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Sample records for crystal violet vaccine

  1. Biodegradation of Crystal Violet by Agrobacterium radiobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parshetti, G.K.; Parshetti, S.G.; Telke, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    Violet (100 mg/L) was studied, maximum decolorization was observed with 15% inoculum concentration. A significant increase in the activities of laccase (184%) and aminopyrine Af-demethylase (300%) in cells obtained after decolorization indicated the involvement of these enzymes in decolorization process...... and phenol. We proposed the hypothetical metabolic pathway of Crystal Violet biodegradation by A. radiobacter. Phytotoxicity and microbial toxicity study showed that Crystal Violet biodegradation metabolites were less toxic to bacteria (A. radiobacter, P. aurugenosa and A. vinelandii) contributing to soil...

  2. REMOVAL OF CRYSTAL VIOLET BY BIOSORPTION ONTO DATE STONES

    OpenAIRE

    NOUREDDINE EL MESSAOUDI; MOHAMMED EL KHOMRI; SAFAE BENTAHAR; ABDELLAH DBIK; ABDELLAH LACHERAI

    2016-01-01

    The biosorption has the advantage that it can be applied to effluent disposal and thus brings various responses to the regulatory requirements for environmental protection. This study presents the results obtained from the use of date stones (DS) for the elimination of crystal violet (CV) from aqueous medium. Several analysis techniques were used to determine the different characteristics of biosorbent studied (FTIR, TGA-DTA, SEM and pHzpc).The physico-chemical parameters influence of the bio...

  3. Decolorization of Malachite Green and Crystal Violet by Waterborne Pathogenic Mycobacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Jefferson J.; Falkinham III, Joseph O.

    2003-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare, Mycobacterium scrofulaceum, Mycobacterium marinum, and Mycobacterium chelonae tolerate high concentrations of the dyes malachite green and crystal violet. Cells of strains of those species decolorized (reduced) both malachite green and crystal violet. Because decolorized malachite green lacked antimicrobial activity, the resistance of these mycobacteria could be due, in part, to their ability to decolorize the dyes. Small amounts of malachite...

  4. REMOVAL OF CRYSTAL VIOLET BY BIOSORPTION ONTO DATE STONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NOUREDDINE EL MESSAOUDI

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The biosorption has the advantage that it can be applied to effluent disposal and thus brings various responses to the regulatory requirements for environmental protection. This study presents the results obtained from the use of date stones (DS for the elimination of crystal violet (CV from aqueous medium. Several analysis techniques were used to determine the different characteristics of biosorbent studied (FTIR, TGA-DTA, SEM and pHzpc.The physico-chemical parameters influence of the biosorption such as biosorbent dosage, contact time, temperature, biosorbent particles size and initial dye pH were investigated under static conditions in order to evaluate the process system. The test results show that a gram of date stones may set a maximum amount adsorbed 90.89 mg·g-1 of CV at 50 °C according to the Langmuir isotherm with pseudo-second-order kinetic. Thermodynamic calculations performed shows also that sorption is spontaneous, endothermic and increased randomness in the solid / solution interface.

  5. Confirmatory analysis of malachite green, Leucomalachite green, crystal violet and leucocrystal violet in salmon by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dowling, A.P.G.; Mulder, P.P.J.; Duffy, C.; Regan, L.; Smyth, M.R.

    2007-01-01

    A method has been developed to analyse for malachite green (MG), leucornalachite green (LMG), crystal violet (CV) and leucocrystal violet (LCV) residues in salmon. Salmon samples were extracted with acetonitrile:Mclllvain pH 3 buffer (90: 10 v/v), sample extracts were purified on a Bakerbond strong

  6. Oxidation kinetics of crystal violet by potassium permanganate in acidic medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sameera Razi; Ashfaq, Maria; Mubashir; Masood, Summyia

    2016-05-01

    The oxidation kinetics of crystal violet (a triphenylmethane dye) by potassium permanganate was focused in an acidic medium by the spectrophotometric method at 584 nm. The oxidation reaction of crystal violet by potassium permanganate is carried out in an acidic medium at different temperatures ranging within 298-318 K. The kinetic study was carried out to investigate the effect of the concentration, ionic strength and temperature. The reaction followed first order kinetics with respect to potassium permanganate and crystal violet and the overall rate of the reaction was found to be second order. Thermodynamic activation parameters like the activation energy ( E a), enthalpy change (Δ H*), free energy change (Δ G*), and entropy change (Δ S*) have also been evaluated.

  7. Detection of low concentration of malachite green and crystal violet in water

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šafařík, Ivo; Šafaříková, Miroslava

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 36, - (2002), s. 196-200 ISSN 0043-1354 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/98/1145 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : magnetic particles * crystal violet Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.611, year: 2002

  8. [Biosorption of crystal violet and malachite green by Rhodotorula graminis Y-5].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Rong; Huang, Jian-Bo; Yang, Zhou-Ping; Cheng, Zi-Zhang; Jing, De-Jun; Huang, Qian-Ming

    2011-12-01

    With a shaker, this paper studied the characteristics of the biosorption of crystal violet and malachite green by Rhodotorula graminis Y-5 under different adsorption time, initial pH, and temperature, as well as the desorption and recycling use of the dyes. The biosorption of crystal violet and malachite green by R. graminis Y-5 had the peaks (93.8% and 87.7%, respectively) at pH 7.0, dye concentration 50 mg x L(-1), 150 r x min(-1), 30 degrees C, and lasting 10 hours. After desorption, the biosorption rate of crystal violet and malachite green by R. graminis was 85.5% and 78.5%, respectively, indicating that the biosorption of crystal violet and malachite green was reversible, and the recycling use of the dyes by R. graminis was quite good, i. e., the dyes were renewable and could be recycled. Biosorption could be the mechanism of the decolorization of the dyes. The dyes were mostly adsorbed on the R. graminis surface -OH. The adsorption process was fast, efficient, and reversible, suggesting that R. graminis had a high potential for waste water treatment.

  9. Photocatalytic degradation of crystal violet by thiourea-doped TiO2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, optimisation of the photocatalytic behaviour of crystal violet (CV) by thiourea (Tu)-codoped TiO2 thin film in fixed bed photoreactor was investigated by central composite designs (CCDs). The effective variables were pH, the concentration of CV dye, flow rate and reaction time. The results of the CCD model ...

  10. Interliposomal transfer of crystal violet dye from DPPC liposomes to magnetoliposomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koneracka, Martina; Kopcansky, Peter; Sosa, Pavol; Bagelova, Jaroslava; Timko, Milan

    2005-01-01

    Magnetoliposomes offer new challenges in the field of modern biotechnology and biomedicine. To investigate the important mechanism of interliposomal transfer of encapsulated substances, we investigated in the present work magnetoliposomes and liposomes containing the dye crystal violet. Our study of transmembrane transport showed that the dye transfer from DPPC liposomes to magnetoliposomes was temperature dependent

  11. Kinetic studies on the degradation of crystal violet by the Fenton oxidation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, H; Fan, M M; Li, C F; Peng, M; Sheng, L J; Pan, Q; Song, G W

    2010-01-01

    The degradation of dye crystal violet (CV) by Fenton oxidation process was investigated. The UV-Vis spectrogram has shown that CV can be degraded effectively by Fenton oxidation process. Different system variables namely initial H(2)O(2) concentration, initial Fe(2 + ) concentration and reaction temperature, which have effect on the degradation of CV by Fenton oxidation process, have been studied systematically. The degradation kinetics of CV was also elucidated based on the experimental data. The degradation of CV obeys the first-order reaction kinetics. The kinetic model can be described as k=1.5 exp(-(7.5)/(RT))[H(2)O(2)](0)(0.8718)[Fe(2+)](0)(0.5062). According to the IR spectrogram, it is concluded that the benzene ring of crystal violet has been destroyed by Fenton oxidation. The result will be useful in treating dyeing wastewater containing CV by Fenton oxidation process.

  12. Sensitive detection of malachite green and crystal violet by nonlinear laser wave mixing and capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Eric J; Tong, William G

    2016-05-01

    An ultrasensitive label-free antibody-free detection method for malachite green and crystal violet is presented using nonlinear laser wave-mixing spectroscopy and capillary zone electrophoresis. Wave-mixing spectroscopy provides a sensitive absorption-based detection method for trace analytes. This is accomplished by forming dynamic gratings within a sample cell, which diffracts light to create a coherent laser-like signal beam with high optical efficiency and high signal-to-noise ratio. A cubic dependence on laser power and square dependence on analyte concentration make wave mixing sensitive enough to detect molecules in their native form without the use of fluorescent labels for signal enhancement. A 532 nm laser and a 635 nm laser were used for malachite green and crystal violet sample excitation. The use of two lasers of different wavelengths allows the method to simultaneously detect both analytes. Selectivity is obtained through the capillary zone electrophoresis separation, which results in characteristic migration times. Measurement in capillary zone electrophoresis resulted in a limit of detection of 6.9 × 10(-10)M (2.5 × 10(-19) mol) for crystal violet and 8.3 × 10(-11)M (3.0 × 10(-20) mol) for malachite green at S/N of 2. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Spectrophotometric determination of boron by solvent extraction with hydrobenzoin and crystal violet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Shigeya; Uchikawa, Sumio

    1982-01-01

    A highly sensitive and simple method for the spectrophotometric determination of boron was developed. Boron was found to react with hydrobenzoin in weak alkaline medium to form a complex anion extractable into benzene with crystal violet, and the measurement of the absorbance of crystal violet in the extract at 600 nm enabled the determination of boron indirectly. The recommended procedure is as follows: Take an aliquot of the boron solution (2.0 x 10 - 4 mol l - 1 ) into a 10-ml test tube. Add 1 ml of carbonate buffer solution (pH 9.4) and 0.25 ml of crystal violet solution (1.0 x 10 - 2 mol l - 1 ), and dilute the mixed solution to 4 ml with deionized water. Shake the solution with 4 ml of benzene solution containing hydrobenzoin (2.0 x 10 - 2 mol l - 1 ) for 2 min. Measure the absorbance of the organic phase at 600 nm using a 10-mm glass cell against benzene. The calibration curve obeyed Beer's law on the concentration range from 2.5 x 10 - 6 mol l - 1 to 2.5 x 10 - 5 mol l - 1 of boron, and the apparent molar absorptivity was 3.0 x 10 4 l mol - 1 cm - 1 at 20 0 C. It was found that many kinds of co-existing ions interfered with the determination. However, this method was applicable to the determination of boron in sea water when chloride ion and cations such as Ca(II) and Mg(II) were previously eliminated by treating the sample solution with Ag 2 O and cation exchanger resin. The proposed method is a very simple and rapid one, because this method does not require apparatus other than common laboratories and the evaporation to dryness of sample or removal of the excess of reagent. (author)

  14. Dosimetric characteristics of aqueous solution of crystal violet for applications in food irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, H M; Naz, Shagufta; Tabassum, Safia [Peshawar University, Peshawar (Pakistan). Radiation Chemistry Laboratory, National Centre of Excellence in Physical Chemistry

    2011-07-15

    Aqueous solution of crystal violet has been evaluated spectrophotometrically as a gamma-ray chemical dosimeter. The response of the chemical dosimetric system has also been investigated under different environmental conditions, such as light and temperature. In the present study the response has been measured at two wavelengths; 588 nm ({lambda}{sub max} of the irradiated solution) and 500 nm. The response of the crystal violet dosimeter was linear in the dose range of 50-550 Gy at pH 5.6 when absorption measurements were made at 588 and 500 nm. The response of the crystal violet dosimeter during post-irradiation storage at room temperature in dark showed slight decrease in absorbance at 588 and 510 nm but the response was almost stable at 460 nm. For higher doses, the change in the response was greater as compared to the low doses. Post-irradiation stability during diffused sunlight showed significant decrease in the response for higher dose at 588 and 510 nm and slower decrease in the response for lower dose at the above mentioned wavelengths. However the response was almost stable up to 97 days at 460 nm for higher and lower doses. At 4 deg C, the decrease in the absorbance was slower at 588 and 510 nm while the response was almost constant at 460 nm. At higher temperatures, such as 40 deg C, the decrease in the absorbance was greater at 588 and 510 nm while at 460 nm the absorbance was almost constant for about 3 months. (author)

  15. Dosimetric characteristics of aqueous solution of crystal violet for applications in food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, H.M.; Shagufta Naz; Safia Tabassum

    2011-01-01

    Aqueous solution of crystal violet has been evaluated spectrophotometrically as a gamma-ray chemical dosimeter. The response of the chemical dosimetric system has also been investigated under different environmental conditions, such as light and temperature. In the present study the response has been measured at two wavelengths; 588 nm (λ max of the irradiated solution) and 500 nm. The response of the crystal violet dosimeter was linear in the dose range of 50-550 Gy at pH 5.6 when absorption measurements were made at 588 and 500 nm. The response of the crystal violet dosimeter during post-irradiation storage at room temperature in dark showed slight decrease in absorbance at 588 and 510 nm but the response was almost stable at 460 nm. For higher doses, the change in the response was greater as compared to the low doses. Post-irradiation stability during diffused sunlight showed significant decrease in the response for higher dose at 588 and 510 nm and slower decrease in the response for lower dose at the above mentioned wavelengths. However the response was almost stable up to 97 days at 460 nm for higher and lower doses. At 4 deg C, the decrease in the absorbance was slower at 588 and 510 nm while the response was almost constant at 460 nm. At higher temperatures, such as 40 deg C, the decrease in the absorbance was greater at 588 and 510 nm while at 460 nm the absorbance was almost constant for about 3 months. (author)

  16. Electronic structure of superconducting Bi2212 crystal by angle resolved ultra violet photoemission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saini, N.L.; Shrivastava, P.; Garg, K.B.

    1993-01-01

    The electronic structure of a high quality superconducting Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 Osub(8+δ) (Bi2212) single crystal is studied by angle resolved ultra violet photoemission (ARUPS) using He I (21.2 eV). Our results appear to show two bands crossing the Fermi level in ΓX direction of the Brillouin zone as reported by Takahashi et al. The bands at higher binding energy do not show any appreciable dispersion. The nature of the states near the Fermi level is discussed and the observed band structure is compared with the band structure calculations. (author)

  17. Studies on adsorption of crystal violet dye from aqueous solution onto coniferous pinus bark powder (CPBP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Rais

    2009-01-01

    The present study shows that the coniferous pinus bark powder (CPBP) can be used as a potential adsorbent for the removal of crystal violet (basic dye) from aqueous solutions. Experiments were carried out as a function of contact time, concentration, temperature, pH and dosage. The amount of dye uptake was found to vary with increasing initial solution pH and maximum adsorption was observed at pH 8. The equilibrium was attained in 2 h. The amount of dye uptake (mg/g) was found to increase with increase in dye concentration and contact time. The % adsorption was found to decrease with increase in amount of adsorbent. The thermodynamic parameters were also calculated and the positive value of ΔH o indicates the endothermic nature of adsorption. The applicability of the three isotherm's model for the present data follows the order: Langmuir > Temkin > Freundlich. The kinetics of crystal violet on to the adsorbent can be described well by pseudo-second order > Elovich > pseudo-first order equation.

  18. Adsorption and desorption characteristics of crystal violet in bottom ash column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puthiya Veetil Nidheesh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study described adsorption of Crystal Violet (CV by bottom ash in fixed-bed column mode. Equilibrium of adsorption was studied in batch mode for finding adsorption capacity of bottom ash. In fixed bed column adsorption, the effects of bed height, feed flow rate, and initial concentration were studied by assessing breakthrough curve. The slope of the breakthrough curve decreased with increasing bed height. The breakthrough time and exhaustion time were decreased with increasing influent CV concentration and flow rates. The effect of bed depth, flow rate and CV concentration on the adsorption column design parameters were analyzed. Bed depth service time (BDST model was applied for analysis of crystal violet adsorption in the column. The adsorption capacity of bottom ash was calculated at 10% breakthrough point for different flow rates and concentrations. Desorption studies reveals that recovery of CV from bottom ash was effective by using CH3COOH than H2SO4, NaOH, HCl and NaCl solutions.

  19. ADSORPTION AND DESORPTION CHARACTERISTICS OF CRYSTAL VIOLET IN BOTTOM ASH COLUMN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puthiya Veetil Nidheesh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study described adsorption of Crystal Violet (CV by bottom ash in fixed-bed column mode. Equilibrium of adsorption was studied in batch mode for finding adsorption capacity of bottom ash. In fixed bed column adsorption, the effects of bed height, feed flow rate, and initial concentration were studied by assessing breakthrough curve. The slope of the breakthrough curve decreased with increasing bed height. The breakthrough time and exhaustion time were decreased with increasing influent CV concentration and flow rates. The effect of bed depth, flow rate and CV concentration on the adsorption column design parameters were analyzed. Bed depth service time (BDST model was applied for analysis of crystal violet adsorption in the column. The adsorption capacity of bottom ash was calculated at 10% breakthrough point for different flow rates and concentrations. Desorption studies reveals that recovery of CV from bottom ash was effective by using CH3COOH than H2SO4, NaOH, HCl and NaCl solutions.

  20. Decolorization of Malachite Green and Crystal Violet by Waterborne Pathogenic Mycobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jefferson J.; Falkinham III, Joseph O.

    2003-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare, Mycobacterium scrofulaceum, Mycobacterium marinum, and Mycobacterium chelonae tolerate high concentrations of the dyes malachite green and crystal violet. Cells of strains of those species decolorized (reduced) both malachite green and crystal violet. Because decolorized malachite green lacked antimicrobial activity, the resistance of these mycobacteria could be due, in part, to their ability to decolorize the dyes. Small amounts of malachite green and its reduced, decolorized product were detected in the lipid fraction of M. avium strain A5 cells grown in the presence of malachite green, suggesting that a minor component of resistance could be due to sequestering the dyes in the extensive mycobacterial cell surface lipid. The membrane fraction of M. avium strain A5 had at least a fivefold-higher specific decolorization rate than did the crude extract, suggesting that the decolorization activity is membrane associated. The malachite green-decolorizing activity of the membrane fraction of M. avium strain A5 was abolished by either boiling or proteinase exposure, suggesting that the decolorizing activity was due to a protein. Decolorization activity of membrane fractions was stimulated by ferrous ion and inhibited by dinitrophenol and metyrapone. PMID:12821489

  1. Colorimetric Nucleic Acid Detection on Paper Microchip Using Loop Mediated Isothermal Amplification and Crystal Violet Dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sharmili; Mohd-Naim, Noor Faizah; Safavieh, Mohammadali; Ahmed, Minhaz Uddin

    2017-11-22

    Nucleic acid detection is of paramount importance in monitoring of microbial pathogens in food safety and infectious disease diagnostic applications. To address these challenges, a rapid, cost-effective label-free technique for nucleic acid detection with minimal instrumentations is highly desired. Here, we present paper microchip to detect and quantify nucleic acid using colorimetric sensing modality. The extracted DNA from food samples of meat as well as microbial pathogens was amplified utilizing loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). LAMP amplicon was then detected and quantified on a paper microchip fabricated in a cellulose paper and a small wax chamber utilizing crystal violet dye. The affinity of crystal violet dye toward dsDNA and positive signal were identified by changing the color from colorless to purple. Using this method, detection of Sus scrofa (porcine) and Bacillus subtilis (bacteria) DNA was possible at concentrations as low as 1 pg/μL (3.43 × 10 -1 copies/μL) and 10 pg/μL (2.2 × 10 3 copies/μL), respectively. This strategy can be adapted for detection of other DNA samples, with potential for development of a new breed of simple and inexpensive paper microchip at the point-of-need.

  2. Demonstration of lipofuscin and Nissl bodies in crystal violet stained sections using a fluorescence technique or pyronin Y stain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terr, L I

    1986-09-01

    This paper presents two simple, reliable methods for identification of lipofuscin and Nissl bodies in the same section. One method shows that lipofuscin stained with crystal violet retains its ability to fluoresce and can be observed under the fluorescence microscope after the stain has faded. Fading is accompanied by a gradual increase in the intensity of the fluorescence and is complete in about 5 min. Exciting illumination from this part of the spectrum also substantially fades staining of other autofluorescing tissue elements, such as lipids. Nonfluorescing structures, such as Nissl bodies, remain stained. By changing from transillumination with tungsten light to epifluorescent illumination and vice versa, both types of structures--Nissl bodies and lipofuscin--can be identified in the same section. The second technique uses pyronin Y for staining Nissl bodies in preparations previously stained with crystal violet. Nissl bodies are stained pink but lipofuscin remains violet. Lipofuscin in these sections also remains autofluorescent after the crystal violet stain has faded under violet or near-UV light.

  3. Adsorption of Crystal Violet on Activated Carbon Prepared from Coal Flotation Concentrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydogmus, Ramazan; Depci, Tolga; Sarikaya, Musa; Riza Kul, Ali; Onal, Yunus

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study is firstly to investigate the floatability properties of Zilan- Van coal after microwave irradiation and secondly to produce activated carbon from flotation concentrate in order to remove Crystal Violet (CV) from waste water. The flotation experiments showed that microwave heating at 0.9 kW power level for 60 sec exposure time enhanced the hydrophobicity and increased the flotation yield. The activated carbon with remarkable surface area (696 m2/g) was produced from the flotation concentrate and used to adsorb CV from aqueous solution in a batch reactor at different temperature. The adsorption properties of CV onto the activated carbon are discussed in terms of the adsorption isotherms (Langmuir and Freundlich) and found that the experimental results best fitted by the Langmuir model.

  4. Insight into biosorption equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamics of crystal violet onto Ananas comosus (pineapple) leaf powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Sagnik; Chowdhury, Shamik; Saha, Papita Das

    2012-06-01

    Biosorption performance of pineapple leaf powder (PLP) for removal of crystal violet (CV) from its aqueous solutions was investigated. To this end, the influence of operational parameters such as pH, biosorbent dose, initial dye concentration and temperature were studied employing a batch experimental setup. The biosorption process followed the Langmuir isotherm model with high correlation coefficients ( R 2 > 0.99) at different temperatures. The maximum monolayer biosorption capacity was found to be 78.22 mg g-1 at 293 K. The kinetic data conformed to the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The activation energy of the system was calculated as 58.96 kJ mol- 1 , indicating chemisorption nature of the ongoing biosorption process. A thermodynamic study showed spontaneous and exothermic nature of the biosorption process. Owing to its low cost and high dye uptake capacity, PLP has potential for application as biosorbent for removal of CV from aqueous solutions.

  5. Temperature sensitive molecularly imprinted microspheres for solid-phase dispersion extraction of malachite green, crystal violet and their leuko metabolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Lei; Chen, Kuncai; He, Rong; Peng, Rongfei; Huang, Cong

    2016-01-01

    This article demonstrates the feasibility of an alternative strategy for producing temperature sensitive molecularly imprinted microspheres (MIMs) for solid-phase dispersion extraction of malachite green, crystal violet and their leuko metabolites. Thermo-sensitive MIMs can change their structure following temperature stimulation. This allows capture and release of target molecules to be controlled by temperature. The fabrication technique provides surface molecular imprinting in acetonitrile using vinyl modified silica microspheres as solid supports, methacrylic acid and N-isopropyl acrylamide as the functional monomers, ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linker, and malachite green as the template. After elution of the template, the MIMs can be used for fairly group-selective solid phase dispersion extraction of malachite green, crystal violet, leucomalachite green, and leucocrystal violet from homogenized fish samples at a certain temperature. Following centrifugal separation of the microspheres, the analytes were eluted with a 95:5 mixture of acetonitrile and formic acid, and then quantified by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) with isotope internal calibration. The detection limits for malachite green, crystal violet and their metabolites typically are 30 ng·kg −1 . Positive samples were identified by UHPLC-MS/MS in the positive ionization mode with multiple reaction monitoring. The method was applied to the determination of the dyes and the respective leuko dyes in fish samples, and accuracy and precision were validated by comparative analysis of the samples by using aluminum neutral columns. (author)

  6. Measuring the Photocatalytic Breakdown of Crystal Violet Dye using a Light Emitting Diode Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Robert E.; Underwood, Lauren W.; O'Neal, Duane; Pagnutti, Mary; Davis, Bruce A.

    2009-01-01

    A simple method to estimate the photocatalytic reactivity performance of spray-on titanium dioxide coatings for transmissive glass surfaces was developed. This novel technique provides a standardized method to evaluate the efficiency of photocatalytic material systems over a variety of illumination levels. To date, photocatalysis assessments have generally been conducted using mercury black light lamps. Illumination levels for these types of lamps are difficult to vary, consequently limiting their use for assessing material performance under a diverse range of simulated environmental conditions. This new technique uses an ultraviolet (UV) gallium nitride (GaN) light emitting diode (LED) array instead of a traditional black light to initiate and sustain photocatalytic breakdown. This method was tested with a UV-resistant dye (crystal violet) applied to a titanium dioxide coated glass slide. Experimental control is accomplished by applying crystal violet to both titanium dioxide coated slides and uncoated control slides. A slide is illuminated by the UV LED array, at various light levels representative of outdoor and indoor conditions, from the dye side of the slide. To monitor degradation of the dye over time, a temperature-stabilized white light LED, whose emission spectrum overlaps with the dye absorption spectrum, is used to illuminate the opposite side of the slide. Using a spectrometer, the amount of light from the white light LED transmitted through the slide as the dye degrades is monitored as a function of wavelength and time and is subsequently analyzed. In this way, the rate of degradation for photocatalytically coated versus uncoated slide surfaces can be compared. Results demonstrate that the dye absorption decreased much more rapidly on the photocatalytically coated slides than on the control uncoated slides, and that dye degradation is dependent on illumination level. For photocatalytic activity assessment purposes, this experimental configuration and

  7. Application potential of grapefruit peel as dye sorbent: Kinetics, equilibrium and mechanism of crystal violet adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeed, Asma, E-mail: asmadr@wol.net.pk [Environmental Biotechnology Group, Biotechnology and Food Research Centre, PCSIR Laboratories Complex, Ferozepur Road, Lahore 54600 (Pakistan); Sharif, Mehwish [School of Biological Sciences, University of the Punjab, Lahore 54590 (Pakistan); Iqbal, Muhammad [Environmental Biotechnology Group, Biotechnology and Food Research Centre, PCSIR Laboratories Complex, Ferozepur Road, Lahore 54600 (Pakistan)

    2010-07-15

    This study reports the sorption of crystal violet (CV) dye by grapefruit peel (GFP), which has application potential in the remediation of dye-contaminated wastewaters using a solid waste generated by the citrus fruit juice industry. Batch adsorption of CV was conducted to evaluate the effect of initial pH, contact time, temperature, initial dye concentration, GFP adsorbent dose, and removal of the adsorbate CV dye from aqueous solution to understand the mechanism of sorption involved. Sorption equilibrium reached rapidly with 96% CV removal in 60 min. Fit of the sorption experimental data was tested on the pseudo-first and pseudo-second-order kinetics mathematical equations, which was noted to follow the pseudo-second-order kinetics better, with coefficient of correlation {>=}0.992. The equilibrium process was well described by the Langmuir isotherm model, with maximum sorption capacity of 254.16 mg g{sup -1}. The GFP was regenerated using 1 M NaOH, with up to 98.25% recovery of CV and could be reused as a dye sorbent in repeated cycles. GFP was also shown to be highly effective in removing CV from aqueous solution in continuous-flow fixed-bed column reactors. The study shows that GFP has the potential of application as an efficient sorbent for the removal of CV from aqueous solutions.

  8. Application potential of grapefruit peel as dye sorbent: Kinetics, equilibrium and mechanism of crystal violet adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeed, Asma; Sharif, Mehwish; Iqbal, Muhammad

    2010-01-01

    This study reports the sorption of crystal violet (CV) dye by grapefruit peel (GFP), which has application potential in the remediation of dye-contaminated wastewaters using a solid waste generated by the citrus fruit juice industry. Batch adsorption of CV was conducted to evaluate the effect of initial pH, contact time, temperature, initial dye concentration, GFP adsorbent dose, and removal of the adsorbate CV dye from aqueous solution to understand the mechanism of sorption involved. Sorption equilibrium reached rapidly with 96% CV removal in 60 min. Fit of the sorption experimental data was tested on the pseudo-first and pseudo-second-order kinetics mathematical equations, which was noted to follow the pseudo-second-order kinetics better, with coefficient of correlation ≥0.992. The equilibrium process was well described by the Langmuir isotherm model, with maximum sorption capacity of 254.16 mg g -1 . The GFP was regenerated using 1 M NaOH, with up to 98.25% recovery of CV and could be reused as a dye sorbent in repeated cycles. GFP was also shown to be highly effective in removing CV from aqueous solution in continuous-flow fixed-bed column reactors. The study shows that GFP has the potential of application as an efficient sorbent for the removal of CV from aqueous solutions.

  9. Application potential of grapefruit peel as dye sorbent: kinetics, equilibrium and mechanism of crystal violet adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Asma; Sharif, Mehwish; Iqbal, Muhammad

    2010-07-15

    This study reports the sorption of crystal violet (CV) dye by grapefruit peel (GFP), which has application potential in the remediation of dye-contaminated wastewaters using a solid waste generated by the citrus fruit juice industry. Batch adsorption of CV was conducted to evaluate the effect of initial pH, contact time, temperature, initial dye concentration, GFP adsorbent dose, and removal of the adsorbate CV dye from aqueous solution to understand the mechanism of sorption involved. Sorption equilibrium reached rapidly with 96% CV removal in 60 min. Fit of the sorption experimental data was tested on the pseudo-first and pseudo-second-order kinetics mathematical equations, which was noted to follow the pseudo-second-order kinetics better, with coefficient of correlation > or = 0.992. The equilibrium process was well described by the Langmuir isotherm model, with maximum sorption capacity of 254.16 mg g(-1). The GFP was regenerated using 1 M NaOH, with up to 98.25% recovery of CV and could be reused as a dye sorbent in repeated cycles. GFP was also shown to be highly effective in removing CV from aqueous solution in continuous-flow fixed-bed column reactors. The study shows that GFP has the potential of application as an efficient sorbent for the removal of CV from aqueous solutions. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Determination of polyhexamethylene biguanide hydrochloride using photometric colloidal titration with crystal violet as a color indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masadome, Takashi; Miyanishi, Takaaki; Watanabe, Keita; Ueda, Hiroshi; Hattori, Toshiaki

    2011-01-01

    A solution of polyhexamethylene biguanide hydrochloride (PHMB-HCl) was titrated with a standard solution of potassium poly(vinyl sulfate) (PVSK) using crystal violet (CV) as an photometric indicator cation. The end point was detected by a sharp absorbance change due to an abrupt decrease in the concentration of CV. A linear relationship between the concentration of PHMB-HCl and the end-point volume of the titrant existed in the concentration range from 2 to 10 × 10(-6) eq mol L(-1). Back-titration was based on adding an excess amount of PVSK to a sample solution containing CV, which was titrated with a standard solution of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDADMAC). The calibration curve of the PHMB-HCl concentration to the end point volume of the titrant was also linear in the concentration range from 2 to 8 × 10(-6) eq mol L(-1). Both photometric titrations were applied to the determination of PHMB-HCl in a few contact-lens detergents. Back-titration showed a clear end point, but direct titration showed an unclear end point. The results of the back-titration of PHMB-HCl were compared with the content registered in its labels. 2011 © The Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry

  11. [Flotation spectrophotometric determination of copper on isochromatic dye ion pair with crystal violet and bromopnenol blue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, B; Chen, C; Zuo, B

    1999-02-01

    Bromophenol blue (BPB) was produced and entered into the aqueous phase when NaOH solution of pH = 10 was added to Cu(biq)2BPB by trichloromethane and isoamyl alcohol (20:1) extractive. And then CV x BPB was floated by crystal violet (CV) with benzene solution. The flotation was dissolved in ethanol and the absorbance of the solution measured at 590 nm. The sensitivity was raised because of the two dyes assistant effect. The molar absorptivity was 1.45 x 10(5) L x mol(-1) x cm(-1). Copper in the sample was separated first by extracting the Cu(biq)2BPB complex with trichloromethane and isoamyl alcohol, thus achieving a high selectivity. Beer's law was obeyd in the range of 0-0. 4 mg/L with a relative standard deviation of 3.6%. For 4.8 x 10(-8) g/mL copper solution, the recoveries were 97.8%-101.7%.

  12. An Unusual Dimeric Inhibitor of Acetylcholinesterase: Cooperative Binding of Crystal Violet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Allgardsson

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholinesterase (AChE is an essential enzyme that terminates cholinergic transmission by a rapid hydrolysis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. AChE is an important target for treatment of various cholinergic deficiencies, including Alzheimer’s disease and myasthenia gravis. In a previous high throughput screening campaign, we identified the dye crystal violet (CV as an inhibitor of AChE. Herein, we show that CV displays a significant cooperativity for binding to AChE, and the molecular basis for this observation has been investigated by X-ray crystallography. Two monomers of CV bind to residues at the entrance of the active site gorge of the enzyme. Notably, the two CV molecules have extensive intermolecular contacts with each other and with AChE. Computational analyses show that the observed CV dimer is not stable in solution, suggesting the sequential binding of two monomers. Guided by the structural analysis, we designed a set of single site substitutions, and investigated their effect on the binding of CV. Only moderate effects on the binding and the cooperativity were observed, suggesting a robustness in the interaction between CV and AChE. Taken together, we propose that the dimeric cooperative binding is due to a rare combination of chemical and structural properties of both CV and the AChE molecule itself.

  13. Adsorption of crystal violet with diatomite earth&carbon by a modification of hydrothermal carbonization process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanzhuo; Li, Jun; Chen, Guanghui; Bian, Wei; Lu, Yun; Li, Wenjing; Zheng, Zhaoming; Cheng, Xiaojie

    2016-01-01

    The high colority and difficulty of decolorization are the most important tasks on printing and dyeing wastewater. This study investigates the ability of diatomite earth&carbon (DE&C) as an adsorbent to removal crystal violet (CV) from aqueous solutions. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results indicate the importance of functional groups during the adsorption of CV. The obtained N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm values accord with well IUPAC type II. Our calculations determined a surface area of 73.15 m(2) g(-1) for DE&C and an average pore diameter of 10.56 nm. Equilibrium data of the adsorption process fitted very well to the Langmuir model (R(2) > 0.99). The results of kinetics study showed that the pseudo-second-order model fitted to the experimental data well. The thermodynamic parameters were also evaluated. ΔH° 0 and ΔG° < 0 demonstrated that the adsorption process was spontaneous and exothermic for dye. Furthermore the positive value of ΔS° reflected good affinity of the CV dye.

  14. Crystal Violet and Methylene Green as Low-Dose Liquid Dosimetry Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebraheem, S.; Beshir, W.B.; Hassan, H.M.

    2008-01-01

    The ultimate aim of the present work is studying of the possibility of using some organic solutions for gamma radiation monitors and to evaluate and characterize the dosimetric properties of these compounds. Crystal violet (CV) and methylene green (MG) aqueous solutions with different concentrations have been prepared and irradiated to different absorbed doses. The solutions were readout using absorption spectrophotometry technique at λ m ax 592 nm and 614 nm for CV and MG respectively. The maximum useful dose range was investigated and found to be concentration dependent. It was found that the useful dose range was from 10-160 Gy for CV and from 10-200 Gy for MG. The radiation chemical yield, G-value, was calculated for the studied solutions. The ph effect and the effect of different additives, chloral hydrate and ethanol have been also investigated. The pre- and post- irradiation stabilities of these solutions under different storage conditions were studied and the results showed different significant dependence on the storage condition

  15. An LED Approach for Measuring the Photocatalytic Breakdown of Crystal Violet Dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Robert E.; Underwood, Lauren W.; ONeal, Duane; Pagnutti, Mary; Davis, Bruce A.

    2009-01-01

    A simple technique to assess the reactivity of photocatalytic coatings sprayed onto transmissive glass surfaces was developed. This new method uses ultraviolet (UV) gallium nitride (GaN) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) to drive a photocatalytic reaction (the photocatalytic breakdown of a UV-resistant dye applied to a surface coated with the semiconductor titanium dioxide); and then a combination of a stabilized white light LED and a spectrometer to track the dye degradation as a function of time. Simple, standardized evaluation techniques that assess photocatalytic materials over a variety of environmental conditions, including illumination level, are not generally available and are greatly needed prior to in situ application of photocatalytic technologies. To date, much research pertaining to this aspect of photocatalysis has been limited and has focused primarily on laboratory experiments using mercury lamps. Mercury lamp illumination levels are difficult to control over large ranges and are temporally modulated by line power, limiting their use in helping to understand and predict how photocatalytic materials will behave in natural environmental settings and conditions. The methodology described here, using steady-state LEDs and time series spectroradiometric techniques, is a novel approach to explore the effect of UV light on the photocatalytic degradation of a UV resistant dye (crystal violet). GaN UV LED arrays, centered around 365 nm with an adjustable DC power supply, are used to create a small, spatially uniform light field where the steady state light level can be varied over three to four orders of magnitude. For this study, a set of glass microscope slides was custom coated with a thinly sprayed layer of photocatalytic titanium dioxide. Crystal violet was then applied to these titanium-dioxide coated slides and to uncoated control slides. The slides were then illuminated at various light levels from the dye side of the slide by the UV LED array. To monitor

  16. Blue light induced free radicals from riboflavin in degradation of crystal violet by microbial viability evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ji-Yuan; Yuann, Jeu-Ming P; Hsie, Zong-Jhe; Huang, Shiuh-Tsuen; Chen, Chiing-Chang

    2017-09-01

    Crystal violet (CV) is applied in daily use mainly as a commercial dye and antimicrobial agent. Waste water containing CV may affect aquatic ecosystems. Riboflavin, also known as vitamin B 2 , is non-toxic and an essential vitamin required for the functions of the human body. Riboflavin is photosensitive to UV and visible light in terms of generating reactive oxygen species. This study investigated the potential application of blue light on riboflavin, so as to come up with an effective way of degrading CV during its treatment. Photosensitivity of CV leading to degradation in the presence of riboflavin was investigated by light intensity, exposure time, and irradiation dosage. The degradation of CV during riboflavin photolysis treatment was studied by a UV/vis spectrometry and chromatography. The effects of CV degradation on microbial viability are relevant when considering the influences on the ecosystem. This study proved that riboflavin photochemical treatment with blue light degrades CV dye by ROS formation. The riboflavin photolysis-treated CV solution appeared to be transparent during conformational transformations of the CV that was rearranged by free radical species generated from riboflavin photolysis. After riboflavin photolysis, colony-forming units (CFUs) were determined for each CV solution. CFU preservation was 85.2% for the CV dissolved riboflavin solution treated with blue light irradiation at 2.0mW/cm 2 for 120min. Degradation of CV by riboflavin photochemical procedures can greatly reduce antimicrobial ability and serve as an environmental friendly waste water treatment method. Our results presented here concerning riboflavin photolysis in degradation of CV provide a novel technique, and a simple and safe practice for environmental decontamination processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Study of Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering of Alizarin and Crystal Violet Dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, Ram; Swarnkar, Raj Kumar

    2010-06-01

    Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) plays a vital role in analytical chemistry to characterize ultra trace quantity of organic compounds and biological samples. Two mechanisms have been considered to explain the SERS effect. The main contribution arises from a huge enhancement of the local electromagnetic field close to surface roughness of the metal structures, due to the excitation of a localized surface plasmon, while a further enhancement can be observed for molecules adsorbed onto specific sites when resonant charge transfer occurs. SERS signals have been observed from adsorbates on many metallic surfaces like Ag, Au, Ni, Cu etc. Additionally, metal oxide nanoparticles also show SERS signals It has now been established that SERS of analyte material is highly dependent on the type of substrate involved. Many types of nanostructures like nanofilms, nanorods, nanospheres etc. show highly efficient SERS signals. In particular, there are two routes available for the synthesis of these nanomaterials: the chemical route and the physical route. Chemical route involves many types of reducing agents and capping agents which can interfere in origin and measurement of these signals. The physical route avoids these anomalies and therefore it is suitable for the study of SERS phenomenon. Pulsed laser ablation in liquid medium is an excellent top down technique to produce colloidal solution of nanoparticles with desired shape and size having surface free from chemical contamination, which is essential requirement for surface application of nanoparticles. The present work deals with the study of SERS of Crystal violet dye and Alizarin group dye on Cu@ Cu_2O and Ag colloidal nanoparticles synthesized by pulsed laser ablation. M. Fleishchmann, P. J. Hendra, and A. J. McQuillian Chem. Phys. Lett., 26, 163, 1974. U. Wenning, B. Pettinger, and H. Wetzel Chem. Phys. Lett., 70, 49, 1980. S. C. Singh, R. K. Swarnkar, P. Ankit, M. C. Chattopadhyaya, and R. Gopal AIP Conf. Proc

  18. UV-vis, IR and 1H NMR spectroscopic studies and characterization of ionic-pair crystal violet-oxytetracycline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana, Sandra; Soto, César; Toral, M. Inés

    2010-01-01

    The present study shows the formation and characterization of the ionic-pair between the antibiotic oxytetracycline and the dye crystal violet in ammonia solution pH 9.0 ± 0.2 extracted into chloroform. The characterization was demonstrated using UV-vis spectrophotometry, 1H NMR, measurement of relaxation times T1 and IR spectroscopy, using a comparison between the signals of individual pure compounds with the signals with the mixture CV-OTC in different alkaline media. The formation of ionic-pair was also corroborated by new signals and chemical shifts. (2D) NMR spectroscopy experiments show that the interaction is electrostatic.

  19. Nonlinear Optical Characteristics of Crystal VioletDye Doped Polystyrene Films by Using Z-Scan Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahasin F. Hadi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Z-scan technique was employed to study the nonlinear optical properties (nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear absorption coefficient for crystal violet doped polystyrene films as a function of doping ratio in chloroform solvent. Samples exhibits in closed aperture Z-scan positive nonlinear refraction (self-focusing. While in the open aperture Z-scan gives reverse saturation absorption (RSA (positive absorption for all film with different doping ratio making samples candidates for optical limiting devices for protection of sensors and eyes from energetic laser light pulses under the experimental conditions.

  20. Equilibrium and Kinetics Study of Adsorption of Crystal Violet onto the Peel of Cucumis sativa Fruit from Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Smitha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of low-cost, locally available, high efficiency and eco-friendly adsorbents has been investigated as an ideal alternative to the current expensive methods of removing dyes from wastewater. This study investigates the potential use of the peel of Cucumis sativa fruit for the removal of crystal violet (CV dye from simulated wastewater. The effects of different system variables, adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration, pH and contact time were investigated and optimal experimental conditions were ascertained. The results showed that as the amount of the adsorbent increased, the percentage of dye removal increased accordingly. Optimum pH value for dye adsorption was determined as 7.0. The adsorption of crystal violet followed pseudo-second order rate equation and fit well Langmuir and Freundlich equations. The maximum removal of CV was obtained at pH 7 as 92.15% for adsorbent dose of 0.2 g/50 mL and 25 mg L-1 initial dye concentration at room temperature. The maximum adsorption capacity obtained from Langmuir equation was 34.24 mg g-1. Furthermore, adsorption kinetics of (CV was studied and the rate of adsorption was found to conform to pseudo-second order kinetics with a good correlation (R2 > 0.9739. The peel of Cucumis sativa fruit can be attractive options for dye removal from diluted industrial effluents since test reaction made on simulated dyeing wastewater show better removal percentage of (CV.

  1. Comparison of staining of mitotic figures by haematoxylin and eosin-and crystal violet stains, in oral epithelial dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankle Madhuri

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitosis of cells gives rise to tissue integrity. Defects during mitosis bring about abnormalities. Excessive proliferation of cells due to increased mitosis is one such outcome, which is the hallmark in precancer and cancer. The localization of proliferating cells or their precursors may not be obvious and easy. Establishing an easy way to distinguish these mitotic cells will help in grading and understanding their biological potential. Although immunohistochemistry is an advanced method in use, the cost and time factor makes it less feasible for many laboratories. Selective histochemical stains like toluidine blue, giemsa and crystal violet have been used in tissues including the developing brain, neural tissue and skin. Aim of the study: 1To compare the staining of mitotic cells in haematoxylin and eosin with that in crystal violet. 2To compare the number of mitotic figures present in normal oral mucosa, epithelial dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma in crystal violet-stained sections with that in H and E-stained sections. Materials and Methods: Ten tissues of normal oral mucosa and 15 tissues each of oral epithelial dysplasia seen in tobacco-associated leukoplakia and squamous cell carcinoma were studied to evaluate the selectivity of 1% crystal violet for mitotic figures. The staining was compared with standard H and E staining. Statistical analysis was done using Man-Whitney U test. Results: A statistically significant increase in the mean mitotic count was observed in crystal violet-stained sections of epithelial dysplasia as compared to the H and E-stained sections ( p = 0.0327. A similar increase in the mitotic counts was noted in crystal violet-stained sections of oral squamous cell carcinoma as compared to the H and E-stained sections.( p = 0.0443. No significant difference was found in the mitotic counts determined in dysplasia or carcinoma by either the crystal violet ( p = 0.4429 or the H and E-staining techniques ( p = 0

  2. Exposure to Crystal Violet, Its Toxic, Genotoxic and Carcinogenic Effects on Environment and Its Degradation and Detoxification for Environmental Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Sujata; Bharagava, Ram Naresh

    2016-01-01

    Crystal Violet (CV), a triphenylmethane dye, has been extensively used in human and veterinary medicine as a biological stain, as a textile dye in textile processing industries and also used to provide a deep violet color to paints and printing ink. CV is also used as a mutagenic and bacteriostatic agent in medical solutions and antimicrobial agent to prevent the fungal growth in poultry feed. Inspite of its many uses, CV has been reported as a recalcitrant dye molecule that persists in environment for a long period and pose toxic effects in environment. It acts as a mitotic poison, potent carcinogen and a potent clastogene promoting tumor growth in some species of fish. Thus, CV is regarded as a biohazard substance. Although, there are several physico-chemical methods such as adsorption, coagulation and ion-pair extraction reported for the removal of CV, but these methods are insufficient for the complete removal of CV from industrial wastewaters and also produce large quantity of sludge containing secondary pollutants. However, biological methods are regarded as cost-effective and eco-friendly for the treatment of industrial wastewaters, but these methods also have certain limitations. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop such eco-friendly and cost-effective biological treatment methods, which can effectively remove the dye from industrial wastewaters for the safety of environment, as well as human and animal health.

  3. Spectrally-isolated violet to blue wavelength generation by cascaded degenerate four-wave mixing in a photonic crystal fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jinhui; Kang, Zhe; Li, Feng; Zhang, Xianting; Zhou, Guiyao; Sang, Xinzhu; Wu, Qiang; Yan, Binbin; Zhou, Xian; Wang, Liang; Zhong, Kangping; Wang, Kuiru; Yu, Chongxiu; Tam, Hwa Yaw; Wai, P K A

    2016-06-01

    Generation of spectrally-isolated wavelengths in the violet to blue region based on cascaded degenerate four-wave mixing (FWM) is experimentally demonstrated for the first time in a tailor-made photonic crystal fiber, which has two adjacent zero dispersion wavelengths (ZDWs) at 696 and 852 nm in the fundamental mode. The influences of the wavelength λp and the input average power Pav of the femtosecond pump pulses on the phase-matched frequency conversion process are studied. When femtosecond pump pulses at λp of 880, 870, and 860 nm and Pav of 500 mW are coupled into the normal dispersion region close to the second ZDW, the first anti-Stokes waves generated near the first ZDW act as a secondary pump for the next FWM process. The conversion efficiency ηas2 of the second anti-Stokes waves, which are generated at the violet to blue wavelengths of 430, 456, and 472 nm, are 4.8, 6.48, and 9.66%, for λp equalling 880, 870, and 860 nm, respectively.

  4. Determination of residues of three triphenylmethane dyes and their metabolites (malachite green, leuco malachite green, crystal violet, leuco crystal violet, and brilliant green) in aquaculture products by LC/MS/MS: first action 2012.25.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtaud-Pessel, Dominique; Couëdor, Pierrick; Verdon, Eric; Dowell, Dawn

    2013-01-01

    During the AOAC Annual Meeting held from September 30 to October 3, 2012 in Las Vegas, NV, the Expert Review Panel (ERP) on Veterinary Drug Residues reviewed data for the method for determination of residues of three triphenylmethane dyes and their metabolites (malachite green, leuco malachite green, crystal violet, leuco crystal violet, and brilliant green) in aquaculture products by LC/MS/MS, previously published in the Journal of Chromatography A 1218, 1632-1645 (2006). The method data were reviewed and compared to the standard method performance requirements (SMPRs) found in SMPR 2009.001, published in AOAC's Official Methods of Analysis, 19th Ed. (2012). The ERP determined that the data were acceptable, and the method was approved AOAC Official First Action. The method uses acetonitrile to isolate the analyte from the matrix. Then determination is conducted by LCIMS/MS with positive electrospray ionization. Accuracy ranged from 100.1 to 109.8% for samples fortified at levels of 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, and 2.0 microg/kg. Precision ranged from 2.0 to 10.3% RSD for the intraday samples and 1.9 to 10.6% for the interday samples analyzed over 3 days. The described method is designed to accurately operate in the analytical range from 0.5 to 2 microg/kg, where the minimum required performance limit for laboratories has been fixed in the European Union at 2.0 microg/kg for these banned substances and their metabolites. Upper levels of concentrations (1-100 microg/kg) can be analyzed depending on the different optional calibrations used.

  5. Small particle reagent based on crystal violet dye for developing latent fingerprints on non-porous wet surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richa Rohatgi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Small particle reagent (SPR is a widely used method for developing latent fingerprints on non-porous wet surfaces. SPR based on zinc carbonate hydroxide monohydrate, ZnCo3·2Zn(OH2·H2O – also called basic zinc carbonate – has been formulated. The other ingredients of the formulation are crystal violet dye and a commercial liquid detergent. The composition develops clear, sharp and detailed fingerprints on non-porous items, after these were immersed separately in clean and dirty water for variable periods of time. The ability of the present formulation to detect weak and faint chance prints not only enhances its utility, but also its potentiality in forensic case work investigations. The raw materials used to prepare the SPR are cost-effective and non-hazardous.

  6. Adsorptive removal of crystal violet dye by a local clay and process optimization by response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loqman, Amal; El Bali, Brahim; Lützenkirchen, Johannes; Weidler, Peter G.; Kherbeche, Abdelhak

    2017-11-01

    The current study relates to the removal of a dye [crystal violet (CV)] from aqueous solutions through batch adsorption experiment onto a local clay from Morocco. The clay was characterized by X-ray diffraction, IR spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence, scanning electron microscope, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis and Fraunhofer diffraction method. The influence of independent variables on the removal efficiency was determined and optimized by response surface methodology using the Box-Behnken surface statistical design. The model predicted maximum adsorption of 81.62% under the optimum conditions of operational parameters (125 mg L-1 initial dye concentration, 2.5 g L-1 adsorbent dose and time of 43 min). Practically, the removal ranges in 27.4-95.3%.

  7. Crystal violet: Study of the photo-fading of an early synthetic dye in aqueous solution and on paper with HPLC-PDA, LC-MS and FORS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Confortin, D.; Neevel, H.; Brustolon, M.; Franco, L.; Kettelarij, A.J.; Williams, R.M.; van Bommel, M.R.

    2010-01-01

    The photo-fading of crystal violet (CV), one of the earliest synthetic dyes and an ink component, is examined both in solution and on paper. Aqueous solutions of CV were exposed to UV light (365nm) and samples were taken at constant time intervals and analysed with a High Performance Liquid

  8. Post-column reaction for simultaneous analysis of chromatic and leuco forms of malachite green and crystal violet by high-performance liquid chromatography with photometric detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J.L.; Meinertz, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    The chromatic and leuco forms of malachite green and crystal violet were readily separated and detected by a sensitive and selective high-performance liquid chromatographic procedure. The chromatic and leuco forms of the dyes were separated within 11 min on a C18 column with a mobile phase of 0.05 M sodium acetate and 0.05 M acetic acid in water (19%) and methanol (81%). A reaction chamber, containing 10% PbO2 in Celite 545, was placed between the column and the spectrophotometric detector to oxidize the leuco forms of the dyes to their chromatic forms. Chromatic and leuco malachite green were quantified by their absorbance at 618 nm; and chromatic and leuco Crystal Violet by their absorbance at 588 nm. Detection limits for chromatic and leuco forms of both dyes ranged from 0.12 to 0.28 ng. A linear range of 1 to 100 ng was established for both forms of the dyes.

  9. Batch and continuous (fixed-bed column) biosorption of crystal violet by Artocarpus heterophyllus (jackfruit) leaf powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Papita Das; Chakraborty, Sagnik; Chowdhury, Shamik

    2012-04-01

    In this study, batch and fixed-bed column experiments were performed to investigate the biosorption potential of Artocarpus heterophyllus (jackfruit) leaf powder (JLP) to remove crystal violet (CV) from aqueous solutions. Batch biosorption studies were carried out as a function of solution pH, contact time, initial dye concentration and temperature. The biosorption equilibrium data showed excellent fit to the Langmuir isotherm model with maximum monolayer biosorption capacity of 43.39 mg g(-1) at pH 7.0, initial dye concentration=50 mg L(-1), temperature=293 K and contact time=120 min. According to Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm model, biosorption of CV by JLP was chemisorption. The biosorption kinetics followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Thermodynamic analysis revealed that biosorption of CV from aqueous solution by JLP was a spontaneous and exothermic process. In order to ascertain the practical applicability of the biosorbent, fixed-bed column studies were also performed. The breakthrough time increased with increasing bed height and decreased with increasing flow rate. The Thomas model as well as the BDST model showed good agreement with the experimental results at all the process parameters studied. It can be concluded that JLP is a promising biosorbent for removal of CV from aqueous solutions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Eragrostis plana Nees as a novel eco-friendly adsorbent for removal of crystal violet from aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filho, Augusto Cezar D; Mazzocato, Ana C; Dotto, Guilherme L; Thue, Pascal S; Pavan, Flávio A

    2017-08-01

    Eragrostis plana Nees (EPN) was used as new and eco-friendly adsorbent for the removal of crystal violet dye (CV) from aqueous solution. Specific surface area (BET), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), point of zero charge (pH PZC ), and modified Boehm titration method were used to characterize the EPN material. The effects of initial pH of solution, adsorbent mass, contact time and initial dye concentration, and temperature were studied in batch adsorption mode. Kinetic data were evaluated by pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models. The result exhibited that pseudo-second-order model well described the adsorption kinetics of CV onto EPN. Langmuir, Freundlich, and Sips isotherm models were used for analysis of the isothermal data. The equilibrium data of adsorption of CV onto EPN was better fitted with the Sips isotherm. Based on the Sips isotherm model, the maximum adsorption capacity was 76.20 ± 1.20 mg g -1 at 333 K. A high desorption of CV from EPN was obtained using 1.00 mol L -1 of CH 3 COOH as eluent. The thermodynamic data indicated that the adsorption was spontaneous, endothermic, and physical process. EPN can be used as alternative adsorbent to remove CV from aqueous solution.

  11. Adsorption equilibrium and kinetic studies of crystal violet and naphthol green on torreya-grandis-skin-based activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Wei; Yu, Huijing; Ma, Na; Yan, Xiaoyang

    2015-01-01

    A new type of activated carbon, torreya-grandis-skin-based activated carbon (TAC), has been used to remove the harmful dyes (cationic dye crystal violet (CV) and anionic dye naphthol green (NG)) from contaminated water via batch adsorption. The effects of solution pH, adsorption time and temperature were studied. The Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models were used to describe the equilibrium isotherm and isotherm constant calculation. It was found that the maximum equilibrium adsorption capacities were 292mg/g and 545mg/g for CV and NG, respectively. Adsorption kinetics was verified by pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intra-particle diffusion kinetic models. Results indicated that the rate of dye adsorption followed pseudo-second-order kinetic model for the initial dye concentration range studied. Temperature-dependent adsorption behavior of CV and NG shows that the adsorption is spontaneous and endothermic, accompanying an entropy increase. This work indicates that TAC could be employed as a low-cost alternative for the removal of the textile dyes from effluents

  12. Use of Standing Gold Nanorods for Detection of Malachite Green and Crystal Violet in Fish by SERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaowei; Nguyen, Trang H D; Gu, Liqun; Lin, Mengshi

    2017-07-01

    With growing consumption of aquaculture products, there is increasing demand on rapid and sensitive techniques that can detect prohibited substances in the seafood products. This study aimed to develop a novel surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) method coupled with simplified extraction protocol and novel gold nanorod (AuNR) substrates to detect banned aquaculture substances (malachite green [MG] and crystal violet [CV]) and their mixture (1:1) in aqueous solution and fish samples. Multivariate statistical tools such as principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares regression (PLSR) were used in data analysis. PCA results demonstrate that SERS can distinguish MG, CV and their mixture (1:1) in aqueous solution and in fish samples. The detection limit of SERS coupled with standing AuNR substrates is 1 ppb for both MG and CV in fish samples. A good linear relationship between the actual concentration and predicted concentration of analytes based on PLSR models with R 2 values from 0.87 to 0.99 were obtained, indicating satisfactory quantification results of this method. These results demonstrate that the SERS method coupled with AuNR substrates can be used for rapid and accurate detection of MG and CV in fish samples. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  13. Thermomechanical and Photophysical Properties of Crystal-Violet-Dye/H2O Based Dissolutions via the Pulsed Laser Photoacoustic Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Torres-Zúñiga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Different thermoelastic parameters, for example, the acoustic attenuation and the speed of sound, are fundamental for instrumental calibration and quantitative characterization of organic-based dissolutions. In this work, these parameters as functions of the concentration of an organic dye (crystal-violet: CV in distillated water (H2O based dissolutions are investigated. The speed of sound was measured by the pulsed-laser photoacoustic technique (PLPA, which consists in the generation of acoustic-waves by the optical absorption of pulsed light in a given material (in this case a liquid sample. The thermally generated sound-waves traveling through a fluid are detected with two piezoelectric sensors separated by a known distance. An appropriate processing of the photoacoustic signals allows an adequate data analysis of the generated waves within the system, providing an accurate determination of the speed of sound as function of the dye-concentration. The acoustic attenuation was calculated based on the distance of the two PZT-microphones to an acoustic-source point and performing linear-fitting of the experimental data (RMS-amplitudes as function of the dye-concentration. An important advantage of the PLPA-method is that it can be implemented with poor or null optical transmitting materials permitting the characterization of the mechanical and concentration/aggregate properties of dissolved organic compounds.

  14. A new rapid colourimetric method for testing Mycobacterium tuberculosis susceptibility to isoniazid and rifampicin: a crystal violet decolourisation assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Yilmaz Coban

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of a new and accurate method for the detection of isoniazid (INH and rifampicin (RIF resistance among Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates using a crystal violet decolourisation assay (CVDA. Fifty-five M. tuberculosis isolates obtained from culture stocks stored at -80ºC were tested. After bacterial inoculation, the samples were incubated at 37ºC for seven days and 100 µL of CV (25 mg/L stock solution was then added to the control and sample tubes. The tubes were incubated for an additional 24-48 h. CV (blue/purple was decolourised in the presence of bacterial growth; thus, if CV lost its colour in a sample containing a drug, the tested isolate was reported as resistant. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and agreement for INH were 92.5%, 96.4%, 96.1%, 93.1% and 94.5%, respectively, and 88.8%, 100%, 100%, 94.8% and 96.3%, respectively, for RIF. The results were obtained within eight-nine days. This study shows that CVDA is an effective method to detect M. tuberculosis resistance to INH and RIF in developing countries. This method is rapid, simple and inexpensive. Nonetheless, further studies are necessary before routine laboratory implementation.

  15. SERS active Ag encapsulated Fe@SiO2 nanorods in electromagnetic wave absorption and crystal violet detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senapati, Samarpita; Srivastava, Suneel Kumar; Singh, Shiv Brat; Kulkarni, Ajit R

    2014-11-01

    The present work is focused on the preparation of Fe nanorods by the chemical reduction of FeCl3 (aq) using NaBH4 in the presence of glycerol as template followed by annealing of the product at 500°C in the presence of H2 gas flow. Subsequently, its surface has been modified by silica followed by silver nanoparticles to form silica coated Fe (Fe@SiO2) and Ag encapsulated Fe@SiO2 nanostructure employing the Stöber method and silver mirror reaction respectively. XRD pattern of the products confirmed the formation of bcc phase of iron and fcc phase of silver, though silica remained amorphous. FESEM images established the growth of iron nanorods from the annealed product and also formation of silica and silver coating on its surface. The appearance of the characteristics bands in FTIR confirmed the presence of SiO2 on the Fe surface. Magnetic measurements at room temperature indicated the ferromagnetic behavior of as prepared iron nanorods, Fe@SiO2 and silver encapsulated Fe@SiO2 nanostructures. All the samples exhibited strong microwave absorption property in the high frequency range (10GHz), though it is superior for Ag encapsulated Fe@SiO2 (-14.7dB) compared with Fe@SiO2 (-9.7dB) nanostructures of the same thickness. The synthesized Ag encapsulated Fe@SiO2 nanostructure also exhibited the SERS phenomena, which is useful in the detection of the carcinogenic dye crystal violet (CV) upto the concentration of 10(-10)M. All these findings clearly demonstrate that the Ag encapsulated Fe@SiO2 nanostructure could efficiently be used in the environmental remediation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Enhanced photocatalytic performance of CeO2-TiO2 nanocomposite for degradation of crystal violet dye and industrial waste effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahoor, Mehvish; Arshad, Amara; Khan, Yaqoob; Iqbal, Mazhar; Bajwa, Sadia Zafar; Soomro, Razium Ali; Ahmad, Ishaq; Butt, Faheem K.; Iqbal, M. Zubair; Wu, Aiguo; Khan, Waheed S.

    2018-03-01

    This study presents the synthesis of CeO2-TiO2 nanocomposite and its potential application for the visible light-driven photocatalytic degradation of model crystal violet dye as well as real industrial waste water. The ceria-titania (CeO2-TiO2) nanocomposite material was synthesised using facile hydrothermal route without the assistance of any template molecule. As-prepared composite was characterised by SEM, TEM, HRTEM, XRD, XPS for surface features, morphological and crystalline characters. The formed nanostructures were determined to possess crystal-like geometrical shape and average size less than 100 nm. The as-synthesised nanocomposite was further investigated for their heterogeneous photocatalytic potential against the oxidative degradation of CV dye taken as model pollutant. The photo-catalytic performance of the as-synthesised material was evaluated both under ultra-violet as well as visible light. Best photocatalytic performance was achieved under visible light with complete degradation (100%) exhibited within 60 min of irradiation time. The kinetics of the photocatalytic process were also considered and the reaction rate constant for CeO2-TiO2 nanocomposite was determined to be 0.0125 and 0.0662 min-1 for ultra-violet and visible region, respectively. In addition, the as-synthesised nanocomposite demonstrated promising results when considered for the photo-catalytic degradation of coloured industrial waste water collected from local textile industry situated in Faisalabad region of Pakistan. Enhanced photo-catalytic performance of CeO2-TiO2 nanocomposite was proposed owing to heterostructure formation leading to reduced electron-hole recombination.

  17. Light-Induced Fluorescence Modulation of Quantum Dot-Crystal Violet Conjugates: Stochastic Off-On-Off Cycles for Multicolor Patterning and Super-Resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sungwook; Park, Joonhyuck; Bang, Jiwon; Kim, Jae-Yeol; Kim, Cheolhee; Jeon, Yongmoon; Lee, Seung Hwan; Jin, Ho; Choi, Sukyung; Kim, Bomi; Lee, Woo Jin; Pack, Chan-Gi; Lee, Jong-Bong; Lee, Nam Ki; Kim, Sungjee

    2017-06-07

    Photoswitching or modulation of quantum dots (QDs) can be promising for many fields that include display, memory, and super-resolution imaging. However, such modulations have mostly relied on photomodulations of conjugated molecules in QD vicinity, which typically require high power of high energy photons at UV. We report a visible light-induced facile modulation route for QD-dye conjugates. QD crystal violets conjugates (QD-CVs) were prepared and the crystal violet (CV) molecules on QD quenched the fluorescence efficiently. The fluorescence of QD-CVs showed a single cycle of emission burst as they go through three stages of (i) initially quenched "off" to (ii) photoactivated "on" as the result of chemical change of CVs induced by photoelectrons from QD and (iii) back to photodarkened "off" by radical-associated reactions. Multicolor on-demand photopatterning was demonstrated using QD-CV solid films. QD-CVs were introduced into cells, and excitation with visible light yielded photomodulation from "off" to "on" and "off" by nearly ten fold. Individual photoluminescence dynamics of QD-CVs was investigated using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and single QD emission analysis, which revealed temporally stochastic photoactivations and photodarkenings. Exploiting the stochastic fluorescence burst of QD-CVs, simultaneous multicolor super-resolution localizations were demonstrated.

  18. Application of Micro-cloud point extraction for spectrophotometric determination of Malachite green, Crystal violet and Rhodamine B in aqueous samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Elham; Kaykhaii, Massoud

    2016-07-01

    A novel, green, simple and fast method was developed for spectrophotometric determination of Malachite green, Crystal violet, and Rhodamine B in water samples based on Micro-cloud Point extraction (MCPE) at room temperature. This is the first report on the application of MCPE on dyes. In this method, to reach the cloud point at room temperature, the MCPE procedure was carried out in brine using Triton X-114 as a non-ionic surfactant. The factors influencing the extraction efficiency were investigated and optimized. Under the optimized condition, calibration curves were found to be linear in the concentration range of 0.06-0.60 mg/L, 0.10-0.80 mg/L, and 0.03-0.30 mg/L with the enrichment factors of 29.26, 85.47 and 28.36, respectively for Malachite green, Crystal violet, and Rhodamine B. Limit of detections were between 2.2 and 5.1 μg/L.

  19. Low-cost nanoparticles sorbent from modified rice husk and a copolymer for efficient removal of Pb(II) and crystal violet from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoumi, Arameh; Hemmati, Khadijeh; Ghaemy, Mousa

    2016-03-01

    In this work, preparation of adsorbent nanoparticles based on treated low-value agricultural by-product rice husk (TARH), and poly(methylmethacrylate-co-maleic anhydride), poly(MMA-co-MA), is reported for the removal of Pb(II) ion and Crystal violet dye from water. The prepared adsorbent was characterized by FT-IR, SEM, AFM, DLS, BET and Zeta potential. The metal ion adsorption capability was determined for rice husk (RH), TARH, crosslinked poly(MMA-co-MA) (CNR), and CNR@TARH nanoparticles. Different factors affecting the adsorption of Pb(II) such as pH, contact time, initial metal ion concentration and also temperature were studied to investigate adsorption isotherms, kinetics and thermodynamics. For the four tested adsorption isotherm models, the equilibrium sorption data for CNR@TARH nanoparticles obeyed the Langmuir isotherm equation with maximum sorption capacity of 93.45 mg g(-1). The kinetic adsorption data fitted best the Lagergren pseudo-second order model. Regeneration of adsorbent was easily performed by adsorption/desorption experiments followed for 4 cycles. Finally, the ability of the nanoparticles to remove Crystal violet dye from aqueous solution was also investigated by varying the initial dye concentration, pH and immersion time and the adsorption mechanism followed the second-order kinetic model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Adsorption Properties of PVA/PAA/clay Composite Hydrogel Synthesized by Gamma Radiation and its Application in Removal of Crystal Violet Dye from Its Aqueous Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamal, H.; El-Sayed, A. Hegazy; Mohamed, M.M.; Sabaa, M.W.; El-Dessouky, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Copolymer hydrogels composed of Poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) and Poly acrylic acid (PAA) were prepared by γ-irradiation in the presence of N,N’ methylene bis acrylamide (MBAM) as crosslinking agent or bentonite clay. The copolymers were characterized by FTIR and SEM. The dye adsorption experiments for Crystal Violet dye (CV) were carried out by using bath procedure. UV-visible absorption spectroscopy was used to determine the adsorption behavior. The effect of different copolymer composition, clay concentration, ph, contact time, adsorbent dose, initial dye concentration, and adsorption temperature were investigated to obtain the best experimental conditions. The adsorption equilibrium was attained after about 24h. of contact time. It was found that the adsorption process was correlated with Freundlich isotherm equation. Kinetic and thermodynamic studies of CV dye onto the prepared hydrogels were also evaluated

  1. Capillary electrophoresis of chitooligosaccharides in acidic solution: simple determination using a quaternary-ammonium-modified column and indirect photometric detection with crystal violet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Toshiaki; Anraku, Nobuhiro; Kato, Ryo

    2010-02-01

    Five chitosan oligosaccharides were separated in acidic aqueous solution by capillary electrophoresis (CE) with indirect photometric detection using a positively coated capillary. Electrophoretic mobility of the chitooligosaccharides (COSs) depended on the number of monomer units in acidic aqueous solution, similar to other polyelectrolyte oligomers. The separation was developed in nitric acid aqueous solution at pH 3.0 with 1 mM Crystal Violet, using a capillary positively coated with N-trimethoxypropyl-N,N,N-trimethylammonium chloride. The limit of the detection for chitooligosaccharides with two to six saccharide chains was less than 5 microM. CE determination of an enzymatically hydrolyzed COS agreed with results from HPLC. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Switch-on fluorescent strategy based on crystal violet-functionalized CdTe quantum dots for detecting L-cysteine and glutathione in water and urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Zhen; Chen, Ligang

    2017-10-01

    The concentration of L-cysteine (Cys) and glutathione (GSH) is closely related to the critical risk of various diseases. In our study, a new rapid method for the determination of Cys and GSH in water and urine samples has been developed using a fluorescent probe technique, which was based on crystal violet (CV)-functionalized CdTe quantum dots (QDs). The original QDs emitted fluorescence light, which was turned off upon adding CV. This conjugation of CV and QDs could be attributed to electrostatic interaction between COO - of mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) on the surface of QDs and N + of CV in aqueous solution. In addition, Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) also occurred between CdTe QDs and CV. After adding Cys or GSH to the solution, Cys or GSH exhibited a stronger binding preference toward Cd 2+ than Cd 2+ -MPA, which disturbed the interaction between MPA and QDs. Thus, most MPA was able to be separated from the surface of QDs because of the participation of Cys or GSH. Then, the fluorescence intensity of the CdTe QDs was enhanced. Good linear relationships were obtained in the range of 0.02-40 μg mL -1 and 0.02-50 μg mL -1 , and the detection limits were calculated as 10.5 ng mL -1 and 8.2 ng mL -1 , for Cys and GSH, respectively. In addition, the concentrations of biological thiols in water and urine samples were determined by the standard addition method using Cys as the standard; the quantitative recoveries were in the range of 97.3-105.8%, and relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranged from 2.5 to 3.7%. The method had several unique properties, such as simplicity, lower cost, high sensitivity, and environmental acceptability. Graphical abstract Crystal violet-functionalized CdTe quantum dots for detecting L-cysteine and glutathione with switch-on fluorescent strategy.

  3. Preparation of Calcined Zirconia-Carbon Composite from Metal Organic Frameworks and Its Application to Adsorption of Crystal Violet and Salicylic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubair Hasan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Zirconia-carbon (ZC composites were prepared via calcination of Zr-based metal organic frameworks, UiO-66 and amino-functionalized UiO-66, under N2 atmosphere. The prepared composites were characterized using a series of instrumental analyses. The surface area of the ZC composites increased with the increase of calcination temperature, with the formation of a graphite oxide phase observed at 900 °C. The composites were used for adsorptive removal of a dye (crystal violet, CV and a pharmaceutical and personal care product (salicylic acid, SA. The increase of the calcination temperature resulted in enhanced adsorption capability of the composites toward CV. The composite calcined at 900 °C exhibited a maximum uptake of 243 mg·g−1, which was much greater than that by a commercial activated carbon. The composite was also effective in SA adsorption (102 mg·g−1, and N-functionalization of the composite further enhanced its adsorption capability (109 mg·g−1. CV adsorption was weakly influenced by solution pH, but was more dependent on the surface area and pore volume of the ZC composite. Meanwhile, SA adsorption showed strong pH dependence, which implies an active role of electrostatic interactions in the adsorption process. Base-base repulsion and hydrogen bonding are also suggested to influence the adsorption of CV and SA, especially for the N-functionalized composite.

  4. Physicochemcial characteristic of CdS-anchored porous WS2 hybrid in the photocatalytic degradation of crystal violet under UV and visible light irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vattikuti, S. V. Prabhakar; Ngo, Ich-Long; Byon, Chan

    2016-11-01

    In this work, we report the synthesis of CdS-incorporated porous WS2 by a simple hydrothermal method. The structural, morphological, and optical properties of the samples were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and UV-visible spectrometry. The photocatalytic activities were established for degradation of crystal violet (CV) under UV and visible light irradiation. The CdS-incorporated porous WS2 hybrid demonstrated high photocatalytic activity for degradation of CV pollutant compared to pure CdS nanoparticles and porous WS2 sheets. This result implies that the CdS-incorporated porous WS2 promoted more electron-hole pair transformation under UV and visible light irradiation. This significant enhancement of photocatalytic efficiency of CdS-incorporated porous WS2 photocatalyst under visible light can be ascribed to the presence of CdS nanospheres on the meshed-like WS2 sheets which potentially improves absorption in the visible range enabled by surface plasmon resonance effect of CdS nanospheres. The photostability and reusability of the CdS-porous WS2 were examined through recycling experiments.

  5. Enhancing the Antibacterial Activity of Light-Activated Surfaces Containing Crystal Violet and ZnO Nanoparticles: Investigation of Nanoparticle Size, Capping Ligand, and Dopants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehmi, Sandeep K; Noimark, Sacha; Pike, Sebastian D; Bear, Joseph C; Peveler, William J; Williams, Charlotte K; Shaffer, Milo S P; Allan, Elaine; Parkin, Ivan P; MacRobert, Alexander J

    2016-09-30

    Healthcare-associated infections pose a serious risk for patients, staff, and visitors and are a severe burden on the National Health Service, costing at least £1 billion annually. Antimicrobial surfaces significantly contribute toward reducing the incidence of infections as they prevent bacterial adhesion and cause bacterial cell death. Using a simple, easily upscalable swell-encapsulation-shrink method, novel antimicrobial surfaces have been developed by incorporating metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) and crystal violet (CV) dye into medical-grade polyurethane sheets. This study compares the bactericidal effects of polyurethane incorporating ZnO, Mg-doped ZnO, and MgO. All metal oxide NPs are well defined, with average diameters ranging from 2 to 18 nm. These materials demonstrate potent bactericidal activity when tested against clinically relevant bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus . Additionally, these composites are tested against an epidemic strain of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) that is rife in hospitals throughout the UK. Furthermore, we have tested these materials using a low light intensity (∼500 lx), similar to that present in many clinical environments. The highest activity is achieved from polymer composites incorporating CV and ∼3 nm ZnO NPs, and the different performances of the metal oxides have been discussed.

  6. Crystal violet: Study of the photo-fading of an early synthetic dye in aqueous solution and on paper with HPLC-PDA, LC-MS and FORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Confortin, Daria; Brustolon, Marina; Franco, Lorenzo; Neevel, Han; Bommel, Maarten R van; Kettelarij, Albert J; Williams, Rene M

    2010-01-01

    The photo-fading of crystal violet (CV), one of the earliest synthetic dyes and an ink component, is examined both in solution and on paper. Aqueous solutions of CV were exposed to UV light (365nm) and samples were taken at constant time intervals and analysed with a High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Photo Diode Array (HPLC-PDA) and Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (LC-MS). Demethylation products were positively identified. Also, deamination probably occurred. The oxidation at the central carbon likely generates Michler's ketone (MK) or its derivatives, but still needs confirmation. To study CV on paper, Whatman paper was immersed in CV and exposed to UV light. Before and after different irradiation periods, reflectance spectra were recorded with Fibre Optic Reflectance Spectrophotometry (FORS). A decrease in CV concentration and a change in aggregation type for CV molecules upon irradiation was observed. Colorimetric L*a*b* values before and during irradiation were also measured. Also, CV was extracted from paper before and after different irradiation periods and analysed with HPLC-PDA. Photo-fading of CV on paper produced the same products as in solution, at least within the first 100 hours of irradiation. Finally, a photo-fading of CV in the presence of MK on Whatman paper was performed. It was demonstrated that MK both accelerates CV degradation and is consumed during the reaction. The degradation pathway identified in this work is suitable for explaining the photo/fading of other dyes belonging to the triarylmethane group.

  7. Polypyrrole-magnetite dispersive micro-solid-phase extraction combined with ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry for the determination of rhodamine 6G and crystal violet in textile wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaruddin, Amirah Farhan; Sanagi, Mohd Marsin; Wan Ibrahim, Wan Aini; Md Shukri, Dyia S; Abdul Keyon, Aemi S

    2017-11-01

    Polypyrrole-magnetite dispersive micro-solid-phase extraction method combined with ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry was developed for the determination of selected cationic dyes in textile wastewater. Polypyrrole-magnetite was used as adsorbent due to its thermal stability, magnetic properties, and ability to adsorb Rhodamine 6G and crystal violet. Dispersive micro-solid-phase extraction parameters were optimized, including sample pH, adsorbent amount, extraction time, and desorption solvent. The optimum polypyrrole-magnetite dispersive micro-solid phase-extraction conditions were sample pH 8, 60 mg polypyrrole-magnetite adsorbent, 5 min of extraction time, and acetonitrile as the desorption solvent. Under the optimized conditions, the polypyrrole-magnetite dispersive micro-solid-phase extraction with ultraviolet-visible method showed good linearity in the range of 0.05-7 mg/L (R 2  > 0.9980). The method also showed a good limit of detection for the dyes (0.05 mg/L) and good analyte recoveries (97.4-111.3%) with relative standard deviations extraction and determination of dyes at trace concentration levels. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Controlled hydrothermal synthesis of BiOxCly/BiOmIn composites exhibiting visible-light photocatalytic degradation of crystal violet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Yu-Rou; Lin, Ho-Pan; Chung, Wen-Hsin; Dai, Yong-Ming; Lin, Wan-Yu; Chen, Chiing-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This is the first report on a series of BiO x Cl y /BiO m I n heterojunctions. • The BiO x Cl y /BiO m I n composition was controlled by adjusting the growth parameters. • The BiO x Cl y /BiO m I n were indirect semiconductors with a 1.78–2.95-eV bandgap. • The new photocatalysts removed CV at a much faster rate than TiO 2 . • Mechanisms were determined by separating the intermediates using HPLC-MS. - Abstract: A series of BiO x Cl y /BiO m I n composites were prepared using autoclave hydrothermal methods. The composition and morphologies of the BiO x Cl y /BiO m I n composites were controlled by adjusting the experimental conditions: the reaction pH value, temperature, and KCl/KI molar ratio. The products were characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy-electron dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller specific surface areas, cathodoluminescence, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The photocatalytic efficiencies of composite powder suspensions were evaluated by monitoring the crystal violet (CV) concentrations. In addition, the quenching effects of various scavengers indicated that the reactive O 2 · − played a major role, and OH· or h + played a minor role in CV degradation. The intermediates formed during the decomposition process were isolated, identified, and characterized using high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry to elucidate the CV decomposition mechanism

  9. Synthesis of magnetic mesoporous metal-organic framework-5 for the effective enrichment of malachite green and crystal violet in fish samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhihui; Fu, Yanqing; Qin, Qian; Lu, Xin; Shi, Xianzhe; Zhao, Chunxia; Xu, Guowang

    2018-07-27

    A novel, magnetic and mesoporous Fe 3 O 4 @PEI-MOF-5 material was synthesized for the effective enrichment of malachite green (MG) and crystal violet (CV) in fish samples. The Fe 3 O 4 @PEI-MOF-5 material was prepared by a facile two-step solvothermal approach in which Fe 3 O 4 @PEI and MOF-5 were connected through chemical bonds. Characterization of the newly synthesized Fe 3 O 4 @PEI-MOF-5 material was performed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry, vibrating sample magnetometry, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. This new material was determined to have high magnetization and chemical stability, a large surface area and a distinctive morphology. An effective enrichment and detection method for MG and CV was subsequently developed by combining the Fe 3 O 4 @PEI-MOF-5 material with ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The linearity ranges of this approach for MG and CV were 1-500ng/mL and 0.25-500ng/mL, respectively, with correlation coefficients (R 2 ) of 0.999. The limits of detection (LODs) of the method for MG and CV were 0.30ng/mL and 0.08ng/mL, respectively, indicating that the Fe 3 O 4 @PEI-MOF-5 material had good adsorption properties for MG and CV. Fe 3 O 4 @PEI-MOF-5 can be expected to also provide efficient enrichment of MG and CV in other complex matrices. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Removal of Crystal Violet by Using Reduced-Graphene-Oxide-Supported Bimetallic Fe/Ni Nanoparticles (rGO/Fe/Ni): Application of Artificial Intelligence Modeling for the Optimization Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Wenqian; Hu, Jiwei; Qi, Jimei; Hou, Yu; Cao, Rensheng; Wei, Xionghui

    2018-05-22

    Reduced-graphene-oxide-supported bimetallic Fe/Ni nanoparticles were synthesized in this study for the removal of crystal violet (CV) dye from aqueous solutions. This material was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Raman spectroscopy, N₂-sorption, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The influence of independent parameters (namely, initial dye concentration, initial pH, contact time, and temperature) on the removal efficiency were investigated via Box⁻Behnken design (BBD). Artificial intelligence (i.e., artificial neural network, genetic algorithm, and particle swarm optimization) was used to optimize and predict the optimum conditions and obtain the maximum removal efficiency. The zero point of charge (pH ZPC ) of rGO/Fe/Ni composites was determined by using the salt addition method. The experimental equilibrium data were fitted well to the Freundlich model for the evaluation of the actual behavior of CV adsorption, and the maximum adsorption capacity was estimated as 2000.00 mg/g. The kinetic study discloses that the adsorption processes can be satisfactorily described by the pseudo-second-order model. The values of Gibbs free energy change (Δ G ⁰), entropy change (Δ S ⁰), and enthalpy change (Δ H ⁰) demonstrate the spontaneous and endothermic nature of the adsorption of CV onto rGO/Fe/Ni composites.

  11. A chemometric-assisted method for the simultaneous determination of malachite green and crystal violet in water based on absorbance-pH data generated by a homemade pH gradient apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shuling; Yuan, Xuejie; Yang, Jing; Yuan, Jintao; Shi, Jiahua; Wang, Yali; Chen, Yuewen; Gao, Shufang

    2015-01-01

    An attractive method of generating second-order data was developed by a dropping technique to generate pH gradient simultaneously coupled with diode-array spectrophotometer scanning. A homemade apparatus designed for the pH gradient. The method and the homemade apparatus were used to simultaneously determine malachite green (MG) and crystal violet (CV) in water samples. The absorbance-pH second-order data of MG or CV were obtained from the spectra of MG or CV in a series of pH values of HCl-KCl solution. The second-order data of mixtures containing MG and CV that coexisted with interferents were analyzed using multidimensional partial least-squares with residual bilinearization. The method and homemade apparatus were used to simultaneously determine MG and CV in fish farming water samples and in river ones with satisfactory results. The presented method and the homemade apparatus could serve as an alternative tool to handle some analysis problems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Removal of Crystal Violet by Using Reduced-Graphene-Oxide-Supported Bimetallic Fe/Ni Nanoparticles (rGO/Fe/Ni: Application of Artificial Intelligence Modeling for the Optimization Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqian Ruan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Reduced-graphene-oxide-supported bimetallic Fe/Ni nanoparticles were synthesized in this study for the removal of crystal violet (CV dye from aqueous solutions. This material was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, Raman spectroscopy, N2-sorption, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. The influence of independent parameters (namely, initial dye concentration, initial pH, contact time, and temperature on the removal efficiency were investigated via Box–Behnken design (BBD. Artificial intelligence (i.e., artificial neural network, genetic algorithm, and particle swarm optimization was used to optimize and predict the optimum conditions and obtain the maximum removal efficiency. The zero point of charge (pHZPC of rGO/Fe/Ni composites was determined by using the salt addition method. The experimental equilibrium data were fitted well to the Freundlich model for the evaluation of the actual behavior of CV adsorption, and the maximum adsorption capacity was estimated as 2000.00 mg/g. The kinetic study discloses that the adsorption processes can be satisfactorily described by the pseudo-second-order model. The values of Gibbs free energy change (ΔG0, entropy change (ΔS0, and enthalpy change (ΔH0 demonstrate the spontaneous and endothermic nature of the adsorption of CV onto rGO/Fe/Ni composites.

  13. Simultaneous removal of binary mixture of Brilliant Green and Crystal Violet using derivative spectrophotometric determination, multivariate optimization and adsorption characterization of dyes on surfactant modified nano-γ-alumina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolgharnein, Javad; Bagtash, Maryam; Shariatmanesh, Tahere

    2015-02-01

    The present study deals with the simultaneous removal of Brilliant Green (BG) and Crystal Violet (CV) by surfactant-modified alumina. The utilization of alumina nanoparticles with an anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)) as a novel and efficient adsorbent is successfully carried out to remove two cationic dyes from aqueous solutions in binary batch systems. A first-order derivative spectrophotometric method is developed for the simultaneous determination of BG and CV in binary solutions. The linear concentration range and limits of detection for the simultaneous determination of BG and CV were found to be: 1-20, 1-15 mg/L, 0.3 and 0.5 mg/L, respectively. The influence of various parameters, such as contact time, initial concentration of dyes and sorbent mass on the dye adsorption is investigated. A response surface methodology achieved through performing the Box-Behnken design is utilized to optimize the removal of dyes by surfactant-modified nanoparticle alumina through a batch adsorption process. The proposed quadratic model resulting from the Box-Behnken design approach fitted very well with the experimental data. The optimal conditions for dye removal were contact time t = 50 min, sorbent dose = 0.036 g, CBG (Initial BG concentration) = 215 mg/L and CCV (Initial CV concentration) = 170 mg/L. Furthermore, FT-IR analysis, the isotherms and kinetics of adsorption were also explored.

  14. Controlled hydrothermal synthesis of BiO{sub x}Cl{sub y}/BiO{sub m}I{sub n} composites exhibiting visible-light photocatalytic degradation of crystal violet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Yu-Rou; Lin, Ho-Pan [Department of Science Application and Dissemination, National Taichung University of Education, Taichung 403, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chung, Wen-Hsin [Department of Plant Pathology, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan, ROC (China); Dai, Yong-Ming [Department of Science Application and Dissemination, National Taichung University of Education, Taichung 403, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lin, Wan-Yu [Department of Plant Pathology, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chen, Chiing-Chang, E-mail: ccchen@ms3.ntcu.edu.tw [Department of Science Application and Dissemination, National Taichung University of Education, Taichung 403, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2015-02-11

    Highlights: • This is the first report on a series of BiO{sub x}Cl{sub y}/BiO{sub m}I{sub n} heterojunctions. • The BiO{sub x}Cl{sub y}/BiO{sub m}I{sub n} composition was controlled by adjusting the growth parameters. • The BiO{sub x}Cl{sub y}/BiO{sub m}I{sub n} were indirect semiconductors with a 1.78–2.95-eV bandgap. • The new photocatalysts removed CV at a much faster rate than TiO{sub 2}. • Mechanisms were determined by separating the intermediates using HPLC-MS. - Abstract: A series of BiO{sub x}Cl{sub y}/BiO{sub m}I{sub n} composites were prepared using autoclave hydrothermal methods. The composition and morphologies of the BiO{sub x}Cl{sub y}/BiO{sub m}I{sub n} composites were controlled by adjusting the experimental conditions: the reaction pH value, temperature, and KCl/KI molar ratio. The products were characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy-electron dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller specific surface areas, cathodoluminescence, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The photocatalytic efficiencies of composite powder suspensions were evaluated by monitoring the crystal violet (CV) concentrations. In addition, the quenching effects of various scavengers indicated that the reactive O{sub 2}·{sup −} played a major role, and OH· or h{sup +} played a minor role in CV degradation. The intermediates formed during the decomposition process were isolated, identified, and characterized using high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry to elucidate the CV decomposition mechanism.

  15. Simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of crystal violet and malachite green in water samples using partial least squares regression and central composite design after preconcentration by dispersive solid-phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razi-Asrami, Mahboobeh; Ghasemi, Jahan B; Amiri, Nayereh; Sadeghi, Seyed Jamal

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, a simple, fast, and inexpensive method is introduced for the simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of crystal violet (CV) and malachite green (MG) contents in aquatic samples using partial least squares regression (PLS) as a multivariate calibration technique after preconcentration by graphene oxide (GO). The method was based on the sorption and desorption of analytes onto GO and direct determination by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometric techniques. GO was synthesized according to Hummers method. To characterize the shape and structure of GO, FT-IR, SEM, and XRD were used. The effective factors on the extraction efficiency such as pH, extraction time, and the amount of adsorbent were optimized using central composite design. The optimum values of these factors were 6, 15 min, and 12 mg, respectively. The maximum capacity of GO for the adsorption of CV and MG was 63.17 and 77.02 mg g -1 , respectively. Preconcentration factors and extraction recoveries were obtained and were 19.6, 98% for CV and 20, 100% for MG, respectively. LOD and linear dynamic ranges for CV and MG were 0.009, 0.03-0.3, 0.015, and 0.05-0.5 (μg mL -1 ), respectively. The intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviations were 1.99 and 0.58 for CV and 1.69 and 3.13 for MG at the concentration level of 50 ng mL -1 , respectively. Finally, the proposed DSPE/PLS method was successfully applied for the simultaneous determination of the trace amount of CV and MG in the real water samples.

  16. PHOTOCATALYTIC DEGRADATION OF CRYSTAL VIOLET BY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In recent years, removal of undesirable organic contaminants from water and wastewater is ... accidental leakage of tanks containing pollutants, etc. ..... Consideration of reaction pathways and degradation rates is critical for detection of waste.

  17. Malachite Green and Crystal Violet Decolorization by Ganoderma lucidum and Pleurotus ostreatus Supernatant and by rGlLCC1 and rPOXA 1B Concentrates: Molecular Docking Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Álvarez, Edwin D; Rivera-Hoyos, Claudia M; Poveda-Cuevas, Sergio A; Reyes-Guzmán, Edwin A; Pedroza-Rodríguez, Aura M; Reyes-Montaño, Edgar A; Poutou-Piñales, Raúl A

    2018-03-01

    Laccases catalyze the oxidation of various aromatic organic compounds concomitantly with molecular oxygen reduction to water. Triphenylmethane dyes are synthetic compounds widely used in diverse industries. Their removal from effluents is difficult, due to their high degree of structural complexity; hence, their high concentration in effluents cause a negative impact on the environment. In the present work, molecular docking was used to evaluate interactions between rGlLCC1 or rPOXA 1B enzymes with Crystal Violet (CV) or Malachite Green (MG) dyes. In addition, removal tests of the two dyes were performed. Van der Waals interactions were obtained for only the CV dye for both GlLCC1 and POXA 1B enzymes. Nevertheless, in the GlLCC1 model, two π-π interactions were observed. For the MG dye only, Van der Waals interactions were obtained. Moreover, amino acid composition interacting in each model with each dye was similar. It is important to highlight that by molecular docking, none of the estimated ligand configurations generated hydrogen bonds. Thus, explaining the difficulty to degrade CV and MG. Regarding CV, maximum decolorization percentage was 23.6 ± 1.0% using Ganoderma lucidum supernatant and 5.0 ± 0.5% with Pleurotus ostreatus supernatant. When using recombinant laccase enzyme concentrates, decolorization percentages were 9.9 ± 0.1 and 7.5 ± 1.0% for rGlLCC1 and rPOXA 1B, respectively. On the other hand, for the MG dye, maximum decolorization percentages were 52.1 ± 5.1 and 2.3 ± 0.2% using G. lucidum and P. ostreatus concentrates, respectively. Whereas with recombinant laccase enzymatic concentrates, values of 9.4 ± 0.8% were obtained, with rGlLCC1, and 2.1 ± 0.1% when using rPOXA 1B. These findings represent an important step in bioremediation processes improvement and efficiency of industry-generated products, using environmentally friendly alternatives.

  18. Preparação e caracterização de substratos SERS ativos: um estudo da adsorção do cristal violeta sobre nanopartículas de prata Preparation and characterization of SERS-active substrates: a study of the crystal violet adsorption on silver nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique de Santana

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The structural characterization of molecules used in the sterilization of blood for transfusions, such as crystal violet (CV, is relevant for understanding the action of these prophylactic drugs. The characterization is feasible by surface enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy (SERRS of CV in solution or on surfaces. The limit of detection of CV by SERRS, in the presence of colloidal particles, using 514.5 nm as excitation radiation, was found to be around 1 ppb. The characterization of CV was also made by SERS, by using different active-particles-containing substrates, proving the versatility of this technique for the study of such structures. The results suggest that the controlled production of highly efficient SERS-active substrates may allow qualitative and quantitative analysis, with high sensitivity, with potential applications in medical and environmental fields.

  19. [VACCINES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellver Capella, Vincente

    2015-10-01

    Vaccines are an extraordinary instrument of immunization of the population against infectious diseases. Around them there are many ethical issues. One of the most debated is what to do with certain groups opposition to vaccination of their children. States have managed in different ways the conflict between the duty of vaccination and the refusal to use vaccines: some impose the vaccination and others simply promote it. In this article we deal with which of these two approaches is the most suitable from an ethical and legal point of view. We stand up for the second option, which is the current one in Spain, and we propose some measures which should be kept in mind to improve immunization programs.

  20. 21 CFR 589.1000 - Gentian violet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gentian violet. 589.1000 Section 589.1000 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Substances Prohibited From Use in Animal Food or Feed § 589.1000 Gentian violet. The Food and Drug...

  1. 21 CFR 73.2775 - Manganese violet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... Mercury (as Hg), not more than 1 part per million. Total color, based on Mn content in “as is” sample, not less than 93 percent. (c) Uses and restrictions. Manganese violet is safe for use in coloring cosmetics...

  2. The induction of species-specific immunity against Schistosoma japonicum by exposure of rats to ultra-violet attenuated cercariae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moloney, N.A.; Webbe, G.; Hinchcliffe, P.

    1987-01-01

    Single percutaneous immunizations of Fischer rats with 1000 ultra-violet attenuated Schistosoma japonicum cercariae induced 52-88% resistance to challenge 4 weeks later. Increasing this to 3 immunizations induced 90% resistance to challenge, and this level of protection remained undiminished for up to 40 weeks after vaccination. Rats vaccinated with gamma-irradiated S. mansoni cercariae were resistant to challenge with S. mansoni but not S. japonicum. Similarly rats vaccinated with u.v.-attenuated S. japonicum cercariae were not resistant to heterologous challenge. Thus irradiated vaccines are species-specific in both permissive and non-permissive hosts. (author)

  3. Violet-blue photoluminescence from Si nanoparticles with zinc-blende structure synthesized by laser ablation in liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Liu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Violet-blue luminescence from Si nanostructures has been widely investigated, because of its potential use in optoelectronic and bioimaging devices. However, the emission mechanism in multiform Si nanomaterials remains unclear. In this contribution, Si nanocrystals (NCs with zincblende structure and visible violet-blue emission are prepared by electric field assisted laser ablation in liquids. While subsequent annealing of the Si NCs weakens their blue emission dramatically. We investigate the origin of the violet-blue emission by monitoring crystal structure transitions and photoluminescence during different treatments of the Si NCs. The results indicate that the violet-blue emission cannot simply be ascribed to quantum confinement effects or the presence of general surface states on the Si NCs. Instead, we propose that excitons are formed within the Si NCs by direct transitions at Γ or X points, which can be induced during the formation of the zincblende structure, and are a most possible origin of the violet-blue luminescence. Furthermore, defects in the metastable Si NCs are also expected to play an important role in violet-blue emission. This study not only gives clear and general insight into the physical origins of violet-blue emission from Si NCs, it also provides useful information for designing optoelectronic devices based on Si NCs.

  4. Photo Inactivation of Streptococcus mutans Biofilm by Violet-Blue light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Grace F; Huang, Ruijie; MacPherson, Meoghan; Ferreira Zandona, Andrea G; Gregory, Richard L

    2016-09-01

    Among various preventive approaches, non-invasive phototherapy/photodynamic therapy is one of the methods used to control oral biofilm. Studies indicate that light at specific wavelengths has a potent antibacterial effect. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of violet-blue light at 380-440 nm to inhibit biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans or kill S. mutans. S. mutans UA159 biofilm cells were grown for 12-16 h in 96-well flat-bottom microtiter plates using tryptic soy broth (TSB) or TSB with 1 % sucrose (TSBS). Biofilm was irradiated with violet-blue light for 5 min. After exposure, plates were re-incubated at 37 °C for either 2 or 6 h to allow the bacteria to recover. A crystal violet biofilm assay was used to determine relative densities of the biofilm cells grown in TSB, but not in TSBS, exposed to violet-blue light. The results indicated a statistically significant (P mutans growth and reduce the formation of S. mutans biofilm. This in vitro study demonstrated that violet-blue light has the capacity to inhibit S. mutans biofilm formation. Potential clinical applications of light therapy in the future remain bright in preventing the development and progression of dental caries.

  5. Estudo da sorção do corante catiônico violeta cristal por espuma de poliuretano em meio aquoso contendo dodecilsulfato de sódio Sorption of crystal violet by polyurethane foam from aqueous medium containing sodium dodecylsulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Mori

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a detailed study about the sorption of crystal violet (CV cationic dye onto polyether type polyurethane foam (PUF. The sorption process was based on the formation of an ionic-pair between cationic dye and dodecylsulfate anion (SDS, which presented high affinity by PUF. Set-up employed in the study was built up by adjusting a 200 mg cylinder of PUF to the arm of an overhead stirrer. The system was characterized in relation to equilibrium and kinetic aspects and it was modeled by employing Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Obtained results showed that the ratio between SDS and MB concentrations played an important role on the sorption process. According to results found it was possible to retain up to 3.4 mg of dye from 200 mL of a 5.0 x 10-5 mol L-1 CV solution containing 1.25 x 10-4 mol L-1 SDS, which represented a removal efficiency of around 92%.

  6. Behavioural ecology of the Namibian Violet Woodhoopoe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We studied the behavioural ecology of the Violet Woodhoopoe Phoeniculus damarensis, a rare species endemic to Namibia and southern Angola. Groups in Namibia consisted on average of 4.3 ± 1.6 individuals, with apparently only a single breeding pair. Non-breeding group members of both sexes brought food to the ...

  7. Visible light absorbance enhanced by nitrogen embedded in the surface layer of Mn-doped sodium niobate crystals, detected by ultra violet - visible spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and electric conductivity tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molak, A., E-mail: andrzej.molak@us.edu.pl; Pilch, M. [Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, ul. Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland)

    2016-05-28

    Sodium niobate crystals doped with manganese ions, Na(NbMn)O{sub 3}, were annealed in a nitrogen N{sub 2} flow at 600, 670, and 930 K. It was verified that simultaneous doping with Mn ions and annealing in nitrogen enhanced the photocatalytic features of sodium niobate. The transmission in the ultraviolet-visible range was measured at room temperature. The absorbance edge is in the range from 3.4 to 2.3 eV. The optical band gap E{sub gap} = 1.2–1.3 eV was evaluated using the Tauc relation. Crystals annealed at 670 K and 930 K exhibited an additional shift of the absorption edge of ∼20–40 nm toward longer wavelengths. The optical energy gap narrowed as a result of the superimposed effect of Mn and N co-doping. The x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy test showed that N ions incorporated into the surface layer. The valence band consisted of O 2p states hybridized with Nb 4d, Mn 3d, and N 2s states. The disorder detected in the surroundings of Nb and O ions decreased due to annealing. The binding energy of oxygen ions situated within the surface layer was E{sub B} ≈ 531 eV. The other contributions were assigned to molecular contamination. The contribution centered at 535.5 eV vanished after annealing at 600 K and 670 K. The contribution centered at 534 eV vanished after annealing at 930 K. The N{sub 2} annealing partly removed carbonates from the surfaces of the samples. In the 480–950 K range, the electric conductivity activation energy, E{sub a} = 0.7–1.2 eV, was comparable with the optical E{sub gap}. The electric permittivity showed dispersion in the 0.1–800 kHz range that corresponds to the occurrence of defects.

  8. Micropropagation of African violet (Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Mukund; Sullivan, J Alan; Jain, Shri Mohan; Murch, Susan J; Saxena, Praveen K

    2013-01-01

    Micropropagation is an important tool for rapid multiplication and the creation of genetic variability in African violets (Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl.). Successful in vitro propagation depends on the specific requirements and precise manipulation of various factors such as the type of explants used, physiological state of the mother plant, plant growth regulators in the culture medium, and growth conditions. Development of cost-effective protocols with a high rate of multiplication is a crucial requirement for commercial application of micropropagation. The current chapter describes an optimized protocol for micropropagation of African violets using leaf explants obtained from in vitro grown plants. In this process, plant regeneration occurs via both somatic embryogenesis and shoot organogenesis simultaneously in the explants induced with the growth regulator thidiazuron (TDZ; N-phenyl-N'-1,2,3-thidiazol-5-ylurea). The protocol is simple, rapid, and efficient for large-scale propagation of African violet and the dual routes of regeneration allow for multiple applications of the technology from simple clonal propagation to induction or selection of variants to the production of synthetic seeds.

  9. crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yi; Huang, Yisheng; Zhang, Lizhen; Lin, Zhoubin; Sun, Shijia; Wang, Guofu

    2014-07-01

    A Nd3+:Na2La4(WO4)7 crystal with dimensions of ϕ 17 × 30 mm3 was grown by the Czochralski method. The thermal expansion coefficients of Nd3+:Na2La4(WO4)7 crystal are 1.32 × 10-5 K-1 along c-axis and 1.23 × 10-5 K-1 along a-axis, respectively. The spectroscopic characteristics of Nd3+:Na2La4(WO4)7 crystal were investigated. The Judd-Ofelt theory was applied to calculate the spectral parameters. The absorption cross sections at 805 nm are 2.17 × 10-20 cm2 with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 15 nm for π-polarization, and 2.29 × 10-20 cm2 with a FWHM of 14 nm for σ-polarization. The emission cross sections are 3.19 × 10-20 cm2 for σ-polarization and 2.67 × 10-20 cm2 for π-polarization at 1,064 nm. The fluorescence quantum efficiency is 67 %. The quasi-cw laser of Nd3+:Na2La4(WO4)7 crystal was performed. The maximum output power is 80 mW. The slope efficiency is 7.12 %. The results suggest Nd3+:Na2La4(WO4)7 crystal as a promising laser crystal fit for laser diode pumping.

  10. optimization of crystal violet dye removal from aqueous solution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    maje malamiyo

    -Journal of Chemistry, 6(4):1109-1116. Malik P.K. (2003): Use of activated carbons prepared from sawdust and rice-husk for Adsorption of acid dyes: a case study of acid yellow 36,. Dyes Pigments 56:239-249. Malik, R., Ramteke, D.S., and ...

  11. Ultra violet radiation : effects on animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockdale, P.H.G.

    1993-01-01

    The paper deals with the evolutionary and historical events that have increased the susceptibility of certain genotypes of humanity and domestic animals to ultra violet radiation. Further it discusses the general effects of ultraviolet B (UVB) on vertebrates and then the clinical syndromes seen in such animals as a result of prolonged exposure to this form of radiation. Finally it gives anecdotal comments on evidence for changes in the immediately above types of disease and describes the need for a better recording system for these conditions so that these hypothetical changes could be effectively monitored. (author). 12 refs

  12. Photodetector of ultra-violet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorogan, V.; Vieru, T.; Coseac, V.; Chirita, F.

    1999-01-01

    The invention relates to photodetectors on the semiconductors base, in particular, to photodetectors of ultra-violet radiation and can be used in the optoelectronics systems for determining the intensity and dose of ultraviolet radiation emitted by the Sun and other sources. In the structure of the photodetector of ultraviolet radiation with a superficial potential barrier formed of semiconductors A 3 B 5 with the prohibited power width Eg 1 , solid solutions thereof with the prohibited power width Eg 2 and SnO 2 or ITO, in the semiconductors A 3 B 5 at a surface distance less than the absorption length of the visible radiation it is formed an isotype heterojunction between the semiconductors A 3 B 5 and solid solutions thereof with the prohibited power width Eg 2 > Eg 1 . The technical result consists in manufacturing of a photodetector sensitive solely to the ultraviolet radiation

  13. Microwave assisted spectrophotometric method for the determination of copper using leucocrystal violet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunitha B. Mathew

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available A sensitive spectrophotometric method has been developed for the trace determination of copper using leucocrystal violet as chromogenic reagent. The proposed method is based on the reaction of copper(II with potassium iodide in acid medium to liberate iodine, which oxidizes leucocrystal violet to crystal violet dye having absorption maximum at 590 nm. The reaction between copper and potassium iodide is accelerated by irradiating the mixture with microwave energy for 15 s at 480 W. Beer’s law is obeyed in the concentration range 0.004 – 0.04 μg mL-1. The molar absorptivity, Sandell’s sensitivity, detection limit and quantitation limit were found to be 1.47 x 106 L mol-1 cm-1, 4.3 x 10-5 μg mL-2, 0.001 μg mL-1, 0.0043 μg mL-1, respectively. The optimum conditions and other analytical parameters were evaluated. The effect of interfering ions on the determination is described. The proposed method has been successfully applied for the determination of copper in environmental samples like tap water, agricultural run off water, plant materials and pharmaceutical samples.

  14. The adsorption of mercury on tungsten (100) studied by ultra-violet photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egelhoff, W.F. Jr.; Perry, D.L.; Linnett, J.W.

    1976-01-01

    In recent years, photoelectron spectroscopy has been applied to the study of adsorption on several metal surfaces. A popular choice of substrate has been the 100 face of single crystal tungsten, since adsorption on this surface has been well-characterised by a wide variety of experimental techniques. In this letter a study of the adsorption of mercury on W(100) by ultra-violet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) is reported. These results, seen in the context of previous UPS studies of chemisorption, show a number of interesting features. (Auth.)

  15. Vacuum ultra-violet and electron energy loss spectroscopy of gaseous and solid organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, E.E.; Otto, A.

    1976-01-01

    The experimental arrangements used by the authors for the study of optical vacuum ultra-violet and electron energy loss spectra of organic compounds are described and some theoretical aspects of studies of higher excited states are considered. Results for alkanes, benzene, naphthalene, anthracene and some more complex hydrocarbons are reviewed. Recent results obtained by reflection and electron energy loss spectroscopy for single crystals of anthracene are included and their relevance for gas phase work as well as for the understanding of exciton effects in organic solids is described. (author)

  16. Second Harmonic Generation of Violet Light in Femtosecond-Laser-Inscribed BiB3O6 Cladding Waveguides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Yuechen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We report on the second harmonic generation of violet light of a nonlinear cladding waveguide in BiB3O6 crystal produced by femtosecond laser inscription. Under continuous-wave pump laser at 800 nm, the guided second harmonic wave at 400 nm with a conversion efficiency of ~0.32% has been realized through the Type I birefringence phase matching configuration.

  17. The Swift Ultra-Violet/Optical Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roming, Peter; Hunsberger, S.D.; Nousek, John; Mason, Keith

    2001-01-01

    The Ultra-Violet/Optical Telescope (UVOT) provides the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Explorer with the capability of quickly detecting and characterizing the optical and ultraviolet properties of gamma ray burst counterparts. The UVOT design is based on the design of the Optical Monitor on XMM-Newton. It is a Ritchey-Chretien telescope with microchannel plate intensified charged-coupled devices (MICs) that deliver sub-arcsecond imaging. These MICs are photon-counting devices, capable of detecting low intensity signal levels. When flown above the atmosphere, the UVOT will have the sensitivity of a 4m ground based telescope, attaining a limiting magnitude of 24 for a 1000 second observation in the white light filter. A rotating filter wheel allows sensitive photometry in six bands spanning the UV and visible, which will provide photometric redshifts of objects in the 1-3.5z range. For bright counterparts, such as the 9th magnitude GRB990123, or for fainter objects down to 17th magnitude, two grisms provide low-resolution spectroscopy

  18. Radiolytic effects on Simpson Violet dye and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Banna, M.; Barakat, M.F.

    2005-01-01

    Simpson Violet dye has been exposed to γ-irradiation in non-aqueous solvents, and the color bleaching by irradiation was studied. The color bleaching was related to the applied dose. In another series of experiments, Simpson Violet dye was incorporated in polymethylmethacrylate films for studying the dose-response relationship. Finally, the results were compared with those obtained for externally dyed polymeric films. Most of the systems investigated were found suitable for gamma dose evaluation within a certain dose range. (author)

  19. Violet Laser Diode Enables Lighting Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Yu-Chieh; Huang, Yu-Fang; Wu, Tsai-Chen; Tsai, Cheng-Ting; Chen, Li-Yin; Kuo, Hao-Chung; Lin, Gong-Ru

    2017-09-05

    Violet laser diode (VLD) based white-light source with high color rendering index (CRI) for lighting communication is implemented by covering with Y 3 Al 5 O 12 :Ce 3+ (YAG:Ce) or Lu 3 Al 5 O 12 :Ce 3+ /CaAlSiN 3 :Eu 2+ (LuAG:Ce/CASN:Eu) phosphorous diffuser plates. After passing the beam of VLD biased at 70 mA (~2I th ) through the YAG:Ce phosphorous diffuser, a daylight with a correlated color temperature (CCT) of 5068 K and a CRI of 65 is acquired to provide a forward error correction (FEC) certified data rate of 4.4 Gbit/s. By using the VLD biased at 122 mA (~3.5I th ) to excite the LuAG:Ce/CASN:Eu phosphorous diffuser with 0.85-mm thickness, a warm white-light source with a CCT of 2700 K and a CRI of 87.9 is obtained at a cost of decreasing transmission capacity to 2.4 Gbit/s. Thinning the phosphor thickness to 0.75 mm effectively reduces the required bias current by 32 mA to achieve the same CCT for the delivered white light, which offers an enlarged CRI of 89.1 and an increased data rate of 4.4 Gbit/s. Further enlarging the bias current to 105 mA remains the white-light transmission capacity at 4.4 Gbit/s but reveals an increased CCT of 3023 K and an upgraded CRI of 91.5.

  20. Tunable blue–violet Cr3+:LiCAF + BiBO compact laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maestre, H; Torregrosa, A J; Capmany, J

    2015-01-01

    We present a compact continuous wave (CW) external-cavity tunable Cr 3+ :LiCaAlF 6 (Cr:LiCAF) laser which is intracavity frequency doubled using a BiB 3 O 6 (BiBO) nonlinear crystal to obtain tunable blue–violet radiation. The generated second harmonic (SH) can be tuned by means of either angular or temperature variation of the nonlinear crystal. We have obtained SH radiation between 390–415 nm and a maximum output power of 34 mW at 400 nm. Future improvements on the SH tuning range and output power are addressed in the text. Our results may be applied in the design of compact tunable composite external-cavity solid-state lasers. (paper)

  1. Sonochemical Degradation Kinetics of Methyl Violet in Aqueous Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Lin Guo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The sonochemical degradation in aqueous solution of methyl violet, chosen as a model of a basic dye, was studied. The ultrasonic degradation kinetics in water were found to be first-order and the degradation rate coefficient is 1.35×10-2 min-1 (R= 0.9934, n=8 at 20±1°C. The influence of the initial concentrations, reaction temperature and the pH of medium on the ultrasonic decomposition of methyl violet were also investigated.

  2. Adsorption of gentian violet dyes in aqueous solution on microporous AlPOs molecular sieves synthesized by ionothermal method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortas, W.; Djelad, A.; Hasnaoui, M. A.; Sassi, M.; Bengueddach, A.

    2018-02-01

    In this work, AlPO-34, like-chabazite (CHA) zeolite, was ionothermally prepared using the ionic liquid (IL), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride [EMIMCl], as solvent. The solids obtained were characterized by x-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermal analysis (TG) and nitrogen adsorption/desorption at 77.3 K. The results show that the ionic liquid is occluded in the AlPO-34 framework and consequently it acts also as a structure-directing agent. The variation of chemical composition led to AlPO-34 materials with different crystal sizes and morphologies. The well crystallized AlPO-34 material was used as adsorbent for Crystal Violet (CV) dye removal from aqueous solutions. The effect of adsorption parameters such as pH and initial concentration were investigated. It was found that adsorption dyes is favorable at pH = 6. The adsorption isotherm data follow the Langmuir equation in which parameters are calculated. The selected AlPO-34 sample exhibited a high crystal violet dye removal of 46.08 mg g-1 at pH = 6.

  3. Effects of enhances ultra violet irradiation on photosynthesis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of enhances ultra violet irradiation on photosynthesis in anabaena variabilis and phormidium uncinatum. VA Donkor. Abstract. No Abstract. Journal of the Ghana Association Vol. 2 (3) 1999: pp.16-23. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  4. Photochemical reaction monitoring by ultra-violet spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roig, B; Touraud, E; Thomas, O

    2002-11-01

    Within the framework of the monitoring of the trichloroacetylchloride (TCAC) photosynthesis, ultra-violet (UV) spectrophotometry is proposed as a simple and rapid tool allowing, in real time, the control of the process efficiency. A good correlation has been obtained between the results acquired by this alternative method and the standard gas chromatography.

  5. The Violet Experience: Social Interaction through Eclectic Music Learning Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakon, Jacob M.; Cloete, Elene

    2018-01-01

    In this qualitative case study, we used participant observation and interviews to examine Violet, a Flemish string youth orchestra. In doing so, we identify the qualities that constitute an 'eclectic' ensemble space, herein defined as a musical environment that uses a blend of informal and formal learning practices. Moreover, we emphasize how…

  6. Do birds in flight respond to (ultra)violet lighting?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Roel May; Jens Åström; Øyvind Hamre; Espen Lie Dahl

    2017-01-01

    Background: Concerns for bird collisions with wind turbines affect the deployment of onshore and offshore wind-power plants. To avoid delays in consenting processes and to streamline the construction and operation phase, func-tional mitigation measures are required which efficiently reduces bird mortality. Vision is the primary sensory system in birds, which for a number of species also includes the ultraviolet spectrum. Many bird species that are known to collide with offshore wind turbines are sensitive in the violet or ultraviolet spectrum. For species that are mainly active at lower ambient light levels, lighting may deter birds from the lit area. Utilizing (ultra)violet lights may in addition not disturb humans. However, we do not know whether UV-sensitive birds in flight actually respond behaviourally to UV lights. Methods: We therefore tested the efficacy of two types of lights within the violet (400 nm) and ultraviolet (365 nm) spectrum to deter birds from the lit area. These lights were placed vertically and monitored continuously between dusk and dawn using an avian radar system. Results: Relative to control nights, bird flight activity (abundance) was 27% lower when the ultraviolet light was on. Violet light resulted in a 12% decrease in overall abundance, and in addition, a vertical displacement was seen, increasing the average flight altitude by 7 m. Although temporal changes occurred, this effect persisted over the season below 40 m above sea level. Conclusions: Although the results from this pilot study are promising, we argue there still is a long way to go before a potentially functional design to mitigate collisions that has proven to be effective in situ may be in place.

  7. Violet and visual flux problems in red giant stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faulkner, D.R.

    1989-01-01

    Red giant stars are sites of many astrophysically interesting processes and are important links to late stages of stellar evolution and the chemical history of the galaxy. Much of what is known about stars comes from their spectra, which are formed in the outer layers (atmospheres). Unfortunately the low temperatures in red giant atmospheres promote the formation of many molecules, and the resultant complexity of the spectra has slowed progress in obtaining good models of these objects and leaves many unanswered questions. Several of these problems are investigated. Spectra of red giants provide a natural classification according to composition: M stars are oxygen rich, C stars are carbon rich, while S stars are intermediate. One long standing problem with C stars has been the explanation of the severe lack of energy flux in the violet and near ultraviolet part of their spectrum, generally attributed to an unusual opacity. Results show that one source, SiC, is untenable, while the case for the other, C3, is severely weakened. Synthetic spectra from atmospheric models are compared to spectra of TX Psc, a C star, to show that the contribution of thousands of atomic lines are probably responsible for the violet and ultraviolet flux deficiency. The agreement between the synthetic spectra and observations is very good. K and M type stars also have a violet flux deficiency, though it is less severe than with carbon stars

  8. Ultra-violet emission in Ho:ZBLAN fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalska, M.; Klocek, G.; Piramidowicz, R.; Malinowski, M.

    2004-01-01

    We report on the short wavelength (green, blue, and ultra-violet (UV)) emission in trivalent holmium doped fluoro-zirconate fiber (Ho 3+ :ZBLAN) under direct and upconversion pumping. Efficient red to UV upconversion has been observed using 647 nm cw pumping by krypton ion laser. A close to cubic UV signal intensity dependence on incident red pump power was determined, confirming the three-photon character of the observed process. The responsible upconversion mechanisms were investigated and shown to be excited state absorption (ESA) via low-lying 5 I 7 and 5 I 6 sates. Dynamics of the involved excited states have been studied under pulsed laser excitation

  9. Vaccines (immunizations) - overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccinations; Immunizations; Immunize; Vaccine shots; Prevention - vaccine ... of the vaccine. VACCINE SCHEDULE The recommended vaccination (immunization) schedule is updated every 12 months by the ...

  10. Vacuum ultra-violet and ultra-violet scintillation light detection by means of silicon photomultipliers at cryogenic temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falcone, A., E-mail: andrea.falcone@pv.infn.it [University of Pavia, via Bassi, 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pavia, via Bassi, 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Bertoni, R. [INFN Sezione di Milano Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza, 3, 20126 Milano (Italy); Boffelli, F. [University of Pavia, via Bassi, 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pavia, via Bassi, 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Bonesini, M. [INFN Sezione di Milano Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza, 3, 20126 Milano (Italy); Cervi, T. [University of Pavia, via Bassi, 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Menegolli, A. [University of Pavia, via Bassi, 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pavia, via Bassi, 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Montanari, C.; Prata, M.C.; Rappoldi, A.; Raselli, G.L.; Rossella, M.; Simonetta, M. [INFN Sezione di Pavia, via Bassi, 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Spanu, M. [University of Pavia, via Bassi, 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Torti, M. [University of Pavia, via Bassi, 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pavia, via Bassi, 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Zani, A. [INFN Sezione di Pavia, via Bassi, 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy)

    2015-07-01

    We tested the performance of two types of silicon photomultipliers, AdvanSiD ASD-NUV-SiPM3S-P and Hamamatsu 3×3 MM-50 UM VUV2, both at room (300 K) and at liquid nitrogen (77 K) temperature: breakdown voltage, quenching resistance, signal shape, gain and dark counts rate have been studied as function of temperature. The response of the devices to ultra-violet light is also studied. - Highlights: • We tested 2 SiPMs both at room and at cryogenic temperature. • Breakdown voltage, quenching resistance, gain and dark rate were measured. • Efficiency for VUV light detection was measured.

  11. Investigation of adsorption of the dyestuff astrazon red violet 3rn (basic violet 16 on montmorillonite clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Fil

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, color removal by absorption from synthetically prepared wastewater was investigated using montmorillonite clay by adsorption. As dyestuff Astrazon Red Violet 3RN (Basic Violet 16 was used. Experimental parameters selected were pH, temperature, agitation speed, initial dyestuff concentration, adsorbent dosage and ionic strength. It was established that adsorption rate increased with increasing pH, temperature, dye concentration and agitation speed, but decreased with increased ionic strength and adsorbent dosage. Adsorption equilibrium data obtained by a series of experiments carried out in a water bath were employed with common isotherm equations such as Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, Elovich and Dubinin-Radushkevich. It was found that the Langmuir equation appears to fit the equilibrium data better than the other models. Furthermore, the fit of the kinetic data to common kinetic models such as the pseudo-first-order, second-order, Elovich and intraparticle diffusion models was tested to elucidate the adsorption mechanism. Kinetic data conformed to the pseudo-second-order model, indicating chemisorptions. In addition, the thermodynamic parameters activation energy, Ea, enthalpy ΔH*, entropy, ΔS*, and free energy change, ΔG*, were calculated. The values of the calculated parameters indicated that physical adsorption of ARV on the clay was dominant and that the adsorption process was endothermic.

  12. 75 FR 38076 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the form of presscake and dry color. Pigment dispersions in any form (e.g., pigment dispersed in... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-533-838] Carbazole Violet Pigment 23... carbazole violet pigment 23 (CVP 23) from India. The review covers exports of this merchandise to the United...

  13. 75 FR 33243 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India: Final Results of Countervailing Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ... powder, paste, wet cake) and finished pigment in the form of presscake and dry color. Pigment dispersions... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-533-839] Carbazole Violet Pigment 23... countervailing duty order on carbazole violet pigment 23 from India for the period January 1, 2007, through...

  14. 75 FR 52930 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Changed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... of presscake and dry color. Pigment dispersions in any form (e.g., pigment dispersed in oleoresins... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-533-838] Carbazole Violet Pigment 23... order on carbazole violet pigment 23 from India to determine whether Meghmani Pigments (Meghmani) is the...

  15. 75 FR 977 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India: Preliminary Results of Countervailing Duty Administrative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-07

    ... the form of presscake and dry color. Pigment dispersions in any form (e.g., pigments dispersed in... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-533-839] Carbazole Violet Pigment 23... countervailing duty order on carbazole violet pigment 23 (CVP-23) from India for the period January 1, 2007...

  16. Synthesis of Cu Doped ZnO Nanostructures for Ultra Violet Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazar Abbas SHAH

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper mainly focused on the synthesis of zinc oxide nanostructures, their characterization and their ultra violet light sensing response at room temperature. Nanowires, nanobelts and nanosheets were synthesized by varying doping material copper by using vapor transport technique governed by the vapor-liquid-solid or vapor-solid mechanisms. The structural, morphological and optical characterization was carried out using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-Ray and ultra violet visible spectroscopy techniques. Finally the ultra violet light sensing response of these nanostructures was observed by using Keithley meter. The high ultra violet photosensitivity and fast response time justifies the effective utilization of these ZnO nanostructures as ultra violet sensors in different areas.

  17. [Qualitative Determination of Organic Vapour Using Violet and Visible Spectrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bo; Hu, Wen-zhong; Liu, Chang-jian; Zheng, Wei; Qi, Xiao-hui; Jiang, Ai-li; Wang, Yan-ying

    2015-12-01

    Vapours of organic matters were determined qualitatively employed with ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy. Vapours of organic matters were detected using ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer employing polyethylene film as medium, the ultraviolet and visible absorption spectra of vegetable oil vapours of soybean oil, sunflower seed oil, peanut oil, rapeseed oil, sesame oil, cotton seed oil, tung tree seed oil, and organic compound vapours of acetone, ethyl acetate, 95% ethanol, glacial acetic acid were obtained. Experimental results showed that spectra of the vegetable oil vapour and the organic compound vapour could be obtained commendably, since ultra violet and visible spectrum of polyethylene film could be deducted by spectrograph zero setting. Different kinds of vegetable oils could been distinguished commendably in the spectra since the λ(max), λ(min), number of absorption peak, position, inflection point in the ultra violet and visible spectra obtained from the vapours of the vegetable oils were all inconsistent, and the vapours of organic compounds were also determined perfectly. The method had a good reproducibility, the ultraviolet and visible absorption spectra of the vapours of sunflower seed oil in 10 times determination were absolutely the same. The experimental result indicated that polyethylene film as a kind of medium could be used for qualitative analysis of ultraviolet and visible absorption spectroscopy. The method for determination of the vapours of the vegetable oils and organic compounds had the peculiarities of fast speed analysis, well reproducibility, accuracy and reliability and low cost, and so on. Ultraviolet and visible absorption spectrum of organic vapour could provide feature information of material vapour and structural information of organic compound, and provide a novel test method for identifying vapour of compound and organic matter.

  18. Green revolution vaccines, edible vaccines

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    of development. Food vaccines may also help to suppress autoimmunity disorders such as Type-1. Diabetes. Key words: Edible vaccines, oral vaccines, antigen expression, food vaccines. INTRODUCTION. Vaccination involves the stimulation of the immune system to prepare it for the event of an invasion from a particular ...

  19. Vaccine Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... During Pregnancy Frequently Asked Questions about Vaccine Recalls Historical Vaccine Safety Concerns FAQs about GBS and Menactra ... CISA Resources for Healthcare Professionals Evaluation Current Studies Historical Background 2001-12 Publications Technical Reports Vaccine Safety ...

  20. Vaccines.gov

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccine Safety Vaccines Work Vaccine Types Vaccine Ingredients Vaccines by Disease Chickenpox ... Typhoid Fever Whooping Cough (Pertussis) Yellow Fever Who and When Infants, Children, and Teens ...

  1. Rotavirus vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang G

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Rotavirus, the most common cause of severe diarrhea and a leading cause of mortality in children, has been a priority target for vaccine development for the past several years. The first rotavirus vaccine licensed in the United States was withdrawn because of an association of the vaccine with intussusception. However, the need for a vaccine is greatest in the developing world, because the benefits of preventing deaths due to rotavirus disease are substantially greater than the risk of intussusception. Early vaccines were based on animal strains. More recently developed and licenced vaccines are either animal-human reassortants or are based on human strains. In India, two candidate vaccines are in the development process, but have not yet reached efficacy trials. Many challenges regarding vaccine efficacy and safety remain. In addition to completing clinical evaluations of vaccines in development in settings with the highest disease burden and virus diversity, there is also a need to consider alternative vaccine development strategies.

  2. Hepatitis Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Ogholikhan, Sina; Schwarz, Kathleen B.

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B ...

  3. Responses of macaque ganglion cells to far violet lights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Monasterio, F.M.; Gouras, P.

    1977-01-01

    In a sample of 487 colour-opponent ganglion cells recorded in the central retina of the rhesus and cynomolgus monkeys, 9% of these neurones were found to have responses with the same sign at both ends of the visible spectrum mediated by red-sensitive cones and mid-spectral responses of opposite sign mediated by green-sensitive cones. Selective chromatic adaptation showed that the responses to far violet lights (400 to 420 nm) were due to input from red- and not blue-sensitive cones. These responses were enhanced by backgrounds depressing the sensitivity of blue- and green-sensitive cones and they were depressed by backgrounds depressing the sensitivity of red-sensitive cones; the sensitivity of these responses was yoked to that of responses to far red lights. The relative incidence of these ganglion cells was maximal at the foveal region and decreased towards the peripheral retina. The properties of these cells are consistent with some psychophysical observations of human vision at the short wave-lengths. (author)

  4. Tritium decontamination of TFTR carbon tiles employing ultra violet light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, W.M.; Ohira, S.; Gentile, C.A.; Oya, Y.; Nakamura, H.; Hayashi, T.; Iwai, Y.; Kawamura, Y.; Konishi, S.; Nishi, M.F.; Young, K.M.

    2001-01-01

    Tritium decontamination on the surface of Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) bumper limiter tiles used during the Deuterium-Deuterium (D-D) phase of TFTR operations was investigated employing an ultra violet light source with a mean wavelength of 172 nm and a maximum radiant intensity of 50 mW/cm 2 . The partial pressures of H 2 , HD, C and CO 2 during the UV exposure were enhanced more than twice, compared to the partial pressures before UV exposure. In comparison, the amount of O 2 decreased during the UV exposure and the production of a small amount of O 3 was observed when the UV light was turned on. Unlike the decontamination method of baking in air or oxygen, the UV exposure removed hydrogen isotopes from the tile to vacuum predominantly in forms of gases of hydrogen isotopes. The tritium surface contamination on the tile in the area exposed to the UV light was reduced after the UV exposure. The results show that the UV light with a wavelength of 172 nm can remove hydrogen isotopes from carbon-based tiles at the very surface

  5. Mask Materials and Designs for Extreme Ultra Violet Lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Sik; Ahn, Jinho

    2018-03-01

    Extreme ultra violet lithography (EUVL) is no longer a future technology but is going to be inserted into mass production of semiconductor devices of 7 nm technology node in 2018. EUVL is an extension of optical lithography using extremely short wavelength (13.5 nm). This short wavelength requires major modifications in the optical systems due to the very strong absorption of EUV light by materials. Refractive optics can no longer be used, and reflective optics is the only solution to transfer image from mask to wafer. This is why we need the multilayer (ML) mirror-based mask as well as an oblique incident angle of light. This paper discusses the principal theory on the EUV mask design and its component materials including ML reflector and EUV absorber. Mask shadowing effect (or mask 3D effect) is explained and its technical solutions like phase shift mask is reviewed. Even though not all the technical issues on EUV mask are handled in this review paper, you will be able to understand the principles determining the performance of EUV masks.

  6. A Fresh Look at the Crystal Violet Lab with Handheld Camera Colorimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, Theodore R.; Knutson, Cassandra M.; Mozzetti, Abbie R.; Campos, Antonio R.; Haynes, Christy L.; Penn, R. Lee

    2015-01-01

    Chemical kinetic experiments to determine rate laws are common in high school and college chemistry courses. For reactions involving a color change, rate laws can be determined experimentally using spectrophotometric or colorimetric equipment though this equipment can be cost prohibitive. Previous work demonstrated that inexpensive handheld camera…

  7. Rotavirus vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Catherine; Tate, Jacqueline E; Hyde, Terri B; Cortese, Margaret M; Lopman, Benjamin A; Jiang, Baoming; Glass, Roger I; Parashar, Umesh D

    2014-01-01

    Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe diarrhea among children rotavirus vaccines have been efficacious and effective, with many countries reporting substantial declines in diarrheal and rotavirus-specific morbidity and mortality. However, the full public health impact of these vaccines has not been realized. Most countries, including those with the highest disease burden, have not yet introduced rotavirus vaccines into their national immunization programs. Research activities that may help inform vaccine introduction decisions include (1) establishing effectiveness, impact, and safety for rotavirus vaccines in low-income settings; (2) identifying potential strategies to improve performance of oral rotavirus vaccines in developing countries, such as zinc supplementation; and (3) pursuing alternate approaches to oral vaccines, such as parenteral immunization. Policy- and program-level barriers, such as financial implications of new vaccine introductions, should be addressed to ensure that countries are able to make informed decisions regarding rotavirus vaccine introduction. PMID:24755452

  8. Vaccine Hesitancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert M; St Sauver, Jennifer L; Finney Rutten, Lila J

    2015-11-01

    Vaccine refusal received a lot of press with the 2015 Disneyland measles outbreak, but vaccine refusal is only a fraction of a much larger problem of vaccine delay and hesitancy. Opposition to vaccination dates back to the 1800 s, Edward Jenner, and the first vaccine ever. It has never gone away despite the public's growing scientific sophistication. A variety of factors contribute to modern vaccine hesitancy, including the layperson's heuristic thinking when it comes to balancing risks and benefits as well as a number of other features of vaccination, including falling victim to its own success. Vaccine hesitancy is pervasive, affecting a quarter to a third of US parents. Clinicians report that they routinely receive requests to delay vaccines and that they routinely acquiesce. Vaccine rates vary by state and locale and by specific vaccine, and vaccine hesitancy results in personal risk and in the failure to achieve or sustain herd immunity to protect others who have contraindications to the vaccine or fail to generate immunity to the vaccine. Clinicians should adopt a variety of practices to combat vaccine hesitancy, including a variety of population health management approaches that go beyond the usual call to educate patients, clinicians, and the public. Strategies include using every visit to vaccinate, the creation of standing orders or nursing protocols to provide vaccination without clinical encounters, and adopting the practice of stating clear recommendations. Up-to-date, trusted resources exist to support clinicians' efforts in adopting these approaches to reduce vaccine hesitancy and its impact. Copyright © 2015 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Degradation of Polymers by Ultra-Violet Light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, D. T. [Camille Dreyfus Laboratory, Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1968-10-15

    To reach an understanding of the complex processes which occur when polymers are degraded by ultra-violet light under service conditions it is first judicious to try to elucidate the photochemistry of relatively simple polymer reactions. For this reason, emphasis is given to studies in which purified polymers, in bulk, were exposed to monochromatic radiations in the absence of oxygen. In respect of product analysis, emphasis is given to methods for estimating quantum yields for fractures and crosslinks. Photochemical mechanisms are illustrated by discussion of polystyrene, polytethylene terephthalate) and cellulose. Special emphasis is given to the role of free radicals. Attention is drawn to reports that the course of photolysis may be changed by application of an external pressure of a chemically inert gas, such as nitrogen. The explanation suggested in the literature is that this depends on the ease of escape of hydrogen atoms which, alternatively, might react with trapped polymer radicals. The course of photolysis may also be affected by polymer radicals acting as strongly absorbing chromophores and consequently undergoing further chemical reaction. This is illustrated by reference to the conversion of allyl radicals to alkyl radicals in polyethylene and also by changes observed in the ESR spectrum of polymer radicals trapped in poly (ethylene terephthalate) as a result of exposure to light. It is suggested that this effect is primarily responsible for the evolution of hydrocarbon gases on photolysis of polyethylene or natural rubber. In contrast, radiolysis of these polymers yields almost pure hydrogen because, in this case, energy is absorbed by relatively non-selective processes, i.e. free radicals do not absorb high energy radiation much more strongly than does their polymeric environment. (author)

  10. DHEC: Vaccinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data, Maps - SC Public Health Diseases and Conditions Flu Tuberculosis STD/HIV and Viral Hepatitis Zika Illnesses E. coli Listeriosis Salmonella Hepatitis A Shellfish Monitoring and Regulation Certified Shippers Vaccines Teen and Preteen Vaccines Vaccines Needed for School Admission Related Topics Perinatal Hepatitis

  11. Crystal growth and scintillation properties of selected fluoride crystals for VUV scintillators

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pejchal, Jan; Fukuda, K.; Yamaji, A.; Yokota, Y.; Kurosawa, S.; Král, Robert; Nikl, Martin; Yoshikawa, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 401, Sep (2014), s. 833-838 ISSN 0022-0248. [International Conference on Crystal Growth and Epitaxy /17./. Warsaw, 11.08.2013-16..08.2013] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12150 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : vacuum-ultra-violet emission * micro-pulling-down method * barium -lutetium fluoride * erbium fluoride Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.698, year: 2014

  12. Crystal Structures of Yeast-Produced Enterovirus 71 and Enterovirus 71/Coxsackievirus A16 Chimeric Virus-Like Particles Provide the Structural Basis for Novel Vaccine Design against Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Ke; He, Ya-Ling; Li, Hao-Yang; Chen, Rong

    2015-06-01

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) are the two major causative agents for hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD). Previously, we demonstrated that a virus-like particle (VLP) for EV71 produced from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a potential vaccine candidate against EV71 infection, and an EV71/CVA16 chimeric VLP can elicit protective immune responses against both virus infections. Here, we presented the crystal structures of both VLPs, showing that both the linear and conformational neutralization epitopes identified in EV71 are mostly preserved on both VLPs. The replacement of only 4 residues in the VP1 GH loop converted strongly negatively charged surface patches formed by portions of the SP70 epitope in EV71 VLP into a relatively neutral surface in the chimeric VLP, which likely accounted for the additional neutralization capability of the chimeric VLP against CVA16 infection. Such local variations in the amino acid sequences and the surface charge potential are also present in different types of polioviruses. In comparison to EV71 VLP, the chimeric VLP exhibits structural changes at the local site of amino acid replacement and the surface loops of all capsid proteins. This is consistent with the observation that the VP1 GH loop located near the pseudo-3-fold junction is involved in extensive interactions with other capsid regions. Furthermore, portions of VP0 and VP1 in EV71 VLP are at least transiently exposed, revealing the structural flexibility of the VLP. Together, our structural analysis provided insights into the structural basis of enterovirus neutralization and novel vaccine design against HFMD and other enterovirus-associated diseases. Our previous studies demonstrated that the enterovirus 71 (EV71) virus-like particle (VLP) produced from yeast is a vaccine candidate against EV71 infection and that a chimeric EV71/coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) VLP with the replacement of 4 amino acids in the VP1 GH loop can confer protection against both

  13. Biosorption of aniline violet from aqueous solution on moringa oleifera saw dust (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javed, T.; Mirza, M.L.

    2011-01-01

    Batch adsorption studies were carried out to evaluate the potential of Moringa Oleifera wood saw dust for the removal of aniline violet dye from aqueous solution by optimizing different parameters such as effect of shaking time, adsorbent dose, initial adsorbate concentration etc. The experimental data was subjected to different types of linearized isotherm models such as Freundlich, Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich. The Freundlich isotherm was fitted well with the data. The maximum adsorption capacity of 8.92 m mol./g of aniline violet has been observed through Freundlich isotherm by using the optimized parameters of 50 mg of adsorbent, 5 minutes of shaking time at room temperature of 25 deg. C. The sorption mean free energy from Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm is 13.36 kJ mol 1 indicating chemisorption. Pseudo-first and Pseudo-second order kinetics models were tested for the adsorption of 1.23 X 10/sup -5) mol L/sup -1) of aniline violet onto Moringa Oleifera wood saw dust. The experimental data fitted well for Pseudo-second order model with coefficient of correlation R/sup 2/ greater or equal to 0.999. The uptake of aniline violet was also studied with the rise in temperature. Thermodynamic parameters have been evaluated and the adsorption process seems to be endothermic. The results indicate that the Moringa Oleifera wood saw dust is an efficient adsorbent for aniline violet from aqueous solutions. (author)

  14. FLU VACCINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated may go to the Infirmary (ground-floor, bldg. 57), with their vaccine, without a prior appointment. The vaccine can be reimbursed directly by Uniqa providing you attach the receipt and the prescription that you will receive from the Medical Service the day of your injection at the infirmary. Ideally, the vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2007 (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00). CERN staff aged 50 or over are recommended to have influenza vaccinations. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and those convalescing from serious medical problems or after serious surgical operations. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines for family members or retired staff members, who must contact their normal family doctor. Medical Service

  15. STUDIES ON BIOLUMINESCENCE : XVII. FLUORESCENCE AND INHIBITION OF LUMINESCENCE IN CTENOPHORES BY ULTRA-VIOLET LIGHT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, E N

    1925-01-20

    1. Small dumps of the luminous cells of Mnemiopsis cannot readily be stimulated mechanically but will luminesce on treatment with saponin solution. Larger groups of luminous cells (such as are connected with two paddle plates) luminesce on mechanical stimulation. This suggests that mechanical stimulation to luminesce occurs chiefly through a nerve mechanism which has been broken up in the small dumps of luminous tissue. 2. The smallest bits of luminous tissue, even cells freed from the animal by agitation, that will pass through filter paper, lose their power to luminesce in daylight and regain it (at least partially) in the dark. 3. Luminescence of the whole animal and of individual cells is suppressed by near ultra-violet light (without visible light). 4. Inhibition in ultra-violet light is not due to stimulation (by the ultra-violet light) of the animal to luminesce, thereby using up the store of photogenic material. 5. Animals stimulated mechanically several times and placed in ultra-violet light show a luminescence along the meridians in the same positions as the luminescence that appears on stimulation. This luminescence in the ultra-violet or "tonic luminescence," is not obtained with light adapted ctenophores and is interpreted to be a fluorescence of the product of oxidation of the photogenic material. 6. Marked fluorescence of the luminous organ of the glowworm (Photuris) and of the luminous slime of Chatopterus may be observed in ultra-violet but no marked fluorescence of the luminous substances of Cypridina is apparent. 7. Evidence is accumulating to show a close relation between fluorescent and chemiluminescent substances in animals, similar to that described for unsaturated silicon compounds and the Grignard reagents.

  16. Hepatitis Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Ogholikhan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B globally. Given the lack of a hepatitis C vaccine, the many challenges facing the production of a hepatitis C vaccine will be shown, along with current and former vaccination trials. As there is no current FDA-approved hepatitis E vaccine, we will present vaccination data that is available in the rest of the world. Finally, we will discuss the existing challenges and questions facing future endeavors for each of the hepatitis viruses, with efforts continuing to focus on dramatically reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these serious infections of the liver.

  17. Hepatitis Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogholikhan, Sina; Schwarz, Kathleen B.

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B globally. Given the lack of a hepatitis C vaccine, the many challenges facing the production of a hepatitis C vaccine will be shown, along with current and former vaccination trials. As there is no current FDA-approved hepatitis E vaccine, we will present vaccination data that is available in the rest of the world. Finally, we will discuss the existing challenges and questions facing future endeavors for each of the hepatitis viruses, with efforts continuing to focus on dramatically reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these serious infections of the liver. PMID:26978406

  18. Ultra-violet-resistant mutants of Bacillus thuringiensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, D R; Karunakaran, V [Polytechnic of Central London (UK). Faculty of Engineering and Science, School of Biological and Health Sciences; Burges, H D [Institute of Horticultural Research, Littlehampton (UK); Hacking, A J [Reading Univ. (UK). Dextra Labs.Ltd.

    1991-06-01

    One of the main disadvantages of using Bacillus thuringiensis as an insecticide is that the spore and crystal preparations applied to foliage are readily washed away by rain and are inactivated by sunlight. Spores from some strains of B. thuringiensis have been shown to be highly sensitive to u.v. light. This study has demonstrated how mutants with increased resistance to u.v., isolated by successive rounds of u.v. irradiation, and additionally with increased specific pathogenicity can be isolated. These techniques should be applied to strains that are frequently used in the industrial production of B.thuringiensis toxin. (author).

  19. Ultra-violet-resistant mutants of Bacillus thuringiensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.R.; Karunakaran, V.; Hacking, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    One of the main disadvantages of using Bacillus thuringiensis as an insecticide is that the spore and crystal preparations applied to foliage are readily washed away by rain and are inactivated by sunlight. Spores from some strains of B. thuringiensis have been shown to be highly sensitive to u.v. light. This study has demonstrated how mutants with increased resistance to u.v., isolated by successive rounds of u.v. irradiation, and additionally with increased specific pathogenicity can be isolated. These techniques should be applied to strains that are frequently used in the industrial production of B.thuringiensis toxin. (author)

  20. Flu Vaccination

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated against influenza may go to the Medical Service (ground floor, Bldg. 57) without an appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), PROVIDED THAT THEY BRING THEIR OWN VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. The influenza vaccine is recommended for CERN staff aged 50 and over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and for those convalescing from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their family doctor. CERN Medical Service

  1. Flu vaccination

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Medical Service

    2006-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated against influenza may go to the Medical Service (ground floor, Bldg. 57) without an appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), PROVIDED THAT THEY BRING THEIR OWN VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. The influenza vaccine is recommended for CERN staff aged 50 and over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and for those convalescing from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their family doctor.CERN Medical Service

  2. FLU VACCINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated against influenza may go to the Medical Service (ground floor, Bldg. 57) without an appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), PROVIDED THAT THEY BRING THEIR OWN VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. The influenza vaccine is recommended for CERN staff aged 50 and over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and for those convalescing from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their family doctor. CERN Medical Service

  3. Flu Vaccination

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated against influenza may go to the Medical Service (ground floor, Bldg. 57) without an appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), PROVIDED THAT THEY BRING THEIR OWN VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. The influenza vaccine is recommended for CERN staff aged 50 and over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and for those convalescing from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their family doctor. CERN Medical service

  4. 76 FR 55003 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Intent To Rescind...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... finished pigment in the form of presscake and dry color. Pigment dispersions in any form (e.g., pigments... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-892] Carbazole Violet Pigment 23... antidumping duty order on carbazole violet pigment 23 (CVP 23) from the People's Republic of China (PRC). This...

  5. 77 FR 1463 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From the People's Republic of China: Final Rescission of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-10

    ... finished pigment in the form of presscake and dry color. Pigment dispersions in any form (e.g., pigments... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-892] Carbazole Violet Pigment 23... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on carbazole violet pigment 23 (CVP-23) from the People's...

  6. 75 FR 10759 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from India: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Changed-Circumstances Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ... dispersions in any form (e.g., pigment dispersed in oleoresins, flammable solvents, water) are not included... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-533-838] Carbazole Violet Pigment 23... changed-circumstances review of the antidumping duty order on carbazole violet pigment 23 from India with...

  7. 75 FR 13257 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from India: Final Results of the Expedited Five-year (Sunset) Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ...) and finished pigment in the form of presscake and dry color. Pigment dispersions in any form (e.g... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-533-839] Carbazole Violet Pigment 23... countervailing duty (CVD) order on Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 (CVP-23) [[Page 13258

  8. Ultra violet photoemission studies of CO2 and NO adsorbed on W(100) surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, A.K.; Broughton, J.Q.; Perry, D.L.

    1978-01-01

    In the last few years ultra violet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) has been successfully empolyed to determine the nature and bonding of the species formed when gases absorb on metal surfaces. This information is necessary to understand the mechanism of hetergeneous catalysis. The present report deals with UPS investigation of the chemisorption of CO 2 and NO on a W(100) surface. (Auth.)

  9. Effect of Violet-Blue Light on Streptococcus mutans-Induced Enamel Demineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Gomez Felix Gomez

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: This in vitro study determined the effectiveness of violet-blue light (405 nm on inhibiting Streptococcus mutans-induced enamel demineralization. Materials and Methods: S. mutans UA159 biofilm was grown on human enamel specimens for 13 h in 5% CO2 at 37 °C with/without 1% sucrose. Wet biofilm was treated twice daily with violet-blue light for five minutes over five days. A six-hour reincubation was included daily between treatments excluding the final day. Biofilms were harvested and colony forming units (CFU were quantitated. Lesion depth (L and mineral loss (∆Z were quantified using transverse microradiography (TMR. Quantitative light-induced fluorescence Biluminator (QLF-D was used to determine mean fluorescence loss. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA to compare differences in means. Results: The results demonstrated a significant reduction in CFUs between treated and non-treated groups grown with/without 1% sucrose. ∆Z was significantly reduced for specimens exposed to biofilms grown without sucrose with violet-blue light. There was only a trend on reduction of ∆Z with sucrose and with L on both groups. There were no differences in fluorescence-derived parameters between the groups. Conclusions: Within the limitations of the study, the results indicate that violet-blue light can serve as an adjunct prophylactic treatment for reducing S. mutans biofilm formation and enamel mineral loss.

  10. Differential inheritance of pepper (capsicum annum) fruit pigments results in black to violet fruit color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Color and appearance of fruits and vegetables are critical determinants of product quality and may afford high-value market opportunities. Exploiting the rich genetic diversity in Capsicum, we characterized the inheritance of black and violet immature fruit color and chlorophyll, carotenoid and ant...

  11. 75 FR 29719 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India: Continuation of Countervailing Duty Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ..., paste, wet cake) and finished pigment in the form of presscake and dry color. Pigment dispersions in any... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-533-839] Carbazole Violet Pigment 23... Pigment 23 From India, 69 FR 77995 (December 29, 2004). On November 2, 2009, the Department initiated and...

  12. Incapacity of β - carotene to protect Escherichia coli J-5 against ultra violet lethal action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passos Junior, G.A.S.; Zucchi, T.M.A.D.

    1982-01-01

    The ultra violet light survival of Escherichia coli J-5 cell population was not modified when it was β-carotene treated. It was found that this carotenoid does not confer radioprotection to the u.v. light effects in this bacterial strain. (author) [pt

  13. Adsorption of violet B by agricultural waste of soft pistachio shells ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, inexpensive agricultural waste pistachio sells was used for adsorption of violet B. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used to characterize the pistachio shells. The morphology of pistachio shell was studied by SEM and it showed the porous structure of ...

  14. DNA Vaccines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    diseases. Keywords. DNA vaccine, immune response, antibodies, infectious diseases. GENERAL .... tein vaccines require expensive virus/protein purification tech- niques as ... sphere continue to remain major health hazards in developing nations. ... significance since it can be produced at a very low cost and can be stored ...

  15. Vaccination Policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, M.F.

    2013-01-01

    Vaccination involves priming the immune system with an antigenic agent that mimics a virus or bacterium, which results in immunity against the “real” microorganism. Collective vaccination policies have played an important role in the control of infectious disease worldwide. They can serve the

  16. TUMOUR VACCINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, Ernst; Kircheis, Ralf; Crommelin, D.; Van Slooten, Maaike; Storm, Gert

    1999-01-01

    The invention relates to a tumour vaccine with a tumour antigen base. In addition to a source of tumour antigens, the vaccine contains a release system for the delayed release of the active agent IFN- gamma , the active dose of IFN- gamma being 50 ng to 5 mu g. The IFN- gamma is released over a

  17. Rotavirus Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Why get vaccinated?Rotavirus is a virus that causes diarrhea, mostly in babies and young children. The diarrhea can be severe, and lead ... and fever are also common in babies with rotavirus.Before rotavirus vaccine, rotavirus disease was a common ...

  18. Sexual Dimorphism and Retinal Mosaic Diversification following the Evolution of a Violet Receptor in Butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloch, Kyle J; Yuan, Furong; Zhen, Ying; Aardema, Matthew L; Smith, Gilbert; Llorente-Bousquets, Jorge; Andolfatto, Peter; Briscoe, Adriana D

    2017-09-01

    Numerous animal lineages have expanded and diversified the opsin-based photoreceptors in their eyes underlying color vision behavior. However, the selective pressures giving rise to new photoreceptors and their spectral tuning remain mostly obscure. Previously, we identified a violet receptor (UV2) that is the result of a UV opsin gene duplication specific to Heliconius butterflies. At the same time the violet receptor evolved, Heliconius evolved UV-yellow coloration on their wings, due to the pigment 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-OHK) and the nanostructure architecture of the scale cells. In order to better understand the selective pressures giving rise to the violet receptor, we characterized opsin expression patterns using immunostaining (14 species) and RNA-Seq (18 species), and reconstructed evolutionary histories of visual traits in five major lineages within Heliconius and one species from the genus Eueides. Opsin expression patterns are hyperdiverse within Heliconius. We identified six unique retinal mosaics and three distinct forms of sexual dimorphism based on ommatidial types within the genus Heliconius. Additionally, phylogenetic analysis revealed independent losses of opsin expression, pseudogenization events, and relaxation of selection on UVRh2 in one lineage. Despite this diversity, the newly evolved violet receptor is retained across most species and sexes surveyed. Discriminability modeling of behaviorally preferred 3-OHK yellow wing coloration suggests that the violet receptor may facilitate Heliconius color vision in the context of conspecific recognition. Our observations give insights into the selective pressures underlying the origins of new visual receptors. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. A baiting system for the oral rabies vaccination of wild foxes and skunks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, D H; Voigt, D R

    1982-01-01

    A bait delivery system has been developed for red foxes and skunks in Ontario, Canada. A biomarker (Tetracycline HCl) is incorporated into a meatball in a plastic bag. Deposits of tetracycline in teeth are detected microscopically with ultra-violet illumination of undecalcified sections. Baits were dropped from aircraft at the rate of 35 per km2 and accepted by 70% of foxes and 60% of skunks in the test area. Trials of various strains of inactivated vaccines are in progress.

  20. Whither vaccines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Charlene M C; Pinto, Marta V; Sadarangani, Manish; Plotkin, Stanley A

    2017-06-01

    Currently used vaccines have had major effects on eliminating common infections, largely by duplicating the immune responses induced by natural infections. Now vaccinology faces more complex problems, such as waning antibody, immunosenescence, evasion of immunity by the pathogen, deviation of immunity by the microbiome, induction of inhibitory responses, and complexity of the antigens required for protection. Fortunately, vaccine development is now incorporating knowledge from immunology, structural biology, systems biology and synthetic chemistry to meet these challenges. In addition, international organisations are developing new funding and licensing pathways for vaccines aimed at pathogens with epidemic potential that emerge from tropical areas. © 2017 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Influenza vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerhus, Sven Frederick

    2015-01-01

    The Cochrane Library was systematically searched for meta-analyses regarding influenza vaccination of various populations, both healthy and sick. An effect in reducing the number of cases of influenza, influenza-like illness or complications to influenza was found in some studies, but, generally......, the quality of the studies was low, and several studies lacked hard clinical endpoints. Data on adverse effects were scarce. More randomised controlled trials investigating the effects of influenza vaccination are warranted....

  2. Reversible polycolour change of viologens from violet through transparent to white

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, Katsuyoshi; Oikawa, Yosuke; Sakabe, Ichiro; Komatsu, Toshiki

    2009-01-01

    The electrochromic properties of 1,1'-dibenzyl-4,4'-bipyridinium and 1,1'-diheptyl-4,4'-bipyridinium were investigated in the presence of MBr (M = Li + , Na + , and K + ). The cyclic voltammograms of these viologens showed a white-coloured state in addition to the usual violet one-electron reduction state and the colourless divalent state. Chemical analyses (FT-IR and XPS spectra) of the white film and some control experiments with different supporting electrolytes, MX (X = Cl - and I - ), revealed that the viologens formed water-insoluble ion pairs with tribromide generated by the electrooxidation of monobromide to produce a white film. The film was reversibly decolourized electrochemically to the initial transparent state, providing the polyelectrochromism using the simple viologen/MBr systems. The colouration efficiencies for the violet and the white-coloured states were 170 cm 2 /C and 104 cm 2 /C, respectively.

  3. Removal of methyl violet dye by adsorption onto N-benzyltriazole derivatized dextran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cho, Eunae; Tahir, Muhammad Nazir; Kim, Hwanhee

    2015-01-01

    In this work, N-benzyltriazole derivatized dextran was evaluated for its potential as a novel carbohydrate-based adsorbent for the removal of methyl violet dye from water. The modified dextran was synthesized by a click reaction of pentynyl dextran and benzyl azide, and the structure...... was characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and scanning electron microscopy. Dextran was substituted with a triazole-linked benzyl group. For decolorization of the dye effluent, adsorption is a very effective treatment; here, the driving force is based on hydrogen bonding, pi...... stacking, and electrostatic interaction between the methyl violet dye and the N-benzyltriazole derivatized dextran. Batch experiments were carried out to investigate the required contact time and the effects of pH, initial dye concentrations, and temperature. The experimental data were analyzed...

  4. Flu Vaccine Safety Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Flu Vaccine Safety Information Questions & Answers Language: English (US) ... safety of flu vaccines monitored? Egg Allergy Are flu vaccines safe? Flu vaccines have good safety record. ...

  5. Thimerosal in Flu Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Thimerosal in Flu Vaccine Questions & Answers Language: English (US) Español Recommend ... and/or fungi from contaminating the vaccine. Do flu vaccines contain thimerosal? Flu vaccines in multi-dose ...

  6. Ear Infection and Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Infection and Vaccines Ear Infection and Vaccines Patient Health Information News ... or may need reinsertion over time. What about vaccines? A vaccine is a preparation administered to stimulate ...

  7. Antipneumococcal vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Vincenzo Zuccotti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP is a gram-positive bacterium with more than 90 known serotypes causing around 11% of all deaths worldwide in children aged 1-59 months. A new era in prevention of SP-related diseases started in at the beginning of 2000s when a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7 was recommended as the vaccine of choice in pediatric age. PCV7 dramatically reduced invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD among children with indirect effects noted among other age groups as well. However, thanks to a strict surveillance network, an increase in non-vaccine serotypes (NVTs causing IPD was noted worldwide and in late 2000s a new second generation vaccine (13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine-PCV13 with an expanded serotype coverage was licensed. Due to the lack of solid effectiveness data, up to know it is difficult to predict how the composition of NVTs will change after the large-scale introduction of PCV13 or whether the characteristics of the serotypes will change. Long-term surveillance of both IPD, pneumonia, acute otitis media and carriage will be crucial to ascertain whether these second generation vaccines are having the desired effect of reducing the incidence of diseases in the long term. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  8. Ultra-violet radiation for the inactivation of microorganisms in hydroponics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buyanosvsky, G.; Gale, J.; Degani, N.

    1981-01-01

    The growth of microorganisms in the nutrient solution of a circulating hydroponic system was suppressed by ultra-violet radiation. Applied for three hours daily (572 Jm -2 h -1 ) throughout experiments in which tomato and corn were grown, it was effective in reducing the population of microorganisms from between 500-800 x 10 3 to 10-50 x 10 3 cells per ml. (orig.)

  9. Ultra-violet radiation for the inactivation of microorganisms in hydroponics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buyanosvsky, G; Gale, J [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beersheva (Israel). Jacob Blaustein Inst. for Desert Research; Degani, N [Israel Atomic Energy Commission, Beersheba. Nuclear Research Center-Negev

    1981-01-01

    The growth of microorganisms in the nutrient solution of a circulating hydroponic system was suppressed by ultra-violet radiation. Applied for three hours daily (572 Jm/sup -2/h/sup -1/) throughout experiments in which tomato and corn were grown, it was effective in reducing the population of microorganisms from between 500-800 x 10/sup 3/ to 10-50 x 10/sup 3/ cells per ml.

  10. One electron reduction and absorption characteristics of Cresyl violet in micellar medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gawandi, Vijay B.; Guha, S.N.; Hari Mohan

    2000-01-01

    Effect of surfactant micelles on absorption characteristics of Cresyl violet (CV) and on its redox reactions have been studied. Among the various surfactants investigated anionic surfactants particularly sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) and sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDDBS) showed marked effect on these properties. Reactions of hydrated electron in these micellar media were studied using the technique of nanosecond pulse radiolysis. Results of other surfactants, viz.BSS, CTAB and TritonX-100 have also been presented. (author)

  11. The creation of radiation dominated plasmas using laboratory extreme ultra-violet lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallents, G. J.; Wilson, S.; West, A.; Aslanyan, V.; Lolley, J.; Rossall, A. K.

    2017-06-01

    Ionization in experiments where solid targets are irradiated by high irradiance extreme ultra-violet (EUV) lasers is examined. Free electron degeneracy effects on ionization in the presence of a high EUV flux of radiation is shown to be important. Overlap of the physics of such plasmas with plasma material under compression in indirect inertial fusion is explored. The design of the focusing optics needed to achieve high irradiance (up to 1014 Wcm-2) using an EUV capillary laser is presented.

  12. DETERMINATION OF THE THERMODYNAMICS OF β-LACTOGLOBULIN AGGREGATION USING ULTRA VIOLET LIGHT SCATTERING SPECTROSCOPY

    OpenAIRE

    Belton, Daniel; Austerberry, James

    2018-01-01

    The problem of protein aggregation is widely studied across a number of disciplines, where understanding the behaviour of the protein monomer, and its behaviour with co-solutes is imperative in order to devise solutions to the problem. Here we present a method for measuring the kinetics of protein aggregation based on ultra violet light scattering spectroscopy (UVLSS) across a range of NaCl conditions. Through measurement of wavelength dependant scattering and using the model protein β-lactog...

  13. Synthesis of Cu Doped ZnO Nanostructures for Ultra Violet Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Nazar Abbas SHAH; Muhammad ABID; Muhammad AMIN; Rahat AFRIN; Syed Zafar ILYAS

    2015-01-01

    This paper mainly focused on the synthesis of zinc oxide nanostructures, their characterization and their ultra violet light sensing response at room temperature. Nanowires, nanobelts and nanosheets were synthesized by varying doping material copper by using vapor transport technique governed by the vapor-liquid-solid or vapor-solid mechanisms. The structural, morphological and optical characterization was carried out using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-...

  14. Spectral enhancement of leucocrystal violet treated footwear impression evidence in blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Lindsay; Asmussen, Gary

    2003-03-27

    The results presented demonstrate the capacity for spectral enhancement to substantially improve the forensic examination of footwear impressions in blood treated with leucocrystal violet (LCV). The UV-Vis absorption spectra were generated of (i) an aqueous solution of leucocrystal violet, (ii) leucocrystal violet in 3% H(2)O(2), (iii) LCV working solution and (iv) whole blood added to LCV working solution. The resultant fluorescence emission spectra were subsequently generated (lambda(ex)=630nm, lambda(em)=661-900nm). The results indicate that the UV-Vis absorption spectra of an unbuffered solution of whole blood with LCV working solution produces a strong absorbance curve with a maxima at 630nm. Subsequent excitation at this wavelength and generation of the emission spectrum in the fluorescence mode indicates that a solution of whole blood added to LCV working solution is an extremely weak fluorophore. Therefore, to enable an adequate and timely enhancement of blood impression evidence treated with LCV utilising either visible fluorescence or infrared luminescence requires (i) selection of the most appropriate excitation wavelength (lambda(ex)) and emission wavelength (lambda(em)) with extremely narrow band pass filters, which in the absence of substrate matrix interference is excitation at 630nm producing the emission maxima at 665nm and (ii) a visual enhancement system such as a CCD colour IR video camera with image integration.

  15. Effects of chronic gamma irradiation on adventitious plantlet formation of Saintpaulia ionantha (African violet) detached leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arunee Wongpiyasatid; Peeranuch Jompuk; Katarat Chusreeaeom; Thanya Taychasinpitak

    2007-01-01

    Formation of adventitious plantlets on unrootedly detached leaves of two African violet (Saintpaulia ionantha) cultivars, pink and violet flowers, chronically gamma-irradiated in gamma room at The Gamma Irradiation Service and Nuclear Technology Research Center, Kasetsart University was compared. Detached leaves were immediately planted after detachment in plastic trays containing peat moss, 18 leaves per treatment with 3 replications. Three dose rates (rad/h) with 3 doses (rad)/dose rate, were applied to the irradiated samples while the controls were placed outside the gamma room. Three months after irradiation, the number of survived leaves, the number of leaves producing adventitious plantlets and the number of plantlets per leaf were recorded. After that, the young plantlets were transferred to the new pots for further observation on plant growth and mutation characters. The results revealed that the number of survived leaves, the number of leaves producing adventitious plantlets and the number of plantlets per leaf varied slightly with radiation doses but were not significantly different at different dose rates. Radiosensitivity was noticed to be higher in pink flower cultivar than the violet one. M 1 V 1 plantlets will be followed up for growth and mutation character observations

  16. Dynamics of InGaN tandem blue-violet semiconductor lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antohi, I.; Rusu, S.S.; Tronciu, V.Z.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Blue-violet semiconductor lasers have received much attention because of their promise for high-density optical storage applications. In particular, blue-violet laser diodes operating at 400 nm are required for BD- systems and for use in medicine, biology, color printers and monitors, etc, In recent years, numerous fabrication methods have been proposed and developed for blue lasers with CW and self-pulsating operations and the lifetime of such lasers has been increased to over 15000 h. Recently, we have reported self-pulsation and excitable behaviour for an InGaN laser with a p-type saturable absorber, and SP in the frequency range from 1.6 to 2.9 GHz has been achieved with such lasers. In this paper, we present an investigation of the dynamics of tandem 400 nm blue-violet lasers with setup presented in Fig.1a. A particular feature of the devices is the connection of the contacts of the SA, to reduce the carrier lifetime in the SA with the intention of producing self-pulsation and excitability. We examine the laser dynamics in terms of bifurcation diagrams. A typical calculation of bifurcation for the periodic solution is shown in Fig. 1b. This figure shows the dependence of the peak of the photon number on the injected.

  17. Extraction-radiochemical study of the ion-association complex of antimony (V) with tetrazolium violet and its thermal behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostova, S.G.; Boyanov, B.S.

    1995-01-01

    The optimum conditions for extraction of ion-associated complexes (IAS) formed from the tetrazolium salt - tetrazolium violet and Sb(V) in hydrochloric acid medium have been studied. An isotope of antimony ( 125 Sb) was used for determination of the recovery factor (R%) and distribution ratio (D S b). The thermal behavior of the antimony complex with tetrazole violet was studied using differential thermal and thermogravimetric analysis. (author) 12 refs.; 3 figs

  18. Green revolution vaccines, edible vaccines | Tripurani | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Edible vaccines are sub-unit vaccines where the selected genes are introduced into the plants and the transgenic plant is then induced to manufacture the encoded protein. Edible vaccines are mucosal-targeted vaccines where stimulation of both systematic and mucosal immune network takes place. Foods under study ...

  19. Topical gentian violet compared with nystatin oral suspension for the treatment of oropharyngeal candidiasis in HIV-1-infected participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Pranab K; Chen, Huichao; Patton, Lauren L; Evans, Scott; Lee, Anthony; Kumwenda, Johnstone; Hakim, James; Masheto, Gaerolwe; Sawe, Frederick; Pho, Mai T; Freedberg, Kenneth A; Shiboski, Caroline H; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A; Salata, Robert A

    2017-01-02

    Compare the safety and efficacy of topical gentian violet with that of nystatin oral suspension (NYS) for the treatment of oropharyngeal candidiasis in HIV-1-infected adults in resource-limited settings. Multicenter, open-label, evaluator-blinded, randomized clinical trial at eight international sites, within the AIDS Clinical Trials Group. Adult HIV-infected participants with oropharyngeal candidiasis, stratified by CD4 cell counts and antiretroviral therapy status at study entry, were randomized to receive either gentian violet (0.00165%, BID) or NYS (500 000 units, QID) for 14 days. Cure or improvement after 14 days of treatment. Signs and symptoms of oropharyngeal candidiasis were evaluated in an evaluator-blinded manner. The study was closed early per Data Safety Monitoring Board after enrolling 221 participants (target = 494). Among the 182 participants eligible for efficacy analysis, 63 (68.5%) in the gentian violet arm had cure or improvement of oropharyngeal candidiasis versus 61 (67.8%) in the NYS arm, resulting in a nonsizable difference of 0.007 (95% confidence interval: -0.129, 0.143). There was no sizable difference in cure rates between the two arms (-0.0007; 95% confidence interval: -0.146, 0.131). No gentian violet-related adverse events were noted. No sizable differences were identified in tolerance, adherence, quality of life, or acceptability of study drugs. In gentian violet arm, 61 and 39% of participants reported 'no' and 'mild-to-moderate' staining, respectively. Cost for medication procurement was significantly lower for gentian violet versus NYS (median $2.51 and 19.42, respectively, P = 0.01). Efficacy of gentian violet was not statistically different than NYS, was well tolerated, and its procurement cost was substantially less than NYS.

  20. Magnetic solid-phase extraction for determination of the total malachite green, gentian violet and leucomalachite green, leucogentian violet in aquaculture water by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiao; Wei, Daqiao; Yang, Yaling

    2016-06-01

    In this study, magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotube nanoparticles were synthesized and used as the adsorbent for the sums of malachite green, gentian violet and leucomalachite green, leucogentian violet in aquaculture water samples followed by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. This method was based on in situ reduction of chromic malachite green, gentian violet to colorless leucomalachite green, leucogentian violet with potassium borohydride, respectively. The obtained adsorbent combines the advantages of carbon nanotubes and Fe3 O4 nanoparticles in one material for separation and preconcentration of the reductive dyes in aqueous media. The structure and properties of the prepared nanoparticles were characterized by transmission and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The main parameters affecting the adsorption recoveries were investigated and optimized, including reducing agent concentration, type and amount of sorbent, sample pH, and eluting conditions. Under the optimum conditions, the limits of detection in this method were 0.22 and 0.09 ng/mL for malachite green and gentian violet, respectively. Product recoveries ranged from 87.0 to 92.8% with relative standard deviations from 4.6 to 5.9%. The results indicate that the sorbent is a suitable material for the removal and concentration of triphenylmethane dyes from polluted environmental samples. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Valuing vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bärnighausen, Till; Bloom, David E; Cafiero-Fonseca, Elizabeth T; O'Brien, Jennifer Carroll

    2014-08-26

    Vaccination has led to remarkable health gains over the last century. However, large coverage gaps remain, which will require significant financial resources and political will to address. In recent years, a compelling line of inquiry has established the economic benefits of health, at both the individual and aggregate levels. Most existing economic evaluations of particular health interventions fail to account for this new research, leading to potentially sizable undervaluation of those interventions. In line with this new research, we set forth a framework for conceptualizing the full benefits of vaccination, including avoided medical care costs, outcome-related productivity gains, behavior-related productivity gains, community health externalities, community economic externalities, and the value of risk reduction and pure health gains. We also review literature highlighting the magnitude of these sources of benefit for different vaccinations. Finally, we outline the steps that need to be taken to implement a broad-approach economic evaluation and discuss the implications of this work for research, policy, and resource allocation for vaccine development and delivery.

  2. Investigation of new dyes for chromovitrectomy: preclinical biocompatibility of trisodium, orangell and methyl violet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badaro, Emmerson; Souza-Lima, Rodrigo A; Novais, Eduardo A; Maia, Mauricio; Hirai, Flávio; Meyer, Carsten H; Farah, Michel Eid; Rodrigues, Eduardo B

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the retinal toxicity by electroretinography (ERG), clinical examination and histology after intravitreal injection of biological stains in two concentrations: Trisodium (0.50 g/L and 1.00 g/L), Orangell (0.25 g/L and 1.00 g/L) and Methyl Violet (0.50 g/L and 1.00 g/L). Eighteen New-Zealand albinos rabbits were assigned in six groups (n = 3 in each group). The animals in group 1 received Trisodium in the dose of 0.50 g/L and group 2 received 1.00 g/L; Group 3 received Orangell in the dose of 0.25 g/L and group 4 received 1.00 g/L; Group 5 received Methyl Violet in the dose of 1.00 g/L and group 6 received 0.50 g/L. A volume of 0.05 mL of dye was injected in the right eyes, whereas the left eyes received the same volume of balanced salt solution (BSS) as control. ERG recordings and clinical examination were performed at baseline and seven days after intravitreal injection. The ERG responses at one week after injection were compared with baseline levels. A decrease in the post-injection amplitude of more than 50% was considered remarkable. After the 7-day follow-up, rabbits were euthanized and eye enucleated for light microscopy (LM) histological evaluation. At clinical examination by indirect ophthalmoscopy seven days after dye injection, all eyes were negative for cataract, hemorrhage, retinal detachment, and intraocular opacities. Amplitude analysis of maximum scotopic b-wave showed no significant reduction in either dye injected or control eyes. Neither dye nor BSS caused significant retinal alteration on LM at doses tested. Trisodium, Orangell and Methyl Violet can be applied in future studies in order to prove the capacity to stain preretinal tissues and vitreous without toxicity. The three dyes did not induce significant ERG amplitude reduction or LM alterations in this preliminary experimental research. Trisodium, Orangell and Methyl Violet may be potentially useful vital dyes for ocular surgery, and deserve further

  3. Defect-engineered GaN:Mg nanowire arrays for overall water splitting under violet light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kibria, M. G.; Chowdhury, F. A.; Zhao, S.; Mi, Z.; Trudeau, M. L.; Guo, H.

    2015-01-01

    We report that by engineering the intra-gap defect related energy states in GaN nanowire arrays using Mg dopants, efficient and stable overall neutral water splitting can be achieved under violet light. Overall neutral water splitting on Rh/Cr 2 O 3 co-catalyst decorated Mg doped GaN nanowires is demonstrated with intra-gap excitation up to 450 nm. Through optimized Mg doping, the absorbed photon conversion efficiency of GaN nanowires reaches ∼43% at 375–450 nm, providing a viable approach to extend the solar absorption of oxide and non-oxide photocatalysts

  4. Effect of bisquaternary ammonium salts on complexing of metal ions with pyrocatechol violet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tananajko, M.M.; Kofanova, N.K.

    1984-01-01

    Conditions for the improvement of contrast and sensitivity of reactions of high-charge ions of metals (Mo, W, La, Cd, Zr, Hf, Th) in the process of their photometric determination with pyrocatechol violet (PV), using bisquaternary ammonium salts (BQAS), have been studied. It is shown that in the systems investigated the BQAS play the role of ''shifting'' reagents, shifting bathochromically the absorption bands of different ligand complexes as compared with absorption bands of the Me-PV binary complexes. The effect of the BQAS on complexing with PV in aqueous and organic phases (chloroform) is studied and potential flotation of the compounds in the phase interface is considered

  5. Extreme ultra-violet movie camera for imaging microsecond time scale magnetic reconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai, Kil-Byoung; Bellan, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    An ultra-fast extreme ultra-violet (EUV) movie camera has been developed for imaging magnetic reconnection in the Caltech spheromak/astrophysical jet experiment. The camera consists of a broadband Mo:Si multilayer mirror, a fast decaying YAG:Ce scintillator, a visible light block, and a high-speed visible light CCD camera. The camera can capture EUV images as fast as 3.3 × 10 6 frames per second with 0.5 cm spatial resolution. The spectral range is from 20 eV to 60 eV. EUV images reveal strong, transient, highly localized bursts of EUV radiation when magnetic reconnection occurs

  6. Extreme ultra-violet movie camera for imaging microsecond time scale magnetic reconnection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chai, Kil-Byoung; Bellan, Paul M. [Applied Physics, Caltech, 1200 E. California Boulevard, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    An ultra-fast extreme ultra-violet (EUV) movie camera has been developed for imaging magnetic reconnection in the Caltech spheromak/astrophysical jet experiment. The camera consists of a broadband Mo:Si multilayer mirror, a fast decaying YAG:Ce scintillator, a visible light block, and a high-speed visible light CCD camera. The camera can capture EUV images as fast as 3.3 × 10{sup 6} frames per second with 0.5 cm spatial resolution. The spectral range is from 20 eV to 60 eV. EUV images reveal strong, transient, highly localized bursts of EUV radiation when magnetic reconnection occurs.

  7. Towards dating Quaternary sediments using the quartz Violet Stimulated Luminescence (VSL) signal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankjærgaard, C.; Jain, Mayank; Wallinga, J.

    2013-01-01

    Quaternary sediments using the violet (402 nm) stimulated luminescence (VSL) signal of quartz.We develop and test a new post-blue VSL single aliquot regenerative dose dating protocol, and demonstrate that the VSL signal originates from a deep trap at about 1.9 eV with a thermal lifetime of 1011 years at 10......Quartz optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating is widely used to determine the time of deposition and burial of Late Quaternary sediments. Application of the method is usually limited to the past 150,000 years due to early saturation of the OSL signal. Here we explore the potential to date...

  8. Flash photolysis of carbon dioxide in the far ultra-violet; Photolyse-eclair de l'anhydride carbonique dans l'ultra-violet lointain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barat, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1970-07-01

    The flash photolysis of CO{sub 2} (3 torr) in the far ultra-violet, down to the transparency limit of lithium fluoride, produces vibrationally excited CO in its {chi}{sup 1}{sigma} electronic ground state and an electronically excited oxygen atom O({sup 1}D). After photolysis, the changes in the concentration of vibrationally de-excited CO in the 0 to 200 {mu}sec, time range are followed using absorption spectroscopy. These changes can be explained on the basis of three main competing reactions: CO({chi}{sup 1}{sigma}, {nu}'' = 0) + O({sup 1}D) {yields} CO{sub 2}({sup 1}{sigma}{sub g}{sup +}), O({sup 1}D) + CO{sub 2} {yields} O({sup 3}P) + CO{sub 2} and CO{sub 3}, CO(X{sup 1}{sigma}, {nu}'' = 1,2) + CO{sub 2} {yields} CO({chi}{sup 1}{sigma}, {nu}'' = 0) + CO{sub 2}. The values of the rate constants for these three reactions are determined by analog calculations. The effect of O({sup 1}D) scavenging or quenching gases on the oxidation reaction of CO by O({sup 1}D) is examined. A study of the flash photolysis of O{sub 2} in the presence of CO in the far ultra-violet makes it possible to eliminate the hypothesis that CO{sub 3} is involved in the reaction leading to the disappearance of CO after photolysis. (author) [French] La photolyse eclair de CO{sub 2} (3 torrs) dans l'ultraviolet lointain, jusqu'a la limite de transparence du fluorure de lithium, produit CO vibrationnellement excite dans son etat electronique fondamental X et un atome d'oxygene electroniquement excite O({sup 1}D). Apres photolyse, on suit par spectroscopie d'absorption l'evolution de la concentration de CO vibrationnellement desexcite dans la gamme de temps s'etendant de 0 a 200 {mu}s. Cette evolution s'explique en admettant trois reactions concurrentes principales: CO({chi}{sup 1}{sigma}, {nu}'' = 0) + O({sup 1}D) {yields} CO{sub 2}({sup 1}{sigma}{sub g}{sup +}), O({sup 1}D) + CO{sub 2} {yields} O({sup 3}P) + CO{sub 2} et CO{sub 3}, CO(X{sup 1}{sigma}, {nu}'' = 1,2) + CO{sub 2} {yields} CO

  9. From Serendipity to Rational Design: Tuning the Blue Trigonal Bipyramidal Mn3+ Chromophore to Violet and Purple through Application of Chemical Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Lorger, Simon; Stalick, Judith K; Sleight, Arthur W; Subramanian, M A

    2016-10-03

    We recently reported that an allowed d-d transition of trigonal bipyramidal (TBP) Mn 3+ is responsible for the bright blue color in the YIn 1-x Mn x O 3 solid solution. The crystal field splitting between a'(d z 2 ) and e'(d x 2 -y 2 , d xy ) energy levels is very sensitive to the apical Mn-O distance. We therefore applied chemical pressure to compress the apical Mn-O distance in YIn 1-x Mn x O 3 , move the allowed d-d transition to higher energy, and thereby tune the color from blue to violet/purple. This was accomplished by substituting smaller cations such as Ti 4+ /Zn 2+ and Al 3+ onto the TBP In/Mn site, which yielded novel violet/purple phases. The general formula is YIn 1-x-2y-z Mn x Ti y Zn y Al z O 3 (x = 0.005-0.2, y = 0.1-0.4, and z ≤ 0.1), where the color darkens with the increasing amount of Mn. Higher y or small additions of Al provide a more reddish hue to the resulting purple colors. Substituting other rare earth cations for Y has little impact on color. Crystal structure analysis by neutron powder diffraction confirms a shorter apical Mn-O distance compared with that in the blue YIn 1-x Mn x O 3 . Magnetic susceptibility measurements verify the 3+ oxidation state for Mn. Diffuse reflection spectra were obtained over the wavelength region 200-2500 nm. All samples show excellent near-infrared reflectance comparable to that of commercial TiO 2 , making them ideal for cool pigment applications such as energy efficient roofs of buildings and cars where reducing solar heat to save energy is desired. In a comparison with commercial purple pigments, such as Co 3 (PO 4 ) 2 , our pigments are much more thermally stable and chemically inert, and are neither toxic nor carcinogenic.

  10. Crystals in crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus H.; Schmidt, I.; Carlsson, A.

    2005-01-01

    A major factor governing the performance of catalytically active particles supported on a zeolite carrier is the degree of dispersion. It is shown that the introduction of noncrystallographic mesopores into zeolite single crystals (silicalite-1, ZSM-5) may increase the degree of particle dispersion....... As representative examples, a metal (Pt), an alloy (PtSn), and a metal carbide (beta-Mo2C) were supported on conventional and mesoporous zeolite carriers, respectively, and the degree of particle dispersion was compared by TEM imaging. On conventional zeolites, the supported material aggregated on the outer surface...

  11. Synthesis, crystal growth, optical, thermal, and mechanical properties of a nonlinear optical single crystal: ammonium sulfate hydrogen sulphamate (ASHS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakar, K.; Nandhini, S.; Muniyappan, S.; Arumanayagam, T.; Vivek, P.; Murugakoothan, P.

    2018-04-01

    Ammonium sulfate hydrogen sulphamate (ASHS), an inorganic nonlinear optical crystal, was grown from the aqueous solution by slow evaporation solution growth technique. The single-crystal XRD confirms that the grown single crystal belongs to the orthorhombic system with the space group of Pna21. Powder XRD confirms the crystalline nature and the diffraction planes were indexed. Crystalline perfection of grown crystal was analysed by high-resolution X-ray diffraction rocking curve technique. UV-Vis-NIR studies revealed that ASHS crystal has optical transparency 65% and lower cut-off wavelength at 218 nm. The violet light emission of the crystal was identified by photoluminescence studies. The particle size-dependent second-harmonic generation efficiency for ASHS crystal was evaluated by Kurtz-Perry powder technique using Nd:YAG laser which established the existence of phase matching. Surface laser damage threshold value was evaluated using Nd:YAG laser. Optical homogeneity of the crystal was evaluated using modified channel spectrum method through birefringence study. Thermal analysis reveals that ASHS crystal is stable up to 213 °C. The mechanical behaviour of the ASHS crystal was analysed using Vickers microhardness study.

  12. Vaccines and Thimerosal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... During Pregnancy Frequently Asked Questions about Vaccine Recalls Historical Vaccine Safety Concerns FAQs about GBS and Menactra ... CISA Resources for Healthcare Professionals Evaluation Current Studies Historical Background 2001-12 Publications Technical Reports Vaccine Safety ...

  13. Vaccine Adverse Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Biologics Evaluation & Research Vaccine Adverse Events Vaccine Adverse Events Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... in the primary immunization series in infants Report Adverse Event Report a Vaccine Adverse Event Contact FDA ( ...

  14. Vaccination in Fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chettri, Jiwan Kumar

    vaccines have reduced the need for usage of antibiotics with more than 99 % since the 1980s. Fish can be vaccinated by three different administration routes: injection, immersion and oral vaccination. Injection vaccination (intraperitoneal injection of vaccine) is the most time consuming and labor...... intensive method, which however, provides the best protection of the fish. Immersion vaccination is used for immunization of a high number of small fish is cost-efficient and fast (30 sec immersion into vaccine). Oral vaccination (vaccine in feed) is the least efficient. As in higher vertebrates fish...... respond to vaccination by increasing the specific antibody titer and by activating the cellular responses. My talk will cover vaccination methods in fish, immune responses and some adverse effect of oil-adjuvanted vaccines in fish with reference to our work in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss....

  15. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Why get vaccinated?HPV vaccine prevents infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) types that are associated with cause ... at http://www.cdc.gov/hpv. HPV Vaccine (Human Papillomavirus) Information Statement. U.S. Department of Health and ...

  16. Virtual Crystallizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Land, T A; Dylla-Spears, R; Thorsness, C B

    2006-08-29

    Large dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals are grown in large crystallizers to provide raw material for the manufacture of optical components for large laser systems. It is a challenge to grow crystal with sufficient mass and geometric properties to allow large optical plates to be cut from them. In addition, KDP has long been the canonical solution crystal for study of growth processes. To assist in the production of the crystals and the understanding of crystal growth phenomena, analysis of growth habits of large KDP crystals has been studied, small scale kinetic experiments have been performed, mass transfer rates in model systems have been measured, and computational-fluid-mechanics tools have been used to develop an engineering model of the crystal growth process. The model has been tested by looking at its ability to simulate the growth of nine KDP boules that all weighed more than 200 kg.

  17. single crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2018-05-18

    May 18, 2018 ... Abstract. 4-Nitrobenzoic acid (4-NBA) single crystals were studied for their linear and nonlinear optical ... studies on the proper growth, linear and nonlinear optical ..... between the optic axes and optic sign of the biaxial crystal.

  18. Crystal Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomaker, Verner; Lingafelter, E. C.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses characteristics of crystal systems, comparing (in table format) crystal systems with lattice types, number of restrictions, nature of the restrictions, and other lattices that can accidently show the same metrical symmetry. (JN)

  19. Plications of extended ultra-violet circular dichroism spectroscopy in biology and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gareth R; Clarke, David T

    2004-01-01

    Deep ultra-violet circular dichroism is fast becoming an important technique in structural biology. The exponential increase in the number of protein structures deposited in the Protein Data Bank together with programs that extract protein secondary structure from atomic coordinates and the advancement of the software to analyse circular dichroic spectra, have revolutionised the technique. In addition, the extended short wavelength data afforded by synchrotron radiation is set to have a major impact on the development of the area. We have selected three diverse areas of research and development in the biomedical sciences to illustrate the ubiquity of the technique for future applications in the area of biomedical research. For example, the high flux of synchrotron radiation has provided a gold standard for the assay of the lipoprotein HDL in serum which has been proven to reverse the effects of coronary heart disease. In a second example, the high flux of synchrotron radiation enables the recording of millisecond data during the conformational changes in proteins over their spectrum, mapping out changes to protein secondary structure and thus providing absolute structural measurements in the millisecond time regime. In the third example, subtle conformational changes are interpreted from the extended CD spectra on protein drug binding, distinguishing between induced binding effects and the conformational changes in the target protein. The strengths and weaknesses of extended ultra-violet circular dichroism using synchrotron radiation are discussed using these examples as a template.

  20. Flash photolysis of carbon dioxide in the far ultra-violet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barat, F.

    1970-01-01

    The flash photolysis of CO 2 (3 torr) in the far ultra-violet, down to the transparency limit of lithium fluoride, produces vibrationally excited CO in its Χ 1 Σ electronic ground state and an electronically excited oxygen atom O( 1 D). After photolysis, the changes in the concentration of vibrationally de-excited CO in the 0 to 200 μsec, time range are followed using absorption spectroscopy. These changes can be explained on the basis of three main competing reactions: CO(Χ 1 Σ, ν'' = 0) + O( 1 D) → CO 2 ( 1 Σ g + ), O( 1 D) + CO 2 → O( 3 P) + CO 2 and CO 3 , CO(X 1 Σ, ν'' = 1,2) + CO 2 → CO(Χ 1 Σ, ν'' = 0) + CO 2 . The values of the rate constants for these three reactions are determined by analog calculations. The effect of O( 1 D) scavenging or quenching gases on the oxidation reaction of CO by O( 1 D) is examined. A study of the flash photolysis of O 2 in the presence of CO in the far ultra-violet makes it possible to eliminate the hypothesis that CO 3 is involved in the reaction leading to the disappearance of CO after photolysis. (author) [fr

  1. Effects of epigallocatechin gallate on ultra-violet-induced cell death in PC12 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hideo; Seki, Sakiko; Sakamoto, Naotaka; Nakagawa, Shigeki

    2002-01-01

    We examined the effects of catechin on ultra-violet-induced cell death in PC12 cells. PC12 cells were irradiated by ultra-violet C (254 nm) (UVC). We found that the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities in culture media and lipid peroxide in PC12 cells, which indicate cell death and cell membrane damage, respectively, were increased by UVC irradiation in a time-dependent manner. Cell death was gradually stimulated for 9 hours of cultivation after a UVC irradiation period of 10 or 30 min. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), which is one of the main catechins found in green tea, suppressed the increase in LDH activity in culture medium and also inhibited the formation of lipid peroxide. IκB, a member of the cell death signaling system, was phosphorylated at 1 hour after 10 min of UVC irradiation. Stimulation of phosphorylation of IκB by UVC was suppressed by the addition of EGCG. We concluded that EGCG protects the PC12 cell from cell damage caused by UVC irradiation. (author)

  2. Chemical characterization and toxicologic evaluation of airborne mixtures: chemical characterization of combusted inventory red and violet smoke mixes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, I.B.; Buchanan, M.V.; Moneyhun, J.H.

    1982-10-01

    Red and violet smoke grenades (Grenade, Hand, Smoke, M18) were combusted within canvas tents and the combustion products were sampled and analyzed. Uncombusted red and violet smoke mixes from the same lots used to fill the combusted grenades were also analyzed. Approximately ten percent of the major dye component of the red smoke mix, methylaminoanthraquinone (MAA) was converted to aminoanthraquinones (1-AA and 2-AA). The violet smoke mix was formulated to contain 1,4-diamino-2,3-dihydroanthraquinone (DAA) and MAA. Upon combustion the DAA was converted almost completely to diaminoanthraquinone (DAA) which was a minor constituent of the uncombusted mix. As in the combusted red smoke mix, it was found that MAA was partially converted to aminoanthraquinones

  3. [Poliovirus vaccine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Hiroyuki

    2012-06-01

    To avoid the risk of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) and polio outbreaks due to circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses, an inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) was introduced for routine immunization in a number of countries with a low risk of polio outbreaks. Currently, production and marketing of a standalone conventional IPV and two diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus-IPV (Sabin-derived IPV; sIPV) products have been submitted, and it is expected that the IPV products will be introduced in Japan in the autumn of 2012. At the same time, a decline in the OPV immunization rate became apparent in Japan due to serious public concerns about a remaining risk of VAPP and introduction of IPV in the near future. Therefore, the recent development of polio immunity gaps should be carefully monitored, and surveillance of suspected polio cases and laboratory diagnosis of polioviruses have to be intensified for the transition period from OPV to IPV in Japan. The development of sIPV is one of the most realistic options to introduce affordable IPV to developing countries. In this regard, further clinical studies on its efficacy, safety, and interchangeability of sIPV will be needed after the introduction of the sIPV products, which will be licensed in Japan for the first time in the world.

  4. Effects of blue or violet light on the inactivation of Staphylococcus aureus by riboflavin-5'-phosphate photolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Tak-Wah; Cheng, Chien-Wei; Hsieh, Zong-Jhe; Liang, Ji-Yuan

    2017-08-01

    The light sensitive compound riboflavin-5'-phosphate (or flavin mononucleotide, FMN) generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) upon photo-irradiation. FMN is required by all flavoproteins because it is a cofactor of biological blue-light receptors. The photochemical effects of FMN after irradiation by blue or violet light on the inactivation of Staphylococcus aureus strains, including a methicillin-resistant strain (MRSA), were investigated in this study. Upon blue- or violet-light photo-treatment, FMN was shown to inactivate S. aureus due to the generated ROS. Effective bacterial inactivation can be achieved by FMN photolysis without an exogenous electron provider. Inactivation rates of 94.9 and 95.2% in S. aureus and MRSA, respectively, can be reached by blue light irradiation (2.0mW/cm 2 ) with 120μM FMN for 120min. A lower FMN concentration and a shorter time are required to reach similar effects by violet light irradiation. Inactivation rates of 96.3 and 97.0% in S. aureus and MRSA, respectively, can be reached by violet light irradiation (1.0mW/cm 2 ) with 30μM FMN for 30min. The sensitivity of the inherent photosensitizers is lower under blue-light irradiation. A long exposure photolytic treatment of FMN by blue light is required to inactivate S. aureus. Violet light was found to be more efficient in S. aureus inactivation at the same radiant intensity. FMN photolysis with blue or violet light irradiation enhanced the inactivation rates of S. aureus and MRSA. FMN photochemical treatment could be a supplemental technique in hygienic decontamination processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Hepatitis B Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a combination product containing Haemophilus influenzae type b, Hepatitis B Vaccine) ... combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids, Acellular Pertussis, Hepatitis B, Polio Vaccine)

  6. Toward the Extreme Ultra Violet Four Wave Mixing Experiments: From Table Top Lasers to Fourth Generation Light Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Cucini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Three different Transient Grating setups are presented, with pulsed and continuous wave probe at different wavelengths, ranging from infrared to the extreme ultra violet region. Both heterodyne and homodyne detections are considered. Each scheme introduces variations with respect to the previous one, allowing moving from classical table top laser experiments towards a new four wave mixing scheme based on free electron laser radiation. A comparison between the various setups and the first results from extreme ultra violet transient grating experiments is also discussed.

  7. Monomial Crystals and Partition Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingley, Peter

    2010-04-01

    Recently Fayers introduced a large family of combinatorial realizations of the fundamental crystal B(Λ0) for ^sln, where the vertices are indexed by certain partitions. He showed that special cases of this construction agree with the Misra-Miwa realization and with Berg's ladder crystal. Here we show that another special case is naturally isomorphic to a realization using Nakajima's monomial crystal.

  8. Dried influenza vaccines : Over the counter vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saluja, Vinay; Hinrichs, Wouter L. J.; Frijlink, Henderik W.

    2010-01-01

    Since last year influenza pandemic has struck again after 40 years, this is the right moment to discuss the different available formulation options for influenza vaccine. Looking back to the last 4 decades, most vaccines are still formulated as liquid solution. These vaccines have shown a poor

  9. Fabrication of SnO2-Reduced Graphite Oxide Monolayer-Ordered Porous Film Gas Sensor with Tunable Sensitivity through Ultra-Violet Light Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shipu; Sun, Fengqiang; Yang, Shumin; Pan, Zizhao; Long, Jinfeng; Gu, Fenglong

    2015-01-01

    A new graphene-based composite structure, monolayer-ordered macroporous film composed of a layer of orderly arranged macropores, was reported. As an example, SnO2-reduced graphite oxide monolayer-ordered macroporous film was fabricated on a ceramic tube substrate under the irradiation of ultra-violet light (UV), by taking the latex microsphere two-dimensional colloid crystal as a template. Graphite oxide sheets dispersed in SnSO4 aqueous solution exhibited excellent affinity with template microspheres and were in situ incorporated into the pore walls during UV-induced growth of SnO2. The growing and the as-formed SnO2, just like other photocatalytic semiconductor, could be excited to produce electrons and holes under UV irradiation. Electrons reduced GO and holes adsorbed corresponding negative ions, which changed the properties of the composite film. This film was directly used as gas-sensor and was able to display high sensitivity in detecting ethanol gas. More interestingly, on the basis of SnO2-induced photochemical behaviours, this sensor demonstrated tunable sensitivity when UV irradiation time was controlled during the fabrication process and post in water, respectively. This study provides efficient ways of conducting the in situ fabrication of a semiconductor-reduced graphite oxide film device with uniform surface structure and controllable properties. PMID:25758292

  10. Vaccines and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... high or when infection would pose a high risk to the mother or baby, vaccination with a live vaccine is discussed. If there ... and benefits. For some diseases the benefit of vaccination outweighs any risks that may be associated with the vaccine. What ...

  11. History of vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotkin, Stanley

    2014-08-26

    Vaccines have a history that started late in the 18th century. From the late 19th century, vaccines could be developed in the laboratory. However, in the 20th century, it became possible to develop vaccines based on immunologic markers. In the 21st century, molecular biology permits vaccine development that was not possible before.

  12. History of vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Plotkin, Stanley

    2014-01-01

    Vaccines have a history that started late in the 18th century. From the late 19th century, vaccines could be developed in the laboratory. However, in the 20th century, it became possible to develop vaccines based on immunologic markers. In the 21st century, molecular biology permits vaccine development that was not possible before.

  13. Utilization of cocoa pod husk waste as potential adsorbents for Remazol Brilliant Violet 5R removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Tong Siang; Mohd Azmier Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    Removal of Remazol Brilliant Violet 5R (RBV5R) dye from aqueous solution by adsorption onto activated carbon produced from cocoa pod husk (CPH) waste was investigated. Adsorption isotherms were derived at 30 degree Celsius on the basis of batch analysis. Isotherm data were treated according to Langmuir and Freundlich models. Kinetics of adsorption was followed by in situ UV-spectroscopy and the data were treated according to pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models. The fits of experimental data to these equations were examined. It was found that the adsorption process by RVB5R dye onto activated carbon (AC) follows the Freundlich and pseudo-first-order model. (author)

  14. Disinfection of deionised water inoculated with enterobacter using ultra violet light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathrani, M.

    2001-01-01

    For the first time the enterobacter, not the escherichia coli,was used as a model bacteria to asses the disinfection of microorganisms in water by UV (Ultra Violet) irradiation. The cell density of the liquid culture was followed by optical density of 1.837 at 600 nm on spectrometer. For the disinfection purpose, a laboratory scale batch reactor (10 cm wide, 20 cm long, and 10 cm height), containing 250 ml sterilised deionized water inoculated with enterobacter,was run under supra-band gap light (wavelength < 400 nm, peaking between 340 and 365 nm with a maximum of 350 nm). After carrying out seven batch experiments it is concluded that the complete inactivation of Enterobacter ( approx. equal to x 10/sup 6/ CFU/ml) in the water can be achieved by UV irradiation for 2 hours. (author)

  15. Application of ionizing radiation on industry waste treatment I. radiolysis of standard reactive dye Cibacron violet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winarti Andayani; Agustin Sumartono

    1999-01-01

    The effect of aeration, irradiation dose and pH on radiation degradation of reactive dye cibacron violet 2r in aqueous solution have been studied. Observation was done on the absorption spectrum before and after irradiation at various conditions. The percentage of degraded sample was analyzed by using HPLC with UV detector. The percentage of degradation was higher by aeration during irradiation. It suggest that oxygen is important for degradation of the dye molecule. Irradiation at neutral pH is preferred to obtain maximum degradation, since pH may affect the reactivity of the radicals produced by the radiolysis of water molecules. One of the degradation product that could be detected was oxalic acid. (author)

  16. Complementary ion and extreme ultra-violet spectrometer for laser-plasma diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter-Avetisyan, S; Ramakrishna, B; Doria, D; Sarri, G; Zepf, M; Borghesi, M; Ehrentraut, L; Stiel, H; Steinke, S; Priebe, G; Schnürer, M; Nickles, P V; Sandner, W

    2009-10-01

    Simultaneous detection of extreme ultra-violet (XUV) and ion emission along the same line of sight provides comprehensive insight into the evolution of plasmas. This type of combined spectroscopy is applied to diagnose laser interaction with a spray target. The use of a micro-channel-plate detector assures reliable detection of both XUV and ion signals in a single laser shot. The qualitative analysis of the ion emission and XUV spectra allows to gain detailed information about the plasma conditions, and a correlation between the energetic proton emission and the XUV plasma emission can be suggested. The measured XUV emission spectrum from water spray shows efficient deceleration of laser accelerated electrons with energies up to keV in the initially cold background plasma and the collisional heating of the plasma.

  17. Complementary ion and extreme ultra-violet spectrometer for laser-plasma diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ter-Avetisyan, S.; Ramakrishna, B.; Doria, D.; Sarri, G.; Zepf, M.; Borghesi, M.; Ehrentraut, L.; Stiel, H.; Steinke, S.; Schnuerer, M.; Nickles, P. V.; Sandner, W.; Priebe, G.

    2009-01-01

    Simultaneous detection of extreme ultra-violet (XUV) and ion emission along the same line of sight provides comprehensive insight into the evolution of plasmas. This type of combined spectroscopy is applied to diagnose laser interaction with a spray target. The use of a micro-channel-plate detector assures reliable detection of both XUV and ion signals in a single laser shot. The qualitative analysis of the ion emission and XUV spectra allows to gain detailed information about the plasma conditions, and a correlation between the energetic proton emission and the XUV plasma emission can be suggested. The measured XUV emission spectrum from water spray shows efficient deceleration of laser accelerated electrons with energies up to keV in the initially cold background plasma and the collisional heating of the plasma.

  18. Exploring the temporally resolved electron density evolution in extreme ultra-violet induced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Horst, R M; Beckers, J; Nijdam, S; Kroesen, G M W

    2014-01-01

    We measured the electron density in an extreme ultra-violet (EUV) induced plasma. This is achieved in a low-pressure argon plasma by using a method called microwave cavity resonance spectroscopy. The measured electron density just after the EUV pulse is 2.6 × 10 16  m −3 . This is in good agreement with a theoretical prediction from photo-ionization, which yields a density of 4.5 × 10 16  m −3 . After the EUV pulse the density slightly increases due to electron impact ionization. The plasma (i.e. electron density) decays in tens of microseconds. (fast track communication)

  19. Detection of biological warfare agents using ultra violet-laser induced fluorescence LIDAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Deepti; Kumar, Deepak; Maini, Anil K; Sharma, Ramesh C

    2013-08-01

    This review has been written to highlight the threat of biological warfare agents, their types and detection. Bacterial biological agent Bacillus anthracis (bacteria causing the disease anthrax) which is most likely to be employed in biological warfare is being discussed in detail. Standoff detection of biological warfare agents in aerosol form using Ultra violet-Laser Induced Fluorescence (UV-LIF) spectroscopy method has been studied. Range-resolved detection and identification of biological aerosols by both nano-second and non-linear femto-second LIDAR is also discussed. Calculated received fluorescence signal for a cloud of typical biological agent Bacillus globigii (Simulants of B. anthracis) at a location of ~5.0 km at different concentrations in presence of solar background radiation has been described. Overview of current research efforts in internationally available working UV-LIF LIDAR systems are also mentioned briefly. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Electronic structure, excitation properties, and chemical transformations of extreme ultra-violet resist materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangan, Sylvie; Bartynski, Robert A.; Narasimhan, Amrit; Brainard, Robert L.

    2017-07-01

    The electronic structure of extreme ultra violet resist materials and of their individual components, two polymers and two photoacid generators (PAGs), is studied using a combination of x-ray and UV photoemission spectroscopies, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and ab-initio techniques. It is shown that simple molecular models can be used to understand the electronic structure of each sample and describe the experimental data. Additionally, effects directly relevant to the photochemical processes are observed: low energy loss processes are observed for the phenolic polymer containing samples that should favor thermalization of electrons; PAG segregation is measured at the surface of the resist films that could lead to surface inhomogeneities; both PAGs are found to be stable upon irradiation in the absence of the polymer, contrasting with a high reactivity that can be followed upon x-ray irradiation of the full resist.

  1. Metabolomic Profiling of the White, Violet, and Red Flowers of Rhododendron schlippenbachii Maxim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chang Ha; Yeo, Hyeon Ji; Kim, Nam Su; Park, Ye Eun; Park, Soo-Yun; Kim, Jae Kwang; Park, Sang Un

    2018-04-04

    Rhododendron schlippenbachii Maxim. is a garden plant that is also used for natural medicines as a consequence of the biological activities of its diverse metabolites. We accordingly profiled two anthocyanins and 40 primary and secondary metabolites in the three different colored flowers. The major anthocyanins found in the flowers were cyanidins. The red flowers exhibited the highest accumulation of anthocyanins (1.02 ± 0.02 mg/g dry weight). Principal component analysis was applied to the GC‒TOFMS data. The levels of key tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates in red flowers, such as succinic acid, fumaric acid, and malic acid, were found to be highly significantly different ( p < 0.0001) from those in the flowers of other colors. In this study, we aimed to determine metabolite interactions and phenotypic variation among white, violet, and red flowers of R. schlippenbachii by using gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC‒TOFMS) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).

  2. arXiv Blue and violet graviton spectra from a dynamical refractive index

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo

    We show that the spectral energy distribution of relic gravitons mildly increases for frequencies smaller than the $\\mu$Hz and then flattens out whenever the refractive index of the tensor modes is dynamical during a quasi-de Sitter stage of expansion. For a conventional thermal history the high-frequency plateau ranges between the mHz and the audio band but it is supplemented by a spike in the GHz region if a stiff post-inflationary phase precedes the standard radiation-dominated epoch. Even though the slope is blue at intermediate frequencies, it may become violet in the MHz window. For a variety of post-inflationary histories, including the conventional one, a dynamical index of refraction leads to a potentially detectable spectral energy density in the kHz and in the mHz regions while all the relevant phenomenological constraints are concurrently satisfied.

  3. MOVPE growth of violet GaN LEDs on β-Ga2O3 substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ding; Hoffmann, Veit; Richter, Eberhard; Tessaro, Thomas; Galazka, Zbigniew; Weyers, Markus; Tränkle, Günther

    2017-11-01

    We report that a H2-free atmosphere is essential for the initial stage of metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE) growth of GaN on β-Ga2O3 to prevent the surface from damage. A simple growth method is proposed that can easily transfer established GaN growth recipes from sapphire to β-Ga2O3 with both (-2 0 1) and (1 0 0) orientations. This method features a thin AlN nucleation layer grown below 900 °C in N2 atmosphere to protect the surface of β-Ga2O3 from deterioration during further growth under the H2 atmosphere. Based on this, we demonstrate working violet vertical light emitting diodes (VLEDs) on n-conductive β-Ga2O3 substrates.

  4. 75 FR 12497 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from India and the People's Republic of China: Final Results of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-16

    ... Pigment 23 from India and the People's Republic of China: Final Results of the Expedited Sunset Reviews of... antidumping duty orders on carbazole violet pigment 23 (CVP 23) from India and the People's Republic of China... Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 74 FR 56593 (November 2, 2009) (Notice of Initiation). The Department...

  5. Large-area growth of multi-layered MoS{sub 2} for violet (∝405 nm) photodetector applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Soo Hyun; Kim, Sanghun; Lee, Seunghyun; Yu, Jae Su [Department of Electronic Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-10-15

    The two-dimensional multi-layered molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}) was grown over a large area by chemical vapor deposition process for violet (∝405 nm) photodetector (PD) applications. The high-quality MoS{sub 2} layers were successfully fabricated and transferred on HfO{sub 2}/Si substrate. The inherent surface structure originated from the surface oxidation was also analyzed. The electrical properties of the multi-layered MoS{sub 2}-based violet PDs with various channel widths (W{sub ch}) were measured and compared under dark state and violet illumination operating at 405 nm. For the device with W{sub ch} of 4 μm, at the bias of -5 V, the photocurrent and on/off ratio were obtained to be 54.0 nA and 55.2, respectively. Under violet illumination, the photocurrent was ∝4.6 times higher compared to green illumination. At the bias of -5 V, the photoresponse properties of the device were characterized with average rise time and reset time of ∝55.7 and 46.0 s, respectively, during four cycles of operation. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Application of saponin biosurfactant and its recovery in the MEUF process for removal of methyl violet from wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samal, Kulbhushan; Das, Chandan; Mohanty, Kaustubha

    2017-12-01

    The potential of saponin, a biosurfactant, in the micellar enhanced ultrafiltration (MEUF) process was tested systematically for removal of methyl violet from wastewater. For this, the aqueous extract of reetha (Sapindus mukorossi) pericarp which contains saponin was used as the biosurfactant. First, the micellar solubilization of methyl violet in saponin micelles was investigated in terms of molar solubilization power (SP) of saponin. It was observed that the adsorption of methyl violet on the agglomerates of saponin micelles was mainly responsible for the enhanced solubilization. The Gibbs free energy of solubilization (calculated as -29.63 kJ mol -1 ) suggested that process was feasible and spontaneous. The MEUF experiments were performed in batch as well as continuous mode using saponin biosurfactant, and the effect of operating parameters on permeate flux and solute retention were evaluated. The removal of methyl violet in MEUF process was >99% achieved with 10 kDa polyethersulfone (PES) membrane for feed dye concentration of 250 mg L -1 at studied conditions. Finally, the saponin in permeate was recovered using n-heptane and n-butanol by solvent extraction process. The solvent n-butanol showed better extraction efficiency as compared to n-heptane for saponin extraction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Extreme ultra-violet emission spectroscopy of highly charged gadolinium ions with an electron beam ion trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohashi, Hayato; Nakamura, Nobuyuki; Sakaue, Hiroyuki A

    2013-01-01

    We present extreme ultra-violet emission spectra of highly charged gadolinium ions obtained with an electron beam ion trap at electron energies of 0.53–1.51 keV. The electron energy dependence of the spectra in the 5.7–11.3 nm range is compared with calculation with the flexible atomic code. (paper)

  8. Sterilization of African Violet in the in Vitro Culture Using Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles by Two Plant Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Solgi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the major advantages of in vitro culture of African violet (Saintpaulha ionantha is production of new cultivars and propagation of their chimera which might not be propagated by the other methods. In this study, we tested the effects of silver nanoparticles on the sterilization rate (antifungal and antibacterial activity, regeneration and shoot formation of African violet "Pink Amiss" explants. These nanoparticles were synthesized from pomegranate peels and Damask rose petals extracts. We used a completely randomized design test with factorial arrangement to investigate various volumetric ratios of plant extracts to silver nitrate (1:20, 1:10, 1:5 and 1:1 on the culture contaminations. Using silver nanoparticles synthesized by the plant extracts, especially Damask rose petals extract resulted in no fungal and bacterial contamination in the African violet explants after 1 and 3 weeks as compared to the control, and silver nitrate (1mM. All tested concentrations of the silver nanoparticles significantly (P &le 0.05 controlled both bacterial and fungal contaminations. The 1:20 ratio of plant extracts to silver nitrate showed the best control. In addition, the highest regeneration (%52 and shoot regeneration (%38 was observed in this treatment. In conclusion, we suggest using silver nanoparticles synthesized by plant extracts for sterilization of in Vitro Culture for African Violet rather than using other chemicals such as silver nitrate.

  9. HPLC Determination and MS Confirmation of Malachite Green, Gentian Violet, and Their Leuco Metabolites in Catfish Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Residues of malachite green (MG), gentian violet (GV), and their leuco metabolites in catfish muscle were individually determined by HPLC using visible and fluorescence detectors. This detection scheme obviated a PbO2 column that converts leuco forms to chromatic forms for visible detection, thus el...

  10. 75 FR 36630 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... from the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review AGENCY... the People's Republic of China (PRC). See Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From the People's Republic of... (December 29, 2009) (Preliminary Results). This administrative review covers one exporter of the subject...

  11. 75 FR 62765 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed-Circumstances...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... finished pigment in the form of presscake and dry color. Pigment dispersions in any form (e.g., pigment... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-533-838] Carbazole Violet Pigment 23... Act), that Meghmani Pigments is the successor-in-interest to Alpanil Industries. DATES: Effective Date...

  12. Adsorption of methyl violet from aqueous solution using gum xanthan/Fe3O4 based nanocomposite hydrogel

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mittal, H

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This research paper reports the utilization of gum xanthan-grafted-polyacrylic acid and Fe(sub3)O(sub4) magnetic nanoparticles based nanocomposite hydrogel (NCH) for the highly effective adsorption of methyl violet (MV) from aqueous solution...

  13. RNA Crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Barbara L.; Kundrot, Craig E.

    2003-01-01

    RNA molecules may be crystallized using variations of the methods developed for protein crystallography. As the technology has become available to syntheisize and purify RNA molecules in the quantities and with the quality that is required for crystallography, the field of RNA structure has exploded. The first consideration when crystallizing an RNA is the sequence, which may be varied in a rational way to enhance crystallizability or prevent formation of alternate structures. Once a sequence has been designed, the RNA may be synthesized chemically by solid-state synthesis, or it may be produced enzymatically using RNA polymerase and an appropriate DNA template. Purification of milligram quantities of RNA can be accomplished by HPLC or gel electrophoresis. As with proteins, crystallization of RNA is usually accomplished by vapor diffusion techniques. There are several considerations that are either unique to RNA crystallization or more important for RNA crystallization. Techniques for design, synthesis, purification, and crystallization of RNAs will be reviewed here.

  14. Mexico introduces pentavalent vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-08-01

    Combination vaccines have been introduced in Mexico. The national immunization program has incorporated the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccines in 1998, and the pentavalent vaccine in 1999. The two categories of antigen composition in combination vaccines are: 1) multiple different antigenic types of a single pathogen, such as the 23 valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, and 2) antigens from different pathogens causing different diseases, such as the DPT and MMR vaccines. Pentavalent vaccines are included in the second category. The vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, and other diseases produced by Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). Combined diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, and Haemophilus influenza type b (DTP-HB/Hib) vaccine has been distributed to 87% of Mexican children under 1 year of age. Over 800,000 doses of pentavalent vaccine have been administered.

  15. Vaccines today, vaccines tomorrow: a perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucq, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Vaccines are considered as one of the major contributions of the 20th century and one of the most cost effective public health interventions. The International Vaccine Institute has as a mission to discover, develop and deliver new and improved vaccines against infectious diseases that affects developing nations. If Louis Pasteur is known across the globe, vaccinologists like Maurice Hilleman, Jonas Salk and Charles Mérieux are known among experts only despite their contribution to global health. Thanks to a vaccine, smallpox has been eradicated, polio has nearly disappeared, Haemophilus influenzae B, measles and more recently meningitis A are controlled in many countries. While a malaria vaccine is undergoing phase 3, International Vaccine Institute, in collaboration with an Indian manufacturer has brought an oral inactivated cholera vaccine to pre-qualification. The field of vaccinology has undergone major changes thanks to philanthropists such as Bill and Melinda Gates, initiatives like the Decade of Vaccines and public private partnerships. Current researches on vaccines have more challenging targets like the dengue viruses, malaria, human immunodeficiency virus, the respiratory syncytial virus and nosocomial diseases. Exciting research is taking place on new adjuvants, nanoparticles, virus like particles and new route of administration. An overcrowded infant immunization program, anti-vaccine groups, immunizing a growing number of elderlies and delivering vaccines to difficult places are among challenges faced by vaccinologists and global health experts.

  16. Crystallization mechanisms of acicular crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puel, François; Verdurand, Elodie; Taulelle, Pascal; Bebon, Christine; Colson, Didier; Klein, Jean-Paul; Veesler, Stéphane

    2008-01-01

    In this contribution, we present an experimental investigation of the growth of four different organic molecules produced at industrial scale with a view to understand the crystallization mechanism of acicular or needle-like crystals. For all organic crystals studied in this article, layer-by-layer growth of the lateral faces is very slow and clear, as soon as the supersaturation is high enough, there is competition between growth and surface-activated secondary nucleation. This gives rise to pseudo-twinned crystals composed of several needle individuals aligned along a crystallographic axis; this is explained by regular over- and inter-growths as in the case of twinning. And when supersaturation is even higher, nucleation is fast and random. In an industrial continuous crystallization, the rapid growth of needle-like crystals is to be avoided as it leads to fragile crystals or needles, which can be partly broken or totally detached from the parent crystals especially along structural anisotropic axis corresponding to weaker chemical bonds, thus leading to slower growing faces. When an activated mechanism is involved such as a secondary surface nucleation, it is no longer possible to obtain a steady state. Therefore, the crystal number, size and habit vary significantly with time, leading to troubles in the downstream processing operations and to modifications of the final solid-specific properties. These results provide valuable information on the unique crystallization mechanisms of acicular crystals, and show that it is important to know these threshold and critical values when running a crystallizer in order to obtain easy-to-handle crystals.

  17. Oral vaccination of fish

    OpenAIRE

    Embregts, Carmen W.E.; Forlenza, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The limited number of oral vaccines currently approved for use in humans and veterinary species clearly illustrates that development of efficacious and safe oral vaccines has been a challenge not only for fish immunologists. The insufficient efficacy of oral vaccines is partly due to antigen breakdown in the harsh gastric environment, but also to the high tolerogenic gut environment and to inadequate vaccine design. In this review we discuss current approaches used to develop oral vaccines fo...

  18. Fine and hyperfine structure spectra of the ultra-violet 23S → 53P transition in 4He and 3He with a frequency doubled CW ring laser, detected via associative ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runge, S.; Pesnelle, A.; Perdrix, M.; Sevin, D.; Wolffer, N.; Watel, G.

    1982-01-01

    High resolution laser spectroscopy coupled to a sensitive method of detection via mass analysis of He + 2 ions produced in He(5 3 P) + He(1 1 S) collisions, is used to obtain the fine and hyperfine spectra of the ultra-violet He 2 3 S → 5 3 P transition. A cw tunable UV radiation around 294.5 nm is generated by intracavity frequency doubling a Rhodamine 6G single mode ring dye laser using an ADA crystal. Both spectra enable fine and hyperfine structures to be determined within a few MHz. The magnetic dipole coupling constant A of the 5 3 P term of 3 He is found to be -4326 +- 9 MHz (-0.1443 +- 0.0003 cm -1 ). (orig.)

  19. Light scattering in additively colored alkali-halide crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trakhbrot, B.M.

    1979-01-01

    Studied is extinction in ultra-violet, visible and infrared spectrum ranges, caused by light scattering in additively colored KCl and KBr crystals. The crystals were prepared of the powder. The specimens were annealed in saturated potassium vapours: KBr - at 600-630 deg C, KCl - at 700 deg C. While investigating the spectra it is observed that the optical density of the specimens processed in such a regime is more than 2 in the ultraviolet and visible spectrum ranges at the 0.1-0.05 cm thickness of the specimens. In the infrared spectra the growth of the extinction coefficient with the wave length decrease is observed. The spectrum character shows IR radiation scattering by the defects in the crystal lattice. The attempt of determination of the scattering centres nature is taken. It is shown that the possible centres causing the light scattering observed can be colloid and quasicolloid centres in the additively colored materials

  20. Typhoid fever vaccination strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Date, Kashmira A; Bentsi-Enchill, Adwoa; Marks, Florian; Fox, Kimberley

    2015-06-19

    Typhoid vaccination is an important component of typhoid fever prevention and control, and is recommended for public health programmatic use in both endemic and outbreak settings. We reviewed experiences with various vaccination strategies using the currently available typhoid vaccines (injectable Vi polysaccharide vaccine [ViPS], oral Ty21a vaccine, and injectable typhoid conjugate vaccine [TCV]). We assessed the rationale, acceptability, effectiveness, impact and implementation lessons of these strategies to inform effective typhoid vaccination strategies for the future. Vaccination strategies were categorized by vaccine disease control strategy (preemptive use for endemic disease or to prevent an outbreak, and reactive use for outbreak control) and vaccine delivery strategy (community-based routine, community-based campaign and school-based). Almost all public health typhoid vaccination programs used ViPS vaccine and have been in countries of Asia, with one example in the Pacific and one experience using the Ty21a vaccine in South America. All vaccination strategies were found to be acceptable, feasible and effective in the settings evaluated; evidence of impact, where available, was strongest in endemic settings and in the short- to medium-term. Vaccination was cost-effective in high-incidence but not low-incidence settings. Experience in disaster and outbreak settings remains limited. TCVs have recently become available and none are WHO-prequalified yet; no program experience with TCVs was found in published literature. Despite the demonstrated success of several typhoid vaccination strategies, typhoid vaccines remain underused. Implementation lessons should be applied to design optimal vaccination strategies using TCVs which have several anticipated advantages, such as potential for use in infant immunization programs and longer duration of protection, over the ViPS and Ty21a vaccines for typhoid prevention and control. Copyright © 2015. Published by

  1. Vaccines: an ongoing promise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsahli, M; Farrell, R J; Michetti, P

    2001-01-01

    Over the past decade, intensive research has focused on developing a vaccine therapy for Helicobacter pylori. Substantial unresolved questions cloud the current approach, and the development of a vaccine against this unique organism has proved very challenging. Many candidate vaccines have been tested in animal models. The immunogenicity and the safety of some vaccine formulations have been recently evaluated through clinical trials, and the efficacy of these vaccine therapies in humans will be determined in the near future. This article will provide an overview of the current knowledge of natural and vaccine-induced immune responses to H. pylori infection. It will also review past vaccine successes and failures in animal models and the limited experience to date in using vaccine therapy in humans. Several obstacles to H. pylori vaccine development efforts along with the future direction of these efforts will be discussed. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

  2. Neurologic complications of vaccinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miravalle, Augusto A; Schreiner, Teri

    2014-01-01

    This chapter reviews the most common neurologic disorders associated with common vaccines, evaluates the data linking the disorder with the vaccine, and discusses the potential mechanism of disease. A literature search was conducted in PubMed using a combination of the following terms: vaccines, vaccination, immunization, and neurologic complications. Data were also gathered from publications of the American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Infectious Diseases, the World Health Organization, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System. Neurologic complications of vaccination are rare. Many associations have been asserted without objective data to support a causal relationship. Rarely, patients with a neurologic complication will have a poor outcome. However, most patients recover fully from the neurologic complication. Vaccinations have altered the landscape of infectious disease. However, perception of risk associated with vaccinations has limited the success of disease eradication measures. Neurologic complications can be severe, and can provoke fear in potential vaccines. Evaluating whether there is causal link between neurologic disorders and vaccinations, not just temporal association, is critical to addressing public misperception of risk of vaccination. Among the vaccines available today, the cost-benefit analysis of vaccinations and complications strongly argues in favor of vaccination. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Current Vaccine Shortages and Delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hepatitis A vaccine supply in the US. Updated Mar 2018 Note 2 : Pediatric hepatitis B vaccine: Merck ... Submitted, Licensed, and Recommended Vaccines & Biologics Red Book® Online Influenza Vaccination Recommendations Childhood & Adolescent Immunization Schedules Adult ...

  4. Vaccine-Preventable Disease Photos

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Work Importance of Vaccines Paying for Vaccines State Immunization Programs Tips for Finding Vaccine Records Trusted Sources of ... efficacy, and use of vaccines within the broad immunization community of patients, parents, healthcare organizations, and government health agencies.

  5. Vaccines against poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLennan, Calman A.; Saul, Allan

    2014-01-01

    With the 2010s declared the Decade of Vaccines, and Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 focused on reducing diseases that are potentially vaccine preventable, now is an exciting time for vaccines against poverty, that is, vaccines against diseases that disproportionately affect low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 has helped better understand which vaccines are most needed. In 2012, US$1.3 billion was spent on research and development for new vaccines for neglected infectious diseases. However, the majority of this went to three diseases: HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis, and not neglected diseases. Much of it went to basic research rather than development, with an ongoing decline in funding for product development partnerships. Further investment in vaccines against diarrheal diseases, hepatitis C, and group A Streptococcus could lead to a major health impact in LMICs, along with vaccines to prevent sepsis, particularly among mothers and neonates. The Advanced Market Commitment strategy of the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation (GAVI) Alliance is helping to implement vaccines against rotavirus and pneumococcus in LMICs, and the roll out of the MenAfriVac meningococcal A vaccine in the African Meningitis Belt represents a paradigm shift in vaccines against poverty: the development of a vaccine primarily targeted at LMICs. Global health vaccine institutes and increasing capacity of vaccine manufacturers in emerging economies are helping drive forward new vaccines for LMICs. Above all, partnership is needed between those developing and manufacturing LMIC vaccines and the scientists, health care professionals, and policy makers in LMICs where such vaccines will be implemented. PMID:25136089

  6. Vaccine Associated Myocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Francis

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Most of the cases of vaccine associated myocarditis have been following small pox vaccination. Reports have also been there after streptococcal pneumonia vaccine and influenza vaccine. In some cases, autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA used in the vaccine have been implicated. Exclusion of other causes is very important in the diagnostic process, especially that of acute coronary syndrome. Management is similar to that of other etiologies of myocarditis. These rare instances of myocarditis should not preclude one from taking necessary immunization for vaccine preventable diseases.

  7. Vaccines and Immunization Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, Michael D; Meador, Anna E

    2016-03-01

    Vaccines are among most cost-effective public health strategies. Despite effective vaccines for many bacterial and viral illnesses, tens of thousands of adults and hundreds of children die each year in the United States from vaccine-preventable diseases. Underutilization of vaccines requires rethinking the approach to incorporating vaccines into practice. Arguably, immunizations could be a part all health care encounters. Shared responsibility is paramount if deaths are to be reduced. This article reviews the available vaccines in the US market, as well as practice recommendations of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Vaccines today, vaccines tomorrow: a perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Loucq, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Vaccines are considered as one of the major contributions of the 20th century and one of the most cost effective public health interventions. The International Vaccine Institute has as a mission to discover, develop and deliver new and improved vaccines against infectious diseases that affects developing nations. If Louis Pasteur is known across the globe, vaccinologists like Maurice Hilleman, Jonas Salk and Charles M?rieux are known among experts only despite their contribution to global hea...

  9. MMR Vaccine (Measles, Mumps, and Rubella)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumpsvax® Mumps Vaccine ... Biavax® II (as a combination product containing Mumps Vaccine, Rubella Vaccine) ... II (as a combination product containing Measles Vaccine, Mumps Vaccine, Rubella Vaccine)

  10. What is a Preventive HIV Vaccine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Entire Series Related Content AIDSource | Vaccine Research HIV Vaccines History of HIV Vaccine Research Need Help? Call 1- ... Entire Series Related Content AIDSource | Vaccine Research HIV Vaccines History of HIV Vaccine Research Need Help? Call 1- ...

  11. Ethical and legal challenges of vaccines and vaccination: Reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesani, Amar; Johari, Veena

    2017-01-01

    Vaccines and vaccination have emerged as key medical scientific tools for prevention of certain diseases. Documentation of the history of vaccination shows that the initial popular resistance to universal vaccination was based on false assumptions and eventually gave way to acceptance of vaccines and trust in their ability to save lives. The successes of the global eradication of smallpox, and now of polio, have only strengthened the premier position occupied by vaccines in disease prevention. However, the success of vaccines and public trust in their ability to eradicate disease are now under challenge, as increasing numbers of people refuse vaccination, questioning the effectiveness of vaccines and the need to vaccinate.

  12. Laser facilitates vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of novel vaccine deliveries and vaccine adjuvants is of great importance to address the dilemma that the vaccine field faces: to improve vaccine efficacy without compromising safety. Harnessing the specific effects of laser on biological systems, a number of novel concepts have been proposed and proved in recent years to facilitate vaccination in a safer and more efficient way. The key advantage of using laser technology in vaccine delivery and adjuvantation is that all processes are initiated by physical effects with no foreign chemicals administered into the body. Here, we review the recent advances in using laser technology to facilitate vaccine delivery and augment vaccine efficacy as well as the underlying mechanisms.

  13. Vaccine Safety Datalink

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Vaccine Safety Datalink is part of the National Immunization Program within the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and was started in recognition of gaps in the scientific knowledge of rare vaccine side effects.

  14. The HPV Vaccination Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Following the release of a consensus statement from the NCI-Designated Cancer Centers urging HPV vaccination in the United States, Dr. Noel Brewer discusses the country’s low vaccination rates and how clinicians can help to improve them.

  15. Your child's first vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... term seizures, coma, lowered consciousness, and permanent brain damage have been reported following DTaP vaccination. These reports are extremely rare. Pneumococcal Vaccine Mild Problems: drowsiness or temporary loss of appetite ( ...

  16. Your Baby's First Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... term seizures, coma, lowered consciousness, and permanent brain damage have been reported following DTaP vaccination. These reports are extremely rare. Pneumococcal Vaccine Mild Problems: Drowsiness or temporary loss of appetite ( ...

  17. Vaccines in Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Eric M L; Chahin, Salim; Berger, Joseph R

    2016-04-01

    Vaccinations help prevent communicable disease. To be valuable, a vaccine's ability to prevent disease must exceed the risk of adverse effects from administration. Many vaccines present no risk of infection as they are comprised of killed or non-infectious components while other vaccines consist of live attenuated microorganisms which carry a potential risk of infection-particularly, in patients with compromised immunity. There are several unique considerations with respect to vaccination in the multiple sclerosis (MS) population. First, there has been concern that vaccination may trigger or aggravate the disease. Second, disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) employed in the treatment of MS may increase the risk of infectious complications from vaccines or alter their efficacy. Lastly, in some cases, vaccination strategies may be part of the treatment paradigm in attempts to avoid complications of therapy.

  18. Vaccines and immunization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof Ezechukwu

    vaccines for malaria and HIV infection. Despite the ... decades, effective vaccines against the major causes of ... challenge antibodies, specific helper and effector T lymphocytes ... materials to produced immunity to a disease. It was originally ...

  19. Pneumococcal Vaccines (PCV, PPSV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Educators Search English Español Your Child's Immunizations: Pneumococcal Vaccines (PCV, PPSV) KidsHealth / For Parents / Your Child's Immunizations: ... cochlear implants. Why Are the PCV and PPSV Vaccines Recommended? Children younger than 2 years old, adults ...

  20. Suburban immigrants to wildlands disrupt honest signaling in ultra-violet plumage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Tringali

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization changes habitat in a multitude of ways, including altering food availability. Access to human-provided food can change the relationship between body condition and honest advertisements of fitness, which may result in changes to behavior, demography, and metapopulation dynamics. We compared plumage color, its relationship with body condition and feather growth, and use as signal of dominance between a suburban and a wildland population of Florida Scrub-Jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens. Although plumage color was not related to body condition at either site, suburban birds had plumage with a greater proportion of total reflectance in the ultra-violet (UV and peak reflectance at shorter wavelengths. Despite the use of plumage reflectance as a signal of dominance among individuals in the wildlands, we found no evidence of status signaling at the suburban site. However, birds emigrating from the suburban site to the wildland site tended to be more successful at acquiring breeder status but less successful at reproducing than were immigrants from an adjacent wildland site, suggesting that signaled and realized quality differ. These differences in signaling content among populations could have demographic effects at metapopulation scales and may represent an evolutionary trap whereby suburban immigrants are preferred as mates even though their reproductive success relative to effort is lower.

  1. Red/violet contrast reversal on Mars - significance for eolian sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.; Veverka, J.

    1986-01-01

    Viking Orbiter images of Mars are analyzed to define relationships between the observed contrast reversals (CR) and specific surface features. The link between CR phenomena and surface composition was first detected in contrast comparisons between UV and visible wavelength Mariner 9 data. Viking data, taken through red and violet filters, showed that the CRs occurred only with crater splotches and splotch-related streaks and in bright depositional and dark erosional streaks, both being low-albedo markings presumably caused by eolian forces. The splotch phenomena is confined mainly to the Oxia Palus region, although there are other regions where splotches and streaks commingle. Laboratory tests to mimic the CR characteristics showed that CRs are a common phenomena of different size fractions of iron oxides, e.g., goethite, where particles under 5 microns have been removed. The splotches, including dune formations, are therefore believed to indicate the presence of particles in the 100-800 microns diam range. Finer particles ride on the tops of the dust storms, and are continually removed from the surface by saltation. 51 references

  2. Antiviral activity of gliotoxin, gentian violet and brilliant green against Nipah and Hendra virus in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Adam G

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Using a recently described monolayer assay amenable to high throughput screening format for the identification of potential Nipah virus and Hendra virus antivirals, we have partially screened a low molecular weight compound library (>8,000 compounds directly against live virus infection and identified twenty eight promising lead molecules. Initial single blind screens were conducted with 10 μM compound in triplicate with a minimum efficacy of 90% required for lead selection. Lead compounds were then further characterised to determine the median efficacy (IC50, cytotoxicity (CC50 and the in vitro therapeutic index in live virus and pseudotype assay formats. Results While a number of leads were identified, the current work describes three commercially available compounds: brilliant green, gentian violet and gliotoxin, identified as having potent antiviral activity against Nipah and Hendra virus. Similar efficacy was observed against pseudotyped Nipah and Hendra virus, vesicular stomatitis virus and human parainfluenza virus type 3 while only gliotoxin inhibited an influenza A virus suggesting a non-specific, broad spectrum activity for this compound. Conclusion All three of these compounds have been used previously for various aspects of anti-bacterial and anti-fungal therapy and the current results suggest that while unsuitable for internal administration, they may be amenable to topical antiviral applications, or as disinfectants and provide excellent positive controls for future studies.

  3. Epigenetic differentiation and relationship to adaptive genetic divergence in discrete populations of the violet Viola cazorlensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Carlos M; Bazaga, Pilar

    2010-08-01

    *In plants, epigenetic variations based on DNA methylation are often heritable and could influence the course of evolution. Before this hypothesis can be assessed, fundamental questions about epigenetic variation remain to be addressed in a real-world context, including its magnitude, structuring within and among natural populations, and autonomy in relation to the genetic context. *Extent and patterns of cytosine methylation, and the relationship to adaptive genetic divergence between populations, were investigated for wild populations of the southern Spanish violet Viola cazorlensis (Violaceae) using the methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) technique, a modification of the amplified fragment length polymorphism method (AFLP) based on the differential sensitivity of isoschizomeric restriction enzymes to site-specific cytosine methylation. *The genome of V. cazorlensis plants exhibited extensive levels of methylation, and methylation-based epigenetic variation was structured into distinct between- and within- population components. Epigenetic differentiation of populations was correlated with adaptive genetic divergence revealed by a Bayesian population-genomic analysis of AFLP data. Significant associations existed at the individual genome level between adaptive AFLP loci and the methylation state of methylation-susceptible MSAP loci. *Population-specific, divergent patterns of correlated selection on epigenetic and genetic individual variation could account for the coordinated epigenetic-genetic adaptive population differentiation revealed by this study.

  4. Highly stable colloidal TiO2 nanocrystals with strong violet-blue emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghamsari, Morteza Sasani; Gaeeni, Mohammad Reza; Han, Wooje; Park, Hyung-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Improved sol–gel method has been applied to prepare highly stable colloidal TiO 2 nanocrystals. The synthesized titania nanocrystals exhibit strong emission in the violet-blue wavelength region. Very long evolution time was obtained by preventing the sol to gel conversion with reflux process. FTIR, XRD, UV–vis absorption, photoluminescence and high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) were used to study the optical properties, crystalline phase, morphology, shape and size of prepared TiO 2 colloidal nanocrystals. HRTEM showed that the diameter of TiO 2 colloidal nanocrystals is about 5 nm. Although the PL spectra show similar spectral features upon excitation wavelengths at 280, 300 and 350 nm, but their emission intensities are significantly different from each other. Photoluminescence quantum yield for TiO 2 colloidal nanocrystals is estimated to be 49% with 280 nm excitation wavelength which is in agreement and better than reported before. Obtained results confirm that the prepared colloidal TiO 2 sample has enough potential for optoelectronics applications.

  5. Chemically Modified Polyvinyl Chloride for Removal of Thionine Dye (Lauth’s Violet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Ma A. M. M. S. Ali

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The chemical modification of hydrophobic polymer matrices is an alternative way to elchange their surface properties. The introduction of sulfonic groups in the polymer changes the surface properties such as adhesion, wettability, catalytic ability, and adsorption capacity. This work describes the production and application of chemically modified polyvinyl chloride (PVC as adsorbent for dyes removal. Chemical modification of PVC was evaluated by infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis, which indicated the presence of sulfonic groups on PVC. The chemically modified PVC (PVCDS showed an ion exchange capacity of 1.03 mmol−1, and efficiently removed the thionine dye (Lauth’s violet from aqueous solutions, reaching equilibrium in 30 min. The adsorption kinetics was better adjusted for a pseudo second order model. This result indicates that the adsorption of thionine onto PVCDS occurs by chemisorption. Among the models for the state of equilibrium, SIPS and Langmuir exhibited the best fit to the experimental results and PVCDS showed high adsorption capacities (370 mg−1. Thus, it is assumed that the system presents homogeneous characteristics to the distribution of active sites. The modification promoted the formation of surface characteristics favorable to the dye adsorption by the polymer.

  6. Ultra-violet resonance Raman spectroscopy for the rapid discrimination of urinary tract infection bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Roger M; Goodacre, Royston

    2004-03-19

    The ability to identify pathogenic organisms rapidly provides significant benefits to clinicians; in particular, with respect to best prescription practices and tracking of recurrent infections. Conventional bioassays require 3-5 days before identification of an organism can be made, thus compromising the effectiveness with which patients can be treated for bacterial infections. We analysed 20 clinical isolates of urinary tract infections (UTI) by ultra-violet resonance Raman (UVRR) spectroscopy, utilising 244 nm excitation delivering approximately 0.1 mW laser power at the sample, with typical spectral collection times of 120 s. UVRR results in resonance-enhanced Raman signals for certain chromophoric segments of macromolecules, intensifying those selected bands above what would otherwise be observed for a normal Raman experiment. Utilising the whole-organism 'fingerprints' obtained by UVRR we were able to discriminate successfully between UTI pathogens using chemometric cluster analyses. This work demonstrates significant improvements in the speed with which spectra can be obtained by Raman spectroscopic techniques for the discrimination of clinical bacterial samples.

  7. Probing surface plasmons in individual Ag nanoparticles in the ultra-violet spectral regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Ming-Wen; Sharma, Pradeep; Chang, Ching-Pin; Liou, Sz Chian; Tsai, Kun-Tong; Wang, Juen-Kai; Wang, Yuh-Lin; Chen, Cheng Hsuan

    2009-06-10

    Previous investigations of surface plasmons in Ag largely focused on their excitations in the visible spectral regime. Using scanning transmission electron microscopy with an electron beam of 0.2 nm in conjunction with electron energy-loss spectroscopy, we spectrally and spatially probe the surface plasmons in individual Ag nanoparticles (approximately 30 nm), grown on Si, in the ultra-violet spectral regime. The nanomaterials show respective sharp and broad surface-plasmon resonances at approximately 3.5 eV (approximately 355 nm) and approximately 7.0 eV (approximately 177 nm), and the correlated spectral calculations established their multipolar characteristics. The near-field distributions of the surface plasmons on the nanoparticles were also mapped out, revealing the predominant dipolar nature of the 3.5 eV excitation with obvious near-field enhancements at one end of the nano-object. The unveiled near-field enhancements have potential applications in plasmonics and molecular sensing.

  8. Probing surface plasmons in individual Ag nanoparticles in the ultra-violet spectral regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, M-W; Chang, C-P; Liou, S C; Wang, J-K; Chen, C H; Sharma, Pradeep; Tsai, K-T; Wang, Y-L

    2009-01-01

    Previous investigations of surface plasmons in Ag largely focused on their excitations in the visible spectral regime. Using scanning transmission electron microscopy with an electron beam of 0.2 nm in conjunction with electron energy-loss spectroscopy, we spectrally and spatially probe the surface plasmons in individual Ag nanoparticles (∼30 nm), grown on Si, in the ultra-violet spectral regime. The nanomaterials show respective sharp and broad surface-plasmon resonances at ∼3.5 eV (∼355 nm) and ∼7.0 eV (∼177 nm), and the correlated spectral calculations established their multipolar characteristics. The near-field distributions of the surface plasmons on the nanoparticles were also mapped out, revealing the predominant dipolar nature of the 3.5 eV excitation with obvious near-field enhancements at one end of the nano-object. The unveiled near-field enhancements have potential applications in plasmonics and molecular sensing.

  9. Development of electrochemiluminescent inhibition method for determination of gentian violet in aquatic water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sui; Hao, Tingting; Yu, Xinwei; Gai, Panpan; Guo, Zhiyong

    2012-04-01

    Gentian violet (GV) was found to quench the electrochemiluminescence (ECL) of the tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II)/tris-n-propylamine (Ru(bpy)3(2+)-TPA) system at a glass carbon electrode (GCE). Based on the ECL signal changes, a simple and ultrasensitive detection method for GV in aquatic water was established. Under the optimized conditions, the quenched ECL intensity versus the logarithm of the concentration of GV was linear over a concentration range from 1.0×10(-10) to 5.0×10(-7) mol L(-1), and the limit of detection (LOD) was found to be 4.5×10(-12) mol L(-1) (S/N=3). The results obtained by the ECL system were better than other reported methods in literatures in terms of sensitivity or linear response range. The method was successfully applied to determine GV in aquatic water, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were found less than 6.3%, and the recoveries were obtained from 98.7 to 111.0%. Moreover, a possible mechanism of the quenching effect was primarily discussed based on UV-visible absorption spectra, cyclic voltammograms and IECL-E curves. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Highly stable colloidal TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals with strong violet-blue emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghamsari, Morteza Sasani, E-mail: msghamsari@yahoo.com [Laser & Optics Research School, NSTRI, 11155-3486 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gaeeni, Mohammad Reza [Laser & Optics Research School, NSTRI, 11155-3486 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Han, Wooje; Park, Hyung-Ho [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Improved sol–gel method has been applied to prepare highly stable colloidal TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals. The synthesized titania nanocrystals exhibit strong emission in the violet-blue wavelength region. Very long evolution time was obtained by preventing the sol to gel conversion with reflux process. FTIR, XRD, UV–vis absorption, photoluminescence and high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) were used to study the optical properties, crystalline phase, morphology, shape and size of prepared TiO{sub 2} colloidal nanocrystals. HRTEM showed that the diameter of TiO{sub 2} colloidal nanocrystals is about 5 nm. Although the PL spectra show similar spectral features upon excitation wavelengths at 280, 300 and 350 nm, but their emission intensities are significantly different from each other. Photoluminescence quantum yield for TiO{sub 2} colloidal nanocrystals is estimated to be 49% with 280 nm excitation wavelength which is in agreement and better than reported before. Obtained results confirm that the prepared colloidal TiO{sub 2} sample has enough potential for optoelectronics applications.

  11. Simulation and optimization of deep violet InGaN double quantum well laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alahyarizadeh, Gh.; Ghazai, A. J.; Rahmani, R.; Mahmodi, H.; Hassan, Z.

    2012-03-01

    The performance characteristics of a deep violet InGaN double quantum well laser diode (LD) such as threshold current ( Ith), external differential quantum efficiency (DQE) and output power have been investigated using the Integrated System Engineering Technical Computer Aided Design (ISE-TCAD) software. As well as its operating parameters such as internal quantum efficiency ( ηi), internal loss ( αi) and transparency threshold current density ( J0) have been studied. Since, we are interested to investigate the mentioned characteristics and parameters independent of well and barrier thickness, therefore to reach a desired output wavelength, the indium mole fraction of wells and barriers has been varied consequently. The indium mole fractions of well and barrier layers have been considered 0.08 and 0.0, respectively. Some important parameters such as Al mole fraction of the electronic blocking layer (EBL) and cavity length which affect performance characteristics were also investigated. The optimum values of the Al mole fraction and cavity length in this study are 0.15 and 400 μm, respectively. The lowest threshold current, the highest DQE and output power which obtained at the emission wavelength of 391.5 nm are 43.199 mA, 44.99% and 10.334 mW, respectively.

  12. Violet Light Exposure Can Be a Preventive Strategy Against Myopia Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidemasa Torii

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of myopia is increasing worldwide. Outdoor activity is one of the most important environmental factors for myopia control. Here we show that violet light (VL, 360–400 nm wavelength suppresses myopia progression. First, we confirmed that VL suppressed the axial length (AL elongation in the chick myopia model. Expression microarray analyses revealed that myopia suppressive gene EGR1 was upregulated by VL exposure. VL exposure induced significantly higher upregulation of EGR1 in chick chorioretinal tissues than blue light under the same conditions. Next, we conducted clinical research retrospectively to compare the AL elongation among myopic children who wore eyeglasses (VL blocked and two types of contact lenses (partially VL blocked and VL transmitting. The data showed the VL transmitting contact lenses suppressed myopia progression most. These results suggest that VL is one of the important outdoor environmental factors for myopia control. Since VL is apt to be excluded from our modern society due to the excessive UV protection, VL exposure can be a preventive strategy against myopia progression.

  13. [Mumps vaccine virus transmission].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otrashevskaia, E V; Kulak, M V; Otrashevskaia, A V; Karpov, I A; Fisenko, E G; Ignat'ev, G M

    2013-01-01

    In this work we report the mumps vaccine virus shedding based on the laboratory confirmed cases of the mumps virus (MuV) infection. The likely epidemiological sources of the transmitted mumps virus were children who were recently vaccinated with the mumps vaccine containing Leningrad-Zagreb or Leningrad-3 MuV. The etiology of the described cases of the horizontal transmission of both mumps vaccine viruses was confirmed by PCR with the sequential restriction analysis.

  14. Rotavirus vaccines: an overview.

    OpenAIRE

    Midthun, K; Kapikian, A Z

    1996-01-01

    Rotavirus vaccine development has focused on the delivery of live attenuated rotavirus strains by the oral route. The initial "Jennerian" approach involving bovine (RIT4237, WC3) or rhesus (RRV) rotavirus vaccine candidates showed that these vaccines were safe, well tolerated, and immunogenic but induced highly variable rates of protection against rotavirus diarrhea. The goal of a rotavirus vaccine is to prevent severe illness that can lead to dehydration in infants and young children in both...

  15. The relationship between the violet pigment PP-V production and intracellular ammonium level in Penicillium purpurogenum

    OpenAIRE

    Kojima, Ryo; Arai, Teppei; Matsufuji, Hiroshi; Kasumi, Takafumi; Watanabe, Taisuke; Ogihara, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Penicillium purpurogenum is the fungus that produces an azaphilone pigment. However, details about the pigment biosynthesis pathway are unknown. The violet pigment PP-V is the one of the main pigments biosynthesized by this fungus. This pigment contains an amino group in a pyran ring as its core structure. We focused on this pigment and examined the relationship between intracellular ammonium concentration and pigment production using glutamine as a nitrogen source. The intracellular ammonium...

  16. Toward the Extreme Ultra Violet Four Wave Mixing Experiments: From Table Top Lasers to Fourth Generation Light Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Riccardo Cucini; Andrea Battistoni; Filippo Bencivenga; Alessandro Gessini; Riccardo Mincigrucci; Erika Giangrisostomi; Emiliano Principi; Flavio Capotondi; Emanuele Pedersoli; Michele Manfredda; Maya Kiskinova; Claudio Masciovecchio

    2015-01-01

    Three different Transient Grating setups are presented, with pulsed and continuous wave probe at different wavelengths, ranging from infrared to the extreme ultra violet region. Both heterodyne and homodyne detections are considered. Each scheme introduces variations with respect to the previous one, allowing moving from classical table top laser experiments towards a new four wave mixing scheme based on free electron laser radiation. A comparison between the various setups and the first resu...

  17. Development of a Large-Format Science-Grade CMOS Active Pixel Sensor, for Extreme Ultra Violet Spectroscopy and Imaging in Space Science

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Waltham, N. R; Prydderch, M; Mapson-Menard, H; Morrissey, Q; Turchetta, R; Pool, P; Harris, A

    2005-01-01

    We describe our programme to develop a large-format science-grade CMOS active pixel sensor for future space science missions, and in particular an extreme ultra-violet spectrograph for solar physics...

  18. Preparation of 2-acrylamido-2 methyl propane-1-sulfonic acid/bentonite composite by radiation polymerization for adsorption of basic violet dye from aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokker, H.H.; Younes, M.M.; Abdel-Kareem, M.; Zohdy, K.

    2010-01-01

    Water uptake and the sorption properties of composite made by radiation polymerization of 2-acrylamido-2- methyl propane -1-sulfonic acid (AMPS) and a clay such as bentonite were investigated as a function of composition (2,6 and 10% w.t %) of bentonite and radiation dose. The prepared composite was characterized by FTIR and SEM. Swelling experiments were performed in water at 25 degree C. The prepared composite was applied for adsorption of basic violet dye at different ph values and the results showed that the prepared composite of composition (10% wt % of bentonite) showed the highest removal percent of basic violet dye at ph=9 compared with other compositions. Also, the adsorption capacity of basic violet at ph 3,7 and 9 were 3.5, 9 and 50 mg/g, respectively. The adsorption process of basic violet follows both Freundlich and Langmuir models and followed pseudo second order kinetic model

  19. Vaccination: problems and perspectives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Kharit

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Massive vaccination had proved its effective morbidity reduction. Today it is necessary to extend vaccination schedule, creation of selective, regional schedules based on epidemiological, clinical, economical substantiation. Development of vaccination needs the profound scientific research, modernization of adverse reaction observing system, betterment training system and awareness of population.

  20. Oral vaccination of fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Embregts, Carmen W.E.; Forlenza, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The limited number of oral vaccines currently approved for use in humans and veterinary species clearly illustrates that development of efficacious and safe oral vaccines has been a challenge not only for fish immunologists. The insufficient efficacy of oral vaccines is partly due to antigen

  1. Meningococcal Vaccine (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... previous dose of meningococcal vaccine, to the DTaP vaccine , or to latex If your child has a history of Guillain-Barré syndrome (a disease of the nervous system that causes progressive weakness), talk to your doctor about whether the vaccines are a good idea. Caring for Your Child ...

  2. Hepatitis A Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twinrix® (as a combination product containing Hepatitis A Vaccine, Hepatitis B Vaccine) ... Why get vaccinated against hepatitis A?Hepatitis A is a serious liver disease. It is caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). HAV is spread from ...

  3. Wearable device for monitoring momentary presence of intense x-ray and/or ultra-violet radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shriner, W.

    1981-01-01

    A credit-card-size clear-plastic-encased device can be worn or carried by a person to warn him of the momentary presence of dangerous intensities of ultra-violet and/or x-ray radiations. A base lamina (e.g. of cardboard) is coated with a material (e.g. zinc-cadmium sulfide or lead-barium sulfate) which fluoresces under such radiations. Numerals, letters, words or symbols are printed over the fluorescent coat with a material inhibitory to said radiations so that a warning message in dark print will appear on a light background when dangerous intensities of said radiations are present. An x-ray-warning area is covered with an ultra-violet absorbing screen so that said area will glow only under x-rays (Which rays will also activate the remaining ultra-violet-responsive area). The colors of the laminas and the coats are so selected that the messages are not visible when dangerous radiations are not present. If desired, only the message can be printed with fluorescent material so as to glow on a darker background. Optionally, step-layer attenuation devices can be added to indicate degrees of radiation; and reflecting surfaces can underlie the fluorescent coat to increase efficiency and/or sensitively

  4. Isolation and Characterization of Paracoccus sp. GSM2 Capable of Degrading Textile Azo Dye Reactive Violet 5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallikarjun C. Bheemaraddi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A potential bacterial strain GSM2, capable of degrading an azo dye Reactive Violet 5 as a sole source of carbon, was isolated from textile mill effluent from Solapur, India. The 16S rDNA sequence and phenotypic characteristics indicated an isolated organism as Paracoccus sp. GSM2. This strain exhibited complete decolorization of Reactive Violet 5 (100 mg/L within 16 h, while maximally it could decolorize 800 mg/L of dye within 38 h with 73% decolorization under static condition. For color removal, the most suitable pH and temperature were pH 6.0–9.0 and 25–40°C, respectively. The isolate was able to decolorize more than 70% of five structurally different azo dyes within 38 h. The isolate is salt tolerant as it can bring out more than 90% decolorization up to a salt concentration of 2% (w/v. UV-Visible absorption spectra before and after decolorization suggested that decolorization was due to biodegradation and was further confirmed by FT-IR spectroscopy. Overall results indicate the effectiveness of the strain GSM2 explored for the treatment of textile industry effluents containing various azo dyes. To our knowledge, this could be the first report on biodegradation of Reactive Violet 5 by Paracoccus sp. GSM2.

  5. Intense, stable and excitation wavelength-independent photoluminescence emission in the blue-violet region from phosphorene quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Shuaipeng; Zhang, Lisheng; Wang, Peijie; Fang, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Nanoscale phosphorene quantum dots (PQDs) with few-layer structures were fabricated by pulsed laser ablation of a bulk black phosphorus target in diethyl ether. An intense and stable photoluminescence (PL) emission of the PQDs in the blue-violet wavelength region is clearly observed for the first time, which is attributed to electronic transitions from the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) to the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and occupied molecular orbitals below the HOMO (H-1, H-2), respectively. Surprisingly, the PL emission peak positions of the PQDs are not red-shifted with progressively longer excitation wavelengths, which is in contrast to the cases of graphene and molybdenum disulphide quantum dots. This excitation wavelength-independence is derived from the saturated passivation on the periphery and surfaces of the PQDs by large numbers of electron-donating functional groups which cause the electron density on the PQDs to be dramatically increased and the band gap to be insensitive to the quantum size effect in the PQDs. This work suggests that PQDs with intense, stable and excitation wavelength-independent PL emission in the blue-violet region have a potential application as semiconductor-based blue-violet light irradiation sources. PMID:27265198

  6. Sustainable vaccine development: a vaccine manufacturer's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappuoli, Rino; Hanon, Emmanuel

    2018-05-08

    Vaccination remains the most cost-effective public health intervention after clean water, and the benefits impressively outweigh the costs. The efforts needed to fulfill the steadily growing demands for next-generation and novel vaccines designed for emerging pathogens and new indications are only realizable in a sustainable business model. Vaccine development can be fast-tracked through strengthening international collaborations, and the continuous innovation of technologies to accelerate their design, development, and manufacturing. However, these processes should be supported by a balanced project portfolio, and by managing sustainable vaccine procurement strategies for different types of markets. Collectively this will allow a gradual shift to a more streamlined and profitable vaccine production, which can significantly contribute to the worldwide effort to shape global health. Copyright © 2018 GlaxoSmithKine Biologicals SA. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Peptide Vaccines for Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rory C. F. De Brito

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to an increase in the incidence of leishmaniases worldwide, the development of new strategies such as prophylactic vaccines to prevent infection and decrease the disease have become a high priority. Classic vaccines against leishmaniases were based on live or attenuated parasites or their subunits. Nevertheless, the use of whole parasite or their subunits for vaccine production has numerous disadvantages. Therefore, the use of Leishmania peptides to design more specific vaccines against leishmaniases seems promising. Moreover, peptides have several benefits in comparison with other kinds of antigens, for instance, good stability, absence of potentially damaging materials, antigen low complexity, and low-cost to scale up. By contrast, peptides are poor immunogenic alone, and they need to be delivered correctly. In this context, several approaches described in this review are useful to solve these drawbacks. Approaches, such as, peptides in combination with potent adjuvants, cellular vaccinations, adenovirus, polyepitopes, or DNA vaccines have been used to develop peptide-based vaccines. Recent advancements in peptide vaccine design, chimeric, or polypeptide vaccines and nanovaccines based on particles attached or formulated with antigenic components or peptides have been increasingly employed to drive a specific immune response. In this review, we briefly summarize the old, current, and future stands on peptide-based vaccines, describing the disadvantages and benefits associated with them. We also propose possible approaches to overcome the related weaknesses of synthetic vaccines and suggest future guidelines for their development.

  8. Peptide Vaccines for Leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Brito, Rory C F; Cardoso, Jamille M De O; Reis, Levi E S; Vieira, Joao F; Mathias, Fernando A S; Roatt, Bruno M; Aguiar-Soares, Rodrigo Dian D O; Ruiz, Jeronimo C; Resende, Daniela de M; Reis, Alexandre B

    2018-01-01

    Due to an increase in the incidence of leishmaniases worldwide, the development of new strategies such as prophylactic vaccines to prevent infection and decrease the disease have become a high priority. Classic vaccines against leishmaniases were based on live or attenuated parasites or their subunits. Nevertheless, the use of whole parasite or their subunits for vaccine production has numerous disadvantages. Therefore, the use of Leishmania peptides to design more specific vaccines against leishmaniases seems promising. Moreover, peptides have several benefits in comparison with other kinds of antigens, for instance, good stability, absence of potentially damaging materials, antigen low complexity, and low-cost to scale up. By contrast, peptides are poor immunogenic alone, and they need to be delivered correctly. In this context, several approaches described in this review are useful to solve these drawbacks. Approaches, such as, peptides in combination with potent adjuvants, cellular vaccinations, adenovirus, polyepitopes, or DNA vaccines have been used to develop peptide-based vaccines. Recent advancements in peptide vaccine design, chimeric, or polypeptide vaccines and nanovaccines based on particles attached or formulated with antigenic components or peptides have been increasingly employed to drive a specific immune response. In this review, we briefly summarize the old, current, and future stands on peptide-based vaccines, describing the disadvantages and benefits associated with them. We also propose possible approaches to overcome the related weaknesses of synthetic vaccines and suggest future guidelines for their development.

  9. Vaccines as Epidemic Insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, Mark V

    2017-10-27

    This paper explores the relationship between the research for and development of vaccines against global pandemics and insurance. It shows that development in advance of pandemics of a portfolio of effective and government-approved vaccines does have some insurance properties: it requires incurring costs that are certain (the costs of discovering, developing, and testing vaccines) in return for protection against large losses (if a pandemic treatable with one of the vaccines occurs) but also with the possibility of no benefit (from a vaccine against a disease that never reaches the pandemic stage). It then argues that insurance against the latter event might usefully be offered to organizations developing vaccines, and explores the benefits of insurance payments to or on behalf of countries who suffer from unpredictable pandemics. These ideas are then related to recent government, industry, and philanthropic efforts to develop better policies to make vaccines against pandemics available on a timely basis.

  10. Vaccines as Epidemic Insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark V. Pauly

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the relationship between the research for and development of vaccines against global pandemics and insurance. It shows that development in advance of pandemics of a portfolio of effective and government-approved vaccines does have some insurance properties: it requires incurring costs that are certain (the costs of discovering, developing, and testing vaccines in return for protection against large losses (if a pandemic treatable with one of the vaccines occurs but also with the possibility of no benefit (from a vaccine against a disease that never reaches the pandemic stage. It then argues that insurance against the latter event might usefully be offered to organizations developing vaccines, and explores the benefits of insurance payments to or on behalf of countries who suffer from unpredictable pandemics. These ideas are then related to recent government, industry, and philanthropic efforts to develop better policies to make vaccines against pandemics available on a timely basis.

  11. 42 CFR 410.57 - Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57 Section 410.57 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. (a) Medicare Part B pays for pneumococcal vaccine and its...

  12. vaccination with newcastle disease vaccines strain i2 and lasota

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UP Employee

    mash feed as vaccine carriers was conducted. Newcastle disease vaccine strain I2 and. NDV La Sota vaccines provided protection to commercial and local chickens vaccinated through i/o, i/m or dw. No significant difference (P≤0.05) was observed in the antibody titre of commercial or local chickens vaccinated with either ...

  13. Is ultra-violet radiation the main force shaping molecular evolution of varicella-zoster virus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Varicella (chickenpox) exhibits a characteristic epidemiological pattern which is associated with climate. In general, primary infections in tropical regions are comparatively less frequent among children than in temperate regions. This peculiarity regarding varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection among certain age groups in tropical regions results in increased susceptibility during adulthood in these regions. Moreover, this disease shows a cyclic behavior in which the number of cases increases significantly during winter and spring. This observation further supports the participation of environmental factors in global epidemiology of chickenpox. However, the underlying mechanisms responsible for this distinctive disease behavior are not understood completely. In a recent publication, Philip S. Rice has put forward an interesting hypothesis suggesting that ultra-violet (UV) radiation is the major environmental factor driving the molecular evolution of VZV. Discussion While we welcomed the attempt to explain the mechanisms controlling VZV transmission and distribution, we argue that Rice's hypothesis takes lightly the circulation of the so called "temperate VZV genotypes" in tropical regions and, to certain degree, overlooks the predominance of such lineages in certain non-temperate areas. Here, we further discuss and present new information about the overwhelming dominance of temperate VZV genotypes in Mexico regardless of geographical location and climate. Summary UV radiation does not satisfactorily explain the distribution of VZV genotypes in different tropical and temperate regions of Mexico. Additionally, the cyclic behavior of varicella does not shown significant differences between regions with different climates in the country. More studies should be conducted to identify the factors directly involved in viral spreading. A better understanding of the modes of transmissions exploited by VZV and their effect on viral fitness is likely to facilitate

  14. Is ultra-violet radiation the main force shaping molecular evolution of varicella-zoster virus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escobar-Gutiérrez Alejandro

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Varicella (chickenpox exhibits a characteristic epidemiological pattern which is associated with climate. In general, primary infections in tropical regions are comparatively less frequent among children than in temperate regions. This peculiarity regarding varicella-zoster virus (VZV infection among certain age groups in tropical regions results in increased susceptibility during adulthood in these regions. Moreover, this disease shows a cyclic behavior in which the number of cases increases significantly during winter and spring. This observation further supports the participation of environmental factors in global epidemiology of chickenpox. However, the underlying mechanisms responsible for this distinctive disease behavior are not understood completely. In a recent publication, Philip S. Rice has put forward an interesting hypothesis suggesting that ultra-violet (UV radiation is the major environmental factor driving the molecular evolution of VZV. Discussion While we welcomed the attempt to explain the mechanisms controlling VZV transmission and distribution, we argue that Rice's hypothesis takes lightly the circulation of the so called "temperate VZV genotypes" in tropical regions and, to certain degree, overlooks the predominance of such lineages in certain non-temperate areas. Here, we further discuss and present new information about the overwhelming dominance of temperate VZV genotypes in Mexico regardless of geographical location and climate. Summary UV radiation does not satisfactorily explain the distribution of VZV genotypes in different tropical and temperate regions of Mexico. Additionally, the cyclic behavior of varicella does not shown significant differences between regions with different climates in the country. More studies should be conducted to identify the factors directly involved in viral spreading. A better understanding of the modes of transmissions exploited by VZV and their effect on viral

  15. Ultra-violet and visible absorption characterization of explosives by differential reflectometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubroca, Thierry; Moyant, Kyle; Hummel, Rolf E

    2013-03-15

    This study presents some optical properties of TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene), RDX, HMX and tetryl, specifically their absorption spectra as a function of concentration in various solvents in the ultraviolet and visible portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. We utilize a standoff explosives detection method, called differential reflectometry (DR). TNT was diluted in six different solvents (acetone, acetonitrile, ethanol, ethyl acetate, methanol, and toluene), which allowed for a direct comparison of absorption features over a wide range of concentrations. A line-shape analysis was adopted with great accuracy (R(2)>0.99) to model the absorption features of TNT in differential reflectivity spectra. We observed a blue shift in the pertinent absorption band with decreasing TNT concentration for all solvents. Moreover, using this technique, it was found that for all utilized solvents the concentration of TNT as well as of RDX, HMX, and tetryl, measured as a function of the transition wavelength of the ultra-violet absorption edge in differential reflectivity spectra shows three distinct regions. A model is presented to explain this behavior which is based on intermolecular hydrogen bonding of explosives molecules with themselves (or lack thereof) at different concentrations. Other intermolecular forces such as dipole-dipole interactions, London dispersion forces and π-stacking contribute to slight variations in the resulting spectra, which were determined to be rather insignificant in comparison to hydrogen bonding. The results are aimed towards a better understanding of the DR spectra of explosives energetic materials. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Boron nitride stamp for ultra-violet nanoimprinting lithography fabricated by focused ion beam lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altun, Ali Ozhan; Jeong, Jun-Ho; Rha, Jong-Joo; Kim, Ki-Don; Lee, Eung-Sug

    2007-01-01

    Cubic boron nitride (c-BN) is one of the hardest known materials (second after diamond). It has a high level of chemical resistance and high UV transmittance. In this study, a stamp for ultra-violet nanoimprint lithography (UV-NIL) was fabricated using a bi-layered BN film deposited on a quartz substrate. Deposition of the BN was done using RF magnetron sputtering. A hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) layer was deposited for 30 min before c-BN was deposited for 30 min. The thickness of the film was measured as 160 nm. The phase of the c-BN layer was investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, and it was found that the c-BN layer has a 40% cubic phase. The deposited film was patterned using focused ion beam (FIB) lithography for use as a UV-NIL stamp. Line patterns were fabricated with the line width and line distance set at 150 and 150 nm, respectively. The patterning process was performed by applying different currents to observe the effect of the current value on the pattern profile. The fabricated patterns were investigated using AFM, and it was found that the pattern fabricated by applying a current value of 50 picoamperes (pA) has a better profile with a 65 nm line depth. The UV transmittance of the 160 nm thick film was measured to be 70-86%. The hardness and modulus of the BN was measured to be 12 and 150 GPa, respectively. The water contact angle of the stamp surface was measured at 75 0 . The stamp was applied to UV-NIL without coating with an anti-adhesion layer. Successful imprinting was proved via scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of the imprinted resin

  17. Tritium decontamination from co-deposited layer on tungsten substrate by ultra violet lamp and laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oya, Yasuhisa; Tadokoro, Takahiro; Shu, Wataru; Hayashi, Takumi; O'hira, Shigeru; Nishi, Masataka

    2001-01-01

    Tritium decontamination using ultra violet (UV) lamp and laser was performed. Simulated co-deposited layer on tungsten substrate was deposited by C 2 H 2 or C 2 D 2 glow discharge. The co-deposited layer was irradiated to UV lights from a xenon excimer lamp (172 nm) or ArF excimer laser (193 nm) and the in-situ decontamination behavior was evaluated by a mass spectrometer. After the UV irradiation, the hydrogen concentration in the co-deposited layer was evaluated by elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) and the depth profile was analyzed by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). For the co-deposited layer formed by C 2 D 2 glow discharge, it was found that M/e 3 (HD) gas was released mainly during the UV lamp irradiation while both M/e 3 (HD) and M/e 4 (D 2 ) gases were detected during the UV laser irradiation. Though the co-deposited layer was not removed by UV lamp irradiation, almost all the co-deposited layer was removed by UV laser irradiation within 1 min. The ratio of hydrogen against carbon in the co-deposited layer was estimated to be 0.53 by ERDA and the number of photon needed for removing 1 μm thick co-deposited layer was calculated to be 3.7x10 18 cm -2 for the UV laser by SIMS measurement. It is concluded that C-H (C-D) bond on the co-deposited layer were dissociated by irradiation of UV lamp while the co-deposited layer itself was removed by the UV laser irradiation. (author)

  18. Helium crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipson, S.G.

    1987-01-01

    Hexagonal close-packed helium crystals in equilibrium with superfluid have been found to be one of the few systems in which an anisotropic solid comes into true thermodynamic equilibrium with its melt. The discovery of roughening transitions at the liquid-solid interface have shown this system to be ideal for the study of the statistical mechanics of interface structures. We describe the effect of roughening on the shape and growth of macroscopic crystals from both the theoretical and experimental points of view. (author)

  19. Current Ebola vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenen, Thomas; Groseth, Allison; Feldmann, Heinz

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Ebolaviruses cause severe viral hemorrhagic fever in humans and non-human primates, with case fatality rates of up to 90%. Currently, neither a specific treatment nor a vaccine licensed for use in humans is available. However, a number of vaccine candidates have been developed in the last decade that are highly protective in non-human primates, the gold standard animal model for Ebola hemorrhagic fever. Areas covered This review analyzes a number of scenarios for the use of ebolavirus vaccines, discusses the requirements for ebolavirus vaccines in these scenarios, and describes current ebolavirus vaccines. Among these vaccines are recombinant Adenoviruses, recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis viruses, recombinant Human Parainfluenza viruses and virus-like particles. Interestingly, one of these vaccine platforms, based on recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis viruses, has also demonstrated post-exposure protection in non-human primates. Expert opinion The most pressing remaining challenge is now to move these vaccine candidates forward into human trials and towards licensure. In order to achieve this, it will be necessary to establish the mechanisms and correlates of protection for these vaccines, and to continue to demonstrate their safety, particularly in potentially immunocompromised populations. However, already now there is sufficient evidence that, from a scientific perspective, a vaccine protective against ebolaviruses is possible. PMID:22559078

  20. Vaccines in a hurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søborg, Christian; Mølbak, Kåre; Doherty, T Mark; Ulleryd, Peter; Brooks, Tim; Coenen, Claudine; van der Zeijst, Ben

    2009-05-26

    Preparing populations for health threats, including threats from new or re-emerging infectious diseases is recognised as an important public health priority. The development, production and application of emergency vaccinations are the important measures against such threats. Vaccines are cost-effective tools to prevent disease, and emergency vaccines may be the only means to prevent a true disaster for global society in the event of a new pandemic with potential to cause morbidity and mortality comparable to the Spanish flu, the polio epidemics in the 1950s, or the SARS outbreak in 2003 if its spread had not been contained in time. Given the early recognition of a new threat, and given the advances of biotechnology, vaccinology and information systems, it is not an unrealistic goal to have promising prototype vaccine candidates available in a short time span following the identification of a new infectious agent; this is based on the assumption that the emerging infection is followed by natural immunity. However, major bottlenecks for the deployment of emergency vaccine are lack of established systems for fast-track regulatory approval of such candidates and limited international vaccine production capacity. In the present discussion paper, we propose mechanisms to facilitate development of emergency vaccines in Europe by focusing on public-private scientific partnerships, fast-track approval of emergency vaccine by regulatory agencies and proposing incentives for emergency vaccine production in private vaccine companies.

  1. Vaccine strategies: Optimising outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardt, Karin; Bonanni, Paolo; King, Susan; Santos, Jose Ignacio; El-Hodhod, Mostafa; Zimet, Gregory D; Preiss, Scott

    2016-12-20

    Successful immunisation programmes generally result from high vaccine effectiveness and adequate uptake of vaccines. In the development of new vaccination strategies, the structure and strength of the local healthcare system is a key consideration. In high income countries, existing infrastructures are usually used, while in less developed countries, the capacity for introducing new vaccines may need to be strengthened, particularly for vaccines administered beyond early childhood, such as the measles or human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. Reliable immunisation service funding is another important factor and low income countries often need external supplementary sources of finance. Many regions also obtain support in generating an evidence base for vaccination via initiatives created by organisations including World Health Organization (WHO), the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), the Agence de Médecine Préventive and the Sabin Vaccine Institute. Strong monitoring and surveillance mechanisms are also required. An example is the efficient and low-cost approaches for measuring the impact of the hepatitis B control initiative and evaluating achievement of goals that have been established in the WHO Western Pacific region. A review of implementation strategies reveals differing degrees of success. For example, in the Americas, PAHO advanced a measles-mumps-rubella vaccine strategy, targeting different population groups in mass, catch-up and follow-up vaccination campaigns. This has had much success but coverage data from some parts of the region suggest that children are still not receiving all appropriate vaccines, highlighting problems with local service infrastructures. Stark differences in coverage levels are also observed among high income countries, as is the case with HPV vaccine implementation in the USA versus the UK and Australia, reflecting differences in delivery settings. Experience and research have shown which vaccine strategies work well and the

  2. The Meningitis Vaccine Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaForce, F Marc; Konde, Kader; Viviani, Simonetta; Préziosi, Marie-Pierre

    2007-09-03

    Epidemic meningococcal meningitis is an important public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa. Current control measures rely on reactive immunizations with polysaccharide (PS) vaccines that do not induce herd immunity and are of limited effectiveness in those under 2 years of age. Conversely, polysaccharide conjugate vaccines are effective in infants and have consistently shown an important effect on decreasing carriage, two characteristics that facilitate disease control. In 2001 the Meningitis Vaccine Project (MVP) was created as a partnership between PATH and the World Health Organization (WHO) with the goal of eliminating meningococcal epidemics in Africa through the development, licensure, introduction, and widespread use of conjugate meningococcal vaccines. Since group A Neisseria meningitidis (N. meningitidis) is the dominant pathogen causing epidemic meningitis in Africa MVP is developing an affordable (US$ 0.40 per dose) meningococcal A (Men A) conjugate vaccine through an innovative international partnership that saw transfer of a conjugation and fermentation technology to a developing country vaccine manufacturer. A Phase 1 study of the vaccine in India has shown that the product is safe and immunogenic. Phase 2 studies have begun in Africa, and a large demonstration study of the conjugate vaccine is envisioned for 2008-2009. After extensive consultations with African public health officials a vaccine introduction plan has been developed that includes introduction of the Men A conjugate vaccine into standard Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) schedules but also emphasizes mass vaccination of 1-29 years old to induce herd immunity, a strategy that has been shown to be highly effective when the meningococcal C (Men C) conjugate vaccine was introduced in several European countries. The MVP model is a clear example of the usefulness of a "push mechanism" to finance the development of a needed vaccine for the developing world.

  3. 75 FR 48706 - Proposed Vaccine Information Materials for Rotavirus Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ... Vaccine Information Materials for Rotavirus Vaccine AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention... information materials for rotavirus vaccine. DATES: Written comments are invited and must be received on or... (chickenpox), pneumococcal conjugate, rotavirus, hepatitis A, meningococcal, human papillomavirus (HPV), and...

  4. Vaccine process technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josefsberg, Jessica O; Buckland, Barry

    2012-06-01

    The evolution of vaccines (e.g., live attenuated, recombinant) and vaccine production methods (e.g., in ovo, cell culture) are intimately tied to each other. As vaccine technology has advanced, the methods to produce the vaccine have advanced and new vaccine opportunities have been created. These technologies will continue to evolve as we strive for safer and more immunogenic vaccines and as our understanding of biology improves. The evolution of vaccine process technology has occurred in parallel to the remarkable growth in the development of therapeutic proteins as products; therefore, recent vaccine innovations can leverage the progress made in the broader biotechnology industry. Numerous important legacy vaccines are still in use today despite their traditional manufacturing processes, with further development focusing on improving stability (e.g., novel excipients) and updating formulation (e.g., combination vaccines) and delivery methods (e.g., skin patches). Modern vaccine development is currently exploiting a wide array of novel technologies to create safer and more efficacious vaccines including: viral vectors produced in animal cells, virus-like particles produced in yeast or insect cells, polysaccharide conjugation to carrier proteins, DNA plasmids produced in E. coli, and therapeutic cancer vaccines created by in vitro activation of patient leukocytes. Purification advances (e.g., membrane adsorption, precipitation) are increasing efficiency, while innovative analytical methods (e.g., microsphere-based multiplex assays, RNA microarrays) are improving process understanding. Novel adjuvants such as monophosphoryl lipid A, which acts on antigen presenting cell toll-like receptors, are expanding the previously conservative list of widely accepted vaccine adjuvants. As in other areas of biotechnology, process characterization by sophisticated analysis is critical not only to improve yields, but also to determine the final product quality. From a regulatory

  5. Vaccination against seasonal flu

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    The Medical Service once again recommends you to get your annual flu vaccination for the year.   Vaccination is the most effective way of avoiding the illness and any serious consequences and protecting those around you. The flu can have especially serious consequences for people with chronic conditions (diabetes, cardio-vascular disease, etc.), pregnant women, infants, and people over 65 years of age. Remember, anyone working on the CERN site who wishes to be vaccinated against seasonal flu should go to the Infirmary (Building 57, ground floor) with their vaccine. The Medical Service will issue a prescription on the day of the vaccination for the purposes of reimbursement by UNIQA. NB: The Medical Service cannot provide this vaccination service for family members or retired members of the personnel. For more information: • The "Seasonal flu" flyer by the Medical Service • Recommendations of the Swiss Federal Office of Public...

  6. Prophylactic Hepatitis E Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Zhao, Qinjian; Xia, Ningshao

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E has been increasingly recognized as an underestimated global disease burden in recent years. Subpopulations with more serious infection-associated damage or death include pregnant women, patients with basic liver diseases, and elderly persons. Vaccine would be the most effective means for prevention of HEV infection. The lack of an efficient cell culture system for HEV makes the development of classic inactive or attenuated vaccine infeasible. Hence, the recombinant vaccine approaches are explored deeply. The neutralizing sites are located almost exclusively in the capsid protein, pORF2, of the virion. Based on pORF2, many vaccine candidates showed potential of protecting primate animals; two of them were tested in human and evidenced to be well tolerated in adults and highly efficacious in preventing hepatitis E. The world's first hepatitis E vaccine, Hecolin ® (HEV 239 vaccine), was licensed in China and launched in 2012.

  7. Vaccination and neurological disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Gkampeta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Active immunization of children has been proven very effective in elimination of life threatening complications of many infectious diseases in developed countries. However, as vaccination-preventable infectious diseases and their complications have become rare, the interest focuses on immunization-related adverse reactions. Unfortunately, fear of vaccination-related adverse effects can led to decreased vaccination coverage and subsequent epidemics of infectious diseases. This review includes reports about possible side effects following vaccinations in children with neurological disorders and also published recommendations about vaccinating children with neurological disorders. From all international published data anyone can conclude that vaccines are safer than ever before, but the challenge remains to convey this message to society.

  8. Vaccines and Kawasaki disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Susanna; Bianchini, Sonia; Dellepiane, Rosa Maria; Principi, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    The distinctive immune system characteristics of children with Kawasaki disease (KD) could suggest that they respond in a particular way to all antigenic stimulations, including those due to vaccines. Moreover, treatment of KD is mainly based on immunomodulatory therapy. These factors suggest that vaccines and KD may interact in several ways. These interactions could be of clinical relevance because KD is a disease of younger children who receive most of the vaccines recommended for infectious disease prevention. This paper shows that available evidence does not support an association between KD development and vaccine administration. Moreover, it highlights that administration of routine vaccines is mandatory even in children with KD and all efforts must be made to ensure the highest degree of protection against vaccine-preventable diseases for these patients. However, studies are needed to clarify currently unsolved issues, especially issues related to immunologic interference induced by intravenous immunoglobulin and biological drugs.

  9. Vaccine development for syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lithgow, Karen V; Cameron, Caroline E

    2017-01-01

    Syphilis, caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum, continues to be a globally prevalent disease despite remaining susceptible to penicillin treatment. Syphilis vaccine development is a viable preventative approach that will serve to complement public health-oriented syphilis prevention, screening and treatment initiatives to deliver a two-pronged approach to stemming disease spread worldwide. Areas covered: This article provides an overview of the need for development of a syphilis vaccine, summarizes significant information that has been garnered from prior syphilis vaccine studies, discusses the critical aspects of infection that would have to be targeted by a syphilis vaccine, and presents the current understanding within the field of the correlates of protection needed to be achieved through vaccination. Expert commentary: Syphilis vaccine development should be considered a priority by industry, regulatory and funding agencies, and should be appropriately promoted and supported.

  10. The Latest in Vaccine Policies: Selected Issues in School Vaccinations, Healthcare Worker Vaccinations, and Pharmacist Vaccination Authority Laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraza, Leila; Schmit, Cason; Hoss, Aila

    2017-03-01

    This paper discusses recent changes to state legal frameworks for mandatory vaccination in the context of school and healthcare worker vaccination. It then discusses state laws that allow pharmacists the authority to vaccinate.

  11. Needle-free influenza vaccination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amorij, Jean-Pierre; Hinrichs, Wouter L.J.; Frijlink, Henderik W.; Wilschut, Jan C.; Huckriede, Anke

    2010-01-01

    Vaccination is the cornerstone of influenza control in epidemic and pandemic situations. Influenza vaccines are typically given by intramuscular injection. However, needle-free vaccinations could offer several distinct advantages over intramuscular injections: they are pain-free, easier to

  12. What Vaccines Do You Need?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recommendations Why Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics The Adult Vaccine Quiz Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccines are recommended for adults based on age, health ...

  13. Recommended Vaccines for Healthcare Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccination Resources for Healthcare Professionals Recommended Vaccines for Healthcare Workers Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... for More Information Resources for Those Vaccinating HCWs Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at risk for exposure to ...

  14. Synthesis of SnO{sub 2}-activated carbon fiber hybrid catalyst for the removal of methyl violet from water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jia, E-mail: mse_lij@ujn.edu.cn [School of Material Science and Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China); Ng, Dickon H.L. [Department of Physics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong (China); Song, Peng; Kong, Chao; Song, Yi [School of Material Science and Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China)

    2015-04-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A new biomass route for the synthesis of SnO{sub 2}/ACF hybrid catalyst was proposed. • The original fibrous structure of kapok fiber was retained in the SnO{sub 2}/ACF hybrid catalyst. • SnO{sub 2}/ACF hybrid catalyst exhibited high BET surface area (647–897 m{sup 2}/g) and large pore volume (0.36–0.56 cm{sup 3} g{sup −1}). • High microwave-induced catalytic activity for methyl violet degradation was obtained. - Abstract: SnO{sub 2}/activated carbon fiber (ACF) hybrid catalyst was synthesized from kapok precursor via a two-step process involving pore-fabricating and self-assembly of SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles. The morphology and phase structure of the obtained samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscope, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption isotherm. These results demonstrated that the synthesized SnO{sub 2}/ACF retained the hollow-fiber structure of kapok fibers. SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles dispersed uniformly over the ACF support. The obtained hybrid catalyst showed porous structure with high surface area (647–897 m{sup 2}/g) and large pore volume (0.36–0.56 cm{sup 3} g{sup −1}). In addition, the catalytic activities of the obtained samples for methyl violet degradation under microwave irradiation were also evaluated. It was found that the SnO{sub 2}/ACF catalyst exhibited high catalytic activity for methyl violet degradation due to the synergistic effect of microwave and SnO{sub 2}/ACF catalyst.

  15. Rotavirus vaccines and vaccination in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linhares Alexandre C.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, rotaviruses account for more than 125 million cases of infantile gastroenteritis and nearly 1 million deaths per year, mainly in developing countries. Rather than other control measures, vaccination is most likely to have a major impact on rotavirus disease incidence. The peak incidence of rotavirus diarrhea occurs between 6 and 24 months of age. In developing countries, however, cases are not uncommon among children younger than 6 months. G serotypes 1 to 4 are responsible for most disease, but there are indications that in Brazil that G type 5 is of emerging epidemiological importance. Both homotypic and heterotypic responses are elicited during natural rotavirus infection, and the immunological response at the intestinal mucosal surface is probably the more consistent predictor of clinical immunity. With the primary objective of protecting children against life-threatening dehydrating diarrhea, many approaches to rotavirus vaccine development have been attempted. One vaccine, the tetravalent rhesus-human reassortant rotavirus vaccine (RRV-TV, was given licensing approval in the United States of America, introduced to the market, and later withdrawn. A number of studies have found better efficacy of RRV-TV in developed countries than in developing ones. Field trials with a 4 X 10(4 plaque-forming units (PFU preparation of RRV-TV have been carried out in two countries in Latin America, Brazil and Peru. Those trials yielded protective efficacy rates against all rotavirus diarrhea ranging from 18% to 35%. Data from a large catchment trial in Venezuela with a higher RRV-TV dose, of 4 X 10(5 PFU/dose, indicated an efficacy rate of 48% against all rotavirus diarrhea and 88% against severe rotavirus diarrhea. It appears that breast-feeding does not compromise the efficacy of RRV-TV if three doses of the vaccine are administered. Similarly, possible interference of oral poliovirus vaccine with the "take" of the rotavirus vaccine can be

  16. Rotavirus vaccines and vaccination in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre C. Linhares

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, rotaviruses account for more than 125 million cases of infantile gastroenteritis and nearly 1 million deaths per year, mainly in developing countries. Rather than other control measures, vaccination is most likely to have a major impact on rotavirus disease incidence. The peak incidence of rotavirus diarrhea occurs between 6 and 24 months of age. In developing countries, however, cases are not uncommon among children younger than 6 months. G serotypes 1 to 4 are responsible for most disease, but there are indications that in Brazil that G type 5 is of emerging epidemiological importance. Both homotypic and heterotypic responses are elicited during natural rotavirus infection, and the immunological response at the intestinal mucosal surface is probably the more consistent predictor of clinical immunity. With the primary objective of protecting children against life-threatening dehydrating diarrhea, many approaches to rotavirus vaccine development have been attempted. One vaccine, the tetravalent rhesus-human reassortant rotavirus vaccine (RRV-TV, was given licensing approval in the United States of America, introduced to the market, and later withdrawn. A number of studies have found better efficacy of RRV-TV in developed countries than in developing ones. Field trials with a 4 X 10(4 plaque-forming units (PFU preparation of RRV-TV have been carried out in two countries in Latin America, Brazil and Peru. Those trials yielded protective efficacy rates against all rotavirus diarrhea ranging from 18% to 35%. Data from a large catchment trial in Venezuela with a higher RRV-TV dose, of 4 X 10(5 PFU/dose, indicated an efficacy rate of 48% against all rotavirus diarrhea and 88% against severe rotavirus diarrhea. It appears that breast-feeding does not compromise the efficacy of RRV-TV if three doses of the vaccine are administered. Similarly, possible interference of oral poliovirus vaccine with the "take" of the rotavirus vaccine can be

  17. Pricing of new vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Bruce Y; McGlone, Sarah M

    2010-01-01

    New vaccine pricing is a complicated process that could have substantial long-standing scientific, medical and public health ramifications. Pricing can have a considerable impact on new vaccine adoption and, thereby, either culminate or thwart years of research and development and public health efforts. Typically, pricing strategy consists of the following eleven components: (1) Conduct a target population analysis; (2) Map potential competitors and alternatives; (3) Construct a vaccine targe...

  18. Underutilization of Influenza Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marshall K. Cheney

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Yearly influenza vaccination continues to be underutilized by those who would most benefit from it. The Health Belief Model was used to explain differences in beliefs about influenza vaccination among at-risk individuals resistant to influenza vaccination. Survey data were collected from 74 members of at-risk groups who were not vaccinated for influenza during the previous flu season. Accepting individuals were more likely to perceive flu as a threat to health and perceive access barriers, and cues to action were the most important influence on whether they plan to get vaccinated. In comparison, resistant individuals did not feel threatened by the flu, access barriers were not a problem, and they did not respond favorably to cues to action. Perceived threat, perceived access barriers, and cues to action were significantly associated with plans to be vaccinated for influenza in the next flu season. Participants who saw influenza as a threat to their health had 5.4 times the odds of planning to be vaccinated than those who did not. Participants reporting barriers to accessing influenza vaccination had 7.5 times the odds of reporting plans to be vaccinated. Those responding positively to cues to action had 12.2 times the odds of planning to be vaccinated in the next flu season than those who did not. Accepting and resistant individuals have significant differences in their beliefs, which require different intervention strategies to increase vaccination rates. These findings provide important information to researchers and practitioners working to increase influenza vaccination rates.

  19. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Dudas, Robert A.; Karron, Ruth A.

    1998-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most important cause of viral lower respiratory tract illness (LRI) in infants and children worldwide and causes significant LRI in the elderly and in immunocompromised patients. The goal of RSV vaccination is to prevent serious RSV-associated LRI. There are several obstacles to the development of successful RSV vaccines, including the need to immunize very young infants, who may respond inadequately to vaccination; the existence of two antigenically d...

  20. Violet Grove CO{sub 2} injection project : monitoring with timelapse VSP surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coueslan, M.; Lawton, D. [Calgary Univ., Calgary, AB (Canada); Jones, M. [Schlumberger Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Several oil and gas fields in western Canada have been depleted through primary production and secondary recovery methods. Injecting carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) into a reservoir can enhance oil recovery (EOR) and has the potential benefit of CO{sub 2} sequestration, which reduces greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere. It has been estimated that western Canada has a practical CO{sub 2} storage capacity of about 3.3 Gt in its oil and gas reservoirs. In order to claim a reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions, however, the injected CO{sub 2} must be monitored to prove that it is being trapped in these reservoirs. For that reason, the Violet Grove site, near Drayton Valley, Alberta was chosen as a pilot site to study CO{sub 2} injection into a reservoir for enhanced recovery and carbon sequestration purposes. The reservoir is located in the Cardium Formation in the Pembina Field. It was expected that the CO{sub 2} would flow preferentially in the reservoir's dominant fracture orientation, which is northeast-southwest. Simultaneously acquired time-lapse multicomponent surface and borehole seismic surveys were used to monitor changes in the reservoir. Prior to CO{sub 2} injection, a baseline survey was acquired in March 2005. A second survey was acquired 8 months after CO{sub 2} injection. The borehole seismic data displayed higher bandwidth and increased resolution compared to the surface seismic data. The PS-wave borehole seismic data in particular showed much better results. Together, these seismic surveys provide lateral coverage of the area as well as high resolution images near the observation well. Preliminary results from the time-lapse analysis show an increase of 30 to 60 per cent in the reservoir reflectivity amplitudes in the 8 months between the baseline and monitor surveys, suggesting that the CO{sub 2} flood has progressed southwest of the injector, most likely along the dominant fracture trend. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  1. Enhanced adsorption of methyl violet and congo red by using semi and full IPN of polymethacrylic acid and chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Jayabrata; Ray, Samit Kumar

    2014-04-15

    Semi and full interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) type hydrogels were prepared by free radical in situ polymerization of methacrylic acid in presence of chitosan using N,N'-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA) and glutaraldehyde (for full IPN) as crosslinker. Several semi and full IPN type hydrogels were prepared by varying initiator and crosslinker concentration and also monomer to chitosan mass ratio. These hydrogels were characterized and used for removal of methyl violet and congo red dye from water. Isotherms and kinetics of dye adsorption were also evaluated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Vaccines, our shared responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliusi, Sonia; Jain, Rishabh; Suri, Rajinder Kumar

    2015-05-05

    The Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers' Network (DCVMN) held its fifteenth annual meeting from October 27-29, 2014, New Delhi, India. The DCVMN, together with the co-organizing institution Panacea Biotec, welcomed over 240 delegates representing high-profile governmental and nongovernmental global health organizations from 36 countries. Over the three-day meeting, attendees exchanged information about their efforts to achieve their shared goal of preventing death and disability from known and emerging infectious diseases. Special praise was extended to all stakeholders involved in the success of polio eradication in South East Asia and highlighted challenges in vaccine supply for measles-rubella immunization over the coming decades. Innovative vaccines and vaccine delivery technologies indicated creative solutions for achieving global immunization goals. Discussions were focused on three major themes including regulatory challenges for developing countries that may be overcome with better communication; global collaborations and partnerships for leveraging investments and enable uninterrupted supply of affordable and suitable vaccines; and leading innovation in vaccines difficult to develop, such as dengue, Chikungunya, typhoid-conjugated and EV71, and needle-free technologies that may speed up vaccine delivery. Moving further into the Decade of Vaccines, participants renewed their commitment to shared responsibility toward a world free of vaccine-preventable diseases. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Vaccines: Shaping global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliusi, Sonia; Ting, Ching-Chia; Lobos, Fernando

    2017-03-14

    The Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers' Network (DCVMN) gathered leaders in immunization programs, vaccine manufacturing, representatives of the Argentinean Health Authorities and Pan American Health Organization, among other global health stakeholders, for its 17th Annual General Meeting in Buenos Aires, to reflect on how vaccines are shaping global health. Polio eradication and elimination of measles and rubella from the Americas is a result of successful collaboration, made possible by timely supply of affordable vaccines. After decades of intense competition for high-value markets, collaboration with developing countries has become critical, and involvement of multiple manufacturers as well as public- and private-sector investments are essential, for developing new vaccines against emerging infectious diseases. The recent Zika virus outbreak and the accelerated Ebola vaccine development exemplify the need for international partnerships to combat infectious diseases. A new player, Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI) has made its entrance in the global health community, aiming to stimulate research preparedness against emerging infections. Face-to-face panel discussions facilitated the dialogue around challenges, such as risks of viability to vaccine development and regulatory convergence, to improve access to sustainable vaccine supply. It was discussed that joint efforts to optimizing regulatory pathways in developing countries, reducing registration time by up to 50%, are required. Outbreaks of emerging infections and the global Polio eradication and containment challenges are reminders of the importance of vaccines' access, and of the importance of new public-private partnerships. Copyright © 2017.

  4. Magnetophotonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, M [Toyohashi University of Technology, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Fujikawa, R [Toyohashi University of Technology, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Baryshev, A [Toyohashi University of Technology, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Khanikaev, A [Toyohashi University of Technology, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Lim, P B [CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Saitama 332-0012, Japan (Japan); Uchida, H [Toyohashi University of Technology, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Aktsipetrov, O [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, Moscow, 119992 (Russian Federation); Fedyanin, A [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, Moscow, 119992 (Russian Federation); Murzina, T [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, Moscow, 119992 (Russian Federation); Granovsky, A [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, Moscow, 119992 (Russian Federation)

    2006-04-21

    When the constitutive materials of photonic crystals (PCs) are magnetic, or even only a defect introduced in PCs is magnetic, the resultant PCs exhibit very unique optical and magneto-optical properties. The strong photon confinement in the vicinity of magnetic defects results in large enhancement in linear and nonlinear magneto-optical responses of the media. Novel functions, such as band Faraday effect, magnetic super-prism effect and non-reciprocal or magnetically controllable photonic band structure, are predicted to occur theoretically. All the unique features of the media arise from the existence of magnetization in media, and hence they are called magnetophotonic crystals providing the spin-dependent nature in PCs. (topical review)

  5. Magnetophotonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, M; Fujikawa, R; Baryshev, A; Khanikaev, A; Lim, P B; Uchida, H; Aktsipetrov, O; Fedyanin, A; Murzina, T; Granovsky, A

    2006-01-01

    When the constitutive materials of photonic crystals (PCs) are magnetic, or even only a defect introduced in PCs is magnetic, the resultant PCs exhibit very unique optical and magneto-optical properties. The strong photon confinement in the vicinity of magnetic defects results in large enhancement in linear and nonlinear magneto-optical responses of the media. Novel functions, such as band Faraday effect, magnetic super-prism effect and non-reciprocal or magnetically controllable photonic band structure, are predicted to occur theoretically. All the unique features of the media arise from the existence of magnetization in media, and hence they are called magnetophotonic crystals providing the spin-dependent nature in PCs. (topical review)

  6. Therapeutic response of West African Dwarf goats infected with Peste des Petits Ruminants whose oral lesions were treated with oxytetracycline long acting and gentian violet topical spray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iniobong Chukwuebuka Ikenna Ugochukwu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the therapeutic response of West African Dwarf (WAD goats infected with Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR virus treated with Amantidine hydrochloride. Methods: Apart from the presence of the characteristic clinical signs, complement ELISA and haemagglutination inhibition (HI tests were used to confirm PPR infection in the WAD goats. The oral lesions in one group were cleaned with 70% alcohol and treated with oxytetracycline long acting (LA intramuscularly (IM and topically treated with gentian violet spray which also contained oxytetracycline, and in another group WAD goats infected with PPR virus were only treated with oxytetracycline LA intramuscularly. Results: The oral lesions in the group cleaned with 70% alcohol, treated with oxyteteracycline LA intramuscularly and gentian violet spray which also contained oxytetracycline topically healed appreciably within 3 weeks before the termination of the experiment, while the group that was treated with oxyteteracycline LA intramuscularly only healed poorly. The mortality of the WAD goats with PPR whose oral lesions were not treated with gentian violet topical spray was 100%, while the mortality of WAD goats treated with oxytetracycline LA intramuscularly and gentian violet topical spray was 71.42%. Conclusions: The results of this present study suggest that in addition to antiviral therapy, cleaning with 70% alcohol, combination of oxytetracycline LA and topical spraying of the oral lesions with gentian violet spray which also contains oxytetracycline reduced the morbidity and mortality considerably.

  7. Tetanus, Diphtheria, Pertussis (Tdap) Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adacel® (as a combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids, Acellular Pertussis Vaccine) ... Boostrix® (as a combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids, Acellular Pertussis Vaccine)

  8. Clinical development of Ebola vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Saranya

    2015-01-01

    The ongoing outbreak of Ebola virus disease in West Africa highlighted the lack of a licensed drug or vaccine to combat the disease and has renewed the urgency to develop a pipeline of Ebola vaccines. A number of different vaccine platforms are being developed by assessing preclinical efficacy in animal models and expediting clinical development. Over 15 different vaccines are in preclinical development and 8 vaccines are now in different stages of clinical evaluation. These vaccines include DNA vaccines, virus-like particles and viral vectors such as live replicating vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV), human and chimpanzee adenovirus, and vaccinia virus. Recently, in preliminary results reported from the first phase III trial of an Ebola vaccine, the rVSV-vectored vaccine showed promising efficacy. This review charts this rapidly advancing area of research focusing on vaccines in clinical development and discusses the future opportunities and challenges faced in the licensure and deployment of Ebola vaccines. PMID:26668751

  9. The relationship between the violet pigment PP-V production and intracellular ammonium level in Penicillium purpurogenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Ryo; Arai, Teppei; Matsufuji, Hiroshi; Kasumi, Takafumi; Watanabe, Taisuke; Ogihara, Jun

    2016-12-01

    Penicillium purpurogenum is the fungus that produces an azaphilone pigment. However, details about the pigment biosynthesis pathway are unknown. The violet pigment PP-V is the one of the main pigments biosynthesized by this fungus. This pigment contains an amino group in a pyran ring as its core structure. We focused on this pigment and examined the relationship between intracellular ammonium concentration and pigment production using glutamine as a nitrogen source. The intracellular ammonium level decreased about 1.5-fold in conditions favoring PP-V production. Moreover, P. purpurogenum was transferred to medium in which it commonly produces the related pigment PP-O after cultivating it in the presence or absence of glutamine to investigate whether this fungus biosynthesizes PP-V using surplus ammonium in cells. Only mycelia cultured in medium containing 10 mM glutamine produced the violet pigment, and simultaneously intracellular ammonium levels decreased under this condition. From comparisons of the amount of PP-V that was secreted with quantity of surplus intracellular ammonium, it is suggested that P. purpurogenum maintains ammonium homeostasis by excreting waste ammonium as PP-V.

  10. Bioremoval of Basic Violet 3 and Acid Blue 93 by Pseudomonas putida and its adsorption isotherms and kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunarani, A; Chandran, Preethy; Ranganathan, B V; Vasanthi, N S; Sudheer Khan, S

    2013-02-01

    Basic Violet 3 and Acid Blue 93 are the most important group of synthetic colourants extensively used in textile industries for dyeing cotton, wool, silk and nylon. Release of these dye pollutants in to the environment adversely affects the human health and aquatic organisms. The present study we used Pseudomonas putida MTCC 4910 for the adsorptive removal of Basic Violet 3 and Acid Blue 93 from the aqueous solutions. The pH (4-9) and NaCl concentrations (1mM-1M) did not influence the adsorption process. The equilibrium adsorption process fitted well to Freundlich model than Langmuir model. The kinetics of adsorption fitted well by pseudo-second-order. Thus in the present study an attempt has been made to exploit the dye removal capability of P. putida MTCC 4910, and it was found to be an efficient microbe that could be used for bio removal of dyes from textile effluents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Using violet laser-induced chlorophyll fluorescence emission spectra for crop yield assessment of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp) varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Benjamin; Buah-Bassuah, Paul K.; Tetteh, Jonathan P.

    2004-07-01

    The use of violet laser-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (LICF) emission spectra to monitor the growth of five varieties of cowpea in the University of Cape Coast Botanical Garden is presented. Radiation from a continuous-wave violet laser diode emitting at 396 nm through a fibre is closely incident on in vivo leaves of cowpea to excite chlorophyll fluorescence, which is detected by an integrated spectrometer with CCD readout. The chlorophyll fluorescence spectra with peaks at 683 and 731 nm were used for growth monitoring of the cowpea plants over three weeks and analysed using Gaussian spectral functions with curve fitted parameters to determine the peak positions, area under the spectral curve and the intensity ratio F683/F731. The variation in the intensity ratio of the chlorophyll bands showed sensitive changes indicating the photosynthetic activity of the cowpea varieties. A discussion of the fluorescence result as compared to conventional assessment is presented with regard to discrimination between the cowpea varieties in terms of crop yield performance.

  12. Adsorption of Acid Yellow-73 and Direct Violet-51 Dyes from Textile Wastewater by Using Iron Doped Corncob Charcoal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujtaba Baqar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of synthetic dyes in textile industry wastewater lead to deterioration of precious fresh water resources, making the need to remove dyes crucial for environmental protection. Recently, different techniques have been employed to remove these dyes from water resources. Among them, biosorption has gained tremendous popularity due to its eco-friendly nature and inexpensive method. In this study, the removal potential of two acid dyes, i.e. yellow-73 and direct violet-51, was assessed from textile effluent samples using iron modified corncob charcoal. The adsorption efficiency ranged between 93.93 ­ 97.96 % and 92.2 - 95.4 % for acid yellow-73 and direct violet-51, respectively. Furthermore, study highlights optimum parameters for successful adsorption of these dyes, such as stirring time (numbers, pH (numbers, temperature (numbers, and adsorbent dosage (numbers. Keeping in consideration these findings, we recommend the use of Iron Doped Corncob Charcoal (IDCC as a low-cost, efficient alternative for wastewater treatment, primarily minimizing the detrimental effects of hazardous dyes.

  13. Effect of QW thickness and numbers on performance characteristics of deep violet InGaN MQW lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alahyarizadeh, Gh.; Amirhoseiny, M.; Hassan, Z.

    2015-03-01

    The performance characteristics of deep violet indium gallium nitride (InGaN) multiquantum well (MQW) laser diodes (LDs) with an emission wavelength of around 390 nm have been investigated using the integrated system engineering technical computer aided design (ISE-TCAD) software. A comparative study on the effect of quantum well (QW) thickness and number on electrical and optical performance of deep violet In0.082Ga0.918N/GaN MQW LDs have been carried out. The simulation results showed that the highest slope efficiency and external differential quantum efficiency (DQE), as well as the lowest threshold current are obtained when the number of wells is two. The different QW thickness values of 2.2, 2.5, 2.8, 3 and 3.2 nm were compared and the best results were achieved for 2.5 nm QW thickness. The radiative recombination rate decreases with increasing QW thickness because of decreasing electron and hole carrier densities in wells. By increasing QW thickness, output power decreases and threshold current increases.

  14. Reproductive biology of the violet-chested hummingbird in Venezuela and comparisons with other tropical and temperate hummingbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro-Calderon, Karolina; Martin, T.E.

    2007-01-01

    We provide details on the breeding biology of the Violet-chested Hummingbird (Sternoclyta cyanopectus) based on 67 nests studied in Yacambu?? National Park, Venezuela, from 2002 through 2006. Clutch size was two white eggs, usually laid every other day. Fresh egg mass (0.95 ?? 0.14 g) was 15% of female mass. Incubation and nestling periods were 20.4 ?? 0.3 and 26.0 ?? 0.4 days, respectively. Nest attentiveness increased from 60% in early incubation to 68% in late incubation. The female spent 50% of her time brooding young nestlings, but ceased brooding by 13 days of age. Only the female fed the young, with a low rate of nest visitation (3.3 trips per hour) that did not increase with age of the young. Growth rate based on nestling mass (K = 0.28) was slow. Daily predation rates decreased across stages and were 0.064 ?? 0.044, 0.033 ?? 0.008, and 0.020 ?? 0.006 during the egg-laying, incubation, and nestling periods, respectively. Most, but not all, life history traits of the Violet-chested Hummingbird were similar to those reported for other tropical and temperate hummingbirds, providing further evidence that this family shows a relatively narrow range of life history variation. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2007.

  15. 2-Chlorophenol Removal of Aqueous Solution Using Advanced Oxidation Processes Resulting from Iron/ Persulfate and Ultra Violet/ Persulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokufeh Astereki

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Advanced oxidation processes are used to remove toxic aromatic compounds with low biodegradability, such as 2-chlorophenol. This study investigated the use of sulfate (SO4- and persulfate (S2O82- radicals, as one of the advanced oxidation methods, to remove 2- chlorophenol from aquatic solutions. Methods: This experimental and pilot-scale study was carried out using two chemical batch reactors; one of the reactors equipped with UV lamps and the other was on the hot plate. In iron/ persulfate (Fe/S2O82- and ultra violet/ persulfate (UV/S2O82- processes different parameters were investigated. Results: Iron, UV, the initial pH of the solution, persulfate concentration have considerable effects on the elimination of 2-chlorophenol in both processes. In both processes, the maximum elimination occurred in acidic conditions. The elimination efficiency was increased by increasing the concentration of 2-chlorophenol and UV intensity, and also by decreasing the concentration of persulfate and iron. Accordingly, in iron/ persulfate and ultra violet/ persulfate processes 2-chlorophenol was eliminated with 99.96% and 99.58% efficiencies, respectively. Conclusion: Sulfate radicals produced from activated persulfate ions with hot-Fe ion and UV radiation have significant impact on the removal of 2-chlorophenol. Therefore, the processes of Fe/S2O82- and UV/S2O82- can be regarded as good choices for industrial wastewater treatment plants operators in the future.

  16. Evaluation of dynamics and equilibrium models for the sorption of Basic Violet 3 on activated carbon prepared from Moringa Oleifera fruit shell waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sumithra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of activated carbon prepared from Moringa oleifera fruit shell waste to remove Basic Violet 3 from aqueous solution was investigated through batch mode contact time studies. The surface chemistry of activated carbon is studied using Boehm titrations and pH of PZC measurements indicates that the surface oxygenated groups are mainly basic in nature. The surface area of the activated carbon is determined using BET method. The kinetics of Basic Violet 3 adsorption are observed to be pH dependent. The experimental data can be explained by Pseudo second order kinetic model. For, Basic Violet 3, the Langmuir model is best suited to stimulate the adsorption isotherms.

  17. The Human Hookworm Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotez, Peter J; Diemert, David; Bacon, Kristina M; Beaumier, Coreen; Bethony, Jeffrey M; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Brooker, Simon; Couto, Artur Roberto; Freire, Marcos da Silva; Homma, Akira; Lee, Bruce Y; Loukas, Alex; Loblack, Marva; Morel, Carlos Medicis; Oliveira, Rodrigo Correa; Russell, Philip K

    2013-04-18

    Hookworm infection is one of the world's most common neglected tropical diseases and a leading cause of iron deficiency anemia in low- and middle-income countries. A Human Hookworm Vaccine is currently being developed by the Sabin Vaccine Institute and is in phase 1 clinical testing. The candidate vaccine is comprised of two recombinant antigens known as Na-GST-1 and Na-APR-1, each of which is an important parasite enzyme required for hookworms to successfully utilize host blood as a source of energy. The recombinant proteins are formulated on Alhydrogel(®) and are being tested in combination with a synthetic Toll-like receptor 4 agonist. The aim of the vaccine is to induce anti-enzyme antibodies that will reduce both host blood loss and the number of hookworms attached to the gut. Transfer of the manufacturing technology to the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ)/Bio-Manguinhos (a Brazilian public sector developing country vaccine manufacturer) is planned, with a clinical development plan that could lead to registration of the vaccine in Brazil. The vaccine would also need to be introduced in the poorest regions of Africa and Asia, where hookworm infection is highly endemic. Ultimately, the vaccine could become an essential tool for achieving hookworm control and elimination, a key target in the 2012 London Declaration on Neglected Tropical Diseases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Pricing of new vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bruce Y; McGlone, Sarah M

    2010-08-01

    New vaccine pricing is a complicated process that could have substantial long-standing scientific, medical, and public health ramifications. Pricing can have a considerable impact on new vaccine adoption and, thereby, either culminate or thwart years of research and development and public health efforts. Typically, pricing strategy consists of the following ten components: 1. Conduct a target population analysis; 2. Map potential competitors and alternatives; 3. Construct a vaccine target product profile (TPP) and compare it to projected or actual TPPs of competing vaccines; 4. Quantify the incremental value of the new vaccine's characteristics; 5. Determine vaccine positioning in the marketplace; 6. Estimate the vaccine price-demand curve; 7. Calculate vaccine costs (including those of manufacturing, distribution, and research and development); 8. Account for various legal, regulatory, third party payer, and competitor factors; 9. Consider the overall product portfolio; 10. Set pricing objectives; 11. Select pricing and pricing structure. While the biomedical literature contains some studies that have addressed these components, there is still considerable room for more extensive evaluation of this important area.

  19. Pricing of new vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlone, Sarah M

    2010-01-01

    New vaccine pricing is a complicated process that could have substantial long-standing scientific, medical and public health ramifications. Pricing can have a considerable impact on new vaccine adoption and, thereby, either culminate or thwart years of research and development and public health efforts. Typically, pricing strategy consists of the following eleven components: (1) Conduct a target population analysis; (2) Map potential competitors and alternatives; (3) Construct a vaccine target product profile (TPP) and compare it to projected or actual TPPs of competing vaccines; (4) Quantify the incremental value of the new vaccine's characteristics; (5) Determine vaccine positioning in the marketplace; (6) Estimate the vaccine price-demand curve; (7) Calculate vaccine costs (including those of manufacturing, distribution, and research and development); (8) Account for various legal, regulatory, third party payer and competitor factors; (9) Consider the overall product portfolio; (10) Set pricing objectives; (11) Select pricing and pricing structure. While the biomedical literature contains some studies that have addressed these components, there is still considerable room for more extensive evaluation of this important area. PMID:20861678

  20. Acceptance of vaccination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehmann, B.; Eilers, R.; Donken, R.; Barug, D.; Swillens, J.; Vriend, C. de; Weerdenburg, S.; Pot, M.; Keulen, H. van; Paulussen, T.; Vermey, K.; Alberts, N.; Marra, E.; Melker, H.E. de; Mollema, L.

    2016-01-01

    Both in 2013 and 2015 the mean intention of parents to vaccinate their child was high. Only 21% of parents reported making an informed decision about childhood vaccinations included in the NIP. Mass media attention on the use of allegedly inferior needles, which was later refuted, appeared to have a

  1. Vaccines Stop Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the disease no longer exists. If we keep vaccinating now, parents in the future may be able to trust that diseases like polio and meningitis won't infect, cripple, or kill children. Vaccine Safety In light of recent questions about ...

  2. Chimeric Pestivirus Experimental Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann, Ilona; Blome, Sandra; Beer, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Chimeric pestiviruses have shown great potential as marker vaccine candidates against pestiviral infections. Exemplarily, we describe here the construction and testing of the most promising classical swine fever vaccine candidate "CP7_E2alf" in detail. The description is focused on classical cloning technologies in combination with reverse genetics.

  3. Vaccination Perceptions of College Students: With and without Vaccination Waiver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Emmanuel D; Winkler, Danielle L; Anderson, Billie S

    2018-01-01

    The resurgence of vaccine preventable diseases occurs more often among intentionally unvaccinated individuals, placing at direct risk young adults not caught up on vaccinations. The objectives of this study were to characterize the sociodemographic characteristics of young adults with and without vaccination waivers and identify their perceived benefits, barriers, and influencers of vaccination. Young adults ( n  = 964) from a Midwestern rural university responded to a survey (fall 2015-spring 2016) designed to identify their perception toward vaccination. Instrument consistency was measured using the Cronbach α-scores. The Chi-square test was used to test any sociodemographic differences and Mann-Whitney U -tests results for differences between exempt and non-exempt students. Analysis occurred in spring 2017. A little over one-third of young adults with a vaccination waiver were not up to date on their vaccinations, and think that vaccinations can cause autism. The biggest identifiable benefit was effective control against disease. The surveyed young adults ranked the out of pocket cost associated with vaccination as the most important barrier and safe and easy to use vaccines as the most important influencer of vaccination. Young adults who have had a vaccination waiver appear to not be up to date on their vaccinations. Vaccine administration programs, such as university campus clinics, would benefit from addressing perceptions unique to young adults with and without a vaccine waiver. This would subsequently better provide young adults a second shot for getting appropriately caught up on vaccinations.

  4. DNA fusion gene vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Peter Johannes; Bassi, Maria Rosaria; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    2010-01-01

    DNA vaccines are versatile and safe, but limited immunogenicity has prevented their use in the clinical setting. Experimentally, immunogenicity may be enhanced by the use of new delivery technologies, by coadministration of cytokines and pathogen-associated molecular patterns, or by fusion...... of antigens into molecular domains that enhance antigen presentation. More specifically, the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines may benefit from increased protein synthesis, increased T-cell help and MHC class I presentation, and the addition of a range of specific cytokines and pathogen-associated molecular...... with viral-vectored vaccines, various synergistic components may need to be incorporated into DNA vaccines. From the perspective of the future clinical use of DNA vaccines, it has been suggested that antigen presentation should be improved and cytokine coadministration attempted. However, even...

  5. Financing children's vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, E Anthony S; Sack, David; Wolfson, Lara; Walker, Damian G; Seng, Lim Fong; Steele, Duncan

    2009-11-20

    A 2006 Commonwealth Association of Paediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition workshop on financing children's vaccines highlighted the potential for vaccines to control diarrhoea and other diseases as well as spur economic development through better health. Clear communication of vaccination value to decision-makers is required, together with sustainable funding mechanisms. GAVI and partners have made great progress providing funding for vaccines for children in the poorest countries but other solutions may be required to achieve the same gains in middle- and high-income countries. World Health Organization has a wealth of freely available country-level data on immunisation that academics and advocates can use to communicate the economic and health benefits of vaccines to decision-makers.

  6. Next generation vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedmann, Eva M

    2011-07-01

    In February this year, about 100 delegates gathered for three days in Vienna (Austria) for the Next Generation Vaccines conference. The meeting held in the Vienna Hilton Hotel from 23rd-25th February 2011 had a strong focus on biotech and industry. The conference organizer Jacob Fleming managed to put together a versatile program ranging from the future generation of vaccines to manufacturing, vaccine distribution and delivery, to regulatory and public health issues. Carefully selected top industry experts presented first-hand experience and shared solutions for overcoming the latest challenges in the field of vaccinology. The program also included several case study presentations on novel vaccine candidates in different stages of development. An interactive pre-conference workshop as well as interactive panel discussions during the meeting allowed all delegates to gain new knowledge and become involved in lively discussions on timely, interesting and sometimes controversial topics related to vaccines.

  7. PLGA nano/microparticles loaded with cresyl violet as a tracer for drug delivery: Characterization and in-situ hyperspectral fluorescence and 2-photon localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunardi, Claure N., E-mail: clunardi@unb.br [Laboratory of Photochemistry and Nanobiotechnology, University of Brasília, Brasília (Brazil); Department of Biomedical Engineering and Radiology, Laboratory for Functional Optical Imaging, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Gomes, Anderson J. [Laboratory of Photochemistry and Nanobiotechnology, University of Brasília, Brasília (Brazil); Department of Biomedical Engineering and Radiology, Laboratory for Functional Optical Imaging, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Palepu, Sandeep; Galwaduge, P. Thilanka; Hillman, Elizabeth M.C. [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Radiology, Laboratory for Functional Optical Imaging, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Here we present the production, characterization and in-vivo assessment of cresyl violet-loaded biodegradable PLGA nano/microparticles (CV-NP and CV-MP). We demonstrate that the beneficial spectral characteristics of cresyl violet make it suitable as a tracer for particle-based drug delivery using both hyperspectral wide field and two-photon excited fluorescence microscopy. Particles were prepared using a cosolvent method, after which the physicochemical properties such as morphology, particle size, drug entrapment efficiency, drug loading and in vitro drug release behavior were measured in addition to spectroscopic properties, such as absorption, fluorescence and infrared spectra. The particles were then tested in an in vivo mouse model to assess their biodistribution characteristics. The location and integrity of particles after injection was determined using both hyperspectral fluorescence and two-photon microscopy within intact organs in situ. Our results show that cresyl violet is efficiently entrapped into PLGA particles, and that the particles are spherical in shape, ranging from 300 to 5070 nm in diameter. Particle biodistribution in the mouse was found to depend on particle size, as expected. Cresyl violet is shown to be an ideal tracer to assess the properties PLGA particle-based drug delivery in combination with our novel multi-scale optical imaging techniques for in-situ particle localization. - Highlights: • Cresyl violet entrapment into polymeric particles • Cresyl violet suitable as a tracer for particle-based drug delivery • Hyperspectral analysis of polymer nano/microparticles • Two-photon microscopy of polymeric nano/microparticles.

  8. HIV vaccines: new frontiers in vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerr, Ann; Wasserheit, Judith N; Corey, Lawrence

    2006-08-15

    A human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine is the most promising and feasible strategy to prevent the events during acute infection that simultaneously set the course of the epidemic in the community and the course of the disease for the individual. Because safety concerns limit the use of live, attenuated HIV and inactivated HIV, a variety of alternate approaches is being investigated. Traditional antibody-mediated approaches using recombinant HIV envelope proteins have shown no efficacy in 2 phase III trials. Current HIV vaccine trials are focusing primarily on cytotoxic T lymphocyte-mediated products that use viral vectors, either alone or as boosts to DNA plasmids that contain viral genes. The most immunogenic of these products appear to be the recombinant adenovirus vector vaccines, 2 of which are now in advanced clinical development.

  9. Laser vaccine adjuvants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwagi, Satoshi; Brauns, Timothy; Gelfand, Jeffrey; Poznansky, Mark C

    2014-01-01

    Immunologic adjuvants are essential for current vaccines to maximize their efficacy. Unfortunately, few have been found to be sufficiently effective and safe for regulatory authorities to permit their use in vaccines for humans and none have been approved for use with intradermal vaccines. The development of new adjuvants with the potential to be both efficacious and safe constitutes a significant need in modern vaccine practice. The use of non-damaging laser light represents a markedly different approach to enhancing immune responses to a vaccine antigen, particularly with intradermal vaccination. This approach, which was initially explored in Russia and further developed in the US, appears to significantly improve responses to both prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines administered to the laser-exposed tissue, particularly the skin. Although different types of lasers have been used for this purpose and the precise molecular mechanism(s) of action remain unknown, several approaches appear to modulate dendritic cell trafficking and/or activation at the irradiation site via the release of specific signaling molecules from epithelial cells. The most recent study, performed by the authors of this review, utilized a continuous wave near-infrared laser that may open the path for the development of a safe, effective, low-cost, simple-to-use laser vaccine adjuvant that could be used in lieu of conventional adjuvants, particularly with intradermal vaccines. In this review, we summarize the initial Russian studies that have given rise to this approach and comment upon recent advances in the use of non-tissue damaging lasers as novel physical adjuvants for vaccines. PMID:25424797

  10. Vaccines for canine leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarisa B. Palatnik-De-Sousa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is the third most important vector-borne disease worldwide. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a severe and frequently lethal protozoan disease of increasing incidence and severity due to infected human and dog migration, new geographical distribution of the insect due to global-warming, co-infection with immunosuppressive diseases and poverty. The disease is an anthroponosis in India and Central Africa and a canid zoonosis (ZVL in the Americas, the Middle East, Central Asia, China and the Mediterranean. The ZVL epidemic has been controlled by one or more measures including the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases and insecticidal treatment of homes and dogs. However, the use of vaccines is considered the most cost-effective control tool for human and canine disease. Since the severity of the disease is related to the generation of T-cell immunosuppression, effective vaccines should be capable of sustaining or enhancing the T-cell immunity. In this review we summarize the clinical and parasitological characteristics of ZVL with special focus on the cellular and humoral canine immune response and review state-of-the-art vaccine development against human and canine visceral leishmaniasis. Experimental vaccination against leishmaniasis has evolved from the practice of leishmanization with living parasites to vaccination with crude lysates, native parasite extracts to recombinant and DNA vaccination. Although more than 30 defined vaccines have been studied in laboratory models no human formulation has been licensed so far; however three second-generation canine vaccines have already been registered. As expected for a zoonotic disease, the recent preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to a reduction in the incidence of canine and human disease. The recent identification of several Leishmania proteins with T-cell epitopes anticipates development of a multiprotein vaccine that will be capable of protecting both humans

  11. Source of the violet depression in carbon stars (a study of the Balmer decrement in carbon L.P.V.s)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlati, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    In an effort to determine the nature of the agent(s) of the violet depression in N-type stars through the behavior of their Balmer decrement, slit spectrograms of two C, one CS, two S (all reported to have the violet depression) and one M type LPVs were repeatedly taken between May 1983 and November 1984. The observed phase related changes in the Balmer decrement exclude the possibility that the absorbers are circumstellar because the emission region in the best-observed star is seen to rise through the opacity source. The exact nature and number of kinds of absorbers remains to be determined

  12. Ultra-violet radiation is responsible for the differences in global epidemiology of chickenpox and the evolution of varicella-zoster virus as man migrated out of Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Philip S

    2011-04-23

    Of the eight human herpes viruses, varicella-zoster virus, which causes chickenpox and zoster, has a unique epidemiology. Primary infection is much less common in children in the tropics compared with temperate areas. This results in increased adult susceptibility causing outbreaks, for example in health-care workers migrating from tropical to temperate countries. The recent demonstration that there are different genotypes of varicella-zoster virus and their geographic segregation into tropical and temperate areas suggests a distinct, yet previously unconsidered climatic factor may be responsible for both the clinical and molecular epidemiological features of this virus infection. Unlike other human herpes viruses, varicella-zoster virus does not require intimate contact for infection to occur indicating that transmission may be interrupted by a geographically restricted climatic factor. The factor with the largest difference between tropical and temperate zones is ultra-violet radiation. This could reduce the infectiousness of chickenpox cases by inactivating virus in vesicles, before or after rupture. This would explain decreased transmissibility in the tropics and why the peak chickenpox incidence in temperate zones occurs during winter and spring, when ultra-violet radiation is at its lowest. The evolution of geographically restricted genotypes is also explained by ultra-violet radiation driving natural selection of different virus genotypes with varying degrees of resistance to inactivation, tropical genotypes being the most resistant. Consequently, temperate viruses should be more sensitive to its effects. This is supported by the observation that temperate genotypes are found in the tropics only in specific circumstances, namely where ultra-violet radiation has either been excluded or significantly reduced in intensity. The hypothesis is testable by exposing different virus genotypes to ultra-violet radiation and quantifying virus survival by plaque forming

  13. Vaccination in food allergic patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most people do not react to vaccination and the incidence of vaccine anaphylaxis is estimated to be <1/million for all vaccines.[1] Most anaphylactic reactions occur in non-food allergic children. It is strongly recommended that anyone admin- istering vaccines has resuscitation equipment available to manage potential ...

  14. Parental knowledge of paediatric vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borràs Eva

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although routine vaccination is a major tool in the primary prevention of some infectious diseases, there is some reluctance in a proportion of the population. Negative parental perceptions of vaccination are an important barrier to paediatric vaccination. The aim of this study was to investigate parental knowledge of paediatric vaccines and vaccination in Catalonia. Methods A retrospective, cross-sectional study was carried out in children aged Results An association was observed between greater vaccination coverage of the 4:4:4:3:1 schedule (defined as: 4 DTPa/w doses, 4 Hib doses, 4 OPV doses, 3 MenC doses and 1 MMR dose and maternal age >30 years (OR: 2.30; 95% CI: 1.20–4.43 and with a knowledge of vaccination score greater than the mean (OR: 0.45; 95% CI: 0.28–0.72. The score increased with maternal educational level and in parents of vaccinated children. A total of 20.47% of parents stated that vaccines could have undesirable consequences for their children. Of these, 23.26% had no specific information and 17.83% stated that vaccines can cause adverse reactions and the same percentage stated that vaccines cause allergies and asthma. Conclusion Higher vaccination coverage is associated with older maternal age and greater knowledge of vaccination. Vaccination coverage could be raised by improving information on vaccines and vaccination.

  15. Bioinformatics analysis of Brucella vaccines and vaccine targets using VIOLIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yongqun; Xiang, Zuoshuang

    2010-09-27

    Brucella spp. are Gram-negative, facultative intracellular bacteria that cause brucellosis, one of the commonest zoonotic diseases found worldwide in humans and a variety of animal species. While several animal vaccines are available, there is no effective and safe vaccine for prevention of brucellosis in humans. VIOLIN (http://www.violinet.org) is a web-based vaccine database and analysis system that curates, stores, and analyzes published data of commercialized vaccines, and vaccines in clinical trials or in research. VIOLIN contains information for 454 vaccines or vaccine candidates for 73 pathogens. VIOLIN also contains many bioinformatics tools for vaccine data analysis, data integration, and vaccine target prediction. To demonstrate the applicability of VIOLIN for vaccine research, VIOLIN was used for bioinformatics analysis of existing Brucella vaccines and prediction of new Brucella vaccine targets. VIOLIN contains many literature mining programs (e.g., Vaxmesh) that provide in-depth analysis of Brucella vaccine literature. As a result of manual literature curation, VIOLIN contains information for 38 Brucella vaccines or vaccine candidates, 14 protective Brucella antigens, and 68 host response studies to Brucella vaccines from 97 peer-reviewed articles. These Brucella vaccines are classified in the Vaccine Ontology (VO) system and used for different ontological applications. The web-based VIOLIN vaccine target prediction program Vaxign was used to predict new Brucella vaccine targets. Vaxign identified 14 outer membrane proteins that are conserved in six virulent strains from B. abortus, B. melitensis, and B. suis that are pathogenic in humans. Of the 14 membrane proteins, two proteins (Omp2b and Omp31-1) are not present in B. ovis, a Brucella species that is not pathogenic in humans. Brucella vaccine data stored in VIOLIN were compared and analyzed using the VIOLIN query system. Bioinformatics curation and ontological representation of Brucella vaccines

  16. [Current events in vaccination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, M; Aumaître, H; Beytout, J; Bloch, K; Bouhour, D; Callamand, P; Chave, C; Cheymol, J; Combadière, B; Dahlab, A; Denis, F; De Pontual, L; Dodet, B; Dommergues, M-A; Dufour, V; Gagneur, A; Gaillat, J; Gaudelus, J; Gavazzi, G; Gillet, Y; Gras-le-Guen, C; Haas, H; Hanslik, T; Hau-Rainsard, I; Larnaudie, S; Launay, O; Lorrot, M; Loulergue, P; Malvy, D; Marchand, S; Picherot, G; Pinquier, D; Pulcini, C; Rabaud, C; Regnier, F; Reinert, P; Sana, C; Savagner, C; Soubeyrand, B; Stephan, J-L; Strady, C

    2011-11-01

    The annual meeting of the Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) ; which brought together nearly 5000 participants from over 80 countries in Vancouver, Canada, October 21 to 24, 2010 ; provided a review of the influenza (H1N1) 2009 pandemic, evaluated vaccination programmes and presented new vaccines under development. With 12,500 deaths in the United States in 2009-2010, the influenza (H1N1) 2009 pandemic was actually less deadly than the seasonal flu. But it essentially hit the young, and the toll calculated in years of life lost is high. The monovalent vaccines, whether live attenuated or inactivated with or without adjuvants, were well tolerated in toddlers, children, adults and pregnant women. In order to protect infants against pertussis, family members are urged to get their booster shots. The introduction of the 13-valent Pneumococcal conjugated vaccine in the beginning of 2010 may solve - but for how long ? - the problem of serotype replacement, responsible for the re-increasing incidence of invasive Pneumococcal infections observed in countries that had introduced the 7-valent vaccine. The efficacy of a rotavirus vaccine has been confirmed, with a reduction in hospitalization in the United States and a reduction in gastroenteritis-related deaths in Mexico. In the United States, vaccination of pre-adolescents against human papillomavirus (HPV) has not resulted in any specific undesirable effects. Routine vaccination against chicken pox, recommended since 1995, has not had an impact on the evolution of the incidence of shingles. Vaccination against shingles, recommended in the United States for subjects 60 years and over, shows an effectiveness of 55 %, according to a cohort study (Kaiser Permanente, Southern California). Although some propose the development of personalized vaccines according to individual genetic characteristics, the priority remains with increasing vaccine coverage, not only in infants but also in adults and the elderly. Vaccine

  17. Technical Transformation of Biodefense Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shan; Wang, Shixia

    2013-01-01

    Biodefense vaccines are developed against a diverse group of pathogens. Vaccines were developed for some of these pathogens a long time ago but they are facing new challenges to move beyond the old manufacturing technologies. New vaccines to be developed against other pathogens have to determine whether to follow traditional vaccination strategies or to seek new approaches. Advances in basic immunology and recombinant DNA technology have fundamentally transformed the process of formulating a vaccine concept, optimizing protective antigens, and selecting the most effective vaccine delivery approach for candidate biodefense vaccines. PMID:19837293

  18. Photonic time crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Lunwu; Xu, Jin; Wang, Chengen; Zhang, Jianhua; Zhao, Yuting; Zeng, Jing; Song, Runxia

    2017-12-07

    When space (time) translation symmetry is spontaneously broken, the space crystal (time crystal) forms; when permittivity and permeability periodically vary with space (time), the photonic crystal (photonic time crystal) forms. We proposed the concept of photonic time crystal and rewritten the Maxwell's equations. Utilizing Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method, we simulated electromagnetic wave propagation in photonic time crystal and photonic space-time crystal, the simulation results show that more intensive scatter fields can obtained in photonic time crystal and photonic space-time crystal.

  19. Rapid, green synthesis and surface-enhanced Raman scattering effect of single-crystal silver nanocubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Aiqin; Jin, Xia; Gu, Xiaolong; Wei, Xiaoqing; Yang, Guojing

    2012-08-01

    Single-crystal silver (Ag) nanocubes have been synthesized by a rapid and green method at room temperature by adding sodium hydroxide solution to the mixed solutions of silver nitrate, glucose and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). The X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible (UV-visible) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to characterize the phase composition and morphology. The results showed that the as-prepared particles were single-crystal Ag nanocubes with edge lengths of around 77 nm and a growing direction along {1 0 0} facets. As substrates for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) experiment on crystal violet (CV), the SERS enhancement factor of the as-prepared Ag nanocubes were measured to be 5.5 × 104, indicating potential applications in chemical and biological analysis.

  20. Progress towards a Leishmania vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabbara, Khaled S

    2006-07-01

    Leishmaniasis is a vector-born protozoan disease. Approximately 12 million individuals are affected worldwide with an estimated annual incidence of 1.5-2 million. Two clinical manifestations are recognized, cutaneous, and visceral, both of which are common in the Middle East. In both forms, infection is chronic, with potential deformities, persistence following cure, and lifelong risk of reactivation. Attempts to develop an effective human Leishmania vaccine have not yet succeeded. Leishmanization, a crude form of live vaccination historically originated in this part of the world. Experimental vaccination has been extensively studied in model animals in the past 2 decades. In this review, major human killed vaccine trials are surveyed, and modern trends in Leishmania vaccine development, including subunit vaccines, naked DNA vaccines, and transmission blocking vaccines are explored. Recent findings of a link between persistence of live parasites, and maintenance of long-term immunity suggest live vaccination with attenuated strains, as a future vaccination strategy.

  1. Photoinduced critical opalescence and reversible all-optical switching in photosensitive liquid crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabiryan, Nelson V.; Serak, Svetlana V.; Grozhik, Vladimir A.

    2003-01-01

    We present the results of a study of the critical opalescence that is observed as a result of reversible trans-cis photoisomerization in the vicinity of photoinduced isothermal phase transitions in azobenzene liquid crystals (azo LCs). The opalescence is caused by the generation of randomly oriented microdomains and microdroplets of isotropic phase in the illuminated area of the azo LC. Transformations between the strongly light-scattering nematic phase and the transparent isotropic phase of the azo LC are induced all-optically by combination of green (λ=532 nm) and violet (λ=409 nm) laser beams

  2. Photoinduced critical opalescence and reversible all-optical switching in photosensitive liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabiryan, Nelson V.; Serak, Svetlana V.; Grozhik, Vladimir A.

    2003-03-01

    We present the results of a study of the critical opalescence that is observed as a result of reversible trans-cis photoisomerization in the vicinity of photoinduced isothermal phase transitions in azobenzene liquid crystals (azo LCs). The opalescence is caused by the generation of randomly oriented microdomains and microdroplets of isotropic phase in the illuminated area of the azo LC. Transformations between the strongly light-scattering nematic phase and the transparent isotropic phase of the azo LC are induced all-optically by combination of green (λ=532 nm) and violet (λ=409 nm) laser beams.

  3. Synthesis, crystal structure, and photoluminescence of a lithium isothiocyanate compound with 18-crown-6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Shan; Fu, Bo; Zhao, Zhen; Liu, Xi [Chongqing Normal Univ. (China). Chongqing Key Lab. of Inorganic Functional Materials

    2018-04-01

    The investigation of the supramolecular interactions between the lithium isothiocyanate salt and 18-crown-6 (18C-6) in commercial tetrahydrofuran leads to the formation of a lithium compound, LiNCS(H{sub 2}O)(18C-6) (1). In the crystal structure the asymmetric unit contains two similar LiNCS(H{sub 2}O)(18C-6) molecules. Solid-state photoluminescence experiments have shown that compound 1 emits violet luminescence, and its possible emission mechanism was investigated in detail based on theoretical calculations.

  4. [Development of current smallpox vaccines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksiutov, R A; Gavrilova, E V; Shchelkunov, S N

    2011-01-01

    The review gives data on the history of smallpox vaccination and shows the high topicality of designing the current safe vaccines against orthopoxviruses. Four generations of live smallpox, protein subunit, and DNA vaccines are considered. Analysis of the data published leads to the conclusion that it is promising to use the up-to-date generations of safe smallpox subunit or DNA vaccines for mass primary immunization with possible further revaccination with classical live vaccine.

  5. Electronic structure of germanium selenide investigated using ultra-violet photo-electron spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, P.; Lohani, H.; Kundu, A. K.; Patel, R.; Solanki, G. K.; Menon, Krishnakumar S. R.; Sekhar, B. R.

    2015-07-01

    The valence band electronic structure of GeSe single crystals has been investigated using angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The experimentally observed bands from ARPES, match qualitatively with our LDA-based band structure calculations along the Γ-Z, Γ-Y and Γ-T symmetry directions. The valence band maximum occurs nearly midway along the Γ-Z direction, at a binding energy of -0.5 eV, substantiating the indirect band gap of GeSe. Non-dispersive features associated with surface states and indirect transitions have been observed. The difference in hybridization of Se and Ge 4p orbitals leads to the variation of dispersion along the three symmetry directions. The predominance of the Se 4pz orbitals, evidenced from theoretical calculations, may be the cause for highly dispersive bands along the Γ-T direction. Detailed electronic structure analysis reveals the significance of the cation-anion 4p orbitals hybridization in the valence band dispersion of IV-VI semiconductors. This is the first comprehensive report of the electronic structure of a GeSe single crystal using ARPES in conjugation with theoretical band structure analysis.

  6. Electronic structure of germanium selenide investigated using ultra-violet photo-electron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, P; Lohani, H; Sekhar, B R; Kundu, A K; Menon, Krishnakumar S R; Patel, R; Solanki, G K

    2015-01-01

    The valence band electronic structure of GeSe single crystals has been investigated using angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The experimentally observed bands from ARPES, match qualitatively with our LDA-based band structure calculations along the Γ–Z, Γ–Y and Γ–T symmetry directions. The valence band maximum occurs nearly midway along the Γ–Z direction, at a binding energy of −0.5 eV, substantiating the indirect band gap of GeSe. Non-dispersive features associated with surface states and indirect transitions have been observed. The difference in hybridization of Se and Ge 4p orbitals leads to the variation of dispersion along the three symmetry directions. The predominance of the Se 4p z orbitals, evidenced from theoretical calculations, may be the cause for highly dispersive bands along the Γ–T direction. Detailed electronic structure analysis reveals the significance of the cation–anion 4p orbitals hybridization in the valence band dispersion of IV–VI semiconductors. This is the first comprehensive report of the electronic structure of a GeSe single crystal using ARPES in conjugation with theoretical band structure analysis. (paper)

  7. Therapeutic HIV Peptide Vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomsgaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic vaccines aim to control chronic HIV infection and eliminate the need for lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART). Therapeutic HIV vaccine is being pursued as part of a functional cure for HIV/AIDS. We have outlined a basic protocol for inducing new T cell immunity during chronic HIV-1...... infection directed to subdominant conserved HIV-1 epitopes restricted to frequent HLA supertypes. The rationale for selecting HIV peptides and adjuvants are provided. Peptide subunit vaccines are regarded as safe due to the simplicity, quality, purity, and low toxicity. The caveat is reduced immunogenicity...

  8. Cellular based cancer vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M; Met, Ö; Svane, I M

    2012-01-01

    Cancer vaccines designed to re-calibrate the existing host-tumour interaction, tipping the balance from tumor acceptance towards tumor control holds huge potential to complement traditional cancer therapies. In general, limited success has been achieved with vaccines composed of tumor...... to transiently affect in vitro migration via autocrine receptor-mediated endocytosis of CCR7. In the current review, we discuss optimal design of DC maturation focused on pre-clinical as well as clinical results from standard and polarized dendritic cell based cancer vaccines....

  9. ADE and dengue vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Vega, Ruth Aralí; Carrasquila, Gabriel; Luna, Expedito; Ramos-Castañeda, José

    2017-07-13

    The vaccine against Dengue virus (DENV), Dengvaxia® (CYD), produced by Sanofi-Pasteur, has been registered by several national regulatory agencies; nevertheless, the performance and security of this vaccine have been challenged in a series of recent papers. In this work, we intend to contribute to the debate by analyzing the concept of an enhancing vaccine, presenting objections to the epidemiological model base of the concept and, likewise, presenting data that contradict that concept. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Growth of GaN single crystals by a Ca- and Ba-added Na flux method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukegawa, H.; Konishi, Y.; Fujimori, T.; Miyoshi, N.; Imade, M.; Yoshimura, M.; Kitaoka, Y.; Sasaki, T.; Mori, Y.

    2011-02-01

    GaN substrates are desirable for fabricating ultra-violet LEDs and LDs, and high-power and high-frequency transistors. High-quality GaN single crystals can be obtained by using Na flux method, but the growth habit of bulk crystals must be controlled. In this study, we investigated the effects of additives (Ca, Ba) on the growth habit and impurity concentration in the crystals. The aspect ratio (c/a) of the crystals was increased by increasing the amount of additives, showing that the growth habit could be changed from the pyramidal shape to the prism shape. Ba concentration was below the detection limit (1x1015 atoms/cm3).

  11. Photonic Crystal Fibers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kristiansen, Rene E

    2005-01-01

    This report results from a contract tasking Crystal Fibre A/S as follows: Crystal Fibre will conduct research and development of large mode area, dual clad multi-core Yb-doped photonic crystal fiber...

  12. Vaccine decision-making begins in pregnancy: Correlation between vaccine concerns, intentions and maternal vaccination with subsequent childhood vaccine uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danchin, M H; Costa-Pinto, J; Attwell, K; Willaby, H; Wiley, K; Hoq, M; Leask, J; Perrett, K P; O'Keefe, Jacinta; Giles, M L; Marshall, H

    2017-08-12

    Maternal and childhood vaccine decision-making begins prenatally. Amongst pregnant Australian women we aimed to ascertain vaccine information received, maternal immunisation uptake and attitudes and concerns regarding childhood vaccination. We also aimed to determine any correlation between a) intentions and concerns regarding childhood vaccination, (b) concerns about pregnancy vaccination, (c) socioeconomic status (SES) and (d) uptake of influenza and pertussis vaccines during pregnancy and routine vaccines during childhood. Women attending public antenatal clinics were recruited in three Australian states. Surveys were completed on iPads. Follow-up phone surveys were done three to six months post delivery, and infant vaccination status obtained via the Australian Childhood Immunisation Register (ACIR). Between October 2015 and March 2016, 975 (82%) of 1184 mothers consented and 406 (42%) agreed to a follow up survey, post delivery. First-time mothers (445; 49%) had significantly more vaccine concerns in pregnancy and only 73% had made a decision about childhood vaccination compared to 89% of mothers with existing children (p-valuepost delivery survey, 46% and 82% of mothers reported receiving pregnancy influenza and pertussis vaccines respectively. The mother's degree of vaccine hesitancy and two attitudinal factors were correlated with vaccine uptake post delivery. There was no association between reported maternal vaccine uptake or SES and childhood vaccine uptake. First time mothers are more vaccine hesitant and undecided about childhood vaccination, and only two thirds of all mothers believed they received enough information during pregnancy. New interventions to improve both education and communication on childhood and maternal vaccines, delivered by midwives and obstetricians in the Australian public hospital system, may reduce vaccine hesitancy for all mothers in pregnancy and post delivery, particularly first-time mothers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

  13. A High Power InGaN-Based Blue-Violet Laser Diode Array with a Broad-Area Stripe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Ping; Zhao De-Gang; Feng Mei-Xin; Jiang De-Sheng; Liu Zong-Shun; Yang Hui; Zhang Li-Qun; Li De-Yao; Liu Jian-Ping; Wang Hui; Zhu Jian-Jun; Zhang Shu-Ming; Zhang Bao-Shun

    2013-01-01

    An array of high power InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well laser diodes with a broad waveguide is fabricated. The laser diode structure is grown on a GaN substrate by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. The laser diode array consists of five emitter stripes which share common electrodes on one laser chip. The electrical and optical characteristics of the laser diode array are investigated under the pulse current injection with 10kHz frequency and 100 ns pulse width. The laser diode array emits at the wavelength of 409 nm, which is located in the blue-violet region, and the threshold current is 2.9 A. The maximum output light peak power is measured to be 7.5 W at the wavelength of 411.8 nm under the current of 25 A

  14. Quantitative super-resolution localization microscopy of DNA in situ using Vybrant® DyeCycle™ Violet fluorescent probe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominika Żurek-Biesiada

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Single Molecule Localization Microscopy (SMLM is a recently emerged optical imaging method that was shown to achieve a resolution in the order of tens of nanometers in intact cells. Novel high resolution imaging methods might be crucial for understanding of how the chromatin, a complex of DNA and proteins, is arranged in the eukaryotic cell nucleus. Such an approach utilizing switching of a fluorescent, DNA-binding dye Vybrant® DyeCycle™ Violet has been previously demonstrated by us (Żurek-Biesiada et al., 2015 [1]. Here we provide quantitative information on the influence of the chemical environment on the behavior of the dye, discuss the variability in the DNA-associated signal density, and demonstrate direct proof of enhanced structural resolution. Furthermore, we compare different visualization approaches. Finally, we describe various opportunities of multicolor DNA/SMLM imaging in eukaryotic cell nuclei.

  15. The use of vapour phase ultra-violet spectroscopy for the analysis of arson accelerants in fire scene debris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdy, R J; Atwell, T; Cole, M D

    2001-12-01

    A method has been developed for the analysis of arson accelerants in fire scene debris by vapour phase ultra-violet (UV) spectroscopy. The method is rapid, inexpensive, simple to use and is sufficiently sensitive and discriminating to be of use for the analysis of crime scene samples. Application to casework samples is described. On occasion, the method offers additional information to that which can be obtained by gas chromatography-flame ionisation detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and represents a useful adjunct to these techniques. In addition, the method offers advantages where the use of GC-MS analysis of arson accelerants in fire scene debris is not a practical proposition.

  16. Photostability Characterization of Wood Polymer Composites of Polyvinyl Chloride and Rice Husk to Ultra-Violet Irradiation Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jais Farhana Hazwanee M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the photostability of wood polymer composites (WPC was assessed by using ultra-violet accelerated weathering test. Meanwhile, the mechanical properties of WPC show strength improvement at prolonged UV irradiation exposure with 43.21 MPa and maximum strain of 4.08 % at 5000 hours and 1000 hours UV irradiation exposure respectively. The colour stability of WPC was improved by addition of Ultraviolet (UV stabilizer during pre-mixing process which shows positive effect on the colour stability and prevented chalking of the composites for external use. Generally, discolourations of WPC during test exposure were caused by degradation of both wood and plastic. Therefore, incorporation with pigments and other additives gives improvement to the photostability of WPC. This is based on the increment of WPCs mechanical property while the morphological fracture surface of dumbbell test specimens revealed the pull out rice husk fiber which contributed to the distribution of load in the WPC samples.

  17. Fluorescence, Decay Time, and Structural Change of Laser Dye Cresyl Violet in Solution due to Microwave Irradiation at GSM 900/1800 Mobile Phone Frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuat Bayrakceken

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Microwave irradiation at GSM 900/1800 MHz mobile phone frequencies affects the electronic structure of cresyl violet in solution. These changes are important because laser-dye cresyl violet strongly bonds to DNA- and RNA-rich cell compounds in nerve tissues. The irradiation effects on the electronic structure of cresyl violet and its fluorescence data were all obtained experimentally at room temperature. For most laser dyes, this is not a trivial task because laser dye molecules possess a relatively complex structure. They usually consist of an extended system of conjugated double or aromatic π-bonds with attached auxochromic (electron donating groups shifting the absorption band further towards longer wavelength. Because of the intrinsically high degree of conjugation, the vibrational modes of the molecular units couple strongly with each other. We found that the fluorescence quantum yield was increased from to due to intramolecular energy hopping of cresyl violet in solution which is exposed to microwave irradiation at mobile phone frequencies, and the photonic product cannot be used as a laser dye anymore.

  18. Optimization of a new polymeric chromium (III) membrane electrode based on methyl violet by using experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Sayed Yahya; Hamidi, Akram sadat; Asanjarani, Neda; Zolgharnein, Javad

    2010-06-15

    Plackett-Burman and Box-Behnken designs were applied as experimental design strategies to screen and optimize the influence of membrane ingredients on the electrode performance. A new poly(vinyl chloride) membrane sensor for Cr(III) based on methyl violet as an ionophore was planned. The major variables to find a model for achieving the best Nernstian slope as response were: PVC, plasticizers, methyl violet, KpClTPB, pH, conditioning time and internal solution concentration. Plackett-Burman design was used to screen the main factors and Box-Behnken response surface was led to find a model for optimizing the response. The optimized membrane electrode shows a Nernstian slope for chromium (III) ions over a wide linear range from 1.99x10(-6) to 3.16x10(-2)molL(-1) and a slope of 19.5+/-0.1mVdecade(-1) of activity. It would be successfully applied in the pH range from 3.5 to 6.5 with detection limit of 1.77x10(-6)molL(-1) (0.092mgL(-1)). The response time of the sensor is about 8s and the membrane can be used for more than 6 weeks without any deviation. The relative standard deviations (R.S.D.) for six replicate the measurements of 1.0x10(-4) and 1.0x10(-3)molL(-1) of Cr(III) were 3.2 and 3%, respectively. The electrode revealed comparatively good selectivity with respect to many cations including alkali earth, transition and heavy metal ions. The electrode was successfully used as an indicator in the potentiometric titration of Cr(III) with EDTA and was also applied to the direct determination chromium (III) content of spiked water and soil samples.

  19. Aminoquinolone WR6026 as a feasible substitute for gentian violet in Chagas' disease prophylaxis in preserved blood for transfusional purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moraes-Souza Helio

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The search for a colorless, nontoxic and efficient drug to prevent transfusion-associated Chagas' disease (TACD has been underway unsuccessfully since 1953 when gentian violet was preconized and to date is still being used as the only in vitro trypanocidal agent. The recent findings of aminoquinolone "WR6026" as a trypanocidal agent, led the authors to study the metabolism of red cells stored with this compound, the main objective of which was to define its applicability in TACD control. Ten units of human whole blood collected in CPDA-1 were divided into two equal satellite bags. One had "WR6026" (final concentration 62.5µg/mL added and the other was used as a control, both were stored at 4ºC. At baseline, day 7, 14, 21 and 28, samples were taken for the following measurements: adenosine triphosphate (ATP, hemoglobin, electrolytes (sodium and potassium, gases (pO2 and pCO2 and osmotic fragility. The results of tests and control were analyzed through parametric t-student test. The results were similar in both groups throughout the experiment except for the level of ATP on day 14, which presented significantly higher values in the tests when compared with the controls (p = 0.012. It was concluded that WR6026 does not interfere in the preservation and probably the viability of the erythrocytes also until day 28 of storage. Consequently the authors suggest that WR6026 could emerge as a colorless substitute for gentian violet in the control of TACD in endemic areas.

  20. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors for developing them, such as taking oral contraceptives . A safety review of Gardasil in Denmark and ... and venous thromboembolic adverse events after immunisation of adolescent girls with quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine in Denmark ...

  1. [Development of new vaccines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Romo, Fernando; Picazo, Juan J

    2015-10-01

    Recent and important advances in the fields of immunology, genomics, functional genomics, immunogenetics, immunogenomics, bioinformatics, microbiology, genetic engineering, systems biology, synthetic biochemistry, proteomics, metabolomics and nanotechnology, among others, have led to new approaches in the development of vaccines. The better identification of ideal epitopes, the strengthening of the immune response due to new adjuvants, and the search of new routes of vaccine administration, are good examples of advances that are already a reality and that will favour the development of more vaccines, their use in indicated population groups, or its production at a lower cost. There are currently more than 130 vaccines are under development against the more wished (malaria or HIV), difficult to get (CMV or RSV), severe re-emerging (Dengue or Ebola), increasing importance (Chagas disease or Leishmania), and nosocomial emerging (Clostridium difficile or Staphylococcus aureus) infectious diseases. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  2. Ingredients of Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... containing preservative that is added to vials of vaccine that contain more than one dose to prevent contamination and growth of potentially harmful bacteria. For children with a prior history of allergic reactions to any of these substances ...

  3. Current status of rotavirus vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ching-Min; Chen, Shou-Chien; Chen, Kow-Tong

    2015-11-01

    Rotaviruses remain the major cause of childhood diarrheal disease worldwide and of diarrheal deaths of infants and children in developing countries. The huge burden of childhood rotavirus-related diarrhea in the world continues to drive the remarkable pace of vaccine development. Research articles were searched using terms "rotavirus" and "rotavirus vaccine" in MEDLINE and PubMed. Articles not published in the English language, articles without abstracts, and opinion articles were excluded from the review. After preliminary screening, all articles were reviewed and synthesized to provide an overview of current vaccines and vaccination programs. In this review of the global rotavirus vaccines and vaccination programs, the principles of rotavirus vaccine development and the efficacy of the currently licensed vaccines from both developed and developing countries were summarized. Rotavirus is a common cause of diarrhea in children in both developed and developing countries. Rotavirus vaccination is a cost-effective measure to prevent rotavirus diarrhea.

  4. Vaccines for Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worz, Chad; Martin, Caren McHenry; Travis, Catherine

    2017-09-01

    Several vaccine-preventable diseases-influenza, pneumonia, herpes zoster, and pertussis-threaten the health of older adults in the United States. Both the costs associated with treating these diseases and the potential to increase morbidity and mortality are high for this patient population. Pharmacists and other health care professionals play a significant role in ensuring the elderly patient receives the recommended vaccines at the recommended intervals.

  5. Beninese vaccination clinic

    OpenAIRE

    Linda Sun

    2017-01-01

    This photo was taken in the village of Ladji, which is on the outskirts of Cotonou, the capital of Benin. At the time, I was a second year medical student volunteering at a local medical clinic. On every Wednesday morning, many Beninese babies, like this one, cry out of discomfort while receiving their monthly vaccinations. The photo shows a local clinic nurse administering the vaccination.

  6. Beninese vaccination clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Sun

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This photo was taken in the village of Ladji, which is on the outskirts of Cotonou, the capital of Benin. At the time, I was a second year medical student volunteering at a local medical clinic. On every Wednesday morning, many Beninese babies, like this one, cry out of discomfort while receiving their monthly vaccinations. The photo shows a local clinic nurse administering the vaccination.

  7. HPV vaccines: a controversial issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, A F; Andrade, C V; Russomano, F B; Rodrigues, L L S; Oliveira, N S; Provance, D W

    2016-01-01

    Controversy still exists over whether the benefits of the available HPV vaccines outweigh the risks and this has suppressed uptake of the HPV vaccines in comparison to other vaccines. Concerns about HPV vaccine safety have led some physicians, healthcare officials and parents to withhold the recommended vaccination from the target population. The most common reason for not administering the prophylactic HPV vaccines are concerns over adverse effects. The aim of this review is the assessment of peer-reviewed scientific data related to measurable outcomes from the use of HPV vaccines throughout the world with focused attention on the potential adverse effects. We found that the majority of studies continue to suggest a positive risk-benefit from vaccination against HPV, with minimal documented adverse effects, which is consistent with other vaccines. However, much of the published scientific data regarding the safety of HPV vaccines appears to originate from within the financially competitive HPV vaccine market. We advocate a more independent monitoring system for vaccine immunogenicity and adverse effects to address potential conflicts of interest with regular systematic literature reviews by qualified individuals to vigilantly assess and communicate adverse effects associated with HPV vaccination. Finally, our evaluation suggests that an expanded use of HPV vaccine into more diverse populations, particularly those living in low-resource settings, would provide numerous health and social benefits.

  8. Epilepsy and vaccinations: Italian guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruna, Dario; Balestri, Paolo; Zamponi, Nelia; Grosso, Salvatore; Gobbi, Giuseppe; Romeo, Antonino; Franzoni, Emilio; Osti, Maria; Capovilla, Giuseppe; Longhi, Riccardo; Verrotti, Alberto

    2013-10-01

    Reports of childhood epilepsies in temporal association with vaccination have had a great impact on the acceptance of vaccination programs by health care providers, but little is known about this possible temporal association and about the types of seizures following vaccinations. For these reasons the Italian League Against Epilepsy (LICE), in collaboration with other Italian scientific societies, has decided to generate Guidelines on Vaccinations and Epilepsy. The aim of Guidelines on Vaccinations and Epilepsy is to present recent unequivocal evidence from published reports on the possible relationship between vaccines and epilepsy in order to provide information about contraindications and risks of vaccinations in patients with epilepsy. The following main issues have been addressed: (1) whether contraindications to vaccinations exist in patients with febrile convulsions, epilepsy, and/or epileptic encephalopathies; and (2) whether any vaccinations can cause febrile seizures, epilepsy, and/or epileptic encephalopathies. Diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccination and measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination (MMR) increase significantly the risk of febrile seizures. Recent observations and data about the relationships between vaccination and epileptic encephalopathy show that some cases of apparent vaccine-induced encephalopathy could in fact be caused by an inherent genetic defect with no causal relationship with vaccination. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2013 International League Against Epilepsy.

  9. HPV vaccines: a controversial issue?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F. Nicol

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Controversy still exists over whether the benefits of the available HPV vaccines outweigh the risks and this has suppressed uptake of the HPV vaccines in comparison to other vaccines. Concerns about HPV vaccine safety have led some physicians, healthcare officials and parents to withhold the recommended vaccination from the target population. The most common reason for not administering the prophylactic HPV vaccines are concerns over adverse effects. The aim of this review is the assessment of peer-reviewed scientific data related to measurable outcomes from the use of HPV vaccines throughout the world with focused attention on the potential adverse effects. We found that the majority of studies continue to suggest a positive risk-benefit from vaccination against HPV, with minimal documented adverse effects, which is consistent with other vaccines. However, much of the published scientific data regarding the safety of HPV vaccines appears to originate from within the financially competitive HPV vaccine market. We advocate a more independent monitoring system for vaccine immunogenicity and adverse effects to address potential conflicts of interest with regular systematic literature reviews by qualified individuals to vigilantly assess and communicate adverse effects associated with HPV vaccination. Finally, our evaluation suggests that an expanded use of HPV vaccine into more diverse populations, particularly those living in low-resource settings, would provide numerous health and social benefits.

  10. Key Facts about Seasonal Flu Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Swine Variant Pandemic Other Key Facts About Seasonal Flu Vaccine Language: English (US) Español Recommend on Facebook ... the flu is to get vaccinated each year. Flu Vaccination Why should people get vaccinated against the ...

  11. Meningococcal group B vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlow, Jamie

    2013-06-01

    Meningococcal disease remains a devastating and feared infection with a significant morbidity and mortality profile. The successful impact of meningococcal capsular group C glyconconjugate vaccines introduced into the UK infant immunization schedule in 1999, has resulted in >80% of disease now being attributable to meningococcal capsular group B (MenB). MenB glyconconjugate vaccines are not immunogenic and hence, vaccine design has focused on sub-capsular antigens. Recently, a four component vaccine to combat MenB disease (4CMenB) has progressed through clinical development and was approved by the European Medicines Agency at the end of 2012. This vaccine has proven safe and immunogenic and has been predicted to provide protection against ~73% of the MenB disease from England and Wales. Recommendation/implementation of the vaccine into the UK infant schedule is currently being evaluated. 4CMenB has the potential to provide protection against a significant proportion of MenB disease in the UK which is currently unpreventable.

  12. Genome-derived vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Groot, Anne S; Rappuoli, Rino

    2004-02-01

    Vaccine research entered a new era when the complete genome of a pathogenic bacterium was published in 1995. Since then, more than 97 bacterial pathogens have been sequenced and at least 110 additional projects are now in progress. Genome sequencing has also dramatically accelerated: high-throughput facilities can draft the sequence of an entire microbe (two to four megabases) in 1 to 2 days. Vaccine developers are using microarrays, immunoinformatics, proteomics and high-throughput immunology assays to reduce the truly unmanageable volume of information available in genome databases to a manageable size. Vaccines composed by novel antigens discovered from genome mining are already in clinical trials. Within 5 years we can expect to see a novel class of vaccines composed by genome-predicted, assembled and engineered T- and Bcell epitopes. This article addresses the convergence of three forces--microbial genome sequencing, computational immunology and new vaccine technologies--that are shifting genome mining for vaccines onto the forefront of immunology research.

  13. How influenza vaccination policy may affect vaccine logistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assi, Tina-Marie; Rookkapan, Korngamon; Rajgopal, Jayant; Sornsrivichai, Vorasith; Brown, Shawn T; Welling, Joel S; Norman, Bryan A; Connor, Diana L; Chen, Sheng-I; Slayton, Rachel B; Laosiritaworn, Yongjua; Wateska, Angela R; Wisniewski, Stephen R; Lee, Bruce Y

    2012-06-22

    When policymakers make decision about the target populations and timing of influenza vaccination, they may not consider the impact on the vaccine supply chains, which may in turn affect vaccine availability. Our goal is to explore the effects on the Thailand vaccine supply chain of introducing influenza vaccines and varying the target populations and immunization time-frames. We Utilized our custom-designed software HERMES (Highly Extensible Resource for Modeling Supply Chains), we developed a detailed, computational discrete-event simulation model of the Thailand's National Immunization Program (NIP) supply chain in Trang Province, Thailand. A suite of experiments simulated introducing influenza vaccines for different target populations and over different time-frames prior to and during the annual influenza season. Introducing influenza vaccines creates bottlenecks that reduce the availability of both influenza vaccines as well as the other NIP vaccines, with provincial to district transport capacity being the primary constraint. Even covering only 25% of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practice-recommended population while administering the vaccine over six months hinders overall vaccine availability so that only 62% of arriving patients can receive vaccines. Increasing the target population from 25% to 100% progressively worsens these bottlenecks, while increasing influenza vaccination time-frame from 1 to 6 months decreases these bottlenecks. Since the choice of target populations for influenza vaccination and the time-frame to deliver this vaccine can substantially affect the flow of all vaccines, policy-makers may want to consider supply chain effects when choosing target populations for a vaccine. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Glycoconjugate Vaccines: The Regulatory Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Most vaccines, including the currently available glycoconjugate vaccines, are administered to healthy infants, to prevent future disease. The safety of a prospective vaccine is a key prerequisite for approval. Undesired side effects would not only have the potential to damage the individual infant but also lead to a loss of confidence in the respective vaccine-or vaccines in general-on a population level. Thus, regulatory requirements, particularly with regard to safety, are extremely rigorous. This chapter highlights regulatory aspects on carbohydrate-based vaccines with an emphasis on analytical approaches to ensure the consistent quality of successive manufacturing lots.

  15. Study of thermoluminescence response of purple to violet amethyst quartz from Balikesir, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur, N.; Yeğingil, Z.; Topaksu, M.; Kurt, K.; Doğan, T.; Sarıgül, N.; Yüksel, M.; Altunal, V.; Özdemir, A.; Güçkan, V.; Günay, I.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We reported on dosimetric characterisation of natural amethyst quartz specimens from Turkey, using TL technique. • The thermoluminescence characterisation tests were performed under the beta radiation exposure. • The IT peaks ∼230 °C show superlinear dose response behavior (g(D) > 1) between 1 Gy and 5 kGy. The HT peaks ∼300 °C show linear behavior (g(D) = 1) at low dose levels (1 < D < 20 Gy) and superlinearity (g(D) > 1) between 20 Gy < D < 2 kGy. • Deviations were determined for recycling measurements for various dose values of 0.1, 0.5, 0.8 and 1 kGy. • Amethyst quartz has great potential to be investigated for dosimetry purpose. - Abstract: In thermoluminescence (TL) dosimetry, the phosphor amethyst quartz as a thermoluminescent, appears to be one of the materials arousing the highest interest. In this study the dosimetric characteristics of natural amethyst quartz crystals collected from Balikesir–Dursunbey (Turkey) were investigated for the purpose of determination of the general properties that phosphors should have in order to be useful for thermoluminescence dosimetry. The natural thermoluminescence was drained by annealing the powder samples at 450 °C for 1.5 h. The effects of high temperature annealing, dose response curves, glow curves after a postirradiation annealing, reusability of the samples and storage of trapped electrons in dark at room temperature were clarified through irradiating the samples with the desired exposures by 90 Sr/ 90 Y beta particles. Isothermal annealing before and after irradiation was found to have a definite effect upon the TL glow curve of amethyst crystal powder. The same sample varied in sensitivity depending upon its previous thermal and radiation history. The peak heights of the glow peaks were examined with respect to dose response at dose levels between 1 Gy and 5 kGy. The intermediate temperature (IT) and high temperature (HT) peaks of 230 °C and 300 °C, respectively, exhibit dose

  16. Study of thermoluminescence response of purple to violet amethyst quartz from Balikesir, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nur, N., E-mail: nnur@adiyaman.edu.tr [Adiyaman University, Engineering Faculty, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, 02040 Adiyaman (Turkey); Yeğingil, Z.; Topaksu, M. [Cukurova University, Art and Sciences Faculty, Physics Department, 01330 Adana (Turkey); Kurt, K. [University of Mersin, Science and Art Faculty, Physics Department, 33343 Mersin (Turkey); Doğan, T. [Cukurova University, Vocational School of Imamoglu, Department of Technical Programs, 01700 Adana (Turkey); Sarıgül, N. [Institute of Nuclear Science, Hacettepe University, 06532 Ankara (Turkey); Yüksel, M.; Altunal, V.; Özdemir, A.; Güçkan, V. [Cukurova University, Art and Sciences Faculty, Physics Department, 01330 Adana (Turkey); Günay, I. [Cukurova University, Medicine Faculty, Biophysics Department, Adana (Turkey)

    2015-09-01

    Highlights: • We reported on dosimetric characterisation of natural amethyst quartz specimens from Turkey, using TL technique. • The thermoluminescence characterisation tests were performed under the beta radiation exposure. • The IT peaks ∼230 °C show superlinear dose response behavior (g(D) > 1) between 1 Gy and 5 kGy. The HT peaks ∼300 °C show linear behavior (g(D) = 1) at low dose levels (1 < D < 20 Gy) and superlinearity (g(D) > 1) between 20 Gy < D < 2 kGy. • Deviations were determined for recycling measurements for various dose values of 0.1, 0.5, 0.8 and 1 kGy. • Amethyst quartz has great potential to be investigated for dosimetry purpose. - Abstract: In thermoluminescence (TL) dosimetry, the phosphor amethyst quartz as a thermoluminescent, appears to be one of the materials arousing the highest interest. In this study the dosimetric characteristics of natural amethyst quartz crystals collected from Balikesir–Dursunbey (Turkey) were investigated for the purpose of determination of the general properties that phosphors should have in order to be useful for thermoluminescence dosimetry. The natural thermoluminescence was drained by annealing the powder samples at 450 °C for 1.5 h. The effects of high temperature annealing, dose response curves, glow curves after a postirradiation annealing, reusability of the samples and storage of trapped electrons in dark at room temperature were clarified through irradiating the samples with the desired exposures by {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y beta particles. Isothermal annealing before and after irradiation was found to have a definite effect upon the TL glow curve of amethyst crystal powder. The same sample varied in sensitivity depending upon its previous thermal and radiation history. The peak heights of the glow peaks were examined with respect to dose response at dose levels between 1 Gy and 5 kGy. The intermediate temperature (IT) and high temperature (HT) peaks of 230 °C and 300 °C, respectively

  17. Vaccination Perceptions of College Students: With and without Vaccination Waiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel D. Jadhav

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionThe resurgence of vaccine preventable diseases occurs more often among intentionally unvaccinated individuals, placing at direct risk young adults not caught up on vaccinations. The objectives of this study were to characterize the sociodemographic characteristics of young adults with and without vaccination waivers and identify their perceived benefits, barriers, and influencers of vaccination.MethodsYoung adults (n = 964 from a Midwestern rural university responded to a survey (fall 2015—spring 2016 designed to identify their perception toward vaccination. Instrument consistency was measured using the Cronbach α-scores. The Chi-square test was used to test any sociodemographic differences and Mann–Whitney U-tests results for differences between exempt and non-exempt students. Analysis occurred in spring 2017.ResultsA little over one-third of young adults with a vaccination waiver were not up to date on their vaccinations, and think that vaccinations can cause autism. The biggest identifiable benefit was effective control against disease. The surveyed young adults ranked the out of pocket cost associated with vaccination as the most important barrier and safe and easy to use vaccines as the most important influencer of vaccination.ConclusionYoung adults who have had a vaccination waiver appear to not be up to date on their vaccinations. Vaccine administration programs, such as university campus clinics, would benefit from addressing perceptions unique to young adults with and without a vaccine waiver. This would subsequently better provide young adults a second shot for getting appropriately caught up on vaccinations.

  18. Vaccines, adjuvants and autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Luísa Eça; Baker, Britain; Perricone, Carlo; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2015-10-01

    Vaccines and autoimmunity are linked fields. Vaccine efficacy is based on whether host immune response against an antigen can elicit a memory T-cell response over time. Although the described side effects thus far have been mostly transient and acute, vaccines are able to elicit the immune system towards an autoimmune reaction. The diagnosis of a definite autoimmune disease and the occurrence of fatal outcome post-vaccination have been less frequently reported. Since vaccines are given to previously healthy hosts, who may have never developed the disease had they not been immunized, adverse events should be carefully accessed and evaluated even if they represent a limited number of occurrences. In this review of the literature, there is evidence of vaccine-induced autoimmunity and adjuvant-induced autoimmunity in both experimental models as well as human patients. Adjuvants and infectious agents may exert their immune-enhancing effects through various functional activities, encompassed by the adjuvant effect. These mechanisms are shared by different conditions triggered by adjuvants leading to the autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA syndrome). In conclusion, there are several case reports of autoimmune diseases following vaccines, however, due to the limited number of cases, the different classifications of symptoms and the long latency period of the diseases, every attempt for an epidemiological study has so far failed to deliver a connection. Despite this, efforts to unveil the connection between the triggering of the immune system by adjuvants and the development of autoimmune conditions should be undertaken. Vaccinomics is a field that may bring to light novel customized, personalized treatment approaches in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. EVALUATION OF POTENCY OF MUMPS VACCINE USED IN IRAN: COMPARISON OF WHO AND NIBSC METHOD IN CELL CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tavajohi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Vaccination against mumps is included in world Health Organization (WHO program of global immunization. Safety and efficacy of vaccines must be confirmed by control units in charge of public health. In Iran, the secondary control on potency of vaccine has not been set up yet. We decided to overcome this problem by developing WHO and NIBSC methods in Food and Drug Control Lab. ‎Nine dilutions of vaccine from 10-1 to 10-5 in ‎0.5log10 steps were mixed with Vero cell suspension. In WHO method, the cell suspension was seeded in octaplicate (8 wells of each dilution in 24-well plate and incubated at 36°C for 10 days, during which the cells were checked for cytopathic changes everyday and positive wells were recorded. We used 5% serum and 1 × 105 cells for the assays. The test was repeated with six different vaccines produced in one batch. The mean potency was 10 4.475±0.134 CCID50/vial for each ten-dose vial. For NIBSC method the dilutions of vaccine were added to hexaplicate (6 well per dilution in 24-wells plate. After 3 hours, the medium was removed and overlay was added. Then the plates were incubated at 35°C for 10 days. After incubation period, the plaques were stained with methyl violet and counted. This assay was repeated three times and the mean of results was 5.93 log10 PFU/dose. ‎ Results indicate that the potency of the vaccine is in acceptable range in either method. WHO method is simple and less time consuming compared to NIBSC method.

  20. Optimization of the Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction of Phenolic Compounds from Oryza Sativa L. ‘Violet Nori’ and Determination of the Antioxidant Properties of its Caryopses and Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Turrini

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ‘Violet Nori’ is a new spontaneous growing violet rice variety showing a peculiar violet color in its fresh leaves as well. In this paper, the antioxidant properties and the content of total phenols, radical scavengers, and anthocyanins in ‘Violet Nori’ caryopses, flour, and leaves are explored and compared. Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction (UAE is employed for the extraction of phenolic compounds, improving the extraction conditions by Design of Experiments (DoE. The obtained results show that the Radical Scavenging Activities (RSAs, the Total Phenolic Contents (TPCs, and the anthocyanin amounts (1000–1500 μg/g, expressed as cyanidin-3-glucoside of ‘Violet Nori’ caryopses are higher than those in the other analyzed colored rice samples (300–900 μg/g as cyanidin-3-glucoside, with the exception of the cultivars ‘Artemide’ and ‘Nerone’, which show comparable values of RSAs and TPCs. The study of ‘Violet Nori’ leaves at different plant maturation stages shows that their anthocyanin content is 2–3 times higher than in the caryopses and in the flour, reaching the highest levels at about 60 days from seeding. Thus, the estimated extraction yield of 4 kg anthocyanins/t makes fresh leaves very interesting for the extraction of anthocyanins on an industrial scale, whereas violet caryopses are a very interesting dietetic source of valuable anthocyanins and other antioxidant compounds.

  1. Community vaccine perceptions and its role on vaccination uptake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Underutilization of vaccines still remains a challenge in many regions across the world. Ileje district is one of the districts in Tanzania with consistently low pentavalent vaccine uptake (69%) and with drop out of 15%. We determined the vaccination completion with regard to Oral Polio virus, Measles, Bacillus ...

  2. Evaluation of vaccine competition using HVT vector vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkey herpesvirus (HVT) has been widely used as a vaccine for Marek’s disease (MD) since the 1970s. Because HVT is a safe vaccine that is poorly sensitive to interference from maternally derived antibodies, it has seen rising use as a vector for vaccines developed for protection against other comm...

  3. Flu Vaccine Safety and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Flu Vaccine Safety and Pregnancy Questions & Answers Language: English ( ... flu vaccine? Why should pregnant women get a flu shot? Flu is more likely to cause severe ...

  4. New Vaccines Help Protect You

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues New Vaccines Help Protect You Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of ... with a few deaths. Therefore, this vaccine will help reduce one of our most common and potentially ...

  5. Macromolecular systems for vaccine delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MuŽíková, G; Laga, R

    2016-10-20

    Vaccines have helped considerably in eliminating some life-threatening infectious diseases in past two hundred years. Recently, human medicine has focused on vaccination against some of the world's most common infectious diseases (AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, etc.), and vaccination is also gaining popularity in the treatment of cancer or autoimmune diseases. The major limitation of current vaccines lies in their poor ability to generate a sufficient level of protective antibodies and T cell responses against diseases such as HIV, malaria, tuberculosis and cancers. Among the promising vaccination systems that could improve the potency of weakly immunogenic vaccines belong macromolecular carriers (water soluble polymers, polymer particels, micelles, gels etc.) conjugated with antigens and immunistumulatory molecules. The size, architecture, and the composition of the high molecular-weight carrier can significantly improve the vaccine efficiency. This review includes the most recently developed (bio)polymer-based vaccines reported in the literature.

  6. Liver Disease and Adult Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Basics Adult Vaccination Resources for Healthcare Professionals Liver Disease and Adult Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... critical for people with health conditions such as liver disease. If you have chronic liver disease, talk ...

  7. HPV Vaccine - Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... United States currently has the safest, most effective vaccine supply in history. Years of testing are required by law to ensure the safety of vaccines before they are made available for use in ...

  8. Pressure cryocooling protein crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chae Un [Ithaca, NY; Gruner, Sol M [Ithaca, NY

    2011-10-04

    Preparation of cryocooled protein crystal is provided by use of helium pressurizing and cryocooling to obtain cryocooled protein crystal allowing collection of high resolution data and by heavier noble gas (krypton or xenon) binding followed by helium pressurizing and cryocooling to obtain cryocooled protein crystal for collection of high resolution data and SAD phasing simultaneously. The helium pressurizing is carried out on crystal coated to prevent dehydration or on crystal grown in aqueous solution in a capillary.

  9. HIV-1 vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excler, Jean-Louis; Robb, Merlin L; Kim, Jerome H

    2014-01-01

    The development of a safe and effective preventive HIV-1 vaccine remains a public health priority. Despite scientific difficulties and disappointing results, HIV-1 vaccine clinical development has, for the first time, established proof-of-concept efficacy against HIV-1 acquisition and identified vaccine-associated immune correlates of risk. The correlate of risk analysis showed that IgG antibodies against the gp120 V2 loop correlated with decreased risk of HIV infection, while Env-specific IgA directly correlated with increased risk. The development of vaccine strategies such as improved envelope proteins formulated with potent adjuvants and DNA and vectors expressing mosaics, or conserved sequences, capable of eliciting greater breadth and depth of potentially relevant immune responses including neutralizing and non-neutralizing antibodies, CD4+ and CD8+ cell-mediated immune responses, mucosal immune responses, and immunological memory, is now proceeding quickly. Additional human efficacy trials combined with other prevention modalities along with sustained funding and international collaboration remain key to bring an HIV-1 vaccine to licensure. PMID:24637946

  10. [Vaccination against rubella].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossolini, A; Barberi, A

    1984-01-01

    The infection caused by the rubella virus is a mild disease usually with no or rare complications in children and adults. On the contrary, intrauterine fetal infection may result in defects of the child, which may either be present at birth or become apparent later in life. Such a risk led to the preparation and use of active immunoprophylaxis against rubella in females of child-bearing age, in order to prevent congenital rubella. Three rubella viruses are employed to prepare the vaccine, all derived from the same viral strain. Doubts however, exist about vaccination, in particular about (1) its teratogenic potential in pregnancy; (2) the duration of protection. As a matter of fact, congenital malformations in the fetus exposed to vaccine virus through the mother have been reported in 3% of cases. As to the second point, the data on the protective immunity in time of the vaccine are very controversial. It is clear, anyhow, that protection against infection is associated not only with persistence of adequate serum levels of antibody, but also with other immunological parameters which are still unknown. These considerations, together with the observation that a relative high percentage of vaccine recipients do not respond, lead us to suggest modifications in the present scheduling of immunization against rubella.

  11. Economics of vaccines revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postma, Maarten J; Standaert, Baudouin A

    2013-05-01

    Performing a total health economic analysis of a vaccine newly introduced into the market today is a challenge when using the conventional cost-effectiveness analysis we normally apply on pharmaceutical products. There are many reasons for that, such as: the uncertainty in the total benefit (direct and indirect) to be measured in a population when using a cohort model; (1) appropriate rules about discounting the long-term impact of vaccines are absent jeopardizing therefore their value at the initial investment; (2) the presence of opposite contexts when introducing the vaccine in developed vs. the developing world with high benefits, low initial health care investment for the latter vs. marginal benefit and high cost for the former; with a corresponding paradox for the vaccine becoming very cost-effective in low income countries but rather medium in middle low to high middle income countries; (3) and the type of trial assessment for the newer vaccines is now often performed with immunogenicity reaction instead of clinical endpoints which still leaves questions on their real impact and their head-to-head comparison. (4.)

  12. Vaccines for the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Giudice, Giuseppe; Weinberger, Birgit; Grubeck-Loebenstein, Beatrix

    2015-01-01

    The aging of the human population is posing serious challenges to research and to public health authorities in order to prevent diseases that more frequently affect the elderly, a portion of the population that will increase more and more in the coming years. While some vaccines exist and are used in the elderly to effectively fight against some infections (e.g. influenza, pneumococci, varicella-zoster virus, diphtheria, and tetanus), still a lot of work remains to be done to better adapt these vaccines and to develop new ones for this age group. The prevention of infectious diseases affecting the elderly can be successful only through a holistic approach. This approach will aim at the following: (1) a deeper understanding of the mechanisms leading to the senescence of the immune system, (2) a better and broader use of vaccines recommended for the elderly, (3) the use of vaccines currently considered only for other age groups and (4) actively priming the population when they are immunological competent, before the physiological waning of immune responsiveness may affect the beneficial effects of vaccination. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

  13. Vaccination against tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Carlos; Aguilo, Nacho; Gonzalo-Asensio, Jesús

    2018-04-04

    BCG (Bacille Calmette-Guérin) vaccination is included in the immunization schedule for tuberculosis endemic countries with a global coverage at birth close to 90% worldwide. BCG was attenuated from Mycobacterium bovis almost a century ago, and provides a strong protection against disseminated forms of the disease, though very limited against pulmonary forms of tuberculosis, responsible for transmission. Novel prophylactic tuberculosis vaccines are in clinical development either to replace BCG or to improve its protection against respiratory forms of the disease. There are limitations understanding the immunological responses involved and the precise type of long-lived immunity that new vaccines need to induce. MTBVAC is the first and only tuberculosis vaccine candidate based on live-attenuated Mycobacterium tuberculosis in clinical evaluation. MTBVAC clinical development plans to target tuberculosis prevention in newborns, as a BCG replacement strategy, and as secondary objective to be tested in adolescents and adults previous vaccinated with BCG. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  14. Vaccination against seasonal influenza

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    This year, as usual, the Medical Service is helping to promote vaccination against seasonal influenza. Vaccination against seasonal flu is especially recommended for anyone who suffers from chronic pulmonary, cardio-vascular or kidney disease or diabetes, is recovering from a serious illness or major surgery, or is over 65 years of age. The flu virus is transmitted through the air and through contact with contaminated surfaces, so frequent hand-washing with soap and/or an antiseptic hand wash is of great importance. As soon as the first symptoms appear (fever above 38°, shivering, coughing, muscle and/or joint pains, generalised weakness), you are strongly recommended to stay at home to avoid spreading the virus. Anyone working on the CERN site who wishes to be vaccinated against seasonal flu should go to the Infirmary (Building 57, ground floor), with their dose of vaccine. The Medical Service will issue a prescription on the day of the vaccination for the purposes of reimbursement through UNIQA...

  15. A brief history of vaccines & vaccination in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrakant Lahariya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The challenges faced in delivering lifesaving vaccines to the targeted beneficiaries need to be addressed from the existing knowledge and learning from the past. This review documents the history of vaccines and vaccination in India with an objective to derive lessons for policy direction to expand the benefits of vaccination in the country. A brief historical perspective on smallpox disease and preventive efforts since antiquity is followed by an overview of 19 th century efforts to replace variolation by vaccination, setting up of a few vaccine institutes, cholera vaccine trial and the discovery of plague vaccine. The early twentieth century witnessed the challenges in expansion of smallpox vaccination, typhoid vaccine trial in Indian army personnel, and setting up of vaccine institutes in almost each of the then Indian States. In the post-independence period, the BCG vaccine laboratory and other national institutes were established; a number of private vaccine manufacturers came up, besides the continuation of smallpox eradication effort till the country became smallpox free in 1977. The Expanded Programme of Immunization (EPI (1978 and then Universal Immunization Programme (UIP (1985 were launched in India. The intervening events since UIP till India being declared non-endemic for poliomyelitis in 2012 have been described. Though the preventive efforts from diseases were practiced in India, the reluctance, opposition and a slow acceptance of vaccination have been the characteristic of vaccination history in the country. The operational challenges keep the coverage inequitable in the country. The lessons from the past events have been analysed and interpreted to guide immunization efforts.

  16. A brief history of vaccines & vaccination in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahariya, Chandrakant

    2014-04-01

    The challenges faced in delivering lifesaving vaccines to the targeted beneficiaries need to be addressed from the existing knowledge and learning from the past. This review documents the history of vaccines and vaccination in India with an objective to derive lessons for policy direction to expand the benefits of vaccination in the country. A brief historical perspective on smallpox disease and preventive efforts since antiquity is followed by an overview of 19 th century efforts to replace variolation by vaccination, setting up of a few vaccine institutes, cholera vaccine trial and the discovery of plague vaccine. The early twentieth century witnessed the challenges in expansion of smallpox vaccination, typhoid vaccine trial in Indian army personnel, and setting up of vaccine institutes in almost each of the then Indian States. In the post-independence period, the BCG vaccine laboratory and other national institutes were established; a number of private vaccine manufacturers came up, besides the continuation of smallpox eradication effort till the country became smallpox free in 1977. The Expanded Programme of Immunization (EPI) (1978) and then Universal Immunization Programme (UIP) (1985) were launched in India. The intervening events since UIP till India being declared non-endemic for poliomyelitis in 2012 have been described. Though the preventive efforts from diseases were practiced in India, the reluctance, opposition and a slow acceptance of vaccination have been the characteristic of vaccination history in the country. The operational challenges keep the coverage inequitable in the country. The lessons from the past events have been analysed and interpreted to guide immunization efforts.

  17. Bursitis efter vaccination i skulderregionen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bliddal, Henning; Torp-Pedersen, Søren; Falk-Riecke, Birgit

    2017-01-01

    Shoulder pain may develop after vaccination in the deltoid area due to inadvertent injection of the vaccine into the subdeltoid bursa, which may be located close to the skin. As far as we know, such vaccination reactions occur more frequently than officially registered, and doctors may not be awa...

  18. Protein carriers of conjugate vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichichero, Michael E

    2013-01-01

    The immunogenicity of polysaccharides as human vaccines was enhanced by coupling to protein carriers. Conjugation transformed the T cell-independent polysaccharide vaccines of the past to T cell-dependent antigenic vaccines that were much more immunogenic and launched a renaissance in vaccinology. This review discusses the conjugate vaccines for prevention of infections caused by Hemophilus influenzae type b, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Neisseria meningitidis. Specifically, the characteristics of the proteins used in the construction of the vaccines including CRM, tetanus toxoid, diphtheria toxoid, Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane complex, and Hemophilus influenzae protein D are discussed. The studies that established differences among and key features of conjugate vaccines including immunologic memory induction, reduction of nasopharyngeal colonization and herd immunity, and antibody avidity and avidity maturation are presented. Studies of dose, schedule, response to boosters, of single protein carriers with single and multiple polysaccharides, of multiple protein carriers with multiple polysaccharides and conjugate vaccines administered concurrently with other vaccines are discussed along with undesirable consequences of conjugate vaccines. The clear benefits of conjugate vaccines in improving the protective responses of the immature immune systems of young infants and the senescent immune systems of the elderly have been made clear and opened the way to development of additional vaccines using this technology for future vaccine products. PMID:23955057

  19. Vaccination recommended for pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Magdalena Skolarczyk

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A vaccine is a formulation of biological origin that contains substances capable of inducing immune processes without the ability to cause a disease. Vaccination is considered the best mean to prevent infectious diseases and their serious complications. Vaccination of a pregnant women can provide protection against severe infectious diseases of both pregnant women and their children. The aim of the study is to present currently available types of vaccines recommended for pregnant women and indications for their use by analyzing the data available in the PubMed, and Medline electronic databases. In the United States, vaccination recommendations for pregnant women include inactivated influenza vaccine and tetanus and diphtheria toxoid vaccine (Tdap. In some countries, pregnant women also receive a vaccine against hepatitis B as well as anti hepatitis A and E. There are also studies on vaccines against the RSV virus and pneumococci. Vaccination is the most effective form of prevention of infectious diseases and their use during pregnancy does not entail any additional risk to the mother or her baby. The benefits of vaccination are huge, so pregnant women should take  recommended vaccination and shouldn’t  be afraid of using them.

  20. One electron oxidation of triphenyl methane dyes, crystal violet and malachite green by N{sub 3}{sup .} and Br{sub 2}{sup -}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhasikuttan, A C; Sapre, A V; Shastri, L V; Rama Rao, K V.S. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Chemistry Div.

    1994-12-31

    The kinetics of formation and the transient spectra of the species arising due to the oxidation of CV{sup +} and MG{sup +} by N{sub 3}{sup .} and Br{sub 2}{sup -} have been determined. The time resolved spectra indicate intermediate adduct formation between N{sub 3}{sup .}/Br{sub 2}{sup -} and CV{sup +}. (author). 1 ref., 2 figs.

  1. Radiation resistance and loss of crystal violet binding activity in Y. enterolitica suspended in raw ground pork exposed to gamma radiation and modified atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    The virulence of many foodborne pathogens is directly linked to genes carried on plasmids, self-replicating extra-chromosomal elements, which can transfer genetic material, both vertically and horizontally, between bacteria of the same and different species. Pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica harbo...

  2. Early life vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazerai, Loulieta; Bassi, Maria Rosaria; Uddbäck, Ida Elin Maria

    2016-01-01

    Intracellular pathogens represent a serious threat during early life. Importantly, even though the immune system of newborns may be characterized as developmentally immature, with a propensity to develop Th2 immunity, significant CD8+ T-cell responses may still be elicited in the context of optimal...... the first period of life and provide a pertinent alternative in infant vaccinology. To address this, infant mice were vaccinated with three different adenoviral vectors and the CD8+ T-cell response after early life vaccination was explored. We assessed the frequency, polyfunctionality and in vivo...... cytotoxicity of the elicited memory CD8+ T cells, as well as the potential of these cells to respond to secondary infections and confer protection. We further tested the impact of maternal immunity against our replication-deficient adenoviral vector during early life vaccination. Overall, our results indicate...

  3. Vaccination against seasonal influenza

    CERN Multimedia

    DG Unit

    2009-01-01

    As every year, the Medical Service is taking part in the campaign to promote vaccination against seasonal influenza. Vaccination against seasonal influenza is especially recommended for people suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney conditions or diabetes, for those recovering from a serious illness or surgical operation and for everyone over the age of 65. The influenza virus is transmitted by air and contact with contaminated surfaces, hence the importance of washing hands regularly with soap and / or disinfection using a hydro-alcoholic solution. From the onset of symptoms (fever> 38°, chills, cough, muscle aches and / or joint pain, fatigue) you are strongly recommended to stay at home to avoid spreading the virus. In the present context of the influenza A (H1N1) pandemic, it is important to dissociate these two illnesses and emphasise that the two viruses and the vaccines used to combat them are quite different and that protection against one will not pr...

  4. Elimination of root-infecting pathogens in recirculation water from closed cultivation systems by ultra-violet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runia, W.T.

    1994-01-01

    The development from growing in border soil to soilless cultures has not resulted in the disappearance of soil-borne diseases. Most root-infecting pathogens also occur in these new cultivation systems. Some pathogens such as Pythium, Phytophthora, cucumber green mottle mosaic virus and tomato mosaic virus are easily transmitted in recirculation water as is Olpidium, the vector of several viruses. To exclude any risk of dispersal of plant pathogens the water has to be sterilised before re-use. Rainwater collected from the glasshouse roof can also be contaminated with pathogens. When this rainwater is used for irrigation water it should be disinfected first. Currently water disinfection by heating or ozonisation is applied on some 450 nurseries. Initially ultra-violet(UV) radiation was not effective against plant pathogens. Only at a low capacity of 18 l h -1 and a high UV-dose of 430 mJ cm -2 could fungal spores be eliminated in nutrient solution. A low capacity however implies a poor turbulence in the water, resulting in varying UV-doses in the different water layers. Two new UV-installations with high capacities were tested for their efficacy against fungal and viral plant pathogens. One installation was equipped with a high-pressure and the other with a low-pressure mercury vapour lamp. In both installations a sandfilter first removed organic particles from the water. A UV-dose from the high-pressure lamp of 28 mJ cm -2 reduced the infectivity of conidia of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp lycopersici by 90 % resulting in a 99.9 % reduction at 84 mJ cm -2 . The low-pressure lamp completely eliminated conidia of Fusarium at a UV-dose of 70 mJ cm -2 . Tomato mosaic virus was reduced by 99 % using a UV-dose of 100 mJ cm -2 in both installations. Ultra-violet radiation can be effective against plant pathogens providing the dose under controlled conditions is sufficient. Numerous growers use UV-radiation for the disinfection of water in closed cultivation systems. (author)

  5. Flow analysis methods for the direct ultra-violet spectrophotometric measurement of nitrate and total nitrogen in freshwaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentle, Brady S.; Ellis, Peter S.; Grace, Michael R. [Water Studies Centre, School of Chemistry, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); McKelvie, Ian D., E-mail: iandm@unimelb.edu.au [School of Chemistry, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-17

    Highlights: {yields} Second derivative UV spectrophotometry has been used to determine nitrate and total N using flow analysis techniques. {yields} A simple flow system with a single-reflection flow-through cell was used for the UV measurement of nitrate. {yields} Total N was determined after on-line UV photooxidation with alkaline peroxodisulfate. {yields} Analyses carried out using the developed flow systems show a high degree of agreement with comparative analyses. {yields} This method requires no colorimetric reagents and eliminates the requirement for a toxic cadmium reduction column. - Abstract: Second derivative ultra-violet spectrophotometric methods are described for the measurement of nitrate and total nitrogen in freshwaters using flow analysis techniques. A simple flow system consisting of a peristaltic pump and a single-reflection flow-through cell was used for the measurement of nitrate. Quantification of total nitrogen using alkaline peroxodisulfate photo-digestion was achieved by incorporating an ultra-violet photo-reactor, a hollow-fibre filter and a debubbler into the flow system. The nitrate system featured a limit of detection of 0.04 mg N L{sup -1}, 0.4%RSD (1 mg N L{sup -1} as nitrate, n = 10), a coefficient of determination (R{sup 2}) of 0.9995 over the calibration range 0.0-2.0 mg N L{sup -1}, and a data acquisition time of 1.5 s per spectrum. The total nitrogen system featured a limit of detection of 0.05 mg N L{sup -1}, 1%RSD (1 mg N L{sup -1} as ammonium chloride, n = 10), a coefficient of determination of 0.9989 over the calibration range 0.0-2.0 mg N L{sup -1}, and a throughput of 5 sample h{sup -1} measured in triplicate. Digestions of five model nitrogen compounds returned recoveries of >88%. Determinations carried out using the developed systems show a high degree of agreement with data obtained using reference methods. These methods require no colorimetric reagents and eliminate the requirement for a toxic cadmium reduction column

  6. Flow analysis methods for the direct ultra-violet spectrophotometric measurement of nitrate and total nitrogen in freshwaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentle, Brady S.; Ellis, Peter S.; Grace, Michael R.; McKelvie, Ian D.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Second derivative UV spectrophotometry has been used to determine nitrate and total N using flow analysis techniques. → A simple flow system with a single-reflection flow-through cell was used for the UV measurement of nitrate. → Total N was determined after on-line UV photooxidation with alkaline peroxodisulfate. → Analyses carried out using the developed flow systems show a high degree of agreement with comparative analyses. → This method requires no colorimetric reagents and eliminates the requirement for a toxic cadmium reduction column. - Abstract: Second derivative ultra-violet spectrophotometric methods are described for the measurement of nitrate and total nitrogen in freshwaters using flow analysis techniques. A simple flow system consisting of a peristaltic pump and a single-reflection flow-through cell was used for the measurement of nitrate. Quantification of total nitrogen using alkaline peroxodisulfate photo-digestion was achieved by incorporating an ultra-violet photo-reactor, a hollow-fibre filter and a debubbler into the flow system. The nitrate system featured a limit of detection of 0.04 mg N L -1 , 0.4%RSD (1 mg N L -1 as nitrate, n = 10), a coefficient of determination (R 2 ) of 0.9995 over the calibration range 0.0-2.0 mg N L -1 , and a data acquisition time of 1.5 s per spectrum. The total nitrogen system featured a limit of detection of 0.05 mg N L -1 , 1%RSD (1 mg N L -1 as ammonium chloride, n = 10), a coefficient of determination of 0.9989 over the calibration range 0.0-2.0 mg N L -1 , and a throughput of 5 sample h -1 measured in triplicate. Digestions of five model nitrogen compounds returned recoveries of >88%. Determinations carried out using the developed systems show a high degree of agreement with data obtained using reference methods. These methods require no colorimetric reagents and eliminate the requirement for a toxic cadmium reduction column. The overlap of chloride and nitrate spectra in seawater is

  7. Meningococcal B vaccine. An immunogenic vaccine possibly useful during outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Invasive meningococcal infections can be life-threatening and cause severe sequelae. Antibiotic therapy is only partially effective. Bexsero is the first meningococcal B vaccine to be approved in the European Union. It contains four capsular antigens from various strains of group B meningococci. Clinical trials of this meningococcal B vaccine did not assess clinical protection. Two immunogenicity studies in adults, one in adolescents and six in infants, are available. They established the immunogenicity of the meningococcal B vaccine, determined age-appropriate vaccination schedules, and verified that concomitant administration of other vaccines did not undermine its immunogenicity. In the absence of relevant clinical trials, an in vitro study showed that sera from vaccinated individuals were likely to have bactericidal activity against 85% of 200 invasive meningococcal B strains isolated in France in 2007-2008. The meningococcal B vaccine provoked local adverse effects in most vaccinees, including local erythema, induration and pain. Fever occurred in about half of vaccinated children. Six cases of Kawasaki syndrome have been reported in children who received the vaccine, compared to only one case in control groups. In practice, the harm-benefit balance of this meningococcal B vaccine justify using it during outbreaks, provided the outbreak strain is covered by the vaccine antigens. Vaccinees should be enrolled in studies designed to evaluate clinical efficacy and to better determine the risk of Kawasaki syndrome.

  8. Vaccines for Canine Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faeze Foroughi-Parvar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania infantum is the obligatory intracellular parasite of mammalian macrophages and causes zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL. The presence of infected dogs as the main reservoir host of ZVL is regarded as the most important potential risk for human infection. Thus the prevention of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL is essential to stop the current increase of the Mediterranean visceral leishmaniasis. Recently considerable advances in achieving protective immunization of dogs and several important attempts for achieving an effective vaccine against CVL lead to attracting the scientists trust in its important role for eradication of ZVL. This paper highlights the recent advances in vaccination against canine visceral leishmaniasis from 2007 until now.

  9. [From new vaccine to new target: revisiting influenza vaccination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gérard, M

    2011-09-01

    Annual vaccination is since many years the corner stone of Influenza control strategy. Because conventional vaccine are needle-based, are less immunogenic in old people and induce only systemic IgG production, intranasal and intradermal vaccines that are recently or will be soon available in Belgium will offer distinct advantages. Intradermal vaccination is on the Belgian market since 2010. A stronger immune response that allows an antigen sparing strategy is elicited because antigens are delivered near the dermal dendritic cells. Local side effects are more pronounced than after intramuscular injection. The needle-free intranasal vaccine that has been approved for use in people less than 18 years old by the EMEA in October 2010 induces also a mucosal IgA response. Improved clinical results than with intramuscular vaccine has been documented in several studies in children. Several conditions are contraindication to nasal vaccination because of patterns of side effects and because the vaccine is an live-attenuated vaccine. Pregnant women has become a top priority for Influenza vaccination in the recommendations of the High Council of Health in Belgium since the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. Several studies has since then documented the increased risk for Influenza-related morbidity in pregnant women especially during the third trimester and independently of the presence of other comorbidities. Reduced incidence of documented Influenza and of Influenza-related hospitalizations are observed in the new born of vaccinated women until 6 months of age. Availability of new vaccines for Influenza and better knowledge of the benefit of vaccination in target populations are important tools to optimize vaccine coverage of the population.

  10. Shock-Assisted Superficial Hexagonal-to-Cubic Phase Transition in GaN/Sapphire Interface Induced by Using Ultra-violet Laser Lift-Of Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei-Hua, Chen; Xiao-Dong, Hu; Xiang-Ning, Kang; Xu-Rong, Zhou; Xiao-Min, Zhang; Tong-Jun, Yu; Zhi-Jian, Yang; Ke, Xu; Guo-Yi, Zhang; Xu-Dong, Shan; Li-Ping, You

    2009-01-01

    Ultra-violet (KrF excimer laser, λ = 248 nm) laser lift-of (LLO) techniques have been operated to the GaN/sapphire structure to separate GaN from the sapphire substrate. Hexagonal to cubic phase transformation induced by the ultra-violet laser lift-of (UV-LLO) has been characterized by micro-Raman spectroscopy, micro-photoluminescence, along with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). HRTEM indicates that UV-LLO induced phase transition takes place above the LLO interface, without phase transition under the LLO interface. The formed cubic GaN often exists as nanocrystal grains attaching on the bulk hexagonal GaN. The half-loop-cluster-like UV-LLO interface indicates that the LLO-induced shock waves has generated and played an assistant role in the decomposition of the hexagonal GaN and in the formation of cubic GaN grains at the LLO surface

  11. CRYSTALLIZATION IN MULTICOMPONENT GLASSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRUGER AA; HRMA PR

    2009-10-08

    In glass processing situations involving glass crystallization, various crystalline forms nucleate, grow, and dissolve, typically in a nonuniform temperature field of molten glass subjected to convection. Nuclear waste glasses are remarkable examples of multicomponent vitrified mixtures involving partial crystallization. In the glass melter, crystals form and dissolve during batch-to-glass conversion, melter processing, and product cooling. Crystals often agglomerate and sink, and they may settle at the melter bottom. Within the body of cooling glass, multiple phases crystallize in a non-uniform time-dependent temperature field. Self-organizing periodic distribution (the Liesegnang effect) is common. Various crystallization phenomena that occur in glass making are reviewed.

  12. Crystallization In Multicomponent Glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, A.A.; Hrma, P.R.

    2009-01-01

    In glass processing situations involving glass crystallization, various crystalline forms nucleate, grow, and dissolve, typically in a nonuniform temperature field of molten glass subjected to convection. Nuclear waste glasses are remarkable examples of multicomponent vitrified mixtures involving partial crystallization. In the glass melter, crystals form and dissolve during batch-to-glass conversion, melter processing, and product cooling. Crystals often agglomerate and sink, and they may settle at the melter bottom. Within the body of cooling glass, multiple phases crystallize in a non-uniform time-dependent temperature field. Self-organizing periodic distribution (the Liesegnang effect) is common. Various crystallization phenomena that occur in glass making are reviewed.

  13. Improved crystallization of the coxsackievirus B3 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jabafi, Ilham; Selisko, Barbara; Coutard, Bruno; De Palma, Armando M.; Neyts, Johan; Egloff, Marie-Pierre; Grisel, Sacha; Dalle, Karen; Campanacci, Valerie; Spinelli, Silvia; Cambillau, Christian; Canard, Bruno; Gruez, Arnaud, E-mail: arnaud.gruez@maem.uhp-nancy.fr [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique and Universités d’Aix-Marseille I et II, UMR 6098, Architecture et Fonction des Macromolécules Biologiques, Ecole Supérieure d’Ingénieurs de Luminy-Case 925, 163 Avenue de Luminy, 13288 Marseille CEDEX 9 (France)

    2007-06-01

    The first crystal of a coxsackievirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase is reported. The Picornaviridae virus family contains a large number of human pathogens such as poliovirus, hepatitis A virus and rhinoviruses. Amongst the viruses belonging to the genus Enterovirus, several serotypes of coxsackievirus coexist for which neither vaccine nor therapy is available. Coxsackievirus B3 is involved in the development of acute myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy and is thought to be an important cause of sudden death in young adults. Here, the first crystal of a coxsackievirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase is reported. Standard crystallization methods yielded crystals that were poorly suited to X-ray diffraction studies, with one axis being completely disordered. Crystallization was improved by testing crystallization solutions from commercial screens as additives. This approach yielded crystals that diffracted to 2.1 Å resolution and that were suitable for structure determination.

  14. Improved crystallization of the coxsackievirus B3 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabafi, Ilham; Selisko, Barbara; Coutard, Bruno; De Palma, Armando M.; Neyts, Johan; Egloff, Marie-Pierre; Grisel, Sacha; Dalle, Karen; Campanacci, Valerie; Spinelli, Silvia; Cambillau, Christian; Canard, Bruno; Gruez, Arnaud

    2007-01-01

    The first crystal of a coxsackievirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase is reported. The Picornaviridae virus family contains a large number of human pathogens such as poliovirus, hepatitis A virus and rhinoviruses. Amongst the viruses belonging to the genus Enterovirus, several serotypes of coxsackievirus coexist for which neither vaccine nor therapy is available. Coxsackievirus B3 is involved in the development of acute myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy and is thought to be an important cause of sudden death in young adults. Here, the first crystal of a coxsackievirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase is reported. Standard crystallization methods yielded crystals that were poorly suited to X-ray diffraction studies, with one axis being completely disordered. Crystallization was improved by testing crystallization solutions from commercial screens as additives. This approach yielded crystals that diffracted to 2.1 Å resolution and that were suitable for structure determination

  15. Noninvasive vaccination against infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhichao; Diaz-Arévalo, Diana; Guan, Hongbing; Zeng, Mingtao

    2018-04-06

    The development of a successful vaccine, which should elicit a combination of humoral and cellular responses to control or prevent infections, is the first step in protecting against infectious diseases. A vaccine may protect against bacterial, fungal, parasitic, or viral infections in animal models, but to be effective in humans there are some issues that should be considered, such as the adjuvant, the route of vaccination, and the antigen-carrier system. While almost all licensed vaccines are injected such that inoculation is by far the most commonly used method, injection has several potential disadvantages, including pain, cross contamination, needlestick injury, under- or overdosing, and increased cost. It is also problematic for patients from rural areas of developing countries, who must travel to a hospital for vaccine administration. Noninvasive immunizations, including oral, intranasal, and transcutaneous administration of vaccines, can reduce or eliminate pain, reduce the cost of vaccinations, and increase their safety. Several preclinical and clinical studies as well as experience with licensed vaccines have demonstrated that noninvasive vaccine immunization activates cellular and humoral immunity, which protect against pathogen infections. Here we review the development of noninvasive immunization with vaccines based on live attenuated virus, recombinant adenovirus, inactivated virus, viral subunits, virus-like particles, DNA, RNA, and antigen expression in rice in preclinical and clinical studies. We predict that noninvasive vaccine administration will be more widely applied in the clinic in the near future.

  16. A defense of compulsory vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanigan, Jessica

    2014-03-01

    Vaccine refusal harms and risks harming innocent bystanders. People are not entitled to harm innocents or to impose deadly risks on others, so in these cases there is nothing to be said for the right to refuse vaccination. Compulsory vaccination is therefore justified because non-vaccination can rightly be prohibited, just as other kinds of harmful and risky conduct are rightly prohibited. I develop an analogy to random gunfire to illustrate this point. Vaccine refusal, I argue, is morally similar to firing a weapon into the air and endangering innocent bystanders. By re-framing vaccine refusal as harmful and reckless conduct my aim is to shift the focus of the vaccine debate from non-vaccinators' religious and refusal rights to everyone else's rights against being infected with contagious illnesses. Religious freedom and rights of informed consent do not entitle non-vaccinators to harm innocent bystanders, and so coercive vaccination requirements are permissible for the sake of the potential victims of the anti-vaccine movement.

  17. Cell-cycle synchronisation of bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma brucei using Vybrant DyeCycle Violet-based sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabani, Sarah; Waterfall, Martin; Matthews, Keith R

    2010-01-01

    Studies on the cell-cycle of Trypanosoma brucei have revealed several unusual characteristics that differ from the model eukaryotic organisms. However, the inability to isolate homogenous populations of parasites in distinct cell-cycle stages has limited the analysis of trypanosome cell division and complicated the understanding of mutant phenotypes with possible impact on cell-cycle related events. Although hydroxyurea-induced cell-cycle arrest in procyclic and bloodstream forms has been applied recently with success, such block-release protocols can complicate the analysis of cell-cycle regulated events and have the potential to disrupt important cell-cycle checkpoints. An alternative approach based on flow cytometry of parasites stained with Vybrant DyeCycle Orange circumvents this problem, but is restricted to procyclic form parasites. Here, we apply Vybrant Dyecycle Violet staining coupled with flow cytometry to effectively select different cell-cycle stages of bloodstream form trypanosomes. Moreover, the sorted parasites remain viable, although synchrony is rapidly lost. This method enables cell-cycle enrichment of populations of trypanosomes in their mammal infective stage, particularly at the G1 phase.

  18. The effect of gamma - Radiation on the degradation of a diazo dye (diamine brilliant violet B ) in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Assy, N.B.; Abdel-Fattah, A.A.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of gamma radiation on the color intensity of aerated o 2-saturated and N 2-saturated aqueous solutions of diamine brilliant violet B (D B V B) was investigated. The studies of the absorption spectra show that the de coloration of the dye is promoted by the presence of oxygen and that the framework of the chromophores is destroyed almost completely at 2.9 KGy for concentration 4.75 x 10-2 g/L in the presence of oxygen. The kinetics of deceleration of solutions of (D B V B) turned out to be of the first order with respect to the dye concentration (from 0.02 to 0.1 g/L). The change of pH through the irradiation process was followed and it was found that,the ph of the solution decreased by increasing the dose, indicating that, the degradation of the dye molecule was accompanied by the formation of some organic acids especially in the presence of oxygen. The Gd-values for different initial concentrations at different doses were tabulated and a scheme for the deceleration process was proposed

  19. Reaction of photochemical resists used in screen printing under the influence of digitally modulated ultra violet light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmuender, T.

    2017-02-01

    Different chemical photo-reactive emulsions are used in screen printing for stencil production. Depending on the bandwidth, optical power and depth of field from the optical system, the reaction / exposure speed has a diverse value. In this paper, the emulsions get categorized and validated in a first step. After that a mathematical model gets developed and adapted due to heuristic experience to estimate the exposure speed under the influence of digitally modulated ultra violet (UV) light. The main intention is to use the technical specifications (intended wavelength, exposure time, distance to the stencil, electrical power, stencil configuration) in the emulsion data sheet primary written down with an uncertainty factor for the end user operating with large projector arc lamps and photo films. These five parameters are the inputs for a mathematical formula which gives as an output the exposure speed for the Computer to Screen (CTS) machine calculated for each emulsion / stencil setup. The importance of this work relies in the possibility to rate with just a few boundaries the performance and capacity of an exposure system used in screen printing instead of processing a long test series for each emulsion / stencil configuration.

  20. A spectroscopic study on the effect of ultra-violet solar radiation in Antarctica on the human skin fibroblast cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuyuki Yamamoto

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A study on the effect of the solar ultra-violet radiation on the human skin fibroblast cells revealed that the production of matrix metalloproteinase-2 was inhibited by the radiation. A CO2 incubator connected by optical fibers to a reflector telescope for collecting the solar light was built at Syowa station by the 49th Japanese Antarctica Research Expedition. The direction of the telescope was continuously controlled by a sun-tracker to follow the movement of the Sun automatically. The intensity of the collected light was monitored by a portable spectrophotometer housed inside. The human skin fibroblast cells were incubated in the CO2 chamber to investigate the effect of the solar radiation at Syowa station and were compared with those reference experiments at a laboratory in Japan. The results showed cell damage by strong UV radiation. The production of matrix metalloproteinase-2 was prompted by the moderate UV-B, but was inhibited by the strong UV-B radiation, as studied under laboratory conditions in Japan. The effect of strong solar radiation at Syowa station involving the radiation of UV-B region was estimated to be of the same extent of the radiation caused by an artificial UV-B light with the intensity more than 50 mJ/cm2.

  1. Adsorption and subsequent partial photodegradation of methyl violet 2B on Cu/Al layered double hydroxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzmán-Vargas, Ariel; Lima, Enrique; Uriostegui-Ortega, Gisselle A.; Oliver-Tolentino, Miguel A.; Rodríguez, Esaú E.

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • LDH Cu/Al material showed high adsorption capacity. • Adsorption occurs by π–π interactions from the aromatic ring on the surface. • Adsorption mechanism fits to pseudo-second order model. • The photodegradation is due to the ·OH radical formation. - Abstract: Uncalcined Cu/Al LDH was studied as adsorbent and photocatalyst in the adsorption and subsequent photodegradation of methyl violet 2B dye (MV2B). Physicochemical characterization was carried out by XRD, FTIR, UV–vis, including photoactive properties, DSC/TGA and SEM. Kinetic and thermodynamic models showed great affinity and sorption capacity, the maximum adsorption capacity was 361.0 mg g"−"1 obtained by Langmuir model, in addition, the results showed that the dye was adsorbed on the LDH surface. Photocatalytic activity was evaluated in the MV2B dye photodegradation process, and it was confirmed by the presence ·OH radicals monitored by EPR spin trapping technique, additionally, COD and TOC parameters were measured, "1"3C NMR showed differences for the adsorbed and photodegraded samples.

  2. Maximum material thickness for extreme ultra-violet and X-ray backlighter probing of dense plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.; Tallents, G.J.

    2008-01-01

    Extreme ultra-violet (EUV) lasers, X-ray lasers and other backlighter sources can be used to probe high-energy density materials if their brightness can overcome self-emission from the material. We investigate the maximum plasma thickness of aluminum, silicon and iron that can be probed with EUV or X-ray photons of energy 89-1243 eV before self-emission from the plasma overwhelms the backlighter output. For a uniform plasma, backlighter transmission decreases exponentially with increasing thickness of the material following Beer's law at a rate dependent on the plasma opacity. We evaluate the plasma opacity with the Los Alamos TOPS opacity data. The self-emission is assumed to be either that of a black body to arise from a plasma in LTE or to only consist of free-free and free-bound emission. It is shown that at higher plasma temperature (≥40 eV), EUV radiation (e.g. photon energy=89 eV) can probe a greater thickness of plasma than X-ray radiation (e.g. photon energy=1243 eV)

  3. Spectroscopic characterizations of individual single-crystalline GaN nanowires in visible/ultra-violet regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chien-Ting; Chu, Ming-Wen; Chen, Li-Chyong; Chen, Kuei-Hsien; Chen, Chun-Wei; Chen, Cheng Hsuan

    2010-10-01

    Spectroscopic investigations of individual single-crystalline GaN nanowires with a lateral dimensions of approximately 30-90nm were performed using the spatially resolved technique of electron energy-loss spectroscopy in conjunction with scanning transmission electron microscope showing a 2-A electron probe. Positioning the electron probe upon transmission impact and at aloof setup with respect to the nanomaterials, we explored two types of surface modes intrinsic to GaN, surface exciton polaritons at approximately 8.3eV (approximately 150nm) and surface guided modes at 3.88eV (approximately 320nm), which are in visible/ultra-violet spectral regime above GaN bandgap of approximately 3.3eV (approximately 375nm) and difficult to access by conventional optical spectroscopies. The explorations of these electromagnetic resonances might expand the current technical interests in GaN nanomaterials from the visible/UV range below approximately 3.5eV to the spectral regime further beyond.

  4. Effect of organic media on growth and development of patiola F1 horned violet (Viola cornuta L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Janicka

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The specificity of horticultural production makes it possible to use substrates based on compost from municipal and industrial waste, particularly in the cultivation of ornamental plants. Experiments were conducted in the years 2005–2007. Six horned violet cultivars (Viola cornuta  L. from Patiola F1 group and four substrates were used in them: I – sphagnum peat; II – substrate from peat and compost 1 (1:1 v/v; III – substrate from peat and compost 2 (1:1 v/v; IV – coconut fibre. Compost 1 was prepared using municipal sewage sludge (35%, potato pulp (35% and straw (30%. Compost 2 was prepared using municipal sewage sludge (35%, potato pulp (35% and sawdust (30%. Composts after 10 months of composting were used in the research. The addition of municipal sewage sludge composts did not cause observable adverse changes in plants grown. Composts made from municipal sewage sludge are rich in nutrients. Plants that are grown in substrates with the addition of composts and in a peat substrate grow and develop properly without the necessity of introducing top dressing.

  5. The effects of welding parameters on ultra-violet light emissions, ozone and CrVI formation in MIG welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, J H; Mortazavi, S B; French, M J; Hewitt, P J; Redding, C R

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the relationships between ultra-violet emission, ozone generation and CrVI production in MIG welding which were measured as a function of shield gas flow rate, welding voltage, electrode stick-out and shield gas composition using an automatic welding rig that permitted MIG welding under reproducible conditions. The experimental results are interpreted in terms of the physico-chemical processes occurring in the micro- and macro-environments of the arc as part of research into process modification to reduce occupational exposure to ozone and CrVI production rates in MIG welding. We believe the techniques described here, and in particular the use of what we have termed u.v.-ozone measurements, will prove useful in further study of ozone generation and CrVI formation and may be applied in the investigation of engineering control of occupational exposure in MIG and other welding process such as Manual Metal Arc (MMA) and Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG).

  6. Adsorption and subsequent partial photodegradation of methyl violet 2B on Cu/Al layered double hydroxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzmán-Vargas, Ariel, E-mail: aguzmanv@ipn.mx [Instituto Politécnico Nacional, ESIQIE-SEPI-DIQI, Laboratorio de Investigación en Materiales Porosos, Catálisis Ambiental y Química Fina (LiMpCa-QuF), UPALM Edif. 7 P.B. Zacatenco, GAM, México, D.F.07738 (Mexico); Lima, Enrique [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales-UNAM, Circuito exterior s/n, Cd. Universitaria, Del. Coyoacán, México, D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Uriostegui-Ortega, Gisselle A. [Instituto Politécnico Nacional, ESIQIE-SEPI-DIQI, Laboratorio de Investigación en Materiales Porosos, Catálisis Ambiental y Química Fina (LiMpCa-QuF), UPALM Edif. 7 P.B. Zacatenco, GAM, México, D.F.07738 (Mexico); Oliver-Tolentino, Miguel A. [Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Centro de Investigación en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada, Calzada Legaria 694, Col. Irrigación, México, D.F. 11500 (Mexico); Rodríguez, Esaú E. [Departamento de Química, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Av. Instituto Politécnico Nacional 2580, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, México, D.F. 07360 (Mexico)

    2016-02-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • LDH Cu/Al material showed high adsorption capacity. • Adsorption occurs by π–π interactions from the aromatic ring on the surface. • Adsorption mechanism fits to pseudo-second order model. • The photodegradation is due to the ·OH radical formation. - Abstract: Uncalcined Cu/Al LDH was studied as adsorbent and photocatalyst in the adsorption and subsequent photodegradation of methyl violet 2B dye (MV2B). Physicochemical characterization was carried out by XRD, FTIR, UV–vis, including photoactive properties, DSC/TGA and SEM. Kinetic and thermodynamic models showed great affinity and sorption capacity, the maximum adsorption capacity was 361.0 mg g{sup −1} obtained by Langmuir model, in addition, the results showed that the dye was adsorbed on the LDH surface. Photocatalytic activity was evaluated in the MV2B dye photodegradation process, and it was confirmed by the presence ·OH radicals monitored by EPR spin trapping technique, additionally, COD and TOC parameters were measured, {sup 13}C NMR showed differences for the adsorbed and photodegraded samples.

  7. Tritium Decontamination of TFTR D-T Graphite Tiles Employing Ultra Violet Light and a Nd:YAG Laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentile, C.A.; Skinner, C.H.; Young, K.M.; Ciebiera, L.

    1999-01-01

    The use of an ultra violet (UV) light source (wavelength = 172 nm) and a Nd:YAG Laser for the decontamination of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) deuterium-tritium (D-T) tiles will be investigated at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). The development of this form of tritium decontamination may be useful for future D-T burning fusion devices which employ carbon plasma-facing components on the first wall. Carbon tiles retain hydrogen isotopes, and the in-situ tritium decontamination of carbon can be extremely important in maintaining resident in-vessel tritium inventory to a minimum. A test chamber has been designed and fabricated at PPPL. The chamber has the ability to be maintained under vacuum, be baked to 200 *C, and provides sample ports for gas analyses. Tiles from TFTR that have been exposed to D-T plasmas will be placed within the chamber and exposed to either an UV light source or the ND:YAG Laser. The experiment will determine the effectiveness of these two techniques for the removal of tritium. In addition, exposure rates and scan times for the UV light source and/or Nd:YAG Laser will be determined for tritium removal optimization from D-T tiles

  8. Electron spin ressonance of radicals produced by ultra-violet photolysis of KCL dopped with potassium cyanide and potassium cyanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, J.E.R.

    1975-01-01

    The production of radicals by ultra-violet photolysis of KCL dopped with potassium cyanide and potassium cyanate is studied by electron spin resonance. Several new paramagnetic species are detected which are identified as HCNO - , NCN - /NCNO - , CNN - /CNON - and CNOsup(=) all giving isotropic spectra at 77 0 K. The temperature dependence of the CNOsup(=) spectrum is investigated down to 1.6 0 K. It is found that two different recrientation motions ocurr which freeze at different temperatures. The effect of this motion on the line width is analized using Anderson's theory of exchange narrowing. The electronic structure of the CNOsup(=) radical is discussed using the measured the carbon and nitrogen hfs constants. It is found that a bonding scheme similar to that accepted for the isoelectronic molecule NO 2 is applicable, and a one electron molecular orbital scheme is given. Within this scheme a negative contribution to the nitrogen isotropic hfs constant is found which is assumed to originate from the polarization of the fully occupied ls orbitals [pt

  9. Vacuum ultra-violet damage and damage mitigation for plasma processing of highly porous organosilicate glass dielectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marneffe, J.-F. de, E-mail: marneffe@imec.be; Lukaszewicz, M.; Porter, S. B.; Vajda, F.; Rutigliani, V.; Verdonck, P.; Baklanov, M. R. [IMEC v.z.w., 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Zhang, L.; Heyne, M.; El Otell, Z.; Krishtab, M. [IMEC v.z.w., 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Chemistry, KULeuven, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Goodyear, A.; Cooke, M. [Oxford Instruments Plasma Technology, BS49 4AP Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-07

    Porous organosilicate glass thin films, with k-value 2.0, were exposed to 147 nm vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) photons emitted in a Xenon capacitive coupled plasma discharge. Strong methyl bond depletion was observed, concomitant with a significant increase of the bulk dielectric constant. This indicates that, besides reactive radical diffusion, photons emitted during plasma processing do impede dielectric properties and therefore need to be tackled appropriately during patterning and integration. The detrimental effect of VUV irradiation can be partly suppressed by stuffing the low-k porous matrix with proper sacrificial polymers showing high VUV absorption together with good thermal and VUV stability. In addition, the choice of an appropriate hard-mask, showing high VUV absorption, can minimize VUV damage. Particular processing conditions allow to minimize the fluence of photons to the substrate and lead to negligible VUV damage. For patterned structures, in order to reduce VUV damage in the bulk and on feature sidewalls, the combination of both pore stuffing/material densification and absorbing hard-mask is recommended, and/or the use of low VUV-emitting plasma discharge.

  10. Veterinary and human vaccine evaluation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight-Jones, T. J. D.; Edmond, K.; Gubbins, S.; Paton, D. J.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the universal importance of vaccines, approaches to human and veterinary vaccine evaluation differ markedly. For human vaccines, vaccine efficacy is the proportion of vaccinated individuals protected by the vaccine against a defined outcome under ideal conditions, whereas for veterinary vaccines the term is used for a range of measures of vaccine protection. The evaluation of vaccine effectiveness, vaccine protection assessed under routine programme conditions, is largely limited to human vaccines. Challenge studies under controlled conditions and sero-conversion studies are widely used when evaluating veterinary vaccines, whereas human vaccines are generally evaluated in terms of protection against natural challenge assessed in trials or post-marketing observational studies. Although challenge studies provide a standardized platform on which to compare different vaccines, they do not capture the variation that occurs under field conditions. Field studies of vaccine effectiveness are needed to assess the performance of a vaccination programme. However, if vaccination is performed without central co-ordination, as is often the case for veterinary vaccines, evaluation will be limited. This paper reviews approaches to veterinary vaccine evaluation in comparison to evaluation methods used for human vaccines. Foot-and-mouth disease has been used to illustrate the veterinary approach. Recommendations are made for standardization of terminology and for rigorous evaluation of veterinary vaccines. PMID:24741009

  11. Vaccines for preventing Japanese encephalitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøler, Karin Linda; Samuel, Miny; Wai, Kim Lay

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vaccination is recognized as the only practical measure for preventing Japanese encephalitis. Production shortage, costs, and issues of licensure impair vaccination programmes in many affected countries. Concerns over vaccine effectiveness and safety also have a negative impact...... on acceptance and uptake. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate vaccines for preventing Japanese encephalitis in terms of effectiveness, adverse events, and immunogenicity. SEARCH STRATEGY: In March 2007, we searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2007, Issue 1......), MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, BIOSIS, and reference lists. We also attempted to contact corresponding authors and vaccine companies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), including cluster-RCTs, comparing Japanese encephalitis vaccines with placebo (inert agent or unrelated vaccine...

  12. The varicella zoster vaccine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Repro

    days. In patients who have received vari- cella zoster immunoglobulin (VZIG), the incubation period is ... his time working on. HIV-related .... The VZV vaccine results in long- lasting immunity ... Studies from Japan show protec- tion for 20 years ...

  13. Economics of vaccines revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, Maarten J.; Standaert, Baudouin A.

    2013-01-01

    Performing a total health economic analysis of a vaccine newly introduced into the market today is a challenge when using the conventional cost-effectiveness analysis we normally apply on pharmaceutical products. There are many reasons for that, such as: the uncertainty in the total benefit (direct

  14. Vaccines Help Protect Us

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-04-23

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about the importance of vaccines and how they work.  Created: 4/23/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/23/2013.

  15. Advances in influenza vaccination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.A. Reperant (Leslie); G.F. Rimmelzwaan (Guus); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractInfluenza virus infections yearly cause high morbidity and mortality burdens in humans, and the development of a new influenza pandemic continues to threaten mankind as a Damoclean sword. Influenza vaccines have been produced by using egg-based virus growth and passaging techniques that

  16. Immunology of BVDV vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of vaccination to control bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections presents exceptional challenges due to the nature of the virus, the unique interaction of the virus with the immune system, and its ability to establish persistent infections. The lack of proof reading function during th...

  17. Recombinant Breast Cancer Vaccines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pilon, Shari

    1999-01-01

    .... To generate cytosolic proteins, (cytE2, cytE2A), the ER signal sequence was deleted. Vaccination of BALB/c mice with DNA encoding transmembrane E2 or E2A induced anti-ErbB-2 antibodies and anti-tumor immunity, with E2 being more potent than E2A...

  18. Vaccines and multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, J. L.; Topsøe Mailand, M.

    2017-01-01

    An association between certain vaccinations and onset or relapse of multiple sclerosis (MS) has been debated. Based on PubMed, we made a thorough literature review and included all relevant studies, 51 on MS and 15 on optic neuritis (ON). Case studies were excluded. With the exception of a live...

  19. Vaccines and multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailand, Mia Topsøe; Frederiksen, Jette Lautrup

    2017-01-01

    on the database PubMed. The study found no change in risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS) after vaccination against hepatitis B virus, human papillomavirus, seasonal influenza, measles–mumps–rubella, variola, tetanus, Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), polio, or diphtheria. No change in risk of relapse...

  20. Tetanus, Diphtheria (Td) Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decavac® (as a combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids) ... Tenivac® (as a combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids) ... Why get vaccinated?Tetanus and diphtheria are very serious diseases. They ... United States today, but people who do become infected often have severe ...

  1. Genetically modified tumour vaccines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bubeník, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 3, Suppl. 1 (2005), S7 ISSN 1214-021X. [Cells VI - Biological Days /18./. 24.10.2005-26.10.2005, České Budějovice] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : tumour vaccines * HPV16 Subject RIV: EC - Immunology

  2. HPV Vaccine PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this 30 second public service announcement, a mother talks about the importance of protecting 11-12 year-old boys and girls with HPV vaccination. (Una madre habla sobre la importancia de proteger a los niños y las niñas de 11 a 12 años con la vacuna contra el VPH.)

  3. Nanotechnology and vaccine development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Gyeong Kim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the progress of conventional vaccines, improvements are clearly required due to concerns about the weak immunogenicity of these vaccines, intrinsic instability in vivo, toxicity, and the need for multiple administrations. To overcome such problems, nanotechnology platforms have recently been incorporated into vaccine development. Nanocarrier-based delivery systems offer an opportunity to enhance the humoral and cellular immune responses. This advantage is attributable to the nanoscale particle size, which facilitates uptake by phagocytic cells, the gut-associated lymphoid tissue, and the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue, leading to efficient antigen recognition and presentation. Modifying the surfaces of nanocarriers with a variety of targeting moieties permits the delivery of antigens to specific cell surface receptors, thereby stimulating specific and selective immune responses. In this review, we introduce recent advances in nanocarrier-based vaccine delivery systems, with a focus on the types of carriers, including liposomes, emulsions, polymer-based particles, and carbon-based nanomaterials. We describe the remaining challenges and possible breakthroughs, including the development of needle-free nanotechnologies and a fundamental understanding of the in vivo behavior and stability of the nanocarriers in nanotechnology-based delivery systems.

  4. ADULT INFLUENZA VACCINATION GUIDELINE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Infections with the influenza virus and Streptococcus pneumoniae are associated with ... .well as the potential benefit and the safety of the vaccine ..... 4.6 Antiviral agents for influenza A2 ... persons who are to travel to other areas, e.g. northern.

  5. Violet and visible up-conversion emission in Yb{sup 3+}-Ho{sup 3+} co-doped germanium-borate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Yanmin, E-mail: mihuyym@163.co [College of Physics Science and Technology, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China); Zhang Meixin [Forensic Science Lab, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China); Yang Zhiping [College of Physics Science and Technology, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China); Fu Zuoling [Key Laboratory of Coherent Light, Atomic and Molecular Spectroscopy, College of physics, Jilin University, Ministry of Education, Changchun 130023 (China)

    2010-10-15

    The up-conversion emission properties of Yb{sup 3+}-Ho{sup 3+} co-doped germanium-borate glasses have been investigated with 980 nm excitation. The violet, blue, green and red emission bands at about 350, 485, 544 and 653 nm can be identified, respectively. Experimental results indicated that the relative intensity ratios of the peaks I{sub Red}/I{sub Green} increased with increasing B{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration, which led to changing color of up-conversion emission from green at x=0 to yellow at x=40, to red at x=60. The violet emission at 350 nm was first reported in germanium-borate glass host and up-conversion mechanisms of the emissions were discussed. The Yb{sup 3+}-Ho{sup 3+} co-doped germanium-borate glasses could be an alternative for the generation of violet and primary colors for application in solid-state displays.

  6. Influenza Vaccination Strategies: Comparing Inactivated and Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saranya Sridhar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Influenza is a major respiratory pathogen causing annual outbreaks and occasional pandemics. Influenza vaccination is the major method of prophylaxis. Currently annual influenza vaccination is recommended for groups at high risk of complications from influenza infection such as pregnant women, young children, people with underlying disease and the elderly, along with occupational groups such a healthcare workers and farm workers. There are two main types of vaccines available: the parenteral inactivated influenza vaccine and the intranasal live attenuated influenza vaccine. The inactivated vaccines are licensed from 6 months of age and have been used for more than 50 years with a good safety profile. Inactivated vaccines are standardized according to the presence of the viral major surface glycoprotein hemagglutinin and protection is mediated by the induction of vaccine strain specific antibody responses. In contrast, the live attenuated vaccines are licensed in Europe for children from 2–17 years of age and provide a multifaceted immune response with local and systemic antibody and T cell responses but with no clear correlate of protection. Here we discuss the immunological immune responses elicited by the two vaccines and discuss future work to better define correlates of protection.

  7. Photonic crystal pioneer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anscombe, Nadya

    2011-08-01

    Over the past ten years, Crystal Fiber, now part of NKT Photonics, has been busy commercializing photonic crystal fibre. Nadya Anscombe finds out about the evolution of the technology and its applications.

  8. Crystallization Pathways in Biomineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Steve; Addadi, Lia

    2011-08-01

    A crystallization pathway describes the movement of ions from their source to the final product. Cells are intimately involved in biological crystallization pathways. In many pathways the cells utilize a unique strategy: They temporarily concentrate ions in intracellular membrane-bound vesicles in the form of a highly disordered solid phase. This phase is then transported to the final mineralization site, where it is destabilized and crystallizes. We present four case studies, each of which demonstrates specific aspects of biological crystallization pathways: seawater uptake by foraminifera, calcite spicule formation by sea urchin larvae, goethite formation in the teeth of limpets, and guanine crystal formation in fish skin and spider cuticles. Three representative crystallization pathways are described, and aspects of the different stages of crystallization are discussed. An in-depth understanding of these complex processes can lead to new ideas for synthetic crystallization processes of interest to materials science.

  9. Photonic Crystal Nanocavity Arrays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Altug, Hatice; Vuckovic, Jelena

    2006-01-01

    We recently proposed two-dimensional coupled photonic crystal nanocavity arrays as a route to achieve a slow-group velocity of light in all crystal directions, thereby enabling numerous applications...

  10. Growth of dopamine crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, Vidya, E-mail: vidya.patil@ruparel.edu; Patki, Mugdha, E-mail: mugdha.patki@ruparel.edu [D. G. Ruparel College, Senapati Bapat Marg, Mahim, Mumbai – 400 016 (India)

    2016-05-06

    Many nonlinear optical (NLO) crystals have been identified as potential candidates in optical and electro-optical devices. Use of NLO organic crystals is expected in photonic applications. Hence organic nonlinear optical materials have been intensely investigated due to their potentially high nonlinearities, and rapid response in electro-optic effect compared to inorganic NLO materials. There are many methods to grow organic crystals such as vapor growth method, melt growth method and solution growth method. Out of these methods, solution growth method is useful in providing constraint free crystal. Single crystals of Dopamine have been grown by evaporating the solvents from aqueous solution. Crystals obtained were of the size of orders of mm. The crystal structure of dopamine was determined using XRD technique. Images of crystals were obtained using FEG SEM Quanta Series under high vacuum and low KV.

  11. Brucellosis Vaccines: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasanjani-Roushan Mohammad Reza

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Brucellosis is considered as an important zoonotic and worldwide infection with more than half of million human cases, which it occurs more and more in animals like as wild and live stocks. Sheep, cattle, and goats are animal samples that listed. Symptoms of this disease in human are consisted of: undulant fever, back pains, faint, spondylitis, arthritis and orchitis. This infection causes abortion in livestock, and this point is one of the important economic losses. Reduction in milk production is another problem in this disease too. Materials and Methods: This study is conducted by reviewing of the literatures, which are related to this concern, and also visiting PubMed, ISI and other websites. Results: We must pay heed that most zoonoses are maintained in the animal reservoir. These diseases, such as leptospirosis, Q-fever, brucellosis etc. which among them brucellosis can transfer to human via close contact with infected animals or consumption of unpasteurized dairy. Therefore, eradication of this infection in human population is depended on omission of that in possible methods among animals reservoir. Such methods are like test-slaughter and vaccination of livestock. Hence, vaccination is not alone method for controlling, but it is probably economic one. Conclusion: Nowadays a vaccine which is effective for this disease control in human is not available. Of course presented some different vaccines for this infection in livestock that cleave live attenuated, killed bacteria and sub unit. Therefore, for eradication of this disease some vaccines with more effectiveness protection mid fewer side effects are necessary.

  12. Protein Crystals as Novel Catalytic Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolin, Alexey L.; Navia, Manuel A.

    2001-06-18

    In this era of molecular biology, protein crystallization is often considered to be a necessary first step in obtaining structural information through X-ray diffraction analysis. In a different light, protein crystals can also be thought of as materials, whose chemical and physical properties make them broadly attractive and useful across a larger spectrum of disciplines. The full potential of these protein crystalline materials has been severely restricted in practice, however, both by their inherent fragility, and by strongly held skepticism concerning their routine and predictable growth, formulation, and practical application. Fortunately, these problems have turned out to be solvable. A systematic exploration of the biophysics and biochemistry of protein crystallization has shown that one can dependably create new protein crystalline materials more or less at will. In turn, these crystals can be readily strengthened, both chemically and mechanically, to make them suitable for practical commercialization. Today, these novel materials are used as industrial catalysts on a commercial scale, in bioremediation and "green chemistry" applications, and in enantioselective chromatography of pharmaceuticals and fine chemicals. In the near future, their utility will expand, to include the purification of protein drugs, formulation of direct protein therapeutics, and development of adjuvant-less vaccines.

  13. Apparatus for mounting crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longeway, Paul A.

    1985-01-01

    A thickness monitor useful in deposition or etching reactor systems comprising a crystal-controlled oscillator in which the crystal is deposited or etched to change the frequency of the oscillator. The crystal rests within a thermally conductive metallic housing and arranged to be temperature controlled. Electrode contacts are made to the surface primarily by gravity force such that the crystal is substantially free of stress otherwise induced by high temperature.

  14. ALICE photon spectrometer crystals

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    Members of the mechanical assembly team insert the last few crystals into the first module of ALICE's photon spectrometer. These crystals are made from lead-tungstate, a crystal as clear as glass but with nearly four times the density. When a high-energy particle passes through one of these crystals it will scintillate, emitting a flash of light allowing the energy of photons, electrons and positrons to be measured.

  15. Misconceptions about Seasonal Flu and Flu Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccine (LAIV) Misconceptions about Flu Vaccines Vaccine Supply & Distribution Vaccine Supply for 2017-2018 Season Frequently Asked ... conditions. Flu vaccination has been associated with lower rates of some cardiac ... a baby after birth from flu. (Mom passes antibodies onto the developing ...

  16. Crystal Growth Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheel, Hans J.; Fukuda, Tsuguo

    2004-06-01

    This volume deals with the technologies of crystal fabrication, of crystal machining, and of epilayer production and is the first book on industrial and scientific aspects of crystal and layer production. The major industrial crystals are treated: Si, GaAs, GaP, InP, CdTe, sapphire, oxide and halide scintillator crystals, crystals for optical, piezoelectric and microwave applications and more. Contains 29 contributions from leading crystal technologists covering the following topics: General aspects of crystal growth technology Silicon Compound semiconductors Oxides and halides Crystal machining Epitaxy and layer deposition Scientific and technological problems of production and machining of industrial crystals are discussed by top experts, most of them from the major growth industries and crystal growth centers. In addition, it will be useful for the users of crystals, for teachers and graduate students in materials sciences, in electronic and other functional materials, chemical and metallurgical engineering, micro-and optoelectronics including nanotechnology, mechanical engineering and precision-machining, microtechnology, and in solid-state sciences.

  17. Food crystallization and eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egg products can be utilized to control crystallization in a diverse realm of food products. Albumen and egg yolk can aid in the control of sugar crystal formation in candies. Egg yolk can enhance the textural properties and aid in the control of large ice crystal formation in frozen desserts. In...

  18. Current status of flavivirus vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, A D

    2001-12-01

    Although there are approximately 68 flaviviruses recognized, vaccines have been developed to control very few human flavivirus diseases. Licensed live attenuated vaccines have been developed for yellow fever (strain 17D) and Japanese encephalitis (strain SA14-14-2) viruses, and inactivated vaccines have been developed for Japanese encephalitis and tick-borne encephalitis viruses. The yellow fever live attenuated 17D vaccine is one of the most efficacious and safe vaccines developed to date and has been used to immunize more than 300 million people. A number of experimental vaccines are being developed, most notably for dengue. Candidate tetravalent live attenuated dengue vaccines are undergoing clinical trials. Other vaccines are being developed using reverse genetics, DNA vaccines, and recombinant immunogens. In addition, the yellow fever 17D vaccine has been used as a backbone to generate chimeric viruses containing the premembrane and envelope protein genes from other flaviviruses. The "Chimerivax" platform has been used to construct chimeric Japanese encephalitis and dengue viruses that are in different phases of development. Similar strategies are being used by other laboratories.

  19. Buccal and sublingual vaccine delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraan, Heleen; Vrieling, Hilde; Czerkinsky, Cecil; Jiskoot, Wim; Kersten, Gideon; Amorij, Jean-Pierre

    2014-09-28

    Because of their large surface area and immunological competence, mucosal tissues are attractive administration and target sites for vaccination. An important characteristic of mucosal vaccination is its ability to elicit local immune responses, which act against infection at the site of pathogen entry. However, mucosal surfaces are endowed with potent and sophisticated tolerance mechanisms to prevent the immune system from overreacting to the many environmental antigens. Hence, mucosal vaccination may suppress the immune system instead of induce a protective immune response. Therefore, mucosal adjuvants and/or special antigen delivery systems as well as appropriate dosage forms are required in order to develop potent mucosal vaccines. Whereas oral, nasal and pulmonary vaccine delivery strategies have been described extensively, the sublingual and buccal routes have received considerably less attention. In this review, the characteristics of and approaches for sublingual and buccal vaccine delivery are described and compared with other mucosal vaccine delivery sites. We discuss recent progress and highlight promising developments in the search for vaccine formulations, including adjuvants and suitable dosage forms, which are likely critical for designing a successful sublingual or buccal vaccine. Finally, we outline the challenges, hurdles to overcome and formulation issues relevant for sublingual or buccal vaccine delivery. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Vaccines, inspiring innovation in health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliusi, Sonia; Dennehy, Maureen; Kim, Hun

    2018-05-19

    This report covers the topics of pandemics, epidemics and partnerships, including regulatory convergence initiatives, new technologies and novel vaccines, discussed by leading public and private sector stakeholders at the 18th Annual General Meeting (AGM) of the Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers' Network (DCVMN). Contributions of Gavi and the vaccine industry from emerging countries to the growing global vaccine market, by improving the supply base from manufacturers in developing countries and contributing to 58% of doses, were highlighted. The Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI), the International Vaccine Institute (IVI) and others reported on new strategies to ensure speedy progress in preclinical and clinical development of innovative vaccines for future MERS, Zika or other outbreak response. Priorities for vaccine stockpiling, to assure readiness during emergencies and to prevent outbreaks due to re-emerging diseases such as yellow fever, cholera and poliomyelitis, were outlined. The role of partnerships in improving global vaccine access, procurement and immunization coverage, and shared concerns were reviewed. The World Health Organization (WHO) and other international collaborating partners provided updates on the Product, Price and Procurement database, the prequalification of vaccines, the control of neglected tropical diseases, particularly the new rabies elimination initiative, and regulatory convergence proposals to accelerate vaccine registration in developing countries. Updates on supply chain innovations and novel vaccine platforms were presented. The discussions enabled members and partners to reflect on efficiency of research & development, supply chain tools and trends in packaging technologies improving delivery of existing vaccines, and allowing a deeper understanding of the current public-health objectives, industry financing, and global policies, required to ensure optimal investments, alignment and stability of

  1. Vaccine-preventable diseases and vaccination rates in South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kightlinger, Lon

    2013-01-01

    Vaccine-preventable diseases have historically caused much illness and death in South Dakota. Sixty-seven diphtheria deaths were reported in 1892 and 1,017 polio cases were reported at the peak of the polio epidemic in 1952. As vaccines have been developed, licensed and put into wide use, the rates of diphtheria, polio, measles, smallpox and other diseases have successfully decreased leading to control, statewide elimination or eradication. Other diseases, such as pertussis, have been more difficult to control by vaccination alone. Although current vaccination coverage rates for South Dakota's kindergarten children surpass the Healthy People 2020 targets of 95 percent, the coverage rates for 2-year-old children and teenagers are below the target rates. Until vaccine-preventable diseases are eradicated globally, we must vigilantly maintain high vaccination coverage rates and aggressively apply control measures to limit transmission when diseases do occur in South Dakota.

  2. New technologies to enhance quality and safety of table eggs: ultra-violet treatment and modified atmosphere packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédérique Pasquali

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the effect of ultra-violet (UV treatment alone and in combination with 100% CO2 modified atmosphere packaging (MAP was evaluated both on the survival of naturally occurring bacteria, as well as on quality parameters of table eggs during 28 days of storage at 21°C. Table eggs were collected from the conveyor belt after the UV module, and placed on carton trays. A representative number of carton trays were packed in a high barrier multilayer pouch filled with 100% CO2. All eggs were stored at 21°C and analysed at 0, 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of storage. Eggs not treated with UV and not packed were also included. On the eggshells total colony count, total coliforms and faecal coliforms counts, as well as the detection of Salmonella spp. were investigated. Moreover, chemical-functional parameters such as weight loss, albumen pH and Haugh Unit (HU were evaluated. The total colony count on UV treated table eggs was approximately 1 log10 CFU/g lower than untreated eggs (2.27 vs 3.29 log10 CFU/g. During storage, CO2 packed eggs maintained the initial values of HU, whereas the albumen pH decreased up to 1.5-2 points in comparison to unpacked eggs. The UV treatment was effective in reducing the total colony count on the surface of table eggs. MAP showed a great potential in maintaining/enhance the technological properties of egg constituents (higher foam stability of the albumen for meringue preparation without significantly impacting on the microbial load of table eggs.

  3. Determining the degradation efficiency and mechanisms of ethyl violet using HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS and GC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Wen-Hsin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The discharge of wastewater that contains high concentrations of reactive dyes is a well-known problem associated with dyestuff activities. In recent years, semiconductor photocatalysis has become more and more attractive and important since it has a great potential to contribute to such environmental problems. One of the most important aspects of environmental photocatalysis is in the selection of semiconductor materials like ZnO and TiO2, which are close to being two of the ideal photocatalysts in several respects. For example, they are relatively inexpensive, and they provide photo-generated holes with high oxidizing power due to their wide band gap energy. In this work, nanostructural ZnO film on the Zn foil of the Alkaline-Manganese Dioxide-Zinc Cell was fabricated to degrade EV dye. The major innovation of this paper is to obtain the degradation mechanism of ethyl violet dyes resulting from the HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS analyses. Results The fabrication of ZnO nanostructures on zinc foils with a simple solution-based corrosion strategy and the synthesis, characterization, application, and implication of Zn would be reported in this study. Other objectives of this research are to identify the reaction intermediates and to understand the detailed degradation mechanism of EV dye, as model compound of triphenylmethane dye, with active Zn metal, by HPLC-ESI-MS and GC-MS. Conclusions ZnO nanostructure/Zn-foils had an excellent potential for future applications on the photocatalytic degradation of the organic dye in the environmental remediation. The intermediates of the degradation process were separated and characterized by the HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS and GC-MS, and twenty-six intermediates were characterized in this study. Based on the variation of the amount of intermediates, possible degradation pathways for the decolorization of dyes are also proposed and discussed.

  4. Cellular attachment and spatial control of cells using micro-patterned ultra-violet/ozone treatment in serum enriched media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, S A; Poulsson, A H C; Davidson, M R; Emmison, N; Shard, A G; Bradley, R H

    2004-08-01

    Ultra-violet Ozone (UVO) modified polystyrene (PS) surfaces were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), contact angle (CA), optical microscopy (OM) and cell culture experiments. UV/Ozone treatment up to 900 s was used to increase the surface oxygen concentration of PS surfaces from 0% to approximately 35% (unwashed) and 0% to approximately 27% (washed). The observed differences in oxygen concentration, between washed and unwashed surfaces, have been previously attributed to the removal of low molecular weight debris produced in this treatment process. Surface roughness (Rq) is known to affect cellular attachment and proliferation. AFM studies of the UV/Ozone treated PS surfaces show the surface roughness is an order of magnitude less than that expected to cause an effect. UV/Ozone treatment of PS showed a marked change in CA which decreased to approximately 60 degrees after 900 s treatment. The increased attachment and proliferation of Chinese hamster ovarian (CHO) and mouse embryo 3T3-L1 (3T3) cells on the treated surfaces compared to untreated PS were found to correlate strongly with the increase in surface oxygen concentration. Surface chemical oxidation patterns on the PS were produced using a simple masking technique and a short UV/Ozone treatment time, typically 20-45 s. The chemical patterns on PS were visualized by water condensation and the spatially selective attachment of CHO and 3T3-L1 cells cultured with 10% (v/v) serum. This paper describes an easily reproducible, one step technique to produce a well-defined, chemically heterogeneous surface with a cellular resolution using UV/Ozone modification. By using a variety of cell types, that require different media conditions, we have been able to expand the potential applications of this procedure.

  5. DNA vaccines for aquacultured fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Niels; LaPatra, S.E.

    2005-01-01

    of licensing and public acceptance of the technology. The potential benefits of DNA vaccines for farmed fish include improved animal welfare, reduced environmental impacts of aquaculture activities, increased food quality and quantity, and more sustainable production. Testing under commercial production......Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) vaccination is based on the administration of the gene encoding the vaccine antigen, rather than the antigen itself. Subsequent expression of the antigen by cells in the vaccinated hosts triggers the host immune system. Among the many experimental DNA vaccines tested...... in various animal species as well as in humans, the vaccines against rhabdovirus diseases in fish have given some of the most promising results. A single intramuscular (IM) injection of microgram amounts of DNA induces rapid and long-lasting protection in farmed salmonids against economically important...

  6. Protein Crystal Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    In order to rapidly and efficiently grow crystals, tools were needed to automatically identify and analyze the growing process of protein crystals. To meet this need, Diversified Scientific, Inc. (DSI), with the support of a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract from NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center, developed CrystalScore(trademark), the first automated image acquisition, analysis, and archiving system designed specifically for the macromolecular crystal growing community. It offers automated hardware control, image and data archiving, image processing, a searchable database, and surface plotting of experimental data. CrystalScore is currently being used by numerous pharmaceutical companies and academic and nonprofit research centers. DSI, located in Birmingham, Alabama, was awarded the patent Method for acquiring, storing, and analyzing crystal images on March 4, 2003. Another DSI product made possible by Marshall SBIR funding is VaporPro(trademark), a unique, comprehensive system that allows for the automated control of vapor diffusion for crystallization experiments.

  7. Photonic crystal light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, James G [Albuquerque, NM; Lin, Shawn-Yu [Albuquerque, NM; Bur, James A [Corrales, NM

    2004-07-27

    A light source is provided by a photonic crystal having an enhanced photonic density-of-states over a band of frequencies and wherein at least one of the dielectric materials of the photonic crystal has a complex dielectric constant, thereby producing enhanced light emission at the band of frequencies when the photonic crystal is heated. The dielectric material can be a metal, such as tungsten. The spectral properties of the light source can be easily tuned by modification of the photonic crystal structure and materials. The photonic crystal light source can be heated electrically or other heating means. The light source can further include additional photonic crystals that exhibit enhanced light emission at a different band of frequencies to provide for color mixing. The photonic crystal light source may have applications in optical telecommunications, information displays, energy conversion, sensors, and other optical applications.

  8. Vaccine prophylaxis: achievements, problems, perspectives of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavrutenkov V.V.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents medical and social aspects of immune prophylaxis of infectious diseases; the history of vaccines and vaccination is presented, as well as perspectives of development of vaccine prophylaxis.

  9. What Vaccinations Does My Child Need?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... needed before your child can enter school or childcare. How do vaccines work? Vaccines help your child’s ... routine vaccines is covered by your health insurance company. How do I know when my child should ...

  10. HPV Vaccine Information for Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Transmitted Diseases (STDs) HPV Vaccine Information For Young Women Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... warts at any point in time. Which girls/women should receive HPV vaccination? HPV vaccination is recommended ...

  11. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) and Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... During Pregnancy Frequently Asked Questions about Vaccine Recalls Historical Vaccine Safety Concerns FAQs about GBS and Menactra ... CISA Resources for Healthcare Professionals Evaluation Current Studies Historical Background 2001-12 Publications Technical Reports Vaccine Safety ...

  12. Tdap (tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis) Vaccine and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can I receive the Tdap vaccine while breastfeeding? Yes. Noninfectious vaccines like Tdap are compatible with breastfeeding. If you get the vaccine while breastfeeding, it can help prevent you from getting sick and passing the illness to your baby. ...

  13. For Parents: Vaccines for Your Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... content Start of Search Controls Search Form Controls Vaccines site Cancel Submit CDC A-Z Index MENU ... Z # Start of Search Controls Search Form Controls Vaccines site Cancel Submit For Parents: Vaccines for Your ...

  14. Meningococcal Vaccines: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Meningococcal ACWY Vaccines: What You Need to Know (VIS) Page Content ... to help protect against serogroup B . Meningococcal ACWY Vaccines There are two kinds of meningococcal vaccines licensed ...

  15. Preventing Cervical Cancer with HPV Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervical cancer can be prevented with HPV vaccines. NCI-supported researchers helped establish HPV as a cause of cervical cancer. They also helped create the first HPV vaccines, were involved in the vaccine trials, and contribute to ongoing studies.

  16. Yellow Fever Vaccine: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How can I prevent yellow fever? Yellow fever vaccine Yellow fever vaccine can prevent yellow fever. Yellow fever vaccine ... such as those containing DEET. 3 Yellow fever vaccine Yellow fever vaccine is a live, weakened virus. It is ...

  17. Rotavirus and the Vaccine (Drops) to Prevent It

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Maternal Immunization Resources Related Links Vaccines & Immunizations Rotavirus and the Vaccine (Drops) to Prevent It Language: ... the vaccine. Why should my child get the rotavirus vaccine? The rotavirus vaccine: Protects your child from ...

  18. Vaccines for preventing typhoid fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milligan, Rachael; Paul, Mical; Richardson, Marty; Neuberger, Ami

    2018-05-31

    Typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever continue to be important causes of illness and death, particularly among children and adolescents in south-central and southeast Asia. Two typhoid vaccines are widely available, Ty21a (oral) and Vi polysaccharide (parenteral). Newer typhoid conjugate vaccines are at varying stages of development and use. The World Health Organization has recently recommended a Vi tetanus toxoid (Vi-TT) conjugate vaccine, Typbar-TCV, as the preferred vaccine for all ages. To assess the effects of vaccines for preventing typhoid fever. In February 2018, we searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS, and mRCT. We also searched the reference lists of all included trials. Randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing typhoid fever vaccines with other typhoid fever vaccines or with an inactive agent (placebo or vaccine for a different disease) in adults and children. Human challenge studies were not eligible. Two review authors independently applied inclusion criteria and extracted data, and assessed the certainty of the evidence using the GRADE approach. We computed vaccine efficacy per year of follow-up and cumulative three-year efficacy, stratifying for vaccine type and dose. The outcome addressed was typhoid fever, defined as isolation of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi in blood. We calculated risk ratios (RRs) and efficacy (1 - RR as a percentage) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). In total, 18 RCTs contributed to the quantitative analysis in this review: 13 evaluated efficacy (Ty21a: 5 trials; Vi polysaccharide: 6 trials; Vi-rEPA: 1 trial; Vi-TT: 1 trial), and 9 reported on adverse events. All trials but one took place in typhoid-endemic countries. There was no information on vaccination in adults aged over 55 years of age, pregnant women, or travellers. Only one trial included data on children under two years of age.Ty21a vaccine (oral vaccine, three doses

  19. Dendritic cell vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosca, Paul J; Lyerly, H Kim; Clay, Timothy M; Morse, Michael A; Lyerly, H Kim

    2007-05-01

    Dendritic cells are antigen-presenting cells that have been shown to stimulate tumor antigen-specific T cell responses in preclinical studies. Consequently, there has been intense interest in developing dendritic cell based cancer vaccines. A variety of methods for generating dendritic cells, loading them with tumor antigens, and administering them to patients have been described. In recent years, a number of early phase clinical trials have been performed and have demonstrated the safety and feasibility of dendritic cell immunotherapies. A number of these trials have generated valuable preliminary data regarding the clinical and immunologic response to DC-based immunotherapy. The emphasis of dendritic cell immunotherapy research is increasingly shifting toward the development of strategies to increase the potency of dendritic cell vaccine preparations.

  20. Experiements with an inactivated hepatitis leptospirosis vaccine in vaccination programmes for dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J H; Hermann-Dekkers, W M; Leemans-Dessy, S; Meijer, J W

    1977-06-25

    A fluid adjuvanted vaccine consisting of inactivated hepatitis virus (iH) and leptospirae antigens (L) was developed. The vaccine (Kavak iHL; Duphar) was tested in several vaccination programmes both alone and in combination with freeze dried measles (M) or distemper (D) vaccines. The results demonstrate that this new vaccine is also effective in pups with maternally derived antibodies, although a second vaccination at 14 weeks of age is recommended to boost the first vaccination. For the booster vaccination either the iHL-vaccine or the liver attenuated hepatitis vaccine (H) can be used.