (Japan)

    2011-03-01

    Nd 0.1, 1.1, 2, 4, and 6 mol% doped YAG transparent ceramics are manufactured by the sintering method and their scintillation properties are compared with those of single crystalline Nd 1 mol% doped YAG grown by the micro-pulling down method. They show {approx}80% transmittance at wavelengths longer than 300 nm and strong emission lines due to Nd{sup 3+} 4f-4f emission in their radio-luminescence spectra. Among them, the single crystalline sample shows the highest light yield of 11,000 ph/MeV under {gamma}-ray excitation and the second highest one is from Nd 1.1 mol% doped transparent ceramic, which shows 6000 ph/MeV. In these scintillators, dominant decay time constant is around 2-3 {mu}s due to Nd{sup 3+} 4f-4f transitions.

  10. Challenges in Modeling the Degradation of Ceramic Waste Forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devanathan, Ramaswami; Gao, Fei; Sun, Xin

    2011-09-01

    We identify the state of the art, gaps in current understanding, and key research needs in the area of modeling the long-term degradation of ceramic waste forms for nuclear waste disposition. The directed purpose of this report is to define a roadmap for Waste IPSC needs to extend capabilities of waste degradation to ceramic waste forms, which overlaps with the needs of the subconsinuum scale of FMM interests. The key knowledge gaps are in the areas of (i) methodology for developing reliable interatomic potentials to model the complex atomic-level interactions in waste forms; (ii) characterization of water interactions at ceramic surfaces and interfaces; and (iii) extension of atomic-level insights to the long time and distance scales relevant to the problem of actinide and fission product immobilization.

  11. Challenges in Modeling the Degradation of Ceramic Waste Forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devanathan, Ramaswami; Gao, Fei; Sun, Xin

    2011-01-01

    We identify the state of the art, gaps in current understanding, and key research needs in the area of modeling the long-term degradation of ceramic waste forms for nuclear waste disposition. The directed purpose of this report is to define a roadmap for Waste IPSC needs to extend capabilities of waste degradation to ceramic waste forms, which overlaps with the needs of the subconsinuum scale of FMM interests. The key knowledge gaps are in the areas of (i) methodology for developing reliable interatomic potentials to model the complex atomic-level interactions in waste forms; (ii) characterization of water interactions at ceramic surfaces and interfaces; and (iii) extension of atomic-level insights to the long time and distance scales relevant to the problem of actinide and fission product immobilization.

  12. Glass-ceramics: Their production from wastes - a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawlings, R.D.; Wu, J.P.; Boccaccini, A.R. [University of London, London (United Kingdom). Imperial College of Science & Technology, Dept. of Medicine

    2006-02-15

    Glass-ceramics are polycrystalline materials of fine microstructure that are produced by the controlled crystallisation (devitrification) of a glass. Numerous silicate based wastes, such as coal combustion ash, slag from steel production, fly ash and filter dusts from waste incinerators, mud from metal hydrometallurgy, different types of sludge as well as glass cullet or mixtures of them have been considered for the production of glass-ceramics. Developments of glass-ceramics from waste using different processing methods are described comprehensively in this review, covering R&D work carried out worldwide in the last 40 years. Properties and applications of the different glass-ceramics produced are discussed. The review reveals that considerable knowledge and expertise has been accumulated on the process of transformation of silicate waste into useful glass-ceramic products. These glass-ceramics are attractive as building materials for usage as construction and architectural components or for other specialised technical applications requiring a combination of suitable thermo-mechanical properties. Previous attempts to commercialise glass-ceramics from waste and to scale-up production for industrial exploitation are also discussed.

  13. Leaching behavior of phosphate-bonded ceramic waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, D.; Wagh, A.S.; Jeong, S.Y.; Dorf, M.

    1996-04-01

    Over the last few years, Argonne National Laboratory has been developing room-temperature-setting chemically bonded phosphate ceramics for solidifying and stabilizing low-level mixed wastes. This technology is crucial for stabilizing waste streams that contain volatile species and off-gas secondary waste streams generated by high-temperature treatment of such wastes. We have developed a magnesium phosphate ceramic to treat mixed wastes such as ash, salts, and cement sludges. Waste forms of surrogate waste streams were fabricated by acid-base reactions between the mixtures of magnesium oxide powders and the wastes, and phosphoric acid or acid phosphate solutions. Dense and hard ceramic waste forms are produced in this process. The principal advantage of this technology is that the contaminants are immobilized by both chemical stabilization and subsequent microencapsulation of the reaction products. This paper reports the results of durability studies conducted on waste forms made with ash waste streams spiked with hazardous and radioactive surrogates. Standard leaching tests such as ANS 16.1 and TCLP were conducted on the final waste forms. Fates of the contaminants in the final waste forms were established by electron microscopy. In addition, stability of the waste forms in aqueous environments was evaluated with long-term water-immersion tests

  14. Disposal criticality analysis for the ceramic waste form from the ANL electrometallurgical treatment process - Internal configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lell, R. M.; Agrawal, R.; Morris, E. E.

    2000-01-01

    Criticality safety issues for disposal of the ANL ceramic waste were examined for configurations within the waste package. Co-disposal of ceramic waste and DOE spent fuel is discussed briefly; co-disposal of ANL ceramic and metal wastes is examined in detail. Calculations indicate that no significant potential for criticality exists until essentially all of the important neutron absorbers are flushed from the degraded ceramic waste. Even if all of the neutron absorbers are removed from the ceramic waste rubble, the package remains far subcritical if the blended salts used in ceramic waste production have an initial U-235 enrichment below 40%

  15. Ceramic ware waste as coarse aggregate for structural concrete production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-González, Julia; Rodríguez-Robles, Desirée; Juan-Valdés, Andrés; Morán-Del Pozo, Julia M; Guerra-Romero, M Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    The manufacture of any kind of product inevitably entails the production of waste. The quantity of waste generated by the ceramic industry, a very important sector in Spain, is between 5% and 8% of the final output and it is therefore necessary to find an effective waste recovery method. The aim of the study reported in the present article was to seek a sustainable means of managing waste from the ceramic industry through the incorporation of this type of waste in the total replacement of conventional aggregate (gravel) used in structural concrete. Having verified that the recycled ceramic aggregates met all the technical requirements imposed by current Spanish legislation, established in the Code on Structural Concrete (EHE-08), then it is prepared a control concrete mix and the recycled concrete mix using 100% recycled ceramic aggregate instead of coarse natural aggregate. The concretes obtained were subjected to the appropriate tests in order to conduct a comparison of their mechanical properties. The results show that the concretes made using ceramic sanitary ware aggregate possessed the same mechanical properties as those made with conventional aggregate. It is therefore possible to conclude that the reuse of recycled ceramic aggregate to produce recycled concrete is a feasible alternative for the sustainable management of this waste.

  16. Development of waste-based ceramic pigments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa, G.

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available We report the preparation of ceramic pigments using industrial wastes as primary sources. In this context, the use of Al-rich sludge generated in the wastewater treatment unit of an anodising or surface coating industrial plant, and a galvanizing sludge from the Cr/Ni plating process, will be detailed. The ceramic pigments reported here were prepared using typical solid state reactions involving the metal rich sludge. The main focus will be on the synthesis of chrome-tin orchid cassiterite (Sn,CrO2, chrome-tin red malayaite Ca(Cr,SnSiO5, victoria green garnet Ca3Cr2Si3O12, and chrome alumina pink/green corundum (Cr,Al2O3 pigments. The pigments were fully characterised and then were tested in a standard ceramic glaze after. Typical working conditions and colour development will be reported.

    Se presenta la preparación de pigmentos cerámicos empleando residuos industriales como fuente de materias primas. Se detallan el uso de barros ricos en aluminio obtenidos en los tratamientos de depuración de aguas de plantas industriales de anodizado y barros de galvanizados de chapados de Cr/Ni. Los pigmentos cerámicos se prepararon empleando reacción en estados sólido a partir del barro rico en metal. Los principales pigmentos estudiados son orquídea casiterita de cromo-estaño (Sn,CrO2, malayita rojo de cromo-estaño Ca(Sn,CrSiO3, granate verde victoria Ca3Cr2Si3O12, y corindón rosa/verde de cromo alúmina (Cr,Al2O3. Los pigmentos fueron caracterizados y ensayados después de ser vidriados en cerámicas estándares. Se presentan las condiciones de trabajo y el desarrollo de color.

  17. Porous ceramics achievement by soybean and corn agricultural waste insertion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdameri, C.Z.; Ank, A.; Zatta, L.; Anaissi, F.J.

    2014-01-01

    Porous ceramic materials are produced by incorporating organic particles and stable foams. Generally it improves low thermal conductivity, which gives thermal comfort for buildings. The southwest region of Parana state is one of the largest producers of grains in Brazil, this causes the disposal of a large amount of waste in the agricultural processing. This paper presents the characterization of porous ceramics produced from clay minerals and agricultural waste (soybeans and corn). The precursor was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) techniques. For the ceramic materials produced, characterizations about density, water absorption, tensile strength by diametrical compression strength and flexural strength curves was performed. The results showed high possibility of industrial/commercial application because the ceramic materials were produced from low costs precursors leading to ceramic products with properties of interest in construction. (author)

  18. Glasses and ceramics for immobilisation of radioactive wastes for disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, K.D.B.; Marples, J.A.C.

    1979-05-01

    The U.K. Research Programme on Radioactive Waste Management includes the development of processes for the conversion of high level liquid reprocessing wastes from thermal and fast reactors to borosilicate glasses. The properties of these glasses and their behaviour under storage and disposal conditions have been examined. Methods for immobilising activity from other wastes by conversion to glass or ceramic forms is described. The U.K. philosophy of final solutions to waste management and disposal is presented. (author)

  19. Wastes based glasses and glass-ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbieri, L.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Actually, the inertization, recovery and valorisation of the wastes coming from municipal and industrial processes are the most important goals from the environmental and economical point of view. An alternative technology capable to overcome the problem of the dishomogeneity of the raw material chemical composition is the vitrification process that is able to increase the homogeneity and the constancy of the chemical composition of the system and to modulate the properties in order to address the reutilization of the waste. Moreover, the glasses obtained subjected to different controlled thermal treatments, can be transformed in semy-cristalline material (named glass-ceramics with improved properties with respect to the parent amorphous materials. In this review the tailoring, preparation and characterization of glasses and glass-ceramics obtained starting from municipal incinerator grate ash, coal and steel fly ashes and glass cullet are described.

    Realmente la inertización, recuperación y valorización de residuos que proceden de los procesos de incineración de residuos municipales y de residuos industriales son metas importantes desde el punto de vista ambiental y económico. Una tecnología alternativa capaz de superar el problema de la heterogeneidad de la composición química de los materiales de partida es el proceso de la vitrificación que es capaz de aumentar la homogeneidad y la constancia de la composición química del sistema y modular las propiedades a fin de la reutilización del residuo. En este artículo se presentan los resultados de vitrificación en que los vidrios fueron sometidos a tratamientos térmicos controlados diferentes, de manera que se transforman en materiales semicristalinos (también denominados vitrocerámicos con mejores propiedades respecto a los materiales amorfos originales. En esta revisión se muestra el diseño, preparación y caracterización de vidrios y vitrocerámicos partiendo de

  20. Waste separation and pretreatment using crystalline silicotitanate ion exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadros, M.E.; Miller, J.E. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Anthony, R.G. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1997-10-01

    A new class of inorganic ion exchangers called crystalline silicotitanates (CSTs) has been developed jointly by Sandia National Laboratories and Texas A&M University to selectively remove Cs and other radionuclides from a wide spectrum of radioactive defense wastes. The CST exhibits high selectivity and affinity for Cs and Sr under a wide range of conditions. Tests show it can remove part-per-million concentrations of Cs{sup +} from highly alkaline, high-sodium simulated radioactive waste solutions modeled after those at Hanford, Oak Ridge, and Savannah River. The materials exhibit ion exchange properties based on ionic size selectivity. Specifically, crystalline lattice spacing is controlled to be highly selective for Cs ions even in waste streams containing very high (5 to 10 M) concentrations of sodium. The CST technology is being demonstrated with actual waste at several DOE facilities. The use of inorganic ion exchangers. The inorganics are more resistant to chemical, thermal, and radiation degradation. Their high selectivities result in more efficient operations offering the possibility of a simple single-pass operation. In contrast, regenerable organic ion exchangers require additional processing equipment to handle the regeneration liquids and the eluant with the dissolved Cs.

  1. Establishing Value of Ceramic Solid Waste Into Light Weight Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarigan, U.; Prasetya, H. R.; Tarigan, U. P. P.

    2018-02-01

    Ceramic solid waste is a waste in the form of the ceramic or ceramic powder that has a defect and cannot be resold where the amount will continue to increase as the ceramic industry continues to produce. Handling waste so far is done by pilling it on vacant land so that if the waste continues to grow the more areas are also needed to stockpile. In addition, waste handling by boards can be a potential hazard to the surrounding environment such as chemical content in ceramics can be carried to the waters and the dust can be blown by the wind and disrupt breathing. This study aims to convert ceramics solid wastes into bricks that have more added value. Data collection is done with primary and secondary data. The method used is Taguchi experiment design to determine the optimum brick composition. The experiment consisted of 4 factors and 3 levels of ceramic with 4 kg, 5 kg and 6 kg, cement with level 3 kg, 4 kg and 5 kg, silica with level 3 kg, 4 kg and 5 kg, water level 500 ml, 750 ml, and 1000 ml. After that proceed with the financial analysis that is determining the selling price, Break Event Point (BEP, Internal Rate of Return (IRR), Pay Back Period (PBP), and Profitability Index. The results of this research are the optimum composition of the concrete blocks, 6 kg of ceramics, 5 kg of cement, 4 kg of silica sand and 1000 ml of water with the compressive strength of 125,677 kg/cm2 and signal to noise is 41,964 dB. In the financial analysis, the selling price of brick is Rp 7,751.75/unit and BEP 318,612 units of product, IRR level 43.174% and PBP for 1 year and 10 months

  2. Process considerations for hot pressing ceramic nuclear waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, C.N.; Brite, D.W.

    1981-01-01

    Spray calcined simulated ceramic nuclear waste powders were hot pressed in graphite, nickel-lined graphite and ZrO 2 -lined Al 2 O 3 dies. Densification, initial off-gas, waste element retention and pellet-die interactions were evaluated. Indicated process considerations and limitations are discussed. 15 figures

  3. Immobilization of fission products in phosphate ceramic waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, D.; Wagh, A.

    1997-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is developing chemically bonded phosphate ceramics (CBPCs) to treat low-level mixed wastes, particularly those containing volatiles and pyrophorics that cannot be treated by conventional thermal processes. This work was begun under ANL''s Laboratory Directed Research and Development funds, followed by further development with support from EM-50''s Mixed Waste Focus Area

  4. Leaching behavior of glass ceramic nuclear waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokken, R.O.

    1981-11-01

    Glass ceramic waste forms have been investigated as alternatives to borosilicate glasses for the immobilization of high-level radioactive waste at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). Three glass ceramic systems were investigated, including basalt, celsian, and fresnoite, each containing 20 wt % simulated high-level waste calcine. Static leach tests were performed on seven glass ceramic materials and one parent glass (before recrystallization). Samples were leached at 90 0 C for 3 to 28 days in deionized water and silicate water. The results, expressed in normalized elemental mass loss, (g/m 2 ), show comparable releases from celsian and fresnoite glass ceramics. Basalt glass ceramics demonstrated the lowest normalized elemental losses with a nominal release less than 2 g/m 2 when leached in polypropylene containers. The releases from basalt glass ceramics when leached in silicate water were nearly identical with those in deionized water. The overall leachability of celsian and fresnoite glass ceramics was improved when silicate water was used as the leachant

  5. Description of a ceramic waste form and canister for Savannah River Plant high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, J.L.; Allender, J.S.; Gould, T.H. Jr.

    1982-04-01

    A canistered ceramic waste form for possible immobilization of Savannah River Plant (SRP) high-level radioactive wastes is described. Characteristics reported for the form include waste loading, chemical composition, heat content, isotope inventory, mechanical and thermal properties, and leach rates. A conceptual design of a potential production process for making this canistered form are also described. The ceramic form was selected in November 1981 as the primary alternative to the reference waste form, borosilicate glass, for making a final waste form decision for SRP waste by FY-1983. 11 tables

  6. Disposal of radioactive waste in Swedish crystalline rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greis Dahlberg, Christina; Wikberg, Peter

    2015-01-01

    SKB, Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company is tasked with managing Swedish nuclear and radioactive waste. Crystalline rock is the obvious alternative for deep geological disposal in Sweden. SKB is, since 1988, operating a near surface repository for short-lived low and intermediate-level waste, SFR. The waste in SFR comprises operational and decommissioning waste from nuclear plants, industrial waste, research-related waste and medical waste. Spent nuclear fuel is currently stored in an interim facility while waiting for a license to construct a deep geological repository. The Swedish long-lived low and intermediate-level waste consists mainly of BWR control rods, reactor internals and legacy waste from early research in the Swedish nuclear programs. The current plan is to dispose of this waste in a separate deep geological repository, SFL, sometimes after 2045. Understanding of the rock properties is the basis for the design of the repository concepts. Swedish crystalline rock is mechanical stable and suitable for underground constructions. The Spent Fuel Repository is planned at approximately 500 meters depth in the rock at the Forsmark site. The host rock will keep the spent fuel isolated from human and near-surface environment. The rock will also provide the stable chemical and hydraulic conditions that make it possible to select suitable technical barriers to support the containment provided by the rock. A very long lasting canister is necessary to avoid release and transport of radionuclides through water conducting fractures in the rock. A canister designed for the Swedish rock, consists of a tight, 5 cm thick corrosion barrier of copper and a load-bearing insert of cast iron. To restrict the water flow around the canister and by that prevent fast corrosion, a bentonite buffer will surround the canister. Secondary, the bentonite buffer will retard a potential release by its strong sorption of radionuclides. The SFR repository is situated in

  7. Disposal of radioactive waste in Swedish crystalline rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greis Dahlberg, Christina; Wikberg, Peter [Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-07-01

    SKB, Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company is tasked with managing Swedish nuclear and radioactive waste. Crystalline rock is the obvious alternative for deep geological disposal in Sweden. SKB is, since 1988, operating a near surface repository for short-lived low and intermediate-level waste, SFR. The waste in SFR comprises operational and decommissioning waste from nuclear plants, industrial waste, research-related waste and medical waste. Spent nuclear fuel is currently stored in an interim facility while waiting for a license to construct a deep geological repository. The Swedish long-lived low and intermediate-level waste consists mainly of BWR control rods, reactor internals and legacy waste from early research in the Swedish nuclear programs. The current plan is to dispose of this waste in a separate deep geological repository, SFL, sometimes after 2045. Understanding of the rock properties is the basis for the design of the repository concepts. Swedish crystalline rock is mechanical stable and suitable for underground constructions. The Spent Fuel Repository is planned at approximately 500 meters depth in the rock at the Forsmark site. The host rock will keep the spent fuel isolated from human and near-surface environment. The rock will also provide the stable chemical and hydraulic conditions that make it possible to select suitable technical barriers to support the containment provided by the rock. A very long lasting canister is necessary to avoid release and transport of radionuclides through water conducting fractures in the rock. A canister designed for the Swedish rock, consists of a tight, 5 cm thick corrosion barrier of copper and a load-bearing insert of cast iron. To restrict the water flow around the canister and by that prevent fast corrosion, a bentonite buffer will surround the canister. Secondary, the bentonite buffer will retard a potential release by its strong sorption of radionuclides. The SFR repository is situated in

  8. Plating Plant Waste Utilization in Glasswork, Ceramic and Building Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaev, V.P.; Scheglov, M.; Korneva, S.A.

    1999-01-01

    The technology allows using electroplating plant waste for recovery of fine inorganic pigments, which may be used in paintwork and ceramic industry (for coating and enamel preparation, for ceramic painting), in glasswork (colored glass) and in building industry (for producing foundation slabs, sidewalk plates and curbing, for art urban planning, for pavement and aerodrome covering and so on). For fine inorganic pigment recovery so-called sol-gel method was used

  9. Glass-ceramics with multibarrier structure obtained from industrial waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berzina, L.; Cimdins, R.; Rozenstrauha, I. [Riga Tech. Univ. (Latvia). Fac. of Chem. Technol.; Bossert, J. [Technisches Inst.: Materialwissenschaft, Friedrich-Schiller-Univ., Jena (Germany); Kravtchenko, I. [Inst. for Problems of Material Science, Kiev (Ukraine)

    1997-12-31

    Recycling problem for various kind of waste is solved by processing the waste to ecological depositable products with multibarrier structure. In order to form a multibarrier structure the ecologically incompatible substances may be diluted and chemically bound until their recycling products gain a structure like natural mineral or glass (I. barrier). After that, remineralized materials are converted into a new product by melting or powder technology using an ecological compatible type of waste as a matrix phase (II. barrier). Waste which are treated this way could be applied to produce ceramic building materials and goods such as floor tiles, stone pavement and casting products. Industrial waste from the metallurgical factory in Latvia ``Liepajas metalurgs`` are metallurgical slag, filter dust, etching waste and sewage used in technologies. The main constituents of chemical compositions of these waste are: Fe, Ca, Si, Mg, Al, Mn etc. In some types of waste a small amount of ecologically risky elements such as Cr, Ni, Zr, Sn and Pb can occur. The combination of metallurgical waste with peat ashes from Riga thermal power station, oil shale ashes or glass waste under controlled sintering procedure gives bulk materials with surface or/and bulkcrystallization. The structure of glass-ceramics built this way may prevent the migration of ecologically risky elements into environment due to corrosion or friction. Physical-chemical properties and thermal behaviour (DTA, dilatometry, melting) of waste define the range of sintering for production of glass-ceramics (powder technology) and decorative glass-ceramic materials (melting and powder technology). (orig.) 5 refs.

  10. Injection molding of ceramic filled polypropylene: The effect of thermal conductivity and cooling rate on crystallinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suplicz, A.; Szabo, F.; Kovacs, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • BN, talc and TiO 2 in 30 vol% were compounded with polypropylene matrix. • According to the DSC measurements, the fillers are good nucleating agents. • The thermal conductivity of the fillers influences the cooling rate of the melt. • The higher the cooling rate is, the lower the crystallinity in the polymer matrix. - Abstract: Three different nano- and micro-sized ceramic powders (boron-nitride (BN), talc and titanium-dioxide (TiO 2 )) in 30 vol% have been compounded with a polypropylene (PP) matrix. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows that the particles are dispersed smoothly in the matrix and larger aggregates cannot be discovered. The cooling gradients and the cooling rate in the injection-molded samples were estimated with numerical simulations and finite element analysis software. It was proved with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements that the cooling rate has significant influence on the crystallinity of the compounds. At a low cooling rate BN works as a nucleating agent so the crystallinity of the compound is higher than that of unfilled PP. On the other hand, at a high cooling rate, the crystallinity of the compound is lower than that of unfilled PP because of its higher thermal conductivity. The higher the thermal conductivity is, the higher the real cooling rate in the material, which influences the crystallization kinetics significantly

  11. Consolidated waste forms: glass marbles and ceramic pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treat, R.L.; Rusin, J.M.

    1982-05-01

    Glass marbles and ceramic pellets have been developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory as part of the multibarrier concept for immobilizing high-level radioactive waste. These consolidated waste forms served as substrates for the application of various inert coatings and as ideal-sized particles for encapsulation in protective matrices. Marble and pellet formulations were based on existing defense wastes at Savannah River Plant and proposed commercial wastes. To produce marbles, glass is poured from a melter in a continuous stream into a marble-making device. Marbles were produced at PNL on a vibratory marble machine at rates as high as 60 kg/h. Other marble-making concepts were also investigated. The marble process, including a lead-encapsulation step, was judged as one of the more feasible processes for immobilizing high-level wastes. To produce ceramic pellets, a series of processing steps are required, which include: spray calcining - to dry liquid wastes to a powder; disc pelletizing - to convert waste powders to spherical pellets; sintering - to densify pellets and cause desired crystal formation. These processing steps are quite complex, and thereby render the ceramic pellet process as one of the least feasible processes for immobilizing high-level wastes

  12. Ceramics and glasses for radioactive waste storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudin, G.

    1984-06-01

    Borosilicate glasses are mainly choosen for the confinement of fission products; industrial plants are either in operation (AVM) or in construction. Studies of ceramics as a matrix haven't received real application [fr

  13. Accelerated damage studies of titanate ceramics containing simulated PW-4b and JW-A waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, K.P.; Vance, E.R.; Lumpkin, G.R.; Mitamura, H.; Matsumoto, S.; Banba, T.

    1999-01-01

    Ceramic waste forms are affected by radiation damage, primarily arising from aloha-decay processes that can lead to volume expansion and amorphization of the component crystalline phases. The understanding of the extent and impact of these effects on the overall durability of the waste form is critical to the prediction of their long-term performance under repository conditions. Since 1985 ANSTO and JAERI have carried out joint studies on the use of 244 Cm to simulate alpha-radiation damage in ceramic waste forms. These studies have focussed on synroc formulations doped with simulated PW-4b and JW-A wastes. The studies have established the relationship between density change and irradiation levels for Synroc containing JW-A and PW-4b wastes. The storage of samples at 200 C halves the rate of decrease in the density of the samples compared to that measured at room temperature. This effect is consistent with that found for natural samples where the amorphization of natural samples stored under crustal conditions is lower, by factors between 2 and 4, than that measured for samples from accelerated doping experiments stored at room temperature. (J.P.N.)

  14. Glass-Ceramic Waste Forms for Uranium and Plutonium Residues Wastes - 13164

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, Martin W.A.; Moricca, Sam A.; Zhang, Yingjie; Day, R. Arthur; Begg, Bruce D.; Scales, Charlie R.; Maddrell, Ewan R.; Hobbs, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    A program of work has been undertaken to treat plutonium-residues wastes at Sellafield. These have arisen from past fuel development work and are highly variable in both physical and chemical composition. The principal radiological elements present are U and Pu, with small amounts of Th. The waste packages contain Pu in amounts that are too low to be economically recycled as fuel and too high to be disposed of as lower level Pu contaminated material. NNL and ANSTO have developed full-ceramic and glass-ceramic waste forms in which hot-isostatic pressing is used as the consolidation step to safely immobilize the waste into a form suitable for long-term disposition. We discuss development work on the glass-ceramic developed for impure waste streams, in particular the effect of variations in the waste feed chemistry glass-ceramic. The waste chemistry was categorized into actinides, impurity cations, glass formers and anions. Variations of the relative amounts of these on the properties and chemistry of the waste form were investigated and the waste form was found to be largely unaffected by these changes. This work mainly discusses the initial trials with Th and U. Later trials with larger variations and work with Pu-doped samples further confirmed the flexibility of the glass-ceramic. (authors)

  15. Calcium titanium silicate based glass-ceramic for nuclear waste immobilisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, K.; Srivastav, A. P.; Goswami, M.; Krishnan, Madangopal

    2018-04-01

    Titanate based ceramics (synroc) have been studied for immobilisation of nuclear wastes due to their high radiation and thermal stability. The aim of this study is to synthesis glass-ceramic with stable phases from alumino silicate glass composition and study the loading behavior of actinides in glass-ceramics. The effects of CaO and TiO2 addition on phase evolution and structural properties of alumino silicate based glasses with nominal composition x(10CaO-9TiO2)-y(10Na2O-5 Al2O3-56SiO2-10B2O3); where z = x/y = 1.4-1.8 are reported. The glasses are prepared by melt-quench technique and characterized for thermal and structural properties using DTA and Raman Spectroscopy. Glass transition and peak crystallization temperatures decrease with increase of CaO and TiO2 content, which implies the weakening of glass network and increased tendency of glasses towards crystallization. Sphene (CaTiSiO5) and perovskite (CaTiO3) crystalline phases are confirmed from XRD which are well known stable phase for conditioning of actinides. The microsturcture and elemental analysis indicate the presence of actinide in stable crystalline phases.

  16. Aluminum phosphate ceramics for waste storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagh, Arun; Maloney, Martin D

    2014-06-03

    The present disclosure describes solid waste forms and methods of processing waste. In one particular implementation, the invention provides a method of processing waste that may be particularly suitable for processing hazardous waste. In this method, a waste component is combined with an aluminum oxide and an acidic phosphate component in a slurry. A molar ratio of aluminum to phosphorus in the slurry is greater than one. Water in the slurry may be evaporated while mixing the slurry at a temperature of about 140-200.degree. C. The mixed slurry may be allowed to cure into a solid waste form. This solid waste form includes an anhydrous aluminum phosphate with at least a residual portion of the waste component bound therein.

  17. Radioactive waste immobilization in protective ceramic forms by the HIP method at high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayenko, S.Yu.; Kantsedal, V.P.; Tarasov, R.V.; Starchenko, V.A.; Lyubtsev, R.I.

    1993-01-01

    Intense research activities have been carried out in recent years at the Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT) to develop the method of hot isostatic pressing (HIP) for immobilizing radioactive (primarily, high-level) wastes. With this method, the radioactive material is immobilized in a matrix under the simultaneous action of high pressures (up to 6,000 atm) and appropriate temperatures. The process has 2 variants: (1) radioactive wastes are treated as powders of oxides resulting from calcination during chemical treatment of spent fuel. In this case the radioactive material enters into the crystalline structure of the immobilized matrix or is distributed in the matrix as a homogeneous mixture; (2) protective barrier layers are pressed on spent fuel rods or their pieces as radioactive wastes, by the HIP method (fuel rod encapsulation in a protective form). Based on numerous results from various studies, the authors suggest that various ceramic compositions should be used as protective materials. Here the authors report two trends of their investigations: (1) development of ecologically clean process equipments for radioactive waste treatment by the HIP method; (2) manufacture of promising protective ceramic compositions and investigation of their physico-mechanical properties

  18. Elaboration of new ceramic composites containing glass fibre production wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozenstrauha, I.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Two main by-products or waste from the production of glass fibre are following: sewage sludge containing montmorillonite clay as sorbent material and ca 50% of organic matter as well as waste glass from aluminiumborosilicate glass fibre with relatively high softening temperature (> 600 ºC. In order to elaborate different new ceramic products (porous or dense composites the mentioned by-products and illitic clay from two different layers of Apriki deposit (Latvia with illite content in clay fraction up to 80-90% was used as a matrix. The raw materials were investigated by differential-thermal (DTA and XRD analysis. Ternary compositions were prepared from mixtures of 15–35 wt % of sludge, 20 wt % of waste glass and 45–65 wt % of clay and the pressed green bodies were thermally treated in sintering temperature range from 1080 to 1120 ºC in different treatment conditions. Materials produced in temperature range 1090–1100 ºC with the most optimal properties - porosity 38-52%, water absorption 39–47% and bulk density 1.35–1.67 g/cm3 were selected for production of porous ceramics and materials showing porosity 0.35–1.1%, water absorption 0.7–2.6 % and bulk density 2.1–2.3 g/cm3 - for dense ceramic composites. Obtained results indicated that incorporation up to 25 wt % of sewage sludge is beneficial for production of both ceramic products and glass-ceramic composites according to the technological properties. Structural analysis of elaborated composite materials was performed by scanning electron microscopy(SEM. By X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD the quartz, diopside and anorthite crystalline phases were detected.Durante la obtención de ciertas fibras de vidrio se generan dos subproductos o residuos principalmente: Lodo de arcilla montmorillonítica capaz de adsorber el 50 % de materia orgánica y un vidrio silicato alumínico con temperatura de reblandecimiento relativamente alta (> 600 ºC. Con el fin de elaborar nuevos

  19. Sintered glass ceramic composites from vitrified municipal solid waste bottom ashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aloisi, Mirko; Karamanov, Alexander; Taglieri, Giuliana; Ferrante, Fabiola; Pelino, Mario

    2006-01-01

    A glass ceramic composite was obtained by sinter-crystallisation of vitrified municipal solid waste bottom ashes with the addition of various percentages of alumina waste. The sintering was investigated by differential dilatometry and the crystallisation of the glass particles by differential thermal analysis. The crystalline phases produced by the thermal treatment were identified by X-ray diffraction analysis. The sintering process was found to be affected by the alumina addition and inhibited by the beginning of the crystal-phase precipitation. Scanning electron microscopy was performed on the fractured sintered samples to observe the effect of the sintering. Young's modulus and the mechanical strength of the sintered glass ceramic and composites were determined at different heating rates. The application of high heating rate and the addition of alumina powder improved the mechanical properties. Compared to the sintered glass ceramic without additives, the bending strength and the Young's modulus obtained at 20 deg. C/min, increased by about 20% and 30%, respectively

  20. Incorporation of transuranic elements in titanate nuclear waste ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matzke, H.J.; Ray, I.L.F.; Theile, H.; Trisoglio, C.; Walker, C.T.; White, T.J.

    1990-01-01

    The incorporation of actinide elements and their rare-earth element analogues in titanate nuclear waste forms in reviewed. New partitioning data are presented for three waste forms containing Purex waste simulant in combination with either NpO 2 , PuO 2 , or Am 2 O 3 . The greater proportion of transuranics partition between perovskite and zirconolite, while some americium may enter loveringite. Autoradiography revealed clusters of plutonium atoms which have been interpreted as unreacted dioxide or sesquioxide. It is concluded that the solid-state behavior of transuranic elements in titanate waste forms is poorly understood, certainly not well enough to tailor a ceramic for the incorporation of waste from reprocessing of fast breeder reactor fuel in which transuranic species are more abundant than in Purex waste

  1. Use of basaltic waste as red ceramic raw material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Mendes

    Full Text Available Abstract Nowadays, environmental codes restrict the emission of particulate matters, which result in these residues being collected by plant filters. This basaltic waste came from construction aggregate plants located in the Metropolitan Region of Londrina (State of Paraná, Brazil. Initially, the basaltic waste was submitted to sieving (< 75 μm and the powder obtained was characterized in terms of density and particle size distribution. The plasticity of ceramic mass containing 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% of basaltic waste was measured by Atterberg method. The chemical composition of ceramic formulations containing 0% and 20% of basaltic waste was determined by X-ray fluorescence. The prismatic samples were molded by extrusion and fired at 850 °C. The specimens were also tested to determine density, water absorption, drying and firing shrinkages, flexural strength, and Young's modulus. Microstructure evaluation was conducted by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and mercury intrusion porosimetry. Basaltic powder has similar physical and chemical characteristics when compared to other raw materials, and contributes to ceramic processing by reducing drying and firing shrinkage. Mechanical performance of mixtures containing basaltic powder is equivalent to mixtures without waste. Microstructural aspects such as pore size distribution were modified by basaltic powder; albite phase related to basaltic powder was identified by X-ray diffraction.

  2. Degradation modeling of the ANL ceramic waste form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanning, T. H.; Morss, L. R.

    2000-01-01

    A ceramic waste form composed of glass-bonded sodalite is being developed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for immobilization and disposition of the molten salt waste stream from the electrometallurgical treatment process for metallic DOE spent nuclear fuel. As part of the spent fuel treatment program at ANL, a model is being developed to predict the long-term release of radionuclides under repository conditions. Dissolution tests using dilute, pH-buffered solutions have been conducted at 40, 70, and 90 C to determine the temperature and pH dependence of the dissolution rate. Parameter values measured in these tests have been incorporated into the model, and preliminary repository performance assessment modeling has been completed. Results indicate that the ceramic waste form should be acceptable in a repository environment

  3. Feasibility of using ceramic furnace wastes in cement composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazzan, J.V.; Sanches, A.O.; Akasaki, J.L.; Malmonge, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the region of Epitacio-SP President is classified as Paulista West Center in the production of ceramic tiles and bricks. However, as these industries have also generated environmental impacts in the production process with the generation of waste, the construction industries presents as great potential to absorb a large portion of these materials, called Pozzolans. In this sense, the research aims to study the characterization of Ceramic Furnace Wastes (CFC) and the evaluation of their reactivity. Mortar specimens were molded with different waste percentages in partial replacement of Portland cement, for analysis of compressive strength and capillary water absorption test. The characterization results show that important properties can be obtained by the preparation conditions of ashes, besides obtaining resistant activity index higher than expected by technical standards when using the material in replacement of Portland cement. (author)

  4. Coating of waste containing ceramic granules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumann, W.; Kofler, O.

    1979-01-01

    Simulated high-level waste granules produced by fluidized-bed calcination were overcoated by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) with pyrocarbon and nickel in laboratory-scale experiments. Successful development enables pyrocrbon deposition at temperatures of 600 to 800 0 K. The coated granules have excellent properties for long-term waste storage

  5. SRNL CRP progress report [Development of Melt Processed Ceramics for Nuclear Waste Immobilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amoroso, J. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC (United States); Marra, J. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC (United States)

    2014-10-02

    A multi-phase ceramic waste form is being developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for treatment of secondary waste streams generated by reprocessing commercial spent nuclear. The envisioned waste stream contains a mixture of transition, alkali, alkaline earth, and lanthanide metals. Ceramic waste forms are tailored (engineered) to incorporate waste components as part of their crystal structure based on knowledge from naturally found minerals containing radioactive and non-radioactive species similar to the radionuclides of concern in wastes from fuel reprocessing. The ability to tailor ceramics to mimic naturally occurring crystals substantiates the long term stability of such crystals (ceramics) over geologic timescales of interest for nuclear waste immobilization [1]. A durable multiphase ceramic waste form tailored to incorporate all the waste components has the potential to broaden the available disposal options and thus minimize the storage and disposal costs associated with aqueous reprocessing.

  6. SRNL CRP progress report [Development of Melt Processed Ceramics for Nuclear Waste Immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoroso, J.; Marra, J.

    2014-01-01

    A multi-phase ceramic waste form is being developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for treatment of secondary waste streams generated by reprocessing commercial spent nuclear fuel. The envisioned waste stream contains a mixture of transition, alkali, alkaline earth, and lanthanide metals. Ceramic waste forms are tailored (engineered) to incorporate waste components as part of their crystal structure based on knowledge from naturally found minerals containing radioactive and non-radioactive species similar to the radionuclides of concern in wastes from fuel reprocessing. The ability to tailor ceramics to mimic naturally occurring crystals substantiates the long term stability of such crystals (ceramics) over geologic timescales of interest for nuclear waste immobilization [1]. A durable multiphase ceramic waste form tailored to incorporate all the waste components has the potential to broaden the available disposal options and thus minimize the storage and disposal costs associated with aqueous reprocessing

  7. Immobilization of radioactive wastes in glasses and ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanotto, E.D.

    1983-01-01

    A large amount of radioactive liquid wastes arises from the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels to recover uranium and plutonium. Immobilization of such wastes in solid form and disposal of the solidified wastes in safe places, to prevent contamination of the human environment, are topics of considerable interest for both the scientific community and the public in general. The great majority of materials candidate for the encapsulation of radioactive wastes are inorganic non-metalic, such as glasses, glass-ceramics, special cements, calcined ceramics and few more. Among these materials, certain glasses have received special attention, and are being studied for over twenty years. It is estimated that about US$2 billion have already been spent in these studies. The disposal (long term storage) of these solid wastes may be possible in deep geological formations, salt mines, the ocean bed, by evacuation to the outer space, etc. A brief review on the several options avaiable for encapsulation and disposal of high level radioactive liquid wastes is presented, along with the relative merits and disadvantages of the candidate materials for encapsulation. A few suggestions for the solution of the Brazilian problem are advanced. (Author) [pt

  8. Economic Feasibility for Recycling of Waste Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idiano D’Adamo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cumulative photovoltaic (PV power installed in 2016 was equal to 305 GW. Five countries (China, Japan, Germany, the USA, and Italy shared about 70% of the global power. End-of-life (EoL management of waste PV modules requires alternative strategies than landfill, and recycling is a valid option. Technological solutions are already available in the market and environmental benefits are highlighted by the literature, while economic advantages are not well defined. The aim of this paper is investigating the financial feasibility of crystalline silicon (Si PV module-recycling processes. Two well-known indicators are proposed for a reference 2000 tons plant: net present value (NPV and discounted payback period (DPBT. NPV/size is equal to −0.84 €/kg in a baseline scenario. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis is conducted, in order to improve the solidity of the obtained results. NPV/size varies from −1.19 €/kg to −0.50 €/kg. The absence of valuable materials plays a key role, and process costs are the main critical variables.

  9. Synthesis of Nano Crystalline Gamma Alumina from Waste Cans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Sadoon Ahmedzeki

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study waste aluminium cans were recycled and converted to produce alumina catalyst. These cans contain more than 98% aluminum oxide in their structure and were successfully synthesized to produce nano sized gamma alumina under mild conditions. A comprehensive study was carried out in order to examine the effect of several important parameters on maximum yield of alumina that can be produced. These parameters were reactants mole ratios (1.5, 1.5, 2, 3, 4 and 5, sodium hydroxide concentrations (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 55% and weights of aluminum cans (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 g. The compositions of alumina solution were determined by Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS; and maximum yield of alumina solution was 96.3% obtained at 2 mole ratios of reactants, 40% sodium hydroxide concentrations and 10g of aluminum cans respectively. Gamma alumina was acquired by hydrothermal treatment of alumina solution at pH 7 and calcination temperature of 550 ºC. The prepared catalyst was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, N2 adsorption/ desorption isotherms, X-ray fluorescence (XRF and atomic force microscopy (AFM. Results showed good crystallinity of alumina as described by XRD patterns, with surface area of 311.149 m2/g, 0.36 cm3/g pore volume, 5.248 nm pore size and particle size of 68.56 nm respectively.

  10. Stabilization of low-level mixed waste in chemically bonded phosphate ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagh, A.S.; Singh, D.; Sarkar, A.V.

    1994-06-01

    Mixed waste streams, which contain both chemical and radioactive wastes, are one of the important categories of DOE waste streams needing stabilization for final disposal. Recent studies have shown that chemically bonded phosphate ceramics may have the potential for stabilizing these waste streams, particularly those containing volatiles and pyrophorics. Such waste streams cannot be stabilized by conventional thermal treatment methods such as vitrification. Phosphate ceramics may be fabricated at room temperature into durable, hard and dense materials. For this reason room-temperature-setting phosphate ceramic waste forms are being developed to stabilize these to ''problem waste streams.''

  11. Assessment pozzolanicity waste red ceramics produced in Valley Assu / RN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palhares, Rodolfo de Azevedo; Pereira, Arthur Ruan da Silva; Cabral, Kleber Cavalcanti; Nobrega, Andreza Kelly Costa

    2016-01-01

    It is known that both the cement industry as a ceramist contribute much to the generation of environmental impacts. Be the Co2 in the atmosphere, as well as the generation of excessive waste, reaching 20%. The objective of this study is to analyze the potential pozollanic of waste from the red ceramic industries Valley Assu / RN, in order that this material can be incorporated as alternative raw material in the manufacture of ecological and similar brick, replacing partially in its composition Portland cement. Thus contributing to reducing the environmental impact produced by both the ceramics industry, such as cement. To evaluate the efficiency of pozollanic material, it was made sample preparation and then the physico-chemical characterization. After performing tests, it was noticed that the material has the minimum requirements established in standard to be considered as pozollanic material. (author)

  12. Immobilization in ceramic waste forms of the residues from treatment of mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oversby, V.M.; van Konynenburg, R.A.; Glassley, W.E.; Curtis, P.G.

    1993-11-01

    The Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Applied Technology Program at LLNL is developing a Mixed Waste Management Facility to demonstrate treatment technologies that provide an alternative to incineration. As part of that program, we are developing final waste forms using ceramic processing methods for the immobilization of the treatment process residues. The ceramic phase assemblages are based on using Synroc D as a starting point and varying the phase assemblage to accommodate the differences in chemistry between the treatment process residues and the defense waste for which Synroc D was developed. Two basic formulations are used, one for low ash residues resulting from treatment of organic materials contaminated with RCRA metals, and one for high ash residues generated from the treatment of plastics and paper products. Treatment process residues are mixed with ceramic precursor materials, dried, calcined, formed into pellets at room temperature, and sintered at 1150 to 1200 degrees C to produce the final waste form. This paper discusses the chemical composition of the waste streams and waste forms, the phase assemblages that serve as hosts for inorganic waste elements, and the changes in waste form characteristics as a function of variation in process parameters

  13. Ceramic waste forms for fuel-containing masses at Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oversby, V.M.

    1994-05-01

    The fuel materials originally in the core of the Chernobyl Unit 4 reactor are now present within the Ukrytie in three major forms: (1) very fine particles of fuel dispersed as dust (about 10 tonnes), (2) fragments of the destroyed core, and (3) lavas containing fuel, cladding, and other materials. All of these materials will need to be immobilized into waste forms suitable for final disposal. We propose a ceramic waste form system that could accommodate all three waste types with a single set of processing equipment. The waste form would include the mineral zirconolite for immobilization of actinide materials (including uranium), perovskite, nepheline, spinel, and other phases as dictated by the chemistry of the lava masses. Waste loadings as high as 50% U can be achieved if pyrochlore, a close relative of zirconolite, is used as the U host. The ceramic immobilization could be achieved with low additions of inert chemicals to minimize the final disposal volume while ensuring a durable product. The sequence of processing would be to collect and immobilize the fuel dust first. This material will require minimal preprocessing and will provide experience in the handling of the fuel materials. Core fragments would be processed next, using a cryogenic crushing stage to reduce the size prior to adding ceramic additives. The lavas would be processed last, which is compatible with the likely sequence of availability of materials and with the complexity of the operations. The lavas will require more adjustment of chemical additive composition than the other streams to ensure that the desired phases are produced in the waste form

  14. Glass ceramic obtained by tailings and tin mine waste reprocessing from Llallagua, Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arancibia, Jony Roger Hans; Villarino, Cecilia; Alfonso, Pura; Garcia-Valles, Maite; Martinez, Salvador; Parcerisa, David

    2014-05-01

    In Bolivia Sn mining activity produces large tailings of SiO2-rich residues. These tailings contain potentially toxic elements that can be removed into the surface water and produce a high environmental pollution. This study determines the thermal behaviour and the viability of the manufacture of glass-ceramics from glass. The glass has been obtained from raw materials representative of the Sn mining activities from Llallagua (Bolivia). Temperatures of maximum nucleation rate (Tn) and crystallization (Tcr) were calculated from the differential thermal analyses. The final mineral phases were determined by X-ray diffraction and textures were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Crystalline phases are nefeline occurring with wollastonite or plagioclase. Tn for nepheline is between 680 ºC and 700 ºC, for wollastonite, 730 ºC and for plagioclase, 740 ºC. Tcr for nefeline is between 837 and 965 ºC; for wollastonite, 807 ºC and for plagioclase, 977 ºC. In order to establish the mechanical characteristics and efficiency of the vitrification process in the fixation of potentially toxic elements the resistance to leaching and micro-hardness were determined. The obtained contents of the elements leached from the glass ceramic are well below the limits established by the European legislation. So, these analyses confirm that potentially toxic elements remain fixed in the structure of mineral phases formed in the glass-ceramic process. Regarding the values of micro-hardness results show that they are above those of a commercial glass. The manufacture of glass-ceramics from mining waste reduces the volume of tailings produced for the mining industry and, in turn enhances the waste, transforming it into a product with industrial application. Acknowledgements: This work was partly financed by the project AECID: A3/042750/11, and the SGR 2009SGR-00444.

  15. Recycling ceramic industry wastes in sound absorbing materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Arenas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this investigation is to develop a material mainly composed (80% w/w of ceramic wastes that can be applied in the manufacture of road traffic noise reducing devices. The characterization of the product has been carried out attending to its acoustic, physical and mechanical properties, by measuring the sound absorption coefficient at normal incidence, the open void ratio, density and compressive strength. Since the sound absorbing behavior of a porous material is related to the size of the pores and the thickness of the specimen tested, the influence of the particle grain size of the ceramic waste and the thickness of the samples tested on the properties of the final product has been analyzed. The results obtained have been compared to a porous concrete made of crushed granite aggregate as a reference commercial material traditionally used in similar applications. Compositions with coarse particles showed greater sound absorption properties than compositions made with finer particles, besides presenting better sound absorption behavior than the reference porous concrete. Therefore, a ceramic waste-based porous concrete can be potentially recycled in the highway noise barriers field.

  16. Method of waste stabilization with dewatered chemically bonded phosphate ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagh, Arun; Maloney, Martin D.

    2010-06-29

    A method of stabilizing a waste in a chemically bonded phosphate ceramic (CBPC). The method consists of preparing a slurry including the waste, water, an oxide binder, and a phosphate binder. The slurry is then allowed to cure to a solid, hydrated CBPC matrix. Next, bound water within the solid, hydrated CBPC matrix is removed. Typically, the bound water is removed by applying heat to the cured CBPC matrix. Preferably, the quantity of heat applied to the cured CBPC matrix is sufficient to drive off water bound within the hydrated CBPC matrix, but not to volatalize other non-water components of the matrix, such as metals and radioactive components. Typically, a temperature range of between 100.degree. C.-200.degree. C. will be sufficient. In another embodiment of the invention wherein the waste and water have been mixed prior to the preparation of the slurry, a select amount of water may be evaporated from the waste and water mixture prior to preparation of the slurry. Another aspect of the invention is a direct anyhydrous CBPC fabrication method wherein water is removed from the slurry by heating and mixing the slurry while allowing the slurry to cure. Additional aspects of the invention are ceramic matrix waste forms prepared by the methods disclosed above.

  17. Radioactive wastes immobilization in glasses and ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanotto, E.D.

    1983-01-01

    A review on the several options available for encapsulation and disposal of high level radioactive liquid wastes is presented, along with the relative merits and disadvantages of each material to be encapsulated. Some of the main fields requiring further advancements in both scientific and technological research are discussed and a few suggestions for the solution of the brazilian problem are given. (Author) [pt

  18. Deposition of Crystalline Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles on Y-TZP Ceramic: A Potential Solution to Enhance Bonding Characteristics of Y-TZP Ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Azari

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Many advantages have been attributed to dental zirconia ceramics in terms of mechanical and physical properties; however, the bonding ability of this material to dental structure and/or veneering ceramics has always been a matter of concern. On the other hand, hydroxyapatite (HA shows excellent biocompatibility and good bonding ability to tooth structure, with mechanically unstable and brittle characteristics, that make it clinically unacceptable for use in high stress bearing areas. The main purpose of this study was to introduce two simple yet practical methods to deposit the crystalline HA nanoparticles on zirconia ceramics. Materials and Methods: zirconia blocks were treated with HA via two different deposition methods namely thermal coating and air abrasion. Specimens were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS and X-ray diffraction (XRD.Results: In both groups, the deposition techniques used were successfully accomplished, while the substrate showed no structural change. However, thermal coating group showed a uniform deposition of crystalline HA but in air abrasion method, there were dispersed thin islands of HA.Conclusions: Thermal coating method has the potential to significantly alter the surface characteristics of zirconia. The simple yet practical nature of the proposed method may be able to shift the bonding paradigm of dental zirconia ceramics. This latter subject needs to be addressed in future investigations.Keywords: Zirconium Oxide; Hydroxyapatites; Dental Bonding; Microscopy, Electron, Scanning; X-Ray Diffraction; Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission

  19. Application of PCT to the EBR II ceramic waste form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebert, W. L.; Lewis, M. A.; Johnson, S. G.

    2002-01-01

    We are evaluating the use of the Product Consistency Test (PCT) developed to monitor the consistency of borosilicate glass waste forms for application to the multiphase ceramic waste form (CWF) that will be used to immobilize waste salts generated during the electrometallurgical conditioning of spent sodium-bonded nuclear fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor No. 2 (EBR II). The CWF is a multiphase waste form comprised of about 70% sodalite, 25% borosilicate glass binder, and small amounts of halite and oxide inclusions. It must be qualified for disposal as a non-standard high-level waste (HLW) form. One of the requirements in the DOE Waste Acceptance System Requirements Document (WASRD) for HLW waste forms is that the consistency of the waste forms be monitored.[1] Use of the PCT is being considered for the CWF because of the similarities of the dissolution behaviors of both the sodalite and glass binder phases in the CWF to borosilicate HLW glasses. This paper provides (1) a summary of the approach taken in selecting a consistency test for CWF production and (2) results of tests conducted to measure the precision and sensitivity of the PCT conducted with simulated CWF

  20. Structure and chemical durability of barium borosilicate glass–ceramics containing zirconolite and titanite crystalline phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Huidong; Wu, Lang; Xu, Dong; Wang, Xin; Teng, Yuancheng; Li, Yuxiang

    2015-01-01

    In order to increase the solubility of actinides in the glass matrix, the effects of CaO, TiO 2 , and ZrSiO 4 addition (abbreviated as CTZ, in the mole ratio of 2:2:1) on crystalline phases, microstructure, and chemical durability of barium borosilicate glass–ceramics were investigated. The results show that the samples possess both zirconolite-2M and titanite phase when the CTZ content is greater than or equal to 45 wt.%. For the glass–ceramics with 45 wt.% CTZ (CTZ-45), only zirconolite-2M phase is observed after annealing at 680–740 °C for 2 h. The CTZ-45 possess zirconolite-2M and titanite phases after annealing at 700 °C first, and then annealing at 900–1050 °C for 2 h. Furthermore, the zirconolite-2M and titanite grains show a strip and brick shape, respectively. The CTZ-45 annealing at 950 °C shows the lower normalized leaching rates of B, Na and Nd when compared to that of CTZ-0 and CTZ-55. - Highlights: • CaO, TiO 2 , ZrSiO 4 (CTZ) as nucleating agents were added to barium borosilicate glass. • The samples with 45–55 wt% CTZ possess CaZrTi 2 O 7 -2M and CaTiSiO 5 crystalline phases. • CTZ-45 (45wt% CTZ) possesses only CaZrTi 2 O 7 -2M phase after annealing at 680–740 °C. • CTZ-45 possesses CaZrTi 2 O 7 -2M and CaTiSiO 5 phases after annealing at 900–1050 °C. • CTZ-45 annealing at 950 °C shows the lower leaching rates of B, Na and Nd than CTZ-0 and CTZ-55.

  1. The role of ceramics, cement and glass in the immobilization of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasser, F.P.

    1985-01-01

    A brief account is given of the constitution and origin of nuclear waste. The immobilization of wastes is discussed: borosilicate glasses are considered as possible matrices; ceramic forms are dealt with in more detail. The principles of the use of ceramics are explained, with examples of different ceramic structures; cements are mentioned as being suitable for wet, medium- to low-active wastes. The effects of radiation on cement, ceramic and glass waste forms are indicated. The account concludes with 'summary and future progress'. (U.K.)

  2. Immobilization of INEL low-level radioactive wastes in ceramic containment materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seymour, W.C.; Kelsey, P.V.

    1978-11-01

    INEL low-level radioactive wastes have an overall chemical composition that lends itself to self-containment in a ceramic-based material. Fewer chemical additives would be needed to process the wastes than to process high-level wastes or use a mixture containment method. The resulting forms of waste material could include a basalt-type glass or glass ceramic and a ceramic-type brick. Expected leach resistance is discussed in relationshp to data found in the literature for these materials and appears encouraging. An overview of possible processing steps for the ceramic materials is presented

  3. Sodium aluminum-iron phosphate glass-ceramics for immobilization of lanthanide oxide wastes from pyrochemical reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanovsky, S. V.; Stefanovsky, O. I.; Kadyko, M. I.; Nikonov, B. S.

    2018-03-01

    Sodium aluminum (iron) phosphate glass ceramics containing of up to 20 wt.% rare earth (RE) oxides simulating pyroprocessing waste were produced by melting at 1250 °C followed by either quenching or slow cooling to room temperature. The iron-free glass-ceramics were composed of major glass and minor phosphotridymite and monazite. The iron-bearing glass-ceramics were composed of major glass and minor monazite and Na-Al-Fe orthophosphate at low waste loadings (5-10 wt.%) and major orthophosphate and minor monazite as well as interstitial glass at high waste loadings (15-20 wt.%). Slowly cooled samples contained higher amount of crystalline phases than quenched ones. Monazite is major phase for REs. Leach rates from the materials of major elements (Na, Al, Fe, P) are 10-5-10-7 g cm-2 d-1, RE elements - lower than 10-5 g cm-2 d-1.

  4. Comparative risk assessments for the production and interim storage of glass and ceramic waste forms: defense waste processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, J.C.; Wright, W.V.

    1982-04-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for immobilizing nuclear high level waste (HLW) is scheduled to be built at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). High level waste is produced when SRP reactor components are subjected to chemical separation operations. Two candidates for immobilizing this HLW are borosilicate glass and crystalline ceramic, either being contained in weld-sealed stainless steel canisters. A number of technical analyses are being conducted to support a selection between these two waste forms. The present document compares the risks associated with the manufacture and interim storage of these two forms in the DWPF. Process information used in the risk analysis was taken primarily from a DWPF processibility analysis. The DWPF environmental analysis provided much of the necessary environmental information. To perform the comparative risk assessments, consequences of the postulated accidents are calculated in terms of: (1) the maximum dose to an off-site individual; and (2) the dose to off-site population within 80 kilometers of the DWPF, both taken in terms of the 50-year inhalation dose commitment. The consequences are then multiplied by the estimated accident probabilities to obtain the risks. The analyses indicate that the maximum exposure risk to an individual resulting from the accidents postulated for both the production and interim storage of either waste form represents only an insignificant fraction of the natural background radiation of about 90 mrem per year per person in the local area. They also show that there is no disaster potential to the off-site population. Therefore, the risks from abnormal events in the production and the interim storage of the DWPF waste forms should not be considered as a dominant factor in the selection of the final waste form

  5. The effect of concentration on the structure and crystallinity of a cementitious waste form for caustic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Chul-Woo; Turo, Laura A.; Ryan, Joseph V.; Johnson, Bradley R.; McCloy, John S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Cast Stone: Portland cement, fly ash, blast furnace slag, and simulated nuclear waste. ► Caustic secondary waste from the off-gas of a vitrification process was targeted. ► Crystallinity, micro- and mesostructure, and engineering properties characterized. ► Waste concentration varied from 0 to 2.5 M, but caused minimal changes. ► Cast Stone shows good compositional versatility as a secondary waste form. -- Abstract: Cement-based waste forms have long been considered economical technologies for disposal of various types of waste. A solidified cementitious waste form, Cast Stone, has been identified to immobilize the radioactive secondary waste from vitrification processes. In this work, Cast Stone was considered for a Na-based caustic liquid waste, and its physical properties were analyzed as a function of liquid waste loading up to 2 M Na. Differences in crystallinity (phase composition), microstructure, mesostructure (pore size distribution and surface area), and macrostructure (density and compressive strength) were investigated using various analytical techniques, in order to assess the suitability of Cast Stone as a chemically durable waste. It was found that the concentration of secondary waste simulant (caustic waste) had little effect on the relevant engineering properties of Cast Stone, showing that Cast Stone could be an effective and tolerant waste form for a wide range of concentrations of high sodium waste

  6. Fabrication and characterization of bioactive glass-ceramic using soda-lime-silica waste glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Mojtaba; Hashemi, Babak

    2014-04-01

    Soda-lime-silica waste glass was used to synthesize a bioactive glass-ceramic through solid-state reactions. In comparison with the conventional route, that is, the melt-quenching and subsequent heat treatment, the present work is an economical technique. Structural and thermal properties of the samples were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The in vitro test was utilized to assess the bioactivity level of the samples by Hanks' solution as simulated body fluid (SBF). Bioactivity assessment by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was revealed that the samples with smaller amount of crystalline phase had a higher level of bioactivity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Geotechnical assessment and instrumentation needs for isolation of nuclear waste in crystalline rocks: symposium proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubbes, W.F.; Duguid, J.O.

    1985-09-01

    On October 15-19, 1984, the Geotechnical Assessment and Instrumentation Needs (GAIN) Symposium was convened to examine the status of technology for the isolation of nuclear waste in crystalline rock. The objective of the 1984 GAIN Symposium was to provide technical input to the Crystalline Repository Project concerning: critical issues and information needs associated with development and assessment of a repository in crystalline rock; appropriate techniques and instrumentation for determining the information needed; and technology required to provide the measurement techniques and instrumentation for application in an exploratory shaft in crystalline rock. The findings and recommendations of the symposium are presented in these proceedings

  8. Synroc - a multiphase ceramic for high level nuclear waste immobilisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeve, K.D.; Vance, E.R.; Hart, K.P.; Smith, K.L.; Lumpkin, G.R.; Mercer, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    Many natural minerals - particularly titanates - are very durable geochemically, having survived for millions of years with very little alteration. Moreover, some of these minerals have quantitatively retained radioactive elements and their daughter products over this time. The Synroc concept mimics nature by providing an all-titanate synthetic mineral phase assemblage to immobilise high level waste (HLW) from nuclear fuel reprocessing operations for safe geological disposal. In principle, many chemically hazardous inorganic wastes arising from industry could also be immobilised in highly durable ceramics and disposed of geologically, but in practice the cost structure of most industries is such that lower cost waste management solutions - for example, the development of reusable by-products or the use of cements rather than ceramics - have to be devised. In many thousands of aqueous leach tests at ANSTO, mostly at 70-90 deg C, Synroc has been shown to be exceptionally durable. The emphases of the recent ANSTO program have been on tailoring of the Synroc composition to varying HLW compositions, leach testing of Synroc containing radioactive transuranic actinides, study of leaching mechanisms by SEM and TEM, and the development and costing of a conceptual fully active Synroc fabrication plant design. A summary of recent results on these topics will be presented. 29 refs., 4 figs

  9. Steady state simulation of Joule heated ceramic melter for vitrification of high level liquid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugilal, G; Wattal, P K; Theyyunni, T K [Process Engineering and Systems Development Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Iyer, K N [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Inst. of Tech., Mumbai (India)

    1994-06-01

    The Joule heated ceramic melter is emerging as an attractive alternative to metallic melters for high level waste vitrification. The inherent limitations with metallic melters viz., low capacity and short melter life, are overcome in a ceramic melter which can be adopted for continuous mode of operation. The ceramic melter has the added advantage of better operational flexibility. This paper describes the three dimensional model used for simulating the complex design conditions of the ceramic melter. (author).

  10. Steady state simulation of Joule heated ceramic melter for vitrification of high level liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugilal, G.; Wattal, P.K.; Theyyunni, T.K.; Iyer, K.N.

    1994-01-01

    The Joule heated ceramic melter is emerging as an attractive alternative to metallic melters for high level waste vitrification. The inherent limitations with metallic melters viz., low capacity and short melter life, are overcome in a ceramic melter which can be adopted for continuous mode of operation. The ceramic melter has the added advantage of better operational flexibility. This paper describes the three dimensional model used for simulating the complex design conditions of the ceramic melter. (author)

  11. Basic research in crystalline and noncrystalline ceramic systems. Annual report, August 1, 1980-October 31, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The Basic Research Programs in Ceramics sponsored by the US Department of Energy supports a significant fraction of the research effort and graduate student training in ceramics at MIT. Various research activities involving ceramic materials include electrical properties; kinetic studies; defect structures, defect interactions, grain boundaries and surfaces; sintering studies; and mechanical properties

  12. Augite-anorthite glass-ceramics from residues of basalt quarry and ceramic wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal A. Khater

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dark brown glasses were prepared from residues of basalt quarries and wastes of ceramic factories. Addition of CaF2, Cr2O3 and their mixture CaF2-Cr2O3 were used as nucleation catalysts. Generally, structures with augite and anorthite as major phases and small amount of magnetite and olivine phases were developed through the crystallization process. In the samples heat treated at 900 °C the dominant phase is augite, whereas the content of anorthite usually overcomes the augite at higher temperature (1100 °C. Fine to medium homogenous microstructures were detected in the prepared glass-ceramic samples. The coefficient of thermal expansion and microhardness measurements of the glass-ceramic samples were from 6.16×10-6 to 8.96×10-6 °C-1 (in the 20–500 °C and 5.58 to 7.16 GP, respectively.

  13. Development of refractory ceramic using waste of petrochemical catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedroso, M.A.; Mymrine, V.

    2011-01-01

    The manufacturing of catalytic catalysts by the company FCC SA. for the Brazilian petrochemical industry is 25,000 tons per annum, which after going through the cracking process cannot undergo regeneration any longer, being wasted with humidity near 70%. To increase the economical and environmental efficiency of the use of this rejected catalyst, without preliminary drying, a method of using it as main raw material in composition like kaolin was developed, as well as in ash and glass for the manufacturing of common (regular) and refractory ceramic. The mixture of these components were burnt at temperatures of 1100 deg C, 1200°C, 1250°C and 1300°C. The ceramics with 30% and 40% in weight of wasted catalyst, sintered in 1250 deg C or 1300 deg C have flexion of 10,8 - 12,9 MPa. After burning the mixtures, the chemical interaction of the initial components was determined by the methods of RXD, MEV and EDS, synthesizing new minerals like Diopside Ca(Mg,Al)(Si,Al) 2 O 6 , Nepheline (K,Na)AlSiO 4 , Lazurite Na 8 [Al 2 SiO 4 ] 6 [SO 4 ,S] 2 , Magnetite Fe 3 O 4 , Albite Na Al Si 3 O 8 and high content of vitreous amorphous phase. (author)

  14. Solidified ceramics of radioactive wastes and method of producing it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oota, Takao; Matake, Shigeru; Ooka, Kazuo.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To provide solidified ceramics which have low leaching properties to water of radioactive substance, excellent heat dissipating and resistive properties and high mechanical strength by mixing and sintering limited amounts of titanium and aluminum compounds with calcined radioactive wastes containing special compound. Method: More than 20% by weight of titanium compound (as TiO 2 ) and more than 5% by weight of aluminum compound (as Al 2 O 3 ) are mixed with the calcined radioactive wasted containing, as converted by oxide, 5 to 40% by weight of Na 2 O, 5 to 20% by weight of Fe 2 O 3 , 5 to 15% by weight of MoO 3 , 5 to 15% by weight of ZrO 2 , 2 to 10% by weight of CeO 2 , 2 to 10% by weight of Cs 2 O, 1 to 5% by weight of BaO, 1 to 5% by weight of SrO, 0.2 to 2% by weight of Rb 2 O, 0.2% by weight of Y 2 O 3 , 0.2 to 2% by weight of NiO, 5 to 20% by weight of rare earth metal oxide, and 0.2 to 2% by weight of Cr 2 O 3 . The mixture is molded, sintered, and solidified to ceramics which contains no Mo phase, Na 2 O, MoO 3 , K 2 O, MoO 3 and Cs 2 O, MoO 3 phases and the like. (Yoshino, Y.)

  15. Immobilization of fission products in phosphate ceramic waste forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, D.; Wagh, A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Chemically bonded phosphate ceramics (CBPCs) have several advantages that make them ideal candidates for containing radioactive and hazardous wastes. In general, phosphates have high solid-solution capacities for incorporating radionuclides, as evidenced by several phosphates (e.g., monazites and apatites) that are natural analogs of radioactive and rare-earth elements. The phosphates have high radiation stability, are refractory, and will not degrade in the presence of internal heating by fission products. Dense and hard CBPCs can be fabricated inexpensively and at low temperature by acid-base reactions between an inorganic oxide/hydroxide powder and either phosphoric acid or an acid-phosphate solution. The resulting phosphates are extremely insoluble in aqueous media and have excellent long-term durability. CBPCs offer the dual stabilization mechanisms of chemical fixation and physical encapsulation, resulting in superior waste forms. The goal of this task is develop and demonstrate the feasibility of CBPCs for S/S of wastes containing fission products. The focus of this work is to develop a low-temperature CBPC immobilization system for eluted {sup 99}Tc wastes from sorption processes.

  16. Validation of new ceramic materials from tungsten mining wastes. Mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran Suarez, J. A.; Montoya Herrera, J.; Silva, A. P.; Peralbo Cano, R.; Castro-Gomes, J. P.

    2014-01-01

    New ceramic materials obtained from tungsten mining wastes, from region of Beira Interior in Portugal, with no commercial use, responsible for landscape and environmental problems are presented. These preshaped new ceramic products, prepared in a wide thermal range (800 degree centigrade to 1300 degree centigrade) was evaluated by mechanical test, but also was characterized the starting raw materials: tungsten wastes mining and industrial kaolin. Results, which also include a mineralogical characterization of ceramic products and morphologic evaluation of neoformed by scanning electron microscopy, show firstly, the feasibility of converting a large number of these wastes in marketable ceramics. Thanks to the experimentation carried out, the ability to generate ceramic materials is emphasized, without the presence of mineral clay, due to the particular composition of these waste of mining with content of acid, neutral and basic oxides. (Author)

  17. Development of iron phosphate ceramic waste form to immobilize radioactive waste solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jongkwon [Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), San 31, Hyoja-Dong, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Um, Wooyong, E-mail: wooyong.um@pnnl.gov [Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), San 31, Hyoja-Dong, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Choung, Sungwook [Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), San 31, Hyoja-Dong, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    The objective of this research was to develop an iron phosphate ceramic (IPC) waste form using converter slag obtained as a by-product of the steel industry as a source of iron instead of conventional iron oxide. Both synthetic off-gas scrubber solution containing technetium-99 (or Re as a surrogate) and LiCl–KCl eutectic salt, a final waste solution from pyrochemical processing of spent nuclear fuel, were used as radioactive waste streams. The IPC waste form was characterized for compressive strength, reduction capacity, chemical durability, and contaminant leachability. Compressive strengths of the IPC waste form prepared with different types of waste solutions were 16 MPa and 19 MPa for LiCl–KCl eutectic salt and the off-gas scrubber simulant, respectively, which meet the minimum compressive strength of 3.45 MPa (500 psi) for waste forms to be accepted into the radioactive waste repository. The reduction capacity of converter slag, a main dry ingredient used to prepare the IPC waste form, was 4136 meq/kg by the Ce(IV) method, which is much higher than those of the conventional Fe oxides used for the IPC waste form and the blast furnace slag materials. Average leachability indexes of Tc, Li, and K for the IPC waste form were higher than 6.0, and the IPC waste form demonstrated stable durability even after 63-day leaching. In addition, the Toxicity Characteristic Leach Procedure measurements of converter slag and the IPC waste form with LiCl–KCl eutectic salt met the universal treatment standard of the leachability limit for metals regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. This study confirms the possibility of development of the IPC waste form using converter slag, showing its immobilization capability for radionuclides in both LiCl–KCl eutectic salt and off-gas scrubber solutions with significant cost savings.

  18. Effect of Nano-crystalline Ceramic Coats Produced by Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation on Corrosion Behavior of AA5083 Aluminum Alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thayananth, T.; Muthupandi, V.; Rao, S. R. Koteswara

    2010-01-01

    High specific strength offered by aluminum and magnesium alloys makes them desirable in modern transportation industries. Often the restrictions imposed on the usage of these alloys are due to their poor tribological and corrosion properties. However, their corrosion properties can be further enhanced by synthesizing ceramic coating on the substrate through Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) process. In this study, nano-crystalline alumina coatings were formed on the surface of AA5083 aluminum alloy test coupons using PEO process in aqueous alkali-silicate electrolyte with and without addition of sodium aluminate. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies showed that the crystallite size varied between 38 and 46 nm and α- and γ- alumina were the dominant phases present in the coatings. Corrosion studies by potentiodynamic polarization tests in 3.5% NaCl revealed that the electrolyte composition has an influence on the corrosion resistance of nano-crystalline oxide layer formed.

  19. CoO-doped MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-colored transparent glass-ceramics with high crystallinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wufu; Zhang, Qian; Luo, Zhiwei; Yu, Jingbo; Gao, Xianglong; Li, Yunxing; Lu, Anxian

    2018-02-01

    To obtain CoO-doped MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 (MAS)-colored transparent glass-ceramics with high crystallinity, the glass with the composition 21MgO-21Al2O3-54SiO2-4B2O3-0.2CoO (in mol %) was prepared by conventional melt quenching technique and subsequently thermal treated at several temperatures. The crystallization behavior of the glass, the precipitated crystalline phases and crystallinity were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The microstructure of the glass-ceramics was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FSEM). The transmittance of glass-ceramic was measured by UV spectrophotometer. The results show that a large amount of α-cordierite (indianite) with nano-size was precipitated from the glass matrix after treatment at 1020 °C for 3 h. The crystallinity of the transparent glass-ceramic reached up to 97%. Meanwhile, the transmittance of the glass-ceramic was 74% at 400 nm with a complex absorption band from 450 nm to 700 nm. In addition, this colored transparent glass-ceramic possessed lower density (2.469 g/cm3), lower thermal expansion coefficient (1.822 × 10-6 /℃), higher Vickers hardness (9.1 GPa) and higher bending strength (198 MPa) than parent glass.

  20. A review on waste heat recovery from exhaust in the ceramics industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpech, Bertrand; Axcell, Brian; Jouhara, Hussam

    2017-11-01

    Following the energy crisis in 1980, many saving technologies have been investigated with attempts to implement them into various industries, one of them is the field of ceramic production. In order to comply with energy saving trends and environmental issues, the European ceramic industry sector has developed energy efficient systems which reduced significantly production time and costs and reduced total energy consumption. The last achievement is of great importance as the energy consumption of the ceramic process accounts for a significant percentage of the total production costs. More precisely, the firing stage consumes the highest amount of energy during the whole ceramic production process. The use of roller kilns, fired by natural gas, involves a loss of 50% of the input energy via the flue gas and the cooling gas exhausts. This review paper briefly describes the production process of the different ceramic products, with a focus on the ceramic sector in Europe. Due to the limited on waste heat recovery in the ceramic industry, other high temperature waste heat recovery applications are considered in the paper, such as in concrete and steel production, which could have a potential use in the ceramic industry. The state of the art technologies used in the ceramics industry are reviewed with a special interest in waste heat recovery from the ceramic process exhaust stacks and energy saving technologies.

  1. Use of solid waste from sand beneficiation process in the ceramic tile industry and its influence on the physical properties of the ceramic products; Uso do residuo solido proveniente do processo de beneficiamento de areia na industria de revestimentos ceramicos e sua influencia nas propriedades fisicas dos produtos ceramicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biff, Sergio, E-mail: sergio.biff@sc.senai.br [Servico Nacional de Aprendizagem Industrial (SENAI), Criciuma, SC (Brazil); Silva, Manoel Ribeiro da, E-mail: mrsilva@unifei.edu.br [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil)

    2016-10-15

    The current paper had as main aim characterize and assess the use viability of a solid waste from sand beneficiation process in the production of ceramic tiles. To determine the main components the solid waste was characterized by X-ray fluorescence and the main crystalline phases were determined by X-ray diffraction. To evaluate the addition effects of the solid waste over the solid waste was introduced into a ceramic composition in proportions of 5% and 10%. The ceramics materials obtained were subjected to the linear retraction, water absorption and flexural strength analysis according to the Brazilian standard NBR 13818 (1997). Additionally, the solid waste and the ceramic materials obtained in this study were classified according to the Brazilian standard NBR 10004 (2004) to assess the potential environmental impact. The main solid waste constituents identified were silicon dioxide and aluminum oxide, respectively 50.2% e 19.2%, distributed in the crystal forms of quartz and kaolinite. The ceramic materials obtained after firing at 1100 deg C, without and with 10% of solid waste presented respectively flexural strength of 13.86 MPa and 14,52Mpa. The results of water absorption without and with addition of 10% of solid waste were respectively 16.96% and 16.63%, both appropriate performances for use in ceramic tiles according to the Brazilian standard NBR 13818 (1997). On the other hand, the ceramic materials obtained with the addition of 10% of solid waste were classified as inert materials according to Brazilian standard NBR 10004 (2004), showing the capability of incorporating solid waste in ceramic materials. (author)

  2. Microstructural analysis of ceramic masses with waste kaolin addition for the red ceramic production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vida, Talita Almeida; Fagury Neto, Elias; Rabelo, Adriano Alves

    2010-01-01

    Incorporating reject industrial ceramic mixtures has proved viable in the reduction of environmental liabilities. In this study, we sought to study the potential use of ceramic formulations with the addition of tailings from the production of kaolin clay to the region of the city of Maraba-PA. Formulations were obtained with two clays of this region with the addition of up to 60% by weight of kaolin waste. The microstructural analyses were carried out from the preparation of specimens that were sintered at 1000 and 1200 °C with level 3 hours. The samples prepared were used to observe the microstructure by optical microscope, to determine the constituents of each formulation after burning. And later analysis was performed X-rays diffraction, to quantify the phases present. It was observed that increasing the content of the mixture of kaolin clay caused the reaction of kaolinite forming the primary mullite from 1000 ° C. For a firing temperature around 1200 ° C showed the presence of mullite even the addition of 20% kaolin, noting also the presence of secondary kaolinite. (author)

  3. Process description and plant design for preparing ceramic high-level waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grantham, L.F.; McKisson, R.L.; Guon, J.; Flintoff, J.F.; McKenzie, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    The ceramics process flow diagram has been simplified and upgraded to utilize only two major processing steps - fluid-bed calcination and hot isostatic press consolidating. Full-scale fluid-bed calcination has been used at INEL to calcine high-level waste for 18 y; and a second-generation calciner, a fully remotely operated and maintained calciner that meets ALARA guidelines, started calcining high-level waste in 1982. Full-scale hot isostatic consolidation has been used by DOE and commercial enterprises to consolidate radioactive components and to encapsulate spent fuel elements for several years. With further development aimed at process integration and parametric optimization, the operating knowledge of full-scale demonstration of the key process steps should be rapidly adaptable to scale-up of the ceramic process to full plant size. Process flowsheets used to prepare ceramic and glass waste forms from defense and commercial high-level liquid waste are described. Preliminary layouts of process flow diagrams in a high-level processing canyon were prepared and used to estimate the preliminary cost of the plant to fabricate both waste forms. The estimated costs for using both options were compared for total waste management costs of SRP high-level liquid waste. Using our design, for both the ceramic and glass plant, capital and operating costs are essentially the same for both defense and commercial wastes, but total waste management costs are calculated to be significantly less for defense wastes using the ceramic option. It is concluded from this and other studies that the ceramic form may offer important advantages over glass in leach resistance, waste loading, density, and process flexibility. Preliminary economic calculations indicate that ceramics must be considered a leading candidate for the form to immobilize high-level wastes

  4. Processing of high-temperature simulated waste glass in a continuous ceramic melter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, S.M.; Brouns, R.A.; Hanson, M.S.

    1980-01-01

    Recent operations have demonstrated that high-melting-point glasses and glass-ceramics can be successfully processed in joule-heated, ceramic-lined melters with minor modifications to the existing technology. Over 500 kg of simulated waste glasses have been processed at temperatures up to 1410 0 C. The processability of the two high-temperature waste forms tested is similar to existing borosilicate waste glasses. High-temperature waste glass formulations produced in the bench-scale melter exhibit quality comparing favorably to standard waste glass formulations

  5. Magnetic Glass Ceramics by Sintering of Borosilicate Glass and Inorganic Waste

    OpenAIRE

    Ponsot, In?s M. M. M.; Pontikes, Yiannis; Baldi, Giovanni; Chinnam, Rama K.; Detsch, Rainer; Boccaccini, Aldo R.; Bernardo, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Ceramics and glass ceramics based on industrial waste have been widely recognized as competitive products for building applications; however, there is a great potential for such materials with novel functionalities. In this paper, we discuss the development of magnetic sintered glass ceramics based on two iron-rich slags, coming from non-ferrous metallurgy and recycled borosilicate glass. The substantial viscous flow of the glass led to dense products for rapid treatments at relatively low te...

  6. Quantitative analysis of crystalline and remaining glass phases in CaO-B2O3-SiO2 ternary system glass ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Ming; Wu Mengqiang; Zhang Shuren; Zhou Xiaohua; Zhang Ting; Chen Song

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → As for CBS ternary system glass ceramics, due to the complex phase compositions, many methods could be difficult to determine quantitatively the absolute amounts of crystalline and remaining oxides. In this study, an available method based on the Rietveld method was used to quantitatively analyze the relative weight fraction and densities of crystalline phases. These above data are used to obtain a table of both relative weight fraction of crystalline phases and densities of all phases including CBS LTCC. Using volume additivity rule, it is possible to analysis quantitatively the absolute weight fraction of crystalline phases and also the oxides molar content in the remaining glass. - Abstract: Based on Rietveld method of X-ray techniques and volume additivity rule, a new method was developed to quantitatively analyze the phase composition of CaO-B 2 O 3 -SiO 2 ternary system glass ceramics. Lattice parameters, densities and relative weight fractions of crystalline phases in CaO-B 2 O 3 -SiO 2 ternary system were obtained by X-ray diffraction (XRD) refinement. According to the relative weight fraction of crystalline phases and densities of various components, the volume additivity rule was revealed by calculating the absolute weight fraction of crystalline phases of CaO-B 2 O 3 -SiO 2 glass ceramics. In addition, molar contents of the oxides in the remaining glass can also be determined by this method. Comparing this method with internal standard method, it is found that the maximum deviations of the crystallinity and the absolute weight fraction of crystalline phases are less than 2.6% and 2.9%, respectively. As a result, quantitative evaluation of CaO-B 2 O 3 -SiO 2 ternary system glass ceramics can be achieved using this method.

  7. Annotated bibliography of selected reports relating to the isolation of nuclear waste in crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    BMI/OCRD-29 is an annotated bibliography of published reports that have been produced for the US Department of Energy Crystalline Repository Project Office or the Swedish-American Cooperative Program on Radioactive Waste Storage in Mined Caverns. This document consists of a main report listing of citations and abstracts and a topical index

  8. Basic research in crystalline and noncrystalline ceramic systems. Annual report, May 1, 1975--April 1, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Activities in research programs on ceramics are reported in sections on electric conductivity and dielectric properties, microstructure and properties, ion transport and diffusion, defect interactions and grain boundary phenomena, and future developments

  9. Bonded carbon or ceramic fiber composite filter vent for radioactive waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassell, Gilbert W.; Brugger, Ronald P.

    1985-02-19

    Carbon bonded carbon fiber composites as well as ceramic or carbon bonded ceramic fiber composites are very useful as filters which can separate particulate matter from gas streams entraining the same. These filters have particular application to the filtering of radioactive particles, e.g., they can act as vents for containers of radioactive waste material.

  10. Improved polyphase ceramic form for high-level defense nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harker, A.B.; Morgan, P.E.D.; Clarke, D.R.; Flintoff, J.J.; Shaw, T.M.

    1983-01-01

    An improved ceramic nuclear waste form and fabrication process have been developed using simulated Savannah River Plant defense high-level waste compositions. The waste form provides flexibility with respect to processing conditions while exhibiting superior resistance to ground water leaching than other currently proposed forms. The ceramic, consolidated by hot-isostatic pressing at 1040 0 C and 10,000 psi, is composed of six major phases, nepheline, zirconolite, a murataite-type cubic phase, magnetite-type spinel, a magnetoplumbite solid solution, and perovskite. The waste form provides multiple crystal lattice sites for the waste elements, minimizes amorphous intergranular material, and can accommodate waste loadings in excess of 60 wt %. The fabrication of the ceramic can be accomplished with existing manufacturing technology and eliminates the effects of radionuclide volatilization and off-gas induced corrosion experienced with the molten processes for vitreous form production

  11. Ceramic process and plant design for high-level nuclear waste immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grantham, L.F.; McKisson, R.L.; De Wames, R.E.; Guon, J.; Flintoff, J.F.; McKenzie, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    In the last 3 years, significant advances in ceramic technology for high-level nuclear waste solidification have been made. Product quality in terms of leach-resistance, compositional uniformity, structural integrity, and thermal stability promises to be superior to borosilicate glass. This paper addresses the process effectiveness and preliminary designs for glass and ceramic immobilization plants. The reference two-step ceramic process utilizes fluid-bed calcination (FBC) and hot isostatic press (HIP) consolidation. Full-scale demonstration of these well-developed processing steps has been established at DOE and/or commercial facilities for processing radioactive materials. Based on Savannah River-type waste, our model predicts that the capital and operating cost for the solidification of high-level nuclear waste is about the same for the ceramic and glass options. However, when repository costs are included, the ceramic option potentially offers significantly better economics due to its high waste loading and volume reduction. Volume reduction impacts several figures of merit in addition to cost such as system logistics, storage, transportation, and risk. The study concludes that the ceramic product/process has many potential advantages, and rapid deployment of the technology could be realized due to full-scale demonstrations of FBC and HIP technology in radioactive environments. Based on our finding and those of others, the ceramic innovation not only offers a viable backup to the glass reference process but promises to be a viable future option for new high-level nuclear waste management opportunities

  12. Tests with ceramic waste form materials made by pressureless consolidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, M. A.; Hash, M. C.; Hebden, A. S.; Ebert, W. L.

    2002-01-01

    A multiphase waste form referred to as the ceramic waste form (CWF) will be used to immobilize radioactively contaminated salt wastes recovered after the electrometallurgical treatment of spent sodium-bonded nuclear fuel. The CWF is made by first occluding salt in zeolite and then encapsulating the zeolite in a borosilicate binder glass. A variety of surrogate CWF materials were made using pressureless consolidation (PC) methods for comparison with CWF consolidated using a hot isostatic press (HIP) method and to study the effects of glass/zeolite batching ratio and processing conditions on the physical and chemical properties of the resulting materials. The data summarized in this report will also be used to support qualification of the PC CWF for disposal in the proposed federal high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The phase composition and microstructure of HIP CWF and PC CWF are essentially identical: both are composed of about 70% sodalite, 25% binder glass, and a 5% total of inclusion phases (halite, nepheline, and various oxides and silicates). The primary difference is that PC CWF materials have higher porosities than HIP CWFs. The product consistency test (PCT) that was initially developed to monitor homogeneous glass waste forms was used to measure the chemical durabilities of the CWF materials. Series of replicate tests with several PC CWF materials indicate that the PCT can be conducted with the same precision with CWF materials as with borosilicate glasses. Short-term (7-day) PCTs were used to evaluate the repeatability of making the PC CWF and the effects of the glass/zeolite mass ratio, process temperature, and processing time on the chemical durability. Long-term (up to 1 year) PCTs were used to compare the durabilities of HIP and PC CWFs and to estimate the apparent solubility limit for the PC CWF that is needed for modeling. The PC and HIP CWF materials had similar disabilities, based on the release of silicon in long

  13. Effects of aqueous environment on long-term durability of phosphate-bonded ceramic waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, D.; Wagh, A.S.; Jeong, S.Y.

    1996-01-01

    Over the last few years, Argonne National Laboratory has been developing room-temperature-setting chemically-bonded phosphate ceramics for solidifying and stabilizing low-level mixed wastes. This technology is crucial for stabilizing waste streams that contain volatile species and off-gas secondary waste streams generated by high-temperature treatment of such wastes. Magnesium phosphate ceramic has been developed to treat mixed wastes such as ash, salts, and cement sludges. Waste forms of surrogate waste streams were fabricated by acid-base reactions between the mixtures of magnesium oxide powders and the wastes, and phosphoric acid or acid phosphate solutions. Dense and hard ceramic waste forms are produced in this process. The principal advantage of this technology is that the contaminants are immobilized by both chemical stabilization and subsequent microencapsulation of the reaction products. This paper reports the results of durability studies conducted on waste forms made with ash waste streams spiked with hazardous and radioactive surrogates. Standard leaching tests such as ANS 16.1 and TCLP were conducted on the final waste forms. Fates of the contaminants in the final waste forms were established by electron microscopy. In addition, stability of the waste forms in aqueous environments was evaluated with long-term water-immersion tests

  14. Scientific basis for nuclear waste management XX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, W.J.; Triay, I.R.

    1997-01-01

    The proceedings are divided into the following topical sections: Glass formulations and properties; Glass/water interactions; Cements in radioactive waste management; Ceramic and crystalline waste forms; Spent nuclear fuel; Waste processing and treatment; Radiation effects in ceramics, glasses, and nuclear waste materials; Waste package materials; Radionuclide solubility and speciation; Radionuclide sorption; Radionuclide transport; Repository backfill; Performance assessment; Natural analogues; Excess plutonium dispositioning; and Chernobyl-related waste disposal issues. Papers within scope have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  15. Nuclear waste. DOE has terminated research evaluating crystalline rock for a repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fultz, Keith O.; Sprague, John W.; Weigel, Dwayne E.; Price, Vincent P.

    1989-05-01

    We found that DOE terminated funding of research projects specifically designed to evaluate the suitability of crystalline rock for a repository. DOE continued other research efforts involving crystalline rock because they will provide information that it considers useful for evaluating the suitability of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for a potential repository. Such research activities are not prohibited by the amendments. In January 1988, DOE began evaluating both its domestic and international research programs to ensure their compliance with the 1987 amendments. Several DOE offices and contractors were involved in the evaluation. DOE officials believe that the evaluation effectively brought the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management activities into compliance with the amendments while maintaining useful international relations of continuing benefit to the nuclear waste program in general and to DOE's investigation of the Yucca Mountain site in particular. (The 1987 amendments designated Yucca Mountain as the only site that DOE is to investigate for a potential repository.) The approach and results of DOE's evaluation are discussed. Our review of DOE documents indicates that, by June 22, 1988, DOE completed its evaluation of ongoing crystalline rock research projects to ensure compliance with the 1987 amendments, terminated those research activities it identified as being specifically designed to evaluate the suitability of crystalline rock for a repository, continued some research activities involving crystalline rock because these activities would benefit the investigation and development of the Yucca Mountain repository site, and redirected some research activities so that they would contribute to investigating and developing the Yucca Mountain site

  16. Development of a ceramic waste form for high-level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esh, D. W.

    1998-01-01

    A ceramic waste form is being developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) as part of the demonstration of the electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel. The halide, alkaline earth, alkali, transuranic, and rare earth fission products are stabilized in zeolite which is combined with glass and processed in a hot isostatic press (HIP) to form a ceramic composite. The mineral sodalite is formed in the HIP from the zeolite precursor. The process, from starting materials to final product, is relatively simple. An overview of the processing operations is given. The metrics that have been developed to measure the success or completion of processing operations are developed and discussed. The impact of variability in processing metrics on the durability of the final product is presented

  17. Characterization and durability testing of a glass-bonded ceramic waste form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, S. G.

    1998-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory is developing a glass bonded ceramic waste form for encapsulating the fission products and transuranics from the conditioning of metallic reactor fuel. This waste form is currently being scaled to the multi-kilogram size for encapsulation of actual high level waste. This paper will present characterization and durability testing of the ceramic waste form. An emphasis on results from application of glass durability tests such as the Product Consistency Test and characterization methods such as X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The information presented is based on a suite of tests utilized for assessing product quality during scale-up and parametric testing

  18. Technology needs for selecting and evaluating high-level waste repository sites in crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    This report describes properties and processes that govern the performance of the geological barrier in a nuclear waste isolation system in crystalline rock and the state-of-the-art in the understanding of these properties and processes. Areas and topics that require further research and development as well as technology needs for investigating and selecting repository sites are presented. Experiences from the Swedish site selection program are discussed, and a general investigation strategy is presented for an area characterization phase of an exploratory program in crystalline rocks. 255 refs., 65 figs., 10 tabs

  19. A review of glass-ceramics for the immobilization of nuclear fuel recycle wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayward, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    This report reviews the status of the Canadian, German, U.S., Japanese, U.S.S.R. and Swedish programs for the development of glass-ceramic materials for immobilizing the high-level radioactive wastes arising from the recycling of used nuclear fuel. The progress made in these programs is described, with emphasis on the Canadian program for the development of sphene-based glass-ceramics. The general considerations of product performance and process feasibility for glass-ceramics as a category of waste form material are discussed. 137 refs

  20. Mineral-modeled ceramics for long-term storage of high-level nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, E.R.

    1980-01-01

    Over the past ten years, Penn State's Materials Research Laboratory has done extensive work on mineral-modeled ceramics for high-level nuclear waste storage. These ceramics are composed of several mineral analogues that form a monolithic polycrystalline aggregate. Mineral-modeling can be made in a similar fashion to nuclear waste glasses, and their naturally occurring analogues are known to last millions, and even billions, of years in hot, wet conditions. It is believed that such ceramics could reduce dispersal of radionuclides by leaching to a minimum

  1. Nucleation and crystallization behaviors of nano-crystalline lithium–mica glass–ceramic prepared via sol–gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tohidifar, M.R. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Alizadeh, P., E-mail: p-alizadeh@modares.ac.ir [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Riello, P. [Department of Molecular Sciences and Nanosystems, University of Ca’Foscari, Venice (Italy)

    2012-06-15

    Graphical abstract: The effects of nucleation and crystallization treatments on nano-crystalline lithium–mica glass–ceramic, synthesized by sol–gel technique, were investigated. It was found that MgF{sub 2} crystals act as nuclei centers for the mica crystallization so that a large quantity of mica crystallites was obtained following nucleation process. The crystallization activation energy for both the un-nucleated and nucleated samples was measured as 400.2 and 229.6 kJ mol{sup −1}, respectively. The calculated Avrami exponents demonstrated that the growth mechanism of mica crystallites changes from the needle-like to three-dimensional growth with applying the appropriate nucleation treatment ▪. Highlights: ► Crystallization temperature shifts to 625 from 680 °C following nucleation process. ► Activation energy of crystallization for the nucleated specimen is 229.6 kJ mol{sup −1}. ► Crystallization activation energy for the un-nucleated specimen is 400.2 kJ mol{sup −1}. ► Needle-like growth is predominant growth mechanism for un-nucleated sample. ► Three-dimensional growth is predominant growth mechanism for nucleated sample. -- Abstract: The paper investigates the effects of nucleation and crystallization treatments on nano-crystalline lithium–mica glass–ceramics, taking the composition LiMg{sub 3}AlSi{sub 3(1+x)}O{sub 10+6x}F{sub 2} (x = 0.5) and 8 mass% MgF{sub 2} synthesized by sol–gel technique. Here, X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis and transmission electron microscopy were used to assess the structural evolutions of as-synthesized nano-crystalline lithium–mica glass–ceramics. It was found that MgF{sub 2} crystals perform as nuclei centers for the mica crystallization hence; a large quantity of mica crystallites obtained following the nucleation process at 400 °C for 12 h. For both the un-nucleated and nucleated samples, the crystallization activation energy was measured as 400.2 and 229.6 kJ mol{sup −1

  2. UK program: glasses and ceramics for immobilization of radioactive wastes for disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, K.D.B.

    1979-01-01

    The UK Research Program on Radioactive Waste Management includes the development of processes for the conversion of high-level-liquid-reprocessing wastes from thermal and fast reactors to borosilicate glasses. The properties of these glasses and their behavior under storage and disposal conditions have been examined. Methods for immobilizing activity from other wastes by conversion to glass or ceramic forms are described. The UK philosophy of final solutions to waste management and disposal is presented

  3. Characterization of red ceramic pastes incorporated with sugarcane bagasse ash wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, K.C.P.; Gurgel, R.F.; Holanda, J.N.F.

    2010-01-01

    The alcohol industry is one sector that stands out most in the Brazilian agribusiness. Currently there is an increasing demand for sugar and ethanol for use as fuel. The processes of manufacturing these products generate large amounts of waste, the sugarcane bagasse ash waste one of the most abundant. For its chemical and mineralogical characteristics, this waste has aroused the interest of its reuse in the field of red ceramic. This study analyzes the characteristics of a red ceramic paste incorporated with up to 20 wt.% of waste. The following characteristics were performed: chemical composition, X-ray diffraction, particle size, morphology, and Atterberg limits. The results show that the incorporation of sugarcane bagasse ash waste influences the physical-chemical and mineralogical characteristics of red ceramic paste. (author)

  4. Mechanical properties of concrete containing recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) and ceramic waste as coarse aggregate replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Faisal Sheikh; Azmi, Nurul Bazilah; Sumandi, Khairul Azwa Syafiq Mohd; Mazenan, Puteri Natasya

    2017-10-01

    Many construction and development activities today consume large amounts of concrete. The amount of construction waste is also increasing because of the demolition process. Much of this waste can be recycled to produce new products and increase the sustainability of construction projects. As recyclable construction wastes, concrete and ceramic can replace the natural aggregate in concrete because of their hard and strong physical properties. This research used 25%, 35%, and 45% recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) and ceramic waste as coarse aggregate in producing concrete. Several tests, such as concrete cube compression and splitting tensile tests, were also performed to determine and compare the mechanical properties of the recycled concrete with those of the normal concrete that contains 100% natural aggregate. The concrete containing 35% RCA and 35% ceramic waste showed the best properties compared with the normal concrete.

  5. Review of DOE's proposal for Crystalline bedrock disposal of radioactive waste, north-central area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    The DOE's Region-to-Area Screening Methodology for the Crystalline Repository Project (DOE/CH-1), the Final North-Central Region Geologic Characterization Report (DOE/CH-8(1)), and the Draft Area Recommendation Report for the Crystalline Repository Project (DOE/CH-15), with the associated maps, were reviewed. The review has focused on all general information regarding geologic topics and all site-specific data for DOE sites NC-10 and NC-3. This report contains two parts: (1) a point-by-point critique of perceived errors, omissions, or other shortcomings in each of the three documents; and (2) a discussion of the feasibility of crystalline bedrock as a suitable host medium for high-level radioactive waste

  6. Structure, mechanical and thermal behaviour of mixtures of polyester resin and dental ceramic waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña Rodríguez, G.; Martínez Maldonado, L.; Dulce Moreno, H. J.

    2016-02-01

    The tensile strength and bending strength, structure and thermal behaviour of mixtures of polyester resin (P-2000) and powders (ASTM sieve 200, dental ceramic wastes (dentals impressions, alginate and gypsum) was reported. The samples consisted of mixtures with percentage weights of 50-50%, 60-40%, 70-30%, 80-20%, 90-10%, where the resin was the majority phase, the Mekc (4% wt) was used as catalyst. The structure was studied using SEM and XRD, the thermal behaviour using DSC, TGA and DMA, while the mechanical strength was tested using standards ASTM D790 and D638. Irregular morphology and presence of small agglomerations was observed, with particle sizes between 29.63 and 38.67μm, the presence of different phases of calcium sulphate was found, and that to the increasing the concentration of the powder, the materials becomes more crystalline, increasing its density. An average service temperature of 69.15±4.60°C was found. Vickers hardness values are reported in ranges from 18.65 to 27.96. Considering the elastic modules was established that the materials become more rigid by having more powder concentration.

  7. Systematic investigation of the strontium zirconium phosphate ceramic form for nuclear waste immobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pet'kov, Vladimir; Asabina, Elena; Loshkarev, Vladimir; Sukhanov, Maksim

    2016-04-01

    We have summarized our data and literature ones on the thermophysical properties and hydrolytic stability of Sr0.5Zr2(PO4)3 compound as a host NaZr2(PO4)3-type (NZP) structure for immobilization of 90Sr-containing radioactive waste. Absence of any polymorphic transformations on the temperature dependence of its heat capacity between 7 and 665 K is caused by the stability of crystalline Sr0.5Zr2(PO4)3. Calculated values of thermal conductivity coefficients at zero porosity in the range 298-673 K were 1.86-2.40 W·m-1 K-1. The compound may be classified as low thermal expanding material due to its average linear thermal expansion coefficient. Study of the hydrolytic stability in acid and alkaline media has shown that the relative mass fraction of Sr2+ ions, released into aggressive leaching media, didn't exceed 1% of the mass of sample. Soxhlet leaching studies have shown substantial resistance towards the release of Sr2+ ions into distilled water. Feeble sinterability constrains practical applications of NZP substances, that is why known in literature methods of Sr0.5Zr2(PO4)3 dense ceramics obtaining have been reviewed.

  8. A review and discussion of candidate ceramics for immobilization of high-level fuel reprocessing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayward, P.J.

    1982-08-01

    This review discusses and attempts to evaluate 11 of the leading ceramic processes for hosting the high-level and high-level plus medium-level wastes which would arise from the reprocessing of used UO 2 , (Th,Pu)O 2 and (Th,U)O 2 fuels. The wasteform materials considered include glass ceramics, supercalcine ceramics, SYNROC ceramics, 'stuffed glass', titanate ceramics, cermets, clay ceramics, cement-based materials and multibarrier wasteforms. Although no attempt has been made to rank these candidates in order of superiority, the conclusion is drawn that, of the materials proposed so far, a glass ceramic appears to be best suited to the Canadian program, taking into account durability in the potential environment of a flooded vault, ability to withstand radiation and transmutation damage without serious loss of durability, ability to accommodate variable waste compositions, and ease of processing and quality control. This conclusion does not necessarily apply to other national waste management programs. However, many of the points raised might be included in any critical assessment of alternative wasteform materials

  9. MODELING SOLIDIFICATION-INDUCED STRESSES IN CERAMIC WASTE FORMS CONTAINING NUCLEAR WASTES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solbrig, Charles W.; Bateman, Kenneth J.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this work is to produce a ceramic waste form (CWF) that permanently occludes radioactive waste. This is accomplished by absorbing radioactive salts into zeolite, mixing with glass frit, heating to a molten state 915 C to form a sodalite glass matrix, and solidifying for long-term storage. Less long term leaching is expected if the solidifying cooling rate doesn't cause cracking. In addition to thermal stress, this paper proposes that a stress is formed during solidification which is very large for fast cooling rates during solidification and can cause severe cracking. A solidifying glass or ceramic cylinder forms a dome on the cylinder top end. The temperature distribution at the time of solidification causes the stress and the dome. The dome height, ''the length deficit,'' produces an axial stress when the solid returns to room temperature with the inherent outer region in compression, the inner in tension. Large tensions will cause cracking of the specimen. The temperature deficit, derived by dividing the length deficit by the coefficient of thermal expansion, allows solidification stress theory to be extended to the circumferential stress. This paper derives the solidification stress theory, gives examples, explains how to induce beneficial stresses, and compares theory to experimental data.

  10. Incorporation of low and intermediate level wastes into ceramic clay matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, A.S.; Kuznetzov, B.S.; Kuznetzov, B.S.; Na, R.

    1995-01-01

    Conditions for the production of chemically stable high-strength ceramics based on clay are developed using wastes of three types: ashes from radioactive waste burning, hydroxide pulp formed during precipitations in radiochemical technology, suspensions of spent filtering material (filter perlite). The properties of wastes and ceramics are studied by emission spectrography, X-ray phase analysis, mechanical strength and chemical stability of end products are determined. It is shown that the ceramics incorporating 30-50 % wt. of wastes have the apparent density 2.1-2.5 g/cm 3 , the compression strength 40-70 MPa; the radionuclide leaching rate is comparable with the values obtained for borosilicate glasses. (authors)

  11. Characterization of waste ceramic process for lost wax casting for employment as pozzolan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, C.F.; Moravia, W.G.

    2012-01-01

    There are about 30 companies of Lost Wax Casting in Brazil, and each one of them disposes around 50 to 100 tons of waste ceramic shell monthly. This work is concerned in the physical, chemical and microstructural characterization to evaluated the reactivity of this material. It was analyzed also the environmental risk of the material. The tests were made with a ceramic shell ground to evaluate the aspect of sustainable waste. In the physical characterization of the waste the density, specific surface area and distribution of the particle size were analyzed. In the chemical characterization, the powder was subjected to essays of fluorescence and pozzolanic activity. As for microstructural characterization scanning electron microscopy and Xray diffraction were carried out. The analysis of results shows that the ceramic shell powder is classified as non-inert waste, II-A Class, with density of 2,59 g/cm³. (author)

  12. Plutonium and surrogate fission products in a composite ceramic waste form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esh, D. W.; Frank, S. M.; Goff, K. M.; Johnson, S. G.; Moschetti, T. L.; O'Holleran, T.

    1999-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory is developing a ceramic waste form to immobilize salt containing fission products and transuranic elements. Preliminary results have been presented for ceramic waste forms containing surrogate fission products such as cesium and the lanthanides. In this work results from scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction are presented in greater detail for ceramic waste forms containing surrogate fission products. Additionally, results for waste forms containing plutonium and surrogate fission products are presented. Most of the surrogate fission products appear to be silicates or aluminosilicates whereas the plutonium is usually found in an oxide form. There is also evidence for the presence of plutonium within the sodalite phase although the chemical speciation of the plutonium is not known

  13. Partial replacement of the feldspar waste of flat glass ceramics for masses in white

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porto, V.S.; Araujo, A.M.B.; Morais, C.R.S.; Cavalcanti, M.S.L.

    2012-01-01

    In all the industrial production process requires the consumption of raw materials exaggerated the traditional scarcity of incurring the same. To reverse this situation, one of the possible actions is the search for alternative technologies that aim to replace these materials by waste that exhibit similar characteristics. This study aims to verify the possibility of partially replacing feldspar by waste flat glass ceramic mass for white, since this type of waste, when subjected to high temperatures can act as a flux. For this research, initially the raw materials were characterized using the techniques of energy dispersive spectroscopy X-ray (EDX) and X-ray diffraction. Then, test pieces were prepared to be burned at temperatures between 1000 and 1250 ° C, which were submitted to tests of porosity to absorb water. The results are within the standards required by the standards established for ceramic products, which confirms the feasibility of such waste to act as a flux in ceramic white masses. (author)

  14. Reuse of the red brick waste and dust waste of blasting chamber (glass micro spheres) in the red ceramic industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, R.A.; Felippe, C.E.C.; Guimaraes, C.S.; Almeida, V.C.

    2010-01-01

    The search for alternative environmentally less aggressive disposal of solid waste has been adopted to reverse the negative scenario established by the improper disposal of these materials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reuse of waste: leftover red brick from the civil construction and glass micro spheres, obtained from the blasting chamber, aiming to develop a ceramic product. Mixtures containing various amounts of waste were prepared. The ceramic pieces were burned at 1000 and 1200 deg C being tested for water absorption and tensile strength and characterized by X-ray diffraction. The analysis of volatile organic compounds released during the burning process was performed. The results indicate that the ceramic material produced has a high resistance although the analysis of gases from the burning point to a negative environmental impact. (author)

  15. Thermal and physical property determination for IONSIV/256 IE-911 crystalline silicotitanate and Savannah River Site waste simulant solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada, C.C.

    1999-01-01

    This document describes physical and thermophysical property determinations that were made in order to resolve questions associated with the decontamination of Savannah River Site waste streams using ion exchange on crystalline silicotitanate

  16. Compatibility tests between Solar Salt and thermal storage ceramics from inorganic industrial wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motte, Fabrice; Falcoz, Quentin; Veron, Emmanuel; Py, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • ESEM and XRD characterizations have been performed. • Compatibility of these ceramics with the conventional binary Solar Salt is tested at 500 °C. • Tested ceramics have relevant properties to store thermal energy up to 1000 °C. • Feasibility of using ceramics as filler materials in thermocline is demonstrated. - Abstract: This paper demonstrates the feasibility of using several post-industrial ceramics as filler materials in a direct thermocline storage configuration. The tested ceramics, coming from several industrial processes (asbestos containing waste treatment, coal fired power plants or metallurgic furnaces) demonstrate relevant properties to store thermal energy by sensible heat up to 1000 °C. Thus, they represent at low-cost a promising, efficient and sustainable approach for thermal energy storage. In the present study, the thermo-chemical compatibility of these ceramics with the conventional binary Solar Salt is tested at medium temperature (500 °C) under steady state. In order to determine the feasibility of using such ceramics as filler material, Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) characterizations have been performed to check for their chemical and structural evolution during corrosion tests. The final objective is to develop a molten salt thermocline direct storage system using low-cost shaped ceramic as structured filler material. Most of the tested ceramics present an excellent corrosion resistance in molten Solar Salt and should significantly decrease the current cost of concentrated solar thermal energy storage system

  17. Effects of body formulation and firing temperature to properties of ceramic tile incorporated with electric arc furnace (EAF) slag waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Nurulakmal Mohd; Lim, Chi Yang; Teo, Pao Ter; Seman, Anasyida Abu

    2017-07-01

    Significant quantities of sludge and slag are generated as waste materials or by-products from steel industries. One of the by-products is Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) steel slag which consists of oxides such as CaO, Al2O3 and FeO. This makes it possible for slag to partially replace the raw materials in ceramic tile production. In our preliminary assessment of incorporating the EAF slag into ceramic tile, it was revealed that at fixed firing temperature of 1150°C, the tile of composition 40 wt.% EAF slag - 60 wt.% ball clay has comparable properties with commercial ceramic tile. Thus, this current study would focus on effects of body formulation (different weight percentages of K-feldspar and silica) and different firing temperatures to properties of EAF slag added ceramic tile. EAF slag from Southern Steel Berhad (SSB) was crushed into micron size (EAF slag content was 40 wt.%) and milled with ball clay, K-feldspar and silica before compacted and fired at 1125°C and 1150°C. The EAF slag added tile was characterized in terms of water absorption, apparent porosity, bulk density, modulus of rupture (MOR) and phase analysis via X-ray diffraction (XRD). The composition of 40 wt.% EAF slag - 30 wt.% ball clay - 10 wt.% K-feldspar - 20 wt.% silica (10F_20S), fired at 1150°C showed the lowest water absorption, apparent porosity and highest bulk density due to enhancement of densification process during firing. However, the same composition of ceramic tile (10F_20S) had the highest MOR at lower firing temperature of 1125°C, contributed by presence of the highest total amount of anorthite and wollastonite reinforcement crystalline phases (78.40 wt.%) in the tile. Overall, both the water absorption and MOR of all ceramic tiles surpassed the requirement regulated by MS ISO 13006:2014 Standard (Annex G: Dry-pressed ceramic tile with low water absorption, Eb ≤ 0.50 % and minimum MOR of 35 MPa).

  18. Environmental and economic aspects of using marble fine waste in the manufacture of facing ceramic materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zemlyanushnov Dmitriy Yur'evich

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This work considers economic expediency of using marble fine waste in facing ceramic materials manufacture by three-dimensional coloring method. Adding marble fine waste to the charge mixture reduces the production cost of the final product. This waste has a positive impact on the intensification of drying clay rocks and raw as a whole, which increases production efficiency. Using marble fine waste as a coloring admixture makes it possible to manufacture more environmentally friendly construction material with the use of wastes of hazard class 3 instead of class 4. At the same time, disposal areas and environmental load in the territories of mining and marble processing reduce significantly. Replacing ferrous pigments with manganese oxide for marble fine waste reduces the cost of the final product and the manufacture of facing ceramic brick of a wide range of colors - from dark brown to yellow.

  19. Application of the coal-mining waste in building ceramics production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaysman Yakov Iosifovich

    Full Text Available In the process of construction ceramics production a substantial quantity of non-renewable natural resources - clays - are used. One of the ways of science development in building materials production is investigation of the possibility of regular materials production using technogenic waste. Application of coal-mining waste (technogenic raw material in charge composition for production of ceramic products provides rational use of fuel, contributes to implementation of resource saving technologies on construction materials production enterprises. Though science development on revealing new raw material sources should be conducted with account for safety, reliability, technical, ecological and economical sides of the problem, which is especially current. The article deals with the problem of coal-mining waste usage in building ceramics production instead of fresh primary component (clay, fluxes, thinning agents and combustible additives. The interdependence between the density and shrinkage of the ceramic products and the amount and quality of coal-mining waste in its composition was established. The optimal proportion of coal-mining waste and clay in building ceramics production was estimated.

  20. Stabilization Using Phosphate Bonded Ceramics. Salt Containing Mixed Waste Treatment. Mixed Waste Focus Area. OST Reference No. 117

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex there are large inventories of homogeneous mixed waste solids, such as wastewater treatment residues, fly ashes, and sludges that contain relatively high concentrations (greater than 15% by weight) of salts. The inherent solubility of salts (e.g., nitrates, chlorides, and sulfates) makes traditional treatment of these waste streams difficult, expensive, and challenging. One alternative is low-temperature stabilization by chemically bonded phosphate ceramics (CBPCs). The process involves reacting magnesium oxide with monopotassium phosphate with the salt waste to produce a dense monolith. The ceramic makes a strong environmental barrier, and the metals are converted to insoluble, low-leaching phosphate salts. The process has been tested on a variety of surrogates and actual mixed waste streams, including soils, wastewater, flyashes, and crushed debris. It has also been demonstrated at scales ranging from 5 to 55 gallons. In some applications, the CBPC technology provides higher waste loadings and a more durable salt waste form than the baseline method of cementitious grouting. Waste form test specimens were subjected to a variety of performance tests. Results of waste form performance testing concluded that CBPC forms made with salt wastes meet or exceed both RCRA and recommended Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) low-level waste (LLW) disposal criteria. Application of a polymer coating to the CBPC may decrease the leaching of salt anions, but continued waste form evaluations are needed to fully assess the deteriorating effects of this leaching, if any, over time.

  1. Partial replacement of Portland cement by red ceramic waste in mortars: study of pozzolanic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, A.R. da; Cabral, K.C.; Pinto, E.N. de M.G.l.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the pozzolanic activity of red ceramic residue on the partial replacement of Portland cement in mortars. The mortars were prepared by substituting 25% of the Portland cement for ground of ceramic residue with water cement’s factor of 0.48. The concrete used to construct the reference mortars and those with addiction was CPII-Z-32 (compound of Portland pozzolana cement). The chemical analysis and physical ceramic waste showed that this meets the requirements of NBR12653 (2014) for use as pozzolanic material. The pozzolanic activity index (IAP) obtained for the ceramic waste to twenty-eight days cure rate was 80.28%. (author)

  2. Magnetic Glass Ceramics by Sintering of Borosilicate Glass and Inorganic Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inès M. M. M. Ponsot

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Ceramics and glass ceramics based on industrial waste have been widely recognized as competitive products for building applications; however, there is a great potential for such materials with novel functionalities. In this paper, we discuss the development of magnetic sintered glass ceramics based on two iron-rich slags, coming from non-ferrous metallurgy and recycled borosilicate glass. The substantial viscous flow of the glass led to dense products for rapid treatments at relatively low temperatures (900–1000 °C, whereas glass/slag interactions resulted in the formation of magnetite crystals, providing ferrimagnetism. Such behavior could be exploited for applying the obtained glass ceramics as induction heating plates, according to preliminary tests (showing the rapid heating of selected samples, even above 200 °C. The chemical durability and safety of the obtained glass ceramics were assessed by both leaching tests and cytotoxicity tests.

  3. Development of new ceramic materials from the waste of serpentinite and red clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presotto, P.; Mymrine, V.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work is to develop new ceramic materials using serpentine and glass waste and clay red. The raw materials were characterized through morphological, granulometric, mineralogical and chemical analysis. Six formulations have been developed based on the serpentine and red clay, which three of the six compositions have been adjusted with the addition of residual glass. The ceramic bodies were formed by uniaxial pressing and subjected to burn in an electric oven at temperatures of 1100 ° C, 1200 ° C, 1250 ° C and 1300 ° C. The ceramic samples obtained this way were characterized according to their physical properties (specific mass and linear retraction) and the mechanical (three points bending strength). The final properties varied according to the proportions of raw materials and firing temperature. In general, the different formulations fit the standards for traditional ceramics such as tiles and ceramic blocks. (author)

  4. Calcium-borosilicate glass-ceramics wasteforms to immobilize rare-earth oxide wastes from pyro-processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Miae [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang, Gyeongbuk, 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Heo, Jong, E-mail: jheo@postech.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang, Gyeongbuk, 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Materials Engineering, Adama Science and Technology University (ASTU), PO Box 1888, Adama (Ethiopia)

    2015-12-15

    Glass-ceramics containing calcium neodymium(cerium) oxide silicate [Ca{sub 2}Nd{sub 8-x}Ce{sub x}(SiO{sub 4}){sub 6}O{sub 2}] crystals were fabricated for the immobilization of radioactive wastes that contain large portions of rare-earth ions. Controlled crystallization of alkali borosilicate glasses by heating at T ≥ 750 °C for 3 h formed hexagonal Ca–silicate crystals. Maximum lanthanide oxide waste loading was >26.8 wt.%. Ce and Nd ions were highly partitioned inside Ca–silicate crystals compared to the glass matrix; the rare-earth wastes are efficiently immobilized inside the crystalline phases. The concentrations of Ce and Nd ions released in a material characterization center-type 1 test were below the detection limit (0.1 ppb) of inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. Normalized release values performed by a product consistency test were 2.64·10{sup −6} g m{sup −2} for Ce ion and 2.19·10{sup −6} g m{sup −2} for Nd ion. Results suggest that glass-ceramics containing calcium neodymium(cerium) silicate crystals are good candidate wasteforms for immobilization of lanthanide wastes generated by pyro-processing. - Highlights: • Glass-ceramic wasteforms containing Ca{sub 2}Nd{sub 8-x}Ce{sub x}(SiO{sub 4}){sub 6}O{sub 2} crystals were synthesized to immobilize lanthanide wastes. • Maximum lanthanide oxide waste loading was >26.8 wt.%. • Ce and Nd ions were highly partitioned inside Ca–Nd–silicate crystals compared to glass matrix. • Amounts of Ce and Nd ions released in the material characterization center-type 1 were below the detection limit (0.1 ppb). • Normalized release values performed by a PCT were 2.64• 10{sup −6} g m{sup −2} for Ce ions and 2.19• 10{sup −6} g m{sup −2} for Nd ions.

  5. Development and testing of matrices for the encapsulation of glass and ceramic nuclear waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wald, J.W.; Brite, D.W.; Gurwell, W.E.; Buckwalter, C.Q.; Bunnell, L.R.; Gray, W.J.; Blair, H.T.; Rusin, J.M.

    1982-02-01

    This report details the results of research on the matrix encapsulation of high level wastes at PML over the past few years. The demonstrations and tests described were designed to illustrate how the waste materials are effected when encapsulated in an inert matrix. Candidate materials evaluated for potential use as matrices for encapslation of pelletized ceramics or glass marbles were categorized into four groups: metals, glasses, ceramics, and graphite. Two processing techniques, casting and hot pressing, were investigated as the most promising methods of formation or densification of the matrices. The major results reported deal with the development aspects. However, chemical durability tests (leach tests) of the matrix materials themselves and matrix-waste form composites are also reported. Matrix waste forms can provide a low porosity, waste-free barrier resulting in increased leach protection, higher impact strength and improved thermal conductivity compared to unencapsulated glass or ceramic waste materials. Glass marbles encapsulated in a lead matrix offer the most significant improvement in waste form stability of all combinations evaluated. This form represents a readily demonstrable process that provides high thermal conductivity, mechanical shock resistance, radiation shielding and increased chemical durability through both a chemical passivation mechanism and as a physical barrier. Other durable matrix waste forms evaluated, applicable primarily to ceramic pellets, involved hot-pressed titanium or TiO 2 materials. In the processing of these forms, near 100% dense matrices were obtained. The matrix materials had excellent compatibility with the waste materials and superior potential chemical durability. Cracking of the hot-pressed ceramic matrix forms, in general, prevented the realization of their optimum properties

  6. Microstructural characterization of ceramic floor tiles with the incorporation of wastes from ceramic tile industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmeane Effting

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic floor tiles are widely used in buildings. In places where people are bare feet, the thermal sensation of cold or hot depends on the environmental conditions and material properties including its microstructure and crustiness surface. The introduction of the crustiness surface on the ceramic floor tiles interfere in the contact temperature and also it can be an strategy to obtain ceramic tiles more comfortable. In this work, porous ceramic tiles were obtained by pressing an industrial atomized ceramic powder incorporated with refractory raw material (residue from porcelainized stoneware tile polishing and changing firing temperature. Raw materials and obtained compacted samples were evaluated by chemical analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, and differential thermal analysis (DTA. Thermal (thermal conductivity and effusivity and physical (porosity measurements were also evaluated.

  7. Waste water purification using new porous ceramics prepared by recycling waste glass and bamboo charcoal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Tetsuaki; Morimoto, Akane; Yamamoto, Yoshito; Kubuki, Shiro

    2017-12-01

    New porous ceramics (PC) prepared by recycling waste glass bottle of soft drinks (80 mass%) and bamboo charcoal (20 mass%) without any binder was applied to the waste water purification under aeration at 25 °C. Artificial waste water (15 L) containing 10 mL of milk was examined by combining 15 mL of activated sludge and 750 g of PC. Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) showed a marked decrease from 178 to 4.0 (±0.1) mg L-1 in 5 days and to 2.0 (±0.1) mg L-1 in 7 days, which was equal to the Environmental Standard for the river water (class A) in Japan. Similarly, chemical oxygen demand (COD) decreased from 158 to 3.6 (±0.1) mg L-1 in 5 days and to 2.2 (±0.1) mg L-1 in 9 days, which was less than the Environmental Standard for the Seawater (class B) in Japan: 3.0 mg L-1. These results prove the high water purification ability of the PC, which will be effectively utilized for the purification of drinking water, fish preserve water, fish farm water, etc.

  8. Contribution to the investigation of phase transitions induced by irradiation in insulating crystalline ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simeone, D.

    2003-01-01

    The author gives a rather detailed overview of his research activities on the behaviour of ceramics subjected to irradiations by charged or not-charged particles. He reports the development of a new application of low incidence X ray diffraction to assess the evolutions within irradiated solids. Coupling this technique with Raman spectroscopy studies enabled the monitoring of order parameter evolution in these solids. He shows that, in some oxides, irradiation effects entail order-disorder type transitions and, more surprisingly, displacive phase transitions. From this experimental work, he developed a modelling of these phase transitions induced by irradiation. Quantitative data obtained on the evolutions of order parameters enabled these phase transitions to be explained within the frame of the thermodynamics of off-equilibrium phenomena

  9. A direct, single-step plasma arc-vitreous ceramic process for stabilizing spent nuclear fuels, sludges, and associated wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, X.; Einziger, R.E.; Eschenbach, R.C.

    1997-01-01

    A single-step plasma arc-vitreous ceramic (PAVC) process is described for converting spent nuclear fuel (SNF), SNF sludges, and associated wastes into a vitreous ceramic waste form. This proposed technology is built on extensive experience of nuclear waste form development and nuclear waste treatment using the commercially available plasma arc centrifugal (PAC) system. SNF elements will be loaded directly into a PAC furnace with minimum additives and converted into vitreous ceramics with up to 90 wt% waste loading. The vitreous ceramic waste form should meet the functional requirements for borosilicate glasses for permanent disposal in a geologic repository and for interim storage. Criticality safety would be ensured through the use of batch modes, and controlling the amount of fuel processed in one batch. The minimum requirements on SNF characterization and pretreatment, the one-step process, and minimum secondary waste generation may reduce treatment duration, radiation exposure, and treatment cost

  10. Fracture toughness in nuclear waste glasses and ceramics: environmental and radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, W.J.; Matzke, H.J.

    1986-03-01

    The effects of atmospheric moisture and radiation damage on fracture properties of nuclear waste glasses and ceramics was investigated by indentation techniques. In nuclear waste glasses, atmospheric moisture has no measurable effect on hardness but decreases the fracture toughness; radiation damage, on the other hand, decreased the hardness and increased the fracture toughness. In nuclear ceramics, self-radiation damage from alpha decay decreased the hardness and elastic modules; the fracture toughness increased with dose to a broad maximum and then decreased slightly with further increases in dose

  11. What Is Crystalline Silica?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and ceramic manufacturing and the tool and die, steel and foundry industries. Crystalline silica is used in manufacturing, household abrasives, adhesives, paints, soaps, and glass. Additionally, ...

  12. The effects of sulfate content on crystalline phase, microstructure, and chemical durability of zirconolite−barium borosilicate glass-ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Lang, E-mail: lang.wu@163.com [State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base for Nonmetal Composites and Functional Materials, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); Wang, Xin; Li, Huidong; Teng, Yuancheng [State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base for Nonmetal Composites and Functional Materials, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); Peng, Long [Sichuan Province Key Laboratory of Information Materials and Devices Application, Chengdu University of Information Technology, Chengdu 610225 (China)

    2016-09-15

    The effects of sulfate content on structure and chemical durability of barium borosilicate glass-ceramics were studied. The results show that the glass-ceramics with 0–1.10 mol% SO{sub 3} possess mainly CaZrTi{sub 2}O{sub 7}-2M phase along with a small amount of CaZrTi{sub 2}O{sub 7}-3T and ZrO{sub 2} phases. The hexagonal CaZrTi{sub 2}O{sub 7}-3T crystals crystallize on the surface of glass-ceramics. For the samples with 1.24–1.55 mol% SO{sub 3}, the main crystalline phases are CaTiSiO{sub 5} and CaZrTi{sub 2}O{sub 7}-2M in the bulk, while a separate sulfate layer containing Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and BaSO{sub 4} is observed on the surface. X-ray fluorescence analysis indicates that about 2/3 of the SO{sub 3} originally added has been lost by volatility. The normalized mass loss (NL{sub i}) for Na, B, Ca elements remains almost unchanged (∼10{sup −2} g/m{sup 2}) after 7 days for the samples with 0–1.10 mol% SO{sub 3}. The NL{sub i} for both Na and B increases gradually after 7 days when the SO{sub 3} content is 1.24 mol%. - Highlights: • Strip-shaped CaZrTi{sub 2}O{sub 7}-2M and plate-like CaTiSiO{sub 5} crystals crystallize in the bulk. • CaZrTi{sub 2}O{sub 7}-3T crystals crystallize on the surface for samples with 0–1.10 mol% SO{sub 3}. • A separate sulfate layer crystallizes on the surface when SO{sub 3} exceeds solubility.

  13. Basic research in crystalline and noncrystalline ceramic systems. Annual report, March 1, 1974--February 28, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Research results reported are: heats of transport in hypo- and hyperstoichiometric UO 2 in thermal gradients; fabrication of transparent PLZT; creep in Al 2 O 3 ; ambipolar diffusion and diffusional creep; diffusion-controlled final-stage sintering; sintering mechanism in Al 2 O 3 ; internal stresses in polycrystalline Al 2 O 3 ; x-ray study of the high-temperature alpha form of AgI single crystal; theory of effects of transmutation on radiotracer diffusion in ionic solids; 204 Tl diffusion in KCl at 240 to 700 0 C; diffusion of Ni 2+ in MgO; defect (diffusion) equilibration kinetics in CoO; diffusional contributions to grain boundary-related damping; color boundary migration in doped Al 2 O 3 ; defect studies in MgO and other solids; preparation of Al 2 O 3 -doped MgO; space charges and dielectric losses in MgO; production of thin MgO foils; precipitation in MgO; grain boundary segregation in Li-doped NiO; various research needs in ceramic science; and a test of a prototype ZrO 2 --UO 2 fuel cell. (U.S.)

  14. Solution exchange corrosion testing with the glass-zeolite ceramic waste form in demineralized water at 900C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, L. J.

    1998-01-01

    A ceramic waste form of glass-bonded zeolite is being developed for the long-term disposition of fission products and transuranic elements in wastes from the U.S. Department of Energy's spent nuclear fuel conditioning activities. Solution exchange corrosion tests were performed on the ceramic waste form and its potential base constituents of glass, zeolite 5A, and sodalite as part of an effort to qualify the ceramic waste form for acceptance into the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System. Solution exchange tests were performed at 90 C by replacing 80 to 90% of the leachate with fresh demineralized water after set time intervals. The results from these tests provide information about corrosion mechanisms and the ability of the ceramic waste form and its constituent materials to retain waste components. The results from solution exchange tests indicate that radionuclides will be preferentially retained in the zeolites without the glass matrix and in the ceramic waste form, with respect to cations like Li, K, and Na. Release results have been compared for simulated waste from candidate ceramic waste forms with zeolite 5A and its constituent materials to determine the corrosion behavior of each component

  15. Study of Wettability of Clayey Ceramic and Fluorescent Lamp Glass Waste Powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Alline Sardinha Cordeiro; Monteiro, Sergio Neves; Ribeiro, Sebastião; Sardinha, Leonardo Carneiro; Vieira, Carlos Maurício Fontes

    The glass tube of spent fluorescent lamps is contaminated with mercury, which might be a serious hazard in the case of conventional recycling by melting with other glasses. A possible solution could be its incorporation into a clay body to fabricate common fired ceramics such as bricks and tiles. The objective of this work is to characterize a type of fluorescent lamp glass waste to be incorporated into a clayey ceramic. The characterization was performed in terms of wettability tests to evaluate the interaction between the surface of the clayey ceramic and glass waste as a function of the firing temperature. The results showed that the contact angle decreased with increasing temperature, reaching a value of 79°, at a temperature of 1100°C, but not sufficient to completely wet the ceramic. However, compatible chemical composition and reduction of porosity by the flow of soft glass waste between the clay particles favor the consolidation of the ceramics structure above 900°C.

  16. Radiation effects in glass and glass-ceramic waste forms for the immobilization of CANDU UO2 fuel reprocessing waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tait, J.C.

    1993-05-01

    AECL has investigated three waste forms for the immobilization of high-level liquid wastes that would arise if used CANDU fuels were reprocessed at some time in the future to remove fissile materials for the fabrication of new power reactor fuel. These waste forms are borosilicate glasses, aluminosilicate glasses and titanosilicate glass-ceramics. This report discusses the potential effects of alpha, beta and gamma radiation on the releases of radionuclides from these waste forms as a result of aqueous corrosion by groundwaters that would be present in an underground waste disposal vault. The report discusses solid-state damage caused by radiation-induced atomic displacements in the waste forms as well as irradiation of groundwater solutions (radiolysis), and their potential effects on waste-form corrosion and radionuclide release. The current literature on radiation effects on borosilicate glasses and in ceramics is briefly reviewed, as are potential radiation effects on specialized waste forms for the immobilization of 129 I, 85 Kr and 14 C. (author). 104 refs., 9 tabs., 5 figs

  17. Synthesis of nano-crystalline hydroxyapatite and ammonium sulfate from phosphogypsum waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousa, Sahar, E-mail: dollyriri@yahoo.com [Inorganic Chemistry Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, P.O.Box:12622, Postal code: 11787 Cairo (Egypt); King Abdulaziz University, Science and Art College, Chemistry Department, Rabigh Campus, P.O. Box:344, Postal code: 21911 Rabigh (Saudi Arabia); Hanna, Adly [Inorganic Chemistry Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, P.O.Box:12622, Postal code: 11787 Cairo (Egypt)

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: TEM micrograph of dried HAP at 800 °C. -- Abstract: Phosphogypsum (PG) waste which is derived from phosphoric acid manufacture by using wet method was converted into hydroxyapatite (HAP) and ammonium sulfate. Very simple method was applied by reacting PG with phosphoric acid in alkaline medium with adjusting pH using ammonia solution. The obtained nano-HAP was dried at 80 °C and calcined at 600 °C and 900 °C for 2 h. Both of HAP and ammonium sulfate were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared spectroscopy (IR) to study the structural evolution. The thermal behavior of nano-HAP was studied; the particle size and morphology were estimated by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All the results showed that HAP nano-crystalline and ammonium sulfate can successfully be produced from phosphogypsum waste.

  18. Synthesis of nano-crystalline hydroxyapatite and ammonium sulfate from phosphogypsum waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mousa, Sahar; Hanna, Adly

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: TEM micrograph of dried HAP at 800 °C. -- Abstract: Phosphogypsum (PG) waste which is derived from phosphoric acid manufacture by using wet method was converted into hydroxyapatite (HAP) and ammonium sulfate. Very simple method was applied by reacting PG with phosphoric acid in alkaline medium with adjusting pH using ammonia solution. The obtained nano-HAP was dried at 80 °C and calcined at 600 °C and 900 °C for 2 h. Both of HAP and ammonium sulfate were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared spectroscopy (IR) to study the structural evolution. The thermal behavior of nano-HAP was studied; the particle size and morphology were estimated by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All the results showed that HAP nano-crystalline and ammonium sulfate can successfully be produced from phosphogypsum waste.

  19. Salt splitting of sodium-dominated radioactive waste using ceramic membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollenberg, G.W.; Carlson, C.D.; Virkar, A.; Joshi, A.

    1994-08-01

    The potential for salt splitting of sodium dominated radioactive wastes by use of a ceramic membrane is reviewed. The technical basis for considering this processing technology is derived from the technology developed for battery and chlor-alkali chemical industry. Specific comparisons are made with the commercial organic membranes which are the standard in nonradioactive salt splitting. Two features of ceramic membranes are expected to be especially attractive: high tolerance to gamma irradiation and high selectivity between sodium and other ions. The objective of the salt splitting process is to separate nonradioactive sodium from contaminated sodium salts prior to other pretreatment processes in order to: (1) concentrate the waste in order to reduce the volume of subsequent additives and capacity of equipment, (2) decrease the pH of the waste in preparation for further processing, and (3) provide sodium with very low radioactivity levels for caustic washing of sludge or low level and mixed waste vitrification

  20. Characterization of different types of ceramic waste and its incorporation to the cement paste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, G.A.; Evangelista, A.C.J.; Almeida, V.C. de

    2009-01-01

    The porcelain tike is a product resulting from the technological development of ceramic plating industry. Its large acceptation by the consumer market is probably linked with certain properties, such as low porosity, high mechanical resistance, facility in maintenance, besides being a material of modern and versatile characteristics. The aim of this work was characterizing the different ceramic wastes (enameled and porcelain tike) and evaluating its influence on the mechanical behavior in cement pastes. The wastes were characterized through the determination of its chemical composition, size particle distribution and X-ray diffraction. Cement pastes + wastes were prepared in 25% and 50% proportions and glue time determination, water absorption and resistance to compression assays were taken. The results indicate that although the wastes don't show any variation in the elementary chemical composition, changes in the cement paste behavior related to the values of resistance to compression were observed. (author)

  1. Characterization of solid wastes from kraft pulp industry for ceramic materials development purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, L.R.; Francisco, M.A.C.O.; Sagrillo, V.P.D.; Louzada, D.M.; Entringer, J.M.S.

    2016-01-01

    The Kraft pulp industry generates a large amount of solid wastes. Due this large quantity, the target of this study is characterize inorganic solid wastes, dregs, grits and lime mud, from the step of reagents recovery of Kraft process, aiming evaluate the potentiality of their use as alternative raw material on development of ceramic materials. Initially, the wastes were dried and ground, then they were subjected to the following characterization techniques: pH analysis, particle size analysis, X ray fluorescence, X ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis and thermogravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscopy. According to the results, it may be concluded that these wastes could be used as raw material in production of red ceramic and luting materials. (author)

  2. Recycling of Malaysia's electric arc furnace (EAF) slag waste into heavy-duty green ceramic tile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Pao-Ter; Anasyida, Abu Seman; Basu, Projjal; Nurulakmal, Mohd Sharif

    2014-12-01

    Recently, various solid wastes from industry such as glass waste, fly ash, sewage sludge and slag have been recycled into various value-added products such as ceramic tile. The conventional solutions of dumping the wastes in landfills or incineration, including in Malaysia are getting obsolete as the annual huge amount of the solid wastes would boost-up disposal cost and may cause permanent damage to the flora and fauna. This recent waste recycling approach is much better and greener as it can resolve problems associated with over-limit storage of industrial wastes and reduce exploration of natural resources for ceramic tile to continuously sustain the nature. Therefore, in this project, an attempt was made to recycle electric arc furnace (EAF) slag waste, obtained from Malaysia's steel making industry, into ceramic tile via conventional powder compaction method. The research work was divided into two stages. The first stage was to evaluate the suitability of EAF slag in ceramic tile by varying weight percentage of EAF slag (40 wt.%, 50 wt.% and 60 wt.%) and ball clay (40 wt.%, 50 wt.% and 60 wt.%), with no addition of silica and potash feldspar. In the second stage, the weight percentage of EAF slag was fixed at 40 wt.% and the percentage of ball clay (30 wt.% and 40 wt.%), feldspar (10 wt.% and 20 wt.%) and silica (10 wt.% and 20 wt.%) added was varied accordingly. Results obtained show that as weight percentage of EAF slag increased up to 60 wt.%, the percentage of apparent porosity and water absorption also rose, with a reduction in tile flexural strength and increased porosity. On the other hand, limiting the weight percentage of EAF slag to 40 wt.% while increasing the weight percentage of ball clay led to a higher total percentage of anorthite and wollastonite minerals, resulting in higher flexural strength. It was found that introduction of silica and feldspar further improved the flexural strength due to optimization of densification process. The highest

  3. Fluorescent Lamp Glass Waste Incorporation into Clay Ceramic: A Perfect Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Alline Sardinha Cordeiro; Vieira, Carlos Maurício Fontes; Rodriguez, Rubén Jesus Sanchez; Monteiro, Sergio Neves; Candido, Veronica Scarpini; Ferreira, Carlos Luiz

    2016-09-01

    The mandatory use of fluorescent lamps as part of a Brazilian energy-saving program generates a huge number of spent fluorescent lamps (SFLs). After operational life, SFLs cannot be disposed as common garbage owing to mercury and lead contamination. Recycling methods separate contaminated glass tubes and promote cleaning for reuse. In this work, glass from decontaminated SFLs was incorporated into clay ceramics, not only as an environmental solution for such glass wastes and clay mining reduction but also due to technical and economical advantages. Up to 30 wt.% of incorporation, a significant improvement in fired ceramic flexural strength and a decrease in water absorption was observed. A prospective analysis showed clay ceramic incorporation as an environmentally correct and technical alternative for recycling the enormous amount of SFLs disposed of in Brazil. This could also be a solution for other world clay ceramic producers, such as US, China and some European countries.

  4. Study of clay chemical composition in formation of new phases in crystalline materials ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, L.K.S.; Goncalves, W.P.; Silva, V.J.; Dias, G.; Neves, G.A.; Santana, L.N.L.

    2016-01-01

    The knowledge of the characteristics of raw materials and the behavior of these during the heat treatment is crucial before starting any manufacturing process of clay-based products. The objective of this work was to study phase transformations of clay under different heat treatments using conventional oven. To achieve the same were used two clays coming from the municipality of Cubati - PB and kaolin from an industry in the Northeast. The samples were subjected to beneficiation process, crushing, grinding and sieving and further characterized: chemical analysis, particle size, thermal and mineralogical. For heat treatment temperatures employed were 1000, 1100 and 1200 ° C, heating rate 5 ° C / min and residence time of 60min. After this step, the mineralogical characterization was performed by x-ray diffraction technique. Clays with larger particle size fraction below 2um and greater amount of flux oxides showed higher amount of mullite for the temperatures studied. The results also showed nucleation of mullite phase from 1100 °C, a band 2theta in the range of between 20 and 25°, characteristic of amorphous silica and the temperature rise was observed intensification of crystalline phases. (author)

  5. A Glass-Ceramic Waste Forms for the Immobilization of Rare Earth Oxides from the Pyroprocessing Waste salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Byung-Gil; Park, Hwan-Seo; Kim, Hwan-Young; Kim, In-Tae

    2008-01-01

    The fission product of rare earth (RE) oxide wastes are generates during the pyroprocess . Borosilicate glass or some ceramic materials such as monazite, apatite or sodium zirconium phosphate (NZP) have been a prospective host matrix through lots of experimental results. Silicate glasses have long been the preferred waste form for the immobilization of HLW. In immobilization of the RE oxides, the developed process on an industrial scale involves their incorporation into a glass matrix, by melting under 1200 ∼ 1300 .deg. C. Instead of the melting process, glass powder sintering is lower temperature (∼ 900 .deg. C) required for the process which implies less demanding conditions for the equipment and a less evaporation of volatile radionuclides. This study reports the behaviors, direct vitrification of RE oxides with glass frit, glass powder sintering of REceramic with glass frit, formation of RE-apatite (or REmonazite) ceramic according to reaction temperature, and the leach resistance of the solidified waste forms

  6. Research of ceramic matrix for a safe immobilization of radioactive sludge waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorofeeva, Ludmila; Orekhov, Dmitry

    2018-03-01

    The research and improvement of the existing method for radioactive waste hardening by fixation in a ceramic matrix was carried out. For the samples covered with the sodium silicate and tested after the storage on the air the speed of a radionuclides leaching was determined. The properties of a clay ceramics and the optimum conditions of sintering were defined. The experimental data about the influence of a temperature mode sintering, water quantities, sludge and additives in the samples on their mechanical durability and a water resistance were obtained. The comparative analysis of the conducted research is aimed at improvement of the existing method of the hardening radioactive waste by inclusion in a ceramic matrix and reveals the advantages of the received results over analogs.

  7. Cellular ceramics made from porcelain tile polishing wastes: influence of sintering time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, A.F.; Zanelatto, C.C.; Uggioni, E.; Bernardin, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the physical, microstructural and mechanical characterization of cellular ceramics made from porcelain polishing wastes, which were expanded by the bubble formation technique during the sintering process. The microstructure, linear expansion, bulk density (mercury immersion) and mechanical behavior (compressive strength) were determined to characterize the glass foam obtained. Moreover, the porcellaneous residue was characterized by chemical and phase analyses, particle size (laser diffraction) and thermal behavior. As a result, the higher the soaking time during heat treatment at 1200 deg C the lower the density obtained for the cellular ceramic due to CO 2 expansion, and lower the mechanical strength of the samples. The microstructure shows spherical cells and completely closed pores, resulting in a cheap way to obtain low density material with adequate mechanical strength, avoiding the disposal of wastes from the ceramic industry. (author)

  8. Cold crucible induction melter studies for making glass ceramic waste forms: A feasibility assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crum, Jarrod; Maio, Vince; McCloy, John; Scott, Clark; Riley, Brian; Benefiel, Brad; Vienna, John; Archibald, Kip; Rodriguez, Carmen; Rutledge, Veronica; Zhu, Zihua; Ryan, Joe; Olszta, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Glass ceramics are being developed to immobilize fission products, separated from used nuclear fuel by aqueous reprocessing, into a stable waste form suitable for disposal in a geological repository. This work documents the glass ceramic formulation at bench scale and for a scaled melter test performed in a pilot-scale (∼1/4 scale) cold crucible induction melter (CCIM). Melt viscosity, electrical conductivity, and crystallization behavior upon cooling were measured on a small set of compositions to select a formulation for melter testing. Property measurements also identified a temperature range for melter operation and cooling profiles necessary to crystallize the targeted phases in the waste form. Bench scale and melter run results successfully demonstrate the processability of the glass ceramic using the CCIM melter technology

  9. Glass binder development for a glass-bonded sodalite ceramic waste form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riley, Brian J.; Vienna, John D.; Frank, Steven M.; Kroll, Jared O.; Peterson, Jacob A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses work to develop Na_2O-B_2O_3-SiO_2 glass binders for immobilizing LiCl-KCl eutectic salt waste in a glass-bonded sodalite waste form following electrochemical reprocessing of used metallic nuclear fuel. In this paper, five new glasses with ~20 mass% Na_2O were designed to generate waste forms with high sodalite. The glasses were then used to produce ceramic waste forms with a surrogate salt waste. The waste forms made using these new glasses were formulated to generate more sodalite than those made with previous baseline glasses for this type of waste. The coefficients of thermal expansion for the glass phase in the glass-bonded sodalite waste forms made with the new binder glasses were closer to the sodalite phase in the critical temperature region near and below the glass transition temperature than previous binder glasses used. Finally, these improvements should result in lower probability of cracking in the full-scale monolithic ceramic waste form, leading to better long-term chemical durability.

  10. Role of groundwater oxidation potential and radiolysis on waste glass performance in crystalline repository environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantzen, C.M.; Bibler, N.E.

    1985-01-01

    Laboratory experiments have shown that groundwater conditions in a Stripa granite repository will be as reducing as those in a basalt repository. The final oxidation potential (Eh) at 70 0 C for Stripa groundwater deaerated and equilibrated with crystalline granite was -0.45V. In contrast, the oxidation potential at 60 0 C for Grande Ronde groundwater equilibrated with basalt was -0.40V. The reducing groundwater conditions were found to slightly decrease the time-dependent release of soluble components from the waste glass. Spectrophotometric analysis of the equilibrated groundwaters indicated the presence of Fe 2+ confirming that the Fe 2+ /Fe 3+ couple is controlling the oxidation potential. It was also shown that in the alkaline pH regime of these groundwaters the iron species are primarily associated with x-ray amorphous precipitates in the groundwater. Gamma radiolysis in the absence of waste glass and in the absence of oxygen further reduces the oxidation potential of both granitic and basaltic groundwaters. The effect is more pronounced in the basaltic groundwater. The mechanism for this decrease is under investigation but appears related to the reactive amorphous precipitate. The results of these tests suggest that H 2 may not escape from the repository system as postulated and that radiolysis may not cause the groundwaters to become oxidizing in a crystalline repository when abundant Fe 2+ species are present. 23 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  11. Creep in crystalline rock with application to high level nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eloranta, P.; Simonen, A.

    1992-06-01

    The time-dependent strength and deformation properties of hard crystalline rock are studied. Theoretical models defining the phenomena which can effect these properties are reviewed. The time- dependent deformation of the openings in the proposed nuclear waste repository is analysed. The most important factors affecting the subcritical crack growth in crystalline rock are the stress state, the chemical environment, temperature and microstructure of the rock. There are several theoretical models for the analysis of creep and cyclic fatigue: deformation diagrams, rheological models thermodynamic models, reaction rate models, stochastic models, damage models and time-dependent safety factor model. They are defective in describing the three-axial stress condition and strength criteria. In addition, the required parameters are often too difficult to determine with adequate accuracy. Therefore these models are seldom applied in practice. The effect of microcrack- driven creep on the stability of the work shaft, the emplacement tunnel and the capsulation hole of a proposed nuclear waste repository was studied using a numerical model developed by Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. According to the model, the microcrack driven creep progresses very slowly in good quality rock. Poor rock quality may accelerate the creep rate. The model is very sensitive to the properties of the rock and secondary stress state. The results show that creep causes no stability problems on excavations in good rock. The results overestimate the effect of the creep, because the analysis omitted the effect of support structures and backfilling

  12. Method and device for the dry preparation of ceramic uranium dioxide nuclear fuel wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirk, H.; Roepenack, H.; Goeldner, U.

    1977-01-01

    Reprocessing of waste, resulting from the production of ceramic sintered bodies from uranium dioxide for use as nuclear fuel, in a dry process into very finely dispersed pure U 3 O 8 powder may be improved by applying vibrating screening during oxidation. An appropriate device is described. (UWI) [de

  13. Glass Ceramics Composites Fabricated from Coal Fly Ash and Waste Glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angjusheva, B.; Jovanov, V.; Srebrenkoska, V.; Fidancevska, E.

    2014-01-01

    Great quantities of coal ash are produced in thermal power plants which present a double problem to the society: economical and environmental. This waste is a result of burning of coal at temperatures between 1100-14500C. Fly ash available as fine powder presents a source of important oxides SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, MgO, Na2O, but also consist of small amount of ecologically hazardous oxides such as Cr2O3, NiO, MnO. The combination of the fly ash with waste glass under controlled sintering procedure gave bulk glass-ceramics composite material. The principle of this procedure is presented as a multi barrier concept. Many researches have been conducted the investigations for utilization of fly ash as starting material for various glass–ceramics production. Using waste glass ecologically hazardous components are fixed at the molecular level in the silicate phase and the fabricated new glass-ceramic composites possess significantly higher mechanical properties. The aim of this investigation was to fabricate dense glass ceramic composites using fly ash and waste glass with the potential for its utilization as building material

  14. Characterization of crystalline rocks in the Lake Superior region, USA: implications for nuclear waste isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sood, M.K.; Flower, M.F.J.; Edgar, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    The Lake Superior region (Wisconsin, the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, and Minnesota) contains 41 Precambrian crystalline rock complexes comprising 64 individual but related rock bodies with known surface exposures. Each complex has a map area greater than 78 km 2 . About 54% of the rock complexes have areas of up to 500 km 2 , 15% fall between 500 km 2 and 1000 km 2 , 19% lie between 1000 km 2 and 2500 km 2 , and 12% are over 2500 km 2 . Crystalline rocks of the region vary widely in composition, but they are predominantly granitic. Repeated thermo-tectonic events have produced early Archean gneisses, migmatites, and amphibolites with highly tectonized fabrics that impart a heterogeneous and anisotropic character to the rocks. Late Archean rocks are usually but not invariably gneissose and migmatitic. Proterozoic rocks of the region include synorogenic (foliated) granitic rocks, anorogenic (non-foliated) granites, and the layered gabbro-anorthosite-troctolite intrusives of the rift-related Keweenawan igneous activity. Compared with the Archean rocks of the region, the Proterozoic bodies generally lack highly tectonized fabrics and have more definable contacts where visible. Anorogenic intrusions are relatively homogeneous and isotropic. On the basis of observed geologic characteristics, postorogenic and anorogenic crystalline rock bodies located away from recognized tectonic systems have attributes that make them relatively more desirable as a possible site for a nuclear waste repository in the region. This study was conducted at Argonne National Laboratory under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy through the Office of Crystalline Repository Development at Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, Ohio. 84 references, 4 figures, 3 tables

  15. Characterization of crystalline rocks in the Lake Superior region, USA: implications for nuclear waste isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sood, M.K.; Edgar, D.E.; Flower, M.F.J.

    1984-01-01

    The Lake Superior region (Wisconsin, the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, and Minnesota) contains 41 Precambrian crystalline (medium- to coarse-grained igneous and high-grade metamorphic) rock complexes comprising 64 individual but related rock bodies with known surface exposures. Each complex has a map area greater than 78 km 2 . About 54% of the rock complexes have areas of up to 500 km 2 , 15% fall between 500 km 2 and 1000 km 2 , 19% lie between 1000 km 2 and 2500 km 2 , and 12% are over 2500 km 2 . Crystalline rocks of the region vary widely in composition, but they are predominantly granitic. Repeated thermo-tectonic events have produced early Archean gneisses, migmatites, and amphibolites with highly tectonized fabrics that impart a heterogeneous and anisotropic character to the rocks. Late Archean rocks are usually but not invariably gneissose an migmatitic. Proterozoic rocks of the region include synorogenic (foliated) granitic rocks, anorogenic (nonfoliated) granites, and the layered gabbro-anorthosite-troctolite intrusives of the rift-related Keweenawan igneous activity. Compared with the Archean rocks of the region, the Proterozoic bodies generally lack highly tectonized fabrics and have more definable contacts where visible. Anorogenic intrusions are relatively homogeneous and isotropic. On the basis of observed geologic characteristics, postorogenic and anorogenic crystalline rock bodies located away from recognized tectonic systems have attributes that make them relatively more desirable as a possible site for a nuclear waste repository in the region. This study was conducted at Argonne National Laboratory under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy through the Office of Crystalline Repository Development at Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, Ohio

  16. Secondary waste form testing: ceramicrete phosphate bonded ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, D.; Ganga, R.; Gaviria, J.; Yusufoglu, Y.

    2011-01-01

    The cleanup activities of the Hanford tank wastes require stabilization and solidification of the secondary waste streams generated from the processing of the tank wastes. The treatment of these tank wastes to produce glass waste forms will generate secondary wastes, including routine solid wastes and liquid process effluents. Liquid wastes may include process condensates and scrubber/off-gas treatment liquids from the thermal waste treatment. The current baseline for solidification of the secondary wastes is a cement-based waste form. However, alternative secondary waste forms are being considered. In this regard, Ceramicrete technology, developed at Argonne National Laboratory, is being explored as an option to solidify and stabilize the secondary wastes. The Ceramicrete process has been demonstrated on four secondary waste formulations: baseline, cluster 1, cluster 2, and mixed waste streams. Based on the recipes provided by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, the four waste simulants were prepared in-house. Waste forms were fabricated with three filler materials: Class C fly ash, CaSiO 3 , and Class C fly ash + slag. Optimum waste loadings were as high as 20 wt.% for the fly ash and CaSiO 3 , and 15 wt.% for fly ash + slag filler. Waste forms for physical characterizations were fabricated with no additives, hazardous contaminants, and radionuclide surrogates. Physical property characterizations (density, compressive strength, and 90-day water immersion test) showed that the waste forms were stable and durable. Compressive strengths were >2,500 psi, and the strengths remained high after the 90-day water immersion test. Fly ash and CaSiO 3 filler waste forms appeared to be superior to the waste forms with fly ash + slag as a filler. Waste form weight loss was ∼5-14 wt.% over the 90-day immersion test. The majority of the weight loss occurred during the initial phase of the immersion test, indicative of washing off of residual unreacted binder components from

  17. Secondary waste form testing : ceramicrete phosphate bonded ceramics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, D.; Ganga, R.; Gaviria, J.; Yusufoglu, Y. (Nuclear Engineering Division); ( ES)

    2011-06-21

    The cleanup activities of the Hanford tank wastes require stabilization and solidification of the secondary waste streams generated from the processing of the tank wastes. The treatment of these tank wastes to produce glass waste forms will generate secondary wastes, including routine solid wastes and liquid process effluents. Liquid wastes may include process condensates and scrubber/off-gas treatment liquids from the thermal waste treatment. The current baseline for solidification of the secondary wastes is a cement-based waste form. However, alternative secondary waste forms are being considered. In this regard, Ceramicrete technology, developed at Argonne National Laboratory, is being explored as an option to solidify and stabilize the secondary wastes. The Ceramicrete process has been demonstrated on four secondary waste formulations: baseline, cluster 1, cluster 2, and mixed waste streams. Based on the recipes provided by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, the four waste simulants were prepared in-house. Waste forms were fabricated with three filler materials: Class C fly ash, CaSiO{sub 3}, and Class C fly ash + slag. Optimum waste loadings were as high as 20 wt.% for the fly ash and CaSiO{sub 3}, and 15 wt.% for fly ash + slag filler. Waste forms for physical characterizations were fabricated with no additives, hazardous contaminants, and radionuclide surrogates. Physical property characterizations (density, compressive strength, and 90-day water immersion test) showed that the waste forms were stable and durable. Compressive strengths were >2,500 psi, and the strengths remained high after the 90-day water immersion test. Fly ash and CaSiO{sub 3} filler waste forms appeared to be superior to the waste forms with fly ash + slag as a filler. Waste form weight loss was {approx}5-14 wt.% over the 90-day immersion test. The majority of the weight loss occurred during the initial phase of the immersion test, indicative of washing off of residual unreacted

  18. Process and equipment qualification of the ceramic and metal waste forms for spent fuel treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsden, Ken; Knight, Collin; Bateman, Kenneth; Westphal, Brian; Lind, Paul

    2005-01-01

    The electrometallurgical process for treating sodium-bonded spent metallic fuel at the Materials and Fuels Complex of the Idaho National Laboratory separates actinides and partitions fission products into two waste forms. The first is the metal waste form, which is primarily composed of stainless steel from the fuel cladding. This stainless steel is alloyed with 15w% zirconium to produce a very corrosion-resistant metal which binds noble metal fission products and residual actinides. The second is the ceramic waste form which stabilizes fission product-loaded chloride salts in a sodalite and glass composite. These two waste forms will be packaged together for disposal at the Yucca Mountain repository. Two production-scale metal waste furnaces have been constructed. The first is in a large argon-atmosphere glovebox and has been used for equipment qualification, process development, and process qualification - the demonstration of process reliability for production of the DOE-qualified metal waste form. The second furnace will be transferred into a hot cell for production of metal waste. Prototype production-scale ceramic waste equipment has been constructed or procured; some equipment has been qualified with fission product-loaded salt in the hot cell. Qualification of the remaining equipment with surrogate materials is underway. (author)

  19. Feasible conversion of solid waste bauxite tailings into highly crystalline 4A zeolite with valuable application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Dongyang; Wang, Zhendong; Guo, Min [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Metallurgy, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhang, Mei, E-mail: zhangmei@ustb.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Metallurgy, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Liu, Jingbo [The Department of Chemistry, Texas A and M University-Kingsville, Kingsville, TX 78363 (United States); The Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Concept to convert waste to valuable product is carried out in this study. • An industrially feasible and cost-effective approach was developed and optimized. • Highly crystalline and well-defined zeolite was produced under moderate conditions. • The zeolite derived from the bauxite tailings displayed high ion exchange capacity. • Bauxite tailings have potential application in heavy metal ions adsorbent. - Abstract: Bauxite tailings are a major type of solid wastes generated in the flotation process. The waste by-products caused significant environmental impact. To lessen this hazardous effect from poisonous mine tailings, a feasible and cost-effective solution was conceived and implemented. Our approach focused on reutilization of the bauxite tailings by converting it to 4A zeolite for reuse in diverse applications. Three steps were involved in the bauxite conversion: wet-chemistry, alkali fusion, and crystallization to remove impurities and to prepare porous 4A zeolite. It was found that the cubic 4A zeolite was single phase, in high purity, with high crystallinity and well-defined structure. Importantly, the 4A zeolite displayed maximum calcium ion exchange capacity averaged at 296 mg CaCO{sub 3}/g, comparable to commercially-available zeolite (310 mg CaCO{sub 3}/g) exchange capacity. Base on the optimal synthesis condition, the reaction yield of zeolite 4A from bauxite tailings achieved to about 38.43%, hence, this study will provide a new paradigm for remediation of bauxite tailings, further mitigating the environmental and health care concerns, particularly in the mainland of PR China.

  20. Geogas in crystalline bedrock and its potential significance for disposal of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeblom, R.; Hermansson, H.P.; Aakerblom, G.

    1995-01-01

    In assessments of the safety of final repositories for nuclear waste situated in crystalline basement rock it is usually postulated that the transfer of radionuclides to the biosphere can take place only through transport by water. However, in order for such an assumption to be valid, it must be verified that any geogas that is present will not affect the transport. Geogas in crystalline rock consists of species such as nitrogen, argon, helium, hydrogen, methane, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, and oxygen. The gas originates from the atmosphere, chemical reactions in the rock, te decay of radioactive elements in the rock, and degassing from the mantle of the earth. In most observed cases, geogas is dissolved in the groundwater. The transfer of geogas through the rock and to the surface takes place through flow in fractures. Firstly, dissolved geogas migrated due to the flow of the groundwater, and secondly, pockets of gas may form and eventually be released in the form of bursts. In the second case, the gas might act as a carrier for heavy elements through four different mechanisms: (1) formation of volatile compounds, (2) formation of surface active complexes, (3) flotation, and (4) formation of aerosols. When a potential site for waste disposal is being evaluated, studies of geogas should form part of such a characterization program. Favorable conditions for the formation of free gas may develop as a result of the heating of the rock by radioactive decay in the waste. It is also conceivable that methane-ice might form in the backfill of a repository in connection with a glaciation. The decomposition behavior of such methane-ice appears to be largely unknown. Positive aspects may include the possibility of utilizing geogas flow for the non-destructive monitoring of a site after closure of the repository

  1. Feasible conversion of solid waste bauxite tailings into highly crystalline 4A zeolite with valuable application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Dongyang; Wang, Zhendong; Guo, Min; Zhang, Mei; Liu, Jingbo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Concept to convert waste to valuable product is carried out in this study. • An industrially feasible and cost-effective approach was developed and optimized. • Highly crystalline and well-defined zeolite was produced under moderate conditions. • The zeolite derived from the bauxite tailings displayed high ion exchange capacity. • Bauxite tailings have potential application in heavy metal ions adsorbent. - Abstract: Bauxite tailings are a major type of solid wastes generated in the flotation process. The waste by-products caused significant environmental impact. To lessen this hazardous effect from poisonous mine tailings, a feasible and cost-effective solution was conceived and implemented. Our approach focused on reutilization of the bauxite tailings by converting it to 4A zeolite for reuse in diverse applications. Three steps were involved in the bauxite conversion: wet-chemistry, alkali fusion, and crystallization to remove impurities and to prepare porous 4A zeolite. It was found that the cubic 4A zeolite was single phase, in high purity, with high crystallinity and well-defined structure. Importantly, the 4A zeolite displayed maximum calcium ion exchange capacity averaged at 296 mg CaCO 3 /g, comparable to commercially-available zeolite (310 mg CaCO 3 /g) exchange capacity. Base on the optimal synthesis condition, the reaction yield of zeolite 4A from bauxite tailings achieved to about 38.43%, hence, this study will provide a new paradigm for remediation of bauxite tailings, further mitigating the environmental and health care concerns, particularly in the mainland of PR China

  2. Phase composition of yttrium-doped zirconia ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennig, Christoph; Scheinost, Andreas C. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Molecular Structures; Weiss, Stephan [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Surface Processes; Ikeda-Ohno, Atsushi [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Chemistry of the F-Elements; Gumeniuk, R. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Experimentelle Physik

    2017-06-01

    Ceramic material might be an alternative to borosilicate glass for the immobilization of nuclear waste. The crystallinity of ceramic material increases the corrosion resistance over several magnitudes in relation to amorphous glasses. The stability of such ceramics depend on several parameters, among them the crystal phase composition. A reliable quantitative phase analysis is necessary to correlate the macroscopic material properties with structure parameters. We performed a feasibility study based on yttrium-doped zirconia ceramics as analogue for trivalent actinides to ascertain that the nanosized crystal phases in zirconia ceramics can be reliably determined.

  3. Characterization of granite waste for use in red ceramic; Caracterizacao de residuo de granito para utilizacao em ceramica vermelha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, M.C.; Monteiro, S.N.; Vieira, C.M.F., E-mail: mari@uenf.br [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF/LAMAV), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Laboratorio de Materiais Avancados; Borlini, M.C. [Centro de Tecnologia Mineral (CETEM), Cachoeiro de Itapemirim, ES (Brazil). Centro Avancado

    2011-07-01

    This work aims to study the characterization of the granite waste from the city of Santo Antonio de Padua-RJ for the use in red ceramic. The chemical, physical and morphological characterization of the waste was performed by chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction, particle size distribution, thermal analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results indicated that this waste is a material with great potential to be used as a component of ceramic body due to its capacity to act as flux during the firing, and to improve the properties of the ceramic when is incorporate. (author)

  4. Macroencapsulation of low-level debris waste with the phosphate ceramic process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, D.; Wagh, A.S.; Tlustochowicz, M.; Jeong, S.Y.

    1997-03-01

    Across the DOE complex, large quantities of contaminated debris and irradiated lead bricks require disposal. The preferred method for disposing of these wastes is macroencapsulation under U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Alternative Treatment Standards. Chemically bonded phosphate ceramics serve as a novel binder, developed at Argonne National Laboratory, for stabilizing and solidifying various low-level mixed wastes. Extremely strong, dense, and impervious to water intrusion, this material was developed with support from the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science and Technology (DOE OST). In this investigation, CBPCs have been used to demonstrate macroencapsulation of various contaminated debris wastes, including cryofractured debris, lead bricks, and lead-lined plastic gloves. This paper describes the processing steps for fabricating the waste forms and the results of various characterizations performed on the waste forms. The conclusion is that simple and low-cost CBPCs are excellent material systems for macroencapsulating debris wastes

  5. Sintered bentonite ceramics for the immobilization of cesium- and strontium-bearing radioactive waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Luis Humberto

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) is a Department of Energy (DOE) program, that has been investigating technologies to improve fuel cycle sustainability and proliferation resistance. One of the program's goals is to reduce the amount of radioactive waste requiring repository disposal. Cesium and strontium are two primary heat sources during the first 300 years of spent nuclear fuel's decay, specifically isotopes Cs-137 and Sr-90. Removal of these isotopes from spent nuclear fuel will reduce the activity of the bulk spent fuel, reducing the heat given off by the waste. Once the cesium and strontium are separated from the bulk of the spent nuclear fuel, the isotopes must be immobilized. This study is focused on a method to immobilize a cesium- and strontium-bearing radioactive liquid waste stream. While there are various schemes to remove these isotopes from spent fuel, this study has focused on a nitric acid based liquid waste. The waste liquid was mixed with the bentonite, dried then sintered. To be effective sintering temperatures from 1100 to 1200°C were required, and waste concentrations must be at least 25 wt%. The product is a leach resistant ceramic solid with the waste elements embedded within alumino-silicates and a silicon rich phase. The cesium is primarily incorporated into pollucite and the strontium into a monoclinic feldspar. The simulated waste was prepared from nitrate salts of stable ions. These ions were limited to cesium, strontium, barium and rubidium. Barium and rubidium will be co-extracted during separation due to similar chemical properties to cesium and strontium. The waste liquid was added to the bentonite clay incrementally with drying steps between each addition. The dry powder was pressed and then sintered at various temperatures. The maximum loading tested is 32 wt. percent waste, which refers to 13.9 wt. percent cesium, 12.2 wt. percent barium, 4.1 wt. percent strontium, and 2.0 wt. percent rubidium. Lower loadings of waste

  6. Ceramic stabilization of hazardous wastes: a high performance room temperature process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maloney, M.D.

    1996-01-01

    ANL has developed a room-temperature process for converting hazardous materials to a ceramic structure. It is similar to vitrification but is achieved at low cost, similar to conventional cement stabilization. The waste constituents are both chemically stabilized and physically encapsulated, producing very low leaching levels and the potential for delisting. The process, which is pH-insensitive, is ideal for inorganic sludges and liquids, as well as mixed chemical-radioactive wastes, but can also handle significant percentages of salts and even halogenated organics. High waste loadings are possible and densification occurs,so that volumes are only slightly increased and in some cases (eg, incinerator ash) are reduced. The ceramic product has strength and weathering properties far superior to cement products

  7. Review of palm oil fuel ash and ceramic waste in the production of concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natasya Mazenan, Puteri; Sheikh Khalid, Faisal; Shahidan, Shahiron; Shamsuddin, Shamrul-mar

    2017-11-01

    High demand for cement in the concrete production has been increased which become the problems in the industry. Thus, this problem will increase the production cost of construction material and the demand for affordable houses. Moreover, the production of Portland cement leads to the release of a significant amount of CO2 and other gases leading to the effect on global warming. The need for a sustainable and green construction building material is required in the construction industry. Hence, this paper presents utilization of palm oil fuel ash and ceramic waste as partial cement replacement in the production of concrete. Using both of this waste in the concrete production would benefit in many ways. It is able to save cost and energy other than protecting the environment. In short, 20% usage of palm oil fuel ash and 30% replacement of ceramic waste as cement replacement show the acceptable and satisfactory strength of concrete.

  8. Study of the use waste resulting from the mining of emerald for the production refractory ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteves, P.J.C.; Coelho, R.E.; Cruz, R.M.S.; Cavalcanti, R.F.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The great impact caused by excess mineral waste in ambient of the emerald exploration, in determined locals of Brazil, where are deposited, it has caused inconvenience to their various people residents. The jungles, rivers and lakes are directly harmed by the aggressions imposed by neglect in the destination of such waste. Considering the importance of the issue outlined to the goal of this work, this paper can back report a study for utilizing emerald waste, focused the possibility manufacture for obtained refractory ceramic. The results show that the specimens prepared by the ball milling, cold pressing and sintering method had better high temperature properties, due to a higher mica volume percent and finer crystallite size. Specimens it was characterized by X-ray diffractometer and fluorescence. Test was realized in the materials, submitted in high temperature was observed good thermal stability, the processed ceramics could be recommended for the adequate applications. (author)

  9. Incorporation of gypsum waste in ceramic block production: Proposal for a minimal battery of tests to evaluate technical and environmental viability of this recycling process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinho-Castro, Alcione P; Testolin, Renan C; Janke, Leandro; Corrêa, Albertina X R; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2012-01-01

    Civil engineering-related construction and demolition debris is an important source of waste disposed of in municipal solid waste landfills. After clay materials, gypsum waste is the second largest contributor to the residential construction waste stream. As demand for sustainable building practices grows, interest in recovering gypsum waste from construction and demolition debris is increasing, but there is a lack of standardized tests to evaluate the technical and environmental viability of this solid waste recycling process. By recycling gypsum waste, natural deposits of gypsum might be conserved and high amounts of the waste by-product could be reused in the civil construction industry. In this context, this paper investigates a physical property (i.e., resistance to axial compression), the chemical composition and the ecotoxicological potential of ceramic blocks constructed with different proportions of clay, cement and gypsum waste, and assesses the feasibility of using a minimal battery of tests to evaluate the viability of this recycling process. Consideration of the results for the resistance to axial compression tests together with production costs revealed that the best formulation was 35% of plastic clay, 35% of non-plastic clay, 10% of Portland cement and 20% of gypsum waste, which showed a mean resistance of 4.64MPa. Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry showed calcium and sulfur to be the main elements, while quartz, gypsum, ettringite and nacrite were the main crystalline compounds found in this formulation. Ecotoxicity tests showed that leachate from this formulation is weakly toxic toward daphnids and bacteria (EC(20%)=69.0 and 75.0, respectively), while for algae and fish the leachate samples were not toxic at the EC(50%) level. Overall, these results show that the addition of 20% of gypsum waste to the ceramic blocks could provide a viable substitute for clay in the ceramics industry and the tests applied in this study proved to be a useful tool

  10. CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS FROM WASTE PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Тахира Далиевна Сидикова

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the physical and chemical processes occurring during the thermal treatment of ceramic masses on the basis of compositions of natural raw materials and waste processing facilities. The study of structures of ceramic samples species has shown different types of crystalline phases.The results have shown that the waste of Kaytashsky tungsten-molybdenum ores (KVMR may be used as the main raw material to develop new compositions for ceramic materials. The optimal compositions of ceramic tiles for the masses and technological parameters of obtaining sintered materials based on the compositions of kaolin fireclay KVMR have been developed.It has been found that the use of the waste of Kaytashskoy tungsten-molybdenum ore (KVMR in the composition of the ceramic material will expand the raw material base of ceramic production, reduce the roasting temperature and the cost of ceramic materials and products.

  11. Production of highly porous glass-ceramics from metallurgical slag, fly ash and waste glass

    OpenAIRE

    Mangutova Bianka V.; Fidancevska Emilija M.; Milosevski Milosav I.; Bossert Joerg H.

    2004-01-01

    Glass-ceramics composites were produced based on fly-ash obtained from coal power stations, metallurgical slag from ferronickel industry and waste glass from TV monitors, windows and flasks. Using 50% waste flask glass in combination with fly ash and 20% waste glass from TV screens in combination with slag, E-modulus and bending strength values of the designed systems are increased (system based on fly ash: E-modulus from 6 to 29 GPa, and bending strength from 9 to 75 MPa). The polyurethane f...

  12. Application of the final flotation waste for obtaining the glass-ceramic materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cocić Mira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the investigation of the final flotation waste (FFW, originating from the RTB Bor Company (Serbia, as the main component for the production of glass-ceramic materials. The glass-ceramics was synthesized by the sintering of FFW, mixtures of FFW with basalt (10%, 20%, and 40%, and mixtures of FFW with tuff (20% and 40%. The sintering was conducted at the different temperatures and with the different time duration in order to find the optimal composition and conditions for crystallization. The increase of temperature, from 1100 to 1480°C, and sintering time, from 4 to 6h resulted in a higher content of hematite crystal in the obtained glass-ceramic (up to 44%. The glass-ceramics sintered from pure FFW (1080°C/36h has good mechanical properties, such as high propagation speed (4500 m/s and hardness (10800 MPa, as well as very good thermal stability. The glass-ceramics obtained from mixtures shows weaker mechanical properties compared to that obtained from pure FFW. The mixtures of FFW with tuff have a significantly lower bulk density compared to other obtained glass-ceramics. Our results indicate that FFW can be applied as a basis for obtaining the construction materials. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 176010: Composition, genesis, application, and contribution to the environmental sustainability

  13. Study parameters process for production of red glazed ceramic plates with waste of stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, J.C.; Taguchi, S.P.; Silva, A.C.

    2014-01-01

    The volume of fine waste's solid dimension stone industry has required a destination appropriate for them due to environmental and economic issues. The main goal of this work was to study the produce plates of glazed pottery with dimension stone waste. For analyzing the crystal structure, the test was conducted X-ray and X-ray fluorescence to determine the chemical composition of clay and the waste. Particle size was analysed too. Ceramic duo type (120x30x10mm) were sintered at 1280° C for 15 and 60 minutes. Characterized the samples for water absorption. The glaze had a strong anchorage in the ceramic base, but the high melting temperature caused cracks in the ceramic base, increasing the water absorption values. Thus, flux was added, based on the phase diagram Na_2O: CaO: SiO_2, which reduced the melting temperature of the glaze to 980 °C, enabling to produce the ceramic at 1100°C for 30 minutes, more uniform surface and best technological properties. (author)

  14. Solidification of high level liquid waste (HLLW) into ceramics by sintering process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Sumio; Oguino, Naohiko; Tsunoda, Naomi; O-oka, Kazuo; Ohta, Takao.

    1979-01-01

    One of the alternatives to vitrified solid which is acceptable and well characterized for storing radioactive HLLW with desirable long-term stability is ceramics. On the other hand, the solidification process of highly radioactive wastes should be simple and suitable for continuous production. On the above described basis, the authors have made preliminary study on the production of sintered ceramics by the addition of several oxides to HLLW. The simulated waste and additive oxides were pressed in a mold to make the preforms of 50 mm diameter and 10 to 15 mm thick. The preforms were then normally sintered at temperature from 1000 to 1400 deg C for 2 to 4 hours. The characterization of the sintered solids revealed the following facts. (1) X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the expected crystals were formed by normal-sintering as well as by hot-pressing. (2) The bulk density of the ceramics by normal-sintering was around 90 to 95% of the assumed theoretical values. (3) The leach-rate of the solids was affected by the bulk density. (4) Other properties of the solids, such as thermal expansion or thermal conductivity, are dominantly determined by those of main crystals in the solids. Sintering process is generally simple and productive as far as normal sintering is concerned. However, hot-pressing is an intermittent and time consuming process. From this fact, the authors intended to adopt the normal sintering process for the ceramic solidification of high level liquid wastes. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  15. Radioactivity decontamination efficiency of ceramic filter in an incineration volume reduction system of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanbe, Hiromi; Mayuzumi, Masami; Yoshiki, Sinya; Sema, Toru; Koyama, Hiroaki; Ono, Tetsuo; Nagae, Madoka; Takaoku, Yoshinobu; Hozumi, Masahiro.

    1987-01-01

    The small pilot facility of a cyclone type suspension incineration system of radioactive waste was set up in order to evaluate the decontamination efficiency of a high efficiency ceramic filter. The evaluation was made by use of 54 Mn, 59 Fe, 60 Co, 65 Zn and 137 Cs. 1. The decontamination factor by one line of ceramic filter for every species were over 10 5 . 2. The decontamination factor increased by one oder when water vapor exists in off-gas. The same tendency was also observed when iron dioxide existed at the incineration of cation exchange resin. (author)

  16. Interim guidelines on performance constraints for nuclear waste disposal in crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Performance constraint guidelines have been developed for geologic disposal of nuclear waste in crystalline rock. The approach taken in defining these guidelines was to consider the thermal, thermomechanical, and thermochemical behavior for three regions (very-near field, near field, and far field) of the repository during three time periods (operational, containment, and isolation) associated with the disposal system. Limits are proposed to ensure compliance with the current repository criteria proposed by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) concerning repository siting and performance assessment. These criteria are: Substantial containment of all radionuclides within the waste package for a period of time between 300 and 1000 years after emplacement. Release rate after loss of containment of one part in 100,000 annually per radionuclide based on the nuclides inventory when the waste package is breached, and in situ ground-water transit time of 1000 years from the repository horizon to the accessible environment, compliance with the performance constraint guidelines presented herein will be required to ensure that the final repository design is in compliance with NRC criteria. The constraint guidelines have also been developed to satisfy the requirement for technical conservatism. 40 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs

  17. Erosion of magnesium potassium phosphate ceramic waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goretta, K. C.

    1998-01-01

    Phosphate-based chemically bonded ceramics were formed from magnesium potassium phosphate (MKP) binder and either industrial fly ash or steel slag. The resulting ceramics were subjected to solid-particle erosion by a stream of either angular Al 2 O 3 particles or rounded SiO 2 sand. Particle impact angles were 30 or 90degree and the impact velocity was 50 m/s. Steady-state erosion rates, measured as mass lost from a specimen per mass of impacting particle, were dependent on impact angle and on erodent particle size and shape. Material was lost by a combination of fracture mechanisms. Evolution of H 2 O from the MKP phase appeared to contribute significantly to the material loss

  18. Erosion of magnesium potassium phosphate ceramic waste forms.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goretta, K. C.

    1998-11-20

    Phosphate-based chemically bonded ceramics were formed from magnesium potassium phosphate (MKP) binder and either industrial fly ash or steel slag. The resulting ceramics were subjected to solid-particle erosion by a stream of either angular Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles or rounded SiO{sub 2} sand. Particle impact angles were 30 or 90{degree} and the impact velocity was 50 m/s. Steady-state erosion rates, measured as mass lost from a specimen per mass of impacting particle, were dependent on impact angle and on erodent particle size and shape. Material was lost by a combination of fracture mechanisms. Evolution of H{sub 2}O from the MKP phase appeared to contribute significantly to the material loss.

  19. Iron-phosphate-based chemically bonded phosphate ceramics for mixed waste stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagh, A.S.; Jeong, S.Y.; Singh, D.

    1997-01-01

    In an effort to develop chemically bonded phosphate ceramics for mixed waste stabilization, a collaborative project to develop iron-phosphate based ceramics has been initiated between Argonne National Laboratory and the V. G. Khlopin Radium Institute in St. Petersburg, Russia. The starter powders are oxides of iron that are generated as inexpensive byproduct materials in the iron and steel industry. They contain iron oxides as a mixture of magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) and haematite (Fe 2 O 3 ). In this initial phase of this project, both of these compounds were investigated independently. Each was reacted with phosphoric acid solution to form iron phosphate ceramics. In the case of magnetite, the reaction was rapid. Adding ash as the waste component containing hazardous contaminants resulted in a dense and hard ceramic rich in glassy phase. On the other hand, the reaction of phosphoric acid solution with a mixture of haematite and ash waste contaminated with cesium and americium was too slow. Samples had to be molded under pressure. They were cured for 2-3 weeks and then hardened by heating at 350 degrees C for 3 h. The resulting ceramics in both cases were subjected to physical tests for measurement of density, open porosity, compression strength, phase analyses using X-ray diffraction and differential thermal analysis, and leaching tests using toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and ANS 16.1 with 7 days of leaching. Using the preliminary information obtained from these tests, we evaluated these materials for stabilization of Department of Energy's mixed waste streams

  20. Treatment of copper industry waste and production of sintered glass-ceramic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coruh, Semra; Ergun, Osman Nuri; Cheng, Ta-Wui

    2006-06-01

    Copper waste is iron-rich hazardous waste containing heavy metals such as Cu, Zn, Co, Pb. The results of leaching tests show that the concentration of these elements exceeds the Turkish and EPA regulatory limits. Consequently, this waste cannot be disposed of in its present form and therefore requires treatment to stabilize it or make it inert prior to disposal. Vitrification was selected as the technology for the treatment of the toxic waste under investigation. During the vitrification process significant amounts of the toxic organic and inorganic chemical compounds could be destroyed, and at the same time, the metal species are immobilized as they become an integral part of the glass matrix. The copper flotation waste samples used in this research were obtained from the Black Sea Copper Works of Samsun, Turkey. The samples were vitrified after being mixed with other inorganic waste and materials. The copper flotation waste and their glass-ceramic products were characterized by X-ray analysis (XRD), scanning electron microscopy and by the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure test. The products showed very good chemical durability. The glass-ceramics fabricated at 850 degrees C/2 h have a large application potential especially as construction and building materials.

  1. Glass Ceramic Formulation Data Package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; McCloy, John S.; Vienna, John D.; Chung, Chul-Woo

    2012-01-01

    A glass ceramic waste form is being developed for treatment of secondary waste streams generated by aqueous reprocessing of commercial used nuclear fuel (Crum et al. 2012b). The waste stream contains a mixture of transition metals, alkali, alkaline earths, and lanthanides, several of which exceed the solubility limits of a single phase borosilicate glass (Crum et al. 2009; Caurant et al. 2007). A multi-phase glass ceramic waste form allows incorporation of insoluble components of the waste by designed crystallization into durable heat tolerant phases. The glass ceramic formulation and processing targets the formation of the following three stable crystalline phases: (1) powellite (XMoO4) where X can be (Ca, Sr, Ba, and/or Ln), (2) oxyapatite Yx,Z(10-x)Si6O26 where Y is alkaline earth, Z is Ln, and (3) lanthanide borosilicate (Ln5BSi2O13). These three phases incorporate the waste components that are above the solubility limit of a single-phase borosilicate glass. The glass ceramic is designed to be a single phase melt, just like a borosilicate glass, and then crystallize upon slow cooling to form the targeted phases. The slow cooling schedule is based on the centerline cooling profile of a 2 foot diameter canister such as the Hanford High-Level Waste canister. Up to this point, crucible testing has been used for glass ceramic development, with cold crucible induction melter (CCIM) targeted as the ultimate processing technology for the waste form. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) will conduct a scaled CCIM test in FY2012 with a glass ceramic to demonstrate the processing behavior. This Data Package documents the laboratory studies of the glass ceramic composition to support the CCIM test. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) measured melt viscosity, electrical conductivity, and crystallization behavior upon cooling to identify a processing window (temperature range) for melter operation and cooling profiles necessary to crystallize the targeted phases in the

  2. Characterization and testing of a 238Pu loaded ceramic waste form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, S. G.

    1998-01-01

    This paper will describe the preparation and progress of the effort at Argonne National Laboratory-West to produce ceramic waste forms loaded with 238 Pu. The purpose of this study is to determine the extent of damage, if any, that alpha decay events will play over time to the ceramic waste form under development at Argonne. The ceramic waste form is glass-bonded sodalite. The sodalite is utilized to encapsulate the fission products and transuranics which are present in a chloride salt matrix which results from a spent fuel conditioning process. 238 Pu possesses approximately 250 times the specific activity of 239 Pu and thus allows for a much shorter time frame to address the issue. In preparation for production of 238 Pu loaded waste forms 239 Pu loaded samples were produced. Data is presented for samples produced with typical reactor grade plutonium. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron micrographs and durability test results will be presented. The ramifications for the production of the 238 Pu loaded samples will be discussed

  3. Sulphuric Acid Resistant of Self Compacted Geopolymer Concrete Containing Slag and Ceramic Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafiq I.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia is a one of the developing countries where the constructions of infrastructure is still ongoing, resulting in a high demand for concrete. In order to gain sustainability factors in the innovations for producing concrete, geopolymer concrete containing granulated blast-furnace slag and ceramics was selected as a cement replacement in concrete for this study. Since Malaysia had many ceramic productions and uses, the increment of the ceramic waste will also be high. Thus, a new idea to reuse this waste in construction materials have been tested by doing research on this waste. Furthermore, a previous research stated that Ordinary Portland Cement concrete has a lower durability compared to the geopolymer concrete. Geopolymer binders have been reported as being acid resistant and thus are a promising and alternative binder for sewer pipe manufacture. Lack of study regarding the durability of the geopolymer self-compacting concrete was also one of the problems. The waste will be undergoing a few processes in the laboratory in order to get it in the best form before undergoing the next process as a binder in geopolymer concrete. This research is very significant in order to apply the concept of sustainability in the construction field. In addition, the impact of this geopolymer binder is that it emits up to nine times less CO2 than Portland Cement.

  4. Developing ceramic based technology for the immobilisation of waste on the Sellafield site - 16049

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scales, C.R.; Maddrell, E.R.; Dowson, Mark

    2009-01-01

    National Nuclear Laboratory, in collaboration with the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, is developing hot isostatic press (HIP) based ceramic technology for the immobilisation of a diverse range of wastes arising from nuclear fuel processing activities on the Sellafield site. Wasteform compositions have been identified and validated for the immobilisation of these plutonium containing wastes and residues in glass-ceramic and ceramic forms. A full scale inactive facility has been constructed at NNL's Workington Laboratory to support the demonstration of the technology. Validation of the inactive wasteform development using plutonium has been carried out at ANSTO's Lucas Heights facility. A feasibility study has been conducted to evaluate the construction and operation of a plutonium active pilot facility which would demonstrate the immobilisation of actual residues in the NNL Central Lab. This could form the basis of a facility to treat the plutonium wastes and residues in their entirety. The technology is being explored for the immobilisation of additional wastes arising on the Sellafield site taking advantage of the investment already made in skills and facilities. (authors)

  5. Waste Not, Want Not: An Inexpensive Glass-Ceramic from Waste

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wu, J. P.; Rawlings, R. D.; Boccaccini, A. R.; Dlouhý, Ivo; Chlup, Zdeněk

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 85, č. 5 (2006), s. 29-32 ISSN 0002-7812 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA106/05/0495 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : glass ceramic s * fracture toughness * flexural strength Subject RIV: JH - Ceramic s, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass Impact factor: 0.210, year: 2006 http://www. ceramic bulletin.org/2006-05.asp

  6. Direct conversion of radioactive and chemical waste containing metals, ceramics, amorphous solids, and organics to glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Beahm, E.C.; Parker, G.W.

    1994-01-01

    The Glass Material Oxidation and Dissolution System (CMODS) is a new process for direct conversion of radioactive, mixed, and chemical wastes to glass. The wastes can be in the chemical forms of metals, ceramics, amorphous solids, and organics. GMODS destroys organics and it incorporates heavy metals and radionuclides into a glass. Processable wastes may include miscellaneous spent fuels (SF), SF hulls and hardware, plutonium wastes in different forms, high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters, ion-exchange resins, failed equipment, and laboratory wastes. Thermodynamic calculations indicate theoretical feasibility. Small-scale laboratory experiments (< 100 g per test) have demonstrated chemical laboratory feasibility for several metals. Additional work is needed to demonstrate engineering feasibility

  7. Development and properties of crystalline silicotitanate (CST) ion exchangers for radioactive waste applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.E.; Brown, N.E.

    1997-04-01

    Crystalline silicotitanates (CSTs) are a new class of ion exchangers that were jointly invented by researchers at Sandia National Laboratories and Texas A ampersand M University. One particular CST, known as TAM-5, is remarkable for its ability to separate parts-per-million concentrations of cesium from highly alkaline solutions (pH> 14) containing high sodium concentrations (>5M). It is also highly effective for removing cesium from neutral and acidic solutions, and for removing strontium from basic and neutral solutions. Cesium isotopes are fission products that account for a large portion of the radioactivity in waste streams generated during weapons material production. Tests performed at numerous locations with early lab-scale TAM-5 samples established the material as a leading candidate for treating radioactive waste volumes such as those found at the Hanford site in Washington. Thus Sandia developed a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) partnership with UOP, a world leader in developing, commercializing, and supplying adsorbents and associated process technology to commercialize and further develop the material. CSTs are now commercially available from UOP in a powder (UOP IONSIV reg-sign IE-910 ion exchanger) and granular form suitable for column ion exchange operations (UOP IONSIV reg-sign IE-911 ion exchanger). These materials exhibit a high capacity for cesium in a wide variety of solutions of interest to the Department of Energy, and they are chemically, thermally, and radiation stable. They have performed well in tests at numerous sites with actual radioactive waste solutions, and are being demonstrated in the 100,000 liter Cesium Removal Demonstration taking place at Oak Ridge National Laboratory with Melton Valley Storage Tank waste. It has been estimated that applying CSTs to the Hanford cleanup alone will result in a savings of more than $300 million over baseline technologies

  8. Development and properties of crystalline silicotitanate (CST) ion exchangers for radioactive waste applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J.E.; Brown, N.E.

    1997-04-01

    Crystalline silicotitanates (CSTs) are a new class of ion exchangers that were jointly invented by researchers at Sandia National Laboratories and Texas A&M University. One particular CST, known as TAM-5, is remarkable for its ability to separate parts-per-million concentrations of cesium from highly alkaline solutions (pH> 14) containing high sodium concentrations (>5M). It is also highly effective for removing cesium from neutral and acidic solutions, and for removing strontium from basic and neutral solutions. Cesium isotopes are fission products that account for a large portion of the radioactivity in waste streams generated during weapons material production. Tests performed at numerous locations with early lab-scale TAM-5 samples established the material as a leading candidate for treating radioactive waste volumes such as those found at the Hanford site in Washington. Thus Sandia developed a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) partnership with UOP, a world leader in developing, commercializing, and supplying adsorbents and associated process technology to commercialize and further develop the material. CSTs are now commercially available from UOP in a powder (UOP IONSIV{reg_sign} IE-910 ion exchanger) and granular form suitable for column ion exchange operations (UOP IONSIV{reg_sign} IE-911 ion exchanger). These materials exhibit a high capacity for cesium in a wide variety of solutions of interest to the Department of Energy, and they are chemically, thermally, and radiation stable. They have performed well in tests at numerous sites with actual radioactive waste solutions, and are being demonstrated in the 100,000 liter Cesium Removal Demonstration taking place at Oak Ridge National Laboratory with Melton Valley Storage Tank waste. It has been estimated that applying CSTs to the Hanford cleanup alone will result in a savings of more than $300 million over baseline technologies.

  9. For production of ceramic plates coating using waste kaolin, granite and marble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sales, J.L.; Morais, C.R.S.; Lima, L.M.R.; Altidis, M.E.D.

    2011-01-01

    The objective is to benefit and characterize waste from kaolin, marble and granite studying their thermal properties and spectroscopic in employment perspective on ceramic production of flooring boards. The residues were benefited through the process of dry grinding mill in greyhounds and passed through sieve 0.074 mm (ABNT No. 200), observing their suitability for the formulation of ceramic pastes. Tests were performed physicochemical characterization (particle size analysis, X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction) and thermal (differential thermal analysis and thermogravimetry). The results showed that these residues showed satisfactory properties for the purpose for which it proposes, and contribute to reducing environmental impacts, allowing the reuse of the production of ceramic plates (author)

  10. Processability analysis of candidate waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gould, T.H. Jr.; Dunson, J.B. Jr.; Eisenberg, A.M.; Haight, H.G. Jr.; Mello, V.E.; Schuyler, R.L. III.

    1982-01-01

    A quantitative merit evaluation, or processability analysis, was performed to assess the relative difficulty of remote processing of Savannah River Plant high-level wastes for seven alternative waste form candidates. The reference borosilicate glass process was rated as the simplest, followed by FUETAP concrete, glass marbles in a lead matrix, high-silica glass, crystalline ceramics (SYNROC-D and tailored ceramics), and coated ceramic particles. Cost estimates for the borosilicate glass, high-silica glass, and ceramic waste form processing facilities are also reported

  11. Final Project Report CFA-14-6357: A New Paradigm for Understanding Multiphase Ceramic Waste Form Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkman, Kyle [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Bordia, Rajendra [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Reifsnider, Kenneth [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Chiu, Wilson [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Amoroso, Jake [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-12-28

    This project fabricated model multiphase ceramic waste forms with processing-controlled microstructures followed by advanced characterization with synchrotron and electron microscopy-based 3D tomography to provide elemental and chemical state-specific information resulting in compositional phase maps of ceramic composites. Details of 3D microstructural features were incorporated into computer-based simulations using durability data for individual constituent phases as inputs in order to predict the performance of multiphase waste forms with varying microstructure and phase connectivity.

  12. Titanate ceramics for immobilisation of uranium-rich radioactive wastes arising from {sup 99}Mo production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, M.L.; Li, H. [Institute of Materials Engineering, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, PMB 1, Menai, Sydney, NSW 2232 (Australia); Zhang, Y. [Institute of Materials Engineering, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, PMB 1, Menai, Sydney, NSW 2232 (Australia)], E-mail: yzx@ansto.gov.au; Vance, E.R.; Mitchell, D.R.G. [Institute of Materials Engineering, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, PMB 1, Menai, Sydney, NSW 2232 (Australia)

    2009-02-28

    Uranium-rich liquid wastes arising from UO{sub 2} targets which have been neutron-irradiated to generate medical radioisotopes such as {sup 99m}Tc require immobilisation. A pyrochlore-rich hot isostatically pressed titanate ceramic can accommodate at least 40 wt% of such waste expressed on an oxide basis. In this paper, the baseline waste form composition (containing 40 wt% UO{sub 2}) was adjusted in two ways: (a) varying the UO{sub 2} loading with constant precursor oxide materials, (b) varying the precursor composition with constant waste loading of UO{sub 2}. This resulted in the samples having a similar phase assemblage but the amounts of each phase varied. The oxidation states of U in selected samples were determined using diffuse reflection spectroscopy (DRS) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). Leaching studies showed that there was no significant difference in the normalised elemental release rates and the normalised release rates are comparable with those from synroc-C. This demonstrates that waste forms based on titanate ceramics are robust and flexible for the immobilisation of U-rich waste streams from radioisotope processing.

  13. Feasible conversion of solid waste bauxite tailings into highly crystalline 4A zeolite with valuable application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dongyang; Wang, Zhendong; Guo, Min; Zhang, Mei; Liu, Jingbo

    2014-11-01

    Bauxite tailings are a major type of solid wastes generated in the flotation process. The waste by-products caused significant environmental impact. To lessen this hazardous effect from poisonous mine tailings, a feasible and cost-effective solution was conceived and implemented. Our approach focused on reutilization of the bauxite tailings by converting it to 4A zeolite for reuse in diverse applications. Three steps were involved in the bauxite conversion: wet-chemistry, alkali fusion, and crystallization to remove impurities and to prepare porous 4A zeolite. It was found that the cubic 4A zeolite was single phase, in high purity, with high crystallinity and well-defined structure. Importantly, the 4A zeolite displayed maximum calcium ion exchange capacity averaged at 296 mg CaCO3/g, comparable to commercially-available zeolite (310 mg CaCO3/g) exchange capacity. Base on the optimal synthesis condition, the reaction yield of zeolite 4A from bauxite tailings achieved to about 38.43%, hence, this study will provide a new paradigm for remediation of bauxite tailings, further mitigating the environmental and health care concerns, particularly in the mainland of PR China. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Role of groundwater oxidation potential and radiolysis on waste glass performance in crystalline repository environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantzen, C.M.; Bibler, N.E.

    1986-01-01

    Laboratory experiments have shown that groundwater conditions in a granite repository will be as reducing as those in a basalt repository. Chemical analysis of the reduced groundwaters confirmed that the Fe 2+ /Fe 3+ couple controls the oxidation potential (Eh). The reducing groundwater conditions were found to decrease the time-dependent release of soluble elements (Li and B) from the waste glass. However, due to the lower solubility of multivalent elements released from the glass when the groundwaters are reducing, these elements have significantly lower concentrations in the leachates. Gamma radiolysis reduced the oxidation potential of both granitic and basaltic groundwater in the absence of both waste glass and oxygen. This occurred in tests at atmospheric pressure where H 2 could have escaped from the solution. The mechanism for this decrease in Eh is under investigation but appears related to the reactive amorphous precipitate in both groundwaters. The results of these tests suggest that radiolysis may not cause the groundwaters to become oxidizing in a crystalline repository when abundant Fe 2+ species are present

  15. Effect of porcelain polishing addition of waste in properties blocks ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santana, G.L.; Barbosa Neto, M.C.; Campos, L.F.; Macedo, D.A; Dutra, R.P.S.

    2016-01-01

    This work has as objective the study of the technological properties of ceramic blocks with addition of residue porcelain polishing. The test samples are produced with clay base, where the waste is introduced in concentrations of 10% and 20% by mass, to evaluate its influence on the properties of the ceramic block. All these materials were characterized by determining their chemical composition (XRF) and X-ray diffraction Sintering was performed at temperatures of 850 ° C, 950 ° C and 1100 ° C with a heating rate of 2 ° C / me and 60 minutes of landing. After this, there was obtained the technological properties of the samples such as: Loss on fire, the burning linear shrinkage, water absorption, porosity and density, as well as, mechanical strength properties through the flexural strength test. The results show that the addition of waste influenced both the technological properties, the mechanical properties evaluated in this study. (author)

  16. Determination of transmutation effects in crystalline waste forms. 1997 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, E.C.; Fortner, J.A.; Hess, N.J.; Strachan, D.M.

    1997-01-01

    'A team from two national laboratories is studying transmutation effects in crystalline waste forms. Analyses are being done with 18 year old samples of 137 Cs-bearing pollucite (CsAlSi 2 O 6 267 0.5 H 2 O) obtained from a French company. These samples are unique in that the pollucite was made with various amounts of 137 Cs, which was then sealed in welded stainless- steel capsules to be used as tumor irradiation sources. Over the past 18 years, the 137 Cs has been decaying to stable Ba in the capsules, i.e., in the absence of atmospheric effects. This material serves as an analogue to a crystalline waste form in which such a transmutation occurs to possibly disrupt the integrity of the original waste form. Work this year consisted of determining the construction of the capsule and state of the pollucite in the absence of details about these components from the French company. The authors have opened one capsule containing nonradioactive pollucite. The information on the construction of the stainless-steel capsule is useful for the work that the authors are preparing to do on capsules containing radioactive pollucite. Microscopic characterization of the nonradioactive pollucite revealed that there are at least two compounds in addition to pollucite: a Cs-silicate and a Cs-aluminosilicate (CsAlSiO 4 ). These findings may complicate the interpretation of the planned experiments using X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Electron energy loss spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (fluorescence) have been used to characterize the nonradioactive pollucite. They have investigated the stability of the nonradioactive pollucite to β radiation damage by use of 200 keV electrons in a transmission electron microscope. The samples were found to become amorphous in less than 10 minutes with loss of Cs. This is equivalent to many more years of β radiation damage than under normal decay of the 137 Cs. In fact, the dose was equivalent to several thousand years of normal

  17. Development of a sintering process for recycling oil shale fly ash and municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash into glass ceramic composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhikun; Zhang, Lei; Li, Aimin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Glass ceramic composite is prepared from oil shale fly ash and MSWI bottom ash. • A novel method for the production of glass ceramic composite is presented. • It provides simple route and lower energy consumption in terms of recycling waste. • The vitrified slag can promote the sintering densification process of glass ceramic. • The performances of products decrease with the increase of oil shale fly ash content. - Abstract: Oil shale fly ash and municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash are industrial and municipal by-products that require further treatment before disposal to avoid polluting the environment. In the study, they were mixed and vitrified into the slag by the melt-quench process. The obtained vitrified slag was then mixed with various percentages of oil shale fly ash and converted into glass ceramic composites by the subsequent sintering process. Differential thermal analysis was used to study the thermal characteristics and determine the sintering temperatures. X-ray diffraction analysis was used to analyze the crystalline phase compositions. Sintering shrinkage, weight loss on ignition, density and compressive strength were tested to determine the optimum preparation condition and study the co-sintering mechanism of vitrified amorphous slag and oil shale fly ash. The results showed the product performances increased with the increase of sintering temperatures and the proportion of vitrified slag to oil shale fly ash. Glass ceramic composite (vitrified slag content of 80%, oil shale fly ash content of 20%, sintering temperature of 1000 °C and sintering time of 2 h) showed the properties of density of 1.92 ± 0.05 g/cm 3 , weight loss on ignition of 6.14 ± 0.18%, sintering shrinkage of 22.06 ± 0.6% and compressive strength of 67 ± 14 MPa. The results indicated that it was a comparable waste-based material compared to previous researches. In particular, the energy consumption in the production process was reduced

  18. Development of a sintering process for recycling oil shale fly ash and municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash into glass ceramic composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhikun; Zhang, Lei; Li, Aimin, E-mail: leeam@dlut.edu.cn

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Glass ceramic composite is prepared from oil shale fly ash and MSWI bottom ash. • A novel method for the production of glass ceramic composite is presented. • It provides simple route and lower energy consumption in terms of recycling waste. • The vitrified slag can promote the sintering densification process of glass ceramic. • The performances of products decrease with the increase of oil shale fly ash content. - Abstract: Oil shale fly ash and municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash are industrial and municipal by-products that require further treatment before disposal to avoid polluting the environment. In the study, they were mixed and vitrified into the slag by the melt-quench process. The obtained vitrified slag was then mixed with various percentages of oil shale fly ash and converted into glass ceramic composites by the subsequent sintering process. Differential thermal analysis was used to study the thermal characteristics and determine the sintering temperatures. X-ray diffraction analysis was used to analyze the crystalline phase compositions. Sintering shrinkage, weight loss on ignition, density and compressive strength were tested to determine the optimum preparation condition and study the co-sintering mechanism of vitrified amorphous slag and oil shale fly ash. The results showed the product performances increased with the increase of sintering temperatures and the proportion of vitrified slag to oil shale fly ash. Glass ceramic composite (vitrified slag content of 80%, oil shale fly ash content of 20%, sintering temperature of 1000 °C and sintering time of 2 h) showed the properties of density of 1.92 ± 0.05 g/cm{sup 3}, weight loss on ignition of 6.14 ± 0.18%, sintering shrinkage of 22.06 ± 0.6% and compressive strength of 67 ± 14 MPa. The results indicated that it was a comparable waste-based material compared to previous researches. In particular, the energy consumption in the production process was reduced

  19. Dense and porous glass and glass ceramics from natural and waste raw materials

    OpenAIRE

    Marangoni, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of the herewith presented research activities was to develop innovative processes and materials for building applications adapted to the needs of Saudi Arabia according to the information exchanged with the partners from KACST (King Abdulaziz City of Science and Technology). The research activity focused on the development of a wide range of ceramic components via sinter-crystallization of glasses produced from waste (fly ash, slag, sludge) with or without the addition of vit...

  20. Development of a technical process concerning the immobilisation of nuclear waste by embedding into ceramic matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, G.; Krause, H.

    1993-12-01

    Ceramic is considered a highly qualified matrix for the embedding of all radioactive waste concentrates arising from reprocessing and fabricating UO 2 /PuO 2 -mixed oxide fuel elements and it may take up all long-lived or highly active radionuclides. Parallel to product development a technically feasible process has been started. The wastes are mixed with the ceramics-forming agents in a wet medium. A double-shaft extruder may be used. Backfitting of the extruder for use in a hot cell may be carried out easily. Experiments are presented and conceptions developed as to how the facility may be designed under aggravated boundary conditions of irradiation and remote handling. The process consists of the following stages: Preliminary treatment of the four waste suspensions, without dehydration; continuous dosage into a double-shaft extruder, where preliminary drying and then addition of the fifth waste type (dry ash) as well as of the mixture of ceramics-forming agents takes place; mixing and preferably extrusion. Heat treatment from the drying and calcination temperatures up to the sintering temperature of 1250-1300 C in a stationary heated electric furnace, filling of the hot material into canisters, filling of the cavities with liquid glas, and sealing of the cansiters. Except for an experiment with dissolver residues, all experiments were inactive. Conventional devices were applied with the aim of investigated their suitability for the process as well as for the conditions of remote handling and inrradiation. A facility, which was to be located downstream of a 350 t/a reprocessing plant, would have to have a throughput of about 40 kg/h ceramic product or 6 canisters per day. (orig./HP) [de

  1. Ceramic Single Phase High-Level Nuclear Waste Forms: Hollandite, Perovskite, and Pyrochlore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, M.; Wang, J.

    2017-12-01

    The lack of viable options for the safe, reliable, and long-term storage of nuclear waste is one of the primary roadblocks of nuclear energy's sustainable future. The method being researched is the incorporation and immobilization of harmful radionuclides (Cs, Sr, Actinides, and Lanthanides) into the structure of glasses and ceramics. Borosilicate glasses are the main waste form that is accepted and used by today's nuclear industry, but they aren't the most efficient in terms of waste loading, and durability is still not fully understood. Synroc-phase ceramics (i.e. hollandite, perovskite, pyrochlore, zirconolite) have many attractive qualities that glass waste forms do not: high waste loading, moderate thermal expansion and conductivity, high chemical durability, and high radiation stability. The only downside to ceramics is that they are more complex to process than glass. New compositions can be discovered by using an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to have more options to optimize the composition, loading for performance by analyzing the non-linear relationships between ionic radii, electronegativity, channel size, and a mineral's ability to incorporate radionuclides into its structure. Cesium can be incorporated into hollandite's A-site, while pyrochlore and perovskite can incorporate actinides and lanthanides into their A-site. The ANN is used to predict new compositions based on hollandite's channel size, as well as the A-O bond distances of pyrochlore and perovskite, and determine which ions can be incorporated. These new compositions will provide more options for more experiments to potentially improve chemical and thermodynamic properties, as well as increased waste loading capabilities.

  2. Quantification of the Partitioning Ratio of Minor Actinide Surrogates between Zirconolite and Glass in Glass-Ceramic for Nuclear Waste Disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chang-Zhong; Liu, Chengshuai; Su, Minhua; Shih, Kaimin

    2017-08-21

    Zirconolite-based glass-ceramic is considered a promising wasteform for conditioning minor actinide-rich nuclear wastes. Recent studies on this wasteform have sought to enhance the partitioning ratio (PR) of minor actinides in zirconolite crystal. To optimize the PR in the SiO 2 -Al 2 O 3 -CaO-TiO 2 -ZrO 2 system, a novel conceptual approach, which can be derived from the chemical composition and quantity of zirconolite crystal in glass-ceramic, was introduced based on the results of Rietveld quantitative X-ray diffraction analysis and transmission electron microscopy energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. To verify this new conceptual approach, the influences of the crystallization temperature, the concentration of additives, and ionic radii on the PR of various surrogates (Ce, Nd, Gd, and Yb) in zirconolite were examined. The results reveal that the PR of Nd 3+ in zirconolite can be as high as 41%, but it decreases as the crystallization temperature increases. The quantities of all phases (including crystalline and amorphous) remained nearly constant when increasing the loading of Nd 2 O 3 in glass-ceramic products crystallized at 1050 °C for 2 h. Correspondingly, the PR of Nd 3+ decreases in a linear fashion with the loading contents of Nd 2 O 3 . The radius of ions also has a great influence on the PR, and an increase in the ionic radius leads to a decrease in the PR. This new approach will be an important tool to facilitate the exploration of a glass-ceramic matrix for the disposal of minor actinide-rich nuclear wastes.

  3. Vitrification of SRP waste by a slurry-fed ceramic melter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicks, G.G.

    1980-01-01

    Savannah River Plant (SRP) high-level waste (HLW) can be vitrified by feeding a slurry, instead of a calcine, to a joule-heated ceramic melter. Potential advantages of slurry feeding include (1) use of simpler equipment, (2) elimination of handling easily dispersed radioactive powder, (3) simpler process control, (4) effective mixing, (5) reduced off-gas volume, and (6) cost savings. Assessment of advantages and disadvantages of slurry feeding along with experimental studies indicate that slurry feeding is a promising way of vitrifying waste

  4. The encapsulation of nuclear waste in a magnesium aluminosilicate glass-ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luk, K.M.

    1999-07-01

    The use of Magnesium aluminosilicate (MAS) glass-ceramics for the immobilisation of nuclear waste has been investigated. Nuclear waste is currently immobilised in a borosilicate glass. It is possible that immobilisation in an MAS glass-ceramic will reduce processing temperature of the waste, offer greater thermal and chemical stabilities and chemical durabilities. The primary reason for investigating sintered glass-ceramics is the possible advent of wastes containing high levels of refractory elements such as zirconia from the future reprocessing techniques such as electrochemical dissolution. In the first instance zirconia was used as a simulated waste with the principal of encapsulating zirconia with the minimum of porosity. Attempts were made to encapsulate 0, 20 and 40 volume % of zirconia in MAS sintering at temperatures of around 950 deg. C. It was found that the main cause of porosity was the agglomeration of fine zirconia powder. Three Taguchi experiments to optimise conditions for encapsulation of zirconia in MAS were carried out. In each case 10 volume % of zirconia was encapsulated. A Taguchi L 8 was carried out to optimise thermal conditions and powder characteristics. A Taguchi L 9 was carried out to improve knowledge of the thermal characteristics and an L 16 was carried out to provide information on curvature of thermal parameters and powder particle sizes. The conditions predicted to be optimum from these Taguchi experiments were a temperature of 940 - 960 deg. C, a heating rate of 30 deg. C/min, a hold time of 30 - 50 minutes and particle sizes of 2-4 and ∼ 15μm respectively. Densifications of up to 99% have been observed. Tapping experiments were carried out in an attempt to remove the pressing stage from processing. MAS was tapped into an alumina crucible with and without the addition of a dead weight. Almost fully dense MAS pellets were produced. This is an indication that it may be possible to process glass-ceramic waste forms in their final

  5. the effect of ceramic waste as coarse aggregate on strength

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    1,2 DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING, UNIVERSITY OF ... The compressive strength at 90 days curing age for the control sample was 24.67 N/mm2. ... wastes has become one of the most pressing issues of our.

  6. The immobilisation of nuclear waste materials containing different alkali elements into single-phase NZP based ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pet'kov, V.I.; Orlova, A.I.; Trubach, I.G.; Demarin, T.; Kurazhkovskaya, V.S.

    2002-01-01

    The NZP matrix, which is based on NaZr 2 (PO 4 ) 3 , is a viable candidate for nuclear waste immobilisation. We examined the possibilities of incorporating of alkali elements into the NZP host structure, investigated the conditions of the crystalline solution formation, and determined the regions of the NZP structure compositional stability for a series of complex orthophosphates of titanium or zirconium and alkali elements A m-x A' x M 2-(m-1)/4 (PO 4 ) 3 with m = 1, 3, or 5 and 0 ≤ x ≤ m, where A and A' are mutually different alkali elements and M is Ti or Zr. The phosphates containing Li-Na, Li-K, Li-Rb, Li-Cs, Na-K, Na-Rb, Na-Cs, K-Rb, K-Cs and Rb-Cs pairs were prepared and studied by X-ray powder analysis, IR spectroscopy, simultaneous DTA-TG measurements and electron microprobe analyses. In the systems studied, wide ranges of crystalline phosphate solutions with tailored alkali metal substitutions were formed owing to the large number of sites available for substitution and high degree of flexibility in the NZP structure. It was found that introduction of the less expensive and lighter Ti in the host phase in place of the commonly used Zr permits cheaper ceramics, having in some cases larger alkali element contents, to be obtained. The phases containing alkali metals can be formed, for instance, during phosphate solidification of molten alkali chlorides with radioactive nuclides from the pyroelectrochemical technologies of nuclear fuel recycling

  7. Cesium incorporation in hollandite-rich multiphasic ceramic waste forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumurugoti, P.; Clark, B.M. [Kazuo Inamori School of Engineering, The New York State College of Ceramics, Alfred University, Alfred, NY 14802 (United States); Edwards, D.J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Amoroso, Jake [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Sundaram, S.K. [Kazuo Inamori School of Engineering, The New York State College of Ceramics, Alfred University, Alfred, NY 14802 (United States)

    2017-02-15

    Hollandite-rich multiphase waste form compositions processed by melt-solidification and spark plasma sintering (SPS) were characterized, compared, and validated for nuclear waste incorporation. Phase identification by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) confirmed hollandite as the major phase present in these samples along with perovskite, pyrochlore and zirconolite. Distribution of selected elements observed by wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (WDS) maps indicated that Cs formed a secondary phase during SPS processing, which was considered undesirable. On the other hand, Cs partitioned into the hollandite phase in melt-processed samples. Further analysis of hollandite structure in melt-processed composition by selected area electron diffraction (SAED) revealed ordered arrangement of tunnel ions (Ba/Cs) and vacancies, suggesting efficient Cs incorporation into the lattice.

  8. Plutonium-238 alpha-decay damage study of the ceramic waste form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, S. M.; Barber, T. L.; Cummings, D.G.; DiSanto, T.; Esh, D.W.; Giglio, J. J.; Goff, K. M.; Johnson, S.G.; Kennedy, J.R.; Jue, J-F; Noy, M.; O'Holleran, T.P.; Sinkler, W.

    2006-01-01

    An accelerated alpha-decay damage study of a glass-bonded sodalite ceramic waste form has recently been completed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the physical and chemical durability of the waste form after significant exposure to alpha decay. This accelerated alpha-decay study was performed by doping the ceramic waste form with 238 Pu which has a much greater specific activity than 239 Pu that is normally present in the waste form. The alpha-decay dose at the end of the four year study was approximately 1 x 10 18 alpha-decays/gram of material. An equivalent time period for a similar dose of 239 Pu would require approximately 1100 years. After four years of exposure to 238 Pu alpha decay, the investigation observed little change to the physical or chemical durability of the ceramic waste form (CWF). Specifically, the 238 Pu-loaded CWF maintained it's physical integrity, namely that the density remained constant and no cracking or phase de-bonding was observed. The materials chemical durability and phase stability also did not change significantly over the duration of the study. The only significant measured change was an increase of the unit-cell lattice parameters of the plutonium oxide and sodalite phases of the material and an increase in the release of salt components and plutonium of the waste form during leaching tests, but, as mentioned, these did not lead to any overall loss of waste form durability. The principal findings from this study are: (1) 238 Pu-loaded CWF is similar in microstructure and phase composition to referenced waste form. (2) Pu was observed primarily as oxide comprised of aggregates of nano crystals with aggregates ranging in size from submicron to twenty microns in diameter. (3) Pu phases were primarily found in the intergranular glassy regions. (4) PuO phase shows expected unit cell volume expansion due to alpha decay damage of approximately 0.7%, and the sodalite phase unit cell volume has expanded slightly by 0.3% again

  9. Towards the synthesis of an experimental bioactive dental ceramic. Part I: Crystallinity characterization and bioactive behavior evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goudouri, O.-M. [Physics Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Kontonasaki, E. [School of Dentistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Papadopoulou, L.; Kantiranis, N. [Department of Geology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Lazaridis, N.K. [Chemistry Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Chrissafis, K.; Chatzistavrou, X. [Physics Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Koidis, P. [School of Dentistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Paraskevopoulos, K.M., E-mail: kpar@auth.gr [Physics Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2014-05-01

    An attachment between the dental ceramic and the surrounding marginal tissues in fixed prosthetic restorations could eliminate secondary carries prevalence. The development of dental ceramics with apatite forming ability could provide the biological surface required for selective spread and attachment of specific cell types able to promote tissue attachment. Dental ceramics/bioactive glass composites synthesized by the sol gel method have been previously reported to develop carbonated hydroxyapatite (HCAp) in biomimetic solutions, requiring though a high amount of bioactive glass, which resulted in the compromise of their mechanical integrity. Thus, the aim of the present work was the synthesis and characterization of an experimental sol–gel derived dental ceramic with low amount of bioactive glass and the evaluation of its in vitro bioactivity. Differential thermal and thermogravimetric analysis (TG–DTA), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray Diffractometry (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) were used to evaluate the crystal structure and the in vitro apatite forming ability of the synthesized material. The results of this study indicated the successful sol–gel synthesis of an experimental dental ceramic containing low amount of bioactive glass that presented similar structural and morphological characteristics with a commercial feldspathic dental ceramic, while exhibiting in vitro bioactivity. The apatite forming ability of the experimental sol–gel derived feldspathic dental ceramic may trigger the appropriate cellular mechanisms towards the establishment of attachment with the surrounding connective tissue. This attachment could provide a barrier to oral bacteria penetration, prolonging the life expectation of the restorations. - Highlights: • Synthesis of a bioactive sol–gel dental ceramic for fixed prosthetic restorations. • The sol–gel technique promoted the crystallization of

  10. Towards the synthesis of an experimental bioactive dental ceramic. Part I: Crystallinity characterization and bioactive behavior evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goudouri, O.-M.; Kontonasaki, E.; Papadopoulou, L.; Kantiranis, N.; Lazaridis, N.K.; Chrissafis, K.; Chatzistavrou, X.; Koidis, P.; Paraskevopoulos, K.M.

    2014-01-01

    An attachment between the dental ceramic and the surrounding marginal tissues in fixed prosthetic restorations could eliminate secondary carries prevalence. The development of dental ceramics with apatite forming ability could provide the biological surface required for selective spread and attachment of specific cell types able to promote tissue attachment. Dental ceramics/bioactive glass composites synthesized by the sol gel method have been previously reported to develop carbonated hydroxyapatite (HCAp) in biomimetic solutions, requiring though a high amount of bioactive glass, which resulted in the compromise of their mechanical integrity. Thus, the aim of the present work was the synthesis and characterization of an experimental sol–gel derived dental ceramic with low amount of bioactive glass and the evaluation of its in vitro bioactivity. Differential thermal and thermogravimetric analysis (TG–DTA), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray Diffractometry (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) were used to evaluate the crystal structure and the in vitro apatite forming ability of the synthesized material. The results of this study indicated the successful sol–gel synthesis of an experimental dental ceramic containing low amount of bioactive glass that presented similar structural and morphological characteristics with a commercial feldspathic dental ceramic, while exhibiting in vitro bioactivity. The apatite forming ability of the experimental sol–gel derived feldspathic dental ceramic may trigger the appropriate cellular mechanisms towards the establishment of attachment with the surrounding connective tissue. This attachment could provide a barrier to oral bacteria penetration, prolonging the life expectation of the restorations. - Highlights: • Synthesis of a bioactive sol–gel dental ceramic for fixed prosthetic restorations. • The sol–gel technique promoted the crystallization of

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF CERAMIC WASTE FORMS FOR AN ADVANCED NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marra, J.; Billings, A.; Brinkman, K.; Fox, K.

    2010-11-30

    A series of ceramic waste forms were developed and characterized for the immobilization of a Cesium/Lanthanide (CS/LN) waste stream anticipated to result from nuclear fuel reprocessing. Simple raw materials, including Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2} were combined with simulated waste components to produce multiphase ceramics containing hollandite-type phases, perovskites (particularly BaTiO{sub 3}), pyrochlores and other minor metal titanate phases. Three fabrication methodologies were used, including melting and crystallizing, pressing and sintering, and Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS), with the intent of studying phase evolution under various sintering conditions. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) results showed that the partitioning of the waste elements in the sintered materials was very similar, despite varying stoichiometry of the phases formed. Identification of excess Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} via XRD and SEM/EDS in the first series of compositions led to a Phase II study, with significantly reduced Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentrations and increased waste loadings. The Phase II compositions generally contained a reduced amount of unreacted Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} as identified by XRD. Chemical composition measurements showed no significant issues with meeting the target compositions. However, volatilization of Cs and Mo was identified, particularly during melting, since sintering of the pressed pellets and SPS were performed at lower temperatures. Partitioning of some of the waste components was difficult to determine via XRD. SEM/EDS mapping showed that those elements, which were generally present in small concentrations, were well distributed throughout the waste forms.

  12. Fabrication of unglazed ceramic tile using dense structured sago waste and clay composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aripin; S Tani; S Mitsudo; T Saito; T Idehara

    2010-01-01

    In Indonesia, the sago processing industry generates every year huge amount of sago waste, and converting this waste into a useful material is possible. In the present study, physical properties of dense structured sago waste and clay composite were investigated in order to study the feasibility of reuse this sample as raw material in the producing of ceramics. Firstly, the chemical composition of ash (obtained from the sago waste) and clay was characterized. The prepared sample was sintered at the temperature range from 800 to 1,200 °C using electric furnace. The density, linear shrinkage and water absorption of the sintered sample were determined by using the Archimedes' method. The experimental result indicated that the density of the sintered sample increased with increasing sintering temperature up to 1100°C and then slightly decreased afterward. The water absorption of the products decreased with an increase in sintering temperature. In the sintered sample at 1,100 °C, the water absorption decreased rapidly and water adsorption of less than 1 % was achieved. This water absorption was less than 5 % which was needed for unglazed floor tile. The result of water adsorption suggest that it is possible to use this sample as a raw material for producing the ceramic floor tile. (author)

  13. Mechanical and trybological characterization of ceramic materials obtained of mine solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto T, J.L.

    2003-01-01

    A discussion of the physical, mechanical and tribological characterization of the ceramics Jaar, Jaca and Vijaar is presented in this work. They have been obtained from the industrial residuals, coming from metals and sand of the mining industry in Pachuca Hidalgo, Mexico. The methodology followed for the obtention and characterization of these ceramics consists on eliminating the cyanides from the tailings through columns coupled with a system controlled with thermostats. Then, the chemical composition is analysed with spectrometry emission of plasma and scanning electronic microscopy. Then the ceramics are produced. The base material is agglutinated with clay or kaolin. For this purpose, it was used a sintering processes and isothermal compacting in hot condition. Finally, the physical, chemical, mechanical and tribological properties of these new products are determined. Carbon, oxygen, sodium, magnesium, aluminium, manganese, silicon, potassium, phosphor, calcium, titanium, iron, molybdenum, silver and gold are in the chemical composition or ceramic analysed. Also these are heterogeneous mixture of clay and kaolin. The cyanide was eliminated. The results show that Vijaar has better wear resistances to the waste; this was demonstrated in tribology tests. They were not perforated with the abrasive particles. Also, they have high hardness and they can to support more loads in compression than Jaar and the Jaca. Consequently, they are less fragile and, therefore, they can tolerate bending stresses and bigger impact loading. (Author)

  14. Geological assessment of crystalline rock formations with a view to radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mather, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    Field work has been concentrated at the Altnabreac Research Site on north-east Scotland, where three deep boreholes to approximately 300 m and 24 shallow boreholes to approximately 40 m were drilled. The movement of groundwater within 300 m of the surface was investigated using a specially developed straddle packer system. Geochemical studies have demonstrated that most groundwater is dominated by recent recharge but one borehole yielded water with an age of around 10 4 years. Geophysical borehole logging has shown that the full wave train sonic logs and the acoustic logs show most promise for the assessment of crystalline rocks. In the laboratory the interaction of rocks and groundwater at the temperature/pressure conditions to be expected in a repository has established the geochemical environment to which waste canisters and backfill materials would be subjected. Other generic studies reported include the characterization of geotechnical properties of rocks at elevated temperatures and pressures, the development of a new cross-hole sinusoidal pressure test for the measurement of hydraulic properties and the use of thermal infra-red imagery to detect groundwater discharge zones

  15. Ceramics: Durability and radiation effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewing, R.C.; Lutze, W. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Weber, W.J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-05-01

    At present, there are three seriously considered options for the disposition of excess weapons plutonium: (1) incorporation, partial burn-up and direct disposal of MOX-fuel; (2) vitrification with defense waste and disposal as glass {open_quotes}logs{close_quotes}; (3) deep borehole disposal. The first two options provide a safeguard due to the high activity of fission products in the irradiated fuel and the defense waste. The latter option has only been examined in a preliminary manner, and the exact form of the plutonium has not been identified. In this paper, we review the potential for the immobilization of plutonium in highly durable crystalline ceramics apatite, pyrochlore, zirconolite, monazite and zircon. Based on available data, we propose zircon as the preferred crystalline ceramic for the permanent disposition of excess weapons plutonium.

  16. Exploring high-strength glass-ceramic materials for upcycling of industrial wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, Gu-Seul; Park, Hyun Seo; Seo, Sung Mo; Jung, Woo-Gwang

    2015-11-01

    To promote the recycling of industrial waste and to develop value-added products using these resources, the possibility of manufacturing glass-ceramic materials of SiO2-CaO-Al2O3 system has been investigated by various heat treatment processes. Glass-ceramic materials with six different chemical compositions were prepared using steel industry slags and power plant waste by melting, casting and heat treatment. The X-ray diffraction results indicated that diopside and anorthite were the primary phases in the samples. The anorthite phase was formed in SiO2-rich material (at least 43 wt%). In CaO-rich material, the gehlenite phase was formed. By the differential scanning calorimetry analyses, it was found that the glass transition point was in the range of 973-1023 K, and the crystallization temperature was in the range of 1123-1223 K. The crystallization temperature increased as the content of Fe2O3 decreased. By the multi-step heat treatment process, the formation of the anorthite phase was enhanced. Using FactSage, the ratio of various phases was calculated as a function of temperature. The viscosities and the latent heats for the samples with various compositions were also calculated by FactSage. The optimal compositions for glass-ceramics materials were discussed in terms of their compressive strength, and micro-hardness.

  17. PRELIMINARY STUDY OF CERAMICS FOR IMMOBILIZATION OF ADVANCED FUEL CYCLE REPROCESSING WASTES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K.; Billings, A.; Brinkman, K.; Marra, J.

    2010-09-22

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) developed a series of ceramic waste forms for the immobilization of Cesium/Lanthanide (CS/LN) and Cesium/Lanthanide/Transition Metal (CS/LN/TM) waste streams anticipated to result from nuclear fuel reprocessing. Simple raw materials, including Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CaO, and TiO{sub 2} were combined with simulated waste components to produce multiphase ceramics containing hollandite-type phases, perovskites (particularly BaTiO{sub 3}), pyrochlores, zirconolite, and other minor metal titanate phases. Identification of excess Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} via X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) in the first series of compositions led to a Phase II study, with significantly reduced Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentrations and increased waste loadings. Three fabrication methodologies were used, including melting and crystallizing, pressing and sintering, and Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS), with the intent of studying phase evolution under various sintering conditions. XRD and SEM/EDS results showed that the partitioning of the waste elements in the sintered materials was very similar, despite varying stoichiometry of the phases formed. The Phase II compositions generally contained a reduced amount of unreacted Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} as identified by XRD, and had phase assemblages that were closer to the initial targets. Chemical composition measurements showed no significant issues with meeting the target compositions. However, volatilization of Cs and Mo was identified, particularly during melting, since sintering of the pressed pellets and SPS were performed at lower temperatures. Partitioning of some of the waste components was difficult to determine via XRD. SEM/EDS mapping showed that those elements, which were generally present in small concentrations, were well distributed throughout the waste forms. Initial studies of radiation damage tolerance using ion beam irradiation at Los

  18. Corrosion behaviors of a glass-bonded sodalite ceramic waste form and its constituents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, M. A.; Ebert, W. L.; Morss, L.

    1999-01-01

    A ceramic waste form (CWF) of glass bonded sodalite is being developed as a waste form for the long-term immobilization of fission products and transuranic elements from the U.S. Department of Energy's activities on spent nuclear fuel conditioning. A durable waste form was prepared by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) a mixture of salt-loaded zeolite powders and glass frit. During HIP the zeolite is converted to sodalite, and the resultant CWF is been completed for durations of up to 182 days. Four dissolution modes were identified: dissolution of free salt, dissolution of the aluminosilicate matrix of sodalite and the accompanying dissolution of occluded salt, dissolution of the boroaluminosilicate matrix of the glass, and ion exchange. Synergies inherent to the CWF were identified by comparing the results of the tests with pure glass and sodalite with those of the composite CWF

  19. Development of Ceramic Coating on Metal Substrate using Industrial Waste and Ore Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuyan, S. K.; Thiyagarajan, T. K.; Mishra, S. C.

    2017-02-01

    The technological advancement in modern era has a boon for enlightening human life; but also is a bane to produce a huge amount of (industrial) wastes, which is of great concern for utilization and not to create environmental threats viz. polution etc. In the present piece of research work, attempts have been made to utilize fly ash (wastes of thermal power plants) and along with alumina bearing ore i.e. bauxite, for developing plasma spray ceramic coatings on metals. Fly ash and with 10 and 20% bauxite addition is used to deposit plasma spray coatings on a metal substrate. The surface morphology of the coatings deposited at different power levels of plasma spraying investigated through SEM and EDS analysis. The coating thickness is measured. The porosity levels of the coatings are evaluated. The coating hardness isalso measured. This piece of research work will be beneficial for future development and use of industrial waste and ore minerals for high-valued applications.

  20. Simplex network modeling for press-molded ceramic bodies incorporated with granite waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedroti, L.G.; Vieira, C.M.F.; Alexandre, J.; Monteiro, S.N.; Xavier, G.C.

    2012-01-01

    Extrusion of a clay body is the most commonly applied process in the ceramic industries for manufacturing structural block. Nowadays, the assembly of such blocks through a fitting system that facilitates the final mounting is gaining attention owing to the saving in material and reducing in the cost of the building construction. In this work, the ideal composition of clay bodies incorporated with granite powder waste was investigated for the production of press-molded ceramic blocks. An experimental design was applied to determine the optimum properties and microstructures involving not only the precursors compositions but also the press and temperature conditions. Press load from 15 ton and temperatures from 850 to 1050°C were considered. The results indicated that varying mechanical strength of 2 MPa to 20 MPa and varying water absorption of 19% to 30%. (author)

  1. XPS Investigation of ceramic matrixes for disposal of long-living radioactive waste products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teterin Yury A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of ceramic matrixes for the long-term storage of highly active radionuclide wastes and determination of physical and chemical forms of radionuclides in them is one of the important problems in radioecology. It enables to create purpose fully materials for the long-term storage of radionuclides. In the present work the samples of ceramics [CaCe0.9Ti2O6.8(I and CaCeTi2O7(II}] formed under various conditions were investigated with the X-ray photo electron spectroscopy. It is necessary for synthesis of ceramic matrixes, for the disposal of the plutonium and others tetravalent actinides. A technique was developed for the determination of cerium oxidation state (Ce3+ and Ce4+ on the basis of the X-ray photo electron spectroscopy spectral structure characteristics. It was established that the sample (I formed at 300 MPa and T = 1400 °C in the air atmosphere contained on the surface two types of cerium ions in the ratio – 63 atomic % of Ce3+ and 37 atomic % of Ce4+, and the sample (II formed at 300 MPa and T= 1300 °C in the oxygen atmosphere contained on its surface two types of cerium ions also, but in the ratio – 36 atomic % of Ce3+ and 64 atomic % of Ce4+. It was established that on the surface of the studied ceramics carbonates of calcium and/or cerium could be formed under influence of the environment that leads to the destruction of ceramics.

  2. Analysis of waste coal from the enterprises of Kemerovo region as raw materials for production of ceramic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolboushkin, A. Yu; Akst, D. V.; Fomina, O. A.; Ivanov, A. I.; Syromyasov, V. A.

    2017-09-01

    The analysis of waste coal from mining enterprises of Kemerovo region as raw materials for production of building ceramics is given. The results of studies of material, chemical and mineralogical compositions of waste coal from Abashevskaya processing plant (Novokuznetsk) are presented. It was established that the chemical composition of waste coal refers to aluminosilicate raw materials with a high content of alumina and coloring oxides, the residual carbon content in the wastes is 12-25 %. According to the granulometric composition the waste coal is basically a sandy-dusty fraction with a small amount of clay particles (1-3 %). Additional grinding of coal waste and the introduction of a clay additive in an amount of up to 30 % are recommended. The results of the study of the mineral composition of waste coal are presented. Clay minerals are represented in the descending order by hydromuscovite, montmorillonite and kaolinite, minerals-impurities consist of quartz, feldspar fine-dispersed carbonates. The results of the investigation of ceramic-technological properties of waste coal, which belong to the group of moderately plastic low-melting raw materials, are given. As a result of a comprehensive study it was been established that with chemical, granulometric and mineralogical compositions waste coal with the reduced residual carbon can be used in the production of ceramic bricks.

  3. Raw-materials mixtures from waste of the coal industry for production of ceramic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galpern, E I [Scientific-Manufacturing Enterprise ` ` Ceramics` ` , Donetsk (Ukraine); Pashchenko, L V [Inst. of Physical, Organic and Coal Chemistry of NASU, Donetsk (Ukraine)

    1998-09-01

    The liquidation of waste dumps on the surface of mining enterprises and realization of measures by environment protection of air and aquatic basins are connected to the complex processing of mining mass. The main directions of utilization of mining rocks and coal wastes realized in Ukraine industry are: - filling of mines worked-out area by grouting solutions; - ceramic brick, porous filling materials and binding materials production; - road-making, construction of hydrostructures and industrial objects; - output of concrete items predominantly for using in mining conditions. The peculiarity of wastes using in above-mentioned fields is the possibility of their mass application in quantities commensurable with valumes of their yields. The experience of enterprises work which process mining rocks into building materials by burning method (ceramic brick, porous aggregates of concretes as aggloporite, expanded clay aggregate) has shown that unconstant and, as the rule, exceeding norms content of carbon and sulphur in the rock results to deterioration of products quality and technological factors of production. Unstability of carbon content in raw material makes the burning process hardly operated. Obtained products having residual carbon in the view of coke residue are often characterized by lower physical-mechanical characteristics. (orig./SR)

  4. Development of a sintering process for recycling oil shale fly ash and municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash into glass ceramic composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhikun; Zhang, Lei; Li, Aimin

    2015-04-01

    Oil shale fly ash and municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash are industrial and municipal by-products that require further treatment before disposal to avoid polluting the environment. In the study, they were mixed and vitrified into the slag by the melt-quench process. The obtained vitrified slag was then mixed with various percentages of oil shale fly ash and converted into glass ceramic composites by the subsequent sintering process. Differential thermal analysis was used to study the thermal characteristics and determine the sintering temperatures. X-ray diffraction analysis was used to analyze the crystalline phase compositions. Sintering shrinkage, weight loss on ignition, density and compressive strength were tested to determine the optimum preparation condition and study the co-sintering mechanism of vitrified amorphous slag and oil shale fly ash. The results showed the product performances increased with the increase of sintering temperatures and the proportion of vitrified slag to oil shale fly ash. Glass ceramic composite (vitrified slag content of 80%, oil shale fly ash content of 20%, sintering temperature of 1000 °C and sintering time of 2h) showed the properties of density of 1.92 ± 0.05 g/cm(3), weight loss on ignition of 6.14 ± 0.18%, sintering shrinkage of 22.06 ± 0.6% and compressive strength of 67 ± 14 MPa. The results indicated that it was a comparable waste-based material compared to previous researches. In particular, the energy consumption in the production process was reduced compared to conventional vitrification and sintering method. Chemical resistance and heavy metals leaching results of glass ceramic composites further confirmed the possibility of its engineering applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Crystallization behavior of nuclear waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusin, J.M.; Lokken, R.O.; May, R.P.; Wald, J.W.

    1981-09-01

    Several waste form options have been or are being developed for the immobilization of high-level wastes. The final selection of a waste form must take into consideration both waste form product as well as process factors. Crystallization behavior has an important role in nuclear waste form technology. For glass or vitreous waste forms, crystallization is generally controlled to a minimum by appropriate glass formulation and heat treatment schedules. With glass ceramic waste forms, crystallization is essential to convert glass products to highly crystalline waste forms with a minimum residual glass content. In the case of ceramic waste forms, additives and controlled sintering schedules are used to contain the radionuclides in specific tailored crystalline phases

  6. Industrial waste as a source for fabrication of composite ceramics-glass with a controlled porosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adziski R.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Metallurgical slag with granulation (-0.125+0.063mm and 20 wt% waste TV glass were used for obtaining a glass ceramic composite with a controlled porosity. This material obtained by sintering at 950oC/2h possessed thermal stability, integral porosity of 43.6% and E-modulus and bending strength of 12 GPa and 39 MPa, respectively. The composite was characterized with a permeability of 0.47 Da and generation of air bubbles with size of 1-4 mm in a water medium.

  7. XPS studies of ceramics with pyrochlore structure for radioactive wastes disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teterin, Yu.A.; Vukchevich, L.; Ivanov, K.E.; Utkin, I.O; Teterin, A. Yu.; Maslakov, K.I.; Yudintseva, T.S.; Yudintsev, S.V.; Stefanovsky, S.V.; Lapina, M.I. . E-mail address of corresponding author: vukas@rc.pmf.cg.ac.yu; Vukchevich, L.)

    2005-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) study of ceramics CaThSn 2 O 7 and CaThZr 2 O 7 with pyrochlore structure used as matrixes for the disposal of long lived high level radioactive wastes was done. On the basis of the XPS parameters of the core and outer electrons in the binding energy range 0 - 1000 eV the oxidation states of the included metals were determined, quantitative elemental and ionic analysis was carried out and a conclusion on the monophaseness of the studied samples was drawn. The obtained data agree with the X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy results. (author)

  8. Characterization of a glass-bonded ceramic waste form loaded with U and Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinkler, W.; O'Holleran, T. P.; Frank, S. M.; Richmann, M. K.; Johnson, S. G.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents microscopic characterization of four samples of a ceramic waste form (CWF) developed for disposal of actinide-containing electrorefiner salts. The four samples were prepared to investigate the influence of water content and the Pu:U ratio on CWF microstructure and performance. While the overall phase content is not strongly influenced by either variable, the presence of water in the initial zeolite has a detectable effect on CWF microstructure. It is found to influence the distribution of the major actinide host phase, a (U,Pu)O 2 mixed oxide

  9. The solidification of high-level liquid wastes in glass and ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, H.

    1989-01-01

    In spent nuclear fuel reprocessing a highly radioactive waste solution is produced. It must be converted into a solid product, which binds the radionuclides, be hydrolytic as well as radiation and temperature resistant. Borosilicate glasses fulfil these requirements and, jointly with the barriers of a repository, they prevent inadmissible amounts of radionuclides from escaping into the biocycle. Two techniques were developed for industrial-scale vitrification: a rotary kiln calciner combined with an induction heated metallic melter and the electrode heated ceramic melters. Both techniques were already demonstrated on an industrial scale and under radioactive conditions. (AVM, Marcoule and PAMELA, Mol). (orig./MM) [de

  10. Evaluation of physical and mechanical and gaseous emissions in reuse waste in the development of a ceramic products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, R.A.; Martins, B.E.D.B.S.; Couto, V.M.P.; Campos, J.C.; Guimaraes, C.S.; Almeida, V.C.

    2011-01-01

    The search for alternative environmentally less aggressive disposal of solid waste has been the path taken to reverse the negative scenario established by the improper disposal of these materials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the recycling of the waste: sludge from water treatment and WTP, glass beads, obtained from the blasting chamber, aiming to develop a ceramic material. Compositions were prepared with different percentages of waste. The ceramic bodies were sintered at 900 deg C, 1000 deg C and 1100 deg C being tested for water absorption and bending failure stress, and characterized by X-ray diffraction We performed the analysis of greenhouse gases released during the burning process. Preliminary results indicate that the ceramic material produced did not show a gain of resistance expected by the introduction of micro glass beads, and that we must observe the legal limits for air emissions coming from burning.(author)

  11. Durability, mechanical, and thermal properties of experimental glass-ceramic forms for immobilizing ICPP high level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinjamuri, K.

    1990-01-01

    The high-level liquid waste generated at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) is routinely solidified into granular calcined high-level waste (HLW) and stored onsite. Research is being conducted at the ICPP on methods of immobilizing the HLW, including developing a durable glass-ceramic form which has the potential to significantly reduce the final waste volume by up to 60% compared to a glass form. Simulated, pilot plant, non-radioactive, calcines similar to the composition of the calcined HLW and glass forming additives are used to produce experimental glass-ceramic forms. The objective of the research reported in this paper is to study the impact of ground calcine particle size on durability and mechanical and thermal properties of experimental glass-ceramic forms

  12. Strontium chloroapatite based glass-ceramics composites for nuclear waste immobilisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jena, Hrudananda; Maji, Binoy Kumar; Asuvathraman, R.; Govindan Kutty, K.V.

    2013-01-01

    Apatites are naturally occurring minerals with a general formula of M 10 (PO 4 ) 6 X 2 , (M= Ca, Sr, Ba, X= OH, Cl, F) with a hexagonal crystal structure (S.G :P6 3 /m) and can accommodate alkaline earth and various other aliovalent cations and anions into its crystal structure. Apatites are also known to have high resistance to leaching of the constituent elements under geological conditions. It may not often be possible to immobilize the whole spectrum of the radioactive waste in a single phase M 10 (PO 4 ) 6 Cl 2 , then a combination of M-chloroapatite encapsulated in borosilicate glass (BSG) can immobilize most of the radwaste elements in the composite glass-ceramic matrix (glass bonded chloroapatite), thus utilizing the immobilizing efficiency of both the ceramic phase and glass. In the present study, the synthesis, characterization and thermo-physical property measurements of the Sr-chloroapatite (SrApCI) and some glass-bonded composites based on it have been investigated. The Sr-chloroapatite glass-ceramics were prepared by solid state reactions among stoichiometric concentrations of apatite forming reagents, 20 wt. % borosilicate glass (BSG), and known concentrations (10, 13 and 16 wt. %) of a simulated waste in chloride form. The products were characterized by XRD to confirm the formation of Sr 10 (PO 4 ) 6 Cl 2 and glass bonded-chloroapatite composites. The surface morphology and qualitative chemical composition of the powders were examined by SEM and EDX. Thermal expansion and glass transition temperature of the matrices were measured by dilatometry. Glass transition temperature of the glass-bonded composites was also examined by differential scanning calorimetry and differential thermal analysis. The 10-16 wt.% waste loaded matrices showed similar thermal expansion as that of SrApCI, indicating the thermal stability of the matrix to chloride waste immobilization. The glass transition temperature of the waste loaded matrices decreases on increasing the

  13. Preliminary Technology Maturation Plan for Immobilization of High-Level Waste in Glass Ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vienna, John D.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Sevigny, Gary J.; Smith, G L.

    2012-09-30

    A technology maturation plan (TMP) was developed for immobilization of high-level waste (HLW) raffinate in a glass ceramics waste form using a cold-crucible induction melter (CCIM). The TMP was prepared by the following process: 1) define the reference process and boundaries of the technology being matured, 2) evaluate the technology elements and identify the critical technology elements (CTE), 3) identify the technology readiness level (TRL) of each of the CTE’s using the DOE G 413.3-4, 4) describe the development and demonstration activities required to advance the TRLs to 4 and 6 in order, and 5) prepare a preliminary plan to conduct the development and demonstration. Results of the technology readiness assessment identified five CTE’s and found relatively low TRL’s for each of them: • Mixing, sampling, and analysis of waste slurry and melter feed: TRL-1 • Feeding, melting, and pouring: TRL-1 • Glass ceramic formulation: TRL-1 • Canister cooling and crystallization: TRL-1 • Canister decontamination: TRL-4 Although the TRL’s are low for most of these CTE’s (TRL-1), the effort required to advance them to higher values. The activities required to advance the TRL’s are listed below: • Complete this TMP • Perform a preliminary engineering study • Characterize, estimate, and simulate waste to be treated • Laboratory scale glass ceramic testing • Melter and off-gas testing with simulants • Test the mixing, sampling, and analyses • Canister testing • Decontamination system testing • Issue a requirements document • Issue a risk management document • Complete preliminary design • Integrated pilot testing • Issue a waste compliance plan A preliminary schedule and budget were developed to complete these activities as summarized in the following table (assuming 2012 dollars). TRL Budget Year MSA FMP GCF CCC CD Overall $M 2012 1 1 1 1 4 1 0.3 2013 2 2 1 1 4 1 1.3 2014 2 3 1 1 4 1 1.8 2015 2 3 2 2 4 2 2.6 2016 2 3 2 2 4 2 4

  14. Radiophase development in hot-pressed alkoxide-derived titanate ceramics for nuclear waste stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, F.J.; Mitamura, H.; White, T.J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports phase development as a function of hot-pressing temperature studied in alkoxide-derived titanate-based ceramics doped with a 10 wt% loading of a sodium-rich (NAR) and a sodium-poor (NAP) simulated high-level waste. Pyrochlore was found to be the most abundant phase in both calcine powders. A pseudobrookite phase existed metastably at hot-pressing temperatures between 890 degrees and 920 degrees C. After hot-pressing at 1100 degrees C, the final phase assemblage for the NAP material consisted of zirconolite, hollandite-type, perovskite, alloy, and reduced rutile (Magneli phases). In addition, NAR samples contained hibonite, freudenbergite, and loveringite. Phase development was driven to completion over a very narrow temperature range (≤50 degrees C), beginning at 870 degrees and 850 degrees C for NAP and NAR, respectively, although full densification was not achieved below 1100 degrees C. Both waste forms exhibited comparable microstructure and aqueous durability

  15. Thermal and Physical Property Determinations for Ionsiv IE-911 Crystalline Silicotitanate and Savannah River Site Waste Simulant Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostick, D.T.; Steele, W.V.

    1999-01-01

    This document describes physical and thermophysical property determinations that were made in order to resolve questions associated with the decontamination of Savannah River Site (SRS) waste streams using ion exchange on crystalline silicotitanate (CST). The research will aid in the understanding of potential issues associated with cooling of feed streams within SRS waste treatment processes. Toward this end, the thermophysical properties of engineered CST, manufactured under the trade name, Ionsivereg s ign IE-911 by UOP, Mobile, AL, were determined. The heating profiles of CST samples from several manufacturers' production runs were observed using differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) measurements. DSC data were obtained over the region of 10 to 215 C to check for the possibility of a phase transition or any other enthalpic event in that temperature region. Finally, the heat capacity, thermal conductivity, density, viscosity, and salting-out point were determined for SRS waste simulants designated as Average, High NO 3 - and High OH - simulants

  16. Rationale for geological isolation of high-level radioactive waste, and assessment of the suitability of crystalline rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smedes, H.W.

    1980-01-01

    This report summarizes the disposal objective to be met and the requisite geotechnical criteria to meet that objective; evaluates our present ability to determine whether certain criteria can be met and to predict whether they will continue to be met; discusses the consequences of failure to meet certain criteria; assesses what is known about how crystalline rocks meet those criteria; lists important gaps in our knowledge that presently preclude final assessment of suitability; and suggests priority research to fill those gaps. The report presents an elaboration of the above-stated behavior and suitability of crystalline rocks, and a rationale of site-selection in support of the recommended prompt and intensive study of granite and other crystalline rocks as potentially highly suitable candidate media for radioactive waste disposal. An overview is presented on what the rocks are, where they are, and what the critical attributes are of various crystalline-rock terranes in the conterminous United States. This is intended to provide a basis to aid in selecting, first regions, and then sites within those regions, as candidate repository sites

  17. Viability of utilization of waste materials from ceramic products in precast concretes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez de Rojas, M. I.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The recycled and re-valuation process of waste materials involves studies lead to a deep acknowledges of them, finding applications for their intended use. The waste materials from ceramic products can be recycled into the construction sector, as arid or pozzolanic materials. The current work deals with the incorporation of ceramic materials in these two different ways, checking the behaviour of the elaborated mortar by mean of laboratory tests. Also, tests are developed in factory, using these as components for precast concrete tiles.

    Todo proceso de reciclado y revalorización de residuos implica estudios encaminados a un conocimiento profundo de los mismos, de forma que se busquen aplicaciones concretas de uso. Los materiales de desecho procedentes de productos cerámicos pueden ser reciclados dentro del sector de la construcción, ya sea como áridos o como materiales puzolánicos. El presente trabajo aborda la incorporación de materiales cerámicos desde estas dos vertientes, comprobando, en cada caso, el comportamiento de los morteros elaborados mediante ensayos de laboratorio. También se llevan a cabo pruebas en fábrica, siendo utilizados como componentes en prefabricados de hormigón.

  18. Glycerin purification using asymmetric nano-structured ceramic membranes from production of waste fish oil biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghami, M.; Sadrameli, S. M.; Shamloo, M.

    2018-02-01

    Biodiesel is an environmental friendly alternative liquid transportation fuel that can be used in diesel engines without major modifications. The scope of this research work is to produce biodiesel from waste fish oil and its purification from the byproducts using a ceramic membrane. Transesterification of waste fish oil was applied for the biodiesel production using methanol in the presence of KOH as a catalyst. Effect of catalyst weight percent, temperature and methanol to oil molar ratio (MR) on the biodiesel yield have been studied and the results show that highest methyl ester yield of 79.2% has been obtained at 60 °C, MR: 6 and 1% KOH. The produced biodiesel purified by a ceramic membrane. Membrane flux and glycerin removal at different operating conditions such as temperature, trans-membrane pressures and cross flow velocities have been measured. Glycerin purity by membrane method is 99.97% by weight at the optimum condition. The highest membrane flux occurred at 50 °C temperature, 1 bar pressure and 3 m/s velocity.

  19. Evaluation of the potential of waste fondant glass in formulations of ceramic pasta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares Filho, J.E.; Santos, L.L. dos; Nascimento, R.M. do; Feitosa, A.O.; Dutra, R.P.S.

    2014-01-01

    An increasing amount of waste generated and deposited on the environment, many unspecified decomposition with time, as is the case of the glass. Thinking about it, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the power of the flux residue on glass formulations porcelains, as a flux to feldspar replacement. This study was performed in comparison with a standard formulation. The raw materials were characterized in the diffraction X-ray fluorescence and X-ray thermal differential analysis, and determination of the technological properties of water absorption, linear contraction, ignition loss, apparent porosity and apparent specific gravity in the formulation standard and replacement of feldspar in different percentages of waste and processing conditions. Specimens of the formulations were subjected to assay of three points. Results indicate that the residue glass has the potential of being used as a flux material in the composition of the ceramic body reduces the apparent porosity and according to the technology of water absorption property. The ceramic mass standard was classified as semi-stoneware, the BIIa group, and after the addition of the residue in any of the three percentages evaluated was classified as sandstone, belonging to the group BIb.(author)

  20. Investigation of metallic, ceramic, and polymeric materials for engineered barrier applications in nuclear-waste packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westerman, R.E.

    1980-10-01

    An effort to develop licensable engineered barrier systems for the long-term (about 1000 yr) containment of nuclear wastes under conditions of deep continental geologic disposal has been underway at Pacific Northwest Laboratory since January 1979, under the auspices of the High-Level Waste Immobilization Program. In the present work, the barrier system comprises the hard or structural elements of the package: the canister, the overpack(s), and the hole sleeve. A number of candidate metallic, ceramic, and polymeric materials were put through mechanical, corrosion, and leaching screening tests to determine their potential usefulness in barrier-system applications. Materials demonstrating adequate properties in the screening tests will be subjected to more detailed property tests, and, eventually, cost/benefit analyses, to determine their ultimate applicability to barrier-system design concepts. The following materials were investigated: two titanium alloys of Grade 2 and Grade 12; 300 and 400 series stainless steels, Inconels, Hastelloy C-276, titanium, Zircoloy, copper-nickel alloys and cast irons; total of 14 ceramic materials, including two grades of alumina, plus graphite and basalt; and polymers such as polyamide-imide, polyarylene, polyimide, polyolefin, polyphenylene sulfide, polysulfone, fluoropolymer, epoxy, furan, silicone, and ethylene-propylene terpolymer (EPDM) rubber. The most promising candidates for further study and potential use in engineered barrier systems were found to be rubber, filled polyphenylene sulfide, fluoropolymer, and furan derivatives

  1. An integrated approach to isotopic study of crystalline rock for a high-level waste repository: Area phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, L.A.

    1986-01-01

    An integrated approach to assessing isotopic systems in crystalline rock is planned for area phase studies. This approach combines radiogenic isotope systems with petrography in order to characterize potential crystalline repository media. The coeval use of selected isotope systems will minimize the limitations of each method and provide intensive parameters yielding data on alteration timing, secondary mineral formation, temperature history, and radionuclide species migration. Isotope systems will be selected in order to measure differences in sensitivity to thermal disturbances and mobility due to fluid interaction. Comparative evaluation of isotope pair behavior may be used in combination with mineral versus whole-rock dates to provide data on heating and mobilization of alkali elements, lanthanides, and gases, caused by future introduction of waste

  2. Study of the behavior of the consistency rates of a clay with the incorporation of waste of burned ceramic blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Orley Magalhaes de; Crivelari, Rubem Mateus; Munhoz Junior, Antonio Hortencio; Silva-Valenzuela, Maria das Gracas da; Valenzuela-Diaz, Francisco Rolando

    2016-01-01

    One of the important parts in the process of manufacturing a structural ceramic product is its conformation. The clay which is the basis for these products need to have an appropriate plasticity. In Ceramics Industries that produce ceramic blocks and tiles plasticity clay and a key property for this production. This Industries are a lot of pieces that do not pass the quality control for not having a uniform visual appearance or have small cracks, these lots are usually discarded, which leads to material waste and produces a lot of waste. The objective of this work is the study of the behavior of consistency indexes, plastic limit (LP); the liquid limit (LL) and plasticity index (PI) of a clay from Vitoria da Conquista, Bahia, with the addition of several waste percentages of burnt and ground ceramic blocks. Our results demonstrate that the addition of the reject only affect the plasticity of clay from an increase of over 100%, which makes possible its incorporation in ceramic paste. (author)

  3. Host Rock Classification (HRC) system for nuclear waste disposal in crystalline bedrock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagros, A.

    2006-01-01

    A new rock mass classification scheme, the Host Rock Classification system (HRC-system) has been developed for evaluating the suitability of volumes of rock mass for the disposal of high-level nuclear waste in Precambrian crystalline bedrock. To support the development of the system, the requirements of host rock to be used for disposal have been studied in detail and the significance of the various rock mass properties have been examined. The HRC-system considers both the long-term safety of the repository and the constructability in the rock mass. The system is specific to the KBS-3V disposal concept and can be used only at sites that have been evaluated to be suitable at the site scale. By using the HRC-system, it is possible to identify potentially suitable volumes within the site at several different scales (repository, tunnel and canister scales). The selection of the classification parameters to be included in the HRC-system is based on an extensive study on the rock mass properties and their various influences on the long-term safety, the constructability and the layout and location of the repository. The parameters proposed for the classification at the repository scale include fracture zones, strength/stress ratio, hydraulic conductivity and the Groundwater Chemistry Index. The parameters proposed for the classification at the tunnel scale include hydraulic conductivity, Q' and fracture zones and the parameters proposed for the classification at the canister scale include hydraulic conductivity, Q', fracture zones, fracture width (aperture + filling) and fracture trace length. The parameter values will be used to determine the suitability classes for the volumes of rock to be classified. The HRC-system includes four suitability classes at the repository and tunnel scales and three suitability classes at the canister scale and the classification process is linked to several important decisions regarding the location and acceptability of many components of

  4. Novel room-temperature-setting phosphate ceramics for stabilizing combustion products and low-level mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagh, A.S.; Singh, D.

    1994-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory, with support from the Office of Technology in the US Department of Energy (DOE), has developed a new process employing novel, chemically bonded ceramic materials to stabilize secondary waste streams. Such waste streams result from the thermal processes used to stabilize low-level, mixed wastes. The process will help the electric power industry treat its combustion and low-level mixed wastes. The ceramic materials are strong, dense, leach-resistant, and inexpensive to fabricate. The room-temperature-setting process allows stabilization of volatile components containing lead, mercury, cadmium, chromium, and nickel. The process also provides effective stabilization of fossil fuel combustion products. It is most suitable for treating fly and bottom ashes

  5. Production of highly porous glass-ceramics from metallurgical slag, fly ash and waste glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangutova Bianka V.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Glass-ceramics composites were produced based on fly-ash obtained from coal power stations, metallurgical slag from ferronickel industry and waste glass from TV monitors, windows and flasks. Using 50% waste flask glass in combination with fly ash and 20% waste glass from TV screens in combination with slag, E-modulus and bending strength values of the designed systems are increased (system based on fly ash: E-modulus from 6 to 29 GPa, and bending strength from 9 to 75 MPa. The polyurethane foam was used as a pore creator which gave the material porosity of 70(5% (fly ash-glass composite and a porosity of 65( 5% (slag-glass composite. E-modulus values of the designed porous systems were 3.5(1.2 GPa and 8.1(3 GPa, while the bending strength values were 6.0(2 MPa and 13.2(3.5 MPa, respectively. These materials could be used for the production of tiles, wall bricks, as well as for the construction of air diffusers for waste water aeration.

  6. Disposition of excess plutonium using ''off-spec'' MOX pellets as a sintered ceramic waste form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armantrout, G.A.; Jardine, L.J.

    1996-02-01

    The authors describe a potential strategy for the disposition of excess weapons plutonium in a way that minimizes (1) technological risks, (2) implementation costs and completion schedules, and (3) requirements for constructing and operating new or duplicative Pu disposition facilities. This is accomplished by an optimized combination of (1) using existing nuclear power reactors to ''burn'' relatively pure excess Pu inventories as mixed oxide (MOX) fuel and (2) using the same MOX fuel fabrication facilities to fabricate contaminated or impure excess Pu inventories into an ''off-spec'' MOX solid ceramic waste form for geologic disposition. Diversion protection for the SCWF to meet the ''spent fuel standard'' introduced by the National Academy of Sciences can be achieved in at least three ways. (1) One can utilize the radiation field from defense high-level nuclear waste by first packaging the SCWF pellets in 2- to 4-L cans that are subsequently encapsulated in radioactive glass in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) glass canisters (a ''can-in-canister'' approach). (2) One can add 137 Cs (recovered from defense wastes at Hanford and currently stored as CsCl in capsules) to an encapsulating matrix such as cement for the SCWF pellets in a small hot-cell facility and thus fabricate large monolithic forms. (3) The SCWF can be fabricated into reactor fuel-like pellets and placed in tubes similar to fuel assemblies, which can then be mixed in sealed repository containers with irradiated spent nuclear fuel for geologic disposition

  7. Validation of new ceramic materials from tungsten mining wastes. Mechanical properties; Validacion de nuevos materiales ceramicos a partir de rocas de desecho de mineria. Propiedades mecanicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran Suarez, J. A.; Montoya Herrera, J.; Silva, A. P.; Peralbo Cano, R.; Castro-Gomes, J. P.

    2014-07-01

    New ceramic materials obtained from tungsten mining wastes, from region of Beira Interior in Portugal, with no commercial use, responsible for landscape and environmental problems are presented. These preshaped new ceramic products, prepared in a wide thermal range (800 degree centigrade to 1300 degree centigrade) was evaluated by mechanical test, but also was characterized the starting raw materials: tungsten wastes mining and industrial kaolin. Results, which also include a mineralogical characterization of ceramic products and morphologic evaluation of neoformed by scanning electron microscopy, show firstly, the feasibility of converting a large number of these wastes in marketable ceramics. Thanks to the experimentation carried out, the ability to generate ceramic materials is emphasized, without the presence of mineral clay, due to the particular composition of these waste of mining with content of acid, neutral and basic oxides. (Author)

  8. USING CENTER HOLE HEAT TRANSFER TO REDUCE FORMATION TIMES FOR CERAMIC WASTE FORMS FROM PYROPROCESSING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenneth J. Bateman; Charles W. Solbrig

    2006-01-01

    The waste produced from processing spent fuel from the EBR II reactor must be processed into a waste form suitable for long term storage in Yucca Mountain. The method chosen produces zeolite granules mixed with glass frit, which must then be converted into a solid. This is accomplished by loading it into a can and heating to 900 C in a furnace regulated at 915 C. During heatup to 900 C, the zeolite and glass frit react and consolidate to produce a sodalite monolith. The resultant ceramic waste form (CWF) is then cooled. The waste is 52 cm in diameter and initially 300 cm long but consolidates to 150 cm long during the heating process. After cooling it is then inserted in a 5-DHLW/DOE SNF Long Canister. Without intervention, the waste takes 82 hours to heat up to 900 C in a furnace designed to geometrically fit the cylindrical waste form. This paper investigates the reduction in heating times possible with four different methods of additional heating through a center hole. The hole size is kept small to maximize the amount of CWF that is processed in a single run. A hole radius of 1.82 cm was selected which removes only 1% of the CWF. A reference computation was done with a specified inner hole surface temperature of 915 C to provide a benchmark for the amount of improvement which can be made. It showed that the heatup time can potentially be reduced to 43 hours with center hole heating. The first method, simply pouring high temperature liquid aluminum into the hole, did not produce any noticeable effect on reducing heat up times. The second method, flowing liquid aluminum through the hole, works well as long as the velocity is high enough (2.5 cm/sec) to prevent solidification of the aluminum during the initial front movement of the aluminum into the center hole. The velocity can be reduced to 1 cm/sec after the initial front has traversed the ceramic. This procedure reduces the formation time to near that of the reference case. The third method, flowing a gas

  9. A review and synthesis of international proposals for the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes into crystalline rock formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-05-01

    Examination of the broad range of international concepts for the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes into crystalline rock formations has indicated that systems based upon solid waste units provide the greatest degree of engineering control and security. Three particular disposal concepts are considered worthy of detailed evaluation. In order of priority these are:-tunnel networks with 'in-floor' waste emplacement; matrix of vertical emplacement holes drilled from the surface; tunnel networks with 'in-room' waste emplacement. A review of the international literature has shown that at least ten countries have embarked upon study programmes, but only five have developed detailed conceptual design proposals. These are:- Canada, France, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Differing economic, environmental, historical and political circumstances have influenced the pattern of international studies and, to the uninitiated, these factors may obscure some of the relevant technical considerations. Nevertheless, a broad technical concensus is apparent in that all countries currently favour tunnel networks with 'in-floor' waste emplacement. The subject is discussed in detail. (author)

  10. Assessment of processes, facilities, and costs for alternative solid forms for immobilization of SRP defense waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunson, J.B. Jr.; Eisenberg, A.M.; Schuyler, R.L. III; Haight, H.G. Jr.; Mello, V.E.; Gould, T.H. Jr.; Butler, J.L.; Pickett, J.B.

    1982-03-01

    A quantitative merit evaluation which assesses the relative difficulty of remote processing of Savannah River Plant high-level wastes for seven alternative waste forms is presented. The reference borosilicate glass process is rated as the simplest, followed by FUETAP concrete. The other processes evaluated in order of increasing complexity were: glass marbles in a lead matrix, high-silica glass, crystalline ceramic (Synroc-D and tailored ceramic), and coated ceramic particles. Cost appraisals are summarized for the borosilicate glass, high-silica glass, and ceramic waste form processing facilities

  11. National survey of crystalline rocks and recommendations of regions to be explored for high-level radioactive waste repository sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smedes, H.W.

    1983-04-01

    A reconnaissance of the geological literature on large regions of exposed crystalline rocks in the United States provides the basis for evaluating if any of those regions warrant further exploration toward identifying potential sites for development of a high-level radioactive waste repository. The reconnaissance does not serve as a detailed evaluation of regions or of any smaller subunits within the regions. Site performance criteria were selected and applied insofar as a national data base exists, and guidelines were adopted that relate the data to those criteria. The criteria include consideration of size, vertical movements, faulting, earthquakes, seismically induced ground motion, Quaternary volcanic rocks, mineral deposits, high-temperature convective ground-water systems, hydraulic gradients, and erosion. Brief summaries of each major region of exposed crystalline rock, and national maps of relevant data provided the means for applying the guidelines and for recommending regions for further study. It is concluded that there is a reasonable likelihood that geologically suitable repository sites exist in each of the major regions of crystalline rocks. The recommendation is made that further studies first be conducted of the Lake Superior, Northern Appalachian and Adirondack, and the Southern Appalachian Regions. It is believed that those regions could be explored more effectively and suitable sites probably could be found, characterized, verified, and licensed more readily there than in the other regions

  12. National survey of crystalline rocks and recommendations of regions to be explored for high-level radioactive waste repository sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smedes, H.W.

    1983-04-01

    A reconnaissance of the geological literature on large regions of exposed crystalline rocks in the United States provides the basis for evaluating if any of those regions warrant further exploration toward identifying potential sites for development of a high-level radioactive waste repository. The reconnaissance does not serve as a detailed evaluation of regions or of any smaller subunits within the regions. Site performance criteria were selected and applied insofar as a national data base exists, and guidelines were adopted that relate the data to those criteria. The criteria include consideration of size, vertical movements, faulting, earthquakes, seismically induced ground motion, Quaternary volcanic rocks, mineral deposits, high-temperature convective ground-water systems, hydraulic gradients, and erosion. Brief summaries of each major region of exposed crystalline rock, and national maps of relevant data provided the means for applying the guidelines and for recommending regions for further study. It is concluded that there is a reasonable likelihood that geologically suitable repository sites exist in each of the major regions of crystalline rocks. The recommendation is made that further studies first be conducted of the Lake Superior, Northern Appalachian and Adirondack, and the Southern Appalachian Regions. It is believed that those regions could be explored more effectively and suitable sites probably could be found, characterized, verified, and licensed more readily there than in the other regions.

  13. Radiation effects in glass and glass-ceramic waste forms for the immobilization of CANDU UO{sub 2} fuel reprocessing waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tait, J C

    1993-05-01

    AECL has investigated three waste forms for the immobilization of high-level liquid wastes that would arise if used CANDU fuels were reprocessed at some time in the future to remove fissile materials for the fabrication of new power reactor fuel. These waste forms are borosilicate glasses, aluminosilicate glasses and titanosilicate glass-ceramics. This report discusses the potential effects of alpha, beta and gamma radiation on the releases of radionuclides from these waste forms as a result of aqueous corrosion by groundwaters that would be present in an underground waste disposal vault. The report discusses solid-state damage caused by radiation-induced atomic displacements in the waste forms as well as irradiation of groundwater solutions (radiolysis), and their potential effects on waste-form corrosion and radionuclide release. The current literature on radiation effects on borosilicate glasses and in ceramics is briefly reviewed, as are potential radiation effects on specialized waste forms for the immobilization of {sup 129}I, {sup 85}Kr and {sup 14}C. (author). 104 refs., 9 tabs., 5 figs.

  14. Site-specific evaluation of safety issues for high-level waste disposal in crystalline rocks. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jobmann, M. (ed.) [DBE Technology GmbH, Peine (Germany)

    2016-03-31

    In the past, German research and development (R and D) activities regarding the disposal of radioactive waste, including spent nuclear fuel, focused mainly on domal rock salt because rock salt was the preferred host rock formation. In addition, generic R and D work regarding alternative host rocks (crystalline rocks and claystones) had been performed as well for a long time but with lower intensity. Around the year 2000, as a consequence of the moratorium on the Gorleben site, the Federal Government decided to have argillaceous rocks and crystalline rocks investigated in more detail. As Germany does not have any underground research and host rock characterization facilities, international cooperation received a high priority in the German R and D programme for high-level waste (HLW) disposal in order to increase the knowledge regarding alternative host rocks. Major cornerstones of the cooperation are joint projects and experiments conducted especially in underground research laboratories (URL) in crystalline rocks at the Grimsel Test Site (Switzerland) and the Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) Aespoe(Sweden) and in argillaceous rocks at the URL Mont Terri (Switzerland) and Bure (France). In 2001, the topic of radioactive waste disposal was integrated into the agreement between the former Russian Ministry of Atomic Energy (Minatom, now Rosatom) and the German Ministry of Labor (BMWA), now Ministry of Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi), on cooperation regarding R and D on the peaceful utilization of nuclear power (agreement on ''Wirtschaftlich-Technische Zusammenarbeit'' WTZ). The intention was to have a new and interesting opportunity for international R and D cooperation regarding HLW disposal in crystalline rocks and the unique possibility to perform site-specific work, to test the safety demonstration tools available, and to expand the knowledge to all aspects specific to these host rocks. Another motivation for joining this cooperation was the

  15. Electronic and structural properties of micro-and nanometre-sized crystalline copper monoxide ceramics investigated by positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Druzhkov, A.P.; Gizhevskii, B.A.; Arbuzov, V.L.; Shalnov, K.V.; Naumov, S.V.; Perminov, D.A.; Kozlov, E.A.

    2002-01-01

    Electronic and structural properties of copper monoxide (CuO) sintered as a common ceramic and nanoceramic are studied by positron annihilation spectroscopy. A CuO nanoceramic with crystallite size ranging from 15 to 90 nm was prepared from a common one by shock-wave loading. It is found that the momentum distribution of valence electrons in CuO is shifted, as compared with metallic copper, towards higher momentum values. This result is related to the effect of the Cu 3d-O 2p hybridization in the Cu-O ionic covalent bond formation. It is found that open volumes, identified mainly as small agglomerates of oxygen vacancies, appear at the nanoceramic crystallite interfaces. The degree of the Cu-O bond covalency decreases locally at the crystallite interfaces because of an oxygen deficit. The nanocrystalline state in CuO is shown to be thermally stable up to 700 K. (author)

  16. Electronic and structural properties of micro-and nanometre-sized crystalline copper monoxide ceramics investigated by positron annihilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druzhkov, A.P. [Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Branch Russian Academy of Sciences, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: druzhkov@imp.uran.ru; Gizhevskii, B.A.; Arbuzov, V.L.; Shalnov, K.V.; Naumov, S.V.; Perminov, D.A. [Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Branch Russian Academy of Sciences, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Kozlov, E.A. [All-Russian R and D Institute of Technical Physics, Snezhinsk (Russian Federation)

    2002-09-02

    Electronic and structural properties of copper monoxide (CuO) sintered as a common ceramic and nanoceramic are studied by positron annihilation spectroscopy. A CuO nanoceramic with crystallite size ranging from 15 to 90 nm was prepared from a common one by shock-wave loading. It is found that the momentum distribution of valence electrons in CuO is shifted, as compared with metallic copper, towards higher momentum values. This result is related to the effect of the Cu 3d-O 2p hybridization in the Cu-O ionic covalent bond formation. It is found that open volumes, identified mainly as small agglomerates of oxygen vacancies, appear at the nanoceramic crystallite interfaces. The degree of the Cu-O bond covalency decreases locally at the crystallite interfaces because of an oxygen deficit. The nanocrystalline state in CuO is shown to be thermally stable up to 700 K. (author)

  17. Predictability of the evolution of hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical systems; geological disposal of nuclear waste in crystalline rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, W.M.; Diodato, D.M.

    2009-01-01

    Confidence in long-term geologic isolation of high-level nuclear waste and spent nuclear fuel requires confidence in predictions of the evolution of hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical systems. Prediction of the evolution of hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical systems is based on scientific understanding of those systems in the present - an understanding that can be tested with data from the past. Crystalline rock settings that have been geologically stable for millions of years and longer offer the potential of predictable, long-term waste isolation. Confidence in predictions of geologic isolation of radioactive waste can measured by evaluating the extent to which those predictions and their underlying analyses are consistent with multiple independent lines of evidence identified in the geologic system being analysed, as well as with evidence identified in analogs to that geologic system. The proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, United States, differs in significant ways from potential repository sites being considered by other nations. Nonetheless, observations of hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical systems of Yucca Mountain and Yucca Mountain analogs present multiple independent lines of evidence that can be used in evaluating long-term predictions of the evolution of hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical systems at Yucca Mountain. (authors)

  18. MASBAL: A computer program for predicting the composition of nuclear waste glass produced by a slurry-fed ceramic melter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimus, P.W.

    1987-07-01

    This report is a user's manual for the MASBAL computer program. MASBAL's objectives are to predict the composition of nuclear waste glass produced by a slurry-fed ceramic melter based on a knowledge of process conditions; to generate simulated data that can be used to estimate the uncertainty in the predicted glass composition as a function of process uncertainties; and to generate simulated data that can be used to provide a measure of the inherent variability in the glass composition as a function of the inherent variability in the feed composition. These three capabilities are important to nuclear waste glass producers because there are constraints on the range of compositions that can be processed in a ceramic melter and on the range of compositions that will be acceptable for disposal in a geologic repository. MASBAL was developed specifically to simulate the operation of the West Valley Component Test system, a commercial-scale ceramic melter system that will process high-level nuclear wastes currently stored in underground tanks at the site of the Western New York Nuclear Services Center (near West Valley, New York). The program is flexible enough, however, to simulate any slurry-fed ceramic melter system. 4 refs., 16 figs., 5 tabs

  19. Experimental studies on the possibility of using a ceramic matrix for fixing the high level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husain, S.R.; Rudolph, G.; Hild, W.

    1975-06-01

    A ceramic product has been developed to fix high level radioactive wastes for storage and final disposal. In the present experiments some of the properties, e.g. visual change, change in size or shape, change in weight, change in structure, density and leachability, are studied for the long term stability of the product under heat and radiation treatment. The properties are not severely affected by radiation or by heat treatment. The leaching property is slightly affected due to heating. From the results it appears that the heating has a dominant effect over the radiation on the properties of the ceramic product. (orig.) [de

  20. Geotechnical assessment and instrumentation needs for nuclear waste isolation in crystalline and argillaceous rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    To evaluate the state-of-the-art, research needs, and research priorities related to waste disposal in largely impermeable rocks, scientists and engineers working on geologic aspects of nuclear waste disposal were brought together. This report and recommendations are the proceedings from that symposium. Three panels were organized on rock properties, fracture hydrology, and geochemistry. Panel discussions and recommendations are presented

  1. Effect of different glass and zeolite A compositions on the leach resistance of ceramic waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, M.A.; Hash, M.; Glandorf, D.

    1996-01-01

    A ceramic waste form is being developed for waste generated during electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel. The waste is generated when fission products are removed from the electrolyte, LiCl-KCl eutectic. The waste form is a composite fabricated by hot isostatic pressing a mixture of glass frit and zeolite occluded with fission products and salt. Normalized release rate is less than 1 g/m 2 d for all elements in MCC-1 leach test run for 28 days in deionized water at 90 C. This leach resistance is comparable to that of early Savannah River glasses. We are investigating how leach resistance is affected by changes in cationic form of zeolite and in glass composition. Composites were made with 3 forms of zeolite A and 6 glasses. We used 3-day ASTM C1220-92 (formerly MCC-1) leach tests to screen samples for development purposes only. The leach test results show that the glass composites of zeolites 5A and 4A retain fission products equally well. Loss of Cs is small (0.1-0.5 wt%), while the loss of divalent and trivalent fission products is one or more orders of magnitude smaller. Composites of 5A retain chloride ion better in these short-term screens than 4A and 3A. The more leach resistant composites were made with durable glasses rich in silica and poor in alkaline earth oxides. XRD show that a salt phase was absent in the leach resistant composites of 5A and the better glasses but was present in the other composites with poorer leach performance. Thus, absence of salt phase corresponds to improved leach resistance. Interactions between zeolite and glass depend on composition of both

  2. Cerium, uranium, and plutonium behavior in glass-bonded sodalite, a ceramic nuclear waste form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, M. A.; Lexa, D.; Morss, L. R.; Richmann, M. K.

    1999-01-01

    Glass-bonded sodalite is being developed as a ceramic waste form (CWF) to immobilize radioactive fission products, actinides, and salt residues from electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear reactor fuel. The CWF consists of about 75 mass % sodalite, 25 mass % glass, and small amounts of other phases. This paper presents some results and interpretation of physical measurements to characterize the CWF structure, and dissolution tests to measure the release of matrix components and radionuclides from the waste form. Tests have been carried out with specimens of the CWF that contain rare earths at concentrations similar to those expected in the waste form. Parallel tests have been carried out on specimens that have uranium or plutonium as well as the rare earths at concentrations similar to those expected in the waste forms; in these specimens UCl 3 forms UO 2 and PuCl 3 forms PuO 2 . The normalized releases of rare earths in dissolution tests were found to be much lower than those of matrix elements (B, Si, Al, Na). When there is no uranium in the CWF, the release of cerium is two to ten times lower than the release of the other rare earths. The low release of cerium may be due to its tetravalent state in uranium-free CWF. However, when there is uranium in the CWF, the release of cerium is similar to that of the other rare earths. This trivalent behavior of cerium is attributed to charge transfer or covalent interactions among cerium, uranium, and oxygen in (U,Ce)O 2

  3. Homogenized electromechanical properties of crystalline and ceramic relaxor ferroelectric 0.58Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 0.42PbTiO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayachandran, K. P.; Guedes, J. M.; Rodrigues, H. C.

    2007-10-01

    A modelling framework that incorporates the peculiarities of microstructural features, such as the spatial correlation of crystallographic orientations and morphological texture in piezoelectrics, is established. The mathematical homogenization theory of a piezoelectric medium is implemented using the finite element method by solving the coupled equilibrium electrical and mechanical fields. The dependence of the domain orientation on the macroscopic electromechanical properties of crystalline as well as polycrystalline ceramic relaxor ferroelectric 0.58Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.42PbTiO3 (PMN-42% PT) is studied based on this model. The material shows large anisotropy in the piezoelectric coefficient ejK in its crystalline form. The homogenized electromechanical moduli of polycrystalline ceramic also exhibit significantly anisotropic behaviours. An optimum texture at which the piezoceramic exhibits its maximum longitudinal piezoelectric response is identified.

  4. Structure and short time degradation studies of sodium zirconium phosphate ceramics loaded with simulated fast breeder (FBR) waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ananthanarayanan, A., E-mail: arvinda@barc.gov.in [Process Development Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Ambashta, R.D., E-mail: aritu@barc.gov.in [Process Development Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Sudarsan, V. [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Ajithkumar, T. [Applied Catalysis Unit, National Chemical Laboratory, Pune 411008 (India); Sen, D.; Mazumder, S. [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Wattal, P.K. [Process Development Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2017-04-15

    Sodium zirconium phosphate (NZP) ceramics have been prepared using conventional sintering and hot isostatic pressing (HIP) routes. The structure of NZP ceramics, prepared using the HIP route, has been compared with conventionally sintered NZP using a combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and ({sup 31}P and {sup 23}Na) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy techniques. It is observed that NZP with no waste loading is aggressive toward the steel HIP-can during hot isostatic compaction and significant fraction of cations from the steel enter the ceramic material. Waste loaded NZP samples (10 wt% simulated FBR waste) show significantly low can-interaction and primary NZP phase is evident in this material. Upon exposure of can-interacted and waste loaded NZP to boiling water and steam, {sup 31}P NMR does not detect any major modifications in the network structure. However, the {sup 23}Na NMR spectra indicate migration of Na{sup +} ions from the surface and possible re-crystallization. This is corroborated by Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) data and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) measurements carried out on these samples.

  5. Cordierite containing ceramic membranes from smectetic clay using natural organic wastes as pore-forming agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Misrar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cordierite ceramic membranes were manufactured from natural clay, oxides and organic wastes as pore forming agents. Mixtures aforementioned materials with the pore-forming agents (up to 10 wt.% were investigated in the range 1000–1200 °C using thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, mercury porosimetry and filtration tests. Physical properties (density, water absorption and bending strength were correlated to the processing factors (pore-forming agent addition, firing temperature and soaking time. The results showed that cordierite together with spinel, diopside and clinoenstatite neoformed. SEM analysis revealed heterogeneous aspects. The results of the response surface methodology showed that the variations of physical properties versus processing parameters were well described by the used polynomial model. The addition of pore forming agent and temperature were the most influential factors. Filtration tests were performed on the best performing sample. The results allowed to testify that these membranes could be used in waste water treatment.

  6. High-Performance Flexible Single-Crystalline Silicon Nanomembrane Thin-Film Transistors with High- k Nb2O5-Bi2O3-MgO Ceramics as Gate Dielectric on a Plastic Substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Guoxuan; Zhang, Yibo; Lan, Kuibo; Li, Lingxia; Ma, Jianguo; Yu, Shihui

    2018-04-18

    A novel method of fabricating flexible thin-film transistor based on single-crystalline Si nanomembrane (SiNM) with high- k Nb 2 O 5 -Bi 2 O 3 -MgO (BMN) ceramic gate dielectric on a plastic substrate is demonstrated in this paper. SiNMs are successfully transferred to a flexible polyethylene terephthalate substrate, which has been plated with indium-tin-oxide (ITO) conductive layer and high- k BMN ceramic gate dielectric layer by room-temperature magnetron sputtering. The BMN ceramic gate dielectric layer demonstrates as high as ∼109 dielectric constant, with only dozens of pA current leakage. The Si-BMN-ITO heterostructure has only ∼nA leakage current at the applied voltage of 3 V. The transistor is shown to work at a high current on/off ratio of above 10 4 , and the threshold voltage is ∼1.3 V, with over 200 cm 2 /(V s) effective channel electron mobility. Bending tests have been conducted and show that the flexible transistors have good tolerance on mechanical bending strains. These characteristics indicate that the flexible single-crystalline SiNM transistors with BMN ceramics as gate dielectric have great potential for applications in high-performance integrated flexible circuit.

  7. Production of nano-crystalline zirconia powders and fabrication of high strength ultra-fine-grained ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajendran, S.

    1993-01-01

    Hydrous zirconia containing 2 and 2.5 mol% Y 2 O 3 was prepared by a hydroxide co-precipitation method and portions were dispersed in ethanol before drying(P2), milled in ethanol after drying (P3) or after calcination at 550 deg C (P4) or milled in iso-propanal after calcination at 1000 deg C (P5). The crystallisation behaviour and sintering characteristics of the materials were investigated. The calcined as dried powder (P1) has strongly bonded hard aggregates and the material reached a density of only about 80% of theoretical after sintering at 1500 deg C. Powder characteristics and the sinterability of the alcohol treated materials depended on the conditions of processing and heat treatment. The sinter-activity of the powders decreased from P2 to P5. Powder P3 was composed of relatively weakly bonded crystallites and could be sintered at 1400 deg C, while the powders P4 and P5 contained hard agglomerates and required a sintering temperature of 1450 and 1550 deg C respectively to achieve similar density. Powder (P2) had zirconium alkoxide species on the particle surface which decomposed at about 300 deg C. The calcined powder had very weak agglomerates composed of fine, uniform zirconia crystals and/or aggregates and sintered to high density at 1150 deg C. The final ceramic had a very uniform microstructure with an average grain size of about 150nm and exhibited fracture strength as high as 1700 MPa. A detailed account of the formation of aggregates of strongly bonded crystallites during calcination of hydrous zirconia, influence of alcohol in producing soft agglomerates and the sintering characteristics of the powders is reported. 46 refs., 2 tabs., 15 figs

  8. Effects of using kaolin waste and granite waste as raw materials for the production of low-water absorption ceramic tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freires, H.P.; Argonz, R.; Nogueira, R.E.F.Q.; Sasaki, J.M.; Sales, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the potential of co-use of granite waste (Rain Forest) and kaolin waste as raw material for the manufacture of ceramic coating of low water absorption. Raw materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction. Kaolin residue was added to the residue of granite in the following proportions (in wt%): 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50%. Specimens were fabricated by uniaxial pressing and fired at 1175,1200 and 1225 deg C. Studies of firing linear shrinkage, water absorption, apparent porosity, apparent density and tensile bending test (or rupture modulus) were conducted. The temperature of 1225 deg C allowed the use of a mixture of 50% granite residue and 50% kaolin residue. Ceramic parts made from that mixture exhibited the maximum values required by the Brazilian Standard NBR 13818 for water absorption, shrinkage and density. (author)

  9. Moisture expansion of ceramic tiles produced using kaolin and granite wastes; Expansao por umidade de revestimentos ceramicos incorporados com residuos de granito e caulim

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendonca, A.M.G.D.; Cartaxo, J.M.; Santana, L.N.L; Neves, G.A.; Ferreira, H.C., E-mail: ana.duartemendonca@gmail.com, E-mail: gelmires@dema.ufcg.edu.br, E-mail: lisiane@dema.ufcg.edu.br [Unidade Academica de Engenharia de Materiais, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande,Campina Grande, PB (Brazil); Menezes, R.R. [Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais, Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2012-04-15

    Moisture expansion (ME) is the term used to describe the expansion of ceramic materials due to the adsorption of water. ME usually occurs slowly and is relatively small, but, it can damage the ceramic tiles adhesion to the underlayment, craze the glaze and lead to the development of cracks on ceramics bricks. In this work kaolin and granite wastes were incorporated in ceramic compositions aiming study their influence on the ME of ceramic tiles. Raw materials were processed and submitted to characterization: physical and mineralogical by laser diffraction particle size analysis, chemical analysis, thermo differential and thermogravimetric analysis and X-ray diffraction. Results showed that kaolin and granite wastes can be incorporated in ceramic composition because display characteristics similar to conventional not plastic ceramic materials, providing satisfactory ME results when compared to the ME limit value of 0.6 mm/m (0.06%) indicated by the ABNT for ceramic tiles. Compositions containing up to 20% of waste can be produced when firing above 1000 deg C. (author)

  10. Development of abrasion resistant glass-ceramics from industrial waste products. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    von Roode, M.

    1983-05-26

    Slag-ceramics were produced from glass compositions using pelletized slag as the major ingredient. The abrasion resistance, fracture toughness and microstructure of the prepared glass and glass-ceramics were evaluated. Glas-ceramics with good abrasion resistance were obtained when iron oxide in conjunction with carbon was used as a nucleating agent. 5 figs., 11 tabs.

  11. Leaching behaviour of a glassy slag and derived glass-ceramics from arc-plasma vitrification of hospital wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Romero, Maximina; Hernández, M. S.; Rincón López, Jesús María

    2009-01-01

    The arc-plasma vitrification of a hospital wastes containing metals and inorganic oxides yields to a leach-resistant glassy or vitreous slag, which can be environmentally safe for landfill disposal or could be transformed in glass-ceramic tiles with physical and mechanical properties similar to those showed by marketable products for building applications. Standard methods have been used for testing the leachability of elements from this new type of tiles. The water resistance was evaluated b...

  12. Thermodynamic and Microstructural Mechanisms in the Corrosion of Advanced Ceramic Tc-bearing Waste Forms and Thermophysical Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, Thomas [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2017-09-01

    Technetium-99 (Tc, t1/2 = 2.13x105 years) is a challenge from a nuclear waste perspective and is one of the most abundant, long-lived radioisotopes found in used nuclear fuel (UNF). Within the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant, technetium volatilizes at typical glass melting temperature, is captured in the off-gas treatment system and recycled back into the feed to eventually increase Tc-loadings of the glass. The aim of this NEUP project was to provide an alternative strategy to immobilize fission technetium as durable ceramic waste form and also to avoid the accumulation of volatile technetium within the off gas melter system in the course of vitrifying radioactive effluents in a ceramic melter. During this project our major attention was turned to the fabrication of chemical durable mineral phases where technetium is structurally bond entirely as tetravalent cation. These mineral phases will act as the primary waste form with optimal waste loading and superior resistance against leaching and corrosion. We have been very successful in fabricating phase-pure micro-gram amounts of lanthanide-technetium pyrochlores by dry-chemical synthesis. However, upscaling to a gram-size synthesis route using either dry- or wet-chemical processing was not always successful, but progress can be reported on a variety of aspects. During the course of this 5-year NEUP project (including a 2-year no-cost extension) we have significantly enhanced the existing knowledge on the fabrication and properties of ceramic technetium waste forms.

  13. Porous ceramics achievement by soybean and corn agricultural waste insertion; Obtencao de ceramicas porosas pela insercao de residuos agricolas de soja e milho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdameri, C.Z.; Ank, A., E-mail: cledison@unipar.br [Universidade Paranaense (UNIPAR), Francisco Beltrao, PR (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Civil; Zatta, L. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Pato Branco, PR (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica; Anaissi, F.J. [Universidade Estadual do Centro-Oeste (UNICENTRO), Guarapuava, PR (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica

    2014-07-01

    Porous ceramic materials are produced by incorporating organic particles and stable foams. Generally it improves low thermal conductivity, which gives thermal comfort for buildings. The southwest region of Parana state is one of the largest producers of grains in Brazil, this causes the disposal of a large amount of waste in the agricultural processing. This paper presents the characterization of porous ceramics produced from clay minerals and agricultural waste (soybeans and corn). The precursor was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) techniques. For the ceramic materials produced, characterizations about density, water absorption, tensile strength by diametrical compression strength and flexural strength curves was performed. The results showed high possibility of industrial/commercial application because the ceramic materials were produced from low costs precursors leading to ceramic products with properties of interest in construction. (author)

  14. Characterization of red ceramic pastes incorporated with sugarcane bagasse ash wastes; Caracterizacao de massa ceramica vermelha incorporada com residuo de cinzas de bagaco de cana-de-acucar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria, K.C.P.; Gurgel, R.F.; Holanda, J.N.F., E-mail: katiacpfaria@hotmail.co, E-mail: holanda@uenf.b [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (LAMAV/UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Materiais Avancados. Grupo de Materiais Ceramicos

    2010-07-01

    The alcohol industry is one sector that stands out most in the Brazilian agribusiness. Currently there is an increasing demand for sugar and ethanol for use as fuel. The processes of manufacturing these products generate large amounts of waste, the sugarcane bagasse ash waste one of the most abundant. For its chemical and mineralogical characteristics, this waste has aroused the interest of its reuse in the field of red ceramic. This study analyzes the characteristics of a red ceramic paste incorporated with up to 20 wt.% of waste. The following characteristics were performed: chemical composition, X-ray diffraction, particle size, morphology, and Atterberg limits. The results show that the incorporation of sugarcane bagasse ash waste influences the physical-chemical and mineralogical characteristics of red ceramic paste. (author)

  15. Vitrification of Hanford wastes in a joule-heated ceramic melter and evaluation of resultant canisterized product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, C.C.; Buelt, J.L.; Slate, S.C.; Katayama, Y.B.; Bunnell, L.R.

    1979-08-01

    Experience gained in the week-long vitrification test and characterization of the glass produced in the run support the following conclusions: The Hanford waste simulated in this test can be readily vitrified in a joule-heated ceramic melter. Physical properties of the molten glass were entirely compatible with melter operation. The average feed rate of 106 kg/h is high enough to make the ceramic melter a feasible piece of equipment for vitrifying Hanford wastes. The glass produced in this trial had good chemical durability, 6(10) -5 g/cm 2 -d. When one of the canisters was purposely dropped onto a steel pad, the damage was limited to deformation of the steel can in the impact area, cracking of a weld, and fracturing of glass in the immediate vicinity of the impact area. No glass was released from the canister as a result of the drop test. The results of this vitrification test support the technical feasibility of vitrifying Hanford wastes by means of a joule-heated ceramic melter. Surface area for large glass castings is equivalent to the mass median particle diameters between 4.27 cm (1.75 in.) and 8.91 cm (3.51 in.) even when allowed to cool rapidly by standing in ambient air. Large canisters (up to 0.91 m in dia) can be cast without large voids while standing in air if the fill rate is over 100 kg/h. 34 figures, 10 tables

  16. The Use of Heat-Resistant Concrete Made with Ceramic Sanitary Ware Waste for a Thermal Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Ogrodnik

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results obtained in the course of a study on the concrete made of aggregate obtained from wastes of sanitary ceramics. Previous examinations proved high in strength and durability of concrete of this type, and it showed a resistance to high temperatures. The material was classified as a fireproof concrete. While searching for the optimal applications of such concrete, a series of examinations and analyses on its thermal energy storage (TES properties were performed. This paper describes the two-stage experiment on the thermal behavior of the concrete made with sanitary ceramic wastes during cooling processes in comparison to different building materials subjected to the same thermal conditions. On the basis of the thermal, infrared analysis, and suitable calculations, the thermal power and the ability of the composite to store thermal energy was estimated. Finally, it was stated that the concrete made of sanitary ceramic waste aggregate and alumina cement can be recommended as a heat-accumulating material, and in combination with high durability can be used, e.g., for the construction of fireplace bodies.

  17. Comparison of the corrosion behaviors of the glass-bonded sodalite ceramic waste form and reference HLW glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebert, W. L.; Lewis, M. A.

    1999-01-01

    A glass-bonded sodalite ceramic waste form is being developed for the long-term immobilization of salt wastes that are generated during spent nuclear fuel conditioning activities. A durable waste form is prepared by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) a mixture of salt-loaded zeolite powders and glass frit. A mechanistic description of the corrosion processes is being developed to support qualification of the CWF for disposal. The initial set of characterization tests included two standard tests that have been used extensively to study the corrosion behavior of high level waste (HLW) glasses: the Material Characterization Center-1 (MCC-1) Test and the Product Consistency Test (PCT). Direct comparison of the results of tests with the reference CWF and HLW glasses indicate that the corrosion behaviors of the CWF and HLW glasses are very similar

  18. Sinter recrystalization and properties evaluation of glass-ceramic from waste glass bottle and magnesite for extended application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    As'mau Ibrahim Gebi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In a bid to address environmental challenges associated with the management of waste Coca cola glass bottle, this study set out to develop glass ceramic materials using waste coca cola glass bottles and magnesite from Sakatsimta in Adamawa state. A reagent grade chrome (coloring agent were used to modify the composition of the coca cola glass bottle;  X-ray fluorescence(XRF, X-ray diffraction (XRD and Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA were used to characterize raw materials, four batches GC-1= Coca cola glass frit +1%Cr2O3, GC-2=97% Coca cola glass frit+ 2% magnesite+1%Cr2O3, GC-3=95% Coca cola glass frit+ 4%magnesite+1%Cr2O3, GC-4=93%Coca cola glass frit+ 6%magnesite+ 1%Cr2O3 were formulated and prepared. Thermal Gradient Analysis (TGA results were used as a guide in selection of three temperatures (7000C, 7500C and 8000C used for the study, three particle sizes -106+75, -75+53, -53µm and 2 hr sintering time were also used, the sinter crystallization route of glass ceramic production was adopted. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM, the density, porosity, hardness and flexural strength of the resulting glass ceramics were also measured. The resulting glass ceramic materials composed mainly of wollastonite, diopside and anorthite phases depending on composition as indicated by XRD and SEM, the density of the samples increased with increasing sintering temperature and decreasing particle size. The porosity is minimal and it decreases with increasing sintering temperature and decreasing particle size. The obtained glass ceramic materials possess appreciable hardness and flexural strength with GC-3 and GC-4 having the best combination of both properties.

  19. THE UTILIZATION OF Fe(III WASTE OF ETCHING INDUSTRY AS QUALITY ENHANCHEMENT MATERIAL IN CERAMIC ROOFTILE SYNTHESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Vaulina Yulistia Delsy

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Waste is produced from various industrial activities. FeCl3 used in this study as an addition to the material quality in synthesis of ceramic rooftile from Kalijaran village clay, Purbalingga. Etching industrial waste FeCl3 contacted with clay. Waste being varied waste as diluted and undiluted while clay grain size varied as 60, 80, 100, 140, and 230 mesh. Both clay and waste are contacted at 30-100 minutes. The results showed that the optimum of time and grain size variation is clay with 80 mesh grain size within 70 minutes. While physical properties of the rooftile contained Fe meet all ISO standards and are known to tile, the best quality is to use clay that has been in contact with the waste that is created 1000 times dilution. The stripping test of Fe (III by rain water and sea water showed that the average rate of Fe-striped of the tile body that is made with soaked with diluted waste are 0.068 ppm/day and 0.055 ppm/day while for tile bodies soaked with waste is not diluted are 0.0722 ppm/day and 0.0560 ppm/day.

  20. Low-temperature setting phosphate ceramics for stabilization of DOE problem low level mixed-waste: I. Material and waste form development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, D.; Wagh, A.; Knox, L.; Mayberry, J.

    1994-03-01

    Chemically bonded phosphate ceramics are proposed as candidates for solidification and stabilization of some of the open-quotes problemclose quotes DOE low-level mixed wastes at low-temperatures. Development of these materials is crucial for stabilization of waste streams which have volatile species and any use of high-temperature technology leads to generation of off-gas secondary waste streams. Several phosphates of Mg, Al, and Zr have been investigated as candidate materials. Monoliths of these phosphates were synthesized using chemical routes at room or slightly elevated temperatures. Detailed physical and chemical characterizations have been conducted on some of these phosphates to establish their durability. Magnesium ammonium phosphate has shown to possess excellent mechanical and as well chemical properties. These phosphates were also used to stabilize a surrogate ash waste with a loading ranging from 25-35 wt.%. Characterization of the final waste forms show that waste immobilization is due to both chemical stabilization and physical encapsulation of the surrogate waste which is desirable for waste immobilization

  1. Radioactive waste storage in mined caverns in crystalline rock: results of field investigations at Stripa, Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witherspoon, P.A.

    1980-10-01

    It is generally agreed that the most practicable method of isolating nuclear wastes from the biosphere is by deep burial in suitable geologic formations. Such burial achieves a high degree of physical isolation but raises questions concerning the rate at which some of these wastes may return to the biosphere through transport by groundwater. Any suitable repository site will be disturbed first by excavation and second by the thermal pulse caused by the radioactive decay of the wastes. To assess the effectiveness of geologic isolation it is necessary to develop the capability of predicting the response of a rock mass to such a thermal pulse. Ultimately, this requires field measurements below the surface in media representative of those likely to be encountered at an actual repository. Access to a granitic rock mass adjacent to a defunct iron ore mine at Stripa, Sweden, at a depth of about 350 m below surface has provided a unique opportunity to conduct a comprehensive suite of hydrological and thermo-mechanical experiments under such conditions. The results of these field tests have shown the importance of geologic structure and the functional dependence of the thermo-mechanical properties on temperature in developing a valid predictive model. The results have also demonstrated the vital importance of carrying out large-scale investigations in a field test facility

  2. Gamma radiolysis effects on leaching behavior of ceramic materials for nuclear fuel waste immobilization containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onofrei, M.; Raine, D.K.; Hocking, W.H.; George, K.; Betteridge, J.S.

    1986-01-01

    The leaching behavior of ceramic materials for nuclear fuel waste immobilization containers, under the influence of a moderate gamma dose rate (4 Gy/h), has been investigated. Samples of Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, stabilized ZrO/sub 2/, TiO/sub 2/, cermet (70% Al/sub 2/O-30% TiC), porcelain (with high Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ content), and concrete (with sulfate-resisting portland cement plus silica fume) have been leached in Standard Canadian Shield Saline Solution (SCSSS), and SCSSS plus clay and sand (components of the disposal system), at 100 0 and 150 0 C for 231 and 987 days, respectively. Leaching solutions were analyzed and the surfaces of the leached samples were investigated by scanning electron microscopy in conjunction with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry. Radiolysis did not appear to enhance the leaching, with or without bentonite and sand in the system. Analysis of the gas phase from sealed capsules showed O/sub 2/ depletion and production of CO/sub 2/ in all experiments containing bentonite. The decrease in O/sub 2/ is attributed to the leaching from the clay of Fe(II) species, which can participate in redox reactions with radicals generated by radiolysis. The CO/sub 2/ is produced from either the organic or inorganic fraction in the bentonite

  3. Standard test method for measuring waste glass or glass ceramic durability by vapor hydration test

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 The vapor hydration test method can be used to study the corrosion of a waste forms such as glasses and glass ceramics upon exposure to water vapor at elevated temperatures. In addition, the alteration phases that form can be used as indicators of those phases that may form under repository conditions. These tests; which allow altering of glass at high surface area to solution volume ratio; provide useful information regarding the alteration phases that are formed, the disposition of radioactive and hazardous components, and the alteration kinetics under the specific test conditions. This information may be used in performance assessment (McGrail et al, 2002 (1) for example). 1.2 This test method must be performed in accordance with all quality assurance requirements for acceptance of the data. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practice...

  4. Evaluation of solid waste and plastic clay mixtures for structural ceramic use; Avaliacao de misturas de residuo solido com argila plastica para aplicacao em ceramica vermelha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Neli Iloni Warpechowski da [Fundacao de Ciencia e Tecnologia (CIENTEC), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Belo, Pedro [Ceramics Representacoes Comerciais Ltda, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    1996-07-01

    This work aims to verify the behaviour of the organic solid waste added by 10%, 15% and 20% in mixture in a plastic clay. It intends to emphasize the influence of the waste in the mixture. Technology tests have been carried out in the clay and mixtures to obtain possible uses in the structural ceramics. (author) 1 ref., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Fragmentation process of vitrified ceramic waste (VCW) aiming its incorporation in silico-aluminous refractory concrete for production of refractory bricks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, L.B.; Brandalise, R.N.; Santos, V. dos; Bergmann, C.P.

    2012-01-01

    Ceramic industry generates large amounts of waste, usually disposed in landfills. Reuse could minimize their generation and provides sustainable solutions. However, the energy cost of grinding these waste becomes a hindrance to their reuse. This work aims to obtain particle sizes of vitrified ceramic waste (VCW) using a fast, efficient and low cost fragmentation process as well as its use in refractory concrete. The results shows a wide range of particle size of VCW, which can be used as a promising source of raw material for production of refractory concrete. (author)

  6. Effect of aluminum and silicon reactants and process parameters on glass-ceramic waste form characteristics for immobilization of high-level fluorinel-sodium calcined waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinjamuri, K.

    1993-06-01

    In this report, the effects of aluminum and silicon reactants, process soak time and the initial calcine particle size on glass-ceramic waste form characteristics for immobilization of the high-level fluorinel-sodium calcined waste stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) are investigated. The waste form characteristics include density, total and normalized elemental leach rates, and microstructure. Glass-ceramic waste forms were prepared by hot isostatically pressing (HIPing) a pre-compacted mixture of pilot plant fluorinel-sodium calcine, Al, and Si metal powders at 1050 degrees C, 20,000 psi for 4 hours. One of the formulations with 2 wt % Al was HIPed for 4, 8, 16 and 24 hours at the same temperature and pressure. The calcine particle size range include as calcined particle size smaller than 600 μm (finer than -30 mesh, or 215 μm Mass Median Diameter, MMD) and 180 μm (finer than 80 mesh, or 49 μm MMD)

  7. Prototype Development of Remote Operated Hot Uniaxial Press (ROHUP) to Fabricate Advanced Tc-99 Bearing Ceramic Waste Forms - 13381

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alaniz, Ariana J.; Delgado, Luc R.; Werbick, Brett M. [University of Nevada - Las Vegas, Howard R. Hughes College of Engineering, 4505 S. Maryland Parkway, Box 454009, Las Vegas, NV 89154-4009 (United States); Hartmann, Thomas [University of Nevada - Las Vegas, Harry Reid Canter, 4505 S. Maryland Parkway, Box 454009, Las Vegas, NV 89154-4009 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this senior student project is to design and build a prototype construction of a machine that simultaneously provides the proper pressure and temperature parameters to sinter ceramic powders in-situ to create pellets of rather high densities of above 90% (theoretical). This ROHUP (Remote Operated Hot Uniaxial Press) device is designed specifically to fabricate advanced ceramic Tc-99 bearing waste forms and therefore radiological barriers have been included in the system. The HUP features electronic control and feedback systems to set and monitor pressure, load, and temperature parameters. This device operates wirelessly via portable computer using Bluetooth{sup R} technology. The HUP device is designed to fit in a standard atmosphere controlled glove box to further allow sintering under inert conditions (e.g. under Ar, He, N{sub 2}). This will further allow utilizing this HUP for other potential applications, including radioactive samples, novel ceramic waste forms, advanced oxide fuels, air-sensitive samples, metallic systems, advanced powder metallurgy, diffusion experiments and more. (authors)

  8. Implications of transmutation on the defect chemistry in crystalline waste forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uberuaga, B.P., E-mail: blas@lanl.go [Materials Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Jiang, C.; Stanek, C.R.; Sickafus, K.E. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Marks, N.A. [Nanochemistry Research Institute, Curtin University of Technology, P.O. Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); Carter, D.J.; Rohl, A.L. [Nanochemistry Research Institute, Curtin University of Technology, P.O. Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); iVEC, Technology Park, Kensington, WA 6151 (Australia)

    2010-10-01

    Radioactive decay within the solid state creates chemical environments which are typically incommensurate with the initial host structure. Using a combined theoretical and computational approach, we discuss this 'transmutation problem' in the context of the short-lived fission products Cs-137 and Sr-90. We show how a Kroeger-Vink treatment is insufficient for understanding defects arising from transmutation, and present density functional theory data for chemical evolution within two prototypical hosts, CsCl and SrTiO{sub 3}. While the latter has a strong driving force for phase separation with increasing Zr content, the Cs(Ba)Cl system is surprisingly stable. The sharp difference between these two findings points to the need for better understanding of novel chemistry in nuclear waste forms.

  9. Conceptual design of a joule-heated ceramic melter for the DOE Fernald silos 1, 2, and 3 wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, R.A.; Janke, D.S.; Peters, R.; Fekete, L.

    1992-06-01

    Vitrification of nuclear wastes has been under investigation since the mid-1950s. Most of the international communities experience has been with vitrification of high level nuclear wastes. In the US, this technology was developed by Battelle scientists at the DOEs Pacific Northwest Laboratories located at their Hanford site. Based on Laboratory and pilot-scale testing conducted at Hanford in the early 1970s, the DOE has constructed high level nuclear waste vitrification facilities at both Savannah River, South Carolina, and West Valley, New York, and is finalizing the design of a similar treatment facility at Hanford. Although these systems were designed to be fully remote due to the extreme radioactive hazards associated with this type of nuclear waste, technology transfer was successfully applied to the design of a vitrification process for the K-65 and uranium metal oxide wastes in a semi-remote operation at Fernald. This paper describes a conceptual design of a joule-heated, slurry-fed ceramic melter that was developed for vitrification of the DOE K-65 and metal oxide low level wastes at Fernald, Ohio

  10. Physical modeling of joule heated ceramic glass melters for high level waste immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigley, M.S.; Kreid, D.K.

    1979-03-01

    This study developed physical modeling techniques and apparatus suitable for experimental analysis of joule heated ceramic glass melters designed for immobilizing high level waste. The physical modeling experiments can give qualitative insight into the design and operation of prototype furnaces and, if properly verified with prototype data, the physical models could be used for quantitative analysis of specific furnaces. Based on evaluation of the results of this study, it is recommended that the following actions and investigations be undertaken: It was not shown that the isothermal boundary conditions imposed by this study established prototypic heat losses through the boundaries of the model. Prototype wall temperatures and heat fluxes should be measured to provide better verification of the accuracy of the physical model. The VECTRA computer code is a two-dimensional analytical model. Physical model runs which are isothermal in the Y direction should be made to provide two-dimensional data for more direct comparison to the VECTRA predictions. The ability of the physical model to accurately predict prototype operating conditions should be proven before the model can become a reliable design tool. This will require significantly more prototype operating and glass property data than were available at the time of this study. A complete set of measurements covering power input, heat balances, wall temperatures, glass temperatures, and glass properties should be attempted for at least one prototype run. The information could be used to verify both physical and analytical models. Particle settling and/or sludge buildup should be studied directly by observing the accumulation of the appropriate size and density particles during feeding in the physical model. New designs should be formulated and modeled to minimize the potential problems with melter operation identifed by this study

  11. Use of overburden rocks from open-pit coal mines and waste coals of Western Siberia for ceramic brick production with a defect-free structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolboushkin, A. Yu; Ivanov, A. I.; Storozhenko, G. I.; Syromyasov, V. A.; Akst, D. V.

    2017-09-01

    The rational technology for the production of ceramic bricks with a defect-free structure from coal mining and processing wastes was developed. The results of comparison of physical and mechanical properties and the structure of ceramic bricks manufactured from overburden rocks and waste coal with traditional for semi-dry pressing mass preparation and according to the developed method are given. It was established that a homogeneous, defect-free brick texture obtained from overburden rocks of open-pit mines and waste coal improves the quality of ceramic wall materials produced by the method of compression molding by more than 1.5 times compared to the brick with a traditional mass preparation.

  12. Product consistency test and toxicity characteristic leaching procedure results of the ceramic waste form from the electrometallurgical treatment process for spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, S. G.; Adamic, M. L.: DiSanto, T.; Warren, A. R.; Cummings, D. G.; Foulkrod, L.; Goff, K. M.

    1999-01-01

    The ceramic waste form produced from the electrometallurgical treatment of sodium bonded spent fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II was tested using two immersion tests with separate and distinct purposes. The product consistency test is used to assess the consistency of the waste forms produced and thus is an indicator of a well-controlled process. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure is used to determine whether a substance is to be considered hazardous by the Environmental Protection Agency. The proposed high level waste repository will not be licensed to receive hazardous waste, thus any waste forms destined to be placed there cannot be of a hazardous nature as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Results are presented from the first four fully radioactive ceramic waste forms produced and from seven ceramic waste forms produced from cold surrogate materials. The fully radioactive waste forms are approximately 2 kg in weight and were produced with salt used to treat 100 driver subassemblies of spent fuel

  13. Corrosion Resistance of Murataite-Based Ceramics Containing Simulated Actinide/Rare Earth Fraction of High Level Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanovsky, S.V.; Varlakova, G.A.; Burlaka, O.A.; Stefanovsky, O.I.; Nikonov, B.S.; Yudintsev, S.V.

    2009-01-01

    Two samples of murataite-based ceramics containing simulated Actinide/Rare Earth (An/RE) fraction of high level waste (HLW) produced by a cold crucible inductive melting (CCIM) were tested using a single-pass-flow-through (SPFT) procedure. As-prepared and leached samples were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive system (SEM/EDS). The as-prepared ceramics were composed of murataite, perovskite and crichtonite as well as minor zirconolite and rutile (in one sample). Elemental concentrations at pH=2 and T=90 deg. C were measured and leach rates were calculated. Perovskite concentrating Ca and Ce-group REs (La, Ce, Pr, Nd) was found to be the lowest durable phase. Leach rates of Ca and Ce-group REs (Ce, Nd) from the sample with higher perovskite content were found to be higher than those of U and Zr by one to three orders of magnitude. Elemental leach rates from the ceramic with lower perovskite content are lower by up to 10 times. (authors)

  14. Characterization of humidity-controlling porous ceramics produced from coal fly ash and waste catalyst by co-sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kae-Long; Ma, Chih-Ming; Lo, Kang-Wei; Cheng, Ta-Wui

    2018-04-01

    In this study, the following operating conditions were applied to develop humidity-controlling porous ceramic (HCPC) products: sintering temperatures of 800-1000 °C and percentages of coal fly ash in waste catalyst of 0%-40%. The HCPC samples then underwent a flexural strength test, to determine their quality according to the Chinese National Standards (CNS 3298). Their microstructures, crystal structures, and pore volume were determined in terms of equilibrium moisture content, water vapor adsorption/desorption, and hygroscopic sorption properties over 48 h. Nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms showed a hydrophobic behavior (type H3 isotherm). The water vapor adsorption/desorption and hygroscopic sorption properties satisfied the JIS A1470 intensity specification for building materials (>29 g/m2). At sintering temperatures of 950-1000 °C, HCPC samples for coal fly ash containing 20%-30% waste catalyst met the JIS A1470 intensity specifications for building materials (<29 g/m2).

  15. Industrial ceramics - Properties, forming and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fantozzi, Gilbert; Niepce, Jean-Claude; Bonnefont, Guillaume; Alary, J.A.; Allard, B.; Ayral, A.; Bassat, J.M.; Elissalde, C.; Maglione, M.; Beauvy, M.; Bertrand, G.; Bignon, A.; Billieres, D.; Blanc, J.J.; Blumenfeld, P.; Bonnet, J.P.; Bougoin, M.; Bourgeon, M.; Boussuge, M.; Thorel, A.; Bruzek, C.E.; Cambier, F.; Carrerot, H.; Casabonne, J.M.; Chaix, J.M.; Chevalier, J.; Chopinet, M.H.; Couque, H.; Courtois, C.; Leriche, A.; Dhaler, D.; Denape, J.; Euzen, P.; Ganne, J.P.; Gauffinet, S.; Girard, A.; Gonon, M.; Guizard, C.; Hampshire, S.; Joulin, J.P.; Julbe, A.; Ferrato, M.; Fontaine, M.L.; Lebourgeois, R.; Lopez, J.; Maquet, M.; Marinel, S.; Marrony, M.; Martin, J.F.; Mougin, J.; Pailler, R.; Pate, M.; Petitpas, E.; Pijolat, C.; Pires-Franco, P.; Poirier, C.; Poirier, J.; Pourcel, F.; Potier, A.; Tulliani, J.M.; Viricelle, J.P.; Beauger, A.

    2013-01-01

    After a general introduction to ceramics (definition, general properties, elaboration, applications, market data), this book address conventional ceramics (elaboration, material types), thermo-structural ceramics (oxide based ceramics, non-oxide ceramics, fields of application, functional coatings), refractory ceramics, long fibre and ceramic matrix composites, carbonaceous materials, ceramics used for filtration, catalysis and the environment, ceramics for biomedical applications, ceramics for electronics and electrical engineering (for capacitors, magnetic, piezoelectric, dielectric ceramics, ceramics for hyper-frequency resonators), electrochemical ceramics, transparent ceramics (forming and sintering), glasses, mineral binders. The last chapter addresses ceramics used in the nuclear energy sector: in nuclear fuels and fissile material, absorbing ceramics and shields, in the management of nuclear wastes, new ceramics for reactors under construction or for future nuclear energy

  16. Portland blended cements: demolition ceramic waste management; Cementos Portland con adiciones: manejo de residuos cerámicos de demolición.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trezza, M.A.; Zito, S.; Tironi, A.; Irassar, E.F.; Rahhal, V.F.

    2017-07-01

    Demolition ceramic wastes (DCWs) were investigated in order to determine their potential use as supplementary cementitious materials in Portland Blended Cements (PBCs). For this purpose, three ceramic wastes were investigated. After characterization of the materials used, the effect of ceramic waste replacement (8, 24 and 40% by mass) was analyzed. Pozzolanic activity, hydration progress, workability and compressive strength were determined at 2, 7 and 28 days. The results showed that the ground wastes behave as filler at an early age, but as hydration progresses, the pozzolanic activity of ceramic waste contributes to the strength requirement. [Spanish] Se estudiaron residuos cerámicos de demolición (DCWs) a fin de determinar su potencial uso como materiales cementicios suplementarios en cementos mezcla (PBC). Para este propósito, se investigaron tres residuos cerámicos. Luego de la caracterización de los materiales a utilizar, se analizó el efecto del reemplazo por residuos cerámico (8, 24 y 40% en peso). Se estudió la actividad puzolánica, el progreso de la hidratación, la trabajabilidad y la resistencia a compresión a 2, 7 y 28 días. Los resultados mostraron que los residuos molidos se comportaron como fillers a edades tempranas, pero con el progreso de la hidratación, la actividad puzolánica de los residuos cerámicos contribuye a los requerimientos de resistencia.

  17. Formation of porous clay ceramic using sago waste ash as a prospective additive material with controllable milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aripin H.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel type of ceramic material was produced by mixing sago waste ash from the sago processing industry in Indonesia with clay. The composition was prepared by adding 50 %wt amount of sago waste into the clay, then a series of samples was milled for 6 h, 12 h, 24 h and 48 h, respectively. The samples were dry pressed and sintered at temperatures ranging from 800°C to 1200°C. The influence of the sintering temperature and the milling time on bulk density, firing shrinkage, water adsorption, and hardness was studied in detail. The results demonstrate that the low water absorption of less than 0.5% and the highest hardness of 5.82 GPa were obtained for the sample sintered at 1100°C and milled for 48 h. The investigation of the absorptive properties of such ceramics indicates that they could be recommended as a promising material for manufacturing of unglazed floor tiles.

  18. Applications of High Energy Ion Beam Techniques in Environmental Science: Investigation Associated with Glass and Ceramic Waste Forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Shutthanandan, V; Zhang, Yanwen

    2006-02-01

    High energy ion beam capabilities including Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) have been very effectively used in environmental science to investigate the ion exchange mechanisms in glass waste forms and the effects of irradiation in glass and ceramic waste forms in the past. In this study, RBS and NRA along with SIMNRA simulations were used to monitor the Na depletion and D and 18O uptake in alumina silicate glasses, respectively, after the glass coupons were exposed to aqueous solution. These results show that the formation of a reaction layer and an establishment of a region where diffusion limited ion exchange occur in these glasses during exposure to silica-saturated solutions. Different regions including reaction and diffusion regions were identified on the basis of the depth distributions of these elements. In the case of ceramics, damage accumulation was studied as a function of ion dose at different irradiation temperatures. A sigmoidal dependence of relative disorder on the ion dose was observed. The defect dechanneling factors were calculated for two irradiated regions in SrTiO? using the critical angles determined from the angular yield curves. The dependence of defect dechanneling parameter on the incident energy was investigated and it was observed that the generated defects are mostly interstitial atoms and amorphous clusters. Thermal recovery experiments were performed to study the damage recovery processes up to a maximum temperature of 870 K.

  19. Is waste problem solved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    In a short report, with flow diagram, a process being developed in Sweden by ASEA for the processing of radioactive wastes by hot isostatic pressing is briefly described. Three methods have been developed. In the first, calcinated waste is mixed with durable ceramic materials and sintered at high pressure to massive objects whose crystalline state is very stable. The second concentrates the waste materials in solution on inorganic ion exchangers, which, after drying, are converted to massive ceramic objects by the same process and with the same properties, as in the first method. In the third method, spent fuel elements are directly processed into objects with high strength and stability by the same processes as above. The final products may be permanently stored in ground water in geological formations. (JIW)

  20. Characterization of different types of ceramic waste and its incorporation to the cement paste; Caracterizaco de diferentes tipos de residuos ceramicos e sua incorporacao a pasta de cimento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, G.A.; Evangelista, A.C.J.; Almeida, V.C. de, E-mail: valeria@eq.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (EQ/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica

    2009-07-01

    The porcelain tike is a product resulting from the technological development of ceramic plating industry. Its large acceptation by the consumer market is probably linked with certain properties, such as low porosity, high mechanical resistance, facility in maintenance, besides being a material of modern and versatile characteristics. The aim of this work was characterizing the different ceramic wastes (enameled and porcelain tike) and evaluating its influence on the mechanical behavior in cement pastes. The wastes were characterized through the determination of its chemical composition, size particle distribution and X-ray diffraction. Cement pastes + wastes were prepared in 25% and 50% proportions and glue time determination, water absorption and resistance to compression assays were taken. The results indicate that although the wastes don't show any variation in the elementary chemical composition, changes in the cement paste behavior related to the values of resistance to compression were observed. (author)

  1. Demonstration of an approach to waste form qualification through simulation of liquid-fed ceramic melter process operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimus, P.W.; Kuhn, W.L.; Peters, R.D.; Pulsipher, B.A.

    1986-07-01

    During fiscal year 1982, the US Department of Energy (DOE) assigned responsibility for managing civilian nuclear waste treatment programs in the United States to the Nuclear Waste Treatment Program (NWTP) at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). One of the principal objectives of this program is to establish relationships between vitrification process control and glass quality. Users of the liquid-fed ceramic melter (LFCM) process will need such relationships in order to establish acceptance of vitrified high-level nuclear waste at a licensed federal repository without resorting to destructive examination of the canisters. The objective is to be able to supply a regulatory agency with an estimate of the composition, durability, and integrity of the glass in each waste glass canister produced from an LFCM process simply by examining the process data collected during the operation of the LFCM. The work described here will continue through FY-1987 and culminate in a final report on the ability to control and monitor an LFCM process through sampling and process control charting of the LFCM feed system

  2. Chemical durability of glasses containing radioactive fission product waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendel, J.E.; Ross, W.A.

    1974-04-01

    Measurements made to determine the chemical durability of glasses for disposal of radioactive waste are discussed. The term glass covers materials varying from true glass with only minute quantities of crystallites, such as insoluble RuO 2 , to quasi glass-ceramics which are mostly crystalline. Chemical durability requirements and Soxhlet extractor leach tests are discussed

  3. Cellular ceramics made from porcelain tile polishing wastes: influence of sintering time; Ceramicas cellulares obtidas a partir de residuo de polimento de porcelanato: influencia do tempo de sinterizacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, A.F.; Zanelatto, C.C.; Uggioni, E. [Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense (UNESC), Criciuma, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais; Bernardin, A.M., E-mail: amb@unesc.ne [Servico Nacional de Aprendizagem Industrial, Tijucas, SC (Brazil). Tecnologia em Ceramica

    2009-07-01

    This paper deals with the physical, microstructural and mechanical characterization of cellular ceramics made from porcelain polishing wastes, which were expanded by the bubble formation technique during the sintering process. The microstructure, linear expansion, bulk density (mercury immersion) and mechanical behavior (compressive strength) were determined to characterize the glass foam obtained. Moreover, the porcellaneous residue was characterized by chemical and phase analyses, particle size (laser diffraction) and thermal behavior. As a result, the higher the soaking time during heat treatment at 1200 deg C the lower the density obtained for the cellular ceramic due to CO{sub 2} expansion, and lower the mechanical strength of the samples. The microstructure shows spherical cells and completely closed pores, resulting in a cheap way to obtain low density material with adequate mechanical strength, avoiding the disposal of wastes from the ceramic industry. (author)

  4. Ceramic Hosts for Fission Products Immobilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter C Kong

    2010-07-01

    Natural spinel, perovskite and zirconolite rank among the most leach resistant of mineral forms. They also have a strong affinity for a large number of other elements and including actinides. Specimens of natural perovskite and zirconolite were radioisotope dated and found to have survived at least 2 billion years of natural process while still remain their loading of uranium and thorium . Developers of the Synroc waste form recognized and exploited the capability of these minerals to securely immobilize TRU elements in high-level waste . However, the Synroc process requires a relatively uniform input and hot pressing equipment to produce the waste form. It is desirable to develop alternative approaches to fabricate these durable waste forms to immobilize the radioactive elements. One approach is using a high temperature process to synthesize these mineral host phases to incorporate the fission products in their crystalline structures. These mineral assemblages with immobilized fission products are then isolated in a durable high temperature glass for periods measured on a geologic time scale. This is a long term research concept and will begin with the laboratory synthesis of the pure spinel (MgAl2O4), perovskite (CaTiO3) and zirconolite (CaZrTi2O7) from their constituent oxides. High temperature furnace and/or thermal plasma will be used for the synthesis of these ceramic host phases. Nonradioactive strontium oxide will be doped into these ceramic phases to investigate the development of substitutional phases such as Mg1-xSrxAl2O4, Ca1-xSrxTiO3 and Ca1-xSrxZrTi2O7. X-ray diffraction will be used to establish the crystalline structures of the pure ceramic hosts and the substitution phases. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDX) will be performed for product morphology and fission product surrogates distribution in the crystalline hosts. The range of strontium doping is planned to reach the full substitution of the divalent

  5. Comparison of the rotary calciner-metallic melter and the slurry-fed ceramic melter technologies for vitrifying West Valley high-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, C.C.

    1983-01-01

    Two processes which are believed applicable and available for vitrification of West Valley's high-level (HLW) wastes were technically evaluated and compared. The rotary calciner-metallic melter (AVH) and the slurry-fed ceramic melter (SFCM) were evaluated under the following general categories: process flow sheet, remote operability, safety and environmental considerations, and estimated cost and schedules

  6. Potentiality of a frit waste from ceramic sector as raw material to glass-ceramic material production; Potencialidad de un residuo de frita procedente del sector ceramico como materia prima para la produccion de material vitroceramico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrachina Albert, E.; Llop Pla, J.; Notari Abad, M. D.; Carda Castello, J. B.

    2015-10-01

    This work consists of studying the devitrification capacity of a residue from sodium-calcium frit, using the vitreous powder sintering method, which follows the traditional ceramic processing route, including a specific heat treatment to generate the appearance of crystals from the original glass phase. Initially the frit residue has been characterized by instrumental techniques such as XRF, XRD and DTA/TG. Furthermore, the chemical analysis (XRF) has allowed the prediction of devitrification potentiality of this residue by theoretical approaches represented by Gingsberg, Raschin-Tschetverikov and Lebedeva ternary diagrams. Then, this residue was subjected to traditional ceramic method, by changing the grinding time, the pressing pressure and prepared samples were obtained at different temperatures. In this part, the techniques for measuring particle size by laser diffraction and XRD and SEM to evaluate the generated crystalline phases, were applied. Finally, it has been found that this frit residue works as glass-ceramic precursor, devitrifying in wollastonite crystals as majority phase and without being subjected to the melting step of the glass-ceramic typical method. (Author)

  7. Development of Nano-crystalline Doped-Ceramic Enabled Fiber Sensors for High Temperature In-Situ Monitoring of Fossil Fuel Gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Hai [Missouri Univ. of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO (United States); Dong, Junhang [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States); Lin, Jerry [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Romero, Van [New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States)

    2012-03-01

    This is a final technical report for the first project year from July 1, 2005 to Jan 31, 2012 for DoE/NETL funded project DE-FC26-05NT42439: Development of Nanocrystalline Doped-Ceramic Enabled Fiber Sensors for High Temperature In-Situ Monitoring of Fossil Fuel Gases. This report summarizes the technical progresses and achievements towards the development of novel nanocrystalline doped ceramic material-enabled optical fiber sensors for in situ and real time monitoring the gas composition of flue or hot gas streams involved in fossil-fuel based power generation and hydrogen production.

  8. Corrosion tests with uranium- and plutonium-loaded ceramic waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morss, L. R.; Johnson, S. G.; Ebert, W. L.; DiSanto, T.; Frank, S. M.; Holly, J. L.; Kropf, A. J.; Mertz, C. J.; O'Holleran, T. P.; Richmann, M. K.; Sinkler, W.; Tsai, Y.; Warren, A. R.; Noy, M.

    2003-01-01

    Tests were conducted with ceramic waste form (CWF) materials that contained small amounts of uranium and plutonium to study their release behavior as the CWF corroded. Materials made using the hot isostatic press (HIP) and pressureless consolidation (PC) methods were examined and tested. Four different materials were made using the HIP method with two salts having different U:Pu mole ratios and two zeolite reagents having different residual water contents. Tests with the four HIP U,Pu-loaded CWF materials were conducted at 90 and 120 C, at CWF-to-water mass ratios of 1:10 and 1:20, and for durations between 7 and 365 days. Materials made using two PC processing conditions were also tested. Tests with the two PC U,Pu-loaded CWF materials were conducted at 90 and 120 C, at a CWF-to-water mass ratio of 1:10, and for durations between 7 and 182 days. The releases of matrix elements, U, and Pu in tests conducted under different test conditions and with different materials are compared to evaluate the effects of composition and processing conditions on the release behavior of U and Pu and the chemical durabilities of the different materials. The distributions of released elements among the fractions that were dissolved, in colloidal form in the solution, and fixed to test vessel walls were measured and compared. Characterization of Pu-bearing colloidal particles recovered from the test solutions using solids analysis techniques are also reported. The principal findings from this study are: (1) The release of U and Pu is about 10X less than the release of Si and 50X less than the release of B under all test conditions. This implies that U and Pu are in a phase that is less soluble than the sodalite and binder glass matrix. (2) Almost all of the plutonium that is released from U,Pu-loaded CWF is present either as colloidal-sized particles in the size range between 5 and 100 nm in the test solution (about 15% of the total) or becomes fixed on stainless steel test vessel

  9. Vermont's involvement with the DOE's high-level radioactive waste disposal crystalline repository project. Final technical report, January 1-September 30, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is charged with siting a second repository for the disposal of highly radioactive nuclear wastes. Because of this siting process, the DOE has looked to localities in 17 states in the eastern US for possible sites in crystalline rock. During the beginning of the progress report period, crystalline rocks in Vermont were under consideration as sites for further study. Vermont, through the Vermont State Geologist's Office, was closely involved with the DOE program during this period. Our main function has been to review DOE reports; attend DOE workshops and meetings; and inform the Vermont public, with the help of the DOE, about the high-level nuclear waste repository siting process. Nine sites in Vermont were under consideration during the Regional Characterization Phase until January 16, 1986. Because of this fact, there was considerable public interest in this program. Upon release of the Draft Area Recommendation Report, Vermont crystalline rock bodies were dropped from consideration. A site in New Hampshire and two sites in Maine remained on the list. Because of the draft status of the report and the possibility that a site 20 miles from the Vermont border in New Hampshire could remain as a selected site, Vermont has stayed active and interested. Two briefings and hearings were held in the State during the comment period January 16 through April 16, 1986. A thorough review of the Draft Area Recommendation Report was completed using reviewers from our Office, State agencies, outside experts, and citizen groups. With the announcement on May 28, 1986 of the suspension of the second repository siting process in crystalline rocks, our Office has worked toward closing out our active involvement

  10. Clinical application of bio ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anu, Sharma, E-mail: issaranu@gmail.com; Gayatri, Sharma, E-mail: sharmagayatri@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Govt. College of Engineering & Technology, Bikaner, Rajasthan (India)

    2016-05-06

    Ceramics are the inorganic crystalline material. These are used in various field such as biomedical, electrical, electronics, aerospace, automotive and optical etc. Bio ceramics are the one of the most active areas of research. Bio ceramics are the ceramics which are biocompatible. The unique properties of bio ceramics make them an attractive option for medical applications and offer some potential advantages over other materials. During the past three decades, a number of major advances have been made in the field of bio ceramics. This review focuses on the use of these materials in variety of clinical scenarios.

  11. Clinical application of bio ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anu, Sharma; Gayatri, Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Ceramics are the inorganic crystalline material. These are used in various field such as biomedical, electrical, electronics, aerospace, automotive and optical etc. Bio ceramics are the one of the most active areas of research. Bio ceramics are the ceramics which are biocompatible. The unique properties of bio ceramics make them an attractive option for medical applications and offer some potential advantages over other materials. During the past three decades, a number of major advances have been made in the field of bio ceramics. This review focuses on the use of these materials in variety of clinical scenarios.

  12. Selective recovery of silver from waste low-temperature co-fired ceramic and valorization through silver nanoparticle synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Basudev; Shin, Dongyoon; Joo, So Yeong; Ahn, Nak Kyoon; Lee, Chan Gi; Yoon, Jin-Ho

    2017-11-01

    Considering the value of silver metal and silver nanoparticles, the waste generated during manufacturing of low temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) were recycled through the simple yet cost effective process by chemical-metallurgy. Followed by leaching optimization, silver was selectively recovered through precipitation. The precipitated silver chloride was valorized though silver nanoparticle synthesis by a simple one-pot greener synthesis route. Through leaching-precipitation optimization, quantitative selective recovery of silver chloride was achieved, followed by homogeneous pure silver nanoparticle about 100nm size were synthesized. The reported recycling process is a simple process, versatile, easy to implement, requires minimum facilities and no specialty chemicals, through which semiconductor manufacturing industry can treat the waste generated during manufacturing of LTCC and reutilize the valorized silver nanoparticles in manufacturing in a close loop process. Our reported process can address issues like; (i) waste disposal, as well as value-added silver recovery, (ii) brings back the material to production stream and address the circular economy, and (iii) can be part of lower the futuristic carbon economy and cradle-to-cradle technology management, simultaneously. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Glass-ceramic nuclear waste forms obtained by crystallization of SiO 2-Al 2O 3-CaO-ZrO 2-TiO 2 glasses containing lanthanides (Ce, Nd, Eu, Gd, Yb) and actinides (Th): Study of the crystallization from the surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiseau, P.; Caurant, D.

    2010-07-01

    Glass-ceramic materials containing zirconolite (nominally CaZrTi 2O 7) crystals in their bulk can be envisaged as potential waste forms for minor actinides (Np, Am, Cm) and Pu immobilization. In this study such matrices are synthesized by crystallization of SiO 2-Al 2O 3-CaO-ZrO 2-TiO 2 glasses containing lanthanides (Ce, Nd, Eu, Gd, Yb) and actinides (Th) as surrogates. A thin partially crystallized layer containing titanite and anorthite (nominally CaTiSiO 5 and CaAl 2Si 2O 8, respectively) growing from glass surface is also observed. The effect of the nature and concentration of surrogates on the structure, the microstructure and the composition of the crystals formed in the surface layer is presented in this paper. Titanite is the only crystalline phase able to significantly incorporate trivalent lanthanides whereas ThO 2 precipitates in the layer. The crystal growth thermal treatment duration (2-300 h) at high temperature (1050-1200 °C) is shown to strongly affect glass-ceramics microstructure. For the system studied in this paper, it appears that zirconolite is not thermodynamically stable in comparison with titanite growing form glass surface. Nevertheless, for kinetic reasons, such transformation (i.e. zirconolite disappearance to the benefit of titanite) is not expected to occur during interim storage and disposal of the glass-ceramic waste forms because their temperature will never exceed a few hundred degrees.

  14. β-Irradiation Effects on the Formation and Stability of CaMoO4 in a Soda Lime Borosilicate Glass Ceramic for Nuclear Waste Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Karishma B; Boizot, Bruno; Facq, Sébastien P; Lampronti, Giulio I; Peuget, Sylvain; Schuller, Sophie; Farnan, Ian

    2017-02-06

    Molybdenum solubility is a limiting factor to actinide loading in nuclear waste glasses, as it initiates the formation of water-soluble crystalline phases such as alkali molybdates. To increase waste loading efficiency, alternative glass ceramic structures are sought that prove resistant to internal radiation resulting from radioisotope decay. In this study, selective formation of water-durable CaMoO 4 in a soda lime borosilicate is achieved by introducing up to 10 mol % MoO 3 in a 1:1 ratio to CaO using a sintering process. The resulting homogeneously dispersed spherical CaMoO 4 nanocrystallites were analyzed using electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopies prior to and post irradiation, which replicated internal β-irradiation damage on an accelerated scale. Following 0.77 to 1.34 GGy of 2.5 MeV electron radiation CaMoO 4 does not exhibit amorphization or significant transformation. Nor does irradiation induce glass-in-glass phase separation in the surrounding amorphous matrix, or the precipitation of other molybdates, thus proving that excess molybdenum can be successfully incorporated into a structure that it is resistant to β-irradiation proportional to 1000 years of storage without water-soluble byproducts. The CaMoO 4 crystallites do however exhibit a nonlinear Scherrer crystallite size pattern with dose, as determined by a Rietveld refinement of XRD patterns and an alteration in crystal quality as deduced by anisotropic peak changes in both XRD and Raman spectroscopy. Radiation-induced modifications in the CaMoO 4 tetragonal unit cell occurred primarily along the c-axis indicating relaxation of stacked calcium polyhedra. Concurrently, a strong reduction of Mo 6+ to Mo 5+ during irradiation is observed by EPR, which is believed to enhance Ca mobility. These combined results are used to hypothesize a crystallite size alteration model based on a combination of relaxation and diffusion

  15. [gamma]-Wollastonite Precipitated Glass-Ceramic Synthesized from Waste Granite. Mikageishi kara sakusei shita [gamma]-uorasutonaito sekishutsu kesshoka garasu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Minoru.; Suzuki, Shigeru. (The Tokyo Metropolitan Industrial Tecnology Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan))

    1999-07-01

    Manufacturing process of glass-ceramic produced from waste granite was investigated for use as a construction material. Waste stone crushing is usually difficult so waste stone is heated to 700 degree C in an electric furnace, then cooled rapidly ith water. Successively, the stone is crushed into particles smaller than 297 [mu]m. Crushing and classification is repeated until over 90% of the waste stone product is reduced into fine particles. Batches were prepared y mixing a mass ratioof 100 fine particles waste stone, 50-60 limestone (CaCO[sub 3]), 5-15 soda-ash (Na[sub 2]CO[sub 3]), 3-8 anhydrous sodium sulfate (Na[sub 2]SO[sub 4]), 0.7-1.5 graphite (C) and 0-4 zine oxide (ZnO). Black glass was produced by melting the batch at 1450 degree C in an electric furnace, and allowed to flow on a steel plate. To from a nucleation, this glass was reheated at 850 degree C for 1 h and reheated at 1050 degree C for 2 h to from a glass-ceramic. Results of scanning electron microscope observation and powder X-ray diffraction of the obtained glass-ceramic showed [gamma]-wollastonite (CaO[center dot]SiO[sub 2]) to be main crystal structure; this is composed of about 2-3 [mu]m prismateic crystals that are homogeneously entangled. (author)

  16. {gamma}-Wollastonite Precipitated Glass-Ceramic Synthesized from Waste Granite; Mikageishi kara sakusei shita {gamma}-uorasutonaito sekishutsu kesshoka garasu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Minoru.; Suzuki, Shigeru. [The Tokyo Metropolitan Industrial Tecnology Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    Manufacturing process of glass-ceramic produced from waste granite was investigated for use as a construction material. Waste stone crushing is usually difficult so waste stone is heated to 700 degree C in an electric furnace, then cooled rapidly ith water. Successively, the stone is crushed into particles smaller than 297 {mu}m. Crushing and classification is repeated until over 90% of the waste stone product is reduced into fine particles. Batches were prepared y mixing a mass ratioof 100 fine particles waste stone, 50-60 limestone (CaCO{sub 3}), 5-15 soda-ash (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}), 3-8 anhydrous sodium sulfate (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}), 0.7-1.5 graphite (C) and 0-4 zine oxide (ZnO). Black glass was produced by melting the batch at 1450 degree C in an electric furnace, and allowed to flow on a steel plate. To from a nucleation, this glass was reheated at 850 degree C for 1 h and reheated at 1050 degree C for 2 h to from a glass-ceramic. Results of scanning electron microscope observation and powder X-ray diffraction of the obtained glass-ceramic showed {gamma}-wollastonite (CaO{center_dot}SiO{sub 2}) to be main crystal structure; this is composed of about 2-3 {mu}m prismateic crystals that are homogeneously entangled. (author)

  17. Use of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ashes in alkali-activated materials, ceramics and granular applications: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, R V; de Brito, J; Lynn, C J; Dhir, R K

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents a literature review on the incorporation of municipal solid waste incinerated bottom ash as raw material in several markets, other than those where it is conventionally used, such as geotechnical applications and road pavement construction. The main findings of an ample selection of experimental investigations on the use of the bottom ash as precursor of alkali-activated materials, as an adsorbent material for the removal of hazardous elements from wastewater and landfill gases, as soil replacement in agricultural activities, as partial or complete substitute of raw materials for the manufacture of ceramic-based products, as landfill cover and as biogas production enhancer, were gathered, collated and analysed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The chemistry, waste form development, and properties of the Nitrate to Ammonia and Ceramic (NAC) process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattus, A.J.; Lee, D.D.; Youngblood, E.L.; Walker, J.F. Jr.; Tiegs, T.N.

    1994-01-01

    A process for the conversion of alkaline, aqueous nitrate wastes to ammonia gas at low temperature, based upon the use of the active metal reductant aluminum, has been developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The process is also well suited for the removal of low-level waste (LLW) radioelements and hazardous metals which report to the solid, alumina-based by-product. ne chemistry of the interaction of aluminum powders with nitrate, and other waste stream metals is presented

  19. Nuclear waste disposal: alternatives to solidification in glass proposed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    More than a quarter-million cubic meters of liquid radioactive wastes are now being held at government installations awaiting final disposal. During the past 20 years, the disposal plan of choice has been to incorporate the 40 to 50 radioactive elements dissolved in liquid wastes into blocks of glass, seal the glass in metal canisters, and insert the canisters into deep, geologically stable salt beds. Over the last few years, some geologists and materials scientists have become concerned that perhaps not enough is known yet about the interaction of waste, container, and salt (or any rock) to have a reasonable assurance that the hazardous wastes will be contained successfully. The biggest advantage of glass at present is the demonstrated practicality of producing large, highly radioactive blocks of it. The frontrunner as a successor to glass is ceramics, which are nonmetallic crystalline materials formed at high temperature, such as chinaware or natural minerals. An apparent advantage of ceramics is that they already have an ordered atomic structure, whose properties can be tailored to a particular waste element and to conditions of a specific disposal site. A ceramic tailored for waste disposal called supercalcine-ceramic has been developed. It was emphasized that the best minerals for waste solidification may be those that have proved most stable under natural conditions over geologic time. Disadvantage to ceramics are radiation damage and transmutation. However, it is now obvious that some ceramics are more stable than glass under certain conditions. Metal-encapsulated ceramic, called cermet, is being developed as a waste form. Cermets are considerably more resistant at 100 0 C than a borosilicate waste glass. Researchers are now testing prospective waste forms under the most extreme conditions that might prevail in a waste disposal site

  20. Investigation of amorphous and crystalline phosphates in magnesium phosphate ceramics with solid-state H-1 and P-31 NMR spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Viani, Alberto; Mali, G.; Mácová, Petra

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 8 (2017), s. 6571-6579 ISSN 0272-8842 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1219 Keywords : sol-gel processes * spectroscopy * MgO * chemically-bonded ceramics Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials OBOR OECD: Materials engineering Impact factor: 2.986, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S027288421730278X

  1. Characterization of magnesium phosphate ceramics incorporating off-gas filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jae Hwan; Lee, Chang Hwa; Heo, Chul Min; Jeon, Min Ku; Kang, Kweon Ho

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive cesium (Cs-137) and technetium (Tc-99) are discharged from the spent fuel as gaseous forms during the head-end process in pyroprocess. These off-gases are safely trapped via porous ceramic filters made of fly ash and calcium based material. Spent filters have to be treated, converted into proper waste forms in order to be disposed safely at a repository. Conventional technology used to make waste forms such as vitrification requires high temperature and complex process. In this study, we report a promising method to stabilize spent filters containing cesium and technetium using magnesium phosphate ceramics. Simulated spent filters were fabricated by vaporizing nonradioactive cesium and rhenium (a surrogate of Tc) through the voloxidizer. The crushed filters were mixed with raw materials of magnesium phosphate ceramics, to be stabilized in the phosphate ceramic matrix. Characterization of the waste forms was made by the compressive strength test, apparent porosity, XRD analysis, and SEM analysis. The sample containing filters showed the excellent mechanical property, with the highest compressive strength of 38.1 MPa in the sample with 30 wt% of Cs-filter. Microstructural analysis suggests that wastes are embedded in the crystalline phase formed by an acid-base reaction. (author)

  2. Experimental determination of the speciation, partitioning, and release of perrhenate as a chemical surrogate for pertechnetate from a sodalite-bearing multiphase ceramic waste form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, Eric M.; Lukens, Wayne W.; Fitts, Jeff. P.; Jantzen, Carol. M.; Tang, G.

    2013-12-01

    A key component to closing the nuclear fuel cycle is the storage and disposition of nuclear waste in geologic systems. Multiphase ceramic waste forms have been studied extensively as a potential host matrix for nuclear waste. Understanding the speciation, partitioning, and release behavior of radionuclides immobilized in multiphase ceramic waste forms is a critical aspect of developing the scientific and technical basis for nuclear waste management. In this study, we evaluated a sodalite-bearing multiphase ceramic waste form (i.e., fluidized-bed steam reform sodium aluminosilicate [FBSR NAS] product) as a potential host matrix for long-lived radionuclides, such as technetium (99Tc). The FBSR NAS material consists primarily of nepheline (ideally NaAlSiO4), anion-bearing sodalites (ideally M8[Al6Si6O24]X2, where M refers to alkali and alkaline earth cations and X refers to monovalent anions), and nosean (ideally Na8[AlSiO4]6SO4). Bulk X-ray absorption fine structure analysis of the multiphase ceramic waste form, suggest rhenium (Re) is in the Re(VII) oxidation state and has partitioned to a Re-bearing sodalite phase (most likely a perrhenate sodalite Na8[Al6Si6O24](ReO4)2). Rhenium was added as a chemical surrogate for 99Tc during the FBSR NAS synthesis process. The weathering behavior of the FBSR NAS material was evaluated under hydraulically unsaturated conditions with deionized water at 90 ?C. The steady-state Al, Na, and Si concentrations suggests the weathering mechanisms are consistent with what has been observed for other aluminosilicate minerals and include a combination of ion exchange, network hydrolysis, and the formation of an enriched-silica surface layer or phase. The steady-state S and Re concentrations are within an order of magnitude of the nosean and perrhenate sodalite solubility, respectively. The order of magnitude difference between the observed and predicted concentration for Re and S may be associated with the fact that the anion

  3. Analysis of the possibility of isolation of radioactive wastes of Chernobyl nuclear power plant into the deep drills of the Korosten crystalline rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shestopalov, V.; Kedrovsky, O.; Shishits, I.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of the offered research: - investigation and proving the possibility to isolate the radioactive wastes (RAW), that were created as a result of the Chernobyl accident, its operation, and shutting down, by placing the wastes into the chinks of the depth up to 4 km. The chinks are supposed to be made in the crystalline rocks of the Korosten massif located near of the Chernobyl NPP. - developing of the basis of the technology and fulfilling the designing work for isolation the RAW in the deep chinks. The basic aims of the researches of the project are the following : Finding out the location of a suitable place. The Ukraine plate's territory (having non-deep occurrences of the crystalline rocks that are minimally subjected to the tectonic destroying), near of the Chernobyl NPP, would be investigated. To solve the problem , the decoding of the aero- and space-photos, geophysical and indicating works, testing drilling of non-deep chinks, and testing works in it have to be done. So, during of the carrying out the project , the following points would be developed: - the geological grounds for creating the RAW isolating system in the deep chinks (taking the conditions at the Nuclear Power Plant), - the best design of the deep chink, - the technology of isolating the RAW in the deep chinks, - the requirements on the monitoring, - the estimations of the ecological safety and efficiency of the chink type systems for RAW isolating

  4. A low-temperature process for the denitration of Hanford single-shell tank, nitrate-based waste utilizing the nitrate to ammonia and ceramic (NAC) process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattus, A.J.; Lee, D.D.; Dillow, T.A.; Farr, L.L.; Loghry, S.L.; Pitt, W.W.; Gibson, M.R.

    1994-12-01

    Bench-top feasibility studies with Hanford single-shell tank (SST) simulants, using a new, low-temperature (50 to 60C) process for converting nitrate to ammonia and ceramic (NAC), have conclusively shown that between 85 to 99% of the nitrate can be readily converted. In this process, aluminum powders or shot can be used to convert alkaline, nitrate-based supernate to ammonia and an aluminum oxide-sodium aluminate-based solid which might function as its own waste form. The process may actually be able to utilize already contaminated aluminum scrap metal from various DOE sites to effect the conversion. The final, nearly nitrate-free ceramic-like product can be pressed and sintered like other ceramics. Based upon the starting volumes of 6.2 and 3.1 M sodium nitrate solution, volume reductions of 50 to 55% were obtained for the waste form produced, compared to an expected 35 to 50% volume increase if the Hanford supernate were grouted. Engineering data extracted from bench-top studies indicate that the process will be very economical to operate, and data were used to cost a batch, 1,200-kg NO 3 /h plant for working off Hanford SST waste over 20 years. Their total process cost analysis presented in the appendix, indicates that between $2.01 to 2.66 per kilogram of nitrate converted will be required. Additionally, data on the fate of select radioelements present in solution are presented in this report as well as kinetic, operational, and control data for a number of experiments. Additionally, if the ceramic product functions as its own waste form, it too will offer other cost savings associated with having a smaller volume of waste form as well as eliminating other process steps such as grouting

  5. For production of ceramic plates coating using waste kaolin, granite and marble; Caracterizacao de residuos de caulim, granito e marmore para uso em massas ceramicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sales, J.L.; Morais, C.R.S.; Lima, L.M.R.; Altidis, M.E.D., E-mail: josyanne27@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The objective is to benefit and characterize waste from kaolin, marble and granite studying their thermal properties and spectroscopic in employment perspective on ceramic production of flooring boards. The residues were benefited through the process of dry grinding mill in greyhounds and passed through sieve 0.074 mm (ABNT No. 200), observing their suitability for the formulation of ceramic pastes. Tests were performed physicochemical characterization (particle size analysis, X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction) and thermal (differential thermal analysis and thermogravimetry). The results showed that these residues showed satisfactory properties for the purpose for which it proposes, and contribute to reducing environmental impacts, allowing the reuse of the production of ceramic plates (author)

  6. Use of ornamental rock waste to fabricate rustic ceramic tile: industrial test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco, A.T.; Monteiro, S.N.

    2011-01-01

    This work has as its objective to produce rustic wall tiles with the use of a waste from the sawing of gnaisse rock mixed with kaolinitic replacing sand. Compositions were prepared using clay, sand and waste, The wall tiles were fire in a industrial dome type furnace at 850 deg C.The physical and mechanical properties determined were water absorption and flexural rupture strength. The results indicated that the waste did not improve the evaluated properties by replacing sand. This is mainly due to the low temperature used in the experiment. (author)

  7. Obtaining and characterizing waste from red ceramics submitted to different conditions of burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, N.L.; Nascimento, R.L.P do; Ferreira, H.S.; Macedo, D.A. de; Dutra, R.P.S.

    2014-01-01

    One of the present industrial wastes generated in large quantities is the residue from the burning of the clay industry products, whether for breach of these products or are outside the technical specification. In this paper an analysis of the waste products produced in the laboratory under different thermal processing conditions, with varying firing temperatures of 500, 700, 900 and 1100 ° C was performed. The residues were characterized by X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis. The results show that the firing conditions influence the generated phases and thermal behavior of waste, which must have specific applications for their use. (author)

  8. Study of powellite-rich glass-ceramics for nuclear waste immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taurines, T.

    2012-01-01

    MoO 3 is poorly soluble in borosilicate glasses which can lead to the crystallization of undesired phases when its concentration or the charge load (minor actinides and fission products concentration) is too high. Crystallization control is needed to guarantee good immobilization properties. We studied powellite-rich glass-ceramics obtained from a simplified nuclear glass in the system SiO 2 - B 2 O 3 - Na 2 O - CaO - Al 2 O 3 - MoO 3 - RE 2 O 3 (RE = Gd, Eu, Nd) by various heat treatments. Rare earth elements (REE) were added as minor actinides surrogates and as spectroscopic probes. The influence of MoO 3 and RE 2 O 3 content on powellite (CaMoO 4 ) crystallization was investigated. Various glass-ceramics (similar residual glass + powellite) were obtained with large crystal size distributions. Phase separation due to molybdenum occurs during quenching when [MoO 3 ] ≥ 2.5 mol%. We showed that increasing the rare earth content can suppress the phase separation due to molybdenum but it leads to spinodal decomposition of the residual glass. Furthermore, we studied the effects of parent glass complexifying and the insertion of Gd 3+ ions into the powellite structure. In order to understand the influence of microstructure on evolutions under β-irradiation, we studied point defects creation and structural changes. We showed that the damage induced by electronic excitations in the glass-ceramics is driven by the damage in the residual glass. (author) [fr

  9. Novel Ceramic-Polymer Composite Membranes for the Separation of Hazardous Liquid Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoram Cohen

    2001-12-01

    The present project was conceived to address the need for robust yet selective membranes suitable for operating in harsh ph, solvent, and temperature environments. An important goal of the project was to develop a membrane chemical modification technology that would allow one to tailor-design membranes for targeted separation tasks. The method developed in the present study is based on the process of surface graft polymerization. Using essentially the same base technology of surface modification the research was aimed at demonstrating that improved membranes can be designed for both pervaporation separation and ultrafiltration. In the case of pervaporation, the present study was the first to demonstrate that pervaporation can be achieved with ceramic support membranes modified with an essentially molecular layer of terminally anchored polymer chains. The main advantage of the above approach, relative to other proposed membranes, is that the separating polymer layer is covalently attached to the ceramic support. Therefore, such membranes have a potential use in organic-organic separations where the polymer can swell significantly yet membrane robustness is maintained due to the chemical linkage of the chains to be inorganic support. The above membrane technology was also useful in developing fouling resistant ultrafiltration membranes. The prototype membrane developed in the project was evaluated for the treatment of oil-in-water microemulsions, demonstrating lack of irreversible fouling common with commercial membranes.

  10. Crystallization kinetics of magnetic glass-ceramics prepared by the processing of waste materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, A.A.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the present investigation was to study the feasibility of conversion of an intimate mixture of blast furnace slag and blast furnace flue dust generated by a single industrial company into magnetic glass-ceramic product. Blast furnace slag (BFS) and blast furnace flue dust (BFD) are generated at a rate of 300,000 and 30,000 tons/year, respectively, from iron and steel factory. The crystallization mechanisms of a composition containing BFS and BFD in a 50/50 proportion were investigated by differential thermal analysis (DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The crystallization temperature was found to vary from 900 to 1100 deg. C and two phases appeared in the crystallized samples: pyroxene Ca(Mg, Fe, Al)(Si, Al) 2 O 6 and magnetite/maghemite. Heating rate and particle sizes effects on crystal growth of powdered samples were studied by DTA. The apparent activation energy of crystal growth using the particle size 180-315 μm was determined to be 355 and 329 kJ/mol for the first and second peak, respectively. The presence of sharp and broad crystallization peaks indicate simultaneous surface and internal crystallization mechanism. Good wear resistance and chemical durability particularly in alkaline environment, combine with good hardness and magnetic properties make this glass-ceramic material potentially useful for various industrial applications

  11. Assessment pozzolanicity waste red ceramics produced in Valley Assu / RN; Avaliacao da atividade pozolanica dos residuos de ceramica vermelha produzidos no Vale do Assu / RN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palhares, Rodolfo de Azevedo; Pereira, Arthur Ruan da Silva; Cabral, Kleber Cavalcanti; Nobrega, Andreza Kelly Costa, E-mail: rodolfo.palhares@hotmail.com, E-mail: arthurruan_rn@hotmail.com, E-mail: kleber.cabral@ufersa.edu.br, E-mail: akcn123@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Arido (UFERSA), Mossoro, RN (Brazil). Departamento de Ciencias Exatas

    2016-07-01

    It is known that both the cement industry as a ceramist contribute much to the generation of environmental impacts. Be the Co2 in the atmosphere, as well as the generation of excessive waste, reaching 20%. The objective of this study is to analyze the potential pozollanic of waste from the red ceramic industries Valley Assu / RN, in order that this material can be incorporated as alternative raw material in the manufacture of ecological and similar brick, replacing partially in its composition Portland cement. Thus contributing to reducing the environmental impact produced by both the ceramics industry, such as cement. To evaluate the efficiency of pozollanic material, it was made sample preparation and then the physico-chemical characterization. After performing tests, it was noticed that the material has the minimum requirements established in standard to be considered as pozollanic material. (author)

  12. Effect of porcelain polishing addition of waste in properties blocks ceramic; Efeito da adicao do residuo de polimento de porcelanato nas propriedades de blocos ceramicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana, G.L.; Barbosa Neto, M.C.; Campos, L.F.; Macedo, D.A; Dutra, R.P.S., E-mail: geovanalira1@gmail.com [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), PB (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    This work has as objective the study of the technological properties of ceramic blocks with addition of residue porcelain polishing. The test samples are produced with clay base, where the waste is introduced in concentrations of 10% and 20% by mass, to evaluate its influence on the properties of the ceramic block. All these materials were characterized by determining their chemical composition (XRF) and X-ray diffraction Sintering was performed at temperatures of 850 ° C, 950 ° C and 1100 ° C with a heating rate of 2 ° C / me and 60 minutes of landing. After this, there was obtained the technological properties of the samples such as: Loss on fire, the burning linear shrinkage, water absorption, porosity and density, as well as, mechanical strength properties through the flexural strength test. The results show that the addition of waste influenced both the technological properties, the mechanical properties evaluated in this study. (author)

  13. Thermodynamic properties of chemical species in nuclear waste: Topical report: The solubilities of crystalline neodymium and americium trihydroxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, R.J.

    1982-12-01

    The solubilities of crystalline Nd(OH) 3 and Am(OH) 3 were measured at 25 +- 1 0 C in aqueous solutions of 0.1 M NaClO 4 under argon as a function of pH by determination of the solution concentrations of Nd and Am. Prior to use in the solubility measurements, the solid materials were characterized through their x-ray powder patterns. Analyses of the solubility data with the computer code MINEQL allowed estimates of the solubility product constants, K/sub s10/, and the second and third hydrolysis constants, K 12 and K 13 , for Nd 3+ and Am 3+ . Upper limits for the fourth hydrolysis constants were also estimated. For Nd, they are: log K/sub s10/ = 16.0 +- .2, log K 12 = -15.8 +- .5, log K 13 = -23.9 +- .2 and log K 14 12 = -16.0 +- .7, log K 13 = -24.3 +- .3 and log K 14 3 was found to be a factor of 100 to 300 less soluble than predicted from previously reported thermodynamic data over much of the pH range of environmental interest. The measured solubility of crystalline Am(OH) 3 was also considerably less than predicted from the previously estimated solubility product constant, i.e., a factor of about 600. For Am, the solubility of the crystalline material was a factor of about 30 less than the amorphous material. The solubilities of crystalline Nd(OH) 3 and Am(OH) 3 as a function of pH were found to be very similar and Nd(OH) 3 should be a good analog compound for Am(OH) 3

  14. Ceramic and mixed construction and demolition wastes (CDW): a technically viable and environmentally friendly source of coarse aggregates for the concrete manufacture

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, Desirée

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, it is widely recognized that construction and demolition wastes (CDW) pose a significant environmental problem. However, in spite of the interest that the topic of their reutilization in the construction industry has aroused among worldwide researchers, the actual practice regarding the use of recycled aggregates from CDW is limited to low level applications (mostly as unbound materials). This fact is especially true for recycled aggregates containing ceramic materials, which are co...

  15. Use of natural aluminosilicates and porous ceramic materials for the inclusion of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarev, L.N.; Shashukov, E.A.; Kuznetsov, Yu.V.; Lyubtsev, R.I.

    1979-01-01

    Data on using the porous inorganic materials, such as diatomite and shamote, for the incorporation of radioactive wastes are presented. In laboratory-scale experiments on simulated liquid wastes it has been shown that the operations of solution absorption by porous materials, drying and calcination of salts in pores, and the subsequent conversion into glassy phosphate-silicate products seem to be promising from a technological point of view. This product is characterized by a sodium leaching rate of the order of 10 -5 g/cm 2 . d and good resistance to crystallization. The content of various oxides in the wastes can attain 15 to 20 wt %. The data on the dependence of plasticity and open porosity of the clay-like products on Na 2 O, SrO, ZrO 2 , and MnO 2 content are also given. 3 figures, 3 tables

  16. Research On Stabilization Of Radioactive Waste By Method Of SYNROCK Ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Hoang Lan; Nguyen Ba Tien; Vuong Huu Anh; Nguyen An Thai

    2014-01-01

    Separate phases from SYNROC polyphases ceramic were investigated to fabricate completely SYNROC and the distribution of stable isotopes (Sr) in SYNROC matrix was surveyed simultaneously with leaching test. The experimental conditions: 13.5 x 11mm pressed pellet SYNROC with pressure of 2.5 - 3 tons/cm 2 , sintering temperature t tk = 1250 o C, thermal lifting velocity v t = 20 o C/min with 2 hours prolongation in 1250 o C, Sr loading amount was 7% mole, the results showed that pellets contain 3 phases perovskite CaTiO 3 , zirconolite CaZrTi 2 O 7 , hollandite BaAl 2 Ti 6 O 16 with average density of 4.1 g/cm 3 , leaching rate R (g/m 2 .d) of 10 -6 , 10 -5 for Ti, Sr respectively. (author)

  17. FEBEX project: full-scale engineered barriers experiment for a deep geological repository for high level radioactive waste in crystalline host rock. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberdi, J.; Barcala, J. M.; Campos, R.; Cuevas, A. M.; Fernandez, E.

    2000-01-01

    FEBEX has the multiple objective of demonstrating the feasibility of manufacturing, handling and constructing the engineered barriers and of developing codes for the thermo-hydro-mechanical and thermo-hydro-geochemical performance assessment of a deep geological repository for high level radioactive wastes. These objectives require integrated theoretical and experimental development work. The experimental work consists of three parts: an in situ test, a mock-up test and a series of laboratory tests. The experiments is based on the Spanish reference concept for crystalline rock, in which the waste capsules are placed horizontally in drifts surround by high density compacted bentonite blocks. In the two large-scale tests, the thermal effects of the wastes were simulated by means of heaters; hydration was natural in the in situ test and controlled in the mock-up test. The large-scale tests, with their monitoring systems, have been in operation for more than two years. the demonstration has been achieved in the in situ test and there are great expectation that numerical models sufficiently validated for the near-field performance assessment will be achieved. (Author)

  18. FEBEX project: full-scale engineered barriers experiment for a deep geological repository for high level radioactive waste in crystalline host rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberid, J; Barcala, J M; Campos, R; Cuevas, A M; Fernandez, E [Ciemat. Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    FEBEX has the multiple objective of demonstrating the feasibility of manufacturing, handling and constructing the engineered barriers and of developing codes for the thermo-hydro-mechanical and thermo-hydro-geochemical performance assessment of a deep geological repository for high level radioactive wastes. These objectives require integrated theoretical and experimental development work. The experimental work consists of three parts: an in situ test, a mock-up test and a series of laboratory tests. The experiments is based on the Spanish reference concept for crystalline rock, in which the waste capsules are placed horizontally in drifts surround by high density compacted bentonite blocks. In the two large-scale tests, the thermal effects of the wastes were simulated by means of heaters; hydration was natural in the in situ test and controlled in the mock-up test. The large-scale tests, with their monitoring systems, have been in operation for more than two years. the demonstration has been achieved in the in situ test and there are great expectation that numerical models sufficiently validated for the near-field performance assessment will be achieved. (Author)

  19. Waste conversion into high-value ceramics: Carbothermal nitridation synthesis of titanium nitride nanoparticles using automotive shredder waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayyas, Mohannad; Pahlevani, Farshid; Maroufi, Samane; Liu, Zhao; Sahajwalla, Veena

    2017-03-01

    Environmental concern about automotive shredder residue (ASR) has increased in recent years due to its harmful content of heavy metals. Although several approaches of ASR management have been suggested, these approaches remain commercially unproven. This study presents an alternative approach for ASR management where advanced materials can be generated as a by-product. In this approach, titanium nitride (TiN) has been thermally synthesized by nitriding pressed mixture of automotive shredder residue (ASR) and titanium oxide (TiO 2 ). Interactions between TiO 2 and ASR at non-isothermal conditions were primarily investigated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry. Results indicated that TiO 2 influences and catalyses degradation reactions of ASR, and the temperature, at which reduction starts, was determined around 980 °C. The interaction between TiO 2 and ASR at isothermal conditions in the temperature range between 1200 and 1550 °C was also studied. The pressed mixture of both materials resulted in titanium nitride (TiN) ceramic at all given temperatures. Formation kinetics were extracted using several models for product layer diffusion-controlled solid-solid and solid-fluid reactions. The effect of reactants ratio and temperature on the degree of conversion and morphology was investigated. The effect of reactants ratio was found to have considerable effect on the morphology of the resulting material, while temperature had a lesser impact. Several unique structures of TiN (porous nanostructured, polycrystalline, micro-spherical and nano-sized structures) were obtained by simply tuning the ratio of TiO 2 to ASR, and a product with appreciable TiN content of around 85% was achieved after only one hour nitridation at 1550 °C. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Production of coloured glass-ceramics from incinerator ash using thermal plasma technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, T W; Huang, M Z; Tzeng, C C; Cheng, K B; Ueng, T H

    2007-08-01

    Incineration is a major treatment process for municipal solid waste in Taiwan. It is estimated that over 1.5 Mt of incinerator ash are produced annually. This study proposes using thermal plasma technology to treat incinerator ash. Sintered glass-ceramics were produced using quenched vitrified slag with colouring agents added. The experimental results showed that the major crystalline phases developed in the sintered glass-ceramics were gehlenite and wollastonite, but many other secondary phases also appeared depending on the colouring agents added. The physical/mechanical properties, chemical resistance and toxicity characteristic leaching procedure of the coloured glass-ceramics were satisfactory. The glass-ceramic products obtained from incinerator ash treated with thermal plasma technology have great potential for building applications.

  1. The production of advanced glass ceramic HLW forms using cold crucible induction melter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutledge, V.J.; Maio, V.

    2013-01-01

    Cold Crucible Induction Melters (CCIM) will favorably change how High-Level radioactive Waste (from nuclear fuel recovery) is treated in a near future. Unlike the existing Joule-Heated Melters (JHM) currently in operation for the glass-based immobilization of High-Level Waste (HLW), CCIM offers unique material features that will increase melt temperatures, increase throughput, increase mixing, increase loading in the waste form, lower melter foot prints, eliminate melter corrosion and lower costs. These features not only enhance the technology for producing HLW forms, but also provide advantageous attributes to the waste form by allowing more durable alternatives to glass. It is concluded that glass ceramic waste forms that are tailored to immobilize fission products of HLW can be can be made from the HLW processed with the CCIM. The advantageous higher temperatures reached with the CCIM and unachievable with JHM allows the lanthanides, alkali, alkaline earths, and molybdenum to dissolve into a molten glass. Upon controlled cooling they go into targeted crystalline phases to form a glass ceramic waste form with higher waste loadings than achievable with borosilicate glass waste forms. Natural cooling proves to be too fast for the formation of all targeted crystalline phases

  2. Compatibility tests of materials for a prototype ceramic melter for defense glass-waste products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicks, G.G.

    1979-01-01

    Objective is to evaluate the corrosion/erosion resistance of melter materials. Materials tested were Monofrox K3 and E, Serv, Inconel 690, Pt, and SnO. Results show that Inconel 690 is the leading electrode material and Monofrox K3 the leading refractory candidate. Melter lifetime is estimated to be 2 to 5 years for defense waste

  3. Experimental determination of the speciation, partitioning, and release of perrhenate as a chemical surrogate for pertechnetate from a sodalite-bearing multiphase ceramic waste form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, E.M.; Lukens, W.W.; Fitts, J.P.; Jantzen, C.M.; Tang, G.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Multiphase ceramic waste form is composed of primarily of nepheline, nosean, and sodalite. • Rhenium is in the 7+ oxidation state and has partitioned to a mixed Re-bearing sodalite phase. • Mechanism of corrosion for the multiphase matrix is similar to other silicate minerals. • A mixed-anion sodalite phases controls Re release in the multiphase waste forms. - Abstract: A key component to closing the nuclear fuel cycle is the storage and disposition of nuclear waste in geologic systems. Multiphase ceramic waste forms have been studied extensively as a potential host matrix for nuclear waste. Understanding the speciation, partitioning, and release behavior of radionuclides immobilized in multiphase ceramic waste forms is a critical aspect of developing the scientific and technical basis for nuclear waste management. In this study, we evaluated a sodalite-bearing multiphase ceramic waste form (i.e., fluidized-bed steam reform sodium aluminosilicate [FBSR NAS] product) as a potential host matrix for long-lived radionuclides, such as technetium ( 99 Tc). The FBSR NAS material consists primarily of nepheline (ideally NaAlSiO 4 ), anion-bearing sodalites (ideally M 8 [Al 6 Si 6 O 24 ]X 2 , where M refers to alkali and alkaline earth cations and X refers to monovalent anions), and nosean (ideally Na 8 [AlSiO 4 ] 6 SO 4 ). Bulk X-ray absorption fine structure analysis of the multiphase ceramic waste form, suggest rhenium (Re) is in the Re(VII) oxidation state and has partitioned to a Re-bearing sodalite phase (most likely a perrhenate sodalite Na 8 [Al 6 Si 6 O 24 ](ReO 4 ) 2 ). Rhenium was added as a chemical surrogate for 99 Tc during the FBSR NAS synthesis process. The weathering behavior of the FBSR NAS material was evaluated under hydraulically unsaturated conditions with deionized water at 90 °C. The steady-state Al, Na, and Si concentrations suggests the weathering mechanisms are consistent with what has been observed for other aluminosilicate

  4. Investigating in vitro bioactivity and magnetic properties of the ferrimagnetic bioactive glass–ceramic fabricated using soda-lime–silica waste glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasi, M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Engineering, Shiraz University, Zand Street, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hashemi, B., E-mail: hashemib@shirazu.ac.ir [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Engineering, Shiraz University, Zand Street, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shokrollahi, H. [Electroceramics Group, Materials Science and Engineering Department, Shiraz University of Technology, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-04-01

    The main purpose of the current research is the production and characterization of a ferrimagnetic bioactive glass–ceramic prepared through the solid-state reaction method using soda-lime–silica waste glass as the main raw material. In comparison with the conventional route, that is, the melt-quenching and subsequent heat treatment, the present work is an economical technique. Structural, thermal and magnetic properties of the samples were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The in vitro test was utilized to assess the bioactivity level of the samples by Hanks' solution as simulated body fluid (SBF). The apatite surface layer formation was examined by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The calcium ion concentration in the solutions was measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). VSM results revealed that with the addition of 5–20 wt% strontium hexaferrite to bioactive glass–ceramics, the ferrimagnetic bioactive glass–ceramics with hysteresis losses between 7024 and 75,852 erg/g were obtained. The in vitro test showed that the onset formation time of hydroxyapatite layer on the surface of the samples was 14 days and after 30 days, this layer was completed. - Highlights: • A novel ferrimagnetic bioactive glass–ceramic was synthesized by an incorporation method. • The bioactive part was synthesized by the solid-state reaction method using soda-lime–silica waste glass. • The doping of SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} to Bioglass{sup ®} 45S5 glass–ceramic is likely to decrease bioactivity.

  5. Summary of northern Atlantic coastal plain hydrology and its relation to disposal of high-level radioactive waste in buried crystalline rock; a preliminary appraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, O.B.; Larson, J.D.; Davis, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    Interpretation of available hydrologic data suggests that some areas beneath the Coastal Plain in the States of Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, North Carolina, and Virginia might have some potential for the disposal of nuclear waste in crystalline rock that is buried beneath the Coastal Plain sediments. The areas of major interest occur where the top of the basement rock lies between 1,000 and 4,000 feet below sea level, the aquifer(s) immediately above the basement rock are saturated with saline water, confining material overlies the saline water bearing aquifer(s), and groundwater flow in the saline water aquifer(s) can be established. Preliminary data on (1) the distribution and thickness of the lowermost aquifers and confining beds, (2) the distribution of hydraulic conductivity in the lowermost aquifers, (3) estimated hydraulic heads and inferred direction of lateral groundwater flow for 1980, and (4) the distribution of saline water and brine, indicate eastern parts of the study area relatively best meet most of the criteria proposed for sediments that would overlie any potential buried crystalline-rock disposal site.

  6. Off-gas characteristics of defense waste vitrification using liquid-fed Joule-heated ceramic melters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goles, R.W.; Sevigny, G.J.

    1983-09-01

    Off-gas and effluent characterization studies have been established as part of a PNL Liquid-Fed Ceramic Melter development program supporting the Savannah River Laboratory Defense Waste Processing Facility (SRL-DWPF). The objectives of these studies were to characterize the gaseous and airborne emission properties of liquid-fed joule-heated melters as a function of melter operational parameters and feed composition. All areas of off-gas interest and concern including effluent characterization, emission control, flow rate behavior and corrosion effects have been studied using alkaline and formic-acid based feed compositions. In addition, the behavioral patterns of gaseous emissions, the characteristics of melter-generated aerosols and the nature and magnitude of melter effluent losses have been established under a variety of feeding conditions with and without the use of auxiliary plenum heaters. The results of these studies have shown that particulate emissions are responsible for most radiologically important melter effluent losses. Melter-generated gases have been found to be potentially flammable as well as corrosive. Hydrogen and carbon monoxide present the greatest flammability hazard of the combustibles produced. Melter emissions of acidic volatile compounds of sulfur and the halogens have been responsible for extensive corrosion observed in melter plenums and in associated off-gas lines and processing equipment. The use of auxiliary plenum heating has had little effect upon melter off-gas characteristics other than reducing the concentrations of combustibles

  7. Review of radiation effects in solid-nuclear-waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, W.J.

    1981-09-01

    Radiation effects on the stability of high-level nuclear waste (HLW) forms are an important consideration in the development of technology to immobilize high-level radioactive waste because such effects may significantly affect the containment of the radioactive waste. Since the required containment times are long (10 3 to 10 6 years), an understanding of the long-term cumulative effects of radiation damage on the waste forms is essential. Radiation damage of nuclear waste forms can result in changes in volume, leach rate, stored energy, structure/microstructure, and mechanical properties. Any one or combination of these changes might significantly affect the long-term stability of the nuclear waste forms. This report defines the general radiation damage problem in nuclear waste forms, describes the simulation techniques currently available for accelerated testing of nuclear waste forms, and reviews the available data on radiation effects in both glass and ceramic (primarily crystalline) waste forms. 76 references

  8. Energy consumption analysis and simulation of waste heat recovery technology of ceramic rotary kiln

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiguang; Zhou, Yu; Qin, Chaokui; Zhang, Xuemei

    2018-03-01

    Ceramsite is widely used in the construction industry, insulation works and oil industry in China, and the manufacture equipment is mainly industrial kiln. In this paper, energy consumption analysis had been carried out through experimental test of a Ceramsite kiln in Henan province. Results showed that the discharge temperature of Ceramsite was about 1393K, and the waste heat accounted for 22.1% of the total energy consumption. A structure of cyclone preheater which recovered waste heat of the high temperature Ceramsite by blast cooling was designed. Then, using Fluent software, performance of the unit was simulated. The minimum temperature that Ceramsite could reach, heat dissipating capacity of Ceramsite, temperature at air outlet, wall temperature of the unit and pressure loss were analyzed. Performance of the designed unit under different inlet velocity was analyzed as well.

  9. Self-adapting metal-ceramic coating for biomass and waste incineration plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faulstich, Martin [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany); Fehr, Karl Thomas; Ye, Ya-Ping [Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ., Muenchen (Germany); Loeh, Ingrid; Mocker, Mario; Wolf, Gerhard [ATZ Entwicklungszentrum, Sulzbach-Rosenberg (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Thermally sprayed coatings might become a reasonable alternative to cost-intensive cladding of heat exchangers in biomass and waste incineration. Shortcomings of these coatings might be overcome by a double-layer system, consisting of Alloy 625 covered with yttria-stabilized zirconia. Under appropriate conditions, re-crystallized zirconium oxide and chromium oxide form a dense, self-adapting and self-healing barrier against further infiltration of gaseous species. (orig.)

  10. Description of station waste water treatment and study of reclaiming industry ceramic red

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadava, Y.P.; Rego, S.A.B.C.; Junior, B.S.; Bezerra, L.P.; Ferreira, R.A.S.

    2012-01-01

    So that the water meets potability standards required by the laws it passes through various treatment processes which generate waste called WTS (Water Treatment Sludge). This sludge is disposed of without any processing, however, environmental agencies and the public are demanding alternatives to this situation. Knowing this, this study aims to characterize the sludge from the Water Treatment Plant Botafogo and analyze its viability as a feedstock in the manufacture of red bricks. (author)

  11. Pilot-scale ceramic melter 1985-1986 rebuild: Nuclear Waste Treatment Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koegler, S.S.

    1987-07-01

    The pilot-scale ceramic melter (PSCM) was subsequently dismantled, and the damaged and corroded components were repaired or replaced. The PSCM rebuild ensures that the melter will be available for an additional three to five years of planned testing. An analysis of the corrosion products and the failed electrodes indicated that the electrode bus connection welds may have failed due to a combination of chemical and mechanical effects. The electrodes were replaced with a design similar to the original electrodes, but with improved electrical bus connections. The implications of the PSCM electrode corrosion evaluation are that, although Inconel 690 has excellent corrosion resistance to molten glass, corrosion at the melt line in stagnant regions is a significant concern. Functional changes made during the rebuild included increases in wall and floor insulation to better simulate well-insulated melters, a decrease in the lid height for more prototypical plenum and off-gas conditions, and installation of an Inconel 690 trough and dam to improve glass pouring and prevent glass seepage. 9 refs., 33 figs., 5 tabs

  12. Fragmentation process of vitrified ceramic waste (VCW) aiming its incorporation in silico-aluminous refractory concrete for production of refractory bricks; Processo de fragmentacao de residuos ceramicos vitrificados (RCV) visando sua incorporacao em concreto refratario silico-aluminoso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, L.B.; Brandalise, R.N.; Santos, V. dos, E-mail: lbgomes@ucs.br [Universidade de Caxias do Sul (UCS), RS (Brazil); Bergmann, C.P. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), RS (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Ceramic industry generates large amounts of waste, usually disposed in landfills. Reuse could minimize their generation and provides sustainable solutions. However, the energy cost of grinding these waste becomes a hindrance to their reuse. This work aims to obtain particle sizes of vitrified ceramic waste (VCW) using a fast, efficient and low cost fragmentation process as well as its use in refractory concrete. The results shows a wide range of particle size of VCW, which can be used as a promising source of raw material for production of refractory concrete. (author)

  13. Standard test methods for determining chemical durability of nuclear, hazardous, and mixed waste glasses and multiphase glass ceramics: The product consistency test (PCT)

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 These product consistency test methods A and B evaluate the chemical durability of homogeneous glasses, phase separated glasses, devitrified glasses, glass ceramics, and/or multiphase glass ceramic waste forms hereafter collectively referred to as “glass waste forms” by measuring the concentrations of the chemical species released to a test solution. 1.1.1 Test Method A is a seven-day chemical durability test performed at 90 ± 2°C in a leachant of ASTM-Type I water. The test method is static and conducted in stainless steel vessels. Test Method A can specifically be used to evaluate whether the chemical durability and elemental release characteristics of nuclear, hazardous, and mixed glass waste forms have been consistently controlled during production. This test method is applicable to radioactive and simulated glass waste forms as defined above. 1.1.2 Test Method B is a durability test that allows testing at various test durations, test temperatures, mesh size, mass of sample, leachant volume, a...

  14. The technical ceramics (second part)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auclerc, S.; Poulain, E.

    2004-01-01

    This work deals with ceramics used in the nuclear and the automotive industries. Concerning the nuclear sector, ceramics are particularly used in reactors, in the treatment of radioactive wastes and for the storage of the ultimate wastes. Details are given about the different ceramics used. In the automobile sector, aluminium is principally used for its lightness and cordierite, basic material of catalyst supports is especially used in the automobile devices of cleansing. (O.M.)

  15. Effect of sintering temperature on the microstructure and properties of foamed glass-ceramics prepared from high-titanium blast furnace slag and waste glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chang-hong; Feng, Ke-qin; Zhou, Yu; Zhou, Hong-ling

    2017-08-01

    Foamed glass-ceramics were prepared via a single-step sintering method using high-titanium blast furnace slag and waste glass as the main raw materials The influence of sintering temperature (900-1060°C) on the microstructure and properties of foamed glass-ceramics was studied. The results show that the crystal shape changed from grainy to rod-shaped and finally turned to multiple shapes as the sintering temperature was increased from 900 to 1060°C. With increasing sintering temperature, the average pore size of the foamed glass-ceramics increased and subsequently decreased. By contrast, the compressive strength and the bulk density decreased and subsequently increased. An excessively high temperature, however, induced the coalescence of pores and decreased the compressive strength. The optimal properties, including the highest compressive strength (16.64 MPa) among the investigated samples and a relatively low bulk density (0.83 g/cm3), were attained in the case of the foamed glass-ceramics sintered at 1000°C.

  16. Mechanical and trybological characterization of ceramic materials obtained of mine solid wastes; Caracterizacion mecanica y tribologica de materiales ceramicos obtenidos de residuos solidos mineros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto T, J.L

    2003-07-01

    A discussion of the physical, mechanical and tribological characterization of the ceramics Jaar, Jaca and Vijaar is presented in this work. They have been obtained from the industrial residuals, coming from metals and sand of the mining industry in Pachuca Hidalgo, Mexico. The methodology followed for the obtention and characterization of these ceramics consists on eliminating the cyanides from the tailings through columns coupled with a system controlled with thermostats. Then, the chemical composition is analysed with spectrometry emission of plasma and scanning electronic microscopy. Then the ceramics are produced. The base material is agglutinated with clay or kaolin. For this purpose, it was used a sintering processes and isothermal compacting in hot condition. Finally, the physical, chemical, mechanical and tribological properties of these new products are determined. Carbon, oxygen, sodium, magnesium, aluminium, manganese, silicon, potassium, phosphor, calcium, titanium, iron, molybdenum, silver and gold are in the chemical composition or ceramic analysed. Also these are heterogeneous mixture of clay and kaolin. The cyanide was eliminated. The results show that Vijaar has better wear resistances to the waste; this was demonstrated in tribology tests. They were not perforated with the abrasive particles. Also, they have high hardness and they can to support more loads in compression than Jaar and the Jaca. Consequently, they are less fragile and, therefore, they can tolerate bending stresses and bigger impact loading. (Author)

  17. Use of glass-ceramic materials for the fixation of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minaev, A.A.; Oziraner, S.N.; Prokhorova, N.P.

    1979-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the study of the crystallization of phosphate and silicate glasses. It was shown that temperature and time of storage influence considerably the crystallization of glasses and that crystallization very often increases their rates of leaching to a great extent. However, there are glasses in which crystallization does not result in leaching rate increase. It seems reasonable to use these materials for the fixation of radioactive wastes. The main reasons for the increase in the leaching rate during crystallization are the formation of porosity and soluble crystal phases

  18. Study of the possibilities of radioactive waste storage in crystalline formations. Investigation by deep drilling of the Auriat granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Various and complex scientific problems are raised in many areas by the disposal of radioactive waste in geological formations. Research works are therefore numerous, and are carried out in four basic areas: - improvement of the knowledge of geological media; - characterization of their behaviour vis a vis radioactive waste; - design of deep repositories; - long-term safety assessment of the selected disposal strategies. Aim of the present research is to develop a methodology for investigating granite formations at great depth, in order to characterize their internal structure, and to acquire data about the various physical properties of granite. This research therefore covers the first basic aspect. These goals were obtained by continuous core-drilling of two vertical boreholes at 10m pitch. The main borehole was drilled down to 1003.15m deep, the second one was stopped at 504.40m deep

  19. Radionuclide Incorporation in Secondary Crystalline Minerals Resulting from Chemical Weathering of Selected Waste Glasses: Progress Report: Task kd.5b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Legore, Virginia L.; Parker, Kent E.; Orr, Robert D.; McCready, David E.; )

    2003-01-01

    Experiments were conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to evaluate potential incorporation of radionuclides in secondary mineral phases that form from weathering vitrified nuclear waste glasses. These experiments were conducted as part of the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste-Performance Assessment (ILAW-PA) to generate data on radionuclide mobilization and transport in a near-field environment of disposed vitrified wastes. The results of these experiments demonstrated that radionuclide sequestration can be significantly enhanced by promoting the formation of cage structured minerals such as sodalite from weathering glasses. These results have important implications regarding radionuclide sequestration/mobilization aspects that are not currently accounted for in the ILAW PA. Additional studies are required to confirm the results and to develop an improved understanding of the mechanisms of sequestration of radionuclides into the secondary and tertiary weathering products o f the ILAW glass to help refine how contaminants are released from the near-field disposal region out into the accessible environment. Of particular interest is to determine whether the contaminants remain sequestered in the glass weathering products for hundreds to thousands of years. If the sequestration can be shown to continue for long periods, another immobilization process can be added to the PA analysis and predicted risks should be lower than past predictions

  20. Cesium release from ceramic waste form materials in simulated canister corrosion product containing solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vittorio, Luca; Drabarek, Elizabeth; Chronis, Harriet; Griffith, Christopher S

    2004-07-01

    It has previously been demonstrated that immobilization of Cs{sup +} and/or Sr{sup 2+} sorbed on hexagonal tungsten oxide bronze (HTB) adsorbent materials can be achieved by heating the materials in air at temperatures in the range 500 - 1300 deg C. Highly crystalline powdered HTB materials formed by heating at 800 deg C show leach characteristics comparable to Cs-containing hot-pressed hollandites in the pH range from 0 to 12. As a very harsh leaching test, and also to model in a basic manner, leaching in the presence of canister corrosion products in oxidising environments, leaching of the bronzoid phases has been undertaken in Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} solutions of increasing concentration. This is done in comparison with Cs -hollandite materials in order to compare the leaching characteristics of these two materials under such conditions. Both the Cs-loaded bronze and hollandite materials leach severely in Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} losing virtually all of the immobilized Cs in a period of four days at 150 deg C. Total release of Cs and conversion of hollandite to titanium and iron titanium oxides begins to be observed at relatively low concentrations and is virtually complete after four days reaction in 0.5 mol/L Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}. In the case of the bronze, all of the Cs is also extracted but the HTB structure is preserved. The reaction presumably involves an ion-exchange mechanism and iron oxide with a spinel structure is also observed at high Fe concentrations. (authors)

  1. Cesium release from ceramic waste form materials in simulated canister corrosion product containing solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vittorio, Luca; Drabarek, Elizabeth; Chronis, Harriet; Griffith, Christopher S.

    2004-01-01

    It has previously been demonstrated that immobilization of Cs + and/or Sr 2+ sorbed on hexagonal tungsten oxide bronze (HTB) adsorbent materials can be achieved by heating the materials in air at temperatures in the range 500 - 1300 deg C. Highly crystalline powdered HTB materials formed by heating at 800 deg C show leach characteristics comparable to Cs-containing hot-pressed hollandites in the pH range from 0 to 12. As a very harsh leaching test, and also to model in a basic manner, leaching in the presence of canister corrosion products in oxidising environments, leaching of the bronzoid phases has been undertaken in Fe(NO 3 ) 3 solutions of increasing concentration. This is done in comparison with Cs -hollandite materials in order to compare the leaching characteristics of these two materials under such conditions. Both the Cs-loaded bronze and hollandite materials leach severely in Fe(NO 3 ) 3 losing virtually all of the immobilized Cs in a period of four days at 150 deg C. Total release of Cs and conversion of hollandite to titanium and iron titanium oxides begins to be observed at relatively low concentrations and is virtually complete after four days reaction in 0.5 mol/L Fe(NO 3 ) 3 . In the case of the bronze, all of the Cs is also extracted but the HTB structure is preserved. The reaction presumably involves an ion-exchange mechanism and iron oxide with a spinel structure is also observed at high Fe concentrations. (authors)

  2. Partial replacement of Portland cement by red ceramic waste in mortars: study of pozzolanic activity; Substituicao parcial do cimento Portland por residuo de ceramica vermelha em argamassas: estudo da atividade pozolonica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, A.R. da; Cabral, K.C.; Pinto, E.N. de M.G.l., E-mail: kleber.cabral@ufersa.edu.br [Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Arido (UFERSA), Mossoro, RN (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the pozzolanic activity of red ceramic residue on the partial replacement of Portland cement in mortars. The mortars were prepared by substituting 25% of the Portland cement for ground of ceramic residue with water cement’s factor of 0.48. The concrete used to construct the reference mortars and those with addiction was CPII-Z-32 (compound of Portland pozzolana cement). The chemical analysis and physical ceramic waste showed that this meets the requirements of NBR12653 (2014) for use as pozzolanic material. The pozzolanic activity index (IAP) obtained for the ceramic waste to twenty-eight days cure rate was 80.28%. (author)

  3. Significance of radiation effects in solid radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Permar, P.H.; McDonell, W.R.

    1980-01-01

    Proposed NRC criteria for disposal of high-level nuclear waste require development of waste packages to contain radionuclide for at least 1000 years, and design of repositories to prevent radionuclide release at an annual rate greater than 1 part in 100,000 of the total activity. The high-level wastes that are now temporarily stored as aqueous salts, sludges, and calcines must be converted to high-integrity solid forms that resist deterioration from radiation and other effects of long-term storage. Spent fuel may be encapsulated for similar long-term storage. Candidate waste forms beside the spent fuel elements themselves, include borosilicate and related glasses, mineral-like crystalline ceramics, concrete formulations, and metal-matrix glass or ceramic composites. these waste forms will sustain damage produced by beta-gamma radiation up to 10 12 rads, by alpha radiation up to 10 19 particles/g, by internal helium generation greater than about 0.1 atom percent, and by the atom transmutations accompanying radioactive decay. Current data indicate that under these conditions the glass forms suffer only minor volume changes, stored energy deposition, and leachability effects. The crystalline ceramics appear susceptible to the potentially more severe alterations accompanying metamictization and natural analogs of candidate materials are being examined to establish their suitability as waste forms. Helium concentrations in the waste forms are generally below thresholds for severe damage in either glass or crystalline ceramics at low temperatures, but microstructural effects are not well characterized. Transmutation effects remain to be established

  4. Survey of in situ testing at underground laboratories with application to geologic disposal of spent fuel waste in crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardin, E.

    1992-04-01

    This report is intended for use in designing testing programs, or as backup material for the review of 'R and D 92' which will be the next three-year plan for spent fuel repository siting and characterization activities in Sweden. There are eight major topics, each of which is addressed in a chapter of around 2000 to 10000 words. The major topics are defined to capture the reasons for testing, in a way that limits overlap between chapters. Other goals of this report are to provide current information on recent or ongoing tests in crystalline rock, and to describe insights which are important but not obvious from the literature. No data are presented, but the conclusions of testing programs are summarized. The principal sources were reports (in English) produced by the laboratory projects particularly the Stripa Project (SKB), the Underground Research Laboratory in Canada (AECL), and the Grimsel Test Site in Switzerland (Nagra). Articles from refereed journals have been used in lieu of project literature where possible and appropriate. (au)

  5. Al2O3 doped TiO2 ceramic waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uno, Masayoshi; Kinoshita, Hajime; Sakai, Etsuro; Ikeda, Akira; Matsumoto, Y.; Yamanaka, Shinsuke

    1999-01-01

    Melting of the mixture of Nd 2 O 3 , CeO 2 , SrO, TiO 2 and Al 2 O 3 at 1673 K for 1 hour produced one RE 2 Ti 3 O 9 phase compound. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) measurement showed that the melting temperature of this compound was 1646 K. Density of the alumina doped oxide was higher than that of the oxide obtained by the pressing and sintering without alumina. Vickers hardness of the oxide obtained by the pressing and sintering was 5.3 GPa and nearly same as that of glass waste. That of the alumina doped oxide was around 7 GPa. 7 days Soxhlet leach test (MCC-5) followed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry (ICP) showed that normalized leaching rate of Ti for the oxide obtained by the pressing and sintering was 5.54 x 10 -3 kg/m 2 and that for the alumina doped oxide was 2.24 x 10 -3 kg/m 2 . The value of Sr for the pressed and sintered sample was 0.034 x 10 -3 kg/m 2 but that for alumina doped sample was below the detection limit (0.01 x 10 -3 kg/m 2 ). Al was not detected from the leachate of the alumina doped sample. (author)

  6. Phase equilibria, leaching characteristics and ceramic processing of SYNROC D formulations for US defense wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newkirk, H.; Ryerson, F.; Coles, D.; Hoenig, C.; Rozsa, R.; Rossington, C.; Bazan, F.; Tewhey, J.

    1980-01-01

    The assemblage of coexisting phases in SYNROC D is perovskite, zirconolite, nepheline and spinel. Cesium from the supernate is to be immobilized in hollandite. In the current processing scheme, presynthesized granules of hollandite are added to calcined SYNROC D powders prior to hot procesing or sintering. The disposition of inert and radwaste components of Savannah River Plant (SRP) wastes in SYNROC D formulations has been determined by means of optical microscopy, XRD, XRF, SEM, STEM, electron microprobe analysis and autoradiography. A summary of results is presented. Leaching studies of SYNROC D have been done by means of static, high temperature experiments and continuous-flow experiments. The data reported are from high-temperature experiments (distilled water, powdered sample, 150 0 C, one day). The elements reported are the only ones observed in the leachate. Analysis was done by means of XRF. The flowsheet which depicts the current experimental methods that are being employed at LLNL to produce SYNROC D samples containing presynthesized Cs-bearing hollandite is presented. The starting material for SYNROC D (high Fe, high Al and composite compositions) is simulated sludge obtained in 55 gallon quantities from Southwestern Chemical Corporation. Hot pressing temperatures for SYNROC D are 1000 to 1150 0 C. Hot pressing temperatures for hollandite are 1200 to 1400 0 C

  7. Evaluation of physical and mechanical and gaseous emissions in reuse waste in the development of a ceramic products; Avaliacao das propriedades fisica e mecanica e de emissoes gasosas no reaproveitamento de residuos no desenvolvimento de um produto ceramico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, R.A.; Martins, B.E.D.B.S.; Couto, V.M.P.; Campos, J.C.; Guimaraes, C.S.; Almeida, V.C., E-mail: valeria@eq.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia. Escola de Quimica

    2011-07-01

    The search for alternative environmentally less aggressive disposal of solid waste has been the path taken to reverse the negative scenario established by the improper disposal of these materials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the recycling of the waste: sludge from water treatment and WTP, glass beads, obtained from the blasting chamber, aiming to develop a ceramic material. Compositions were prepared with different percentages of waste. The ceramic bodies were sintered at 900 deg C, 1000 deg C and 1100 deg C being tested for water absorption and bending failure stress, and characterized by X-ray diffraction We performed the analysis of greenhouse gases released during the burning process. Preliminary results indicate that the ceramic material produced did not show a gain of resistance expected by the introduction of micro glass beads, and that we must observe the legal limits for air emissions coming from burning.(author)

  8. Application of the continuously-yielding joint model for studying disposal of high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakala, M.; Johansson, E.; Simonen, A.

    1993-04-01

    The non-linear Continuously-Yielding (CY) joint model and its use in numerical analyses of a nuclear waste repository are studied in the report. On major advantage of using CY-model is that laboratory test results, if available, can directly be used in analyses thus reducing uncertainties about joint input parameters. The new testing machine MTS-815 of Helsinki University of Technology was used to determine the joint behaviour of some granitic joints from the depth of 400-600 m below the ground surface. The procedure for triaxial joint tests was refined during this work. Two programs called NormFit and SherFit were developed and tested to determine the best fit parameter values for CY-model from laboratory test results

  9. Joule-Heated Ceramic-Lined Melter to Vitrify Liquid Radioactive Wastes Containing Am241 Generated From MOX Fuel Fabrication in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E C; Bowan II, B W; Pegg, I; Jardine, L J

    2004-01-01

    contains. Silver is widely used as an additive in glass making. However, its solubility is known to be limited in borosilicate glasses. Further, silver, which is present as a nitrate salt in the waste, can be easily reduced to molten silver in the melting process. Molten silver, if formed, would be difficult to reintroduce into the glass matrix and could pose operating difficulties for the glass melter. This will place a limitation on the waste loading of the melter feed material to prevent the separation of silver from the waste within the melter. If the silver were recovered in the MOx fabrication process, which is currently under consideration, the composition of the glass would likely be limited only by the thermal heat load from the incorporated 241 Am. The resulting mass of glass used to encapsulate the waste could then be reduced by a factor of approximately three. The vitrification process used to treat the waste stream is proposed to center on a joule-heated ceramic lined slurry fed melter. Glass furnaces of this type are used in the United States to treat high-level waste (HLW) at the: Defense Waste Processing Facility, West Valley Demonstration Project, and to process the Hanford tank waste. The waste will initially be blended with glass-forming chemicals, which are primarily sand and boric acid. The resulting slurry is pumped to the melter for conversion to glass. The melter is a ceramic lined metal box that contains a molten glass pool heated by passing electric current through the glass. Molten glass from the melter is poured into canisters to cool and solidify. They are then sealed and decontaminated to form the final waste disposal package. Emissions generated in the melter from the vitrification process are treated by an off-gas system to remove radioactive contamination and destroy nitrogen oxides (NOx)

  10. Development and evaluation of candidate high-level waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernadzikowski, T.A.

    1981-01-01

    Some seventeen candidate waste forms have been investigated under US Department of Energy programs as potential media for the immobilization and geologic disposal of the high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) resulting from chemical processing of nuclear reactor fuels and targets. Two of these HLW forms were selected at the end of fiscal year (FY) 1981 for intensive development if FY 1982 to 1983. Borosilicate glass was continued as the reference form. A crystalline ceramic waste form, SYNROC, was selected for further product formulation and process development as the alternative to borosilicate glass. This paper describes the bases on which this decision was made

  11. Recovery of waste and side products of apatite-nepheline and eudialyte ores processing in manufacture of heat-insulating foam glassy-crystalline materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvorova O. V.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Overburden and dressing tailings accumulated in the Murmansk region in impressive volumes represent serious challenges of both economic and ecological character. Maintenance of overburden dumps and dressing tailings involves considerable capital and material expenses. Therefore reprocessing of mining waste and manufacture of building materials, including heat-insulating foam-glass materials, is a promising trend. The work discusses the feasibility of recovering silica-containing waste and ore processing byproducts on the Kola Peninsula. Compositions and techniques for producing blocks and pellets from foam-glass crystalline materials have been developed. The effect of modifying agents on the foam-silicate materials' mechanical properties has been investigated. The production conditions for high-quality foam-silicate blocks have been identified. The foam silicates obtained under optimal conditions have featured a relatively low viscosity (0.3–0.5 g/cm³, high strength (up to 5 MPa and heat conductivity (0.09–0.107 Wt/m·K. Methods of improving the operating characteristics of foam silicates based on structure perfecting have been proposed. It has been found that as a result of shorttime baking of grainy samples the product has a grain strength of 5–6 MPa, density of 0.25–0.35 g/cm3 and a resistance to crushing in cylinder of 2.2–3 MPa, which is 2–3 times higher than that of a material subjected to one-stage thermal treatment. The water absorption of the material is 5–6 %, which is by a half lower compared to a one-stage treated material. The thermal conduction coefficient is 0.091–0.096 Wt/m·K. The obtained materials are recommended for use as heat-insulating surfacing and filling material for garrets, floors and roofs in construction and renovation of industrial and civic buildings

  12. Wonderland of ceramics superplasticity; Ceramics chososei no sekai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakai, F. [National Industrial Research Inst. of Nagoya, Nagoya (Japan)

    1995-07-01

    It has been ten years since it was found that ceramics, which is strong and hard at room temperatures and does not deform at all, may exhibit a superplasticity phenomenon at high temperatures that it endlessly elongates when pulled as if it were chewing gum. This phenomenon is one of peculiar behaviours which nano-crystal ceramics, pulverized to an extent that the crystalline particle size is on the order of nanometers, show. The application of superplasticity made the material engineers`s old dream come true that hard ceramics are arbitrarily deformed and machined like metal. Using as models materials such as silicone nitride, alumina and zirconia, this paper describes the history and deformation mechanism of ceramics superplasticity, material design aiming at superplasticization and application of ceramics superplasticity to the machining technology. Furthermore, it describes the trend and future development of international joint researches on the basic surveys on ceramics superplasticity. 25 refs., 11 figs.

  13. Characterizing and modelling the excavation damaged zone (EDZ) in crystalline rock in the context of radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, J.A.; Backstrom, A.; Rutqvist, J.; Jing, L.; Backers, T.; Chijimatsu, M.; Christiansson, R.; Feng, X.-T.; Kobayashi, A.; Koyama, T.; Lee, H.-S.; Neretnieks, I.; Pan, P.Z.; Rinne, M.; Shen, B.-T.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes current knowledge about the nature of and potential for thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical modelling of the Excavation Damaged Zone (EDZ) around the excavations for an underground radioactive waste repository. In the first part of the paper, the disturbances associated with excavation are explained, together with reviews of Workshops that have been held on the subject. In the second part of the paper, the results of a DECOVALEX research programme on modelling the EDZ are presented. Four research teams used four different models to simulate the complete stress-strain curve for Avro granite from the Swedish Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Subsequent research extended the work to computer simulation of the evolution of the repository using a 'wall block model' and a 'near-field model'. This included assessing the evolution of stress, failure and permeability and time dependent effects during repository evolution. As discussed, all the computer models are well suited to sensitivity studies for evaluating the influence of their respective supporting parameters on the complete stress-strain curve for rock and for modelling the EDZ

  14. Characterising and modelling the excavation damaged zone (EDZ) in crystalline rock in the context of radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, J.A.; Backstrom, A.; Rutqvist, J.; Jing, L.; Backers, T.; Chijimatsu, M.; Christiansson, R.; Feng, X.-T.; Kobayashi, A.; Koyama, T.; Lee, H.-S.; Neretnieks, I.; Pan, P.Z.; Rinne, M.; Shen, B.-T.

    2008-10-01

    This paper describes current knowledge about the nature of and potential for thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical modelling of the Excavation Damaged Zone (EDZ) around the excavations for an underground radioactive waste repository. In the first part of the paper, the disturbances associated with excavation are explained, together with reviews of Workshops that have been held on the subject. In the second part of the paper, the results of a DECOVALEX research programme on modelling the EDZ are presented. Four research teams used four different models to simulate the complete stress-strain curve for Avro granite from the Swedish Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Subsequent research extended the work to computer simulation of the evolution of the repository using a 'wall block model' and a 'near-field model'. This included assessing the evolution of stress, failure and permeability and time dependent effects during repository evolution. As discussed, all the computer models are well suited to sensitivity studies for evaluating the influence of their respective supporting parameters on the complete stress-strain curve for rock and for modelling the EDZ.

  15. The long-term strength and deformation properties of crystalline rock in a high level nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuokko, T.

    1990-12-01

    The time-dependent phenomena which can affect the strength and deformation properties of hard crystal line rock are clarified. Suitable measuring methods for field conditions are also summarized. The significance of time is evaluated around a shaft in a high level nuclear waste repository. According to the investigation it is generally held that creep and cyclic fatigue are the most important phenomena. They arise from subcritical crack growth which is most affected by stress intensity, chemical environment, temperature, and microstructure. There are many theoretical models, which can be used to analyse creep and cyclic fatigue, but they are defective in describing the triaxial stress condition and strength criteria. Additionally, the required parameters are often too difficult to determine with adequate accuracy. The joint creep rate depends on the affecting stress regime, on the water conditions, and on the properties of filling material. The acoustic emission method is suited to observe long-term microcrack development in field conditions. The computer program developed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) is used to evaluate the time-dependent de-formation around a main shaft. According to the model the enlargement of the shaft radius by 30 cm takes millions of years. The possible reduction of shaft radius by 3 mm will happen during 200 years. The model is very sensitive to changes in stress state, in the uniaxial compressive strength, and in the stress corrosion index

  16. Studies of thermal and radiation effects on water-rock systems related to envisaged isolation of high level radioactive wastes in crystalline formations of the Ukrainian shield (Ukraine)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litovchenko, A.; Kalinichenko, E.; Ivanitsky, V.; Bagmut, M.; Plastinina, M.; Zlobenko, B.

    2000-01-01

    In this work there are presented the general data on the study of thermal and radiation effects in minerals separated from rocks of the Ukrainian shield. These minerals (quartz, feldspar, amphiboles, apatite, biotite, kaolinite, etc.), exposed by doses 10 4 , 10 6 , 10 8 Gy by Co 60 source, were studied by a complex of physical methods. Special attention was given to the study of radiation defects formation (electron-hole paramagnetic centres, OH- groups destruction, changes in a charge state of ions) in a mineral structure. The mentioned radiation defects were used in the extrapolation method. The connection between structural peculiarities of minerals (containing uranium and thorium) and processes of their metamyctization are considered. It is demonstrated that the minerals, which have large channels or interlayer spaces in their structure, as a rule, are not metamyct. Using the spectroscopic methods of the extrapolation it is shown that the crystalline massifs, which do not have detectable amounts of hydroxyl containing minerals (biotite, amphibole, etc.) and ions Fe 2- , are perspective for long-lived radioactive wastes (RAW) dumping. As it follows from obtained results, the rocks, containing minerals with OH- groups and gas-liquid inclusions, should be considered as the 'mineral-water' system. (author)

  17. Studies on the feasibility of using crystalline silicotitanates for the separation of cesium-137 from fast reactor high-level liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatesan, K.A.; Sukumaran, V.; Antony, M.P.; Srinivasan, T.G.

    2009-01-01

    The commercially available crystalline silicotitanate inorganic ion xchanger, IONSIV IE-911, and its parent precursor, TAM-5, have been valuated for the removal of 137 Cs from nitric acid medium and simulated high-level liquid waste. The distribution coefficient (K d ) of cesium ecreased with increasing nitric acid concentration and at 3.0 M nitric acid, distribution coefficient of 1150 mL/g and 2600 mL/g were obtained for ONSIV IE-911 and TAM-5, respectively. Rapid uptake of cesium followed by the establishment of equilibrium occurring within three hours. Loading of cesium n ion exchangers increased with the increase in the concentration of cesium n aqueous phase and from Langmuir adsorption model the apparent capacity of cesium was 69 mg/g and 82 mg/g for IONSIV IE-911 and TAM-5, respectively. The performance of the sorbent under dynamic conditions was assessed by following breakthrough (BT) curve up to C/C o = 1, where C and C o are the concentrations of cesium in the effluent and feed, respectively. (author)

  18. Evaluation of the potential of waste fondant glass in formulations of ceramic pasta; Avaliacao do potencial fundente do residuo de vidro em formulacoes de massas ceramicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares Filho, J.E.; Santos, L.L. dos; Nascimento, R.M. do, E-mail: elsinhofilho@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (PPGCEM/UFRN), RN (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais; Feitosa, A.O.; Dutra, R.P.S. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (PPCEM/UFPB), PB (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais

    2014-07-01

    An increasing amount of waste generated and deposited on the environment, many unspecified decomposition with time, as is the case of the glass. Thinking about it, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the power of the flux residue on glass formulations porcelains, as a flux to feldspar replacement. This study was performed in comparison with a standard formulation. The raw materials were characterized in the diffraction X-ray fluorescence and X-ray thermal differential analysis, and determination of the technological properties of water absorption, linear contraction, ignition loss, apparent porosity and apparent specific gravity in the formulation standard and replacement of feldspar in different percentages of waste and processing conditions. Specimens of the formulations were subjected to assay of three points. Results indicate that the residue glass has the potential of being used as a flux material in the composition of the ceramic body reduces the apparent porosity and according to the technology of water absorption property. The ceramic mass standard was classified as semi-stoneware, the BIIa group, and after the addition of the residue in any of the three percentages evaluated was classified as sandstone, belonging to the group BIb.(author)

  19. Portfolio: Ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Jane; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes eight art activities using ceramics. Elementary students created ceramic tiles to depict ancient Egyptian and medieval European art, made ceramic cookie stamps, traced bisque plates on sketch paper, constructed clay room-tableaus, and designed clay relief masks. Secondary students pit-fired ceramic pots and designed ceramic Victorian…

  20. Study of the behavior of the consistency rates of a clay with the incorporation of waste of burned ceramic blocks; Estudo do comportamento dos indices de consistencia de uma argila com a incorporacao de residuos de blocos ceramicos queimados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Orley Magalhaes de, E-mail: orleye10estudo@yahoo.cpm.br [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia da Bahia (IFBA), Vitoria da Conquista, BA (Brazil); Crivelari, Rubem Mateus; Munhoz Junior, Antonio Hortencio [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo,SP (Brazil); Silva-Valenzuela, Maria das Gracas da; Valenzuela-Diaz, Francisco Rolando [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica

    2016-07-01

    One of the important parts in the process of manufacturing a structural ceramic product is its conformation. The clay which is the basis for these products need to have an appropriate plasticity. In Ceramics Industries that produce ceramic blocks and tiles plasticity clay and a key property for this production. This Industries are a lot of pieces that do not pass the quality control for not having a uniform visual appearance or have small cracks, these lots are usually discarded, which leads to material waste and produces a lot of waste. The objective of this work is the study of the behavior of consistency indexes, plastic limit (LP); the liquid limit (LL) and plasticity index (PI) of a clay from Vitoria da Conquista, Bahia, with the addition of several waste percentages of burnt and ground ceramic blocks. Our results demonstrate that the addition of the reject only affect the plasticity of clay from an increase of over 100%, which makes possible its incorporation in ceramic paste. (author)

  1. Characterization of solid wastes from kraft pulp industry for ceramic materials development purposes; Caracterizacao de residuos solidos da industria de celulose tipo kraft visando sua aplicacao no desenvolvimento de materiais ceramicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, L.R.; Francisco, M.A.C.O.; Sagrillo, V.P.D.; Louzada, D.M.; Entringer, J.M.S. [Instituto Federal do Espirito Santo (IFES), Vitoria, ES (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    The Kraft pulp industry generates a large amount of solid wastes. Due this large quantity, the target of this study is characterize inorganic solid wastes, dregs, grits and lime mud, from the step of reagents recovery of Kraft process, aiming evaluate the potentiality of their use as alternative raw material on development of ceramic materials. Initially, the wastes were dried and ground, then they were subjected to the following characterization techniques: pH analysis, particle size analysis, X ray fluorescence, X ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis and thermogravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscopy. According to the results, it may be concluded that these wastes could be used as raw material in production of red ceramic and luting materials. (author)

  2. Crystalline Bioceramic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Aza, P. N.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A strong interest in the use of ceramics for biomedical engineering applications developed in the late 1960´s. Used initially as alternatives to metallic materials in order to increase the biocompatibility of implants, bioceramics have become a diverse class of biomaterials, presently including three basic types: relatively bioinert ceramics; bioactive or surface reactive bioceramics and bioresorbable ceramics. This review will only refer to bioceramics “sensus stricto”, it is to say, those ceramic materials constituted for nonmetallic inorganic compounds, crystallines and consolidated by thermal treatments of powders to high temperatures. Leaving bioglasses, glass-ceramics and biocements apart, since, although all of them are obtained by thermal treatments to high temperatures, the first are amorphous, the second are obtained by desvitrification of a glass and in them vitreous phase normally prevails on the crystalline phases and the third are consolidated by means of a hydraulic or chemical reaction to room temperature. A review of the composition, physiochemical properties and biological behaviour of the principal types of crystalline bioceramics is given, based on the literature data and on the own experience of the authors.

    A finales de los años sesenta se despertó un gran interés por el uso de los materiales cerámicos para aplicaciones biomédicas. Inicialmente utilizados como una alternativa a los materiales metálicos, con el propósito de incrementar la biocompatibilidad de los implantes, las biocerámicas se han convertido en una clase diversa de biomateriales, incluyendo actualmente tres tipos: cerámicas cuasi inertes; cerámicas bioactivas o reactivas superficialmente y cerámicas reabsorbibles o biodegradables. En la presente revisión se hace referencia a las biocerámicas en sentido estricto, es decir, a aquellos materiales constitutitos por compuestos inorgánicos no metálicos, cristalinos y consolidados

  3. Generic Crystalline Disposal Reference Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Painter, Scott Leroy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chu, Shaoping [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Harp, Dylan Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Perry, Frank Vinton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wang, Yifeng [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-20

    A generic reference case for disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in crystalline rock is outlined. The generic cases are intended to support development of disposal system modeling capability by establishing relevant baseline conditions and parameters. Establishment of a generic reference case requires that the emplacement concept, waste inventory, waste form, waste package, backfill/buffer properties, EBS failure scenarios, host rock properties, and biosphere be specified. The focus in this report is on those elements that are unique to crystalline disposal, especially the geosphere representation. Three emplacement concepts are suggested for further analyses: a waste packages containing 4 PWR assemblies emplaced in boreholes in the floors of tunnels (KBS-3 concept), a 12-assembly waste package emplaced in tunnels, and a 32-assembly dual purpose canister emplaced in tunnels. In addition, three failure scenarios were suggested for future use: a nominal scenario involving corrosion of the waste package in the tunnel emplacement concepts, a manufacturing defect scenario applicable to the KBS-3 concept, and a disruptive glaciation scenario applicable to both emplacement concepts. The computational approaches required to analyze EBS failure and transport processes in a crystalline rock repository are similar to those of argillite/shale, with the most significant difference being that the EBS in a crystalline rock repository will likely experience highly heterogeneous flow rates, which should be represented in the model. The computational approaches required to analyze radionuclide transport in the natural system are very different because of the highly channelized nature of fracture flow. Computational workflows tailored to crystalline rock based on discrete transport pathways extracted from discrete fracture network models are recommended.

  4. Influence of use of quartzite waste in moisture expansion of masses for ceramic tiles; Influencia do uso de residuo de quartzito na expansao por umidade de massas de revestimentos ceramicos planos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros, R.R.; Goncalves, W. P.; Cartaxo, J.M.; Ferreira, H.S.; Neves, G.A.; Ferreira, H.C., E-mail: rosinaldo.medeiros@ufrr.br, E-mail: wherllyson@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: julianamelo25@gmail.com, E-mail: hebersivini@gmail.com, E-mail: gelmires.neves@ufcg.edu.br, E-mail: heber.carlos@ufcg.edu.br [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais

    2017-04-15

    The moisture expansion (ME) is characterized as an increase in physical dimensions of ceramic body when in contact with water (liquid or vapor). The ME phenomenon may contribute to the appearance of serious pathology in ceramic tiles such as cracks, detachment or more severe damages. This work aimed to study the problem of ME in ceramic masses added with quartzite waste for use in tiles using the dilatometry and three-point flexural strength methods. The raw materials were processed and characterized by laser diffraction particle size analysis, plasticity, chemical analysis, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis, and X-ray diffraction. The results showed that the addition of quartzite waste generally elevated ME values for bodies fired at temperatures below 1100 °C. For bodies fired at 1200 °C the results indicated high mechanical performance and ME decrease, and the best results for additive formulations was 15% of quartzite. (author)

  5. Study of parameters of heat treatment in obtaining glass ceramic materials with addition of the industrial waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kniess, C.T.; Prates, P.B.; Martins, G.J.M.; Riella, H.G.; Matsinhe, Jonas; Kuhnen, N.C.

    2012-01-01

    The production of materials from crystallization of glass, called glass ceramic, have proved interesting by the possibility of development of different microstructures, with reduced grain size and the presence of residual amorphous phase in different quantities. The method that uses the differential thermal analysis (DTA) provides research on the material properties over a wide temperature range, it's widely applied to crystallization processes of glass ceramic materials. Within this context, this paper aims to study the kinetics of nucleation and crystal growth in glass ceramic materials in the system SiO 2 - Al 2 O 3 -Li 2 O, obtained with the addition of mineral coal bottom ash as source of aluminosilicates, through the technique of differential thermal analysis. (author)

  6. Comparing Titanium Release from Ceramic Tiles using a waste material characterization test - Influence of Calcium and Organic Matter concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heggelund, Laura Roverskov; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-01-01

    Nanomaterials are beneficial in the building industry to enhance or add certain features to commonly used materials. One example is the use of nano-titanium dioxide in the surface coating of ceramic tiles, to make the tiles surface self-cleaning. At the end of life stage, ceramic tiles might...... to assess if nano-titanium dioxide coated ceramic tiles are suitable for depositing in a landfill or not. Specifically, we used compliance batch test method, which is a simple test evaluating the release from a solid material to an aqueous media during 24 hrs. If nano-Ti particles are released from solid...... immediately after the 24 hrs. test using single particle ICPMS and Transmission Electron Microscopy imaging. The preliminary results suggest that nanoparticulate titanium is released from both tiles – with and without nano-titanium dioxide coating. The size distributions of the released particles are similar...

  7. Characterization of off-gases from a small-scale, joule-heated ceramic melter for nuclear waste vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woolsey, G.B.; Wilhite, E.L.

    1980-01-01

    This paper confirmed with actual nuclear waste the thermodynamic predictions of the fate of some of the semivolatiles in off-gas. Ruthenium behaves erratically and it is postulated that it migrates as a finely divided solid, rather than as a volatile oxide. Provisions for handling these waste off-gasses will be incorporated in the design of facilities for vitrifying SRP waste

  8. Nature of radiation damage in ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunch, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    Efforts to determine the equivalence between different sources of radiation damage in ceramics are reviewed. The ways in which ceramics differ from metals are examined and proposed mechanisms for creation and stabilization of defects in insulators are outlined. Work on radiation damage in crystalline oxides is summarized and suggestions for further research are offered

  9. Using mixture design of experiments to assess the environmental impact of clay-based structural ceramics containing foundry wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coronado, M. [Department of Chemistry and Process and Resources Engineering, University of Cantabria, 39005 Santander (Spain); Department of Materials and Ceramics Engineering (CICECO), University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Segadães, A.M. [Department of Materials and Ceramics Engineering (CICECO), University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Andrés, A., E-mail: andresa@unican.es [Department of Chemistry and Process and Resources Engineering, University of Cantabria, 39005 Santander (Spain)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Modelling of the environmental risk in terms of clay and by-products contents. • M-DoE and response surface plots enable quick comparison of three ceramic processes. • Basicity of the mixture increases the leaching, especially at low firing temperatures. • Liquid phase content plays a major role decreasing the leaching of Cr and Mo. • Together, M-DoE and phase diagrams enable better prediction of pollutants leaching. - Abstract: This work describes the leaching behavior of potentially hazardous metals from three different clay-based industrial ceramic products (wall bricks, roof tiles, and face bricks) containing foundry sand dust and Waelz slag as alternative raw materials. For each product, ten mixtures were defined by mixture design of experiments and the leaching of As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, and Zn was evaluated in pressed specimens fired simulating the three industrial ceramic processes. The results showed that, despite the chemical, mineralogical and processing differences, only chrome and molybdenum were not fully immobilized during ceramic processing. Their leaching was modeled as polynomial equations, functions of the raw materials contents, and plotted as response surfaces. This brought to evidence that Cr and Mo leaching from the fired products is not only dependent on the corresponding contents and the basicity of the initial mixtures, but is also clearly related with the mineralogical composition of the fired products, namely the amount of the glassy phase, which depends on both the major oxides contents and the firing temperature.

  10. Waste-to-resource preparation of a porous ceramic membrane support featuring elongated mullite whiskers with enhanced porosity and permeance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Li; Dong, Yingchao; Hampshire, Stuart; Cerneaux, Sophie; Winnubst, Aloysius J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Different from traditional particle packing structure, a porous structure of ceramic membrane support was fabricated, featuring elongated mullitewhiskers with enhanced porosity, permeance and sufficient mechanical strength. The effect of additives (MoO3and AlF3) and sintering procedureon open

  11. Novel ceramic-polymer composite membranes for the separation of liquid waste. Annual progress report, September 15, 1996 - September 14, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Y.

    1997-01-01

    'The project on ceramic-supported polymer membranes focuses on the development of a novel class of membranes for the separation of organics from both organic-aqueous and organic-organic mixtures, Theses membranes are fabricated by a graft polymerization process where polymer chains are grown onto the surface of a ceramic support membrane. The surface graft polymerization process, developed at UCLA, results in the formation of a thin polymer layer covalently bonded to the membrane pore surface as a layer of terminally anchored polymeric chains. Through the selection of the polymer most appropriate for the desired separation task, the graft polymerized surface layer can be synthesized to impart specific separation properties to the membrane. It is expected that this project will lead to the demonstration of a new technology for the tailor design of a new class of selective and robust ceramic-supported polymer membranes. This new approach will allow the rapid deployment of task-specific membranes for the separation of waste constituents for subsequent recovery, treatment or disposal. Progress to date includes the preparation of successful silica-polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) membrane for the treatment of oil-in-water emulsions and a silica-polyvinylacetate (PVAc) pervaporation membrane for the separation of organics from water. Current work is ongoing to study the performance of the pervaporation membrane for the removal of chlorinated organics from water and to develop a pervaporation membrane for organic-organic separation. In another aspect of the study, the authors are studying the hydrophilic PVP CSP membrane for oil-in-water emulsion treatment with the goal of determining the optimal membrane polymer surface structure as a function of various operating conditions (e.g., tube-side Reynolds number and transmembrane pressure), Work is also in progress to characterize the polymer layer by AFM and internal reflection FTIR, and to model the conformation of the polymer

  12. Hardness of ion implanted ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, W.C.; McHargue, C.J.; Farlow, G.C.; White, C.W.

    1985-01-01

    It has been established that the wear behavior of ceramic materials can be modified through ion implantation. Studies have been done to characterize the effect of implantation on the structure and composition of ceramic surfaces. To understand how these changes affect the wear properties of the ceramic, other mechanical properties must be measured. To accomplish this, a commercially available ultra low load hardness tester has been used to characterize Al 2 O 3 with different implanted species and doses. The hardness of the base material is compared with the highly damaged crystalline state as well as the amorphous material

  13. Reuse of the red brick waste and dust waste of blasting chamber (glass micro spheres) in the red ceramic industry; Reaproveitamento dos residuos de tijolos vermelhos e do residuo de poeira da camara de jateamento (micro esferas de vidro) na industria de ceramica vermelha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, R.A.; Felippe, C.E.C.; Guimaraes, C.S.; Almeida, V.C., E-mail: valeria@eq.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia. Escola de Quimica

    2010-07-01

    The search for alternative environmentally less aggressive disposal of solid waste has been adopted to reverse the negative scenario established by the improper disposal of these materials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reuse of waste: leftover red brick from the civil construction and glass micro spheres, obtained from the blasting chamber, aiming to develop a ceramic product. Mixtures containing various amounts of waste were prepared. The ceramic pieces were burned at 1000 and 1200 deg C being tested for water absorption and tensile strength and characterized by X-ray diffraction. The analysis of volatile organic compounds released during the burning process was performed. The results indicate that the ceramic material produced has a high resistance although the analysis of gases from the burning point to a negative environmental impact. (author)

  14. Quality Assessment of Mixed and Ceramic Recycled Aggregates from Construction and Demolition Wastes in the Concrete Manufacture According to the Spanish Standard †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Robles, Desirée; García-González, Julia; Juan-Valdés, Andrés; Pozo, Julia Mª Morán-del; Guerra-Romero, Manuel I

    2014-01-01

    Construction and demolition waste (CDW) constitutes an increasingly significant problem in society due to the volume generated, rendering sustainable management and disposal problematic. The aim of this study is to identify a possible reuse option in the concrete manufacturing for recycled aggregates with a significant ceramic content: mixed recycled aggregates (MixRA) and ceramic recycled aggregates (CerRA). In order to do so, several tests are conducted in accordance with the Spanish Code on Structural Concrete (EHE-08) to determine the composition in weight and physic-mechanical characteristics (particle size distributions, fine content, sand equivalent, density, water absorption, flakiness index, and resistance to fragmentation) of the samples for the partial inclusion of the recycled aggregates in concrete mixes. The results of these tests clearly support the hypothesis that this type of material may be suitable for such partial replacements if simple pretreatment is carried out. Furthermore, this measure of reuse is in line with European, national, and regional policies on sustainable development, and presents a solution to the environmental problem caused by the generation of CDW. PMID:28788164

  15. Quality Assessment of Mixed and Ceramic Recycled Aggregates from Construction and Demolition Wastes in the Concrete Manufacture According to the Spanish Standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Robles, Desirée; García-González, Julia; Juan-Valdés, Andrés; Morán-Del Pozo, Julia Mª; Guerra-Romero, Manuel I

    2014-08-13

    Construction and demolition waste (CDW) constitutes an increasingly significant problem in society due to the volume generated, rendering sustainable management and disposal problematic. The aim of this study is to identify a possible reuse option in the concrete manufacturing for recycled aggregates with a significant ceramic content: mixed recycled aggregates (MixRA) and ceramic recycled aggregates (CerRA). In order to do so, several tests are conducted in accordance with the Spanish Code on Structural Concrete (EHE-08) to determine the composition in weight and physic-mechanical characteristics (particle size distributions, fine content, sand equivalent, density, water absorption, flakiness index, and resistance to fragmentation) of the samples for the partial inclusion of the recycled aggregates in concrete mixes. The results of these tests clearly support the hypothesis that this type of material may be suitable for such partial replacements if simple pretreatment is carried out. Furthermore, this measure of reuse is in line with European, national, and regional policies on sustainable development, and presents a solution to the environmental problem caused by the generation of CDW.

  16. Quality Assessment of Mixed and Ceramic Recycled Aggregates from Construction and Demolition Wastes in the Concrete Manufacture According to the Spanish Standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desirée Rodríguez-Robles

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Construction and demolition waste (CDW constitutes an increasingly significant problem in society due to the volume generated, rendering sustainable management and disposal problematic. The aim of this study is to identify a possible reuse option in the concrete manufacturing for recycled aggregates with a significant ceramic content: mixed recycled aggregates (MixRA and ceramic recycled aggregates (CerRA. In order to do so, several tests are conducted in accordance with the Spanish Code on Structural Concrete (EHE-08 to determine the composition in weight and physic-mechanical characteristics (particle size distributions, fine content, sand equivalent, density, water absorption, flakiness index, and resistance to fragmentation of the samples for the partial inclusion of the recycled aggregates in concrete mixes. The results of these tests clearly support the hypothesis that this type of material may be suitable for such partial replacements if simple pretreatment is carried out. Furthermore, this measure of reuse is in line with European, national, and regional policies on sustainable development, and presents a solution to the environmental problem caused by the generation of CDW.

  17. Effect of sintering temperature on physical, structural and optical properties of wollastonite based glass-ceramic derived from waste soda lime silica glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karima Amer Almasri

    Full Text Available The impact of different sintering temperatures on physical, optical and structural properties of wollastonite (CaSiO3 based glass-ceramics were investigated for its potential application as a building material. Wollastonite based glass-ceramics was provided by a conventional melt-quenching method and followed by a controlled sintering process. In this work, soda lime silica glass waste was utilized as a source of silicon. The chemical composition and physical properties of glass were characterized by using Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF and Archimedes principle. The Archimedes measurement results show that the density increased with the increasing of sintering temperature. The generation of CaSiO3, morphology, size and crystal phase with increasing the heat-treatment temperature were examined by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, Fourier transforms infrared reflection spectroscopy (FTIR, and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The average calculated crystal size gained from XRD was found to be in the range 60 nm. The FESEM results show a uniform distribution of particles and the morphology of the wollastonite crystal is in relict shapes. The appearance of CaO, SiO2, and Ca-O-Si bands disclosed from FTIR which showed the formation of CaSiO3 crystal phase. In addition to the calculation of the energy band gap which found to be increased with increasing sintering temperature. Keywords: Soda lime silica glass, Wollastonite, Sintering, Structural properties, Optical properties

  18. Improving Eco-Efficiency through Waste Reduction beyond the Boundaries of a Firm: Evidence from a Multiplant Case in the Ceramic Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido J. L. Micheli

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available To pursue eco-efficiency, one of the most important principles is the sustainable use of resources. The challenge in resource use improvement lies in a clear assessment of resource utilization. However, this evaluation is currently performed within the scope of a company and such an approach is not sustainable anymore in a world with increasingly complex production systems. This paper provides a decision support system (DSS to disclose where wastes absorb resource capacity of a whole production system beyond the boundaries of a firm. In this way, an intervention priority plan can be established to effectively improve the eco-efficiency of production systems by considering interactions among players of a multiplant or supply chain context. An implementation of the DSS is proposed for the ceramic industry to test it and explore the potential benefits. Results confirm that the DSS can effectively enable different actors to understand how significant inter-firm saving opportunities can be identified.

  19. Novel ceramic-polymer composite membranes for the separation of hazardous liquid waste. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Y.

    1998-01-01

    'This report summarizes the work progress over the last 1.75 years of a 3 year project. The objectives of the project have been to develop a new class of ceramic-supported polymeric membranes that could be tailored-designed for a wide-range of applications in remediation and pollution prevention. To date, a new class of chemically-modified ceramic membranes was developed for the treatment of oil-in-water emulsions and for the pervaporation removal of volatile organics from aqueous systems. These new ceramic-supported polymer (CSP) membranes are fabricated by modifying the pore surface of a ceramic membrane support by a graft polymerization process (Chaimberg and Cohen, 1994). The graft polymerization process consists of activating the membrane surface with alkoxy vinyl silanes onto which vinyl monomers are added via free-radical graft polymerization resulting in a thin surface layer of terminally anchored polymer chains. Reaction conditions are selected based on knowledge of the graft polymerization kinetics for the specific polymer/substrate system. The resultant ceramic-supported polymer (CSP) membrane is a composite structure in which mechanical strength is provided by the ceramic support and the selectivity is determined by the covalently bonded polymer brush layer. Thus, one of the unique attributes of the CSP membrane is that it can be used in environments where the polymer layer is swollen (or even completely miscible) in the mixture to be separated (Castro et al., 1993). It is important to note that the above modification process is carried out under mild conditions (e.g., temperature of about 70 C) and is well suited for large scale commercial application. In a series of studies, the applicability of a polyvinylpyrrolidone CSP membrane was demonstrated for the treatment of oil-in-water emulsion under a variety of flow conditions (Castro et al.,1996). Improved membrane performance was achieved due to minimization of surface adsorption of the oil components

  20. Use of new raw materials and industrial wastes to improve the possibilities of using ceramic materials from Bailén (Jaén, southern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galán-Arboledas, R. J.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Raw materials used by the ceramic industry in Jaén (southern Spain consist of mixtures of carbonated clays from the Guadalquivir Basin and red clays from the Iberian Massif. The mixtures formulation usually obeys empirical experience developed by this industry for many generations. This work evaluates different possibilities of using these raw materials to manufacture new ceramic products on the basis of clay physical-chemical properties and analyzes limitations to produce high added value products. As an alternative to overcome these limitations, the mixture of these clays with raw materials from near regions (pyrophyllite clay and with different industrial wastes is proposed. These wastes are screen glass from monitors and oil impregnated diatomaceous earth. The study of the technological properties shows that the new mixtures are suitable for the processing of ceramic products in which structural and thermal insulating properties are improved or kept.La materia prima empleada por la industria cerámica de Jaén consiste en mezclas de margas de la Depresión del Guadalquivir con arcillas rojas del Macizo Ibérico. La formulación de estas mezclas responde generalmente a la experiencia empírica desarrollada por esta industria durante generaciones. El presente trabajo evalúa las posibilidades de utilización de estas materias primas para fabricar nuevos productos cerámicos de construcción basándose en sus propiedades físico-químicas y analiza las limitaciones que presentan para la fabricación de productos de mayor valor añadido. Como alternativa para superar estas limitaciones se propone la mezcla con arcillas pirofilíticas de áreas geográficamente cercanas y con diferentes residuos industriales. Estos residuos son vidrio de pantalla descontaminado y tierras diatomeas impregnadas con aceites vegetales. El estudio de caracterización tecnológica muestra que las nuevas mezclas permiten el procesamiento de piezas cerámicas y que en

  1. Preliminary evaluation of alternative forms for immobilization of Savannah River Plant high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, J.A.; Goforth, S.T. Jr.; Smith, P.K.

    1979-12-01

    An evaluation of available information on eleven alternative solid forms for immobilization of SRP high-level waste has been completed. Based on the assessment of both product and process characteristics, four forms were selected for more detailed evaluation: (1) borosilicate glass made in the reference process, (2) a high-silica glass made from a porous glass matrix, (3) crystalline ceramics such as supercalcine or SYNROC, and (4) ceramics coated with an impervious barrier. The assessment includes a discussion of product and process characteristics for each of the eleven forms, a cross comparison of these characteristics for the forms, and the bases for selecting the most promising forms for further study

  2. Review of high-level waste form properties. [146 bibliographies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusin, J.M.

    1980-12-01

    This report is a review of waste form options for the immobilization of high-level-liquid wastes from the nuclear fuel cycle. This review covers the status of international research and development on waste forms as of May 1979. Although the emphasis in this report is on waste form properties, process parameters are discussed where they may affect final waste form properties. A summary table is provided listing properties of various nuclear waste form options. It is concluded that proposed waste forms have properties falling within a relatively narrow range. In regard to crystalline versus glass waste forms, the conclusion is that either glass of crystalline materials can be shown to have some advantage when a single property is considered; however, at this date no single waste form offers optimum properties over the entire range of characteristics investigated. A long-term effort has been applied to the development of glass and calcine waste forms. Several additional waste forms have enough promise to warrant continued research and development to bring their state of development up to that of glass and calcine. Synthetic minerals, the multibarrier approach with coated particles in a metal matrix, and high pressure-high temperature ceramics offer potential advantages and need further study. Although this report discusses waste form properties, the total waste management system should be considered in the final selection of a waste form option. Canister design, canister materials, overpacks, engineered barriers, and repository characteristics, as well as the waste form, affect the overall performance of a waste management system. These parameters were not considered in this comparison.

  3. Review of high-level waste form properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusin, J.M.

    1980-12-01

    This report is a review of waste form options for the immobilization of high-level-liquid wastes from the nuclear fuel cycle. This review covers the status of international research and development on waste forms as of May 1979. Although the emphasis in this report is on waste form properties, process parameters are discussed where they may affect final waste form properties. A summary table is provided listing properties of various nuclear waste form options. It is concluded that proposed waste forms have properties falling within a relatively narrow range. In regard to crystalline versus glass waste forms, the conclusion is that either glass of crystalline materials can be shown to have some advantage when a single property is considered; however, at this date no single waste form offers optimum properties over the entire range of characteristics investigated. A long-term effort has been applied to the development of glass and calcine waste forms. Several additional waste forms have enough promise to warrant continued research and development to bring their state of development up to that of glass and calcine. Synthetic minerals, the multibarrier approach with coated particles in a metal matrix, and high pressure-high temperature ceramics offer potential advantages and need further study. Although this report discusses waste form properties, the total waste management system should be considered in the final selection of a waste form option. Canister design, canister materials, overpacks, engineered barriers, and repository characteristics, as well as the waste form, affect the overall performance of a waste management system. These parameters were not considered in this comparison

  4. Detoxification and immobilization of chromite ore processing residue in spinel-based glass-ceramic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Chang-Zhong [Guangdong Key Laboratory of Agricultural Environment Pollution Integrated Control, Guangdong Institute of Eco-Environmental and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (China); Tang, Yuanyuan [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, South University of Science and Technology of China, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Lee, Po-Heng [Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (China); Liu, Chengshuai, E-mail: csliu@soil.gd.cn [Guangdong Key Laboratory of Agricultural Environment Pollution Integrated Control, Guangdong Institute of Eco-Environmental and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang 550009 (China); Shih, Kaimin, E-mail: kshih@hku.hk [Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (China); Li, Fangbai [Guangdong Key Laboratory of Agricultural Environment Pollution Integrated Control, Guangdong Institute of Eco-Environmental and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China)

    2017-01-05

    Graphical abstract: Schematic illustration of detoxification and immobilization of chromite ore processing residue in spinel-based glass-ceramic matrix. All Cr(VI) species is reduced to Cr(III) and most chromium contents are incorporated into spinel structure where the residual chromium are resided in the glass networks. - Highlights: • COPR was detoxified and immobilized in a spinel-based glass-ceramic matrix. • Cr-rich crystalline phase was determined to be MgCr{sub 1.32}Fe{sub 0.19}Al{sub 0.49}O{sub 4} spinel. • The partitioning ratio of Cr into spinel in the glass-ceramic can be up to 77%. • No Cr(VI) was observed after conversion of COPR into a glass-ceramic. • TCLP results demonstrate the superiority of the final product in immobilizing Cr. - Abstract: A promising strategy for the detoxification and immobilization of chromite ore processing residue (COPR) in a spinel-based glass-ceramic matrix is reported in this study. In the search for a more chemically durable matrix for COPR, the most critical crystalline phase for Cr immobilization was found to be a spinel solid solution with a chemical composition of MgCr{sub 1.32}Fe{sub 0.19}Al{sub 0.49}O{sub 4}. Using Rietveld quantitative X-ray diffraction analysis, we identified this final product is with the phases of spinel (3.5 wt.%), diopside (5.2 wt.%), and some amorphous contents (91.2 wt.%). The partitioning ratio of Cr reveals that about 77% of the Cr was incorporated into the more chemically durable spinel phase. The results of Cr K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy show that no Cr(VI) was observed after conversion of COPR into a glass-ceramic, which indicates successful detoxification of Cr(VI) into Cr(III) in the COPR-incorporated glass-ceramic. The leaching performances of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} and COPR-incorporated glass-ceramic were compared with a prolonged acid-leaching test, and the results demonstrate the superiority of the COPR-incorporated glass-ceramic matrix in the

  5. Detoxification and immobilization of chromite ore processing residue in spinel-based glass-ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Chang-Zhong; Tang, Yuanyuan; Lee, Po-Heng; Liu, Chengshuai; Shih, Kaimin; Li, Fangbai

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Schematic illustration of detoxification and immobilization of chromite ore processing residue in spinel-based glass-ceramic matrix. All Cr(VI) species is reduced to Cr(III) and most chromium contents are incorporated into spinel structure where the residual chromium are resided in the glass networks. - Highlights: • COPR was detoxified and immobilized in a spinel-based glass-ceramic matrix. • Cr-rich crystalline phase was determined to be MgCr 1.32 Fe 0.19 Al 0.49 O 4 spinel. • The partitioning ratio of Cr into spinel in the glass-ceramic can be up to 77%. • No Cr(VI) was observed after conversion of COPR into a glass-ceramic. • TCLP results demonstrate the superiority of the final product in immobilizing Cr. - Abstract: A promising strategy for the detoxification and immobilization of chromite ore processing residue (COPR) in a spinel-based glass-ceramic matrix is reported in this study. In the search for a more chemically durable matrix for COPR, the most critical crystalline phase for Cr immobilization was found to be a spinel solid solution with a chemical composition of MgCr 1.32 Fe 0.19 Al 0.49 O 4 . Using Rietveld quantitative X-ray diffraction analysis, we identified this final product is with the phases of spinel (3.5 wt.%), diopside (5.2 wt.%), and some amorphous contents (91.2 wt.%). The partitioning ratio of Cr reveals that about 77% of the Cr was incorporated into the more chemically durable spinel phase. The results of Cr K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy show that no Cr(VI) was observed after conversion of COPR into a glass-ceramic, which indicates successful detoxification of Cr(VI) into Cr(III) in the COPR-incorporated glass-ceramic. The leaching performances of Cr 2 O 3 and COPR-incorporated glass-ceramic were compared with a prolonged acid-leaching test, and the results demonstrate the superiority of the COPR-incorporated glass-ceramic matrix in the immobilization of Cr. The overall results suggest that

  6. Site-selective fluorescence spectroscopy investigations of LnPO{sub 4} xenotime ceramics for radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsch, A.; Peters, L. [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Crystallography; Holthausen, J.; Neumeier, S. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany); Huittinen, Nina [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Surface Processes; Loesch, Henry

    2017-06-01

    Europium incorporation in different LnPO{sub 4} (Ln=Tb, Lu and Gd{sub 1-x}Lu{sub x}) phases crystallizing in the xenotime structure was investigated with site-selective TRLFS, PXRD and Rietveld analyses. Based on recorded emission spectra and diffraction patterns, the formation of three different crystal systems (xenotime, anhydrite, and monazite) could be identified. Aging of the ceramic samples and a second sintering step led to an accumulation of europium in the grain boundaries and on the surface.

  7. Gneiss wastes as secondary raw material for the ceramic industry: an example from the Verbano Cusio Ossola district (Piedmont, north-western Alps, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    The Verbano Cusio Ossola province (VCO, Piedmont, north-western Italy) is one of the most important Italian quarrying districts, due to the peculiarity and variety of its exploited rock types, mainly orthogneisses such as Serizzo and Beola, and subordinately granites, marbles and other rocks. The most important and extensively exploited ornamental stone from the VCO province is surely the Serizzo, commercialized in four main varieties, and representing about 70% of all the stone production from the VCO area. The protholith of the Serizzo is a Permian granite - granodiorite metamorphosed during the alpine events, and the rock-forming minerals are mainly quartz, K-feldspar, plagioclase (andesine), biotite, with variable amounts of muscovite and epidote (allanite). The other important ornamental stone of the VCO province is the Beola, a series of heterogeneous materials (mainly orthogneisses) with marked (mylonitic) foliation and strong mineralogical lineation, occurring in the median Ossola Valley; its production (15% of the whole stones of the VCO) is subordinated with respect to that of Serizzo. The mineralogical composition of the Beola varieties is similar to Serizzo, consisting of quite homogeneous quartz, K-feldspar (orthoclase or microcline), plagioclase, biotite and muscovite. The main differences relate to the grain size, the rock fabric (generally mylonitic) and to the presence of accessory/secondary minerals. Recent regulatory developments and the growing environmental awareness, require an increasing reuse of wastes deriving from the extraction and processing of dimension stones (up to 50 % of the extracted gross volume). Granite wastes from the VCO (Baveno pink granite and Montorfano white granite), after specific industrial treatments (crushing, sieving, drying, magnetic separation of biotite and hornblende), are used successfully as quartz-feldspars mix in the ceramic industry, with very low FeOtot content. On the other hand, other quartzose

  8. Storage of plutonium and nuclear power plant actinide waste in the form of critical-mass-free ceramics containing neutron poisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadykto, B.A. [RFNC-VNIIEF, Nizhni Novgorod Region (Russian Federation)

    2001-07-01

    The nuclear weapons production has resulted in accumulation of a large quantity of plutonium and uranium highly enriched with uranium-235 isotope (many tons). The work under ISTC Project 332B-97 treated the issues of safe plutonium storage through making critical-mass-free plutonium oxide compositions with neutron poisons. This completely excludes immediate utilization (without chemical reprocessing) of retained plutonium in nuclear devices. It is therewith possible to locate plutonium most compactly in the storage facility, which would allow reduction in required storage areas and costs. The issues of the surplus weapon-grade plutonium management and utilization have been comprehensively studied in the recent decade. The issues are treated in multiple scientific publications, conferences, and seminars. At the same time, issues of nuclear power engineering actinide waste storage are studied no less extensively. The general issues are material radioactivity and energy release and nuclear accident hazards due to critical mass generation. Plutonium accumulated in nuclear power plant spent fuel is more accessible than weapon-grade plutonium and can become of higher and higher interest with time as its activity reduces, including as material for nuclear devices. The urgency of plutonium management is presently related not only to accumulation of surplus weapon-grade plutonium, but also to the fact that it is high time to decide what has to be done regarding reactor plutonium. Presently, the possibility of actinide separation from NPP spent nuclear fuel and compact underground burial separately from other (mainly fragment) activity is being considered. Actinide and neutron poison base critical-mass-free ceramic materials (similar to plutonium ceramics) may be useful for this burial method. (author)

  9. Storage of plutonium and nuclear power plant actinide waste in the form of critical-mass-free ceramics containing neutron poisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadykto, B.A.

    2001-01-01

    The nuclear weapons production has resulted in accumulation of a large quantity of plutonium and uranium highly enriched with uranium-235 isotope (many tons). The work under ISTC Project 332B-97 treated the issues of safe plutonium storage through making critical-mass-free plutonium oxide compositions with neutron poisons. This completely excludes immediate utilization (without chemical reprocessing) of retained plutonium in nuclear devices. It is therewith possible to locate plutonium most compactly in the storage facility, which would allow reduction in required storage areas and costs. The issues of the surplus weapon-grade plutonium management and utilization have been comprehensively studied in the recent decade. The issues are treated in multiple scientific publications, conferences, and seminars. At the same time, issues of nuclear power engineering actinide waste storage are studied no less extensively. The general issues are material radioactivity and energy release and nuclear accident hazards due to critical mass generation. Plutonium accumulated in nuclear power plant spent fuel is more accessible than weapon-grade plutonium and can become of higher and higher interest with time as its activity reduces, including as material for nuclear devices. The urgency of plutonium management is presently related not only to accumulation of surplus weapon-grade plutonium, but also to the fact that it is high time to decide what has to be done regarding reactor plutonium. Presently, the possibility of actinide separation from NPP spent nuclear fuel and compact underground burial separately from other (mainly fragment) activity is being considered. Actinide and neutron poison base critical-mass-free ceramic materials (similar to plutonium ceramics) may be useful for this burial method. (author)

  10. Advanced Ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The First Florida-Brazil Seminar on Materials and the Second State Meeting about new materials in Rio de Janeiro State show the specific technical contribution in advanced ceramic sector. The others main topics discussed for the development of the country are the advanced ceramic programs the market, the national technic-scientific capacitation, the advanced ceramic patents, etc. (C.G.C.) [pt

  11. Scoping study of salt domes, basalts and crystalline rock as related to long term risk modeling for deep geologic disposal of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    Purpose is to provide a preliminary geotechnical data base sufficient to initiate the development of Long-Term Risk Models for salt domes, basalt, and crystalline rock. Geology, hydrology, specific sites, and potential release pathways are considered for each type. A summary table of site suitability characteristics is presented

  12. Nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicks, G.G.; Ross, W.A.

    1984-01-01

    Papers from the Second International Symposium on Ceramics in Nuclear Waste Management, held during the American Ceramic Society's 85th Annual Meeting, comprise this eighth volume in the Advances in Ceramics series. The 81 papers included in this volume were compiled by George G. Wicks, of Savannah River Lab, and Wayne A. Ross, of Battelle, Pacific Northwest Labs

  13. Issues related to the construction and operation of a geological disposal facility for nuclear fuel waste in crystalline rock - the Canadian experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, C.J.; Baumgartner, P.; Ohta, M.M.; Simmons, G.R.; Whitaker, S.H. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Pinawa, MB (Canada). Whiteshell Labs

    1997-12-31

    This paper covers the overview of the Canadian nuclear fuel waste management program, the general approach to the siting, design, construction, operation and closure of a geological disposal facility, the implementing disposal, and the public involvement in implementing geological disposal of nuclear fuel waste. And two appendices are included. 45 refs., 5 tabs., 10 figs.

  14. Issues related to the construction and operation of a geological disposal facility for nuclear fuel waste in crystalline rock - the Canadian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, C.J.; Baumgartner, P.; Ohta, M.M.; Simmons, G.R.; Whitaker, S.H.

    1997-01-01

    This paper covers the overview of the Canadian nuclear fuel waste management program, the general approach to the siting, design, construction, operation and closure of a geological disposal facility, the implementing disposal, and the public involvement in implementing geological disposal of nuclear fuel waste. And two appendices are included. 45 refs., 5 tabs., 10 figs

  15. [Spectroscopic Research on Slag Nanocrystal Glass Ceramics Containing Rare Earth Elements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Shun-li; Li, Bao-wei; Zhang, Xue-feng; Jia, Xiao-lin; Zhao, Ming; Deng, Lei-bo

    2015-08-01

    The research group prepared the high-performance slag nanocrystal glass ceramics by utilizing the valuable elements of the wastes in the Chinese Bayan Obo which are characterized by their symbiotic or associated existence. In this paper, inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy (Raman) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are all used in the depth analysis for the composition and structure of the samples. The experiment results of ICP, XRD and SEM showed that the principal crystalline phase of the slag nanocrystal glass ceramics containing rare earth elements is diopside, its grain size ranges from 45 to 100 nm, the elements showed in the SEM scan are basically in consistent with the component analysis of ICP. Raman analysis indicated that its amorphous phase is a three-dimensional network structure composed by the structural unit of silicon-oxy tetrahedron with different non-bridging oxygen bonds. According to the further analysis, we found that the rare earth microelement has significant effect on the network structure. Compared the nanocrystal slag glass ceramic with the glass ceramics of similar ingredients, we found that generally, the Raman band wavenumber for the former is lower than the later. The composition difference between the glass ceramics and the slag nanocrystal with the similar ingredients mainly lies on the rare earth elements and other trace elements. Therefore, we think that the rare earth elements and other trace elements remains in the slag nanocrystal glass ceramics have a significant effect on the network structure of amorphous phase. The research method of this study provides an approach for the relationship among the composition, structure and performance of the glass ceramics.

  16. Effects of changes in temperature on treatment performance and energy recovery at mainstream anaerobic ceramic membrane bioreactor for food waste recycling wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kyungjin; Jeong, Yeongmi; Seo, Kyu Won; Lee, Seockheon; Smith, Adam L; Shin, Seung Gu; Cho, Si-Kyung; Park, Chanhyuk

    2018-05-01

    An anaerobic ceramic membrane bioreactor (AnCMBR) has been attracted as an alternative technology to co-manage various organic substrates. This AnCMBR study investigated process performance and microbial community structure at decreasing temperatures to evaluate the potential of AnCMBR treatment for co-managing domestic wastewater (DWW) and food waste-recycling wastewater (FRW). As a result, the water flux (≥6.9 LMH) and organic removal efficiency (≥98.0%) were maintained above 25 °C. The trend of methane production in the AnCMBR was similar except for at 15 °C. At 15 °C, the archaeal community structure did not shifted, whereas the bacterial community structure was changed. Various major archaeal species were identified as the mesophilic methanogens which unable to grow at 15 °C. Our results suggest that the AnCMBR can be applied to co-manage DWW and FRW above 20 °C. Future improvements including psychrophilic methanogen inoculation and process optimization would make co-manage DWW and FRW at lower temperature climates. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Nuclear waste immobilisation in SYNROC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringwood, A.E.

    1984-04-01

    SYNROC is a crystalline titanate ceramic designed to immobilise the elements occurring in high level wastes. It has been demonstrated that the great majority of elements present in high level wastes can be incorporated within the crystalline lattices of the SYNROC minerals. In this state they are extremely resistant to attack by aqueous solutions. Extensive experimental data demonstrates that SYNROC is 1,000 to 10,000 times more resistant to leaching than borosilicate glass wasteforms at 100 - 200 deg C. SYNROC displays exceptional stability at higher temperatures where glasses disintegrate rapidly. The essential minerals of SYNROC occur in nature where they have demonstrated their capacity to survive in a wide range of geological and geochemical environments for periods of 10 8 - 10 9 years. These characteristics, in combination with the experimental studies, demonstrate that SYNROC offers important advantages over borosilicate glass as a wasteform, both in terms of performance and capacity to achieve public acceptability. Studies of the properties of ancient naturally occurring SYNROC minerals containing uranium and thorium which have received very large cumulative radiation doses demonstrate that the capacity of these minerals to retain waste elements is not substantially retarded by radiation damage. Process technology for the production of SYNROC on a large scale is now under development. A novel method employing uniaxial hot pressing of SYNROC powder contained in free sanding steel bellows at 1150 deg C yields a fully dense product. Production costs are estimated to be in the same range as for borosilicate glass

  18. Ceramic joining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loehman, R.E. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes the relation between reactions at ceramic-metal interfaces and the development of strong interfacial bonds in ceramic joining. Studies on a number of systems are described, including silicon nitrides, aluminium nitrides, mullite, and aluminium oxides. Joints can be weakened by stresses such as thermal expansion mismatch. Ceramic joining is used in a variety of applications such as solid oxide fuel cells.

  19. Hanford Waste Vitrification Program process development: Melt testing subtask, pilot-scale ceramic melter experiment, run summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakaoka, R.K.; Bates, S.O.; Elmore, M.R.; Goles, R.W.; Perez, J.M.; Scott, P.A.; Westsik, J.H.

    1996-03-01

    Hanford Waste Vitrification Program (HWVP) activities for FY 1985 have included engineering and pilot-scale melter experiments HWVP-11/HBCM-85-1 and HWVP-12/PSCM-22. Major objectives designated by HWVP fo these tests were to evaluate the processing characteristics of the current HWVP melter feed during actual melter operation and establish the product quality of HW-39 borosilicate glass. The current melter feed, defined during FY 85, consists of reference feed (HWVP-RF) and glass-forming chemicals added as frit