WorldWideScience

Sample records for crystal properties joint

  1. Liquid crystals in biotribology synovial joint treatment

    CERN Document Server

    Ermakov, Sergey; Eismont, Oleg; Nikolaev, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    This book summarizes the theoretical and experimental studies confirming the concept of the liquid-crystalline nature of boundary lubrication in synovial joints. It is shown that cholesteric liquid crystals in the synovial liquid play a significant role in the mechanism of intra-articular friction reduction. The results of structural, rheological and tribological research of the creation of artificial synovial liquids - containing cholesteric liquid crystals in natural synovial liquids - are described. These liquid crystals reproduce the lubrication properties of natural synovia and provide a high chondroprotective efficiency. They were tested in osteoarthritis models and in clinical practice.

  2. Electrical properties of molecular crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barraud, A.

    1968-01-01

    This literature survey summarizes the electrical properties of molecular crystals: molecular crystal structure, transport and excitation mechanisms of charge-carriers, and differences compared to inorganic semi-conductors. The main results concerning the electrical conductivity of the most-studied molecular crystals are presented, together with the optical and photo-electrical properties of these crystals. Finally the different types of electrical measurements used are reviewed, as well as the limits of each method. (author) [fr

  3. Physical Properties of Liquid Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Gray, George W; Spiess, Hans W

    1999-01-01

    This handbook is a unique compendium of knowledge on all aspects of the physics of liquid crystals. In over 500 pages it provides detailed information on the physical properties of liquid crystals as well as the recent theories and results on phase transitions, defects and textures of different types of liquid crystals. An in-depth understanding of the physical fundamentals is a prerequisite for everyone working in the field of liquid crystal research. With this book the experts as well as graduate students entering the field get all the information they need.

  4. Dispersion properties of photonic crystal fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard; Broeng, Jes; Dridi, Kim

    1998-01-01

    Approximate dispersion and bending properties of all-silica two-dimensional photonic crystal fibres are characterised by the combination of an effective-index model and classical analysis tools for optical fibres. We believe for the first time to have predicted the dispersion properties of photonic...... crystal fibres. The results strongly indicate that these fibres have potential applications as dispersion managing components...

  5. Symmetry and physical properties of crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Malgrange, Cécile; Schlenker, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Crystals are everywhere, from natural crystals (minerals) through the semiconductors and magnetic materials in electronic devices and computers or piezoelectric resonators at the heart of our quartz watches to electro-optical devices. Understanding them in depth is essential both for pure research and for their applications. This book provides a clear, thorough presentation of their symmetry, both at the microscopic space-group level and the macroscopic point-group level. The implications of the symmetry of crystals for their physical properties are then presented, together with their mathematical description in terms of tensors. The conditions on the symmetry of a crystal for a given property to exist then become clear, as does the symmetry of the property. The geometrical representation of tensor quantities or properties is presented, and its use in determining important relationships emphasized. An original feature of this book is that most chapters include exercises with complete solutions. This all...

  6. Mechanical properties of welded joints of duplex steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawiak, M.; Nowacki, J.

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents the study results of mechanical properties of duplex steels UNS S31803 welded joints as well as duplex and NV A36 steels welded joints. They have ben welded by FCAW method in CO 2 using FCW 2205-H flux-cored wire. The joints have been subjected: tensile tests, impact tests, bending tests, hardness tests and metallographic investigations. The influence of welding parameters and mechanical properties of the joints was appreciated. The welding method assured high tensile strength of the joints (approximately 770 MPa) and high impact strength of the welds (approximately 770 J). All samples were broken outside of welds. (author)

  7. Tensile properties of electron-beam-welded single crystals of molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraoka, Yutaka; Okada, Masatoshi; Irie, Hirosada; Fujii, Tadayuki.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the macro- and microstructures and the tensile properties of electron-beam-welded single crystals of molybdenum. The single-crystal sheets were prepared by means of secondary recrystallization. The welding was carried out by a melt-run technique. The weld metal had the same crystallographic orientation as the base metal, and no grain boundary was observed. However, many large weld pores were formed mostly along the weld bond. The strength and ductility of the welded joints of single crystals were almost the same as those of the base metal (''annealed'' single crystals). It is concluded that the joint efficiency of molybdenum single crystals at room temperature or above was excellent and nearly 100 %. (author)

  8. Solder joint technology materials, properties, and reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Tu, King-Ning

    2007-01-01

    Solder joints are ubiquitous in electronic consumer products. The European Union has a directive to ban the use of Pb-based solders in these products on July 1st, 2006. There is an urgent need for an increase in the research and development of Pb-free solders in electronic manufacturing. For example, spontaneous Sn whisker growth and electromigration induced failure in solder joints are serious issues. These reliability issues are quite complicated due to the combined effect of electrical, mechanical, chemical, and thermal forces on solder joints. To improve solder joint reliability, the science of solder joint behavior under various driving forces must be understood. In this book, the advanced materials reliability issues related to copper-tin reaction and electromigration in solder joints are emphasized and methods to prevent these reliability problems are discussed.

  9. Fatigue properties of dissimilar metal laser welded lap joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinsley, Christopher Paul

    This work involves laser welding austenitic and duplex stainless steel to zinc-coated mild steel, more specifically 1.2mm V1437, which is a Volvo Truck Coiporation rephosphorised mild steel. The work investigates both tensile and lap shear properties of similar and dissimilar metal laser welded butt and lap joints, with the majority of the investigation concentrating on the fatigue properties of dissimilar metal laser welded lap joints. The problems encountered when laser welding zinc-coated steel are addressed and overcome with regard to dissimilar metal lap joints with stainless steel. The result being the production of a set of guidelines for laser welding stainless steel to zinc-coated mild steel. The stages of laser welded lap joint fatigue life are defined and the factors affecting dissimilar metal laser welded lap joint fatigue properties are analysed and determined; the findings suggesting that dissimilar metal lap joint fatigue properties are primarily controlled by the local stress at the internal lap face and the early crack growth rate of the material at the internal lap face. The lap joint rotation, in turn, is controlled by sheet thickness, weld width and interfacial gap. Laser welded lap joint fatigue properties are found to be independent of base material properties, allowing dissimilar metal lap joints to be produced without fatigue failure occurring preferentially in the weaker parent material, irrespective of large base material property differences. The effects of Marangoni flow on the compositions of the laser weld beads are experimentally characterised. The results providing definite proof of the stirring mechanism within the weld pool through the use of speeds maps for chromium and nickel. Keywords: Laser welding, dissimilar metal, Zinc-coated mild steel, Austenitic stainless steel, Duplex stainless steel, Fatigue, Lap joint rotation, Automotive.

  10. Linear and nonlinear optical properties of borate crystals as ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    crystal series, with an accuracy acceptable for materials development/design, and answer the questions often ... Optical property; nonlinear optical crystals; first principles calculation. 1. ..... system, and is not in concept suitable to excitation pro-.

  11. Synthesis, non-isothermal crystallization and magnetic properties of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    perties and modifies the physical properties of the matrix considerably. However ... perties and harmlessness to health. PEVA, in their different ..... crystals causing a depression in Tm and Tp. In all the cases, the crystallization enthalpy peak ...

  12. Frictional properties of jointed welded tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teufel, L.W.

    1981-07-01

    The results of the experiments on simulated joints in welded tuff from the Grouse Canyon Member of the Belted Range Tuff warrant the following conclusions: (1) The coefficient of friction of the joints is independent of normal stress at a given sliding velocity. (2) The coefficient of friction increases with both increasing time of stationary contact and decreasing sliding velocity. (3) Time and velocity dependence of friction is due to an increase in the real area of contact on the sliding surface, caused by asperity creep. (4) Joints in water-saturated tuff show a greater time and velocity dependence of friction than those in dehydrated tuff. (5) The enhanced time and velocity dependence of friction with water saturation is a result of increased creep at asperity contacts, which is in turn due to a reduction in the surface indentation hardness by hydrolytic weakening and/or stress corrosion cracking

  13. Mechanical properties of soldered joints of niobium base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grishin, V.L.

    1980-01-01

    Mechanical properties of soldered joints of niobium alloys widely distributed in industry: VN3, VN4, VN5A, VN5AE, VN5AEP etc., 0.6-1.2 mm thick are investigated. It is found out that the usage of zirconium-vanadium, titanium-tantalum solders for welding niobium base alloys permits to obtain soldered joints with satisfactory mechanical properties at elevated temperatures

  14. Phase relations, crystal structures and physical properties of nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagawa, Hiroaki; Fujino, Takeo; Tateno, Jun

    1975-07-01

    Phase relations, crystal structures and physical properties of the compounds for nuclear fuels are presented, including melting point, thermal expansion, diffusion and magnetic and electric properties. Emphasis is on oxides, carbides and nitrides of thorium, uranium and plutonium. (auth.)

  15. Optical properties of opal photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eradat-Oskouei, Nayer

    2001-10-01

    Photonic crystals (PC) are a class of artificial structures with a periodic dielectric function in one, two, or three dimensions, in which the propagation of electromagnetic waves within a certain frequency band is forbidden. This forbidden frequency band has been dubbed photonic band gap (PBG). The position, width, depth, and shape of the PBG strongly depend on the periodicity, symmetry properties, dielectric constant contrast, and internal lattice structure of the unit cell. There is a common belief that PCs will perform many functions with light that ordinary crystals do with electrons. At the same time, PCs are of great promise to become a laboratory for testing fundamental processes involving interactions of radiation with matter in novel conditions. We have studied the optical properties of opal PCs that are infiltrated with metals, laser dyes, π-conjugated polymers, and J-aggregates. Opals are self-assembled structures of silica (SiO2) spheres mostly packed in a face centered cubic (fcc) lattice. Our research is summarized in the following six chapters. Chapter 1 is a review on the concepts related to PBG and PC, eigenvalue problem of electromagnetism, material systems that exhibit PBG. Chapter 2 covers all the fabrication and measurement techniques including angle resolved reflectivity, transmission, photoluminescence, photo-induced absorption, and coherent backscattering. Chapter 3 focuses on the relationship between a polaritonic gap and a photonic stop-band when they resonantly coexist in the same structure. Infiltration of opal with polarizable molecules combines the polaritonic and Bragg diffractive effects. The experimental results on reflectivity and its dependence on the impinging angle and concentration of the polarizable medium are in agreement with the theoretical calculations. In Chapter 4, the optical studies of three-dimensional metallic mesh composites are reported. Photonic and electronic properties of these PCs strongly depend on their

  16. Crystal growth and properties of novel organic nonlinear optical crystals of 4-Nitrophenol urea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohan, M. Krishna, E-mail: krishnamohan.m@ktr.srmuniv.ac.in; Ponnusamy, S.; Muthamizhchelvan, C.

    2017-07-01

    Single crystals of 4-Nitrophenol urea have been grown from water using slow evaporation technique at constant temperature, with the vision to improve the properties of the crystals. The unit cell parameters of the grown crystals were determined by single crystal and powder X-Ray diffraction. FTIR studies reveals the presence of different vibrational bands. The Optical studies confirmed that the crystal is transparent up to 360 nm .TGA and DSC studies were carried out to understand the thermal behavior of crystals. The SHG studies show the suitability of the crystals for NLO applications. The etching studies were carried out to study the behavior of the crystals under different conditions.These studies reveal that the crystals of 4-Nitrophenol urea are suitable for device applications. - Highlights: • 4-Nitrophenol urea crystals of dimensions 14 mm × 1 mm were grown. • UV–Visible studies indicate the crystal is transparent in the region of 370–800 nm. • Thermal studies show the crystal starts decomposing at 170 °C. • SHG studies indicate that the crystals have NLO efficiency 3.5 times that of KDP.

  17. Photonic crystals: role of architecture and disorder on spectral properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Rupesh; Audhkhasi, Romil; Thyagarajan, Krishna; Banerjee, Varsha

    2018-03-01

    Many of the present-day optical devices use photonic crystals. These are multilayers of dielectric media that control the reflection and transmission of light falling on them. In this paper, we study the optical properties of periodic, fractal, and aperiodic photonic crystals and compare them based on their attributes. Our calculations of the band reflectivity and degree of robustness reveal novel features, e.g., fractal photonic crystals are found to reflect the maximum amount of incident light. On the other hand, aperiodic photonic crystals have the largest immunity to disorder. We believe that such properties will be useful in a variety of applications in the field of optical communication.

  18. The Synovial Lining and Synovial Fluid Properties after Joint Arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Shang Kung

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The lubrication of the cartilaginous structures in human joints is provided by a fluid from a specialized layer of cells at the surface of a delicate tissue called the synovial lining. Little is known about the characteristics of the fluids produced after a joint arthroplasty procedure. A literature review was carried out to identify papers that characterized the synovial lining and the synovial fluids formed after total hip or knee arthroplasty. Five papers about synovial lining histology and six papers about the lubricating properties of the fluids were identified. The cells making up the re-formed synovial lining, as well as the lining of interface membranes, were similar to the typical Type A and B synoviocytes of normal joints. The synovial fluids around joint replacement devices were typically lower in viscosity than pre-arthroplasty fluids but the protein concentration and phospholipid concentrations tended to be comparable, suggesting that the lining tissue function was preserved after arthroplasty. The widespread, long-term success of joint arthroplasty suggests that the lubricant formed from implanted joint synovium is adequate for good clinical performance in the majority of joints. The role the fluid plays in component wear or failure is a topic for future study.

  19. Production and several properties of single crystal austenitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Kazutaka; Yoshinari, Akira; Kaneda, Junya; Aono, Yasuhisa; Kato, Takahiko

    1998-01-01

    The single crystal austenitic stainless steels Type 316L and 304L were grown in order to improve the resistance to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) using a unidirectional solidification method which can provide the large size single crystals. The mechanical properties and the chemical properties were examined. The orientation and temperature dependence of tensile properties of the single crystals were measured. The yield stress of the single crystal steels are lower than those of the conventional polycrystal steels because of the grain boundary strength cannot be expected in the single crystal steels. The tensile properties of the single crystal austenitic stainless steel Type 316L depend strongly on the orientation. The tensile strength in orientation are about 200 MPa higher than those in the and orientations. The microstructure of the single crystal consists of a mixture of the continuous γ-austenitic single crystal matrix and the δ-ferrite phase so that the effects of the γ/δ boundaries on the chemical properties were studied. The effects of the δ-ferrite phases and the γ/δ boundaries on the resistance to SCC were examined by the creviced bent beam test (CBB test). No crack is observed in all the CBB test specimens of the single crystals, even at the γ/δ boundaries. The behavior of the radiation induced segregation (RIS) at the γ/δ boundaries in the single crystal austenitic stainless steel Type 316L was evaluated by the electron irradiation test in the high voltage electron microscope (HVEM). The depletion of oversized solute chromium at the γ/δ boundary in the single crystal austenitic stainless steel Type 316L is remarkably lower than that at the grain boundary in the polycrystalline-type 316L. (author)

  20. A study on properties of PbWO4 crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jingtang; Mao Yufang; Dong Xiaoli

    1997-01-01

    The experimental results on properties of the PbWO 4 crystal are reported, including the excitation and fluorescence spectra, absolute and relative light yield and decay times. It seems that the PbWO 4 crystal can be used in high energy physics experiments for detecting high energy shower particles

  1. Crystal growth and comparison of vibrational and thermal properties ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The TGA–DTA studies showed the thermal properties of the crystals. ... impact on laser technology, optical communication and optical storage technology. [1,2]. .... UTHC and UTHS crystals in the temperature range of 25–1100◦C with a heat-.

  2. Theoretical analysis of static properties of mixed ionic crystal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present paper, we have investigated the static properties of the mixed ionic crystal NH4Cl1−Br using three-body potential model (TBPM) by the application of Vegard's law. The results for the mixed crystal counterparts are also in fair agreement with the pseudo-experimental data generated from the application of ...

  3. Hydrothermal synthesis, crystal structure and luminescence property ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The design and construction of ... dination polymers. It is difficult to design coordination .... The first endotherm at about 180 ... graphic data for coordination polymer 1. ... Sheldrick G M 1997 SHELXS-97: Program for solution of crystal structures ...

  4. Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal deposition disease presenting as a pseudotumor of the temporomandibular joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, A.; Teruel, J.; Pont, J.; Velayos, A.; Trull, J.; Lopez, E.

    1997-01-01

    We report a case of a 66-year-old white woman with calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystal deposition disease. The patient related a 2-month history of swelling with tenderness over the left pre-auricular region. A CT scan suggested a synovial chondromatosis. Surgical removal was done and histologic study showed CPPD crystals. This disease rarely involves the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and is not usually considered in the differential diagnosis. To our knowledge, only 14 cases have been reported in the literature. (orig.)

  5. Ultrasound scans and dual energy CT identify tendons as preferred anatomical location of MSU crystal depositions in gouty joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yuan; Liu, Chang; Xiang, Xi; Yuan, Tong-Ling; Qiu, Li; Liu, Yi; Luo, Yu-Bin; Zhao, Y; Herrmann, Martin

    2018-05-01

    The present study was performed to localize the articular deposition of monosodium urate (MSU) crystal in joints. We compare the detection efficiencies of dual-energy CT (DECT) and ultrasound scans. Analyses by DECT and ultrasound were performed with 184 bilateral joints of the lower limbs of 54 consecutive gout patients. All joints were categorized into (1) knee, (2) ankle, (3) MTP1, and (4) MTP2, and sorted into those with and those without detectable MSU deposition. The comparison of the positive rate between DECT and ultrasound and the agreement was performed using the McNemar test and the Cohen's κ coefficient, respectively. Next, we listed the MSU crystal deposition as assessed by ultrasound between the DECT-positive and -negative joints according to their interior structure. We included tendons, synovia, cartilage, subcutaneous tissue, etc. RESULTS: Among all joints, the percentages with MSU crystal deposition detected by DECT (99/184, 53.8%) and ultrasound (106/184, 57.6%) were comparable (P = 0.530 > 0.05). For MTP1 (21/34, 61.8%; 12/34, 35.3%; P efficient, respectively. The data concordance in 46 of 50 joints (92.00%; κ = 0.769, P location of MSU crystal deposition. The tendons are the most frequent anatomical location of MSU crystal depositions. The concordance rate of knee joints and MTP2-5 joints shows good agreement between DECT and ultrasound depending on the location.

  6. Estimation of in-situ joint properties, Naesliden Mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, N.

    1980-05-15

    Finite element modelling of jointed rock masses requires detailed input data concerning the mechanical behaviour of the relevant joint sets. In the case of the Naesliden project, the properties of the footwall and hanging wall contacts were of particular concern because of their planarity. Methods of estimating the full-scale shear strength and shear stiffness are summarized. The estimates are based on assessment of full-scale values of the joint roughness coefficient (JRC), the joint wall compressive strength (JCS) and the residual friction angle. Sensitivity analyses indicate which of these parameters need to be determined with greatest accuracy at the levels of normal stress of interest. The full-scale estimates are compared with laboratory scale data and with data obtained from small scale tilt tests and tests on model tension fractures. A scale effect makes direct application of laboratory data of doubtful value. A simple dimensionless shear force-displacement formulation is suggested that describes the mobilization and subsequent reduction of joint roughness, as peak strength is exceeded during a given shearing event. The effect of changing normal stress during shearing is accounted for using this method.

  7. Properties of single crystal beta''-aluminas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, J.B.; Brown, G.M.; Kaneda, T.; Brundage, W.E.; Wang, J.C.; Engstrom, H.

    1979-01-01

    Large single crystals of sodium beta''-alumina were grown by slow evaporation of Na 2 O at 1690 0 C from a mixture of Na 2 CO 3 , MgO, and Al 2 O 3 . Polarized Raman measurements were made on the Na β'' single crystals and on single crystals of Li, K, Rb, and Ag β'' prepared by ion exchange of Na β''. The low frequency Raman spectra of Na, K, Rb, and Ag β'' contained four or more bands due to vibrations of the mobile cations. These results were analyzed by assuming the spectra to be due to the normal modes of a defect cluster consisting of a cation vacancy surrounded by three cations. From model calculations, the Raman band of Na β'' at 33 cm -1 is assigned to the attempt mode for diffusion of Na + ions. The structure of a Ag β'' single crystal was investigated by neutron diffraction, and 20% of the Ag + ion sites were found to be vacant

  8. Geometric properties of optimal photonic crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigmund, Ole; Hougaard, Kristian G.

    2008-01-01

    Photonic crystals can be designed to control and confine light. Since the introduction of the concept by Yablonovitch and John two decades ago, there has been a quest for the optimal structure, i.e., the periodic arrangement of dielectric and air that maximizes the photonic band gap. Based...

  9. Elastic properties of Ti-24Nb-4Zr-8Sn single crystals with bcc crystal structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.W.; Li, S.J.; Obbard, E.G.; Wang, H.; Wang, S.C.; Hao, Y.L.; Yang, R.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The single crystals of Ti2448 alloy with the bcc crystal structure were prepared. → The elastic moduli and constants were measured by several resonant methods. → The crystal shows significant elastic asymmetry in tension and compression. → The crystal exhibits weak nonlinear elasticity with large elastic strain ∼2.5%. → The crystal has weak atomic interactions against crystal distortion to low symmetry. - Abstract: Single crystals of Ti2448 alloy (Ti-24Nb-4Zr-8Sn in wt.%) were grown successfully using an optical floating-zone furnace. Several kinds of resonant methods gave consistent Young's moduli of 27.1, 56.3 and 88.1 GPa and shear moduli of 34.8, 11.0 and 14.6 GPa for the , and oriented single crystals, and C 11 , C 12 and C 44 of 57.2, 36.1 and 35.9 GPa respectively. Uniaxial testing revealed asymmetrical elastic behaviors of the crystals: tension caused elastic softening with a large reversible strain of ∼4% and a stress plateau of ∼250 MPa, whereas compression resulted in gradual elastic stiffening with much smaller reversible strain. The crystals exhibited weak nonlinear elasticity with a large elastic strain of ∼2.5% and a high strength, approaching ∼20% and ∼30% of its ideal shear and ideal tensile strength respectively. The crystals showed linear elasticity with a small elastic strain of ∼1%. These elastic deformation characteristics have been interpreted in terms of weakened atomic interactions against crystal distortion to low crystal symmetry under external applied stresses. These results are consistent with the properties of polycrystalline Ti2448, including high strength, low elastic modulus, large recoverable strain and weak strengthening effect due to grain refinement.

  10. Intravitreal properties of porous silicon photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, L; Anglin, E; Cunin, F; Kim, D; Sailor, M J; Falkenstein, I; Tammewar, A; Freeman, W R

    2009-01-01

    Aim To determine the suitability of porous silicon photonic crystals for intraocular drug-delivery. Methods A rugate structure was electrochemically etched into a highly doped p-type silicon substrate to create a porous silicon film that was subsequently removed and ultrasonically fractured into particles. To stabilise the particles in aqueous media, the silicon particles were modified by surface alkylation (using thermal hydrosilylation) or by thermal oxidation. Unmodified particles, hydrosilylated particles and oxidised particles were injected into rabbit vitreous. The stability and toxicity of each type of particle were studied by indirect ophthalmoscopy, biomicroscopy, tonometry, electroretinography (ERG) and histology. Results No toxicity was observed with any type of the particles during a period of >4 months. Surface alkylation led to dramatically increased intravitreal stability and slow degradation. The estimated vitreous half-life increased from 1 week (fresh particles) to 5 weeks (oxidised particles) and to 16 weeks (hydrosilylated particles). Conclusion The porous silicon photonic crystals showed good biocompatibility and may be used as an intraocular drug-delivery system. The intravitreal injectable porous silicon photonic crystals may be engineered to host a variety of therapeutics and achieve controlled drug release over long periods of time to treat chronic vitreoretinal diseases. PMID:18441177

  11. Crystal plasticity finite element analysis of deformation behaviour in SAC305 solder joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbandi, Payam

    Due to the awareness of the potential health hazards associated with the toxicity of lead (Pb), actions have been taken to eliminate or reduce the use of Pb in consumer products. Among those, tin (Sn) solders have been used for the assembly of electronic systems. Anisotropy is of significant importance in all structural metals, but this characteristic is unusually strong in Sn, making Sn based solder joints one of the best examples of the influence of anisotropy. The effect of anisotropy arising from the crystal structure of tin and large grain microstructure on the microstructure and the evolution of constitutive responses of microscale SAC305 solder joints is investigated. Insights into the effects of key microstructural features and dominant plastic deformation mechanisms influencing the measured relative activity of slip systems in SAC305 are obtained from a combination of optical microscopy, orientation imaging microscopy (OIM), slip plane trace analysis and crystal plasticity finite element (CPFE) modeling. Package level SAC305 specimens were subjected to shear deformation in sequential steps and characterized using optical microscopy and OIM to identify the activity of slip systems. X-ray micro Laue diffraction and high energy monochromatic X-ray beam were employed to characterize the joint scale tensile samples to provide necessary information to be able to compare and validate the CPFE model. A CPFE model was developed that can account for relative ease of activating slip systems in SAC305 solder based upon the statistical estimation based on correlation between the critical resolved shear stress and the probability of activating various slip systems. The results from simulations show that the CPFE model developed using the statistical analysis of activity of slip system not only can satisfy the requirements associated with kinematic of plastic deformation in crystal coordinate systems (activity of slip systems) and global coordinate system (shape changes

  12. UV response on dielectric properties of nano nematic liquid crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Kumar Pandey

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we investigate the effect of UV light irradiation on the dielectric parameters of nematic liquid crystal (5CB and ZnO nanoparticles dispersed liquid crystal. With addition of nanoparticles in nematic LC are promising new materials for a variety of application in energy harvesting, displays and photonics including the liquid crystal laser. To realize many applications, however we optimize the properties of liquid crystal and understand how the UV light irradiation interact the nanoparticles and LC molecules in dispersed/doped LC. The dielectric permittivity and loss factor have discussed the pure nematic LC and dispersed/doped system after, during and before UV light exposure. The dielectric relaxation spectroscopy was carried out in the frequency range 100 Hz–10 MHz in the nematic mesophase range. Keywords: Dielectric permittivity, Relaxation frequency, Nematic liquid crystal, UV light irradiation

  13. Magneto-optical properties of biogenic photonic crystals in algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaka, M.; Mizukawa, Y.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the effects of strong static magnetic fields on the structural colors of the cell covering crystals on a microalgae, coccolithophore, were investigated. The coccolithophore, Emiliania huxleyi, generates a precise assembly of calcite crystals called coccoliths by biomineralization. The coccoliths attached to the cells exhibited structural colors under side light illumination, and the colors underwent dynamic transitions when the magnetic fields were changed between 0 T and 5 T, probably due to diamagnetically induced changes of their inclination under the magnetic fields. The specific light-scattering property of individual coccoliths separated from the cells was also observed. Light scattering from a condensed suspension of coccoliths drastically decreased when magnetic fields of more than 4 T were applied parallel to the direction of observation. The magnetically aligned cell-covering crystals of the coccolithophores exhibited the properties of both a photonic crystal and a minimum micromirror

  14. Electrical properties of molecular crystals; Proprietes electriques des cristaux moleculaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barraud, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    This literature survey summarizes the electrical properties of molecular crystals: molecular crystal structure, transport and excitation mechanisms of charge-carriers, and differences compared to inorganic semi-conductors. The main results concerning the electrical conductivity of the most-studied molecular crystals are presented, together with the optical and photo-electrical properties of these crystals. Finally the different types of electrical measurements used are reviewed, as well as the limits of each method. (author) [French] Cette etude bibliographique resume les proprietes electriques des cristaux moleculaires: structure des cristaux moleculaires, mecanismes de transport et d'excitation des porteurs de charge et differences avec les semiconducteurs mineraux. Les principaux resultats sur la conductibilite electrique des cristaux moleculaires les plus etudies y sont exposes, ainsi que les proprietes optiques et photoelectriques de ces cristaux. Enfin les differents types de mesures electriques utilisees sont passees en revue ainsi que les limites de chaque methode. (auteur)

  15. Electrical properties of molecular crystals; Proprietes electriques des cristaux moleculaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barraud, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    This literature survey summarizes the electrical properties of molecular crystals: molecular crystal structure, transport and excitation mechanisms of charge-carriers, and differences compared to inorganic semi-conductors. The main results concerning the electrical conductivity of the most-studied molecular crystals are presented, together with the optical and photo-electrical properties of these crystals. Finally the different types of electrical measurements used are reviewed, as well as the limits of each method. (author) [French] Cette etude bibliographique resume les proprietes electriques des cristaux moleculaires: structure des cristaux moleculaires, mecanismes de transport et d'excitation des porteurs de charge et differences avec les semiconducteurs mineraux. Les principaux resultats sur la conductibilite electrique des cristaux moleculaires les plus etudies y sont exposes, ainsi que les proprietes optiques et photoelectriques de ces cristaux. Enfin les differents types de mesures electriques utilisees sont passees en revue ainsi que les limites de chaque methode. (auteur)

  16. Morphology, microstructure, and mechanical properties of laser-welded joints in GH909 alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chunming; Cai, Yuanzheng; Hu, Chongjing; Zhang, Xiong; Yan, Fei; Hu, Xiyuan [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China)

    2017-05-15

    The experimental laser welding of GH909 alloy was conducted in this study. The morphology, microstructure, and mechanical properties of laser-welded joints were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, energy diffraction spectroscopy, and other techniques. Results revealed that the microstructure of the welded joints mainly consisted of tiny cellular structures, dendritic structures, and equiaxed crystals. Pores appeared in the interdendritic regions because of the insufficient local feeding of molten metal during solidification. Nb segregation in the heat-affected zone caused liquation cracking, whereas C segregation further induced the formation of carbide precipitates along the grain boundaries during the welding thermal cycle. The instability of the keyhole significantly promoted the escape of the metal vapor/plasma from the hole; as a result, porosity defects formed in the weld. The average tensile strength of the test joints was 756 MPa, which is 93.1 % of that of the base metal. The average microhardness of the weld zone (250 HV) was higher than that of the GH909 alloy substrate (208 HV), peaking at 267 HV. Microcracks appeared along the grain boundaries, proving that the grain boundaries were the weakest areas in the joint.

  17. Microstructure and mechanical properties of resistance-spot-welded joints for A5052 aluminum alloy and DP 600 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jianbin [College of Automotive Collaborative Innovation Center, Chongqing University, No. 174, Shazheng Street, Shapingba District, Chongqing 400044 (China); Yuan, Xinjian, E-mail: xinjianyuan@yahoo.com [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, No. 174, Shazheng Street, Shapingba District, Chongqing 400044 (China); Hu, Zhan; Sun, Changzheng; Zhang, Yanxin; Zhang, Yuxuan [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, No. 174, Shazheng Street, Shapingba District, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2016-10-15

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of resistance-spot-welded A5052 aluminum alloy and DP 600 dual-phase steel joint were studied. The fusion zone (FZ) and heat-affected zone (HAZ) of DP 600 exhibited lath martensite and ferrite-martensite structures, respectively. The microstructure of FZ and HAZ in the A5052 side was composed of cellular crystals and the boundary region of FZ exhibited a columnar crystal morphology. A Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 5} intermetallic compound (IMC) layer with 3.3 μm thickness was found adjacent to the DP 600 side, whereas a needle-shaped Fe{sub 4}Al{sub 13} IMC layer with length of 0.67 μm to 15.8 μm was found adjacent to the aluminum alloy side. The maximum tensile shear load of the A5052/DP 600 joint was 5.5 KN, with a corresponding molten nugget diameter of 6.3 mm. The fracture morphology of the optimized A5052/DP 600 joint was mainly an elongated dimple fracture accompanied by cleavage fracture. - Highlights: •A5052 and DP 600 with large gaps in properties were investigated by RSW. •The microstructures of RSW joints in DP 600/A5052 were examined detailedly. •The micro/macro-characteristics and strength relations of joints were analyzed.

  18. Correlation of Bulk Dielectric and Piezoelectric Properties to the Local Scale Phase Transformations, Domain Morphology, and Crystal Structure Modified

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priya, Shashank [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Viehland, Dwight [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2014-12-14

    Three year program entitled “Correlation of bulk dielectric and piezoelectric properties to the local scale phase transformations, domain morphology, and crystal structure in modified lead-free grain-textured ceramics and single crystals” was supported by the Department of Energy. This was a joint research program between D. Viehland and S. Priya at Virginia Tech. Single crystal and textured ceramics have been synthesized and characterized. Our goals have been (i) to conduct investigations of lead-free piezoelectric systems to establish the local structural and domain morphologies that result in enhanced properties, and (ii) to synthesize polycrystalline and grain oriented ceramics for understanding the role of composition, microstructure, and anisotropy

  19. Morphology, crystallization and dynamic mechanical properties of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    considerable interest both in industry and academia because of its significantly ... super-engineering materials because of their superior mecha- nical properties at ... proves the barrier (Kojima et al 1993c) and ablative. (Vaia et al 1999) ...

  20. Photoluminescent properties of single crystal diamond microneedles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malykhin, Sergey A.; Ismagilov, Rinat R.; Tuyakova, Feruza T.; Obraztsova, Ekaterina A.; Fedotov, Pavel V.; Ermakova, Anna; Siyushev, Petr; Katamadze, Konstantin G.; Jelezko, Fedor; Rakovich, Yury P.; Obraztsov, Alexander N.

    2018-01-01

    Single crystal needle-like diamonds shaped as rectangular pyramids were produced by combination of chemical vapor deposition and selective oxidation with dimensions and geometrical characteristics depending on the deposition process parameters. Photoluminescence spectra and their dependencies on wavelength of excitation radiation reveal presence of nitrogen- and silicon-vacancy color centers in the diamond crystallites. Photoluminescence spectra, intensity mapping, and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy indicate that silicon-vacancy centers are concentrated at the crystallites apex while nitrogen-vacancy centers are distributed over the whole crystallite. Dependence of the photoluminescence on excitation radiation intensity demonstrates saturation and allows estimation of the color centers density. The combination of structural parameters, geometry and photoluminescent characteristics are prospective for advantageous applications of these diamond crystallites in quantum information processing and optical sensing.

  1. Absorption and emission properties of photonic crystals and metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Lili

    2007-01-01

    We study the emission and absorption properties of photonic crystals and metamaterials using Comsol Multiphysics and Ansoft HFSS as simulation tools. We calculate the emission properties of metallic designs using drude model and the results illustrate that an appropriate termination of the surface of the metallic structure can significantly increase the absorption and therefore the thermal emissivity. We investigate the spontaneous emission rate modifications that occur for emitters inside two-dimensional photonic crystals and find the isotropic and directional emissions with respect to different frequencies as we have expected.

  2. Crystal structure and thermal property of polyethylene glycol octadecyl ether

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Jie-yun; Tang, Xiao-fen; Li, Wei; Shi, Hai-feng; Zhang, Xing-xiang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The crystal structure of C18En for n ≥ 20 is a monoclinic system. ► Polyethylene glycol octadecyl ether crystallizes perfectly. ► The number of repeat units has significant effect on the melting, crystallizing temperature and enthalpy. ► The thermal stable temperature increases rapidly with increasing the number of repeat unit. - Abstract: The crystal structure, phase change property and thermal stable temperature (T d ) of polyethylene glycol octadecyl ether [HO(CH 2 CH 2 O) n C 18 H 37 , C18En] with various numbers of repeat units (n = 2, 10, 20 and 100) as phase change materials (PCMs) were investigated using temperature variable Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), wide-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetric analysis (TG). C18En crystallizes perfectly at 0 °C; and the crystal structure for n ≥ 20 is a monoclinic system. The number of repeat units has great effect on the phase change properties of C18En. The thermal stable temperature increases rapidly with increasing the number of repeat units. They approach to that of PEG-2000 as the number of repeat units is more than 10. T d increases rapidly with increasing the number of repeat units. C18En are a series of promising polymeric PCMs

  3. Wavelength calibration of x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer on Joint Texas Experimental Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, W.; Chen, Z. Y.; Jin, W.; Huang, D. W.; Ding, Y. H.; Li, J. C.; Zhang, X. Q.; Zhuang, G.; Lee, S. G.; Shi, Y. J.

    2014-01-01

    The wavelength calibration of x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer is a key issue for the measurements of plasma rotation. For the lack of available standard radiation source near 3.95 Å and there is no other diagnostics to measure the core rotation for inter-calibration, an indirect method by using tokamak plasma itself has been applied on joint Texas experimental tokamak. It is found that the core toroidal rotation velocity is not zero during locked mode phase. This is consistent with the observation of small oscillations on soft x-ray signals and electron cyclotron emission during locked-mode phase

  4. Crystal growth and scintillation properties of Pr-doped SrI2 single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Yuui; Ito, Tomoki; Yoshino, Masao; Yamaji, Akihiro; Ohashi, Yuji; Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Kamada, Kei; Yoshikawa, Akira

    2018-04-01

    Pr-doped SrI2 (Pr:SrI2) single crystals with various Pr concentrations were grown by the halide-micro-pulling-down (H-μ-PD) method, and the scintillation properties were investigated. Pr1%:SrI2 single crystal with high transparency could be grown by the H-μ-PD method while Pr2, 3 and 5%:SrI2 single crystals included some cracks and opaque parts. In the photoluminescence spectrum of the Pr1%:SrI2 single crystal, an emission peak originated from the Pr3+ ion was observed around 435 nm while the radioluminescence spectra showed an emission peak around 535 nm for the undoped SrI2 and Pr:SrI2 single crystals. Light yields of Pr1, 2, 3 and 5%:SrI2 single crystals under γ-ray irradiation were 7700, 8700, 7200 and 6700 photons/MeV, respectively. Decay times of Pr1 and 2%:SrI2 single crystals under γ-ray irradiation were 55.9 and 35.0 ns of the fast decay component, and 435 and 408 ns of the slow decay component, respectively.

  5. Synthesis, crystal structures and properties of new quinolinium derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinyuan; Jiang, Xingxing; Li, Yin; Lin, Zheshuai; Zhang, Guochun; Wu, Yicheng

    2015-11-01

    Four phenyl-substituted quinolinium salts with different counter anions, C27H27NO4S, C26H25NO5S, C25H22NO5SCl, and C25H22NO5SBr, were synthesized and their single crystals were successfully grown from methanol solution by slow evaporation. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analyses showed that C27H27NO4S crystal belongs to the noncentrosymmetric orthorhombic space group Pna21, and the other three crystals belong to centrosymmetric monoclinic space group P21/n. Their first order hyperpolarization and macroscopic nonlinearity were analyzed and physical properties were characterized by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetric and thermal gravimetric analysis.

  6. Crystal structure, characterization and magnetic properties of a 1D ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Crystal structure, characterization and magnetic properties of a 1D copper(II) polymer incorporating a Schiff base with carboxylate side arm. SHYAMAPADA SHIT MADHUSUDAN NANDY CORRADO RIZZOLI CÉDRIC DESPLANCHES SAMIRAN MITRA. Regular Article Volume 128 Issue 6 June 2016 pp 913-920 ...

  7. Crystallization and mechanical properties of biodegradable poly(p ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Effect of ome-POSS on the isothermal melt crystallization and dynamic mechanical properties of PPDO in the ... attracting more and more attention in recent times.12–14 Blen- ..... spent at Ts is enough to erase the crystalline memory of the.

  8. Microstructure and Mechanical Property of 3003 Aluminum Alloy Joint Brazed with Al-Si-Cu-Zn Filler Metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Xiao-qiang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Al-Si-Cu-Zn filler metal was developed to braze 3003 aluminum alloy. The microstructure and fracture surface of the joint were analyzed by XRD, SEM and EDS, and the effects of brazing temperature on microstructure and property of the joint were investigated. The results show that good joints are obtained at brazing temperature of 540-580℃ for 10min. The brazed joint consists of α(Al solid solution, θ(Al2Cu intermetallic compound, fine silicon phase and AlCuFeMn+Si phase in the central zone of brazed seam, and α(Al solid solution and element diffusion layers at both the sides of brazed seam, and the base metal. The room temperature (RT shear fracture of the joint occurs at the interface between the teeth shape α(Al in the diffusion layer and the center zone of brazed seam, which is mainly characterized as brittle cleavage. As the brazing temperature increases, α(Al solid solution crystals in the diffusion zone grow up, and the interfacial bonding of the joint is in the form of interdigitation. Brazing at 560℃ for 10min, the RT shear strength of the joint reaches the maximum value of 92.3MPa, which is about 62.7% of the base material.

  9. Vibrational and Thermal Properties of Oxyanionic Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korabel'nikov, D. V.

    2018-03-01

    The vibrational and thermal properties of dolomite and alkali chlorates and perchlorates were studied in the gradient approximation of density functional theory using the method of a linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO). Long-wave vibration frequencies, IR and Raman spectra, and mode Gruneisen parameters were calculated. Equation-of-state parameters, thermodynamic potentials, entropy, heat capacity, and thermal expansion coefficient were also determined. The thermal expansion coefficient of dolomite was established to be much lower than for chlorates and perchlorates. The temperature dependence of the heat capacity at T > 200 K was shown to be generally governed by intramolecular vibrations.

  10. Frictional properties of single crystals HMX, RDX and PETN explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Y.Q.; Huang, F.L.

    2010-01-01

    The frictional properties of single crystals of cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine (HMX), cyclotrimethylene trinitramine (RDX) and pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) secondary explosives are examined using a sensitive friction machine. The explosive crystals used for the measurements are at least 3.5 mm wide. The friction coefficients between crystals of the same explosive (i.e., HMX on HMX, etc.), crystals of different explosives (i.e., HMX on RDX, etc.), and each explosive and a well-polished gauge steel surface are determined. The frictional surfaces are also studied under an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) to analyze surface microstructural changes under increasing loading forces. The friction coefficients vary considerably with increasing normal loading forces and are particularly sensitive to slider shapes, crystal roughness and the mechanical properties of both the slider and the sample. With increasing loading forces, most friction experiments show surface damage, consisting of grooves, debris, and nano-particles, on both the slider and sample. In some cases, a strong evidence of a localized molten state is found in the central region of the friction track. Possible mechanisms that affect the friction coefficient are discussed based on microscopic observations.

  11. Investigation into mechanical properties of joints of heterogeneous materials brazed with high-temperature solders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomenko, V.I.; Merkushev, V.P.; Borodina, L.M.; Sycheva, T.S.; Tokhtina, O.A.; Frolov, N.N.

    1988-01-01

    Mechanical properties of copper joints with copper, 12Kh18M10T steel and KhD50 composite obtained by vacuum brazing by copper-titanium solder as compared with properties of joints brazed by PSr 72 and PMFOTsr 6-4-0.03 solders in hydrogen are studied. Dependences of joints strength on temperature of contact - reactive vacuum brazing are obtained. Possible applications of joints of dissimilar materials in electrovacuum devices subjected to the effect of dynamic loadings are established

  12. Band structures and localization properties of aperiodic layered phononic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan Zhizhong, E-mail: zzyan@bit.edu.cn [Department of Applied Mathematics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Zhang Chuanzeng [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Siegen, D-57078 Siegen (Germany)

    2012-03-15

    The band structures and localization properties of in-plane elastic waves with coupling of longitudinal and transverse modes oblique propagating in aperiodic phononic crystals based on Thue-Morse and Rudin-Shapiro sequences are studied. Using transfer matrix method, the concept of the localization factor is introduced and the correctness is testified through the Rytov dispersion relation. For comparison, the perfect periodic structure and the quasi-periodic Fibonacci system are also considered. In addition, the influences of the random disorder, local resonance, translational and/or mirror symmetries on the band structures of the aperiodic phononic crystals are analyzed in this paper.

  13. Thermal properties photonic crystal fiber transducers with ferromagnetic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybysz, N.; Marć, P.; Kisielewska, A.; Jaroszewicz, L. R.

    2015-12-01

    The main aim of the research is to design new types of fiber optic transducers based on filled photonic crystal fibers for sensor applications. In our research we propose to use as a filling material nanoparticles' ferrofluids (Fe3O4 NPs). Optical properties of such transducers are studied by measurements of spectral characteristics' changes when transducers are exposed to temperature and magnetic field changes. From synthesized ferrofluid several mixtures with different NPs' concentrations were prepared. Partially filled commercially available photonic crystal fiber LMA 10 (NKT Photonics) was used to design PCF transducers. Their thermo-optic properties were tested in a temperature chamber. Taking into account magnetic properties of synthetized NPs the patch cords based on a partially filled PM 1550 PCF were measured.

  14. Electronic transport properties of single crystal thallium-2201 superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yandrofski, R.M.

    1992-01-01

    Four-probe resistance measurements on single crystals of the calcium-free thallium-based superconducting Tl 2 Ba 2 CuO 6+σ phase (Tl-2201) were performed in magnetic fields up to 12 Telsa. Single crystals of sizes were grown by a self-flux technique and were characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction and X-ray Dispersive Analysis. Field measurements were taken at dc and at low frequencies using a lock-in technique. Techniques were developed to oxygen-anneal the as-grown single crystals to generate single crystal samples of the same Tl-2201 phase with varying transition interaction effect against appropriate composite general alternatives are developed for the standard two-way layout with a single observation per cell. Nonparametric aligned-rank test procedures are introduced. One of the new procedures is shown to be equivalent to a slight modification of the previously studied Latin square procedures when the factors have the same number of levels. The equal in distribution technique is used to show that any statistic based on the joint ranks should not be used to test the hypotheses of interest. The tests based on aligning with the averages do not depend on the nuisance main effects, while those based on aligning with the median do depend on the nuisance main effects. The relative power performance of the competing tests are examined via Monte Carlo simulation. Power studies conducted on the 5 x 5, 5 x 6, and 5 x 9 two-way layouts with one observation per cell show that the new procedures based on a comparison of all possible pairs of rank-profiles perform quite well for two types of product interaction, a general class of interaction effects proposed by Martin, and several sets of specific interaction effects. Approximate critical values for some of the proposed procedures are explored in the special case when the main effect parameters for one factor are known

  15. The effects of welded joint characteristics on its properties in HDPE thermal fusion welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Hongbin; Peng, Jun

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, PE100 pipes with the diameter of 200 mm and the thickness of 11.9 mm were used as material. The welded joints were obtained in different welding pressures with the optimal welding temperature of 220∘C. Reheating process on the welded joints with the temperature of 130∘C was carried out. The joints exhibited X-type, and the cause of X-type joints was discussed. The temperature field in the forming process of welded joints was measured, and tensile and bending tests on welded joints were carried out. The fracture surface of welded joints was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and crystallinity calculation was taken by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The mechanism of X-type weld profile effects on welded joints properties was analyzed. It was concluded that the mechanical properties of welded joints decrease with the reduced X distance between lines.

  16. Mechanical properties of hydroxyapatite single crystals from nanoindentation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamiri, A.; De, S.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we compute elasto-plastic properties of hydroxyapatite single crystals from nanindentation data using a two-step algorithm. In the first step the yield stress is obtained using hardness and Young’s modulus data, followed by the computation of the flow parameters. The computational approach is first validated with data from existing literature. It is observed that hydroxyapatite single crystals exhibit anisotropic mechanical response with a lower yield stress along the [1010] crystallographic direction compared to the [0001] direction. Both work hardening rate and work hardening exponent are found to be higher for indentation along the [0001] crystallographic direction. The stress-strain curves extracted here could be used for developing constitutive models for hydroxyapatite single crystals. PMID:21262492

  17. Crystallization and properties of a spodumene-willemite glass ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, A.M.; Li, M.; Dali, D.L. Mao; Liang, K.M.

    2005-01-01

    Spodumene-willemite glass ceramics were produced by replacement of Al 2 O 3 in lithium aluminium silicate by ZnO. With replacement of Al 2 O 3 by ZnO, the batch melting temperature, glass transition temperature (T g ) and crystallization temperature (T p ) all decreased. The main crystalline phases precipitated were eucriptite, β-spodumene and willemite (Zn 2 SiO 4 ). All compositions of glass ceramics showed bulk crystallization. As ZnO content increased, the grain sizes and thermal expansion coefficients increased, while the flexural strength and fracture toughness of the glass-ceramics increased first, and then decreased. The mechanical properties were correlated with crystallization and morphology of glass ceramics

  18. Rock mass deformation properties of closely jointed basalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.; Cramer, M.L.

    1982-12-01

    The deformational behavior of the Columbia River basalt is being investigated as part of a comprehensive site characterization program intended to determine the feasibility of constructing a nuclear waste repository in basalt at Hanford, Washington. Direct field measurements were conducted in a 2-m cube of basalt to obtain truly representative rock mass deformation properties. Load was applied to the test block in three orthogonal directions through the use of flat jacks in two perpendicular planes and a cable anchor system in the third. This configuration allowed the block to be placed in a simulated triaxial stress state at stress levels up to 12.5 MPa. The deformation at the center of the test block was monitored through the use of an optical measurement system developed for this project. The results indicate that the vertically oriented columnar joints have a significant influence on the deformation behavior of the basalt. The modulus in the direction parallel to the column axis was approx. 30 GPa, while the modulus value perpendicular to the columns was approx. 20 GPa. Laboratory measurements of intact specimens taken from this area yielded a value of 80 GPa with no indication of anisotropy. Hysteresis was observed in all loading cycles, but was distinctly more pronounced perpendicular to the column axis, indicative of significant joint displacement in this direction. The results of this test represent the first true rock mass modulus data obtained in closely jointed rock on a large scale. These measurement methods have eliminated many of the ambiguities associated with borehole jacking and surface measurement techniques

  19. Crystal growth and physical properties of Ferro-pnictides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aswartham, Saicharan

    2012-11-08

    The thesis work presented here emphasizes important aspects of crystal growth and the influence of chemical substitution in Fe-As superconductors. High temperature solution growth technique is one of most powerful and widely used technique to grow single crystals of various materials. The biggest advantage of high temperature solution growth technique is the, possibility of growing single crystals from both congruently and incongruently melting materials. Solution growth technique has the potential to control high vapour pressures, given the fact that, in Fe-based superconductors elements with high vapour pressure like As, K, Li and Na have to be handled during the crystal growth procedure. In this scenario high temperature solution growth is the best suitable growth technique to synthesize sizable homogeneous single crystals. Using self-flux high temperature solution growth technique, large centimeter-sized high quality single crystals of BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} were grown. This pristine compound BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} undergoes structural and magnetic transition at T{sub S/N} = 137 K. By suppressing this magnetic transition and stabilizing tetragonal phase with chemical substitution, like Co-doping and Na-doping, bulk superconductivity is achieved. Superconducting transitions of as high as T{sub c} = 34 K with Na substitution and T{sub c} = 25 K with Co-doping were obtained. A combined electronic phase diagram has been achieved for both electron doping with Co and hole doping with Na in BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2}. Single crystals of LiFe{sub 1-x}Co{sub x}As with x = 0, 0.025, 0.05 and 0.075 were grown by a self-flux high temperature solution growth technique. The charge doping in LiFeAs is achieved with the Co-doping in Fe atoms. The superconducting properties investigated by means of temperature dependent magnetization and resistivity revealed that superconductivity is shifted to lower temperatures and with higher amount of charge carriers superconductivity is killed

  20. Photoluminescence properties of boron doped InSe single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ertap, H.; Bacıoğlu, A.; Karabulut, M.

    2015-01-01

    Undoped and boron doped InSe single crystals were grown by Bridgman–Stockbarger technique. The PL properties of undoped, 0.1% and 0.5% boron doped InSe single crystals have been investigated at different temperatures. PL measurements revealed four emission bands labeled as A, B, C and D in all the single crystals studied. These emission bands were associated with the radiative recombination of direct free excitons (n=1), impurity-band transitions, donor–acceptor recombinations and structural defect related band (impurity atoms, defects, defect complexes, impurity-vacancy complex etc.), respectively. The direct free exciton (A) bands of undoped, 0.1% and 0.5% boron doped InSe single crystals were observed at 1.337 eV, 1.335 eV and 1.330 eV in the PL spectra measured at 12 K, respectively. Energy positions and PL intensities of the emission bands varied with boron addition. The FWHM of direct free exciton band increases while the FWHM of the D emission band decreases with boron doping. Band gap energies of undoped and boron doped InSe single crystals were calculated from the PL measurements. It was found that the band gap energies of InSe single crystals decreased with increasing boron content. - Highlights: • PL spectra of InSe crystals have been studied as a function of temperature. • Four emission bands were observed in the PL spectra at low temperatures. • PL intensity and position of free exciton band vary with doping and temperature. • Temperature dependences of the bands observed in the PL spectra were analyzed

  1. Crystal growth and magnetic properties of equiatomic CeAl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Pranab Kumar; Thamizhavel, A.

    2015-03-01

    Single crystal of CeAl has been grown by flux method using Ce-Al self-flux. Several needle like single crystals were obtained and the length of the needle corresponds to the [001] crystallographic direction. Powder x-ray diffraction revealed that CeAl crystallizes in orthorhombic CrB-type structure with space group Cmcm (no. 63). The magnetic properties have been investigated by means of magnetic susceptibility, isothermal magnetization, electrical transport, and heat capacity measurements. CeAl is found to order antiferromagnetically with a Neel temperature TN = 10 K. The magnetization data below the ordering temperature reveals two metamagentic transitions for fields less than 20 kOe. From the inverse magnetic susceptibility an effective moment of 2.66 μB/Ce has been estimated, which indicates that Ce is in its trivalent state. Electrical resistivity data clearly shows a sharp drop at 10 K due to the reduction of spin disorder scattering of conduction electrons thus confirming the magnetic ordering. The estimated residual resistivity ratio (RRR) is 33, thus indicating a good quality of the single crystal. The bulk nature of the magnetic ordering is also confirmed by heat capacity data. From the Schottky anomaly of the heat capacity we have estimated the crystal field level splitting energies of the (2J + 1) degenerate ground state as 25 K and 175 K respectively for the fist and second excited states.

  2. Antisolvent crystallization of a cardiotonic drug in ionic liquids: Effect of mixing on the crystal properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Azevedo Jacqueline, Resende; Fabienne, Espitalier; Jean-Jacques, Letourneau; Inês, Ré Maria

    2017-08-01

    LASSBio-294 (3,4-methylenedioxybenzoyl-2-thienylhydrazon) is a poorly soluble drug which has been proposed to have major advantages over other cardiotonic drugs. Poorly water soluble drugs present limited bioavailability due to their low solubility and dissolution rate. An antisolvent crystallization processing can improve the dissolution rate by decreasing the crystals particle size. However, LASSBio-294 is also poorly soluble in organic solvents and this operation is limited. In order to open new perspectives to improve dissolution rate, this work has investigated LASSBio-294 in terms of its antisolvent crystallization in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium methyl phosphonate [emim][CH3O(H)PO2] as solvent and water as antisolvent. Two modes of mixing are tested in stirred vessel with different pre-mixers (Roughton or T-mixers) in order to investigate the mixing effect on the crystal properties (crystalline structure, particle size distribution, residual solvent and in vitro dissolution rate). Smaller drug particles with unchanged crystalline structure were obtained. Despite the decrease of the elementary particles size, the recrystallized particles did not achieve a better dissolution profile. However, this study was able to highlight a certain number of findings such as the impact of the hydrodynamic conditions on the crystals formation and the presence of a gel phase limiting the dissolution rate.

  3. Spectrometric properties and radiation damage of BGO crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gen C.; Gasanov, Eldar M.

    1997-07-01

    Spectrometric properties, such as light output, energy resolution BGO crystals before and after (superscript 60)Co gamma-ray (dose 10(superscript 4) - 10(superscript 6) R) and neutron irradiation (fluence 10(superscript 14) cm(superscript -2)) are investigated. Condition for degradation of spectrometric properties and their recovering after irradiation are studied. The energy spectrum of the photons emitted from BGO crystals irradiated with neutron fluence contains the long living background peak which is caused by self-irradiation with radioactive isotopes produced in the crystals. The defect production was studied in crystals under the high dose gamma-irradiation with (superscript 60)Co isotope. It was found that after doses above 10(superscript 8) R the color center at 365 nm and doses higher than 10(superscript 9) R a wide absorption band in the region of 300 - 350 nm occur. Comparison of these results with those of reactor irradiation has shown that under the high dose gamma-irradiation the structure defect production takes place.

  4. Asymmetric flavone-based liquid crystals: synthesis and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timmons, Daren J. [Department of Chemistry, Virginia Military Institute, Lexington, VA, USA; Jordan, Abraham J. [Department of Chemistry, Virginia Military Institute, Lexington, VA, USA; Kirchon, Angelo A. [Department of Chemistry, Virginia Military Institute, Lexington, VA, USA; Murthy, N. Sanjeeva [New Jersey Center for Biomaterials, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ, USA; Siemers, Troy J. [Department of Applied Mathematics, Virginia Military Institute, Lexington, VA, USA; Harrison, Daniel P. [Department of Chemistry, Virginia Military Institute, Lexington, VA, USA; Slebodnick, Carla [Department of Chemistry, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA, USA

    2017-02-01

    A series of flavones (n-F) substituted at the 4', and 6 positions was prepared, characterised by NMR (1H,13C), HRMS, and studied for liquid crystal properties. The 4'-alkoxy,6-methoxyflavones (4-F–16-F) exhibit varying ranges of nematic and smectic A phases as evidenced by polarised optical microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). As the tail length is increased, the smectic phase becomes more prevalent. Smectic phases for (8-F–16-F) were further analysed by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and the rate of structural transformations was explored by combined DSC/XRD studies. Flavonol 6-F–OH was also prepared but no mesogenic behaviour was observed. The molecular structures of 6-F and 6-F–OH were determined by single-crystal XRD and help to explain the differences in material properties. Additionally, fluorescence and electrochemical studies were conducted on solutions of n-F.

  5. An experimental and numerical study of the light scattering properties of ice crystals with black carbon inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arienti, Marco; Geier, Manfred; Yang, Xiaoyuan; Orcutt, John; Zenker, Jake; Brooks, Sarah D.

    2018-05-01

    We investigate the optical properties of ice crystals nucleated on atmospheric black carbon (BC). The parameters examined in this study are the shape of the ice crystal, the volume fraction of the BC inclusion, and its location inside the crystal. We report on new spectrometer measurements of forward scattering and backward polarization from ice crystals nucleated on BC particles and grown under laboratory-controlled conditions. Data from the Cloud and Aerosol Spectrometer with Polarization (CASPOL) are used for direct comparison with single-particle calculations of the scattering phase matrix. Geometrical optics and discrete dipole approximation techniques are jointly used to provide the best compromise of flexibility and accuracy over a broad range of size parameters. Together with the interpretation of the trends revealed by the CASPOL measurements, the numerical results confirm previous reports on absorption cross-section magnification in the visible light range. Even taking into account effects of crystal shape and inclusion position, the ratio between absorption cross-section of the compound particle and the absorption cross-section of the BC inclusion alone (the absorption magnification) has a lower bound of 1.5; this value increases to 1.7 if the inclusion is centered with respect to the crystal. The simple model of BC-ice particle presented here also offers new insights on the effect of the relative position of the BC inclusion with respect to the crystal's outer surfaces, the shape of the crystal, and its size.

  6. Growth and scintillation properties of gadolinium and yttrium orthovanadate crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voloshina, O.V.; Baumer, V.N.; Bondar, V.G.; Kurtsev, D.A.; Gorbacheva, T.E.; Zenya, I.M.; Zhukov, A.V.; Sidletskiy, O.Ts.

    2012-01-01

    Aiming to explore the possibility of using the undoped rare-earth orthovanadates as scintillation materials, we developed the procedure for growth of gadolinium (GdVO 4 ) and yttrium (YVO 4 ) orthovanadate single crystals by Czochralski method, and determined the optimal conditions of their after-growth annealing. Optical, luminescent, and scintillation properties of YVO 4 and GdVO 4 were discussed versus known literature data. Scintillation characteristics of GdVO 4 were determined for the first time.

  7. Experimental measurement and modeling analysis on mechanical properties of incudostapedial joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiangming; Gan, Rong Z

    2011-10-01

    The incudostapedial (IS) joint between the incus and stapes is a synovial joint consisting of joint capsule, cartilage, and synovial fluid. The mechanical properties of the IS joint directly affect the middle ear transfer function for sound transmission. However, due to the complexity and small size of the joint, the mechanical properties of the IS joint have not been reported in the literature. In this paper, we report our current study on mechanical properties of human IS joint using both experimental measurement and finite element (FE) modeling analysis. Eight IS joint samples with the incus and stapes attached were harvested from human cadaver temporal bones. Tension, compression, stress relaxation and failure tests were performed on those samples in a micro-material testing system. An analytical approach with the hyperelastic Ogden model and a 3D FE model of the IS joint including the cartilage, joint capsule, and synovial fluid were employed to derive mechanical parameters of the IS joint. The comparison of measurements and modeling results reveals the relationship between the mechanical properties and structure of the IS joint.

  8. Optical Properties of Small Ice Crystals with Black Carbon Inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X.; Geier, M.; Arienti, M.

    2013-12-01

    The optical properties of ice crystals play a fundamental role in modeling atmospheric radiation and hydrological cycle, which are critical in monitoring climate change. While Black Carbon (BC) is recognized as the dominant absorber with positive radiative forcing (warming) (Ramanathan & Carmichael, 2008), in-situ observations (Cappa, et al, 2012) indicate that the characterization of the mixing state of BC with ice crystals and other non-BC particles in global climate models (Ghan & Schwartz, 2007) needs further investigation. The limitation in the available mixing models is due to the drastically different absorbing properties of BC compared to other aerosols. We explore the scattering properties of ice crystals (in shapes commonly found in cirrus clouds and contrails - Yang, et al. 2012) with the inclusion of BC particles. The Discrete Dipole Approximation (DDA) (Yurkin & Hoekstra, 2011) is utilized to directly calculate the optical properties of the crystals with multiple BC inclusions, modeled as a distribution of spheres. The results are then compared with the most popular models of internal and external mixing (Liou, et al. 2011). The DDA calculations are carried out over a broad range of BC particle sizes and volume fractions within the crystal at the 532 nm wavelength and for ice crystals smaller than 50 μm. The computationally intensive database generated in this study is critical for understanding the effect of different types of BC inclusions on the atmosphere radiative forcing. Examples will be discussed to illustrate the modification of BC optical properties by encapsulation in ice crystals and how the parameterization of the BC mixing state in global climate models can be improved. Acknowledgements Support by Sandia National Laboratories' LDRD (Laboratory Directed Research and Development) is gratefully acknowledged. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of

  9. Testing of the Structure and Mechanical Properties of Technical Titanium Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogumił Wronka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was the titanium pipeline welding technology. The transformations of this material due to the influence of thermal welding were analysed. The basic purpose was to evaluate the properties of titanium joint areas. Pipe joints of various thicknesses were welded by means of TIG argon arc welding while applying the optimum and reduced gas flow intensities. The structure and mechanical properties of these joints were tested. Different test results were obtained for joints welded in these two conditions. Recommendations concerning the welding technology and the heat treatment of joints after welding were presented.

  10. Pyroelectric properties of phosphoric acid-doped TGS single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxena, Aparna; Fahim, M; Gupta, Vinay; Sreenivas, K

    2003-01-01

    Pyroelectric properties of phosphoric acid (H 3 PO 4 )-doped triglycine sulfate (TGSP) single crystals grown from solutions containing 0.1-0.5 mol of H 3 PO 4 have been studied. Incorporation of H 3 PO 4 into the crystal lattice is found to induce an internal bias field (E b ) and is observed through the presence of a sustained polarization and pyroelectricity beyond the transition temperature. The internal bias field has been estimated theoretically by fitting the experimentally measured data on temperature dependence of the pyroelectric coefficient (λ), dielectric constant (ε') and polarization (P). A high E b value in the range 9 x 10 3 -15.5 x 10 4 V m -1 is obtained for crystals grown with 0.1-0.5 mol of H 3 PO 4 in the solution, and a specific concentration of 0.2-0.25 mol of H 3 PO 4 in the solution during crystal growth is found to be optimum for a high figure of merit for detectivity, F d = 428 μC m -2 K -1

  11. Pyroelectric properties of phosphoric acid-doped TGS single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxena, Aparna; Fahim, M; Gupta, Vinay; Sreenivas, K [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India)

    2003-12-21

    Pyroelectric properties of phosphoric acid (H{sub 3}PO{sub 4})-doped triglycine sulfate (TGSP) single crystals grown from solutions containing 0.1-0.5 mol of H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} have been studied. Incorporation of H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} into the crystal lattice is found to induce an internal bias field (E{sub b}) and is observed through the presence of a sustained polarization and pyroelectricity beyond the transition temperature. The internal bias field has been estimated theoretically by fitting the experimentally measured data on temperature dependence of the pyroelectric coefficient ({lambda}), dielectric constant ({epsilon}') and polarization (P). A high E{sub b} value in the range 9 x 10{sup 3}-15.5 x 10{sup 4} V m{sup -1} is obtained for crystals grown with 0.1-0.5 mol of H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} in the solution, and a specific concentration of 0.2-0.25 mol of H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} in the solution during crystal growth is found to be optimum for a high figure of merit for detectivity, F{sub d} = 428 {mu}C m{sup -2} K{sup -1}.

  12. Creep properties of EB welded joint on Hastelloy X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arata, Yoshiaki; Susei, Shuzo; Shimizu, Shigeki; Satoh, Keisuke; Nagai, Hiroyoshi.

    1980-01-01

    In order to clarify the creep properties of EB welds on Hastelloy X which is one of the candidate alloys for components of VHTR, creep tests on EB weld metal and welded joint were carried out. The results were discussed in comparison with those of base metal and TIG welds. Further, EB welds were evaluated from the standpoint of high temperature structural design. The results obtained are summarized as follows. 1) Both creep rupture strengths of EB weld metal and EB welded joint are almost equal to that of base metal, but those of TIG welds are lower than base metal. As for the secondary creep rate, EB weld metal is higher and TIG weld metal is lower than base metal. As for the time to onset of tertiary creep, no remarkable difference among base metal, EB weld metal and TIG weld metal is observed. 2) In case of EB weld metal, although anisotropy is slightly observed, the ductility is same or more as compared with base metal. In case of TIG weld metal, on the contrary, anisotropy is not observed and the ductility is essentially low. 3) Such rupture morphology of EB weld metal as appears to have resulted from interconnection of voids which occurred at grain boundary is similar to base metal. In case of TIG weld metal, however, many cracks with sharp tips are observed at grain boundary, and the rupture appears to have occurred in brittle by propagation and connection of the cracks. 4) It can be said from the standpoint of high temperature structural design that EB welding is very suitable to welding for structure where creep effects are significant, because both of the creep ductility and the rupture strength are almost equal to those of base metal. (author)

  13. Neuromuscular properties of different spastic human joints vary systematically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirbagheri, M M; Settle, K

    2010-01-01

    We quantified the mechanical abnormalities of the spastic wrist in chronic stroke survivors, and determined whether these findings were representative of those recorded at the elbow and ankle joints. System identification techniques were used to characterize the mechanical abnormalities of these joints and to identify the contribution of intrinsic and reflex stiffness to these abnormalities. Modulation of intrinsic and reflex stiffness with the joint angle was studied by applying PRBS perturbations to the joints at different joint angles over the range of motion. Age-matched healthy subjects were used as control.

  14. Moisture transport properties of mortar and mortar joint: A NMR study

    OpenAIRE

    Brocken, H.J.P.; Adant, O.C.G.; Pel, L.

    1997-01-01

    The moisture transport in mortar and mortar joint often is an important parameter in degeneration of brick masonry and other block constructions. In this study, the influence of single additives on the moisture transport properties of mortar is investigated. Due to water extraction during brick laying, curing conditions of mortar in mortar joint differ from curing conditions of separately cured mortar. Consequently, the moisture transport properties of mortar joint differ. In addition to the ...

  15. Moisture transport properties of mortar and mortar joint: a NMR study

    OpenAIRE

    Brocken, H.J.P.; Adan, O.C.G.; Pel, L.

    1997-01-01

    The moisture transport in mortar and mortar joint often is an important parameter in degeneration of brick masonry and other block constructions. In this study, the influence of single additives on the moisture transport properties of mortar is investigated. Due to water extraction during brick laying, curing conditions of mortar in mortar joint differ from curing conditions of separately cured mortar. Consequently, the moisture transport properties of mortar joint differ. In addition to the ...

  16. Optical properties of Sulfur doped InP single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Nahass, M. M.; Youssef, S. B.; Ali, H. A. M.

    2014-05-01

    Optical properties of InP:S single crystals were investigated using spectrophotometric measurements in the spectral range of 200-2500 nm. The absorption coefficient and refractive index were calculated. It was found that InP:S crystals exhibit allowed and forbidden direct transitions with energy gaps of 1.578 and 1.528 eV, respectively. Analysis of the refractive index in the normal dispersion region was discussed in terms of the single oscillator model. Some optical dispersion parameters namely: the dispersion energy (Ed), single oscillator energy (Eo), high frequency dielectric constant (ɛ∞), and lattice dielectric constant (ɛL) were determined. The volume and the surface energy loss functions (VELF & SELF) were estimated. Also, the real and imaginary parts of the complex conductivity were calculated.

  17. Thermodynamic properties of a liquid crystal carbosilane dendrimer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samosudova, Ya. S.; Markin, A. V.; Smirnova, N. N.; Ogurtsov, T. G.; Boiko, N. I.; Shibaev, V. P.

    2016-11-01

    The temperature dependence of the heat capacity of a first-generation liquid crystal carbosilane dendrimer with methoxyphenyl benzoate end groups is studied for the first time in the region of 6-370 K by means of precision adiabatic vacuum calorimetry. Physical transformations are observed in this interval of temperatures, and their standard thermodynamic characteristics are determined and discussed. Standard thermodynamic functions C p ° ( T), H°( T) - H°(0), S°( T) - S°(0), and G°( T) - H°(0) are calculated from the obtained experimental data for the region of T → 0 to 370 K. The standard entropy of formation of the dendrimer in the partially crystalline state at T = 298.15 K is calculated, and the standard entropy of the hypothetic reaction of its synthesis at this temperature is estimated. The thermodynamic properties of the studied dendrimer are compared to those of second- and fourth-generation liquid crystal carbosilane dendrimers with the same end groups studied earlier.

  18. Structure and properties of fixed joints formed by ultrasonic-assisted friction-stir welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortuna, S. V., E-mail: s-fortuna@ispms.ru; Ivanov, K. V., E-mail: ikv@ispms.ru; Eliseev, A. A., E-mail: alan@ispms.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials ScienceTomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); Tarasov, S. Yu., E-mail: tsy@ispms.ru; Ivanov, A. N., E-mail: ivan@ispms.ru; Rubtsov, V. E., E-mail: rvy@ispms.ru; Kolubaev, E. A., E-mail: eak@ispms.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials ScienceTomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-27

    This paper deals with structure and properties of aluminum alloy 7475 and its joints obtained by friction stir welding including under ultrasonic action. Microhardness measurements show that ultrasonic action increases strength properties of the joints. Optical and transmission electron microscopy reveals that this effect is related to the precipitation of tertiary coherent S-and T-phase particles.

  19. Relaxor properties of barium titanate crystals grown by Remeika method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Michel; Tiagunov, Jenia; Dul'kin, Evgeniy; Mojaev, Evgeny

    2017-06-01

    Barium titanate (BaTiO3, BT) crystals have been grown by the Remeika method using both the regular KF and mixed KF-NaF (0.6-0.4) solvents. Typical acute angle "butterfly wing" BT crystals have been obtained, and they were characterized using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (including energy dispersive spectroscopy), conventional dielectric and acoustic emission methods. A typical wing has a triangular plate shape which is up to 0.5 mm thick with a 10-15 mm2 area. The plate has a (001) habit and an atomically smooth outer surface. Both K+ and F- solvent ions are incorporated as dopants into the crystal lattice during growth substituting for Ba2+ and O2- ions respectively. The dopants' distribution is found to be inhomogeneous, their content being almost an order of magnitude higher (up to 2 mol%) at out surface of the plate relatively to the bulk. A few μm thick surface layer is formed where a multidomain ferroelectric net is confined between two≤1 μm thick dopant-rich surfaces. The layer as a whole possess relaxor ferroelectric properties, which is apparent from the appearance of additional broad maxima, Tm, in the temperature dependence of the dielectric permittivity around the ferroelectric phase transition. Intense acoustic emission responses detected at temperatures corresponding to the Tm values allow to observe the Tm shift to lower temperatures at higher frequencies, or dispersion, typical for relaxor ferroelectrics. The outer surface of the BT wing can thus serve as a relaxor thin film for various electronic application, such as capacitors, or as a substrate for BT-based multiferroic structure. Crystals grown from KF-NaF fluxes contain sodium atoms as an additional impurity, but the crystal yield is much smaller, and while the ferroelectric transition peak is diffuse it does not show any sign of dispersion typical for relaxor behavior.

  20. Microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of Ti−22Al−25Nb alloy joints brazed with Ti−Ni−Nb alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y.; Cai, X.Q.; Yang, Z.W., E-mail: tjuyangzhenwen@163.com; Qiu, Q.W.; Wang, D.P.; Liu, Y.C.

    2016-10-01

    Ti{sub 45}Ni{sub 45}Nb{sub 10} (at.%) brazing alloy, fabricated by arc melting, was successfully used to braze Ti−22Al−25Nb (at.%) alloy. The microstructures of Ti{sub 45}Ni{sub 45}Nb{sub 10} brazing alloy and Ti−22Al−25Nb alloy brazed joints were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), and micro-area X-ray diffraction (XRD). The effects of the brazing parameters on the interfacial microstructure and mechanical properties of the Ti−22Al−25Nb alloy brazed joints were investigated. The results showed that the joint was primarily comprised of two characteristic zones: diffusion zone I and central zone II, and the reaction phases formed in the brazed joint were the B2, O, τ{sub 3}, and Ti{sub 2}Ni phase. The crystal orientation of B2 phase in diffusion zone I was consistent with that in the Ti−22Al−25Nb substrate. The O phase was precipitated from the B2 phase. As the brazing temperature or holding time increased, τ{sub 3} was gradually replaced by the B2 phase, and the Ti{sub 2}Ni phase decreased and ultimately disappeared. The maximum shear strength achieved at room temperature was 318 MPa when the joint was brazed at 1180 °C for 20 min, whereas it was 278 MPa at 650 °C. Crack primarily propagated in the τ{sub 3} compound, which was extremely hard and brittle, and partially traversed the B2 and O phases. - Highlights: • Ti{sub 45}Ni{sub 45}Nb{sub 10} alloy was successfully developed to braze Ti−22Al−25Nb alloy. • Ti−22Al−25Nb alloy was transformed from B2 phase into the O + B2 duplex phase after brazing. • Crystal orientation of B2 in joint was dependent on metal substrate. • Correlation between joint microstructure and mechanical properties was revealed. • Ti−22Al−25Nb brazed joint had excellent ambient and high temperature strength.

  1. Crystal chemistry and magnetic properties of ternary rare earth sulfides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plug, C.M.; Rijksuniversiteit Leiden

    1977-01-01

    The results of magnetic measurements on two groups of ternary rare earth sulphides are described, the MLnS 2 (M=Li, Na, K) type of compounds and the series Ln 2 ZrS 5 , where Ln denotes one of the rare earths. None of these compounds is metallic, excluding the possibility of RKKY-interaction. In chapter II a survey of the relevant theory on magnetic properties and crystal field splitting is given. In spite of the similarity in chemical properties of the rare earths, the crystal chemistry of their compounds is rather complex. This is due to the lanthanide contraction. The third chapter deals with the description and classification of the numerous crystal structures of both ternary and binary rare earth sulphides that have been observed. Rather simple relations between various structures are presented using a new method of structure classification. The magnetic interactions expected to be based on superexchange via the anions, which is usually very structure dependent. Experiments to study the crystallographic ordering, applying both X-ray and electron diffraction methods and the results of the magnetic measurements on the compounds MLnS 2 are reported in chapter IV. The compounds Ln 2 ZrS 5 are candidates for a systematic study of the variation of the magnetic properties along the rare earth series. The results of magnetic measurements on these compounds are presented in chapter V, combined with the results of specific heat measurements. Also the magnetic structure of two representatives, Tb 2 ZrS 5 and Dy 2 ZrS 5 , determined by neutron diffraction experiments below the ordering temperature, is reported

  2. Dislocation-defect interactions and mechanical properties of crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granato, A.V.

    1975-01-01

    The influence of dislocation-defect interactions on mechanical properties of crystals is reviewed. Interactions are separated into those producing pinning and those producing viscous drag. Deformation behavior is classified according to the strength of the drag. For small drag, inertial effects become important. For intermediate drag, traditional theories resting on rate theory treatments become applicable. For large drag, viscoelastic behavior is obtained. Measurements are examined for information concerning the basic nature of different sources of short and long range pinning and of drag

  3. Alkyltributylphosphonium chloride ionic liquids: synthesis, physicochemical properties and crystal structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamová, Gabriela; Gardas, Ramesh L; Nieuwenhuyzen, Mark; Puga, Alberto V; Rebelo, Luís Paulo N; Robertson, Allan J; Seddon, Kenneth R

    2012-07-21

    A series of alkyltributylphosphonium chloride ionic liquids, prepared from tributylphosphine and the respective 1-chloroalkane, C(n)H(2n+1)Cl (where n = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12 or 14), is reported. This work is a continuation of an extended series of tetraalkylphosphonium ionic liquids, where the focus is on the variability of n and its impact on the physical properties, such as melting points/glass transitions, thermal stability, density and viscosity. Experimental density and viscosity data were interpreted using QPSR and group contribution methods and the crystal structure of propyl(tributyl)phosphonium chloride is detailed.

  4. Relation between photochromic properties and molecular structures in salicylideneaniline crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johmoto, Kohei; Ishida, Takashi; Sekine, Akiko; Uekusa, Hidehiro; Ohashi, Yuji

    2012-06-01

    The crystal structures of the salicylideneaniline derivatives N-salicylidene-4-tert-butyl-aniline (1), N-3,5-di-tert-butyl-salicylidene-3-methoxyaniline (2), N-3,5-di-tert-butyl-salicylidene-3-bromoaniline (3), N-3,5-di-tert-butyl-salicylidene-3-chloroaniline (4), N-3,5-di-tert-butyl-salicylidene-4-bromoaniline (5), N-3,5-di-tert-butyl-salicylidene-aniline (6), N-3,5-di-tert-butyl-salicylidene-4-carboxyaniline (7) and N-salicylidene-2-chloroaniline (8) were analyzed by X-ray diffraction analysis at ambient temperature to investigate the relationship between their photochromic properties and molecular structures. A clear correlation between photochromism and the dihedral angle of the two benzene rings in the salicylideneaniline derivatives was observed. Crystals with dihedral angles less than 20° were non-photochromic, whereas those with dihedral angles greater than 30° were photochromic. Crystals with dihedral angles between 20 and 30° could be either photochromic or non-photochromic. Inhibition of the pedal motion by intra- or intermolecular steric hindrance, however, can result in non-photochromic behaviour even if the dihedral angle is larger than 30°.

  5. Crystallization process and magnetic properties of amorphous iron oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phu, N D; Luong, N H; Chau, N; Hai, N H; Ngo, D T; Hoang, L H

    2011-01-01

    This paper studied the crystallization process, phase transition and magnetic properties of amorphous iron oxide nanoparticles prepared by the microwave heating technique. Thermal analysis and magnetodynamics studies revealed many interesting aspects of the amorphous iron oxide nanoparticles. The as-prepared sample was amorphous. Crystallization of the maghemite γ-Fe 2 O 3 (with an activation energy of 0.71 eV) and the hematite α-Fe 2 O 3 (with an activation energy of 0.97 eV) phase occurred at around 300 deg. C and 350 deg. C, respectively. A transition from the maghemite to the hematite occurred at 500 deg. C with an activation energy of 1.32 eV. A study of the temperature dependence of magnetization supported the crystallization and the phase transformation. Raman shift at 660 cm -1 and absorption band in the infrared spectra at 690 cm -1 showed the presence of disorder in the hematite phase on the nanoscale which is supposed to be the origin of the ferromagnetic behaviour of that antiferromagnetic phase.

  6. Crystal orientation dependent thermoelectric properties of highly oriented aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Abutaha, Anas I.; Sarath Kumar, S. R.; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate that the thermoelectric properties of highly oriented Al-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films can be improved by controlling their crystal orientation. The crystal orientation of the AZO films was changed by changing the temperature

  7. Riveted Lap Joints in Aircraft Fuselage Design, Analysis and Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Skorupa, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    Fatigue of the pressurized fuselages of transport aircraft is a significant problem all builders and users of aircraft have to cope with for reasons associated with assuring a sufficient lifetime and safety, and formulating adequate inspection procedures. These aspects are all addressed in various formal protocols for creating and maintaining airworthiness, including damage tolerance considerations. In most transport aircraft, fatigue occurs in lap joints, sometimes leading to circumstances that threaten safety in critical ways. The problem of fatigue of lap joints has been considerably enlarged by the goal of extending aircraft lifetimes. Fatigue of riveted lap joints between aluminium alloy sheets, typical of the pressurized aircraft fuselage, is the major topic of the present book. The richly illustrated and well-structured chapters treat subjects such as: structural design solutions and loading conditions for fuselage skin joints; relevance of laboratory test results for simple lap joint specimens to rive...

  8. Imaging properties of a positron tomograph with 280 BGO crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derenzo, S.E.; Budinger, T.F.; Huesman, R.H.; Cahoon, J.L.; Vuletich, T.

    1980-11-01

    The basic imaging properties of the Donner 280-BGO-Crystal positron tomograph were measured and compared with the same system when it was equipped with 280 NaI(T1) crystals. The NaI(T1) crystals were 8 mm x 30 mm x 50 mm deep, sealed in 10 mm wide stainless steel cans. The BGO crystals are 9.5 mm x 32 mm x 32 mm deep and as they are not hygroscopic do not require sealed cans. With a shielding gap of 3 cm (section thickness 1.7 cm FWHM) the sensitivity of the BGO system is 55,000 events per sec for 1 μCi per cm 3 in a 20 cm cylinder of water, which is 2.3 times higher than the NaI(T1) system. For a 200 μCi/cm line source on the ring axis in a 20 cm diameter water cylinder, the BGO system records 86% of the scatter fraction and 66% of the accidental fraction of the NaI(T1) system. The lower light yield and poorer time resolution of BGO requires a wider coincidence timing window than NaI(T1). However, the ability to use full-energy pulse height selection with a 2.3-fold improvement in sensitivity results in an overall reduction in the fraction of accidental events recorded. The in-plane resolution of the BGO system is 9 to 10 mm FWHM within the central 30 cm diameter field, and the radial elongation at the edge of the field in the NaI(T1) system has been nearly eliminated

  9. Anisotropic properties of single crystals of high Tc superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tholence, J.L.; Saint-Paul, M.; Laborde, O.; Monceau, P.; Guillot, M.; Niel, H.; Levet, J.C.; Potel, M.; Padiou, J.; Gougeon, P.

    1990-01-01

    In this article the authors make a review of some of the anisotropic properties of high T c compounds, essentially RE Ba 2 Cu 3 O 7 , Bi-SR-Ca-Cu-O and Tl-Ca-Ba-Cu-O systems. In section 2 a short description of the crystal growth is reported. Section 3 deals with the anisotropic elastic properties measured by ultrasonic techniques. In section 4 the authors discuss the anisotropy in magnetization measurements and consequently on the critical currents. Section 5 concerns the magnetoresistance measurements, and the determination of the superconducting critical magnetic field H c2 . Finally in section 6, in conclusion of result described in sections 4 and 5, the authors discuss on the pinning force and on the controversial Lorentz force for explaining the broadening of the superconducting transition under magnetic field. The authors apologize for not having quoted all the works published on these different topics, which is in fact practically impossible

  10. Structural, Linear, and Nonlinear Optical and Mechanical Properties of New Organic L-Serine Crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear optical single crystal of organic amino acid L-Serine (LS was grown by slow evaporation technique. Solubility study of the compound was measured and metastable zone width was found. Single crystal X-ray diffraction study was carried out for the grown crystal. The linear and nonlinear optical properties of the crystal were confirmed by UV-Vis analysis and powder SHG tester. FT-IR spectrum was recorded and functional groups were analyzed. Vickers’ microhardness studies showed the mechanical strength of the grown crystal. Laser damage threshold value of the crystal was calculated. Photoconductivity studies reveal the conductivity of the crystal.

  11. On Post-Weld Heat Treatment of a Single Crystal Nickel-Based Superalloy Joint by Linear Friction Welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Ma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Three types of post-weld heat treatment (PWHT, i.e. solution treatment + primary aging + secondary aging (I, secondary aging (II, and primary aging + secondary aging (III, were applied to a single crystal nickel-based superalloy joint made with linear friction welding (LFW. The results show that the grains in the thermomechanically affected zone (TMAZ coarsen seriously and the primary γ' phase in the TMAZ precipitates unevenly after PWHT I. The primary γ' phase in the TMAZ and weld zone (WZ precipitates insufficiently and fine granular secondary γ' phase is observed in the matrix after PWHT II. After PWHT III, the primary γ' phase precipitates more sufficiently and evenly compared to PWHTs I and II. Moreover, the grains in the TMAZ have not coarsened seriously and fine granular secondary γ' phase is not found after PWHT III. PWHT III seems more suitable to the LFWed single crystal nickel-based superalloy joints when performing PWHT.

  12. Compression and flexural properties of finger jointed mango wood sections

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, V.S Kishan; Sharma, C.M; Gupta, Sachin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, an attempt was made to assess the effectiveness of finger jointing in utilising mango wood sections for various end uses like furniture. The study was based on the estimation of Modulus of elasticity and Modulus of rupture under static bending and Maximum Crushing Stress and Modulus of elasticity under compression parallel to grain of finger jointed sections and comparing them with the values measured for clear wood sections from the same lot. For joining the sections, the Poly...

  13. Synthesis, crystal structure, physicochemical properties of hydrogen bonded supramolecular assembly of N,N-diethylanilinium-3, 5-dinitrosalicylate crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, M.; Chandramohan, A.

    2017-12-01

    An organic salt, N,N-diethylanilinium 3,5-dinitrosalicylate was synthesized and single crystals grown by employing the slow solvent evaporation solution growth technique in methanol-acetone (1:1) mixture. The electronic transitions of the salt crystal were studied by UV-Visible spectrum. The optical transmittance window and lower wavelength cut-off of grown crystal have been identified by UV-Vis-NIR studies. The FT-IR spectrum was recorded to confirm the presence of various functional groups in the grown crystal. 1H and 13C NMR spectrum were recorded to establish the molecular structure of the title crystal. Single crystal X-ray diffraction data indicated that the crystal belongs to monoclinic crystal system with P21/n space group. The thermal stability of the crystal was established by TG/DTA studies. The mechanical properties of the grown crystal were studied by Vickers' microhardness technique. The dielectric studies indicated that the dielectric constant and dielectric loss decrease exponentially with frequency at different temperatures.

  14. Lyotropic chromonic liquid crystals: From viscoelastic properties to living liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shuang

    Lyotropic chromonic liquid crystal (LCLC) represents a broad range of molecules, from organic dyes and drugs to DNA, that self-assemble into linear aggregates in water through face-to-face stacking. These linear aggregates of high aspect ratio are capable of orientational order, forming, for example nematic phase. Since the microscopic properties (such as length) of the chromonic aggregates are results of subtle balance between energy and entropy, the macroscopic viscoelastic properties of the nematic media are sensitive to change of external factors. In the first part of this thesis, by using dynamic light scattering and magnetic Frederiks transition techniques, we study the Frank elastic moduli and viscosity coefficients of LCLC disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) and sunset yellow (SSY) as functions of concentration c , temperature T and ionic contents. The elastic moduli of splay (K1) and bend (K3) are in the order of 10pN, about 10 times larger than the twist modulus (K2). The splay modulus K1 and the ratio K1/K3 both increase substantially as T decreases or c increases, which we attribute to the elongation of linear aggregates at lower T or higher c . The bend viscosity is comparable to that of thermotropic liquid crystals, while the splay and twist viscosities are several orders of magnitude larger, changing exponentially with T . Additional ionic additives into the system influence the viscoelastic properties of these systems in a dramatic and versatile way. For example, monovalent salt NaCl decreases bend modulus K3 and increases twist viscosity, while an elevated pH decreases all the parameters. We attribute these features to the ion-induced changes in length and flexibility of building units of LCLC, the chromonic aggregates, a property not found in conventional thermotropic and lyotropic liquid crystals form by covalently bound units of fixed length. The second part of the thesis studies a new active bio-mechanical hybrid system called living liquid crystal

  15. Effect of Shielding Gas on the Properties of AW 5083 Aluminum Alloy Laser Weld Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyskoč, Maroš; Sahul, Miroslav; Sahul, Martin

    2018-04-01

    The paper deals with the evaluation of the shielding gas influence on the properties of AW 5083 aluminum alloy weld joints produced with disk laser. Butt weld joints were produced under different shielding gas types, namely Ar, He, Ar + 5 vol.% He, Ar + 30 vol.% He and without shielding weld pool. Light and electron microscopy, computed tomography, microhardness measurements and tensile testing were used for evaluation of weld joint properties. He-shielded weld joints were the narrowest ones. On the other hand, Ar-shielded weld joints exhibited largest weld width. The choice of shielding gas had significant influence on the porosity level of welds. The lowest porosity was observed in weld joint produced in Ar with the addition of 5 vol.% He shielding atmosphere (only 0.03%), while the highest level of porosity was detected in weld joint produced in pure He (0.24%). Except unshielded aluminum alloy weld joint, the lowest tensile strength was recorded in He-shielded weld joints. On the contrary, the highest average microhardness was measured in He-shielded weld joints.

  16. Model of coordination melting of crystals and anisotropy of physical and chemical properties of the surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokarev, Valery P.; Krasnikov, Gennady Ya

    2018-02-01

    Based on the evaluation of the properties of crystals, such as surface energy and its anisotropy, the surface melting temperature, the anisotropy of the work function of the electron, and the anisotropy of adsorption, were shown the advantages of the model of coordination melting (MCM) in calculating the surface properties of crystals. The model of coordination melting makes it possible to calculate with an acceptable accuracy the specific surface energy of the crystals, the anisotropy of the surface energy, the habit of the natural crystals, the temperature of surface melting of the crystal, the anisotropy of the electron work function and the anisotropy of the adhesive properties of single-crystal surfaces. The advantage of our model is the simplicity of evaluating the surface properties of the crystal based on the data given in the reference literature. In this case, there is no need for a complex mathematical tool, which is used in calculations using quantum chemistry or modeling by molecular dynamics.

  17. Tensile and fatigue properties of weld-bonded and adhesive-bonded magnesium alloy joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, W.; Liu, L.; Zhou, Y.; Mori, H.; Chen, D.L.

    2013-01-01

    The microstructures, tensile and fatigue properties of weld-bonded (WB) AZ31B-H24 Mg/Mg joints with different sizes of bonding area were evaluated and compared with the adhesive-bonded (AB) Mg/Mg joints. Typical equiaxed dendritic structures containing divorced eutectic Mg 17 Al 12 particles formed in the fusion zone of both WB-1 (with a bonding area of 35 mm×35 mm) and WB-0.5 (with a bonding area of 17.5 mm×35 mm) joints. Less solidification shrinkage cracking was observed in the WB-0.5 joints than WB-1 joints. While the WB-0.5 joints exhibited a slightly lower maximum tensile shear stress than the AB-0.5 joints (with a bonding area of 17.5 mm×35 mm), the energy absorption was equivalent. Although the AB-0.5 joints exhibited a higher fatigue resistance at higher cyclic stress levels, both the AB-0.5 and WB-0.5 joints showed an equivalent fatigue resistance at lower cyclic stress levels. A higher fatigue limit was observed in the WB-0.5 joints than in the WB-1 joints owing to the presence of fewer shrinkage pores. Cohesive failure mode along the adhesive layer in conjunction with partial nugget pull-out from the weld was observed at the higher cyclic loads, and fatigue failure occurred in the base metal at the lower cyclic loads

  18. Assesment of influncing factors on mechanical and electrical properties of Al/Cu joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaraj, R. Meby; Hynes, N. Rajesh Jesudoss

    2018-05-01

    Joining of dissimilar materials opens up challenging opportunities in todays technology. Al/Cu weldments are used in applications that demands corrosion resistance, thermal and electrical conducting properties. In dissimilar joining mechanical and thermal properties result in large stress gradients during heating. The Al-Cu joints are lighter, cheaper and have conductivity equal to copper alloy. The main scope of this study is to assess the influencing factors of Al/Cu joints in mechanical and electrical properties. It includes the influence of the dilution between the base metals, influence of physical properties, influence of welding parameters, influence of filler metal, influence of heat treatment, and influence of electrical properties

  19. Third-order nonlinear optical properties of ADP crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mengxia; Wang, Zhengping; Chai, Xiangxu; Sun, Yuxiang; Sui, Tingting; Sun, Xun; Xu, Xinguang

    2018-05-01

    By using the Z-scan method, we investigated the third-order nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of ADP crystal at different wavelengths (355, 532, and 1064 nm) and different orientations ([001], [100], [110], I and II). The experimental data were fitted by NLO theory, to give out the two photon absorption (TPA) coefficient β 2 and the nonlinear refractive index n 2. When the light source changed from a 40 ps, 1064 nm fundamental laser to a 30 ps, 355 nm third-harmonic-generation (THG) laser, the β 2 value increased about 5 times (0.2 × 10‑2 → 1 × 10‑2 cm GW‑1), and the n 2 value increased about 1.5 times (1.5 × 10‑16 → 2.2 × 10‑16 cm2 W‑1). Among all of the orientations, the [110] sample exhibits the smallest β 2, and the second smallest n 2. It indicates that this orientation and its surroundings will be the preferred directions for high-power laser applications of ADP crystal.

  20. Electrophysical properties of crystals with superconducting inclusions of small sizes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugakov, V.I.; Shevtsova, O.N.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of superconducting inclusions, incorporated in a semiconducting or dielectric matrix, on the electrophysical properties of the dielectric is studied. The critical magnetic field of a spherical isolated inclusion is determined in the assumption that the inclusion radius is less than or of the order of coherence length. The dependence of conductivity on temperature and magnetic field is calculated for a crystal with superconducting inclusions. In the calculations an assumption is made that the inclusion concentration is inadequate for the superconductivity to appear in a whole sample (i.e. below the thresh-old of percolation). It is shown that the presence of superconducting inclusions leads to a sharp increase of the sample conductivity at low temperatures, and to a strong dependence of conductivity on magnetic field (magnetoresistance). The magnetoresistance is caused by suppression of superconductivity in the inclusions with increasing magnetic field. The influence of variations in inclusion size on the temperature and magnetic field dependences of conductivity is studied

  1. THE MICROSTRUCTURAL PROPERTIES OF EXPLOSION WELDED Ni/Ti JOINT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Zdrodowska

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Explosion welding is one of the ways of bonding materials. This method is used to bond metals which either cannot be joined or they are difficult to bond by other methods. The study investigates the metallographic characteristics of Ni/Ti joints in the form of a plate. Microstructures of the joints are examined and hardness measurements are carried out on the bonded materials and their interfaces. A detailed analysis of the distributions of wave length and width is presented. An average microhardness of the interface is found to be higher than that of the base materials.

  2. Interactions of molecules and the properties of crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Thomas Daniel Leigh

    In this thesis the basic theory of the lattice dynamics of molecular crystals is considered, with particular reference to the specific case of linear molecules. The objective is to carry out a critical investigation of a number of empirical potentials as models for real systems. Suitable coordinates are introduced, in particular vibrational coordinates which are used to describe the translational and rotational modes of the free molecule. The Taylor expansion of the intermolecular potential is introduced and its terms considered, in particular the (first-order) equilibrium conditions for such a system and the (second-order) lattice vibrations. The elastic properties are also considered, in particular with reference to the specific case of rhombohedral crystals. The compressibility and a number of conditions for elastic stability are introduced. The total intermolecular interaction potential is divided into three components using perturbation methods, the electrostatic energy, the repulsion energy and the dispersion energy. A number of models are introduced for these various components. The induction energy is neglected. The electrostatic interaction is represented by atomic multipole and molecular multipole models. The repulsion and dispersion energies are modelled together in a central interaction potential, either the Lennard-Jones atom-atom potential or the anisotropic Berne-Pechukas molecule-molecule potential. In each case, the Taylor expansion coefficients, used to calculate the various molecular properties, are determined. An algorithm is described which provides a relatively simple method for calculating cartesian tensors, which are found in the Taylor expansion coefficients of the multipolar potentials. This proves to be particularly useful from a computational viewpoint, both in terms of programming and calculating efficiency. The model system carbonyl sulphide is introduced and its lattice properties are described. Suitable parameters for potentials used

  3. Effects of joint alignment and type on mechanical properties of thermoplastic articulated ankle-foot orthosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fan; Carlton, William; Kapp, Susan

    2011-06-01

    Articulated or hinged ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) allow more range of motion. However, quantitative investigation on articulated AFO is still sparse. The objective of the study was to quantitatively investigate effects of alignment and joint types on mechanical properties of the thermoplastic articulated AFO. Tamarack dorsiflexion assist flexure joints with three durometers (75, 85 and 95) and free motion joint were tested. The AFO joint was aligned with the center of the motor shaft (surrogate ankle joint), 10 mm superior, inferior, anterior and posterior with respect to the motor shaft center. The AFO was passively moved from 20° plantar flexion to 15° dorsiflexion at a speed of 10°/s using a motorized device. Mechanical properties including index of hysteresis, passive resistance torque and quasi-static stiffness (at neutral, 5°, 10° and 15° in plantar flexion) were quantified. Significant effects of joint types and joint alignment on the mechanical properties of an articulated thermoplastic AFO were revealed. Specifically, center alignment showed minimum resistance and stiffness while anterior and posterior alignment showed significantly higher resistance and stiffness. The dorsiflexion assist torques at neutral position ranged from 0.69 ± 0.09 to 1.88 ± 0.10 Nm. Anterior and posterior alignment should be avoided as much as possible. The current study suggested that anterior and posterior alignment be avoided as much as possible in clinical practice due to potential skin irritation and increase in stress around the ankle joint.

  4. Research on Microstructure and Properties of Welded Joint of High Strength Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Pengxiao; Li, Yi; Chen, Bo; Ma, Xuejiao; Zhang, Dongya; Tang, Cai

    2018-01-01

    BS960 steel plates were welded by Laser-MAG and MAG. The microstructure and properties of the welded joints were investigated by optical microscope, micro-hardness tester, universal tensile testing machine, impact tester, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and fatigue tester. By a series of experiments, the following results were obtained: The grain size of the coarse grain zone with Laser-MAG welded joint is 20μm, and that with MAG welded joint is about 32μm, both of the fine grain region are composed of fine lath martensite and granular bainite; the width of the heat affected region with Laser-MAG is lower than that with MAG. The strength and impact energy of welded joints with Laser-MAG is higher than that with MAG. The conditioned fatigue limit of welded joint with Laser-MAG is 280MPa; however, the conditioned fatigue limit of welded joint with MAG is 250MPa.

  5. Disassembly Properties of Cementitious Finish Joints Using an Induction Heating Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jaecheol; Noguchi, Takafumi; Kitagaki, Ryoma

    2015-01-01

    Efficient maintenance and upgrading of a building during its lifecycle are difficult because a cementitious finish uses materials and parts with low disassembly properties. Additionally, the reuse and recycling processes during building demolition also present numerous problems from the perspective of environmental technology. In this study, an induction heating (IH) method was used to disassemble cementitious finish joints, which are widely used to join building members and materials. The IH rapidly and selectively heated and weakened these joints. The temperature elevation characteristics of the cementitious joint materials were measured as a function of several resistor types, including wire meshes and punching metals, which are usually used for cementitious finishing. The disassembly properties were evaluated through various tests using conductive resistors in cementitious joints such as mortar. When steel fiber, punching metal, and wire mesh were used as conductive resistors, the cementitious modifiers could be weakened within 30 s. Cementitious joints with conductive resistors also showed complete disassembly with little residual bond strength.

  6. Structural and optical properties of WTe2 single crystals synthesized by DVT technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Vijay; Vyas, Chirag; Pathak, V. M.; Soalanki, G. K.; Patel, K. D.

    2018-05-01

    Layered transition metal di-chalcogenide (LTMDCs) crystals have attracted much attention due to their potential in optoelectronic device applications recently due to realization of their monolayer based structures. In the present investigation we report growth of WTe2 single crystals by direct vapor transport (DVT) technique. These crystals are then characterized by energy dispersive analysis of x-rays (EDAX) to study stoichiometric composition after growth. The structural properties are studied by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) is used to confirm orthorhombic structure of grown WTe2 crystal. Surface morphological properties of the crystals are also studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The optical properties of the grown crystals are studied by UV-Visible spectroscopy which gives direct band gap of 1.44 eV for grown WTe2 single crystals.

  7. Physicochemical properties of dimethylammonium p-nitrophenolate– p-nitrophenol: A nonlinear optical crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathika, A. [Department of Physics, Noorul Islam Centre for Higher Education, Noorul Islam University, Kumaracoil 629 180 (India); Prasad, L. Guru [Departemnt of Science & Humanities, M. Kumarasamy College of Engineering, Karur (India); Raman, R. Ganapathi, E-mail: ganapathiraman83@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Noorul Islam Centre for Higher Education, Noorul Islam University, Kumaracoil 629 180 (India)

    2016-03-15

    Single crystals of Dimethylammonium p-nitrophenolate–p-nitrophenol have been grown from aqueous solution by slow evaporation solution growth technique. Unit cell parameters of the grown crystal were confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis and the synthesized compound is crystallized in monoclinic system. Various functional groups and their vibrational frequencies were recognized from the FT-IR and FT-Raman spectrum. Thermal stability of the crystal was examined by recording the TGA/DTA curve. The grown crystal has wider transparency nature in the visible region and the lower cut-off wavelength is found at 465 nm. Mechanical property of the crystal was studied by analyzing the Vicker's microhardness measurements. The fluorescence emission from the crystal is observed at 350 nm which arise due to the presence of aromatic ring. Relative SHG conversion efficiency of the grown crystal is about 0.59 times that of KDP.

  8. Physicochemical properties of dimethylammonium p-nitrophenolate– p-nitrophenol: A nonlinear optical crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathika, A.; Prasad, L. Guru; Raman, R. Ganapathi

    2016-01-01

    Single crystals of Dimethylammonium p-nitrophenolate–p-nitrophenol have been grown from aqueous solution by slow evaporation solution growth technique. Unit cell parameters of the grown crystal were confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis and the synthesized compound is crystallized in monoclinic system. Various functional groups and their vibrational frequencies were recognized from the FT-IR and FT-Raman spectrum. Thermal stability of the crystal was examined by recording the TGA/DTA curve. The grown crystal has wider transparency nature in the visible region and the lower cut-off wavelength is found at 465 nm. Mechanical property of the crystal was studied by analyzing the Vicker's microhardness measurements. The fluorescence emission from the crystal is observed at 350 nm which arise due to the presence of aromatic ring. Relative SHG conversion efficiency of the grown crystal is about 0.59 times that of KDP.

  9. Crystal growth and magnetic property of YFeO3 crystal

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2Department of Physics, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444, China. 3School ... YFeO3 and other rare earth substituted crystals with distorted orthorhombic pervoskite-like struc- .... gen, with rotation rates of 30 rpm for the growing crystal or.

  10. Properties of lead tungstate crystals for high-energy physics

    CERN Document Server

    Ippolitov, M S; Burachas, S; Ikonnikov, V; Kuriakin, A; Lebedev, V; Makov, I; Man'ko, V; Nikulin, S P; Nyanin, A; Saveliev, Yu; Tamulaitis, G; Tsvetkov, A A; Vasilev, A; Vinogradov, Yu I

    2004-01-01

    Technology for the mass production of high-quality PbWO//4 (PWO) scintillating crystals is described. Scintillators produced from PWO crystals are intented for the ALICE CERN heavy ion experiment. Light yield, emission and decay time spectra as well as optical transmission of about 3600 crystals (dimensions 22 multiplied by 22 multiplied by 180 mm**3) were measured. Beam-test results of the ALICE PHOS prototype obtained with such PWO crystals are presented.

  11. Synthesis, growth, crystal structure, optical and third order nonlinear optical properties of quinolinium derivative single crystal: PNQI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthigha, S.; Krishnamoorthi, C.

    2018-03-01

    An organic quinolinium derivative nonlinear optical (NLO) crystal, 1-ethyl-2-[2-(4-nitro-phenyl)-vinyl]-quinolinium iodide (PNQI) was synthesized and successfully grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique. Formation of a crystalline compound was confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The quinolinium compound PNQI crystallizes in the triclinic crystal system with a centrosymmetric space group of P-1 symmetry. The molecular structure of PNQI was confirmed by 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectral studies. The thermal properties of the crystal have been investigated by thermogravimetric (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies. The optical characteristics obtained from UV-Vis-NIR spectral data were described and the cut-off wavelength observed at 506 nm. The etching study was performed to analyse the growth features of PNQI single crystal. The third order NLO properties such as nonlinear refractive index (n2), nonlinear absorption coefficient (β) and nonlinear susceptibility (χ (3)) of the crystal were investigated using Z-scan technique at 632.8 nm of Hesbnd Ne laser.

  12. Frequency-Dependent Properties of Magnetic Nanoparticle Crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majetich, Sara [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2016-05-17

    In the proposed research program we will investigate the time- and frequency-dependent behavior of ordered nanoparticle assemblies, or nanoparticle crystals. Magnetostatic interactions are long-range and anisotropic, and this leads to complex behavior in nanoparticle assemblies, particularly in the time- and frequency-dependent properties. We hypothesize that the high frequency performance of composite materials has been limited because of the range of relaxation times; if a composite is a dipolar ferromagnet at a particular frequency, it should have the advantages of a single phase material, but without significant eddy current power losses. Arrays of surfactant-coated monodomain magnetic nanoparticles can exhibit long-range magnetic order that is stable over time. The magnetic domain size and location of domain walls is governed not by structural grain boundaries but by the shape of the array, due to the local interaction field. Pores or gaps within an assembly pin domain walls and limit the domain size. Measurements of the magnetic order parameter as a function of temperature showed that domains can exist at high temoerature, and that there is a collective phase transition, just as in an exchange-coupled ferromagnet. Dipolar ferromagnets are not merely of fundamental interest; they provide an interesting alternative to exchange-based ferromagnets. Dipolar ferromagnets made with high moment metallic particles in an insulating matrix could have high permeability without large eddy current losses. Such nanocomposites could someday replace the ferrites now used in phase shifters, isolators, circulators, and filters in microwave communications and radar applications. We will investigate the time- and frequency-dependent behavior of nanoparticle crystals with different magnetic core sizes and different interparticle barrier resistances, and will measure the magnetic and electrical properties in the DC, low frequency (0.1 Hz - 1 kHz), moderate frequency (10 Hz - 500

  13. Characteristic properties of crystals. Their demonstration; Proprietes caracteristiques des cristaux. Mise en evidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesueur, C

    1951-03-01

    The characteristic properties of scintillation crystals discussed are the photon spectrum emitted by passage of a particle, number of these photons, transparence of the crystal to its own fluorescence radiation, and decay period of the fluorescence. The experimental apparatus, consisting of photomultiplier tube, preamplifier, amplifier, discriminator, and scaler, is described, and the experimental evaluation of the characteristic properties is discussed. Results of tests on various crystals with {alpha} and {beta} radiations are reported graphically.

  14. A Scanning Hologram Recorded by Phase Conjugate Property of Nonlinear Crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zi-Liang, Ping; Dalsgaard, Erik

    1996-01-01

    A methode of recording a scanning hologram with phase conjugate property of nonlinear crystal is provided. The principle of recording, setup and experiments are given.......A methode of recording a scanning hologram with phase conjugate property of nonlinear crystal is provided. The principle of recording, setup and experiments are given....

  15. Electronic transport properties of pentacene single crystals upon exposure to air

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jurchescu, OD; Baas, J; Palstra, TTM; Jurchescu, Oana D.

    2005-01-01

    We report the effect of air exposure on the electronic properties of pentacene single crystals. Air can diffuse reversibly in and out of the crystals and influences the physical properties. We discern two competing mechanisms that modulate the electronic transport. The presence of oxygen increases

  16. Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of Dissimilar Material Welded Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziewiec A.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of the mechanical testing and the microstructure analysis of dissimilar welded joint of the R350HT steel and the high-manganese (Hadfield cast steel using Cr-Ni cast steel spacer. The simulation tests of the welded joint surface deformation were carried out. The macroscopic and microscopic investigation were made using light microscopy (LM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Content of the magnetic phase was measured using magnetoscope. The quantitative metallographic investigation was used for assessment of ferrite and martensite contents and X-ray diffraction phase analysis was carried out. The results showed that during cooling of the spacer after welding, the transformation of metastable austenite into martensite proceeded. In addition to work hardening, the phase transformation of austenite into martensite occurs during the process of the superficial deformation of the spacer while simulated exploitation. This leads to a substantial increase of hardness, and at the same time, causes the increase of wear resistance of the welded joints of crossovers.

  17. Optimised robot-based system for the exploration of elastic joint properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, M; Burgkart, R; Regenfelder, F; Riener, R

    2004-09-01

    Numerous publications provide measured biomechanical data relating to synovial joints. However, in general, they do not reflect the non-linear elastic joint properties in detail or do not consider all degrees of freedom (DOF), or the quantity of data is sparse. To perform more comprehensive, extended measurements of elastic joint properties, an optimised robot-based approach was developed. The basis was an industrial, high-precision robot that was capable of applying loads to the joint and measuring the joint displacement in 6 DOF. The system was equipped with novel, custom-made control hardware. In contrast to the commonly used sampling rates that are below 100 Hz, a rate of 4 kHz was realised for each DOF. This made it possible to implement advanced, highly dynamic, quasi-continuous closed-loop controllers. Thus oscillations of the robot were avoided, and measurements were speeded up. The stiffness of the entire system was greater than 44 kNm(-1) and 22 Nm deg(-1), and the maximum difference between two successive measurements was less than 0.5 deg. A sophisticated CT-based referencing routine facilitated the matching of kinematic data with the individual anatomy of the tested joint. The detailed detection of the elastic varus-valgus properties of a human knee joint is described, and the need for high spatial resolution is demonstrated.

  18. The preparation and mechanical properties of carbon–carbon/lithium–aluminum–silicate composite joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ke-zhi; Wang, Jie; Ren, Xiao-bin; Li, He-jun; Li, Wei; Li, Zhao-qian

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► First study to join carbon cloth laminated C–C composites to LAS glass–ceramics. ► First study on the flexural property of C–C/LAS joints at different temperatures. ► The joint flexural strength at 800 °C can increase 14.1% than at room temperature. ► A quasi-ductile fracture behavior can be found in the C–C/LAS joints. -- Abstract: Silica carbide modified carbon cloth laminated C–C composites have been successfully joined to lithium–aluminum–silicate (LAS) glass–ceramics using magnesium–aluminum–silicate (MAS) glass–ceramics as interlayer by vacuum hot-press technique. The microstructure, mechanical properties and fracture mechanism of C–C/LAS composite joints were investigated. SiC coating modified the wettability between C–C composites and LAS glass–ceramics. Three continuous and homogenous interfaces (i.e. C–C/SiC, SiC/MAS and MAS/LAS) were formed by element interdiffusions and chemical reactions, which lead to a smooth transition from C–C composites to LAS glass–ceramics. The C–C/LAS joints have superior flexural property with a quasi-ductile behavior. The average flexural strength of C–C/LAS joints can be up to 140.26 MPa and 160.02 MPa at 25 °C and 800 °C, respectively. The average shear strength of C–C/LAS joints achieves 21.01 MPa and the joints are apt to fracture along the SiC/MAS interface. The high retention of mechanical properties at 800 °C makes the joints to be potentially used in a broad temperature range as structural components.

  19. Monosodium urate crystal deposition associated with the progress of radiographic grade at the sacroiliac joint in axial SpA: a dual-energy CT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Junqing; Li, Aiwu; Jia, Ertao; Zhou, Yi; Xu, Juan; Chen, Shixian; Huang, Yinger; Xiao, Xiang; Li, Juan

    2017-05-02

    Previous studies have revealed that ankylosing spondylitis (AS), as the progenitor of axial spondyloarthritis (AxSpA), has been characterized by the insidiously progressive nature of sacroiliitis and spondylitis. Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) has recently been used to analyse the deposition of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals with higher sensitivity and specificity. However, it remains unclear whether the existence of the MSU crystal deposition detected by DECT at the sacroiliac joint in patients with AxSpA also is associated with the existing structural damage. Here, we performed this study to show the DECT MSU crystal deposits in AxSpA patients without coexisting gout and to ascertain the relationship between the MSU crystal deposition and the structural joint damage of sacroiliac joints. One hundred and eighty-six AxSpA patients without coexisting gout were recruited. The plain radiographs of the sacroiliac joint were obtained, along with the DECT scans at the pelvis and the clinical variables. All statistics based on the left or right sacroiliac joint damage grading (0-4) were calculated independently. Bivariate analysis and ordinal logistic regression was performed between the clinical features and radiographic grades at the sacroiliac joint. At the pelvis, large quantities of MSU crystal deposition were found in patients with AxSpA. The average MSU crystal volume at the left sacroiliac joint, the right sacroiliac joint, and the pelvis were 0.902 ± 1.345, 1.074 ± 1.878, and 5.272 ± 9.044 cm 3 , values which were correlated with serum uric acid concentrations (r = 0.727, 0.740, 0.896; p sacroiliac joint damage. Further, the AxSpA duration, BASFI score, and the volume of MSU crystal at both sides of sacroiliac joint were associated with the progress of radiographic grade at the sacroiliac joints in the ordinal logistic models (left AOR = 1.180, 3.800, 1.920; right AOR = 1.190, 3.034, 1.418; p sacroiliac joint is associated

  20. Effect of minor Er and Zr on microstructure and mechanical properties of Al–Mg–Mn alloy (5083) welded joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dongxia, Yang; Xiaoyan, Li; Dingyong, He; Hui, Huang

    2013-01-01

    Samples of Al–Mg–Mn and Al–Mg–Mn–Er–Zr alloys were welded using the method of laser welding. The influence of Er and Zr on microstructure, microhardness and mechanical properties of the Al–Mg–Mn alloy welded joints were investigated. It has been found that addition of Er and Zr refines the grain size in the fusion zone, due to the formation of primary Al 3 Zr and Al 3 Er. Fine equiaxed grains are dominated near the fusion boundary of the Al–Mg–Mn–Er–Zr alloy joint, which is contrary with the columnar crystal in the Al–Mg–Mn alloy joint. Microhardness of the center of the fusion zone rises from 74HV 0.1 to 84HV 0.1 owing to the grain refinement by Er and Zr. The tensile test result shows that the ultimate tensile strength and yield strength are improved by adding Er and Zr. The main reason for this is related to grain refining strengthening.

  1. Effect of minor Er and Zr on microstructure and mechanical properties of Al-Mg-Mn alloy (5083) welded joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongxia, Yang, E-mail: yangdongxia116@emails.bjut.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Xiaoyan, Li; Dingyong, He; Hui, Huang [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China)

    2013-01-20

    Samples of Al-Mg-Mn and Al-Mg-Mn-Er-Zr alloys were welded using the method of laser welding. The influence of Er and Zr on microstructure, microhardness and mechanical properties of the Al-Mg-Mn alloy welded joints were investigated. It has been found that addition of Er and Zr refines the grain size in the fusion zone, due to the formation of primary Al{sub 3}Zr and Al{sub 3}Er. Fine equiaxed grains are dominated near the fusion boundary of the Al-Mg-Mn-Er-Zr alloy joint, which is contrary with the columnar crystal in the Al-Mg-Mn alloy joint. Microhardness of the center of the fusion zone rises from 74HV{sub 0.1} to 84HV{sub 0.1} owing to the grain refinement by Er and Zr. The tensile test result shows that the ultimate tensile strength and yield strength are improved by adding Er and Zr. The main reason for this is related to grain refining strengthening.

  2. Interfacial microstructure and mechanical properties of brazed aluminum / stainless steel - joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, V.; Elßner, M.; Uhlig, T.; Wagner, G.

    2017-03-01

    Due to the demand of mass and cost reduction, joints based on dissimilar metals become more and more interesting. Especially there is a high interest for joints between stainless steel and aluminum, often necessary for example for automotive heat exchangers. Brazing offers the possibilities to manufacture several joints in one step at, in comparison to fusion welding, lower temperatures. In the recent work, aluminum / stainless steel - joints are produced by induction brazing using an AlSi10 filler and a non-corrosive flux. The mechanical properties are determined by tensile shear tests as well as fatigue tests at ambient and elevated temperatures. The microstructure of the brazed joints and the fracture surfaces of the tested samples are investigated by SEM.

  3. Measurement of the electron and ion temperatures by the x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer on joint Texas experimental tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, W.; Chen, Z. Y., E-mail: zychen@hust.edu.cn; Huang, D. W.; Tong, R. H.; Wang, S. Y.; Wei, Y. N.; Ma, T. K.; Zhuang, G. [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Jin, W. [Center of Interface Dynamics for Sustainability, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Chengdu, Sichuan 610200 (China); Lee, S. G. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Shi, Y. J. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    An x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer has been developed on joint Texas experimental tokamak for the measurement of electron and ion temperatures from the K{sub α} spectra of helium-like argon and its satellite lines. A two-dimensional multi-wire proportional counter has been applied to detect the spectra. The electron and ion temperatures have been obtained from the Voigt fitting with the spectra of helium-like argon ions. The profiles of electron and ion temperatures show the dependence on electron density in ohmic plasmas.

  4. Welded joint properties of steel 2.25Cr1MoNiNb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladis, R.; Ivanek, J.; Gottwald, M.

    1981-01-01

    Welded joints of steel 08Cr2.25Mo1NiNb for fast reactor steam generators made using manual arc welding with electrodes of identical compositions attain short-term mechanical properties and times to fracture when creep tested that match those of the base material. The reduction of the carbidic phase content in the steel and the welded joint metal did not adversely affect the tensile properties of the welded joint while increasing notch toughness of the heat-affected zone. Reduced carbon and niobium contents in the steel and the welded joint resulted in significant reduction in the proportion of carbidic eutectic particles in both the heat-affected zone and the weld metal. (Ha)

  5. Crystal growth, optical properties, and laser operation of Yb3+-doped NYW single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Y.; Xu, X. D.; Yang, X. B.; Xin, Z.; Cao, D. H.; Xu, J.

    2009-11-01

    Laser crystal Yb3+-doped NaY(WO4)2 (Yb:NYW) with excellent quality has been grown by Czochralski technique. The rocking curves from (400) plane of as-grown Yb:NYW crystal was measured and the full-width value at half-maximum was 19.92″. The effective segregation coefficients were measured by the X-ray fluorescence method. The polarized absorption spectra and the fluorescence spectra of Yb:NYW crystal were measured at room temperature. The fluorescence decay lifetime of Yb3+ ion in NYW crystal has been investigated. The spectroscopic parameters of Yb:NYW crystal are calculated and compared with those of Yb:YAG crystal. A continuous wave output power of 3.06 W at 1031 nm was obtained with a slope efficiency of 42% by use of diode pumping.

  6. Crystal Structure and Properties of Imidazo-Pyridine Ionic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farren-Dai, Marco; Cameron, Stanley; Johnson, Michel B; Ghandi, Khashayar

    2018-07-05

    Computational studies were performed on novel protic ionic liquids imidazolium-[1,2-a]-pyridine trifluoroacetate [ImPr][TFA] synthesized by the reaction of imidazo-[1,2a]-pyridine (ImPr) with trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), and on fused salt imidazolium-[1,2-a]-pyridine maleamic carbonate [ImPr][Mal] synthesized by reaction of ImPr with maleamic acid (Mal). Synthesis was performed as one-pot reactions, which applies green chemistry tenets. Both these compounds begin to decompose at 180°C. Our computational studies suggest another thermal reaction channel, in which [ImPr][Mal] can also thermally polymerizes to polyacrylamide which then cyclizes. This is thermal product remains stable up to 700 degrees, consistent with our thermogravimetric studies. [ImPr][TFA] exhibited good conductivity and ideal ionic behavior, as evaluated by a Walden plot. X-ray crystallography of [ImPr][TFA] revealed a tightly packed system for the crystals as a result of strong ionic interaction, pi-stacking, and fluorine-CH interactions. Both synthesized compounds exhibited some CO 2 absorptivity, with [ImPr][Mal] outperforming [ImPr][TFA] in this regard. The quantum chemistry based computational methods can shed light on many properties of these ionic liquids, but they are challenged in fully describing their ionic nature. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Synthesis, crystal structures and luminescence properties of two metal carboxyphosphonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chaonan; Feng, Pingjing; Li, Jintang, E-mail: leejt@xmu.edu.cn; Luo, Xuetao

    2017-05-15

    Two metal carboxyphosphonates, [Co{sub 2}(OOCC{sub 5}H{sub 3}NPO{sub 3}){sub 2·}(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}] (Compound1) and Zn{sub 3}[OOCC{sub 6}H{sub 3}CH(OH)PO{sub 3}]{sub 2·}2H{sub 2}O (Compound2) were successfully synthesized under the hydrothermal reactions. In compound 1, two (Co1-NO{sub 5}) octahedra link the (CPO{sub 3}) by sharing the corner, which link the two (Co2-O{sub 6}) octahedra. From a-axis the six clusters form the layer. Each layer is linked through hydrogen bond. In compound 2, the (Zn-O{sub 4}) tetrahedron and (CPO{sub 3}) tetrahedron are corner-shared, which arrange in line. From a-axis, each line forms the columnar. The thermal and luminescence properties of these compounds were investigated. - Graphical abstract: The synthesis conditions of the two compounds and the crystal morphology. Compound 1 shows the layer and the compound 2 shows the pillared-layer. - Highlights: • Two new carboxyphosphonate ligands have been prepared. • Using the two ligands, two metal carboxyphosphonates have been synthesized. • The two MOFs may be candidates for fluorescent materials.

  8. Transmission properties of one-dimensional ternary plasma photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiveshwari, Laxmi; Awasthi, S. K.

    2015-01-01

    Omnidirectional photonic band gaps (PBGs) are found in one-dimensional ternary plasma photonic crystals (PPC) composed of single negative metamaterials. The band characteristics and transmission properties are investigated through the transfer matrix method. We show that the proposed structure can trap light in three-dimensional space due to the elimination of Brewster's angle transmission resonance allowing the existence of complete PBG. The results are discussed in terms of incident angle, layer thickness, dielectric constant of the dielectric material, and number of unit cells (N) for TE and TM polarizations. It is seen that PBG characteristics is apparent even in an N ≥ 2 system, which is weakly sensitive to the incident angle and completely insensitive to the polarization. Finite PPC could be used for multichannel transmission filter without introducing any defect in the geometry. We show that the locations of the multichannel transmission peaks are in the allowed band of the infinite structure. The structure can work as a single or multichannel filter by varying the number of unit cells. Binary PPC can also work as a polarization sensitive tunable filter

  9. Transmission properties of one-dimensional ternary plasma photonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiveshwari, Laxmi [Department of Physics, K. B. Womens' s College, Hazaribagh 825 301 (India); Awasthi, S. K. [Department of Physics and Material Science and Engineering, Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, Noida 201 304 (India)

    2015-09-15

    Omnidirectional photonic band gaps (PBGs) are found in one-dimensional ternary plasma photonic crystals (PPC) composed of single negative metamaterials. The band characteristics and transmission properties are investigated through the transfer matrix method. We show that the proposed structure can trap light in three-dimensional space due to the elimination of Brewster's angle transmission resonance allowing the existence of complete PBG. The results are discussed in terms of incident angle, layer thickness, dielectric constant of the dielectric material, and number of unit cells (N) for TE and TM polarizations. It is seen that PBG characteristics is apparent even in an N ≥ 2 system, which is weakly sensitive to the incident angle and completely insensitive to the polarization. Finite PPC could be used for multichannel transmission filter without introducing any defect in the geometry. We show that the locations of the multichannel transmission peaks are in the allowed band of the infinite structure. The structure can work as a single or multichannel filter by varying the number of unit cells. Binary PPC can also work as a polarization sensitive tunable filter.

  10. Synthesis, crystal structures and properties of lead phosphite compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jun-Ling; Hu, Chun-Li; Xu, Xiang; Kong, Fang; Mao, Jiang-Gao

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report the preparation and characterization of two lead(II) phosphites, namely, Pb_2(HPO_3)_2 and Pb_2(HPO_3)(NO_3)_2 through hydrothermal reaction or simple solution synthesis, respectively. A new lead phosphite, namely, Pb_2(HPO_3)_2, crystallizes in the noncentrosymmetric space group Cmc2_1 (no. 36), which features 3D framework formed by the interconnection of 2D layer of lead(II) phosphites and 1D chain of [Pb(HPO_3)_5]_∞. The nonlinear optical properties of Pb_2(HPO_3)(NO_3)_2 have been studied for the first time. The synergistic effect of the stereo-active lone-pairs on Pb"2"+ cations and π-conjugated NO_3 units in Pb_2(HPO_3)(NO_3)_2 produces a moderate second harmonic generation (SHG) response of ∼1.8×KDP (KH_2PO_4), which is phase matchable (type I). IR, UV–vis spectra and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) for the two compounds were also measured. - Graphical abstract: Two lead phosphites Pb_2(HPO_3)_2 and Pb_2(HPO_3)(NO_3)_2 are studied. A new lead phosphite Pb_2(HPO_3)_2 features a unique 3D framework structure and Pb_2(HPO_3)(NO_3)_2 shows a moderate SHG response of ∼1.8×KDP (KH_2PO_4). - Highlights: • A new lead phosphite, Pb_2(HPO_3)_2 is reported. • Pb_2(HPO_3)_2 features a unique 3D framework structure. • NLO property of Pb_2(HPO_3)(NO_3)_2 is investigated. • Pb_2(HPO_3)(NO_3)_2 produces a moderate SHG response of ∼1.8×KDP (KH_2PO_4).

  11. Magnetic, electric and optic properties of liquid crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florea, St.C.

    1980-01-01

    We study the nematic liquid crystals of thermotrop type. We also studied the crystals whose mesomorphism occured both at temperature increasing and decreasing and during the supercooling phase (monotrope). Investigation results performed by us have had in view the following: clearing up and experimental support of a new mechanism of nuclear relaxation in liquid crystals, proposed by author; usage of experimental techniques and methods for to characterize and test some mesomorph media used in very important applications, such as color TV. (author)

  12. Formation and electrical transport properties of pentacene nanorod crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akai-Kasaya, M; Ohmori, C; Kawanishi, T; Nashiki, M; Saito, A; Kuwahara, Y; Aono, M

    2010-01-01

    The monophasic formation of an uncharted pentacene crystal, the pentacene nanorod, has been investigated. The restricted formation of the pentacene nanorod on a bare mica surface reveals a peculiar surface catalytic crystal growth mode of the pentacene. We demonstrated the charge transport measurements through a single pentacene nanorod and analyzed the data using a periodic hopping conduction model. The results revealed that the pentacene nanorod has a periodic conductive node within their one-dimensional crystal.

  13. Formation and electrical transport properties of pentacene nanorod crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akai-Kasaya, M; Ohmori, C; Kawanishi, T; Nashiki, M; Saito, A; Aono, M; Kuwahara, Y

    2010-09-10

    The monophasic formation of an uncharted pentacene crystal, the pentacene nanorod, has been investigated. The restricted formation of the pentacene nanorod on a bare mica surface reveals a peculiar surface catalytic crystal growth mode of the pentacene. We demonstrated the charge transport measurements through a single pentacene nanorod and analyzed the data using a periodic hopping conduction model. The results revealed that the pentacene nanorod has a periodic conductive node within their one-dimensional crystal.

  14. A novel method of rapidly modeling optical properties of actual photonic crystal fibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li-Wen, Wang; Shu-Qin, Lou; Wei-Guo, Chen; Hong-Lei, Li

    2010-01-01

    The flexible structure of photonic crystal fibre not only offers novel optical properties but also brings some difficulties in keeping the fibre structure in the fabrication process which inevitably cause the optical properties of the resulting fibre to deviate from the designed properties. Therefore, a method of evaluating the optical properties of the actual fibre is necessary for the purpose of application. Up to now, the methods employed to measure the properties of the actual photonic crystal fibre often require long fibre samples or complex expensive equipments. To our knowledge, there are few studies of modeling an actual photonic crystal fibre and evaluating its properties rapidly. In this paper, a novel method, based on the combination model of digital image processing and the finite element method, is proposed to rapidly model the optical properties of the actual photonic crystal fibre. Two kinds of photonic crystal fibres made by Crystal Fiber A/S are modeled. It is confirmed from numerical results that the proposed method is simple, rapid and accurate for evaluating the optical properties of the actual photonic crystal fibre without requiring complex equipment. (rapid communication)

  15. Symmetry, stability, and diffraction properties of icosahedral crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bak, P.

    1985-01-01

    In a remarkable experiment on an Mn-Al alloy, Shechtman et al. observed a diffraction spectrum with icosahedral symmetry. This is inconsistent with discrete translational invariance since the symmetry includes a five-fold axis. In this paper, it is shown that the crystallography and diffraction pattern can be described by a six-dimensional space group. The crystal structure in 3d is obtained as a cut along a 3d hyperplane in a regular 6d crystal. Displacements of the 6d crystal along 6 orthogonal directions define 6 continuous symmetries for the icosahedral crystal, three of which are phase symmetries describing internal rearrangements of the atoms

  16. Dynamic properties of human incudostapedial joint-Experimental measurement and finite element modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shangyuan; Gan, Rong Z

    2018-04-01

    The incudostapedial joint (ISJ) is a synovial joint connecting the incus and stapes in the middle ear. Mechanical properties of the ISJ directly affect sound transmission from the tympanic membrane to the cochlea. However, how ISJ properties change with frequency has not been investigated. In this paper, we report the dynamic properties of the human ISJ measured in eight samples using a dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA) for frequencies from 1 to 80 Hz at three temperatures of 5, 25 and 37 °C. The frequency-temperature superposition (FTS) principle was used to extrapolate the results to 8 kHz. The complex modulus of ISJ was measured with a mean storage modulus of 1.14 MPa at 1 Hz that increased to 3.01 MPa at 8 kHz, and a loss modulus that increased from 0.07 to 0.47 MPa. A 3-dimensional finite element (FE) model consisting of the articular cartilage, joint capsule and synovial fluid was then constructed to derive mechanical properties of ISJ components by matching the model results to experimental data. Modeling results showed that mechanical properties of the joint capsule and synovial fluid affected the dynamic behavior of the joint. This study contributes to a better understanding of the structure-function relationship of the ISJ for sound transmission. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Crystal Graph Convolutional Neural Networks for an Accurate and Interpretable Prediction of Material Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Tian; Grossman, Jeffrey C.

    2018-04-01

    The use of machine learning methods for accelerating the design of crystalline materials usually requires manually constructed feature vectors or complex transformation of atom coordinates to input the crystal structure, which either constrains the model to certain crystal types or makes it difficult to provide chemical insights. Here, we develop a crystal graph convolutional neural networks framework to directly learn material properties from the connection of atoms in the crystal, providing a universal and interpretable representation of crystalline materials. Our method provides a highly accurate prediction of density functional theory calculated properties for eight different properties of crystals with various structure types and compositions after being trained with 1 04 data points. Further, our framework is interpretable because one can extract the contributions from local chemical environments to global properties. Using an example of perovskites, we show how this information can be utilized to discover empirical rules for materials design.

  18. Properties of welded joints in laser welding of aeronautic aluminum-lithium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malikov, A. G.; Orishich, A. M.

    2017-01-01

    The work presents the experimental investigation of the laser welding of the aluminum-lithium alloys (system Al-Mg-Li) and aluminum alloy (system Al-Cu-Li) doped with Sc. The influence of the nano-structuring of the surface layer welded joint by the cold plastic deformation method on the strength properties of the welded joint is determined. It is founded that, regarding the deformation degree over the thickness, the varying value of the welded joint strength is different for these aluminum alloys.

  19. A Model of Anisotropic Property of Seepage and Stress for Jointed Rock Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-tao Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Joints often have important effects on seepage and elastic properties of jointed rock mass and therefore on the rock slope stability. In the present paper, a model for discrete jointed network is established using contact-free measurement technique and geometrical statistic method. A coupled mathematical model for characterizing anisotropic permeability tensor and stress tensor was presented and finally introduced to a finite element model. A case study of roadway stability at the Heishan Metal Mine in Hebei Province, China, was performed to investigate the influence of joints orientation on the anisotropic properties of seepage and elasticity of the surrounding rock mass around roadways in underground mining. In this work, the influence of the principal direction of the mechanical properties of the rock mass on associated stress field, seepage field, and damage zone of the surrounding rock mass was numerically studied. The numerical simulations indicate that flow velocity, water pressure, and stress field are greatly dependent on the principal direction of joint planes. It is found that the principal direction of joints is the most important factor controlling the failure mode of the surrounding rock mass around roadways.

  20. Physical properties of smectic C liquid crystal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, P.E.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate some of the fundamental physical properties of surface stabilised ferroelectric liquid crystal devices (SSFLCDs) using optical, electrical and x-ray diffraction techniques. The measured physical parameters are then related to the performance of display devices. Refractometry measurements on homeotropically aligned FLC samples are used to accurately determine the smectic cone angle and information is also gained on FLC biaxial order. Propagation of optically excited guided modes along liquid crystalline layers is then used to obtain detailed director configuration information. Wavelength dependent extinction angle spectroscopy is also used to extract smectic C director profiles, albeit with a slightly lower accuracy than the guided mode method. A triangular director profile model is found to describe the wavelength dependent extinction angle properties of achiral samples, and examination of the cell spacing dependence of the director profile enables a ratio of bulk elasticity to surface anchoring energy to be determined. Information is obtained on the behaviour of smectic C materials under high frequency electric fields using a continuum director profile model, providing a novel measurement of bend and splay elastic constants. Additionally an extension of the wavelength dependent extinction angle technique allows half splayed states to be characterised. A variety of simple electro-optic techniques are used to characterise several key material parameters. Polarisation reversal current is used to measure both the spontaneous polarisation and an effective FLC switching viscosity. Monochromatic extinction angle measurements under applied d.c. fields are used to determine the cone and layer tilt angles, whilst a comparison of d.c. and a.c. extinction angle characteristics provides an estimate of the dielectric biaxiality. An automated measurement technique is used to determine FLC response time characteristics, which are described

  1. Physical properties of smectic C liquid crystal cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, P E

    1998-07-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate some of the fundamental physical properties of surface stabilised ferroelectric liquid crystal devices (SSFLCDs) using optical, electrical and x-ray diffraction techniques. The measured physical parameters are then related to the performance of display devices. Refractometry measurements on homeotropically aligned FLC samples are used to accurately determine the smectic cone angle and information is also gained on FLC biaxial order. Propagation of optically excited guided modes along liquid crystalline layers is then used to obtain detailed director configuration information. Wavelength dependent extinction angle spectroscopy is also used to extract smectic C director profiles, albeit with a slightly lower accuracy than the guided mode method. A triangular director profile model is found to describe the wavelength dependent extinction angle properties of achiral samples, and examination of the cell spacing dependence of the director profile enables a ratio of bulk elasticity to surface anchoring energy to be determined. Information is obtained on the behaviour of smectic C materials under high frequency electric fields using a continuum director profile model, providing a novel measurement of bend and splay elastic constants. Additionally an extension of the wavelength dependent extinction angle technique allows half splayed states to be characterised. A variety of simple electro-optic techniques are used to characterise several key material parameters. Polarisation reversal current is used to measure both the spontaneous polarisation and an effective FLC switching viscosity. Monochromatic extinction angle measurements under applied d.c. fields are used to determine the cone and layer tilt angles, whilst a comparison of d.c. and a.c. extinction angle characteristics provides an estimate of the dielectric biaxiality. An automated measurement technique is used to determine FLC response time characteristics, which are described

  2. Crystal growth and optical properties of 4-aminobenzophenone (ABP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengdong; Wu, Baichang; Su, Genbo; Huang, Gongfan

    1997-02-01

    Bulk crystals of 4-aminobenzophenone (ABP) were grown from organic solution. The crystal structure was determined by X-ray analysis. The refractive indices were determined by the method of prism minimum deviation. Some effective nonlinear-optical coefficients deff were measured. A blue second-harmonic emission with wavelengths of 433 and 460 nm were observed during laser diode pumping.

  3. Magnetic, electrical and optical properties of liquid crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florea, S.C.

    1980-01-01

    This thesis lays stress on the study of thermotrop nematic liquid crystals. But the crystals whose mesomorphism is achieved by an increase and decrease in temperature and the crystal category exhibiting a mesomorphism in a deep freezing phase are also studied. The results of the research carried out in the laboratory of ''active media, lasers and matter-radiation interactions'' of the Institute for Physics and Technology of Radiation Apparata as well as in the laboratories of liquid crystals and nuclear magnetic resonance of the Polytechnical Institute of Bucharest during seven years have had in view two main objectives: to elucidate and prove experimentally a new mechanism of nuclear relaxation in liquid crystals, proposed by the author; to use the current experimental techniques and methods applied in the above-mentioned laboratories to characterize and test some foreign mesomorphic media which are synthesized locally, providing a wide range of applications, such as colour television. (author)

  4. Crystal growth, spectral and laser properties of Nd:LuAG single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, X D; Meng, J Q; Cheng, Y; Li, D Z; Cheng, S S; Wu, F; Zhao, Z W; Wang, X D; Xu, J

    2009-01-01

    Nd:LuAG (Nd:Lu 3 Al 5 O 12 ) crystal was grown by the Czochralski method. X-ray powder diffraction experiments show that the Nd:LuAG crystal crystallizes in the cubic with space group Ia3d and has the cell parameter: a = 1.1907 nm, V = 1.6882 nm 3 . The absorption and fluorescence spectra of Nd:LuAG crystal at room temperature were investigated. With a fiber-coupled diode laser as pump source, the continuous-wave (CW) laser action of Nd:LuAG crystal was demonstrated. The maximum output power at 1064 nm was obtained to be 3.8 W under the incident pump power of 17.3 W, with the optical conversion efficiency 22.0% and the slope efficiency 25.7%

  5. Crystal growth, spectral and laser properties of Nd:LuAG single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X. D.; Wang, X. D.; Meng, J. Q.; Cheng, Y.; Li, D. Z.; Cheng, S. S.; Wu, F.; Zhao, Z. W.; Xu, J.

    2009-09-01

    Nd:LuAG (Nd:Lu3Al5O12) crystal was grown by the Czochralski method. X-ray powder diffraction experiments show that the Nd:LuAG crystal crystallizes in the cubic with space group Ia3d and has the cell parameter: a = 1.1907 nm, V = 1.6882 nm3. The absorption and fluorescence spectra of Nd:LuAG crystal at room temperature were investigated. With a fiber-coupled diode laser as pump source, the continuous-wave (CW) laser action of Nd:LuAG crystal was demonstrated. The maximum output power at 1064 nm was obtained to be 3.8 W under the incident pump power of 17.3 W, with the optical conversion efficiency 22.0% and the slope efficiency 25.7%.

  6. Crystal growth, spectral and laser properties of Nd:LSAT single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, P. C.; Yin, J. G.; Zhao, C. C.; Gong, J.; He, X. M.; Zhang, L. H.; Liang, X. Y.; Hang, Y.

    2011-10-01

    Nd:(La, Sr)(Al, Ta)O3 (Nd:LSAT) crystal was grown by the Czochralski method. The absorption and fluorescence spectra of Nd:LSAT crystal at room temperature were investigated. With a fiber-coupled diode laser as pump source, the continuous-wave (CW) laser action of Nd:LSAT crystal was demonstrated. The result of diode-pumped laser operation of Nd:LSAT crystal single crystal is reported for what is to our knowledge the first time. The maximum output power at 1064 nm was obtained to be 165 mW under the incident pump power of 3 W, with the slope efficiency 10.9%.

  7. Microstructure and mechanical properties of resistance upset butt welded 304 austenitic stainless steel joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharifitabar, M.; Halvaee, A.; Khorshahian, S.

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Three different microstructural zones formed at different distances from the joint interface in resistance upset butt welding of 304 austenitic stainless steel. Highlights: → Evaluation of microstructure in resistance upset welding of 304 stainless steel. → Evaluation of welding parameters effects on mechanical properties of the joint. → Introducing the optimum welding condition for joining stainless steel bars. -- Abstract: Resistance upset welding (UW) is a widely used process for joining metal parts. In this process, current, time and upset pressure are three parameters that affect the quality of welded products. In the present research, resistance upset butt welding of 304 austenitic stainless steel and effect of welding power and upset pressure on microstructure, tensile strength and fatigue life of the joint were investigated. Microstructure of welds were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was used to distinguish the phase(s) that formed at the joint interface and in heat affected zone (HAZ). Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) linked to the SEM was used to determine chemical composition of phases formed at the joint interface. Fatigue tests were performed using a pull-push fatigue test machine and the fatigue properties were analyzed drawing stress-number of cycles to failure (S-N) curves. Also tensile strength tests were performed. Finally tensile and fatigue fracture surfaces were studied by SEM. Results showed that there were three different microstructural zones at different distances from the joint interface and delta ferrite phase has formed in these regions. There was no precipitation of chromium carbide at the joint interface and in the HAZ. Tensile and fatigue strengths of the joint decreased with welding power. Increasing of upset pressure has also considerable influence on tensile strength of the joint. Fractography of fractured samples showed that formation of hot spots at

  8. Studies on various properties of pure and Li-doped Barium Hydrogen Phosphate (BHP) single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nallamuthu, D. [Department of Physics, Aditanar College of Arts and Science, Tiruchendur 628216, Tamil Nadu (India); Selvarajan, P., E-mail: pselvarajanphy@yahoo.co.i [Department of Physics, Aditanar College of Arts and Science, Tiruchendur 628216, Tamil Nadu (India); Freeda, T.H. [Physics Research Centre, S.T. Hindu College, Nagercoil 629002 (India)

    2010-12-15

    Single crystals of pure and Li-doped barium hydrogen phosphate (BHP) were grown by solution method with gel technique. Various properties of the harvested crystals were studied by carrying out single crystal and powder XRD, FTIR, TG/DTA, microhardness and dielectric studies. Atomic absorption study was carried out for Li-doped BHP crystal to check the presence of Li dopants. Unit cell dimensions and diffracting planes of the grown crystals have been identified from XRD studies. Functional groups of the title compounds have been identified from FTIR studies. Density of the grown crystals was calculated using the XRD data. Thermal stability of the samples was checked by TG/DTA studies. Mechanical and dielectric characterizations of the harvested pure and Li-doped BHP crystals reveal the mechanical strength and ferroelectric transition. The observed results are reported and discussed.

  9. Effect of calcium deficiency on the mechanical properties of hydroxyapatite crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viswanath, B.; Shastry, V.V.; Ramamurty, U.; Ravishankar, N.

    2010-01-01

    The deterioration of the mechanical properties of bone with age is related to several factors including the structure, organization and chemistry of the constituent phases; however, the relative contribution of each of these factors is not well understood. In this study, we have investigated the effect of chemistry (calcium deficiency) on the mechanical properties of single crystals of hydroxyapatite. Single crystals of stoichiometric crystals grown by the flux method and calcium-deficient platelet crystals grown using wet chemical methods were used as model systems. Using nanoindentation, we show that calcium deficiency leads to an 80% reduction in the hardness and elastic modulus and at least a 75% reduction in toughness in plate-shaped hydroxyapatite crystals. Measurement of local mechanical properties using nanoindentation and nanoscale chemistry through elemental mapping in a transmission electron microscope points to a direct correlation between the observed spatial variation in composition and the large scatter in the measured hardness and modulus values.

  10. Crystal structure and optical properties of silver nanorings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li; Fu, Xiao-Feng; Yu, Liao; Zhang, Xian; Yu, Xue-Feng; Hao, Zhong-Hua

    2009-04-01

    We report the polyol synthesis and crystal structure characterization of silver nanorings, which have perfect circular shape, smooth surface, and elliptical wire cross-section. The characterization results show that the silver nanorings have well-defined crystal of singly twinned along the whole ring. The spatial distribution of the scattering of a silver nanoring with slanted incidence reveals the unique focus effect of the nanoring, and the focus scattering varies with the incident wavelength. The silver nanorings with perfect geometry and well-defined crystal have potential applications in nanoscaled photonics, plasmonic devices, and optical manipulation.

  11. Crystal growth, spectroscopic and laser properties of Tm:LuAG crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X. D.; Wang, X. D.; Lin, Z. F.; Cheng, Y.; Li, D. Z.; Cheng, S. S.; Wu, F.; Zhao, Z. W.; Gao, C. Q.; Gao, M. W.; Xu, J.

    2009-11-01

    Tm:Lu3Al5O12 (Tm:LuAG) crystal was grown by the Czochralski method. The segregation coefficient was measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometer. The cell parameters were analyzed with X-ray powder diffraction experiments. The absorption and fluorescence spectra of Tm:LuAG crystal at room temperature were investigated. With a 20 W fiber-coupled diode laser as pump source, the continuous-wave (CW) laser action of Tm:LuAG crystal was demonstrated. The maximum output power at 2020 nm was obtained to be 3.04 W, and the slope efficiency was 25.3%.

  12. Effect of the weld joint configuration on stressed components, residual stresses and mechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cevik, Bekir; Oezer, Alpay; Oezcatalbas, Yusuf [Gazi Univ., Ankara (Turkey)

    2014-03-01

    The effect of the weld joint configuration on components has been studied, which are under service loads, under repair or construction and the residual stresses as well as the mechanical properties of the joint have been determined. For this purpose, a horizontal positioned tensile testing device and a semi-automatic MIG welding machine have been used and then the weld joints of the plates were subjected to different elastic stresses. When the temperature of the joined elements decreased to room temperature, applied elastic stresses were released. By this means, the effects of the existing tensile stresses in the joined parts and the tensile stresses created by the welding processes were investigated. The tensile stresses occurring in the joined elements were determined by using the photo-elasticity analysis method and the hole-drilling method. Also, tensile-shear tests were applied in order to determine the effect of permanent tensile loads on the mechanical properties of the joint. Experimental results showed that the application of corner welded lap joints for components under tensile loading significantly decrease the shear strength and yielding capacities of the joint. (orig.)

  13. Microstructural Characteristics and Mechanical Properties of an Electron Beam-Welded Ti/Cu/Ni Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Wang, Ting; Jiang, Siyuan; Zhang, Binggang; Feng, Jicai

    2018-05-01

    Electron beam welding experiments of TA15 titanium alloy to GH600 nickel superalloy with and without a copper sheet interlayer were carried out. Surface appearance, microstructure and phase constitution of the joint were examined by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction analysis. Mechanical properties of Ti/Ni and Ti/Cu/Ni joint were evaluated based on tensile strength and microhardness tests. The results showed that cracking occurred in Ti/Ni electron beam weldment for the formation of brittle Ni-Ti intermetallics, while a crack-free electron beam-welded Ti/Ni joint can be obtained by using a copper sheet as filler metal. The addition of copper into the weld affected the welding metallurgical process of the electron beam-welded Ti/Ni joint significantly and was helpful for restraining the formation of Ti-Ni intermetallics in Ti/Ni joint. The microstructure of the weld was mainly characterized by a copper-based solid solution and Ti-Cu interfacial intermetallic compounds. Ti-Ni intermetallic compounds were almost entirely suppressed. The hardness of the weld zone was significantly lower than that of Ti/Ni joint, and the tensile strength of the joint can be up to 282 MPa.

  14. Mechanical, thermodynamic and electronic properties of wurtzite and zinc-blende GaN crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, Hongbo; Luan, Xinghe; Feng, Chuang; Yang, Daoguo; Zhang, G.Q.

    2017-01-01

    For the limitation of experimental methods in crystal characterization, in this study, the mechanical, thermodynamic and electronic properties of wurtzite and zinc-blende GaN crystals were investigated by first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. Firstly, bulk moduli,

  15. Fabrication and properties of gallium metallic photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozhevnikov, V.F.; Diwekar, M.; Kamaev, V.P.; Shi, J.; Vardeny, Z.V.

    2003-01-01

    Gallium metallic photonic crystals with 100% filling factor have been fabricated via infiltration of liquid gallium into opals of 300-nm silica spheres using a novel high pressure-high temperature technique. The electrical resistance of the Ga-opal crystals was measured at temperatures from 10 to 280 K. The data obtained show that Ga-opal crystals are metallic network with slightly smaller temperature coefficient of resistivity than that for bulk gallium. Optical reflectivity of bulk gallium, plain opal and several Ga-opal crystals were measured at photon energies from 0.3 to 6 eV. A pronounced photonic stop band in the visible spectral range was found in both the plain and Ga infiltrated opals. The reflectivity spectra also show increase in reflectivity below 0.6 eV; which we interpret as a significantly lower effective plasma frequency of the metallic mesh in the infiltrated opal compare to the plasma frequency in the pure metal

  16. Synthesis and magnetic properties of SmOOH crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samata, Hiroaki, E-mail: samata@maritime.kobe-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Maritime Sciences, Kobe University, Fukaeminami, Higashinada, Kobe, Hyogo 658-0022 (Japan); Hanioka, Masashi [Graduate School of Maritime Sciences, Kobe University, Fukaeminami, Higashinada, Kobe, Hyogo 658-0022 (Japan); Ozawa, Tadashi C. [Materials Development Group, Superconducting Properties Unit, National Institute for Materials Science, Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan)

    2016-01-15

    Samarium oxyhydroxide (SmOOH) crystals were synthesized using a flux method. The as-grown crystals were yellowish, transparent, and elongated with a maximum length of approximately 1.0 mm. SmOOH adopts a monoclinic structure in the space group P2{sub 1}/m with a=0.4356 nm, b=0.3766 nm, c=0.6139 nm, and β=108.464°. The magnetic susceptibility of the SmOOH crystals exhibited typical Van Vleck paramagnetism, and the experimental data at temperatures above 200 K were in close agreement with the calculated results using a spin-orbit coupling constant λ=443 K (308 cm{sup −1}). - Highlights: • SmOOH crystals were synthesized via flux method and characterized. • Magnetic susceptibilities above 200 K agreed with theoretical Van Vleck values. • Discrepancies were observed at lower temperatures based on the crystalline field.

  17. Crystal growth, spectral properties, and laser demonstration of laser crystal Nd:LYSO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, D Z; Xu, X D; Zhou, D H; Xia, C T; Wu, F; Zhuang, S D; Wang, Z P; Xu, J

    2010-01-01

    A Nd:LYSO crystal has been grown by the Czochralski technique. The cell parameters were analyzed with X-ray diffraction (XRD). The Judd-Ofelt intense parameters Ω 2,4,6 were obtained to be 2.65, 5.75, and 7.37×10 -20 cm 2 , respectively. The absorption and emission cross sections and the branching ratios were calculated. The large absorption cross section (6.14×10 -20 cm 2 ) and broad absorption band (5 nm) around 811 nm indicate that this crystal can be pumped efficiently by laser diodes. The broad emission band from the 4 F 3/2 multiplet shows that the crystal is a promising medium for ultrashort pulse lasers. Pumped by a laser diode, the maximum 814 mW continuous-wave laser output has been obtained with a slope efficiency of 28.9%. All the results show that this crystal is a promising laser material

  18. Effect of process parameters on microstructure and mechanical properties of friction stir welded joints: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanare, S. P.; Kalyankar, V. D.

    2018-04-01

    Friction stir welding is emerging as a promising technique for joining of lighter metal alloys due to its several advantages over conventional fusion welding processes such as low thermal distortion, good mechanical properties, fine weld joint microstructure, etc. This review article mainly focuses on analysis of microstructure and mechanical properties of friction stir welded joints. Various microstructure characterization techniques used by previous researchers such as optical microscopes, x-ray diffraction, electron probe microscope, transmission electron microscope, scanning electron microscopes with electron back scattered diffraction, electron dispersive microscopy, etc. are thoroughly overviewed and their results are discussed. The effects of friction stir welding process parameters such as tool rotational speed, welding speed, tool plunge depth, axial force, tool shoulder diameter to tool pin diameter ratio, tool geometry etc. on microstructure and mechanical properties of welded joints are studied and critical observations are noted down. The microstructure examination carried out by previous researchers on various zones of welded joints such as weld zone, heat affected zone and base metal are studied and critical remarks have been presented. Mechanical performances of friction stir welded joints based on tensile test, micro-hardness test, etc. are discussed. This article includes exhaustive literature review of standard research articles which may become ready information for subsequent researchers to establish their line of action.

  19. Crystal growth and scintillation properties of Lu substituted CeBr.sub.3./sub. single crystals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ito, T.; Yokota, Y.; Kurosawa, S.; Král, Robert; Kamada, K.; Pejchal, Jan; Ohashi, Y.; Yoshikawa, A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 452, Oct (2016), s. 65-68 ISSN 0022-0248. [American Conference on Crystal Growth and Epitaxy /20./ (ACCGE) / 17th Biennial Workshop on Organometallic Vapor Phase Epitaxy (OMVPE) / 2nd 2D Electronic Materials Symposium. Big Sky, MT, 02.08.2015-07.08.2015] Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : radiation * halides * scintillator materials * crystal growth Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.751, year: 2016

  20. Can pharmaceutical co-crystals provide an opportunity to modify the biological properties of drugs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalpiaz, Alessandro; Pavan, Barbara; Ferretti, Valeria

    2017-08-01

    Poorly soluble and/or permeable molecules jeopardize the discovery and development of innovative medicines. Pharmaceutical co-crystals, formed by an active pharmaceutical substance (API) and a co-crystal former, can show enhanced dissolution and permeation values compared with those of the parent crystalline pure phases. It is currently assumed that co-crystallization with pharmaceutical excipients does not affect the pharmacological activity of an API or, indeed, might even improve physical properties such as solubility and permeability. However, as we highlight here, the biological behavior of co-crystals can differ drastically with respect to that of their parent physical mixtures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Static and dynamic properties of three-dimensional dot-type magnonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maksymov, Artur; Spinu, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    The static and dynamic magnetization of three-dimensional magnonic metamaterials has been investigated. By numerical means it was analyzed the impact of space dimensionality on the properties of magnonic crystal with unit cell consisting of four dots. It is find out the possibility of multi-vortex core formation which is related to the increasing of the crystal height by three-dimensional periodicity of single crystal layer. Additionally is provided the analysis of ferromagnetic resonance phenomenon for two-dimensional and three-dimensional structures. For the unsaturated magnetization of three-dimensional crystal the several pronounced resonance frequencies were detected.

  2. Static and dynamic properties of three-dimensional dot-type magnonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maksymov, Artur, E-mail: maxyartur@gmail.com [Advanced Materials Research Institute, University of New Orleans, LA 70148 (United States); Department of General Physics, Chernivtsi National University, Chernivtsi 58012 (Ukraine); Spinu, Leonard [Advanced Materials Research Institute, University of New Orleans, LA 70148 (United States); Department of Physics, University of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA 70148 (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The static and dynamic magnetization of three-dimensional magnonic metamaterials has been investigated. By numerical means it was analyzed the impact of space dimensionality on the properties of magnonic crystal with unit cell consisting of four dots. It is find out the possibility of multi-vortex core formation which is related to the increasing of the crystal height by three-dimensional periodicity of single crystal layer. Additionally is provided the analysis of ferromagnetic resonance phenomenon for two-dimensional and three-dimensional structures. For the unsaturated magnetization of three-dimensional crystal the several pronounced resonance frequencies were detected.

  3. Massive photon properties in 3D photonic crystals, filled by dielectrics or metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorelik, V S

    2009-01-01

    The optical properties of 3D photonic crystals-artificial opals, consisting of monosized silica globules-have been investigated. The volume between globules was filled by various dielectrics or metals. The dispersion law of electromagnetic waves of this type of crystal has been obtained. It was shown that the sign of photonic mass in globular photonic crystals may be positive or negative for different points on dispersion curves. The value of the effective mass of photons depends on the refractive index of the substance infiltrated into the globular photonic crystal.

  4. Mechanical properties of dynamic diffusion bonded joints in a mild alloy steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez de Salazar, J. M.; Urena, A.; Menendez, M.

    2001-01-01

    Mechanical properties in Dynamic Diffusion Bonded (DDB) in a A.S.T.M. 1045 steel (=.45%C) joints were studied. The thermomechanical cycle added to the process, favours both the initial deformation stage and probably the diffusion mechanisms which participate in bond formation. (Author) 11 refs

  5. Mechanical Properties of Steel P92 Welded Joints Obtained By TIG Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohyla, P.; Havelka, L.; Schmidová, E.; Vontorová, J.

    2017-11-01

    Mechanical properties of P92 steel welded joints obtained using the TIG (141) technology have been studied upon post-welding heat treatment (PWHT). The microhardness, tensile strength, and impact toughness of metal in the weld and heat-affected zone are determined. The PWHT is shown to be obligatory.

  6. Moisture transport properties of mortar and mortar joint: A NMR study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brocken, H.J.P.; Adant, O.C.G.; Pel, L.

    1997-01-01

    The moisture transport in mortar and mortar joint often is an important parameter in degeneration of brick masonry and other block constructions. In this study, the influence of single additives on the moisture transport properties of mortar is investigated. Due to water extraction during brick

  7. Moisture transport properties of mortar and mortar joint: a NMR study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brocken, H.J.P.; Adan, O.C.G.; Pel, L.

    1997-01-01

    The moisture transport in mortar and mortar joint often is an important parameter in degeneration of brick masonry and other block constructions. In this study, the influence of single additives on the moisture transport properties of mortar is investigated. Due to water extraction during brick

  8. Single crystal growth and nonlinear optical properties of Nd3+ doped STGS crystal for self-frequency-doubling application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feifei; Wang, Lijuan; Wang, Xinle; Cheng, Xiufeng; Yu, Fapeng; Wang, Zhengping; Zhao, Xian

    2017-11-01

    The self-frequency-doubling crystal is an important kind of multi-functional crystal materials. In this work, Nd3+ doped Sr3TaGa3Si2O14 (Nd:STGS) single crystals were successfully grown by using Czochralski pulling method, in addition, the nonlinear and laser-frequency-doubling properties of Nd:STGS crystals were studied. The continuous-wave laser at 1064 nm was demonstrated along different physical axes, where the maximum output power was obtained to be 295 mW for the Z-cut samples, much higher than the Y-cut (242 mW) and X-cut (217 mW) samples. Based on the measured refractive indexes, the phase matching directions were discussed and determined for type I (42.5°, 30°) and type II (69.5°, 0°) crystal cuts. As expected, self-frequency-doubling green laser at 529 nm was achieved with output powers being around 16 mW and 12 mW for type I and type II configurations, respectively.

  9. Linear, non-linear and thermal properties of single crystal of LHMHCl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulshrestha, Shobha; Shrivastava, A. K.

    2018-05-01

    The single crystal of amino acid of L-histidine monohydrochloride was grown by slow evaporation technique at room temperature. High optical quality and appropriate size of crystals were grown under optimized growth conditions. The grown crystals were transparent. Crystals are characterized with different characterizations such as Solubility test, UV-Visible, optical band gap (Eg). With the help of optical data to be calculate absorption coefficient (α), extinction coefficient (k), refractive index (n), dielectric constant (ɛ). These optical constants are shows favorable conditions for photonics devices. Second harmonic generation (NLO) test show the green light emission which is confirm that crystal have properties for laser application. Thermal stability of grown crystal is confirmed by TG/DTA.

  10. Structural elucidation and physicochemical properties of an organic NLO crystal: 4-Nitrotoluene-2-sulphonic acid dihydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangeetha, K.; Guru Prasad, L.; Mathammal, R.

    2018-03-01

    4-nitrotoluene-2-sulphonic acid dihydrate single crystals have been developed using slow evaporation technique in methanol. Lattice parameters of the NTSAD crystal have been calculated and it confirms the grown material. The intermolecular interactions are studied from the 3D Hirshfeld surface analysis and 2D fingerprint plots. The NMR spectral analysis has been carried out to confirm the molecular structure of the grown material. Optical properties have been obtained from UV-VIS spectral analysis and photoluminescence studies. Frequency conversion property of the NTSAD crystal was investigated with the aid of Kurtz and Perry method.

  11. Spectrometric properties of crystals for low-energy x-ray diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrus, D.m.; Blake, R.L.; Felthauser, H.; Fenimore, E.E.

    1981-01-01

    Quantitative diagnostics of fusion and astrophysical plasmas require knowledge of crystal spectrometric properties. To provide more reliable and versatile diagnostics of plasma conditions, increasingly accurate knowledge of crystal spectrometric properties is becoming necessary. A summary is presented of the following accurately measured parameters for the crystals KAP, RbAP, TlAP, NH 4 AP, NaAP, ADP, and EDDT: the interplanar spacing of atoms; the angle correction for normal and anomalous dispersion that is required for application of the Bragg formula; the thermal expansion coefficient near room temperature for commonly used planes; and the integrated coefficient of reflection

  12. Microstructural characterization and properties of dissimilar joints between stainless steels done by fusion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauly, Julio Cesar

    2000-01-01

    consumables ERNiCr-3 and ER309L and the real values, leading to the conclusion of the need to use metal addition in this type of dissimilar weld. Among the consumables tested, other important properties for use in dissimilar joint were evaluated such as, the linear thermal expansion coefficient ant the yielding stress confirming to be the consumable ERNiCr-3, the most appropriate one when compared to ER309L. (author)

  13. Measuring the diffraction properties of an imaging quartz(211) crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haugh, M. J.; Jacoby, K. D.; Koch, J. A. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Chen, H.; Schneider, M. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Hill, K. W. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2016-06-15

    A dual goniometer X-ray system was used to measure the reflectivity curve for a spherically bent quartz(211) crystal. An analysis of the dual goniometer instrument response function for the rocking curve width measurement was developed and tested against the actual measurements. The rocking curve was measured at 4510.8 eV using the Ti Kα1 characteristic spectral line. The crystal is the dispersion element for a high resolution spectrometer used for plasma studies. It was expected to have a very narrow rocking curve width. The analysis showed that we could measure the upper bound for the rocking curve width of the Qz(211) crystal. The upper bound was 58 μrad giving a lower bound for the instrument resolving power E/ΔE = 34 000. Greatly improved insight into the dual goniometer operation and its limitations was achieved.

  14. Band structure and optical properties of diglycine nitrate crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andriyevsky, Bohdan; Ciepluch-Trojanek, Wioleta; Romanyuk, Mykola; Patryn, Aleksy; Jaskolski, Marcin

    2005-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical investigations of the electron energy characteristics and optical spectra for diglycine nitrate crystal (DGN) (NH 2 CH 2 COOH) 2 .HNO 3 , in the paraelectric phase (T=295K) are presented. Spectral dispersion of light reflection R(E) have been measured in the range of 3-22eV and the optical functions n(E) and k(E) have been calculated using Kramers-Kronig relations. First principal calculations of the electron energy characteristic and optical spectra of DGN crystal have been performed in the frame of density functional theory using CASTEP code (CAmbridge Serial Total Energy Package). Optical transitions forming the low-energy edge of fundamental absorption are associated with the nitrate groups NO 3 . Peculiarities of the band structure and DOS projected onto glycine and NO 3 groups confirm the molecular character of DGN crystal

  15. Effects of crystal size on the mechanical properties of a lithium disilicate glass-ceramic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, D. [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi’an Jiaotong University, 28 West Xianning Road, Xi’an 710049 (China); Guo, J.W.; Wang, X.S; Zhang, S.F. [State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology, Department of Prosthodontics, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, 145 West Changle Road, Xi’an 710032 (China); He, L., E-mail: helin@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi’an Jiaotong University, 28 West Xianning Road, Xi’an 710049 (China)

    2016-07-04

    Crystal size of lithium disilicate (LD) phase in a LD glass-ceramic was changed by thermally controlled crystallization of a precursory LD glass at different temperatures. Effects of the crystal size on the mechanical properties of the glass-ceramic were investigated. It was found that the flexural strength presented a hump-like variation trend with increasing the crystal size, the hardness monotonously decreased at the same time. It was further confirmed that micro residual compressive stresses existed inside the LD crystals due to the thermal expansion mismatch between the glass matrix and the crystalline phase. The levels of the residual stresses increased with increasing the crystal size. The crystal size performed dual effects on the flexural strength of the glass-ceramic: an “interlocking effect” caused by larger-sized LD crystals and a “micro residual stress effect” related to the balancing tensile stresses in the glass matrix. Higher residual tensile stresses in the glass matrix induced by larger-sized LD crystals would counteract the “interlocking effect” of the crystals, causing the strength degradation. The hardness of the glass-ceramic was mainly controlled by the “micro residual stress effect”.

  16. Effect of temperature on the morphology and electro-optical properties of liquid crystal physical gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leaw, W.L.; Mamat, C.R.; Triwahyono, S.; Jalil, A.A.; Bidin, N.

    2016-01-01

    Liquid crystal physical gels were (thermally) prepared with cholesteryl stearate as a gelator in nematic liquid crystal, 4-cyano-4′-pentylbiphenyl. The electro-optical performance of liquid crystal physical gels is almost entirely dependent on the gels' inherent morphology. This study involved an empirical investigation of the relationships among all of the gelation temperature, morphology, and electro-optical properties. Besides continuous cooling at room temperature, isothermal cooling was also performed at both 18 and 0 °C, corresponding to near-solid and solid phases of 4-cyano-4′-pentylbiphenyl respectively. Nevertheless, the liquid crystal physical gel was also isothermally rapidly cooled using liquid nitrogen. Polarizing optical microscopy showed that the gel structure became thinner when isothermal cooling was carried out. These thinner gel aggregates then interconnected to form larger liquid crystal domains. Moreover, it was also revealed that the gel networks were randomized. Electron spin resonance results showed that the liquid crystal director orientation was severely randomized in the presence of gel networks. Conversely, isothermal cooling using liquid nitrogen generated a higher liquid crystal director orientation order. The 6.0 wt% cholesteryl stearate/4-cyano-4′-pentylbiphenyl physical gel that was isothermally cooled using liquid nitrogen showed the lowest response time in a twisted nematic mode optical cell. - Graphical abstract: Liquid crystal physical gel was prepared using nematic liquid crystal, 4-cyano-4′-pentylbiphenyl and cholesteryl stearate as gelator. Isothermal cooling at lower temperature produced thinner gel network and larger liquid crystal domain. - Highlights: • 5CB nematic liquid crystal was successfully gelled by cholesteryl stearate gelator. • The morphology of gel network was controlled by different cooling conditions. • Thinner gel network was formed by the rapid cooling using liquid nitrogen. • Enhanced

  17. Effect of temperature on the morphology and electro-optical properties of liquid crystal physical gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leaw, W.L. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, UTM Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Mamat, C.R., E-mail: che@kimia.fs.utm.my [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, UTM Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Triwahyono, S. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, UTM Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Jalil, A.A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Chemical and Energy Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, UTM Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Centre of Hydrogen Energy, Institute of Future Energy, Univerisiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, UTM Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Bidin, N. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, UTM Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia)

    2016-12-01

    Liquid crystal physical gels were (thermally) prepared with cholesteryl stearate as a gelator in nematic liquid crystal, 4-cyano-4′-pentylbiphenyl. The electro-optical performance of liquid crystal physical gels is almost entirely dependent on the gels' inherent morphology. This study involved an empirical investigation of the relationships among all of the gelation temperature, morphology, and electro-optical properties. Besides continuous cooling at room temperature, isothermal cooling was also performed at both 18 and 0 °C, corresponding to near-solid and solid phases of 4-cyano-4′-pentylbiphenyl respectively. Nevertheless, the liquid crystal physical gel was also isothermally rapidly cooled using liquid nitrogen. Polarizing optical microscopy showed that the gel structure became thinner when isothermal cooling was carried out. These thinner gel aggregates then interconnected to form larger liquid crystal domains. Moreover, it was also revealed that the gel networks were randomized. Electron spin resonance results showed that the liquid crystal director orientation was severely randomized in the presence of gel networks. Conversely, isothermal cooling using liquid nitrogen generated a higher liquid crystal director orientation order. The 6.0 wt% cholesteryl stearate/4-cyano-4′-pentylbiphenyl physical gel that was isothermally cooled using liquid nitrogen showed the lowest response time in a twisted nematic mode optical cell. - Graphical abstract: Liquid crystal physical gel was prepared using nematic liquid crystal, 4-cyano-4′-pentylbiphenyl and cholesteryl stearate as gelator. Isothermal cooling at lower temperature produced thinner gel network and larger liquid crystal domain. - Highlights: • 5CB nematic liquid crystal was successfully gelled by cholesteryl stearate gelator. • The morphology of gel network was controlled by different cooling conditions. • Thinner gel network was formed by the rapid cooling using liquid nitrogen.

  18. Influence of friction stir welding parameters on properties of 2024 T3 aluminium alloy joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eramah Abdsalam M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to analyse the process of friction stir welding (FSW of 3mm thick aluminium plates made of high strength aluminium alloy - 2024 T3, as well as to assess the mechanical properties of the produced joints. FSW is a modern procedure which enables joining of similar and dissimilar materials in the solid state, by the combined action of heat and mechanical work. This paper presents an analysis of the experimental results obtained by testing the butt welded joints. Tensile strength of the produced joints is assessed, as well as the distribution of hardness, micro-and macrostructure through the joints (in the base material, nugget, heat affected zone and thermo-mechanically affected zone. Different combinations of the tool rotation speed and the welding speed are used, and the dependence of the properties of the joints on these parameters of welding technology is determined. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 34018 i br. TR 35006

  19. Hp Ge: Purification, crystal growth, and annealing properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, R.N.

    1984-01-01

    The prospects for growing HP Ge crystals of increased size and purity are examined. One interesting approach is to grow dislocation-free crystals, which must then be annealed to reduce the concentration of V 2 H traps. The phenomena which occur during annealing are discussed and compared with experiment. Hydrogen, present in atomic form at the growth temperature, forms H 2 molecules during cooling, causing the effective diffusion coefficient to decrease rapidly. Models representing the reactions between H and the V 2 H, A(H, Si), and D(H,O) complexes are presented and analyzed

  20. Experimental Investigation of the Influence of Joint Geometric Configurations on the Mechanical Properties of Intermittent Jointed Rock Models Under Cyclic Uniaxial Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Dai, Feng; Fan, Pengxian; Xu, Nuwen; Dong, Lu

    2017-06-01

    Intermittent joints in rock mass are quite sensitive to cyclic loading conditions. Understanding the fatigue mechanical properties of jointed rocks is beneficial for rational design and stability analysis of rock engineering projects. This study experimentally investigated the influences of joint geometry (i.e., dip angle, persistency, density and spacing) on the fatigue mechanism of synthetic jointed rock models. Our results revealed that the stress-strain curve of jointed rock under cyclic loadings is dominated by its curve under monotonic uniaxial loadings; the terminal strain in fatigue curve is equal to the post-peak strain corresponding to the maximum cyclic stress in the monotonic stress-strain curve. The four joint geometrical parameters studied significantly affect the fatigue properties of jointed rocks, including the irreversible strains, the fatigue deformation modulus, the energy evolution, the damage variable and the crack coalescence patterns. The higher the values of the geometrical parameters, the lower the elastic energy stores in this jointed rock, the higher the fatigue damage accumulates in the first few cycles, and the lower the fatigue life. The elastic energy has certain storage limitation, at which the fatigue failure occurs. Two basic micro-cracks, i.e., tensile wing crack and shear crack, are observed in cyclic loading and unloading tests, which are controlled principally by joint dip angle and persistency. In general, shear cracks only occur in the jointed rock with higher dip angle or higher persistency, and the jointed rock is characterized by lower fatigue strength, larger damage variable and lower fatigue life.

  1. One dimensional coordination polymers: Synthesis, crystal structures and spectroscopic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaağaç, Dursun; Kürkçüoğlu, Güneş Süheyla; Şenyel, Mustafa; Şahin, Onur

    2016-11-01

    Two new one dimensional (1D) cyanide complexes, namely [M(4-aepy)2(H2O)2][Pt(CN)4], (4-aepy = 4-(2-aminoethyl)pyridine M = Cu(II) (1) or Zn(II) (2)), have been synthesized and characterized by vibrational (FT-IR and Raman) spectroscopy, single crystal X-ray diffraction, thermal and elemental analyses techniques. The crystallographic analyses reveal that 1 and 2 are isomorphous and isostructural, and crystallize in the monoclinic system and C2 space group. The Pt(II) ions are coordinated by four cyanide-carbon atoms in the square-planar geometry and the [Pt(CN)4]2- ions act as a counter ion. The M(II) ions display an N4O2 coordination sphere with a distorted octahedral geometry, the nitrogen donors belonging to four molecules of the organic 4-aepy that act as unidentate ligands and two oxygen atoms from aqua ligands. The crystal structures of 1 and 2 are similar each other and linked via intermolecular hydrogen bonding, Pt⋯π interactions to form 3D supramolecular network. Vibration assignments of all the observed bands are given and the spectral features also supported to the crystal structures of the complexes.

  2. Mechanical properties of fats in relation to their crystallization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloek, W.

    1998-01-01

    Crystallization in bulk fats is always initiated by a heterogeneous nucleation process. Homogeneous nucleation conditions for fully hydrogenated palm oil (HP) in sunflower oil (SF) could be obtained by emulsifying the fat phase into very fine droplets and using sodium caseinate as an

  3. Crystal growth and comparison of vibrational and thermal properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    During the course of a literature survey of metal compounds containing both thiourea and urea ligands, the title paper by Gunasekaran et al [1] reporting on the growth of the so-called urea thiourea mercuric chloride (UTHC) and urea thiourea mercuric sulphate. (UTHS) crystals attracted our attention. For formulating these ...

  4. Heat treatment effect on the properties of the EhP767 maraging steel welded joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taver, E.I.; Piskarev, M.N.; Yushchenko, K.A.; Pustovit, A.I.; Anisimova, M.S.

    1977-01-01

    Heat treatment effect on properties of welded joints of maraging 03Kh13N4K13M3T (EhP767) steel with yield strength over 150 kgs/mm 2 has been investigated. It is shown, that change in impact strength of aged joints at - 196 deg C depends on the amount of residual austenite and grain size. To stabilize 20-40 % residual austenite heat treatment regimes have been developed. Recommended are quenching at 1030-1050 deg C, sub-zero treatment and aging at 520 deg C for 16 hrs

  5. Pre- and postirradiation properties of brazed joints of AISI 316L stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brossa, M.; Franconi, E.; Guerreschi, U.; Pierazzi, L.; Poggi, P.; Rustia, V.

    1994-01-01

    An extensive test campaign has been performed to verify the reliability and the endurance of brazed joints between AISI 316L parts for structural applications in the nuclear field. The tests, conducted for comparison with three different high melting temperature alloys, included tensile tests (normal and shear), fatigue tests (fatigue crack propagation, low cycle fatigue, 4-point bending fatigue) and impact tests; besides, tensile tests have been performed with both unirradiated and irradiated specimens. Generally, the tests demonstrated satisfactory mechanical properties of the joints and revealed occasionally strong differences in the behaviour of the different brazing alloys, thus providing important design indications. ((orig.))

  6. Structure and Mechanical Properties of Friction Stir Weld Joints of Magnesium Alloy AZ31

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasawa, T.; Otsuka, M.; Yokota, T.; Ueki, T.

    The applicability of friction stir welding to hot rolled sheet of commercial magnesium alloy AZ31 plates has been investigated. Friction stir weld joint showed mechanical strength comparable to that of base material, though the ductility remained at one half of that of the latter. The results are consistent with the microstructure which is characterized by a fine grained bond layer bounded by-intermediate grained base metals. It is found that both anodizing treatment and insertion of aluminum foil between batting faces do not degrade the joint properties at all. The results suggest that friction stir welding can be potentially applied to magnesium alloy.

  7. Crystal growth, spectral properties, and laser demonstration of laser crystal Nd:LYSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D. Z.; Xu, X. D.; Zhou, D. H.; Zhuang, S. D.; Wang, Z. P.; Xia, C. T.; Wu, F.; Xu, J.

    2010-11-01

    A Nd:LYSO crystal has been grown by the Czochralski technique. The cell parameters were analyzed with X-ray diffraction (XRD). The Judd-Ofelt intense parameters Ω2,4,6 were obtained to be 2.65, 5.75, and 7.37×10-20 cm2, respectively. The absorption and emission cross sections and the branching ratios were calculated. The large absorption cross section (6.14×10-20 cm2) and broad absorption band (5 nm) around 811 nm indicate that this crystal can be pumped efficiently by laser diodes. The broad emission band from the 4F3/2 multiplet shows that the crystal is a promising medium for ultrashort pulse lasers. Pumped by a laser diode, the maximum 814 mW continuous-wave laser output has been obtained with a slope efficiency of 28.9%. All the results show that this crystal is a promising laser material.

  8. Crystal growth and optical properties of Sm:CaNb2O6 single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Juqing; Xu Xiaodong; Xia Changtai; Zeng Huidan; Cheng Yan; Li Dongzhen; Zhou Dahua; Wu Feng; Cheng Jimeng; Xu Jun

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Sm:CaNb 2 O 6 single crystal was grown by the Czochralski method. ► Thermal expansion coefficients and J–O parameters were calculated. ► We found that this crystal had high quantum efficiency of 97%. - Abstract: Sm:CaNb 2 O 6 single crystal has been grown by the Czochralski method. Its high-temperature X-ray powder diffraction, optical absorption, emission spectroscopic as well as lifetime have been studied. Thermal expansion coefficients (α), J–O parameters (Ω i ), radiative lifetime (τ rad ), branching ratios (β) and stimulated emission cross-sections (σ e ) were calculated. The quantum efficiency (η) was calculated to be 97%. The intense peak emission cross section at 610, 658 nm were calculated to be 2.40 × 10 −21 , 2.42 × 10 −21 cm 2 . These results indicate that Sm:CaNb 2 O 6 crystal has potential use in visible laser and photonic devices area.

  9. Crystal growth and luminescence properties of Pr-doped LuLiF4 single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Makoto; Yanagida, Takayuki; Yokota, Yuui; Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Fujimoto, Yutaka; Yoshikawa, Akira

    2013-01-01

    0.1, 1, and 3% Pr (with respect to Lu) doped LuLiF 4 (Pr:LuLiF 4 ) single crystals were grown by the micro-pulling-down (μ-PD) method. Transparency of the grown crystals was higher than 70% in the visible wavelength region with some absorption bands due to Pr 3+ 4f-4f transitions. Intense absorption bands related with the Pr 3+ 4f-5d transitions were observed at 190 and 215 nm. In radioluminescence spectra, Pr 3+ 5d-4f emissions were observed at 220, 240, 340, and 405 nm. In the pulse height spectra recorded under 137 Cs γ-ray excitation, the Pr 3% doped sample showed the highest light yield of 2050 photons/MeV and the scintillation decay time of it exhibited 23 and 72 ns also excited by 137 Cs γ-ray. -- Highlights: ► 0.1, 1, and 3% Pr-doped LuLiF 4 single crystals were grown by the μ-PD method. ► Pr 3+ 5d-4f emission peaks appeared at 220, 240, 340, and 405 nm ► The Pr 3%:LuLiF 4 crystal showed the highest light yield of 2050 photons/MeV

  10. Variability in millimeter wave scattering properties of dendritic ice crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botta, Giovanni; Aydin, Kültegin; Verlinde, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    A detailed electromagnetic scattering model for ice crystals is necessary for calculating radar reflectivity from cloud resolving model output in any radar simulator. The radar reflectivity depends on the backscattering cross sections and size distributions of particles in the radar resolution volume. The backscattering cross section depends on the size, mass and distribution of mass within the crystal. Most of the available electromagnetic scattering data for ice hydrometeors rely on simple ice crystal types and a single mass–dimensional relationship for a given type. However, a literature survey reveals that the mass–dimensional relationships for dendrites cover a relatively broad region in the mass–dimensional plane. This variability of mass and mass distribution of dendritic ice crystals cause significant variability in their backscattering cross sections, more than 10 dB for all sizes (0.5–5 mm maximum dimension) and exceeding 20 dB for the larger ones at X-, Ka-, and W-band frequencies. Realistic particle size distributions are used to calculate radar reflectivity and ice water content (IWC) for three mass–dimensional relationships. The uncertainty in the IWC for a given reflectivity spans an order of magnitude in value at all three frequencies because of variations in the unknown mass–dimensional relationship and particle size distribution. The sensitivity to the particle size distribution is reduced through the use of dual frequency reflectivity ratios, e.g., Ka- and W-band frequencies, together with the reflectivity at one of the frequencies for estimating IWC. -- Highlights: • Millimeter wave backscattering characteristics of dendritic crystals are modeled. • Natural variability of dendrite shapes leads to large variability in their mass. • Dendrite mass variability causes large backscattering cross section variability. • Reflectivity–ice water content relation is sensitive to mass and size distribution. • Dual frequency

  11. NMR studies of macroscopic and microscopic properties of liquid crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, J.R.

    1998-03-01

    The work presented is concerned with studies of orientational order in liquid crystals and the behaviour of certain mesophases. The experimental technique used in common with all the work is deuterium NMR spectroscopy. Much of the work involves studies of the orientational order of deuteriated solute molecules dissolved in liquid crystal solvents. Chapter 1 gives an introduction to liquid crystals followed by a quantitative description of orientational order. Deuterium NMR in liquid crystals is described and an outline of the molecular field theory behind the orientational order of a rigid, biaxial solute in a uniaxial mesophase is given. In Chapter 2 a novel type of mesophase induction is studied using NMR, where a solute induces up to two extra phases in a discotic mesogen depending on its concentration. The purpose of this work is to try to gain an understanding into the mechanism of the phase induction involved. Chapter 3 is concerned primarily with the macroscopic behaviour of the nematic phase formed by a semi-rigid main-chain polymer in solution. Of particular interest is the study of the reorientation of the monodomain, once the director has been rotated with respect to the magnetic field of the NMR spectrometer. A mesogen which has been claimed to exhibit a biaxial nematic phase is studied in Chapter 4, in order to determine the symmetry of the phase using NMR. Finally, Chapter 5 deals with the differing behaviour of a liquid crystal monomer and its dimer dissolved in common nematic solvents in order to determine whether this agrees with molecular field theory. (author)

  12. Natural Cr3+-rich ettringite: occurrence, properties, and crystal structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seryotkin, Yurii V.; Sokol, Ella V.; Kokh, Svetlana N.; Murashko, Mikhail N.

    2017-08-01

    Cr3+-rich ettringite with Cr3+→Al substitution and Cr/(Cr + Al) ratios up to 0.40-0.50 was found in mineral assemblages of the Ma'aleh Adumim area of Mottled Zone (Judean Desert). The Cr3+-rich compositions were the latest in the thaumasite → ettringite-thaumasite solid solution → ettringite → ettringite-bentorite solid solution series. The mineral-forming solution was enriched in Cr3+ and had a pH buffered by afwillite at 11-12. Chromium was inherited from larnite rocks produced by high-temperature combustion metamorphic alteration of bioproductive calcareous sediments. The Cr/(Cr + Al) ratios are within 0.10-0.15 in most of the analysed crystals. This degree of substitution imparts pink colouration to the crystals, but does not affect their habit (a combination of monohedra and a prism). The habit changes to pyramid faces in coarse and later Cr3+-bearing crystals as Cr/(Cr + Al) ratios increase abruptly to 0.40-0.50. Single-crystal XRD analysis of one Cr-free and two Cr3+-rich samples and their structure determination and refinement indicate that the Cr-rich crystals (with Cr/(Cr + Al) to 0.3) preserve the symmetry and metrics of ettringite. The Ca-O bonding network undergoes differentiation with increase of Cr3+ concentration at octahedral M sites. The compression of Ca2 and expansion of Ca1 polyhedra sub-networks correlates with the degree of Cr3+→Al substitution.

  13. Microstructure and mechanical properties of laser-welded joints of TWIP and TRIP steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mujica, L.; Weber, S.; Pinto, H.; Thomy, C.; Vollertsen, F.

    2010-01-01

    With the aim of investigating a laser-welded dissimilar joint of TWIP and TRIP steel sheets, the microstructure was characterized by means of OM, SEM, and EBSD to differentiate the fusion zone, heat-affected zone, and the base material. OIM was used to differentiate between ferritic, bainitic, and martensitic structures. Compositions were measured by means of optical emission spectrometry and EDX to evaluate the effect of manganese segregation. Microhardness measurements and tensile tests were performed to evaluate the mechanical properties of the joint. Residual stresses and XRD phase quantification were used to characterize the weld. Grain coarsening and martensitic areas were found in the fusion zone, and they had significant effects on the mechanical properties of the weld. The heat-affected zone of the TRIP steel and the corresponding base material showed considerable differences in the microstructure and properties.

  14. Experimental Investigation on the Fatigue Mechanical Properties of Intermittently Jointed Rock Models Under Cyclic Uniaxial Compression with Different Loading Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Dai, Feng; Dong, Lu; Xu, Nuwen; Feng, Peng

    2018-01-01

    Intermittently jointed rocks, widely existing in many mining and civil engineering structures, are quite susceptible to cyclic loading. Understanding the fatigue mechanism of jointed rocks is vital to the rational design and the long-term stability analysis of rock structures. In this study, the fatigue mechanical properties of synthetic jointed rock models under different cyclic conditions are systematically investigated in the laboratory, including four loading frequencies, four maximum stresses, and four amplitudes. Our experimental results reveal the influence of the three cyclic loading parameters on the mechanical properties of jointed rock models, regarding the fatigue deformation characteristics, the fatigue energy and damage evolution, and the fatigue failure and progressive failure behavior. Under lower loading frequency or higher maximum stress and amplitude, the jointed specimen is characterized by higher fatigue deformation moduli and higher dissipated hysteresis energy, resulting in higher cumulative damage and lower fatigue life. However, the fatigue failure modes of jointed specimens are independent of cyclic loading parameters; all tested jointed specimens exhibit a prominent tensile splitting failure mode. Three different crack coalescence patterns are classified between two adjacent joints. Furthermore, different from the progressive failure under static monotonic loading, the jointed rock specimens under cyclic compression fail more abruptly without evident preceding signs. The tensile cracks on the front surface of jointed specimens always initiate from the joint tips and then propagate at a certain angle with the joints toward the direction of maximum compression.

  15. Effects of the Heterogeneity in the Electron Beam Welded Joint on Mechanical Properties of Ti6Al4V Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Gao, Xiao-Long; Zhang, Lin-Jie; Zhang, Jian-Xun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of microstructure heterogeneity on the tensile and low cycle fatigue properties of electron beam welded (EBW) Ti6Al4V sheets. To achieve this goal, the tensile and low cycle fatigue property in the EBW joints and base metal (BM) specimens is compared. During the tensile testing, digital image correlation technology was used to measure the plastic strain field evolution within the specimens. The experimental results showed that the tensile ductility and low cycle fatigue strength of EBW joints are lower than that of BM specimens, mainly because of the effect of microstructure heterogeneity of the welded joint. Moreover, the EBW joints exhibit the cyclic hardening behavior during low fatigue process, while BM specimens exhibit the cyclic softening behavior. Compared with the BM specimens with uniform microstructure, the heterogeneity of microstructure in the EBW joint is found to decrease the mechanical properties of welded joint.

  16. Influence of friction stir welding process and tool parameters on strength properties of AA7075-T6 aluminium alloy joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajakumar, S.; Muralidharan, C.; Balasubramanian, V.

    2011-01-01

    The aircraft aluminium alloys generally present low weldability by traditional fusion welding process. The development of the friction stir welding has provided an alternative improved way of satisfactorily producing aluminium joints, in a faster and reliable manner. In this present work, the influence of process and tool parameters on tensile strength properties of AA7075-T 6 joints produced by friction stir welding was analysed. Square butt joints were fabricated by varying process parameters and tool parameters. Strength properties of the joints were evaluated and correlated with the microstructure, microhardness of weld nugget. From this investigation it is found that the joint fabricated at a tool rotational speed of 1400 rpm, welding speed of 60 mm/min, axial force of 8 kN, using the tool with 15 mm shoulder diameter, 5 mm pin diameter, 45 HRc tool hardness yielded higher strength properties compared to other joints.

  17. Molecular complex of lumiflavin and 2-aminobenzoic acid: crystal structure, crystal spectra, and solution properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, H S; Ghisla, S; Hanson, L K; Ludwig, M L; Nordman, C E

    1981-08-04

    The molecular complex lumiflavin-2-aminobenzoic acid monohydrate (C13H12N4O2.C7H7NO2.H2O) crystallizes from from aqueous solution as red triclinic prisms. The space group is P1 with cell dimensions a = 9.660 A, b = 14.866 A, c = 7.045 A, alpha = 95.44 degrees , beta = 95.86 degrees, and gamma = 105.66 degrees . The crystal structure was solved by direct methods and refined by block-diagonal least-squares procedures to an R value of 0.050 on the basis of 1338 observed reflections. The structure is composed of stacks of alternating lumiflavin adn un-ionized (neutral) 2-aminobenzoic acid molecules. Two different modes of stacking interaction are observed. In one, 2-aminobenzoic acid overlaps all three of the isoalloxazine rings, at a mean distance of 3.36 A; in the other, 2-aminobenzoic acid interacts distance of 3.36 A; in the other, 2-aminobenzoic acid interacts with the pyrazine and dimethylbenzene moieties, at a distance of 3.42 A. Perpendicular to the stacking direction, the molecules form a continuous sheet. Each flavin is hydrogen bonded via O(2) and NH(3) to two symmetrically related aminobenzoates; the water of crystallization forms three hydrogen bonds, bridging two flavins, via O(4) and N(5), and one aminobenzoic acid. The red color of the crystals results from a charge-transfer transition involving stacked flavin and 2-aminobenzoic acid. The red color of the crystals results from a charge-transfer transition involving stacked flavin and 2-aminobenzoic acid molecules. Measurements of the polarized optical absorption spectra of crystals show that the transition moment direction for the long wavelength absorbance (beyond 530 nm) contains an out-of-plane component which can only arise from a charge-transfer interaction. Since the amino N does not make exceptionally close interactions with isoalloxazine atoms in either stacking mode (minimum interatomic distance 3.52 A), the charge transfer is presumed to involve pi orbitals of the 2-aminobenzoic acid donor.

  18. Band structure and optical properties of opal photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavarini, E.; Andreani, L. C.; Soci, C.; Galli, M.; Marabelli, F.; Comoretto, D.

    2005-07-01

    A theoretical approach for the interpretation of reflectance spectra of opal photonic crystals with fcc structure and (111) surface orientation is presented. It is based on the calculation of photonic bands and density of states corresponding to a specified angle of incidence in air. The results yield a clear distinction between diffraction in the direction of light propagation by (111) family planes (leading to the formation of a stop band) and diffraction in other directions by higher-order planes (corresponding to the excitation of photonic modes in the crystal). Reflectance measurements on artificial opals made of self-assembled polystyrene spheres are analyzed according to the theoretical scheme and give evidence of diffraction by higher-order crystalline planes in the photonic structure.

  19. Band structure and optical properties of opal photonic crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Pavarini, E.; Andreani, L. C.; Soci, C.; Galli, M.; Marabelli, F.; Comoretto, D.

    2005-01-01

    A theoretical approach for the interpretation of reflectance spectra of opal photonic crystals with fcc structure and (111) surface orientation is presented. It is based on the calculation of photonic bands and density of states corresponding to a specified angle of incidence in air. The results yield a clear distinction between diffraction in the direction of light propagation by (111) family planes (leading to the formation of a stop band) and diffraction in other directions by higher-order...

  20. Molecular Complex of Lumiflavin and 2-Aminobenzoic Acid : Crystal Structure, Crystal Spectra, and Solution Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Shieh, Huey-Sheng; Ghisla, Sandro; Hanson, Louise Karle; Ludwig, Martha L.; Nordman, Christer E.

    1981-01-01

    The molecular complex lumiflavin-2-aminobenzoic acid monohydrate (C13H12N402●C7H7N02●H2O)crystallizes from aqueous solution as red triclinic prisms. The space group is P1 with cell dimensions a = 9.660 A, b = 14.866 Å, c = 7.045 Å, α = 95.44°, β = 95.86°, and γ = 105.66°. The crystal structure was solved by direct methods and refined by block-diagonal least-squares procedures to an R value of 0.050 on the basis of 1338 observed reflections. The structure is composed of stacks of alternating l...

  1. Magnetic and luminescent properties of vanadium-doped ZnSe crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radevici, Ivan, E-mail: ivarad@utu.fi [Wihuri Physical Laboratory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku (Finland); Faculty of Physics and Engineering, Moldova State University, 60 A. Mateevici str., MD-2009 Chisinau (Moldova, Republic of); Nedeoglo, Natalia; Sushkevich, Konstantin [Faculty of Physics and Engineering, Moldova State University, 60 A. Mateevici str., MD-2009 Chisinau (Moldova, Republic of); Huhtinen, Hannu [Wihuri Physical Laboratory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku (Finland); Nedeoglo, Dmitrii [Faculty of Physics and Engineering, Moldova State University, 60 A. Mateevici str., MD-2009 Chisinau (Moldova, Republic of); Paturi, Petriina [Wihuri Physical Laboratory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku (Finland)

    2016-12-15

    Magnetic and photoluminescence properties of vanadium-doped ZnSe crystals with impurity concentrations varied by changing the V amount in the source material from 0.03 to 0.30 at% are studied in 5–300 K temperature range. Investigation of magnetic properties shows that the studied concentrations of vanadium impurity that should not disturb crystal lattice are insignificant for observing ferromagnetic behaviour even at low temperatures. The contribution of V impurity to edge emission and its influence on infra-red emission are discussed. Similarities of magnetic and luminescent properties induced by vanadium and other transition metal impurities are discussed.

  2. Anisotropic surface chemistry properties and adsorption behavior of silicate mineral crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Longhua; Tian, Jia; Wu, Houqin; Fang, Shuai; Lu, Zhongyuan; Ma, Caifeng; Sun, Wei; Hu, Yuehua

    2018-03-07

    Anisotropic surface properties of minerals play an important role in a variety of fields. With a focus on the two most intensively investigated silicate minerals (i.e., phyllosilicate minerals and pegmatite aluminosilicate minerals), this review highlights the research on their anisotropic surface properties based on their crystal structures. Four surface features comprise the anisotropic surface chemistry of minerals: broken bonds, energy, wettability, and charge. Analysis of surface broken bond and energy anisotropy helps to explain the cleavage and growth properties of mineral crystals, and understanding surface wettability and charge anisotropy is critical to the analysis of minerals' solution behavior, such as their flotation performance and rheological properties. In a specific reaction, the anisotropic surface properties of minerals are reflected in the adsorption strengths of reagents on different mineral surfaces. Combined with the knowledge of mineral crushing and grinding, a thorough understanding of the anisotropic surface chemistry properties and the anisotropic adsorption behavior of minerals will lead to the development of effective relational models comprising their crystal structure, surface chemistry properties, and targeted reagent adsorption. Overall, such a comprehensive approach is expected to firmly establish the connection between selective cleavage of mineral crystals for desired surfaces and designing novel reagents selectively adsorbed on the mineral surfaces. As tools to characterize the anisotropic surface chemistry properties of minerals, DLVO theory, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are also reviewed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Growth and structural, optical, and electrical properties of zincite crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaurova, I. A.; Kuz'micheva, G. M.; Rybakov, V. B.

    2013-03-01

    An X-ray diffraction study of ZnO crystals grown by the hydrothermal method has revealed reflections that give grounds to assign them to the sp. gr. P3 rather than to P63 mc. The distribution of Zn1, Zn2, O1, and O2 over structural positions, along with vacancies and incorporated zinc atoms, explains the dissymmetrization observed in terms of the kinetic (growth) phase transition of the order-disorder type, which is caused by ordering Zn and O atoms over structural positions. The color of crystals of refined compositions (Zn0.975□0.025)Zn i(0.015)(O0.990□0.010) (green) and (Zn0.965□0.035)Zn i(0.035)O (bright green) is related to different oxygen contents, which is confirmed by the results of electron probe X-ray microanalysis and absorption spectroscopy. The degree of the structural quality of crystals, their resistivity, and activation energy are also related to oxygen vacancies.

  4. Crystal growth and scintillation properties of selected fluoride crystals for VUV scintillators

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pejchal, Jan; Fukuda, K.; Yamaji, A.; Yokota, Y.; Kurosawa, S.; Král, Robert; Nikl, Martin; Yoshikawa, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 401, Sep (2014), s. 833-838 ISSN 0022-0248. [International Conference on Crystal Growth and Epitaxy /17./. Warsaw, 11.08.2013-16..08.2013] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12150 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : vacuum-ultra-violet emission * micro-pulling-down method * barium -lutetium fluoride * erbium fluoride Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.698, year: 2014

  5. Adhesive properties and adhesive joints strength of graphite/epoxy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudawska, Anna; Stančeková, Dana; Cubonova, Nadezda; Vitenko, Tetiana; Müller, Miroslav; Valášek, Petr

    2017-05-01

    The article presents the results of experimental research of the adhesive joints strength of graphite/epoxy composites and the results of the surface free energy of the composite surfaces. Two types of graphite/epoxy composites with different thickness were tested which are used to aircraft structure. The single-lap adhesive joints of epoxy composites were considered. Adhesive properties were described by surface free energy. Owens-Wendt method was used to determine surface free energy. The epoxy two-component adhesive was used to preparing the adhesive joints. Zwick/Roell 100 strength device were used to determination the shear strength of adhesive joints of epoxy composites. The strength test results showed that the highest value was obtained for adhesive joints of graphite-epoxy composite of smaller material thickness (0.48 mm). Statistical analysis of the results obtained, the study showed statistically significant differences between the values of the strength of the confidence level of 0.95. The statistical analysis of the results also showed that there are no statistical significant differences in average values of surface free energy (0.95 confidence level). It was noted that in each of the results the dispersion component of surface free energy was much greater than polar component of surface free energy.

  6. Improvement in properties of welded joints of titanium alloy VT22 by thermocyclic treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyasotskaya, V.S.; Kulikov, F.R.; Kirillov, Yu.G.; Ravdonikas, N.Yu.

    1983-01-01

    The results of investigations of the thermocyclic treatment (TCT) effect on the structure and properties of butt welded joints of tubes (with external diameter 180 mm and wall thickness 20-25 mm) of the VT22 alloy are presented. Welded joints have been obtained by means of multipassing automatic argon-arc (ARAW) and electron-beam (ELB) welding. It is shown that TCT of welded joints of the VT22 alloy results in formation in all zones of substructure with disperse precipitations of α-phase which is analogous to the structure of near welded seam zone metal immediately after welding. As a result of TCT and subsequent TT of welded joints poligonization and recrystallization processes of α- and #betta#-phases, changes in parameters of structural components and thin phase structure take place. TCT with strengthening TT or annealing leads to strength increase, while TCT with annealing besides that improves placticity and impact strength of the VT22 alloy welded joints

  7. Ethanol vapor-induced fabrication of colloidal crystals with controllable layers and photonic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chuanqiang; Gong, Xiangxiang; Han, Jie; Guo, Rong

    2015-04-07

    A novel fabrication method for colloidal crystals has been proposed for the first time in this research. In this method, a suspension droplet containing colloidal particles was first spread onto a glass substrate placed in an ethanol vapor environment, and then the droplet was extracted from its center. In that case, the contact angle of the droplet reduced and the contact line receded toward the center, during which the colloidal particles self-assembled and immobilized forming a 2D colloidal crystal film on the substrate upon drying the liquid film. Alternately spreading and drying of suspension films could construct fine multi-layers of colloidal crystals, while the ethanol fraction in the suspension would be used to control roughly but rapidly the layer numbers of colloidal crystals. It was also found that the photonic properties of resultant colloidal crystal films were elevated by increasing their thickness.

  8. Microstructure and mechanical properties of the TIG welded joints of fusion CLAM steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Zhizhong, E-mail: zhizhongjiang2006@yahoo.com.c [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100083 (China); Ren Litian; Huang Jihua; Ju Xin; Wu Huibin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100083 (China); Huang Qunying; Wu Yican [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China)

    2010-12-15

    The CLAM steel plates were butt-welded through manual tungsten inert gas welding (TIG) process, and the following post-welding heat treatment (PWHT) at 740 {sup o}C for 1 h. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the welded joints were measured. The results show that both hardening and softening occur in the weld joints before PWHT, but the hardening is not removed completely in the weld metal and the fusion zone after PWHT. In as-welded condition, the microstructure of the weld metal is coarse lath martensite, and softened zone in heat-affected zone (HAZ) consists of a mixture of tempered martensite and ferrite. After PWHT, a lot of carbides precipitate at all zones in weld joints. The microstructure of softened zone transforms to tempered sorbite. Tensile strength of the weld metal is higher than that of HAZ and base metal regardless of PWHT. However, the weld metal has poor toughness without PWHT. The impact energy of the weld metal after PWHT reaches almost the same level as the base metal. So it is concluded that microstructure and mechanical properties of the CLAM steel welded joints can be improved by a reasonable PWHT.

  9. Characterization of Mechanical Properties and Residual Stress in API 5L X80 Steel Welded Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa Lins, Amilton; de Souza, Luís Felipe Guimarães; Fonseca, Maria Cindra

    2018-01-01

    The use of high-strength and low-alloy steels, high design factors and increasingly stringent safety requirements have increased the operating pressure levels and, consequently, the need for further studies to avoid and prevent premature pipe failure. To evaluate the possibility of improving productivity in manual arc welding of this type of steel, this work characterizes the mechanical properties and residual stresses in API 5L X80 steel welded joints using the SMAW and FCAW processes. The residual stresses were analyzed using x-ray diffraction with the sin2 ψ method at the top and root of the welded joints in the longitudinal and transverse directions of the weld bead. The mechanical properties of the welded joints by both processes were characterized in terms of tensile strength, impact toughness and Vickers microhardness in the welded and shot peening conditions. A predominantly compressive residual stress was found, and shot peening increased the tensile strength and impact toughness in both welded joints.

  10. Mehanical Properties of Electron Beam Welded Joints in Thick Gage CA6NM Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarafan, Sheida; Wanjara, Priti; Gholipour, Javad; Champliaud, Henri; Mathieu, Louis

    2017-10-01

    Design of hydroelectric turbine components requires high integrity welds (without detectable volumetric defects) in heavy gage sections of stainless steel materials, such as ASTM A743 grade CA6NM—a low carbon 13% Cr-4% Ni martensitic stainless steel that is manufactured in cast form. In this work, 90-mm-thick plates of CA6NM were joined using a single-pass autogenous electron beam (EB) welding process and the mechanical properties were evaluated in the as-welded condition to characterize the performance of the joints. The static tensile properties that were evaluated in two directions—transverse and longitudinal to the EB weld seam—demonstrated conformance of the joints with the requirements of the ASME Section IX standard. The Charpy impact energies of the EB welds—measured at -18 °C on samples with V-notch roots located in the fusion and heat-affected zones—met the minimum requirements of 27 J specified in ASME Section VIII standard. In addition, bend tests that were conducted on the entire weld cross section displayed no discontinuities on the tension side of the bent joints. Hence, the developed EB welding process was demonstrated to render high-performance joints and promises key advantages for industrialization, such as cost savings through reductions in consumable material, production time and labor intensity.

  11. Microstructure and mechanical properties of electron beam welded dissimilar steel to Fe–Al alloy joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinda, Soumitra Kumar; Basiruddin Sk, Md.; Roy, Gour Gopal [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur (India); Srirangam, Prakash, E-mail: p.srirangam@warwick.ac.uk [Warwick Manufacturing Group (WMG), University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-20

    Electron beam welding (EBW) technique was used to perform dissimilar joining of plain carbon steel to Fe–7%Al alloy under three different weld conditions such as with beam oscillation, without beam oscillation and at higher welding speed. The effect of weld parameters on the microstructure and mechanical properties of dissimilar joints was studied using optical microscopy, SEM, EBSD, hardness, tensile and erichsen cup tests. Microstructure results show that the application of beam oscillation resulted in uniform and homogeneous microstructure compared to without beam oscillations and higher welding speed. Further, it was observed that weld microstructure changes from equiaxed to columnar grains depending on the weld speed. High weld speed results in columnar grain structure in the weld joint. Erichsen cup test results show that the application of beam oscillation results in excellent formability as compared to high weld speed. Tensile test results show no significant difference in strength properties in all three weld conditions, but the ductility was found to be highest for joints obtained with the application of weld beam oscillation as compared to without beam oscillation and high weld speed. This study shows that the application of beam oscillations plays an important role in improving the weld quality and performance of EBW dissimilar steel to Fe–Al joints.

  12. The effect of linear imperfection in [001] direction on the thermal properties of silver crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Davoodi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available  The aim of this investigation was to calculate the thermal properties of silver crystal in the presence of linear imperfection. The simulations were performed by molecular dynamics simulation technique in NPT as well as NVT ensemble based on quantum Sutton-Chen many body potential. The thermal properties including cohesive energy, melting temperature, isobaric heat capacity and thermal expansion of imperfect silver crystal were calculated and compared to those of the perfect crystal. Moreover, the quantities such as radial distribution function, order parameter and lindemann index were calculated in order to obtain information on crystal structure and disorder in atoms. All calculations were done both with liner imperfection in [001] direction and without imperfection at different temperature. The simulation results show that cohesive energy, linear thermal expansion coefficient increase and melting temperature, latent heat of fusion decrease with increasing linear imperfection. Also, the results show that linear imperfection has no effect on the heat capacity.

  13. Reflectance properties of one-dimensional metal-dielectric ternary photonic crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, G. N., E-mail: gnpandey2009@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Amity Institute of Applied Sciences, AmityUniversity, Noida (U.P.) (India); Kumar, Narendra [Department of Physics (CASH), Modi University of Science and Technology, Lakshmangarh, Sikar, Rajsthan (India); Thapa, Khem B. [Department of Physics, U I E T, ChhatrapatiShahu Ji Maharaj University, Kanpur- (UP) (India); Ojha, S. P. [Department of Physics IIT, Banaras Hindu University (India)

    2016-05-06

    Metallic photonic crystal has a very important application in absorption enhancement in solar cells. It has been found that an ultra-thin metallic layer becomes transparent due to internal scattering of light through the each interface of the dielectric and metal surfaces. The metal has absorption due to their surface plasmon and the plasmon has important parameters for changing optical properties of the metal. We consider ternary metallic-dielectric photonic crystal (MDPC) for having large probabilities to change the optical properties of the MDPC and the photonic crystals may be changed by changing dimensionality, symmetry, lattice parameters, Filling fraction and effective refractive index refractive index contrast. In this present communication, we try to show that the photonic band gap in ternary metal-dielectric photonic crystal can be significantly enlarged when air dielectric constant is considered. All the theoretical analyses are made based on the transfer matrix method together with the Drude model of metal.

  14. Tensometrical properties of volumetric crystals of germanium-silicon solid solutions irradiated by fast electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasov, Sh.M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text: In the present work the tensometrical properties of Ge1-xSix solid solution monocrystal contended of up to 15 at. % Si were investigated. The radiation-proof strain gauges of researched crystals were made. For this purpose the site was cutted out from a sample, perpendicularly or in parallel of a crystal axes. After polishing the samples had thickness of 30-40 microns, and length of 2 mm

  15. Anisotropy of the Mechanical Properties of TbF3 Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimov, D. N.; Lisovenko, D. S.; Sizova, N. L.; Sobolev, B. P.

    2018-01-01

    TbF3 (sp. gr. Pnma) crystals up to 40 mm in diameter have been grown from melt by a Bridgman technique. The anisotropy of their mechanical properties is studied for the first time. the technical elasticity constants are calculated, and room-temperature values of Vickers microhardness for the (010) and (100) planes are measured. The shape of indentation impressions is found to correlate with Young's modulus anisotropy for TbF3 crystals.

  16. Properties of a barium fluoride-TMAE-multiwire proportional chamber detector using a large single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woody, C.L.; Petridou, C.I.; Smith, G.C.

    1985-01-01

    The properties of a detector consisting of a large barium fluoride crystal and a multiwire proportional chamber operating at low pressure with TMAE have been studied. Measurements of the time resolution, pulse width, energy resolution, photoelectron yield and the effective energy threshold were carried out in a test beam using minimum ionizing particles. Although the detector is sensitive to signals originating from an adsorbed layer of TMAE from the crystal surface, no indication of such a signal was observed. 7 refs., 6 figs

  17. Properties of horizontally oriented ice crystals observed by polarization lidar over summit, Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neely Ryan R.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A source of error in microphysical retrievals and model simulations is the assumption that clouds are composed of only randomly oriented ice crystals. This assumption is frequently not true, as evidenced by optical phenomena such as parhelia. Here, observations from the Cloud, Aerosol and Polarization Backscatter Lidar at Summit, Greenland are utilized along with other sensors and beam imaging to examine the properties of horizontally oriented ice crystals and the environment conditions in which they occur.

  18. Micromechanical properties of C70 single crystals in the temperature range 77-350 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubenets, S.V.; Natsik, V.D.; Fomenko, L.S.; Rusakova, A.V.; Natsik, V.D.; Osip'yan, Yu.A.; Orlov, V.I.; Sidorov, N.S.; Izotov, A.N.

    2012-01-01

    Hexagonal single crystals of C 70 up to a size down to 1-2 mm were grown which allowed for the first time to investigate their low-temperature mechanical properties. Morphology, microplasticity anisotropy and the temperature dependence of Vickers microhardness HV (T) of the C 70 crystals in the temperature range 77-350 K involving all known phase transitions have been studied with the aid of optical microscopy and microindentation. The association of the features of HV (T) dependence with orientation phase transformations has been analyzed. It is suggested that anisotropy of microplasticity in the C 70 crystals correlates with the active slip systems.

  19. Optical power limiting and transmitting properties of cadmium iodide single crystals: Temperature dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miah, M. Idrish, E-mail: m.miah@griffith.edu.a [Nanoscale Science and Technology Centre, Griffith University, Nathan, Brisbane, QLD 4111 (Australia)] [Biomolecular and Physical Sciences, Griffith University, Nathan, Brisbane, QLD 4111 (Australia)] [Department of Physics, University of Chittagong, Chittagong 4331 (Bangladesh)

    2009-09-14

    Optical limiting properties of the single crystals of cadmium iodide are investigated using ns laser pulses. It is found that the transmissions in the crystals increase with increasing temperature. However, they limit the transmissions at high input powers. The limiting power is found to be higher at higher temperature. From the measured transmission data, the photon absorption coefficients are estimated. The temperature dependence of the coefficients shows a decrease in magnitude with increasing temperature. This might be due to the temperature-dependent bandgap shift of the material. The results demonstrate that the cadmium iodide single crystals are promising materials for applications in optical power limiting devices.

  20. Optical power limiting and transmitting properties of cadmium iodide single crystals: Temperature dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miah, M. Idrish

    2009-01-01

    Optical limiting properties of the single crystals of cadmium iodide are investigated using ns laser pulses. It is found that the transmissions in the crystals increase with increasing temperature. However, they limit the transmissions at high input powers. The limiting power is found to be higher at higher temperature. From the measured transmission data, the photon absorption coefficients are estimated. The temperature dependence of the coefficients shows a decrease in magnitude with increasing temperature. This might be due to the temperature-dependent bandgap shift of the material. The results demonstrate that the cadmium iodide single crystals are promising materials for applications in optical power limiting devices.

  1. Polarized spectroscopic properties of Nd3+-doped KGd(WO4)2 single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yujin; Lin Yanfu; Gong Xinghong; Tan Qiguang; Zhuang Jian; Luo Zundu; Huang Yidong

    2007-01-01

    The polarized absorption spectra, infrared fluorescence spectra, upconversion visible fluorescence spectra, and fluorescence decay curve of orientated Nd 3+ :KGd(WO 4 ) 2 crystal were measured at room-temperature. Some important spectroscopic parameters were investigated in detail in the framework of the Judd-Ofelt theory and the Fuchtbauer-Ladenburg formula. The effect of the crystal structure on the spectroscopic properties of the Nd 3+ ions was analyzed. The relation among the spectroscopic parameters and the laser performances of the Nd 3+ :KGd(WO 4 ) 2 crystal was discussed

  2. Anomalous property of coherent bremsstrahlung linear polarization of relativistic electrons in a crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapko, V.P.; Nasonov, N.N.; Truten', V.I.

    1993-01-01

    Polarization and spectral-and-angular properties of γ-radiation of the relativistic electron flux moving in a crystal under uncorrelated collisions with crystal atomic chains, are studied theoretically. Direction of linear polarization of radiation is shown to vary with energy of emitted photon. Reasons of occurrence of this effect are discussed. The results of numerical calculations demonstrating the possibility to form an intensive source of polarized γ-quanta on the basis of coherent radiation of relativistic electrons during low-angular scattering at crystal atom chains, are given

  3. Mechanical properties of Bi-In-Zn/ Cu solder joint system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ervina Efzan Mohd Noor; Mohammed Noori Ridha; Ahmad Badri Ismail; Nurulakmal Mohd Sharif; Kuan Yew Cheong; Tadashi Ariga; Zuhailawati Hussain

    2009-01-01

    Full text: In recent years, the pollution of environment from lead (Pb) and Pb-containing compounds in microelectronic devices attracts more and more attentions in academia and industry; the lead-free solder alloys begin to replace the lead-based solders in packaging process of some devices and components. In this works, microstructure and mechanical properties of different reflow temperature (80, 100, 120 and 140 degree Celsius) for solder joints on shear strength of Bi-In-Zn lead free solder with low melting temperature of 60 degree Celsius on Cu solder joint has been investigated. This paper will compared the mechanical properties of the Bi-In-Zn lead-free solder alloys with current lead-free solder, Sn-Ag-Cu solder alloy. The fracture surface analyses have been observed by Optical Microscope and were investigated by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) and proved it by X-ray diffraction (XRD). (author)

  4. Predictive Modeling of Mechanical Properties of Welded Joints Based on Dynamic Fuzzy RBF Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Yongzhi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic fuzzy RBF neural network model was built to predict the mechanical properties of welded joints, and the purpose of the model was to overcome the shortcomings of static neural networks including structural identification, dynamic sample training and learning algorithm. The structure and parameters of the model are no longer head of default, dynamic adaptive adjustment in the training, suitable for dynamic sample data for learning, learning algorithm introduces hierarchical learning and fuzzy rule pruning strategy, to accelerate the training speed of model and make the model more compact. Simulation of the model was carried out by using three kinds of thickness and different process TC4 titanium alloy TIG welding test data. The results show that the model has higher prediction accuracy, which is suitable for predicting the mechanical properties of welded joints, and has opened up a new way for the on-line control of the welding process.

  5. Evaluation of Microstructure and Mechanical Properties in Dissimilar Austenitic/Super Duplex Stainless Steel Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Mehdi; Eghlimi, Abbas; Shamanian, Morteza

    2014-10-01

    To study the effect of chemical composition on microstructural features and mechanical properties of dissimilar joints between super duplex and austenitic stainless steels, welding was attempted by gas tungsten arc welding process with a super duplex (ER2594) and an austenitic (ER309LMo) stainless steel filler metal. While the austenitic weld metal had vermicular delta ferrite within austenitic matrix, super duplex stainless steel was mainly comprised of allotriomorphic grain boundary and Widmanstätten side plate austenite morphologies in the ferrite matrix. Also the heat-affected zone of austenitic base metal comprised of large austenite grains with little amounts of ferrite, whereas a coarse-grained ferritic region was observed in the heat-affected zone of super duplex base metal. Although both welded joints showed acceptable mechanical properties, the hardness and impact strength of the weld metal produced using super duplex filler metal were found to be better than that obtained by austenitic filler metal.

  6. Study on Properties of Energy Spectra of the Molecular Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Xiao-Feng; Chen, Xiang-Rong

    The energy-spectra of nonlinear vibration of molecular crystals such as acetanilide have been calculated by using discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation appropriate to the systems, containing various interactions. The energy levels including higher excited states are basically consistent with experimental values obtained by infrared absorption and Raman scattering in acetanilide. We further give the features of distribution of the energy-spectra for the acetanilide. Using the energy spectra we also explained well experimental results obtained by Careri et al..

  7. Luminescent properties of Y3Al5−xGaxO12:Ce crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorenko, Yu.; Zorenko, T.; Malinowski, P.; Sidletskiy, O.; Neicheva, S.

    2014-01-01

    Absorption, luminescent and scintillation properties of Ce 3+ doped Y 3 Al 5−x Ga x O 12 crystals with Ga content in the x=1–5 range were investigated in this work and compared with the properties of YAG:Ce crystals. Apart from the traditional spectral methods (absorption, cathodoluminescence and light yield measurements), the intrinsic and Ce 3+ related luminescence of Y 3 Al 5−x Ga x O 12 :Ce solid-solution were also investigated using the luminescent spectroscopy under excitation by synchrotron radiation in the 3.7–25 eV range. We show that the optical properties Y 3 Al 5−x Ga x O 12 :Ce garnets monotonically change with increasing the Ga content in the x=0–3 range due to preferable localization of Ga ions in the tetrahedral position of the garnet lattice. At the highest Ga concentration (x>3) the deviation of the optical properties of Y 3 Al 5−x Ga x O 12 :Ce garnets is observed from the respective properties of these crystals with Ga content in the x=0–3 range due to occupation by Ga ions of the octahedral position in the garnet host. - Highlights: • Different dependence of optical properties of Y 3 Al 5−x Ga x O 12 :Ce crystals on Ga content in x=0–3 and 3–5 ranges. • Elimination of the luminescence of Y Al antisite defects in Y 3 Al 5−x Ga x O 12 :Ce crystals at x>2. • Significant improvement of the scintillation properties of Y 3 Al 5−x Ga x O 12 :Ce crystals at x=2 and 3 in comparison with YAG:Ce

  8. Solid state synthesis, crystal growth and optical properties of urea and p-chloronitrobenzene solid solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rai, R.N., E-mail: rn_rai@yahoo.co.in [Department of Chemistry, Centre of Advanced Study, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Kant, Shiva; Reddi, R.S.B. [Department of Chemistry, Centre of Advanced Study, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Ganesamoorthy, S. [Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102, Tamilnadu (India); Gupta, P.K. [Laser Materials Development & Devices Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India)

    2016-01-15

    Urea is an attractive material for frequency conversion of high power lasers to UV (for wavelength down to 190 nm), but its usage is hindered due to its hygroscopic nature, though there is no alternative organic NLO crystal which could be transparent up to 190 nm. The hygroscopic character of urea has been modified by making the solid solution (UCNB) of urea (U) and p-chloronitrobenzene (CNB). The formation of the solid solution of CNB in U is explained on the basis of phase diagram, powder XRD, FTIR, elemental analysis and single crystal XRD studies. The solubility of U, CNB and UCNB in ethanol solution is evaluated at different temperatures. Transparent single crystals of UCNB are grown from its saturated solution in ethanol. Optical properties e.g., second harmonic generation (SHG), refractive index and the band gap for UCNB crystal were measured and their values were compared with the parent compounds. Besides modification in hygroscopic nature, UCNB has also shown the higher SHG signal and mechanical hardness in comparison to urea crystal. - Highlights: • The hygroscopic character of urea was modified by making the solid solution • Solid solution formation is support by elemental, powder- and single crystal XRD • Crystal of solid solution has higher SHG signal and mechanical stability. • Refractive index and band gap of solid solution crystal have determined.

  9. Effect of antimony incorporation on structural properties of CuInS{sub 2} crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Rabeh, M., E-mail: mohamedbenrabeh@yahoo.f [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique et Materiaux Semi-Conducteurs - ENIT BP 37, Le belvedere, 1002 Tunis (Tunisia); Chaglabou, N., E-mail: nadia_chaglabou@yahoo.f [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique et Materiaux Semi-Conducteurs - ENIT BP 37, Le belvedere, 1002 Tunis (Tunisia); Kanzari, M., E-mail: Mounir.Kanzari@ipeit.rnu.t [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique et Materiaux Semi-Conducteurs - ENIT BP 37, Le belvedere, 1002 Tunis (Tunisia)

    2010-02-15

    CuInS{sub 2} (CIS) single crystals doped with 1, 2, 3 and 4 atomic percent (at.%) of antimony (Sb) were grown by the horizontal Bridgman method. The effect of Sb doping on the structural properties of CIS crystal was studied by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and PL measurements. X-ray diffraction data suggests that the doping of Sb in the CIS single crystals does not affect the tetragonal (chalcopyrite) crystal structure and exhibited a (1 1 2) preferred orientation. In addition, with increasing Sb concentration, the X-ray diffraction analysis show that Sb doped CIS crystals are more crystallized and the diffraction peaks of the CuInS{sub 2} phase were more pronounced in particular the (1 1 2) plane. EDAX study revealed that Sb atoms can occupy the indium site and/or occupying the sulfur site to make an acceptor. PL spectra of undoped and Sb doped CIS crystals show two emission peaks at 1.52 and 1.62 eV, respectively which decreased with increasing atomic percent antimony. Sb doped CIS crystals show p-type conductivity.

  10. Effect of antimony incorporation on structural properties of CuInS2 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Rabeh, M.; Chaglabou, N.; Kanzari, M.

    2010-01-01

    CuInS 2 (CIS) single crystals doped with 1, 2, 3 and 4 atomic percent (at.%) of antimony (Sb) were grown by the horizontal Bridgman method. The effect of Sb doping on the structural properties of CIS crystal was studied by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and PL measurements. X-ray diffraction data suggests that the doping of Sb in the CIS single crystals does not affect the tetragonal (chalcopyrite) crystal structure and exhibited a (1 1 2) preferred orientation. In addition, with increasing Sb concentration, the X-ray diffraction analysis show that Sb doped CIS crystals are more crystallized and the diffraction peaks of the CuInS 2 phase were more pronounced in particular the (1 1 2) plane. EDAX study revealed that Sb atoms can occupy the indium site and/or occupying the sulfur site to make an acceptor. PL spectra of undoped and Sb doped CIS crystals show two emission peaks at 1.52 and 1.62 eV, respectively which decreased with increasing atomic percent antimony. Sb doped CIS crystals show p-type conductivity.

  11. crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yi; Huang, Yisheng; Zhang, Lizhen; Lin, Zhoubin; Sun, Shijia; Wang, Guofu

    2014-07-01

    A Nd3+:Na2La4(WO4)7 crystal with dimensions of ϕ 17 × 30 mm3 was grown by the Czochralski method. The thermal expansion coefficients of Nd3+:Na2La4(WO4)7 crystal are 1.32 × 10-5 K-1 along c-axis and 1.23 × 10-5 K-1 along a-axis, respectively. The spectroscopic characteristics of Nd3+:Na2La4(WO4)7 crystal were investigated. The Judd-Ofelt theory was applied to calculate the spectral parameters. The absorption cross sections at 805 nm are 2.17 × 10-20 cm2 with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 15 nm for π-polarization, and 2.29 × 10-20 cm2 with a FWHM of 14 nm for σ-polarization. The emission cross sections are 3.19 × 10-20 cm2 for σ-polarization and 2.67 × 10-20 cm2 for π-polarization at 1,064 nm. The fluorescence quantum efficiency is 67 %. The quasi-cw laser of Nd3+:Na2La4(WO4)7 crystal was performed. The maximum output power is 80 mW. The slope efficiency is 7.12 %. The results suggest Nd3+:Na2La4(WO4)7 crystal as a promising laser crystal fit for laser diode pumping.

  12. Optical properties of tungsten disulfide single crystals doped with gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumcenco, D.O.; Hsu, H.P.; Huang, Y.S.; Liang, C.H.; Tiong, K.K.; Du, C.H.

    2008-01-01

    Single crystals of WS 2 doped with gold have been grown by the chemical vapour transport method using iodine as a transporting agent. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern analysis revealed presence of mixed three-layer rhombohedral (3R) and two-layer hexagonal (2H) polytypes for the doped crystals while the undoped one shows only 2H form. Hall measurements indicate that the samples are p-type in nature. The doping effects of the materials are characterized by surface photovoltage (SPV), photoconductivity (PC) and piezoreflectance (PzR) measurements. Room temperature SPV and PC spectra reveal a feature located at ∼60 meV below the A exciton and has been tentatively assigned to be an impurity level caused by Au dopant. Excitonic transition energies of the A, B, d and C excitons detected in PzR spectra show red shift due to the presence of a small amount of Au and the broadening parameters of the excitonic transition features increase due to impurity scattering. The values of the parameters that describe the electron (exciton)-phonon interaction of excitonic transitions of A-B are about two times larger than that of d-C excitonic pairs. The possible assignments of the different origins of A-B and d-C excitonic pairs have been discussed

  13. Scintillation properties of CdF{sub 2} crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagida, Takayuki, E-mail: yanagida@lsse.kyutech.ac.jp [Kyushu Institute of Technology, 2-4 Hibikino, Wakamatsu, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 808-0196 (Japan); Fujimoto, Yutaka; Koshimizu, Masanori [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-07 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Fukuda, Kentaro [Tokuyama Corp., 1-1 Mikage-cho, Shunan-shi, Yamaguchi 745-8648 Japan (Japan)

    2015-01-15

    CdF{sub 2} single crystal was prepared by Tokuyama Corp. with the μ-PD method to investigate Auger free luminescence of this material. From optical transmittance spectrum, bandgap wavelength was around 280 nm. In X-ray induced radioluminescence spectrum, emission lines appeared around 350 nm and 420 nm. Excitation wavelength was investigated and excitation peak was around 250 nm. Photoluminescence and scintillation decay times were evaluated and decay time was few ns. Temperature dependence of X-ray induced radioluminescence was compared with conventional BaF{sub 2} scintillator and scintillation of CdF{sub 2} decreased when the temperature increased. Consequently, scintillation of CdF{sub 2} is possibly emission at color centers or exciton related one. - Highlights: • CdF{sub 2} crystal scinitillator was synthesized. • Emission wavelengths of CdF{sub 2} appeared around 350 and 420 nm. • Scintillation decay time of CdF{sub 2} was quite fast, 1.75 ns. • Excitation bands were investigated by using Synchrotron facility, UVSOR.

  14. Scintillation properties of CdF2 crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagida, Takayuki; Fujimoto, Yutaka; Koshimizu, Masanori; Fukuda, Kentaro

    2015-01-01

    CdF 2 single crystal was prepared by Tokuyama Corp. with the μ-PD method to investigate Auger free luminescence of this material. From optical transmittance spectrum, bandgap wavelength was around 280 nm. In X-ray induced radioluminescence spectrum, emission lines appeared around 350 nm and 420 nm. Excitation wavelength was investigated and excitation peak was around 250 nm. Photoluminescence and scintillation decay times were evaluated and decay time was few ns. Temperature dependence of X-ray induced radioluminescence was compared with conventional BaF 2 scintillator and scintillation of CdF 2 decreased when the temperature increased. Consequently, scintillation of CdF 2 is possibly emission at color centers or exciton related one. - Highlights: • CdF 2 crystal scinitillator was synthesized. • Emission wavelengths of CdF 2 appeared around 350 and 420 nm. • Scintillation decay time of CdF 2 was quite fast, 1.75 ns. • Excitation bands were investigated by using Synchrotron facility, UVSOR

  15. Structural, mechanical, electrical and optical properties of a new lithium boro phthalate NLO crystal synthesized by a slow evaporation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanraj, K.; Balasubramanian, D.; Jhansi, N.

    2017-11-01

    A new non-linear optical (NLO) single crystal of lithium boro phthalate (LiBP) was grown by slow solvent evaporation technique. The powder sample was subjected to powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) to find its crystalline nature and the crystal structure of the grown crystal was determined using single crystal X-ray (SXRD) diffraction analysis. The Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrum was recorded for grown crystal to identify the various functional groups present in the compound. The mechanical property of the LiBP single crystal was studied using Vickers microhardness tester. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss measurements were carried out for the grown crystal at various temperatures. The grown crystal was subjected to UV-Visible Spectral Studies to analyze the linear optical behavior of the grown crystal. The Kurtz-Perry Powder technique was employed to measure the Second Harmonic Generation efficiency of the grown crystal.

  16. A Study of the Optical Properties of Ice Crystals with Black Carbon Inclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arienti, Marco [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Yang, Xiaoyuan [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Kopacz, Adrian M [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Geier, Manfred [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The report focu ses on the modification of the optical properties of ice crystals due to atmospheric black car bon (BC) contamination : the objective is to advance the predictive capabilities of climate models through an improved understanding of the radiative properties of compound particles . The shape of the ice crystal (as commonly found in cirrus clouds and cont rails) , the volume fraction of the BC inclusion , and its location inside the crystal are the three factors examined in this study. In the multiscale description of this problem, where a small absorbing inclusion modifies the optical properties of a much la rger non - absorbing particle, state - of - the - art discretization techniques are combined to provide the best compromise of flexibility and accuracy over a broad range of sizes .

  17. Phase-change materials: vibrational softening upon crystallization and its impact on thermal properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsunaga, Toshiyuki [Materials Science and Analysis Technology Centre, Panasonic Corporation, Osaka (Japan); Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute Hyogo (Japan); Yamada, Noboru [Digital and Network Technology Development Centre, Panasonic Corporation, Osaka (Japan); Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute Hyogo (Japan); Kojima, Rie [Digital and Network Technology Development Centre, Panasonic Corporation, Osaka (Japan); Shamoto, Shinichi [Neutron Science Research Centre, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Ibaraki (Japan); Sato, Masugu; Tanida, Hajime; Uruga, Tomoya; Kohara, Shinji [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, Hyogo (Japan); Takata, Masaki [SPring-8/RIKEN, Hyogo, Japan, Department of Advanced Materials Science, School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Chiba (Japan); Zalden, Peter; Bruns, Gunnar; Wuttig, Matthias [I. Physikalisches Institut und JARA-FIT, RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany); Sergueev, Ilya [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France); Wille, Hans Christian [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Hamburg (Germany); Hermann, Raphael Pierre [Juelich Centre for Neutron Science JCNS and Peter Gruenberg, Institut PGI, JARA-FIT, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany); Faculte des Sciences, Universite de Liege (Belgium)

    2011-06-21

    Crystallization of an amorphous solid is usually accompanied by a significant change of transport properties, such as an increase in thermal and electrical conductivity. This fact underlines the importance of crystalline order for the transport of charge and heat. Phase-change materials, however, reveal a remarkably low thermal conductivity in the crystalline state. The small change in this conductivity upon crystallization points to unique lattice properties. The present investigation reveals that the thermal properties of the amorphous and crystalline state of phase-change materials show remarkable differences such as higher thermal displacements and a more pronounced anharmonic behavior in the crystalline phase. These findings are related to the change of bonding upon crystallization, which leads to an increase of the sound velocity and a softening of the optical phonon modes at the same time. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Microstructure and Fatigue Properties of Laser Welded DP590 Dual-Phase Steel Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chaojie; Yang, Shanglei; Liu, Haobo; Zhang, Qi; Cao, Yaming; Wang, Yuan

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, cold-rolled DP590 dual-phase steel sheets with 1.5 mm thickness were butt-welded by a fiber laser, and the evolution and effect on microhardness, tensile property and fatigue property of the welded joint microstructure were studied. The results showed that the base metal is composed of ferrite and martensite, with the martensite dispersed in the ferrite matrix in an island manner. The microstructure of the weld zone was lath-shaped martensite that can be refined further by increasing the welding speed, while the heat-affected zone was composed of ferrite and tempered martensite. The microhardness increased with increasing welding speed, and the hardness reached its highest value—393.8 HV—when the welding speed was 5 m/min. Static tensile fracture of the welded joints always occurred in the base metal, and the elongation at break was more than 16%. The conditional fatigue limits of the base metal and the weld joints were 354.2 and 233.6 MPa, respectively, under tension-tension fatigue tests with a stress rate of 0.1. After observation of the fatigue fracture morphology, it was evident that the fatigue crack of the base metal had sprouted into the surface pits and that its expansion would be accelerated under the action of a secondary crack. The fatigue source of the welded joint was generated in the weld zone and expanded along the martensite, forming a large number of fatigue striations. Transient breaking, which occurred in the heat-affected zone of the joint as a result of the formation of a large number of dimples, reflected the obvious characteristics of ductile fracture.

  19. Evaluation of the cryogenic mechanical properties of the insulation material for ITER Feeder superconducting joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhixiong; Huang, Rongjin; Huang, ChuanJun; Yang, Yanfang; Huang, Xiongyi; Li, Laifeng

    2017-12-01

    The Glass-fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) fabricated by the vacuum bag process was selected as the high voltage electrical insulation and mechanical support for the superconducting joints and the current leads for the ITER Feeder system. To evaluate the cryogenic mechanical properties of the GFRP, the mechanical properties such as the short beam strength (SBS), the tensile strength and the fatigue fracture strength after 30,000 cycles, were measured at 77K in this study. The results demonstrated that the GFRP met the design requirements of ITER.

  20. Joint pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or conditions. It may be linked to arthritis , bursitis , and muscle pain . No matter what causes it, ... Autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus Bursitis Chondromalacia patellae Crystals in the joint: Gout (especially ...

  1. Rare Earth Borohydrides—Crystal Structures and Thermal Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Frommen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Rare earth (RE borohydrides have received considerable attention during the past ten years as possible hydrogen storage materials due to their relatively high gravimetric hydrogen density. This review illustrates the rich chemistry, structural diversity and thermal properties of borohydrides containing RE elements. In addition, it highlights the decomposition and rehydrogenation properties of composites containing RE-borohydrides, light-weight metal borohydrides such as LiBH4 and additives such as LiH.

  2. Optical and scintillation properties of bulk ZnO crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagida, Takayuki [Kyushu Institute of Technology, 2-4 Hibikino, Wakamatsu, Kitakyushu 808-0196 (Japan); Fujimoto, Yutaka; Kurosawa, Shunsuke [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Yamanoi, Kohei; Sarukura, Nobuhiko [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kano, Masataka; Wakamiya, Akira [Daishinku Corporation, 1389 Shinzaike, Hiraoka-cho, Kakogawa, Hyogo 675-0194 (Japan)

    2012-12-15

    Single crystal bulk ZnO scintillator grown by the hydrothermal method was tested on its scintillation performances. In X-ray induced radio luminescence spectrum, it exhibited two intense emission peaks at 400 and 550 nm. The former was ascribed to the free and bound exciton related luminescence and the latter to oxygen vacancy related one, respectively. X-ray induced scintillation decay time of the exciton related emission measured by the pulse X-ray streak camera system resulted {proportional_to} 4 ns. Finally, the light yield under {sup 241}Am 5.5 MeV {alpha}-ray was examined and it resulted {proportional_to} 500 ph/5.5 MeV-{alpha}.(copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  3. Crystal structure and magnetic properties of Tb6FeSb2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Gemei; Zhang Jiliang; He Wei; Qin Pingli; Zeng Lingmin

    2006-01-01

    The crystal structure and magnetic properties of Tb 6 FeSb 2 has been investigated for the first time. The compound crystallizes in the hexagonal, space group P6-bar 2m (No. 189) with the Ho 6 FeSb 2 structure type and lattice parameters a=8.1942(5)A, c=4.1758(3)A, z=1 and D calc =8.564g/cm 3 . Its magnetic properties were measured between 85 and 420K. The Curie temperature T c =256K was obtained using the method of intersecting tangents, and the effective paramagnetic moment was μ eff =9.32μ B per Tb atom

  4. Co2+-doped diopside: crystal structure and optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, C.; Tribaudino, M.; Mezzadri, F.; Skogby, H.; Hålenius, U.

    2018-05-01

    Synthetic clinopyroxenes along the CaMgSi2O6-CaCoSi2O6 join were investigated by a combined chemical-structural-spectroscopic approach. Single crystals were synthesized by flux growth methods, both from Ca-saturated and Ca-deficient starting compositions. Single crystal structure refinements show that the incorporation of Co2+ at the octahedrally coordinated cation sites of diopside, increases the unit-cell as well as the M1 and the M2 polyhedral volumes. Spectroscopic investigations (UV-VIS-NIR) of the Ca-rich samples reveal three main optical absorption bands, i.e. 4 T 1g → 4 T 2g( F), 4 T 1g → 4 A 2g( F) and 4 T 1g → 4 T 1g( P) as expected for Co2+ at a six-coordinated site. The bands arising from the 4 T 1g → 4 T 2g( F) and the 4 T 1g → 4 T 1g( P) electronic transitions, are each split into two components, due to the distortions of the M1 polyhedron from ideal Oh-symmetry. In spectra of both types, a band in the NIR range at ca 5000 cm-1 is caused by the 4 A 2g → 4 T 1g( F) electronic transition in Co2+ in a cubic field in the M2 site. Furthermore, an additional component to a band system at 14,000 cm-1, due to electronic transitions in Co2+ at the M2 site, is recorded in absorption spectra of Ca-deficient samples. No variations in Dq and Racah B parameters for Co2+ at the M1 site in response to compositional changes, were demonstrated, suggesting complete relaxation of the M1 polyhedron within the CaMgSi2O6-CaCoSi2O6 solid solution.

  5. Third order nonlinear optical properties of a paratellurite single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duclère, J.-R.; Hayakawa, T.; Roginskii, E. M.; Smirnov, M. B.; Mirgorodsky, A.; Couderc, V.; Masson, O.; Colas, M.; Noguera, O.; Rodriguez, V.; Thomas, P.

    2018-05-01

    The (a,b) plane angular dependence of the third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility, χ(3) , of a c-cut paratellurite (α-TeO2) single crystal was quantitatively evaluated here by the Z-scan technique, using a Ti:sapphire femtosecond laser operated at 800 nm. In particular, the mean value Re( ⟨χ(3)⟩a,b )(α-TeO2) of the optical tensor has been extracted from such experiments via a direct comparison with the data collected for a fused silica reference glass plate. A R e (⟨χ(3)⟩(a,b )(α-TeO2)):R e (χ(3))(SiO2 glass) ratio roughly equal to 49.1 is found, and our result compares thus very favourably with the unique experimental value (a ratio of ˜50) reported by Kim et al. [J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 76, 2486 (1993)] for a pure TeO2 glass. In addition, it is shown that the angular dependence of the phase modulation within the (a,b) plane can be fully understood in the light of the strong dextro-rotatory power known for TeO2 materials. Taking into account the optical activity, some analytical model serving to estimate the diagonal and non-diagonal components of the third order nonlinear susceptibility tensor has been thus developed. Finally, Re( χxxxx(3) ) and Re( χxxyy(3) ) values of 95.1 ×10-22 m 2/V2 and 42.0 ×10-22 m2/V2 , respectively, are then deduced for a paratellurite single crystal, considering fused silica as a reference.

  6. Crystal growth and scintillation properties of multi-component oxide single crystals: Ce:GGAG and Ce:La-GPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, A., E-mail: yoshikawa@imr.tohoku.ac.jp [Institute for Materials Research (IMR), Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); New Industry Creation Hatchery Center (NICHe), Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); C& A Corporation, 6-6-40 Aramaki Aza Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Kamada, K. [New Industry Creation Hatchery Center (NICHe), Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); C& A Corporation, 6-6-40 Aramaki Aza Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Kurosawa, S. [Institute for Materials Research (IMR), Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); New Industry Creation Hatchery Center (NICHe), Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Shoji, Y. [Institute for Materials Research (IMR), Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); C& A Corporation, 6-6-40 Aramaki Aza Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Yokota, Y. [New Industry Creation Hatchery Center (NICHe), Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Chani, V.I. [Institute for Materials Research (IMR), Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Nikl, M. [Institute of Physics, AS CR, Cukrovarnická 10, 162 53 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2016-01-15

    Crystal growth by micro-pulling-down, Czochralski, and floating zone methods and scintillation properties of Ce:Gd{sub 3}(Ga,Al){sub 5}O{sub 12} (Ce:GGAG) multi-component oxide garnets, and Ce:Gd{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} (Ce:GPS) or Ce:(La,Gd){sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} (Ce:La-GPS) pyro-silicates are reviewed. GGAG crystals demonstrated practically linear dependences of some of the parameters including lattice constant, emission wavelength, and band gap on Ga content. However, emission intensity, light yield and energy resolution showed maxima for intermediate compositions. GGAG crystals had the highest light yield of 56,000 photon/MeV for Ga content of 2.7 atoms per garnet formula unit. Similarly the light yield and energy resolution of La-GPS showed the highest values of 40,000 photon/MeV and 4.4%@662 keV, respectively, for La-GPS containing 10% of La. Moreover, La-GPS demonstrated stable scintillation performance up to 200 °C.

  7. Unique Reversible Crystal-to-Crystal Phase Transition – Structural and Functional Properties of Fused Ladder Thienoarenes

    KAUST Repository

    Abe, Yuichiro

    2017-08-15

    Donor-acceptor type molecules based on fused ladder thienoarenes, indacenodithiophene (IDT) and dithienocyclopenta-thienothiophene (DTCTT), coupled with benzothiadiazole, are prepared and their solid-state structures are investigated. They display a rich variety of solid phases ranging from amorphous glass states to crystalline states, upon changes in the central aromatic core and side group structures. Most notably, the DTCTT-based derivatives showed reversible crystal-to-crystal phase transitions in heating and cooling cycles. Unlike what has been seen in π−conjugated molecules variable temperature XRD revealed that structural change occurs continuously during the transition. A columnar self-assembled structure with slip-stacked π−π interaction is proposed to be involved in the solid-state. This research provides the evidence of unique structural behavior of the DTCTT-based molecules through the detailed structural analysis. This unique structural transition paves the way for these materials to have self-healing of crystal defects, leading to improved optoelectronic properties.

  8. Unique Reversible Crystal-to-Crystal Phase Transition – Structural and Functional Properties of Fused Ladder Thienoarenes

    KAUST Repository

    Abe, Yuichiro; Savikhin, Victoria; Yin, Jun; Grimsdale, Andrew C.; Soci, Cesare; Toney, Michael F.; Lam, Yeng Ming

    2017-01-01

    Donor-acceptor type molecules based on fused ladder thienoarenes, indacenodithiophene (IDT) and dithienocyclopenta-thienothiophene (DTCTT), coupled with benzothiadiazole, are prepared and their solid-state structures are investigated. They display a rich variety of solid phases ranging from amorphous glass states to crystalline states, upon changes in the central aromatic core and side group structures. Most notably, the DTCTT-based derivatives showed reversible crystal-to-crystal phase transitions in heating and cooling cycles. Unlike what has been seen in π−conjugated molecules variable temperature XRD revealed that structural change occurs continuously during the transition. A columnar self-assembled structure with slip-stacked π−π interaction is proposed to be involved in the solid-state. This research provides the evidence of unique structural behavior of the DTCTT-based molecules through the detailed structural analysis. This unique structural transition paves the way for these materials to have self-healing of crystal defects, leading to improved optoelectronic properties.

  9. The Effect of Interlayer Materials on the Joint Properties of Diffusion-Bonded Aluminium and Magnesium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Habisch

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Diffusion bonding is a well-known technology for a wide range of advanced joining applications, due to the possibility of bonding different materials within a defined temperature-time-contact pressure regime in solid state. For this study, aluminium alloys AA 6060, AA 6082, AA 7020, AA 7075 and magnesium alloy AZ 31 B are used to produce dissimilar metal joints. Titanium and silver were investigated as interlayer materials. SEM and EDXS-analysis, micro-hardness measurements and tensile testing were carried out to examine the influence of the interlayers on the diffusion zone microstructures and to characterize the joint properties. The results showed that the highest joint strength of 48 N/mm2 was reached using an aluminium alloy of the 6000 series with a titanium interlayer. For both interlayer materials, intermetallic Al-Mg compounds were still formed, but the width and the level of hardness across the diffusion zone was significantly reduced compared to Al-Mg joints without interlayer.

  10. The technology and welding joint properties of hybrid laser-tig welding on thick plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenghai, Zhang; Yifu, Shen; Huijuan, Qiu

    2013-06-01

    The technologies of autogenous laser welding and hybrid laser-TIG welding are used on thick plate of high strength lower alloy structural steel 10CrNiMnMoV in this article. The unique advantages of hybrid laser-TIG welding is summarized by comparing and analyzing the process parameters and welding joints of autogenous laser welding laser welding and hybrid laser-TIG welding. With the optimal process parameters of hybrid welding, the good welding joint without visible flaws can be obtained and its mechanical properties are tested according to industry standards. The results show that the hybrid welding technology has certain advantages and possibility in welding thick plates. It can reduce the demands of laser power, and it is significant for lowering the aspect ratio of weld during hybrid welding, so the gas in the molten pool can rise and escape easily while welding thick plates. Therefore, the pores forming tendency decreases. At the same time, hybrid welding enhances welding speed, and optimizes the energy input. The transition and grain size of the microstructure of hybrid welding joint is better and its hardness is higher than base material. Furthermore, its tensile strength and impact toughness is as good as base material. Consequently, the hybrid welding joint can meet the industry needs completely.

  11. Calculation of dynamic and electronic properties of perfect and defect crystals by semiempirical quantum mechanical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zunger, A.

    1975-07-01

    Semiempirical all-valence-electron LCAO methods, that were previously used to study the electronic structure of molecules are applied to three problems in solid state physics: the electronic band structure of covalent crystals, point defect problems in solids and lattice dynamical study of molecular crystals. Calculation methods for the electronic band structure of regular solids are introduced and problems regarding the computation of the density matrix in solids are discussed. Three models for treating the electronic eigenvalue problem in the solid, within the proposed calculation schemes, are discussed and the proposed models and calculation schemes are applied to the calculation of the electronic structure of several solids belonging to different crystal types. The calculation models also describe electronic properties of deep defects in covalent insulating crystals. The possible usefulness of the semieipirical LCAO methods in determining the first order intermolecular interaction potential in solids and an improved model for treating the lattice dynamics and related thermodynamical properties of molecular solids are presented. The improved lattice dynamical is used to compute phonon dispersion curves, phonon density of states, stable unit cell structure, lattice heat capacity and thermal crystal parameters, in α and γ-N 2 crystals, using the N 2 -N 2 intermolecular interaction potential that has been computed from the semiempirical LCAO methods. (B.G.)

  12. XRD- and infrared-probed anisotropic thermal expansion properties of an organic semiconducting single crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanraj, J; Capria, E; Benevoli, L; Perucchi, A; Demitri, N; Fraleoni-Morgera, A

    2018-01-17

    The anisotropic thermal expansion properties of an organic semiconducting single crystal constituted by 4-hydroxycyanobenzene (4HCB) have been probed by XRD in the range 120-300 K. The anisotropic thermal expansion coefficients for the three crystallographic axes and for the crystal volume have been determined. A careful analysis of the crystal structure revealed that the two different H-bonds stemming from the two independent, differently oriented 4HCB molecules composing the unit cell have different rearrangement patterns upon temperature variations, in terms of both bond length and bond angle. Linearly Polarized Mid InfraRed (LP-MIR) measurements carried out in the same temperature range, focused on the O-H bond spectral region, confirm this finding. The same LP-MIR measurements, on the basis of a semi-empirical relation and of geometrical considerations and assumptions, allowed calculation of the -CNH-O- hydrogen bond length along the a and b axes of the crystal. In turn, the so-calculated -CNH-O- bond lengths were used to derive the thermal expansion coefficients along the corresponding crystal axes, as well as the volumetric one, using just the LP-MIR data. Reasonable to good agreement with the same values obtained from XRD measurements was obtained. This proof-of-principle opens interesting perspectives about the possible development of a rapid, low cost and industry-friendly assessment of the thermal expansion properties of organic semiconducting single crystals (OSSCs) involving hydrogen bonds.

  13. Universal fragment descriptors for predicting properties of inorganic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isayev, Olexandr; Oses, Corey; Toher, Cormac; Gossett, Eric; Curtarolo, Stefano; Tropsha, Alexander

    2017-06-01

    Although historically materials discovery has been driven by a laborious trial-and-error process, knowledge-driven materials design can now be enabled by the rational combination of Machine Learning methods and materials databases. Here, data from the AFLOW repository for ab initio calculations is combined with Quantitative Materials Structure-Property Relationship models to predict important properties: metal/insulator classification, band gap energy, bulk/shear moduli, Debye temperature and heat capacities. The prediction's accuracy compares well with the quality of the training data for virtually any stoichiometric inorganic crystalline material, reciprocating the available thermomechanical experimental data. The universality of the approach is attributed to the construction of the descriptors: Property-Labelled Materials Fragments. The representations require only minimal structural input allowing straightforward implementations of simple heuristic design rules.

  14. Crystallization Mechanism and Phase Transition Properties of W-doped VO2 Synthesized by Hydrothermal Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Yao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available VO2 sol was firstly prepared using vanadyl sulfate as a vanadium source by precipitation-peptization method. Then tungsten(W doping vanadium dioxide(W-VO2 was prepared by hydrothermal crystallization of prepared sol with the presence of ammonium metatungstate. The morphologies, crystal structure of the as-prepared samples and phase transition properties were studied by X-ray diffraction(XRD, field emission scanning electron microscope(FESEMand differential scanning calorimetry(DSC analysis. The results indicate that rod-like W-VO2(B crystal with length of 1-2μm and radius of 100-200nm is firstly formed during hydrothermal treatment for 4-48h at 280℃, then the rod-like crystal dissolves gradually and sheet-like or snowflake-like crystal is formed with the phase transition from W-VO2(B to W-VO2(M and eventually, the W-VO2(M crystals can further grow up while the W-VO2(B gradually dissolves; the phase transition temperature of VO2 decreases with the increase in W doping content, and the phase transition temperature of W-VO2(M reduces to about 28℃ when the nominal dopant concentration is 6.0%(atom fraction.The "nucleation-growth-transformation-ripening" mechanism is proposed as the formation mechanism based on the hydrothermal crystallization and morphological evolution process of W-VO2(M.

  15. Studying the properties of photonic quasi-crystals by the scaling convergence method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, I-Lin; Ng, Ming-Yaw; Mai, Chien Chin; Ko, Peng Yu; Chang, Yia-Chung

    2013-01-01

    This work introduces the iterative scaling (or inflation) method to systematically approach and analyse the infinite structure of quasi-crystals. The resulting structures preserve local geometric orderings in order to prevent artificial disclination across the boundaries of super-cells, with realistic quasi-crystals coming out under high iteration (infinite super-cell). The method provides an easy way for decorations of quasi-crystalline lattices, and for compact reliefs with a quasi-periodic arrangement to underlying applications. Numerical examples for in-plane and off-plane properties of square-triangle quasi-crystals show fast convergence during iteratively geometric scaling, revealing characteristics that do not appear on regular crystals. (paper)

  16. Effect of amino acid doping on the growth and ferroelectric properties of triglycine sulphate single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghavan, C.M.; Sankar, R.; Mohan Kumar, R.; Jayavel, R.

    2008-01-01

    Effect of amino acids (L-leucine and isoleucine) doping on the growth aspects and ferroelectric properties of triglycine sulphate crystals has been studied. Pure and doped crystals were grown from aqueous solution by low temperature solution growth technique. The cell parameter values were found to significantly vary for doped crystals. Fourier transform infrared analysis confirmed the presence of functional groups in the grown crystal. Morphology study reveals that amino acid doping induces faster growth rate along b-direction leading to a wide b-plane and hence suitable for pyroelectric detector applications. Ferroelectric domain structure has been studied by atomic force microscopy and hysteresis measurements reveal an increase of coercive field due to the formation of single domain pattern

  17. Improvement of several properties of lead tungstate crystals with different doping ions

    CERN Document Server

    Auffray, Etiennette; Baccaro, Stefania; Cecilia, Angelica; Dafinei, Ioan; Diemoz, Marcella; Jarolímek, O; Korzhik, Mikhail; Lecoq, Paul; Nikl, M

    1998-01-01

    A very good radiation resistance of Lead Tungstate crystals is mandatory for their use in the high precision electromagnetic calorimeter of the CMS experiment at LHC. Since the beginning of 1996 we have organised systematic investigations of the parameters influencing the radiation hardness of this crystal. Two classes of parameters have been particularly studied, the first one related to the control of the stoichiometry and structure associated defects, the second one connected with the suppression and the charge compensation of existing defects with different kinds of doping ions. This paper reports about the second part of this study and complements a first paper where the role of the stoichiometry was already discussed. Results of tests are given on a significant statistical sample of full size crystals ( 23cm) which show a considerable improvement in the optical properties and the radiation resistance of appropriately doped crystals.

  18. Electrical and thermoluminescence properties of γ-irradiated La2CuO4 crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kolaly, M. A.; Abd El-Kader, H. I.; Kassem, M. E.

    1994-12-01

    Measurements of the electrical properties of unirradiated as well as ?-irradiated La2CuO4 crystals were carried out at different temperatures in the frequency range of 0.1-100 kHz. Thermoluminescence (TL) studies were also performed on such crystals in the temperature range of 300-600K. The conductivity of the unirradiated La2CuO4 crystals were found to obey the power law frequency dependence at each measured temperature below the transition temperature (Tc = 450K). The activation energies for conduction and dielectric relaxation time have been calculated. The TL response and the dc resistance were found to increase with ?-irradiation dose up to 9-10 kGy. The results showed that the ferroelastic domain walls of La2CuO4 crystal as well as its TL traps are sensitive to ?-raditaion. This material can be used in radiation measurements in the range 225 Gy-10 kGy.

  19. Chain alignment for improved properties - Optimization of PLA and PHB-V by crystallization and reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, K.; Bergmann, B.; Diemert, J.; Elsner, P.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper two promising ways to improve the material characteristics of PLA and PHB-V are presented by showing their positive effects on mechanical, optical, and thermal properties. The optimization is achieved by increasing the crystallization from the melt of the polymer chains and the other by means of a reinforcement of the matrices by bio-based materials. In the case of crystallization specific nucleating agents and optimized process parameters promote optimized crystallization conditions and lead particularly in toughness to significant improvements. In addition to crystallization the introduction of cellulose-based reinforcing materials is also a good alternative to improve the ductility of a biopolymer matrix considerably. Due to their polar surface structure cellulose fibres are favouring a very good interaction to the also polar biopolymers. In addition, the polar surfaces of both materials results in very homogeneous dispersion within the compound.

  20. Optical properties and radiation response of Ce3+-doped GdScO3 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaji, Akihiro; Fujimoto, Yutaka; Futami, Yoshisuke; Yokota, Yuui; Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Kochurikhin, Vladimir; Yanagida, Takayuki; Yoshikawa, Akira

    2012-01-01

    10%-Ce doped GdScO 3 perovskite type single crystal was grown by the Czochralski process. The Ce concentration in the crystal was measured. No impurity phases were observed by powder X-ray diffraction analysis. We evaluated the optical and radiation properties of the grown crystal. Ce:GdScO 3 crystal showed photo- and radio-luminescence peaks due to Ce 3+ of 5d-4f transition and colour centre. The photoluminescence decay time was sub-ns order. The relative light yield under 5.5 MeV alpha-ray excitation was calculated to be approximately 9% of BGO. (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  1. Impact attenuation properties of jazz shoes alter lower limb joint stiffness during jump landings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong Yan, Alycia; Smith, Richard M; Hiller, Claire E; Sinclair, Peter J

    2017-05-01

    To quantify the impact attenuation properties of the jazz shoes, and to investigate the in-vivo effect of four jazz shoe designs on lower limb joint stiffness during a dance-specific jump. Repeated measures. A custom-built mechanical shoe tester similar to that used by athletic shoe companies was used to vertically impact the forefoot and heel region of four different jazz shoe designs. Additionally, dancers performed eight sautés in second position in bare feet and the shoe conditions. Force platforms and 3D-motion capture were used to analyse the joint stiffness of the midfoot, ankle, knee and hip during the jump landings. Mechanical testing of the jazz shoes revealed significant differences in impact attenuation characteristics among each of the jazz shoe designs. Gross knee and midfoot joint stiffness were significantly affected by the jazz shoe designs in the dancers' jump landings. The tested jazz shoe designs altered the impact attenuating capacity of jump landing technique in dancers. The cushioned jazz shoes are recommended particularly for injured dancers to reduce impact on the lower limb. Jazz shoe design should consider the impact attenuation properties of the forefoot region, due to the toe-strike landing technique in dance movement. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Improving Mechanical Properties of PVPPA Welded Joints of 7075 Aluminum Alloy by PWHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guowei Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 7075 aluminum alloy with a thickness of 10 mm was successfully welded with no obvious defects by pulsed variable polarity plasma arc (PVPPA welding. The mechanical properties of PVPPA welded joints have been researched by post weld heat treatment (PWHT. The results indicate that the heat treatment strongly affects the mechanical properties of the welded joints. The tensile strength and the microhardness of the welded joints gradually improved with the increase of the solution temperature. With the increase of the solution time, the tensile strength, and microhardness first dramatically increased and then decreased slightly. The best tensile strength of 537.5 MPa and the microhardness of 143.7 HV were obtained after 490 °C × 80 min + 120 °C × 24 h, and the strength was nearly 91.2% of that of the parent metal, and increased about 35% compared with as-welded. The improvement of strength and microhardness was mainly due to the precipitation of η′ phase.

  3. Optical properties of mesoporous photonic crystals, filled with dielectrics, ferroelectrics and piezoelectrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Gorelik

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available At present, it is very important to create new types of mirrors, nonlinear light frequency transformers and optical filters with controlled optical properties. In this connection, it is of great interest to study photonic crystals. Their dielectric permittivity varies periodically in space with a period permitting Bragg diffraction of light. In this paper, we have investigated the optical properties of mesoporous three-dimensional (3D opal-type and one-dimensional (1D anodic alumina photonic crystals, filled with different dielectrics, ferroelectrics and piezoelectrics. We have compared the optical properties of initial mesoporous photonic crystals and filled with different substances. The possibility of mesoporous photonic crystals using selective narrow-band light filters in Raman scattering experiments and nonlinear mirrors has been analyzed. The electromagnetic field enhancing in the case of exciting light frequency close to the stop band edges has been established. The optical harmonics and subharmonics generation in mesoporous crystals, filled with ferroelectrics and piezoelectrics was proposed.

  4. Tailoring Dispersion properties of photonic crystal waveguides by topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stainko, Roman; Sigmund, Ole

    2007-01-01

    based design updates. The goal of the optimization process is to come up with slow light, zero group velocity dispersion photonic waveguides or photonic waveguides with tailored dispersion properties for dispersion compensation purposes. Two examples concerning reproduction of a specific dispersion...

  5. Photonic crystal fibers: fundamental properties and applications within sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Bo Damm; Riishede, Jesper; Broeng, Jes

    2003-01-01

    a large variety of novel optical properties and improvements compared to standard optical fibers. The stack-and-pull procedure used to manufacture PCFs is a highly flexible method offering a large degree of freedom in the fabrication of PCFs with specific characteristics. A few of the remarkable optical...

  6. Spectroscopic properties of Pr -doped erbium oxalate crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Spectroscopic properties of praseodymium ions-doped erbium oxalate ... solution with specific gravity 1.04 g/cm3 was mixed homogeneously with 0.5 M oxalic ... of concentrated nitric acid were transferred carefully and gently through the wall ...

  7. Crystal and Microstructure Analysis of Pozzolanic Properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    and analyze the quality and quantity of composition and hydration behavior of the ... advantages in the properties of such concrete in term of mineral composition .... The value of the temperature constant (K) was derived from a table using the ...

  8. Anisotropic surface hole-transport property of triphenylamine-derivative single crystal prepared by solution method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umeda, Minoru, E-mail: mumeda@vos.nagaokaut.ac.jp [Nagaoka University of Technology, Kamitomioka, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan); Katagiri, Mitsuhiko; Shironita, Sayoko [Nagaoka University of Technology, Kamitomioka, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan); Nagayama, Norio [Nagaoka University of Technology, Kamitomioka, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan); Ricoh Company, Ltd., Nishisawada, Numazu, Shizuoka 410-0007 (Japan)

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • A hole transport molecule was investigated based on its electrochemical redox characteristics. • The solubility and supersolubility curves of the molecule were measured in order to prepare a large crystal. • The polarization micrograph and XRD results revealed that a single crystal was obtained. • An anisotropic surface conduction, in which the long-axis direction exceeds that of the amorphous layer, was observed. • The anisotropic surface conduction was well explained by the molecular stacked structure. - Abstract: This paper reports the anisotropic hole transport at the triphenylamine-derivative single crystal surface prepared by a solution method. Triphenylamine derivatives are commonly used in a hole-transport material for organic photoconductors of laser-beam printers, in which the materials are used as an amorphous form. For developing organic photovoltaics using the photoconductor’s technology, preparation of a single crystal seems to be a specific way by realizing the high mobility of an organic semiconductor. In this study, a single crystal of 4-(2,2-diphenylethenyl)-N,N-bis(4-methylphenyl)-benzenamine (TPA) was prepared and its anisotropic hole-transport property measured. First, the hole-transport property of the TPA was investigated based on its chemical structure and electrochemical redox characteristics. Next, a large-scale single crystal formation at a high rate was developed by employing a solution method based on its solubility and supersolubility curves. The grown TPA was found to be a single crystal based on the polarization micrograph observation and crystallographic analysis. For the TPA single crystal, an anisotropic surface conduction was found, which was well explained by its molecular stack structure. The measured current in the long-axis direction is one order of magnitude greater than that of amorphous TPA.

  9. Fractal and mechanical micro- and nanorange properties of sylvite and halite crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery N. Aptukov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article involves the treatment of micro- and nanorange scanning and indentation data for salt rock crystals obtained with help of the scanning microscope Dimension Icon using the mathematical models. It also describes the basic methods of fractal analysis. It shows the effectiveness of the method of minimal covering which is chosen to research the fractal properties of salt rock crystal surfaces. The article includes the algorithm of this method and the description of its generalization for the two-dimensional case. The values of fractal index and multifractal parameters have been calculated on the basis of the minimal covering method. The article also involves the anisotropy effects for fractal properties, comparison of fractal behavior on different scale levels. It gives the values of hardness for different parts of the crystals and studies the correlation between hardness and fractal index and describes the character of the influence of fractal dimension on roughness.

  10. Machine learning for the structure-energy-property landscapes of molecular crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musil, Félix; De, Sandip; Yang, Jack; Campbell, Joshua E; Day, Graeme M; Ceriotti, Michele

    2018-02-07

    Molecular crystals play an important role in several fields of science and technology. They frequently crystallize in different polymorphs with substantially different physical properties. To help guide the synthesis of candidate materials, atomic-scale modelling can be used to enumerate the stable polymorphs and to predict their properties, as well as to propose heuristic rules to rationalize the correlations between crystal structure and materials properties. Here we show how a recently-developed machine-learning (ML) framework can be used to achieve inexpensive and accurate predictions of the stability and properties of polymorphs, and a data-driven classification that is less biased and more flexible than typical heuristic rules. We discuss, as examples, the lattice energy and property landscapes of pentacene and two azapentacene isomers that are of interest as organic semiconductor materials. We show that we can estimate force field or DFT lattice energies with sub-kJ mol -1 accuracy, using only a few hundred reference configurations, and reduce by a factor of ten the computational effort needed to predict charge mobility in the crystal structures. The automatic structural classification of the polymorphs reveals a more detailed picture of molecular packing than that provided by conventional heuristics, and helps disentangle the role of hydrogen bonded and π-stacking interactions in determining molecular self-assembly. This observation demonstrates that ML is not just a black-box scheme to interpolate between reference calculations, but can also be used as a tool to gain intuitive insights into structure-property relations in molecular crystal engineering.

  11. Microstructure and mechanical properties of resistance spot welded dissimilar thickness DP780/DP600 dual-phase steel joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hongqiang; Wei, Ajuan; Qiu, Xiaoming; Chen, Jianhe

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We examine changes of microstructure of dissimilar thickness DP600/DP780 joints. • The hardness profile of RSW joints can be predicted by the equation. • Failure modes, peak load and energy describes the mechanical properties of joints. • The nugget diameter is the key factor of transition between the failure modes. - Abstract: In this study, resistance spot welding (RSW) experiments were performed in order to evaluate the microstructure and mechanical properties of single-lap joints between DP780 and DP600. The results show that the weld joints consist of three regions including base metal (BM), heat affected zone (HAZ) and fusion zone (FZ). The grain size and martensite volume fractions increase in the order of BM, HAZ and FZ. The hardness in the FZ is significantly higher than hardness of base metals. Tensile properties of the joints were described in terms of the failure modes and static load-carrying capabilities. Two distinct failure modes were observed during the tensile shear test of the joints: interfacial failure (IF) and pullout failure (PF). The FZ size plays a dominate role in failure modes of the joints

  12. One- and two-dimensional fluids properties of smectic, lamellar and columnar liquid crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Jakli, Antal

    2006-01-01

    Smectic and lamellar liquid crystals are three-dimensional layered structures in which each layer behaves as a two-dimensional fluid. Because of their reduced dimensionality they have unique physical properties and challenging theoretical descriptions, and are the subject of much current research. One- and Two-Dimensional Fluids: Properties of Smectic, Lamellar and Columnar Liquid Crystals offers a comprehensive review of these phases and their applications. The book details the basic structures and properties of one- and two-dimensional fluids and the nature of phase transitions. The later chapters consider the optical, magnetic, and electrical properties of special structures, including uniformly and non-uniformly aligned anisotropic films, lyotropic lamellar systems, helical and chiral structures, and organic anisotropic materials. Topics also include typical and defective features, magnetic susceptibility, and electrical conductivity. The book concludes with a review of current and potential applications ...

  13. Determining the diffraction properties of a cylindrically bent KAP(001) crystal from 1 to 5 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haugh, Michael [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States); Lee, Joshua [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States); Jacoby, Kenneth [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States); Christensen, C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Loisel, G. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States), Livermore Operations

    2015-08-31

    Various crystals are used for the dispersive component of X-ray spectrometers. The crystals are usually bent to meet the desired measurement needs, such as focusing. The bending can change the crystal diffraction properties, thus altering the spectrometer throughput and resolving power. This work concerns measuring the diffraction properties of a potassium acid phthalate (001) [KAP(001)] crystal bent into a circular cylinder segment. The measurement methods using a diode source and a synchrotron source are described. The multi-lamellar model for calculating the diffraction properties of a bent crystal is described. The measurement results are compared to the multi-lamellar model and show qualitative agreement. The measurements show how to make the multi-lamellar calculations a useful estimate. A method is given to make useful estimates of the diffraction properties of the KAP(001) crystal bent into a circular cylinder segment.

  14. Crystal growth, defects, and mechanical and spectral properties of a novel mixed laser crystal Nd:GdYNbO{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Shoujun; Dou, Renqin [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Anhui Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Hefei, Anhui Province (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China); Liu, Wenpeng; Zhang, Qingli; Peng, Fang; Luo, Jianqiao; Sun, Guihua; Sun, Dunlu [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Anhui Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Hefei, Anhui Province (China)

    2017-01-15

    A mixed laser crystal of Nd-doped GYNO crystal was grown successfully by Czochralski method. The crystal belongs to monoclinic system with space group I2/a, the structural parameters are obtained by the X-ray Rietveld refinement method. The defects and dislocations along three crystallographic orientations were studied by using the chemical etching method with the phosphoric acid etchant. The mechanical properties (including hardness, yield strength, fracture toughness, and brittle index) of the crystal were estimated by Vickers hardness test. The transmission spectrum was measured at room temperature, and the absorption peaks were assigned. Spectral properties of the as-grown crystal were investigated by Judd-Ofelt theory, and the Judd-Ofelt intense parameters Ω{sub 2,4,6} were obtained to be 9.674 x 10{sup -20}, 2.092 x 10{sup -20}, and 4.061 x 10{sup -20} cm{sup 2}, respectively. (orig.)

  15. Mechanical properties of low temperature proton irradiated single crystal copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schildcrout, M.

    1975-01-01

    Single crystal copper samples, of varying degrees of cold work, were irradiated near either liquid helium or liquid nitrogen temperature by 10.1-MeV protons. The internal friction and dynamic Young's modulus were observed as a function of either temperature or integrated proton flux. The primary effect of irradiation was to produce dislocation pinning. The initial pinning rate was found to be very sensitive to cold work. During irradiation it was found that heavily cold worked samples (25 percent compression) exhibited, almost exclusively, exponential pinning given by Y = e/sup --lambda phi/. This is attributed to the immobilization, rather than shortening, of loop lengths and is characterized by the pinning constant lambda. Exponential pinning was also found, to a smaller degree, in less heavily cold worked samples. Cold work appears to reduce the ''effective volume'' within which the defect clusters produced by irradiation, can immobilize dislocation segments. The bulk effect was observed after dislocation pinning was completed. Expressed in terms of the fractional change in Young's modulus per unit concentration of irradiation induced defects, it was measured at liquid helium temperature to be --18.5 +- 3. An anelastic process occurring near 10 0 K for low kHz frequencies and due to stress-induced ordering of point defects produced by irradiation has also been studied. The peak height per unit fluence was found to decrease with increasing cold work. The peak was not observed in samples compressed 25 percent. For the most carefully handled sample the activation energy was (1.28 +- 0.05) x 10 -2 eV, the attempt frequency was 10/sup 11.6 +- .8/ s -1 , the shape factor was 0.20, and the half width of the peak was 11 percent larger than the theoretical value calculated from the Debye equation for a single relaxation process

  16. Anisotropic electrical properties of superconducting single crystals YBa2 Cu3 O7-x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konczykowski, M.; Rullier-Albenque, F.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of the hydrostatic pressure (up to 18 kbar) on the transport properties of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 single crystals was investigated. A decrease of the resistivity and of its anisotropy was observed under pressure whereas an increase of the critical temperature, of the upper critical field and of its slope vs temperature variation was found

  17. INFLUENCE OF RARE-EARTH ELEMENTS ON THE ELECTRICAL AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF INP BULK CRYSTALS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yatskiv, Roman; Zavadil, Jiří; Pekárek, Ladislav

    -, - (2011), s. 58-65 ISSN 1335-9053. [Development of Materials Science in Research and Education . Závažná Poruba, 31.08.2009-04.09.2009] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : Crystal growth * REEs elements * Electrical properties Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  18. Numerical Simulation of Tension Properties for Al-Cu Alloy Friction Stir-Welded Joints with GTN Damage Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guo-Qin; Sun, Feng-Yang; Cao, Fang-Li; Chen, Shu-Jun; Barkey, Mark E.

    2015-11-01

    The numerical simulation of tensile fracture behavior on Al-Cu alloy friction stir-welded joint was performed with the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman (GTN) damage model. The parameters of the GTN model were studied in each region of the friction stir-welded joint by means of inverse identification. Based on the obtained parameters, the finite element model of the welded joint was built to predict the fracture behavior and tension properties. Good agreement can be found between the numerical and experimental results in the location of the tensile fracture and the mechanical properties.

  19. Effect of heat input on the microstructure and mechanical properties of gas tungsten arc welded AISI 304 stainless steel joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Subodh; Shahi, A.S.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Welding procedure is established for welding 6 mm thick AISI 304 using GTAW process. → Mechanical properties of the weld joints are influenced strongly by the heat input. → Highest tensile strength of 657.32 MPa is achieved by joints using low heat input. → Welding parameters affect heat input and hence microstructure of weld joints. → Extent of grain coarsening in the HAZ increases with increase in the heat input. -- Abstract: Influence of heat input on the microstructure and mechanical properties of gas tungsten arc welded 304 stainless steel (SS) joints was studied. Three heat input combinations designated as low heat (2.563 kJ/mm), medium heat (2.784 kJ/mm) and high heat (3.017 kJ/mm) were selected from the operating window of the gas tungsten arc welding process (GTAW) and weld joints made using these combinations were subjected to microstructural evaluations and tensile testing so as to analyze the effect of thermal arc energy on the microstructure and mechanical properties of these joints. The results of this investigation indicate that the joints made using low heat input exhibited higher ultimate tensile strength (UTS) than those welded with medium and high heat input. Significant grain coarsening was observed in the heat affected zone (HAZ) of all the joints and it was found that the extent of grain coarsening in the heat affected zone increased with increase in the heat input. For the joints investigated in this study it was also found that average dendrite length and inter-dendritic spacing in the weld zone increases with increase in the heat input which is the main reason for the observable changes in the tensile properties of the weld joints welded with different arc energy inputs.

  20. The effect of postprocessing on tensile property and microstructure evolution of friction stir welding aluminum alloy joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Z.L.; Wang, X.S.; Pang, Q.; Huang, F.; Qin, X.P.; Hua, L.

    2015-01-01

    Friction stir welding is an efficient manufacturing method for joining aluminum alloy and can dramatically reduce grain size conferring excellent plastic deformation properties. Consequently, friction stir welding is used to manufacture tailor welded blanks to optimize weight or performance in the final component. In the study, the microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of friction stir welding joint during plastic forming and subsequent heat treatment were investigated. The microstructural characteristics of the friction stir welding joints were studied by Electron Backscattered Diffraction and Transmission Electron Microscopy. The mechanical properties were evaluated by tensile and microhardness tests. It is found that the tensile and yield strengths of friction stir welding joints are significantly improved after severe plastic deformation due to the grain refinement. Following heat treatment, the strength of the friction stir welding joints significantly decrease due to the obvious abnormal grain growth. Careful attention must be given to the processing route of any friction stir welding joint intended for plastic forming, especially the annealing between forming passes. Severe plastic deforming of the friction stir welding joint leads to a high level of stored energy/dislocation density, which causes the abnormal grain growth during subsequent heat treatment, and consequently reduce the mechanical properties of the friction stir welding joint. - Highlights: • Great changes are observed in the microstructure of FSW joint after postprocessing. • Postprocessing shows great effect on the microstructure stability of FSW joint. • The weld shows more significant decrease in strength than the BM due to the AGG. • Attention must be given to the processing route of FSW joint for plastic forming

  1. Microstructure and mechanical properties of weld-bonded and resistance spot welded magnesium-to-steel dissimilar joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, W.; Chen, D.L.; Liu, L.; Mori, H.; Zhou, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Adhesive reduces shrinkage porosity and stress concentration around the weld nugget. ► Adhesive promotes the formation of intermetallic compounds during weld bonding. ► In Mg/steel joints fusion zone appears only at the Mg side with dendritic structures. ► Weld-bonded Mg/steel joints are considerably stronger than RSW Mg/steel joints. ► Fatigue strength is three-fold higher for weld-bonded joints than for RSW joints. - Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate microstructures, tensile and fatigue properties of weld-bonded (WB) magnesium-to-magnesium (Mg/Mg) similar joints and magnesium-to-steel (Mg/steel) dissimilar joints, in comparison with resistance spot welded (RSW) Mg/steel dissimilar joints. In the WB Mg/Mg joints, equiaxed dendritic and divorced eutectic structures formed in the fusion zone (FZ). In the dissimilar joints of RSW and WB Mg/steel, FZ appeared only at Mg side with equiaxed and columnar dendrites. At steel side no microstructure changed in the WB Mg/steel joints, while the microstructure in the RSW Mg/steel joints consisted of lath martensite, bainite, pearlite and retained austenite leading to an increased microhardness. The relatively low cooling rate suppressed the formation of shrinkage porosity but promoted the formation of MgZn 2 and Mg 7 Zn 3 in the WB Mg/steel joints. The added adhesive layer diminished stress concentration around the weld nugget. Both WB Mg/Mg and Mg/steel joints were significantly stronger than RSW Mg/steel joints in terms of the maximum tensile shear load and energy absorption, which also increased with increasing strain rate. Fatigue strength was three-fold higher for WB Mg/Mg and Mg/steel joints than for RSW Mg/steel joints. Fatigue failure in the RSW Mg/steel joints occurred from the heat-affected zone near the notch root at lower load levels, and in the mode of interfacial fracture at higher load levels, while it occurred in the Mg base metal at a maximum cyclic load up to ∼10 kN in

  2. Origin of electronic properties of PbGa2Se4 crystal: Experimental and theoretical investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babuka, T.; Kityk, I.V.; Parasyuk, O.V.; Myronchuk, G.; Khyzhun, O.Y.; Fedorchuk, A.O.; Makowska-Janusik, M.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: In the presented work the structural and electronic properties of the PbGa 2 Se 4 single crystal were investigated experimentally as well as theoretically. The XPS spectra, Urbach’s rule and steepness parameters of PbGa 2 Se 4 single crystal have been investigated for the first time. The quantum chemical calculations were also never performed before for the studied structure. The theoretically obtained data help to explain the properties of material. - Highlights: • Urbach’s rule and steepness parameters for PbGa 2 Se 4 crystals explored for the first time. • Non-reactivity of the PbGa 2 Se 4 surface was established by XPS. • DFT approach shows its efficiency to describe electronic properties of PbGa 2 Se 4 . • Electronic parameters are affected by existence of electron–phonon interaction. - Abstract: The PbGa 2 Se 4 crystal is a promising material for optoelectronic applications. It is caused by coexistence of the large polarized Pb cations and a huge contribution of anharmonic phonon subsystem caused by chalcogenide anions. In the present work the electronic and optical properties of the mentioned material were studied theoretically as well as experimentally by optical and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy methods. The DFT approach has been used for the quantum chemical electronic properties calculations. Urbach rule and steepness parameters of the PbGa 2 Se 4 crystal have been evaluated for the first time. These parameters and Urbach energies increase with increasing temperature of the samples that is typical for the semiconducting materials. The XPS measurements of the investigated crystal reveal that all the spectral features are originated from core-level states of the constituent elements. Simultaneously these results also confirm non-reactivity of the PbGa 2 Se 4 surface. However, the titled single crystal possesses a number of intrinsic structural defects and vacancies thereby affecting its electronic properties. The

  3. The Text of the Agreement for conducting under the Auspices of the Agency. A Regional Joint Training and Research Programme using a Neutron Crystal Spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1964-01-01

    On 11 June 1964 the Board of Governors approved an Agreement for conducting, under the auspices of the Agency, a regional joint training and research programme using a neutron crystal spectrometer. The text of that Agreement is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The entry into force of the Agreement in accordance with Section 17 thereof, as well as later acceptances by additional Governments, will be notified to Members in addenda to this document

  4. The Text of the Agreement for conducting under the Auspices of the Agency. A Regional Joint Training and Research Programme using a Neutron Crystal Spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1964-07-22

    On 11 June 1964 the Board of Governors approved an Agreement for conducting, under the auspices of the Agency, a regional joint training and research programme using a neutron crystal spectrometer. The text of that Agreement is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The entry into force of the Agreement in accordance with Section 17 thereof, as well as later acceptances by additional Governments, will be notified to Members in addenda to this document.

  5. Alkyltributylphosphonium chloride ionic liquids: synthesis, physicochemical properties and crystal structure

    OpenAIRE

    Adamova, Gabriela; Gardas, Ramesh L.; Nieuwenhuyzen, Mark; Vaca Puga, Alberto; Rebelo, Luis Paulo N.; Robertson, Allan J.; Seddon, Kenneth R.

    2012-01-01

    A series of alkyltributylphosphonium chloride ionic liquids, prepared from tributylphosphine and the respective 1-chloroalkane, CnH2n+1Cl (where n = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12 or 14), is reported. This work is a continuation of an extended series of tetraalkylphosphonium ionic liquids, where the focus is on the variability of n and its impact on the physical properties, such as melting points/glass transitions, thermal stability, density and viscosity. Experimental density and viscosit...

  6. Property evaluation of Ni base alloy for superconducting generators and its application to seal welded joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobuhisa Suzuki; Toshiaki Murakami; Kenichi Suzuki; Satoru Asai; Minorou Tanaka; Yoshio Kobayashi

    1992-01-01

    Property requirements demanded on structural materials for rotors of superconducting generators are quite strict while there are many themes in the technical development of such materials. Components used in the cryogenic temperature are of course required to be nonmagnetic material. Additional requirements demanded on cryogenic structural materials for high response excitation superconducting generators can be summarized as follows: (1) 0.2% yield strength > 800 MPa (RT) (2) Charpy absorbed energy > 25 J (4K) (3) Electrical resistivity > 90 μΩ·cm (4K). As a candidate material which satisfy the above property requirements, we can cite precipitation-hardened Ni base alloys, for example, Inconel 718. However, production of Inconel718 is limited to about 2 tons due to problems related to segregation etc., and therefore fabrication of large-sized ingots for manufacturing generator components may be difficult. Also, there may be problems regarding weldability, especially from the viewpoint of microcracking in the heat affected zone, among strength-supporting parts or the parts requiring functional capability such as seal welded joints. Under such background circumstances, we conducted studies on chemical composition by considering producibility of large-sized ingots and weldability of the alloy as well as property evaluations of materials incorporating such requirements. Further, included in this paper are the application of the alloy to seal welded joints and its unified fatigue strength evaluation method

  7. Different properties exhibited on the two typical crystal faces of hydroxyapatite in a simulated body environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagio, T; Iwai, K; Tanase, T; Akiyama, J; Asai, S

    2009-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite is a main mineral constituent of hard tissues and is extensively used as a biomaterial in the medical field. Hydroxyapatite exhibits anisotropic chemical properties on its two typical crystal faces, the a-face and c-face, due to its hexagonal crystal structure. In polycrystalline bodies, such anisotropy can be enhanced by controlling the crystal orientation. Hydroxyapatite nanocrystals that constitute long bones also form a crystal oriented structure. Therefore, clarification of the difference between the properties of a-face and c-face in hydroxyapatite using in vitro experiments is useful to understand the structure and function of actual hard tissues. Hydroxyapatite ceramics with controlled crystal orientation were prepared by a slip casting method under application of a magnetic field. The fabricated hydroxyapatite ceramics had surfaces consisting mainly of a-face, or otherwise c-face hydroxyapatite. These hydroxyapatite ceramics were immersed into simulated body fluids to investigate the difference in bioactivity. The precipitation behavior observed on the surface of each hydroxyapatite ceramic was different. The thickness of the precipitate was increased and formed earlier on the HAp c-face compared to that on the a-face.

  8. First principles study of structural, electronic and optical properties of KCl crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Z.J.; Xiao, H.Y.; Zu, X.T.

    2006-01-01

    The structural, electronic and optical properties of KCl crystal in B1, B2, B3 and T1 structures have been systematically studied using first-principle pseudopotential calculations. In addition, pressure-induced phase transition has also been investigated. It was found that when the pressure is below 2.8 GPa, the B1 structure is the most stable. Above 2.8 GPa KCl crystal will undergo a structural phase transition from the relatively open NaCl structure into the more dense CsCl atomic arrangement. Our results also suggested that at about 1.2 GPa structural phase transition from B3 to T1 will occur. When the pressure arrives at 39.9 GPa, the phase transition will occur from B2 to T1. In addition, we found KCl Crystal has indirect band gap in B2 structure and direct band gap in B1, B3 and T1 structures. The band gap value is the smallest in the T1 structure and is the largest in the B1 and B3 structures. Our calculations are found to be in good agreement with available experimental and theoretical results. The dielectric function and energy loss function of KCl crystal in four structures (B1, B2, B3 and T1) have been calculated as well as the anisotropy of the optical properties of KCl crystal in T1 structure

  9. Mechanical properties and crystallization behavior of hydroxyapatite/poly(butylenes succinate) composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wenmin; Zhang, Yihe; Zhang, Wei

    2013-09-01

    Biodegradable synthetic polymers have attracted much attention nowadays, and more and more researches have been done on biodegradable polymers due to their excellent mechanical properties, biocompatibility, and biodegradability. In this work, hydroxyapatite (HA) particles were melt-mixing with poly (butylenes succinate) (PBS) to prepare the material, which could be used in the biomedical industry. To develop high-performance PBS for cryogenic engineering applications, it is necessary to investigate the cryogenic mechanical properties and crystallization behavior of HA/PBS composites. Cryogenic mechanical behaviors of the composites were studied in terms of tensile and impact strength at the glass transition temperature (-30°C) and compared to their corresponding behaviors at room temperature. With the increase of HA content, the crystallization of HA/PBS composites decreased and crystallization onset temperature shifted to a lower temperature. The diameter of spherulites increased at first and decreased with a further HA content. At the same time, the crystallization rate became slow when the HA content was no more than 15wt% and increased when HA content reached 20wt%. In all, the results we obtained demonstrate that HA/PBS composites reveal a better tensile strength at -30°C in contrast to the strength at room temperature. HA particles with different amount affect the crystallization of PBS in different ways. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Defect formation and magnetic properties of Co-doped GaN crystal and nanowire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Li-Bin; Liu, Jing-Jing; Fei, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical calculation based on density functional theory (DFT) and generalized gradient approximation (GGA) has been carried out in studying defect formation and magnetic properties of Co doped GaN crystal and nanowire (NW). Co does not exhibit site preference in GaN crystal. However, Co occupies preferably surface sites in GaN NW. Transition level of the defect is also investigated in GaN crystal. We also find that Co Ga (S) in NW does not produce spin polarization and Co Ga (B) produces spontaneous spin polarization. Ferromagnetic (FM) and antiferromagnetic (AFM) couplings are analyzed by six different configurations. The results show that AFM coupling is more stable than FM coupling for Co doped GaN crystal. It is also found from Co doped GaN NW calculation that the system remains FM stability for majority of the configurations. Magnetic properties in Co doped GaN crystal can be mediated by N and Ga vacancies. The FM and AFM stability can be explained by Co 3d energy level coupling

  11. Optical Properties and Wave Propagation in Semiconductor-Based Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mario Agio

    2002-01-01

    This work is a theoretical investigation on the physical properties of semiconductor-based two-dimensional photonic crystals, in particular for what concerns systems embedded in planar dielectric waveguides (GaAs/AlGaAs, GaInAsP/InP heterostructures, and self-standing membranes) or based on macro-porous silicon. The photonic-band structure of photonic crystals and photonic-crystal slabs is numerically computed and the associated light-line problem is discussed, which points to the issue of intrinsic out-of-lane diffraction losses for the photonic bands lying above the light line. The photonic states are then classified by the group theory formalism: each mode is related to an irreducible representation of the corresponding small point group. The optical properties are investigated by means of the scattering matrix method, which numerically implements a variable-angle-reflectance experiment; comparison with experiments is also provided. The analysis of surface reflectance proves the existence of selection rules for coupling an external wave to a certain photonic mode. Such rules can be directly derived from symmetry considerations. Lastly, the control of wave propagation in weak-index contrast photonic-crystal slabs is tackled in view of designing building blocks for photonic integrated circuits. The proposed designs are found to comply with the major requirements of low-loss propagation, high and single-mode transmission. These notions are then collected to model a photonic-crystal combiner for an integrated multi-wavelength-source laser

  12. Different properties exhibited on the two typical crystal faces of hydroxyapatite in a simulated body environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagio, T; Iwai, K [Department of Materials, Physics and Energy Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, 464-8603 (Japan); Tanase, T [Toho Gas Corporation, 19-18 Sakurada-cho, Atsuta-ku, Nagoya, 456-8511 (Japan); Akiyama, J [Institute for Molecular Science, National Institute of Natural Sciences, 38 Nishigonaka, Myodaiji, Okazaki, 444-8585 (Japan); Asai, S [Innovation Plaza Tokai Japan Science and Technology Agency, 23-1 Ahara-cho, Minami-ku, Nagoya, 457-0063 (Japan)], E-mail: hagio.takeshi@h.mbox.nagoya-u.ac.jp

    2009-03-01

    Hydroxyapatite is a main mineral constituent of hard tissues and is extensively used as a biomaterial in the medical field. Hydroxyapatite exhibits anisotropic chemical properties on its two typical crystal faces, the a-face and c-face, due to its hexagonal crystal structure. In polycrystalline bodies, such anisotropy can be enhanced by controlling the crystal orientation. Hydroxyapatite nanocrystals that constitute long bones also form a crystal oriented structure. Therefore, clarification of the difference between the properties of a-face and c-face in hydroxyapatite using in vitro experiments is useful to understand the structure and function of actual hard tissues. Hydroxyapatite ceramics with controlled crystal orientation were prepared by a slip casting method under application of a magnetic field. The fabricated hydroxyapatite ceramics had surfaces consisting mainly of a-face, or otherwise c-face hydroxyapatite. These hydroxyapatite ceramics were immersed into simulated body fluids to investigate the difference in bioactivity. The precipitation behavior observed on the surface of each hydroxyapatite ceramic was different. The thickness of the precipitate was increased and formed earlier on the HAp c-face compared to that on the a-face.

  13. Optical Properties and Wave Propagation in Semiconductor-Based Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agio, Mario [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2002-12-31

    This work is a theoretical investigation on the physical properties of semiconductor-based two-dimensional photonic crystals, in particular for what concerns systems embedded in planar dielectric waveguides (GaAs/AlGaAs, GaInAsP/InP heterostructures, and self-standing membranes) or based on macro-porous silicon. The photonic-band structure of photonic crystals and photonic-crystal slabs is numerically computed and the associated light-line problem is discussed, which points to the issue of intrinsic out-of-lane diffraction losses for the photonic bands lying above the light line. The photonic states are then classified by the group theory formalism: each mode is related to an irreducible representation of the corresponding small point group. The optical properties are investigated by means of the scattering matrix method, which numerically implements a variable-angle-reflectance experiment; comparison with experiments is also provided. The analysis of surface reflectance proves the existence of selection rules for coupling an external wave to a certain photonic mode. Such rules can be directly derived from symmetry considerations. Lastly, the control of wave propagation in weak-index contrast photonic-crystal slabs is tackled in view of designing building blocks for photonic integrated circuits. The proposed designs are found to comply with the major requirements of low-loss propagation, high and single-mode transmission. These notions are then collected to model a photonic-crystal combiner for an integrated multi-wavelength-source laser.

  14. Exploration of crystal simulation potential by fluconazole isomorphism and its application in improvement of pharmaceutical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Amitha; Kumar, Dinesh; Thipparaboina, Rajesh; Shastri, Nalini R.

    2014-11-01

    Control of crystal morphology during crystallization is a paramount challenge in pharmaceutical processing. Hence, there is need to introduce computational methods for morphology prediction to manage production cost of drugs and improve related pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical properties. Layer docking approach with molecular dynamics opens a new avenue for crystal habit prediction in presence of solvent. In the present study, attempts were made to correlate predicted and experimental crystal habits of fluconazole considering solvent interactions using layer docking approach. Simulated results from layer docking approach with methanol as solvent gave two dominant facets (0 1 1) and (1 0 1) with a surface area 22.43% and 19.82% respectively, which were in agreement with the experimental results. Experimentally grown modified crystal habit of fluconazole in methanol showed enhanced dissolution rate (phabit change and absence of any polymorphs, hydrates or solvates. Flow and compressibility of fluconazole recrystallized in methanol was significantly improved when compared to plain drug. This study demonstrates a methodical approach using computational tools for prediction and modification of crystal habit, to enhance dissolution of poorly soluble drugs, for future pharmaceutical applications.

  15. Optical and scintillating properties of Ce:Li(Y,Lu)F4 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokota, Yuui; Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Chani, Valery; Kamada, Kei; Yoshikawa, Akira

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated the optical and scintillating properties of Lu co-doped Ce:LiYF 4 single crystals with various Lu content. In the transmittance and absorption spectra, the absorption peaks at 243 nm get systematically red shifted in contrast to the peaks at 197 and 200 nm which get blue shifted with the increase in Lu content. At the same time, emission peaks at 306 nm and 200 nm under 295 nm excitation also get red shifted. The decay time of Ce:Li(Y,Lu)F 4 crystals under 295 nm excitation is found to be faster than that of Ce:LiYF 4 and Ce:LiLuF 4 crystals. The alpha-peak positions in the pulse-height spectra and decay times of crystals under alpha-ray irradiation are found to vary with the Lu content. - Highlights: • Optical and scintillation properties of Ce:Li(Y 1-x Lu x )F 4 crystals were inspected. • Increase of Lu content resulted change of the position of four absorption peaks. • Admixing of Y and Lu decreased the light yield and increased the decay time. • The Ce:LiLuF 4 crystal indicated the largest light yield in the pulse-height spectra. • Li[(Y 0.8 Lu 0.2 ) 0.98 Ce 0.02 ]F 4 indicated larger light yield than Ce:LiYF 4 crystal

  16. Structural and mechanical properties of welded joints of reduced activation martensitic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filacchioni, G.; Montanari, R.; Tata, M.E.; Pilloni, L.

    2002-01-01

    Gas tungsten arc welding and electron beam welding methods were used to realise welding pools on plates of reduced activation martensitic steels. Structural and mechanical features of these simulated joints have been investigated in as-welded and post-welding heat-treated conditions. The research allowed to assess how each welding technique affects the original mechanical properties of materials and to find suitable post-welding heat treatments. This paper reports results from experimental activities on BATMAN II and F82H mod. steels carried out in the frame of the European Blanket Project - Structural Materials Program

  17. Electrical Properties of PPy-Coated Conductive Fabrics for Human Joint Motion Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyong Hu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Body motion signals indicate several pathological features of the human body, and a wearable human motion monitoring system can respond to human joint motion signal in real time, thereby enabling the prevention and treatment of some diseases. Because conductive fabrics can be well integrated with the garment, they are ideal as a sensing element of wearable human motion monitoring systems. This study prepared polypyrrole conductive fabric by in situ polymerization, and the anisotropic property of the conductive fabric resistance, resistance–strain relationship, and the relationship between resistance and the human knee and elbow movements are discussed preliminarily.

  18. MICROSTRUCTURE AND FATIGUE PROPERTIES OF DISSIMILAR SPOT WELDED JOINTS OF AISI 304 AND AISI 1008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nachimani Charde

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Carbon steel and stainless steel composites are being more frequently used for applications requiring a corrosion resistant and attractive exterior surface and a high strength structural substrate. Spot welding is a potentially useful and efficient jointing process for the production of components consisting of these two materials. The spot welding characteristics of weld joints between these two materials are discussed in this paper. The experiment was conducted on dissimilar weld joints using carbon steel and 304L (2B austenitic stainless steel by varying the welding currents and electrode pressing forces. Throughout the welding process; the electrical signals from the strain sensor, current transducer and terminal voltage clippers are measured in order to understand each and every millisecond of the welding process. In doing so, the dynamic resistances, heat distributions and forging forces are computed for various currents and force levels within the good welds’ regions. The other process controlling parameters, particularly the electrode tip and weld time, remained constant throughout the experiment. The weld growth was noted for the welding current increment, but in the electrode force increment it causes an adverse reaction to weld growth. Moreover, the effect of heat imbalance was clearly noted during the welding process due to the different electrical and chemical properties. The welded specimens finally underwent tensile, hardness and metallurgical testing to characterise the weld growth.

  19. Properties of welded joints of 2,25Cr-1Mo steel with various carbon content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vornovitskij, I.N.; Brodetskaya, E.Z.; Pozdnyakova, A.S.

    1980-01-01

    Properties of welded joints of 2,25 Cr - 1 Mo steel pipelines with different carbon content are considered. It is shown that application of electrodes developed in some countries for welding permits in many cases to exclude heat treatment of welded joints owing to high ductility of weld deposited metal. To improve the ductility, it is necessary to limit both carbon content down to 0,03-0,06% and detrimental elements (sulfur, phosphorus). Heat affected zone hardness may be increased at the expense of carbon. Weld deposited metal possesses the highest long-term strength at the given test temperature; in this case long-term strength of welded joints and base metal is practically the same. The long-term strength of high-carbon steel is higher at the test temperature of 565 deg C as compared to mean-carbon and low-carbon steels, whose long-term strength is practically equal at this temperature. The long-term strength of high-carbon and mean-carbon steels is practically the same and higher as compared with low-carbon one at the test temperature of 510 deg C

  20. Effects of composite adherend properties on stresses in double lap bonded joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokhtari, M.; Madani, K.; Belhouari, M.; Touzain, S.; Feaugas, X.; Ratwani, M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We analysis the maximal stresses distribution in the adhesive and the adherend for double lap joint. ► We modified the mechanical properties of adherend layer to decreases the stresses in adhesive layer. ► Then, we analysis the influence of modifying the types of fibers on maximal stresses distributions. ► We analysis the thickness modifications of some layers on maximal stresses distribution. ► In last, we analysis the combination of different modifications on maximal stresses distribution. -- Abstract: The effects of composite layer stiffness, thickness and ply orientations on stresses in the adhesive layer of a double lap bonded joint are investigated using three-dimensional finite element analysis code ABAQUS. A special 3-layer modelling technique is used in the finite element analysis. The non-linear behaviour of adhesive is also considered. Six composite laminates with different ply orientations are used in the lap-joint analysis. The composite materials considered in the analysis are – carbon epoxy, boron epoxy, T300/934 graphite-epoxy, and aramid epoxy. The analysis results indicate that the maximum stress in the adhesive can be significantly reduced by changing the stiffness and fibre orientations in the composite layer. Also, the use of hybrid composite (changing the nature of the fibres in two layers which are near the adhesive layer) results in reducing adhesive shear stresses.

  1. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of TIG Weld Joint of ZM5 Magnesium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QIN Ren-yao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The ZM5 magnesium alloy plates were welded by TIG welding method. The microstructural characteristics and mechanical properties of ZM5 magnesium alloy joint were studied by optical microscopy, microhardness and tensile testers. The results show that the TIG weld joint of ZM5 magnesium alloy is composed of heat affected zone, partially melted zone and weld metal. The heat affected zone is consisted of primary α-Mg phase and eutectic phase that is composed of eutectic α-Mg and eutectic β-Mg17Al12 phase and mainly precipitated at grain boundaries. In the partially melted zone, the eutectic phase is not only increasingly precipitated at grain boundaries, but also dispersed in grains, and the growth of the β-Mg17Al12 phase is obviously observed. The microstructure in the weld is the typical dendritic morphology. The dendrites are considered as primary α-Mg phase, and the interdendritic regions are α+β eutectic phase. The difference in the microstructure of the heat affected zone, partially melted zone and weld results in their various microhardness values, and leads to the smaller tensile strength and ductility in the ZM5 alloy weld joint than parent metal.

  2. Crystal structures and second-order NLO properties of borogermanates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jian-Han; Kong, Fang; Xu, Xiang; Mao, Jiang-Gao

    2012-01-01

    Borogermanates are a class of very important compounds in materials chemistry. In this paper, the syntheses, structures, and properties of metal borogermanates are reviewed. Organically templated borogermanates with zeolite-like open-frameworks show potential applications as microporous materials. Many compounds in alkali or alkaline-earth borogermanate systems are structurally acentric or polar, some of which exhibit excellent Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) coefficients, wide transparency regions, and high optical-damage thresholds as well as excellent thermal stability. Most of the lanthanide borogermanates are structurally centrosymmetric and not SHG active; however, they are able to emit strong luminescence in visible or near-IR region. In the B-rich compounds, BO 3 and BO 4 groups can be polymerized into a variety of discrete polynuclear anionic cluster units or extended architectures via B–O–B bridges; whereas in the Ge-rich compounds, GeO 4 and GeO 6 polyhedra can also be polymerized. The combinations of borate and germinate afforded rich structural and topological types. - Graphical abstract: Borogermanates are a class of very important compounds in materials chemistry. Both BO x (x=3, 4) and GeO y (y=4, 6) polyhedra can be polymerized into a variety of discrete polynuclear anionic cluster units or extended architectures. The combinations of borate and germanate groups in the same oxide framework not only give rise to a rich structural chemistry, but also afford many polar compounds with good SHG properties. Highlights: ► Borogermanates are a class of new materials. ► They feature to be the combination of B and Ge atoms into the same oxide framework. ► They can form a large number of novel 2D and 3D framework structures. ► Some of them are acentric or polar with moderate strong SHG responses.

  3. Study of the growth and pyroelectric properties of TGS crystals doped with aniline-family dipolar molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kecong; Song, Jiancheng; Wang, Min; Fang, Changshui; Lu, Mengkai

    1987-04-01

    TGS crystals doped with aniline-family dipolar molecules (aniline, 2-aminobenzoic acid, 3-aminobenzoic acid, 3-aminobenzene-sulphonic acid, 4-aminobenzenesulphonic acid and 4-nitroraniline) have been grown by the slow-cooling solution method. The influence of these dopants on the growth habits, crystal morphology pyroelectric properties, and structure parameters of TGS crystals has been systematically investigated. The effects of the domain structure of the seed crystal on the pyroelectric properties of the doped crystals have been studied. It is found that the spontaneous polarization (P), pyroelectric coefficient (lambda), and internal bias field of the doped crystals are slightly higher than those of the pure TGS, and the larger the dipole moment of the dopant molecule, the higher the P and lambda of the doped TGS crystal.

  4. Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of TIG and FSW Joints of a New Al-Mg-Mn-Sc-Zr Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guofu; Qian, Jian; Xiao, Dan; Deng, Ying; Lu, Liying; Yin, Zhimin

    2016-04-01

    A new Al-5.8%Mg-0.4%Mn-0.25%Sc-0.10%Zr (wt.%) alloy was successfully welded by tungsten inert gas (TIG) and friction stir welding (FSW) techniques, respectively. The mechanical properties and microstructure of the welded joints were investigated by microhardness measurements, tensile tests, and microscopy methods. The results show that the ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, and elongation to failure are 358, 234 MPa, and 27.6% for TIG welded joint, and 376, 245 MPa and 31.9% for FSW joint, respectively, showing high strength and superior ductility. The TIG welded joint fails in the heat-affected zone and the fracture of FSW joint is located in stirred zone. Al-Mg-Mn-Sc-Zr alloy is characterized by lots of dislocation tangles and secondary coherent Al3(Sc,Zr) particles. The superior mechanical properties of the TIG and FSW joints are mainly derived from the Orowan strengthening and grain boundary strengthening caused by secondary coherent Al3(Sc,Zr) nano-particles (20-40 nm). For new Al-Mg-Mn-Sc-Zr alloy, the positive effect from secondary Al3(Sc, Zr) particles in the base metal can be better preserved in FSW joint than in TIG welded joint.

  5. Correlation of the crystal orientation and electrical properties of silicon thin films on glass crystallized by line focus diode laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, J., E-mail: j.yun@unsw.edu.au [School of Photovoltaic and Renewable Energy Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Huang, J.; Teal, A. [School of Photovoltaic and Renewable Energy Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Kim, K. [School of Photovoltaic and Renewable Energy Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Suntech R& D Australia, Botany, NSW 2019 (Australia); Varlamov, S.; Green, M.A. [School of Photovoltaic and Renewable Energy Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2016-06-30

    In this work, crystallographic orientation of polycrystalline silicon films on glass formed by continuous wave diode laser crystallization was studied. Most of the grain boundaries were coincidence lattice Σ3 twin boundaries and other types of boundaries such as, Σ6, Σ9, and Σ21 were also frequently observed. The highest photoluminescence signal and mobility were observed for a grain with (100) orientation in the normal direction. X-ray diffraction results showed the highest occupancies between 41 and 70% along the (110) orientation. However, the highest occupancies changed to (100) orientation when a 100 nm thick SiO{sub x} capping layer was applied. Suns-Voc measurement and photoluminescence showed that higher solar cell performance is obtained from the cell crystallized with the capping layer, which is suspected from increased occupancies of (100) orientation. - Highlights: • Linear grains parallel to the scan direction formed with high density. • Σ3 coincidence lattice (CSL) boundaries found inside a grain • Grain boundaries exhibit various CSL boundaries such as Σ9, Σ18, and Σ27. • Grain with < 100 > orientation in normal direction showed highest electrical properties. • Improved voltage observed when percentage of < 100 > normal orientation is increased.

  6. Dielectric properties of lanthanum gallate (LaGaO3) crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, D. C.; Scheel, H. J.; Reaney, I.; Daglish, M.; Setter, N.

    1994-04-01

    Dielectric properties of single crystals of LaGaO3 have been measured at low frequencies as well as in the microwave region over a wide temperature range. Measurements performed on two crystal orientations, viz. (001) and (110), show dielectric anomalies at a transition near 145 °C. Dielectric anisotropy below, but not above, 145 °C confirm the previously reported orthorhombic symmetry at room temperature and rhombohedral symmetry above 145 °C. Domain wall motion which arises as a result of a phase transition has been observed around 145 °C.

  7. Mechanical properties of pure and doped InP single crystals under concentrated loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyarskaya, Yu.S.; Grabko, D.Z.; Medinskaya, M.I.; Palistrant, N.A.

    1997-01-01

    The mechanical properties of pure and doped (Fe, Zn, Sn) InP single crystals were investigated in the temperature interval from 293 to 600 K. It was shown that impurity hardening (the microhardness increase) was more pronounced at elevated temperatures than at 293 K. This is conditioned by braking of the moving dislocations with impurities which is more observed in the the high temperature region. The obvious anisotropy of the scratch hardness was revealed at room temperature for the (001) face of crystals under investigation. This anisotropy decreased sharply in increasing the temperature from 293 to 600 K

  8. Gamma radiation effects on photorefractive and photoelectric properties of lithium niobate crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vartanyan, Eh.S.; Ovsepyan, R.K.; Pogosyan, A.R.; Timofeev, A.L.

    1984-08-01

    Investigations into the gamma radiation effect on the photorefractive aned photoelectric properties of lithium niobate crystals have been carried out for the first time. Gamma irradiation has been found to lead to an increase in the photorefractive sensitivity. The effect of optical decoloration has been discovered for the first time along with photorelaxation currents resulting from radiation center decay under the action of light. It has been shown that an increase of photorefractive sensitivity in gamma-irradiated lithium niobate crystals is caused by a new photorefraction mechanism - photorelaxation currents.

  9. Fast neutron irradiation and thermal properties of doped nonstoichiometric lithium potassium sulphate crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassem, M.E.; Gomaa, N.G.; El-Khatib, A.M.

    1990-01-01

    The influence of point defects introduced by fast neutron irradiations with neutron fluences up to 1.08 x 10 10 n/cm 2 on the thermal properties of pure and doped Li 1.4 K 0.6 SO 4 single crystals are studied in the vicinity of high temperature phase transition at 705 K. The temperature dependence of specific heat is found to be shifted towards lower temperature with the increase of neutron fluence, and can be affected by the presence of Cu 2+ dopant. The change in the value of the specific heat can be attributed to the presence of internal strain generated inside the crystal. (author)

  10. Spectral properties of a two dimensional photonic crystal with quasi-integrable geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz-Bueno, J J; Méndez-Bermúdez, J A; Arriaga, J

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we study the statistical properties of the allowed frequencies for electromagnetic waves propagating in two-dimensional photonic crystals with quasi-integrable geometry. We compute the level spacing, group velocity, and curvature distributions (P(s), P(v), and P(c), respectively) and compare them with the corresponding random matrix theory predictions. Due to the quasi-integrability of the crystal we observe signatures of intermediate statistics in P(s) and P(c) for high refractive index contrasts

  11. Properties of melt-grown single crystals of 'YB/sub 68/'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slack, G A; Oliver, D W; Brower, G D; Young, J D [General Electric Co., Schenectady, N.Y. (USA). Research and Development Center

    1977-01-01

    Single crystals of yttrium boride YB/sub n/ with n = 61 +- 3 were grown from the melt. Precision density and lattice parameter measurements indicate a congruent melting point at n = 61.7 and a stoichiometric composition at n = 68. Measurements of elastic constants, acoustic attenuation, electrical resistivity and optical absorption are presented. High resolution transmission electron microscopy reveals a complex crystal structure similar to that found by using X-rays. A comparison of the properties of YB/sub n/ with those of ..beta..-boron show that there are many similarities.

  12. Impact properties of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel, F82H jointed by hot isostatic pressing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogiwara, H.; Tanigawa, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naga-gun, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Hirose, T. [Blanket Engineering Group, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka, Ibaraki (Japan); Enoeda, M. [Naka Fusion Research Establishment, J.A.E.R.I., Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Kohyama, A. [Kyoto Univ., lnstitute of Advanced Energy (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic steels are the leading candidate structural material for the blanket system of fusion reactors. The important issue at the current stage is the finalization of a detailed manufacturing specification for ITER test blanket module. Hot isostatic pressing (HIP) process is one of the most important methods to fabricate the first wall with cooling channels. The objective of this paper is to optimize HIP condition to obtain the excellent joints mechanical properties. The materials used were F82H steels. The joint was produced by solid state HIP method. Before HIP treatments, specimens were heated in vacuum condition to out-gas. This treatment was conducted to decrease oxidation on the surfaces. HIP treatments were carried out for 2 h at 1100 deg. C - 140 MPa. The specimens were normalized at 960 deg. C for 0.5 h and tempered at 750 deg. C for 1.5 h. The bonding interface was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Charpy impact tests and tensile tests were conducted to evaluate the mechanical properties of the HIP joint. Impact tests revealed that there were no significant differences in the ductile-brittle transition temperatures of HIP jointed specimens and base metal specimens, but the upper-shelf energy (USE) of the HIP joint specimens at room temperature was only about 10% of that of the base metal specimens. SEM observations of the fracture surface of HIP joint specimens revealed that a large number of oxides were formed on the HIP joint. This result indicates that oxides formed on the HIP joint are the dominant factor of the impact properties. Based on these results, the pre-HIP treatment conditions had been optimized to reduce the number of oxides, and USE of HIP joint specimens increased to about 50% of that of the base metal. The detailed analyses on the HIP joint microstructure will be reported. (authors)

  13. Interfacial properties of HIP joint between beryllium and reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, T.; Ogiwara, H.; Enoeda, M.; Akiba, M.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: ITER test blanket module is the most important components to validate energy production and fuel breeding process for future demonstration reactor. Reduced activation ferritic / martensitic steel is recognized as a promising structural material for breeding blanket systems. And Beryllium must be used as plasma facing materials for ITER in vessel components. In this work, interfacial properties of beryllium/reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel (RAF/Ms) joint were investigated for a first wall of ITER test blanket module (TBM). The starting materials were ITER grade Beryllium, S65C and a Japanese RAF/M, F82H. The joint was produced by solid state hot isostatic pressing (HIP) method. Chromium layer with the thickness of 1 μm and 10 μm were formed by plasma vapor deposition on the beryllium surface as a diffusion barrier. The HIP was carried out at 1023 K and 1233 K which are determined by standard normalizing and tempering temperature of F82H. The joint made at 1233 K was followed by tempering at 1033 K. The bonding interface was characterized by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). The bonding strength was also investigated by isometric four point bending tests at ambient temperature. EPMA showed chromium layer effectively worked as a diffusion barrier at 1023 K. However, the beryllium rich layer was formed in F82H after HIP at 1233 K followed by tempering. Bending tests revealed that thin chromium layer and low temperature HIP is preferable. The high temperature HIP introduce brittle BeFe inter metallic compounds along bonding interface. On the other hand, joint with thick chromium layer suffer from brittleness of chromium itself. (authors)

  14. Interfacial properties of HIP joint between beryllium and reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirose, T. [Blanket Engineering Group, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka, Ibaraki (Japan); Ogiwara, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naga-gun, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Enoeda, M. [Naka Fusion Research Establishment, J.A.E.R.I., Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Akiba, M. [Naka Fusion Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: ITER test blanket module is the most important components to validate energy production and fuel breeding process for future demonstration reactor. Reduced activation ferritic / martensitic steel is recognized as a promising structural material for breeding blanket systems. And Beryllium must be used as plasma facing materials for ITER in vessel components. In this work, interfacial properties of beryllium/reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel (RAF/Ms) joint were investigated for a first wall of ITER test blanket module (TBM). The starting materials were ITER grade Beryllium, S65C and a Japanese RAF/M, F82H. The joint was produced by solid state hot isostatic pressing (HIP) method. Chromium layer with the thickness of 1 {mu}m and 10 {mu}m were formed by plasma vapor deposition on the beryllium surface as a diffusion barrier. The HIP was carried out at 1023 K and 1233 K which are determined by standard normalizing and tempering temperature of F82H. The joint made at 1233 K was followed by tempering at 1033 K. The bonding interface was characterized by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). The bonding strength was also investigated by isometric four point bending tests at ambient temperature. EPMA showed chromium layer effectively worked as a diffusion barrier at 1023 K. However, the beryllium rich layer was formed in F82H after HIP at 1233 K followed by tempering. Bending tests revealed that thin chromium layer and low temperature HIP is preferable. The high temperature HIP introduce brittle BeFe inter metallic compounds along bonding interface. On the other hand, joint with thick chromium layer suffer from brittleness of chromium itself. (authors)

  15. Synthesis, growth, structural, optical, thermal, electrical and mechanical properties of hydrogen bonded organic salt crystal: Triethylammonium-3, 5-dinitrosalicylate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Madhu; Chandramohan, Angannan

    2017-04-01

    Triethylammonium-3, 5-dinitrosalicylate, an organic salt was synthesized and single crystals grown by slow solvent evaporation solution growth technique using methanol as a solvent. The presence of various functional groups and mode of vibrations has been confirmed by FT-IR spectroscopic technique. The UV-vis-NIR Spectrum was recorded in the range 200-1200 nm to find optical transmittance window and lower cut off wavelength of the title crystal. The formation of the salt and the molecular structure was confirmed by NMR spectroscopic technique. Crystal system, crystalline nature, cell parameters and hydrogen bonding interactions of the grown crystal were determined by single crystal x-ray diffraction analysis. The thermal characteristics of grown crystal were analyzed by thermo gravimetric and differential thermal analyses. Dielectric studies were carried out to study the distribution of charges within the crystal. The mechanical properties of the title crystal were studied by Vicker's microhardness technique.

  16. Fundamental studies on electron-beam welding of heat-resistant superalloys for nuclear plants: Report 4. Mechanical properties of welded joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susei, S.; Shimizu, S.; Aota, T.

    1982-04-01

    In this report, electron-beam (EB) welded joints and TIG welded joints of various superalloys to be used for nuclear plants, such as Hastelloy-type, Inconel-type and Incoloy-type, are systematically evaluated in terms of tensile properties, low-cycle fatigue properties at elevated temperatures, creep and creep-rupture properties. It was fully confirmed as conclusion that the EB welded joints are superior to the TIG welded ones in mechanical properties, especially at high temperature. In the evaluation of creep properties, ductility is one of the most important criteria to represent the resistance against fracture due to creep deformation, and this criterion is very useful in evaluating the properties of welded joints. Therefore, the more comparable to the base metal the electron beam welded joint becomes in terms of ductility, the more resistant is it against fracture. From this point of view, the electron beam welded joint is considerably superior to the TIG welded joint [fr

  17. Crystal structures and second-order NLO properties of borogermanates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-Han; Kong, Fang; Xu, Xiang; Mao, Jiang-Gao

    2012-11-01

    Borogermanates are a class of very important compounds in materials chemistry. In this paper, the syntheses, structures, and properties of metal borogermanates are reviewed. Organically templated borogermanates with zeolite-like open-frameworks show potential applications as microporous materials. Many compounds in alkali or alkaline-earth borogermanate systems are structurally acentric or polar, some of which exhibit excellent Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) coefficients, wide transparency regions, and high optical-damage thresholds as well as excellent thermal stability. Most of the lanthanide borogermanates are structurally centrosymmetric and not SHG active; however, they are able to emit strong luminescence in visible or near-IR region. In the B-rich compounds, BO3 and BO4 groups can be polymerized into a variety of discrete polynuclear anionic cluster units or extended architectures via B-O-B bridges; whereas in the Ge-rich compounds, GeO4 and GeO6 polyhedra can also be polymerized. The combinations of borate and germinate afforded rich structural and topological types.

  18. The crystallization and properties of sputter deposited lithium niobite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shank, Joshua C.; Brooks Tellekamp, M.; Alan Doolittle, W., E-mail: alan.doolittle@ece.gatech.edu

    2016-06-30

    Sputter deposition of the thin film memristor material, lithium niobite (LiNbO{sub 2}) is performed by co-deposition from a lithium oxide (Li{sub 2}O) and a niobium target. Crystalline films that are textured about the (101) orientation are produced under room temperature conditions. This material displays memristive hysteresis and exhibits XPS spectra similar to MBE and bulk grown LiNbO{sub 2}. Various deposition parameters were investigated resulting in variations in the deposition rate, film crystallinity, oxygen to niobium ratio, and mean niobium oxidation state. The results of this study allow for the routine production of large area LiNbO{sub 2} films at low substrate temperature useful in hybrid-integration of memristor, optical, and energy storage applications. - Highlights: • Room temperature sputter deposition of crystalline lithium niobite (LiNbO{sub 2}) • Contrast with previous high temperature corrosive growth methods • Analysis of sputter deposition parameters on the chemical and physical properties of the deposited material.

  19. The crystallization and properties of sputter deposited lithium niobite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shank, Joshua C.; Brooks Tellekamp, M.; Alan Doolittle, W.

    2016-01-01

    Sputter deposition of the thin film memristor material, lithium niobite (LiNbO_2) is performed by co-deposition from a lithium oxide (Li_2O) and a niobium target. Crystalline films that are textured about the (101) orientation are produced under room temperature conditions. This material displays memristive hysteresis and exhibits XPS spectra similar to MBE and bulk grown LiNbO_2. Various deposition parameters were investigated resulting in variations in the deposition rate, film crystallinity, oxygen to niobium ratio, and mean niobium oxidation state. The results of this study allow for the routine production of large area LiNbO_2 films at low substrate temperature useful in hybrid-integration of memristor, optical, and energy storage applications. - Highlights: • Room temperature sputter deposition of crystalline lithium niobite (LiNbO_2) • Contrast with previous high temperature corrosive growth methods • Analysis of sputter deposition parameters on the chemical and physical properties of the deposited material

  20. Crystal chemistry, properties and synthesis of microporous silicates containing transition elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chukanov, Nikita V; Pekov, Igor V; Rastsvetaeva, Ramiza K

    2004-01-01

    The review surveys and generalises recent data on synthesis methods, physicochemical properties and crystal chemistry of silicate microporous materials containing transition elements (amphoterosilicates). The frameworks of these materials, unlike those of usual aluminosilicate zeolites, are built from tetrahedrally coordinated atoms along with atoms of various elements (Ti, Nb, Zr, Ta, Sn, W, Fe, Mn, Zn, etc.) with coordination numbers of 6 or 5. Many amphoterosilicates possess ion-exchange properties and can serve as catalysts for redox reactions, sorbents, etc. The structural diversity of synthetic and natural amphoterosilicates provides the basis for the preparation of microporous materials with different properties.

  1. Properties of 13HMF steel welded joints after long-lasting service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeman, M.

    2002-01-01

    Results are presented of research conducted on the 13HMF steel in the as-received condition after long-lasting service over 100000 hours. Simulation tests have been performed by means of modern research methods. The influence of thermal cycles on the microstructure (continuous cooling TTT diagrams), plastic properties (notch toughness and hardness) of simulated heat affected zones and reheat cracking resistance has been evaluated by using the thermal and strain cycle simulator. Susceptibility to thermal fatigue has been determined, the creep strength estimated and welding heat input was given, as well as the post weld heat treatment conditions of the 13HMF steel after service. properties of the welded joints made of 13HMF steel after long-lasting service are given. (author)

  2. Optimal parameters determination of the orbital weld technique using microstructural and chemical properties of welded joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, A.; Echevarria, J.F.; Rondon, S.; Leiva, P.; Sendoya, F.A.; Amalfi, J.; Lopez, M.; Dominguez, H.

    1999-01-01

    The paper deals with the study of the main parameters of thermal cycle in Orbital Automatic Weld, as a particular process of the GTAW Weld technique. Also is concerned with the investigation of microstructural and mechanical properties of welded joints made with Orbital Technique in SA 210 Steel, a particular alloy widely use during the construction of Economizers of Power Plants. A number of PC software were used in this sense in order to anticipate the main mechanical and structural characteristics of Weld metal and the Heat Affected Zone (HAZ). The papers also might be of great value during selection of optimal Weld parameters to produce sound and high quality Welds during the construction / assembling of structural components in high requirements industrial sectors and also to make a reliable prediction of weld properties

  3. Effect of the delta ferrite solidification morphology of austenitic steels weld metal on the joint properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilmes, P.; Gonzalez, A.; Llorente, C.; Solari, M.

    1996-01-01

    The properties of austenitic stainless steel weld metals are largely influenced by the appearance in the microstructure of delta ferrite of a given morphology. The susceptibility to hot cracks and low temperature toughness are deeply conditioned by the mixed complex austenitic-ferritic structures which depending on the steel chemical composition and on the cooling rate may be developed. The latest research on this issue points out the importance of the sodification mode as regards to the influence in the appearance of delta ferrite of a certain morphology. In fact, it is very important to understand the solidification sequences, the primary solidification modes which are possible and the subsequent solid state transformations to correlate the structural elements of the weld metal with the parameters of the welding process on the one had, and the weld joint properties on the other. (Author) 19 refs

  4. Effect of weld spacing on microstructure and mechanical properties of CLAM electron beam welding joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai, Yutao; Huang, Bo, E-mail: aufa0007@163.com; Zhang, Junyu; Zhang, Baoren; Liu, Shaojun; Huang, Qunying

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • The welded joints of CLAM steel with different weld spacings have been fabricated with electron beam welding, and a simplified model of CLAM sheet was proposed. • The microstructure and mechanical properties such as microhardness, impact and tensile were investigated at different welding spacing for both conditions of as-welded and post weld heat treatment (PWHT). • The effect of the welding thermal cycle was significantly when the weld spacings were smaller than 4 mm. • When the weld spacing was small enough, the original microstructures would be fragmented with the high heat input. - Abstract: China low activation martensitic (CLAM) steel has been chosen as the primary structural material in the designs of dual function lithium-lead (DFLL) blanket for fusion reactors, China helium cooled ceramic breeder (HCCB) test blanket module (TBM) for ITER and China fusion engineering test reactor (CFETR) blanket. The cooling components of the blankets are designed with high density cooling channels (HDCCs) to remove the high nuclear thermal effectively. Hence, the welding spacing among the channels are small. In this paper, the welded joints of CLAM steel with different weld spacings have been fabricated with electron beam welding (EBW). The weld spacing was designed to be 2 mm, 3 mm, 4 mm, 6 mm and 8 mm. The microstructure and mechanical properties such as microhardness, impact and tensile were investigated at different welding spacing for both conditions of as-welded and post weld heat treatment (PWHT). The PWHT is tempering at 740 °C for 120 min. The results showed that the grain size in the heat affected zone (HAZ) increased with the increasing weld spacing, and the joint with small weld spacing had a better performance after PWHT. This work would give useful guidance to improve the preparation of the cooling components of blanket.

  5. Effect of Manganese on the Mechanical Properties of Welded As-Cast Aluminium Joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isiaka Oluwole OLADELE

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of manganese on the mechanical properties of welded and un-weld as-cast 6063 aluminium alloy has been studied. Alloys of varying percentage of manganese from 0.019 to 0.24 were sand cast. A wooden pattern of dimensions 200×100×100mm was used, the aluminium (500g was charged into an induction furnace and heated to 750°C for 15 minutes, this was followed by the addition of weighed powdered manganese, stirred and heated at the same temperature for another 5 minutes and thereafter poured into the already prepared sand mould at a temperature of 690°C. The as-cast aluminium samples, were sectioned into two equal parts of 45mm each using power hack saw; a weld groove was created between the sides of the samples using an electric hand grinding machine, the groove served as the path along which the filler metal was deposited on the aluminium, a single v butt joint was produced from each sample and Metal Inert Gas Welding process was carried out to produce the required joint design. The different cast samples were machined to the different test pieces after which they were assessed to determine their mechanical properties (impact, hardness (welded joint and heat affected zone and tensile tests. The microstructures of the welded samples were also studied. From the results, it was observed that Sample F, which has 0.172% Mn, has the best hardness and impact strength while sample C with 0.160% Mn has the highest ultimate tensile strength.

  6. Creep properties of welded joints in OFHC copper for nuclear waste containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivarsson, B.; Oesterberg, J.O.

    1988-08-01

    In Sweden it has been suggested that copper canisters are used for containment of spent nuclear fuel. These canisters will be subjected to temperatures up to 100 degrees C and external pressures up to 15 MPa. Since the material is pure (OFHC) copper, creep properties must be considered when the canisters are dimensioned. The canisters are sealed by electron beam welding which will affect the creep properties. Literature data for copper - especially welded joints - at the temperatures of interest is very scare. Therefore uniaxial creep tests of parent metal, weld metal, and simulated HAZ structures have been performed at 110 degrees C. These tests revealed considerable differences in creep deformation and rupture strength. The weld metal showed creep rates and rupture times ten times higher and ten times shorter, respectively, than those of the parent metal. The simulated HAZ was equally strongen than the parent metal. These differences were to some extent verified by results from creep tests of cross-welded specimens which, however, showed even shorter rupture times. Constitutive equations were derived from the uniaxial test results. To check the applicability of these equations to multiaxial conditions, a few internal pressure creep tests of butt-welded tubes were performed. Attemps were made to simulate their creep behaviour by constitutive equations were used. These calculations failed due to too great differences in creep deformation behaviour across the welded joint. (authors)

  7. Mechanical properties of TIG and EB weld joints of F82H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirose, Takanori, E-mail: hirose.takanori@jaea.go.jp; Sakasegawa, Hideo; Nakajima, Motoki; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Narrow groove TIG minimized volume of F82H weld. • Mechanical properties of TIG and EB welds of F82H have been characterized. • Post weld heat treatment successfully moderate the toughness of weld metal without softening the base metal. - Abstract: This work investigates mechanical properties of weld joints of a reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel, F82H and effects of post weld heat treatment on the welds. Vickers hardness, tensile and Charpy impact tests were conducted on F82H weld joints prepared using tungsten-inert-gas and electron beam after various heat treatments. Although narrow groove tungsten-inert-gas welding reduced volume of weld bead, significant embrittlement was observed in a heat affected zone transformed due to heat input. Post weld heat treatment above 993 K successfully moderated the brittle transformed region. The hardness of the brittle region strongly depends on the heat treatment temperature. Meanwhile, strength of base metal was slightly reduced by the treatment at temperature ranging from 993 to 1053 K. Moreover, softening due to double welding was observed only in the weld metal, but negligible in base metal.

  8. Magnetocaloric properties of the hexagonal HoMnO{sub 3} single crystal revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balli, M., E-mail: Mohamed.balli@Usherbrooke.ca [Regroupement québécois sur les matériaux de pointe, Département de physique, Université de Sherbrooke, QC, Canada J1K 2R1 (Canada); Roberge, B.; Vermette, J.; Jandl, S. [Regroupement québécois sur les matériaux de pointe, Département de physique, Université de Sherbrooke, QC, Canada J1K 2R1 (Canada); Fournier, P. [Regroupement québécois sur les matériaux de pointe, Département de physique, Université de Sherbrooke, QC, Canada J1K 2R1 (Canada); Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5G 1Z8 (Canada); Gospodinov, M.M. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Bulgarian Academy of Science, Sofia 1184 (Bulgaria)

    2015-12-01

    Magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of the hexagonal HoMnO{sub 3} single crystal have been revisited. It was found that the magnetocaloric effect shown by HoMnO{sub 3} strongly depends on the crystal orientation in respect to the applied magnetic field. Consequently, a large thermal effect can be induced by spinning the single crystal HoMnO{sub 3} around the a (or b) axis in a constant magnetic field instead of the conventional magnetization–demagnetization process. Under 7 T, the maximum rotating entropy change was evaluated to be about 8 J/kg K. The associated adiabatic temperature change reaches a value of about 5 K. These values are comparable to those of the other oxides exhibiting a large rotating magnetocaloric effect. The presence of both conventional and rotating thermal effects makes the hexagonal HoMnO{sub 3} more interesting from a practical point of view.

  9. Polarization and switching properties of holographic polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal gratings. I. Theoretical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Richard L.

    2002-12-01

    Polarization properties and electro-optical switching behavior of holographic polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal (HPDLC) reflection and transmission gratings are studied. A theoretical model is developed that combines anisotropic coupled-wave theory with an elongated liquid-crystal-droplet switching model and includes the effects of a statistical orientational distribution of droplet-symmetry axes. Angle- and polarization-dependent switching behaviors of HPDLC gratings are elucidated, and the effects on dynamic range are described. A new type of electro-optical switching not seen in ordinary polymer-dispersed liquid crystals, to the best of the author's knowledge, is presented and given a physical interpretation. The model provides valuable insight to the physics of these gratings and can be applied to the design of HPDLC holographic optical elements.

  10. Scintillation properties of pure and Ca-doped ZnWO4 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danevich, F.A.; Shkulkova, O.G.; Henry, S.; Kraus, H.; McGowan, R.; Mikhailik, V.B.; Telfer, J.

    2008-01-01

    Following the investigations of the structure and scintillation properties of Ca-doped zinc tungstate powder [phys. stat. sol. (a) 204, 730 (2007)] a single-crystal of ZnWO 4 -Ca (0.5 mol%) was grown and characterised. The relative light output, energy resolution and decay characteristics were measured for pure and Ca-doped ZnWO 4 scintillators. An increase in the light yield of ∝40% compared with the undoped crystal, and an energy resolution 9.6% ( 137 Cs) were obtained for Ca-doped ZnWO 4 . The observed improvement is attributed to the reduction of self-absorption (bleaching) of the crystal. The cause of bleaching as well as the possible contribution of scattering is discussed. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  11. Effects of heat treatment temperature on morphology and properties of opal crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Tao; China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang; Peng Tongjiang; Chen Jiming; Tang Yongjian

    2008-01-01

    The monodispersed SiO 2 microspheres were synthesized by reactant mixed equally. The colloid crystal templates were assemblied by vertical sedimentation method in ethanol at certain temperatures, and the effects of the heat treatment temperature on the morphology and the properties of opal colloid crystals were investigated. SEM, TCr-DSC results indicate SiO 2 colloid templates should be heat treated at 700-800 degree C, enhancing the conglutination and mechanistic intensity of opal templates. UV-Vis analysis result indicates that the heat treatment process can remove the photonic band gap location of the opal colloid crystals, and with the heat treatment temperature increasing gradually, blue shift occurs and the gap narrows. (authors)

  12. Polarized spectral properties of Sm3+:LiYF4 crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, G.Q.; Lin, Y.F.; Gong, X.H.; Chen, Y.J.; Huang, J.H.; Luo, Z.D.; Huang, Y.D.

    2014-01-01

    A trivalent samarium-doped LiYF 4 single crystal was grown by the vertical Bridgman technique. Its polarized absorption and fluorescence spectra and fluorescence decay curves were recorded at room temperature. On the basis of the Judd–Ofelt theory, the spectral parameters of the Sm 3+ :LiYF 4 crystal were calculated. The emission cross sections for the 4 G 5/2 → 6 H J (J=5/2, 7/2. 9/2, and 11/2) transitions of special interest for visible laser application were obtained by the Fuchtbauer–Ladenburg formula. -- Highlights: • Polarized spectral properties of Sm 3+ :LiYF 4 crystal at room temperature were analyzed in detail. • The emission cross sections for the transitions of special interest for visible laser application are calculated. • Sm 3+ :LiYF 4 is a promising laser material for 401 nm GaN LD pumped 605 nm visible laser

  13. Luminescence and scintillation properties of YAG:Ce single crystal and optical ceramics

    CERN Document Server

    Mihóková, E; Mareš, J A; Beitlerová, A; Vedda, A; Nejezchleb, K; Blažek, K; D’Ambrosio, C

    2007-01-01

    We use various techniques to study optical and scintillation properties of Ce-doped yttrium aluminum garnet, Y3Al5O12 (YAG:Ce), in the form of a high-quality industrial single crystal. This was compared to optical ceramics prepared from YAG:Ce nanopowders. We present experimental data in the areas of optical absorption, radioluminescence, scintillation decay, photoelectron yield, thermally stimulated luminescence and radiation-induced absorption. The results point to an interesting feature—the absence of antisite (YAl, i.e. Y at the Al site) defects in optical ceramics. The scintillation decay of the ceramics is faster than that of the single crystal, but its photoelectron yield (measured with 1 μs integration time) is about 30–40% lower. Apart from the photoelectron yield value the YAG:Ce optical ceramic is fully comparable to a high quality industrial YAG:Ce single crystal and can become a competitive scintillator material.

  14. Influence of UV light and heat on the ferroelectric properties of lithium niobate crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steigerwald, Hendrik

    2011-08-15

    One of the most important non-linear-optical materials is lithium niobate, due to its ease of fabrication, robustness, transparency in the visible-to-infrared and excellent nonlinear properties. In this thesis the issue of tailoring ferroelectric domain structures in lithium niobate crystals is approached from two sides: interaction of defect structures inside the crystal with growing ferroelectric domains is investigated and also actual domain patterning on all crystal faces by different methods is performed. Special emphasis is given to the Mg-doped material. The fundamental understanding and the methods of domain patterning developed in this thesis are then used to obtain tailored domain structures that meet the requirements of their intended application in non-linear optics. (orig.)

  15. Investigations of Residual Stresses and Mechanical Properties of Single Crystal Niobium for SRF Cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnäupel-Herold, Thomas; Myneni, Ganapati Rao; Ricker, Richard E.

    2007-08-01

    This work investigates properties of large grained, high purity niobium with respect to the forming of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities from such large grained sheets. The yield stresses were examined using tensile specimens that were essentially single crystals in orientations evenly distributed in the standard projection triangle. No distinct yield anisotropy was found, however, vacuum annealing increased the yield strength by a factor 2…3. The deep drawing forming operation of the half cells raises the issues of elastic shape changes after the release of the forming tool (springback) and residual stresses, both of which are indicated to be negligible. This is a consequence of the low yield stress (sheet metal forming). However, the significant anisotropy of the transversal plastic strains after uniaxial deformation points to potentially critical thickness variations for large grained / single crystal half cells, thus raising the issue of controlling grain orientation or using single crystal sheet material.

  16. Effects of crystal refining on wear behaviors and mechanical properties of lithium disilicate glass-ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenzhen; Guo, Jiawen; Sun, Yali; Tian, Beimin; Zheng, Xiaojuan; Zhou, Ming; He, Lin; Zhang, Shaofeng

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to improve wear resistance and mechanical properties of lithium disilicate glass-ceramics by refining their crystal sizes. After lithium disilicate glass-ceramics (LD) were melted to form precursory glass blocks, bar (N = 40, n = 10) and plate (N = 32, n = 8) specimens were prepared. According to the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) of precursory glass, specimens G1-G4 were designed to form lithium disilicate glass-ceramics with different crystal sizes using a two-step thermal treatment. In the meantime, heat-pressed lithium disilicate glass-ceramics (GC-P) and original ingots (GC-O) were used as control groups. Glass-ceramics were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and were tested using flexural strength test, nanoindentation test and toughness measurements. The plate specimens were dynamically loaded in a chewing simulator with 350 N up to 2.4 × 10 6 loading cycles. The wear analysis of glass-ceramics was performed using a 3D profilometer after every 300,000 wear cycles. Wear morphologies and microstructures were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to analyze the data. Multiple pairwise comparisons of means were performed by Tukey's post-hoc test. Materials with different crystal sizes (p properties. Specifically, G3 with medium-sized crystals presented the highest flexural strength, hardness, elastic modulus and fracture toughness. G1 and G2 with small-sized crystals showed lower flexural strength, whereas G4, GC-P, and GC-O with large-sized crystals exhibited lower hardness and elastic modulus. The wear behaviors of all six groups showed running-in wear stage and steady wear stage. G3 showed the best wear resistance while GC-P and GC-O exhibited the highest wear volume loss. After crystal refining, lithium disilicate glass-ceramic with medium-sized crystals showed the highest wear resistance and mechanical properties. Copyright © 2018

  17. Examination of structure and mechanical properties of hard-to-weld metal joints obtained with the laser method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czujko, T.; Przetakiewicz, W.; Jozwiak, S.; Hoffman, J.; Kalita, W.

    1995-01-01

    Metal joints of stainless of type X6CrNiMoTi1722 (according to DIN) and high conductivity (HC) copper, and joints of transformer steel containing about 3.5% of silicon were obtained using metal sheets 2 mm in thickness. The microstructure and the distribution of microhardness in the area of the joint, and the changes of the strength and elongation caused by the process of laser welding were examined with reference to the properties of the native metal; and, in the case of transformer steel-joints, the effects of welding by means of the TIG method were also analyzed. A probable mechanism of the formation of the steel-copper joint was presented, the strength of which is comparable with that of copper. The superiority of laser welding over TIG welding was also demonstrated. (author). 11 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  18. Thermo- and electro-optical properties of photonic liquid crystal fibers doped with gold nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Siarkowska

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Thermo- and electro-optical properties of a photonic liquid crystal fiber (PLCF enhanced by the use of dopants have been investigated. A 6CHBT nematic liquid crystal was doped with four different concentrations of gold nanoparticles (NPs, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5 and 1.0 wt %, for direct comparison of the influence of the dopant on the properties of the PLCF. The thermo-optical effects of the liquid crystal doped with gold NPs were compared in three setups, an LC cell, a microcapillary and within the PLCF, to determine if the observed responses to external factors are caused by the properties of the infiltration material or due to the setup configuration. The results obtained indicated that with increasing NP doping a significant reduction of the rise time under an external electric field occurs with a simultaneous decrease in the nematic–isotropic phase transition temperature, thus improving the thermo- and electro-optical properties of the PLCF.

  19. Thermo- and electro-optical properties of photonic liquid crystal fibers doped with gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siarkowska, Agata; Chychłowski, Miłosz; Budaszewski, Daniel; Jankiewicz, Bartłomiej; Bartosewicz, Bartosz; Woliński, Tomasz R

    2017-01-01

    Thermo- and electro-optical properties of a photonic liquid crystal fiber (PLCF) enhanced by the use of dopants have been investigated. A 6CHBT nematic liquid crystal was doped with four different concentrations of gold nanoparticles (NPs), 0.1, 0.3, 0.5 and 1.0 wt %, for direct comparison of the influence of the dopant on the properties of the PLCF. The thermo-optical effects of the liquid crystal doped with gold NPs were compared in three setups, an LC cell, a microcapillary and within the PLCF, to determine if the observed responses to external factors are caused by the properties of the infiltration material or due to the setup configuration. The results obtained indicated that with increasing NP doping a significant reduction of the rise time under an external electric field occurs with a simultaneous decrease in the nematic-isotropic phase transition temperature, thus improving the thermo- and electro-optical properties of the PLCF.

  20. A new series of two-dimensional silicon crystals with versatile electronic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Kisung; Kim, Duck Young; Son, Young-Woo

    2018-04-01

    Silicon (Si) is one of the most extensively studied materials owing to its significance to semiconductor science and technology. While efforts to find a new three-dimensional (3D) Si crystal with unusual properties have made some progress, its two-dimensional (2D) phases have not yet been explored as much. Here, based on a newly developed systematic ab initio materials searching strategy, we report a series of novel 2D Si crystals with unprecedented structural and electronic properties. The new structures exhibit perfectly planar outermost surface layers of a distorted hexagonal network with their thicknesses varying with the atomic arrangement inside. Dramatic changes in electronic properties ranging from semimetal to semiconducting with indirect energy gaps and even to one with direct energy gaps are realized by varying thickness as well as by surface oxidation. Our predicted 2D Si crystals with flat surfaces and tunable electronic properties will shed light on the development of silicon-based 2D electronics technology.

  1. Preparation and Optical Properties of Spherical Inverse Opals by Liquid Phase Deposition Using Spherical Colloidal Crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoi, Y; Tominaga, T

    2013-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) inverse opals in spherical shape were prepared by liquid phase deposition (LPD) using spherical colloidal crystals as templates. Spherical colloidal crystals were produced by ink-jet drying technique. Aqueous emulsion droplets that contain polystyrene latex particles were ejected into air and dried. Closely packed colloidal crystals with spherical shape were obtained. The obtained spherical colloidal crystals were used as templates for the LPD. The templates were dispersed in the deposition solution of the LPD, i.e. a mixed solution of ammonium hexafluorotitanate and boric acid and reacted for 4 h at 30 °C. After the LPD process, the interstitial spaces of the spherical colloidal crystals were completely filled with titanium oxide. Subsequent heat treatment resulted in removal of templates and spherical titanium dioxide inverse opals. The spherical shape of the template was retained. SEM observations indicated that the periodic ordered voids were surrounded by titanium dioxide. The optical reflectance spectra indicated that the optical properties of the spherical titanium dioxide inverse opals were due to Bragg diffractions from the ordered structure. Filling in the voids of the inverse opals with different solvents caused remarkable changes in the reflectance peak.

  2. Effect of crystal structure on optical properties of sol–gel derived zirconia thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaodong, E-mail: xiaodong_wang@tongji.edu.cn [Pohl Institute of Solid State Physics, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Special Artificial Microstructure Materials and Technology, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Wu, Guangming; Zhou, Bin [Pohl Institute of Solid State Physics, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Special Artificial Microstructure Materials and Technology, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Shen, Jun, E-mail: shenjun67@tongji.edu.cn [Pohl Institute of Solid State Physics, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Special Artificial Microstructure Materials and Technology, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► ZrO{sub 2} films were deposited by sol–gel method. ► Crystal structures of the films were tuned by different thermal annealing methods. ► The refractive indices vary with the crystal structures of the films. ► Lattice-mismatch was found to reduce the refractive index of ZrO{sub 2} films. -- Abstract: The optical properties of sol–gel derived zirconia thin films and their relation to the crystal structure are studied in this paper. ZrO{sub 2} films were deposited on quartz glass and silicon wafer substrates by sol–gel method with conventional furnace annealing (CFA) and rapid thermal annealing (RTA). Crystal structures of the films were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy, while refractive indices of the films were determined from the reflectance and transmittance spectra. The refractive indices vary with the function of crystal structure and density of the films, which depends on annealing temperature and annealing technique. Lattice-mismatch between monoclinic phase and tetragonal phase was found to reduce the refractive index of ZrO{sub 2} films.

  3. Preliminary laboratory studies of the optical scattering properties of the crystal clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Saunders

    Full Text Available Ice crystal clouds have an influence on the radiative budget of the earth; however, the exact size and nature of this influence has yet to be determined. A laboratory cloud chamber experiment has been set up to provide data on the optical scattering behaviour of ice crystals at a visible wavelength in order to gain information which can be used in climate models concerning the radiative characteristics of cirrus clouds. A PMS grey-scale probe is used to monitor simultaneously the cloud microphysical properties in order to correlate these closely with the observed radiative properties. Preliminary results show that ice crystals scatter considerably more at 90° than do water droplets, and that the halo effects are visible in a laboratory-generated cloud when the ice crystal concentration is sufficiently small to prevent masking from multiple scattering.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmosphere dynamics · Climatology · Radiative process · Atmospheric composition and structure · Cloud physics and chemistry

  4. Size dependences of crystal structure and magnetic properties of DyMnO{sub 3} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajiri, T., E-mail: tajiri@fukuoka-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Science, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka 814-0180 (Japan); Terashita, N.; Hamamoto, K.; Deguchi, H.; Mito, M. [Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Kitakyushu 804-8550 (Japan); Morimoto, Y.; Konishi, K. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Kohno, A. [Faculty of Science, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka 814-0180 (Japan)

    2013-11-15

    We synthesized DyMnO{sub 3} nanoparticles with particle sizes of about 7.5–15.3 nm in the pores of mesoporous silica and investigated their crystal structure and magnetic properties. As the particle size decreased, the lattice constants of the DyMnO{sub 3} nanoparticles deviated from those of the bulk crystal, and the Jahn–Teller distortion in the nanoparticle systems decreased. In addition, the estimated lattice strain increased with decreasing particle size. The DyMnO{sub 3} nanoparticles showed superparamagnetic behavior. The blocking temperature and the coercive field increased with decreasing particle size, and this behavior was contrary to the usual magnetic size effects. It is deduced that these unique size dependences of the magnetic properties for the DyMnO{sub 3} nanoparticles were derived from the changes in lattice constants and lattice strain. The anisotropic lattice deformation in the crystal structure of the nanoparticles induces an enhancement of the magnetic anisotropy, which results in the increase in blocking temperature and coercive field with decreasing particle size. - Highlights: • We successfully synthesized DyMnO{sub 3} nanoparticles with particle size of 7.5–15.3 nm. • Lattice strain increases with decreasing particle size. • Lattice constants exhibit anisotropic change with decreasing particle size. • Distortion of crystal structure leads to enhancement of magnetic anisotropy constant. • Blocking temperature and coercive field increases with decreasing particle size.

  5. Conductive properties of switchable photoluminescence thermosetting systems based on liquid crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tercjak, Agnieszka; Gutierrez, Junkal; Ocando, Connie; Mondragon, Iñaki

    2010-03-16

    Conductive properties of different thermosetting materials modified with nematic 4'-(hexyl)-4-biphenyl-carbonitrile (HBC) liquid crystal and rutile TiO(2) nanoparticles were successfully studied by means of tunneling atomic force miscroscopy (TUNA). Taking into account the liquid crystal state of the HBC at room temperature, depending on both the HBC content and the presence of TiO(2) nanoparticles, designed materials showed different TUNA currents passed through the sample. The addition of TiO(2) nanoparticles into the systems multiply the detected current if compared to the thermosetting systems without TiO(2) nanoparticles and simultaneously stabilized the current passed through the sample, making the process reversible since the absolute current values were almost the same applying both negative and positive voltage. Moreover, thermosetting systems modified with liquid crystals with and without TiO(2) nanoparticles are photoluminescence switchable materials as a function of temperature gradient during repeatable heating/cooling cycle. Conductive properties of switchable photoluminescence thermosetting systems based on liquid crystals can allow them to find potential application in the field of photoresponsive devices, with a high contrast ratio between transparent and opaque states.

  6. Enhancement of mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of friction stir welded joint of AA2014 using water cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinhmar, S., E-mail: sinhmarsunil88@gmail.com; Dwivedi, D.K.

    2017-01-27

    An investigation on the microstructure, mechanical properties, and corrosion behavior of friction stir welded joint of AA2014 in natural cooled (NC) and water cooled (WC) conditions have been reported. Optical microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) with Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), Vicker's microhardness, tensile testing, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and electrochemical potentiodynamic polarization corrosion test (Tafel curve) were carried out to characterize the friction stir weld joints in both the cooling conditions. Water cooling resulted in higher strength and microhardness of friction stir weld joint compared to the natural cooling. The width of heat affected zone was reduced by the use of water cooling during friction stir welding (FSW) and minimum hardness zone was shifted towards weld center. The corrosion test was performed in 3.5% NaCl solution. Corrosion resistance of water cooled joint was found higher than natural cooled FSW joint. The precipitation behavior of weld nugget and heat affected zone impacts the corrosion resistance of FSW joint of AA 2014. Hardness, tensile, and corrosion properties of FSW joints produced under NC and WC conditions have been discussed in the light of microstructure.

  7. Enhancement of mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of friction stir welded joint of AA2014 using water cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinhmar, S.; Dwivedi, D.K.

    2017-01-01

    An investigation on the microstructure, mechanical properties, and corrosion behavior of friction stir welded joint of AA2014 in natural cooled (NC) and water cooled (WC) conditions have been reported. Optical microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) with Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), Vicker's microhardness, tensile testing, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and electrochemical potentiodynamic polarization corrosion test (Tafel curve) were carried out to characterize the friction stir weld joints in both the cooling conditions. Water cooling resulted in higher strength and microhardness of friction stir weld joint compared to the natural cooling. The width of heat affected zone was reduced by the use of water cooling during friction stir welding (FSW) and minimum hardness zone was shifted towards weld center. The corrosion test was performed in 3.5% NaCl solution. Corrosion resistance of water cooled joint was found higher than natural cooled FSW joint. The precipitation behavior of weld nugget and heat affected zone impacts the corrosion resistance of FSW joint of AA 2014. Hardness, tensile, and corrosion properties of FSW joints produced under NC and WC conditions have been discussed in the light of microstructure.

  8. Effect Of Irradiation Temperature and Dose On Mechanical Properties And Fracture Characteristics Of Cu//SS Joints For ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabritsiev, S.A.; Pokrovsky, A.S.; Peacock, A.; Roedig, M.; Linke, J.; Gervash, A.; Barabash, V.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: By now, a number of technologies have been proposed for the production of Cu//SS joints for ITER, such as brazing, friction welding, HIP and cast-copper-to-steel (CC). The two last-mentioned technologies ensure sufficiently high mechanical properties and a high joint quality, when unirradiated. The data, however, on mechanical characteristics of irradiated of Cu//SS HIP joints are limited. In this paper, the authors present the results of investigations into the mechanical characteristics after irradiation of GlidCopAl25/316L(N) and Cu-Cr-Zr/316L(N)-type joints produced by the HIP and CC technologies. Specimens of the joints were irradiated in the RBT-6 reactor in the dose range of 10 -3 - 10 -1 dpa at T irr = 200 deg. C and 300 deg. C. The tensile stress-strain curves for irradiated and unirradiated joint specimens show deformation processes occurring in both the Cu and SS parts of the specimens. Irradiation at T irr = 200 deg. C causes strengthening of the joints specimens (by about 100 MPa at the maximum dose). The uniform elongation drops from 8% in the initial state to 2-3 %. But the total elongation remains at a relatively high level of ∼ 7%. Irradiation at T irr = 300 deg. C causes a slight strengthening of the joints specimens (∼30 MPa). The uniform elongation remains unchanged at ∼ 7%. The total elongation also maintains a relatively high level of ∼9-13%. SEM investigations revealed that fracture occurs only in the copper part of the irradiated specimens, and ductile trans-crystalline fracture predominates in the joints. 3D finite element analysis of the tensile test indicates that the concentration of stresses and deformations in the copper layer adjacent to the joint line is responsible for this typical failure of the irradiated joints specimens. Comparison of the behavior of the joints irradiated at T irr = 200 deg. C and 300 deg. C indicate an increased embrittlement at lower irradiation temperatures. At a

  9. Effect of friction stir welding parameters on microstructure and mechanical properties of DSS–Cu joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shokri, V., E-mail: v.shokri@modares.ac.ir [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tarbiat Modarres University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadeghi, A. [School of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadeghi, M.H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tarbiat Modarres University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-05-02

    Dissimilar joining of copper to duplex stainless steel (DSS) is challenging at high temperatures of fusion welding owing to the large difference in physical properties of the base metals. To reduce negative effects of welding at high temperatures, solid state welding at lower temperatures has been proposed. To study different effects of welding parameters (rotation speed, travel speed and tool offset) on weld zone microstructure and mechanical properties butt joints of a copper alloy and duplex stainless steel (DSS) were produced by friction stir welding (FSW). It has been found that heat input generated by the interaction of different welding conditions has a significant effect on the formation of a brittle intermetallic at the interface and eventually the final mechanical properties. At low heat inputs, mixing of the two sides is insufficient and metallurgical bonding is weak; while at high heat inputs, the thickness of the formed intermetallic is too thick which causes stress concentration at the interface and premature failure. An optimum welding condition was found (rotation speed of 1200 rpm, travel speed of 30 mm/min and tool offset of 0.5 mm) which almost reached the mechanical properties of the Cu-alloy monolayer.

  10. Modification of mechanical properties of Si crystal irradiated by Kr-beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Xiaowei; Momota, Sadao; Nitta, Noriko; Yamaguchi, Takaharu; Sato, Noriyuki; Tokaji, Hideto

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Modification of mechanical properties of silicon crystal irradiated by Kr-beam was observed by means of continuous measurements of nano-indentation technique. • Modified mechanical properties show fluence-dependence. • Young's modulus is more sensitive to crystal to amorphous phase transition while hardness is more sensitive to damage induced by ion beam irradiation. • The depth profile of modified mechanical properties have a potential application of determining the longitudinal size of phase transition region induced by nanoindentation. - Abstract: The application of ion-beam irradiation in fabrication of structures with micro-/nanometer scale has achieved striking improvement. However, an inevitable damage results in the change of mechanical properties in irradiated materials. To investigate the relation between mechanical properties and ion-irradiation damages, nanoindentation was performed on crystalline silicon irradiated by Kr-beam with an energy of 240 keV. Modified Young's modulus and nanohardness, provided from the indentation, indicated fluence dependence. Stopping and range of ions in matter (SRIM) calculation, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation, and Rutherford backscattering-channeling (RBS-C) measurement were utilized to understand the irradiation effect on mechanical properties. In addition, the longitudinal size of the phase transition region induced by indentation was firstly evaluated based on the depth profile of modified nanohardness

  11. Sublimation Properties of Pentaerythritol Tetranitrate Single Crystals Doped with Its Homologs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharia, Sanjoy K.; Maiti, Amitesh; Gee, Richard H.; Weeks, Brandon L.

    2012-07-20

    Pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) is a secondary explosive used extensively in military and commercial applications. Coarsening of PETN during long-term storage changes the physical properties such as surface area and particle morphology which are important factors in initiation and performance. Doping of impurities was proposed to slow the coarsening process since impurities were shown to modify both the kinetic and thermodynamic properties. In this paper, we discuss how doping of PETN with its homologs of dipentaerythritol hexanitrate (diPEHN) and tripentaerytritol octanitrate (triPEON) affect kinetic and thermodynamic parameters. Pure and homolog doped PETN single crystals were prepared by solvent evaporation in acetone at room temperature. Doping concentrations for this study were 1000 ppm, 5000 ppm, and 10000 ppm. Activation energy and vapor pressure of pure and doped PETN single crystals were obtained from thermogravimetric analysis data.

  12. Electrical properties and features of the crystallization behaviour and the phase morphology of polyethylene blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolesov, I.S.; Radusch, H.-J.; Kolesov, S.N.

    1999-01-01

    It was discovered that polyethylene blends show a typical concentration dependence of the specific electrical resistance and the electrical strength measured by the surge voltage method. The concentration dependencies show two local maxima at definite blend compositions (ω LDPE = 0,2 to 0,4 and 0,7 to 0,8). The results of investigation of the melt and crystallization behavior as well as of the supermolecular structure of these blends point out that the changes caused by mixing in topology and packaging density of the inter-phases between the phases and crystallites have an influence on the electrical properties of the polyethylene blends in correspondence to the composition. The changed structure-property relationships are caused essentially by a possible co-crystallization of the components and by the interactions at separate seeds formation. (orig.)

  13. Tensile Properties of Friction Stir Welded Joints of AA 2024-T6 Alloy at Different Welding Speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avula, Dhananjayulu; Devuri, Venkateswarlu; Cheepu, Muralimohan; Dwivedi, Dheerendra Kumar

    2018-03-01

    The influence of welding speed on the friction stir welded joint properties of hardness, tensile properties, defects and microstructure characterization are studied in the present study. The friction stir welding was conducted on AA2014-T6 heat treated alloy with 5 mm thickness plate in butt joint configuration. The welding speed was varied from 8 mm/min to 120 mm/min at the fixed travel speed and load conditions. It is observed that the welding speeds at higher rate with wide range can be possible to weld this alloy at higher rates of tool revolution suggesting that the inherent capability of friction stir welding technique for aluminum 2014 alloys. The strength of the joints gradually increases with enhancing of welding speed. The micro structural observations exhibited the formation of equiaxed grains in the stir zone and slightly in the thermo-mechanically affected zone. In addition, the size of the grains decreases with increase in welding speed owing to the presence of low heat input. Hence the hardness of the joints slightly increased in the stir zones over the other zones of the weld nugget. The joint strength initially increases with the welding speed and starts to decreases after reaching to the maximum value. The relationship between the welding conditions and friction stir welded joint properties has been discussed.

  14. Influence of groove size and reinforcements addition on mechanical properties and microstructure of friction stir welded joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy Baridula, Ravinder; Ibrahim, Abdullah Bin; Yahya, Che Ku Mohammad Faizal Bin Che Ku; Kulkarni, Ratnakar; Varma Ramaraju, Ramgopal

    2018-03-01

    The butt joints fabricated by friction stir welding were found to have more strength than the joints obtained by conventional joining process. The important outcome of this process is the successful fabrication of surface composites with improved properties. Thus in order to further enhance the strength of the dissimilar alloy joints the reinforcements can be deposited in to the aluminium matrix during the process of friction stir welding. In the present study the multi-walled carbon nanotubes were embedded in to the groove by varying the width during joining of dissimilar alloys AA2024 and AA7075. Four widths were selected with constant depth and optimum process parameters were selected to fabricate the sound welded joints. The results show that the mechanical properties of the fabricated butt joints were influenced by the size of the groove, due to variation in the deposition of reinforcement in the stir zone. The microstructural study and identification of the elements of the welded joints show that the reinforcements deposition is influenced by the size of the groove. It has also been observed that the groove with minimum width is more effective than higher width. The mechanical properties are found to be improved due to the pinning of grain boundaries.

  15. Crystallization kinetics and magnetic properties of FeSiCr amorphous alloy powder cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Hu-ping [School of Logistics Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430063 (China); Wang, Ru-wu, E-mail: ruwuwang@hotmail.com [National Engineering Research Center For Silicon Steel, Wuhan 430080 (China); College of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081 (China); Wei, Ding [School of Optical and Electronic Information, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Zeng, Chun [National Engineering Research Center For Silicon Steel, Wuhan 430080 (China)

    2015-07-01

    The crystallization kinetics of FeSiCr amorphous alloy, characterized by the crystallization activation energy, Avrami exponent and frequency factor, was studied by non-isothermal differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) measurements. The crystallization activation energy and frequency factor of amorphous alloy calculated from Augis–Bennett model were 476 kJ/mol and 5.5×10{sup 18} s{sup −1}, respectively. The Avrami exponent n was calculated to be 2.2 from the Johnson–Mehl–Avrami (JMA) equation. Toroid-shaped Fe-base amorphous powder cores were prepared from the commercial FeSiCr amorphous alloy powder and subsequent cold pressing using binder and insulation. The characteristics of FeSiCr amorphous alloy powder and the effects of compaction pressure and insulation content on the magnetic properties, i.e., effective permeability μ{sub e}, quality factor Q and DC-bias properties of FeSiCr amorphous alloy powder cores, were investigated. The FeSiCr amorphous alloy powder cores exhibit a high value of quality factor and a stable permeability in the frequency range up to 1 MHz, showing superior DC-bias properties with a “percent permeability” of more than 82% at H=100 Oe. - Highlights: • The crystallization kinetics of FeSiCr amorphous alloy was investigated. • The FeSiCr powder cores exhibit a high value of Q and a stable permeability. • The FeSiCr powder cores exhibit superior DC-bias properties.

  16. Influence of Mo impurity on the spectroscopic and scintillation properties of PbWO4 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, M.; Hofstaetter, A.; Luh, M.; Meyer, B.K.; Scharmann, A.; Drobychev, G.Yu.; Grenoble-1 Univ., 74 - Annecy; Peigneux, J.P.

    1997-12-01

    The influence of molybdenum doping on the spectroscopic and scintillation properties of lead tungstate crystals has been investigated. From the results the slow scintillation component as well as the afterglow are found to be due to the Mo impurity. In addition the blue luminescence from excited (WO 4 ) 2- -complex seems to be increasingly suppressed as the doping concentration goes on. Possible mechanisms for the effects have been discussed. (author)

  17. Growth and properties of oxygen doped Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapitulnik, A.; Mitzi, D.B.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports results on oxygen doped single crystals in the Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+δ system grown by a directional solidification method. Annealing of as made crystals in increasing partial pressure of oxygen reversibly depresses the superconducting transition temperature from 90K (as made) to 77K (oxygen pressure annealed). Magnetic and photoemission properties of these crystals will be discussed

  18. Properties of magnetized Coulomb crystals of ions with polarizable electron background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozhberov, A. A.

    2018-06-01

    We have studied phonon and thermodynamic properties of a body-centered cubic (bcc) Coulomb crystal of ions with weakly polarized electron background in a uniform magnetic field B. At B = 0, the difference between phonon moments calculated using the Thomas-Fermi (TF) and random phase approximations is always less than 1% and for description of phonon properties of a crystal, TF formalism was used. This formalism was successfully applied to investigate thermodynamic properties of magnetized Coulomb crystals. It was shown that the influence of the polarization of the electron background is significant only at κ TF a > 0.1 and T ≪ T p ( 1 + h2 ) - 1 / 2 , where κTF is the Thomas-Fermi wavenumber, a is the ion sphere radius, T p ≡ ℏ ω p is the ion plasma temperature, h ≡ ω B / ω p , ωB is the ion cyclotron frequency, and ωp is the ion plasma frequency.

  19. Optical Properties of the Fresnoite Ba2TiSi2O8 Single Crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanying Shen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, using large-sized single crystals of high optical quality, the optical properties of Ba2TiSi2O8 were systematically investigated, including transmission spectra, refractive indices and nonlinear absorption properties. The crystal exhibits a high transmittance (>84% over a wide wavelength range from 340 to 2500 nm. The refractive indices in the range from 0.31256 to 1.01398 μm were measured, and Sellmeier’s equations were fitted by the least squares method. The nonlinear absorption properties were studied by using the open-aperture Z-scan technique, with a nonlinear absorption coefficient measured to be on the order of 0.257 cm/GW at the peak power density of 16.4 GW/cm2. Such high transmittance and wide transparency indicate that optical devices using the Ba2TiSi2O8crystal can be applied over a wide wavelength range. Furthermore, the small nonlinear absorption observed in Ba2TiSi2O8 will effectively increase the optical conversion efficiency, decreasing the generation of laser damage of the optical device.

  20. PA6 and Kevlar fiber reinforced isotactic polypropylene: Structure, mechanical properties and crystallization and melting behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Songfang; Cheng, Lei; Guo, Yong; Zheng, Yuying; Li, Baoming

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► KF was modified with caprolactam using toluenediisocyanate (TDI) as bridge. ► Modified KF improves interfacial interaction of iPP/KF/PA6 composites. ► Fiber and nylon 6 inhibited the crystallization of PP continuous phase. -- Abstract: To improve the thermal and mechanical properties of isotactic polypropylene (iPP), iPP/Kevlar fiber (KF)/polyamide 6 (PA6) composites were prepared via the melt-extrusion method on twin-screw extruder. Kevlar fiber was modified with caprolactam using toluenediisocyanate (TDI) as bridge. The microstructure of modified KF was successfully characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the results showed that KF was bonded with caprolactam and became coarser. Then the modified KF was introduced into iPP, the composites have better mechanical and thermal properties, implying that modification of KF was helpful to improve the interfacial interaction of iPP/KF/PA6 composites. Besides, the crystallization curves indicated that crystallization behavior of PA6 in the composites was homogeneous and fractional. Furthermore, compatibilizer content played an important role in the mechanical and thermal properties of composites.

  1. Friction Hydro-Pillar Processing of a High Carbon Steel: Joint Structure and Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanan, Luis Fernando; Vicharapu, Buchibabu; Bueno, Antonio Fernando Burkert; Clarke, Thomas; De, Amitava

    2018-04-01

    A coupled experimental and theoretical study is reported here on friction hydro-pillar processing of AISI 4140 steel, which is a novel solid-state joining technique to repair and fill crack holes in thick-walled components by an external stud. The stud is rotated and forced to fill a crack hole by plastic flow. During the process, frictional heating occurs along the interface of the stud and the wall of crack hole leading to thermal softening of the stud that eases its plastic deformation. The effect of the stud force, its rotational speed and the total processing time on the rate of heat generation and resulting transient temperature field is therefore examined to correlate the processing variables with the joint structure and properties in a systematic and quantitative manner, which is currently scarce in the published literature. The results show that a gentler stud force rate and greater processing time can promote proper filling of the crack hole and facilitate a defect-free joint between the stud and original component.

  2. Influence of MgSO{sub 4} doping on the properties of zinc tris–thiourea sulphate (ZTS) single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selvapandiyan, M., E-mail: mselvapandiyan@rediffmail.com [Department of Physics, Sri Vidya Mandir Arts and Science College, Uthangarai 635 207 (India); Arumugam, J. [Department of Physics, Sri Vidya Mandir Arts and Science College, Uthangarai 635 207 (India); Sundaramoorthi, P. [Department of Physics, Thiruvalluvar Government Arts College, Rasipuram 637 401 (India); Sudhakar, S. [CSIR–National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110 012 (India)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: •The influence of MgSO{sub 4} doping on the properties of ZTS single crystals grown at room temperature. •Thermal stability of the crystals increased with incorporation of Mg atom. •Energy band gap was estimated from UV–vis spectra. •ZTS is a potential material for frequency conversion. •Both pure and doped ZTS crystals are belonging to category of typical insulating materials. -- Abstract: The influence of MgSO{sub 4} doping on the properties of zinc tris–thiourea sulphate single crystals grown at room temperature by slow evaporation solution growth technique was studied. Powder XRD analysis confirmed the orthorhombic crystal structure with noncentrosymmetric space group Pca2{sub 1}. The mechanical properties of the grown crystals were analysed by Vicker’s microhardness method. Functional groups present in the materials were identified by FTIR spectral analysis in the range between 4000 and 400 cm{sup −1}. The UV–Vis spectrum indicates that the UV cut-off wavelength of the crystals has less than 297 nm. The thermal stability of the grown crystals was determined with the aid of thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Second order nonlinear optical behaviour of the grown crystals have been confirmed by Kurtz powder second harmonic generation (SHG) test.

  3. Thorium/uranium mixed oxide nano-crystals: Synthesis, structural characterization and magnetic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudry, Damien; Griveau, Jean-Christophe; Apostolidis, Christos; Colineau, Eric; Rasmussen, Gert; Walter, Olaf; Wang, Di; Venkata Sai Kiran Chakravadhaluna; Courtois, Eglantine; Kubel, Christian

    2014-01-01

    One of the primary aims of the actinide community within nano-science is to develop a good understanding similar to what is currently the case for stable elements. As a consequence, efficient, reliable and versatile synthesis techniques dedicated to the formation of new actinide-based nano-objects (e.g., nano-crystals) are necessary. Hence, a 'library' dedicated to the preparation of various actinide based nano-scale building blocks is currently being developed. Nano-scale building blocks with tunable sizes, shapes and compositions are of prime importance. So far, the non-aqueous synthesis method in highly coordinating organic media is the only approach which has demonstrated the capability to provide size and shape control of actinide-based nano-crystals (both for thorium and uranium, and recently extended to neptunium and plutonium). In this paper, we demonstrate that the non-aqueous approach is also well adapted to control the chemical composition of the nano-crystals obtained when mixing two different actinides. Indeed, the controlled hot co-injection of thorium acetylacetonate and uranyl acetate (together with additional capping agents) into benzyl ether can be used to synthesize thorium/uranium mixed oxide nano-crystals covering the full compositional spectrum. Additionally, we found that both size and shape are modified as a function of the thorium/uranium ratio. Finally, the magnetic properties of the different thorium/uranium mixed oxide nano-crystals were investigated. Contrary to several reports, we did not observe any ferromagnetic behavior. As a consequence, ferromagnetism cannot be described as a universal feature of nano-crystals of non-magnetic oxides as recently claimed in the literature. (authors)

  4. Crystallization kinetics and optical properties of titanium-lithium tetraborate glass containing europium oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, E.A. [Al Azhar University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science (Girl' s Branch), Cairo (Egypt); Ratep, A. [Ain Shams University, Physics Department, Faculty of Girls, Cairo (Egypt); Abdel-Khalek, E.K.; Kashif, I. [Al-Azhar University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Cairo (Egypt)

    2017-07-15

    The crystallization kinetics and optical properties of [60 Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}-30 TiO{sub 2}-10 Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3}] (mol%) glass sample have been investigated. The present glass sample exhibits three crystallization exothermic peaks (T{sub p1}, T{sub p2,} and T{sub p3}) corresponding to the formation of LiBO{sub 2}, Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7,} and EuTiO{sub 3} phases, respectively. The presence of phase separation in the glass sample has been confirmed by scanning electron microscopic (SEM). The mean values of Avrami exponent (n = 3.1 and 4) around T{sub p1} and T{sub p2}, indicate that the bulk crystallization with a constant number of nuclei and with an increasing number of nuclei, respectively. The values of the local activation energy as a function of the fraction of crystallization (0.1 ≤ χ ≤ 0.9) decrease for the crystallization of LiBO{sub 2} and EuTiO{sub 3} and increase for the crystallization of Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}. The values of n(χ) for T{sub p3} and T{sub p2} in the range (0.1 ≤ χ ≤ 0.9) and (0.1 ≤ χ ≤ 0.4), respectively, are larger than 4 indicate that the presence of anomalous in Avrami exponent. The trend of Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters (Ω{sub 2} > Ω{sub 4} > Ω{sub 6}) and the bonding parameter (δ) indicate that the lower symmetry and the highest covalent nature of the bonding around Eu{sup 3+} ions. (orig.)

  5. Ti–6Al–4V welded joints via electron beam welding: Microstructure, fatigue properties, and fracture behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xiaoguang [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Co-Innovation Center for Advanced Aero-Engine, Beijing 100191 (China); Li, Shaolin [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Qi, Hongyu, E-mail: qhy@buaa.edu.cn [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Co-Innovation Center for Advanced Aero-Engine, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2014-03-01

    The effect of microstructural characteristics on the fatigue properties of electron beam-welded joints of forged Ti–6Al–4V and its fracture behavior were investigated. Tensile tests and fatigue tests were conducted at room temperature in air atmosphere. The test data were analyzed in relation to microstructure, high-cycle fatigue properties, low-cycle fatigue properties, and fatigue crack propagation properties. The high-cycle fatigue test results indicated that the fatigue strength of the joint welded via electron beam welding was higher than that of the base metal because the former had a high yield strength and all high-cycle fatigue specimens were fractured in the base metal. Although the joint specimens had a lower low-cycle fatigue life than the base metal, they mainly ruptured at the fusion zone of the joint specimen and their crack initiation mechanism is load-dependent. The fatigue crack propagation test results show that the joint had a slower crack propagation rate than the base metal, which can be attributed to the larger grain in the fusion zone.

  6. Study of the effect of doping on the temperature stability of the optical properties of germanium single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podkopaev, O. I. [Joint-Stock Company “Germanium” (Russian Federation); Shimanskiy, A. F., E-mail: shimanaf@mail.ru [Siberian Federal University (Russian Federation); Kopytkova, S. A.; Filatov, R. A. [Joint-Stock Company “Germanium” (Russian Federation); Golubovskaya, N. O. [Siberian Federal University (Russian Federation)

    2016-10-15

    The effect of doping on the optical transmittance of germanium single crystals is studied by infrared Fourier spectroscopy. It is established that the introduction of silicon and tellurium additives into germanium doped with antimony provides a means for improving the temperature stability of the optical properties of the crystals.

  7. Study of the effect of doping on the temperature stability of the optical properties of germanium single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podkopaev, O. I.; Shimanskiy, A. F.; Kopytkova, S. A.; Filatov, R. A.; Golubovskaya, N. O.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of doping on the optical transmittance of germanium single crystals is studied by infrared Fourier spectroscopy. It is established that the introduction of silicon and tellurium additives into germanium doped with antimony provides a means for improving the temperature stability of the optical properties of the crystals.

  8. Microstructures and mechanical properties of friction stir welded dissimilar steel-copper joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jafari, M.; Abbasi, M.; Poursina, D.; Gheysarian, A. [University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bagheri, B. [Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Welding dissimilar metals by fusion welding is challenging. It results in welding defects. Friction stir welding (FSW) as a solid-state joining method can overcome these problems. In this study, 304L stainless steel was joined to copper by FSW. The optimal values of the welding parameters traverse speed, rotational speed, and tilt angle were obtained through Response surface methodology (RSM). Under optimal welding conditions, the effects of welding pass number on the microstructures and mechanical properties of the welded joints were investigated. Results indicated that appropriate values of FSW parameters could be obtained by RSM and grain size refinement during FSW mainly affected the hardness in the weld regions. Furthermore, the heat from the FSW tool increased the grain size in the Heat-affected zones (HAZs), especially on the copper side. Therefore, the strength and ductility decreased as the welding pass number increased because of grain size enhancement in the HAZs as the welding pass number increased.

  9. An Evaluation of Automotive Interior Packages Based on Human Ocular and Joint Motor Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Rakumatsu, Takeshi; Horiue, Masayoshi; Miyazaki, Tooru; Nishikawa, Kazuo; Nouzawa, Takahide; Tsuji, Toshio

    This paper proposes a new evaluation method of an automotive interior package based on human oculomotor and joint-motor properties. Assuming the long-term driving situation in the express high way, the three evaluation indices were designed on i) the ratio of head motion at gazing the driving items; ii) the load torque for maintaining the standard driving posture; and iii) the human force manipulability at the end-point of human extremities. Experiments were carried out for two different interior packages with four subjects who have the special knowledge on the automobile development. Evaluation results demonstrate that the proposed method can quantitatively analyze the driving interior in good agreement with the generally accepted subjective opinion in the automobile industry.

  10. Study on microstructure and mechanical properties of Al–Mg–Mn–Er alloy joints welded by TIG and laser beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Dongxia; Li, Xiaoyan; He, Dingyong; Huang, Hui; Zhang, Liang

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The microstructural characterization of the TIG and laser welded Al–Mg–Mn–Er alloy is studied. ► Transition zone and HAZ are found to disappear near the fusion boundaries in LBW joint. ► Primary Al 3 Er in LBW weld provides more nucleation sites and lead to the grain refinement. ► The evaporation of alloying element Mg in TIG and LBW joints is investigated. ► Reasons for high strength of LBW joint are fine-grain strengthening and solution strengthening. -- Abstract: Al-4.7Mg-0.7Mn-0.3Er alloy plates were welded by laser beam welding (LBW) and tungsten inert gas (TIG). Mechanical properties and microstructures of both welded joints were analyzed. The results showed that the tensile strength of LBW joint was 315 MPa, which was approximately 10% higher than that of TIG welded joint. This was attributed to the fine grains, dispersed primary Al 3 Er phase and low Mg evaporation in LBW weld. Equiaxed grains with average size of 30 μm were obtained in the fusion zone, which were much smaller than that of 90 μm in the fusion zone of TIG joint, due to the low heat input during LBW process. Moreover, finer primary Al 3 Er particles were uniformly distributed in the LBW joints, which resulted in a substantial increase of nucleation rate in LBW welds. In addition, it was also found that Mg concentrations in the fusion zones, in both TIG and LBW joints, were lower than that of the base one tested by EPMA. The burning loss rates of Mg in TIG and LBW joints were 36% and 22%, respectively.

  11. Tensile properties of four types of austenitic stainless steel welded joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balladon, P.

    1990-01-01

    In the field of an LMFBR research programme on austenitic stainless steel welds in a Shared Cost Action Safety, Research Area 8, coordinated by JRC-Ispra, four cooperating laboratories (ECN, IKE/MPA, the Welding Institute and UNIREC) have been involved in the fabrication and extensive characterization of welded joints made from one plate of ICL 167 stainless steel. The materials included parent metal, four vacuum electron beam welds, one non vacuum electron beam weld, one submerged arc weld, one gas metal arc weld and one manual metal arc weld. This report summarizes the 106 tensile tests performed at room temperature and 550 0 C, including the influence of strain rate, specimen orientation and welding procedure. Main results are that electron beam welds have tensile properties close to those of parent metal with higher values of yield strength in longitudinal orientation and lower values of total elongation in transverse orientation but with a similar reduction of area, that filler metal welds own the highest values of yield strength and lowest values of ductility. Most of the welds properties are higher than the minimum specified for parent metal, except for some values of total elongation, mainly in transverse orientation. In view of using electron beam welding for production of components used in LMFBR, results obtained show that tensile properties of electron beam welds compare well to those of classical welds. (author)

  12. Synthesis, crystal growth, optical, thermal, and mechanical properties of a nonlinear optical single crystal: ammonium sulfate hydrogen sulphamate (ASHS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakar, K.; Nandhini, S.; Muniyappan, S.; Arumanayagam, T.; Vivek, P.; Murugakoothan, P.

    2018-04-01

    Ammonium sulfate hydrogen sulphamate (ASHS), an inorganic nonlinear optical crystal, was grown from the aqueous solution by slow evaporation solution growth technique. The single-crystal XRD confirms that the grown single crystal belongs to the orthorhombic system with the space group of Pna21. Powder XRD confirms the crystalline nature and the diffraction planes were indexed. Crystalline perfection of grown crystal was analysed by high-resolution X-ray diffraction rocking curve technique. UV-Vis-NIR studies revealed that ASHS crystal has optical transparency 65% and lower cut-off wavelength at 218 nm. The violet light emission of the crystal was identified by photoluminescence studies. The particle size-dependent second-harmonic generation efficiency for ASHS crystal was evaluated by Kurtz-Perry powder technique using Nd:YAG laser which established the existence of phase matching. Surface laser damage threshold value was evaluated using Nd:YAG laser. Optical homogeneity of the crystal was evaluated using modified channel spectrum method through birefringence study. Thermal analysis reveals that ASHS crystal is stable up to 213 °C. The mechanical behaviour of the ASHS crystal was analysed using Vickers microhardness study.

  13. Local microstructures, Hardness and mechanical properties of a stainless steel pipe-welded joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yongxiang; Gao Qing; Cai Lixun

    2000-01-01

    An experimental investigation is carefully performed into the local microstructures, hardness values and monotonic mechanical properties of the three zones (the base metal, heat affecting zone and weld metal) of 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel pipe-welded joint. The local microstructures are observed by a metallurgical test and a surface replica technology, the local hardness values are measures by a random Vickers hardness test, and the local mechanical properties are characterized by the Ramberg-Osgood and modified Ramberg-Osgood stress-stain relations. The investigation reveals that there are significant differences of the three zones in the local microstructures, hardness values and monotonic mechanical properties, especially of the three zones in the local microstructure, hardness values and monotonic mechanical properties, especially of the weld metal. The weld metal exhibits the largest heterogeneity of local microstructures and monotonic mechanical properties, and the largest scatter of local hardness values. It is necessary to consider these difference and introduce the reliability method to model the scatter in the pipe analysis. In addition, it is verified that a columnar grain structure, which is made up of matrix-rich δ ferrite bands, can characterize the weld metal and the distance between the neighboring rich δ ferrite bands is an appropriate measurement of the columnar grain structure. This measurement is in accordance with the transition point between the microstructural short crack and physical small crack stages, which are generally used for characterizing the short fatigue crack behavior of materials. This indicates that the microstructure controls the fatigue damage character of the present material

  14. Relationship between mechanical properties and crystal structure in cocrystals and salt of paracetamol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Hamzah; Shimpi, Manishkumar R; Velaga, Sitaram P

    2017-01-01

    Objectives were to study mechanical properties of various solid forms of paracetamol and relate to their crystal structures. Paracetamol form I (PRA), its cocrystals with oxalic acid (PRA-OXA) and 4,4-bipyridine (PRA-BPY) and hydrochloride salt (PRA-HCL) were selected. Cocrystals and salt were scaled-up using rational crystallization methods. The resulting materials were subjected to different solid-state characterizations. The powders were sieved and 90-360 µm sieve fraction was considered. These powders were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and densities were determined. Tablets were made at applied pressures of 35-180 MPa under controlled conditions and the tablet height, diameter and hardness were measured. Tensile strength and porosity of the tablets were estimated using well known models. Crystal structures of these systems were visualized and slip planes were identified. Cocrystal and salt of PRA were physically pure. Sieved powders had comparable morphologies and particle size. The apparent and theoretical densities of powders were similar, but no clear trends were observed. The tensile strengths of these compacts were increased with increasing pressure whereas tabletability decreased in the order oxalic acid > PRA-HCL ≈ PRA-OXA > BPY > PRA-BPY. Tablet tensile strength decreases exponentially with increasing porosity with the exception of PRY-BPY and BPY. Slip plane prediction based on attachment energies may not be independently considered. However, it was possible to explain the improved mechanical properties of powders based on the crystal structure. Cocrystallization and salt formation have introduced structural features that are responsible for improved tableting properties of PRA.

  15. Confined crystallization, crystalline phase deformation and their effects on the properties of crystalline polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haopeng

    With the recent advances in processing and catalyst technology, novel morphologies have been created in crystalline polymers and they are expected to substantially impact the properties. To reveal the structure-property relationships of some of these novel polymeric systems becomes the primary focus of this work. In the first part, using an innovative layer-multiplying coextrusion process to obtain assemblies with thousands of polymer nanolayers, dominating "in-plane" lamellar crystals were created when the confined poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) layers were made progressively thinner. When the thickness was confined to 25 nanometers, the PEO crystallized as single, high-aspect-ratio lamellae that resembled single crystals. This crystallization habit imparted more than two orders of magnitude reduction in the gas permeability. The dramatic decrease in gas permeability was attributed to the reduced diffusion coefficient, because of the increase in gas diffusion path length through the in-plane lamellae. The temperature dependence of lamellar orientation and the crystallization kinetics in the confined nanolayers were also investigated. The novel olefinic block copolymer (OBC) studied in the second part consisted of long crystallizable sequences with low comonomer content alternating with rubbery amorphous blocks with high comonomer content. The crystallizable blocks formed lamellae that organized into space-filling spherulites even when the fraction of crystallizable block was so low that the crystallinity was only 7%. These unusual spherulites were highly elastic and recovered from strains as high as 300%. These "elastic spherulites" imparted higher strain recovery and temperature resistance than the conventional random copolymers that depend on isolated, fringed micellar-like crystals to provide the junctions for the elastomeric network. In the third part, positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) was used to obtain the temperature dependence of the free

  16. Balance of optical, structural, and electrical properties of textured liquid phase crystallized Si solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preidel, V., E-mail: veit.preidel@helmholtz-berlin.de; Amkreutz, D.; Haschke, J.; Wollgarten, M.; Rech, B.; Becker, C. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Division Renewable Energy, Kekuléstr. 5, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-06-14

    Liquid phase crystallized Si thin-film solar cells on nanoimprint textured glass substrates exhibiting two characteristic, but distinct different surface structures are presented. The impact of the substrate texture on light absorption, the structural Si material properties, and the resulting solar cell performance is analyzed. A pronounced periodic substrate texture with a vertical feature size of about 1 μm enables excellent light scattering and light trapping. However, it also gives rise to an enhanced Si crystal defect formation deteriorating the solar cell performance. In contrast, a random pattern with a low surface roughness of 45 nm allows for the growth of Si thin films being comparable to Si layers on planar reference substrates. Amorphous Si/crystalline Si heterojunction solar cells fabricated on the low-roughness texture exhibit a maximum open circuit voltage of 616 mV and internal quantum efficiency peak values exceeding 90%, resulting in an efficiency potential of 13.2%. This demonstrates that high quality crystalline Si thin films can be realized on nanoimprint patterned glass substrates by liquid phase crystallization inspiring the implementation of tailor-made nanophotonic light harvesting concepts into future liquid phase crystallized Si thin film solar cells on glass.

  17. Interfacial microstructure and joining properties of Titanium–Zirconium–Molybdenum alloy joints brazed using Ti–28Ni eutectic brazing alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, X.G., E-mail: songxg@hitwh.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Shandong Provincial Key Lab of Special Welding Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology at Weihai, Weihai 264209 (China); Tian, X. [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Shandong Provincial Key Lab of Special Welding Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology at Weihai, Weihai 264209 (China); Zhao, H.Y. [Shandong Provincial Key Lab of Special Welding Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology at Weihai, Weihai 264209 (China); Si, X.Q.; Han, G.H.; Feng, J.C. [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Shandong Provincial Key Lab of Special Welding Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology at Weihai, Weihai 264209 (China)

    2016-01-20

    Vacuum brazing of Titanium–Zirconium–Molybdenum (Abbreviated as TZM) alloy using Ti–28Ni (wt%) eutectic brazing alloy was successfully achieved in this study. Reliable TZM brazed joints were obtained at the temperatures ranging from 1000 °C to 1160 °C for 600 s. The interfacial microstructure of TZM joints was characterized by employing SEM, EDS and XRD. The effects of brazing temperature on interfacial microstructure and joining properties were investigated in details. TZM brazed joints mainly consisted of δ-Ti{sub 2}Ni phase and Ti-based solid solution (Ti(s,s)). The interfacial microstructure of TZM joints was influenced obviously by brazing temperature. Both the thickness of brazing seam and the amount of δ-Ti{sub 2}Ni phase was reduced with the increasing brazing temperature, while the Ti(s,s) layer did not change significantly. The maximum average shear strength of TZM joints reached 107 MPa when brazed at 1080 °C. The presence of δ-Ti{sub 2}Ni intermetallic phase and crack-like structure in joints deteriorated the joining properties, which resulted in the formation of brittle fracture after shear test. In addition, fracture locations were related to the brazing temperature. When the brazing temperature was relatively low, cracks initiated and propagated in the continuous δ-Ti{sub 2}Ni layer. However, the fracture locations preferred to locating at the interface between TZM substrate and brazing seam when brazing temperature exceeded 1080 °C.

  18. Evaluation of strength property variations across 9Cr-1Mo steel weld joints using automated ball indentation (ABI) technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaraju, S.; GaneshKumar, J.; Vasantharaja, P.; Vasudevan, M.; Laha, K.

    2017-01-01

    The variations of strength properties across 9Cr-1Mo steel weld joints fabricated by different arc welding processes such as shielded metal arc welding (SMAW), tungsten inert gas (TIG) and activated tungsten inert gas (A-TIG) have been evaluated employing automatic ball indentation (ABI) technique. ABI tests were conducted at 298 K across various zones of the weld joints comprising of base metal, weld metal, heat affected zone (HAZ) and intercritical HAZ (ICHAZ) regions. The flow curves obtained from ABI tests were correlated with corresponding conventional tensile test results. In general, the tensile strength decreased systematically across the weld joint from weld metal to base metal. Inter critical HAZ exhibited the least strength implying that it is the weakest zone. The incomplete phase transformation in the ICHAZ during weld thermal cycle caused the softening. The A-TIG weld metal exhibited higher UTS and strain hardening values due to higher carbon in the martensite. The strain hardening exponent exhibited only slight variation across the various regions of the weld joints. A-TIG weld joint exhibited higher weld metal and HAZ strength, marginally higher UTS to YS ratio in the weld metal and HAZ compared to that of the other two processes. Hence, among the three welding processes chosen, A-TIG welding process is found to be superior in producing a 9Cr-1Mo steel weld joint with better strength properties.

  19. Evaluation of strength property variations across 9Cr-1Mo steel weld joints using automated ball indentation (ABI) technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagaraju, S. [Nuclear Recycle Board, BARCF, Kalpakkam (India); GaneshKumar, J.; Vasantharaja, P. [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India); Vasudevan, M., E-mail: dev@igcar.gov.in [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India); Laha, K. [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India)

    2017-05-17

    The variations of strength properties across 9Cr-1Mo steel weld joints fabricated by different arc welding processes such as shielded metal arc welding (SMAW), tungsten inert gas (TIG) and activated tungsten inert gas (A-TIG) have been evaluated employing automatic ball indentation (ABI) technique. ABI tests were conducted at 298 K across various zones of the weld joints comprising of base metal, weld metal, heat affected zone (HAZ) and intercritical HAZ (ICHAZ) regions. The flow curves obtained from ABI tests were correlated with corresponding conventional tensile test results. In general, the tensile strength decreased systematically across the weld joint from weld metal to base metal. Inter critical HAZ exhibited the least strength implying that it is the weakest zone. The incomplete phase transformation in the ICHAZ during weld thermal cycle caused the softening. The A-TIG weld metal exhibited higher UTS and strain hardening values due to higher carbon in the martensite. The strain hardening exponent exhibited only slight variation across the various regions of the weld joints. A-TIG weld joint exhibited higher weld metal and HAZ strength, marginally higher UTS to YS ratio in the weld metal and HAZ compared to that of the other two processes. Hence, among the three welding processes chosen, A-TIG welding process is found to be superior in producing a 9Cr-1Mo steel weld joint with better strength properties.

  20. Extrinsic and intrinsic properties in metal–insulator transition of hydrothermally prepared vanadium dioxide crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myeongsoon; Kim, Don

    2014-01-01

    The clear insulator (monoclinic-VO 2 ) to metal (rutile-VO 2 ) transition (IMT) was observed in electrical conductivity and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) measurements at around 340 K, which is IMT temperature (T H ), in the hydrothermally prepared VO 2 crystals. The occurrence of metal to insulator transition (MIT) temperature (T C ) was observed below 333 K during the first resistance measurement cycle in the most of cases. The sudden jump of the electrical resistance at IMT and MIT points was amplified several times than that of the first cycle during the repeated successive thermal cycles (heating and cooling across the IMT and MIT temperatures). T C and T H shifted to higher temperature by the repeated successive thermal cycles. This shift and the amplified jump might be related to the mechanical stress between the VO 2 crystals, i.e. extrinsic properties. However, the starting point of MIT, T CS = ∼ 336 K, and the starting point of IMT, T HS = ∼ 338 K, kept almost constant during the repeated thermal cycles (< 10 times). These two temperatures may be related to the intrinsic properties of the VO 2 : the phase transitions initiated at these temperatures regardless of the number of the repeated thermal cycles. The neat surface of the VO 2 crystals was severely damaged and the average size of particles reduced from 110 nm to 70–90 nm after extensively repeated thermal cycles (> 70 times). The damaged surface and the smaller particles, which would be originated from the mechanical stress caused by crystal volume change during the first order transition of the VO 2 , would weaken the electrical conduction path (loosen grain boundaries) between the VO 2 single crystals and would result in the amplified jump at the following MIT. This report may boost the study for the improved stability and lifetime of the VO 2 based electronic devices. - Highlights: • The sharp phase transition in cluster of VO 2 crystals depends on repeated thermal cycles.

  1. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Stainless Steel/Brass Joints Brazed by Sn-Electroplated Ag Brazing Filler Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingxing; Peng, Jin; Cui, Datian

    2018-05-01

    To develop a high-Sn-content AgCuZnSn brazing filler metal, the BAg50CuZn was used as the base filler metal and a Sn layer was electroplated upon it. Then, the 304 stainless steel and the H62 brass were induction-brazed with the Sn-plated brazing filler metals. The microstructures of the joints were examined with an optical microscope, a scanning electron microscope and an x-ray diffractometer. The corresponding mechanical properties were obtained with a universal tensile testing machine. The results indicated that the induction brazed joints consisted of the Ag phase, the Cu phase and the CuZn phase. When the content of Sn in the Sn-plated Ag brazing filler metal was 6.0 or 7.2 wt.%, the Cu5Zn8, the Cu41Sn11 and the Ag3Sn phases appeared in the brazed joint. The tensile strength of the joints brazed with the Sn-plated filler metal was higher compared to the joints with the base filler metal. When the content of Sn was 6.0 wt.%, the highest tensile strength of the joint reached to 395 MPa. The joint fractures presented a brittle mode, mixed with a low amount of ductile fracture, when the content of Sn exceeded 6.0 wt.%.

  2. Crystal phase transition in LixNa1-xGdF4 solid solution nanocrystals - Tuning of optical properties

    KAUST Repository

    Bański, Mateusz; Afzaal, Mohammad; Cha, Dong Kyu; Wang, X.; Tan, Hua; Misiewicz, Jan J.; Podhorodecki, Artur P.

    2014-01-01

    field symmetry and emission properties from doped europium (Eu3+) ions. We report that for lithium (Li+) substitution <15%, the hexagonal crystal field is preferred, while the Eu3+ emission is already tuned, whereas at higher Li+ substitution, a phase

  3. Piezoelectric Ca{sub 3}NbGa{sub 3}Si{sub 2}O{sub 14} crystal: crystal growth, piezoelectric and acoustic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roshchupkin, Dmitry; Emelin, Evgenii [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Microelectronics Technology and High-Purity Materials, Chernogolovka, Moscow District (Russian Federation); National University of Science and Technology MISiS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ortega, Luc [Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS, UMR 8502, Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, Orsay Cedex (France); Plotitcyna, Olga; Irzhak, Dmitry [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Microelectronics Technology and High-Purity Materials, Chernogolovka, Moscow District (Russian Federation); Erko, Alexei; Zizak, Ivo; Vadilonga, Simone [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH, Institute for Nanometre Optics and Technology, Berlin (Germany); Buzanov, Oleg [FOMOS Materials Co., Moscow (Russian Federation); Leitenberger, Wolfram [Universitaet Potsdam Institut fuer Physik, Potsdam (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    Ca{sub 3}NbGa{sub 3}Si{sub 2}O{sub 14} (CNGS), a five-component crystal of lanthanum-gallium silicate group, was grown by the Czochralski method. The parameters of the elementary unit cell of the crystal were measured by powder diffraction. The independent piezoelectric strain coefficients d{sub 11} and d{sub 14} were determined by the triple-axis X-ray diffraction in the Bragg and Laue geometries. Excitation and propagation of surface acoustic waves (SAW) were studied by high-resolution X-ray diffraction at BESSY II synchrotron radiation source. The velocity of SAW propagation and power flow angles in the Y-, X- and yxl/+36 {sup circle} -cuts of the CNGS crystal were determined from the analysis of the diffraction spectra. The CNGS crystal was found practically isotropic by its acoustic properties. (orig.)

  4. In situ crystallized zirconium phenylphosphonate films with crystals vertically to the substrate and their hydrophobic, dielectric, and anticorrosion properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zhaohui; Zhang, Fazhi; Wang, Lei; Xu, Sailong; Guo, Xiaoxiao

    2010-01-05

    The in situ crystallization technique has been utilized to fabricate zirconium phenylphosphonate (ZrPP) films with their hexagonal crystallite perpendicular to the copper substrate. The micro/nano roughness surface structure, as well as the intrinsic hydrophobic characteristic of the surface functional groups, affords ZrPP films excellent hydrophobicity with water contact angle (CA) ranging from 134 degrees to 151 degrees , without any low-surface-energy modification. Particularly, in the corrosive solutions such as acidic or basic solutions over a wide pH from 2 to 12, no obvious fluctuation in CA was observed for all the ZrPP film. The k values of the hydrophobic ZrPP films are in the low-k range (k feature is proposed to bear ZrPP film a more stable low-k value in an ambient atmosphere. Besides, the polarization current of ZrPP films is reduced by 2 orders of magnitude, compared to that of the untreated copper substrate. Even deposited in a vacuum oven for 30 days at room temperature, ZrPP films also show excellent corrosion resistance, indicating a stable anticorrosion property.

  5. Bulk crystal growth and their effective third order nonlinear optical properties of 2-(4-fluorobenzylidene) malononitrile (FBM) single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyadharshini, A.; Kalainathan, S.

    2018-04-01

    2-(4-fluorobenzylidene) malononitrile (FBM), an organic third order nonlinear (TONLO) single crystal with the dimensions of 32 × 7 × 11 mm3, has been successfully grown in acetone solution by slow evaporation technique at 35 °C. The crystal system (triclinic), space group (P-1) and crystalline purity of the titular crystal were measured by single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction, respectively. The molecular weight and the multiple functional groups of the FBM material were confirmed through the mass and FT-IR spectral analysis. UV-Vis-NIR spectral study enroles that the FBM crystal exhibits excellent transparency (83%) in the entire visible and near infra-red region with a wide bandgap 2.90 eV. The low dielectric constant (εr) value of FBM crystal is appreciable for microelectronics industry applications. Thermal stability and melting point (130.09 °C) were ascertained by TGA-DSC analysis. The laser-induced surface damage threshold (LDT) value of FBM specimen is found to be 2.14 GW/cm2, it is fairly good compared to other reported NLO crystals. The third - order nonlinear optical character of the FBM crystal was confirmed through the typical single beam Z-scan technique. All these finding authorized that the organic crystal of FBM is favorably suitable for NLO applications.

  6. Temperature-Induced Lattice Relaxation of Perovskite Crystal Enhances Optoelectronic Properties and Solar Cell Performance

    KAUST Repository

    Banavoth, Murali

    2016-12-14

    Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite crystals have recently become one of the most important classes of photoactive materials in the solar cell and optoelectronic communities. Albeit improvements have focused on state-of-the-art technology including various fabrication methods, device architectures, and surface passivation, progress is yet to be made in understanding the actual operational temperature on the electronic properties and the device performances. Therefore, the substantial effect of temperature on the optoelectronic properties, charge separation, charge recombination dynamics, and photoconversion efficiency are explored. The results clearly demonstrated a significant enhancement in the carrier mobility, photocurrent, charge carrier lifetime, and solar cell performance in the 60 ± 5 °C temperature range. In this temperature range, perovskite crystal exhibits a highly symmetrical relaxed cubic structure with well-aligned domains that are perpendicular to a principal axis, thereby remarkably improving the device operation. This finding provides a new key variable component and paves the way toward using perovskite crystals in highly efficient photovoltaic cells.

  7. Effect of Mg and Cu on mechanical properties of high-strength welded joints of aluminum alloys obtained by laser welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annin, B. D.; Fomin, V. M.; Karpov, E. V.; Malikov, A. G.; Orishich, A. M.

    2017-09-01

    Results of experimental investigations of welded joints of high-strength aluminum-lithium alloys of the Al-Cu-Li and Al-Mg-Li systems are reported. The welded joints are obtained by means of laser welding and are subjected to various types of processing for obtaining high-strength welded joints. A microstructural analysis is performed. The phase composition and mechanical properties of the welded joints before and after heat treatment are studied. It is found that combined heat treatment of the welded joint (annealing, quenching, and artificial ageing) increases the joint strength, but appreciably decreases the alloy strength outside the region thermally affected by the welding process.

  8. Determination of structure and properties of molecular crystals from first principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalewicz, Krzysztof

    2014-11-18

    CONSPECTUS: Until recently, it had been impossible to predict structures of molecular crystals just from the knowledge of the chemical formula for the constituent molecule(s). A solution of this problem has been achieved using intermolecular force fields computed from first principles. These fields were developed by calculating interaction energies of molecular dimers and trimers using an ab initio method called symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT) based on density-functional theory (DFT) description of monomers [SAPT(DFT)]. For clusters containing up to a dozen or so atoms, interaction energies computed using SAPT(DFT) are comparable in accuracy to the results of the best wave function-based methods, whereas the former approach can be applied to systems an order of magnitude larger than the latter. In fact, for monomers with a couple dozen atoms, SAPT(DFT) is about equally time-consuming as the supermolecular DFT approach. To develop a force field, SAPT(DFT) calculations are performed for a large number of dimer and possibly also trimer configurations (grid points in intermolecular coordinates), and the interaction energies are then fitted by analytic functions. The resulting force fields can be used to determine crystal structures and properties by applying them in molecular packing, lattice energy minimization, and molecular dynamics calculations. In this way, some of the first successful determinations of crystal structures were achieved from first principles, with crystal densities and lattice parameters agreeing with experimental values to within about 1%. Crystal properties obtained using similar procedures but empirical force fields fitted to crystal data have typical errors of several percent due to low sensitivity of empirical fits to interactions beyond those of the nearest neighbors. The first-principles approach has additional advantages over the empirical approach for notional crystals and cocrystals since empirical force fields can only be

  9. Effect of groove design on mechanical and metallurgical properties of quenched and tempered low alloy abrasion resistant steel welded joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Varun; Shahi, A.S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of weld groove design on Q and T steel welded joints is investigated. • Groove design influences heat dissipation characteristics of welded joints. • Double-V groove joint possesses maximum yield strength and UTS. • C-groove joint possesses highest impact energy, both at room temperature and 0 °C. • A wide variation in microhardness exists across different zone of the weldments. - Abstract: Experimental investigations were carried out to study the influence of three different groove designs on mechanical and metallurgical properties of 15 mm thick Q and T (quenched and tempered) steel welded joints. Welding heat input variation corresponding to each joint configuration was kept to a minimal such that the objective of investigating, exclusively, the effect of varied weld volume on the mechanical and metallurgical performance of these joints could be accomplished. Mechanical performance of these joints was evaluated by subjecting them to transverse tensile testing, and Charpy V-notch impact testing of the weld zones at room temperature and 0 °C. The results of this study reveal that among all types of groove formations used for welding, double-V groove joint possessed maximum YS (yield strength) and UTS (ultimate tensile strength), besides maximum strength ratio (YS/UTS) that was followed by U-groove joint and C-groove joint, respectively. However, weld zone tested individually, for the cover as well as the root pass of the C-groove joint possessed highest CVN (Charpy V-notch) values, both at room temperature and 0 °C. Extensive microhardness studies of these weldments showed a wide variation in the microhardness values of the weld zone and the HAZ (heat affected zone). It was concluded that each groove formation/design exerted a significant influence on the heat dissipation characteristics of these joints, which is evident from different morphological features as revealed through optical microscopy. Scanning electron microscopic

  10. A Novel Coordination Polymer Based on Trinuclear Cobalt Building Blocks Cluster: Synthesis, Crystal Structure, and Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, J. F.; Tang, Z. H.; Shi, J.; Ge, H. G.; Jiang, M.; Song, J.; Jin, L. X.

    2017-12-01

    The title compound {[Co3(μ3-OH)(μ2-H2O)2(H2O)5(BTC)2] · 6H2O} n (H3BTC is a 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic acid) was prepared and characterized by single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric and elemental analyses. The single crystal X-ray diffraction reveals that the title compound consists of 1D infinite zigzag chains which were constructed by trinuclear cobalt cluster and BTC3- ligand. Neighbouring above-mentioned 1D infinite zigzag chains are further linked by intermolecular hydrogen bonding to form a 3D supermolecular structure. In addition, the luminescent properties of the title compound were investigated.

  11. Physical properties of pre-crystallized mixtures of cocoa butter and cupuassu fat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quast, L.B.; Luccas, V.; Kieckbusch, T.G.

    2011-07-01

    The physical characteristics of pre-crystallized binary mixtures of cocoa butter (Bahia + Indonesian blend) and 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30% (w/w) cupuassu fat were determined. recrystallization was carried out using a lab-scale agitated jacket vessel reactor (700 mL). Samples were submitted to differential scanning calorimetry and X-Ray diffraction. The solid fat content and rupture force were also quantified. The snap values of the crystallized mixture decreased with an increase in the amount of alternative fat. A similar trend was observed with respect to the melting point values. The cocoa butter and cupuassu fat X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the predominant formation of the a-circumflex polimorph. The addition of up to 30% cupuassu fat did not significantly affect the values of the physical properties when compared to pure cocoa butter (Author).

  12. Microstructural, optical and electrical properties of Cl-doped CdTe single crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Hyojeong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Microstructural, optical and electrical properties of Cl-doped CdTe crystals grown by the low pressure Bridgman (LPB method were investigated for four different doping concentrations (unintentionally doped, 4.97 × 1019 cm−3, 9.94 × 1019 cm−3 and 1.99 × 1020 cm−3 and three different locations within the ingots (namely, samples from top, middle and bottom positions in the order of the distance from the tip of the ingot. It was shown that Cl dopant suppressed the unwanted secondary (5 1 1 crystalline orientation. Also, the average size and surface coverage of Te inclusions decreased with an increase in Cl doping concentration. Spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements showed that the optical quality of the Cl-doped CdTe single crystals was enhanced. The resistivity of the CdTe sample doped with Cl at the 1.99 × 1020 cm−3 was above 1010 Ω.cm.

  13. Effect of cobalt on microstructural parameters and mechanical properties of Ni-base single crystal superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Takanobu; Imai, Hachiro; Yokokawa, Tadaharu; Kobayashi, Toshiharu; Koizumi, Yutaka; Harada, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    The alloying effect of Cobalt (Co) to microstructural parameters and mechanical properties, such as partitioning ratios of alloying elements and creep strength, of Re-bearing Ni-base single crystal superalloys have been investigated. The second generation single crystal superalloys, TMS-82+, Ni-7.8Co-4.9Cr-1.9Mo-8.7W-5.3Al-6.0Ta-2.4Re-0.1Hf, in mass% (8Co) was compared to a Co-free (0Co) and 15 mass% Co (15Co) alloy which had the same chemical composition as TMS-82+ except that Co was changed. It was shown that the partitioning ratios of alloying elements trend to k(=X γ /X' γ )=1, as the content of Co was increased. Furthermore, it was found that there was suitable content of Co for the creep strength under various temperature-stress conditions. (author)

  14. Synthesis, Crystal Structure and Water Vapor Adsorption Properties of a Porous Supramolecular Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Qiao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A new complex, [Cu4(HL4(H2O14] (1, H3L·HCl = 5-((4-carboxypiperidin-1-ylmethylisophthalic acid hydrochloride, has been prepared and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD. The result of the X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that the complex crystallizes in monoclinic, space group C2/c and three unique Cu(II atoms that are connected by partially deprotonated HL2− anion to form a cyclic structure. The rich hydrogen bonding and π-π non-covalent packing interactions extend cyclic units into a three-dimensional (3D supramolecular polymer. Moreover, the thermogravimetric (TG analysis and water vapor adsorption property of 1 were also discussed.

  15. Solution-printed organic semiconductor blends exhibiting transport properties on par with single crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niazi, Muhammad R; Li, Ruipeng; Qiang Li, Er; Kirmani, Ahmad R; Abdelsamie, Maged; Wang, Qingxiao; Pan, Wenyang; Payne, Marcia M; Anthony, John E; Smilgies, Detlef-M; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T; Giannelis, Emmanuel P; Amassian, Aram

    2015-11-23

    Solution-printed organic semiconductors have emerged in recent years as promising contenders for roll-to-roll manufacturing of electronic and optoelectronic circuits. The stringent performance requirements for organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) in terms of carrier mobility, switching speed, turn-on voltage and uniformity over large areas require performance currently achieved by organic single-crystal devices, but these suffer from scale-up challenges. Here we present a new method based on blade coating of a blend of conjugated small molecules and amorphous insulating polymers to produce OTFTs with consistently excellent performance characteristics (carrier mobility as high as 6.7 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), low threshold voltages oforganic semiconductor films with transport properties and other figures of merit on par with their single-crystal counterparts.

  16. Single-crystal Au microflakes modulated by amino acids and their sensing and catalytic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingjie; Wu, Xiaochen; Zhou, Jiyu; Kong, Qingshan; Li, Chaoxu

    2016-04-01

    Single-crystal Au microflakes with the planar area over 10(3)μm(2) (i.e. being accessible to the human eye resolution) were synthesized in an environment-friendly route by directing two-dimensional growth of Au nanocrystals into macroscopic scales with amino acids as both reducing agents and capping agents. Side groups of amino acids were found to be a determinant parameter to tune the dimension and size of Au single crystals. The successful synthesis of Au microflakes provides an unprecedented opportunity to bridge nanotechnology and macroscopic devices, and hereby to start a new scenario of exploring their unique properties and applications in optoelectronic devices and bio-sensing fields across multiple length scales. For example, Au microflakes respond to air humidity upon depositing on films of chitin nanofibrils, and sense various physiological molecules as electrode materials of biosensors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Crystal orientation dependent thermoelectric properties of highly oriented aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Abutaha, Anas I.

    2013-02-06

    We demonstrate that the thermoelectric properties of highly oriented Al-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films can be improved by controlling their crystal orientation. The crystal orientation of the AZO films was changed by changing the temperature of the laser deposition process on LaAlO3 (100) substrates. The change in surface termination of the LaAlO3 substrate with temperature induces a change in AZO film orientation. The anisotropic nature of electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient of the AZO films showed a favored thermoelectric performance in c-axis oriented films. These films gave the highest power factor of 0.26 W m−1 K−1 at 740 K.

  18. Development of technology and properties investigation of steel/bronze joints proposed for ITER HHF components manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinin, G.; Krestnikov, N.S.; Strebkov, Y.S.; Abramov, V.Y.; Gervash, A.; Mazul, I.; Zolotarev, V.B.; Fabritsiev, S.A.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: During the development of ITER HHF components manufacturing it is necessary to provide reliable joints between heat sink material made of CuCrZr bronze and the supporting construction made of austenitic steel. Four different methods have been tried out: - Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP), - HIP assisted brazing, - furnace assisted brazing, - Casting. The investigation of structure and properties of joints show that HIP and casting provide the better results than the other technologies. However, HIP is relatively expensive technology, and big size HIP furnace is required for the full scale components manufacturing that are not available n RF now. Therefore, casting was selected as a reference manufacturing technology for the primary wall of ITER modules n RF. The paper summarizes the results of bronze/steel joints manufacturing and investigation of their properties. (authors)

  19. Microstructure and mechanical properties of friction stir lap welded Mg/Al joint assisted by stationary shoulder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Shude; Li, Zhengwei

    2017-11-01

    Using magnesium alloy as upper sheet, 3 mm-thick AZ31 magnesium alloy and 6061 aluminum alloy were joined using friction stir lap welding assisted by stationary shoulder. The effects of tool rotating speed on cross-sections, microstructure and mechanical properties of Mg/Al lap joints were mainly discussed. Results showed that stationary shoulder contributed to joint formation, by which stir zones (SZ) were characterized by big onion rings after welding. Because of the big forging force exerted by stationary shoulder, the upper region of hook was well bonded. SZ showed much higher hardness because of intermetallic compounds (IMCs). The bonding conditions at the base material (BM)/SZ interface at advancing side and the hook region played important roles on joint lap shear properties. The X-ray diffraction pattern analysis revealed that the main IMCs were Al3Mg2 and Al12Mg17.

  20. Sensitivity of quantitative UTE MRI to the biomechanical property of the temporomandibular joint disc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Won C.; Biswas, Reni; Statum, Sheronda; Sah, Robert L.; Chung, Christine B.

    2014-01-01

    To quantify MR properties of discs from cadaveric human temporomandibular joints (TMJ) using quantitative conventional and ultrashort time-to-echo magnetic resonance imaging (UTE MRI) techniques and to corroborate regional variation in the MR properties with that of biomechanical indentation stiffness. This study was exempt from the institutional review board approval. Cadaveric (four donors, two females, 74 ± 10.7 years) TMJs were sliced (n = 14 slices total) sagittally and imaged using quantitative techniques of conventional spin echo T2 (SE T2), UTE T2*, and UTE T1rho. The discs were then subjected to biomechanical indentation testing, which is performed by compressing the tissue with the blunt end of a small solid cylinder. Regional variations in MR and indentation stiffness were correlated. TMJ of a healthy volunteer was also imaged to show in vivo feasibility. Using the ME SE T2 and the UTE T1rho techniques, a significant (each p 2 = 0.42) than SE T2 (R 2 = 0.19) or UTE T2* (R 2 = 0.02, p = 0.1) techniques. The UTE T1rho technique, applicable in vivo, facilitated quantitative evaluation of TMJ discs and showed a high sensitivity to biomechanical softening of the TMJ discs. With additional work, the technique may become a useful surrogate measure for loss of biomechanical integrity of TMJ discs reflecting degeneration. (orig.)

  1. The investigation of Ce doped ZnO crystal: The electronic, optical and magnetic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jun-Qing; Zhang, Jian-Min; Qiu, Ze-Gang; Yang, Xu; Li, Zhi-Qin

    2018-04-01

    The electronic, optical and magnetic properties of Ce doped ZnO crystal have been studied by using first principles method. The research of formation energies show that Ce doped ZnO is energetically stable, and the formation energies reduce from 6.25% to 12.5% for Ce molar percentage. The energy band is still direct band gap after Ce doped, and band gap increases with the increase of Cesbnd Ce distance. The Fermi level moves upward into conduction band and the DOS moves to lower energy with the increase of Ce concentration, which showing the properties of n-type semiconductor. The calculated optical properties imply that Ce doped causes a red-shift of absorption peaks, and enhances the absorption of the visible light. The transition from ferromagnetic to antiferromagnetic has been found in Ce doped ZnO.

  2. Influence of molybdenum on the creep properties of nickel-base superalloy single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, R. A.; Nathal, M. V.; Pearson, D. D.

    1990-01-01

    The Mo content of an alloy series based on Ni-6 wt pct Al-6 wt pct Ta was systematically varied from 9.8 to 14.6 wt pct, in order to ascertain the influence of Mo on the creep properties of single crystals. The optimum initial gamma-gamma prime microstructure for raft development and creep strength was established in each alloy before testing. It was found that, as the Mo content increased from 9.8 to 14.0 percent, the magnitude of the lattice mismatch increased; upon reaching 14.6 percent, a degradation of mechanical properties occurred due to the precipitation of a third phase. These results suggest that small refractory metal content and initial gamma-prime variations can profoundly affect mechanical properties.

  3. Mechanical properties and long-range behaviour of TZM-welding joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakobeit, W.; Eck, R.; Ullrich, G.

    1987-01-01

    In order to utilize the known excellent high temperature properties of TZM (Mo-0,5Ti-0,08Zr) for construction of components with thick sections (sheets of 8 mm wall thickness, bars of 25 mm diameter) the testing of suitable joining techniques was necessary. Based on the present state of the art the EB- and TIG-welding as well as the friction welding seemed to be the qualified methods. The investigations of the welded specimens covered non-destructive tests and metallographic evaluations as well as tensile tests, long term creep rupture tests at 850 0 C and fatigue tests unter tension-compression stresses at room temperature and 850 0 C. EB- and TIG-weldments showed coarse grained weld and heat affected zones. Due to higher gas contents, the EB-welded specimens produced by P/M process were interspersed with pores while the joints of the ARC-cast TZM material were uniform. However, TIG-welds of both variants were affected with porosity and cracks. The friction welds were almost perfect. In the tensile tests, all the joints containing recrystallized microstructure zones ruptured in the welds at strength values equivalent to recrystallized TZM. The strength of friction welds exhibited significant higher values. At room temperature the tensile ductility of all weldments was inadequate, the friction welded specimens showed the lowest values. At 850 0 C the tensile ductility was adequate in all variants. The creep rupture tests at 850 0 C exhibit up to 10 000 h that the strength of the friction weldments exceed those of the EB-weldments. (orig./IHOE) [de

  4. 77 FR 38088 - Development of the Joint Strategic Plan on Intellectual Property Enforcement; Request of the U.S...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-26

    ... as IPEC develops a new enforcement strategy is divided into three parts. In the first section titled... threats to public health and safety and the U.S. economy resulting from intellectual property infringement... developing new enforcement strategy action items that further the priorities identified in the Joint...

  5. Properties of laser-crystallized polycrystalline SiGe thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weizman, Moshe

    2008-06-06

    In this thesis, structural, electrical, and optical properties of laser-crystallized polycrystalline Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} thin films with 0crystallization of amorphous Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} thin films with 0.3crystallized poly-Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} thin films with 0crystallization method and Ge content. The defect density for solid-phase crystallized SiGe films was lower and amounted to N{sub s}=7 x 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3}. - Germanium-rich laser-crystallized poly-SiGe thin films exhibited mostly a broad atypical electric dipole spin resonance (EDSR) signal that was accompanied by a nearly temperature-independent electrical conductivity in the range 20-100 K. - Most likely, the origin of the grain boundary conductance is due to dangling-bond defects and not impurities. Metallic-like conductance occurs when the dangling-bond defect density is above a critical value of about N{sub C} {approx} 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3}. - Laser crystallized poly-Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} thin films with x{>=}0.5 exhibit optical absorption behavior that is characteristic for disordered SiGe, implying that the absorption occurs primarily at the grain boundaries. A sub-band-gap absorption peak was found for

  6. Effects of ethyl cellulose on the crystallization and mechanical properties of poly(β-hydroxybutyrate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianxiang; Wu, Defeng; Pan, Keren

    2016-07-01

    Ethyl cellulose (EC) was blended with poly(β-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB), aiming at controlling crystallization and mechanical properties of PHB. The obtained PHB/EC blend is an immiscible system, and the discrete EC phase behaves dual characteristics in the PHB matrix, as the viscoelastic droplets during processing, and as the rigid filler particles during shear flow. This is confirmed by the rheological tests. The presence of EC domains acts as the tackifier, sharply increasing system viscosity from 1000Pas to 5000Pas, and as a result, has large influence on the spherulite morphology of PHB and its crystallization kinetics. The PHB spherulite growth rate reduces in the presence of inert EC, accompanied by decreased degree of crystallinity and reduced lamella defects. These affect the mechanical properties of PHB strongly, together with reinforcing effect of EC itself. At the lower content level, EC can act as both reinforcement and toughener. The presence of 1wt% EC enhances the tensile strength of PHB by about 22%, from 27.5MPa to 33.3MPa, accompanied by 15% increase of impact strength. This work provide an easy way to control the structure and properties of PHB using EC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Crystal structure and cation exchanging properties of a novel open framework phosphate of Ce (IV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bevara, Samatha; Achary, S. N., E-mail: sachary@barc.gov.in; Tyagi, A. K. [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Homi Bhabha National Insitute, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai 400094 (India); Patwe, S. J. [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Sinha, A. K. [Indus Synchrotrons Utilization Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India); Mishra, R. K.; Kumar, Amar; Kaushik, C. P. [Waste Management Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Herein we report preparation, crystal structure and ion exchanging properties of a new phosphate of tetravalent cerium, K{sub 2}Ce(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}. A monoclinic structure having framework type arrangement of Ce(PO{sub 4}){sub 6} units formed by C2O{sub 8} square-antiprism and PO{sub 4} tetrahedra is assigned for K{sub C}e(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}. The K{sup +} ions are occupied in the channels formed by the Ce(PO{sub 4})6 and provide overall charge neutrality. The unique channel type arrangements of the K+ make them exchangeable with other cations. The ion exchanging properties of K2Ce(PO4)2 has been investigated by equilibrating with solution of 90Sr followed by radiometric analysis. In optimum conditions, significant exchange of K+ with Sr2+ with Kd ~ 8000 mL/g is observed. The details of crystal structure and ion exchange properties are explained and a plausible mechanism for ion exchange is presented.

  8. Temperature Dependent Surface Structures and Electronic Properties of Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Perovskite Single Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jao, M.-H.; Teague, M. L.; Huang, J.-S.; Tseng, W.-S.; Yeh, N.-C.

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites, arising from research of low-cost high performance photovoltaics, have become promising materials not only for solar cells but also for various optoelectronic and spintronic applications. An interesting aspect of the hybrid perovskites is that their material properties, such as the band gap, can be easily tuned by varying the composition, temperature, and the crystalline phases. Additionally, the surface structure is critically important for their optoelectronic applications. It is speculated that different crystalline facets could show different trap densities, thus resulting in microscopically inhomogeneous performance. Here we report direct studies of the surface structures and electronic properties of hybrid perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 single crystals by scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy (STM/STS). We found long-range spatially homogeneous tunneling conductance spectra with a well-defined energy gap of (1.55 +/- 0.1) eV at 300 K in the tetragonal phase, suggesting high quality of the single crystals. The energy gap increased to (1.81 +/- 0.1) eV in the orthorhombic phase, below the tetragonal-to-orthorhombic phase transition temperature at 150 K. Detailed studies of the temperature evolution in the spatially resolved surface structures and local density of states will be discussed to elucidate how these properties may influence the optoelectronic performance of the hybrid perovskites. We thank the support from NTU in Taiwan and from NSF in the US.

  9. Mechanical Properties Transformation On Zr54Al17Co29 Bulk Metallic Glass by Partial Crystallization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanuar Rohmat Aji Pradana

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Study on biomaterials is recently essential for rapid development of medical application and Zr54Al17Co29 BMGbecomes promising candidate due to the lack of toxic elements. Partial crystallization by isothermal annealing at SCL region was used to variate the crystallinities of BMG. The structural and thermal properties of as cast and partially crystallized samples were confirmed by XRD and DSC test, while microvickers and compression test were further utilized to investigate their mechanical properties. By the higher crystallinity, the hardness could be slightly increased in range 540 ± 5 to 575 ± 5 Hv. As-cast sample shows the yield strength and plastic strain of 2130 ± 75 MPa and 2.2 ± 1.6%. The yield strength is increased by the presence of 10% nanocrystal, afterwards, fall and raise phenomena are obtained with further crystallinity. However, with higher crystallinity, the plasticity is significantly degraded and no more plastic strain observed at sample with 50% of crystallinity. Both the presence of nanocrystalline phase and free volume annihilation are the reason of mechanical properties change on the Zr-based BMG.

  10. Studies on transport properties of copper doped tungsten diselenide single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, M. P.; Parmar, M. N.; Pandya, Nilesh N.; Chaki, Sunil; Bhatt, Sandip V.

    2012-02-01

    During recent years, transition metal dichalcogenides of groups IVB, VB and VIB have received considerable attention because of the great diversity in their transport properties. 2H-WSe 2 (Tungsten diselenide) is an interesting member of the transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDC's) family and known to be a semiconductor useful for photovoltaic and optoelectronic applications. The anisotropy usually observed in this diamagnetic semiconductor material is a result of the sandwich structure of Se-W-Se layers interacting with each other, loosely bonded by the weak Van der Waals forces. Recent efforts in studying the influence of the anisotropic electrical and optical properties of this layered-type transition metal dichalcogenides have been implemented by doping the samples with different alkali group elements. Unfortunately, little work is reported on doping of metals in WSe 2. Therefore, it is proposed in this work to carry out a systematic growth of single crystals of WSe 2 by doping it with copper in different proportions i.e. Cu xWSe 2 ( x=0, 0.5, 1.0) by direct vapour transport technique. Transport properties like low and high temperature resistivity measurements, high pressure resistivity, Seebeck coefficient measurements at low temperature and Hall Effect at room temperature were studied in detail on all these samples. These measurements show that tungsten diselenide single crystals are p-type whereas doped with copper makes it n-type in nature. The results obtained and their implications are discussed in this paper.

  11. Luminescent and structural properties of Zn_xMg_1_-_xWO_4 mixed crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krutyak, N.; Nagirnyi, V.; Spassky, D.; Tupitsyna, I.; Dubovik, A.; Belsky, A.

    2016-01-01

    The structural and luminescent properties of perspective scintillating Zn_xMg_1_-_xWO_4 mixed crystals were studied. The following characteristics were found to depend linearly on x value: the energy of several vibrational modes detected by Raman spectroscopy, the bandgap width deduced from the shift of the excitation spectrum onset of a self-trapped exciton (STE) emission, the position of thermally stimulated luminescence peaks. It is also shown that the thermal stability of the STE luminescence decreases gradually when x decreases. These data indicate that each Zn_xMg_1_-_xWO_4 mixed crystal is not a mixture of two constituents, but possesses its original crystalline structure, as well as optical and luminescent properties. - Highlights: • The structural and luminescent properties of Zn_xMg_1_-_xWO_4 were studied. • The energy of Raman modes, the bandgap width, TSL peak position linearly depend on x. • Each Zn_xMg_1_-_xWO_4 possesses its original crystalline structure.

  12. Sensitivity of quantitative UTE MRI to the biomechanical property of the temporomandibular joint disc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Won C.; Biswas, Reni; Statum, Sheronda [University of California-San Diego, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Sah, Robert L. [University of California-San Diego, Department of Bioengineering, La Jolla, CA (United States); Chung, Christine B. [University of California-San Diego, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); VA San Diego Healthcare System, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2014-09-15

    To quantify MR properties of discs from cadaveric human temporomandibular joints (TMJ) using quantitative conventional and ultrashort time-to-echo magnetic resonance imaging (UTE MRI) techniques and to corroborate regional variation in the MR properties with that of biomechanical indentation stiffness. This study was exempt from the institutional review board approval. Cadaveric (four donors, two females, 74 ± 10.7 years) TMJs were sliced (n = 14 slices total) sagittally and imaged using quantitative techniques of conventional spin echo T2 (SE T2), UTE T2*, and UTE T1rho. The discs were then subjected to biomechanical indentation testing, which is performed by compressing the tissue with the blunt end of a small solid cylinder. Regional variations in MR and indentation stiffness were correlated. TMJ of a healthy volunteer was also imaged to show in vivo feasibility. Using the ME SE T2 and the UTE T1rho techniques, a significant (each p < 0.0001) inverse relation between MR and indentation stiffness properties was observed for the data in the lower range of stiffness. However, the strength of correlation was significantly higher (p < 0.05) for UTE T1rho (R{sup 2} = 0.42) than SE T2 (R{sup 2} = 0.19) or UTE T2* (R{sup 2} = 0.02, p = 0.1) techniques. The UTE T1rho technique, applicable in vivo, facilitated quantitative evaluation of TMJ discs and showed a high sensitivity to biomechanical softening of the TMJ discs. With additional work, the technique may become a useful surrogate measure for loss of biomechanical integrity of TMJ discs reflecting degeneration. (orig.)

  13. Ultrafast characterization of phase-change material crystallization properties in the melt-quenched amorphous phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyasingh, Rakesh; Fong, Scott W; Lee, Jaeho; Li, Zijian; Chang, Kuo-Wei; Mantegazza, Davide; Asheghi, Mehdi; Goodson, Kenneth E; Wong, H-S Philip

    2014-06-11

    Phase change materials are widely considered for application in nonvolatile memories because of their ability to achieve phase transformation in the nanosecond time scale. However, the knowledge of fast crystallization dynamics in these materials is limited because of the lack of fast and accurate temperature control methods. In this work, we have developed an experimental methodology that enables ultrafast characterization of phase-change dynamics on a more technologically relevant melt-quenched amorphous phase using practical device structures. We have extracted the crystallization growth velocity (U) in a functional capped phase change memory (PCM) device over 8 orders of magnitude (10(-10) 10(8) K/s), which reveals the extreme fragility of Ge2Sb2Te5 in its supercooled liquid phase. Furthermore, these crystallization properties were studied as a function of device programming cycles, and the results show degradation in the cell retention properties due to elemental segregation. The above experiments are enabled by the use of an on-chip fast heater and thermometer called as microthermal stage (MTS) integrated with a vertical phase change memory (PCM) cell. The temperature at the PCM layer can be controlled up to 600 K using MTS and with a thermal time constant of 800 ns, leading to heating rates ∼10(8) K/s that are close to the typical device operating conditions during PCM programming. The MTS allows us to independently control the electrical and thermal aspects of phase transformation (inseparable in a conventional PCM cell) and extract the temperature dependence of key material properties in real PCM devices.

  14. Properties and crystal structure of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase from Thermus thermophilus HB8.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayaka Igari

    Full Text Available Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR is one of the enzymes involved in homocysteine metabolism. Despite considerable genetic and clinical attention, the reaction mechanism and regulation of this enzyme are not fully understood because of difficult production and poor stability. While recombinant enzymes from thermophilic organisms are often stable and easy to prepare, properties of thermostable MTHFRs have not yet been reported.MTHFR from Thermus thermophilus HB8, a homologue of Escherichia coli MetF, has been expressed in E. coli and purified. The purified MTHFR was chiefly obtained as a heterodimer of apo- and holo-subunits, that is, one flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD prosthetic group bound per dimer. The crystal structure of the holo-subunit was quite similar to the β(8α(8 barrel of E. coli MTHFR, while that of the apo-subunit was a previously unobserved closed form. In addition, the intersubunit interface of the dimer in the crystals was different from any of the subunit interfaces of the tetramer of E. coli MTHFR. Free FAD could be incorporated into the apo-subunit of the purified Thermus enzyme after purification, forming a homodimer of holo-subunits. Comparison of the crystal structures of the heterodimer and the homodimer revealed different intersubunit interfaces, indicating a large conformational change upon FAD binding. Most of the biochemical properties of the heterodimer and the homodimer were the same, except that the homodimer showed ≈50% activity per FAD-bound subunit in folate-dependent reactions.The different intersubunit interfaces and rearrangement of subunits of Thermus MTHFR may be related to human enzyme properties, such as the allosteric regulation by S-adenosylmethionine and the enhanced instability of the Ala222Val mutant upon loss of FAD. Whereas E. coli MTHFR was the only structural model for human MTHFR to date, our findings suggest that Thermus MTHFR will be another useful model for this important enzyme.

  15. Microstructure and mechanical properties of similar and dissimilar joints of aluminium alloy and pure copper by friction stir welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.C. Sinha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the microstructure and mechanical properties of similar and dissimilar friction stir welded joints of aluminium alloy (AlA and pure copper (Cu were evaluated at variable tool rotational speeds from 150 to 900 rpm in steps of 150 rpm at 60 mm/min travel speed and constant tilt angle 2°. The interfacial microstructures of the joints were characterised by optical and scanning electron microscopy. The Al4Cu9, AlCu, Al2Cu and Al2Cu3 intermetallic compounds have been observed at the interface and stir zone region of dissimilar Al/Cu FSWed joints. Variation in the grain size was observed in the stir zone depending upon the heat input value. Axial force, traverse force and torque value were analysed with variation in tool rotational speed. Residual stresses were measured at the stir zone by X-ray diffraction technique. Maximum ultimate tensile strength of ∼75% of AlA strength for AlA–AlA joints has been obtained at 750 rpm and for Cu–Cu joint tensile strength of ∼100% of tensile strength of Cu was obtained at 300 rpm. However, for Cu–AlA joint when processed at 600 rpm tool rotational speed achieved maximum ultimate tensile strength of ∼77% of AlA.

  16. Effect of Thread and Rotating Speed on Material Flow Behavior and Mechanical Properties of Friction Stir Lap Welding Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Shude; Li, Zhengwei; Zhou, Zhenlu; Wu, Baosheng

    2017-10-01

    This study focused on the effects of thread on hook and cold lap formation, lap shear property and impact toughness of alclad 2024-T4 friction stir lap welding (FSLW) joints. Except the traditional threaded pin tool (TR-tool), three new tools with different thread locations and orientations were designed. Results showed that thread significantly affected hook, cold lap morphologies and lap shear properties. The tool with tip-threaded pin (T-tool) fabricated joint with flat hook and cold lap, which resulted in shear fracture mode. The tools with bottom-threaded pin (B-tool) eliminated the hook. The tool with reverse-threaded pin (R-tool) widened the stir zone width. When using configuration A, the joints fabricated by the three new tools showed higher failure loads than the joint fabricated by the TR-tool. The joint using the T-tool owned the optimum impact toughness. This study demonstrated the significance of thread during FSLW and provided a reference to optimize tool geometry.

  17. Tool geometry, rotation and travel speeds effects on the properties of dissimilar magnesium/aluminum friction stir welded lap joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadi, J.; Behnamian, Y.; Mostafaei, A.; Gerlich, A.P.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Tool geometry, rotation and travel speeds show great effect on the microstructure stability of FSW joint. • Increasing rotation and travel speeds resulted in increasing the tensile strength and ductility of the joints. • Better intermixing between Al/Mg alloys was obtained by tapered threaded pin. • A mechanical interlocking mechanism proposed for higher ductility and superior tensile properties in FSW joints. - Abstract: Lap joint friction stir welding (FSW) between dissimilar AZ31B and Al 6061 alloys sheets was conducted using various welding parameters including tool geometry, rotation and travel speeds. Tapered threaded pin and tapered pin tools were applied to fabricate FSW joints, using different rotation and travel speeds. Metallurgical investigations including X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD), optical microscopy images (OM), scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM–EDS) and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) were used to characterize joints microstructures made with different welding parameters. Intermetallic phases were detected in the weld zone (WZ). Various microstructures were observed in the stir zone which can be attributed to using different travel and rotation speeds. Mechanical evaluation including lap shear fracture load test and microhardness measurements indicated that by simultaneously increasing the tool rotation and travel speeds, the joint tensile strength and ductility reached a maximum value. Microhardness studies and extracted results from stress–strain curves indicated that mechanical properties were affected by FSW process. Furthermore, phase analyses by XRD indicated the presence of intermetallic compounds in the weld zone. Finally, in the Al/Mg dissimilar weld, fractography studies showed that intermetallic compounds formation in the weld zone had an influence on the failure mode

  18. Thermal properties and continuous-wave laser performance of Yb:LuVO4 crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Y.; Zhang, H. J.; Yu, Y. G.; Wang, J. Y.; Tao, X. T.; Liu, J. H.; Petrov, V.; Ling, Z. C.; Xia, H. R.; Jiang, M. H.

    2007-03-01

    A laser crystal of Yb:LuVO4 with high optical quality was grown by the Czochralski technique. Its thermal properties including specific heat, thermal expansion coefficients, and thermal conductivities along the a- and c-axis have been measured for the first time. Continuous-wave laser output up to 3.5 W at 1031 nm was obtained at room temperature through end-pumping by a high-power diode laser. The corresponding optical conversion efficiency was 43% and the slope efficiency was 72%.

  19. Magnetic and magneto-elastic properties of a single crystal of TbB{sub 6}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granovsky, S.A.; Amara, M.; Galera, R.M. [Laboratoire Louis Neel, CNRS, BP 166, Grenoble (France); Kunii, S. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Tohoku University, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai (Japan)

    2001-07-23

    The magnetic and magneto-elastic properties of a single crystal of TbB{sub 6} are studied. In the ordered range metamagnetic behaviours are observed and complex phase diagrams are determined for magnetic fields along fourfold and threefold directions. In the paramagnetic phase the third-order magnetic susceptibilities and the parastriction curves show anisotropic behaviour which could be accounted for by crystalline electric field (CEF) effects. A set of CEF parameters is proposed on the basis of the analysis of the experimental magnetic and quadrupolar susceptibilities. Though non-negligible, the deduced quadrupolar couplings are weak in comparison with those previously determined in PrB{sub 6}. (author)

  20. Crystal structure and magnetic properties of Mn substituted ludwigite Co 3O 2BO 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knyazev, Yu. V.; Ivanova, N. B.; Kazak, N. V.; Platunov, M. S.; Bezmaternykh, L. N.; Velikanov, D. А.; Vasiliev, А. D.; Ovchinnikov, S. G.; Yurkin, G. Yu.

    2012-03-01

    The needle shape single crystals Co3-x MnxO2BO3 with ludwigite structure have been prepared. According to the X-ray diffraction data the preferable character of distinct crystallographic positions occupation by Mn ions is established. Magnetization field and temperature dependencies are measured. Paramagnetic Curie temperature value Θ=-100 K points out the predominance of antiferromagnetic interactions. Spin-glass magnetic ordering takes the onset at TN=41 K. The crystallographic and magnetic properties of Co3O2BO3:Mn are compared with the same for the isostructural analogs Co3O2BO3 and CoO2BO3:Fe.

  1. Acoustic and elastic properties of Sn2P2S6 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mys, O; Martynyuk-Lototska, I; Vlokh, R; Grabar, A

    2009-01-01

    We present the results concerned with acoustic and elastic properties of Sn 2 P 2 S 6 crystals. The complete matrices of elastic stiffness and compliance coefficients are determined in both the crystallographic coordinate system and the system associated with eigenvectors of the elastic stiffness tensor. The acoustic slowness surfaces are constructed and the propagation and polarization directions of the slowest acoustic waves promising for acousto-optic interactions are determined on this basis. The acoustic obliquity angle and the deviation of polarization of the acoustic waves from purely transverse or longitudinal states are quantitatively analysed.

  2. Acoustic and elastic properties of Sn(2)P(2)S(6) crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mys, O; Martynyuk-Lototska, I; Grabar, A; Vlokh, R

    2009-07-01

    We present the results concerned with acoustic and elastic properties of Sn(2)P(2)S(6) crystals. The complete matrices of elastic stiffness and compliance coefficients are determined in both the crystallographic coordinate system and the system associated with eigenvectors of the elastic stiffness tensor. The acoustic slowness surfaces are constructed and the propagation and polarization directions of the slowest acoustic waves promising for acousto-optic interactions are determined on this basis. The acoustic obliquity angle and the deviation of polarization of the acoustic waves from purely transverse or longitudinal states are quantitatively analysed.

  3. Effect of Ge atoms on crystal structure and optoelectronic properties of hydrogenated Si-Ge films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianwei; Zhang, Jianjun; Ma, Ying; Yu, Yunwu; Zhao, Ying

    2017-07-01

    Optoelectronic and structural properties of hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon-germanium (μc-Si1-xGex:H) alloys prepared by radio-frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (RF-PECVD) were investigated. When the Ge atoms were predominantly incorporated in amorphous matrix, the dark and photo-conductivity decreased due to the reduced crystalline volume fraction of the Si atoms (XSi-Si) and the increased Ge dangling bond density. The photosensitivity decreased monotonously with Ge incorporation under higher hydrogen dilution condition, which was attributed to the increase in both crystallization of Ge and the defect density.

  4. Properties of transition metal-doped zinc chalcogenide crystals for tunable IR laser radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLoach, L.D.; Page, R.H.; Wilke, G.D.

    1995-01-01

    The spectroscopic properties of Cr 2+ , Co 2+ , and Ni 2+ -doped single crystals of ZnS, ZnSe, and ZnTe have been investigated to understand their potential application as mid-IR tunable solid-state laser media. The spectroscopy indicated divalent Cr was the most favorable candidate for efficient room temperature lasing, and accordingly, a laser-pumped laser demonstration of Cr:ZnS and Cr:ZnSe has been performed. The lasers' output were peaked at ∼ 2.35 μm and the highest measured slope efficiencies were ∼ 20% in both cases

  5. Electrical Properties of Zn-Phthalocyanine and Poly (3-hexylthiophene Doped Nematic Liquid Crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Karakuş

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An E7 coded nematic liquid crystal was doped with zinc phthalocyanine and poly (3-hexylthiophene. A variety of properties including relaxation time, absorption coefficient, and critical frequency of this doped system were investigated using impedance spectroscopy. The doped systems displayed increased absorption coefficients in the range 0.22–0.55 and relaxation times from 5.05×10−7 s to 3.59×10−6 s with a decrease in the critical frequency from 3.54 MHz to 2.048 MHz.

  6. Near surface mechanical properties of optical single crystals and surface response to deterministic microgrinding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randi, Joseph A., III

    2005-12-01

    This thesis makes use of microindentation, nanoindentation and nanoscratching methods to better understand the mechanical properties of single crystalline silicon, calcium fluoride, and magnesium fluoride. These properties are measured and are used to predict the material's response to material removal, specifically by grinding and polishing, which is a combination of elastic, plastic and fracture processes. The hardness anisotropy during Knoop microindentation, hardness from nanoindentation, and scratch morphology from nanoscratching are reported. This information is related to the surface microroughness from grinding. We show that mechanical property relationships that predict the surface roughness from lapping and deterministic microgrinding of optical glasses are applicable to single crystals. We show the range of hardness from some of the more common crystallographic faces. Magnesium fluoride, having a tetragonal structure, has 2-fold hardness anisotropy. Nanoindentation, as expected provides higher hardness than microindentation, but anisotropy is not observed. Nanoscratching provides the scratch profile during loading, after the load has been removed, and the coefficient of friction during the loading. Ductile and brittle mode scratching is present with brittle mode cracking being orientation specific. Subsurface damage (SSD) measurements are made using a novel process known as the MRF technique. Magnetorheological finishing is used to polish spots into the ground surface where SSD can be viewed. SSD is measured using an optical microscope and knowledge of the spot profile. This technique is calibrated with a previous technique and implemented to accurately measure SSD in single crystals. The data collected are compared to the surface microroughness of the ground surface, resulting in an upper bound relationship. The results indicate that SSD is always less than 1.4 times the peak-to-valley surface microroughness for single crystals regardless of the

  7. Investigations of structural, dielectric and optical properties on silicon ion irradiated glycine monophosphate single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanagasekaran, T. [Department of Physics, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India); Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, New Delhi 110 007 (India); Mythili, P. [Department of Physics, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India); Bhagavannarayana, G. [Materials Characterization Division, National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi 110012 (India); Kanjilal, D. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi 110 067 (India); Gopalakrishnan, R. [Department of Physics, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India)], E-mail: krgkrishnan@annauniv.edu

    2009-08-01

    The 50 MeV silicon ion irradiation induced modifications on structural, optical and dielectric properties of solution grown glycine monophosphate (GMP) crystals were studied. The high-resolution X-ray diffraction study shows the unaltered value of integrated intensity on irradiation. The dielectric constant as a function of frequency and temperature was studied. UV-visible studies reveal the decrease in bandgap values on irradiation and presence of F-centers. The fluorescence spectrum shows the existence of some energy levels, which remains unaffected after irradiation. The scanning electron micrographs reveal the defects formed on irradiation.

  8. Effect of lateral methoxy substitution on mesomorphic and structural properties of ferroelectric liquid crystals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bubnov, Alexej M.; Kašpar, Miroslav; Novotná, Vladimíra; Hamplová, Věra; Glogarová, Milada; Kapernaum, N.; Giesselmann, F.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 11 (2008), s. 1329-1337 ISSN 0267-8292 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/05/0431; GA AV ČR IAA100100710 Grant - others:DAAD-ASCR(XE) D11-CZ7/06-07; DAAD-ASCR(XE) D7-CZ8/08-09 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : ferroelectric liquid crystal * chiral materials * x-ray diffraction * dielectric properties * layer shrinkage * spontaneous polarisation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.132, year: 2008

  9. Comparative study of broadband electrodynamic properties of single-crystal and thin-film strontium titanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Findikoglu, A. T.; Jia, Q. X.; Kwon, C.; Reagor, D. W.; Kaduchak, G.; Rasmussen, K. Oe.; Bishop, A. R.

    1999-01-01

    We have used a coplanar waveguide structure to study broadband electrodynamic properties of single-crystal and thin-film strontium titanate. We have incorporated both time- and frequency-domain measurements to determine small-signal effective refractive index and loss tangent as functions of frequency (up to 4 GHz), dc bias (up to 10 6 V/m), and cryogenic temperature (17 and 60 K). The large-signal impulse response of the devices and the associated phenomenological nonlinear wave equation illustrate how dissipation and nonlinearity combine to produce the overall response in the large-signal regime. (c) 1999 American Institute of Physics

  10. Some optical properties of one dimensional annular photonic crystal with plasma frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandeya, G. N.; Thapa, Khem B.

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents the reflection bands, photonic band gaps, of the one-dimensional annul photonic crystal (APC) containing double negative (DNG) metamaterials and air. The proposed annular structure consists of the alternate layers of dispersive DNG material and air immersed in free space. The reflectance properties of the APC by employing the transfer matrix method (TMM) in the cylindrical waves for TE polarization is studied theoretically. In addition of this, we have also studied the effect of plasma frequency on the reflection behavior of the considered annular structure.

  11. Welcome to Crystals: A New Open-Access, Multidisciplinary Forum for Growth, Structures and Properties of Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerd Meyer

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The majority of the earth’s crust is made up of crystalline material. The research areas of mineralogy, petrology, chimie minerále (inorganic chemistry and, of course, crystallography outgrew from the fascination of mankind with the color and symmetry of crystals. Crystals have translational symmetry in two or three dimensions, quasicrystals have translational symmetry in higher spaces. Further symmetries may be observed by the eye, by microscopic techniques or by the diffraction of X-ray, electron, or neutron beams. Diffraction techniques are also used, due to Max von Laue’s eminent discovery a century ago, to determine crystal structures. [...

  12. Effect of Co-60 gamma radiation on optical, dielectric and mechanical properties of strontium L-ascorbate hexahydrate NLO crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dileep, M. S.; Suresh Kumar, H. M.

    2018-04-01

    A potentially useful nonlinear optical semi-organic single crystal of strontium L-ascorbate hexahydrate (SLAH) was grown by solution growth slow evaporation technique at room temperature. The grown crystal is semi transparent, yellowish in color with monoclinic crystal system having space group P21 and is stable up to 198 °C. Further, SLAH crystals were irradiated with gamma rays produced by 60Co with different doses of 10 KGy, 30 KGy and 50 KGy at room temperature and then studied the effect of gamma-rays on dielectric properties, optical absorption, microhardness and SHG efficiency. The absorption study reveals that the absorbance of the grown crystal is appeared to be low throughout the visible region with a lower cutoff wavelength of 277 nm and these parameters are not affected upon gamma irradiation. The luminescence intensity of the crystal is also not affected by the irradiation. There is noticeable changes were observed in dielectric properties and hardness of the materials for different doses of gamma irradiation. The second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency of the grown crystal is 0.54 times that of the KDP crystal and is decreased moderately by increasing the dosage of gamma irradiation.

  13. Growth, structure, Hirshfeld surface and spectroscopic properties of 2-amino-4-hydroxy-6-methylpyrimidinium-2,3-pyrazinedicorboxylate single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faizan, Mohd; Alam, Mohammad Jane; Afroz, Ziya; Rodrigues, Vítor Hugo Nunes; Ahmad, Shabbir

    2018-03-01

    The present work is focused on the crystal structure, vibrational spectroscopy and DFT calculations of hydrogen bonded 2,3-pyrazinedicorboxylic acid and 2-amino-4-hydroxy-6-methylpyrimidine (PDCA-.AHMP+) crystal. The crystal structure has been determined using single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis which shows that the crystal belongs to monoclinic space group P21/n. The PDCA-.AHMP+ crystal has been characterized by FTIR, FT-Raman and FT-NMR spectroscopic techniques. The FTIR and FT-Raman spectra of the complex have unique spectroscopic feature as compared with those of the starting material to confirm salt formation. The theoretical vibrational studies have been performed to understand the modes of the vibrations of asymmetric unit of the complex by DFT methods. Hirschfeld surface and 2D fingerprint plots analyses were carried out to investigate the intermolecular interactions and its contribution in the building of PDCA-.AHMP+ crystal. The experimental and simulated 13C and 1H NMR studies have assisted in structural analysis of PDCA-.AHMP+ crystal. The electronic spectroscopic properties of the complex were explored by the experimental as well as theoretical electronic spectra simulated using TD-DFT/IEF-PCM method at B3LYP/6-311++G (d,p) level of theory. In addition, frontier molecular orbitals, molecular electrostatic potential map (MEP) and nonlinear optical (NLO) properties using DFT method have been also presented.

  14. Effect of elastic constants of liquid crystals in their electro-optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parang, Z.; Ghaffary, T.; Gharahbeigi, M. M.

    Recently following the success of the density functional theory (DFT) in obtaining the structure and thermodynamics of homogeneous and inhomogeneous classical systems such as simple fluids, dipolar fluid and binary hard spheres, this theory was also applied to obtain the density profile of a molecular fluid in between hard planar walls by Kalpaxis and Rickayzen. In the theory of molecular fluids, the direct correlation function (DCF) can be used to calculate the equation of state, free energy, phase transition, elastic constants, etc. It is well known that the hard core molecular models play an important role in understanding complex liquids such as liquid crystals. In this paper, a classical fluid of nonspherical molecules is studied. The required homogeneous (DCF) is obtained by solving Orenstein-Zernike (OZ) integral equation numerically. Some of the molecules in the liquid crystals have a sphere shape and this kind of molecular fluid is considered here. The DCF sphere of the molecular fluid is calculated and it will be shown that the results are in good agreement with the pervious works and the results of computer simulation. Finally the electro-optical properties of ellipsoid liquid crystal using DCF of these molecules are calculated.

  15. Photonic crystal and photonic quasicrystal patterned in PDMS surfaces and their effect on LED radiation properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suslik, Lubos [Dept. of Physics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Zilina, Univerzitna 1, 010 26, Zilina (Slovakia); Pudis, Dusan, E-mail: pudis@fyzika.uniza.sk [Dept. of Physics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Zilina, Univerzitna 1, 010 26, Zilina (Slovakia); Goraus, Matej [Dept. of Physics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Zilina, Univerzitna 1, 010 26, Zilina (Slovakia); Nolte, Rainer [Fakultät für Maschinenbau FG Lichttechnik Ilmenau University of Technology, Ilmenau (Germany); Kovac, Jaroslav [Inst. of Electronics and Photonics, Slovak University of Technology, Ilkovicova 3, 812 19, Bratislava (Slovakia); Durisova, Jana; Gaso, Peter [Dept. of Physics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Zilina, Univerzitna 1, 010 26, Zilina (Slovakia); Hronec, Pavol [Inst. of Electronics and Photonics, Slovak University of Technology, Ilkovicova 3, 812 19, Bratislava (Slovakia); Schaaf, Peter [Chair Materials for Electronics, Institute of Materials Engineering and Institute of Micro- and Nanotechnologies MacroNano, TU Ilmenau, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 5, 98693 Ilmenau (Germany)

    2017-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Photonic quasicrystal patterned in the surface of polydimethylsiloxane membrane (left) and radiation pattern of light emitting diode with patterned membrane applied in the surface (right). - Highlights: • We presented fabrication technique of PDMS membranes with patterned surface by photonic crystal (PhC) and photonic quasi-crystal (PQC). • Presented technique is effective for preparation PhC and PQC PDMS membranes easily implementing in the LED chip. • From the goniophotometer measurements, the membranes document effective angular emission due to the diffraction on patterned surfaces. • 12 fold symmetry PQC structure shows homogeneous radiation pattern, while the 2 fold symmetry of square PhC shows evident diffraction lobes. - Abstract: We present results of fabrication and implementation of thin polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membranes with patterned surface for the light emitting diode (LED). PDMS membranes were patterned by using the interference lithography in combination with embossing technique. Two-dimensional photonic crystal and photonic quasicrystal structures with different period were patterned in the surface of thin PDMS membranes with depth up to 550 nm. Patterned PDMS membranes placed on the LED chip effectively diffracted light and increased angular emission of LED radiation pattern. We presented effective technique for fabrication of patterned PDMS membranes, which could modify the emission properties of optoelectronic devices and can be applied directly on surface LEDs and small optical devices.

  16. Growth and Dielectric Properties of Ta-Doped La2Ti2O7 Single Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available High-quality Ta-doped La2Ti2O7 (Ta-LTO single crystal of about 40 mm in length and 5 mm in diameter was successfully prepared by the optical floating zone method. An X-ray rocking curve reveals that the crystal of LTO has excellent crystalline quality. As-grown crystals were transparent after annealing in air and the transmittance is up to 76% in the visible and near-infrared region. X-ray diffraction showed that this compound possessed a monoclinic structure with P21 space group. The dielectric properties were investigated as functions of temperature (0~300 °C and frequency (102 Hz~105 Hz. Dielectric spectra indicated an increase in the room-temperature dielectric constant accompanied by a drop in the loss tangent as a result of the Ta doping. One relaxation was observed in the spectra of electric modulus, which was ascribed to be related to the oxygen vacancy. The dielectric relaxation with activation energy of 1.16 eV is found to be the polaron hopping caused by the oxygen vacancies.

  17. Solution-printed organic semiconductor blends exhibiting transport properties on par with single crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Niazi, Muhammad Rizwan; Li, Ruipeng; Li, Erqiang; Kirmani, Ahmad R.; Abdelsamie, Maged; Wang, Qingxiao; Pan, Wenyang; Payne, Marcia M.; Anthony, John E.; Smilgies, Detlef-M.; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.; Amassian, Aram

    2015-01-01

    Solution-printed organic semiconductors have emerged in recent years as promising contenders for roll-to-roll manufacturing of electronic and optoelectronic circuits. The stringent performance requirements for organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) in terms of carrier mobility, switching speed, turn-on voltage and uniformity over large areas require performance currently achieved by organic single-crystal devices, but these suffer from scale-up challenges. Here we present a new method based on blade coating of a blend of conjugated small molecules and amorphous insulating polymers to produce OTFTs with consistently excellent performance characteristics (carrier mobility as high as 6.7 cm2 V−1 s−1, low threshold voltages of<1 V and low subthreshold swings <0.5 V dec−1). Our findings demonstrate that careful control over phase separation and crystallization can yield solution-printed polycrystalline organic semiconductor films with transport properties and other figures of merit on par with their single-crystal counterparts.

  18. An effect of re-extraction crystallization parameters on physical and chemical properties of AUC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yahi, Boussad

    1990-07-01

    This study is concerned with direct cristallization of ammonium uranyl carbonate (AUC) from a uranium loaded organic phase (30% TBP in kerosene), with ammonium carbonate (NH4)2 CO3. The effects of operating conditions (NH4)2 CO3 concentration, flowration residence time, temperature on the physical properties of AUC crystals (particle size distribution, specific area, density..) are reported. All products were identified (both by chemical analysis, X-Ray diffraction) as being ammonium uranyl ratio and (NH4)2 CO3 concentration favor the formation of fine AUC grains and aggregates. This is due mainly to the high concentration of (NH4)+ in the system which leads to a high solution supersaturation and consequently to a rapid formation rate of crystal (germination). The reverse phenomenon is observed at low phase ratio and (NH4)2 CO3 concentration, where germination and crystal growth ara slow and the product is mainly monocrystal. In the intermediate range, a mixture of polycrystal and aggregates is obtained. Residence time and temperature are also shown to have an effect on the processes (the effect of time being more important than temperature)

  19. Hydrothermal synthesis, crystal structures, and enantioselective adsorption property of bis(L-histidinato)nickel(II) monohydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Christian Paul L.; Conato, Marlon T.

    2018-05-01

    Despite the numerous researches in metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), there are only few reports on biologically important amino acids, histidine in particular, on its use as bridging ligand in the construction of open-framework architectures. In this work, hydrothermal synthesis was used to prepare a compound based on Ni2+ and histidine. The coordination assembly of imidazole side chain of histidine with divalent nickel ions in aqueous condition yielded purple prismatic solids. Single crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the product revealed structure for Ni(C6H8N3O2)2 • H2O that has a monoclinic (C2) structure with lattice parameters, a = 29.41, b = 8.27, c = 6.31 Å, β = 90.01 ˚. Circular dichroism - optical rotatory dispersion (CD-ORD), Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and Fourier transform - infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analyses are conducted to further characterize the crystals. Enantioselective adsorption analysis using racemic mixture of 2-butanol confirmed bis(L-histidinato)nickel(II) monohydrate MOF crystal's enantioselective property preferentially favoring the adsorption of (S)-2-butanol isomer.

  20. Investigations of Residual Stresses and Mechanical Properties of Single Crystal Niobium for SRF Cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnaeupel-Herold, Thomas; Myneni, Ganapati Rao; Ricker, Richard E.

    2007-01-01

    This work investigates properties of large grained, high purity niobium with respect to the forming of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities from such large grained sheets. The yield stresses were examined using tensile specimens that were essentially single crystals in orientations evenly distributed in the standard projection triangle. No distinct yield anisotropy was found, however, vacuum annealing increased the yield strength by a factor 2...3. The deep drawing forming operation of the half cells raises the issues of elastic shape changes after the release of the forming tool (springback) and residual stresses, both of which are indicated to be negligible. This is a consequence of the low yield stress (< 100 MPa) and the large thickness (compared to typical thicknesses in sheet metal forming). However, the significant anisotropy of the transversal plastic strains after uniaxial deformation points to potentially critical thickness variations for large grained / single crystal half cells, thus raising the issue of controlling grain orientation or using single crystal sheet material

  1. Oxygen Barrier Properties and Melt Crystallization Behavior of Poly(ethylene terephthalate/Graphene Oxide Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Szymczyk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly(ethylene terephthalate nanocomposites with low loading (0.1–0.5 wt% of graphene oxide (GO have been prepared by using in situ polymerization method. TEM study of nanocomposites morphology has shown uniform distribution of highly exfoliated graphene oxide nanoplatelets in PET matrix. Investigations of oxygen permeability of amorphous films of nanocomposites showed that the nanocomposites had better oxygen barrier properties than the neat PET. The improvement of oxygen permeability for PET nanocomposite films over the neat PET is approximately factors of 2–3.3. DSC study on the nonisothermal crystallization behaviors proves that GO acts as a nucleating agent to accelerate the crystallization of PET matrix. The evolution of the lamellar nanostructure of nanocomposite and neat PET was monitored by SAXS during nonisothermal crystallization from the melt. It was found that unfilled PET and nanocomposite with the highest concentration of GO (0.5 wt% showed almost similar values of the long period (L=11.4 nm for neat PET and L=11.5 nm for PET/0.5GO.

  2. Solution-printed organic semiconductor blends exhibiting transport properties on par with single crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Niazi, Muhammad Rizwan

    2015-11-23

    Solution-printed organic semiconductors have emerged in recent years as promising contenders for roll-to-roll manufacturing of electronic and optoelectronic circuits. The stringent performance requirements for organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) in terms of carrier mobility, switching speed, turn-on voltage and uniformity over large areas require performance currently achieved by organic single-crystal devices, but these suffer from scale-up challenges. Here we present a new method based on blade coating of a blend of conjugated small molecules and amorphous insulating polymers to produce OTFTs with consistently excellent performance characteristics (carrier mobility as high as 6.7 cm2 V−1 s−1, low threshold voltages of<1 V and low subthreshold swings <0.5 V dec−1). Our findings demonstrate that careful control over phase separation and crystallization can yield solution-printed polycrystalline organic semiconductor films with transport properties and other figures of merit on par with their single-crystal counterparts.

  3. Crystal growth, electronic structure and optical properties of Sr2Mg(BO3)2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xianshun; Wei, Lei; Wang, Xuping; Xu, Jianhua; Yu, Huajian; Hu, Yanyan; Zhang, Huadi; Zhang, Cong; Wang, Jiyang; Li, Qinggang

    2018-02-01

    Single crystals of Sr2Mg(BO3)2 (SMBO) were grown by Kyropoulos method. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis, transmission spectrum, thermal properties, band structure, density of states and charge distribution as well as Raman spectra of SMBO were described. The as-grown SMBO crystals show wide transparency range with UV cut-off below 180 nm. A direct band gap of 4.66 eV was obtained from the calculated electronic structure results. The calculated band structure and density of states results indicated the top valence band is determined by O 2p states whereas the low conduction band mainly consists of Sr 5s states. Twelve Raman peaks were observed in the experimental spectrum, fewer than the number predicted by the site group analysis. Raman peaks of SMBO were assigned combining first-principle calculation and site group analysis results. The strongest peak at 917 cm-1 in the experimental spectrum is assigned to symmetric stretching mode A1‧(ν1) of free BO3 units. SMBO is a potential Raman crystal which can be used in deep UV laser frequency conversion.

  4. Anisotropic stress rupture properties of the nickel-base single crystal superalloy SRR99

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, G.M.; Yu, J.J.; Sun, Y.L.; Sun, X.F.; Hu, Z.Q.

    2010-01-01

    The influence of orientation on the stress rupture properties of a single crystal superalloy SRR99 was investigated at temperatures of 760 and 1040 deg. C. It is found that the creep anisotropic behaviour is pronounced at the lower temperature of 760 deg. C and the stress rupture life ranks in the order [0 0 1] > [1 1 1] > [0 1 1]. Despite the anisotropy of stress rupture life is evidently reduced at the higher temperature, the [1 1 1] orientation exhibits the longest life. At 760 deg. C, EBSD (electron back scattered diffraction) was adopted to measure the lattice rotation and the deduced results indicate that the dominant slip systems are {1 1 1} during stress rupture test. At 1040 deg. C, the ranking order of the stress rupture life is [1 1 1] > [0 0 1] > [0 1 1] and the single crystal close to [0 1 1] orientation still shows the poorest life. In the [0 0 1] and [1 1 1] samples, regular γ' raft structure is formed compared with [0 1 1] samples. Further observations made by TEM investigations reveal the underlying deformation mechanisms for crystals with orientations near [0 0 1], [0 1 1] and [1 1 1] under two test conditions.

  5. Structural, optical and electronic properties of K2Ba(NO3)4 crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaenko, L. I.; Korzhneva, K. E.; Goryainov, S. V.; Goloshumova, A. A.; Sheludyakova, L. A.; Bekenev, V. L.; Khyzhun, O. Y.

    2018-02-01

    Nitrate crystals reveal nonlinear optical properties and could be considered as converters of laser radiation in the short-wave region. The conditions for obtaining and basic properties of K2Ba(NO3)4 double nitrate crystals were investigated. Crystal growth was implemented by slow cooling in the temperature range of 72-49 °C and low rate evaporation. The structural analysis of K2Ba(NO3)4 formation on the basis of two mixed simple nitrate structures is discussed. The main groups of oscillations in K2Ba(NO3)4 crystal were revealed using Raman and IR spectroscopy, and the table of vibrations for this compound was compiled. The electronic structure of K2Ba(NO3)4 was elucidated in the present work from both experimental and theoretical viewpoints. In particular, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was employed in the present work to measure binding energies of the atoms constituting the titled compound and its XPS valence-band spectrum for both pristine and Ar+ ion-bombarded surfaces. Further, total and partial densities of states of constituent atoms of K2Ba(NO3)4 have been calculated. The calculations reveal that the O 2p states dominate in the total valence-band region of K2Ba(NO3)4 except of its bottom, where K 3p and Ba 5p states are the principal contributors, while the bottom of the conduction band is composed mainly of the unoccupied O 2p states, with somewhat smaller contributions of the N 2p∗ states as well. With respect to the occupation of the valence band by the O 2p states, the present band-structure calculations are confirmed by comparison on a common energy scale of the XPS valence-band spectrum and the X-ray emission O Kα band for the K2Ba(NO3)4 crystal under study. Furthermore, the present calculations indicate that the K2Ba(NO3)4 compound is a direct-gap material.

  6. Crystal growth, structural, optical, thermal, mechanical, laser damage threshold and electrical properties of triphenylphosphine oxide 4-nitrophenol (TP4N) single crystals for nonlinear optical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuppasamy, P.; Senthil Pandian, Muthu; Ramasamy, P.; Verma, Sunil

    2018-05-01

    , Lorentz-Lorentz equation, optical band gap and coupled dipole method (CDM). The Z-scan technique was carried out using solid state laser (640 nm) to analyze the nonlinear optical properties of the TP4N crystal. It exhibits the self-defocusing and saturable absorbance effect during analysis of closed and open aperture respectively. The nonlinear optical parameters such as refractive index (n2), absorption coefficient (β) and the third order nonlinear optical susceptibility (χ(3)) were analyzed.

  7. Identification of mechanical properties of weld joints of AlMgSi07.F25 aluminium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kopas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the analysis of selected mechanical properties of weld joints of AlMgSi07.F25 aluminium alloy. We will focus on the influence of the test bar neck shape on the tensile strength characteristics and the course of hardness in the weld joint cross-section. For the welding process using TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas technology we considered AlSi5 as the additive material. This paper also includes a short study of numerical modelling of the test bar welding.

  8. Creep Properties of NiAl-1Hf Single Crystals Re-Investigated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittenberger, J. Daniel; Locci, Ivan E.; Darolia, Ram; Bowman, Randy R.

    2000-01-01

    NiAl-1Hf single crystals have been shown to be quite strong at 1027 C, with strength levels approaching those of advanced Ni-based superalloys. Initial testing, however, indicated that the properties might not be reproducible. Study of the 1027 C creep behavior of four different NiAl-1Hf single-crystal ingots subjected to several different heat treatments indicated that strength lies in a narrow band. Thus, we concluded that the mechanical properties are reproducible. Recent investigations of the intermetallic NiAl have confirmed that minor alloying additions combined with single-crystal growth technology can produce elevated temperature strength levels approaching those of Ni-based superalloys. For example, General Electric alloy AFN 12 {Ni-48.5(at.%) Al-0.5Hf-1Ti-0.05Ga} has a creep rupture strength equivalent to Rene 80 combined with a approximately 30-percent lower density, a fourfold improvement in thermal conductivity, and the ability to form a self-protective alumina scale in aggressive environments. Although the compositions of strong NiAl single crystals are relatively simple, the microstructures are complex and vary with the heat treatment and with small ingot-toingot variations in the alloy chemistry. In addition, initial testing suggested a strong dependence between microstructure and creep strength. If these observations were true, the ability to utilize NiAl single-crystal rotating components in turbine machinery could be severely limited. To investigate the possible limitations in the creep response of high-strength NiAl single crystals, the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field initiated an in depth investigation of the effect of heat treatment on the microstructure and subsequent 1027 C creep behavior of [001]-oriented NiAl-1Hf with a nominal chemistry of Ni-47.5Al-1Hf-0.5Si. This alloy was selected since four ingots, grown over a number of years and possessing slightly different compositions, were available for study. Specimens taken from the

  9. Correct interpretation of diffraction properties of quartz crystals for X-ray optics applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Xian-Rong; Gog, Thomas; Kim, Jungho; Kasman, Elina; Said, Ayman H.; Casa, Diego M.; Wieczorek, Michael; Hönnicke, Marcelo G.; Assoufid, Lahsen

    2018-02-01

    Quartz has hundreds of strong Bragg reflections that may offer a great number of choices for making fixed-angle X-ray analyzers and polarizers at virtually any hard X-ray energies with selectable resolution. However, quartz crystals, unlike silicon and germanium, are chiral and may thus appear in two different forms of handedness that are mirror images. Furthermore, because of the threefold rotational symmetry along thecaxis, the {h1h2h3L} and {h2h1h3L} Bragg reflections may have quite different Darwin bandwidth, reflectivity and angular acceptance, although they have the same Bragg angle. The design of X-ray optics from quartz crystals therefore requires unambiguous determination of the orientation, handedness and polarity of the crystals. The Laue method and single-axis diffraction technique can provide such information, but the variety of conventions used in the literature to describe quartz structures has caused widespread confusion. The current studies give detailed guidelines for design and fabrication of quartz X-ray optics, with special emphasis on the correct interpretation of Laue patterns in terms of the crystallography and diffraction properties of quartz. Meanwhile, the quartz crystals examined were confirmed by X-ray topography to have acceptably low densities of dislocations and other defects, which is the foundation for developing high-resolution quartz-based X-ray optics.

  10. The effect of roughness model on scattering properties of ice crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geogdzhayev, Igor; Diedenhoven, Bastiaan van

    2016-01-01

    We compare stochastic models of microscale surface roughness assuming uniform and Weibull distributions of crystal facet tilt angles to calculate scattering by roughened hexagonal ice crystals using the geometric optics (GO) approximation. Both distributions are determined by similar roughness parameters, while the Weibull model depends on the additional shape parameter. Calculations were performed for two visible wavelengths (864 nm and 410 nm) for roughness values between 0.2 and 0.7 and Weibull shape parameters between 0 and 1.0 for crystals with aspect ratios of 0.21, 1 and 4.8. For this range of parameters we find that, for a given roughness level, varying the Weibull shape parameter can change the asymmetry parameter by up to about 0.05. The largest effect of the shape parameter variation on the phase function is found in the backscattering region, while the degree of linear polarization is most affected at the side-scattering angles. For high roughness, scattering properties calculated using the uniform and Weibull models are in relatively close agreement for a given roughness parameter, especially when a Weibull shape parameter of 0.75 is used. For smaller roughness values, a shape parameter close to unity provides a better agreement. Notable differences are observed in the phase function over the scattering angle range from 5° to 20°, where the uniform roughness model produces a plateau while the Weibull model does not. - Highlights: • We compare scattering by hexagonal crystals for uniform and Weibull roughness models. • The Weibull shape parameter has a stronger effect on the phase function at backscattering. • DoLP is mostly affected at the side-scattering angles. • For high roughness, the two models are in relatively close agreement for a given roughness. • A plateau from 5° to 20° is observed in the phase function when using the uniform model.

  11. The Influence of Structure of Joint-Stock Property on the Efficiency of Corporate Management System of Domestic Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trokhymchuk Viktoriia V.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at exploring and analyzing the structure of joint-stock property of Ukrainian enterprises, as well as evaluating its impact on efficiency of the system of corporate management. By studying the results of the privatization of public enterprises and dynamics of the number of companies in recent years, a tendency towards reduction of their total number has been identified. It has been determined that the structure of joint-stock property of domestic enterprises is characterized by a high degree of its concentration. An analysis of the corporate management system of enterprises comparing with the best international practices has displayed a fairly low level of the corporate management efficiency of domestic companies. It has been determined that in these circumstances, consolidation of property in Ukraine became the tool for protecting enterprises from hostile takeover. Measures to eliminate factors, impeding the formation of effective ownership structure of joint-stock property and the related corporate management system, have been proposed. Prospects for further researches will be monitoring changes in the quality of corporate management and property structure of domestic enterprises, as well as studying the factors that cause them.

  12. Joint application of neutron and X-ray scattering for determination of atomic and electronic structures of molecules and crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozerov, R.P.; Tsirel'son, V.G.

    1978-01-01

    The paper deals with the main principles of methods based on the joint neutron and x-ray diffraction studies. The methods allow one to obtain the information on the charge distribution in molecules in detail. Neutron scattering makes it possible to locate very closely the nucleus of atom or, more precisely, the gravity center of the ellipsoid of nuclear thermal oscillations. X-ray diffraction gives the distribution of electronic density at some distance from the shell gravity center. The joint diffraction method holds the promise and importance for solving physical-chemical problems

  13. Development of HIP bonding procedure and mechanical properties of HIP bonded joints for reduced activation ferritic steel F-82H

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Masahiro; Kurasawa, Toshimasa; Kuroda, Toshimasa; Hatano, Toshihisa; Takatsu, Hideyuki

    1997-03-01

    Structural materials of blanket components in fusion DEMO reactors will receive a neutron wall load more than 3-5MW/m 2 as well as exposed by surface heat flux more than 0.5MW/m 2 . A reduced activation ferritic steel F-82H has been developed by JAERI in collaboration with NKK from viewpoints of resistance for high temperature and neutron loads and lower radioactivity. This study intends to obtain basic performance of F-82H to establish the fabrication procedure of the first wall and blanket box by using Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) bonding. Before HIP bonding tests, effects of heat treatment temperature and surface roughness on mechanical properties of joints were investigated in the heat treatment tests and diffusion bonding tests, respectively. From these results, the optimum HIP bonding conditions and the post heat treatment were selected. Using these conditions, the HIP bonding tests were carried out to evaluate HIP bondability and to obtain mechanical properties of the joints. Sufficient HIP bonding performance was obtained under the temperature of 1040degC, the compressive stress of 150MPa, the holding time of 2h, and the surface roughness ∼μ m. Mechanical properties of HIP bonded joints with these conditions were similar to those of as-received base metal. An oxide formation on the surface to be bonded would need to be avoided for sufficient bonding. The bonding ratio, Charpy impact value and fatigue performance of the joints strongly depended on the HIP conditions, especially temperature, while micro-structure, Vickers hardness and tensile properties had little dependence on the HIP temperature. The surface roughness strongly affected the bonding ratio and would be required to be in the level of a few μ m. In the HIP bonding test of the welded material, the once-melted surface could be jointed by the HIP bonding under the above-mentioned procedure. (J.P.N.)

  14. Microstructure and mechanical properties of GTAW welded joints of AA6105 aluminum alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minerva Dorta-Almenara

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW is one of the most used methods to weld aluminum. This work investigates the influence of welding parameters on the microstructure and mechanical properties of GTAW welded AA6105 aluminum alloy joints. AA6105 alloy plates with different percent values of cold work were joined by GTAW, using various combinations of welding current and speed. The fusion zone, in which the effects of cold work have disappeared, and the heat affected zone of the welded samples were examined under optical and scanning electron microscopes, additionally, mechanical tests and measures of Vickers microhardness were performed. Results showed dendritic morphology with solute micro- and macrosegregation in the fusion zone, which is favored by the constitutional supercooling when heat input increases. When heat input increased and welding speed increased or remained constant, greater segregation was obtained, whereas welding speed decrease produced a coarser microstructure. In the heat affected zone recrystallization, dissolution, and coarsening of precipitates occurred, which led to variations in hardness and strength.

  15. Analysis of microstructure and mechanical properties of aluminium-copper joints welded by FSW process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iordache, M.; Sicoe, G.; Iacomi, D.; Niţu, E.; Ducu, C.

    2017-08-01

    The research conducted in this article aimed to check the quality of joining some dissimilar materials Al-Cu by determining the mechanical properties and microstructure analysis. For the experimental measurements there were used tin alloy Al - EN-AW-1050A with a thickness of 2 mm and Cu99 sheet with a thickness of 2 mm, joined by FSW weld overlay. The main welding parameters were: rotating speed of the rotating element 1400 rev/min, speed of the rotating element 50 mm/min. The experimental results were determined on samples specially prepared for metallographic analysis. In order to prepare samples for their characterization, there was designed and built a device that allowed simultaneous positioning and fixing for grinding. The characteristics analyzed in the joint welded samples were mictrostructure, microhardness and residual stresses. The techniques used to determine these characteristics were optical microscopy, electron microscopy with fluorescence radioactive elemental analysis (EDS), Vickers microhardness line - HV0.3 and X-ray diffractometry.

  16. The influence of radiation on the properties of welds and joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavassoli, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of radiation on mechanical properties of candidate structural materials for the first wall and breeder blanket of fusion reactors is reviewed. The accent is placed on austenitic stainless steel type 316L and its weld metals and design parameters considered are similar to those currently specified for the Next European Torus, namely, irradiation doses ≤ 15 dpa, temperatures ≤ 400 0 C, number of pulse cycles = 10 5 and hold times ≤ 15 mn. The effect of irradiation on other materials, including austenitic stainless steel type 304L, weld metal type 308L and ferritic/martensitic steels (9-12% Cr - Mo), as well as other service conditions such as temperatures as high as 550 0 C are also briefly discussed. The data collected and presented in this review are those usually measured, before and after irradiation, through tensile, impact toughness, fracture toughness, fatigue, creep-fatigue and fatigue crack propagation testing. In each case the influence of irradiation parameters on the observed changes are discussed and relative conclusions are drawn. The most important observation made is the lack of medium dose irradiation data on the weld metal and in particular on the electron beam welded joints

  17. Strain rate dependent orthotropic properties of pristine and impulsively loaded porcine temporomandibular joint disk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, M W; Bruno, M J; Iwasaki, L R; Nickel, J C

    2001-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the tensile stress-strain behavior of the porcine temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disk with respect to collagen orientation and strain rate dependency. The apparent elastic modulus, ultimate tensile strength, and strain at maximum stress were measured at three elongation rates (0.5, 50, and 500 mm/min) for dumbbell-shaped samples oriented along either anteroposterior or mediolateral axes of the disks. In order to study the effects of impact-induced fissuring on the mechanical behavior, the same properties were measured along each orientation at an elongation rate of 500 mm/min for disks subjected to impulsive loads of 0.5 N. s. The results suggested a strongly orthotropic nature to the healthy pristine disk. The values for the apparent modulus and ultimate strength were 10-fold higher along the anteroposterior axis (p disks for either orientation (p > 0.05). The results demonstrated the importance of choosing an orthotropic model for the TMJ disk to conduct finite element modeling, to develop failure criteria, and to construct tissue-engineered replacements. Impact-induced fissuring requires further study to determine if the TMJ disk is orthotropic with respect to fatigue.

  18. Influence of Friction Stir Welding on Mechanical Properties of Butt Joints of AZ61 Magnesium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Ju Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of heat input on the mechanical properties and fracture behaviors of AZ61 magnesium alloy joints has been studied. Magnesium alloy AZ61 plates with thickness of 5 mm were welded at different ratios of tool rotational speed to welding speed (ω/ν. The average ultimate tensile strength of all weld conditions satisfying a ω/ν ratio of 3 reached 100% of the strength of the base material. Fractures occurred at the interface between the thermomechanical affected zone at advancing side and the stir zone in all welded specimens. From the scanning electron microscope and electron backscatter diffraction analysis, it was determined that the interface between the thermomechanical affected zone and the stir zone, which is the region where the grain orientation changes, was the weakest part; the advancing side region was relatively weaker than the retreating side region because the grain orientation change occurred more dramatically in the advancing side region.

  19. Crystal structure stability and electronic properties of the layered nickelate La4Ni3O10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puggioni, Danilo; Rondinelli, James M.

    2018-03-01

    We investigate the crystal structure and the electronic properties of the trilayer nickelate La4Ni3O10 by means of quantum-mechanical calculations in the framework of the density-functional theory. We find that, at low temperature, La4Ni3O10 undergoes a hitherto unreported structural phase transition and transforms to a new monoclinic P 21/a phase. This phase exhibits electronic properties in agreement with recent angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy data reported in H. Li et al., [Nat. Commun. 8, 704 (2017), 10.1038/s41467-017-00777-0] and should be considered in models focused on explaining the observed ˜140 K metal-to-metal phase transition.

  20. Optical properties study of nano-composite filled D shape photonic crystal fibre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udaiyakumar, R.; Mohamed Junaid, K. A.; Janani, T.; Maheswar, R.; Yupapin, P.; Amiri, I. S.

    2018-06-01

    With the nano-composite materials gaining momentum in the optical field, a new nano-composite filled D shape Photonic Crystal Fiber (PCF) is designed and the various optical properties are investigated with help of Finite Element Method. In the proposed structure the D-shape PCF is made up of silica with embedded silver nanoparticles and air holes are distributed along the fibre. The designed fibre shows various optical properties such as dispersion, birefringence, beat length and loss with respect to wavelength and compared with different filling factor like 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5. From our estimation and comparative analysis, it has been proved that the fibre loss has been decreased with increasing filling factor. Further this also showed flat dispersion at maximum filling factor.

  1. Crystallization and mechanical properties of reinforced PHBV composites using melt compounding: Effect of CNCs and CNFs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Du; Guomin, Zhao; Mingzhu, Pan; Leilei, Zhuang; Dagang, Li; Rui, Zhang

    2017-07-15

    Nanocellulose reinforced poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) composites were prepared using melt compounding. The effects of nanocellulose types (CNCs and CNFs) and nanocellulose content (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7wt%) on the crystallization, thermal and mechanical properties of PHBV composites were systematically compared in this study. The thermal stability of PHBV composites was improved by both CNCs and CNFs. CNFs with a higher thermal stability leaded to a higher thermal stability of PHBV composites. Both CNCs and CNFs induced a reduction in the crystalline size of PHBV spherulites. Furthermore, CNCs could act as a better nucleating agent for PHBV than did CNFs. CNCs and CNFs showed reinforcing effects in PHBV composites. At the equivalent content of nanocellulose, CNCs led to a higher tensile modulus of PHBV composites than did CNFs. 1wt% CNCs/PHBV composites exhibited the most optimum mechanical properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of cobalt, tantalum, and tungsten on the microstructure and mechanical properties of superalloy single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nathal, M.V.; Ebert, L.J.

    1982-01-01

    The influence of Co, Ta, and W on the microstructure and mechanical properties of nickel base super-alloy single crystals was investigated. A matrix of alloys was based on Mar-M 247 stripped of C, B, Zr, and Hf. The microstructures of the alloys were examined using optical and electron microscopy, phase extraction, X-ray diffraction, and differential thermal analysis. Tensile and creep-rupture tests were performed at 1000 C. An increase in tensile and creep strength resulted when Co was removed from alloys containing high refractory metal contents, but Co effects were negligible for alloys with lower refractory metal levels. In the composition range studied, W was more effective than Ta in increasing the creep resistance. The mechanical properties are discussed in relation to the microstructures of the alloys

  3. Influence of cobalt, tantalum, and tungsten on the microstructure and mechanical properties of superalloy single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathal, M. V.; Ebert, L. J.

    1982-01-01

    The influence of Co, Ta, and W on the microstructure and mechanical properties of nickel base super-alloy single crystals was investigated. A matrix of alloys was based on Mar-M 247 stripped of C, B, Zr, and Hf. The microstructures of the alloys were examined using optical and electron microscopy, phase extraction, X-ray diffraction, and differential thermal analysis. Tensile and creep-rupture tests were performed at 1000 C. An increase in tensile and creep strength resulted when Co was removed from alloys containing high refractory metal contents, but Co effects were negligible for alloys with lower refractory metal levels. In the composition range studied, W was more effective than Ta in increasing the creep resistance. The mechanical properties are discussed in relation to the microstructures of the alloys.

  4. Optical properties study of nano-composite filled D shape photonic crystal fibre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Udaiyakumar

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available With the nano-composite materials gaining momentum in the optical field, a new nano-composite filled D shape Photonic Crystal Fiber (PCF is designed and the various optical properties are investigated with help of Finite Element Method. In the proposed structure the D-shape PCF is made up of silica with embedded silver nanoparticles and air holes are distributed along the fibre. The designed fibre shows various optical properties such as dispersion, birefringence, beat length and loss with respect to wavelength and compared with different filling factor like 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5. From our estimation and comparative analysis, it has been proved that the fibre loss has been decreased with increasing filling factor. Further this also showed flat dispersion at maximum filling factor. Keywords: Nanoparticles, Nano-composite, Dispersion, Birefringence, Beat length

  5. Thermodynamic properties of bcc crystals at high temperatures: The transition metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, R.A.; Shukla, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    The second-neighbor central-force model of a bcc crystal, previously used in lowest-order anharmonic perturbation theory to calculate the thermodynamic properties of the alkali metals, is here applied to the transition metals V, Nb, Ta, Mo, and W. The limitations of the model are apparent in the thermal-expansion results, which fall away from the experimental trend above about 1800 K. The specific heat similarly fails to exhibit the sharp rise that is observed at higher temperatures. A static treatment of vacancies cannot account for the difference between theory and experiment. The electrons have been taken into account by using a model that specifically includes d-band effects in the electron ground-state energy. The results thus obtained for the bulk moduli are quite satisfactory. In the light of these results, we discuss the prerequisites for a better treatment of metals when the electrons play an important role in determining the thermodynamic properties

  6. Hydrothermal temperature effect on crystal structures, optical properties and electrical conductivity of ZnO nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhafina, Wan Almaz; Salleh, Hasiah; Daud, Mohd Zalani; Ghazali, Mohd Sabri Mohd; Ghazali, Salmah Mohd

    2017-09-01

    ZnO is an wide direct band gap semiconductor and possess rich family of nanostructures which turned to be a key role in the nanotechnology field of applications. Hydrothermal method was proven to be simple, robust and low cost among the reported methods to synthesize ZnO nanostructures. In this work, the properties of ZnO nanostructures were altered by varying temperatures of hydrothermal process. The changes in term of morphological, crystal structures, optical properties and electrical conductivity were investigated. A drastic change of ZnO nanostructures morphology and decreases of 002 diffraction peak were observed as the hydrothermal temperature increased. The band gap of samples decreased as the size of ZnO nanostructure increased, whereas the electrical conductivity had no influence on the band gap value but more on the morphology of ZnO nanostructures instead.

  7. Transport properties of Lu.sub.2./sub.Fe.sub.17./sub. single crystals under extreme conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Skorokhod, Yuriy; Arnold, Zdeněk; Kamarád, Jiří; Andreev, Alexander V.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 3 (2004), s. 471-475 ISSN 1027-5495 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA106/02/0943 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : transport properties * magnetotransport properties * pressure effect * single crystals * intermetallic compounds Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  8. Crystal growth, electronic structure, and properties of Ni-substituted FeGa{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Likhanov, Maxim S. [Department of Chemistry, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Verchenko, Valeriy Yu. [Department of Chemistry, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, 12618 Tallinn (Estonia); Bykov, Mikhail A. [Department of Chemistry, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Tsirlin, Alexander A. [National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, 12618 Tallinn (Estonia); Experimental Physics VI, Center for Electronic Correlations and Magnetism, Institute of Physics, University of Augsburg, 86135 Augsburg (Germany); Gippius, Andrei A. [Faculty of Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, Russian Academy of Science, 119333, Moscow (Russian Federation); Berthebaud, David; Maignan, Antoine [Laboratoire CRISMAT, UMR 6508 CNRS/ENSICAEN, F-14050 CAEN Cedex 4 (France); Shevelkov, Andrei V., E-mail: shev@inorg.chem.msu.ru [Department of Chemistry, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2016-04-15

    Crystals of the Fe{sub 1−x}Ni{sub x}Ga{sub 3} limited solid solution (x<0.045) have been grown from gallium flux. We have explored the electronic structure as well as magnetic and thermoelectric properties of Fe{sub 0.975}Ni{sub 0.025}Ga{sub 3} in comparison with Fe{sub 0.95}Co{sub 0.05}Ga{sub 3}, following the rigid band approach and assuming that one Ni atom donates twice the number of electrons as one Co atom. However, important differences between the Co- and Ni-doped compounds are found below 620 K, which is the temperature of the metal-to-insulator transition for both compounds. We have found that Fe{sub 0.975}Ni{sub 0.025}Ga{sub 3} displays lower degree of spatial inhomogeneity on the local level and exhibits diamagnetic behavior with a broad shallow minimum in the magnetic susceptibility near 35 K, in sharp contrast with the Curie–Weiss paramagnetism of Fe{sub 0.95}Co{sub 0.05}Ga{sub 3}. Transport measurements have shown the maximum of the thermoelectric figure-of-merit ZT of 0.09 and 0.14 at 620 K for Fe{sub 0.975}Ni{sub 0.025}Ga{sub 3} and Fe{sub 0.95}Co{sub 0.05}Ga{sub 3}, respectively. - Graphical abstract: Crystals of Ni-substituted FeGa{sub 3} up to 8 mm long were grown from gallium flux (see Figure for the temperature profile and crystal shape) that allowed studying magnetic and thermoelectric properties of the title solid solution.

  9. Luminescence properties of KCl:Ag{sup -} crystals excited near the fundamental absorption edge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawai, Taketoshi, E-mail: buri@p.s.osakafu-u.ac.jp [Department of Physical Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka Prefecture University, Gakuen-cho 1-1, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Hirai, Takeshi [Department of Physical Science, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Ritsumeikan University, Noji Higashi 1-1-1, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan)

    2012-02-15

    Luminescence properties of KCl single crystals doped with Ag{sup -} centers have been investigated under various excitation energies around the fundamental absorption edge at low temperatures. Under the excitation at 6.89 eV, which is lower than the intrinsic exciton energy by 0.87 eV, the A Prime luminescence band due to the intraionic transition in the Ag{sup -} ion is dominantly observed at 2.91 eV. On the other hand, the excitation at 6.66 eV induces a broad luminescence band at 2.60 eV in addition to the A Prime luminescence band. From the comparison with the localized excitons in KCl:I crystals, the 2.60 eV luminescence band is attributed to the two-center type localized exciton related with the Ag{sup -} ion. The adiabatic potential energy surfaces of the excited states in the Ag{sup -} center and the localized exciton in KCl:Ag{sup -} are discussed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study the luminescence properties of KCl single crystals doped with Ag{sup -} ions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The excitation around the absorption edge induces a broad luminescence at 2.60 eV. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The 2.60 eV luminescence is attributed to the exciton localized at the Ag{sup -} ion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The localized exciton has the two-center type configuration of the relaxed exciton.

  10. Crystallization behavior and magnetic properties in High Fe content FeBCSiCu alloy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, X.D., E-mail: fanxd@seu.edu.cn; Shen, B.L., E-mail: blshen@seu.edu.cn

    2015-07-01

    High Fe content FeBCSiCu nanocrystalline alloys are prepared by annealing melt-spun amorphous ribbons with aim at increasing saturation magnetic flux density. Microstructures identified by XRD and TEM reveal that Cu addition inhibits the surface crystallization of Fe{sub 86}B{sub 7}C{sub 7} alloy and improve its glass-forming ability. Activation energy of crystallization calculated by Kissinger's equation indicates that both Cu and Si addition promotes the precipitation of α-Fe phase and improves the thermal stability. VSM and DC B–H loop tracer measurements show that the Fe{sub 85.5}B{sub 7}C{sub 6}Si{sub 1}Cu{sub 0.5} nanocrystalline alloy exhibits high saturation magnetic flux density of 1.8 T and low coercivity of 10 A/m, respectively. AC properties measured by AC B–H analyzer show this alloy exhibits low core loss of 0.35 W/kg at 1 T at 50 Hz. Low material cost and convenient productivity make the Fe{sub 85.5}B{sub 7}C{sub 6}Si{sub 1}Cu{sub 0.5} nanocrystalline alloy an economical application in industry. - Highlights: • Cu addition inhibits the surface crystallization and improves the GFA. • The competitive formation of Fe{sub 3}C and α-Fe phase impedes the devitrification. • Fe{sub 85.5}B{sub 7}C{sub 6}Si{sub 1}Cu{sub 0.5} nanocrystalline alloy exhibits excellent magnetic properties. • The alloy system has an economical advantage and convenient productivity.

  11. The Effects of Pressure During the Crystallization on Properties of the AlSi12 Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pastirčák R.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the impact of technological parameters on the mechanical properties and microstructure in AlSi12 alloy using squeeze casting technology. The casting with crystallization under pressure was used, specifically direct squeeze casting method. The goal was to affect crystallization by pressure with a value 100 and 150 MPa. From the experiments we can conclude that operating pressure of 100 MPa is sufficient to influence the structural characteristics of the alloy AlSi12. The change in cooling rate influences the morphology of the silicon particles and intermetallic phases. A change of excluded needles to a rod-shaped geometries with significantly shorter length occurs when used gravity casting method. At a pressure of 100 MPa was increased of tensile strength on average of 20%. At a pressure of 150 MPa was increased of tensile strength on average of 30%. During the experiment it was also observed, that increasing difference between the casting temperature and the mold temperature leads to increase of mechanical properties.

  12. Surface crystallization and magnetic properties of amorphous Fe80B20 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavassori, P.; Ronconi, F.; Puppin, E.

    1997-01-01

    We have studied the effects of surface crystallization on the magnetic properties of Fe 80 B 20 amorphous alloys. The surface magnetic properties have been studied with magneto-optic Kerr measurements, while those of bulk with a vibrating sample magnetometer. This study reveals that surface crystallization is similar to the bulk process but occurs at a lower temperature. At variance with previous results on other iron-based amorphous alloys the surface crystalline layer does not induce bulk magnetic hardening. Furthermore, both the remanence to saturation ratio and the bulk magnetic anisotropy do not show appreciable variations after the formation of the surface crystalline layer. The Curie temperature of the surface layer is lower with respect to the bulk of the sample. These effects can be explained by a lower boron concentration in the surface region of the as-cast amorphous alloy. Measurements of the chemical composition confirm a reduction of boron concentration in the surface region. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  13. An unsymmetrical porphyrin and its metal complexes: synthesis, spectroscopy, thermal analysis and liquid crystal properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHANGFU ZHUANG

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis and characterization of a new unsymmetrical porphyrin liquid crystal, 5-(4-stearoyloxyphenylphenyl-10,15,20-triphenylporphyrin (SPTPPH2 and its transition metal complexes (SPTPPM, M(II = Zn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu or Mn are reported. Their structure and properties were studied by elemental analysis, and UV–Vis, IR, mass and 1H-HMR spectroscopy. Their luminescent properties were studied by excitation and emission spectroscopy. The quantum yields of the S1 ® S0 fluorescence were measured at room temperature. According to thermal studies, the complexes have a higher thermal stability (no decomposition until 200 °C. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC data and an optical textural photograph, obtained using a polarizing microscope (POM, indicate that the porphyrin ligand had liquid crystalline character and that it exhibited more than one mesophase and a low-lying phase transition temperature, with transition temperatures of 19.3 and 79.4 °C; the temperature range of the liquid crystal (LC phase of the ligand was 70.1 °C.

  14. Influence of nanomechanical crystal properties on the comminution process of particulate solids in spiral jet mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zügner, Sascha; Marquardt, Karin; Zimmermann, Ingfried

    2006-02-01

    Elastic-plastic properties of single crystals are supposed to influence the size reduction process of bulk materials during jet milling. According to Pahl [M.H. Pahl, Zerkleinerungstechnik 2. Auflage. Fachbuchverlag, Leipzig (1993)] and H. Rumpf: [Prinzipien der Prallzerkleinerung und ihre Anwendung bei der Strahlmahlung. Chem. Ing. Tech., 3(1960) 129-135.] fracture toughness, maximum strain or work of fracture for example are strongly dependent on mechanical parameters like hardness (H) and young's modulus of elasticity (E). In addition the dwell time of particles in a spiral jet mill proved to correlate with the hardness of the feed material [F. Rief: Ph. D. Thesis, University of Würzburg (2001)]. Therefore 'near-surface' properties have a direct influence on the effectiveness of the comminution process. The mean particle diameter as well as the size distribution of the ground product may vary significantly with the nanomechanical response of the material. Thus accurate measurement of crystals' hardness and modulus is essential to determine the ideal operational micronisation conditions of the spiral jet mill. The recently developed nanoindentation technique is applied to examine subsurface properties of pharmaceutical bulk materials, namely calcite, sodium ascorbate, lactose and sodium chloride. Pressing a small sized tip into the material while continuously recording load and displacement, characteristic diagrams are derived. The mathematical evaluation of the force-displacement-data allows for calculation of the hardness and the elastic modulus of the investigated material at penetration depths between 50-300 nm. Grinding experiments performed with a modified spiral jet mill (Type Fryma JMRS 80) indicate the strong impact of the elastic-plastic properties of a given substance on its breaking behaviour. The fineness of milled products produced at constant grinding conditions but with different crystalline powders varies significantly as it is dependent on the

  15. Symmetry Aspects of Dislocation-Effected Crystal Properties: Material Strength Levels and X-ray Topographic Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald W. Armstrong

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Several materials science type research topics are described in which advantageous use of crystal symmetry considerations has been helpful in ferreting the essential elements of dislocation behavior in determining material properties or for characterizing crystal/polycrystalline structural relationships; for example: (1 the mechanical strengthening produced by a symmetrical bicrystal grain boundary; (2 cleavage crack formation at the intersection within a crystal of symmetrical dislocation pile-ups; (3 symmetry aspects of anisotropic crystal indentation hardness measurements; (4 X-ray diffraction topography imaging of dislocation strains and subgrain boundary misorientations; and (5 point and space group aspects of twinning. Several applications are described in relation to the strengthening of grain boundaries in nanopolycrystals and of multiply-oriented crystal grains in polysilicon photovoltaic solar cell materials. A number of crystallographic aspects of the different topics are illustrated with a stereographic method of presentation.

  16. Effect of defects induced by doping and fast neutron irradiation on the thermal properties of lithium ammonium sulphate crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandil, S.H.; Ramadan, T.A.; Darwish, M.M.; Kassem, M.E.; El-Khatib, A.M.

    1994-01-01

    Structural defects were introduced in lithium ammonium sulphate crystals (LAS) either in the process of crystal growth (in the form of foreign ions) or by neutron irradiation. The effect of such defects on the thermal properties of LAS crystals was studied in the temperature range 300-500 K. It was assumed that the doped LAS crystals are composed of a two-phase system having different thermal parameters in each phase. The specific heat at constant pressure, C p , of irradiated samples was found to decrease with increasing irradiation doses. The thermal expansion of LAS crystals was found to be dependent on neutron irradiation, and was attributed to two processes: the release of new species and the trapping process. (author)

  17. Effect of defects induced by doping and fast neutron irradiation on the thermal properties of lithium ammonium sulphate crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandil, S.H.; Ramadan, T.A.; Darwish, M.M. (Alexandria Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Materials Science); Kassem, M.E.; El-Khatib, A.M. (Alexandria Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Physics)

    1994-05-01

    Structural defects were introduced in lithium ammonium sulphate crystals (LAS) either in the process of crystal growth (in the form of foreign ions) or by neutron irradiation. The effect of such defects on the thermal properties of LAS crystals was studied in the temperature range 300-500 K. It was assumed that the doped LAS crystals are composed of a two-phase system having different thermal parameters in each phase. The specific heat at constant pressure, C[sub p], of irradiated samples was found to decrease with increasing irradiation doses. The thermal expansion of LAS crystals was found to be dependent on neutron irradiation, and was attributed to two processes: the release of new species and the trapping process. (author).

  18. Effects of Degree of Enzymatic Interesterification on the Physical Properties of Margarine Fats: Solid Fat Content, Crystallization Behavior, Crystal Morphology, and Crystal Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Hong; Smith, Paul; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    2004-01-01

    In this study enzymatic-interesterified margarine fats with different conversion degrees were produced in a packed-bed reactor. The effects of conversion degree on the formation of free fatty acids and diacyglycerols, solid fat content, crystallization behavior, microstructure, and crystal network...... °C with increasing conversion degree. Increased conversion degree from the blend to products, measured by X-ray with addition of 50% of rapeseed oil for dilution, caused the content of â to decrease from 100% to 33%, and 30% and eventually to pure ⢠crystal. However, double chain packing...

  19. Influence of PC-GTAW Parameters on the Microstructural and Mechanical Properties of Thin AISI 1008 Steel Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ravindra; Anant, Ramkishor; Ghosh, P. K.; Kumar, Ankit; Agrawal, B. P.

    2016-09-01

    Butt weld joints are prepared using pulse current gas tungsten arc welding out of thin sheets of AISI 1008 steel using various combinations of pulse parameters. During welding, the welding speed was kept high, but with the increase of welding speed the mean current was also increased to get the required weld joint at the constant heat input. The use of pulse current has led to improvement in mechanical and metallurgical properties of weld joints. It has resulted in less development of humping which is a common problem with high-speed welding. The undercut or dipped weld face is not observed severe. The tensile strength and hardness are enhanced by 12.5 and 12%. The increase of tensile strength and hardness is justified through TEM micrograph showing the presence of dislocation.

  20. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Laser Welded Joints of DZ125L and IN718 Nickel Base Superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Taosha; Wang, Lei; Liu, Yang; Song, Xiu

    2018-05-01

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of the laser welded joint of DZ125L and IN718 nickel base superalloys were investigated. The results show that the fusion zone (FZ) mainly consists of fine dendrite structure with fine γ', Laves phases and MC carbides inhomogeneously distributed. The high welding temperature induces the partial dissolution of γ' in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of DZ125L and liquation of grain boundaries in both of the HAZs. After post-weld heat treatment (PWHT), fine γ″ and γ' phases precipitate in the FZ, IN718 HAZ and IN718 base metal (BM), and fine γ' precipitate in the γ channel of the HAZ and BM of DZ125L. With tensile testing, the joints after PWHT show higher strengths than that of the weaker DZ125L alloy. Plastic deformation mainly concentrates in the weaker DZ125L and the joint finally fails in the DZ125L BM.

  1. Optical and magneto-optical properties of the electron-doped and hole-doped C{sub 82} crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rostampour, E., E-mail: el_rostampour@yahoo.com [Plasma Physics Research Center, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Koohi, A. [Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, AEOI, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    The optical and magnetic properties of the doped C{sub 82} crystal have been investigated by Su–Schrieffer–Heeger (SSH) model, which is based on the Ewald method. When the C{sub 82} molecule is doped with one electron (or hole), a single electron is remained in the energy level that affects the optical and magnetic properties of the C{sub 82} crystal. The lattice and electronic structures of C{sub 82} changed with doping electron (or hole) in the molecule of C{sub 82}. Therefore, polarons are predicted in doped fullerenes. The obtained results showed that the dielectric tensor of the C{sub 82} crystal increased with doping electron (or hole) in the molecule of C{sub 82}. The spectral shapes of the dielectric tensor, circular dichroism and birefringence coefficient of the C{sub 82} crystal turn out to be determined mainly by the geometrical distributions of the pentagons in the fullerene structures.

  2. Growth and spectroscopic properties of Tm3+:NaBi(MoO4)2 single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusakova, N. V.; Mudryi, A. V.; Demesh, M. P.; Yasukevich, A. S.; Pavlyuk, A. A.; Kornienko, A. A.; Dunina, E. B.; Khodasevich, I. A.; Orlovich, V. A.; Kuleshov, N. V.

    2018-06-01

    In this work we report the spectroscopic properties of Tm3+:NaBi(MoO4)2 crystals with the dopant concentrations of 0.7 at.% and 3 at.%. The energy levels of the Tm3+ in the NaBi(MoO4)2 host were determined from polarized optical absorption and photoluminescence spectra measured at 77.4 K. Radiative properties of the crystals were calculated in context of Judd-Ofelt theory. Raman spectra of the crystal were studied. The concentration dependences of emission decay times of 3H4 and 3F4 levels were analyzed. The potential of the crystal for building tunable and ultrafast pulse lasers is shown on the base of cross sections and gain coefficient in the range of 1.9 μm.

  3. Effect of a Polymercaptan Material on the Electro-Optical Properties of Polymer-Dispersed Liquid Crystal Films

    OpenAIRE

    Yujian Sun; Cuihong Zhang; Le Zhou; Hua Fang; Jianhua Huang; Haipeng Ma; Yi Zhang; Jie Yang; Lan-Ying Zhang; Ping Song; Yanzi Gao; Jiumei Xiao; Fasheng Li; Kexuan Li

    2016-01-01

    Polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) films were prepared by the ultraviolet-light-induced polymerization of photopolymerizable monomers in nematic liquid crystal/chiral dopant/thiol-acrylate reaction monomer composites. The effects of the chiral dopant and crosslinking agents on the electro-optical properties of the PDLC films were systematically investigate. While added the chiral dopant S811 into the PDLC films, the initial off-state transmittance of the films was decreased. It was found...

  4. Highly crystalline films of PCPDTBT with branched side chains by solvent vapor crystallization: influence on opto-electronic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Florian S U; Trefz, Daniel; Back, Justus; Kayunkid, Navaphun; Tornow, Benjamin; Albrecht, Steve; Yager, Kevin G; Singh, Gurpreet; Karim, Alamgir; Neher, Dieter; Brinkmann, Martin; Ludwigs, Sabine

    2015-02-18

    PCPDTBT, a marginally crystallizable polymer, is crystallized into a new crystal structure using solvent-vapor annealing. Highly ordered areas with three different polymer-chain orientations are identified using TEM/ED, GIWAXS, and polarized Raman spectroscopy. The optical and structural properties differ significantly from films prepared by standard device preparation protocols. Bilayer solar cells, however, show similar performance. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Growth and physicochemical properties of second-order nonlinear optical 2-amino-5-chloropyridinium trichloroacetate single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renugadevi, R.; Kesavasamy, R.

    2015-09-01

    The growth of organic nonlinear optical (NLO) crystal 2-amino-5-chloropyridinium trichloroacetate (2A5CPTCA) has been synthesized and single crystals have been grown from methanol solvent by slow evaporation technique. The grown crystals were subjected to various characterization analyses in order to find out the suitability for device fabrication. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that 2A5CPTCA crystallizes in monoclinic system with the space group Cc. The grown crystal was further characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectral analysis to find out the functional groups. The nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is a research technique that exploits the magnetic properties of certain atomic nuclei. The optical transparency window in the visible and near-IR (200--1100 nm) regions was found to be good for NLO applications. Thermogravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis were used to study its thermal properties. The powder second harmonic generation efficiency measurement with Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm) radiation shows that the highest value when compared with the standard potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystal.

  6. Comparison of the luminescent properties of Lu3Al5O12:Pr crystals and films under synchrotron radiation excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorenko, Yu.; Gorbenko, V.; Zorenko, T.; Voznyak, T.; Nizankovskiy, S.

    2016-01-01

    The work is dedicated to comparative investigation of the luminescent properties of Lu 3 Al 5 O 12 :Pr(LuAG:Pr) single crystals and single crystalline films using excitation by synchrotron radiation with an energy of 3.7–25 eV in the exciton range of LuAG host. We have found that the differences in the excitation spectra and luminescence decay kinetics of LuAG:Pr crystals and films are caused by involving the LuAl antisite defects and oxygen vacancies in the crystals and Pb 2+ flux related dopants in the films in the excitation processes of the Pr 3+ luminescence. Taking into account these differences, we have determined the energy structure of the Pr 3+ ions in LuAG host and estimated the differences in the energies of creation of excitons bound with the isolated Pr 3+ ions in LuAG:Pr films and the dipole Pr–LuAl antisite defect centers in the crystal counterpart. - Highlights: • Comparison of the luminescent properties of LuAG:Pr single crystals and films. • Superposition of the Pr 3+ and defect centers luminescence of LuAG:Pr crystal. • Different creation energies of an excitons bound with the Pr 3+ in LuAG:Pr crystals and films. • More faster decay kinetics of the Pr 3+ luminescence in LuAG:Pr films. • Low content of slow emission component in LuAG:Pr films.

  7. Thermal-deformation effect of welding on A 1 reactor pressure vessel weld joints properties and state of stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becka, J.; Kupka, I.

    1976-01-01

    The methods are compared of electroslag welding and of arc welding with a view to their possible application in welding the Bohunice A-1 reactor pressure vessel. Considered are the thermal deformation effects of welding on the physical properties and the stress present in welded joints. For testing, plates were used having the dimensions of 1100x2300x200 mm and rings with 4820 mm outer diameter, 1800 mm height and 170 mm thickness made of steel CSN 413O30 modified with Ni, Al+Ti. The deformation effect of welding on the residual surface and triaxial stress, the specific stored energy, the initiation temperature of brittle crack and the critical size of the initiation defect corresponding to the thermal deformation effect of welding were determined. It was found that for electroslag welding, there is a low probability of crack formation in the joints, a low level of residual stress and a low level of specific stored energy in a relatively wide joint zone. For arc welding there is a considerable probability of defect formation in the vicinity of the sharp boundary of the joint, a high level of the triaxial state of stress in the tensile region, and a high level of specific stored energy concentrated in the narrow zone of weld joints. The recommended thermal process is given for welding pressure vessels made of the CSN 413030 steel modified with Ni, Al+Ti, and 150 to 200 mm in thickness. (J.P.)

  8. The Effect of Tool Profiles on Mechanical Properties of Friction Stir Welded Al5052 T-Joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byeong-Jin; Bang, Hee-Seon; Bang, Han-Sur

    2018-03-01

    Al5052 T butt joints with two skins (5 mm) and one stringer (3 mm) has been successfully welded by friction stir welding (FSW). Notably, this paper has been investigated the effect of tool shape on welded formation mechanism and mechanical properties. The used shapes of tool pin are two types which are cylinder (type 1) and frustum (type 2). Dimension on two types of tool pin shape is respectively pin length of 4.7 mm and pin diameter of frustum type of top (5 mm) and bottom (3 mm). The results of experiment show that inner defects in FSWed T-joints increase significantly in accordance with traverse speed. The maximum tensile strength of welded joint fabricated using type 1 is equivalent to 85% that of the base metal, which is approximately 10% higher than that of type 2. Because welded joint of type 1 has more smoothly plastic flow in comparison with type 2. Consequently, the results show that type 1 is better appropriate for friction stir welded Al5052 T butt joints than type 2.

  9. Structural, elastic and electronic Properties of isotropic cubic crystals of carbon and silicon nanotubes : Density functional based tight binding calculations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander L. Ivanovskii

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Atomic models of cubic crystals (CC of carbon and graphene-like Si nanotubes are offered and their structural, cohesive, elastic and electronic properties are predicted by means of the DFTB method. Our main findings are that the isotropic crystals of carbon nanotubes adopt a very high elastic modulus B and low compressibility β, namely B = 650 GPa, β = 0.0015 1/GPa. In addition, these crystals preserve the initial conductivity type of their “building blocks”, i.e. isolated carbon and Si nanotubes. This feature may be important for design of materials with the selected conductivity type.

  10. Wear properties of alumina/zirconia composite ceramics for joint prostheses measured with an end-face apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Yusuke; Nakata, Kenichi; Kim, Yoon-Ho; Sekino, Tohru; Niihara, Koichi; Ikeuchi, Ken

    2004-01-01

    While only alumina is applied to all-ceramic joint prostheses at present, a stronger ceramic is required to prevent fracture and chipping due to impingement and stress concentration. Zirconia could be a potential substitute for alumina because it has high strength and fracture toughness. However, the wear of zirconia/zirconia combination is too high for clinical use. Although some investigations on composite ceramics revealed that mixing of different ceramics was able to improve the mechanical properties of ceramics, there are few reports about wear properties of composite ceramics for joint prosthesis. Since acetabular cup and femoral head of artificial hip joint are finished precisely, they indicate high geometric conformity. Therefore, wear test under flat contact was carried out with an end-face wear testing apparatus for four kinds of ceramics: alumina monolith, zirconia monolith, alumina-based composite ceramic, and zirconia based composite ceramic. Mean contact pressure was 10 MPa and sliding velocity was 40 mm/s. The wear test continued for 72 hours and total sliding distance was 10 km. After the test, the wear factor was calculated. Worn surfaces were observed with a scanning electron micrograph (SEM). The results of this wear test show that the wear factors of the both composite ceramics are similarly low and their mechanical properties are much better than those of the alumina monolith and the zirconia monolith. According to these results, it is predicted that joint prostheses of the composite ceramics are safer against break down and have longer lifetime compared with alumina/alumina joint prostheses.

  11. Investigation of the effects of swift heavy ion on the properties of yttrium calcium oxyborate (YCOB) NLO crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalidasan, M.; Dhanasekaran, R.; Asokan, K.

    2012-01-01

    Heavy ion irradiation is a successful tool to create an effective refractive index change in a nonlinear optical (NLO) crystal surface in several micron thickness. It leads to the fabrication of non-leaky optical guiding structures. As irradiation can create the property changes with low ion fluence, it will be an alternative for the ion implantation. The present work is related to the creation of micrometer level surface modification in the YCa_4O(BO_3)_3 NLO crystal by the irradiation of 120 MeV Au"9"+ swift heavy ion and studying the changes in property of the material. The irradiation was carried out in the Materials Science beam line of the pelletron accelerator at Inter University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi. YCOB crystals were grown by high temperature flux technique in our laboratory. YCOB belongs to borate family of crystals which are superior to other NLO crystals due to their structural and optical features. Borate crystal can produce UV and deep UV laser through harmonic generation with good optical conversion efficiency. YCOB crystal attracted because of its high laser damage threshold, long nonlinear conversion length and large aperture scaling capability to be employed in high power laser applications. The Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter (SRIM) simulation has been carried out to study the variation of electronic (S_e) and nuclear (S_n) energy losses with penetration depth and energy of gold ions in YCOB crystal. Refractive index change was observed in the YCOB crystal due to the irradiation of 120 MeV Au"9"+ ion. The UV-Visible studies show optical band gap shift and confirms the refractive index change created in the YCOB crystal. The morphology of the irradiated crystal was analysed with scanning electron microscopy. The inhomogeneous broadening of emission curve of the YCOB crystal takes place due to ion irradiation which is analyzed in detail. From the fluorescence decay curves of pristine and irradiated crystals the excited state

  12. Theoretical Studies on the Electronic Structures and Properties of Complex Ceramic Crystals and Novel Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ching, Wai-Yim

    2012-01-14

    This project is a continuation of a long program supported by the Office of Basic Energy Science in the Office of Science of DOE for many years. The final three-year continuation started on November 1, 2005 with additional 1 year extension to October 30, 2009. The project was then granted a two-year No Cost Extension which officially ended on October 30, 2011. This report covers the activities within this six year period with emphasis on the work completed within the last 3 years. A total of 44 papers with acknowledgement to this grant were published or submitted. The overall objectives of this project are as follows. These objectives have been evolved over the six year period: (1) To use the state-of-the-art computational methods to investigate the electronic structures of complex ceramics and other novel crystals. (2) To further investigate the defects, surfaces/interfaces and microstructures in complex materials using large scale modeling. (3) To extend the study on ceramic materials to more complex bioceramic crystals. (4) To initiate the study on soft condensed matters including water and biomolecules. (5) To focus on the spectroscopic studies of different materials especially on the ELNES and XANES spectral calculations and their applications related to experimental techniques. (6) To develop and refine computational methods to be effectively executed on DOE supercomputers. (7) To evaluate mechanical properties of different crystals and those containing defects and relate them to the fundamental electronic structures. (8) To promote and publicize the first-principles OLCAO method developed by the PI (under DOE support for many years) for applications to large complex material systems. (9) To train a new generation of graduate students and postdoctoral fellows in modern computational materials science and condensed matter physics. (10) To establish effective international and domestic collaborations with both experimentalists and theorists in materials

  13. Synthesis, growth, structure, mechanical and optical properties of a new semi-organic 2-methyl imidazolium dihydrogen phosphate single crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagapandiselvi, P., E-mail: nagapandiselvip@ssn.edu.in [Department of Physics, SSN College of Engineering, Kalavakkam (India); Baby, C. [Sophisticated Analytical Instrument Facility, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai (India); Gopalakrishnan, R. [Crystal Research Lab, Department of Physics, Anna University, Chennai (India)

    2016-09-15

    Highlights: • 2MIDP crystals were grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique. • Single crystal XRD revealed self-assembled supramolecular framework. • Z scan technique is employed for third order nonlinear optical susceptibility. • Structure-property correlation is established. - Abstract: A new semi-organic compound, 2-methyl imidazolium dihydrogen phosphate (2MIDP), was prepared and good quality single crystals of 2MIDP were grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique. Crystal structure elucidated using Single crystal XRD showed that 2MIDP crystallizes in monoclinic system with P2{sub 1}/c space group. FT-IR, UV-Vis-NIR, Fluorescence and FT-NMR spectra confirm the molecular structure of 2MIDP. The UV-Vis-NIR spectra established the suitability of the compound for NLO applications. TG-DSC showed that 2MIDP is thermally stable up to 200 °C. Mechanical characteristics like hardness number (H{sub v}), stiffness constant (C{sub 11}), yield strength (σ{sub v}), fracture toughness (K{sub c}) and brittleness index (B{sub i}) were assessed using Vicker’s microhardness tester. Third order nonlinear optical properties determined from Z-scan measurement using femto and picosecond lasers showed two photon reverse saturable absorption. The enhancement of nonlinear optical properties in femto second laser, revealed the suitability of 2MIDP for optical limiting applications.

  14. Magnetic, transport, and optical properties of Ca0.85Eu0.15MnO3 single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naumov, S.V.; Loshkareva, N.N.; Mostovshchikova, E.V.; Solin, N.I.; Korolev, A.V.; Arbuzova, T.I.; Telegin, S.V.; Patrakov, E.I.

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic, transport and optical properties of the Ca 0.85 Eu 0.15 MnO 3 single crystal are studied and discussed in comparison with the properties of polycrystalline sample. The magnetic data show existence the two magnetic phase transitions under cooling: the transition near 150 K occurs from the paramagnetic orthorhombic to C-type antiferromagnetic monoclinic phase with the charge/orbital ordering in some part of the crystal; and at 90 K the transition from the paramagnetic to G-type antiferromagnetic phase takes place in another part of the crystal with the orthorhombic structure. The magnetoresistance of the Ca 0.85 Eu 0.15 MnO 3 single crystal has features at temperatures of these phase transitions. Differences in the properties of single crystal and polycrystalline sample with the same content of Eu are associated with the ordering of oxygen vacancies that appear under the crystal growth. The reflection spectra in infrared range confirm the existence of the electron conductivity in a narrow band at room temperature.

  15. Characterization of physicochemical and thermal properties and crystallization behavior of krabok (Irvingia Malayana ) and rambutan seed fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonwai, Sopark; Ponprachanuvut, Punnee

    2012-01-01

    Fatty acid composition, physicochemical and thermal properties and crystallization behavior of fats extracted from the seeds of krabok (Irvingia Malayana) and rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) trees grown in Thailand were studied and compared with cocoa butter (CB). The krabok seed fat, KSF, consisted of 46.9% lauric and 40.3% myristic acids. It exhibited the highest saponification value and slip melting point but the lowest iodine values. The three fats displayed different crystallization behavior at 25°C. KSF crystallized into a mixture of β' and pseudo-β' structures with a one-step crystallization curve and high solid fat content (SFC). The fat showed simple DSC crystallization and melting thermograms with one distinct peak. The rambutan seed fat, RSF, consisted of 42.5% arachidic and 33.1% oleic acids. Its crystallization behavior was more similar to CB than KSF, displaying a two-step crystallization curve with SFC lower than that of KSF. RSF solidified into a mixture of β' and pseudo-β' before transforming to β after 24 h. The large spherulitic microstructures were observed in both KSF and RSF. According to these results, the Thai KSF and RSF exhibited physicochemical, thermal characteristics and crystallization behavior that could be suitable for specific applications in several areas of the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.

  16. Control of Mechanical Properties of Thermoplastic Polyurethane Elastomers by Restriction of Crystallization of Soft Segment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadaharu Nakamura

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical properties of thermoplastic polyurethane elastomers based on either polyether or polycarbonate (PC-glycols, 4,4’-dipheylmethane diisocyanate (1,1’-methylenebis(4-isocyanatobenzene, 1,4-butanediol, were controlled by restriction of crystallization of polymer glycols. For the polyether glycol based-polyurethane elastomers (PUEs, poly(oxytetramethylene glycol (PTMG, and PTMG incorporating dimethyl groups (PTG-X and methyl side groups (PTG-L were employed as a polymer glycol. For the PC-glycol, the randomly copolymerized PC-glycols with hexamethylene (C6 and tetramethylene (C4 units between carbonate groups with various composition ratios (C4/C6 = 0/100, 50/50, 70/30 and 90/10 were employed. The degree of microphase separation and mechanical properties of both the PUEs were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry, dynamic viscoelastic property measurements and tensile testing. Mechanical properties could be controlled by changing the molar ratio of two different monomer components.

  17. Numerical analysis of laser welding with consideration analytical methods of determining phase transformations and mechanical properties of welded joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piekarska Wiesława

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The numerical analysis of laser welding process with consideration analytical methods determining phase transformations and mechanical properties of welded joints are presents in this paper. The analytical CCT diagram and final structural composition of S355 steel are presented. The empirical relations presents in paper are determined by chemical compositions investigated steel and cooling rate between temperatures 800-500°C (t8/5. Phase composition and mechanical properties each of structures of steel in weld and heat affected zone (HAZ are determined on the basis of analytical methods. Laser welded flat is used in numerical simulations in ABAQUS. Mathematical modes of volumetric welding source are used in the calculations. Temperature fields, shape and size of melting zone for selected points in the cross-section of the joint are determined on the basis of thermal cycles obtained numerical.

  18. Effect of Rotation Rate on Microstructure and Properties of Friction Stir Welded Joints of Al/Cu Clad Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QIAO Ke

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Al/Cu clad plates were joined by friction stir welding (FSW, and the effect of rotation rate on microstructure and mechanical properties of joints was investigated. The results show that the laminar structure of aluminum and copper is generated in the weld. With increase the of rotation rate, the grain sizes of aluminum and copper are increased respectively. The average microhardness of the Al/Cu plates exceeds that of the as-received metal of 33.0 HV, and ultimate tensile strength is 127.21 MPa in the nugget zone when rotation rate is 1180 r/min. The microhardness of copper in the nugget zone is 99.7 HV, reached 82.05% of the microhardness of received metal, and void defect is main reason responsible for the decrease of mechanical properties of joints.

  19. The formation and optical properties of planar waveguide in laser crystal Nd:YGG by carbon ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jin-Hua; Qin, Xi-Feng; Wang, Feng-Xiang; Jiao, Yang; Guan, Jing; Fu, Gang

    2017-10-01

    As one kind of prominent laser crystal, Nd:Y3Ga5O12 (Nd:YGG) crystal has outstanding performance on laser excitation at multi-wavelength which have shown promising applications in optical communication field. In addition, Nd:YGG crystal has potential applications in medical field due to its ability of emit the laser at 1110 nm. Optical waveguide structure with high quality could improve the efficiency of laser emission. In this work, we fabricated the optical planar waveguide on Nd:YGG crystal by medium mass ion implantation which was convinced an effective method to realize a waveguide structure with superior optical properties. The sample is implanted by C ions at energy of 5.0 MeV with the fluence of 1 × 1015 ions/cm2. We researched the optical propagation properties in the Nd:YGG waveguide by end-face coupling and prism coupling method. The Nd ions fluorescent properties are obtained by a confocal micro-luminescence measurement. The fluorescent properties of Nd ions obtained good reservation after C ion implantation. Our work has reference value for the application of Nd:YGG crystal in the field of optical communication.

  20. Structure of Fe-Ni-Cr steel welded joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratukhin, A.G.; Maslenkov, S.B.; Logunov, A.V.

    1993-01-01

    Properties of a welded joint depend on the structure of metal of the joint and near the joint areas subjected to thermal effect in the process of welding. The well-known phenomena, accompanying the welding (grain growth in near the joint area, intergrain slip, stressed state related to crystallization and rapid cooling), as well as certain other processes, which have been insufficiently studied either due to their poor pronouncement or owing to imperfection of the equipment and methods employed, were analyzed, as applied to stainless hihg-strength Fe-Ni-Cr steels