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Sample records for crystal microbalance technique

  1. Lectin typing of Campylobacter jejuni using a novel quartz crystal microbalance technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakovleva, Maria E., E-mail: maria.yakovleva@gmail.com [Department of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology, Lund University, 223 62 Lund (Sweden); Moran, Anthony P. [Department of Microbiology, School of Natural Sciences, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland); Safina, Gulnara R. [Department of Analytical and Marine Chemistry, University of Gothenburg, 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Wadstroem, Torkel [Department of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology, Lund University, 223 62 Lund (Sweden); Danielsson, Bengt [Acromed Invest AB, Magistratsvaegen 10, 226 43 Lund (Sweden)

    2011-05-23

    Seven Campylobacter jejuni strains were characterised by a lectin typing assay. The typing system was based on a quartz crystal microbalance technique (QCM) with four commercially available lectins (wheat germ agglutinin, Maackia amurensis lectin, Lens culinaris agglutinin, and Concanavalin A), which were chosen for their differing carbohydrate specificities. Initially, the gold surfaces of the quartz crystals were modified with 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid followed by lectin immobilisation using a conventional amine-coupling technique. Bacterial cells were applied for lectin typing without preliminary treatment, and resonant frequency and dissipation responses were recorded. The adhesion of microorganisms on lectin surfaces was confirmed by atomic force microscopy. Scanning was performed in the tapping mode and the presence of bacteria on lectin-coated surfaces was successfully demonstrated. A significant difference in the dissipation response was observed for different C. jejuni strains which made it possible to use this parameter for discriminating between bacterial strains. In summary, the QCM technique proved a powerful tool for the recognition and discrimination of C. jejuni strains. The approach may also prove applicable to strain discrimination of other bacterial species, particularly pathogens.

  2. Lectin typing of Campylobacter jejuni using a novel quartz crystal microbalance technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakovleva, Maria E.; Moran, Anthony P.; Safina, Gulnara R.; Wadstroem, Torkel; Danielsson, Bengt

    2011-01-01

    Seven Campylobacter jejuni strains were characterised by a lectin typing assay. The typing system was based on a quartz crystal microbalance technique (QCM) with four commercially available lectins (wheat germ agglutinin, Maackia amurensis lectin, Lens culinaris agglutinin, and Concanavalin A), which were chosen for their differing carbohydrate specificities. Initially, the gold surfaces of the quartz crystals were modified with 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid followed by lectin immobilisation using a conventional amine-coupling technique. Bacterial cells were applied for lectin typing without preliminary treatment, and resonant frequency and dissipation responses were recorded. The adhesion of microorganisms on lectin surfaces was confirmed by atomic force microscopy. Scanning was performed in the tapping mode and the presence of bacteria on lectin-coated surfaces was successfully demonstrated. A significant difference in the dissipation response was observed for different C. jejuni strains which made it possible to use this parameter for discriminating between bacterial strains. In summary, the QCM technique proved a powerful tool for the recognition and discrimination of C. jejuni strains. The approach may also prove applicable to strain discrimination of other bacterial species, particularly pathogens.

  3. Transient effects during erosion of WN by deuterium ions studied with the quartz crystal microbalance technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, Bernhard M., E-mail: berger@iap.tuwien.ac.at [Institute of Applied Physics, TU Wien, Fusion@ÖAW, Wiedner Hauptstr. 8-10, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Stadlmayr, Reinhard [Institute of Applied Physics, TU Wien, Fusion@ÖAW, Wiedner Hauptstr. 8-10, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Meisl, Gerd [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Čekada, Miha [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Eisenmenger-Sittner, Christoph [Institute of Solid State Physics, TU Wien, Wiedner Hauptstr. 8-10, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Schwarz-Selinger, Thomas [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Aumayr, Friedrich, E-mail: aumayr@iap.tuwien.ac.at [Institute of Applied Physics, TU Wien, Fusion@ÖAW, Wiedner Hauptstr. 8-10, 1040 Vienna (Austria)

    2016-09-01

    Transient effects during erosion of polycrystalline tungsten-nitride (WN) films by mono-energetic deuterium projectiles are studied using a quartz crystal microbalance technique. The evolution of the mass removal rate of a 360 nm thin WN film under 500 eV/D and 1000 eV/D bombardment is investigated at a temperature of 465 K in situ and in real-time as a function of the deuterium fluence. The measurements are performed at a typical flux of 10{sup 18} m{sup −2} s{sup −1}. A strong dependency of the observed mass change rate on the deuterium fluence is found. The mass loss is initially higher than for pure tungsten (W) and drops with fluence, finally reaching the same steady state value as for pure W sputtering. Steady state surface conditions are obtained at a fluence of about 0.2 × 10{sup 23} D/m{sup 2} for 500 eV/D and 0.6 × 10{sup 23} D/m{sup 2} for 1000 eV/D. SDTrimSP simulations indicate a preferential removal of N and a corresponding W enrichment of the surface.

  4. In situ NMR and electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance techniques reveal the structure of the electrical double layer in supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, John M.; Forse, Alexander C.; Tsai, Wan-Yu; Taberna, Pierre-Louis; Simon, Patrice; Grey, Clare P.

    2015-08-01

    Supercapacitors store charge through the electrosorption of ions on microporous electrodes. Despite major efforts to understand this phenomenon, a molecular-level picture of the electrical double layer in working devices is still lacking as few techniques can selectively observe the ionic species at the electrode/electrolyte interface. Here, we use in situ NMR to directly quantify the populations of anionic and cationic species within a working microporous carbon supercapacitor electrode. Our results show that charge storage mechanisms are different for positively and negatively polarized electrodes for the electrolyte tetraethylphosphonium tetrafluoroborate in acetonitrile; for positive polarization charging proceeds by exchange of the cations for anions, whereas for negative polarization, cation adsorption dominates. In situ electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance measurements support the NMR results and indicate that adsorbed ions are only partially solvated. These results provide new molecular-level insight, with the methodology offering exciting possibilities for the study of pore/ion size, desolvation and other effects on charge storage in supercapacitors.

  5. Data Acquisition System for Quartz Crystal Microbalances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleber Romero Felizardo

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a data acquisition system used in a mass sensor: quartz crystal microbalance. This system reads the frequency of this sensor along the time and sends the collected data to the computer through a serial interface.

  6. Construction of simple quartz crystal microbalance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ristov, Milcho [Center of Energy, Informatics and Materials of the Macedonian Academy fo Science and Arts, Skopje (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of); Mitrevski, Mitre [Institute of Physics, Faculty of natural Science and Mathematics, Ss Cyril and Methodius University, Skopje (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    A very simple Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) was constructed for the measurement of thickness of chemically deposited thin films. QCM consisted of two active elements: one dual-gate MOSFET and one bipolar transistor, and as usually two AT-cut quartz crystal. The beat frequency oscillation generated as a result of loading of the sensor crystal by the deposited thin film, was measured by HP-multimeter, set as a low frequency meter. The sensitivity was found to be high and satisfactory for the study of growth rate of thin films, mainly deposited by methods of chemical deposition.

  7. Construction of simple quartz crystal microbalance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ristov, Milcho; Mitrevski, Mitre

    2002-01-01

    A very simple Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) was constructed for the measurement of thickness of chemically deposited thin films. QCM consisted of two active elements: one dual-gate MOSFET and one bipolar transistor, and as usually two AT-cut quartz crystal. The beat frequency oscillation generated as a result of loading of the sensor crystal by the deposited thin film, was measured by HP-multimeter, set as a low frequency meter. The sensitivity was found to be high and satisfactory for the study of growth rate of thin films, mainly deposited by methods of chemical deposition.

  8. Polyacrylonitrile nanofiber as polar solvent N,N-dimethyl formamide sensor based on quartz crystal microbalance technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rianjanu, A.; Julian, T.; Hidayat, S. N.; Suyono, E. A.; Kusumaatmaja, A.; Triyana, K.

    2018-04-01

    Here, we describe an N,N-dimethyl formamide (DMF) vapour sensor fabricated by coating polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofiber structured on quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). The PAN nanofiber sensors with an average diameter of 225 nm to 310 nm were fabricated via electrospinning process with different mass deposition on QCM substrate. The nanostructured of PAN nanofiber offers a high specific surface area that improved the sensing performance of nanofiber sensors. Benefiting from that fine structure, and high polymer-solvent affinity between PAN and DMF, the development of DMF sensors presented good response at ambient temperature. Since there is no chemical reaction between PAN nanofiber and DMF vapour, weak physical interaction such absorption and swelling were responsible for the sensing behavior. The results are indicating that the response of PAN nanofiber sensors has more dependency on the nanofiber structure (specific surface area) rather than its mass deposition. The sensor also showed good stability after a few days sensing. These findings have significant implications for developing DMF vapour sensor based on QCM coated polymer nanofibers.

  9. Functional Durability of a Quartz Crystal Microbalance Sensor for the Rapid Detection of Salmonella in Liquids from Poultry Packaging

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Olsen, Eric

    2000-01-01

    .... A rapid, sensitive (350 +/- 150 cells ml/cm) quartz crystal microbalance biosensor, layered with heat-treated anti-Salmonella-phospholipid monolayers by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique, has been evaluated by immersion testing in chicken exudate...

  10. Simultaneous detection of surface coverage and structure of krypton films on gold by helium atom diffraction and quartz crystal microbalance techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danışman, M Fatih; Özkan, Berrin

    2011-11-01

    We describe a quartz crystal microbalance setup that can be operated at low temperatures in ultra high vacuum with gold electrode surfaces acting as substrate surface for helium diffraction measurements. By simultaneous measurement of helium specular reflection intensity from the electrode surface and resonance frequency shift of the crystal during film adsorption, helium diffraction data can be correlated to film thickness. In addition, effects of interfacial viscosity on the helium diffraction pattern could be observed. To this end, first, flat gold films on AT cut quartz crystals were prepared which yield high enough helium specular reflection intensity. Then the crystals were mounted in the helium diffractometer sample holder and driven by means of a frequency modulation driving setup. Different crystal geometries were tested to obtain the best quality factor and preliminary measurements were performed on Kr films on gold surfaces. While the crystal structure and coverage of krypton films as a function of substrate temperature could successfully be determined, no depinning effects could be observed. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  11. Recent Advances in Quartz Crystal Microbalance-Based Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Kumar Vashist

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM has gained exceptional importance in the fields of (biosensors, material science, environmental monitoring, and electrochemistry based on the phenomenal development in QCM-based sensing during the last two decades. This review provides an overview of recent advances made in QCM-based sensors, which have been widely employed in a plethora of applications for the detection of chemicals, biomolecules and microorganisms.

  12. Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-06

    Hydroxyapatite , 10 nm, Sensors • Biotin Functionalized on Gold Sensors • His-tag Capturing Sensor QCM-D techniques provide answers about...mass and structural changes at the nanoscale level. The instrumentation was used to characterize the interaction between small molecules or polymers...The equipment was used mostly for the investigation of interfaces and processes involving silk or silk-based peptides and inorganic components, to

  13. Electronic Nose using Gas Chromatography Column and Quartz Crystal Microbalance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Agus Sujono

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The conventional electronic nose usually consists of an array of dissimilar chemical sensors such as quartz crystal microbalance (QCM combined with pattern recognition algorithm such as Neural network. Because of parallel processing, the system needs a huge number of sensors and circuits which may emerge complexity and inter-channel crosstalk problems. In this research, a new type of odor identification which combines between gas chromatography (GC and electronic nose methods has been developed. The system consists of a GC column and a 10-MHz quartz crystal microbalance sensor producing a unique pattern for an odor in time domain. This method offers advantages of substantially reduced size, interferences and power consumption in comparison to existing odor identification system. Several odors of organic compounds were introduced to evaluate the selectivity of the system. Principle component analysis method was used to visualize the classification of each odor in two-dimensional space. This system could resolve common organic solvents, including molecules of different classes (aromatic from alcohols as well as those within a particular class (methanol from ethanol and also fuels (premium from pertamax. The neural network can be taught to recognize the odors tested in the experiment with identification rate of 85 %. It is therefore the system may take the place of human nose, especially for poisonous odor evaluations.

  14. A quartz crystal microbalance dew point sensor without frequency measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guohua; Zhang, Weishuo; Wang, Shuo; Sun, Jinglin

    2014-11-01

    This work deals with the design of a dew point sensor based on Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) without measuring the frequency. This idea is inspired by the fact that the Colpitts oscillation circuit will stop oscillating when the QCM works in the liquid media. The quartz crystal and the electrode are designed through the finite element simulation and the stop oscillating experiment is conducted to verify the sensibility. Moreover, the measurement result is calibrated to approach the true value. At last a series of dew points at the same temperature is measured with the designed sensor. Results show that the designed dew point sensor is able to detect the dew point with the proper accuracy.

  15. Using Quartz Crystal Microbalance for Field Measurement of Liquid Viscosities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingsong Bai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The field measurement of liquid viscosities, especially the high viscous liquids, is challenging and often requires expensive equipment, long processing time, and lots of reagent. We use quartz crystal microbalances (QCMs operating in solution which are also sensitive to the viscosity and density of the contacting solution. QCMs are typically investigated for sensor applications in which one surface of QCM completely immersed in Newtonian liquid, but the viscous damping in liquids would cause not only large frequency shifts but also large losses in the quality factor Q leading to instability and even cessation of oscillation. A novel mass-sensitivity-based method for field measurement of liquid viscosities using a QCM is demonstrated in this paper and a model describing the influence of the liquid properties on the oscillation frequency is established as well. Two groups of verified experiments were performed and the experimental results show that the presented method is effective and possesses potential applications.

  16. Respiratory Monitoring by Porphyrin Modified Quartz Crystal Microbalance Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Woo Lee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A respiratory monitoring system based on a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM sensor with a functional film was designed and investigated. Porphyrins 5,10,15,20-tetrakis-(4-sulfophenyl-21H,23H-porphine (TSPP and 5,10,15,20-tetrakis-(4-sulfophenyl-21H, 23H-porphine manganese (III chloride (MnTSPP used as sensitive elements were assembled with a poly(diallyldimethyl ammonium chloride (PDDA. Films were deposited on the QCM resonators using layer-by-layer method in order to develop the sensor. The developed system, in which the sensor response reflects lung movements, was able to track human respiration providing respiratory rate (RR and respiratory pattern (RP. The sensor system was tested on healthy volunteers to compare RPs and calculate RRs. The operation principle of the proposed system is based on the fast adsorption/desorption behavior of water originated from human breath into the sensor films deposited on the QCM electrode.

  17. Data analysis for lidar and quartz crystal microbalance systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, G. S.; Deepak, A.

    1985-01-01

    Results are presented of the analysis of data taken on the stratospheric aerosol, using lidar, Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM), and the SAGE and SAM II satellite systems. The main objective of the work reported has been to use the data, taken with the NASA-LaRC instruments to study the stratospheric effects of volcanic eruptions during the period between the launch of the SAGE and SAM II satellite systems and October 1980. Four significant volcanic eruptions, for which data are available, occurred during this period--Soufriere, Sierra Negra, Mt. St. Helens, and Ulawun. Data on these have been analyzed to determine the changes in stratospheric mass loading produced by the eruptions, and to study the dispersion of the newly injected material.

  18. Molecular Imprinting Technology in Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Emir Diltemiz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs as artificial antibodies have received considerable scientific attention in the past years in the field of (biosensors since they have unique features that distinguish them from natural antibodies such as robustness, multiple binding sites, low cost, facile preparation and high stability under extreme operation conditions (higher pH and temperature values, etc.. On the other hand, the Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM is an analytical tool based on the measurement of small mass changes on the sensor surface. QCM sensors are practical and convenient monitoring tools because of their specificity, sensitivity, high accuracy, stability and reproducibility. QCM devices are highly suitable for converting the recognition process achieved using MIP-based memories into a sensor signal. Therefore, the combination of a QCM and MIPs as synthetic receptors enhances the sensitivity through MIP process-based multiplexed binding sites using size, 3D-shape and chemical function having molecular memories of the prepared sensor system toward the target compound to be detected. This review aims to highlight and summarize the recent progress and studies in the field of (biosensor systems based on QCMs combined with molecular imprinting technology.

  19. Molecular Imprinting Technology in Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emir Diltemiz, Sibel; Keçili, Rüstem; Ersöz, Arzu; Say, Rıdvan

    2017-01-01

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) as artificial antibodies have received considerable scientific attention in the past years in the field of (bio)sensors since they have unique features that distinguish them from natural antibodies such as robustness, multiple binding sites, low cost, facile preparation and high stability under extreme operation conditions (higher pH and temperature values, etc.). On the other hand, the Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) is an analytical tool based on the measurement of small mass changes on the sensor surface. QCM sensors are practical and convenient monitoring tools because of their specificity, sensitivity, high accuracy, stability and reproducibility. QCM devices are highly suitable for converting the recognition process achieved using MIP-based memories into a sensor signal. Therefore, the combination of a QCM and MIPs as synthetic receptors enhances the sensitivity through MIP process-based multiplexed binding sites using size, 3D-shape and chemical function having molecular memories of the prepared sensor system toward the target compound to be detected. This review aims to highlight and summarize the recent progress and studies in the field of (bio)sensor systems based on QCMs combined with molecular imprinting technology. PMID:28245588

  20. Quartz crystal microbalance sensor using ionophore for ammonium ion detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosaki, Yasuhiro; Takano, Kosuke; Citterio, Daniel; Suzuki, Koji; Shiratori, Seimei

    2012-01-01

    Ionophore-based quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) ammonium ion sensors with a detection limit for ammonium ion concentrations as low as 2.2 microM were fabricated. Ionophores are molecules, which selectively bind a particular ion. In this study, one of the known ionophores for ammonium, nonactin, was used to detect ammonium ions for environmental in-situ monitoring of aquarium water for the first time. To fabricate the sensing films, poly(vinyl chloride) was used as the matrix for the immobilization of nonactin. Furthermore, the anionic additive, tetrakis (4-chlorophenyl) borate potassium salt and the plasticizer dioctyl sebacate were used to enhance the sensor properties. The sensor allowed detecting ammonium ions not only in static solution, but also in flowing water. The sensor showed a nearly linear response with the increase of the ammonium ion concentration. The QCM resonance frequency increased with the increase of ammonium ion concentration, suggesting a decreasing weight of the sensing film. The detailed response mechanism could not be verified yet. However, from the results obtained when using a different plasticizer, nitrophenyl octyl ether, it is considered that this effect is caused by the release of water molecules. Consequently, the newly fabricated sensor detects ammonium ions by discharge of water. It shows high selectivity over potassium and sodium ions. We conclude that the newly fabricated sensor can be applied for detecting ammonium ions in aquarium water, since it allows measuring low ammonium ion concentrations. This sensor will be usable for water quality monitoring and controlling.

  1. Measurement of Total Condensation on a Shrouded Cryogenic Surface using a Single Quart Crystal Microbalance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haid, B.J.; Malsbury, T.N.; Gibson, C.R.; Warren, C.T.

    2008-01-01

    A single quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) is cooled to 18 K to measure condensation rates inside of a retractable ''shroud'' enclosure. The shroud is of a design intended to minimize condensate on fusion targets to be fielded at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The shroud has a double-wall construction with an inner wall that may be cooled to 75-100 K. The QCM and the shroud system were mounted in a vacuum chamber and cooled using a cryocooler. Condensation rates were measured at various vacuum levels and compositions, and with the shroud open or closed. A technique for measuring total condensate during the cooldown of the system with an accuracy of better than 1.0 x 10 -6 g/cm 2 was also demonstrated. The technique involved a separate measurement of the condensate-free crystal frequency as a function of temperature that was later applied to the measurement of interest

  2. In situ investigation of dye adsorption on TiO2 films using a quartz crystal microbalance with a dissipation technique

    KAUST Repository

    Harms, Hauke A.

    2012-01-01

    Dye adsorption plays a crucial role in dye-sensitized solar cells. Herein, we demonstrate an in situ liquid-phase analytical technique to quantify in real time adsorption of dye and coadsorbates on flat and mesoporous TiO 2 films. For the first time, a molar ratio of co-adsorbed Y123 and chenodeoxycholic acid has been measured. © 2012 the Owner Societies.

  3. The quartz crystal microbalance in soft matter research fundamentals and modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Johannsmann, Diethelm

    2014-01-01

    This book describes the physics of the second-generation quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), a fundamental method of analysis for soft matter at interfaces.From a device for measuring film thickness in vacuum, the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) has in the past two decades evolved into a versatile instrument for analyzing soft matter at solid/liquid and solid/gas interfaces that found applications in diverse fields including the life sciences, material science, polymer research and electrochemistry. As a consequence of this success, the QCM is now being used by scientists with a wide variety

  4. Alcohol vapours sensor based on thin polyaniline salt film and quartz crystal microbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayad, Mohamad M; Torad, Nagy L

    2009-06-15

    A sensor based on the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) technique was developed for detection of a number of primary aliphatic alcohols such as ethanol, methanol, 1-propanol, and 2-propanol vapours. Detection was based on a sensitive and a thin film of polyaniline, emeraldine salt (ES), coated the QCM electrode. The frequency shifts (Delta f) of the QCM were increased due to the vapour absorption into the ES film. The values of Delta f were found to be linearly correlated with the concentrations of alcohols vapour in mg L(-1). The changes in frequency are due to the hydrophilic character of the ES and the electrostatic interaction as well as the type of the alcohol. The sensor shows a good reproducibility and reversibility. The diffusion and diffusion coefficient (D) of different alcohols vapour were determined. It was found that the sensor follows Fickian kinetics.

  5. A Review of Interface Electronic Systems for AT-cut Quartz Crystal Microbalance Applications in Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnau, Antonio

    2008-01-21

    From the first applications of AT-cut quartz crystals as sensors in solutionsmore than 20 years ago, the so-called quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor isbecoming into a good alternative analytical method in a great deal of applications such asbiosensors, analysis of biomolecular interactions, study of bacterial adhesion at specificinterfaces, pathogen and microorganism detection, study of polymer film-biomolecule orcell-substrate interactions, immunosensors and an extensive use in fluids and polymercharacterization and electrochemical applications among others. The appropriateevaluation of this analytical method requires recognizing the different steps involved andto be conscious of their importance and limitations. The first step involved in a QCMsystem is the accurate and appropriate characterization of the sensor in relation to thespecific application. The use of the piezoelectric sensor in contact with solutions stronglyaffects its behavior and appropriate electronic interfaces must be used for an adequatesensor characterization. Systems based on different principles and techniques have beenimplemented during the last 25 years. The interface selection for the specific application isimportant and its limitations must be known to be conscious of its suitability, and foravoiding the possible error propagation in the interpretation of results. This article presentsa comprehensive overview of the different techniques used for AT-cut quartz crystalmicrobalance in in-solution applications, which are based on the following principles:network or impedance analyzers, decay methods, oscillators and lock-in techniques. Theelectronic interfaces based on oscillators and phase-locked techniques are treated in detail,with the description of different configurations, since these techniques are the most used inapplications for detection of analytes in solutions, and in those where a fast sensorresponse is necessary.

  6. A Review of Interface Electronic Systems for AT-cut Quartz Crystal Microbalance Applications in Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Arnau

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available From the first applications of AT-cut quartz crystals as sensors in solutionsmore than 20 years ago, the so-called quartz crystal microbalance (QCM sensor isbecoming into a good alternative analytical method in a great deal of applications such asbiosensors, analysis of biomolecular interactions, study of bacterial adhesion at specificinterfaces, pathogen and microorganism detection, study of polymer film-biomolecule orcell-substrate interactions, immunosensors and an extensive use in fluids and polymercharacterization and electrochemical applications among others. The appropriateevaluation of this analytical method requires recognizing the different steps involved andto be conscious of their importance and limitations. The first step involved in a QCMsystem is the accurate and appropriate characterization of the sensor in relation to thespecific application. The use of the piezoelectric sensor in contact with solutions stronglyaffects its behavior and appropriate electronic interfaces must be used for an adequatesensor characterization. Systems based on different principles and techniques have beenimplemented during the last 25 years. The interface selection for the specific application isimportant and its limitations must be known to be conscious of its suitability, and foravoiding the possible error propagation in the interpretation of results. This article presentsa comprehensive overview of the different techniques used for AT-cut quartz crystalmicrobalance in in-solution applications, which are based on the following principles:network or impedance analyzers, decay methods, oscillators and lock-in techniques. Theelectronic interfaces based on oscillators and phase-locked techniques are treated in detail,with the description of different configurations, since these techniques are the most used inapplications for detection of analytes in solutions, and in those where a fast sensorresponse is necessary.

  7. Scanning tunneling microscope-quartz crystal microbalance study of temperature gradients at an asperity contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, L; Krim, J

    2013-01-01

    Investigations of atomic-scale friction frequently involve setups where a tip and substrate are initially at different temperatures. The temperature of the sliding interface upon contact has thus become a topic of interest. A method for detecting initial tip-sample temperature differences at an asperity contact is described, which consists of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) tip in contact with the surface electrode of a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). The technique makes use of the fact that a QCM is extremely sensitive to abrupt changes in temperature. In order to demonstrate the technique's capabilities, QCM frequency shifts were recorded for varying initial tip-substrate temperature differences as an STM tip was brought into and out of contact. The results are interpreted within the context of a recent model for thermal heat conduction at an asperity contact, and it is concluded that the transient frequency response is attributable to small changes in temperature close to the region of contact rather than a change in the overall temperature of the QCM itself. For the assumed model parameters, the results moreover reveal substantial temperature discontinuities at the boundary between the tip and the sample, for example, on the order of 10-15 °C for initial temperature differences of 20 °C.

  8. Quartz Crystal Microbalance: A tool for analyzing loss of volatile compounds, gas sorption, and curing kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajric, Sendin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-16

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has recently procured a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). Current popular uses are biological sensors, surface chemistry, and vapor detection. LANL has projects related to analyzing curing kinetics, measuring gas sorption on polymers, and analyzing the loss of volatile compounds in polymer materials. The QCM has yet to be employed; however, this review will cover the use of the QCM in these applications and its potential.

  9. Quartz Crystal Microbalance Studies Of Dimethyl Methylphosphonate Sorption Into Trisilanolphenyl-Poss Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-06

    QUARTZ CRYSTAL MICROBALANCE STUDIES OF DIMETHYL METHYLPHOSPHONATE SORPTION INTO TRISILANOLPHENYL-POSS FILMS Joshua D. Kittle Thesis ...subsequent DIMP layers form a solid- like phase as a result of nucleated growth around the first layer. Bertilsson et al. studied the adsorption of...of QCMs in liquids,55, 56 opening the door to a variety of applications, including the study of electrodeposition of metals,57,65 electrochemical

  10. Quantitative analyses of Streptococcus mutans biofilms with quartz crystal microbalance, microjet impingement and confocal microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreth, J; Hagerman, E; Tam, K; Merritt, J; Wong, D T W; Wu, B M; Myung, N V; Shi, W; Qi, F

    2004-10-01

    Microbial biofilm formation can be influenced by many physiological and genetic factors. The conventional microtiter plate assay provides useful but limited information about biofilm formation. With the fast expansion of the biofilm research field, there are urgent needs for more informative techniques to quantify the major parameters of a biofilm, such as adhesive strength and total biomass. It would be even more ideal if these measurements could be conducted in a real-time, non-invasive manner. In this study, we used quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and microjet impingement (MJI) to measure total biomass and adhesive strength, respectively, of S. mutans biofilms formed under different sucrose concentrations. In conjunction with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and the COMSTAT software, we show that sucrose concentration affects the biofilm strength, total biomass, and architecture in both qualitative and quantitative manners. Our data correlate well with previous observations about the effect of sucrose on the adherence of S. mutans to the tooth surface, and demonstrate that QCM is a useful tool for studying the kinetics of biofilm formation in real time and that MJI is a sensitive, easy-to-use device to measure the adhesive strength of a biofilm.

  11. A hybrid humidity sensor using optical waveguides on a quartz crystal microbalance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinbo, Kazunari; Otuki, Shunya; Kanbayashi, Yuichi; Ohdaira, Yasuo; Baba, Akira; Kato, Keizo; Kaneko, Futao; Miyadera, Nobuo

    2009-01-01

    In this study, slab and ridge optical waveguides (OWGs) made of fluorinated polyimides were deposited on a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), and hybrid sensors using OWG spectroscopy and the QCM technique were prepared. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) film with CoCl 2 was deposited on the OWGs, and the characteristics of humidity sensing were investigated. A prism coupler was used to enter a He-Ne laser beam (λ = 632.8 nm) to the slab OWG. The output light intensity markedly changed due to chromism of the CoCl 2 as a result of humidity sorption, and this change was dependent on the incident angle of the laser beam to the slab OWG. During the measurement of output light, the QCM frequency was simultaneously monitored. The humidity dependence of the sensor with the slab OWG was also investigated in the range from 15 to 85%. For the sensor with the ridge OWG, white light was entered by butt-coupling, and the characteristics of humidity sensing were investigated by observing the output light spectrum and the QCM frequency.

  12. Improved electronic interfaces for AT-cut quartz crystal microbalance sensors under variable damping and parallel capacitance conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnau, A; García, J V; Jimenez, Y; Ferrari, V; Ferrari, M

    2008-07-01

    A new configuration of automatic capacitance compensation (ACC) technique based on an oscillatorlike working interface, which permits the tracking of the series resonant frequency and the monitoring of the motional resistance and the parallel capacitance of a thickness-shear mode quartz crystal microbalance sensor, is introduced. The new configuration permits an easier calibration of the system which, in principle, improves the accuracy. Experimental results are reported with 9 and 10 MHz crystals in liquids with different parallel capacitances which demonstrate the effectiveness of the capacitance compensation. Some frequency deviations from the exact series resonant frequency, measured by an impedance analyzer, are explained by the specific nonideal behavior of the circuit components. A tentative approach is proposed to solve this problem that is also common to previous ACC systems.

  13. Improved electronic interfaces for AT-cut quartz crystal microbalance sensors under variable damping and parallel capacitance conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnau, A.; Garcia, J. V.; Jimenez, Y.; Ferrari, V.; Ferrari, M.

    2008-01-01

    A new configuration of automatic capacitance compensation (ACC) technique based on an oscillatorlike working interface, which permits the tracking of the series resonant frequency and the monitoring of the motional resistance and the parallel capacitance of a thickness-shear mode quartz crystal microbalance sensor, is introduced. The new configuration permits an easier calibration of the system which, in principle, improves the accuracy. Experimental results are reported with 9 and 10 MHz crystals in liquids with different parallel capacitances which demonstrate the effectiveness of the capacitance compensation. Some frequency deviations from the exact series resonant frequency, measured by an impedance analyzer, are explained by the specific nonideal behavior of the circuit components. A tentative approach is proposed to solve this problem that is also common to previous ACC systems

  14. Studies of jet fuel additives using the quartz crystal microbalance and pressure monitoring at 140 C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabarnick, S.; Grinstead, R.R. [Univ. of Dayton Research Institute, OH (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and pressure monitoring are used for the evaluation of jet fuel additives for the improvement of jet fuel thermal stability. The mechanisms of additive behavior are determined by measuring the time dependent deposition with the QCM and oxidation by pressure measurements. Studies at various additive concentrations permits the determination of optimum additive concentrations. Additive packages made of mixtures of antioxidants, detergent/dispersants, and metal deactivators are shown to yield good improvements in thermal stability over a wide range of jet fuel types.

  15. Epoxy Resin Modified Quartz Crystal Microbalance Sensor for Chemical Warfare Agent Sulfur Mustard Vapor Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra BUNKAR

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available An epoxy resin polymer coated quartz crystal microbalance (PC-QCM is used for detection of sulfur mustard vapor (SM. When SM vapor is exposed to PC-QCM sensor frequency shift is observed. The response of the sensor in ambient condition is 554 Hz with ±10 % variation upon exposure of 155 ppm of the SM concentration. The observed response loss is nearly 40 % over the period of 15 months. The response of the sensor is higher for SM than compare to structurally similar chloroethyl ether (CEE and other interferences.

  16. Measuring Enthalpy of Sublimation of Volatiles by Means of Piezoelectric Crystal Microbalances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirri, Fabrizio; Palomba, Ernesto; Longobardo, Andrea; Zampetti, Emiliano

    2017-12-01

    Piezoelectric Crystal Microbalances (PCM's) are widely used to study the chemical processes involving volatile compounds in any environment, such as condensation process. Since PCM's are miniaturized sensor, they are very suitable for planetary in situ missions, where can be used to detect and to measure the mass amount of astrobiologically significant compounds, such as water and organics. This work focuses on the realization and testing of a new experimental setup, able to characterize volatiles which can be found in a planetary environment. In particular the enthalpy of sublimation of some dicarboxylic acids has been measured. The importance of dicarboxylic acids in planetology and astrobiology is due to the fact that they have been detected in carbonaceous chondritic material (e.g. Murchinson), among the most pristine material present in our Solar System. In this work, a sample of acid was heated in an effusion cell up to its sublimation. For a set of temperatures (from 30 °C to 75 °C), the deposition rate on the PCM surface has been measured. From these measurements, it has been possible to infer the enthalpy of sublimation of Adipic acid, i.e. ΔH = 141.6 ± 0.8 kJ/mol and Succinic acid, i.e. ΔH = 113.3 ± 1.3 kJ/mol. This technique has so demonstrated to be a good choice to recognise a single compound or a mixture (with an analysis upstream) even if some improvements concerning the thermal stabilization of the system will be implemented in order to enhance the results' accuracy. The experiment has been performed in support of the VISTA (Volatile In Situ Thermogravimetry Analyzer) project, which is included in the scientific payload of the ESA MarcoPolo-R mission study.

  17. Electroacoustic polymer microchip as an alternative to quartz crystal microbalance for biosensor development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamby, Jean; Lazerges, Mathieu; Girault, Hubert H; Deslouis, Claude; Gabrielli, Claude; Perrot, Hubert; Tribollet, Bernard

    2008-12-01

    Laser photoablation of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), a flexible dielectric organic polymer, was used to design an acoustic miniaturized DNA biosensor. The microchip device includes a 100-microm-thick PET layer, with two microband electrodes patterned in photoablated microchannels on one side and a depressed photoablated disk decorated by gold sputtered layer on the other side. Upon application of an electric signal between the two electrodes, an electroacoustic resonance phenomenon at approximately 30 MHz was established through the microelectrodes/PET/ gold layer interface. The electroacoustic resonance response was fitted with a series RLC motional arm in parallel with a static Co arm of a Buttlerworth-Van Dyke equivalent circuit: admittance spectra recorded after successive cycles of DNA hybridization on the gold surface showed reproducible changes on R, L, and C parameters. The same hybridizations runs were performed concomitantly on a 27-MHz (9 MHz, third overtone) quartz crystal microbalance in order to validate the PET device developed for bioanalysis applications. The electroacoustic PET device, approximately 100 times smaller than a microbalance quartz crystal, is interesting for the large-scale integration of acoustic sensors in biochips.

  18. Investigating calcite growth rates using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Bo; Stack, Andrew G.; Steefel, Carl I.; DePaolo, Donald J.; Lammers, Laura N.; Hu, Yandi

    2018-02-01

    Calcite precipitation plays a significant role in processes such as geological carbon sequestration and toxic metal sequestration and, yet, the rates and mechanisms of calcite growth under close to equilibrium conditions are far from well understood. In this study, a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) was used for the first time to measure macroscopic calcite growth rates. Calcite seed crystals were first nucleated and grown on sensors, then growth rates of calcite seed crystals were measured in real-time under close to equilibrium conditions (saturation index, SI = log ({Ca2+}/{CO32-}/Ksp) = 0.01-0.7, where {i} represent ion activities and Ksp = 10-8.48 is the calcite thermodynamic solubility constant). At the end of the experiments, total masses of calcite crystals on sensors measured by QCM-D and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were consistent, validating the QCM-D measurements. Calcite growth rates measured by QCM-D were compared with reported macroscopic growth rates measured with auto-titration, ICP-MS, and microbalance. Calcite growth rates measured by QCM-D were also compared with microscopic growth rates measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and with rates predicted by two process-based crystal growth models. The discrepancies in growth rates among AFM measurements and model predictions appear to mainly arise from differences in step densities, and the step velocities were consistent among the AFM measurements as well as with both model predictions. Using the predicted steady-state step velocity and the measured step densities, both models predict well the growth rates measured using QCM-D and AFM. This study provides valuable insights into the effects of reactive site densities on calcite growth rate, which may help design future growth models to predict transient-state step densities.

  19. Effective antibodies immobilization and functionalized nanoparticles in a quartz-crystal microbalance-based immunosensor for the detection of parathion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartolomeo Della Ventura

    Full Text Available Biosensor-based detection provides a rapid and low-cost alternative to conventional analytical methods for revealing the presence of the contaminants in water as well as solid matrices. Although important to be detected, small analytes (few hundreds of Daltons are an issue in biosensing since the signal they induce in the transducer, and specifically in a Quartz-Crystal Microbalance, is undetectable. A pesticide like parathion (M = 292 Da is a typical example of contaminant for which a signal amplification procedure is desirable.The ballasting of the analyte by gold nanoparticles has been already applied to heavy target as proteins or bacteria to improve the limit of detection. In this paper, we extend the application of such a method to small analytes by showing that once the working surface of a Quartz-Crystal Microbalance (QCM has been properly functionalized, a limit of detection lower than 1 ppb is reached for parathion. The effective surface functionalization is achieved by immobilizing antibodies upright oriented on the QCM gold surface by a simple photochemical technique (Photonic Immobilization Technique, PIT based on the UV irradiation of the antibodies, whereas a simple protocol provided by the manufacturer is applied to functionalize the gold nanoparticles. Thus, in a non-competitive approach, the small analyte is made detectable by weighing it down through a "sandwich protocol" with a second antibody tethered to heavy gold nanoparticles. The immunosensor has been proved to be effective against the parathion while showing no cross reaction when a mixture of compounds very similar to parathion is analyzed.The immunosensor described in this paper can be easily applied to any small molecule for which polyclonal antibodies are available since both the functionalization procedure of the QCM probe surface and gold nanoparticle can be applied to any IgG, thereby making our device of general application in terms of target analyte.

  20. Probing absorption of deuterium into palladium cathodes during D2O electrolysis with an in situ electrochemical microbalance technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyama, Noboru; Yamamoto, Nobushige; Hatozaki, Osamu; Ohsaka, Takeo

    1990-01-01

    The in situ observation of the absorption of deuterium (or hydrogen) into the Pd cathode during D 2 O (or H 2 O) electrolysis was made by an electrochemical microbalance technique which is based on the quartz-crystal electrode. The resonant frequency of the Pd-coated quartz-crystal electrode decreased with increasing amount of charge passed during electrolysis, and the frequency change for the D 2 O electrolysis was about twice that for the H 2 O electrolysis. The atom ratios of H/Pd and D/Pd of the H-Pd and D-Pd compounds resulting from the electrolysis were estimated to be 0.59 and 0.57, respectively. (author)

  1. Note: A dual-channel sensor for dew point measurement based on quartz crystal microbalance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Meng, Xiaofeng; Nie, Jing

    2017-05-01

    A new sensor with dual-channel was designed for eliminating the temperature effect on the frequency measurement of the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) in dew point detection. The sensor uses active temperature control, produces condensation on the surface of QCM, and then detects the dew point. Both the single-channel and the dual-channel methods were conducted based on the device. The measurement error of the single-channel method was less than 0.5 °C at the dew point range of -2 °C-10 °C while the dual-channel was 0.3 °C. The results showed that the dual-channel method was able to eliminate the temperature effect and yield better measurement accuracy.

  2. Polyacrylonitrile Nanofiber-Based Quartz Crystal Microbalance for Sensitive Detection of Safrole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Rianjanu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Safrole is the main precursor for producing the amphetamine-type stimulant (ATS drug, N-methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDMA, also known as ecstasy. We devise a polyacrylonitrile (PAN nanofiber-based quartz crystal microbalance (QCM for detecting safrole. The PAN nanofibers were fabricated by direct electrospinning to modify the QCM chips. The PAN nanofiber on the QCM chips has a diameter of 240 ± 10 nm. The sensing of safrole by QCM modified with PAN nanofiber shows good reversibility and an apparent sensitivity of 4.6 Hz·L/mg. The proposed method is simple, inexpensive, and convenient for detecting safrole, and can be an alternative to conventional instrumental analytical methods for general volatile compounds.

  3. Separate density and viscosity measurements of unknown liquid using quartz crystal microbalance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Tan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous liquids have a wide range of applications in many fields. Basic physical properties like the density and the viscosity have great impacts on the functionalities of a given ionic liquid. For the millions kinds of existing liquids, only a few have been systematically measured with the density and the viscosity using traditional methods. However, these methods are limited to measure the density and the viscosity of an ionic liquid simultaneously especially in processing micro sample volumes. To meet this challenge, we present a new theoretical model and a novel method to separate density and viscosity measurements with single quartz crystal microbalance (QCM in this work. The agreement of experimental results and theocratical calculations shows that the QCM is capable to measure the density and the viscosity of ionic liquids.

  4. Quartz crystal microbalance-based system for high-sensitivity differential sputter yield measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, B.; Topper, J. L.; Farnell, C. C.; Yalin, A. P.

    2009-01-01

    We present a quartz crystal microbalance-based system for high sensitivity differential sputter yield measurements of different target materials due to ion bombardment. The differential sputter yields can be integrated to find total yields. Possible ion beam conditions include ion energies in the range of 30-350 eV and incidence angles of 0 deg. - 70 deg. from normal. A four-grid ion optics system is used to achieve a collimated ion beam at low energy (<100 eV) and a two-grid ion optics is used for higher energies (up to 750 eV). A complementary weight loss approach is also used to measure total sputter yields. Validation experiments are presented that confirm high sensitivity and accuracy of sputter yield measurements.

  5. A sensor of alcohol vapours based on thin polyaniline base film and quartz crystal microbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayad, Mohamad M; El-Hefnawey, Gad; Torad, Nagy L

    2009-08-30

    Thin films of polyaniline base, emeraldine base (EB), coating on the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) electrode were used as a sensitive layer for the detection of a number of primary aliphatic alcohols such as ethanol, methanol, 2-propanol and 1-propanol vapours. The frequency shifts (Deltaf) of the QCM were increased due to the vapour adsorption into the EB film. Deltaf were found to be linearly correlated with the concentrations of alcohols vapour in part per million (ppm). The sensitivity of the sensor was found to be governed by the chemical structure of the alcohol. The sensor shows a good reproducibility and reversibility. The diffusions of different alcohols vapour were studied and the diffusion coefficients (D) were calculated. It is concluded that the diffusion of the vapours into the EB film follows Fickian kinetics.

  6. Towards vibrational spectroscopy on surface-attached colloids performed with a quartz crystal microbalance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diethelm Johannsmann

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Colloidal spheres attached to a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM produce the so-called “coupled resonances”. They are resonators of their own, characterized by a particle resonance frequency, a resonance bandwidth, and a modal mass. When the frequency of the main resonator comes close to the frequency of the coupled resonance, the bandwidth goes through a maximum. A coupled resonance can be viewed as an absorption line in acoustic shear-wave spectroscopy. The known concepts from spectroscopy apply. This includes the mode assignment problem, selection rules, and the oscillator strength. In this work, the mode assignment problem was addressed with Finite Element calculations. These reveal that a rigid sphere in contact with a QCM displays two modes of vibration, termed “slipping” and “rocking”. In the slipping mode, the sphere rotates about its center; it exerts a tangential force onto the resonator surface at the point of contact. In the rocking mode, the sphere rotates about the point of contact; it exerts a torque onto the substrate. In liquids, both axes of rotation are slightly displaced from their ideal positions. Characteristic for spectroscopy, the two modes do not couple to the mechanical excitation equally well. The degree of coupling is quantified by an oscillator strength. Because the rocking mode mostly exerts a torque (rather than a tangential force, its coupling to the resonator's tangential motion is weak; the oscillator strength consequently is small. Recent experiments on surface-adsorbed colloidal spheres can be explained by the mode of vibration being of the rocking type. Keywords: Quartz crystal microbalance, Coupled resonance, Biocolloids, Adsorption

  7. Quartz-crystal microbalance study for characterizing atomic oxygen in plasma ash tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, A.K.; Sakthivel, P.

    2001-01-01

    This article discusses the measurement of atomic oxygen (AO) concentrations in an oxygen discharge using a quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM). This is a device that has been previously used for monitoring thin-film deposition, among several other applications. The sensor consists of a silver-coated quartz crystal that oscillates at its specific resonant frequency (typically, at about 6 MHz), which is dependent on the mass of the crystal. When exposed to AO, the silver oxidizes rapidly, resulting in a change in its mass, and a consequent change in this frequency. The frequency change is measured with a counter, and when plotted versus time, it may be fit to a standard diffusion-limited oxide-growth model. This model is then used to determine the specific AO flux to the crystal, and by inference, to the wafer. Initial results of QCM measurements in the FusionGemini Plasma Asher (GPL TM -standard downstream microwave asher) and FusionGemini Enhanced Strip (GES TM -fluorine compatible enhanced strip asher) are presented in this article. The results indicate AO densities of the order of 10 12 cm -3 on the wafer. There is a marked increase in AO concentration with addition of nitrogen into the plasma, and a decrease in AO concentration with increasing pressure at constant flow. Effects of increasing the total plasma volume in the enhanced strip tool on AO production are discussed

  8. Low-cost scalable quartz crystal microbalance array for environmental sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anazagasty, Cristain [University of Puerto Rico; Hianik, Tibor [Comenius University, Bratislava, Slovakia; Ivanov, Ilia N [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Proliferation of environmental sensors for internet of things (IoT) applications has increased the need for low-cost platforms capable of accommodating multiple sensors. Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) crystals coated with nanometer-thin sensor films are suitable for use in high-resolution (~1 ng) selective gas sensor applications. We demonstrate a scalable array for measuring frequency response of six QCM sensors controlled by low-cost Arduino microcontrollers and a USB multiplexer. Gas pulses and data acquisition were controlled by a LabVIEW user interface. We test the sensor array by measuring the frequency shift of crystals coated with different compositions of polymer composites based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) while films are exposed to water vapor and oxygen inside a controlled environmental chamber. Our sensor array exhibits comparable performance to that of a commercial QCM system, while enabling high-throughput 6 QCM testing for under $1,000. We use deep neural network structures to process sensor response and demonstrate that the QCM array is suitable for gas sensing, environmental monitoring, and electronic-nose applications.

  9. In-Line Measurement of Water Content in Ethanol Using a PVA-Coated Quartz Crystal Microbalance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoung Chul Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An in-line device for measuring the water content in ethanol was developed using a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA-coated quartz crystal microbalance. Bio-ethanol is widely used as the replacement of gasoline, and its water content is a key component of its specifications. When the PVA-coated quartz crystal microbalance is contacted with ethanol containing a small amount of water, the water is absorbed into the PVA increasing the load on the microbalance surface to cause a frequency drop. The determination performance of the PVA-coated microbalance is examined by measuring the frequency decreases in ethanol containing 2% to 10% water while the ethanol flows through the measurement device. The measurements indicates that the higher water content is the more the frequency reduction is, though some deviation in the measurements is observed. This indicates that the frequency measurement of an unknown concentration of water in ethanol can be used to determine the water content in ethanol. The PVA coating is examined by microscopy and FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

  10. Use of the quartz crystal microbalance to determine the monomeric friction coefficient of polyimides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtold, Mary M.

    1995-01-01

    When a thin film of polymer is coated on to a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), the QCM can be used to detect the rate of increase in weight of the polymer film as the volatile penetrant diffuses into the polymer. From this rate information the diffusion coefficient of the penetrant into the polymer can be computed. Calculations requiring this diffusion coefficient lead to values which approximate the monomeric friction coefficient of the polymer. This project has been concerned with the trial of crystal oscillating circuits suitable for driving polymer coated crystals in an atmosphere of penetrant. For these studies done at room temperature, natural rubber was used as an easily applied polymer that is readily penetrated by toluene vapors, qualities anticipated with polyimides when they are tested at T(g) in the presence of toluene. Three quartz crystal oscillator circuits were tested. The simplest circuit used +/- 5 volt dc and had a transistor to transistor logic (TTL) inverter chip that provides a 180 deg phase shift via a feed back loop. This oscillator circuit was stable but would not drive the crystal when the crystal was coated with polymer and subjected to toluene vapors. Removal of a variable resistor from this circuit increased stability but did not otherwise increase performance. Another driver circuit tested contained a two stage differential input, differential output, wide band video amplifier and also contain a feed back loop. The circuit voltage could not be varied and operated at +/- 5 volts dc; this circuit was also stable but failed to oscillate the polymer coated crystal in an atmosphere saturated with toluene vapors. The third oscillator circuit was of similar construction and relied on the same video amplifier but allowed operation with variable voltage. This circuit would drive the crystal when the crystal was submerged in liquid toluene and when the crystal was coated with polymer and immersed in toluene vapors. The frequency readings

  11. Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation (QCM-D) studies of the viscoelastic response from a continuously growing grafted polyelectrolyte layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunér, Gunnar; Thormann, Esben; Dedinaite, Andra

    2013-01-01

    Poly(acrylic acid) was grown from substrates by photopolymerization, and the grafting process was monitored in situ by Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation (QCM-D) measurements in a 1:1 v/v mixture of water/ethanol. The polymerization process was monitored into the thick film region, wher...... that should be considered when investigating small changes in thick films used in e.g. sensor applications. © 2013 Elsevier Inc....

  12. Fundamental study on dissolution behavior of poly(methyl methacrylate) by quartz crystal microbalance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konda, Akihiro; Yamamoto, Hiroki; Yoshitake, Shusuke; Kozawa, Takahiro

    2016-03-01

    Ionizing radiations such as extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and electron beam (EB) are the most promising exposure source for next-generation lithographic technology. In the realization of high resolution lithography, it is necessary for resist materials to improve the trade-off relationship among sensitivity, resolution, and line width roughness (LWR). In order to overcome them, it is essential to understand basic chemistry of resist matrices in resist processes. In particular, the dissolution process of resist materials is a key process. Therefore, it is essential for next-generation resist design for ionizing radiation to clarify the dissolution behavior of the resist film into developer. However, the details in dissolution process of EUV and EB resist films have not been investigated thus far. In this study, main chain scission and dissolution behavior of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) as main chain scission type resist was investigated using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) method and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) in order to understand the relationship between the degree of PMMA degradation and dissolution behavior. The relationship between the molecular weight after irradiation and the swelling behavior was clarified.

  13. Study of quartz crystal microbalance NO2 sensor coated with sputtered indium tin oxide film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgieva, V.; Aleksandrova, M.; Stefanov, P.; Grechnikov, A.; Gadjanova, V.; Dilova, T.; Angelov, Ts

    2014-12-01

    A study of NO2 gas sorption ability of thin indium tin oxide (ITO) deposited on 16 MHz quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) is presented. ITO films are grown by RF sputtering of indium/tin target with weight proportion 95:5 in oxygen environment. The ITO films have been characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. The ITO surface composition in atomic % is defined to be: In-40.6%, Sn-4.3% and O-55%. The thickness and refractive index of the films are determined by ellipsometric method. The frequency shift of QCM-ITO is measured at different NO2 concentrations. The QCM-ITO system becomes sensitive at NO2 concentration >= 500 ppm. The sorbed mass for each concentration is calculated according the Sauerbrey equation. The results indicated that the 1.09 ng of the gas is sorbed into 150 nm thick ITO film at 500 ppm NO2 concentration. When the NO2 concentration increases 10 times the calculated loaded mass is 5.46 ng. The sorption process of the gas molecules is defined as reversible. The velocity of sorbtion /desorption processes are studied, too. The QCM coated with thin ITO films can be successfully used as gas sensors for detecting NO2 in the air at room temperature.

  14. Study of quartz crystal microbalance NO2 sensor coated with sputtered indium tin oxide film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgieva, V; Gadjanova, V; Angelov, Ts; Aleksandrova, M; Acad. Georgi Bonchev str.bl. 11, 1113, Sofia (Bulgaria))" data-affiliation=" (Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. Georgi Bonchev str.bl. 11, 1113, Sofia (Bulgaria))" >Stefanov, P; Acad. Georgi Bonchev str.bl. 11, 1113, Sofia (Bulgaria))" data-affiliation=" (Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. Georgi Bonchev str.bl. 11, 1113, Sofia (Bulgaria))" >Dilova, T; Grechnikov, A

    2014-01-01

    A study of NO 2 gas sorption ability of thin indium tin oxide (ITO) deposited on 16 MHz quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) is presented. ITO films are grown by RF sputtering of indium/tin target with weight proportion 95:5 in oxygen environment. The ITO films have been characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. The ITO surface composition in atomic % is defined to be: In-40.6%, Sn-4.3% and O-55%. The thickness and refractive index of the films are determined by ellipsometric method. The frequency shift of QCM-ITO is measured at different NO 2 concentrations. The QCM-ITO system becomes sensitive at NO 2 concentration ≥ 500 ppm. The sorbed mass for each concentration is calculated according the Sauerbrey equation. The results indicated that the 1.09 ng of the gas is sorbed into 150 nm thick ITO film at 500 ppm NO 2 concentration. When the NO 2 concentration increases 10 times the calculated loaded mass is 5.46 ng. The sorption process of the gas molecules is defined as reversible. The velocity of sorbtion /desorption processes are studied, too. The QCM coated with thin ITO films can be successfully used as gas sensors for detecting NO 2 in the air at room temperature

  15. Quantifying Ion Transport in Polymers Using Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutkenhaus, Jodie; Wang, Shaoyang

    For polymers in energy systems, one of the most common means of quantifying ion transport is that of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, in which an alternating electric field is applied and the resultant impedance response is recorded. While useful, this approach misses subtle details in transient film swelling, effects of hydration or solvent shells around the transporting ion, and changes in mechanical properties of the polymer. Here we present electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (EQCMD) monitoring as a means to quantify ion transport, dynamic swelling, and mechanical properties of polymers during electrochemical interrogation. We focus upon EQCMD characterization of the redox-active nitroxide radical polymer, poly(2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyloxy methacrylate) (PTMA). Upon oxidation, PTMA becomes positively charged, which requires the transport of a complementary anion into the polymer for electroneutrality. By EQCMD, we quantify anion transport and resultant swelling upon oxidation, as well as decoupling of contributions attributed to the ion and the solvent. We explore the effect of different lithium electrolyte salts in which each salt gives different charge storage and mass transport behavior. This is attributed to varied polymer-dopant and dopant-solvent interactions. The work was supported by the Grant DE-SC0014006 funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science.

  16. Gold clusters sliding on graphite: a possible quartz crystal microbalance experiment?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisov, S; Tosatti, E; Tartaglino, U; Vanossi, A

    2007-01-01

    A large measured two-dimensional (2D) diffusion coefficient of gold nanoclusters on graphite has been known experimentally and theoretically for about a decade. When subjected to a lateral force, these clusters should slide with an amount of friction that can be measured. We examine the hypothetical possibility of measuring by quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) the phononic sliding friction of gold clusters in the size range around 250 atoms on a graphite substrate between 300 and 600 K. Assuming the validity of Einstein's relations of ordinary Brownian motion and making use of the experimentally available activated behaviour of the diffusion coefficients, we can predict the sliding friction and slip times as a function of temperature. It is found that a prototypical deposited gold cluster could yield slip times at the standard measurable size of 10 -9 s for temperatures around 450-500 K, or 200 0 C. Since gold nanoclusters may also melt at around these temperatures, QCM could offer the additional chance of observing this phenomenon through a frictional change

  17. Protein Adsorption to Titanium and Zirconia Using a Quartz Crystal Microbalance Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Kusakawa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein adsorption onto titanium (Ti or zirconia (ZrO2 was evaluated using a 27 MHz quartz crystal microbalance (QCM. As proteins, fibronectin (Fn, a cell adhesive protein, and albumin (Alb, a cell adhesion-inhibiting protein, were evaluated. The Ti and ZrO2 sensors for QCM were characterized by atomic force microscopy and electron probe microanalysis observation, measurement of contact angle against water, and surface roughness. The amounts of Fn and Alb adsorbed onto the Ti and ZrO2 sensors and apparent reaction rate were obtained using QCM measurements. Ti sensor showed greater adsorption of Fn and Alb than the ZrO2 sensor. In addition, amount of Fn adsorbed onto the Ti or ZrO2 sensors was higher than that of Alb. The surface roughness and hydrophilicity of Ti or ZrO2 may influence the adsorption of Fn or Alb. With regard to the adsorption rate, Alb adsorbed more rapidly than Fn onto Ti. Comparing Ti and ZrO2, Alb adsorption rate to Ti was faster than that to ZrO2. Fn adsorption will be effective for cell activities, but Alb adsorption will not. QCM method could simulate in vivo Fn and Alb adsorption to Ti or ZrO2.

  18. Biomimetic Receptors for Bioanalyte Detection by Quartz Crystal Microbalances — From Molecules to Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Latif

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A universal label-free detection of bioanalytes can be performed with biomimetic quartz crystal microbalance (QCM coatings prepared by imprinting strategies. Bulk imprinting was used to detect the endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs known as estradiols. The estrogen 17β-estradiol is one of the most potent EDCs, even at very low concentrations. A highly sensitive, selective and robust QCM sensor was fabricated for real time monitoring of 17β-estradiol in water samples by using molecular imprinted polyurethane. Optimization of porogen (pyrene and cross-linker (phloroglucinol levels leads to improved sensitivity, selectivity and response time of the estradiol sensor. Surface imprinting of polyurethane as sensor coating also allowed us to generate interaction sites for the selective recognition of bacteria, even in a very complex mixture of interfering compounds, while they were growing from their spores in nutrient solution. A double molecular imprinting approach was followed to transfer the geometrical features of natural bacteria onto the synthetic polymer to generate biomimetic bacteria. The use of biomimetic bacteria as template makes it possible to prepare multiple sensor coatings with similar sensitivity and selectivity. Thus, cell typing, e.g., differentiation of bacteria strains, bacteria growth profile and extent of their nutrition, can be monitored by biomimetic mass sensors. Obviously, this leads to controlled cell growth in bioreactors.

  19. Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) affinity biosensor for genetically modified organisms (GMOs) detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannelli, Ilaria; Minunni, Maria; Tombelli, Sara; Mascini, Marco

    2003-03-01

    A DNA piezoelectric sensor has been developed for the detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Single stranded DNA (ssDNA) probes were immobilised on the sensor surface of a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) device and the hybridisation between the immobilised probe and the target complementary sequence in solution was monitored. The probe sequences were internal to the sequence of the 35S promoter (P) and Nos terminator (T), which are inserted sequences in the genome of GMOs regulating the transgene expression. Two different probe immobilisation procedures were applied: (a) a thiol-dextran procedure and (b) a thiol-derivatised probe and blocking thiol procedure. The system has been optimised using synthetic oligonucleotides, which were then applied to samples of plasmidic and genomic DNA isolated from the pBI121 plasmid, certified reference materials (CRM), and real samples amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The analytical parameters of the sensor have been investigated (sensitivity, reproducibility, lifetime etc.). The results obtained showed that both immobilisation procedures enabled sensitive and specific detection of GMOs, providing a useful tool for screening analysis in food samples.

  20. Frequency-shift vs phase-shift characterization of in-liquid quartz crystal microbalance applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montagut, Y. J.; Garcia, J. V.; Jimenez, Y.; Arnau, A.; March, C.; Montoya, A.

    2011-01-01

    The improvement of sensitivity in quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) applications has been addressed in the last decades by increasing the sensor fundamental frequency, following the increment of the frequency/mass sensitivity with the square of frequency predicted by Sauerbrey. However, this sensitivity improvement has not been completely transferred in terms of resolution. The decrease of frequency stability due to the increase of the phase noise, particularly in oscillators, made impossible to reach the expected resolution. A new concept of sensor characterization at constant frequency has been recently proposed. The validation of the new concept is presented in this work. An immunosensor application for the detection of a low molecular weight contaminant, the insecticide carbaryl, has been chosen for the validation. An, in principle, improved version of a balanced-bridge oscillator is validated for its use in liquids, and applied for the frequency shift characterization of the QCM immunosensor application. The classical frequency shift characterization is compared with the new phase-shift characterization concept and system proposed.

  1. Adsorption of quantum dots onto polymer and Gemini surfactant films: a quartz crystal microbalance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejo, T; Merchán, M D; Velázquez, M M

    2014-08-26

    We used quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation to study the mechanical properties, the kinetics of adsorption, and the amount of CdSe quantum dots (QDs) adsorbed onto a SiO2 sensor, referred as bare sensor, onto the sensor modified with a film of the polymer poly(maleic anhydride-alt-1-octadecene), PMAO, or with a film of the Gemini surfactant ethyl-bis(dimethyl octadecyl ammonium bromide), abbreviated as 18-2-18. Results showed that when the sensor is coated with polymer or surfactant molecules, the coverage increases compared with that obtained for the bare sensor. On the other hand, rheological properties and kinetics of adsorption of QDs are driven by QD nanoparticles. Thus, the QD films present elastic behavior, and the elasticity values are independent of the molecule used as coating and similar to the elasticity value obtained for QDs films on the bare sensor. The QD adsorption is a two-step mechanism in which the fastest process is attributed to the QD adsorption onto the solid substrate and the slowest one is ascribed to rearrangement movements of the nanoparticles adsorbed at the surface.

  2. Real-time monitoring of peptic and tryptic digestions of bovine β-casein using quartz crystal microbalance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huenerbein, Andreas; Schmelzer, Christian E.H.; Neubert, Reinhard H.H.

    2007-01-01

    In this study peptic and tryptic digestions of bovine β-casein were investigated using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). β-Casein, which was used as a model protein, was immobilized on the surface of the QCM sensor where its degradation caused shifts in the resonant frequency. Atomic force microscopy was applied for the characterization of the protein layer. Different pH-values for peptic or tryptic digestions were chosen to visualize their effect on enzyme activity. Lower frequency shifts were observed at pH-values deviating from those at the maximum enzyme activity. In the case of the peptic digestion the frequency shift at pH 4 was more than 10 times smaller than those at pH 2. The frequency shifts for tryptic digestions at pH 5.4 and pH 6.4 were about two thirds compared to that obtained for the digestion at pH 7.4. The identification of peptides using MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry was used for verification of the proteolyses of the immobilized protein. Furthermore, it was shown that the QCM technique allows close observation of the effect of different pH-values on the immobilized casein layer. All in all, QCM facilitates the monitoring of the progress of enzymatic reactions in real-time

  3. Real-time monitoring of peptic and tryptic digestions of bovine {beta}-casein using quartz crystal microbalance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huenerbein, Andreas [Institute of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Wolfgang-Langenbeck-Str. 4, 06120 Halle (Saale) (Germany)]. E-mail: andreas.huenerbein@pharmazie.uni-halle.de; Schmelzer, Christian E.H. [Institute of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Wolfgang-Langenbeck-Str. 4, 06120 Halle (Saale) (Germany); Neubert, Reinhard H.H. [Institute of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Wolfgang-Langenbeck-Str. 4, 06120 Halle (Saale) (Germany)

    2007-02-12

    In this study peptic and tryptic digestions of bovine {beta}-casein were investigated using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). {beta}-Casein, which was used as a model protein, was immobilized on the surface of the QCM sensor where its degradation caused shifts in the resonant frequency. Atomic force microscopy was applied for the characterization of the protein layer. Different pH-values for peptic or tryptic digestions were chosen to visualize their effect on enzyme activity. Lower frequency shifts were observed at pH-values deviating from those at the maximum enzyme activity. In the case of the peptic digestion the frequency shift at pH 4 was more than 10 times smaller than those at pH 2. The frequency shifts for tryptic digestions at pH 5.4 and pH 6.4 were about two thirds compared to that obtained for the digestion at pH 7.4. The identification of peptides using MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry was used for verification of the proteolyses of the immobilized protein. Furthermore, it was shown that the QCM technique allows close observation of the effect of different pH-values on the immobilized casein layer. All in all, QCM facilitates the monitoring of the progress of enzymatic reactions in real-time.

  4. In situ measurement of the mass concentration of flame-synthesized nanoparticles using quartz-crystal microbalance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hevroni, A; Golan, H; Fialkov, A; Tsionsky, V; Markovich, G; Cheskis, S; Rahinov, I

    2011-01-01

    A novel in situ method for measurement of mass concentration of nanoparticles (NPs) formed in flames is proposed. In this method, the deposition rate of NPs collected by a molecular beam sampling system is measured by quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM). It is the only existing method which allows direct measurement of NP mass concentration profiles in flames. The feasibility of the method was demonstrated by studying iron oxide NP formation in low-pressure methane/oxygen/nitrogen flames doped with iron pentacarbonyl. The system was tested under fuel-lean and fuel-rich flame conditions. Good agreement between measured QCM deposition rates and their estimations obtained by the transmission electron microscopy analysis of samples collected from the molecular beam has been demonstrated. The sensitivity of the method is comparable to that of particle mass spectrometry (PMS). Combination of the QCM technique with PMS and/or optical measurements can provide new qualitative information which is important for elucidation of the mechanisms governing the NP flame synthesis

  5. Adsorption Analysis of Lactoferrin to Titanium, Stainless Steel, Zirconia, and Polymethyl Methacrylate Using the Quartz Crystal Microbalance Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiji Yoshida

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is postulated that biofilm formation in the oral cavity causes some oral diseases. Lactoferrin is an antibacterial protein in saliva and an important defense factor against biofilm development. We analyzed the adsorbed amount of lactoferrin and the dissociation constant (Kd of lactoferrin to the surface of different dental materials using an equilibrium analysis technique in a 27 MHz quartz crystal microbalance (QCM measurement. Four different materials, titanium (Ti, stainless steel (SUS, zirconia (ZrO2 and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA, were evaluated. These materials were coated onto QCM sensors and the surfaces characterized by atomic force microscopic observation, measurements of surface roughness, contact angles of water, and zeta potential. QCM measurements revealed that Ti and SUS showed a greater amount of lactoferrin adsorption than ZrO2 and PMMA. Surface roughness and zeta potential influenced the lactoferrin adsorption. On the contrary, the Kd value analysis indicated that the adsorbed lactoferrin bound less tightly to the Ti and SUS surfaces than to the ZrO2 and PMMA surfaces. The hydrophobic interaction between lactoferrin and ZrO2 and PMMA is presumed to participate in better binding of lactoferrin to ZrO2 and PMMA surfaces. It was revealed that lactoferrin adsorption behavior was influenced by the characteristics of the material surface.

  6. Humidity scanning quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring setup for determination of sorption-desorption isotherms and rheological changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Björklund, Sebastian, E-mail: sebastianbjorklund@gmail.com; Kocherbitov, Vitaly [Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Health and Society, Malmö University, Malmö (Sweden); Biofilms—Research Center for Biointerfaces, Malmö University, Malmö (Sweden)

    2015-05-15

    A new method to determine water sorption-desorption isotherms with high resolution in the complete range of water activities (relative humidities) is presented. The method is based on quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). The QCM-D is equipped with a humidity module in which the sample film is kept in air with controlled humidity. The experimental setup allows for continuous scanning of the relative humidity from either dry to humid conditions or vice versa. The amount of water sorbed or desorbed from the sample is determined from the resonance frequencies of the coated quartz sensor, via analysis of the overtone dependence. In addition, the method allows for characterization of hydration induced changes of the rheological properties from the dissipation data, which is closely connected to the viscoelasticity of the film. The accuracy of the humidity scanning setup is confirmed in control experiments. Sorption-desorption isotherms of pig gastric mucin and lysozyme, obtained by the new method, show good agreement with previous results. Finally, we show that the deposition technique used to coat the quartz sensor influences the QCM-D data and how this issue can be used to obtain further information on the effect of hydration. In particular, we demonstrate that spin-coating represents an attractive alternative to obtain sorption-desorption isotherms, while drop-coating provides additional information on changes of the rheological properties during hydration.

  7. Quantitative Rheometry of Thin Soft Materials Using the Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadman, Kazi; Wiener, Clinton G; Weiss, R A; White, Christopher C; Shull, Kenneth R; Vogt, Bryan D

    2018-03-20

    In the inertial limit, the resonance frequency of the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) is related to the coupled mass on the quartz sensor through the Sauerbrey expression that relates the mass to the change in resonance frequency. However, when the thickness of the film is sufficiently large, the relationship becomes more complicated and both the frequency and damping of the crystal resonance must be considered. In this regime, a rheological model of the material must be used to accurately extract the adhered film's thickness, shear modulus, and viscoelastic phase angle from the data. In the present work we examine the suitability of two viscoelastic models, a simple Voigt model ( Physica Scripta 1999, 59, 391-396) and a more realistic power-law model ( Langmuir 2015, 31, 4008-4017), to extract the rheological properties of a thermoresponsive hydrogel film. By changing temperature and initial dry film thickness of the gel, the operation of QCM was traversed from the Sauerbrey limit, where viscous losses do not impact the frequency, through the regime where the QCM response is sensitive to viscoelastic properties. The density-shear modulus and the viscoelastic phase angle from the two models are in good agreement when the shear wavelength ratio, d/λ n , is in the range of 0.05-0.20, where d is the film thickness and λ n is the wavelength of the mechanical shear wave at the n th harmonic. We further provide a framework for estimating the physical properties of soft materials in the megahertz regime by using the physical behavior of polyelectrolyte complexes. This provides the user with an approximate range of allowable film thicknesses for accurate viscoelastic analysis with either model, thus enabling better use of the QCM-D in soft materials research.

  8. Piezoelectric crystal microbalance measurements of enthalpy of sublimation of C2-C9 dicarboxylic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirri, F.; Palomba, E.; Longobardo, A.; Zampetti, E.

    2016-02-01

    We present here a novel experimental set-up that is able to measure the enthalpy of sublimation of a given compound by means of piezoelectric crystal microbalances (PCMs). The PCM sensors have already been used for space measurements, such as for the detection of organic and non-organic volatile species and refractory materials in planetary environments. In Earth atmospherics applications, PCMs can be also used to obtain some physical-chemical processes concerning the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) present in atmospheric environments. The experimental set-up has been developed and tested on dicarboxylic acids. In this work, a temperature-controlled effusion cell was used to sublimate VOC, creating a molecular flux that was collimated onto a cold PCM. The VOC recondensed onto the PCM quartz crystal, allowing the determination of the deposition rate. From the measurements of deposition rates, it has been possible to infer the enthalpy of sublimation of adipic acid, i.e. ΔHsub : 141.6 ± 0.8 kJ mol-1, succinic acid, i.e. 113.3 ± 1.3 kJ mol-1, oxalic acid, i.e. 62.5 ± 3.1 kJ mol-1, and azelaic acid, i.e. 124.2 ± 1.2 kJ mol-1. The results obtained show an accuracy of 1 % for succinic, adipic, and azelaic acid and within 5 % for oxalic acid and are in very good agreement with previous works (within 6 % for adipic, succinic, and oxalic acid and within 11 % or larger for azelaic acid).

  9. Investigation of the interaction between liquid and micro/nanostructured surfaces during condensation with quartz crystal microbalance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Junwei

    Dropwise condensation (DWC) on hydrophobic surfaces is attracting attention for its great potential in many industrial applications, such as steam power plants, water desalination, and de-icing of aerodynamic surfaces, to list a few. The direct dynamic characterization of liquid/solid interaction can significantly accelerate the progress toward a full understanding of the thermal and mass transport mechanisms during DWC processes. The research focuses on the development of a novel acoustic-based technique for analyzing the liquid/solid interactions of different condensations on micro- and nanostructured surfaces including DWC. hi addition. the newly developed technology was demonstrated for quantitatively sensing different wetting states of liquid on rough surfaces. First, different micro/nanostructures were fabricated on the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), which serves as acoustic sensor. Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) micropillars, with varying heights from 6.03 to 25.02 microm, were fabricated on a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) substrate by thermal nanoimprinting lithography to form pillar-based QCM (QCM-P). For nanostructured QCM. a copper layer was deposited on the QCM surface and then nanostructures of copper oxide (CuO) films were formed via chemical oxidation in an alkaline solution. Then, these surfaces were treated to make them superhydrophilic or superhydrophobic using oxygen plasma treatment or with coating of 1H,1 H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyl-trichlorosilane (PFOTS). Based on the geometry of these micro/nanostructures, the relationship between the frequency responses of QCM and the wetting states of these surfaces was theoretically investigated. Different theoretical models were established to describing the frequency shift of the micro- and nanostructured QCM in different wetting states. For the microstructured surface, the cantilever based model and a two-degree-of-freedom dynamic model were applied to predict the frequency shift of the QCM-P in

  10. Hexamethyldisiloxane thin films as sensitive coating for quartz crystal microbalance based volatile organic compounds sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutamine, M.; Bellel, A.; Sahli, S.; Segui, Y.; Raynaud, P.

    2014-01-01

    Hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) thin films coated quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) electrodes have been characterized for the detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The sensitive coatings were plasma polymerized in pure vapor of HMDSO and HMDSO/O 2 mixture. The sensor sensitivity was evaluated by monitoring the frequency shift (∆f) of the coated QCM electrode exposed to different concentrations of VOC vapors, such as ethanol, methanol, benzene and chloroform. The isotherm response characteristics showed good reproducibility and reversibility. For all types of analyte, ∆f were found to be linearly correlated with the concentration of VOC vapor. It was shown that it is possible to tune the chemical affinity of the sensor by changing the oxygen ratio in the deposition gas mixture. Contact angle measurements (CA), attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to study surface wettability, chemical composition and surface morphology of the coated QCM electrodes. ATR-FTIR analysis showed the presence of methyl groups around 840 cm −1 due to Si-(CH 3 ) 3 rocking vibration making the elaborated sensor surface hydrophobic. When the coating is performed in HMDSO/O 2 mixture, AFM and SEM images showed an increase in the effective specific surface area of the sensor due to the increase in surface roughness. Surface morphology combined with chemical composition significantly affects the sensitivity of the QCM-based sensor. - Highlights: • Hexamethyldisiloxane layers were evaluated for volatile organic compounds detection. • The kinetic response of the sensor showed good reproducibility and reversibility. • Hydrophobic coating and high specific surface area increase the sensor sensitivity. • Sensor affinity can be controlled by controlling oxygen proportion in the mixture

  11. A different point of view on the sensitivity of quartz crystal microbalance sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnau, Antonio; Montagut, Yeison; García, José V; Jiménez, Yolanda

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the sensitivity of a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor is analysed and discussed in terms of the phase change versus the surface mass change, instead of the classical sensitivity in terms of the resonant frequency change derived from the well-known Sauerbrey equation. The detection sensitivity derived from the Sauerbrey equation is a theoretical detection capability in terms of the frequency change versus the mass change, which increases with the square of frequency. However, when a specific application and measuring system are considered, the detection capability of the QCM sensor must be considered from a different point of view. A new equation is obtained, Δψ ≅ −Δm c /(m q + m L ), which quantifies the phase shift, Δψ, of a fixed frequency signal corresponding to the series resonant frequency of the sensor in a reference state versus a change in the coating mass, Δm c ; m q = η q π/2v q , where η q is the loss viscosity of the unperturbed sensor and v q is the wave propagation speed in quartz, is a parameter which only depends on the physical parameters of the unperturbed resonator and fixes the maximum sensitivity of the sensor and m L = ρ L δ L /2, where ρ L and δ L are, respectively, the liquid density and the wave penetration depth of the wave in the liquid, is the equivalent surface mass density associated with the oscillatory movement of the surface of the sensor in contact with a fluid medium. This equation is an approximate equation around the series resonance frequency of the sensor. The simulation results for 10, 50 and 150 MHz resonance frequency QCM sensors probe its validity. A new electronic system is proposed for QCM biosensor applications based on the equation introduced

  12. Measurement of deposition rate and ion energy distribution in a pulsed dc magnetron sputtering system using a retarding field analyzer with embedded quartz crystal microbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shailesh; Gahan, David; Scullin, Paul; Doyle, James; Lennon, Jj; Vijayaraghavan, Rajani K; Daniels, Stephen; Hopkins, M B

    2016-04-01

    A compact retarding field analyzer with embedded quartz crystal microbalance has been developed to measure deposition rate, ionized flux fraction, and ion energy distribution arriving at the substrate location. The sensor can be placed on grounded, electrically floating, or radio frequency (rf) biased electrodes. A calibration method is presented to compensate for temperature effects in the quartz crystal. The metal deposition rate, metal ionization fraction, and energy distribution of the ions arriving at the substrate location are investigated in an asymmetric bipolar pulsed dc magnetron sputtering reactor under grounded, floating, and rf biased conditions. The diagnostic presented in this research work does not suffer from complications caused by water cooling arrangements to maintain constant temperature and is an attractive technique for characterizing a thin film deposition system.

  13. Measurement of deposition rate and ion energy distribution in a pulsed dc magnetron sputtering system using a retarding field analyzer with embedded quartz crystal microbalance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Shailesh, E-mail: shailesh.sharma6@mail.dcu.ie [Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Impedans Limited, Chase House, City Junction Business Park, Northern Cross, D17 AK63, Dublin 17 (Ireland); Gahan, David, E-mail: david.gahan@impedans.com; Scullin, Paul; Doyle, James; Lennon, Jj; Hopkins, M. B. [Impedans Limited, Chase House, City Junction Business Park, Northern Cross, D17 AK63, Dublin 17 (Ireland); Vijayaraghavan, Rajani K.; Daniels, Stephen [Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland)

    2016-04-15

    A compact retarding field analyzer with embedded quartz crystal microbalance has been developed to measure deposition rate, ionized flux fraction, and ion energy distribution arriving at the substrate location. The sensor can be placed on grounded, electrically floating, or radio frequency (rf) biased electrodes. A calibration method is presented to compensate for temperature effects in the quartz crystal. The metal deposition rate, metal ionization fraction, and energy distribution of the ions arriving at the substrate location are investigated in an asymmetric bipolar pulsed dc magnetron sputtering reactor under grounded, floating, and rf biased conditions. The diagnostic presented in this research work does not suffer from complications caused by water cooling arrangements to maintain constant temperature and is an attractive technique for characterizing a thin film deposition system.

  14. Phase transition of pNIPAM grafted on plasma-activated PEO monitored in-situ by quartz crystal microbalance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinz, P; Bretagnol, F; Mannelli, I; Gillil, D; Rauscher, H; Rossi, F [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, 21020 Ispra (Vatican City State, Holy See,) (Italy)], E-mail: hubert.rauscher@jrc.it

    2008-03-15

    Thermoresponsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) layers were grafted on plasma-activated poly(ethylene oxide)-like substrate. Analysis by ToF-SIMS confirmed the presence of a pNIPAM film, which shows a phase transition temperature at 28 - 32 deg. C with hysteresis, as determined in-situ by quartz crystal microbalance. During the transition, the frequency of the pNIPAM coated quartz sensor exhibits a pronounced and unexpected minimum while the dissipation changes monotonously. This peculiar behaviour is explained by temporary formation of water-rich regions, which may cause delayed release and uptake of water during the collapse and re-swelling of the layer.

  15. Phase transition of pNIPAM grafted on plasma-activated PEO monitored in-situ by quartz crystal microbalance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinz, P; Bretagnol, F; Mannelli, I; Gillil, D; Rauscher, H; Rossi, F

    2008-01-01

    Thermoresponsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) layers were grafted on plasma-activated poly(ethylene oxide)-like substrate. Analysis by ToF-SIMS confirmed the presence of a pNIPAM film, which shows a phase transition temperature at 28 - 32 deg. C with hysteresis, as determined in-situ by quartz crystal microbalance. During the transition, the frequency of the pNIPAM coated quartz sensor exhibits a pronounced and unexpected minimum while the dissipation changes monotonously. This peculiar behaviour is explained by temporary formation of water-rich regions, which may cause delayed release and uptake of water during the collapse and re-swelling of the layer

  16. A sensitive molecularly imprinted polymer based quartz crystal microbalance nanosensor for selective determination of lovastatin in red yeast rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, Tanju; Atar, Necip; Yola, Mehmet Lütfi; Karimi-Maleh, Hassan

    2015-10-15

    Lovastatin (LOV) is a statin, used to lower cholesterol which has been found as a hypolipidemic agent in commercial red yeast rice. In present study, a sensitive molecular imprinted quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor was prepared by fabricating a self-assembling monolayer formation of allylmercaptane on QCM chip surface for selective determination of lovastatin (LOV) in red yeast rice. To prepare molecular imprinted quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) nanosensor, LOV imprinted poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-methacryloylamidoaspartic acid) [p(HEMA-MAAsp)] nanofilm was attached on the modified gold surface of QCM chip. The non-modified and improved surfaces were characterized by using contact angle, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The imprinted QCM sensor was validated according to the ICH guideline (International Conference on Harmonisation). The linearity range was obtained as 0.10-1.25 nM. The detection limit of the prepared material was calculated as 0.030 nM. The developed QCM nanosensor was successfully used to examine red yeast rice. Furthermore, the stability and repeatability of the prepared QCM nanosensor were studied. The spectacular long-term stability and repeatability of the prepared LOV-imprinted QCM nanosensor make them intriguing for use in QCM sensors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Study on pivot-point vibration of molecular bond-rupture events by quartz crystal microbalance for biomedical diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan YJ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Yong J Yuan, Renjie JiaLaboratory of Biosensing and MicroMechatronics, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: Bond-rupture scanning for biomedical diagnostics is examined using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM experiments and microparticle mechanics modeling calculations. Specific and nonspecific interactions between a microparticle and its binding QCM surface can be distinguished by gradually increasing the amplitude of driving voltage applied to QCM and monitoring its frequency changes. This research proposes a mechanical model of interactions between biological molecules and a QCM substrate surface. The mechanical force required to break a biotin–streptavidin bond was calculated through a one-pivot-point bottom-up vibration model. The bond-rupture force increases with an increase of the microparticle radius, the QCM resonant frequency, and the amplitude of driving voltage applied to the QCM. The significance of the research on biological molecular bond rupture is extremely important in characterizing microbial (such as cells and virus specificity, due to the force magnitude needed to break bonds using a transducer.Keywords: bond rupture, mechanical force, biomolecular binding energy spectra, quartz crystal microbalance (QCM

  18. Accurate dew-point measurement over a wide temperature range using a quartz crystal microbalance dew-point sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Su-Yong; Kim, Jong-Chul; Choi, Buyng-Il

    2008-11-01

    Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) dew-point sensors are based on frequency measurement, and so have fast response time, high sensitivity and high accuracy. Recently, we have reported that they have the very convenient attribute of being able to distinguish between supercooled dew and frost from a single scan through the resonant frequency of the quartz resonator as a function of the temperature. In addition to these advantages, by using three different types of heat sinks, we have developed a QCM dew/frost-point sensor with a very wide working temperature range (-90 °C to 15 °C). The temperature of the quartz surface can be obtained effectively by measuring the temperature of the quartz crystal holder and using temperature compensation curves (which showed a high level of repeatability and reproducibility). The measured dew/frost points showed very good agreement with reference values and were within ±0.1 °C over the whole temperature range.

  19. SHORT COMMUNICATION: Recognition of supercooled dew in a quartz crystal microbalance dew-point sensor by slip phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Su-Yong; Kim, Jong-Chul; Choi, Byung-Il

    2007-10-01

    Distinguishing between a supercooled dew and frost below 0 °C in dew/frost-point measurements is an important and challenging problem that has not yet been completely solved. This study presents a new method for the recognition of a supercooled dew in a dew/frost-point sensor. A quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor was used as a dew/frost-point sensor to detect a dew and a supercooled dew as well as frost. The slip phenomenon occurring at an interface between the water droplet and the surface of the quartz crystal resonator of the QCM sensor gives a simple and accurate way of distinguishing between a supercooled dew and frost below 0 °C. This method can give a highly accurate measurement of the dew or the frost point without misreading in the dew-point sensor at temperatures below 0 °C.

  20. Adsorption effectiveness of β-lactoglobulin onto gold surface determined by quartz crystal microbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jachimska, B; Świątek, S; Loch, J I; Lewiński, K; Luxbacher, T

    2018-06-01

    Bovine β-lactoglobulin (LGB) is a transport protein that can bind to its structure hydrophobic bioactive molecules. Due to the lack of toxicity, high stability and pH-dependent molecular binding mechanism, lactoglobulin can be used as a carrier of sparingly soluble drugs. Dynamic light scattering has confirmed LGB's tendency to create oligomeric forms. The hydrodynamic diameter of LGB molecules varies from 4 nm to 6 nm in the pH range of 2-10 and ionic strength I = 0.001-0.15 M, which corresponds to the presence of mono or dimeric LGB forms. The LGB zeta potential varies from 26.5 mV to -33.3 mV for I = 0.01 M and from 13.3 mV to -16 mV for I = 0.15 M in the pH range of 2-10. The isoelectric point is at pH 4.8. As a result of strong surface charge compensation, the maximum effective ionization degree of the LGB molecule is 35% for ionic strength I = 0.01 M and 22% for I = 0.15 M. The effectiveness of adsorption is linked with the properties of the protein, as well as those of the adsorption surface. The functionalization of gold surfaces with β-lactoglobulin (LGB) was studied using a quartz crystal microbalance with energy dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). The effectiveness of LGB adsorption correlates strongly with a charge of gold surface and the zeta potential of the molecule. The greatest value of the adsorbed mass was observed in the pH range in which LGB has a positive zeta potential values, below pH 4.8. This observation shows that electrostatic interactions play a dominant role in LGB adsorption on gold surfaces. Based on the adsorbed mass, protein orientation on gold surfaces was determined. The preferential side-on orientation of LGB molecules observed in the adsorption layer is consistent with the direction of the molecule dipole momentum determined by molecular dynamics simulations of the protein (MD). The use of the QCM-D method also allowed us to determine the effectiveness of adsorption of LGB on gold

  1. Measurement of the Ru surface content of electrodeposited PtRu electrodes with the electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance: implications for methanol and CO electrooxidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frelink, T.; Visscher, W.; Veen, van J.A.R.

    1996-01-01

    To obtain the surface content of Ru in rough electrocodeposited PtRu electrodes, the mass change of a Pt electrode during Ru deposition was measured with the electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCMB). It is shown that there is a correlation between the potential of the surface oxide

  2. Study on pivot-point vibration of molecular bond-rupture events by quartz crystal microbalance for biomedical diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yong J; Jia, Renjie

    2012-01-01

    Bond-rupture scanning for biomedical diagnostics is examined using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) experiments and microparticle mechanics modeling calculations. Specific and nonspecific interactions between a microparticle and its binding QCM surface can be distinguished by gradually increasing the amplitude of driving voltage applied to QCM and monitoring its frequency changes. This research proposes a mechanical model of interactions between biological molecules and a QCM substrate surface. The mechanical force required to break a biotin-streptavidin bond was calculated through a one-pivot-point bottom-up vibration model. The bond-rupture force increases with an increase of the microparticle radius, the QCM resonant frequency, and the amplitude of driving voltage applied to the QCM. The significance of the research on biological molecular bond rupture is extremely important in characterizing microbial (such as cells and virus) specificity, due to the force magnitude needed to break bonds using a transducer.

  3. Determination of thermodynamic parameters for enolization reaction of malonic and metylmalonic acids by using quartz crystal microbalance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoru Yoshimoto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the process of a bromination reaction of malonic acid and methylmalonic acid in the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction by using a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM. The process involves an enolization reaction as a rate-determining step. We found that, in the step, the variation of Br2 concentration induced an exactly quantitative shift of a resonant frequency of the QCM, based on the change of the surface mass on the QCM and the solution viscosity and density. This new finding enabled us to estimate the reaction rate constants and the thermodynamic parameters of the enolization reaction due to a QCM measurement. The values measured by the QCM were in good agreement with those measured by a UV-spectrophotometer. As a result, we succeeded to develop a new measurement method of a nonlinear chemical reaction.

  4. Real-time mass measurement of dust particles deposited on vessel wall in a divertor simulator using quartz crystal microbalances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tateishi, Mizuki; Koga, Kazunori; Katayama, Ryu; Yamashita, Daisuke; Kamataki, Kunihiro; Seo, Hyunwoong; Itagaki, Naho; Shiratani, Masaharu; Ashikawa, Naoko; Masuzaki, Suguru; Nishimura, Kiyohiko; Sagara, Akio

    2015-01-01

    We are developing a dust monitoring method using quartz crystal microbalances (QCMs) equipped with a dust eliminating filter. Here we report a dust eliminating ratio of the filter and first measurement results of the QCMs in a divertor simulator. The volume of spherical dust in unit area on the filter and QCM under the filter were 2.09 × 10 −9 and 1.22 × 10 −10 m 3 m −2 , respectively. Thus, the dust eliminating ratio of the filter is 94.2%. The QCM without the filter gives deposition rate due to radicals and dust particles, whereas the QCM with the filter gives deposition rate predominantly due to radicals. From the results, we deduce information of mass fraction of dust particles in deposits

  5. Establishing linear solvation energy relationships between VOCs and monolayer-protected gold nanoclusters using quartz crystal microbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chi-Lin; Lu, Chia-Jung

    2009-08-15

    Linear solvation energy relationships (LSERs) have been recognized as a useful model for investigating the chemical forces behind the partition coefficients between vapor molecules and absorbents. This study is the first to determine the solvation properties of monolayer-protected gold nanoclusters (MPCs) with different surface ligands. The ratio of partition coefficients/MPC density (K/rho) of 18 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for four different MPCs obtained through quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) experiments were used for the LSER model calculations. LSER modeling results indicate that all MPC surfaces showed a statistically significant (pattraction, 4-methoxythiophenol-capped MPCs can also interact with polar organics (s=1.04). Showing a unique preference for the hydrogen bond basicity of vapors (b=1.11), 2-benzothiazolethiol-capped MPCs provide evidence of an intra-molecular, proton-shift mechanism on surface of nano-gold.

  6. In-Line Measurement of Water Contents in Ethanol Using a Zeolite-Coated Quartz Crystal Microbalance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoung Chul Kim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A quartz crystal microbalance (QCM was utilized to measure the water content in ethanol. For the improvement of measurement sensitivity, the QCM was modified by applying zeolite particles on the surface with poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA binder. The measurement performance was examined with ethanol of 1% to 5% water content in circulation. The experimental results showed that the frequency drop of the QCM was related with the water content though there was some deviation. The sensitivity of the zeolite-coated QCM was sufficient to be implemented in water content determination, and a higher ratio of silicon to aluminum in the molecular structure of the zeolite gave better performance. The coated surface was inspected by microscopy to show the distribution of zeolite particles and PMMA spread.

  7. The use of quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D for studying nanoparticle-induced platelet aggregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos-Martinez MJ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Maria Jose Santos-Martinez1–3, Iwona Inkielewicz-Stepniak1,4, Carlos Medina1, Kamil Rahme5,6, Deirdre M D'Arcy1, Daniel Fox3, Justin D Holmes3,5, Hongzhou Zhang3, Marek Witold Radomski3,51School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2School of Medicine, 3Center for Research on Adaptive Nanostructures and Nanodevices, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland; 4Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Medical University of Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland; 5Materials and Supercritical Fluids Group, Department of Chemistry and the Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; 6Department of Sciences, Faculty of Natural and Applied Science, Notre Dame University, Zouk Mosbeh, LebanonAbstract: Interactions between blood platelets and nanoparticles have both pharmacological and toxicological significance and may lead to platelet activation and aggregation. Platelet aggregation is usually studied using light aggregometer that neither mimics the conditions found in human microvasculature nor detects microaggregates. A new method for the measurement of platelet microaggregation under flow conditions using a commercially available quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D has recently been developed. The aim of the current study was to investigate if QCM-D could be used for the measurement of nanoparticle-platelet interactions. Silica, polystyrene, and gold nanoparticles were tested. The interactions were also studied using light aggregometry and flow cytometry, which measured surface abundance of platelet receptors. Platelet activation was imaged using phase contrast and scanning helium ion microscopy. QCM-D was able to measure nanoparticle-induced platelet microaggregation for all nanoparticles tested at concentrations that were undetectable by light aggregometry and flow cytometry. Microaggregates were measured by changes in frequency and dissipation, and the presence of platelets on the sensor surface was confirmed and imaged by

  8. An Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance Multisensor System Based on Phthalocyanine Nanostructured Films: Discrimination of Musts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Garcia-Hernandez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available An array of electrochemical quartz crystal electrodes (EQCM modified with nanostructured films based on phthalocyanines was developed and used to discriminate musts prepared from different varieties of grapes. Nanostructured films of iron, nickel and copper phthalocyanines were deposited on Pt/quartz crystals through the Layer by Layer technique by alternating layers of the corresponding phthalocyanine and poly-allylamine hydrochloride. Simultaneous electrochemical and mass measurements were used to study the mass changes accompanying the oxidation of electroactive species present in must samples obtained from six Spanish varieties of grapes (Juan García, Prieto Picudo, Mencía Regadío, Cabernet Sauvignon, Garnacha and Tempranillo. The mass and voltammetric outputs were processed using three-way models. Parallel Factor Analysis (PARAFAC was successfully used to discriminate the must samples according to their variety. Multi-way partial least squares (N-PLS evidenced the correlations existing between the voltammetric data and the polyphenolic content measured by chemical methods. Similarly, N-PLS showed a correlation between mass outputs and parameters related to the sugar content. These results demonstrated that electronic tongues based on arrays of EQCM sensors can offer advantages over arrays of mass or voltammetric sensors used separately.

  9. Particle Characterization for a Protein Drug Product Stored in Pre-Filled Syringes Using Micro-Flow Imaging, Archimedes, and Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Songyan; Puri, Aastha; Li, Jinjiang; Jaiswal, Archana; Adams, Monica

    2017-01-01

    Micro-flow imaging (MFI) has been used for formulation development for analyzing sub-visible particles. Archimedes, a novel technique for analyzing sub-micron particles, has been considered as an orthogonal method to currently existing techniques. This study utilized these two techniques to investigate the effectiveness of polysorbate (PS-80) in mitigating the particle formation of a therapeutic protein formulation stored in silicone oil-coated pre-filled syringes. The results indicated that PS-80 prevented the formation of both protein and silicone oil particles. In the case of protein particles, PS-80 might involve in the interactions with the hydrophobic patches of protein, air bubbles, and the stressed surfaces of silicone oil-coated pre-filled syringes. Such interactions played a role in mitigating the formation of protein particles. Subsequently, quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) was utilized to characterize the interactions associated with silicone oil, protein, and PS-80 in the solutions. Based on QCM-D results, we proposed that PS-80 likely formed a layer on the interior surfaces of syringes. As a result, the adsorbed PS-80 might block the leakage of silicone oil from the surfaces to solution so that the silicone oil particles were mitigated at the presence of PS-80. Overall, this study demonstrated the necessary of utilizing these three techniques cooperatively in order to better understand the interfacial role of PS-80 in mitigating the formation of protein and silicone oil particles.

  10. Accurate dew-point measurement over a wide temperature range using a quartz crystal microbalance dew-point sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Su-Yong; Kim, Jong-Chul; Choi, Buyng-Il

    2008-01-01

    Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) dew-point sensors are based on frequency measurement, and so have fast response time, high sensitivity and high accuracy. Recently, we have reported that they have the very convenient attribute of being able to distinguish between supercooled dew and frost from a single scan through the resonant frequency of the quartz resonator as a function of the temperature. In addition to these advantages, by using three different types of heat sinks, we have developed a QCM dew/frost-point sensor with a very wide working temperature range (−90 °C to 15 °C). The temperature of the quartz surface can be obtained effectively by measuring the temperature of the quartz crystal holder and using temperature compensation curves (which showed a high level of repeatability and reproducibility). The measured dew/frost points showed very good agreement with reference values and were within ±0.1 °C over the whole temperature range

  11. Adsorption Device Based on a Langatate Crystal Microbalance for High Temperature High Pressure Gas Adsorption in Zeolite H-ZSM-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wenjin; Baracchini, Giulia; Klumpp, Michael; Schwieger, Wilhelm; Dittmeyer, Roland

    2016-08-25

    We present a high-temperature and high-pressure gas adsorption measurement device based on a high-frequency oscillating microbalance (5 MHz langatate crystal microbalance, LCM) and its use for gas adsorption measurements in zeolite H-ZSM-5. Prior to the adsorption measurements, zeolite H-ZSM-5 crystals were synthesized on the gold electrode in the center of the LCM, without covering the connection points of the gold electrodes to the oscillator, by the steam-assisted crystallization (SAC) method, so that the zeolite crystals remain attached to the oscillating microbalance while keeping good electroconductivity of the LCM during the adsorption measurements. Compared to a conventional quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) which is limited to temperatures below 80 °C, the LCM can realize the adsorption measurements in principle at temperatures as high as 200-300 °C (i.e., at or close to the reaction temperature of the target application of one-stage DME synthesis from the synthesis gas), owing to the absence of crystalline-phase transitions up to its melting point (1,470 °C). The system was applied to investigate the adsorption of CO2, H2O, methanol and dimethyl ether (DME), each in the gas phase, on zeolite H-ZSM-5 in the temperature and pressure range of 50-150 °C and 0-18 bar, respectively. The results showed that the adsorption isotherms of these gases in H-ZSM-5 can be well fitted by Langmuir-type adsorption isotherms. Furthermore, the determined adsorption parameters, i.e., adsorption capacities, adsorption enthalpies, and adsorption entropies, compare well to literature data. In this work, the results for CO2 are shown as an example.

  12. Superior environment resistance of quartz crystal microbalance with anatase TiO2/ZnO nanorod composite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiang, Wei; Wei, Li; Shaodan, Wang; Yu, Bai

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: ZnO nanorod array being prepared by an in situ method on the QCM coated with Au film via hydrothermal process and surface modification with coated TiO 2 by sol–gel methods to form a superhydrophobic TiO 2 /ZnO composite film the anatase TiO 2 /ZnO nanorod composite film with a sharp, pencil-like structure exhibiting excellent superhydrophobicity (water contact angle of 155°), non-sticking water properties, and an autonomous cleaning property under UV irradiation. The anatase TiO 2 /ZnO nanorod composite film facilitates the precise measurement and extended lifetime of the QCM for the detection of organic gas molecules. - Highlights: • This work combines, for the first time, the advantage of the TiO 2 /ZnO composite film on photocatalysis and reversible super-hydrophobic and super-hydrophilic transition, and puts forward a solution to satisfy weatherability of quartz crystal microbalance in long-term application. • The anatase TiO 2 /ZnO nanorod composite film with pencil structure exhibit excellent super-hydrophobicity (water contact angle can reach 155°), no-sticking water properties and self-cleaning property under UV irradiation. • The photocatalysis and reversible super-hydrophobic and super-hydrophilic transition of the TiO 2 /ZnO nanorod composite film is stable in long-term application. - Abstract: The precise measurement of quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) in the detection and weighing of organic gas molecules is achieved due to excellent superhydrophobicity of a deposited film composite. Photocatalysis is utilized as a method for the self-cleaning of organic molecules on the QCM for extended long-term stability in the precision of the instrument. In this paper, ZnO nanorod array is prepared via in situ methods on the QCM coated with Au film via hydrothermal process. Subsequently, a TiO 2 /ZnO composite film is synthesized by surface modification with TiO 2 via sol–gel methods. Results show the anatase TiO 2 /ZnO nanorod

  13. Mucoadhesion vs mucus permeability of thiolated chitosan polymers and their resulting nanoparticles using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Sejin; Borrós, Salvador

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this present study was to evaluate the combination properties between mucoadhesion/mucus permeability of thiolated chitosans (TC) and their resulting nanoparticles using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D). The QCM-D experiments were conducted at pH 4 or 6.8 to assess the interaction between thiolated polymers, with low (TCL), medium (TCM) and high (TCH) contents of free thiol groups, and native porcine gastric mucin (NPGM). TCL was chosen for further carriers as it showed higher permeability into the NPGM layer compared to TCM and TCH. In this study, we describe a formulation of a novel carrier comprised by positively charged TCL, negatively charged DNA and degradable oligopeptide-modified poly(β-amino ester)s (PBAEs), which were employed in order to approach for tuning particle size and surface charge of complexes. TCL/PBAE complexes with or without DNA were characterized using dynamic light scattering. Mechanism of adsorption or permeation of the TCL/PBAE/DNA complexes into the NPGM barrier was investigated with QCM-D, which is a highly sensitive technique for studying nanomechanical (viscoelastic) changes of the substrates. This work might provide that the QCM-D technique would be a promising method to monitor the dynamic behaviour between complexes and NPGM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessing the adsorption selectivity of linker functionalized, moisture-stable metal-organic framework thin films by means of an environment-controlled quartz crystal microbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bétard, Angélique; Wannapaiboon, Suttipong; Fischer, Roland A

    2012-11-04

    The stepwise thin film deposition of the robust, hydrophobic [Zn(4)O(dmcapz)(3)](n) (dmcapz = 3,5-dimethyl-4-carboxy-pyrazolato) is reported. The adsorption of small organic probe molecules, including alkanols, toluene, aniline and xylenes, was monitored by an environment-controlled quartz crystal microbalance setup. The adsorption selectivity was tuned by introducing alkyl side chains in the dmcapz linker.

  15. Development of a Quartz Crystal Microbalance Sensor Modified by Nano-Structured Polyaniline for Detecting the Plasticizer in Gaseous State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui XU

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A quartz crystal microbalance (QCM modified by a film of nano-structured polyaniline (nano-PANI is developed as a gas sensor for detecting the presence of the plasticizer, such as dibutyl phthalate (DBP in the ambient. Nano-PANI is prepared using a non-template method and the films are deposited using physical coating method. Scanning electron microscopy is used to characterize the nano-PANI film. The sensor response towards DBP is tested in a sealed gas chamber. The QCM resonant frequency shift is measured due to the absorption of DBP with different concentration ranging from 0.04 to 1.2 ppm. The experiment results show that the variation of the frequency is a linear function of DBP concentration and the sensitivity up to 54 Hz/ppm could be achieved by using the researched nano-PANI on QCM. To investigate the selectivity, the potential interfering analytes such as acetone, ethanol, acetaldehyde and formaldehyde are tested. And the mechanism hypothesis of the nano-PANI sensitive to the plasticizer is analyzed.

  16. Determination of functionalized gold nanoparticles incorporated in hydrophilic and hydrophobic microenvironments by surface modification of quartz crystal microbalance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Tsui-Hsun [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Institute of Medical Mechatronics, Chang Gung University, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan, ROC (China); Liao, Shu-Chuan [Center of Thin Film Technologies and Applications, Mingchi University of Technology, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chen, Ying-Fang [Department of Dentistry, Yun-Lin Branch, National Taiwan University Hospital, Dou-Liu, Yun-Lin, Taiwan, ROC (China); Huang, Yi-You [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wei, Yi-Syuan [Department of Materials Engineering, Tatung University, 40 Zhongshan North Road, 3rd Section, Taipei 104, Taiwan, ROC (China); Tu, Shu-Ju, E-mail: sjt@cgu.edu.tw [Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa, 1st Road, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 133, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chen, Ko-Shao, E-mail: kschen@ttu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Engineering, Tatung University, 40 Zhongshan North Road, 3rd Section, Taipei 104, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2013-06-01

    In this study, plasma deposition methods were used to immobilize Au electrode of a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) to create different microenvironments for mass measurement of various modified Au nanoparticles (AuNPs). AuNPs were modified by 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA) and 1-decanethiol (DCT) for potential applications to drug release, protective coatings, and immunosensors. We aimed to develop a highly sensitive and reliable method to quantify the mass of various modified AuNPs. The surface of AuNPs and Au electrode was coated with polymer films, as determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. Measurements obtained for various AuNPs and the plasma-treated surface of the Au electrode were compared with those obtained for an untreated Au electrode. According to the resonant frequency shift of QCM, a linear relationship was observed that significantly differed for AuNPs, MUA-AuNPs, and DCT-AuNPs (R{sup 2} range, 0.94–0.965, 0.934–0.972, and 0.874–0.9514, respectively). Compared to inductively coupled plasma and micro-computerized tomography, the QCM method with plasma treatment has advantages of real-time monitoring, greater sensitivity, and lower cost. Our results demonstrate that surface modifications measured by a QCM system for various modified AuNPs were reliable.

  17. Determination of functionalized gold nanoparticles incorporated in hydrophilic and hydrophobic microenvironments by surface modification of quartz crystal microbalance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Tsui-Hsun; Liao, Shu-Chuan; Chen, Ying-Fang; Huang, Yi-You; Wei, Yi-Syuan; Tu, Shu-Ju; Chen, Ko-Shao

    2013-01-01

    In this study, plasma deposition methods were used to immobilize Au electrode of a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) to create different microenvironments for mass measurement of various modified Au nanoparticles (AuNPs). AuNPs were modified by 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA) and 1-decanethiol (DCT) for potential applications to drug release, protective coatings, and immunosensors. We aimed to develop a highly sensitive and reliable method to quantify the mass of various modified AuNPs. The surface of AuNPs and Au electrode was coated with polymer films, as determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. Measurements obtained for various AuNPs and the plasma-treated surface of the Au electrode were compared with those obtained for an untreated Au electrode. According to the resonant frequency shift of QCM, a linear relationship was observed that significantly differed for AuNPs, MUA-AuNPs, and DCT-AuNPs (R 2 range, 0.94–0.965, 0.934–0.972, and 0.874–0.9514, respectively). Compared to inductively coupled plasma and micro-computerized tomography, the QCM method with plasma treatment has advantages of real-time monitoring, greater sensitivity, and lower cost. Our results demonstrate that surface modifications measured by a QCM system for various modified AuNPs were reliable.

  18. Preparation of a molecularly imprinted sensor based on quartz crystal microbalance for specific recognition of sialic acid in human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xiuzhen; Xu, Xian-Yan; Chen, Xuncai; Wu, Yiyong; Guo, Huishi

    2018-05-08

    A novel molecularly imprinted quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor was successfully prepared for selective determination of sialic acid (SA) in human urine samples. To obtain the QCM sensor, we first modified the gold surface of the QCM chip by self-assembling of allylmercaptane to introduce polymerizable double bonds on the chip surface. Then, SA molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) nanofilm was attached to the modified QCM chip surface. For comparison, we have also characterized the nonmodified and improved surfaces of the QCM sensor by using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. We then tested the selectivity and detection limit of the imprinted QCM sensor via a series of adsorption experiments. The results show a linear response in the range of 0.025-0.50 μmol L -1 for sialic acid. Moreover, the limit of detection (LOD) of the prepared imprinted QCM sensor was found to be 1.0 nmol L -1 for sialic acid, and high recovery values range from 87.6 to 108.5% with RSD sensor was developed and used to detect sialic acid in human urine samples. Graphical abstract Specific recognition of sialic acid by the MIP-QCM sensor system.

  19. Peptide-membrane interactions of arginine-tryptophan peptides probed using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring.

    KAUST Repository

    Rydberg, Hanna A

    2014-04-18

    Membrane-active peptides include peptides that can cross cellular membranes and deliver macromolecular cargo as well as peptides that inhibit bacterial growth. Some of these peptides can act as both transporters and antibacterial agents. It is desirable to combine the knowledge from these two different fields of membrane-active peptides into design of new peptides with tailored actions, as transporters of cargo or as antibacterial substances, targeting specific membranes. We have previously shown that the position of the amino acid tryptophan in the peptide sequence of three arginine-tryptophan peptides affects their uptake and intracellular localization in live mammalian cells, as well as their ability to inhibit bacterial growth. Here, we use quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring to assess the induced changes caused by binding of the three peptides to supported model membranes composed of POPC, POPC/POPG, POPC/POPG/cholesterol or POPC/lactosyl PE. Our results indicate that the tryptophan position in the peptide sequence affects the way these peptides interact with the different model membranes and that the presence of cholesterol in particular seems to affect the membrane interaction of the peptide with an even distribution of tryptophans in the peptide sequence. These results give mechanistic insight into the function of these peptides and may aid in the design of membrane-active peptides with specified cellular targets and actions.

  20. Peptide-membrane interactions of arginine-tryptophan peptides probed using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring.

    KAUST Repository

    Rydberg, Hanna A; Kunze, Angelika; Carlsson, Nils; Altgä rde, Noomi; Svedhem, Sofia; Nordé n, Bengt

    2014-01-01

    Membrane-active peptides include peptides that can cross cellular membranes and deliver macromolecular cargo as well as peptides that inhibit bacterial growth. Some of these peptides can act as both transporters and antibacterial agents. It is desirable to combine the knowledge from these two different fields of membrane-active peptides into design of new peptides with tailored actions, as transporters of cargo or as antibacterial substances, targeting specific membranes. We have previously shown that the position of the amino acid tryptophan in the peptide sequence of three arginine-tryptophan peptides affects their uptake and intracellular localization in live mammalian cells, as well as their ability to inhibit bacterial growth. Here, we use quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring to assess the induced changes caused by binding of the three peptides to supported model membranes composed of POPC, POPC/POPG, POPC/POPG/cholesterol or POPC/lactosyl PE. Our results indicate that the tryptophan position in the peptide sequence affects the way these peptides interact with the different model membranes and that the presence of cholesterol in particular seems to affect the membrane interaction of the peptide with an even distribution of tryptophans in the peptide sequence. These results give mechanistic insight into the function of these peptides and may aid in the design of membrane-active peptides with specified cellular targets and actions.

  1. Probing adsorption of polyacrylamide-based polymers on anisotropic Basal planes of kaolinite using quartz crystal microbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagha, Lana; Wang, Shengqun; Yan, Lujie; Xu, Zhenghe; Masliyah, Jacob

    2013-03-26

    Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) was applied to investigate the adsorption characteristics of polyacrylamide-based polymers (PAMs) on anisotropic basal planes of kaolinite. Kaolinite basal planes were differentiated by depositing kaolinite nanoparticles (KNPs) on silica and alumina sensors in solutions of controlled pH values. Adsorption of an in-house synthesized organic-inorganic Al(OH)3-PAM (Al-PAM) as an example of cationic hybrid PAM and a commercially available partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (MF1011) as an example of anionic PAM was studied. Cationic Al-PAM was found to adsorb irreversibly and preferentially on tetrahedral silica basal planes of kaolinite. In contrast, anionic MF1011 adsorbed strongly on aluminum-hydroxy basal planes, while its adsorption on tetrahedral silica basal planes was weak and reversible. Adsorption study revealed that both electrostatic attraction and hydrogen-bonding mechanisms contribute to adsorption of PAMs on kaolinite. The adsorbed Al-PAM layer was able to release trapped water overtime and became more compact, while MF1011 film became more dissipative as backbones stretched out from kaolinite surface with minimal overlapping. Experimental results obtained from this study provide clear insights into the phenomenon that governs flocculation-based solid-liquid separation processes using multicomponent flocculants of anionic and cationic nature.

  2. The use of quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) for studying nanoparticle-induced platelet aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Martinez, Maria Jose; Inkielewicz-Stepniak, Iwona; Medina, Carlos; Rahme, Kamil; D’Arcy, Deirdre M; Fox, Daniel; Holmes, Justin D; Zhang, Hongzhou; Radomski, Marek Witold

    2012-01-01

    Interactions between blood platelets and nanoparticles have both pharmacological and toxicological significance and may lead to platelet activation and aggregation. Platelet aggregation is usually studied using light aggregometer that neither mimics the conditions found in human microvasculature nor detects microaggregates. A new method for the measurement of platelet microaggregation under flow conditions using a commercially available quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) has recently been developed. The aim of the current study was to investigate if QCM-D could be used for the measurement of nanoparticle-platelet interactions. Silica, polystyrene, and gold nanoparticles were tested. The interactions were also studied using light aggregometry and flow cytometry, which measured surface abundance of platelet receptors. Platelet activation was imaged using phase contrast and scanning helium ion microscopy. QCM-D was able to measure nanoparticle-induced platelet microaggregation for all nanoparticles tested at concentrations that were undetectable by light aggregometry and flow cytometry. Microaggregates were measured by changes in frequency and dissipation, and the presence of platelets on the sensor surface was confirmed and imaged by phase contrast and scanning helium ion microscopy. PMID:22275839

  3. Determination of functionalized gold nanoparticles incorporated in hydrophilic and hydrophobic microenvironments by surface modification of quartz crystal microbalance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tsui-Hsun; Liao, Shu-Chuan; Chen, Ying-Fang; Huang, Yi-You; Wei, Yi-Syuan; Tu, Shu-Ju; Chen, Ko-Shao

    2013-06-01

    In this study, plasma deposition methods were used to immobilize Au electrode of a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) to create different microenvironments for mass measurement of various modified Au nanoparticles (AuNPs). AuNPs were modified by 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA) and 1-decanethiol (DCT) for potential applications to drug release, protective coatings, and immunosensors. We aimed to develop a highly sensitive and reliable method to quantify the mass of various modified AuNPs. The surface of AuNPs and Au electrode was coated with polymer films, as determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. Measurements obtained for various AuNPs and the plasma-treated surface of the Au electrode were compared with those obtained for an untreated Au electrode. According to the resonant frequency shift of QCM, a linear relationship was observed that significantly differed for AuNPs, MUA-AuNPs, and DCT-AuNPs (R2 range, 0.94-0.965, 0.934-0.972, and 0.874-0.9514, respectively). Compared to inductively coupled plasma and micro-computerized tomography, the QCM method with plasma treatment has advantages of real-time monitoring, greater sensitivity, and lower cost. Our results demonstrate that surface modifications measured by a QCM system for various modified AuNPs were reliable.

  4. Interaction analysis of chimeric metal-binding green fluorescent protein and artificial solid-supported lipid membrane by quartz crystal microbalance and atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prachayasittikul, Virapong; Na Ayudhya, Chartchalerm Isarankura; Hilterhaus, Lutz; Hinz, Andreas; Tantimongcolwat, Tanawut; Galla, Hans-Joachim

    2005-01-01

    Non-specific adsorption and specific interaction between a chimeric green fluorescent protein (GFP) carrying metal-binding region and the immobilized zinc ions on artificial solid-supported lipid membranes was investigated using the quartz crystal microbalance technique and the atomic force microscopy (AFM). Supported lipid bilayer, composed of octanethiol and 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine/1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-[N- (5-amino-1-carboxypentyl iminodiacetic acid)succinyl] (NTA-DOGS)-Zn 2+ , was formed on the gold electrode of quartz resonator (5 MHz). Binding of the chimeric GFP to zinc ions resulted in a rapid decrease of resonance frequency. Reversibility of the process was demonstrated via the removal of metal ions by EDTA. Nanoscale structural orientation of the chimeric GFP on the membrane was imaged by AFM. Association constant of the specific binding to metal ions was 2- to 3-fold higher than that of the non-specific adsorption, which was caused by the fluidization effect of the metal-chelating lipid molecules as well as the steric hindrance effect. This infers a possibility for a further development of biofunctionalized membrane. However, maximization is needed in order to attain closer advancement to a membrane-based sensor device

  5. Electrochemistry, surface plasmon resonance, and quartz crystal microbalance: an associative study on cytochrome c adsorption on pyridine tail-group monolayers on gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulo, Tércio de F; de Sousa, Ticyano P; de Abreu, Dieric S; Felício, Nathalie H; Bernhardt, Paul V; Lopes, Luiz G de F; Sousa, Eduardo H S; Diógenes, Izaura C N

    2013-07-25

    Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), surface plasmon resonance (SPR), and electrochemistry techniques were used to study the electron-transfer (ET) reaction of cytochrome c (Cyt c) on gold surfaces modified with thionicotinamide, thioisonicotinamide, 4-mercaptopyridine, 5-(4-pyridyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-thiol, 5-phenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-thiol, 4,4'-bipyridine, and 4,4'-dithiopyridine. The electrochemical results showed that the ET process is complex, being chiefly diffusional with steps depending on the orientation of the pyridine or phenyl tail group of the modifiers. The correlation between the electrochemical results and those acquired by SPR and QCM indicated the presence of an adlayer of Cyt c adsorbed on the thiolate SAMs. This adlayer, although being not electroactive, is essential to assess the ET reaction of Cyt c in solution. The results presented in this work are consistent with the statement (Feng, Z. Q.; Imabayashi, S.; Kakiuchi, T.; Niki, K. J. Electroanal. Chem. 1995, 394, 149-154) that the ET reaction of Cyt c can be explained in terms of the through-bond tunneling mechanism.

  6. Carbon-based micro-ball and micro-crystal deposition using filamentary pulsed atmospheric pressure plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pothiraja, Ramasamy; Bibinov, Nikita; Awakowicz, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Thin plasma filaments are produced by the propagation of ionization waves from a spiked driven electrode in a quartz tube in an argon/methane gas mixture (2400 sccm/2 sccm) at atmospheric pressure. The position of the touch point of filaments on the substrate surface is controlled in our experiment by applying various suitable substrate configurations and geometries of the grounded electrode. The gas conditions at the touch point are varied from argon to ambient air. Based on microphotography and discharge current waveforms, the duration of the filament touching the substrate is estimated to be about one microsecond. Carbon-based materials are deposited during this time at the touch points on the substrate surface. Micro-balls are produced if the filament touch points are saved from ambient air by the argon flow. Under an air admixture, micro-crystals are formed. The dimension of both materials is approximately one micrometre (0.5–2 µm) and corresponds to about 10 10 –10 12 carbon atoms. Neither the diffusion of neutral species nor drift of ions can be reason for the formation of such a big micro-material during this short period of filament–substrate interaction. It is possible that charged carbon-based materials are formed in the plasma channel and transported to the surface of the substrate. The mechanism of this transport and characterization of micro-materials, which are formed under different gas conditions in our experiment, will be studied in the future. (paper)

  7. Single-pulse and burst-mode ablation of gold films measured by quartz crystal microbalance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrusyak, Oleksiy G.; Bubelnik, Matthew; Mares, Jeremy; McGovern, Theresa; Siders, Craig W.

    2005-02-01

    Femtosecond ablation has several distinct advantages: the threshold energy fluence for the onset of damage and ablation is orders of magnitude less than for traditional nanosecond laser machining, and by virtue of the rapid material removal of approximately an optical penetration depth per pulse, femtosecond machined cuts can be cleaner and more precise than those made with traditional nanosecond or longer pulse lasers. However, in many materials of interest, especially metals, this limits ablation rates to 10-100 nm/pulse. We present the results of using multiple pulse bursts to significantly increase the per-burst ablation rate compared to a single pulse with the same integrated energy, while keeping the peak intensity of each individual pulse below the air ionization limit. Femtosecond ablation with pulses centered at 800-nm having integrated energy of up to 30 mJ per pulse incident upon thin gold films was measured via resonance frequency shifts in a gold-electrode-coated quartz-crystal oscillator. Measurements were performed using Michelson-interferometer-based burst generators, with up to 2 ns pulse separations, as well as pulse shaping by programmable acousto-optic dispersive filter (Dazzler from FastLite) with up to 2 ps pulse separations.

  8. Quartz Crystal Microbalance Coated with Sol-gel-derived Thin Films as Gas Sensor for NO Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. O’Shea

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the possibilities and properties of Indium tin oxide (ITO-covered quartz crystal as a NOx toxic gas-sensor. The starting sol-gel solution was prepared by mixing indium chloride dissolved in acetylacetone and tin chloride dissolved in ethanol (0-20% by weight. The ITO thin films were deposited on the gold electrodes of quartz crystal by spin-coating technique and subsequently followed a standard photolithography to pattern the derived films to ensure all sensors with the same sensing areas. All heat treatment processes were controlled below 500°C in order to avoid the piezoelectric characteristics degradation of quartz crystal (Quartz will lose its piezoelectricity at ~573°C due to the phase change from α to β. The electrical and structural properties of ITO thin films were characterized with Hall analysis system, TG/DTA, XRD, XPS, SEM and etc. The gas sensor had featured with ITO thin films of ~100nm as the receptor to sense the toxic gas NO and quartz crystal with frequency of 10MHz as the transducer to transfer the surface reactions (mass loading, etc into the frequency shift. A homemade setup had been employed to measure the sensor response under the static mode. The experimental results had indicated that the ITO-coated QCM had a good sensitivity for NO gas, ~12Hz/100ppm within 5mins. These results prove that the ITO-covered quartz crystals are usable as a gas sensor and as an analytical device.

  9. 1-Butyl-3-Methylimidazolium Tetrafluoroborate Film as a Highly Selective Sensing Material for Non-Invasive Detection of Acetone Using a Quartz Crystal Microbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Wenyan; Lin, Peng; Liu, Sili; Xie, Qingji; Ke, Shanming; Zeng, Xierong

    2017-01-20

    Breath acetone serves as a biomarker for diabetes. This article reports 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([bmim][BF₄]), a type of room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL), as a selective sensing material for acetone. The RTIL sensing layer was coated on a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) for detection. The sensing mechanism is based on a decrease in viscosity and density of the [bmim][BF₄] film due to the solubilization of acetone leading to a positive frequency shift in the QCM. Acetone was detected with a linear range from 7.05 to 750 ppmv. Sensitivity and limit of detection were found to be 3.49 Hz/ppmv and 5.0 ppmv, respectively. The [bmim][BF₄]-modified QCM sensor demonstrated anti-interference ability to commonly found volatile organic compounds in breath, e.g., isoprene, 1,2-pentadiene, d -limonene, and dl -limonene. This technology is useful for applications in non-invasive early diabetic diagnosis.

  10. Immersion angle dependence of the resonant-frequency shift of the quartz crystal microbalance in a liquid: effects of longitudinal wave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimoto, Minoru; Kobirata, Satoshi; Aizawa, Hideo; Kurosawa, Shigeru

    2007-06-19

    We investigated the effects of the longitudinal wave on the immersion angle dependence of the resonant-frequency shift, deltaF, of the quartz crystal microbalance, QCM. In order to study exactly the effects, we employed the three types of cells: normal cell, cell with the glass beads and cell with sponge. The longitudinal wave exists in the normal cell. On the other hand, both the cell with the glass beads and the cell with sponge eliminate the longitudinal wave. As results, we have found that the tendencies of deltaF are the same in the three types of cells. That is, we conclude that the longitudinal wave does not have effects on the immersion angle dependence of deltaF.

  11. A survey of the 2001 to 2005 quartz crystal microbalance biosensor literature: applications of acoustic physics to the analysis of biomolecular interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Matthew A; Singleton, Victoria T

    2007-01-01

    The widespread exploitation of biosensors in the analysis of molecular recognition has its origins in the mid-1990s following the release of commercial systems based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR). More recently, platforms based on piezoelectric acoustic sensors (principally 'bulk acoustic wave' (BAW), 'thickness shear mode' (TSM) sensors or 'quartz crystal microbalances' (QCM)), have been released that are driving the publication of a large number of papers analysing binding specificities, affinities, kinetics and conformational changes associated with a molecular recognition event. This article highlights salient theoretical and practical aspects of the technologies that underpin acoustic analysis, then reviews exemplary papers in key application areas involving small molecular weight ligands, carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids, viruses, bacteria, cells and lipidic and polymeric interfaces. Key differentiators between optical and acoustic sensing modalities are also reviewed. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Bacterial interactions with proteins and cells relevant to the development of life-threatening endocarditis studied by use of a quartz-crystal microbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajewski, Stefanie; Rheinlaender, Johannes; Ries, Philip; Canjuga, Denis; Mack, Carmen; Scheideler, Lutz; Schäffer, Tilman E; Geis-Gerstorfer, Jürgen; Wendel, Hans-Peter; Rupp, Frank

    2014-05-01

    Implant-related infections are a major challenge in clinical routine because of severe complications, for example infective endocarditis (IE). The purpose of this study was to investigate the real-time interaction of S. gordonii with proteins and cells important in the development of IE, in a flow system, by use of a quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM). Acoustic sensors were biologically modified by preconditioning with sterile saliva, platelet-poor plasma (PPP), or platelet-rich plasma (PRP), followed then by perfusion of a bacterial suspension. After perfusion, additional fluorescence and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) studies were performed. The surface structure of S. gordonii was analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Compared with S. gordonii adhesion on the abiotic sensor surface following normal mass loading indicated by a frequency decrease, adhesion on saliva, PPP, or PRP-conditioned sensors resulted in an increase in frequency. Furthermore, adhesion induced slightly increased damping signals for saliva and PPP-coated sensors but a decrease upon bacterial adhesion to PRP, indicating the formation of a more rigid biofilm. Microscopic analysis confirmed the formation of dense and vital bacterial layers and the aggregation of platelets and bacteria. In conclusion, our study shows that the complex patterns of QCM output data observed are strongly dependent on the biological substrate and adhesion mechanisms of S. gordonii. Overall, QCM sheds new light on the pathways of such severe infections as IE.

  13. Trend of telomerase activity change during human iPSC self-renewal and differentiation revealed by a quartz crystal microbalance based assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yitian; Zhou, Ping; Xin, Yinqiang; Wang, Jie; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Hu, Ji; Wei, Shicheng; Ma, Hongwei

    2014-11-01

    Telomerase plays an important role in governing the life span of cells for its capacity to extend telomeres. As high activity of telomerase has been found in stem cells and cancer cells specifically, various methods have been developed for the evaluation of telomerase activity. To overcome the time-consuming procedures and complicated manipulations of existing methods, we developed a novel method named Telomeric Repeat Elongation Assay based on Quartz crystal microbalance (TREAQ) to monitor telomerase activity during the self-renewal and differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). TREAQ results indicated hiPSCs possess invariable telomerase activity for 11 passages on Matrigel and a steady decline of telomerase activity when differentiated for different periods, which is confirmed with existing golden standard method. The pluripotency of hiPSCs during differentiation could be estimated through monitoring telomerase activity and compared with the expression levels of markers of pluripotency gene via quantitative real time PCR. Regular assessment for factors associated with pluripotency or stemness was expensive and requires excessive sample consuming, thus TREAQ could be a promising alternative technology for routine monitoring of telomerase activity and estimate the pluripotency of stem cells.

  14. Results from a Novel Method for Corrosion Studies of Electroplated Lithium Metal Based on Measurements with an Impedance Scanning Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Winter

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A new approach to study the chemical stability of electrodeposited lithium on a copper metal substrate via measurements with a fast impedance scanning electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance is presented. The corrosion of electrochemically deposited lithium was compared in two different electrolytes, based on lithium difluoro(oxalato borate (LiDFOB and lithium hexafluorophosphate, both salts being dissolved in solvent blends of ethylene carbonate and diethyl carbonate. For a better understanding of the corrosion mechanisms, scanning electron microscopy images of electrodeposited lithium were also consulted. The results of the EQCM experiments were supported by AC impedance measurements and clearly showed two different corrosion mechanisms caused by the different salts and the formed SEIs. The observed mass decrease of the quartz sensor of the LiDFOB-based electrolyte is not smooth, but rather composed of a series of abrupt mass fluctuations in contrast to that of the lithium hexafluorophosphate-based electrolyte. After each slow decrease of mass a rather fast increase of mass is observed several times. The slow mass decrease can be attributed to a consolidation process of the SEI or to the partial dissolution of the SEI leaving finally lithium metal unprotected so that a fast film formation sets in entailing the observed fast mass increases.

  15. 1-Butyl-3-Methylimidazolium Tetrafluoroborate Film as a Highly Selective Sensing Material for Non-Invasive Detection of Acetone Using a Quartz Crystal Microbalance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyan Tao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Breath acetone serves as a biomarker for diabetes. This article reports 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([bmim][BF4], a type of room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL, as a selective sensing material for acetone. The RTIL sensing layer was coated on a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM for detection. The sensing mechanism is based on a decrease in viscosity and density of the [bmim][BF4] film due to the solubilization of acetone leading to a positive frequency shift in the QCM. Acetone was detected with a linear range from 7.05 to 750 ppmv. Sensitivity and limit of detection were found to be 3.49 Hz/ppmv and 5.0 ppmv, respectively. The [bmim][BF4]-modified QCM sensor demonstrated anti-interference ability to commonly found volatile organic compounds in breath, e.g., isoprene, 1,2-pentadiene, d-limonene, and dl-limonene. This technology is useful for applications in non-invasive early diabetic diagnosis.

  16. Highly selective detection of single-nucleotide polymorphisms using a quartz crystal microbalance biosensor based on the toehold-mediated strand displacement reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dingzhong; Tang, Wei; Wu, Xiaojie; Wang, Xinyi; Chen, Gengjia; Chen, Qiang; Li, Na; Liu, Feng

    2012-08-21

    Toehold-mediated strand displacement reaction (SDR) is first introduced to develop a simple quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) biosensor without an enzyme or label at normal temperature for highly selective and sensitive detection of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the p53 tumor suppressor gene. A hairpin capture probe with an external toehold is designed and immobilized on the gold electrode surface of QCM. A successive SDR is initiated by the target sequence hybridization with the toehold domain and ends with the unfolding of the capture probe. Finally, the open-loop capture probe hybridizes with the streptavidin-coupled reporter probe as an efficient mass amplifier to enhance the QCM signal. The proposed biosensor displays remarkable specificity to target the p53 gene fragment against single-base mutant sequences (e.g., the largest discrimination factor is 63 to C-C mismatch) and high sensitivity with the detection limit of 0.3 nM at 20 °C. As the crucial component of the fabricated biosensor for providing the high discrimination capability, the design rationale of the capture probe is further verified by fluorescence sensing and atomic force microscopy imaging. Additionally, a recovery of 84.1% is obtained when detecting the target sequence in spiked HeLa cells lysate, demonstrating the feasibility of employing this biosensor in detecting SNPs in biological samples.

  17. Separate measurement of the density and viscosity of a liquid using a quartz crystal microbalance based on admittance analysis (QCM-A)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Atsushi; Ichihashi, Motoko

    2011-01-01

    We previously used a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) to identify a frequency f 2 that allows measurement of the mass load without being affected by the viscous load of a liquid in the liquid phase. Here, we determined that frequency in order to separately measure the density and viscosity of a Newtonian liquid. Martin et al separately measured the density and viscosity of a liquid by immersing two quartz resonators, i.e. a smooth-surface resonator and a textured-surface resonator, in the liquid. We used a QCM based on admittance analysis (QCM-A) in the current study to separately measure the viscosity and density of a liquid using only a textured-surface resonator. In the current experiments, we measured the density and viscosity of 500 µl of 10%, 30%, and 50% aqueous glycerol solutions and compared the measured values to reference values. The density obtained had an error of ±1.5% of reference values and the viscosity had an error of about ±5% of reference values. Similar results were obtained with 500 µl of 10%, 30%, and 50% ethanol solutions. Measurement was possible with a quartz resonator, so measurements were made with even smaller samples. The density and viscosity of a liquid were successfully determined with an extremely small amount of liquid, i.e. 10 µl, with almost the same precision as when using 500 µl of the liquid

  18. Molecularly imprinted polymer based quartz crystal microbalance sensor system for sensitive and label-free detection of synthetic cannabinoids in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battal, Dilek; Akgönüllü, Semra; Yalcin, M Serkan; Yavuz, Handan; Denizli, Adil

    2018-07-15

    Herein, we prepared a novel quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor for synthetic cannabinoids (JWH-073, JWH-073 butanoic acid, JWH-018 and JWH-018 pentanoic acid,) detection. Firstly, the synthetic cannabinoid (SCs) imprinted (MIP) and non-imprinted (NIP) nanoparticles were synthesized by mini-emulsion polymerization system. The SCs-imprinted nanoparticles were first characterized by SEM, TEM, zeta-size and FTIR-ATR analysis and then were dropped onto the gold QCM surface. The SCs-imprinted QCM sensor was characterized by an ellipsometer, contact angle, and AFM. The limit of detection was found as 0.3, 0.45, 0.4, 0.2 pg/mL JWH-018, JWH-073, JWH-018 pentanoic acid and JWH-073 butanoic acid, respectively. The selectivity of the SCs-imprinted QCM sensor was shown by using JWH-018, JWH-018 pentanoic acid, JWH-073 and JWH-073 butanoic acid. According to the results, the SCs-imprinted QCM sensors show highly selective and sensitive in a broad range of synthetic cannabinoid concentrations (0.0005-1.0 ng/mL) in both aqueous and synthetic urine solutions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A quick responding quartz crystal microbalance sensor array based on molecular imprinted polyacrylic acids coating for selective identification of aldehydes in body odor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Sunil K; Hayashi, Kenshi

    2015-03-01

    In present work, a novel quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor array has been developed for prompt identification of primary aldehydes in human body odor. Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) are prepared using the polyacrylic acid (PAA) polymer matrix and three organic acids (propenoic acid, hexanoic acid and octanoic acid) as template molecules, and utilized as QCM surface coating layer. The performance of MIP films is characterized by 4-element QCM sensor array (three coated with MIP layers and one with pure PAA for reference) dynamic and static responses to target aldehydes: hexanal, heptanal, and nonanal in single, binary, and tertiary mixtures at distinct concentrations. The target aldehydes were selected subsequent to characterization of body odor samples with solid phase-micro extraction gas chromatography mass spectrometer (SPME-GC-MS). The hexanoic acid and octanoic acid imprinted PAA exhibit fast response, and better sensitivity, selectivity and reproducibility than the propenoic acid, and non-imprinted PAA in array. The response time and recovery time for hexanoic acid imprinted PAA are obtained as 5 s and 12 s respectively to typical concentrations of binary and tertiary mixtures of aldehydes using the static response. Dynamic sensor array response matrix has been processed with principal component analysis (PCA) for visual, and support vector machine (SVM) classifier for quantitative identification of target odors. Aldehyde odors were identified successfully in principal component (PC) space. SVM classifier results maximum recognition rate 79% for three classes of binary odors and 83% including single, binary, and tertiary odor classes in 3-fold cross validation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A method of layer-by-layer gold nanoparticle hybridization in a quartz crystal microbalance DNA sensing system used to detect dengue virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S-H; Chuang, Y-C; Lu, Y-C; Lin, H-C; Yang, Y-L; Lin, C-S

    2009-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is nowadays the most important arthropod-spread virus affecting humans existing in more than 100 countries worldwide. A rapid and sensitive detection method for the early diagnosis of infectious dengue virus urgently needs to be developed. In the present study, a circulating-flow quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) biosensing method combining oligonucleotide-functionalized gold nanoparticles (i.e. AuNP probes) used to detect DENV has been established. In the DNA-QCM method, two kinds of specific AuNP probes were linked by the target sequences onto the QCM chip to amplify the detection signal, i.e. oscillatory frequency change (ΔF) of the QCM sensor. The target sequences amplified from the DENV genome act as a bridge for the layer-by-layer AuNP probes' hybridization in the method. Besides being amplifiers of the detection signal, the specific AuNP probes used in the DNA-QCM method also play the role of verifiers to specifically recognize their target sequences in the detection. The effect of four AuNP sizes on the layer-by-layer hybridization has been evaluated and it is found that 13 nm AuNPs collocated with 13 nm AuNPs showed the best hybridization efficiency. According to the nanoparticle application, the DNA-QCM biosensing method was able to detect dengue viral RNA in virus-contaminated serum as plaque titers being 2 PFU ml -1 and a linear correlation (R 2 = 0.987) of ΔF versus virus titration from 2 x 10 0 to 2 x 10 6 PFU ml -1 was found. The sensitivity and specificity of the present DNA-QCM method with nanoparticle technology showed it to be comparable to the fluorescent real-time PCR methods. Moreover, the method described herein was shown to not require expensive equipment, was label-free and highly sensitive.

  1. Transient kinetic studies of pH-dependent hydrolyses by exo-type carboxypeptidase P on a 27-MHz quartz crystal microbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furusawa, Hiroyuki; Takano, Hiroki; Okahata, Yoshio

    2008-02-15

    pH-Dependent kinetic parameters (k(on), k(off), and k(cat)) of protein (myoglobin) hydrolyses catalyzed by exo-enzyme (carboxypeptidase P, CPP) were obtained by using a protein-immobilized quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) in acidic aqueous solutions. The formation of the enzyme-substrate (ES) complex (k(on)), the decay of the ES complex (k(off)), and the formation of the product (k(cat)) could be analyzed by transient kinetics as mass changes on the QCM plate. The Kd (k(off)/k(on)) value was different from the Michaelis constant Km calculated from (k(off) + k(cat))/k(on) due to k(cat) > k(off). The rate-determining step was the binding step (k(on), and the catalytic rate k(cat) was faster than other k(on) and k(off) values. In the range of pH 2.5-5.0, values of k(on) gradually increased with decreasing pH showing a maximum at pH 3.7, values of k(off) were independent of pH, and k(cat) increased gradually with decreasing pH. As a result, the apparent rate constant (k(cat)/Km) showed a maximum at pH 3.7 and gradually increased with decreasing pH. The optimum pH at 3.7 of k(on) is explained by the optimum binding ability of CPP to the COOH terminus of the substrate with hydrogen bonds. The increase of k(cat) at the lower pH correlated with the decrease of alpha-helix contents of the myoglobin substrate on the QCM.

  2. Blueprint of quartz crystal microbalance biosensor for early detection of breast cancer through salivary autoantibodies against ATP6AP1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Sania; Qudsia, Syeda; Urooj, Samina; Chaudry, Nazia; Arshad, Aneeqa; Andleeb, Saadia

    2015-03-15

    Breast cancer represents a significant health problem because of its high prevalence. Tests like mammography, which are used abundantly for the detection of breast cancer, suffer from serious limitations. Mammography correctly detects malignancy about 80-90% of the times, failing in places when (1) the tumor is small at early stage, (2) breast tissue is dense or (3) in women of less than 40 years. Serum-based detection of biomarkers involves risk of disease transfer, along with other concerns. These techniques compromise in the early detection of breast cancer. Early detection of breast cancer is a crucial factor to enhance the survival rate of patient. Development of regular screening tests for early diagnosis of breast cancer is a challenge. This review highlights the design of a handy and household biosensor device aimed for self-screening and early diagnosis of breast cancer. The design makes use of salivary autoantibodies for specificity to develop a noninvasive procedure, breast cancer specific biomarkers for precision for the development of device, and biosensor technology for sensitivity to screen the early cases of breast cancer more efficiently. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. In Situ Adsorption Studies at the Solid/Liquid Interface: Characterization of Biological Surfaces and Interfaces Using Sum Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy, and Quartz Crystal Microbalance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, D.C.

    2006-01-01

    Sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) have been used to study the molecular surface structure, surface topography and mechanical properties, and quantitative adsorbed amount of biological molecules at the solid-liquid interface. The molecular-level behavior of designed peptides adsorbed on hydrophobic polystyrene and hydrophilic silica substrates has been examined as a model of protein adsorption on polymeric biomaterial surfaces. Proteins are such large and complex molecules that it is difficult to identify the features in their structure that lead to adsorption and interaction with solid surfaces. Designed peptides which possess secondary structure provide simple model systems for understanding protein adsorption. Depending on the amino acid sequence of a peptide, different secondary structures (α-helix and β-sheet) can be induced at apolar (air/liquid or air/solid) interfaces. Having a well-defined secondary structure allows experiments to be carried out under controlled conditions, where it is possible to investigate the affects of peptide amino acid sequence and chain length, concentration, buffering effects, etc. on adsorbed peptide structure. The experiments presented in this dissertation demonstrate that SFG vibrational spectroscopy can be used to directly probe the interaction of adsorbing biomolecules with a surface or interface. The use of well designed model systems aided in isolation of the SFG signal of the adsorbing species, and showed that surface functional groups of the substrate are sensitive to surface adsorbates. The complementary techniques of AFM and QCM allowed for deconvolution of the effects of surface topography and coverage from the observed SFG spectra. Initial studies of biologically relevant surfaces are also presented: SFG spectroscopy was used to study the surface composition of common soil bacteria for use in bioremediation of nuclear waste

  4. In Situ Adsorption Studies at the Solid/Liquid Interface:Characterization of Biological Surfaces and Interfaces Using SumFrequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy,and Quartz Crystal Microbalance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, Diana Christine [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) have been used to study the molecular surface structure, surface topography and mechanical properties, and quantitative adsorbed amount of biological molecules at the solid-liquid interface. The molecular-level behavior of designed peptides adsorbed on hydrophobic polystyrene and hydrophilic silica substrates has been examined as a model of protein adsorption on polymeric biomaterial surfaces. Proteins are such large and complex molecules that it is difficult to identify the features in their structure that lead to adsorption and interaction with solid surfaces. Designed peptides which possess secondary structure provide simple model systems for understanding protein adsorption. Depending on the amino acid sequence of a peptide, different secondary structures (α-helix and β-sheet) can be induced at apolar (air/liquid or air/solid) interfaces. Having a well-defined secondary structure allows experiments to be carried out under controlled conditions, where it is possible to investigate the affects of peptide amino acid sequence and chain length, concentration, buffering effects, etc. on adsorbed peptide structure. The experiments presented in this dissertation demonstrate that SFG vibrational spectroscopy can be used to directly probe the interaction of adsorbing biomolecules with a surface or interface. The use of well designed model systems aided in isolation of the SFG signal of the adsorbing species, and showed that surface functional groups of the substrate are sensitive to surface adsorbates. The complementary techniques of AFM and QCM allowed for deconvolution of the effects of surface topography and coverage from the observed SFG spectra. Initial studies of biologically relevant surfaces are also presented: SFG spectroscopy was used to study the surface composition of common soil bacteria for use in bioremediation of nuclear waste.

  5. The impact of water and hydrocarbon concentration on the sensitivity of a polymer-based quartz crystal microbalance sensor for organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pejcic, Bobby; Crooke, Emma; Doherty, Cara M.; Hill, Anita J.; Myers, Matthew; Qi, Xiubin; Ross, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The response of a polymer coated QCM sensor is affected by water soaking time. → Polymer-water interfacial processes influence the QCM sensitivity for hydrocarbons. → The QCM sensitivity of high Tg polymer films is affected by plasticization processes. - Abstract: Long-term environmental monitoring of organic compounds in natural waters requires sensors that respond reproducibly and linearly over a wide concentration range, and do not degrade with time. Although polymer coated piezoelectric based sensors have been widely used to detect hydrocarbons in aqueous solution, very little information exists regarding their stability and suitability over extended periods in water. In this investigation, the influence of water aging on the response of various polymer membranes [polybutadiene (PB), polyisobutylene (PIB), polystyrene (PS), polystyrene-co-butadiene (PSB)] was studied using the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). QCM measurements revealed a modest increase in sensitivity towards toluene for PB and PIB membranes at concentrations above 90 ppm after aging in water for 4 days. In contrast, the sensitivity of PS and PSB coated QCM sensors depended significantly on the toluene concentration and increased considerably at concentrations above 90 ppm after aging in water for 4 days. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) showed that there is a change in the sorption mechanism at higher toluene levels for PS and PSB. Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) studies were performed to investigate the free volume properties of all polymers and to monitor any changes in the free volume size and distribution due to water and toluene exposure. The PALS did not detect any considerable variation in the free volume properties of the polymer films as a function of solution composition and soaking time, implying that viscoelastic and/or interfacial processes (i.e. surface area changes) are probably responsible

  6. A method of layer-by-layer gold nanoparticle hybridization in a quartz crystal microbalance DNA sensing system used to detect dengue virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, S-H; Chuang, Y-C; Lu, Y-C; Lin, H-C; Yang, Y-L; Lin, C-S [Department of Biological Science and Technology, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30068, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: lincs@mail.nctu.edu.tw

    2009-05-27

    Dengue virus (DENV) is nowadays the most important arthropod-spread virus affecting humans existing in more than 100 countries worldwide. A rapid and sensitive detection method for the early diagnosis of infectious dengue virus urgently needs to be developed. In the present study, a circulating-flow quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) biosensing method combining oligonucleotide-functionalized gold nanoparticles (i.e. AuNP probes) used to detect DENV has been established. In the DNA-QCM method, two kinds of specific AuNP probes were linked by the target sequences onto the QCM chip to amplify the detection signal, i.e. oscillatory frequency change ({delta}F) of the QCM sensor. The target sequences amplified from the DENV genome act as a bridge for the layer-by-layer AuNP probes' hybridization in the method. Besides being amplifiers of the detection signal, the specific AuNP probes used in the DNA-QCM method also play the role of verifiers to specifically recognize their target sequences in the detection. The effect of four AuNP sizes on the layer-by-layer hybridization has been evaluated and it is found that 13 nm AuNPs collocated with 13 nm AuNPs showed the best hybridization efficiency. According to the nanoparticle application, the DNA-QCM biosensing method was able to detect dengue viral RNA in virus-contaminated serum as plaque titers being 2 PFU ml{sup -1} and a linear correlation (R{sup 2} = 0.987) of {delta}F versus virus titration from 2 x 10{sup 0} to 2 x 10{sup 6} PFU ml{sup -1} was found. The sensitivity and specificity of the present DNA-QCM method with nanoparticle technology showed it to be comparable to the fluorescent real-time PCR methods. Moreover, the method described herein was shown to not require expensive equipment, was label-free and highly sensitive.

  7. In Situ Real-Time Mechanical and Morphological Characterization of Electrodes for Electrochemical Energy Storage and Conversion by Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpigel, Netanel; Levi, Mikhael D; Sigalov, Sergey; Daikhin, Leonid; Aurbach, Doron

    2018-01-16

    Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) generates surface-acoustic waves in quartz crystal plates that can effectively probe the structure of films, particulate composite electrodes of complex geometry rigidly attached to quartz crystal surface on one side and contacting a gas or liquid phase on the other side. The output QCM-D characteristics consist of the resonance frequency (MHz frequency range) and resonance bandwidth measured with extra-ordinary precision of a few tenths of Hz. Depending on the electrodes stiffness/softness, QCM-D operates either as a gravimetric or complex mechanical probe of their intrinsic structure. For at least 20 years, QCM-D has been successfully used in biochemical and environmental science and technology for its ability to probe the structure of soft solvated interfaces. Practical battery and supercapacitor electrodes appear frequently as porous solids with their stiffness changing due to interactions with electrolyte solutions or as a result of ion intercalation/adsorption and long-term electrode cycling. Unfortunately, most QCM measurements with electrochemical systems are carried out based on a single (fundamental) frequency and, as such, provided that the resonance bandwidth remains constant, are suitable for only gravimetric sensing. The multiharmonic measurements have been carried out mainly on conducting/redox polymer films rather than on typical composite battery/supercapacitor electrodes. Here, we summarize the most recent publications devoted to the development of electrochemical QCM-D (EQCM-D)-based methodology for systematic characterization of mechanical properties of operating battery/supercapacitor electrodes. By varying the electrodes' composition and structure (thin/thick layers, small/large particles, binders with different mechanical properties, etc.), nature of the electrolyte solutions and charging/cycling conditions, the method is shown to be operated in different application modes. A

  8. Photographic appraisal of crystal lattice growth technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapoor D

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Concept of creating mechanical retention for bonding through crystal growth has been successfully achieved in the present study. By using polyacrylic acid, sulphated with sulphuric acid as etchant, abundant crystal growth was demonstrated. Keeping in view the obvious benefits of crystal growth technique, the present SEM study was aimed to observe and compare the changes brought about by different etching agents (phosphoric acid, polyacrylic acid and polyacrylic acid sulphated and to evaluate their advantages and disadvantages in an attempt to reduce iatrogenic trauma caused due to surface enamel alteration. Control and experimental groups were made of 24 and 30 premolars, respectively, for scanning electron microscopic appraisal of normal unetched and etched enamel surface and fracture site and finished surface evaluation. When compared with conventional phosphoric acid and weaker polyacrylic acid, investigations indicated that crystal growth treatment on enamel surface caused minimal iatrogenic trauma and surface alteration were restored to the original untreated condition to a large extent.

  9. Micro-ball lens structure fabrication based on drop on demand printing the liquid mold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Xiaoyang, E-mail: zhuxy1026@163.com; Zhu, Li, E-mail: zhuli@njust.edu.cn; Chen, Hejuan; Yang, Lijun; Zhang, Weiyi

    2016-01-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The glycerol micro-ball droplet was introduced to be as liquid mold to fabricate micro-ball lens. • A molding process was used to fabricate the micro-ball lens and the scales of them can be controlled. • The accurate molding process is mainly attributed to the ultrahigh adhesion of the treated substrate. • The micro-ball lenses with contact angle of 120° and 150° were fabricated, analyzed and discussed. - Abstract: In this paper, we demonstrated a simple micro-ball lens array (MBLA) fabrication method using a drop-on-demand (DOD) droplet printing technique and liquid mold. The micro-ball droplet array on the hydrophobic surface is used as the liquid mold to fabricate the MBLA. The ultrahigh adhesion force between the micro-ball droplet and the substrate is ascribed to the Wenzel state of the micro-ball droplet, while the replication process with low position error is attributed to the ultrahigh adhesion force between the micro-ball droplet and the substrate and the high viscosity of the micro-ball droplet and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) liquid. The micro-ball lenses (MBLs) with a contact angle of 120° and 150° were fabricated and the important fabrication details were discussed. The optical performance and scanning electron microscope (SEM) data of the MBLs showed that the MBLs had high quality surface morphology and good optical performance.

  10. Combined atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) studies of glucose oxidase (GOx) immobilised onto self-assembled monolayer on the gold film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Losic, D.; Shapter, J.; Gooding, J.; Erokin, P.; Short, K.

    1999-01-01

    In fabrication of biosensors, self-assembled monolayers (SAM) are an attractive method of immobilising enzymes at electrode surface since it allows precise control over the amount and spatial distribution of the immobilized enzyme. The covalent attachment of glucose oxidase (GOx) to a carboxylic terminated SAM chemisorbed onto gold films was achieved via carbodiimide activation of the carboxylic acids to a reactive intermediate susceptible to nucleophilic attack by amines on free lysine chains of the enzyme. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) measurements were used for characterisation of GOx modified gold surfaces. Tapping mode AFM studies have revealed that GOx molecules form slightly disordered arrays of pentagonal or hexagonal clusters. Observed features of immobilised GOx are distributed as a submonolayer on the SAM surface which has allowed visualisation of native and unfolded enzyme structure. The presence of the SAM and enzyme on the gold surface was detected by XPS spectroscopy. Spectra show typical peaks for the C 1s, O 1s and N 1s regions. A kinetic study of the adsorption of GOx onto activated SAM using in-situ QCM allowed determination the amount of immobilised GOx on the layer and consequently the optimal immobilisation conditions. Performance parameters of the biosensor such as sensitivity to glucose concentration as a function of enzyme loading were evaluated amperometrically using the redox mediator p-benzoquinone

  11. The use of a quartz crystal microbalance as an analytical tool to monitor particle/surface and particle/particle interactions under dry ambient and pressurized conditions: a study using common inhaler components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, N W; Bloxham, M; Piletsky, S A; Whitcombe, M J; Chianella, I

    2016-12-19

    Metered dose inhalers (MDI) and multidose powder inhalers (MPDI) are commonly used for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases and asthma. Currently, analytical tools to monitor particle/particle and particle/surface interaction within MDI and MPDI at the macro-scale do not exist. A simple tool capable of measuring such interactions would ultimately enable quality control of MDI and MDPI, producing remarkable benefits for the pharmaceutical industry and the users of inhalers. In this paper, we have investigated whether a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) could become such a tool. A QCM was used to measure particle/particle and particle/surface interactions on the macroscale, by additions of small amounts of MDPI components, in the powder form into a gas stream. The subsequent interactions with materials on the surface of the QCM sensor were analyzed. Following this, the sensor was used to measure fluticasone propionate, a typical MDI active ingredient, in a pressurized gas system to assess its interactions with different surfaces under conditions mimicking the manufacturing process. In both types of experiments the QCM was capable of discriminating interactions of different components and surfaces. The results have demonstrated that the QCM is a suitable platform for monitoring macro-scale interactions and could possibly become a tool for quality control of inhalers.

  12. Effect of Different Crystallization Techniques on the Dissolution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Methods: Ketoprofen crystals were prepared by various crystallization technique including spherical .... infrared. (FTIR) spectroscopy. FTIR spectral measurements were taken at ambient temperature (Shimadzu, model 8033,. USA). About 2 mg of the pure drug, as well as ... stored samples and the data compared with.

  13. First results with the Microball and Gammasphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarantites, D.G.; Hua, P.F.; LaFosse, D.

    1994-01-01

    The Microball, an improved 4π multi-detector array, was used recently in conjunction with Gammasphere in three experiments. Highlights of the first results are presented here. The Microball consists of 95 CsI(T ell) scintillation detectors with individual Si photodiode readout, arranged in 9 rings. In these first experiments the Microball performed as designed, but the results in new physics exceeded the authors' expectations. They can say with certainty that by its powerful channel selection the Microball enhanced the performance of Gammasphere by one full coincidence fold. This was possible for all exit channels involving charged particle emission, with increasing performance benefit as one progressed to lighter reaction systems. They summarize the essential characteristics of the Microball and give some performance benchmarks. A detailed description of the Microball is given

  14. Electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance analysis of the oxygen reduction reaction on Pt-based electrodes. Part 2: adsorption of oxygen species and ClO4(-) anions on Pt and Pt-Co alloy in HClO4 solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, J; Yano, H; Tryk, D A; Watanabe, M; Uchida, H

    2014-01-14

    To gain deeper insight into the role of adsorbed oxygenated species in the O2 reduction reaction (ORR) kinetics on platinum and platinum-cobalt alloys for fuel cells, we carried out a series of measurements with the electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) and the rotating disk electrode (RDE) in acid solution. The effects of anion adsorption on the activities for the ORR were first assessed in HClO4 and HF electrolyte solutions at various concentrations. In our previous work (Part 1), we reported that the perchlorate anion adsorbs specifically on bulk-Pt, with a Frumkin-Temkin isotherm, that is, a linear relationship between Δm and log[HClO4]. Here, we find that the specific adsorption on the Pt-skin/Pt3Co alloy was significantly stronger than that on bulk-Pt, in line with its modified electronic properties. The kinetically controlled current density j(k) for the O2 reduction at the Pt-skin/Pt3Co-RDE was about 9 times larger than that of the bulk-Pt-RDE in 0.01 M HClO4 saturated with air, but the j(k) values on Pt-skin/Pt3Co decreased with increasing [HClO4] more steeply than in the case of Pt, due to the blocking of the active sites by the specifically adsorbed ClO4(-). We have detected reversible mass changes for one or more adsorbed oxygen-containing species (Ox = O2, O, OH, H2O) on the Pt-skin/Pt3Co-EQCM and Pt-EQCM in O2-saturated and He-purged 0.01 M HClO4 solutions, in which the specific adsorption of ClO4(-) anions was negligible. The coverages of oxygen species θ(Ox) on the Pt-skin/Pt3Co in the potential range from 0.86 to 0.96 V in the O2-saturated solution were found to be larger than those on pure Pt, providing strong evidence that the higher O2 reduction activity on the Pt3Co is correlated with higher θ(Ox), contrary to the conventional view.

  15. 40 CFR 86.1312-2007 - Filter stabilization and microbalance workstation environmental conditions, microbalance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Filter stabilization and microbalance workstation environmental conditions, microbalance specifications, and particulate matter filter handling and... Particulate Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.1312-2007 Filter stabilization and microbalance workstation...

  16. Thermo-mechanical design and testing of a microbalance for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaccabarozzi, Diego; Saggin, Bortolino; Tarabini, Marco; Palomba, Ernesto; Longobardo, Andrea; Zampetti, Emiliano

    2014-12-01

    This work focuses on the thermo-mechanical design of the microbalance used for the VISTA (Volatile In Situ Thermogravimetry Analyzer) sensor. VISTA has been designed to operate in situ in different space environments (asteroids, Mars, icy satellites). In this paper we focus on its application on Mars, where the expected environmental conditions are the most challenging for the thermo-mechanical design. The microbalance holding system has been designed to ensure piezoelectric crystal integrity against the high vibration levels during launch and landing and to cope with the unavoidable thermo-elastic differential displacements due to CTE and temperature differences between the microbalance elements. The crystal holding system, based on three symmetrical titanium supports, provides also the electrical connections needed for crystal actuation, microbalance heating and temperature measurement on the electrode area. On the microbalance crystal surfaces the electrodes, a micro film heater (optimized to perform thermo-gravimetric analysis up to 400 °C) and a resistive thermometer are deposited through a vacuum sputtering process. A mockup of the system has been manufactured and tested at the expected vibration levels and the thermal control effectiveness has been verified in thermo-vacuum environment.

  17. Addressing techniques of liquid crystal displays

    CERN Document Server

    Ruckmongathan, Temkar N

    2014-01-01

    Unique reference source that can be used from the beginning to end of a design project to aid choosing an appropriate LCD addressing technique for a given application This book will be aimed at design engineers who are likely to embed LCD drivers and controllers in many systems including systems on chip. Such designers face the challenge of making the right choice of an addressing technique that will serve them with best performance at minimal cost and complexity. Readers will be able to learn about various methods available for driving matrix LCDs and the comparisons at the end of each chap

  18. Advanced crystal growth techniques for thallium bromide semiconductor radiation detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Amlan; Becla, Piotr; Guguschev, Christo; Motakef, Shariar

    2018-02-01

    Thallium Bromide (TlBr) is a promising room-temperature radiation detector candidate with excellent charge transport properties. Currently, Travelling Molten Zone (TMZ) technique is widely used for growth of semiconductor-grade TlBr crystals. However, there are several challenges associated with this type of crystal growth process including lower yield, high thermal stress, and low crystal uniformity. To overcome these shortcomings of the current technique, several different crystal growth techniques have been implemented in this study. These include: Vertical Bridgman (VB), Physical Vapor Transport (PVT), Edge-defined Film-fed Growth (EFG), and Czochralski Growth (Cz). Techniques based on melt pulling (EFG and Cz) were demonstrated for the first time for semiconductor grade TlBr material. The viability of each process along with the associated challenges for TlBr growth has been discussed. The purity of the TlBr crystals along with its crystalline and electronic properties were analyzed and correlated with the growth techniques. Uncorrected 662 keV energy resolutions around 2% were obtained from 5 mm x 5 mm x 10 mm TlBr devices with virtual Frisch-grid configuration.

  19. Zinc Oxide Nano crystals Synthesized by Quenching Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norhayati Abu Bakar; Akrajas Ali Umar; Muhamad Mat Salleh; Muhammad Yahya

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports an attempt to synthesize non toxic zinc oxide (ZnO) nano crystals using a simple quenching technique. The hot zinc oxide powder was quenched in hexane solution to obtain ZnO nano crystals. As the result, diameter size of the synthesized ZnO is 200 nm. It was also exhibited a good crystalline with wurtzite phase. The nano crystals properties of ZnO were revealed from good absorbance and green luminescence under UV exposure. This may be related with oxygen vacancy ionization during the annealing process. (author)

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF RAPID TECHNIQUE FOR DETERMINATION OF THE TOTAL MINERALIZATION OF NATURAL WATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Kuchmenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new approach has been proposed for rapid and easy evaluation of a indicator of quality and properties of natural water - soluble salt content (mineralization. The method of quartz crystal microbalance is employed at load of the mass-sensitive resonator electrode (BAW-type with investigated water. The degree of correlation between the various indicators related to the contents of salts and insoluble compounds and the level of mineralization obtained by the standard method (gravimetry has been studied. A procedure for salt weighing by single sensor at unilateral load with small sample of natural water has been developed. The optimal conditions for measurement is established using the design of experiment by model 23 . The possibilities of quartz crystal microbalance for determination of non-volatile compounds in the water are described. The calibration of piezosensor is produced by standard solution NaCl (c = 1.000 g / dm3 at optimal conditions of experiment. The adequacy and accuracy of proposed technique is assessed by the correlation between the results of quartz crystal microbalance and conductometry. The correlation between indicators of mineralization established by quartz crystal microbalance and gravimetry is found. It has been obtained an equation that can be used to calculate the standard indicator of the mineralization by the results of a quartz crystal microbalance using single sensor. The approaches to enhance the analytical capabilities of the developed technique for water with low and high mineralization are proposed. The metrological characteristics of quartz crystal microbalance of insoluble compounds in natural water are estimated. A new technique of determination of the mass concentration of the dry residue in water with a conductivity of 0.2 mS or above has been developed, which can be used for rapid analysis of the water at nonlaboratory conditions and in the laboratory for rapid obtaining the information about a sample.

  1. Chirality transfer technique between liquid crystal microdroplets using microfluidic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jin-kun; Lee, Doyeon; Song, Jang-kun

    2018-02-01

    Cholesteric liquid crystal (LC) microdroplet is applied in many areas, such as tunable laser, biosensor, information display and security identification, due to its unique optical properties. The topological structure, defects, and photonic crystallinity in the cholesteric liquid crystal (LC) microdroplet can be controlled through the chirality. Here we report an interesting phenomenon that chirality information can be shared among dispersed LC microdroplets in surfactant aqueous solution, which is driven by the transferring of chiral dopant molecules. As a result, we developed an artificial molecule transfer technology which could in situ vary the material composition within the isolated dispersed microdroplets. The molecular transfer is switchable and the transfer speed is controllable by tuning the molecular solubility in continuous phase. Based on this technique, we manipulated, forward and backward, the topological evolution and the photonic crystal band-gap of the dispersed LC droplet. This technique is an easy and powerful experimental tool, and it may be applicable to other fields in optical application, biology, chemistry and material science.

  2. Development of a high-pressure microbalance for hydrogen storage materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbø, Andreas Peter; Jensen, Jens Oluf; Bjerrum, Niels

    2007-01-01

    Pressure-composition isotherms (PCI's) help to determine thermodynamic properties related to hydrogen uptake of materials. PCI's are normally obtained volumetrically with a Sieverts type apparatus or gravimetrically with a microbalance. A potential problem with the gravimetric technique is that t......Pressure-composition isotherms (PCI's) help to determine thermodynamic properties related to hydrogen uptake of materials. PCI's are normally obtained volumetrically with a Sieverts type apparatus or gravimetrically with a microbalance. A potential problem with the gravimetric technique...... of an electromagnetic microbalance, pressure resistant casing for up to 100 bar hydrogen, a flow system for hydrogen and inert gas, heating elements for temperature control, and software for controlling the system. Thermal convection effects are observed and dampened by heating on both the sample and a counterweight...

  3. Small-angle neutron scattering technique in liquid crystal studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahidan Radiman

    2005-01-01

    The following topics discussed: general principles of SAS (Small-angle Neutron Scattering), liquid crystals, nanoparticle templating on liquid crystals, examples of SAS results, prospects of this studies

  4. Single crystal growth of yttrium calcium oxy borate (YCOB) crystals by flux technique and their characterization. CP-3.5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arun Kumar, R.; Senthilkumar, M.; Dhanasekaran, R.

    2007-01-01

    Yttrium calcium oxy borate single crystals were grown by the flux technique for the first time. Polycrystalline YCOB material was prepared by solid state reaction method. Single crystals of YCOB were grown using boron-tri-oxide flux. Several transparent single crystals of dimensions 10 x 5 x 5 mm 3 were obtained. The grown crystals were characterized by powder XRD and UV- VIS-NIR studies. The results of powder XRD confirm the crystalline structure of YCOB. The UV- VIS-NIR transmission spectrum reveals that the crystal is highly transparent (above 75%) from ultraviolet (220 nm) to near IR regions enabling it as a suitable candidate for high power UV applications

  5. Electrochemical characterization of electrolytes and electrodes for lithium-ion batteries. Development of a new measuring method for electrochemical investigations on electrodes with the electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM); Elektrochemische Charakterisierung von Elektrolyten und Elektroden fuer Lithium-Ionen-Batterien. Entwicklung einer neuen Messmethode fuer elektrochemische Untersuchungen an Elektroden mit der EQCM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moosbauer, Dominik Johann

    2010-11-09

    In this work the conductivities of four different lithium salts, LiPF6, LiBF4, LiDFOB, and LiBOB in the solvent mixture EC/DEC (3/7) were investigated. Furthermore, the influence of eight ionic liquids (ILs) as additives on the conductivity and electrochemical stability of lithium salt-based electrolytes was studied. The investigated salts were the well-known lithium LiPF6 and LiDFOB. Conductivity studies were performed over the temperature range (238.15 to 333.15) K. The electrochemical stabilities of the solutions were determined at aluminum electrodes. The salt solubility of LiBF4 and LiDFOB in EC/DEC (3/7) was measured with the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), a method developed in our group. Moreover, a method to investigate interactions between the electrolyte and electrode components with the electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) was developed. First, investigations of corrosion and passivation effects on aluminum with different lithium salts were performed and masses of deposited products estimated. Therefore, the quartzes were specially prepared with foils. Active materials of cathodes, in this work lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4), were also investigated with the EQCM by a new method. [German] In dieser Arbeit wurden die Leitfaehigkeiten von vier unterschiedlichen Salzen, LiPF6, LiBF4, LiDFOB und LiBOB in dem Loesemittelgemisch EC/DEC (3/7) untersucht. Des Weiteren wurde der Einfluss von acht Ionischen Fluessigkeiten (ILs) als Additive fuer Lithium-Elektrolyte auf die elektrochemische Stabilitaet und die Leitfaehigkeit studiert. Die untersuchten Salze waren LiPF6 und LiDFOB. Die Leitfaehigkeitsmessungen wurden in einem Temperaturbereich von (238,15 bis 333,15) K durchgefuehrt. Die elektrochemischen Stabilitaeten der Elektrolyte fanden an Aluminium statt. Mit einer an der Arbeitsgruppe entwickelten neuen Methode wurden zudem die Salzloeslichkeiten von LiBF4 und LiDFOB in EC/DEC (3/7) mit der Quarzmikrowaage (QCM) bestimmt. Weiterhin wurden

  6. Point defects in ZnO crystals grown by various techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Čížek, J; Vlček, M; Hruška, P; Lukáč, F; Melikhova, O; Anwand, W; Selim, F; Hugenschmidt, Ch; Egger, W

    2017-01-01

    In the present work point defects in ZnO crystals were characterized by positron lifetime spectroscopy combined with back-diffusion measurement of slow positrons. Defects in ZnO crystals grown by various techniques were compared. Hydrothermally grown ZnO crystals contain defects characterized by lifetime of ≈181 ps. These defects were attributed to Zn vacancies associated with hydrogen. ZnO crystals prepared by other techniques (Bridgman, pressurized melt growth, and seeded chemical vapour transport) exhibit shorter lifetime of ≈165 ps. Positron back-diffusion studies revealed that hydrothermally grown ZnO crystals contain higher density of defects than the crystals grown by other techniques. The lowest concentration of defects was detected in the crystal grown by seeded chemical vapor transport. (paper)

  7. A novel lattice energy calculation technique for simple inorganic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaya, Cemal [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Cumhuriyet University, 58140 Sivas (Turkey); Kaya, Savaş, E-mail: savaskaya@cumhuriyet.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Cumhuriyet University, 58140 Sivas (Turkey); Banerjee, Priyabrata [Surface Engineering and Tribology Group, CSIR-Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, Mahatma Gandhi Avenue, Durgapur 713209 (India)

    2017-01-01

    In this pure theoretical study, a hitherto unexplored equation based on Shannon radii of the ions forming that crystal and chemical hardness of any crystal to calculate the lattice energies of simple inorganic ionic crystals has been presented. To prove the credibility of this equation, the results of the equation have been compared with experimental outcome obtained from Born-Fajans-Haber- cycle which is fundamentally enthalpy-based thermochemical cycle and prevalent theoretical approaches proposed for the calculation of lattice energies of ionic compounds. The results obtained and the comparisons made have demonstrated that the new equation is more useful compared to other theoretical approaches and allows to exceptionally accurate calculation of lattice energies of inorganic ionic crystals without doing any complex calculations.

  8. Structural and optical properties of WTe2 single crystals synthesized by DVT technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Vijay; Vyas, Chirag; Pathak, V. M.; Soalanki, G. K.; Patel, K. D.

    2018-05-01

    Layered transition metal di-chalcogenide (LTMDCs) crystals have attracted much attention due to their potential in optoelectronic device applications recently due to realization of their monolayer based structures. In the present investigation we report growth of WTe2 single crystals by direct vapor transport (DVT) technique. These crystals are then characterized by energy dispersive analysis of x-rays (EDAX) to study stoichiometric composition after growth. The structural properties are studied by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) is used to confirm orthorhombic structure of grown WTe2 crystal. Surface morphological properties of the crystals are also studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The optical properties of the grown crystals are studied by UV-Visible spectroscopy which gives direct band gap of 1.44 eV for grown WTe2 single crystals.

  9. Domain structures of LiNbO3 crystals grown by a floating zone technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, Shoji; Ishii, Eiichi; Tsuzuki, Akihiro; Sekiya, Tadashi; Torii, Yasuyoshi; Takahashi, Akio.

    1986-01-01

    LiNbO 3 single crystals were grown from the congruently melting composition by a floating zone technique. It was confirmed by etching that the single domain crystals were produced without applying any external electric field. When annealed above the Curie temperature, antiparallel domain appeared in the form of annual rings. (author)

  10. Preparation of HfC single crystals by a floating zone technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otani, S.; Tanaka, T.

    1981-01-01

    HfC single crystals have been prepared using a floating zone technique by controlling the compositions of the initial molten zone and the feed rod. The obtained crystal rods were 6 cm long and 0.9 cm in diameter. The various parts of the crystal rods have nearly constant compositions (C/Hf(ZR) = 0.956-0.977), and do not contain any free carbon. The impurities in the crystal, evaporation product, and starting material were examined by fluorescence X-ray spectroscopy. The refining effect due to evaporation was discussed. (orig.)

  11. Quartz microbalance device for transfer into ultrahigh vacuum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stavale, F.; Achete, C. A.; Niehus, H.

    2008-01-01

    An uncomplicated quartz microbalance device has been developed which is transferable into ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) systems. The device is extremely useful for flux calibration of different kinds of material evaporators. Mounted on a commercial specimen holder, the device allows fast quartz microbalance transfer into the UHV and subsequent positioning exactly to the sample location where subsequent thin film deposition experiments shall be carried out. After backtransfer into an UHV sample stage, the manipulator may be loaded in situ with the specimen suited for the experiment. The microbalance device capability is demonstrated for monolayer and submonolayer vanadium depositions with an achieved calibration sensitivity of less the 0.001 ML coverage.

  12. The stonehenge technique: a new method of crystal alignment for coherent bremsstrahlung experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Kenneth

    2005-08-01

    In the coherent bremsstrahlung technique a thin diamond crystal oriented correctly in an electron beam can produce photons with a high degree of linear polarization.1 The crystal is mounted on a goniometer to control its orientation and it is necessary to measure the angular offsets a) between the crystal axes and the goniometer axes and b) between the goniometer and the electron beam axis. A method for measuring these offsets and aligning the crystal was developed by Lohman et al, and has been used successfully in Mainz.2 However, recent attempts to investigate new crystals have shown that this approach has limitations which become more serious at higher beam energies where more accurate setting of the crystal angles, which scale with l/Ebeam, is required. (Eg. the recent installation of coherent bremsstrahlung facility at Jlab, with Ebeam = 6 GeV ) This paper describes a new, more general alignment technique, which overcomes these limitations. The technique is based on scans where the horizontal and vertical rotation axes of the goniometer are adjusted in a series of steps to make the normal to the crystal describe a cone of a given angle. For each step in the scan, the photon energy spectrum is measured using a tagging spectrometer, and the offsets between the electron beam and the crystal lattice are inferred from the resulting 2D plot. Using this method, it is possible to align the crystal with the beam quickly, and hence to set any desired orientation of the crystal relative to the beam. This is essential for any experiment requiring linearly polarized photons produced via coherent bremsstrahlung, and is also required for a systematic study of the channeling radiation produced by the electron beam incident on the crystal.

  13. Quartz crystal microbalance gas sensor with nanocrystalline diamond sensitive layer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Varga, Marián; Laposa, A.; Kulha, Pavel; Kroutil, J.; Husák, M.; Kromka, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 252, č. 11 (2015), s. 2591-2597 ISSN 0370-1972 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : gas sensor * nanocrystalline diamond * quartz resonator * thickness shear mode Subject RIV: JB - Sensor s, Measurment, Regulation Impact factor: 1.522, year: 2015

  14. Post mortem analysis of a JET quartz microbalance system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esser, H.G. [Association EURATOM-Forschungszentrum Juelich, IPP, D-52425, Juelich (Germany)]. E-mail: h.g.esser@fz-juelich.de; Philipps, V. [Association EURATOM-Forschungszentrum Juelich, IPP, D-52425, Juelich (Germany); Wienhold, P. [Association EURATOM-Forschungszentrum Juelich, IPP, D-52425, Juelich (Germany); Sugiyama, K. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Kreter, A. [Association EURATOM-Forschungszentrum Juelich, IPP, D-52425, Juelich (Germany); Coad, J.P. [UKAEA/EURATOM Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Tanabe, T. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)

    2007-06-15

    In the year 2001, a quartz microbalance system (QMB) was installed in the remote area of the inner JET divertor to investigate in situ material erosion and redeposition processes. When removed in 2004, the system was found to be coated all over with carbon deposits. The deposit on the quartz oscillator and the outer and inner housing was analysed by various methods, as SIMS (secondary ion mass spectroscopy), stylus depth profilometry, EPMA (electron probe microanalysis), TIPT (Tritium imaging plate technique) and colorimetry and compared to the frequency change of the quartz. The layer thickness was determined to 1.85 {+-} 0.1 {mu}m in average on an area of 0.95 cm{sup 2} which has to be related to the equivalent of 1.77 x 10{sup -4} g measured from the frequency change of 23 640 Hz. This corresponds to a carbon areal density of 9.3 x 10{sup 18} C atoms/cm{sup 2}. Significant deposition was found also on the surfaces inside the QMB housing which can only be understood if reflection and low sticking is assumed for a high fraction of particles.

  15. A Review of Domain Modelling and Domain Imaging Techniques in Ferroelectric Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E. Huber

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reviews models of domain structure in ferroelectric crystals, thin films and bulk materials. Common crystal structures in ferroelectric materials are described and the theory of compatible domain patterns is introduced. Applications to multi-rank laminates are presented. Alternative models employing phase-field and related techniques are reviewed. The paper then presents methods of observing ferroelectric domain structure, including optical, polarized light, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray and neutron diffraction, atomic force microscopy and piezo-force microscopy. Use of more than one technique for unambiguous identification of the domain structure is also described.

  16. Growth and characterization of calcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate crystals from single diffusion gel technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajendran, K.; Dale Keefe, C. [Department of Chemistry, Cape Breton University, Sydney, Nova Scotia (Canada)

    2010-09-15

    Calcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate (CaHPO{sub 4}.2H{sub 2}O, CHPD) a dissolved mineral in urine is known to cause renal or bladder stones in both human and animals. Growth of CHPD or brushite using sodium metasilicate gel techniques followed by light and polarizing microscopic studies revealed its structural and morphological details. Crystal identity by powder x-ray diffraction confirmed the FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopic techniques as alternate methods for fast analysis of brushite crystals which could form as one type of renal stones. P-O-P asymmetric stretchings in both FT-IR (987.2, 874.1 and 792 cm{sup -1}) and FT-Raman (986.3 cm{sup -1}, 1057.6 cm{sup -1} and 875.2 cm{sup -1}) were found as characteristics of brushite crystals. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) analysis revealed brushite crystallization purity using gel method by studying their endothermic peaks. This study incorporated a multidisciplinary approach in characterizing CHPD crystals grown in vitro to help formulate prevention or dissolution strategy in controlling urinary stone growth. Initial studies with 0.2 M citric acid ions as controlling agent in the nucleation of brushite crystals further support the presented approach. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  17. Shaped crystal growth of PbTe by the open tube technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimakow, A.M.; Hoefer, C.

    1984-01-01

    The possibility of growing shaped A/sup IV/B/sup VI/ crystals from the vapour phase by the open tube technique was investigated on PbTe. The thermodynamic conditions to reproducible prepare several habits of PbTe crystals - whiskers, tetrahedral prisms and cubes, platelets (a), dendrites, cubic and octahedral skeletons (b) as well as their properties were examined. The crystalline habits (a) are characterized by perfectly mirror-like (100) surfaces and low dislocation densities. The type and concentration of charge carriers are mainly determined by the vapour composition within the crystallization zone and very from n = 3 x 10 17 to p = 1 x 10 19 cm -3 . These properties are the reason of the interest in shaped PbTe crystals for the aim of IR optoelectronic devices. (author)

  18. Imaging transport phenomena during lysozyme protein crystal growth by the hanging drop technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethia Gupta, Anamika; Gupta, Rajive; Panigrahi, P. K.; Muralidhar, K.

    2013-06-01

    The present study reports the transport process that occurs during the growth of lysozyme protein crystals by the hanging drop technique. A rainbow schlieren technique has been employed for imaging changes in salt concentration. A one dimensional color filter is used to record the deflection of the light beam. An optical microscope and an X-ray crystallography unit are used to characterize the size, tetragonal shape and Bravais lattice constants of the grown crystals. A parametric study on the effect of drop composition, drop size, reservoir height and number of drops on the crystal size and quality is reported. Changes in refractive index are not large enough to create a meaningful schlieren image in the air gap between the drop and the reservoir. However, condensation of fresh water over the reservoir solution creates large changes in the concentration of NaCl, giving rise to clear color patterns in the schlieren images. These have been analyzed to obtain salt concentration profiles near the free surface of the reservoir solution as a function of time. The diffusion of fresh water into the reservoir solution at the early stages of crystal growth followed by the mass flux of salt from the bulk solution towards the free surface has been recorded. The overall crystal growth process can be classified into two regimes, as demarcated by the changes in slope of salt concentration within the reservoir. The salt concentration in the reservoir equilibrates at long times when the crystallization process is complete. Thus, transport processes in the reservoir emerge as the route to monitor protein crystal growth in the hanging drop configuration. Results show that crystal growth rate is faster for a higher lysozyme concentration, smaller drops, and larger reservoir heights.

  19. The sublimation kinetics of GeSe single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irene, E. A.; Wiedemeier, H.

    1975-01-01

    The sublimation kinetics of (001) oriented GeSe single crystal platelets was studied by high-temperature mass spectroscopy, quantitative vacuum microbalance techniques, and hot stage optical microscopy. For a mean experimental temperature of 563 K, the activation enthalpy and entropy are found to equal 32.3 kcal/mole and 19.1 eu, respectively. The vaporization coefficient is less than unity for the range of test temperatures, and decreases with increasing temperature. The combined experimental data are correlated by means of a multistep surface adsorption mechanism.

  20. Development of low-cost silicon crystal growth techniques for terrestrial photovoltaic solar energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoutendyk, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    Because of the growing need for new sources of electrical energy, photovoltaic solar energy conversion is being developed. Photovoltaic devices are now being produced mainly from silicon wafers obtained from the slicing and polishing of cylindrically shaped single crystal ingots. Inherently high-cost processes now being used must either be eliminated or modified to provide low-cost crystalline silicon. Basic to this pursuit is the development of new or modified methods of crystal growth and, if necessary, crystal cutting. If silicon could be grown in a form requiring no cutting, a significant cost saving would potentially be realized. Therefore, several techniques for growth in the form of ribbons or sheets are being explored. In addition, novel techniques for low-cost ingot growth and cutting are under investigation.

  1. Studies of Phase Transformation in Molecular Crystals Using the Positron Annihilation Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eldrup, Morten Mostgaard; Lightbody, David; Sherwood, John N.

    1980-01-01

    An examination has been made of the brittle/plastic phase transformation in the molecular crystals cyclohexane, DL-camphene and succinonitrile using the positron annihilation technique. In each material, the transition is characterized by a distinct increase in ortho-positronium lifetime. The inf...

  2. Measuring fission lifetimes with the crystal-blocking technique in mono-crystal, access to nuclear dissipation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basnary, St.

    2002-10-01

    Energy dissipation in nuclear matter may play an important role in the determination of the way through which heavy nuclei des-excite: fission or particle evaporation. An important dissipation should imply longer interval of time during which the nucleus is deformed. In that way the measurement of fission lifetimes may shed light on energy dissipation, but these measurements are very delicate to perform. Most available data on deformation times come from indirect measurements combined with the use of more or less valid models. The crystal-blocking lifetime technique in mono-crystals allows the direct measurement of long fission lifetimes. This technique has been applied to different nuclei situated in the proximity of lead. We have obtained relatively high values: τ > 3.10 -19 s for both lead and uranium which implies a strong dissipation of energy. The computation of dissipation coefficients has led to the following values: β ≅ 2.10 21 /s for lead and β ≥ 6.10 21 /s for uranium (E * > 120 MeV). These results show that dissipation effects have to be taken into account in the determination of the deexcitation way. (A.C.)

  3. Drinking-Straw Microbalance and Seesaw: Stability and Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Peter; Glasser, Leslie

    2015-03-01

    The mechanics of a beam balance are little appreciated and seldom understood. We here consider the conditions that result in a stable balance, with center of gravity below the fulcrum (pivot point), while an unstable balance results when the center of gravity is above the fulcrum. The highly sensitive drinking-straw microbalance, which uses a plastic drinking straw as a rigid beam, is briefly described with some slight convenient modifications. Different placements of the center of gravity are considered analytically to explain the equilibrium neutrality, stability, and instability of such beam balances as the microbalance, the playground "seesaw" or "teeter-totter," the "dipping bird," and other toys and magic tricks.

  4. Neutron diffraction tomography: a unique, 3D inspection technique for crystals using an intensifier TV system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, J.B.; Case, A.L.

    1978-01-01

    The application of phosphor-intensifier-TV techniques to neutron topography and tomography of crystals is described. The older, analogous x-ray topography using wavelengths approximately 1.5A is widely used for surface inspection. However, the crystal must actually be cut in order to see diffraction anomalies beneath the surface. Because 1.5-A thermal neutrons are highly penetrating, much larger and thicker specimens can be used. Also, since neutrons have magnetic moments, they are diffracted by magnetic structures within crystals. In neutron volume topography, the entire crystal or a large part of it is irradiated, and the images obtained are superimposed reflections from the total volume. In neutron tomography (or section topography), a collimated beam irradiates a slice (0.5 to 10 mm) of the crystal. The diffracted image is a tomogram from this part only. A series of tomograms covering the crystal can be taken as the specimen is translated in steps across the narrow beam. Grains, voids, twinning, and other defects from regions down to 1 mm in size can be observed and isolated. Although at present poorer in resolution than the original neutron and film methods, the TV techniques are much faster and, in some cases, permit real-time viewing. Two camera systems are described: a counting camera having a 150 mm 6 Li-ZnS screen for low-intensity reflections which are integrated in a digital memory, and a 300-mm system using analog image storage. Topographs and tomograms of several crystals ranging in size from 4 mm to 80 mm are shown

  5. Development of an ultrasonic shear reflection technique to monitor the crystallization of cocoa butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigolle, Annelien; Foubert, Imogen; Hettler, Jan; Verboven, Erik; Demuynck, Ruth; Van Den Abeele, Koen

    2015-09-01

    The quasi-isothermal crystallization process of cocoa butter was monitored by an ultrasonic shear reflection technique utilizing a custom-built experimental set-up in a temperature controlled environment. To facilitate the interpretation of the measurement results, the propagation of shear waves was first theoretically studied in different configurations of gas, liquid or solid layers with varying thickness for the case of normal incidence, yielding theoretical equations of the shear wave reflection coefficient (swRC) for different layering conditions. The typical experimentally observed pattern of the swRC during quasi-isothermal cocoa butter crystallization was subsequently linked to the theoretical equations. The remarkable oscillatory damped response in the swRC as function of the crystallization time could be explained by constructive and destructive interference of a first reflection at the boundary between a plexiglass delay line and the crystallized cocoa butter and a second reflection occurring at the interface between crystallized and liquid substance. This hypothesis was supported by the excitation frequency dependence of the oscillations. The quality of the fit of the theoretical model to the experimental results was very good and also the reproducibility between different independent measurements was acceptable. Finally, measurements at different temperatures (18°C and 20°C) suggested that the technique was able to detect differences in crystallization behavior, as measurements at 18°C displayed faster oscillations compared to measurements at 20°C. Moreover, this was also confirmed by the theoretical model, as a higher value of the crystallization rate parameter K, exhibited more rapid oscillations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Development of n- and p-type Doped Perovskite Single Crystals Using Solid-State Single Crystal Growth (SSCG) Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-09

    for AGG should be minimal. For this purpose, the seeds for AGG may also be provided externally. This process is called the solid-state single...bonding process . Figure 31 shows (a) the growth of one large single crystal from one small single crystal seed as well as (b) the growth of one...one bi-crystal seed : One large bi-crystal can be grown from one small bi-crystal by SSCG process . Fig. 32. Diffusion bonding process for

  7. Characteristics evaluation of stilbene single crystal grown by vertical bridgman technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Kwang Ho

    2012-02-01

    As the nature of organic scintillator, stilbene single crystal's decay time is only a couple of nano seconds, which makes it suitable for fast neutron detection. However, the entire amount of stilbene single crystal being used relies on import currently. As the necessity of fast neutron detection equipment such as KSTAR and Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor system increases, the goal is to have our own domestic technology through the growth of stilbene single crystal. The emission wavelength of grown stilbene single crystal is confirmed, and the property of grown stilbene single crystal is assessed compared to commercial stilbene (Ukraine ISMA research center) through gamma ray and neutron tests. In this research, we have grown stilbenes through Bridgman technique, and obtained three stilbenes out of two amples. (Two ones of Φ 30 mm x 15 mm, and Φ 40 mm x 17 mm from the first ample, and size of Φ 25 mm x 13 mm from the other) The grown stilbene's emission wavelength and inherent property of stilbene are confirmed. As the result of gamma ray test, we have confirmed linearity of grown stilbene's scintillator, and the relative light yield ratio is proven 101% efficiency to reference stilbene. Neutron detection efficiency of the three stilbenes amounts to 80% of reference stilbene, and FOM of them is 108% efficiency to reference stilbene's one. Although Ukraine ISMA research center still holds a dominant position with world-class efficiency and performance of its stilbene, we expect to produce a better stilbene with our domestic technology development. Through this, fast neutron detection technique can be obtained, which opens up an opportunity to be used not only in neutron monitoring system in nuclear fusion reactor, but also in alternative measurement technique as the unit price of He-3 increases recently

  8. Benzocyclobutene-based electric micromachines supported on microball bearings: Design, fabrication, and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modafe, Alireza

    This dissertation summarizes the research activities that led to the development of the first microball-bearing-supported linear electrostatic micromotor with benzocyclobutene (BCB) low-k polymer insulating layers. The primary application of this device is long-range, high-speed linear micropositioning. The future generations of this device include rotary electrostatic micromotors and microgenerators. The development of the first generation of microball-bearing-supported micromachines, including device theory, design, and modeling, material characterization, process development, device fabrication, and device test and characterization is presented. The first generation of these devices is based on a 6-phase, bottom-drive, linear, variable-capacitance micromotor (B-LVCM). The design of the electrical and mechanical components of the micromotor, lumped-circuit modeling of the device and electromechanical characteristics, including variable capacitance, force, power, and speed are presented. Electrical characterization of BCB polymers, characterization of BCB chemical mechanical planarization (CMP), development of embedded BCB in silicon (EBiS) process, and integration of device components using microfabrication techniques are also presented. The micromotor consists of a silicon stator, a silicon slider, and four stainless-steel microballs. The aligning force profile of the micromotor was extracted from simulated and measured capacitances of all phases. An average total aligning force of 0.27 mN with a maximum of 0.41 mN, assuming a 100 V peak-to-peak square-wave voltage, was measured. The operation of the micromotor was verified by applying square-wave voltages and characterizing the slider motion. An average slider speed of 7.32 mm/s when excited by a 40 Hz, 120 V square-wave voltage was reached without losing the synchronization. This research has a pivotal impact in the field of power microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). It establishes the foundation for the

  9. Determination of phase transitions in a lyotropic liquid crystal by Positron Annihilation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo V, V.M.

    1994-01-01

    Positron annihilation technique was used to determine the phase transitions in a lyotropic liquid crystal, as a function of temperature. Seven different concentrations of the surfactant cetyldimethylethylammonium bromide, were studied. The liquid crystal studied consisted of a binary system, formed by the surfactant and water. Positron annihilation technique has a very high sensitivity toward changes in the microestructure, in condensed matter, this is useful in order to detect the temperatures at which phase transitions occur and the number of these, in a liquid crystalline system. Thus, phase transitions are related with changes occurred in the ortho-positronium parameters: lifetime (τ 3 ) and intensity of formation (I 3 ). Six different kinds of phases were detected in the system studied in a temperature range of 35 to 140 Centigrade degrees, those phases were: hexagonal, hexagonal-lamellae, lamellae, lamellae-cubic, nematic and anisotropic. Using optical microscopic the textures of these phases were assigned. (Author)

  10. Mass changes in NSTX Surface Layers with Li Conditioning as Measured by Quartz Microbalances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, C.H.; Kugel, H.W.; Roquemore, A.L.; Krstic, P.S.; Beste, A.

    2008-01-01

    Dynamic retention, lithium deposition, and the stability of thick deposited layers were measured by three quartz crystal microbalances (QMB) deployed in plasma shadowed areas at the upper and lower divertor and outboard midplane in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). Deposition of 185 (micro)/g/cm 2 over 3 months in 2007 was measured by a QMB at the lower divertor while a QMB on the upper divertor, that was shadowed from the evaporator, received an order of magnitude less deposition. During helium glow discharge conditioning both neutral gas collisions and the ionization and subsequent drift of Li + interrupted the lithium deposition on the lower divertor. We present calculations of the relevant mean free paths. Occasionally strong variations in the QMB frequency were observed of thick lithium films suggesting relaxation of mechanical stress and/or flaking or peeling of the deposited layers.

  11. Crystallographic Orientation Determination of Hexagonal Structure Crystals by Laser Ultrasonic Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, W; Coulson, J; Marrow, P; Smith, R J; Clark, M; Sharples, S D; Lainé, S J

    2016-01-01

    Spatially resolved acoustic spectroscopy (SRAS) is a laser ultrasonic technique that shows qualitative contrast between grains of different orientation, illustrating the sensitivity of acoustic waves to the material structure. The technique has been improved significantly on determining the full orientation of multigrain cubic metals, by comparing the measured surface acoustic wave (SAW) velocity to a pre-calculated model. In this paper we demonstrate the ability of this technique to determine the orientation of hexagonal structure crystals, such as magnesium and titanium based alloys. Because of the isotropy of the SAW velocity on the basal plane (0001) of hexagonal crystals, the slowness surface is shown as a circle. As the plane moves from (0001) towards (112-bar0) or towards (101-bar0), the slowness surface gradually turns into an oval. These acoustic properties increase the difficulty in orientation determination. The orientation results of a grade 1 commercially pure titanium by SRAS is presented, with comparison with electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) results. Due to the nature of SAWs on hexagonal structure crystals, only the results of Euler angles 1 and 2 are discussed. The error between SRAS and EBSD is also investigated. (paper)

  12. In-situ quartz crystal microgravimetric studies of molecular adsorbates containing thiol and hydroquinone moieties bound to Au(111) surfaces in aqueous electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mo, Y.; Sukenik, C.; Sandifer, M. [Case Western Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); Barriga, R.J.; Soriaga, M.P.; Scherson, D. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The microgravimetric properties of monolayers of 2, 5-dihydroxythiophenol, 2,5-dihydroxybenzyl mercaptan, and 2, 5-dihydroxy-4-methylbenzyl mercaptan adsorbed on Au(111) single crystal electrodes were examined by in situ quartz crystal microbalance techniques in aqueous perchloric acid electrolytes. The results obtained are consistent with the reversible loss of an average of about three waters per adsorbed molecule as the layers are oxidized and subsequently reduced. These observations provide evidence for discrete changes in the extent of bound water within the hydroquinone/quinone layer as the oxidation state of the monolayer is changed. 9 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Spherical crystallization: A technique use to reform solubility and flow property of active pharmaceutical ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Arindam; Gupta, Madan Mohan; Srivastava, Birendra

    2017-01-01

    Tablets have been choice of manufacturers over the years due to their comparatively low cost of manufacturing, packaging, shipping, and ease of administration; also have better stability and can be considered virtually tamper proof. A major challenge in formulation development of the tablets extends from lower solubility of the active agent to the elaborated manufacturing procedures for obtaining a compressible granular material. Moreover, the validation and documentation increases, as the numbers of steps increases for an industrially acceptable granulation process. Spherical crystallization (SC) is a promising technique, which encompass the crystallization, agglomeration, and spheronization phenomenon in a single step. Initially, two methods, spherical agglomeration, and emulsion solvent diffusion, were suggested to get a desired result. Later on, the introduction of modified methods such as crystallo-co-agglomeration, ammonia diffusion system, and neutralization techniques overcame the limitations of the older techniques. Under controlled conditions such as solvent composition, mixing rate and temperature, spherical dense agglomerates cluster from particles. Application of the SC technique includes production of compacted spherical particles of drug having improved uniformity in shape and size of particles, good bulk density, better flow properties as well as better solubility so SC when used on commercial scale will bring down the production costs of pharmaceutical tablet and will increase revenue for the pharmaceutical industries in the competitive market. This review summarizes the technologies available for SC and also suggests the parameters for evaluation of a viable product.

  14. The low thermal gradient CZ technique as a way of growing of dislocation-free germanium crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskovskih, V. A.; Kasimkin, P. V.; Shlegel, V. N.; Vasiliev, Y. V.; Gridchin, V. A.; Podkopaev, O. I.

    2014-09-01

    This paper considers the possibility of growth of dislocation-free germanium single crystals. This is achieved by reducing the temperature gradients at the level of 1 K/cm and lower. Single germanium crystals 45-48 mm in diameter with a dislocation density of 102 cm-2 were grown by a Low Thermal Gradient Czochralski technique (LTG CZ).

  15. Quality of Heusler single crystals examined by depth-dependent positron annihilation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugenschmidt, C.; Bauer, A.; Böni, P.; Ceeh, H.; Eijt, S. W. H.; Gigl, T.; Pfleiderer, C.; Piochacz, C.; Neubauer, A.; Reiner, M.; Schut, H.; Weber, J.

    2015-06-01

    Heusler compounds exhibit a wide range of different electronic ground states and are hence expected to be applicable as functional materials in novel electronic and spintronic devices. Since the growth of large and defect-free Heusler crystals is still challenging, single crystals of Fe2TiSn and Cu2MnAl were grown by the optical floating zone technique. Two positron annihilation techniques—angular correlation of annihilation radiation and Doppler broadening spectroscopy (DBS)—were applied in order to study both the electronic structure and lattice defects. Recently, we succeeded to observe clearly the anisotropy of the Fermi surface of Cu2MnAl, whereas the spectra of Fe2TiSn were disturbed by foreign phases. In order to estimate the defect concentration in different samples of Heusler compounds, the positron diffusion length was determined by DBS using a monoenergetic positron beam.

  16. The microball and Gammasphere: Research highlights and future directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devlin, M.; Sarantites, D.G.; LaFosse, D.R.; Lerma, F. [Washington Univ., Saint Louis, MO (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The Microball, a compact, 4{pi} charged-particle detector array, has been used in conjunction with Gammasphere for numerous physics experiments, and more are planned in the near future. A summary of this research program is presented, and the device and its capabilities are described. An example of its use in the study of the population and entry state excitation energy distributions of normal and superdeformed bands in {sup 82}Sr is presented.

  17. crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yi; Huang, Yisheng; Zhang, Lizhen; Lin, Zhoubin; Sun, Shijia; Wang, Guofu

    2014-07-01

    A Nd3+:Na2La4(WO4)7 crystal with dimensions of ϕ 17 × 30 mm3 was grown by the Czochralski method. The thermal expansion coefficients of Nd3+:Na2La4(WO4)7 crystal are 1.32 × 10-5 K-1 along c-axis and 1.23 × 10-5 K-1 along a-axis, respectively. The spectroscopic characteristics of Nd3+:Na2La4(WO4)7 crystal were investigated. The Judd-Ofelt theory was applied to calculate the spectral parameters. The absorption cross sections at 805 nm are 2.17 × 10-20 cm2 with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 15 nm for π-polarization, and 2.29 × 10-20 cm2 with a FWHM of 14 nm for σ-polarization. The emission cross sections are 3.19 × 10-20 cm2 for σ-polarization and 2.67 × 10-20 cm2 for π-polarization at 1,064 nm. The fluorescence quantum efficiency is 67 %. The quasi-cw laser of Nd3+:Na2La4(WO4)7 crystal was performed. The maximum output power is 80 mW. The slope efficiency is 7.12 %. The results suggest Nd3+:Na2La4(WO4)7 crystal as a promising laser crystal fit for laser diode pumping.

  18. Thermoluminescence kinetic features of Lithium Iodide (LiI) single crystal grown by vertical Bridgman technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, D. Joseph; Kim, H. J.; Kim, Sunghwan; Khan, Sajid

    2017-08-01

    Single crystal of pure Lithium Iodide (LiI) has been grown from melt by using the vertical Bridgman technique. Thermoluminescence (TL) Measurements were carried out at 1 K/s following X-ray irradiation. The TL glow curve consists of a dominant peak at (peak-maximum Tm) 393 K and one low temperature peak of weaker intensity at 343 K. The order of kinetics (b), activation energy (E), and the frequency factor (S) for a prominent TL glow peak observed around 393 K for LiI crystals are reported for the first time. The peak shape analysis of the glow peak indicates the kinetics to be of the first order. The value of E is calculated using various standard methods such as initial rise (IR), whole glow peak (WGP), peak shape (PS), computerized glow curve deconvolution (CGCD) and Variable Heating rate (VHR) methods. An average value of 1.06 eV is obtained in this case. In order to validate the obtained parameters, numerically integrated TL glow curve has been generated using experimentally determined kinetic parameters. The effective atomic number (Zeff) for this material was determined and found to be 52. X-ray induced emission spectra of pure LiI single crystal are studied at room temperature and it is found that the sample exhibit sharp emission at 457 nm and broad emission at 650 nm.

  19. A technique for measuring the quality of an elliptically bent pentaerythritol [PET(002)] crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haugh, M. J., E-mail: haughmj@nv.doe.gov; Jacoby, K. D. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Barrios, M. A.; Thorn, D.; Emig, J. A.; Schneider, M. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    We present a technique for determining the X-ray spectral quality from each region of an elliptically curved PET(002) crystal. The investigative technique utilizes the shape of the crystal rocking curve which changes significantly as the radius of curvature changes. This unique quality information enables the spectroscopist to verify where in the spectral range that the spectrometer performance is satisfactory and where there are regions that would show spectral distortion. A collection of rocking curve measurements for elliptically curved PET(002) has been built up in our X-ray laboratory. The multi-lamellar model from the XOP software has been used as a guide and corrections were applied to the model based upon measurements. But, the measurement of R{sub I} at small radius of curvature shows an anomalous behavior; the multi-lamellar model fails to show this behavior. The effect of this anomalous R{sub I} behavior on an X-ray spectrometer calibration is calculated. It is compared to the multi-lamellar model calculation which is completely inadequate for predicting R{sub I} for this range of curvature and spectral energies.

  20. Growth of large PbTiO[sub 3] crystals by a self-flux technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, B.N. (Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Research Lab., and Beckman Inst., Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign (United States)); Huang, Y. (Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Research Lab., and Beckman Inst., Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign (United States)); Payne, D.A. (Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Research Lab., and Beckman Inst., Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign (United States))

    1993-03-01

    Pure lead titanate (PbTiO[sub 3]) crystals (5x5x5 mm[sup 3]) were grown from high-temperature solutions by a slow cooling technique using PbO as a self-flux. The optimum growth conditions were determined to be: (1) (1-x) TiO[sub 2]+x PbO with x (in mol%) varying from 0.78 to 0.82 for the starting compositions, (2) 930-1050 C as the growth temperature range and (3) 0.4-1.5 C/h as the cooling rates. Evaporation of PbO was significantly reduced by use of a double-crucible technique. The grown crystals were characterized by X-ray diffraction, chemical analysis and optical microscopy. The transformation temperatures (onset) of 492.5 C (on heating) and 491.3 C (on cooling) were determined by differential scanning calorimetry. The transformation process had a thermal hysteresis of 1.2 C from onset data. (orig.)

  1. A technique for measuring the quality of an elliptically bent pentaerythritol [PET(002)] crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haugh, M. J.; Jacoby, K. D.; Barrios, M. A.; Thorn, D.; Emig, J. A.; Schneider, M. B.

    2016-01-01

    We present a technique for determining the X-ray spectral quality from each region of an elliptically curved PET(002) crystal. The investigative technique utilizes the shape of the crystal rocking curve which changes significantly as the radius of curvature changes. This unique quality information enables the spectroscopist to verify where in the spectral range that the spectrometer performance is satisfactory and where there are regions that would show spectral distortion. A collection of rocking curve measurements for elliptically curved PET(002) has been built up in our X-ray laboratory. The multi-lamellar model from the XOP software has been used as a guide and corrections were applied to the model based upon measurements. But, the measurement of R I at small radius of curvature shows an anomalous behavior; the multi-lamellar model fails to show this behavior. The effect of this anomalous R I behavior on an X-ray spectrometer calibration is calculated. It is compared to the multi-lamellar model calculation which is completely inadequate for predicting R I for this range of curvature and spectral energies.

  2. Optical and electrical properties of ZrSe3 single crystals grown by chemical vapour transport technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Kaushik; Prajapati, Jagdish; Vaidya, Rajiv; Patel, S.G.

    2005-01-01

    Single crystals of the lamellar compound, ZrSe 3 , were grown by chemical vapour transport technique using iodine as a transporting agent. The grown crystals were characterized with the help of energy dispersive analysis by X-ray (EDAX), which gave confirmation about the stoichiometry. The optical band gap measurement of as grown crystals was carried out with the help of optical absorption spectra in the range 700-1450 nm. The indirect as well as direct band gap of ZrSe 3 were found to be 1.1 eV and 1.47 eV, respectively. The resistivity of the as grown crystals was measured using van der Pauw method. The Hall parameters of the grown crystals were determined at room temperature from Hall effect measurements. Electrical resistivity measurements were performed on this crystal in the temperature range 303-423 K. The crystals were found to exhibit semiconducting nature in this range. The activation energy and anisotropy measurements were carried out for this crystal. Pressure dependence of electrical resistance was studied using Bridgman opposed anvils set up up to 8 GPa. The semiconducting nature of ZrSe 3 single crystal was inferred from the graph of resistance vs pressure. The results obtained are discussed in detail. (author)

  3. Investigation and dating of gypsum crystals from Sivrihisar region in Eskisehir by ESR and TL techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Gypsum crystals taken from Sivrihisar-Eskisehir district were investigated and dated by Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) and Thermoluminescence (TL) techniques. The natural ESR spectra of gypsum samples had also the signals of Mn 2 + in addition to the signal at g=2.009. It was observed that the intensity of ESR signal at g=2.009 increased with gamma irradiation dose. This ESR signal (g=2.009) was used as a dating signal in dating of gypsum samples. The only one TL peak at about 278 degree Celsius was observed in TL glow curves of nonirradiated gypsum sample. In the case of irradiated sample, TL peak at 157 degree Celsius was observed in addition of TL peak at 278 degree Celsius. Gypsum samples were irradiated with a 6 0Co gamma source. The ESR spectra and TL glow curve of gypsum samples were recorded by X-band ESR spectrometer and Risφ TL/OSL reader, respectively. For samples, ESR/TL dose-response curves was constructed. Dose-response curves were fitted with an exponential saturation function. Based on this model, accumulated dose (AD) values for dating are determined. 2 38U, 2 32Th and 4 0K analysis was carried out for gypsum crystals and dolomite which enveloped these gypsum crystals. The internal dose rate was calculated from 2 38U, 2 32Th and 4 0K analysis results of gypsum sample. The external dose rate was calculated by using 2 38U, 2 32Th and 4 0K analysis results of dolomite and cosmic dose rate. Internal and external gamma dose-rate was used for dating calculations. Because of successive recrystallization of gypsum sample after formation, calculated age values of gypsum is smaller than expected formation age.

  4. Precession technique and electron diffractometry as new tools for crystal structure analysis and chemical bonding determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avilov, A.; Kuligin, K.; Nicolopoulos, S.; Nickolskiy, M.; Boulahya, K.; Portillo, J.; Lepeshov, G.; Sobolev, B.; Collette, J.P.; Martin, N.; Robins, A.C.; Fischione, P.

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a new fast electron diffractometer working with high dynamic range and linearity for crystal structure determinations. Electron diffraction (ED) patterns can be scanned serially in front of a Faraday cage detector; the total measurement time for several hundred ED reflections can be tens of seconds having high statistical accuracy for all measured intensities (1-2%). This new tool can be installed to any type of TEM without any column modification and is linked to a specially developed electron beam precession 'Spinning Star' system. Precession of the electron beam (Vincent-Midgley technique) reduces dynamical effects allowing also use of accurate intensities for crystal structure analysis. We describe the technical characteristics of this new tool together with the first experimental results. Accurate measurement of electron diffraction intensities by electron diffractometer opens new possibilities not only for revealing unknown structures, but also for electrostatic potential determination and chemical bonding investigation. As an example, we present detailed atomic bonding information of CaF 2 as revealed for the first time by precise electron diffractometry

  5. Relation between anchorings of liquid crystals and conformation changes in aligning agents by the Langmuir-Blodgett film technique investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Y.; Lu, Z.; Wei, Y.

    1995-01-01

    The anchoring direction of liquid crystals on a solid substrate surface depends upon many parameters characterizing the liquid-crystal--substrate interface, a variation of which may change this anchoring direction leading to the so-called anchoring transition. Here, based on the Langmuir-Blodgett film technique, we present two model systems to study the relation between anchoring directions and the conformation changes in aligning agents. A double-armed crown ether liquid crystal and a side chain polymer liquid crystal at an air-water interface both show phase transitions, accompanied by conformation changes. However, when the monolayers in different phases were transferred onto solid substrates to orient liquid crystals, we found that for the crown ether material the conformation change can alter the anchoring of liquid crystals between homeotropic and homogeneous alignments, while for the polymer liquid crystal, despite the conformation changes, the liquid crystals can only be aligned homeotropically. The involved mechanisms were briefly discussed in terms of the Landau-type phenomenological theory

  6. 40 CFR 92.110 - Weighing chamber and micro-balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Weighing chamber and micro-balance. 92... Weighing chamber and micro-balance. (a) Ambient conditions—(1) Temperature. The temperature of the chamber... shall be 45±8 percent during all filter conditioning and weighing. The dew point shall be 6.4 to 12.4 °C...

  7. Antisolvent precipitation technique: A very promising approach to crystallize curcumin in presence of polyvinyl pyrrolidon for solubility and dissolution enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Fatemeh; Ashofteh, Mohammad; Homayouni, Alireza; Abbaspour, Mohammadreza; Nokhodchi, Ali; Garekani, Hadi Afrasiabi

    2016-11-01

    Curcumin with a vast number of pharmacological activities is a poorly water soluble drug which its oral bioavailability is profoundly limited by its dissolution or solubility in GI tract. Curcumin could be a good anticancer drug if its solubility could be increased. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to increase the dissolution rate of curcumin by employing antisolvent crystallization technique and to investigate the effect of polyvinyl pyrrolidone K30 (PVP) as colloidal particles in crystallization medium on resultant particles. Curcumin was crystalized in the presence of different amounts of PVP by antisolvent crystallization method and their physical mixtures were prepared for comparison purposes. The samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The solubility and dissolution of the treated and untreated curcumin were also determined. Antisolvent crystallization of curcumin led to the formation of particles with no definite geometric shape. It was interesting to note that the DSC and XRPD studies indicated the formation of a new polymorph and less crystallinity for particles crystallized in the absence of PVP. However, the crystallized curcumin in the presence of PVP was completely amorphous. All crystalized curcumin samples showed much higher dissolution rate compared to untreated curcumin. The amount of curcumin dissolved within 10 for treated curcumin in the presence of PVP (1:1 curcumin:PVP) was 7 times higher than untreated curcumin and this enhancement in the dissolution for curcumin samples crystallized in the absence of PVP was around 5 times. Overall' the results of this study showed that antisolvent crystallization method in the absence or presence of small amounts of PVP is very efficient in increasing the dissolution rate of curcumin to achieve better efficiency for curcumin. Copyright © 2016

  8. Study on the crystallization of the metal glass with the ferromagnetic resonance and transmission electron microscopy techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biasi, R.S. de; Rodrigues, R.W.D.; Pascual, R.; Pessoa, C.S.

    1983-01-01

    The crystallization of the metal glass METGLAS 2826A has been studied with the ferromagnetic resonance and electron transmission microscopy techniques. The first-derivative linewidth of the absorption curve was measured for several times of isothermal treatments at 375 0 C. After an initial decrease, attributed to stress relaxation, the linewidth increases linearly with the transformed fraction of the first crystallization phase. Comparison with the electron microscopy results shows that the ferromagnetic resonance technique is particularly useful for short and medium aging times. (Author) [pt

  9. Creep lifing methodologies applied to a single crystal superalloy by use of small scale test techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffs, S.P., E-mail: s.p.jeffs@swansea.ac.uk [Institute of Structural Materials, Swansea University, Singleton Park SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Lancaster, R.J. [Institute of Structural Materials, Swansea University, Singleton Park SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Garcia, T.E. [IUTA (University Institute of Industrial Technology of Asturias), University of Oviedo, Edificio Departamental Oeste 7.1.17, Campus Universitario, 33203 Gijón (Spain)

    2015-06-11

    In recent years, advances in creep data interpretation have been achieved either by modified Monkman–Grant relationships or through the more contemporary Wilshire equations, which offer the opportunity of predicting long term behaviour extrapolated from short term results. Long term lifing techniques prove extremely useful in creep dominated applications, such as in the power generation industry and in particular nuclear where large static loads are applied, equally a reduction in lead time for new alloy implementation within the industry is critical. The latter requirement brings about the utilisation of the small punch (SP) creep test, a widely recognised approach for obtaining useful mechanical property information from limited material volumes, as is typically the case with novel alloy development and for any in-situ mechanical testing that may be required. The ability to correlate SP creep results with uniaxial data is vital when considering the benefits of the technique. As such an equation has been developed, known as the k{sub SP} method, which has been proven to be an effective tool across several material systems. The current work now explores the application of the aforementioned empirical approaches to correlate small punch creep data obtained on a single crystal superalloy over a range of elevated temperatures. Finite element modelling through ABAQUS software based on the uniaxial creep data has also been implemented to characterise the SP deformation and help corroborate the experimental results.

  10. Creep lifing methodologies applied to a single crystal superalloy by use of small scale test techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffs, S.P.; Lancaster, R.J.; Garcia, T.E.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, advances in creep data interpretation have been achieved either by modified Monkman–Grant relationships or through the more contemporary Wilshire equations, which offer the opportunity of predicting long term behaviour extrapolated from short term results. Long term lifing techniques prove extremely useful in creep dominated applications, such as in the power generation industry and in particular nuclear where large static loads are applied, equally a reduction in lead time for new alloy implementation within the industry is critical. The latter requirement brings about the utilisation of the small punch (SP) creep test, a widely recognised approach for obtaining useful mechanical property information from limited material volumes, as is typically the case with novel alloy development and for any in-situ mechanical testing that may be required. The ability to correlate SP creep results with uniaxial data is vital when considering the benefits of the technique. As such an equation has been developed, known as the k SP method, which has been proven to be an effective tool across several material systems. The current work now explores the application of the aforementioned empirical approaches to correlate small punch creep data obtained on a single crystal superalloy over a range of elevated temperatures. Finite element modelling through ABAQUS software based on the uniaxial creep data has also been implemented to characterise the SP deformation and help corroborate the experimental results

  11. Shock-wave induced mechanoluminescence: A new technique for studying effects of shock pressure on crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandra, B.P.; Parganiha, S.; Sonwane, V.D. [School of Studies in Physics and Astrophysics, Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur 492010, Chhattisgarh (India); Chandra, V.K. [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Chhatrapati Shivaji Institute of Technology, Shivaji Nagar, Kolihapuri, Durg 491001, Chhattisgarh (India); Jha, Piyush, E-mail: piyushjha22@rediffmail.com [Department of Applied Physics, Raipur Institute of Technology, Chhatauna, Mandir Hasuad, Raipur 492101, Chhattisgarh (India); Baghel, R.N. [School of Studies in Physics and Astrophysics, Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur 492010, Chhattisgarh (India)

    2016-10-15

    The impact of a projectile propelled to velocities in the range of 0.5–2.5 km/s on to a target (X-cut quartz crystal) produces shock waves travelling at velocity of nearly 10 km/s in target, in which intense mechanoluminescence (ML) pulses of microsecond duration are produced, both in compression and post-compression conditions. The piezoelectric field produced due to surface charges of fractured target, causes band bending and subsequently, the free charge carriers are generated in the respective bands and the emission of ML occurs. The ML appears after a delay time t{sub th} whose value decreases with increasing value of the shock pressure. Initially, the ML intensity increases with the shock pressure because of the creation of more surfaces; however, for higher values of the shock pressure, the ML intensity tends to attain a saturation value because of the hardening of the crystals due to the creation of small crystallites in which the creation of new surfaces becomes difficult. The ratio between peak ML intensity in the uncompressed region and the maximum ML intensity in the compressed region decreases with increasing shock pressure because more defects produced at high pressure generate higher barrier for the relaxation of blocked cracks under compression. The expressions derived for characteristics of shock-induced ML are able to explain satisfactorily the experimental results. Shock-wave velocity, shock pressure, transit time, lifetime of electrons in conduction band, etc. can be determined by the shock-induced ML.As such, the shock-induced ML provides a new optical technique for the studies of materials under shock pressure.

  12. The Feasibility of Bulk Crystallization as an Industrial Purification and Production Technique for Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Russell A.; Forsythe, Elizabeth L.; Johns, Michael R.; Pusey, Marc L.; White, Edward T.

    1998-01-01

    Bulk crystallization in stirred vessels is used industrially for the recovery and purification of many inorganic and organic materials. Although much has been written on the crystallization of proteins for X-ray diffraction analysis, very little has been reported on the application of bulk crystallization in stirred vessels. In this study, a 1-liter, seeded, stirred, batch crystallizer was used with ovalbumin as a model protein to test the feasibility of this crystallization method as a recovery and purification process for proteins. Results were obtained for ovalbumin solubility, nucleation thresholds, crystal breakage and crystal growth kinetics in bulk solution under a range of operating conditions of pH and ammonium sulphate concentration (Judge et al., 1996). Experiments were also performed to determine the degree of purification that can be achieved by the crystallization of ovalbumin from a mixture of proteins. The effect of the presence of these proteins upon the ovalbumin crystal growth kinetics was also investigated (Judge et al., 1995). All of these aspects are essential for the design of bulk crystallization processes which have not previously been reported for proteins. Results from a second study that investigated the effect of structurally different proteins on the solubility, crystal growth rates and crystal purity of chicken egg white lysozyme are also presented (Judge et al., 1997). In this case face growth rates were measured using lysozyme purified by liquid chromatography and the effect of the addition of specific protein impurities were observed on the (110) and (101) crystal faces. In these two studies the results are presented to show the feasibility and purifying ability of crystallization as a production process for proteins.

  13. Design of Slow and Fast Light Photonic Crystal Waveguides for Single-photon Emission Using a Bloch Mode Expansion Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Lasson, Jakob Rosenkrantz; Rigal, B.; Kapon, E.

    We design slow and fast light photonic crystal waveguides for single-photon emission using a Bloch mode expansion and scattering matrix technique. We propose slow light designs that increase the group index-waveguide mode volume ratio for larger Purcell enhancement, and address efficient slow-to-...

  14. Thermal decomposition of hydrotalcite-like compounds studied by a novel tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Ramirez, Javier; Abello, Sonia

    2006-01-01

    For the first time, we report on the application of a tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM) as a novel technique to investigate the thermal decomposition of hydrotalcite-like compounds (HTlcs) in air. Experiments were performed in the temperature range of 323-973 K with Mg-Al, Ni-Al, and Co-Al-HTlcs. The TEOM technique measures mass changes based on inertial forces, presenting important advantages over conventional thermogravimetric analyzers, such as the very rapid time response and the well-defined flow pattern. In general terms, excellent agreement between TEOM, TGA, and DTA techniques during HTlc decomposition was obtained. Interestingly, transition temperatures in the TEOM were lower than in TGA and DTA, particularly for removal of interlayer water but also for dehydroxylation of the brucite-like layers and decarbonation. This was attributed to the flow-through operation in the tapered element of the TEOM as compared to the recognized gas stagnancy and bypass in sample crucibles of conventional thermogravimetric analyzers. Our results conclude that the TEOM technique is suitable for temperature-programmed studies. However, due to its operation principle, blank runs are required in contrast to the more automatic operation in commercial thermogravimetric units. Besides, a careful sample loading and packing in the micro-reactor is essential for reproducible results

  15. High resolution diffraction imaging of mercuric iodide: Demonstration of the necessity for alternate crystal processing techniques for highly purified material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, B.; Berg, L. van den; Laor, U.

    1995-01-01

    The overall crystalline lattice uniformity in recently available, highly purified mercuric iodide single crystals has been shown to be impacted by crystal handling techniques that were previously satisfactory. High resolution diffraction imaging of the surface regularity of crystals of various levels of purity and growth orientation shows: (1) that the newer materials have a generally lower level of precipitates, (2) that the incidence of these precipitates is now closely correlated with growth direction, and (3) that the deformation resistance and resulting sensitivity to crystal handling procedures are also closely correlated with these factors in this soft material. As a result, gentler cutting and polishing procedures have been developed and are shown to be effective in preserving overall lattice regularity in the new material. The polishing required to remove residual surface scratches affect the lattice orientation of the softer, precipitate-free regions, while not affecting those regions with detectable levels of precipitates. These results correlate closely with the electrical properties of devices made from these crystals. Mercuric iodide single crystals have proved to be particularly useful for x and γ ray detectors because their room temperature operation allow for simple, efficient, and compact instrumentation

  16. Kapitza conductance of metal single crystals by the second sound technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, F.; Kollarits, F.J.; Wilkes, K.E.; Yaqub, M.

    1975-01-01

    The Kapitza conductance h/sub K/ of high-purity single crystals of gallium, copper, lead, and tin, between 1.2 and 2 0 K, has been determined by an improved version of the second, sound method developed by Challis and Sherlock. By using a special mounting technique, strains in the samples were avoided on cooling. A comparison of the results with those given in the literature shows that our values of h/sub K/ are consistently higher than those obtained by using the steady-state method. By introducing different amounts of strain in a given sample its h/sub K/ was reduced by corresponding amounts. Thus, for a given metal, the entire range of reported steady-state values was covered. In the region of 1--2 0 K, strain not only reduces h/sub K/, but also increases the temperature dependence considerably. Although a reduction of h/sub K / with strain has been reported with the steady-state measurements, it is not accompanied by an increase in the temperature dependence. Possible reasons for this are discussed. Study of the superconductors lead and tin shows that the temperature exponent is nearly the same in the superconducting and normal states. The absolute value of h/sub K/ decreases in lead typically by 6 percent and increases in tin by 5 percent. (auth)

  17. Near threshold pulse shape discrimination techniques in scintillating CsI(Tl) crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, S.C.; Yue, Q.; Lai, W.P.; Li, H.B.; Li, J.; Lin, S.T.; Liu, Y.; Singh, V.; Wang, M.Z.; Wong, H.T.; Xin, B.; Zhou, Z.Y.

    2004-01-01

    There are recent interests with CsI(Tl) scintillating crystals for Dark Matter experiments. The key merit is the capability to differentiate nuclear recoil (nr) signatures from the background β/γ-events due to ambient radioactivity on the basis of their different pulse shapes. One of the major experimental challenges is to perform such pulse shape analysis in the statistics-limited domain where the light output is close to the detection threshold. Using data derived from measurements with low-energy γ's and nuclear recoils due to neutron elastic scatterings, it was verified that the pulse shapes between β/γ-events are different. Several methods of pulse shape discrimination (PSD) are studied, and their relative merits are compared. Full digitization of the pulse shapes is crucial to achieve good discrimination. Advanced software techniques with mean time, neural network and likelihood ratios give rise to satisfactory performance, and are superior to the conventional Double Charge method commonly applied at higher energies. PSD becomes effective starting at a light yield of about 20 photo-electrons. This corresponds to a detection threshold of about 5 keV electron-equivalence energy, or 40-50 keV recoil kinetic energy, in realistic experiments

  18. Combined ellipsometry and refractometry technique for characterisation of liquid crystal based nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warenghem, Marc; Henninot, Jean François; Blach, Jean François; Buchnev, Oleksandr; Kaczmarek, Malgosia; Stchakovsky, Michel

    2012-03-01

    Spectroscopic ellipsometry is a technique especially well suited to measure the effective optical properties of a composite material. However, as the sample is optically thick and anisotropic, this technique loses its accuracy for two reasons: anisotropy means that two parameters have to be determined (ordinary and extraordinary indices) and optically thick means a large order of interference. In that case, several dielectric functions can emerge out of the fitting procedure with a similar mean square error and no criterion to discriminate the right solution. In this paper, we develop a methodology to overcome that drawback. It combines ellipsometry with refractometry. The same sample is used in a total internal reflection (TIR) setup and in a spectroscopic ellipsometer. The number of parameters to be determined by the fitting procedure is reduced in analysing two spectra, the correct final solution is found by using the TIR results both as initial values for the parameters and as check for the final dielectric function. A prefitting routine is developed to enter the right initial values in the fitting procedure and so to approach the right solution. As an example, this methodology is used to analyse the optical properties of BaTiO(3) nanoparticles embedded in a nematic liquid crystal. Such a methodology can also be used to analyse experimentally the validity of the mixing laws, since ellipsometry gives the effective dielectric function and thus, can be compared to the dielectric function of the components of the mixture, as it is shown on the example of BaTiO(3)/nematic composite.

  19. Stacking fault energy measurements in WSe2 single crystals using weak-beam techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, M.K.; Patel, J.V.; Patel, N.G.

    1981-01-01

    The weak-beam method of electron microscopy is used to observe threefold dislocations in WSe 2 single crystals grown by direct vapour transport method. The widths of the three fold ribbons are used to determine the stacking fault energy in these crystals. Variation of the width of the ribbons with temperature are also studied and discussed. (author)

  20. Discussion meet on electroanalytical techniques and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, S.K.; Gopinath, N.; Govindan, R.

    2008-02-01

    Electrochemistry is truly an interdisciplinary science and plays an important role in different branches of science and technology. The present Discussion Meet on ElectroAnalytical Techniques (DM- ELANTE-2008) is focused on the update of various electroanalytical techniques which have brought out a substantial change in electroanalytical chemistry. The aim of this Discussion Meet is to provide a forum to all the electroanalytical scientists to discuss their recent findings and information, learn from the mutual experiences and interests, and to promote cooperation both nationally and internationally. It is proposed to have tutorial lectures as well as invited talks during the Discussion Meet on various electroanalytical techniques including Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS), Spectro-electrochemistry, Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy (SECM), Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance (EQCM), Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) etc. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  1. An asymmetric resonant coupling wireless power transmission link for Micro-Ball Endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tianjia; Xie, Xiang; Li, Guolin; Gu, Yingke; Deng, Yangdong; Wang, Ziqiang; Wang, Zhihua

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the design and optimization of a wireless power transmission link targeting Micro-Ball Endoscopy applications. A novel asymmetric resonant coupling structure is proposed to deliver power to an endoscopic Micro-Ball system for image read-out after it is excreted. Such a technology enables many key medical applications with stringent requirements for small system volume and high power delivery efficiency. A prototyping power transmission sub-system of the Micro-Ball system was implemented. It consists of primary coil, middle resonant coil, and cube-like full-direction secondary receiving coils. Our experimental results proved that 200mW of power can be successfully delivered. Such a wireless power transmission capability could satisfy the requirements of the Micro-Ball based endoscopy application. The transmission efficiency is in the range of 41% (worst working condition) to 53% (best working condition). Comparing to conventional structures, Asymmetric Resonant Coupling Structure improves power efficiency by 13%.

  2. Diode-pumped laser with Yb:YAG single-crystal fiber grown by the micro-pulling down technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangla, D.; Aubry, N.; Didierjean, J.; Perrodin, D.; Balembois, F.; Lebbou, K.; Brenier, A.; Georges, P.; Tillement, O.; Fourmigué, J.-M.

    2009-02-01

    Laser emission obtained from an Yb:YAG single-crystal fiber directly grown by the micro-pulling down technique is demonstrated for the first time. We achieved 11.2 W of continuous wave (CW) output power at 1031 nm for 55 W of incident pump power at 940 nm. In the Q-switched regime, we obtained pulses as short as 17 ns, for an average power of 2.3 W at 2 kHz corresponding to an energy of 1.15 mJ. In both cases, the M 2 factor was 2.5. This single-crystal fiber showed performance similar to a standard rod elaborated by the Czochralski method. The potential of Yb3+-doped single-crystal fibers is presented for scalable high-average and high-peak-power laser systems.

  3. Modelling of thermal field and point defect dynamics during silicon single crystal growth using CZ technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabanskis, A.; Virbulis, J.

    2018-05-01

    Mathematical modelling is employed to numerically analyse the dynamics of the Czochralski (CZ) silicon single crystal growth. The model is axisymmetric, its thermal part describes heat transfer by conduction and thermal radiation, and allows to predict the time-dependent shape of the crystal-melt interface. Besides the thermal field, the point defect dynamics is modelled using the finite element method. The considered process consists of cone growth and cylindrical phases, including a short period of a reduced crystal pull rate, and a power jump to avoid large diameter changes. The influence of the thermal stresses on the point defects is also investigated.

  4. Study on growth techniques and macro defects of large-size Nd:YAG laser crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Jiliang; Yang, Xin; Yang, Mingming; Ma, Decai; Huang, Jinqiang; Zhu, Yunzhong; Wang, Biao

    2018-02-01

    Large-size neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) single crystals were grown by the Czochralski method. The extinction ratio and wavefront distortion of the crystal were tested to determine the optical homogeneity. Moreover, under different growth conditions, the macro defects of inclusion, striations, and cracking in the as-grown Nd:YAG crystals were analyzed. Specifically, the inclusion defects were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The stresses of growth striations and cracking were studied via a parallel plane polariscope. These results demonstrate that improper growth parameters and temperature fields can enhance defects significantly. Thus, by adjusting the growth parameters and optimizing the thermal environment, high-optical-quality Nd:YAG crystals with a diameter of 80 mm and a total length of 400 mm have been obtained successfully.

  5. Non-Linear Optical Studies On Sol-Gel Derived Lead Chloride Crystals Using Z-Scan Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Rejeena, I; Lillibai, B; Toms, Roseleena; Nampoori, VP N; Radhakrishnan, P

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we report the preparation, optical characterization and non linear optical behavior of pure lead chloride crystals. Lead chloride samples subjected to UV and IR irradiation and electric and magnetic fields have also been investigated Optical nonlinearity in these lead chloride samples were determined using single beam and high sensitive Z-scan technique. Non linear optical studies of these materials in single distilled water show reverse saturable absorption which makes th...

  6. In Situ Determination of Thermal Profiles during Czochralski Silicon Crystal Growth by an Eddy Current Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Kwang Su.

    An eddy current testing method was developed to continuously monitor crystal growth process and determine thermal profiles in situ during Czochralski silicon crystal growth. The work was motivated by the need to improve the quality of the crystal by controlling thermal gradients and annealing history over the growth cycle. The experimental concept is to monitor intrinsic electrical conductivities of the growing crystal and deduce temperature values from them. The experiments were performed in a resistance-heated Czochralski puller with a 203 mm (8 inch) diameter crucible containing 6.5 kg melt. The silicon crystals being grown were about 80 mm in diameter and monitored by an encircling sensor operating at three different test frequencies (86, 53 and 19 kHz). A one-dimensional analytical solution was employed to translate the detected signals into electrical conductivities. In terms of experiments, the effects of changes in growth condition, which is defined by crystal and crucible rotation rates, crucible position, pull rate, and hot-zone configuration, were investigated. Under a given steady-state condition, the thermal profile was usually stable over the entire length of crystal growth. The profile shifted significantly, however, when the crucible rotation rate was kept too high. As a direct evidence to the effects of melt flow on heat transfer process, a thermal gradient minimum was observed about the crystal/crucible rotation combination of 20/-10 rpm cw. The thermal gradient reduction was still most pronounced when the pull rate or the radiant heat loss to the environment was decreased: a nearly flat axial thermal gradient was achieved when either the pull rate was halved or the height of the exposed crucible wall was effectively doubled. Under these conditions, the average axial thermal gradient along the surface of the crystal was about 4-5 ^{rm o}C/mm. Regardless of growth condition, the three-frequency data revealed radial thermal gradients much larger

  7. Caesium releases under the form of silicon micro-balls during the Fukushima-Daiichi accident. Information note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    After having outlined that the most part (89 per cent) of radioactive cesium released in the atmosphere during the Fukushima accident was made under the form of silicon micro-balls which were more irradiating than other aerosols marked by cesium radioactive isotopes, this note first discusses whether these silicon micro-balls containing radioactive cesium were resulting from a specific phase of atmospheric release. It discusses the nature of these micro-balls, and discusses whether it is possible to quantitatively assess the contribution of these micro-balls to global releases and deposits. It discusses how these micro-balls could have formed, whether their formation can be associated with a specific phase of reactor degradation or with the degradation of a specific reactor. It discusses whether a specific behaviour of these micro-balls can be expected in the environment, and their possible impacts on radiological consequences

  8. Quartz Microbalance Sensor for the Detection of Acrylamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph A. Schalley

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Several macrocycles of the Hunter-Vögtle type have been identified as superior host compounds for the detection of small amounts of acrylamide. When coated onto the surface of a quartz microbalance, these compounds serve as highly sensitive and selective sensor-active layers for their use in electronic noses. In this study, differently substituted macrocycles were investigated including an open-chain analogue and a catenane. Their structure and functional groups are correlated with their observed affinities to acrylamide and related acids and amides. The much smaller response of the open-chain compound and the almost absent sensor response of the catenane suggest that binding occurs within the cavity of the macrocycle. Theoretical calculations agree well with the experimental data even though they do not yet take into account the arrangement of the macrocycles in the sensor-active layer. The lower detection limit of acrylamide is 10 parts per billion (ppb, which is impressively low for this type of sensor. Other related compounds such as acrylic acid, propionamide, or propionic acid show no or significantly lower affinities to the macrocycles in these concentration ranges.

  9. Growth, mechanical, and magnetic study of SmFeO{sub 3} single crystal grown by optical floating zone technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babu, P. Ramesh [Centre for Crystal Growth, VIT University, Vellore, Tamil Nadu (India); Bhaumik, Indranil [Crystal Growth Laboratory, Laser Materials Development and Devices Division, RRCAT, Indore (India); Ganesamoorthy, S. [Material Science Group, IGCAR, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu (India); Kalainathan, S., E-mail: kalainathan@yahoo.com [Centre for Crystal Growth, VIT University, Vellore, Tamil Nadu (India); Bhatt, R.; Karnal, A.K.; Gupta, P.K. [Crystal Growth Laboratory, Laser Materials Development and Devices Division, RRCAT, Indore (India)

    2016-08-15

    Single crystals of Samarium orthoferrite (SmFeO{sub 3}) have been grown by the optical floating zone technique. The growth parameters to yield good quality crystals are 5 mm/h for pulling and 30–40 rpm for rotation. The mechanical behavior of the grown crystal has been investigated. Rosette pattern has been observed around the indentation and the microhardness has been found to decreases non-linearly with the applied load. For load higher than 1.96 N there is a transition from palmqvist to median crack due to plastic deformation of the crystal. The hardness parameters like fracture toughness, brittleness index, and yield strength have also been calculated for palmqvist and median cracks occurring on the crystal surface. The magnetic investigations revealed that a magnetic transition in the range of 300–180 K. Above 180 K, the magnetization decreases as Sm and Fe sublattices have opposite spins. At high temperature, two anomalies are observed, one due to near spin reorientation (T{sub SR} = 480 K) and the other is AFM to paramagnetic transitions (T{sub N} = 670 K). The M–H curves exhibit a shape change with temperature due to the emergence and enlargement of multi-domain state of the SmFeO{sub 3} crystals. Bloch parameter (3.28 × 10{sup −5} K{sup −3/2}) has also been evaluated. - Highlights: • SmFeO{sub 3} single crystals have been grown by OFZ technique in air. • The microhardness has been found to decreases non-linearly with the applied load. • At 472 K, spin reorientation occurs in Fe sublattice. • The M–H curves exhibit a shape change with temperature due to the emergence and enlargement of multi-domain state. • Bloch 3/2-law holds good for SmFeO{sub 3} (B-parameter as 3.28 × 10{sup −5} K{sup −3/2}).

  10. Growth, morphological properties and pulsed photo response of MoTe2 single crystal synthesized by DVT technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Vijay; Vyas, Chirag; Patel, Abhishek; Pathak, V. M.; Solanki, G. K.; Patel, K. D.

    2018-05-01

    Molybednum Di Telluride of group VI belongs to the family of layered transition metal di-chalcogenides (TMDCs). These TMDCs show good potential for applications in the field of optoelectronic devices as they are chemically inert trilayered structure of MX2 type. In the present investigation crystals of MoTe2 are grown by direct vapor transport technique in a dual zone horizontal furnace. The grown crystals were characterized by Energy Dispersive Analysis of X-rays (EDAX) to study its elemental and stoichiometric composition, Selected Area Electron Diffraction (SAED) confirms the hexagonal structure. Spot pattern of electron diffraction shows formation of single phase. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) shows the layer by layer growth of the crystals, Thermo Electric Power (TEP) reflects the p-type semiconducting nature of the grown crystals. As this material is photosensitive material having band gap of approximately 1.0 eV, a transient photo response against polychromatic radiation (40 mW/cm2) of photodetector is also measured which showed slow decay in generated photocurrent due to low trapping density within the active area of the prepared device. Thus, it shows that this material can be a good photovoltaic material for constructing a solar cell also.

  11. A study on the growth of compound semiconductor single crystal by TOM technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H.C.; Kwon, S.I.; Chung, M.K.; Chang, J.S.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes the merit of the HgI 2 single crystals obtained by solution growth, 2- and 3-region temperature growth, and temperature oscillation growth for soft γ-ray detectors which can be operated at room temperature. Special efforts are put on the design, construction, and operation of the TOM (Temperature Oscillation Method) single crystal growing furnace. Experimental results show that HgI 2 detectors fabricated by vapour phase growth method usually exhibit sufficient enough detector characteristics for soft γ-ray spectrometry. However, further investigation should be carried out to eliminate detector deterioration due to polarization effect. (author)

  12. In-situ investigation of adsorption of dye and coadsorbates on TiO 2 films using QCM-D, fluorescence and AFM techniques

    KAUST Repository

    Harms, Hauke A.; Té treault, Nicolas; Voitchovsky, Kislon; Stellacci, Francesco; Grä tzel, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Simultaneous adsorption of dye molecules and coadsorbates is important for the fabrication of high-efficiency dyesensitized solar cells, but its mechanism is not well understood. Herein, we use a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation

  13. Detached phenomenon: Its effect on the crystal quality of Ga{sub (1−x)}In{sub x}Sb bulk crystal grown by the VDS technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadkari, Dattatray, E-mail: db.gadkari@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Mithibai College, Mumbai 400056 (India)

    2013-05-15

    Vertical directional solidification (VDS) technique is used on the combined growth principals of the conventional methods since 1994, which leads to the detached growth. For evaluation of the detached growth, five bulk ingots of indium doped gallium–antimonide GaSb:In (In = 0.5, 0.25, 0.15) have been grown – without the seed, without contact to the ampoule wall, without coating and without external pressure. The gap is attributed to compensate the differential thermal dilatation that is grown with the reduced diameter than the diameter of the ampoule. VDS experiments have been proved that the sum of the contact angle and growth angle is large enough to allow detachment without any additional pressure difference under the melt to offset hydrostatic pressure. A meniscus forms at the bottom of the melt, the capillarity effect establishes due to which spontaneous gap could be created by the melt free surface, thus no thermal shear stress and thermo-mechanical stresses at the interface. Detached grown bulk GaSb:In crystals showed superior crystal quality with the highest physical properties and mobility than the crystals grown ever. The axial and radial composition profile of the grown GaSb:In ingots showed variation ≤10%. From the conical region, dislocation density decreases in the growth direction and reaches less than 10{sup 3} cm{sup −2}. - Highlights: ► Detachment: without seed, without ampoule contact, without coating, without external pressure. ► Detached ingot growth samples showed the highest physical properties and the carrier mobility. ► Initial to final transition: in detached growth, dislocations decreases and less than 10{sup 3} cm{sup −2}. ► Detached samples: Raman spectrum shows only TO phonon (110) direction of single orientation. ► Detached ingot: FTIR shows highest transmissions % but decreases on increase doping in samples.

  14. Stages in the Recovery of Deformed Single Crystals of Iron Studied by Position Annihilation Techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Jong-Lam; Waber, James T.; Park, Yong-Ki; Hosson, J.T.M. De

    Isochronal as well as isothermal measurements have been made on high purity single crystals of iron which had been cold rolled about 10% prior to annealing. Two steps were isolated corresponding first to the annihilation of screw dislocations and then to the elimination of edge dislocations at

  15. Full analysis of feldspar texture and crystal structure by combining X-ray and electron techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balic Zunic, Tonci; Piazolo, Sandra; Katerinopoulou, Anna

    2013-01-01

    identification plus crystal structure refinement of all components in a feldspar intergrowth. This procedure was applied to perthitic intergrowths in feldspars from two different pegmatites in the Larvik plutonic complex in the southern part of the Oslo region, Norway. It revealed that the two starting high...

  16. The study of the ion-crystal interaction by using the blocking technique for scattered recoils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karamyan, S.A.

    1989-01-01

    Experimental data are presented on the orientation effects observed in the fast heavy ion irradiated diamond, Si and Ge crystals by recording recoil nuclei. The volume capture of medium-weight nuclei to channeling has first been revealed and studied. Ion damaging power is systematized and the anomalously low damaging power is Xe ions is established. 18 refs.; 9 figs

  17. Resource-saving application of FDTD technique in 3D photonic crystal waveguide calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavrinenko, Andrei; Tromborg, Bjarne

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm based on the well-known FDTD numerical method which is adapted for 3D problems of transmission and reflection of photonic crystal waveguides, and which effectively saves memory and computing resources. Specific examples showing its validity and effectiveness...

  18. Development of non-destructive Young's modulus measurement techniques in non-oriented CeF$_{3}$ crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Pietroni, P; Lebeau, M; Majni, G; Rinaldi, D

    2005-01-01

    For a reliable mechanical assembly of scintillating crystals for the application to radiographic systems such as Positron Emission Tomographer (PET) and high-energy physics calorimeters (e.g. in CMS at CERN LHC), the evaluation of the monocrystal elastic constant (Young's modulus) is needed. Its knowledge is also essential in the photoelastic analysis for the determination of residual stresses. In this work non-destructive techniques based on elastic wave propagation are tested. They differ in the mechanical excitation device: instrumented hammer, traditional ultrasonic probes and laser- generated ultrasound. We have analysed three non-oriented cerium fluoride crystal samples produced for scintillation applications. Finally, we have validated the experimental results comparing them with the elastic constant calculated by using the stiffness matrix.

  19. Development of non-destructive Young's modulus measurement techniques in non-oriented CeF3 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietroni, P.; Paone, N.; Lebeau, M.; Majni, G.; Rinaldi, D.

    2005-01-01

    For a reliable mechanical assembly of scintillating crystals for the application to radiographic systems such as Positron Emission Tomographer (PET) and high-energy physics calorimeters (e.g. in CMS at CERN LHC), the evaluation of the monocrystal elastic constant (Young's modulus) is needed. Its knowledge is also essential in the photoelastic analysis for the determination of residual stresses. In this work non-destructive techniques based on elastic wave propagation are tested. They differ in the mechanical excitation device: instrumented hammer, traditional ultrasonic probes and laser-generated ultrasound. We have analysed three non-oriented cerium fluoride crystal samples produced for scintillation applications. Finally, we have validated the experimental results comparing them with the elastic constant calculated by using the stiffness matrix

  20. Crystal structure and properties of tetragonal EuAg4In8 grown by metal flux technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subbarao, Udumula; Sarkar, Sumanta; Peter, Sebastian C.

    2015-01-01

    The compound EuAg 4 In 8 has been obtained as single crystals in high yield from reactions run in liquid indium. X-ray diffraction on single crystals suggests that EuAg 4 In 8 crystallizes in the CeMn 4 Al 8 structure type, tetragonal space group I4/mmm with lattice constants a=b=9.7937(2) Å and c=5.7492(2) Å. Crystal structure of EuAg 4 In 8 is composed of pseudo Frank–Kasper cages occupied by one europium atom in each ring, which are shared through the corner along the ab plane resulting in a three dimensional network. The magnetic susceptibility of EuAg 4 In 8 was measured in the temperature range 2–300 K, which obeyed Curie–Weiss law above 50 K. Magnetic moment value calculated from the fitting indicates the presence of divalent europium, which was confirmed by X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy. Electrical resistivity measurements suggest that EuAg 4 In 8 is metallic in nature with a probable Fermi liquid behavior at low temperature. - Graphical abstract: The tetragonal EuAg 4 In 8 has been grown as single crystals from reactions run in liquid indium. Magnetic and XANES measurements suggest divalent nature of Eu and resistivity measurements suggest metallic nature. - Highlights: • EuAg 4 In 8 phase having tetragonal phase is grown by metal flux technique. • Magnetic and XANES measurements exhibit divalent nature of Eu in EuAg 4 In 8 . • Resistivity measurement suggests metallic nature and probable Fermi liquid behavior

  1. Nonlinear Optical Characteristics of Crystal VioletDye Doped Polystyrene Films by Using Z-Scan Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahasin F. Hadi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Z-scan technique was employed to study the nonlinear optical properties (nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear absorption coefficient for crystal violet doped polystyrene films as a function of doping ratio in chloroform solvent. Samples exhibits in closed aperture Z-scan positive nonlinear refraction (self-focusing. While in the open aperture Z-scan gives reverse saturation absorption (RSA (positive absorption for all film with different doping ratio making samples candidates for optical limiting devices for protection of sensors and eyes from energetic laser light pulses under the experimental conditions.

  2. Crystal structure analysis of LaMnO_3 with x-ray diffraction technique using the Rietveld method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engkir Sukirman; Wisnu Ari Adi; Yustinus Purwamargapratala

    2010-01-01

    Crystal structure analysis of LaMnO_3 using the Rietveld method has been carried out. The LaMnO_3 sample was synthesized with high energy mechanical milling from the raw materials of La_2O_3 and MnO_2 with the appropriate mol ratio. Milling were performed for 10 hours, pelletized and hereinafter sintered at 1350 °C for 6 hours. The sample characterizations covered the crystal structure and electric-magnetic properties of the materials by X-ray diffraction technique using the Rietveld method and the four point probe, respectively. The Rietveld refinement results based on the X-rays diffraction data indicate that the sample of LaMnO_3 is single phase with the crystal system: orthorhombic, the space group: Pnma No. 62 and the lattice parameters: a = 55.4405(9) Å; b = 7.717(1) Å dan c = 5.537(1) Å. The material owns Magnetic Resonance (MR) respond of 7 %, the mean value of crystallite size, D = 17 nm and lattice strain, e = - 0.5 %. So, the material go through a compressive strain, and according to the Nanda's strain model, it becomes a type G antiferromagnetic insulator. Because the insulator properties of the material does not change although being hit by the external magnetic field, hence the MR respond is only caused by the order of electron spin. Therefore at room temperature, LaMnO_3_._0 just exhibits a small MR respond. (author)

  3. Demonstration of lipofuscin and Nissl bodies in crystal violet stained sections using a fluorescence technique or pyronin Y stain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terr, L I

    1986-09-01

    This paper presents two simple, reliable methods for identification of lipofuscin and Nissl bodies in the same section. One method shows that lipofuscin stained with crystal violet retains its ability to fluoresce and can be observed under the fluorescence microscope after the stain has faded. Fading is accompanied by a gradual increase in the intensity of the fluorescence and is complete in about 5 min. Exciting illumination from this part of the spectrum also substantially fades staining of other autofluorescing tissue elements, such as lipids. Nonfluorescing structures, such as Nissl bodies, remain stained. By changing from transillumination with tungsten light to epifluorescent illumination and vice versa, both types of structures--Nissl bodies and lipofuscin--can be identified in the same section. The second technique uses pyronin Y for staining Nissl bodies in preparations previously stained with crystal violet. Nissl bodies are stained pink but lipofuscin remains violet. Lipofuscin in these sections also remains autofluorescent after the crystal violet stain has faded under violet or near-UV light.

  4. Measuring fission lifetimes with the crystal-blocking technique in mono-crystal, access to nuclear dissipation; Mesures de temps de fission par la technique d'ombre dans les monocristaux: un acces a la dissipation nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basnary, St

    2002-10-01

    Energy dissipation in nuclear matter may play an important role in the determination of the way through which heavy nuclei des-excite: fission or particle evaporation. An important dissipation should imply longer interval of time during which the nucleus is deformed. In that way the measurement of fission lifetimes may shed light on energy dissipation, but these measurements are very delicate to perform. Most available data on deformation times come from indirect measurements combined with the use of more or less valid models. The crystal-blocking lifetime technique in mono-crystals allows the direct measurement of long fission lifetimes. This technique has been applied to different nuclei situated in the proximity of lead. We have obtained relatively high values: {tau} > 3.10{sup -19} s for both lead and uranium which implies a strong dissipation of energy. The computation of dissipation coefficients has led to the following values: {beta} {approx_equal} 2.10{sup 21} /s for lead and {beta} {>=} 6.10{sup 21} /s for uranium (E{sup *} > 120 MeV). These results show that dissipation effects have to be taken into account in the determination of the deexcitation way. (A.C.)

  5. Determination of intrinsic polarization for K{sub 2}ZnCl{sub 4} single crystal grown by Czochralski technique for ferroelectric applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Sonu [Crystal Lab, Department of Physics & Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi-7 (India); Ray, Geeta [Crystal Lab, Department of Physics & Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi-7 (India); Physics Department, Miranda House, University of Delhi, Delhi-7 (India); Sinha, Nidhi [Crystal Lab, Department of Physics & Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi-7 (India); Department of Electronics, SGTB Khalsa College, University of Delhi, Delhi-7 (India); Kumar, Binay, E-mail: b3kumar69@yahoo.co.in [Crystal Lab, Department of Physics & Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi-7 (India)

    2017-04-01

    Large sized single crystal of K{sub 2}ZnCl{sub 4} (KZC) was grown by Czochralski (Cz) technique. Structural parameters of KZC were determined by Single crystal X-ray diffraction (SCXRD). From DSC analysis and temperature dependent dielectric measurement, KZC crystal was found to show Curie phase transition at 151 °C. TG/DTA confirmed the melting point that was found to be 443 °C. The value of piezoelectric charge coefficient (d{sub 33}) for KZC crystal was found to be 32 pC/N demonstrating their applicability in transducers and piezoelectric devices. Ferroelectric P-E loop for the grown crystal was traced at room temperature and the intrinsic polarization obtained by PUND measurement was found to be 0.1398 μC/cm{sup 2} indicating its applicability in switching devices. The energy band gap for KZC single crystal was found to be 6.13 eV. Vickers micro-hardness test revealed soft nature of KZC single crystals. - Highlights: • Large sized K{sub 2}ZnCl{sub 4} (KZC) single crystal was grown by Czochralski technique. • It possesses high Curie temperature as 151 °C. • d{sub 33} coefficient was found to be 32 pC/N. • Intrinsic polarization measured by PUND. • Its direct band gap energy was calculated to be 6.13 eV.

  6. Techniques and processes for the measurement of the resonances of small single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migliori, A.; Stekel, A.; Sarrao, J.L.; Visscher, W.M.; Bell, T.; Lei, M.

    1991-01-01

    The mechanical resonances of small oriented single crystals of materials of interest to basic science and engineering can be used to determine all the elastic moduli and the ultrasonic attenuation of these materials. To measure the resonances of the samples without introducing the resonances of the measuring system requires that the transducers be non-resonant at the frequencies of interest, and that they be well isolated from their mounts. However, for samples near 1 mm in the largest dimension, the transducer design problem becomes sever, and the signals become weak. In addition, no resonances can be missed, and, often, the symmetry class of the resonances must be known. We outline here appropriate transducer, electronics, and system designs to circumvent these problems. 10 refs., 4 figs

  7. Study of In distribution on GaInSb:Al crystals by ion beam techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streicher, M., E-mail: smorgana@gmail.com [Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Ipiranga, 6681, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear (IPFN), Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, E.N. 10, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Corregidor, V.; Catarino, N. [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear (IPFN), Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, E.N. 10, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Alves, L.C. [Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias Nucleares (C2TN), Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, E.N. 10, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Franco, N. [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear (IPFN), Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, E.N. 10, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Fonseca, M. [Universidade Europeia, Laureate International Universities, 1500-210 Lisboa (Portugal); Laboratório de Instrumentação, Engenharia Biomédica e Física da Radiação (LIBPhys-UNL), Departamento de Física, FCT-UNL, 2829-516 Monte da Caparica (Portugal); and others

    2016-03-15

    III–V ternary alloys semiconductor materials, in particular Ga{sub 1−x}In{sub x}Sb, are ideal candidates for device substrates because of the possibility to define the lattice constant as a function of the third element, indium. Aluminum, an isoelectric dopant for Ga and In, increases the carrier mobility in GaSb crystals and has influence over the concentration of native defects by passivating and/or compensating them. To understand the influence of Al on the distribution of indium in ternary alloys of Ga{sub 0.8}In{sub 0.2}Sb, pure and doped ingots were obtained with approximately 10{sup 20} atoms/cm{sup 3} of Al using a vertical Bridgman system. Analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and particle induced gamma ray emission (PIGE) were used to obtain information on the structure defects and chemical composition of the crystals. The doped ingots showed good structural homogeneity when compared with the undoped alloy, and they were free from cracks and micro cracks. All of the obtained ingots present precipitates, twins and grains with different concentrations of In. The small compositional variation observed in the doped ingots along the radial direction (measured by PIXE), may be related to the solid–liquid interface’s quasi-equilibrium behavior. Regarding to the growth direction, it was observed that the undoped ingots exhibit a higher segregation phenomenon of the third element than the doped ingots. The obtained results indicate that aluminum influences the indium distribution in the ingots, thus ternary ingots with more homogeneous composition can be obtained and consequently electrical properties improved.

  8. The X'tal cube PET detector with a monolithic crystal processed by the 3D sub-surface laser engraving technique: Performance comparison with glued crystal elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Eiji, E-mail: rush@nirs.go.jp [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Tashima, Hideaki; Inadama, Naoko; Nishikido, Fumihiko [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Moriya, Takahiro; Omura, Tomohide; Watanabe, Mitsuo [Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 5000 Hirakuchi, Hamakita-ku, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka 434-8601 (Japan); Murayama, Hideo; Yamaya, Taiga [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

    2013-09-21

    The X'tal cube is a depth-of-interaction (DOI)-PET detector which is aimed at obtaining isotropic resolution by effective readout of scintillation photons from six sides of the crystal block. The X'tal cube is composed of a 3D crystal block with isotropic segments. Each face of the 3D crystal block is covered with a 4×4 array of multi-pixel photon counters (MPPCs). Previously, in order to fabricate the 3D crystal block efficiently and precisely, we applied a sub-surface laser engraving technique to a monolithic crystal block instead of gluing segmented small crystals. A dense arrangement of multiple micro-cracks carved by the laser beam works efficiently as a scattering wall for the scintillation photons. The X'tal cube with the laser-processed block showed excellent performance with respect to crystal identification and energy resolution. In this work, for characteristics comparison between the laser-processed block and the conventional segmented array block, we made the laser-processed block and two types of segmented array blocks, one with air gaps and the other with glued segmented small crystals. All crystal blocks had 3D grids of 2 mm pitch. The 4×4 MPPC arrays were optically coupled to each surface of the crystal block. When performance was evaluated using a uniform irradiation of 511 keV, we found that the X'tal cubes with the laser-processed block could easily achieve 2 mm{sup 3} uniform crystal identification. Also, the average energy resolution of each 3D grid was 11.1±0.7%. On the other hand, the glued segmented array block had a pinched distribution and crystals could not be separated clearly. The segmented array block with air gaps had satisfactory crystal identification performance; however, the laser-processed block had higher crystal identification performance. Also, the energy resolution of the laser-processed block was better than for the segmented array blocks. In summary, we found the laser-processed X'tal cube had

  9. Waveguide-coupled micro-ball lens array suitable for mass fabrication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, Lantian; Dijkstra, Meindert; Ismail, Nur; Pollnau, Markus; de Ridder, René M; Wörhoff, Kerstin; Subramaniam, Vinod; Kanger, Johannes S

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a fabrication procedure for the direct integration of micro-ball lenses on planar integrated optical channel waveguide chips with the aim to reduce the divergence of light that arises from the waveguide in both horizontal and vertical directions. Fabrication of the lenses is based on

  10. Growth of multiferroic Gd1-xYxMnO3 single crystals by optical floating zone technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarguna, R.M.; Ganesamoorthy, S.; Sridharan, V.; Subramanian, N.

    2014-01-01

    Rare earth manganites RMnO 3 with distorted perovskite structure are excellent multiferroic materials. The discovery of magnetic spin driven ferroelectricity in orthorhombic manganites (TbMnO 3 ) has sparked a surge in research into understanding the fundamental mechanism of multiferroic behavior. These systems fall under the category of type-2 multiferroics, the change of spatially modulated magnetic moment from sinusoidal to cycloidal gives rise to electric polarization. The magnetic structure depends upon the Mn-O-Mn bond angle. GdMnO 3 shows multiferroic properties only in the presence of applied magnetic field. When a magnetic field is applied along the b-axis, GdMnO 3 enters a ferroelectric state with an electric polarisation along the c-axis. By altering the Mn-O-Mn angle it is expected that GdMnO 3 will show multiferroic property even in the absence of magnetic field like TbMnO 3 . To alter the Mn-O-Mn bond angle GdMnO 3 was substituted with Y having lower ionic radius at Gd site. The effect of Y doping at the rare-earth site in GdMnO 3 investigated on polycrystalline samples of Gd 1-x Y x MnO 3 demonstrated a magneto-electric coupling in x=0.1-0.4. Single crystals are expected to give much amplified signal in respect of ferroelectric and magnetic properties. In this work we have grown Y substituted Gd 1-x Y x MnO 3 (x = 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4) by optical floating zone technique under different gas atmosphere. Growth rate of 1-2 mm/h yielded crack free crystals. Quality of the crystals was checked using Laue diffraction. Effect of growth rate and atmosphere pressure will be presented in this talk. (author)

  11. Study and identification of paramagnetic centers by EPR technique in K3Cu(CN)4 crystals irradiated with X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tancredo, A.

    1984-01-01

    Paramagnetic centers created in K 3 Cu(CN) 4 crystals by X-ray irradiation, using EPR technique are studied. The crystals are irradiated in following conditions: a) liquid nitrogen temperatures, b) room temperatures. Crystals field models of the paramagnetic centers which determine the following local symmetric in order to satisfy experimental results: a) Cu ++ in C sub(3v) symmetric and b) K 0 in distorted octahedral symmetry are proposed. The decay of these centers and the observation that Cu ++ ions are very much instable and disappear at T = 148K are studied. The K 0 atom remain up to T approximatelly 300K. (E.G.) [pt

  12. Structural characteristics and physical properties of diortho(pyro)silicate crystals of lanthanides yttrium and scandium grown by the Czochralski technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anan' eva, G.V.; Karapetyan, V.E.; Korovkin, A.M.; Merkulyaeva, T.I.; Peschanskaya, I.A.; Savinova, I.P.; Feofilov, P.P. (Gosudarstvennyj Opticheskij Inst., Leningrad (USSR))

    1982-03-01

    Optically uniform monocrystals of diortho (pyro) silicates of lanthanides, yttrium, and scandium were grown by the Czochralski technique. Four structural types of Ln/sub 2/(Si/sub 2/O/sub 7/) crystals were determined by the roentgenographic method. The presence of structural subgroups was also supported by the method of spectroscopic probes. Structural parameters were determined and data on certain physical properties (fusion temperature, density, refractive indices, transparency) of investigated crystals were presented. The generation of induced emission at lambda=1.057 ..mu..m was obtained in La/sub 2/(Si/sub 2/O/sub 7/)-Nd/sup 3 +/ crystal.

  13. The stability of PEMFC electrodes : platinum dissolution vs potential and temperature investigated by quartz crystal microbalance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, V.A.T.; Bruijn, de F.A.

    2007-01-01

    The stability of platinum in proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) electrodes has been investigated by determining the dissolution of platinum from a thin platinum film deposited on a gold substrate in 1 M HClO4 at different temperatures ranging between 40 and 80°C and potentials between 0.85

  14. Determination of the dopant weight fraction in polyaniline films using a quartz-crystal microbalance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ayad, M. M.; Zaki, E. A.; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 515, č. 23 (2007), s. 8381-8385 ISSN 0040-6090 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4050313 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : dopant weight fraction * polyaniline * polyaniline film Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.693, year: 2007

  15. Application of an Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance to the study of electrocatalytic films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, Jr., James S. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1993-09-01

    The EQCM was used to study the deposition and composition of electrodeposited pure PbO2 and Bi-doped PbO2 active toward anodic oxygen-transfer reactions. Within the doped films, Bi is incorporated as Bi+5 in the form of BiO2A, where A is ClO4- or NO3-. For deposition of these 2 materials, changes in hydration between the Au oxide and the depositing film resulted in higher mass-to-charge ratios. XRD and XPS were used to study the films; the rutile structure of PbO2 is retained even with the Bi doping. The EQCM was also used to study the formation and dissolution of Au oxide and preoxide structures formed on the Au substrate electrodes in acidic media. The preoxide structures were AuOH and increased the surface mass. For the formation of stable Au films on quartz wafers, Ti interlayers between Au and quartz was found to be very effective.

  16. 'Observation' of dislocation motion in single crystal and polycrystalline aluminum during uniaxial deformation using photoemission technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, M.; Levine, L.E.; Langford, S.C.; Dickinson, J.T.

    2005-01-01

    We report measurements of photostimulated electron emission (PSE) from single-crystalline aluminum (99.995%) and high-purity polycrystalline aluminum (>99.9%) during uniaxial tensile deformation. Photoelectron intensities are sensitive to changes in surface morphology accompanying deformation, including slip line and slip band formation. In the single crystalline material, the PSE intensity increases linearly with strain. In the polycrystalline material, the PSE intensity increases exponentially with strain. In both materials, time-resolved PSE measurements show step-like increases in intensity consistent with the heterogeneous nucleation and growth of slip bands during tensile deformation. In this sense, we have 'observed' dislocation motion by this technique. Slip bands on the surfaces of deformed samples were subsequently imaged by atomic-force microscopy (AFM). Photoelectron measurements can provide reliable, quantitative information for dislocation dynamics

  17. RNA Crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Barbara L.; Kundrot, Craig E.

    2003-01-01

    RNA molecules may be crystallized using variations of the methods developed for protein crystallography. As the technology has become available to syntheisize and purify RNA molecules in the quantities and with the quality that is required for crystallography, the field of RNA structure has exploded. The first consideration when crystallizing an RNA is the sequence, which may be varied in a rational way to enhance crystallizability or prevent formation of alternate structures. Once a sequence has been designed, the RNA may be synthesized chemically by solid-state synthesis, or it may be produced enzymatically using RNA polymerase and an appropriate DNA template. Purification of milligram quantities of RNA can be accomplished by HPLC or gel electrophoresis. As with proteins, crystallization of RNA is usually accomplished by vapor diffusion techniques. There are several considerations that are either unique to RNA crystallization or more important for RNA crystallization. Techniques for design, synthesis, purification, and crystallization of RNAs will be reviewed here.

  18. ACRT technique for the single crystal growth of the heavy fermion compound YbRh{sub 2}Si{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witt, Sebastian; Kliemt, Kristin; Butzke, Constantin; Krellner, Cornelius [Goethe University Frankfurt, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    In the heavy fermion compound YbRh{sub 2}Si{sub 2} the antiferromagnetic ordering below 70 mK close to a quantum critical point is well-studied. Beneath the magnetic ordering a new phase transition was found recently at 2 mK. It is necessary to prepare large and high-quality single crystals for studying the nature of this new phase transition. Besides the optimization of the single crystal growth it is important to investigate single crystals with different isotopes at this phase transition. Here, we report the crystal growth of YbRh{sub 2}Si{sub 2} with the accelerated crucible rotation technique (ACRT). ACRT shows for other compounds, e.g. YAG (yttrium aluminum garnet, Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}), that this technique can reduce flux impurities and enhance the yield of larger crystals. We also report the attempt to receive metallic isotopes of ytterbium with metallothermic reduction. Crystals with different isotopes of silicon and ytterbium can be used for NMR measurements to investigate the underlying phenomena of quantum criticality in more detail.

  19. Polarization switching detection method using a ferroelectric liquid crystal for dichroic atomic vapor laser lock frequency stabilization techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudzik, Grzegorz; Rzepka, Janusz; Abramski, Krzysztof M

    2015-04-01

    We present a concept of the polarization switching detection method implemented for frequency-stabilized lasers, called the polarization switching dichroic atomic vapor laser lock (PSDAVLL) technique. It is a combination of the well-known dichroic atomic vapor laser lock method for laser frequency stabilization with a synchronous detection system based on the surface-stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystal (SSFLC).The SSFLC is a polarization switch and quarter wave-plate component. This technique provides a 9.6 dB better dynamic range ratio (DNR) than the well-known two-photodiode detection configuration known as the balanced polarimeter. This paper describes the proposed method used practically in the VCSEL laser frequency stabilization system. The applied PSDAVLL method has allowed us to obtain a frequency stability of 2.7×10⁻⁹ and a reproducibility of 1.2×10⁻⁸, with a DNR of detected signals of around 81 dB. It has been shown that PSDAVLL might be successfully used as a method for spectra-stable laser sources.

  20. A Low-wear Planar-contact Silicon Raceway for Microball Bearing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    of friction between stainless steel microballs and silicon grooves (18–20). Both linear and rotary micromotors for sensor platforms were developed...mechanism, like a micromotor , will enable devices to reach higher speeds. Previously, the radial surface wear track depth was >15 m for a device...can lead to significant whirl and axial misalignment, which is critical for micromotor and micropump applications. Small changes in the alignment

  1. Use of the microball for studies of super- and hyper-deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarantites, D.G.

    1995-01-01

    The study of the many fascinating aspects of the highly deformed nuclei at high spin has become possible with multidetector arrays such as Gammasphere that are coming on line. However, the issues of superdeformation in light systems and of hyper-deformation can best be addressed by augmenting Gammasphere with other auxilliary devices such as the Microball. The recent discovery and characterization of a new island of superdeformation in the Z∼38 and N∼44 region, and attempts to observe hyper deformation with Gammasphere in conjunction with the Microball, a 4π charged particle multidetector array, will be reviewed. For light compound systems (A≤120) the Microball enhances considerably the resolving power of Gammasphere using the advantages of 'total spectroscopy' which allows (a) efficient exit channel selection, thus eliminating interfering transitions, (b) dramatic improvement of the energy resolution from event-by-event determination of the recoil direction, which makes possible precise Doppler shift corrections, and (c) selection of cascades originating from high spin states by gating on excitation energy and thus suppressing competing low spin γ cascades. Recent experiments to study the continuum and the discrete line structure of hyper-deformed nuclei (major to minor axis ratio 3:1) will be discussed. These structures appear to be formed only when a proton is emitted among the evaporated particles. Possible scenarios for the role played by this proton will be discussed

  2. Surface-Initiated Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization and Electrografting Technique as a Means For Attaining Tailor-Made Polymer Coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chernyy, Sergey

    2012-01-01

    strategies for initiator grafting, physicochemical properties of polymer brushes and basic principles of quartz crystal microbalance technique (QCM) are discussed. In Chapter 2 various ATRP conditions are probed. The effects of solvent polarity, monomer concentration, initiator surface density, ligand nature......Atom transfer radical polymerization initiated from a surface of various substrates (SI-ATRP) has become a progressively popular technique for obtaining thin polymer films with predetermined properties. The present work addresses the main features of SI-ATRP with respect to the controllability...... and temperature on the kinetics of methyl methacrylate polymerization are elucidated. The strategy was based on the observation of dry polymer thickness versus time evolution by means of ellipsometry, profilometry and IR spectroscopy. An alternative approach, constituting Chapter 3, was based on optimization...

  3. Crystal and electronic structure study of AgAu and AgCu bimetallic alloy thin films by X-ray techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozkendir, O. Murat, E-mail: ozkendir@gmail.com [Mersin University, Faculty of Technology, Energy Systems Engineering, Tarsus (Turkey); Mersin University, Institute of Natural Science, Department of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials, Mersin (Turkey); Cengiz, E. [Karadeniz Technical University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Trabzon (Turkey); Yalaz, E. [Mersin University, Institute of Natural Science, Department of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials, Mersin (Turkey); Söğüt, Ö.; Ayas, D.H. [Kahramanmaraş Sütçü İmam Üniversitesi, Faculty of Science and Letters, Department of Physics, Kahramanmaraş (Turkey); Thammajak, B. Nirawat [Synchrotron Light Research Institute (Public Organisation), 111 University Avenue, T. Suranaree, A. Muang, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000 (Thailand)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Crystal and electronic properties of bimetallic AgCu and AgAu alloy thin films were studied. • Both AgCu and AgAu bimetallic samples were determined to have cubic crystal geometry. • Strong influence of Cu and Au atoms on the electronic structure of the Ag atoms were determined. - Abstract: Crystal and electronic structure properties of bimetallic AgAu and AgCu alloy thin films were investigated by X-ray spectroscopic techniques. The aim of this study is to probe the influence of Au or Cu atoms on the electronic behaviors of Ag ions in bimetallic alloy materials that yields different crystal properties. To identify the mechanisms causing crystal phase transitions, study were supported by the collected EXAFS (Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure) data. Crystal structures of both Cu and Au doped bimetallic Ag samples were determined mainly in cubic geometry with “Fm3m” space group. Through the Ag–Au and Ag–Cu molecular interactions during bimetallic alloy formations, highly overlapped electronic levels that supports large molecular band formations were observed with different ionization states. Besides, traces of the d–d interactions in Au rich samples were determined as the main interplay in the broad molecular bond formations. The exact atomic locations and types in the samples were determined by EXAFS studies and supported by the performed calculations with FEFF scientific code.

  4. Thermomechanical and Photophysical Properties of Crystal-Violet-Dye/H2O Based Dissolutions via the Pulsed Laser Photoacoustic Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Torres-Zúñiga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Different thermoelastic parameters, for example, the acoustic attenuation and the speed of sound, are fundamental for instrumental calibration and quantitative characterization of organic-based dissolutions. In this work, these parameters as functions of the concentration of an organic dye (crystal-violet: CV in distillated water (H2O based dissolutions are investigated. The speed of sound was measured by the pulsed-laser photoacoustic technique (PLPA, which consists in the generation of acoustic-waves by the optical absorption of pulsed light in a given material (in this case a liquid sample. The thermally generated sound-waves traveling through a fluid are detected with two piezoelectric sensors separated by a known distance. An appropriate processing of the photoacoustic signals allows an adequate data analysis of the generated waves within the system, providing an accurate determination of the speed of sound as function of the dye-concentration. The acoustic attenuation was calculated based on the distance of the two PZT-microphones to an acoustic-source point and performing linear-fitting of the experimental data (RMS-amplitudes as function of the dye-concentration. An important advantage of the PLPA-method is that it can be implemented with poor or null optical transmitting materials permitting the characterization of the mechanical and concentration/aggregate properties of dissolved organic compounds.

  5. Compact Liquid Crystal Based Tunable Band-Stop Filter with an Ultra-Wide Stopband by Using Wave Interference Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longzhu Cai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A wave interference filtering section that consists of three stubs of different lengths, each with an individual stopband of its own central frequency, is reported here for the design of band-stop filters (BSFs with ultra-wide and sharp stopbands as well as large attenuation characteristics. The superposition of the individual stopbands provides the coverage over an ultra-wide frequency range. Equations and guidelines are presented for the application of a new wave interference technique to adjust the rejection level and width of its stopband. Based on that, an electrically tunable ultra-wide stopband BSF using a liquid crystal (LC material for ultra-wideband (UWB applications is designed. Careful treatment of the bent stubs, including impedance matching of the main microstrip line and bent stubs together with that of the SMA connectors and impedance adaptors, was carried out for the compactness and minimum insertion and reflection losses. The experimental results of the fabricated device agree very well with that of the simulation. The centre rejection frequency as measured can be tuned between 4.434 and 4.814 GHz when a biased voltage of 0–20 Vrms is used. The 3 dB and 25 dB stopband bandwidths were 4.86 GHz and 2.51 GHz, respectively, which are larger than that of other recently reported LC based tunable BSFs.

  6. Microscopy and Chemical Inversing Techniques to Determine the Photonic Crystal Structure of Iridescent Beetle Scales in the Cerambycidae Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richey, Lauren; Gardner, John; Standing, Michael; Jorgensen, Matthew; Bartl, Michael

    2010-10-01

    Photonic crystals (PCs) are periodic structures that manipulate electromagnetic waves by defining allowed and forbidden frequency bands known as photonic band gaps. Despite production of PC structures operating at infrared wavelengths, visible counterparts are difficult to fabricate because periodicities must satisfy the diffraction criteria. As part of an ongoing search for naturally occurring PCs [1], a three-dimensional array of nanoscopic spheres in the iridescent scales of the Cerambycidae insects A. elegans and G. celestis has been found. Such arrays are similar to opal gemstones and self-assembled colloidal spheres which can be chemically inverted to create a lattice-like PC. Through a chemical replication process [2], scanning electron microscopy analysis, sequential focused ion beam slicing and three-dimensional modeling, we analyzed the structural arrangement of the nanoscopic spheres. The study of naturally occurring structures and their inversing techniques into PCs allows for diversity in optical PC fabrication. [1] J.W. Galusha et al., Phys. Rev. E 77 (2008) 050904. [2] J.W. Galusha et al., J. Mater. Chem. 20 (2010) 1277.

  7. A simple technique to reduce evaporation of crystallization droplets by using plate lids with apertures for adding liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipper, Lauren E.; Aristide, Xavier; Bishop, Dylan P.; Joshi, Ishita; Kharzeev, Julia; Patel, Krishna B.; Santiago, Brianna M.; Joshi, Karan; Dorsinvil, Kahille; Sweet, Robert M.; Soares, Alexei S.

    2014-01-01

    A method is described for using plate lids to reduce evaporation in low-volume vapor-diffusion crystallization experiments. The plate lids contain apertures through which the protein and precipitants were added to different crystallization microplates (the reservoir was filled before fitting the lids). Plate lids were designed for each of these commonly used crystallization microplates. This system minimizes the dehydration of crystallization droplets containing just a few nanolitres of protein and precipitant, and results in more reproducible diffraction from the crystals. For each lid design, changes in the weight of the plates were used to deduce the rate of evaporation under different conditions of temperature, air movement, droplet size and precipitant. For comparison, the state of dehydration was also visually assessed throughout the experiment. Finally, X-ray diffraction methods were used to compare the diffraction of protein crystals that were conventionally prepared against those that were prepared on plates with plate lids. The measurements revealed that the plate lids reduced the rate of evaporation by 63–82%. Crystals grown in 5 nl drops that were set up with plate lids diffracted to higher resolution than similar crystals from drops that were set up without plate lids. The results demonstrate that plate lids can be instrumental for improving few-nanolitre crystallizations. PMID:25484231

  8. Techniques for the measurement of trace moisture in high-purity electronic specialty gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funke, Hans H.; Grissom, Brad L.; McGrew, Clark E.; Raynor, Mark W.

    2003-01-01

    The control of water vapor (moisture) contamination in process gases is critical to the successful manufacture of semiconductor devices. As specified moisture levels have become more stringent, there is a growing demand for more sensitive analytical methods. Instrumental methods currently being used or in development for measuring trace moisture at ppbv levels include Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy, cavity ringdown spectroscopy, intracavity laser spectroscopy, electron impact ionization mass spectrometry, and atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry. In addition, sensor-based technologies such as oscillating quartz crystal microbalances, and chilled mirror-, capacitor-, and electrolytic-based hygrometers operate in this regime. These approaches are presented and reviewed. As the success of each trace moisture method is dependent on the degree to which the different process gases interfere with the measurement process, important process gas applications of the techniques are highlighted. Advantages and disadvantages as well as future developments and trends are also presented

  9. Study of the electrodeposition of rhenium thin films by electrochemical quartz microbalance and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrebler, R.; Cury, P.; Suarez, C.; Munoz, E.; Vera, F.; Cordova, R.; Gomez, H.; Ramos-Barrado, J.R.; Leinen, D.; Dalchiele, E.A.

    2005-01-01

    Rhenium thin films were prepared by electrodeposition from an aqueous solution containing 0.1 M Na 2 SO 4 +H 2 SO 4 , pH 2 in presence of y mM HReO 4 . As substrates polycrystalline gold (y=0.75 mM HReO 4 ) and monocrystalline n-Si(100) (y=40 mM HReO 4 ) were used. The electrochemical growth of rhenium was studied by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical quartz microbalance on gold electrodes. The results found in the potential region before the hydrogen evolution reaction (her) showed that ReO 3 , ReO 2 and Re 2 O 3 with different hydration grades can be formed. In the potential region where the her is occurring, either on gold or n-Si(100) the electrodeposition of metallic rhenium takes place. On both substrates, rhenium films were formed by electrolysis at constant potential and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy technique was used to characterise these deposits. It was concluded that the electrodeposited films were of metallic rhenium and only the uppermost atomic layer contained rhenium oxide species

  10. A simple technique to reduce evaporation of crystallization droplets by using plate lids with apertures for adding liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zipper, Lauren E. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Binghamton University, 4400 Vestal Parkway East, Vestal, NY 13902 (United States); Aristide, Xavier [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); North Babylon High School, 1 Phelps Lane North, Babylon, NY 11703 (United States); Bishop, Dylan P. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Northport High School, 154 Laurel Hill Road, Northport, NY 11768 (United States); Joshi, Ishita [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); St Augustine Catholic High School, 2188 Rodick Road, Markham, ON L6C 1S3 (Canada); Kharzeev, Julia [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Earl L. Vandermeulen High School, 350 Old Post Road, Port Jefferson, NY 11777 (United States); Patel, Krishna B. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); John P. Stevens High School, 855 Grove Avenue, Edison, NJ 08820 (United States); Santiago, Brianna M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Connetquot High School, 190 7th Street, Bohemia, NY 11716 (United States); Joshi, Karan [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Department of Electronics and Electrical Communication Engineering, PEC University of Technology, Chandigarh (India); Dorsinvil, Kahille [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Sweet, Robert M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Soares, Alexei S., E-mail: soares@bnl.gov [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States)

    2014-11-28

    This article describes the use of evaporation control lids that are fitted to crystallization plates to improve the reproducibility of trials using as little as 5 nl. The plate lids contain apertures which are large enough for the transfer of protein containing droplets, but small enough to greatly reduce the rate of evaporation during the time needed to prepare the plate. A method is described for using plate lids to reduce evaporation in low-volume vapor-diffusion crystallization experiments. The plate lids contain apertures through which the protein and precipitants were added to different crystallization microplates (the reservoir was filled before fitting the lids). Plate lids were designed for each of these commonly used crystallization microplates. This system minimizes the dehydration of crystallization droplets containing just a few nanolitres of protein and precipitant, and results in more reproducible diffraction from the crystals. For each lid design, changes in the weight of the plates were used to deduce the rate of evaporation under different conditions of temperature, air movement, droplet size and precipitant. For comparison, the state of dehydration was also visually assessed throughout the experiment. Finally, X-ray diffraction methods were used to compare the diffraction of protein crystals that were conventionally prepared against those that were prepared on plates with plate lids. The measurements revealed that the plate lids reduced the rate of evaporation by 63–82%. Crystals grown in 5 nl drops that were set up with plate lids diffracted to higher resolution than similar crystals from drops that were set up without plate lids. The results demonstrate that plate lids can be instrumental for improving few-nanolitre crystallizations.

  11. Miniature quartz crystal-resonator-based thermogravimetric detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai, N; Tagawa, Y; Sohgawa, M; Abe, T

    2014-09-01

    In this work, a new design for a microheater combined with a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) array for thermogravimetric analysis is presented. Each QCM consists of two electrodes to excite thickness-shear-mode vibrations and one microheater to increase the temperature on the crystal backside. In addition, all the electrode pads are patterned on the crystal backside, making the design of the QCM compact and user-friendly. Finally, the proposed QCM array was employed to separate ethanol from methanol. This was successfully achieved via thermal desorption spectra calculated by differentiating the frequency changes.

  12. Micro-balance sensor integrated with atomic layer deposition chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinson, Alex B. F.; Libera, Joseph A.; Elam, Jeffrey W.; Riha, Shannon C.

    2018-01-02

    The invention is directed to QCM measurements in monitoring ALD processes. Previously, significant barriers remain in the ALD processes and accurate execution. To turn this exclusively dedicated in situ technique into a routine characterization method, an integral QCM fixture was developed. This new design is easily implemented on a variety of ALD tools, allows rapid sample exchange, prevents backside deposition, and minimizes both the footprint and flow disturbance. Unlike previous QCM designs, the fast thermal equilibration enables tasks such as temperature-dependent studies and ex situ sample exchange, further highlighting the feasibility of this QCM design for day-to-day use. Finally, the in situ mapping of thin film growth rates across the ALD reactor was demonstrated in a popular commercial tool operating in both continuous and quasi-static ALD modes.

  13. A Layered Solution Crystal Growth Technique and the Crystal Structure of (C 6H 5C 2H 4NH 3) 2PbCl 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitzi, D. B.

    1999-07-01

    Single crystals of the organic-inorganic perovskite (C6H5C2H4NH3)2PbCl4 have been grown at room temperature using a layered solution approach. The bottom solution layer, contained within a long straight tube, consists of PbCl2 dissolved in concentrated aqueous HCl. A less dense layer of methanol is carefully placed on top of the HCl/PbCl2 solution using a syringe. Finally, a stoichiometric quantity of C6H5C2H4NH2 (relative to the PbCl2) is added to the top of the column. As the layers slowly diffuse together, well-formed crystals of (C6H5C2H4NH3)2PbCl4 appear near the interface between the HCl/PbCl2 and C6H5C2H4NH2 solutions. The thick, plate-like crystals are well suited for X-ray crystallography studies. Room temperature intensity data were refined using a triclinic (Poverline1) cell (a=11.1463(3) Å, b=11.2181(3) Å, c=17.6966(5) Å, α= 99.173(1)°, β=104.634(1)°, γ=89.999(1)°, V=2111.8(1) Å3, Z=4, Rf/Rw=0.031/0.044). The organic-inorganic layered perovskite structure features well-ordered sheets of corner-sharing distorted PbCl6 octahedra separated by bilayers of phenethylammonium cations. Tilting and rotation of the PbCl6 octahedra within the perovskite sheets, coupled with organic cation ordering, leads to the unusual in-sheet 2ap×2ap superstructure, where ap is the lattice constant for the ideal cubic perovskite.

  14. Evaluation of bent-crystal x-ray backlighting and microscopy techniques for the Sandia Z machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinars, Daniel B; Bennett, Guy R; Wenger, David F; Cuneo, Michael E; Porter, John L

    2003-07-01

    X-ray backlighting and microscopy systems for the 1-10-keV range based on spherically or toroidally bent crystals are discussed. These systems are ideal for use on the Sandia Z machine, a megajoule-class x-ray facility. Near-normal-incidence crystal microscopy systems have been shown to be more efficient than pinhole cameras with the same spatial resolution and magnification [Appl. Opt. 37, 1784 (1998)]. We show that high-resolution (< or = 10 microm) x-ray backlighting systems using bent crystals can be more efficient than analogous point-projection imaging systems. Examples of bent-crystal-backlighting results that demonstrate 10-microm resolution over a 20-mm field of view are presented.

  15. Evaluation of bent-crystal x-ray backlighting and microscopy techniques for the Sandia Z machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinars, Daniel B.; Wenger, David F.; Cuneo, Michael E.; Porter, John L.; Bennett, Guy R.

    2003-01-01

    X-ray backlighting and microscopy systems for the 1-10-keV range based on spherically or toroidally bent crystals are discussed. These systems are ideal for use on the Sandia Z machine, a megajoule-class x-ray facility. Near-normal-incidence crystal microscopy systems have been shown to be more efficient than pinhole cameras with the same spatial resolution and magnification [Appl. Opt. 37, 1784 (1998)]. We show that high-resolution (≤10 μm) x-ray backlighting systems using bent crystals can be more efficient than analogous point-projection imaging systems. Examples of bent-crystal-backlighting results that demonstrate 10-μm resolution over a 20-mm field of view are presented

  16. New Programs Utilizing Light Scattering and Flow Imaging Techniques for Macromolecular Crystal Growth and Fluid Dynamics Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Dr. Phil Segre, a physicist by training, is a recent addition to the Biotech group, SD46, having joined NASA in August of 2000. Over the past two years he has been developing a laboratory for the study of macromolecular and protein crystal growth. The main apparatus for this work is a Dynamic Light Scattering apparatus, DLS, which is capable of making highly precise measurements of size distributions of both protein solutions and protein crystals. With Drs. Chernov and Thomas (USRA), he has begun a collaboration studying the affects of protein impurities on protein crystal growth and subsequent crystal quality. One of the hypotheses behind the differences between Earth and space grown protein crystals is that the absorption of harmful impurities is reduced in space due to the absence of convective flows. Using DLS measurements we are examining crystal growth with varying amounts of impurities and testing whether there is a strong physical basis behind this hypothesis. With Dr. Joe Ng of UAH he has been collaborating on a project to examine the folding/unfolding dynamics of large RNA complexes. A detailed understanding of this process is necessary for the handling of RNA in biotech applications, and the DLS instrument gives details and results beyond that of other instruments. With Prof. Jim McClymer of the University of Maine (summer faculty visitor to NASA in 2001, 2002), we have been studying the crystallization process in model colloidal suspensions whose behavior in some cases can mimic that of much smaller protein solutions. An understanding of the self-assembly of colloids is the first step in the process of engineering novel materials for photonic and light switching applications. Finally, he has begun an investigation into the physics of particle sedimentation. In addition to the DLS instrument he also has an instrument (called PIV) that can measure flow fields of fluids. The applications are to the dynamics of protein crystal motions both on earth and in

  17. A high-performance micro electret power generator based on microball bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Zhaohui; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Jinwen

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a high-performance micro electret power generator fabricated by simple bulk micromachining technology is presented. It has microballs as movable bearings for harvesting changing low-frequency vibration energy from the environment. The silicon V-grooves where the microballs slide have very smooth (1 1 1) planes, and so the device is sensitive to very slight vibration and almost has no resonant frequency. A plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition SiO 2 /Si 3 N 4 double layer was used as the electret. The device was fabricated by simple micromachining technology suitable for mass production except for microball assembly. The influence of various frequencies and accelerations on the performance was studied in detail. The measurement results of this electret micro power generator show that the optimal load is proportional to the frequency, and inversely proportional to the acceleration. The peak-to-peak output charge and output power were 72 nC and 5.9 µW respectively at 20 Hz and 0.7 g with the optimal resistive load 626 kΩ. The work frequencies range from 100 Hz to a lower frequency (1 Hz). 112 nW can still be obtained in the minimum acceleration of 0.05 g at 10 Hz with the optimal resistive load, indicating that this device has high sensitivity. The possible application of our device in scavenging energy from low-frequency irregular movements, such as human motion, was proved by a primary experiment

  18. In-situ investigation of adsorption of dye and coadsorbates on TiO 2 films using QCM-D, fluorescence and AFM techniques

    KAUST Repository

    Harms, Hauke A.

    2013-09-11

    Simultaneous adsorption of dye molecules and coadsorbates is important for the fabrication of high-efficiency dyesensitized solar cells, but its mechanism is not well understood. Herein, we use a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation technique (QCM-D) to study dynamically and quantitatively the sensitization of TiO2 in situ. We investigate dye loading for a ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complex (Z907), of a triphenylamine-based D-π-A dye (Y123), and of a ullazine sensitizer (JD21), as well as the simultaneous adsorption of the latter two with the coadsorbate chenodeoxycholic acid. By combining the QCM-D technique with fluorescence measurements, we quantify molar ratios between the dye and coadsorbate. Furthermore, we will present first studies using liquid-phase AFM on the adsorbed dye monolayer, thus obtaining complementary microscopic information that may lead to understanding of the adsorption mechanism on the molecular scale. © 2013 SPIE.

  19. Search for hyperdeformation in 146Gd using the microball and gammasphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua, P.F.; LaFosse, D.; Korolija, M.; Sarantites, D.G.; Baktash, C.; Cross, C.; Cederwall, B.; Fallon, P.; Lee, I.Y.; Machiavelli, A.

    1994-01-01

    Results from the first attempt to observe hyperdeformation in 146 Gd by the 100 Mo( 51 V, p4n) reaction are presented. The γ-ray spectra were recorded with Gammasphere. The Microball was used to select protons with an efficiency of 90%. A total of 2 x 10 9 proton selected triple events were obtained. The pxn channels comprised ∼25% of the total events. The proton gating decreased the background from competing xn, αxn and fission by a factor of 4

  20. Schlieren techniques and interferometric methods using TEA-CO2 lasers for the investigation of transient phenomena by means of thermal liquid crystal image converters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugenschmidt, M.; Vollrath, K.

    In order to investigate plasmas with electron densities in the 10 15 to 10 18 cm -3 range, schlieren techniques and interferometric methods are used with a TEA-CO 2 laser. The thermooptical conversion is achieved by means of cholesteric liquid crystal layers. The possible uses of this technique are examined in view of recording dynamic transient phenomena, attention being paid to response time, resolving power, and quantitative information obtained. Examples are given for records taken from the formation and expansion of electric spark discharges. The experimental results are in good agreement with the computed numerical data [fr

  1. Control and homogenization of oxygen distribution in Si crystals by the novel technique: electromagnetic Czochralski method (EMCZ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Masahito; Eguchi, Minoru; Hibiya, Taketoshi

    1999-07-01

    A novel method for control and homogenization oxygen distribution in silicon crystals by using electromagnetic force (EMF) to rotate the melt without crucible rotation has been developed. We call it electromagnetic Czochralski method. An EMF in the azimuthal direction is generated in the melt by the interaction between an electric current through the melt in the radial direction and a vertical magnetic field. (B). The rotation rate (ωm) of the silicon melt is continuously changed from 0 to over 105 rpm under I equals 0 to 8 A and B equals 0 to 0.1 T. Thirty-mm-diameter silicon single crystals free of dislocations could be grown under several conditions. The oxygen concentration in the crystals was continuously changed from 1 X 1017 to 1 X 1018 atoms/cm3 with increase of melt rotation by electromagnetic force. The homogeneous oxygen distributions in the radial directions were achieved. The continuous change of oxygen concentration and the homogenization of oxygen distribution along the radial direction are attributed to the control of the diffusion-boundary-layer at both the melt/crucible and crystal/melt by forced flow due to the EMF. This new method would be useful for growth of the large-diameter silicon crystals with a homogeneous distribution of oxygen.

  2. Neutron beam applications - Development of single crystal structure analysis technique using the HANARO neutron four circle diffractometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Il Hwan; Kim, Moon Jib; Kim, Jin Gyu [Chungnam National University, Taejon (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    As the four circle diffractometer (FCD) has been set up in HANARO, it has become possible to study the single crystal structures by means of the neutron diffraction. Taking account of the geometry of the FCD, a program for the control of te FCD and neutron data acquisition operating under Windows' circumstance has been accomplished. Also, a computer program which can automatically measure the diffraction intensity data has been developed. All data obtained from the FCD are processed automatically for further work and a software for the single crystal structure analyses has been prepared. A KC1 single crystal was selected as first test sample for a structure analysis had been successfully performed on the FCD using in-house developed program and accordingly their functionings with precision were confirmed. For regular single crystal diffraction experiments, the structure analyses of chrysoberyl and Zr(Y)0{sub 1.87} single crystals were performed using both neutron and X-ray diffraction methods, and the result showed that the neutron diffraction work is superior to the X-ray one from the viewpoint of certain crystallographic information obtainable only from the former one. 24 refs., 15 figs., 15 tabs. (Author)

  3. Impact of impurities on the α-LiIO{sub 3} crystal growth: Technique for measuring the “dead zone”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noskova, A. N., E-mail: anna-13.08@mail.ru; Rubakha, V. I.; Prokhorov, A. P. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Applied Physics (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-15

    Lithium iodate (α-LiIO{sub 3}) single crystal is a promising nonlinear optical material, which used for efficient laser radiation conversion in the visible and near-IR regions. A technique for measuring the “dead zone” (ΔТ{sub dz}) of LiIO{sub 3} solutions has been developed; data on the impact of Fe(IO{sub 3}){sub 2}, AgIO{sub 3}, CsOH, H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}, and methyl methacrylate on the growth of the (100) face of α-LiIO{sub 3} crystals have been presented; and the dependences of the nucleation and motion of single steps on the degree of supersaturation have been measured. It is shown that the ΔТ{sub dz} value makes it possible to estimate the validity of solutions for growing α-LiIO{sub 3} crystals. The results of measuring the face growth rates and step velocities for KDP and α-LiIO{sub 3} crystals are compared.

  4. A study of PbTiO sub 3 crystallization in pure and composite nanopowders prepared by the sol-gel technique

    CERN Document Server

    Cernansky, M; Kral, K; Krupkova, R

    2002-01-01

    In this investigation the crystallization of PbTiO sub 3 upon annealing of pure nanopowders and PbTiO sub 3 -SiO sub 2 (1:1 v/v) nanocomposite powders prepared by the sol-gel technique was studied. Using x-ray diffraction phase analysis, the start of PbTiO sub 3 crystallization in pure PbTiO sub 3 powders was detected at 400 sup o C. Distinct crystallization of PbTiO sub 3 in PbTiO sub 3 -SiO sub 2 nanocomposites starts at 700 sup o C, whereas SiO sub 2 remains amorphous. There are indications that an interface interaction between the PbTiO sub 3 and the SiO sub 2 phase plays an important role in hindering the crystallization of PbTiO sub 3. The particle size (size of coherently scattering regions) was estimated from the broadening of the x-ray diffraction line profiles. The average size of PbTiO sub 3 nanocrystallites increases with temperature and time of annealing, the influence of temperature being more significant than that of the annealing time. Differential scanning calorimetry confirmed the results of...

  5. ASM Inaugural Lecture 2010: Single crystal X-ray structural determination: A powerful technique for natural products research and drug discovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fun Hoong Kun; Chantrapromma, S.; Boonnak, N.; Lee, V.S.

    2010-01-01

    Drug discovery from natural products resources have been extensively studied worldwide because natural products with their great structural diversity have traditionally provided most of the drugs in use. They offer major opportunities for finding novel low molecular weight leading-structures that are active against a wide range of assay targets. The most important step in the discovery process is the identification of compounds with interesting biological activity. Single crystal X-ray structure determination is a powerful technique for natural products research and drug discovery. The detailed three-dimensional structures that emerge can be co-related to the activities to these structures. In this article the following is presented: (i) co-crystal and disorder structures; (ii) determination of absolute configuration and (iii) the ability to distinguish between whether a natural product compound is a natural product or a natural product artifact. All these three properties are unique to the technique of single crystal X-ray structure determination. Case (iii) was demonstrated with a compound containing a chromene ring, namely macluraxanthone (which was isolated from Cratoxylum formosum subsp. pruniflorum, a Thai medicinal plant). (author)

  6. Benchmarking state-of-the-art numerical simulation techniques for analyzing large photonic crystal membrane line defect cavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Niels; de Lasson, Jakob Rosenkrantz; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn

    2018-01-01

    In this work, we perform numerical studies of two photonic crystal membrane microcavities, a short line-defect L5 cavity with relatively low quality (Q) factor and a longer L9 cavity with high Q. We compute the cavity Q factor and the resonance wavelength λ of the fundamental M1 mode in the two...

  7. A study on carbon incorporation in semi-insulating GaAs crystals grown by the vapor pressure controlled Czochralski technique (VCz). Pt. I. Experiments and Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, K.; Frank, C.; Neubert, M.; Rudolph, P. [Institut fuer Kristallzuechtung im Forschungsverbund Berlin e.V. (IKZ) (Germany); Ulrici, W. [Institut fuer Kristallzuechtung im Forschungsverbund Berlin e.V. (IKZ) (Germany); Paul-Drude-Inst. fuer Festkoerperelektronik, Berlin (Germany); Jurisch, M. [Institut fuer Kristallzuechtung im Forschungsverbund Berlin e.V. (IKZ) (Germany); Freiberger Compound Materials GmbH, Freiberg (Germany); Korb, J. [Institut fuer Kristallzuechtung im Forschungsverbund Berlin e.V. (IKZ) (Germany); GTT Technologies, Freiberg (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    In the past it has been demonstrated that the carbon concentration of large semi-insulating (SI) GaAs single crystals grown by the conventional liquid encapsulation Czochralski (LEC) technique can be controlled by several methods including variations of growth parameters. It was the aim of the present paper to clarify which of the relationships of LEC growth could be used for a carbon control in the VCz-method characterized by the application of an inner chamber made from graphite to avoid selective As evaporation. In detail this comprised a study of the influence of several growth parameters like the water content of the boric oxide, the composition of the working atmosphere, the gas flow, a titanium gettering and additions of gallium oxide. As a result, for the first time carbon concentrations down to {approx} 10{sup 14} cm{sup -3} were obtained in 3{sup ''} (75 mm) diameter VCz crystals. (orig.)

  8. Correlated analysis of 2 MeV proton-induced radiation damage in CdZnTe crystals using photoluminescence and thermally stimulated current techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Yaxu [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Key Laboratory of Radiation Detection Materials and Devices of Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Jie, Wanqi, E-mail: jwq@nwpu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Key Laboratory of Radiation Detection Materials and Devices of Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Rong, Caicai [Institute of Modern Physics, Applied Ion Beam Physics Laboratory, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Wang, Yuhan; Xu, Lingyan; Xu, Yadong [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Key Laboratory of Radiation Detection Materials and Devices of Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Lv, Haoyan; Shen, Hao [Institute of Modern Physics, Applied Ion Beam Physics Laboratory, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Du, Guanghua [Materials Research Center, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Fu, Xu [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Key Laboratory of Radiation Detection Materials and Devices of Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); and others

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • 2 MeV proton-induced radiation damage in CdZnTe crystals is investigated by PL and TSC techniques. • The influence of radiation damage on the luminescent and electrical properties of CdZnTe crystals is studied. • Intensity of PL spectrum is found to decrease significantly in irradiated regions, suggesting the increase of non-radiative recombination centers. • A correlated analysis of PL and TSC spectra suggests that the density of dislocations and A-centers increase after proton irradiation. - Abstract: Radiation damage induced by 2 MeV protons in CdZnTe crystals has been studied by means of photoluminescence (PL) and thermally stimulated current (TSC) techniques. A notable quenching of PL intensity is observed in the regions irradiated with a fluence of 6 × 10{sup 13} p/cm{sup 2}, suggesting the increase of non-radiative recombination centers. Moreover, the intensity of emission peak D{sub complex} centered at 1.48 eV dominates in the PL spectrum obtained from irradiated regions, ascribed to the increase of interstitial dislocation loops and A centers. The intensity of TSC spectra in irradiated regions decreases compared to the virgin regions, resulting from the charge collection inefficiency caused by proton-induced recombination centers. By comparing the intensity of identified traps obtained from numerical fitting using simultaneous multiple peak analysis (SIMPA) method, it suggests that proton irradiation under such dose can introduce high density of dislocation and A-centers in CdZnTe crystals, consistent with PL results.

  9. Highly crystallized nanometer-sized zeolite a with large Cs adsorption capability for the decontamination of water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torad, Nagy L; Naito, Masanobu; Tatami, Junichi; Endo, Akira; Leo, Sin-Yen; Ishihara, Shinsuke; Wu, Kevin C-W; Wakihara, Toru; Yamauchi, Yusuke

    2014-03-01

    Nanometer-sized zeolite A with a large cesium (Cs) uptake capability is prepared through a simple post-milling recrystallization method. This method is suitable for producing nanometer-sized zeolite in large scale, as additional organic compounds are not needed to control zeolite nucleation and crystal growth. Herein, we perform a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) study to evaluate the uptake ability of Cs ions by zeolite, to the best of our knowledge, for the first time. In comparison to micrometer-sized zeolite A, nanometer-sized zeolite A can rapidly accommodate a larger amount of Cs ions into the zeolite crystal structure, owing to its high external surface area. Nanometer-sized zeolite is a promising candidate for the removal of radioactive Cs ions from polluted water. Our QCM study on Cs adsorption uptake behavior provides the information of adsorption kinetics (e.g., adsorption amounts and rates). This technique is applicable to other zeolites, which will be highly valuable for further consideration of radioactive Cs removal in the future. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. On the use of spectroscopic techniques to determine the crystal structure of compounds of the artificial f elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    For some time the author has been using solid state absorption spectrophotometry to identify the crystal structure of selected transuranium (5f) and promethium (4f) compounds, based on spectral-structural correlations in his data base. More recently he has shown that Raman phonon spectroscopy is also very useful in this regard. These spectral probes of structure have their specific advantages and disadvantages; however, both are applicable to the structural characterization of radioactive compounds and can provide data for interpretation faster and more reliably than the commonly used X-ray powder diffraction method. The experimental methods, examples from the growing data bases, successes and limitations of these spectral probes of crystal structure, and some useful applications to the study of f-element compounds under varying conditions of temperature and pressure are presented

  11. Study to Determine the Feasibility of Utilizing Skull-Melting Techniques for the Growth of Single Crystals of Yttrium Vanadate

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-01

    these conditions and the sublimation product (IrO 2 ) contaminates the melt and resultant crystal. The goal of this program is to explore the...element; if the skull-melting operation is carried out under oxidizing conditions, the combustion products of high-purity graphite (CO 2 and CO) do not...polycrstalline ingots. Subsequent annealing of 16 S’ .1i" these 0 2 -defficient ingots in air at 1200 degrees C resulted in powdering and disintergration

  12. Application of extended-crystal diffraction techniques to the symmetry and structure analysis of 221-PbBiSrCaCuO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, P.; Miller, P.

    1993-01-01

    The discovery of a series of layer-perovskite superconducting compounds by Maeda et al. (1988) presented a challenge for present day electron diffraction techniques, due to their common occurrence as mixed phases, and the existence of complex structural modulations of more than one type. Cowley's (1976) theory developed specifically for describing diffraction effects from layered crystals having a micro-domainal sub-structure seems particularly well suited to the task of solving these structures, while the technique of extended-crystal diffraction is shown here to be capable of providing data of sufficient precision for this analysis. The present study is made on the 221 compound of PbBiSrCaCuO. Using the above diffraction techniques it is shown that the true symmetry of the whole structure is orthorhombic, Amaa, and not monoclinic as previously assumed, and that the superlattice reflections arise as a result of a basic microdomainal constitution, rather than from a uniform and incommensurate modulation. 8 figs

  13. Evaporation induced diameter control in fiber crystal growth by micro-pulling-down technique: Bi{sub 4}Ge{sub 3}O{sub 12}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chani, V.; Lebbou, K.; Hautefeuille, B.; Tillement, O. [Physical Chemistry of Luminescent Materials, Claude Bernard Lyon1 University, CNRS UMR 5620, Bat. A. Kastler, 10 rue Ampere, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Fourmigue, J.M. [FiberCryst, 23 rue Royale, F-69001 Lyon (France)

    2006-10-15

    Diameter self-control was established in Bi{sub 4}Ge{sub 3}O{sub 12} fiber crystal growth by micro-pulling-down technique. In accordance with Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}-GeO{sub 2} phase diagram, the diameter was controlled due to compensation of solidification with evaporation of volatile Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} self-flux charged into the crucible with excess. The crucibles had capillary channels of 310 or 650 {mu}m in outer diameter. The crystals up to 400 mm long and 50-300 {mu}m in diameter were grown at pulling-down rates of 0.04-1.00 mm/min. The melt composition and the pulling rate were generally only two parameters determining solidification rate. As a result, crystals with uniform ({+-} 10%) diameter and aspect ratio up to 10{sup 4} were produced without automation of the process. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  14. Crystal Structure, Optical, and Electrical Properties of SnSe and SnS Semiconductor Thin Films Prepared by Vacuum Evaporation Techniques for Solar Cell Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariswan; Sutrisno, H.; Prasetyawati, R.

    2017-05-01

    Thin films of SnSe and SnS semiconductors had been prepared by vacuum evaporation techniques. All prepared samples were characterized on their structure, optical, and electrical properties in order to know their application in technology. The crystal structure of SnSe and SnS was determined by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) instrument. The morphology and chemical composition were obtained by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) coupled with Energy Dispersive of X-Ray Analysis (EDAX). The optical property such as band gap was determined by DR-UV-Vis (Diffuse Reflectance-Ultra Violet-Visible) spectroscopy, while the electrical properties were determined by measuring the conductivity by four probes method. The characterization results indicated that both SnSe and SnS thin films were polycrystalline. SnSe crystallized in an orthorhombic crystal system with the lattice parameters of a = 11.47 Å, b = 4.152 Å and c = 4.439 Å, while SnS had an orthorhombic crystal system with lattice parameters of a = 4.317 Å, b = 11.647 Å and c = 3.981 Å. Band gaps (Eg) of SnSe and SnS were 1.63 eV and 1.35 eV, respectively. Chemical compositions of both thin films were non-stoichiometric. Molar ratio of Sn : S was close to ideal which was 1 : 0.96, while molar ratio of Sn : S was 1 : 0.84. The surface morphology described the arrangement of the grains on the surface of the thin film with sizes ranging from 0.2 to 0.5 microns. Color similarity on the surface of the SEM images proved a homogenous thin layer.

  15. Modification of crystal habit of ibuprofen using the phase partition technique: effect of aerosil and tween 80 in binding solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umprayn, K; Luengtummuen, A; Kitiyadisai, C; Pornpiputsakul, T

    2001-11-01

    A ternary diagram, representing the solubility of binding solvent (chloroform) in a mixture of ethanol and water, was constructed. For this study, the solvent mixture that gave the best ibuprofen pellets (IPs) was composed of chloroform.ethanol:water at a ratio of 1.5%:8%:90.5%. The suitable agitator speed, temperature, and mixing time were found to be 1,500 rpm, 25 degrees C +/- 2 degrees C, and 20 min, respectively. In addition, suitable stirring time when the phase partition process of IPs began was 15 min. IPs obtained from these conditions were small and round, approximately 1 mm; surface determination by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated that the IPs were composed of drug microcrystals rearranged on the surface. For the dissolution, IPs showed lower drug release when compared with pure ibuprofen crystal (IC) (f2 analysis). An attempt to modify the dissolution property of IP by incorporating various concentrations of Aerosil and Tween 80 in the binding solvent was made. Microscopic appearance showed that both Aerosil and Tween 80 gave less spherical pellets when compared with the use of binding solvent alone. For both the Aerosil and Tween 80 employed, the results indicated a change in rearrangement of drug microcrystals and a change in crystal habit. However, Tween 80 gave more change of the crystallographic direction of drug microcrystals than Aerosil. In term of dissolution, the results showed that employing Tween 80 at 1.2% gave the highest drug release compared to the use of Aerosil and IC alone (f2 analysis). These pellets had a good flow property, as indicated by Carr's compressibility, flow rate, and angle of repose, and they can be compressed into a tablet, encapsulated by suitable polymer, or pulverized to obtain micronized crystals. In the case of compression into tablets, the dissolution profiles of these tablets compared with those of commercial product meet the USP 24 requirement (Q > or = 80% at 60 min).

  16. Determination of the angular dependence of Hc2 in high Tc single crystals by a microwave technique

    OpenAIRE

    Shaltiel, David; Bill, Hans; Grayevsky, A.; Junod, Alain; Lovy, Dominique; Sadowski, S.; Walker, Eric

    1991-01-01

    It is shown that using an ESR spectrometer with magnetic field modulation and sweeping the temperature across Tc (at a constant and a very low magnetic field), is equivalent to temperature modulation. The signal intensity obtained when crossing Tc is proportional to 1/( delta Hc2/ delta T) at T=Tc. Using the WHH relation Hc2(T=0)=0.7 Tc( delta Hc2/ delta T)T=Tc enabled the measurement of the relative angular variation of Hc2 in single crystals of YBaCuO with Tc approximately 85 K. The data fi...

  17. Domain wall motion and magnetization reversal processes in a FeSi picture frame single crystal studied by the time-dependent neutron depolarization technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaik, F.J. van.

    1979-01-01

    The three dimensional neutron depolarization technique, which gives detailed information about the static properties of ferromagnetic materials, has been extended to a method by means of which the time dependence of magnetic phenomena can be studied. The measurement of the neutron depolarization against time is made possible by applying a periodical magnetic field on the investigated specimen and by continuous sampling of the transmitted neutron intensity in time channels, which are started synchronously with the applied field. The technique has been used in the study of the magnetic domain structure at room temperature of a (010) [001] picture frame FeSi single crystal (3.5 wt.% Si) with outer dimensions of (15 x 10 x 0.26) mm and a frame width of 2.78 mm. (Auth.)

  18. Thermal conductivity prediction of nanoscale phononic crystal slabs using a hybrid lattice dynamics-continuum mechanics technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles M. Reinke

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent work has demonstrated that nanostructuring of a semiconductor material to form a phononic crystal (PnC can significantly reduce its thermal conductivity. In this paper, we present a classical method that combines atomic-level information with the application of Bloch theory at the continuum level for the prediction of the thermal conductivity of finite-thickness PnCs with unit cells sized in the micron scale. Lattice dynamics calculations are done at the bulk material level, and the plane-wave expansion method is implemented at the macrosale PnC unit cell level. The combination of the lattice dynamics-based and continuum mechanics-based dispersion information is then used in the Callaway-Holland model to calculate the thermal transport properties of the PnC. We demonstrate that this hybrid approach provides both accurate and efficient predictions of the thermal conductivity.

  19. Development of A Microbalance System For Water and Dust Detection In Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, R.; Palomba, E.; Palumbo, P.; Colangeli, L.

    .e. the caps, the regolith and the ice hazes. Ice hazes, in fact, provide a mechanism for scavenging water vapor in the thin Mars atmosphere and may play a key role in the seasonal cycle of water on Mars. A focused investigation, made in different regions, possibly in different seasons, and spanning several days is desirable for solving the question of linkage of water cycle with these sources. The objective of our research program is the development and pro- duction of a microbalance measurement system . It will be able to measure in situ, for the first time, directly and quantitatively, the cumulative dust mass flux and the water vapour abundance in a Martian environment. A preliminary study of this process at Mars average conditions showed that available microbalances can detect water ice condensed on their surface in few seconds, after dew or frost point is reached and similar evaluations have been made with respect to expected dust deposition rate on Mars surface, based on data from MAE experiment onboard the Sojourner rover. The measuring system will be devoted to study the dynamic of the Martian water and dust cycles. In detail, our goals are: - Study of the Martian water and dust cycles (seasonal, diurnal) and their links; - Investigation of the brines formation and evaporation mech- anisms and their interaction with the regolith; - Investigation of mechanism of diurnal water release by the regolith and its weight as water atmospheric reservoir; - Study of the dust settling rates and their possible correlation with environmental conditions at the landing sites (temperature, pressure, winds); - Study of the local dust storm and devils raising mechanisms; - Investigation of the main modes of aeolian transport of grains and dust raising. We discuss the use of microbalances for the scientific applica- tions to Martian environment studies

  20. Fixation of chiral smectic liquid crystal (S)-(+)-4-(2-methyl-1-butyloyloxy)phenyl 4-[1-(propenoyloxy) butiloxy] benzoate using UV curing techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afrizal,, E-mail: rizalunj04@yahoo.com; Nurdelima,; Umeir [Faculty of Mathemathics and Natural Science, University of State Jakarta, Jakarta (Indonesia); Hikam, Muhammad; Soegiyono, Bambang [Department of Materials Science, University of Indonesia, Depok (Indonesia); Riswoko, Asep [Center for Material Technology, BPPT, Jl. MH.Thamrin 8 Jakarta (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    Chiral Smectic Liquid Crystal (S)-(+)-4-(2-methyl-1-butyloyloxy)phenyl 4-[1-(propenoyloxy) butiloxy] benzoate has been synthesized using method of steglich esterification at room temperature. The mesomorphic behavior of chiral smectic at 55°C that showed schlieren texture in POM analysis. Fixation of structure chiral smectic liquid crystal by means of photopolymerization of monomer (S)-(+)-4-(2-methyl-1-butyloyloxy)phenyl 4-[1-(propenoyloxy) butiloxy] benzoate under UV irradiation which called UV curing techniques. The curing process using UV 3 lamps 100 volt at 60°C for an hour. The product of photopolymerization could be seen by analysis of FTIR spectra both monomer and polymer. FTIR spectra of monomer, two peaks for ester carbonyl and C-C double bond groups appeared at 1729.09 cm-1and 3123.46 cm{sup −1}. After UV curing process, peak for the carbonyl group at 1729.09 cm{sup −1} decreased and a new peak at 1160.21 cm{sup −1} appeared due to the carbonyl group attached to a C-C bond group and then peak at 3123.46 cm{sup −1} for C-C double bond group was disappeared.

  1. Experimental investigation for determination of thermal effects in a Nd: YAG laser crystal by use of interferometry technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safary, E.; Movahedinejad, H.; Razzaghi, H.; Haj Esmaeilbeigi, F.; Tohidi, T.; Shiri, M.

    2007-01-01

    Thermal effects have an important role in high power solid state laser designing. Known of this effect and their roles on intensity and quality of output beam needs so many experiments. In this paper, we focused on influence of temperature distribution on thermal lensing in the Nd:YAG laser by use of interferometry technique. Then we used from a plariscop set up for describing of intensity reduce and distortion of the wave shape when it use from the Polaroid into the resonator at side pump.

  2. Growth of dopamine crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, Vidya, E-mail: vidya.patil@ruparel.edu; Patki, Mugdha, E-mail: mugdha.patki@ruparel.edu [D. G. Ruparel College, Senapati Bapat Marg, Mahim, Mumbai – 400 016 (India)

    2016-05-06

    Many nonlinear optical (NLO) crystals have been identified as potential candidates in optical and electro-optical devices. Use of NLO organic crystals is expected in photonic applications. Hence organic nonlinear optical materials have been intensely investigated due to their potentially high nonlinearities, and rapid response in electro-optic effect compared to inorganic NLO materials. There are many methods to grow organic crystals such as vapor growth method, melt growth method and solution growth method. Out of these methods, solution growth method is useful in providing constraint free crystal. Single crystals of Dopamine have been grown by evaporating the solvents from aqueous solution. Crystals obtained were of the size of orders of mm. The crystal structure of dopamine was determined using XRD technique. Images of crystals were obtained using FEG SEM Quanta Series under high vacuum and low KV.

  3. Application of the TEOM reactor for adsorption, diffusion and kinetic studies[TEOM=Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebo, Hans Petter

    1999-07-01

    In Norway, the limited offshore oil resources, the abundance of natural gas and the need to recover associated gas from the crude oil production have made the utilisation of natural gas the focus of increased attention. Most products from refineries and chemical industry are formed by gas phase reactions over solid materials like metals, metal oxides and zeolites. Heterogeneous catalysts are in addition frequently used for environmental purposes and energy production. In the work described in this thesis, an experimental set-up was built and used to study some typical processes in heterogeneous catalysis. The set-up included a tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM) for measuring mass changes. The following properties of the TEOM were found particularly useful: (1) Frequent frequency counting makes the TEOM suitable for recording transient uptake curves, (2) High sensitivity of the microbalance makes it possible to work with low catalyst loading and still obtain high signal to noise ratio, and (3) Reliable kinetic data are obtained due to the fixed bed characteristics of the TEOM. Adsorption and diffusion of o-xylene and toluene in a commercial HZSM-5 zeolite were studied at 30, 100 and 200 {sup o}C and at partial pressures in the range of 0.002-0.1 bar. The effect of coke on the adsorption and diffusion properties were studied by adsorption experiments at 30 {sup o}C of ethane, toluene and n-hexane before and after coke formation during ethene oligomerisation at 475 {sup o}C and at P(ethene)=0.8 bar. The oligomerisation of ethene over HZSM-5 was used as a model reaction for comparing coke formation in a gravimetric microbalance and in the TEOM. The work also includes a study of coke formation and the effect of coke on the kinetics of propene dehydrogenation over Pt-Sn/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts at 500-580 {sup o}C.

  4. Growth and structural characterization of single crystals of the magnetic superconductor Ru1-xSr2-yGd1+yCu2+xO8-δ (RuGd-1212) obtained by the partial melting technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaki, K.; Bamba, Y.; Mochiku, T.; Funahashi, S.; Matsushita, Y.; Irie, A.

    2018-05-01

    In this study, cubic single crystals of the magnetic superconductor Ru1-xSr2-yGd1+yCu2+xO8-δ (RuGd-1212) with typical dimensions of 100-150 μm in length were grown by the partial melting technique. Multiple 00l reflections were first observed by XRD measurements of the bulk RuGd-1212 single crystals. The resistivity of the obtained crystals was roughly estimated to be ∼24-80 mΩ cm and no superconducting transition was observed down to 4.2 K. From the XRD measurements and refinement of the crystal structure, it was apparent that the Ru and Sr sites of the single-crystal RuGd-1212 were partially substituted by Cu and Gd, respectively. Oxygen defects were found to be minor (δ ≈ 0.1). The lattice parameters a and c of the single crystals were found to be larger and smaller, respectively, than those of a polycrystalline sample.

  5. Morphological appearances and photo-controllable coloration of dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal/polymer coaxial microfibers fabricated by coaxial electrospinning technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jia-De; Chen, Che-Pei; Chen, Lin-Jer; Chuang, Yu-Chou; Huang, Shuan-Yu; Lee, Chia-Rong

    2016-02-08

    This study systematically investigates the morphological appearance of azo-chiral dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal (DDCLC)/polymer coaxial microfibers obtained through the coaxial electrospinning technique and examines, for the first time, their photocontrollable reflection characteristics. Experimental results show that the quasi-continuous electrospun microfibers can be successfully fabricated at a high polymer concentration of 17.5 wt% and an optimum ratio of 2 for the feeding rates of sheath to core materials at 25 °C and a high humidity of 50% ± 2% in the spinning chamber. Furthermore, the optical controllability of the reflective features for the electrospun fibers is studied in detail by changing the concentration of the azo-chiral dopant in the core material, the UV irradiation intensity, and the core diameter of the fibers. Relevant mechanisms are addressed to explain the optical-control behaviors of the DDCLC coaxial fibers. Considering the results, optically controllable DDCLC coaxial microfibers present potential applications in UV microsensors and wearable smart textiles or swabs.

  6. Design and construction of hierarchical TiO2 nanorod arrays by combining layer-by-layer and hydrothermal crystallization techniques for electrochromic application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yongbo; Li, Xiaomin; Bi, Zhijie; He, Xiaoli; Li, Guanjie; Xu, Xiaoke; Gao, Xiangdong

    2018-05-01

    The hierarchical TiO2 (H-TiO2) nanorod arrays (NRAs) composed of single-crystalline nanorods and nanocrystals were finely designed and successfully constructed for electrochromic (EC) application. By combining layer-by-layer (LBL) method and hydrothermal crystallization technique, the superfine nanocrystals (5-7 nm), which can provide abundant active sites and facilitate ion insertion/extraction during EC reactions, were uniformly and conformally assembled on the surface of single-crystalline TiO2 (SC-TiO2) NRAs. The as-formed H-TiO2 NRAs integrate the advantages of one-dimensional NRAs with fast kinetics and superfine nanocrystals with high ion capacity, showing highly enhanced EC performance. Large optical contrast (40.3%), shorter coloring/bleaching time (22/4 s), high coloration efficiency (11.2 cm2 C-1), and excellent cycling stability can be achieved in H-TiO2 NRAs, superior to the pristine SC-TiO2 NRAs and nanocrystalline TiO2 films. This work provides a feasible and well-designed strategy to explore high-performance materials for EC application.

  7. Macromolecular crystallization in microgravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snell, Edward H; Helliwell, John R

    2005-01-01

    Density difference fluid flows and sedimentation of growing crystals are greatly reduced when crystallization takes place in a reduced gravity environment. In the case of macromolecular crystallography a crystal of a biological macromolecule is used for diffraction experiments (x-ray or neutron) so as to determine the three-dimensional structure of the macromolecule. The better the internal order of the crystal then the greater the molecular structure detail that can be extracted. It is this structural information that enables an understanding of how the molecule functions. This knowledge is changing the biological and chemical sciences, with major potential in understanding disease pathologies. In this review, we examine the use of microgravity as an environment to grow macromolecular crystals. We describe the crystallization procedures used on the ground, how the resulting crystals are studied and the knowledge obtained from those crystals. We address the features desired in an ordered crystal and the techniques used to evaluate those features in detail. We then introduce the microgravity environment, the techniques to access that environment and the theory and evidence behind the use of microgravity for crystallization experiments. We describe how ground-based laboratory techniques have been adapted to microgravity flights and look at some of the methods used to analyse the resulting data. Several case studies illustrate the physical crystal quality improvements and the macromolecular structural advances. Finally, limitations and alternatives to microgravity and future directions for this research are covered. Macromolecular structural crystallography in general is a remarkable field where physics, biology, chemistry and mathematics meet to enable insight to the fundamentals of life. As the reader will see, there is a great deal of physics involved when the microgravity environment is applied to crystallization, some of it known, and undoubtedly much yet to

  8. Boron-Doped Carbon Nano-/Microballs from Orthoboric Acid-Starch: Preparation, Characterization, and Lithium Ion Storage Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhua Lu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A boron-doped carbon nano-/microballs (BC was successfully obtained via a two-step procedure including hydrothermal reaction (180°C and carbonization (800°C with cheap starch and H3BO3 as the carbon and boron source. As a new kind of boron-doped carbon, BC contained 2.03 at% B-content and presented the morphology as almost perfect nano-/microballs with different sizes ranging from 500 nm to 5 μm. Besides that, due to the electron deficient boron, BC was explored as anode material and presented good lithium storage performance. At a current density of 0.2 C, the first reversible specific discharge capacity of BC electrode reached as high as 964.2 mAh g–1 and kept at 699 mAh g–1 till the 11th cycle. BC also exhibited good cycle ability with a specific capacity of 356 mAh g–1 after 79 cycles at a current density of 0.5 C. This work proved to be an effective approach for boron-doped carbon nanostructures which has potential usage for lithium storage material.

  9. Near-infrared and upconversion properties of neodymium-doped RE0.8La0.2VO4 (RE = Y, Gd) single-crystal fibres grown by the laser-heated pedestal growth technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo, A S S de; Nunes, L A O; Andreeta, M R B; Hernandes, A C

    2002-01-01

    Neodymium-doped Y 0.8 La 0.2 VO 4 and Gd 0.8 La 0.2 VO 4 single-crystal fibres were successfully grown by the laser-heated pedestal growth (LHPG) technique. The fibres were completely transparent and no dark inclusions were observed by optical microscopy. In the characterization process, microprobe Raman, optical absorption, fluorescence, lifetime, and gain-excited state absorption spectra were investigated in addition to upconversion measurements. The fibres' structural and spectroscopic properties are very similar to those of YVO 4 and GdVO 4 bulk laser crystals, with the advantageous characteristic of broadened spectral linewidths that facilitate the pumping of the 1064 nm emission by a diode laser. These fairly new crystal compositions, that can be grown in fast and economical processes, are potential candidates for use as compact laser-active media

  10. Surface modification by cold-plasma technique for dental implants—Bio-functionalization with binding pharmaceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masao Yoshinari

    2011-08-01

    At the bone tissue/implant interface, a thin calcium phosphate coating and rapid heating with infrared radiation were effective in controlling the dissolution without cracking the coating. These thin calcium phosphate coatings may directly promote osteogenisis, but also enable immobilization and subsequent drug delivery system (DDS of bisphosphonates. Simvastatin is also an effective candidate that is reported to increase the expression of BMP-2. The thin-film of hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO was plasma-polymerized onto titanium, and then HMDSO surface was activated by O2-plasma treatment. A quartz crystal microbalance (QCM-D technique demonstrated that simvastatin was immobilized on the plasma-treated surfaces due to introduction of O2-functional groups. At the soft tissue/implant interface, multi-grooved surface topographies and utilizing the adhesive proteins such as fibronectin or laminin-5 may help in providing a biological seal around the implant. At the oral fluid/implant interface, an alumina coating, F+-implantation and immobilization of anti-microbial peptides were responsible for inhibiting the biofilm accumulation.

  11. Phononic crystals fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Adibi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an in-depth analysis as well as an overview of phononic crystals. This book discusses numerous techniques for the analysis of phononic crystals and covers, among other material, sonic and ultrasonic structures, hypersonic planar structures and their characterization, and novel applications of phononic crystals. This is an ideal book for those working with micro and nanotechnology, MEMS (microelectromechanical systems), and acoustic devices. This book also: Presents an introduction to the fundamentals and properties of phononic crystals Covers simulation techniques for the analysis of phononic crystals Discusses sonic and ultrasonic, hypersonic and planar, and three-dimensional phononic crystal structures Illustrates how phononic crystal structures are being deployed in communication systems and sensing systems.

  12. Enhanced thermal lens effect in gold nanoparticle-doped Lyotropic liquid crystal by nanoparticle clustering probed by Z-scan technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, S.L.; Lenart, V.M.

    2015-01-01

    This work presents an experimental study of the thermal lens effect in Au nanoparticles-doped lyotropic liquid crystals under cw 532 nm optical excitation. Spherical Au nanoparticles of about 12 nm were prepared by Turkevich’s method, and the lyotropic liquid crystal was a ternary mixture of SDS, 1-DeOH, and water that exhibits an isotropic phase at room temperature. The lyotropic matrix induces aggregation of the nanoparticles, leading to a broad and a red-shifted surface plasmon resonance. The thermal nonlinear optical refraction coefficient n 2 increases as a power of number density of nanoparticles, being possible to address this behavior to nanoparticle clustering. (author)

  13. Enhanced thermal lens effect in gold nanoparticle-doped Lyotropic liquid crystal by nanoparticle clustering probed by Z-scan technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, S.L.; Lenart, V.M., E-mail: sgomez@uepg.br [Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa (UEPG), PR (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Turchiello, R.T. [Universidade Federal Tecnologica do Parana (UFTPR), Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Goya, G.F. [Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Aragon Institute of Nanoscience, Zaragoza (Spain)

    2015-10-01

    This work presents an experimental study of the thermal lens effect in Au nanoparticles-doped lyotropic liquid crystals under cw 532 nm optical excitation. Spherical Au nanoparticles of about 12 nm were prepared by Turkevich’s method, and the lyotropic liquid crystal was a ternary mixture of SDS, 1-DeOH, and water that exhibits an isotropic phase at room temperature. The lyotropic matrix induces aggregation of the nanoparticles, leading to a broad and a red-shifted surface plasmon resonance. The thermal nonlinear optical refraction coefficient n{sub 2} increases as a power of number density of nanoparticles, being possible to address this behavior to nanoparticle clustering. (author)

  14. Analysis of spin-Hamiltonian and molecular orbital coefficients of Cu2+ doped C8H11KO8 single crystal through EPR technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliet sheela, K.; Krishnan, S. Radha; Shanmugam, V. M.; Subramanian, P.

    2018-04-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies have been investigated at X-band microwave frequency on Cu2+ ion incorporated into the single crystal of potassium succinate-succinic acid (KSSA) at room temperature. The angular variation of the EPR spectra has shown two magnetically in-equivalent Cu2+ sites in the KSSA single crystal system. The spin Hamiltonian parameters g and A are determined which reveals that the site I and site II occupied in rhombic and axial local field symmetry around the impurity ion. Among the two paramagnetic impurity ions, sites one occupies at substituitional position in the place of monovalent cation (K+) in the crystal whereas the other enters in its lattice interstitially by the correlation of EPR and crystal structure data. From the calculated principle values gxx, gyy, gzz and Axx, Ayy, Azz of both the sites, the admixture coefficients and molecular orbital coefficients were evaluated which gives the information of ground state wave function and types of bonding of impurity ions with the ligands.

  15. Beam tests of proton-irradiated PbWO$_4$ crystals and evaluation of double-sided read-out technique for mitigation of radiation damage effects

    CERN Document Server

    Lucchini, Marco Toliman

    2016-01-01

    The harsh radiation environment in which detectors will have to operate during the High Luminosity phase of the LHC (HL-LHC) represents a crucial challenge for many calorimeter technologies. In the CMS forward calorimeters, ionizing doses and hadron fluences will reach up to 300 kGy (at a dose rate of 30 Gy/h) and $2\\times10^{14}$ cm$^{-2}$, respectively, at the pseudorapidity region of $\\lvert \\eta\\rvert=2.6$. To evaluate the evolution of the CMS ECAL performance in such conditions, a set of PbWO$_4$ crystals, exposed to 24 GeV protons up to integrated fluences between $2.1\\times10^{13}$ cm$^{-2}$ and $1.3\\times10^{14}$ cm$^{-2}$, has been studied in beam tests. A degradation of the energy resolution and a non-linear response to electron showers are observed in damaged crystals. Direct measurements of the light output from the crystals show the amplitude decreasing and pulse becoming faster as the fluence increases. The evolution of the performance of the PbWO$_4$ crystals has been well understood and parame...

  16. Crystals in crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus H.; Schmidt, I.; Carlsson, A.

    2005-01-01

    A major factor governing the performance of catalytically active particles supported on a zeolite carrier is the degree of dispersion. It is shown that the introduction of noncrystallographic mesopores into zeolite single crystals (silicalite-1, ZSM-5) may increase the degree of particle dispersion....... As representative examples, a metal (Pt), an alloy (PtSn), and a metal carbide (beta-Mo2C) were supported on conventional and mesoporous zeolite carriers, respectively, and the degree of particle dispersion was compared by TEM imaging. On conventional zeolites, the supported material aggregated on the outer surface...

  17. Virtual Crystallizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Land, T A; Dylla-Spears, R; Thorsness, C B

    2006-08-29

    Large dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals are grown in large crystallizers to provide raw material for the manufacture of optical components for large laser systems. It is a challenge to grow crystal with sufficient mass and geometric properties to allow large optical plates to be cut from them. In addition, KDP has long been the canonical solution crystal for study of growth processes. To assist in the production of the crystals and the understanding of crystal growth phenomena, analysis of growth habits of large KDP crystals has been studied, small scale kinetic experiments have been performed, mass transfer rates in model systems have been measured, and computational-fluid-mechanics tools have been used to develop an engineering model of the crystal growth process. The model has been tested by looking at its ability to simulate the growth of nine KDP boules that all weighed more than 200 kg.

  18. single crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2018-05-18

    May 18, 2018 ... Abstract. 4-Nitrobenzoic acid (4-NBA) single crystals were studied for their linear and nonlinear optical ... studies on the proper growth, linear and nonlinear optical ..... between the optic axes and optic sign of the biaxial crystal.

  19. Crystal Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomaker, Verner; Lingafelter, E. C.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses characteristics of crystal systems, comparing (in table format) crystal systems with lattice types, number of restrictions, nature of the restrictions, and other lattices that can accidently show the same metrical symmetry. (JN)

  20. Studies on the self-catalyzed Knoevenagel condensation, characterization, DPPH radical scavenging activity, cytotoxicity, and molecular properties of 5-arylidene-2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxane-4,6-diones using single crystal XRD and DFT techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh Kumar, G. S.; Antony Muthu Prabhu, A.; Bhuvanesh, N.

    2014-10-01

    We have studied the self-catalyzed Knoevenagel condensation, spectral characterization, DPPH radical scavenging activity, cytotoxicity, and molecular properties of 5-arylidene-2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxane-4,6-diones using single crystal XRD and DFT techniques. In the absence of any catalyst, a series of novel 5-arylidene-2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxane-4,6-diones were synthesized using Meldrum’s acid and formylphenoxyaliphatic acid(s) in water. These molecules are arranged in the dimer form through intermolecular H-bonding in the single crystal XRD structure. Compounds have better DPPH radical scavenging activity and cytotoxicity against A431 cancer cell line. The optimized molecular structure, natural bond orbital analysis, electrostatic potential map, HOMO-LUMO energies, molecular properties, and atomic charges of these molecules have been studied by performing DFT/B3LYP/3-21G(*) level of theory in gas phase.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of gel-grown cobalt tartrate crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... in electronics, optics and industries. A series of pure and mixed crystals ... bility method. A few researchers reported the growth of crystals of strontium tartrate ... grow it by chemical reaction method using the gel technique. The crystallization ...

  2. Growth, and magnetic study of Sm0.4Er0.6FeO3 single crystal grown by optical floating zone technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Anhua; Zhao, Xiangyang; Man, Peiwen; Su, Liangbi; Kalashnikova, A. M.; Pisarev, R. V.

    2018-03-01

    Sm0.4Er0.6FeO3 single crystals were successfully grown by optical floating zone method; high quality samples with various orientations were manufactured. Based on these samples, Magnetic property of Sm0.4Er0.6FeO3 single crystals were investigated systemically by means of the temperature dependence of magnetization. It indicated that compositional variations not only alter the spin reorientation temperature, but also the compensation temperature of the orthoferrites. Unlike single rare earth orthoferrites, the reversal transition temperature point of Sm0.4Er0.6FeO3 increases as magnetic field increases, which is positive for designing novel spin switching or magnetic sensor device.

  3. Monomial Crystals and Partition Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingley, Peter

    2010-04-01

    Recently Fayers introduced a large family of combinatorial realizations of the fundamental crystal B(Λ0) for ^sln, where the vertices are indexed by certain partitions. He showed that special cases of this construction agree with the Misra-Miwa realization and with Berg's ladder crystal. Here we show that another special case is naturally isomorphic to a realization using Nakajima's monomial crystal.

  4. Co-crystallization as a separation technology: controlling product concentrations by co-crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urbanus, J.; Roelands, C.P.M.; Verdoes, D.; Jansens, P.J.; Horst, J.H. ter

    2010-01-01

    Co-crystallization is known as a product formulation technology, but it can also be used as a tool to solve crystallization problems. Product removal by co-crystallization in fermentations is used as a showcase to demonstrate the potential of co-crystallization as a separation technique. In

  5. Quasimetallic silicon micromachined photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temelkuran, B.; Bayindir, Mehmet; Ozbay, E.; Kavanaugh, J. P.; Sigalas, M. M.; Tuttle, G.

    2001-01-01

    We report on fabrication of a layer-by-layer photonic crystal using highly doped silicon wafers processed by semiconductor micromachining techniques. The crystals, built using (100) silicon wafers, resulted in an upper stop band edge at 100 GHz. The transmission and defect characteristics of these structures were found to be analogous to metallic photonic crystals. We also investigated the effect of doping concentration on the defect characteristics. The experimental results agree well with predictions of the transfer matrix method simulations

  6. Neutron inelastic scattering studies of crystal hydrates. Part of a coordinated programme on the application of research reactor neutron scattering techniques in the study of solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amilius, Z.

    1977-12-01

    Using an inverted berillium filter spectrometer, neutrons inelastically scattered from the samples of hydrated and deuterated crystals of Cu Cl 2 .2H 2 O, Cu Cl 2 .2H 2 O and K 2 Cu Cl 2 .2D 2 O were measured, with the objective of determining the librational frequencies of the water molecule. The experiments were performed at room temperature only, permitting to draw only limited conclusions on the assignment of specific librational modes to the peak in the observed neutron spectra

  7. Crystallization mechanisms of acicular crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puel, François; Verdurand, Elodie; Taulelle, Pascal; Bebon, Christine; Colson, Didier; Klein, Jean-Paul; Veesler, Stéphane

    2008-01-01

    In this contribution, we present an experimental investigation of the growth of four different organic molecules produced at industrial scale with a view to understand the crystallization mechanism of acicular or needle-like crystals. For all organic crystals studied in this article, layer-by-layer growth of the lateral faces is very slow and clear, as soon as the supersaturation is high enough, there is competition between growth and surface-activated secondary nucleation. This gives rise to pseudo-twinned crystals composed of several needle individuals aligned along a crystallographic axis; this is explained by regular over- and inter-growths as in the case of twinning. And when supersaturation is even higher, nucleation is fast and random. In an industrial continuous crystallization, the rapid growth of needle-like crystals is to be avoided as it leads to fragile crystals or needles, which can be partly broken or totally detached from the parent crystals especially along structural anisotropic axis corresponding to weaker chemical bonds, thus leading to slower growing faces. When an activated mechanism is involved such as a secondary surface nucleation, it is no longer possible to obtain a steady state. Therefore, the crystal number, size and habit vary significantly with time, leading to troubles in the downstream processing operations and to modifications of the final solid-specific properties. These results provide valuable information on the unique crystallization mechanisms of acicular crystals, and show that it is important to know these threshold and critical values when running a crystallizer in order to obtain easy-to-handle crystals.

  8. Analysis of local symmetry and impurity location of Cu2+ ions doped C8H11KO8 single crystal through EPR technique for site I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheela, K. Juliet; Subbulakshmi, N.; Subramanian, P.

    2018-04-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies have been investigated on Cu2+ ion incorporated into the single crystals of potassium succinate-succinic acid (KSSA) at room temperature. Two magnetically in-equivalent Cu2+ sites in the lattice are identified, among them site I has been reported. The spin Hamiltonian parameters are determined with the fitting of spectra to rhombic symmetry crystalline field. The co-ordination of the Cu2+ ion in this molecule is a distorted dodecahedron. From the calculated gxx, gyy, gzz and Axx, Ayy, Azz and their directional cosines values, location of site I impurity ion Cu2+ could be identified as a substituitional one. Also the ground state wave function of the impurity ion was found to be d2z.

  9. 1- to 10-keV x-ray backlighting of annular wire arrays on the Sandia Z-machine using bent-crystal imaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rambo, Patrick K.; Wenger, David Franklin; Bennett, Guy R.; Sinars, Daniel Brian; Smith, Ian Craig; Porter, John Larry Jr.; Cuneo, Michael Edward; Rovang, Dean Curtis; Anderson, Jessica E.

    2003-01-01

    Annular wire array implosions on the Sandia Z-machine can produce >200 TW and 1-2 MJ of soft x rays in the 0.1-10 keV range. The x-ray flux and debris in this environment present significant challenges for radiographic diagnostics. X-ray backlighting diagnostics at 1865 and 6181 eV using spherically-bent crystals have been fielded on the Z-machine, each with a ∼0.6 eVspectral bandpass, 10 (micro)m spatial resolution, and a 4 mm by 20mm field of view. The Z-Beamlet laser, a 2-TW, 2-kJ Nd:glass laser(λ = 527 nm), is used to produce 0.1-1 J x-ray sources for radiography. The design, calibration, and performance of these diagnostics is presented.

  10. Liquid Crystals in Decorative and Visual Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makow, David

    The following sections are included: * INTRODUCTION * PIGMENT AND STRUCTURAL COLOURS AND THEIR RELEVANCE TO LIQUID CRYSTALS * LIQUID CRYSTAL MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES FOR DECORATIVE AND VISUAL ARTS * Free cholesteric liquid crystals (FCLC's) * Encapsulated liquid crystals (ECLC's) * Nonsteroid Chiral nematics * Polymers with liquid crystalline properties (PLCs) * COLOUR PROPERTIES OF CHOLESTERIC LIQUID CRYSTALS (CLC's) * Molecular structure and the mechanism of colour production * Dependence of perceived colours on the angle of illumination and viewing * Dependence of perceived colours on temperature * Additive colour properties * Methods of doubling the peak reflectance of cholesteric liquid crystals * Colour gamut * Colours of superimposed and pigmented coatings * Colours in transmission * ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS * REFERENCES

  11. Reporting with Visual Studio and Crystal Reports

    CERN Document Server

    Elkoush, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    A fast-paced, example-based guide to learn how to create a reporting application using Visual Studio and Crystal Reports.""Reporting with Visual Studio and Crystal Reports"" is for developers new to Crystal Reports. It will also prove useful to intermediate users who wish to explore some new techniques in Crystal Reports using Microsoft Visual Studio. Readers are expected to have basic knowledge of C#, Microsoft Visual Studio, and Structured Query Language (SQL).

  12. Crystallization of isoelectrically homogeneous cholera toxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spangler, B.D.; Westbrook, E.M.

    1989-01-01

    Past difficulty in growing good crystals of cholera toxin has prevented the study of the crystal structure of this important protein. The authors have determined that failure of cholera toxin to crystallize well has been due to its heterogeneity. They have now succeeded in overcoming the problem by isolating a single isoelectric variant of this oligomeric protein (one A subunit and five B subunits). Cholera toxin purified by their procedure readily forms large single crystals. The crystal form has been described previously. They have recorded data from native crystals of cholera toxin to 3.0-angstrom resolution with our electronic area detectors. With these data, they have found the orientation of a 5-fold symmetry axis within these crystals, perpendicular to the screw dyad of the crystal. They are now determining the crystal structure of cholera toxin by a combination of multiple heavy-atom isomorphous replacement and density modification techniques, making use of rotational 5-fold averaging of the B subunits

  13. From Trioleoyl glycerol to extra virgin olive oil through multicomponent triacylglycerol mixtures: Crystallization and polymorphic transformation examined with differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffration techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayés-García, L; Calvet, T; Cuevas-Diarte, M A; Ueno, S

    2017-09-01

    The polymorphic crystallization and transformation behavior of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) was examined by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction with both laboratory-scale (XRD) and synchrotron radiation source (SR-XRD). The complex behavior observed was studied by previously analyzing mixtures composed by its main 2 to 6 triacylglycerol (TAG) components. Thus, component TAGs were successively added to simulate EVOO composition, until reaching a 6 TAGs mixture, composed by trioleoyl glycerol (OOO), 1-palmitoyl-2,3-dioleoyl glycerol (POO), 1,2-dioleoyl-3-linoleoyl glycerol (OOL), 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-3-linoleoyl glycerol (POL), 1,2-dipalmitoyl-3-oleoyl glycerol (PPO) and 1-stearoyl-2,3-dioleoyl glycerol (SOO). Molten samples were cooled from 25°C to -80°C at a controlled rate of 2°C/min and subsequently heated at the same rate. The polymorphic behavior observed in multicomponent TAG mixtures was interpreted by considering three main groups of TAGs with different molecular structures: triunsaturated OOO and OOL, saturated-unsaturated-unsaturated POO, POL and SOO, and saturated-saturated-unsaturated PPO. As confirmed by our previous work, TAGs belonging to the same structural group displayed a highly similar polymorphic behavior. EVOO exhibited two different β'-2L polymorphic forms (β' 2 -2L and β' 1 -2L), which transformed into β'-3L when heated. Equivalent polymorphic pathways were detected when the same experimental conditions were applied to the 6 TAG components mixture. Hence, minor components may not exert a strong influence in this case. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Interaction of Soybean 7S Globulin Peptide with Cell Membrane Model via Isothermal Titration Calorimetry, Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation, and Langmuir Monolayer Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yuan; Pan, Runting; Ruan, Qijun; Wan, Zhili; Guo, Jian; Yang, Xiaoquan

    2018-05-16

    To understand the underlying molecular mechanism of the cholesterol-lowering effect of soybean 7S globulins, the interactions of their pepsin-released peptides (7S-peptides) with cell membrane models consisting of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC), and cholesterol (CHOL) were systematically studied. The results showed that 7S-peptides were bound to DPPC/DOPC/CHOL liposomes mainly through van der Waals forces and hydrogen bonds, and the presence of higher CHOL concentrations enhanced the binding affinity (e.g., DPPC/DOPC/CHOL = 1:1:0, binding ratio = 0.114; DPPC/DOPC/CHOL = 1:1:1, binding ratio = 2.02). Compression isotherms indicated that the incorporation of 7S-peptides increased the DPPC/DOPC/CHOL monolayer fluidity and the lipid raft size. The presence of CHOL accelerated the 7S-peptide accumulation on lipid rafts, which could serve as platforms for peptides to develop into β-sheet rich structures. These results allow us to hypothesize that 7S-peptides may indirectly influence membrane protein functions via altering the membrane organization in the enterocytes.

  15. Hydrothermal Growth of Polyscale Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrappa, Kullaiah

    In this chapter, the importance of the hydrothermal technique for growth of polyscale crystals is discussed with reference to its efficiency in synthesizing high-quality crystals of various sizes for modern technological applications. The historical development of the hydrothermal technique is briefly discussed, to show its evolution over time. Also some of the important types of apparatus used in routine hydrothermal research, including the continuous production of nanosize crystals, are discussed. The latest trends in the hydrothermal growth of crystals, such as thermodynamic modeling and understanding of the solution chemistry, are elucidated with appropriate examples. The growth of some selected bulk, fine, and nanosized crystals of current technological significance, such as quartz, aluminum and gallium berlinites, calcite, gemstones, rare-earth vanadates, electroceramic titanates, and carbon polymorphs, is discussed in detail. Future trends in the hydrothermal technique, required to meet the challenges of fast-growing demand for materials in various technological fields, are described. At the end of this chapter, an Appendix 18.A containing a more or less complete list of the characteristic families of crystals synthesized by the hydrothermal technique is given with the solvent and pressure-temperature (PT) conditions used in their synthesis.

  16. A PMMA coated PMN–PT single crystal resonator for sensing chemical agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, Michael; Kassegne, Sam; Moon, Kee S

    2010-01-01

    A highly sensitive lead magnesium niobate–lead titanate (PMN–PT) single crystal resonator coated with a thin film of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) useful for detecting chemical agents such as acetone, methanol, and isopropyl alcohol is presented. Swelling of the cured PMMA polymer layer in the presence of acetone, methanol, and isopropyl alcohol vapors is sensed as a mass change transduced to an electrical signal by the PMN–PT thickness shear mode sensor. Frequency change in the PMN–PT sensor is demonstrated to vary according to the concentration of the chemical vapor present within the sensing chamber. For acetone, the results indicate a frequency change more than 6000 times greater than that which would be expected from a quartz crystal microbalance coated with PMMA. This study is the first of its kind to demonstrate vapor loading of adsorbed chemical agents onto a polymer coated PMN–PT resonator

  17. An oscillating microbalance for meteorological measurements of ice and volcanic ash accumulation from a weather balloon platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airey, Martin; Harrison, Giles; Nicoll, Keri; Williams, Paul; Marlton, Graeme

    2017-04-01

    A new, low cost, instrument has been developed for meteorological measurements of the accumulation of ice and volcanic ash that can be readily deployed using commercial radiosondes and weather balloons. It is based on principles used by [1], an instrument originally developed to measure supercooled liquid water profiles in clouds. This new instrument introduces numerous improvements in terms of reduced complexity and cost. It uses the oscillating microbalance principle, whereby a wire vibrating at its natural frequency is subjected to increased loading of the property to be measured. The increase in mass modifies the wire properties such that its natural frequency of oscillation changes. By measuring this frequency, the increase in mass can be inferred and transmitted to a ground base station through the radiosonde's UHF antenna via the PANDORA interface [2], which has been previously developed to provide power and connection to the radiosonde telemetry. The device consists of a simple circuit board controlled by an ATMEGA microcontroller. For calibration, the controller is capable of driving the wire at specified frequencies via excitation by a piezo sounder upon which the wire is mounted. The same piezo sounder is also used during active operation to measure the frequency of the wire in its non-driven state in order to infer the mass change on the wire. A phase-locked loop implemented on the board identifies when resonance occurs and the measured frequency is stable, prompting the microcontroller to send the measurement through the data interface. The device may be used for any application that requires the measurement of incremental mass variation e.g. ice accumulation, frosting, or particle accumulation such as dust and volcanic ash. For the solid particle accumulation, a low temperature, high-tack, adhesive may be applied to the wire prior to deployment to collect the material. In addition, the same instrument may be used for ground-based applications, such as

  18. Springer Handbook of Crystal Growth

    CERN Document Server

    Dhanaraj, Govindhan; Prasad, Vishwanath; Dudley, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Over the years, many successful attempts have been made to describe the art and science of crystal growth. Most modern advances in semiconductor and optical devices would not have been possible without the development of many elemental, binary, ternary, and other compound crystals of varying properties and large sizes. The objective of the Springer Handbook of Crystal Growth is to present state-of-the-art knowledge of both bulk and thin-film crystal growth. The goal is to make readers understand the basics of the commonly employed growth processes, materials produced, and defects generated. Almost 100 leading scientists, researchers, and engineers from 22 different countries from academia and industry have been selected to write chapters on the topics of their expertise. They have written 52 chapters on the fundamentals of bulk crystal growth from the melt, solution, and vapor, epitaxial growth, modeling of growth processes and defects, techniques of defect characterization as well as some contemporary specia...

  19. Growth of emerald single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukin, G.V.; Godovikov, A.A.; Klyakin, V.A.; Sobolev, V.S.

    1986-01-01

    In addition to its use for jewelry, emerald can also be used in low-noise microwave amplifiers. The authors discuss flux crystallization of emerald and note that when emerald is grown by this method, it is desirable to use solvents which dissolve emerald with minimum deviations from congruence but at the same time with sufficient high efficiency. Emerald synthesis and crystal growth from slowly cooled solutions is discussed as another possibility. The techniques are examined. Vapor synthesis and growht of beryl crystals re reviewed and the authors experimentally study the seeded CVD crystallization of beryl from BeO, Al 2 O 3 and SiO 2 oxides, by using complex compounds as carrier agents. The color of crystals of emerald and other varieties of beryl is detemined by slelective light absorption in teh visible part of the spectrum and depends on the density and structural positions of chromphore ions: chromium, iron, vanadium, nickel, manganese and cobalt

  20. The quest for highly sensitive QCM humidity sensors: the coating of CNT/MOF composite sensing films as case study

    KAUST Repository

    Chappanda, Karumbaiah. N.; Shekhah, Osama; Yassine, Omar; Patole, Shashikant P.; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Salama, Khaled N.

    2017-01-01

    coating technique on a quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM) and a comparison of their shift in resonance frequencies to adsorbed water vapor (5 to 75% relative humidity) is presented. Through optimization of the CNT and HKUST-1 composition, we could

  1. Helium crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipson, S.G.

    1987-01-01

    Hexagonal close-packed helium crystals in equilibrium with superfluid have been found to be one of the few systems in which an anisotropic solid comes into true thermodynamic equilibrium with its melt. The discovery of roughening transitions at the liquid-solid interface have shown this system to be ideal for the study of the statistical mechanics of interface structures. We describe the effect of roughening on the shape and growth of macroscopic crystals from both the theoretical and experimental points of view. (author)

  2. Spatial filtering with photonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maigyte, Lina [Departament de Física i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Rambla Sant Nebridi 22, Terrassa 08222 (Spain); Staliunas, Kestutis [Departament de Física i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Rambla Sant Nebridi 22, Terrassa 08222 (Spain); Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), Pg. Lluís Companys 23, Barcelona 08010 (Spain)

    2015-03-15

    Photonic crystals are well known for their celebrated photonic band-gaps—the forbidden frequency ranges, for which the light waves cannot propagate through the structure. The frequency (or chromatic) band-gaps of photonic crystals can be utilized for frequency filtering. In analogy to the chromatic band-gaps and the frequency filtering, the angular band-gaps and the angular (spatial) filtering are also possible in photonic crystals. In this article, we review the recent advances of the spatial filtering using the photonic crystals in different propagation regimes and for different geometries. We review the most evident configuration of filtering in Bragg regime (with the back-reflection—i.e., in the configuration with band-gaps) as well as in Laue regime (with forward deflection—i.e., in the configuration without band-gaps). We explore the spatial filtering in crystals with different symmetries, including axisymmetric crystals; we discuss the role of chirping, i.e., the dependence of the longitudinal period along the structure. We also review the experimental techniques to fabricate the photonic crystals and numerical techniques to explore the spatial filtering. Finally, we discuss several implementations of such filters for intracavity spatial filtering.

  3. Nanoscopic Manipulation and Imaging of Liquid Crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenblatt, Charles S. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2014-02-04

    This is the final project report. The project’s goals centered on nanoscopic imaging and control of liquid crystals and surfaces. We developed and refined techniques to control liquid crystal orientation at surfaces with resolution as small as 25 nm, we developed an optical imaging technique that we call Optical Nanotomography that allows us to obtain images inside liquid crystal films with resolution of 60 x 60 x 1 nm, and we opened new thrust areas related to chirality and to liquid crystal/colloid composites.

  4. Hydrothermally grown zeolite crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durrani, S.K.; Qureshi, A.H.; Hussain, M.A.; Qazi, N.K.

    2009-01-01

    The aluminium-deficient and ferrosilicate zeolite-type materials were synthesized by hydrothermal process at 150-170 degree C for various periods of time from the mixtures containing colloidal reactive silica, sodium aluminate, sodium hydroxide, iron nitrate and organic templates. Organic polycation templates were used as zeolite crystal shape modifiers to enhance relative growth rates. The template was almost completely removed from the zeolite specimens by calcination at 550 degree C for 8h in air. Simultaneous thermogravimetric (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) was performed to study the removal of water molecules and the amount of organic template cations occluded inside the crystal pore of zeolite framework. The 12-13% weight loss in the range of (140-560 degree C) was associated with removal of the (C/sub 3/H/sub 7/)/sub 4/ N+ cation and water molecules. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques were employed to study the structure, morphology and surface features of hydrothermally grown aluminium-deficient and ferrosilicate zeolite-type crystals. In order to elucidate the mode of zeolite crystallization the crystallinity and unit cell parameters of the materials were determined by XRD, which are the function of Al and Fe contents of zeolites. (author)

  5. Investigations of morphological changes during annealing of polyethylene single crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tian, M.; Loos, J.

    2001-01-01

    The morphological evolution of isolated individual single crystals deposited on solid substrates was investigated during annealing experiments using in situ and ex situ atomic force microscopy techniques. The crystal morphology changed during annealing at temperatures slightly above the original

  6. Monitoring and modeling of ultrasonic wave propagation in crystallizing mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, T.; Challis, R. E.; Tebbutt, J. S.

    2002-05-01

    The utility of ultrasonic compression wave techniques for monitoring crystallization processes is investigated in a study of the seeded crystallization of copper II sulfate pentahydrate from aqueous solution. Simple models are applied to predict crystal yield, crystal size distribution and the changing nature of the continuous phase. A scattering model is used to predict the ultrasonic attenuation as crystallization proceeds. Experiments confirm that modeled attenuation is in agreement with measured results.

  7. Magnetophotonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, M [Toyohashi University of Technology, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Fujikawa, R [Toyohashi University of Technology, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Baryshev, A [Toyohashi University of Technology, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Khanikaev, A [Toyohashi University of Technology, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Lim, P B [CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Saitama 332-0012, Japan (Japan); Uchida, H [Toyohashi University of Technology, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Aktsipetrov, O [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, Moscow, 119992 (Russian Federation); Fedyanin, A [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, Moscow, 119992 (Russian Federation); Murzina, T [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, Moscow, 119992 (Russian Federation); Granovsky, A [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, Moscow, 119992 (Russian Federation)

    2006-04-21

    When the constitutive materials of photonic crystals (PCs) are magnetic, or even only a defect introduced in PCs is magnetic, the resultant PCs exhibit very unique optical and magneto-optical properties. The strong photon confinement in the vicinity of magnetic defects results in large enhancement in linear and nonlinear magneto-optical responses of the media. Novel functions, such as band Faraday effect, magnetic super-prism effect and non-reciprocal or magnetically controllable photonic band structure, are predicted to occur theoretically. All the unique features of the media arise from the existence of magnetization in media, and hence they are called magnetophotonic crystals providing the spin-dependent nature in PCs. (topical review)

  8. Magnetophotonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, M; Fujikawa, R; Baryshev, A; Khanikaev, A; Lim, P B; Uchida, H; Aktsipetrov, O; Fedyanin, A; Murzina, T; Granovsky, A

    2006-01-01

    When the constitutive materials of photonic crystals (PCs) are magnetic, or even only a defect introduced in PCs is magnetic, the resultant PCs exhibit very unique optical and magneto-optical properties. The strong photon confinement in the vicinity of magnetic defects results in large enhancement in linear and nonlinear magneto-optical responses of the media. Novel functions, such as band Faraday effect, magnetic super-prism effect and non-reciprocal or magnetically controllable photonic band structure, are predicted to occur theoretically. All the unique features of the media arise from the existence of magnetization in media, and hence they are called magnetophotonic crystals providing the spin-dependent nature in PCs. (topical review)

  9. Effects of impurities on crystal growth in fructose crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Y. D.; Shiau, L. D.; Berglund, K. A.

    1989-10-01

    The influence of impurities on the crystallization of anhydrous fructose from aqueous solution was studied. The growth kinetics of fructose crystals in the fructose-water-glucose and fructose-water-difructose dianhydrides systems were investigated using photomicroscopic contact nucleation techniques. Glucose is the major impurity likely to be present in fructose syrup formed during corn wet milling, while several difructose dianhydrides are formed in situ under crystallization conditions and have been proposed as a cause in the decrease of overall yields. Both sets of impurities were found to cause inhibition of crystal growth, but the mechanisms responsible in each case are different. It was found that the presence of glucose increases the solubility of fructose in water and thus lowers the supersaturation of the solution. This is probably the main effect responsible for the decrease of crystal growth. Since the molecular structures of difructose dianhydrides are similar to that of fructose, they are probably "tailor-made" impurities. The decrease of crystal growth is probably caused by the incorporation of these impurities into or adsorption to the crystal surface which would accept fructose molecules in the orientation that existed in the difructose dianhydride.

  10. Metadynamics studies of crystal nucleation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giberti, Federico; Salvalaglio, Matteo; Parrinello, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Crystallization processes are characterized by activated events and long timescales. These characteristics prevent standard molecular dynamics techniques from being efficiently used for the direct investigation of processes such as nucleation. This short review provides an overview on the use of metadynamics, a state-of-the-art enhanced sampling technique, for the simulation of phase transitions involving the production of a crystalline solid. In particular the principles of metadynamics are outlined, several order parameters are described that have been or could be used in conjunction with metadynamics to sample nucleation events and then an overview is given of recent metadynamics results in the field of crystal nucleation. PMID:25866662

  11. Metadynamics studies of crystal nucleation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Giberti

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Crystallization processes are characterized by activated events and long timescales. These characteristics prevent standard molecular dynamics techniques from being efficiently used for the direct investigation of processes such as nucleation. This short review provides an overview on the use of metadynamics, a state-of-the-art enhanced sampling technique, for the simulation of phase transitions involving the production of a crystalline solid. In particular the principles of metadynamics are outlined, several order parameters are described that have been or could be used in conjunction with metadynamics to sample nucleation events and then an overview is given of recent metadynamics results in the field of crystal nucleation.

  12. Crystal growth and properties of novel organic nonlinear optical crystals of 4-Nitrophenol urea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohan, M. Krishna, E-mail: krishnamohan.m@ktr.srmuniv.ac.in; Ponnusamy, S.; Muthamizhchelvan, C.

    2017-07-01

    Single crystals of 4-Nitrophenol urea have been grown from water using slow evaporation technique at constant temperature, with the vision to improve the properties of the crystals. The unit cell parameters of the grown crystals were determined by single crystal and powder X-Ray diffraction. FTIR studies reveals the presence of different vibrational bands. The Optical studies confirmed that the crystal is transparent up to 360 nm .TGA and DSC studies were carried out to understand the thermal behavior of crystals. The SHG studies show the suitability of the crystals for NLO applications. The etching studies were carried out to study the behavior of the crystals under different conditions.These studies reveal that the crystals of 4-Nitrophenol urea are suitable for device applications. - Highlights: • 4-Nitrophenol urea crystals of dimensions 14 mm × 1 mm were grown. • UV–Visible studies indicate the crystal is transparent in the region of 370–800 nm. • Thermal studies show the crystal starts decomposing at 170 °C. • SHG studies indicate that the crystals have NLO efficiency 3.5 times that of KDP.

  13. Photonic time crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Lunwu; Xu, Jin; Wang, Chengen; Zhang, Jianhua; Zhao, Yuting; Zeng, Jing; Song, Runxia

    2017-12-07

    When space (time) translation symmetry is spontaneously broken, the space crystal (time crystal) forms; when permittivity and permeability periodically vary with space (time), the photonic crystal (photonic time crystal) forms. We proposed the concept of photonic time crystal and rewritten the Maxwell's equations. Utilizing Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method, we simulated electromagnetic wave propagation in photonic time crystal and photonic space-time crystal, the simulation results show that more intensive scatter fields can obtained in photonic time crystal and photonic space-time crystal.

  14. Thermotropic liquid crystals recent advances

    CERN Document Server

    Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2007-01-01

    This book covers developments in the field of thermotropic liquid crystals and their functional importance. It also presents advances related to different sub-areas pertinent to this interdisciplinary area of research. This text brings together research from synthetic scientists and spectroscopists and attempts to bridge the gaps between these areas. New physical techniques that are powerful in characterizing these materials are discussed.

  15. Characterising laser beams with liquid crystal displays

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudley, Angela L

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available the intensity, phase, wavefront, Poynting vector, and orbital angular momentum density of unknown optical fields. This measurement technique makes use of a single spatial light modulator (liquid crystal display), a Fourier transforming lens and detector (CCD...

  16. Photonic Crystal Fibers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kristiansen, Rene E

    2005-01-01

    This report results from a contract tasking Crystal Fibre A/S as follows: Crystal Fibre will conduct research and development of large mode area, dual clad multi-core Yb-doped photonic crystal fiber...

  17. Maximizing Macromolecule Crystal Size for Neutron Diffraction Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, R. A.; Kephart, R.; Leardi, R.; Myles, D. A.; Snell, E. H.; vanderWoerd, M.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A challenge in neutron diffraction experiments is growing large (greater than 1 cu mm) macromolecule crystals. In taking up this challenge we have used statistical experiment design techniques to quickly identify crystallization conditions under which the largest crystals grow. These techniques provide the maximum information for minimal experimental effort, allowing optimal screening of crystallization variables in a simple experimental matrix, using the minimum amount of sample. Analysis of the results quickly tells the investigator what conditions are the most important for the crystallization. These can then be used to maximize the crystallization results in terms of reducing crystal numbers and providing large crystals of suitable habit. We have used these techniques to grow large crystals of Glucose isomerase. Glucose isomerase is an industrial enzyme used extensively in the food industry for the conversion of glucose to fructose. The aim of this study is the elucidation of the enzymatic mechanism at the molecular level. The accurate determination of hydrogen positions, which is critical for this, is a requirement that neutron diffraction is uniquely suited for. Preliminary neutron diffraction experiments with these crystals conducted at the Institute Laue-Langevin (Grenoble, France) reveal diffraction to beyond 2.5 angstrom. Macromolecular crystal growth is a process involving many parameters, and statistical experimental design is naturally suited to this field. These techniques are sample independent and provide an experimental strategy to maximize crystal volume and habit for neutron diffraction studies.

  18. Growth and surface topography of WSe_2 single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixit, Vijay; Vyas, Chirag; Pataniya, Pratik; Jani, Mihir; Pathak, Vishal; Patel, Abhishek; Pathak, V. M.; Patel, K. D.; Solanki, G. K.

    2016-01-01

    Tungsten Di-Selenide belongs to the family of TMDCs showing their potential applications in the fields of Optoelectronics and PEC solar cells. Here in the present investigation single crystals of WSe_2 were grown by Direct Vapour Transport Technique in a dual zone furnace having temperature difference of 50 K between the two zones. These single crystals were characterized by EDAX which confirms the stiochiometry of the grown crystals. Surface topography of the crystal was studied by optical micrograph showing the left handed spirals on the surface of WSe_2 crystals. Single crystalline nature of the crystals was confirmed by SAED.

  19. Physico-mechanical and dissolution behaviours of ibuprofen crystals crystallized in the presence of various additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Nokhodchi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available "n  "n Background and the purpose of the study: The success of any direct-tableting procedure is strongly affected by the quality of the crystals used in the process. Ibuprofen is a poorly compactible drug with a high tendency for capping. In order to use ibuprofen in direct compression formulations, physico-mechanical properties of ibuprofen should be improved considerably. The aim of the present investigation was to employ crystallization techniques in order to improve the physico-mechanical properties of ibuprofen for direct compression. "nMethods:The experimental methods involved the preparation of ibuprofen crystals by solvent change technique. Ibuprofen was dissolved in ethanol and crystallized out with water in the absence or presence of various hydrophilic additives (PEG 6000, 8000, Brij 98P and polyvinyl alcohol 22000, PVA 22000 with different concentrations. The physico-mechanical properties of the ibuprofen crystals were studied in terms of flow, density, tensile strength and dissolution behaviour. Morphology of ibuprofen crystals was studied by scanning electron microscopic (SEM. Solid state of the recrystallized particles was also investigated using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC and FT-IR. "nResults:Ibuprofen samples crystallized in the presence of PEG 6000 and 8000 and PVA showed remarkable increase in the tensile strengths of the directly compressed tablets, while some other additives, i.e. Brij 98P did not produce improved ibuprofen crystals. Ibuprofen powders made from particles obtained in the presence of PVA and Brij 98P showed similar dissolution profiles to the commercial ibuprofen particles. DSC and FT-IR results ruled out any significant interaction between ibuprofen and additives except for the samples crystallized in the presence of PEG 8000. Conclusion:The crystal habit of ibuprofen can be altered successfully by the crystallization technique which was developed in this study. The crystals developed in the

  20. Synchrotron/crystal sample preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. Barry

    1993-01-01

    The Center for Applied Optics (CAO) of the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) prepared this final report entitled 'Synchrotron/Crystal Sample Preparation' in completion of contract NAS8-38609, Delivery Order No. 53. Hughes Danbury Optical Systems (HDOS) is manufacturing the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) mirrors. These thin-walled, grazing incidence, Wolter Type-1 mirrors, varying in diameter from 1.2 to 0.68 meters, must be ground and polished using state-of-the-art techniques in order to prevent undue stress due to damage or the presence of crystals and inclusions. The effect of crystals on the polishing and grinding process must also be understood. This involves coating special samples of Zerodur and measuring the reflectivity of the coatings in a synchrotron system. In order to gain the understanding needed on the effect of the Zerodur crystals by the grinding and polishing process, UAH prepared glass samples by cutting, grinding, etching, and polishing as required to meet specifications for witness bars for synchrotron measurements and for investigations of crystals embedded in Zerodur. UAH then characterized these samples for subsurface damage and surface roughness and figure.

  1. Pressure cryocooling protein crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chae Un [Ithaca, NY; Gruner, Sol M [Ithaca, NY

    2011-10-04

    Preparation of cryocooled protein crystal is provided by use of helium pressurizing and cryocooling to obtain cryocooled protein crystal allowing collection of high resolution data and by heavier noble gas (krypton or xenon) binding followed by helium pressurizing and cryocooling to obtain cryocooled protein crystal for collection of high resolution data and SAD phasing simultaneously. The helium pressurizing is carried out on crystal coated to prevent dehydration or on crystal grown in aqueous solution in a capillary.

  2. Crystal modifications and dissolution rate of piroxicam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyn, Lim Yee; Sze, Huan Wen; Rajendran, Adhiyaman; Adinarayana, Gorajana; Dua, Kamal; Garg, Sanjay

    2011-12-01

    Piroxicam is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug with low aqueous solubility which exhibits polymorphism. The present study was carried out to develop polymorphs of piroxicam with enhanced solubility and dissolution rate by the crystal modification technique using different solvent mixtures prepared with PEG 4000 and PVP K30. Physicochemical characteristics of the modified crystal forms of piroxicam were investigated by X-ray powder diffractometry, FT-IR spectrophotometry and differential scanning calorimetry. Dissolution and solubility profiles of each modified crystal form were studied and compared with pure piroxicam. Solvent evaporation method (method I) produced both needle and cubic shaped crystals. Slow crystallization from ethanol with addition of PEG 4000 or PVP K30 at room temperature (method II) produced cubic crystal forms. Needle forms produced by method I improved dissolution but not solubility. Cubic crystals produced by method I had a dissolution profile similar to that of untreated piroxicam but showed better solubility than untreated piroxicam. Cubic shaped crystals produced by method II showed improved dissolution, without a significant change in solubility. Based on the XRPD results, modified piroxicam crystals obtained by method I from acetone/benzene were cube shaped, which correlates well with the FTIR spectrum; modified needle forms obtained from ethanol/methanol and ethanol/acetone showed a slight shift of FTIR peak that may be attributed to differences in the internal structure or conformation.

  3. Crystal Compton Camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziock, Klaus-Peter [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Braverman, Joshua B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Harrison, Mark J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hornback, Donald Eric [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Fabris, Lorenzo [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Newby, Jason [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2013-09-26

    Stand-off detection is one of the most important radiation detection capabilities for arms control and the control of illicit nuclear materials. For long range passive detection one requires a large detector and a means of “seeing through” the naturally occurring and varying background radiation, i.e. imaging. Arguably, Compton imaging is the best approach over much of the emission band suitable for long range detection. It provides not only imaging, but more information about the direction of incidence of each detected gamma-ray than the alternate approach of coded-aperture imaging. The directional information allows one to reduce the background and hence improve the sensitivity of a measurement. However, to make an efficient Compton imager requires localizing and measuring the simultaneous energy depositions when gamma-rays Compton scatter and are subsequently captured within a single, large detector volume. This concept has been demonstrated in semi-conductor detectors (HPGe, CZT, Si) but at ~ $1k/cm3 these materials are too expensive to build the large systems needed for standoff detection. Scintillator detectors, such as NaI(Tl), are two orders of magnitude less expensive and possess the energy resolution required to make such an imager. However, they do not currently have the ability to localize closely spaced, simultaneous energy depositions in a single large crystal. In this project we are applying a new technique that should, for the first time ever, allow cubic-millimeter event localization in a bulk scintillator crystal.

  4. Coupled Photonic Crystal Cavity Array Laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubert, Martin

    in the quadratic lattice. Processing techniques are developed and optimized in order fabricate photonic crystals membranes in gallium arsenide with quantum dots as gain medium and in indium gallium arsenide phosphide with quantum wells as gain medium. Several key issues in process to ensure good quality....... The results are in good agreement with standard coupled mode theory. Also a novel type of photonic crystal structure is proposed called lambda shifted cavity which is a twodimensional photonic crystal laser analog of a VCSEL laser. Detailed measurements of the coupled modes in the photonic crystals...... with quantum dots are carried out. In agreement with a simple gain model the structures do not show stimulated emission. The spectral splitting due to the coupling between single cavities as well as arrays of cavities is studied theoretically and experimentally. Lasing is observed for photonic crystal cavity...

  5. Photonic crystals physics, fabrication and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ohtaka, Kazuo

    2004-01-01

    "Photonic Crystals" details recent progress in the study of photonic crystals, ranging from fundamental aspects to up-to-date applications, in one unified treatment It covers most of the worldwide frontier fields in photonic crystals, including up-to-date fabrication techniques, recent and future technological applications, and our basic understanding of the various optical properties of photonic crystals Brand-new theoretical and experimental data are also presented The book is intended for graduate course students and specialists actively working in this field, but it will also be useful for newcomers, especially the extensive chapter dealing with fundamental aspects of photonic crystals, which paves the way to a full appreciation of the other topics addressed

  6. Crystallization of Ulex europaeus lectin I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandonselaar, M; Delbaere, L T

    1994-10-21

    The lectin I from Ulex europaeus (UEAI) has a strong affinity for the H-type 2 human blood group determinant. Single crystals of UEAI have been grown in the monoclinic crystal system. Initial crystals were obtained after 11 months from a solution of 10 mg/ml protein, 40% 2,4-methylpentanediol and 0.1 N acetate buffer at pH 5.2. The technique of washing and reseeding was used to generate large suitable crystals. The space group is C2 with a = 78.84 A, b = 69.85 A, c = 120.62 A, beta = 108.74 degrees and Z = 4; there is one molecular dimer per asymmetric unit and the solvent content is estimated to be 58%. The crystals diffract to at least 2.8 A d spacings and are stable in the X-ray beam for more than three days.

  7. Crystal growth, optical properties, and laser operation of Yb3+-doped NYW single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Y.; Xu, X. D.; Yang, X. B.; Xin, Z.; Cao, D. H.; Xu, J.

    2009-11-01

    Laser crystal Yb3+-doped NaY(WO4)2 (Yb:NYW) with excellent quality has been grown by Czochralski technique. The rocking curves from (400) plane of as-grown Yb:NYW crystal was measured and the full-width value at half-maximum was 19.92″. The effective segregation coefficients were measured by the X-ray fluorescence method. The polarized absorption spectra and the fluorescence spectra of Yb:NYW crystal were measured at room temperature. The fluorescence decay lifetime of Yb3+ ion in NYW crystal has been investigated. The spectroscopic parameters of Yb:NYW crystal are calculated and compared with those of Yb:YAG crystal. A continuous wave output power of 3.06 W at 1031 nm was obtained with a slope efficiency of 42% by use of diode pumping.

  8. Draft Tube Baffle (DTB) crystallizers: A study of stationary and dynamically behaving Crystal Size Distributions (CSD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deleer, B. G. M.

    1981-11-01

    Based on population balance, CSD behavior as a function of geometrical and operating variables was studied, using a crystallizer. A potash alum-water system, involving a separation technique which uses surface active agents and an apolar, organic liquid to separate potash alum crystals from mother liquid under the influence of gravity was used to check experimental findings against literature data. Results show action of annular settling spaces is strongly influenced by fluid velocities perpendicular to those directed upwards. The well-mixed volume decreases with increasing crystallizer size until a minimum effective volume is reached. As supersaturation is constant throughout the crystallizer volume under stationary operating conditions, the annular settling space behaves like a growth chamber for crystals in its volume. Swirl in the lower part of the annular volume introduces significant back mixing. Crystals within this space either grow and return to the well-mixed part, or withdraw from the annular volume permanently.

  9. Beginner’s guide to flux crystal growth

    CERN Document Server

    Tachibana, Makoto

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces the principles and techniques of crystal growth by the flux method, which is arguably the most useful way to obtain millimeter- to centimeter-sized single crystals for physical research. As it is possible to find an appropriate solvent (“flux”) for nearly all inorganic materials, the flux method can be applied to the growth of many crystals ranging from transition metal oxides to intermetallic compounds. Both important principles and experimental procedures are described in a clear and accessible manner. Practical advice on various aspects of the experiment, which is not readily available in the literature, will assist the beginning graduate students in setting up the lab and conducting successful crystal growth. The mechanisms of crystal growth at an elementary level are also provided to better understand the techniques and to help in assessing the quality of the crystals. The book also contains many photographs of beautiful crystals with important physical properties of current inte...

  10. Crystal growth and characterization of new semiorganic nonlinear optical single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulshrestha, Shobha, E-mail: shobha011986@gmail.com; Shrivastava, A. K., E-mail: ashwaniaks@rediffmail.com [School of Studies in Physics, Jiwaji University Gwalior (M.P.) – 474 011 (India)

    2016-05-06

    An organic material of a L-histidine monohydrochloride single crystal was grown in a distilled water solution using the slow evaporation method at 40–45°C. The grown crystal was transparent and colourless, with a size of about 20 × 9 × 5 mm{sup 3}, obtained within a period of 21 days. The solubility of grown crystals have found out at various temperatures. The UV-visible transmittance studies show that the grown crystals have wide optical transparency in the entire visible region It is observed that the crystal has transparency window from 255nm to 700nm and its energy gap (Eg) found to be is 3.1eV. The grown crystal was subjected to powder X-ray diffraction analysis, confirming that the orthorhombic crystalline nature of the crystal. To identify the surface morphology, the as grown crystal was subjected to FE-SEM technique. The chemical composition of the grown crystal was estimated by Energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The optical behaviour of the grown crystal was analyzed by PL study.

  11. CRYSTALLIZATION IN MULTICOMPONENT GLASSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRUGER AA; HRMA PR

    2009-10-08

    In glass processing situations involving glass crystallization, various crystalline forms nucleate, grow, and dissolve, typically in a nonuniform temperature field of molten glass subjected to convection. Nuclear waste glasses are remarkable examples of multicomponent vitrified mixtures involving partial crystallization. In the glass melter, crystals form and dissolve during batch-to-glass conversion, melter processing, and product cooling. Crystals often agglomerate and sink, and they may settle at the melter bottom. Within the body of cooling glass, multiple phases crystallize in a non-uniform time-dependent temperature field. Self-organizing periodic distribution (the Liesegnang effect) is common. Various crystallization phenomena that occur in glass making are reviewed.

  12. Crystallization In Multicomponent Glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, A.A.; Hrma, P.R.

    2009-01-01

    In glass processing situations involving glass crystallization, various crystalline forms nucleate, grow, and dissolve, typically in a nonuniform temperature field of molten glass subjected to convection. Nuclear waste glasses are remarkable examples of multicomponent vitrified mixtures involving partial crystallization. In the glass melter, crystals form and dissolve during batch-to-glass conversion, melter processing, and product cooling. Crystals often agglomerate and sink, and they may settle at the melter bottom. Within the body of cooling glass, multiple phases crystallize in a non-uniform time-dependent temperature field. Self-organizing periodic distribution (the Liesegnang effect) is common. Various crystallization phenomena that occur in glass making are reviewed.

  13. Macromolecular Crystal Growth by Means of Microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    vanderWoerd, Mark; Ferree, Darren; Spearing, Scott; Monaco, Lisa; Molho, Josh; Spaid, Michael; Brasseur, Mike; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We have performed a feasibility study in which we show that chip-based, microfluidic (LabChip(TM)) technology is suitable for protein crystal growth. This technology allows for accurate and reliable dispensing and mixing of very small volumes while minimizing bubble formation in the crystallization mixture. The amount of (protein) solution remaining after completion of an experiment is minimal, which makes this technique efficient and attractive for use with proteins, which are difficult or expensive to obtain. The nature of LabChip(TM) technology renders it highly amenable to automation. Protein crystals obtained in our initial feasibility studies were of excellent quality as determined by X-ray diffraction. Subsequent to the feasibility study, we designed and produced the first LabChip(TM) device specifically for protein crystallization in batch mode. It can reliably dispense and mix from a range of solution constituents into two independent growth wells. We are currently testing this design to prove its efficacy for protein crystallization optimization experiments. In the near future we will expand our design to incorporate up to 10 growth wells per LabChip(TM) device. Upon completion, additional crystallization techniques such as vapor diffusion and liquid-liquid diffusion will be accommodated. Macromolecular crystallization using microfluidic technology is envisioned as a fully automated system, which will use the 'tele-science' concept of remote operation and will be developed into a research facility for the International Space Station as well as on the ground.

  14. Discovery Mondays: crystals and particles for medicine

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Question: what are as heavy as lead, as clear as glass, and appear as tiny specks in a doctor's scanner but large as life in a physicist's detector? Answer: the crystals you will be able to observe in all their facets on 1 September at the start of a new season of Discovery Mondays at Microcosm. Come along and meet the CERN physicists who use crystals not only in their detectors but also in the latest generation of scanners. Four workshops will be organised, each devoted to a different medical imaging technique. The first workshop will be run by a physicist from the Crystal Clear collaboration, who will present her collaboration's special breed of crystals, which emit light when they are traversed by high-energy particles, and explain to you these crystals' role in Positron Emission Tomographs. The second workshop will focus on an imaging technique known as the Compton Camera, also based on scintillating crystals. Crystals worth looking at and admiring. Come to the next Discovery Monday to find out how they ...

  15. Iron sulfide crystal growth: a literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewar, E.J.

    1977-04-01

    Iron pyrite (FeS 2 ) is often found on trays and in heat exchangers in Girdler-Sulfide (G.S.) plants used to extract D 2 O from fresh water. A critical review of the literature was made to find: (i) what is known about FeS 2 crystal growth; (ii) which techniques could be used to study FeS 2 crystal growth experimentally; (iii) potential chemical additives that could be used in trace amounts to poison FeS 2 crystals and reduce their growth rate in G.S. plants. (author)

  16. Photonic crystal pioneer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anscombe, Nadya

    2011-08-01

    Over the past ten years, Crystal Fiber, now part of NKT Photonics, has been busy commercializing photonic crystal fibre. Nadya Anscombe finds out about the evolution of the technology and its applications.

  17. Crystallization Pathways in Biomineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Steve; Addadi, Lia

    2011-08-01

    A crystallization pathway describes the movement of ions from their source to the final product. Cells are intimately involved in biological crystallization pathways. In many pathways the cells utilize a unique strategy: They temporarily concentrate ions in intracellular membrane-bound vesicles in the form of a highly disordered solid phase. This phase is then transported to the final mineralization site, where it is destabilized and crystallizes. We present four case studies, each of which demonstrates specific aspects of biological crystallization pathways: seawater uptake by foraminifera, calcite spicule formation by sea urchin larvae, goethite formation in the teeth of limpets, and guanine crystal formation in fish skin and spider cuticles. Three representative crystallization pathways are described, and aspects of the different stages of crystallization are discussed. An in-depth understanding of these complex processes can lead to new ideas for synthetic crystallization processes of interest to materials science.

  18. Photonic Crystal Nanocavity Arrays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Altug, Hatice; Vuckovic, Jelena

    2006-01-01

    We recently proposed two-dimensional coupled photonic crystal nanocavity arrays as a route to achieve a slow-group velocity of light in all crystal directions, thereby enabling numerous applications...

  19. Apparatus for mounting crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longeway, Paul A.

    1985-01-01

    A thickness monitor useful in deposition or etching reactor systems comprising a crystal-controlled oscillator in which the crystal is deposited or etched to change the frequency of the oscillator. The crystal rests within a thermally conductive metallic housing and arranged to be temperature controlled. Electrode contacts are made to the surface primarily by gravity force such that the crystal is substantially free of stress otherwise induced by high temperature.

  20. ALICE photon spectrometer crystals

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    Members of the mechanical assembly team insert the last few crystals into the first module of ALICE's photon spectrometer. These crystals are made from lead-tungstate, a crystal as clear as glass but with nearly four times the density. When a high-energy particle passes through one of these crystals it will scintillate, emitting a flash of light allowing the energy of photons, electrons and positrons to be measured.

  1. Crystal Growth Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheel, Hans J.; Fukuda, Tsuguo

    2004-06-01

    This volume deals with the technologies of crystal fabrication, of crystal machining, and of epilayer production and is the first book on industrial and scientific aspects of crystal and layer production. The major industrial crystals are treated: Si, GaAs, GaP, InP, CdTe, sapphire, oxide and halide scintillator crystals, crystals for optical, piezoelectric and microwave applications and more. Contains 29 contributions from leading crystal technologists covering the following topics: General aspects of crystal growth technology Silicon Compound semiconductors Oxides and halides Crystal machining Epitaxy and layer deposition Scientific and technological problems of production and machining of industrial crystals are discussed by top experts, most of them from the major growth industries and crystal growth centers. In addition, it will be useful for the users of crystals, for teachers and graduate students in materials sciences, in electronic and other functional materials, chemical and metallurgical engineering, micro-and optoelectronics including nanotechnology, mechanical engineering and precision-machining, microtechnology, and in solid-state sciences.

  2. Food crystallization and eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egg products can be utilized to control crystallization in a diverse realm of food products. Albumen and egg yolk can aid in the control of sugar crystal formation in candies. Egg yolk can enhance the textural properties and aid in the control of large ice crystal formation in frozen desserts. In...

  3. Protein crystal growth in low gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigelson, Robert S.

    1993-01-01

    This Final Technical Report for NASA Grant NAG8-774 covers the period from April 27, 1989 through December 31, 1992. It covers five main topics: fluid flow studies, the influence of growth conditions on the morphology of isocitrate lyase crystals, control of nucleation, the growth of lysozyme by the temperature gradient method and graphoepitaxy of protein crystals. The section on fluid flow discusses the limits of detectability in the Schlieren imaging of fluid flows around protein crystals. The isocitrate lyase study compares crystals grown terrestrially under a variety of conditions with those grown in space. The controlling factor governing the morphology of the crystals is the supersaturation. The lack of flow in the interface between the drop and the atmosphere in microgravity causes protein precipitation in the boundary layer and a lowering of the supersaturation in the drop. This lowered supersaturation leads to improved crystal morphology. Preliminary experiments with lysozyme indicated that localized temperature gradients could be used to nucleate crystals in a controlled manner. An apparatus (thermonucleator) was designed to study the controlled nucleation of protein crystals. This apparatus has been used to nucleate crystals of materials with both normal (ice-water, Rochelle salt and lysozyme) and retrograde (horse serum albumin and alpha chymotrypsinogen A) solubility. These studies have lead to the design of an new apparatus that small and more compatible with use in microgravity. Lysozyme crystals were grown by transporting nutrient from a source (lysozyme powder) to the crystal in a temperature gradient. The influence of path length and cross section on the growth rate was demonstrated. This technique can be combined with the thermonucleator to control both nucleation and growth. Graphoepitaxy utilizes a patterned substrate to orient growing crystals. In this study, silicon substrates with 10 micron grooves were used to grow crystals of catalase

  4. Electrochemical and spectroscopic in situ techniques for the investigation of the phosphating of zinc coated steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomandl, A.

    2003-05-01

    In this work spectroscopic and electrochemical techniques were developed for the investigation of surface treatments used in steel industry. ICP-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), Raman spectroscopy and the Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) were applied to the investigation of the kinetics of phosphating as well as the properties of phosphate layers. Phosphating of zinc coated steel leads to the formation of a crystalline layer consisting of zinc phosphate and is employed to enhance paint adhesion and corrosion protection. For the high reaction rates necessary in industrial production lines, oxidation agents are added to the phosphating bathes to accelerate the reaction. The oxidation agents provide an additional reduction reaction beside the hydrogen formation and therefore decrease the number of gas bubbles, which would block the zinc surface and reduce the rate of phosphating. With addition of H2O2 or nitrates the rate of layer formation is distinctly increased. In a combined experiment of ICP-AES with QCM and potential transients, it was shown that the presence of these accelerators in the phosphating bath increases the rate of zinc dissolution and hence leads to a faster formation of the phosphate layer. In under paint corrosion of painted, zinc coated steel phosphate layers are exposed to a highly alkaline environment. The stability of a phosphate layer against alkaline attack is therefore essential for its performance in corrosion protection. To enhance the alkaline stability Mn and Ni are added to modern phosphating bathes. The incorporation of these elements reduces the dissolution rate in 0.1 M NaOH proportional to their concentration in the phosphate layer. The dissolution of Zn, P, Mn and Ni was determined quantitatively with ICP-AES. Raman spectroscopy showed the formation of a Mn-hydroxide layer during alkaline attack, which protects the phosphate layer and reduces further dissolution. On basis of these results the reaction of phosphate layers

  5. Studies on growth, crystal structure and characterization of novel organic nicotinium trifluoroacetate single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhanaraj, P.V. [Centre for Crystal Growth, SSN College of Engineering, Kalavakkam 603 110 (India); Rajesh, N.P., E-mail: rajeshnp@hotmail.com [Centre for Crystal Growth, SSN College of Engineering, Kalavakkam 603 110 (India); Sundar, J. Kalyana; Natarajan, S. [Department of Physics, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625 021 (India); Vinitha, G. [Department of Physics, Crescent Engineering College, Chennai 600 048 (India)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} Good quality crystals of nicotinium trifluoroacetate in monoclinic system were grown for first time. {yields} Nicotinium trifluoroacetate crystal exhibits third order nonlinear optical properties. {yields} The optical spectrum of nicotinium trifluoroacetate crystal reveals the wide transmission in the entire range with cutoff wavelength at 286 nm. {yields} Nicotinium trifluoroacetate is a low dielectric constant material. - Abstract: An organic material, nicotinium trifluoroacetate (NTF) was synthesized and single crystals in monoclinic system were grown from aqueous solution for the first time. Its solubility and metastable zone width were estimated. The crystal structure of NTF was analyzed to reveal the molecular arrangements and the formation of hydrogen bonds in the crystal. High-resolution X-ray diffraction rocking curve measurements were performed to analyze the structural perfection of the grown crystals. Functional groups in NTF were identified by Fourier transform infrared spectral analysis. Thermal behaviour and stability of NTF were studied by thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. Mechanical and dielectric properties of NTF crystals were analyzed. Optical studies reveal that NTF crystals are transparent in the wavelength range 286-1100 nm. The third order nonlinear optical parameters of NTF were derived by the Z-scan technique.

  6. Improvement of crystal identification performance for a four-layer DOI detector composed of crystals segmented by laser processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Akram; Inadama, Naoko; Yoshida, Eiji; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Shimizu, Keiji; Yamaya, Taiga

    2017-09-01

    We have developed a four-layer depth of interaction (DOI) detector with single-side photon readout, in which segmented crystals with the patterned reflector insertion are separately identified by the Anger-type calculation. Optical conditions between segmented crystals, where there is no reflector, affect crystal identification ability. Our objective of this work was to improve crystal identification performance of the four-layer DOI detector that uses crystals segmented with a recently developed laser processing technique to include laser processed boundaries (LPBs). The detector consisted of 2 × 2 × 4mm3 LYSO crystals and a 4 × 4 array multianode photomultiplier tube (PMT) with 4.5 mm anode pitch. The 2D position map of the detector was calculated by the Anger calculation method. At first, influence of optical condition on crystal identification was evaluated for a one-layer detector consisting of a 2 × 2 crystal array with three different optical conditions between the crystals: crystals stuck together using room temperature vulcanized (RTV) rubber, crystals with air coupling and segmented crystals with LPBs. The crystal array with LPBs gave the shortest distance between crystal responses in the 2D position map compared with the crystal array coupled with RTV rubber or air due to the great amount of cross-talk between segmented crystals with LPBs. These results were used to find optical conditions offering the optimum distance between crystal responses in the 2D position map for the four-layer DOI detector. Crystal identification performance for the four-layer DOI detector consisting of an 8 × 8 array of crystals segmented with LPBs was examined and it was not acceptable for the crystals in the first layer. The crystal identification was improved for the first layer by changing the optical conditions between all 2 × 2 crystal arrays of the first layer to RTV coupling. More improvement was observed by combining different optical conditions between all

  7. Synthesis, crystal growth, optical, thermal, and mechanical properties of a nonlinear optical single crystal: ammonium sulfate hydrogen sulphamate (ASHS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakar, K.; Nandhini, S.; Muniyappan, S.; Arumanayagam, T.; Vivek, P.; Murugakoothan, P.

    2018-04-01

    Ammonium sulfate hydrogen sulphamate (ASHS), an inorganic nonlinear optical crystal, was grown from the aqueous solution by slow evaporation solution growth technique. The single-crystal XRD confirms that the grown single crystal belongs to the orthorhombic system with the space group of Pna21. Powder XRD confirms the crystalline nature and the diffraction planes were indexed. Crystalline perfection of grown crystal was analysed by high-resolution X-ray diffraction rocking curve technique. UV-Vis-NIR studies revealed that ASHS crystal has optical transparency 65% and lower cut-off wavelength at 218 nm. The violet light emission of the crystal was identified by photoluminescence studies. The particle size-dependent second-harmonic generation efficiency for ASHS crystal was evaluated by Kurtz-Perry powder technique using Nd:YAG laser which established the existence of phase matching. Surface laser damage threshold value was evaluated using Nd:YAG laser. Optical homogeneity of the crystal was evaluated using modified channel spectrum method through birefringence study. Thermal analysis reveals that ASHS crystal is stable up to 213 °C. The mechanical behaviour of the ASHS crystal was analysed using Vickers microhardness study.

  8. On the origin of surface imposed anisotropic growth of salicylic and acetylsalicylic acids crystals during droplet evaporation

    OpenAIRE

    Przybyłek, Maciej; Cysewski, Piotr; Pawelec, Maciej; Ziółkowska, Dorota; Kobierski, Mirosław

    2018-01-01

    In this paper droplet evaporative crystallization of salicylic acid (SA) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) crystals on different surfaces, such as glass, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), and paraffin was studied. The obtained crystals were analyzed using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) technique. In order to better understand the effect of the surface on evaporative crystallization, crystals deposited on glass were scraped off. Moreover, evaporative crystallization of a large volume of solution was perf...

  9. Protein Crystal Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    In order to rapidly and efficiently grow crystals, tools were needed to automatically identify and analyze the growing process of protein crystals. To meet this need, Diversified Scientific, Inc. (DSI), with the support of a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract from NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center, developed CrystalScore(trademark), the first automated image acquisition, analysis, and archiving system designed specifically for the macromolecular crystal growing community. It offers automated hardware control, image and data archiving, image processing, a searchable database, and surface plotting of experimental data. CrystalScore is currently being used by numerous pharmaceutical companies and academic and nonprofit research centers. DSI, located in Birmingham, Alabama, was awarded the patent Method for acquiring, storing, and analyzing crystal images on March 4, 2003. Another DSI product made possible by Marshall SBIR funding is VaporPro(trademark), a unique, comprehensive system that allows for the automated control of vapor diffusion for crystallization experiments.

  10. Photonic crystal light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, James G [Albuquerque, NM; Lin, Shawn-Yu [Albuquerque, NM; Bur, James A [Corrales, NM

    2004-07-27

    A light source is provided by a photonic crystal having an enhanced photonic density-of-states over a band of frequencies and wherein at least one of the dielectric materials of the photonic crystal has a complex dielectric constant, thereby producing enhanced light emission at the band of frequencies when the photonic crystal is heated. The dielectric material can be a metal, such as tungsten. The spectral properties of the light source can be easily tuned by modification of the photonic crystal structure and materials. The photonic crystal light source can be heated electrically or other heating means. The light source can further include additional photonic crystals that exhibit enhanced light emission at a different band of frequencies to provide for color mixing. The photonic crystal light source may have applications in optical telecommunications, information displays, energy conversion, sensors, and other optical applications.

  11. Nonlinear and quantum optics with liquid crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukishova, Svetlana G

    2014-01-01

    Thermotropic liquid crystals' usual application is display technology. This paper describes experiments on light interaction with pure and doped liquid crystals under for these materials unconventional incident light powers: (1) under high-power laser irradiation, and (2) at the single-photon level. In (1), I will outline several nonlinear optical effects under high-power, nanosecond laser irradiation which should be taken into account in the design of lasers with liquid crystal components and in fabrication of optical power limiters based on liquid crystals: (1.1) athermal helical pitch dilation and unwinding of cholesteric mirrors (both in free space and inside laser resonators); (1.2) some pitfalls in measurements of refractive nonlinearity using z-scan technique under two-photon or linear absorption of liquids; (1.3) the first observation of thermal lens effects in liquid crystals under several-nanosecond, low-pulse-repetition rate (2-10 Hz) laser irradiation in the presence of two-photon absorption; (1.4) feedback-free kaleidoscope of patterns (hexagons, stripes, etc.) in dye-doped liquid crystals. In (2), at the single-photon level, it will be shown that with a proper selection of liquid crystals and a single-emitter dopant spectral range, liquid crystal structures can be used to control emitted single photons (both polarization and count rate). The application of the latter research is absolutely secure quantum communication with polarization coding of information. In particular, in (2.1), definite handedness, circular polarized cholesteric microcavity resonance in quantum dot fluorescence is reported. In (2.2), definite linear polarization of single (antibunched) photons from single-dye-molecules in planar-aligned nematic host is discussed. In (2.3), some results on photon antibunching from NV-color center in nanodiamond in liquid crystal host and circularly polarized fluorescence of definite handedness from nanocrystals doped with trivalent ions of

  12. Graded photonic crystals by optical interference holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Chunrui; Tam, Wing Yim

    2012-01-01

    We report on the fabrication of graded photonic crystals in dye doped dichromate gelatin emulsions using an optical interference holographic technique. The gradedness is achieved by imposing a gradient form factor in the interference intensity resulting from the absorption of the dye in the dichromate gelatin. Wider and deeper photonic bandgaps are observed for the dyed samples as compared to the un-dyed samples. Our method could open up a new direction in fabricating graded photonic crystals which cannot be achieved easily using other techniques. (paper)

  13. Alternative crystal field parameters for rare-earth ions obtained from various techniques: IV. Comparative analysis of crystal field parameters obtained from inelastic neutron scattering and related studies of RE ions (RE = Er{sup 3+}, Ho{sup 3+}, Nd{sup 3+}, Pr{sup 3+}) in REBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} high-T{sub c} superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudowicz, Czeslaw, E-mail: crudowicz@zut.edu.pl [Modeling in Spectroscopy Group, Institute of Physics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Mechatronics, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin, al. Piastow 48, 70-311 Szczecin (Poland); Lewandowska, Monika [Modeling in Spectroscopy Group, Institute of Physics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Mechatronics, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin, al. Piastow 48, 70-311 Szczecin (Poland)

    2012-11-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Orthorhombic crystal field parameters (CFPs) for RE3{sup +} in REBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparative analysis of CFP sets for Er{sup 3+}, Ho{sup 3+}, Nd{sup 3+}, and Pr{sup 3+} ions performed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aspects related to CFP standardization considered. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Several problems identified due to comparative CFP analysis clarified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Correct comparison of different CFP sets must be based on standardization. - Abstract: This is fourth paper in a series devoted to reanalysis of the non-standard and standard crystal-field (CF) parameter (CFP) sets obtained from various experimental techniques and theoretical models for trivalent rare-earth (RE) ions in high-critical-temperature (high-T{sub c}) superconductors and related systems. In this paper the experimental orthorhombic CFPs, obtained mostly by inelastic neutron scattering techniques and to a lesser extent by magnetic susceptibility and specific heat measurements as well as the respective theoretical CFPs for Er{sup 3+}, Ho{sup 3+}, Nd{sup 3+}, and Pr{sup 3+} ions in REBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} compounds, are considered. Several problems identified due to the comparative CFP analysis: (i) confusing notations used for operators and CFPs, (ii) different scaling factors and units used for CFPs, and (iii) lack of clear definitions of the axis systems used to express CFPs, were clarified. For each ion studied the available experimental and theoretical CFP sets are analyzed, standardized, and presented in a unified way. The large number of CFP sets prevents calculation of the five additional alternative sets for each originally reported CFP set. Instead, the alternative CFP sets are determined using the package CST for an average set calculated for selected compatible sets for each ion. These alternative CFP sets may be utilized in the multiple correlated

  14. Growth and characterization of nonlinear optical single crystal: Nicotinic L-tartaric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheelarani, V.; Shanthi, J., E-mail: shanthinelson@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women, Coimbatore-641043 (India)

    2015-06-24

    Nonlinear optical single crystals were grown from Nicotinic and L-Tartaric acid by slow evaporation technique at room temperature. Structure of the grown crystal was confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies, The crystallinity of the Nicotinic L-Tartaric (NLT) crystals was confirmed from the powder XRD pattern. The transparent range and cut off wavelength of the grown crystal was studied by the UV–Vis spectroscopic analysis.The thermal stability of the crystal was studied by TG-DTA. The second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency of NLT was confirmed by Kurtz Perry technique.

  15. Structural, Linear, and Nonlinear Optical and Mechanical Properties of New Organic L-Serine Crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear optical single crystal of organic amino acid L-Serine (LS was grown by slow evaporation technique. Solubility study of the compound was measured and metastable zone width was found. Single crystal X-ray diffraction study was carried out for the grown crystal. The linear and nonlinear optical properties of the crystal were confirmed by UV-Vis analysis and powder SHG tester. FT-IR spectrum was recorded and functional groups were analyzed. Vickers’ microhardness studies showed the mechanical strength of the grown crystal. Laser damage threshold value of the crystal was calculated. Photoconductivity studies reveal the conductivity of the crystal.

  16. Unexpected results from direct measurement, with a torsion microbalance in a closed system, of calcification rates of the coral Agaricia agaricites (Scleractinia:Agariicidae and concomitant changes in seawater pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian M. Sandeman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification is impacting the calcification of corals, but the mechanisms of calcification are still unclear. To explore the relationship between calcification and pH, small pieces of coral were suspended from a torsion microbalance in gently stirred, temperature controlled, seawater in a closed chamber. Net calcification rate and pH were continuously monitored while light, temperature or pH could be manipulated. The coral pieces were from the edges of thin plates of Agaricia agaricites and were studied alive and freshly collected. Unexpectedly, when calcification was taking place (n=9, 0.082 mg.hr-1.cm-2, as determined by weight increase, the pH of the surrounding seawater medium changed little (n=10, -0.0047 pH units.hr-1.cm-2. When calcification was not taking place the decrease of seawater pH was an order of magnitude higher, -0.013 pH units.hr-1.cm-2. This is the opposite of what is expected when calcium carbonate (CaCO3 forms. Similarly, fresh skeleton initially showed no change of pH in the seawater medium although the rates of weight gain were high (upto 1.0 mg hr-1.cm-2. After 10 hours, as the rate of deposition decreased following a generalized Michaelis-Menten growth curve, the pH began to decrease dramatically indicating an increase of CO2 in the seawater. These unexpected results can be explained if unstable calcium bicarbonate (Ca(HCO³2 is formed in the organic matrix/carbonic anhydrase surface and slowly transforms later to CaCO3. Pieces of living coral monitored in the chamber for 30 hours gained weight during the day and loss it at night. The loss would be consistent with the transformation of Ca(HCO³2 to CaCO3 with the release of CO2. The mean calcification rate of live coral was greater (n=8, p=0.0027 in high light (120 μmol.s-1.m-2 at 0.098 mg.hr-1.cm-2, compared to 0.063 mg.hr-1.cm-2 in low light (12 μmol.s-1.m-2. However, at the same time the mean rate of pH change was -0.0076 under low light compared to -0

  17. Magnetic, electric and optic properties of liquid crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florea, St.C.

    1980-01-01

    We study the nematic liquid crystals of thermotrop type. We also studied the crystals whose mesomorphism occured both at temperature increasing and decreasing and during the supercooling phase (monotrope). Investigation results performed by us have had in view the following: clearing up and experimental support of a new mechanism of nuclear relaxation in liquid crystals, proposed by author; usage of experimental techniques and methods for to characterize and test some mesomorph media used in very important applications, such as color TV. (author)

  18. Optical Studies on Sol-Gel Derived Lead Chloride Crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Rejeena, I; Lillibai, B; Nithyaja, B; Nampoori, P.N V; Radhakrishnan, P

    2013-01-01

    Optical characterization of lead chloride crystals prepared by sol-gel method is reported. The relevant sol-gel technique is used for the preparation of PbCl2 samples with five different types. In this paper, we report the absorption and fluorescence behaviour of pure, UV& IR irradiated and electric & magnetic field applied lead chloride crystal samples in solution phase at two different concentrations. Optical bandgap and emission studies of these crystals are also done.

  19. Crystallization of Polymers Investigated by Temperature-Modulated DSC

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Cristina Righetti

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this review is to summarize studies conducted by temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC) on polymer crystallization. This technique can provide several advantages for the analysis of polymers with respect to conventional differential scanning calorimetry. Crystallizations conducted by TMDSC in different experimental conditions are analysed and discussed, in order to illustrate the type of information that can be deduced. Isothermal and non-isothermal crystal...

  20. Czochralski method of growing single crystals. State-of-art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukowski, A.; Zabierowski, P.

    1999-01-01

    Modern Czochralski method of single crystal growing has been described. The example of Czochralski process is given. The advantages that caused the rapid progress of the method have been presented. The method limitations that motivated the further research and new solutions are also presented. As the example two different ways of the technique development has been described: silicon single crystals growth in the magnetic field; continuous liquid feed of silicon crystals growth. (author)

  1. Trace element distribution in geological crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den Besten, J L; Jamieson, D N; Weiser, P S [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1997-12-31

    Channelling is a useful microprobe technique for determining the structure of crystals, but until now has not been performed on geological crystals. The composition has been investigated rather than the structure, which can further explain the origin of the crystal and provide useful information on the substitutionality of trace elements. This may then lead to applications of extraction of valuable metals and semiconductor electronics. Natural crystals of pyrite, FeS{sub 2}, which contains a substantial concentration of gold were channeled and examined to identify the channel axis orientation. Rutherford Backscattering (RBS) and Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) spectra using MeV ions were obtained in the experiment to provide a comparison of lattice and non-lattice trace elements. 3 figs.

  2. Trace element distribution in geological crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den Besten, J.L.; Jamieson, D.N.; Weiser, P.S. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1996-12-31

    Channelling is a useful microprobe technique for determining the structure of crystals, but until now has not been performed on geological crystals. The composition has been investigated rather than the structure, which can further explain the origin of the crystal and provide useful information on the substitutionality of trace elements. This may then lead to applications of extraction of valuable metals and semiconductor electronics. Natural crystals of pyrite, FeS{sub 2}, which contains a substantial concentration of gold were channeled and examined to identify the channel axis orientation. Rutherford Backscattering (RBS) and Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) spectra using MeV ions were obtained in the experiment to provide a comparison of lattice and non-lattice trace elements. 3 figs.

  3. Internal bias field in glycine phosphite crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayeem, Jannatul; Wakabayashi, Hiroshi; Kikuta, Toshio; Yamazaki, Toshinari; Nakatani, Noriyuki

    2003-01-01

    The distributions of internal bias field E b have been investigated under the carbon-powder pattern and mercury electrode techniques in GPI ferroelectric crystals. Polarity and intensity of E b are distributed depending on crystal growth sectors. Crystal symmetry 2/m is observed obviously in the distribution of E b . The polarities of E b are head-to-head manner in those growth sectors where a surface is growing parallel to the crystallographic a-axis and tail-to-tail manner in the other growth sectors in the crystal. The maximum intensity of E b is found in the sectors (010) where the growing surfaces are perpendicular to the ferroelectric b-axis

  4. Microprobe channeling analysis of pyrite crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamieson, D.N.; Ryan, C.G.

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear microprobe analysis has provided much useful information about the composition of microscopic inclusions in minerals, mainly through the use of Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). However this technique, while powerful, does not provide any direct information about the chemical state, in particular the lattice location, of the elements in the mineral. This information is often of crucial importance in understanding the ore genesis. The technique of ion channeling may be used to identify lattice location, but many minerals occur as microscopic crystals. Therefore it is necessary to utilize a nuclear microprobe with the technique of Channeling Contrast Microscopy (CCM). As many minerals contain interesting trace elements, it is necessary to measure both the yield of backscattered particles and the induced x-rays to get a clear picture of the lattice location of the elements in the crystal. CCM with PIXE was used to analyse natural pyrite crystals containing a variety of substitutional and non-substitutional elements and natural pyrite crystals from a gold bearing ore. In the latter case, evidence was obtained for two habits for Au in the 400 μm crystals: one as inclusions of Au rich minerals, the other substituted on the pyrite lattice sites. 31 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs

  5. Unique Crystal Orientation of Poly(ethylene oxide) Thin Films by Crystallization Using a Thermal Gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gbabode, Gabin; Delvaux, Maxime; Schweicher, Guillaume

    2017-01-01

    Poly(ethylene oxide), (PEO), thin films of different thicknesses (220, 450, and 1500 nm) and molecular masses (4000, 8000, and 20000 g/mol) have been fabricated by spin-coating of methanol solutions onto glass substrates. All these samples have been recrystallized from the melt using a directional......, to significantly decrease the distribution of crystal orientation obtained after crystallization using the thermal gradient technique....

  6. Crystal growth and characterization of a semiorganic nonlinear optical single crystal of gamma glycine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, J. Thomas Joseph; Kumararaman, S.

    2008-01-01

    Gamma glycine has been successfully synthesized by taking glycine and potassium chloride and single crystals have been grown by solvent evaporation method for the first time. The grown single crystals have been analyzed with XRD, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and thermo gravimetric and differential thermal analyses (TG/DTA) measurements. Its mechanical behavior has been assessed by Vickers microhardness measurements. Its nonlinear optical property has been tested by Kurtz powder technique. Its optical behavior was examined by UV-vis., and found that the crystal is transparent in the region between 240 and 1200 nm. Hence, it may be very much useful for the second harmonic generation (SHG) applications

  7. Dew Point Calibration System Using a Quartz Crystal Sensor with a Differential Frequency Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ningning Lin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the influence of temperature on quartz crystal microbalance (QCM sensor response during dew point calibration is investigated. The aim is to present a compensation method to eliminate temperature impact on frequency acquisition. A new sensitive structure is proposed with double QCMs. One is kept in contact with the environment, whereas the other is not exposed to the atmosphere. There is a thermal conductivity silicone pad between each crystal and a refrigeration device to keep a uniform temperature condition. A differential frequency method is described in detail and is applied to calibrate the frequency characteristics of QCM at the dew point of −3.75 °C. It is worth noting that frequency changes of two QCMs were approximately opposite when temperature conditions were changed simultaneously. The results from continuous experiments show that the frequencies of two QCMs as the dew point moment was reached have strong consistency and high repeatability, leading to the conclusion that the sensitive structure can calibrate dew points with high reliability.

  8. Dew Point Calibration System Using a Quartz Crystal Sensor with a Differential Frequency Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ningning; Meng, Xiaofeng; Nie, Jing

    2016-11-18

    In this paper, the influence of temperature on quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor response during dew point calibration is investigated. The aim is to present a compensation method to eliminate temperature impact on frequency acquisition. A new sensitive structure is proposed with double QCMs. One is kept in contact with the environment, whereas the other is not exposed to the atmosphere. There is a thermal conductivity silicone pad between each crystal and a refrigeration device to keep a uniform temperature condition. A differential frequency method is described in detail and is applied to calibrate the frequency characteristics of QCM at the dew point of -3.75 °C. It is worth noting that frequency changes of two QCMs were approximately opposite when temperature conditions were changed simultaneously. The results from continuous experiments show that the frequencies of two QCMs as the dew point moment was reached have strong consistency and high repeatability, leading to the conclusion that the sensitive structure can calibrate dew points with high reliability.

  9. Scintillation crystal mounting apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engdahl, L.W.; Deans, A.J.

    1982-01-01

    An improved detector head for a gamma camera is disclosed. The detector head includes a housing and a detector assembly mounted within the housing. Components of the detector assembly include a crystal sub-assembly, a phototube array, and a light pipe between the phototube array and crystal sub-assembly. The invention provides a unique structure for maintaining the phototubes in optical relationship with the light pipe and preventing the application of forces that would cause the camera's crystal to crack

  10. CMS lead tungstate crystals

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2000-01-01

    These crystals are made from lead tungstate, a crystal that is as clear as glass yet with nearly four times the density. They have been produced in Russia to be used as scintillators in the electromagnetic calorimeter on the CMS experiment, part of the LHC project at CERN. When an electron, positron or photon passes through the calorimeter it will cause a cascade of particles that will then be absorbed by these scintillating crystals, allowing the particle's energy to be measured.

  11. Single Crystal Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Santillan, Joaquin

    2014-06-01

    The present work studies (0001) Al2O3 and (111) Al2MgO4 wetting with pure molten Al by the sessile drop technique from 1073 K to 1473 K (800 °C to 1200 °C) under Ar at PO2 10-15 Pa. Al pure liquid wets a smooth and chemically homogeneous surface of an inert solid, the wetting driving force ( t, T) can be readily studied when surface solid roughness increases in the system. Both crystals planes (0001) Al2O3 and (111) Al2MgO4 have crystallographic surfaces with identical O-2 crystalline positions however considering Mg2+ content in Al2MgO4 structure may influence a reactive mode. Kinetic models results under similar experimental conditions show that Al wetting on (0001) Al2O3 is less reactive than (111) Al2MgO4, however at >1273 K (1000 °C) (0001) Al2O3 transformation occurs and a transition of wetting improves. The (111) Al2MgO4 and Al system promotes interface formations that slow its wetting process.

  12. Temperature-mediated polymorphism in molecular crystals: The impact on crystal packing and charge transport

    KAUST Repository

    Stevens, Loah A.; Goetz, Katelyn P.; Fonari, Alexandr; Shu, Ying; Williamson, Rachel M.; Bredas, Jean-Luc; Coropceanu, Veaceslav P.; Jurchescu, Oana D.; Collis, Gavin E.

    2015-01-01

    We report a novel synthesis to ultra high purity 7,14-bis((trimethylsilyl)ethynyl)dibenzo[b,def]-chrysene (TMS-DBC) and the use of this material in the growth of single crystals by solution and vapor deposition techniques. We observe that the substrate temperature has a dramatic impact on the crystal growth, producing two distinct polymorphs of TMS-DBC; low temperature (LT) fine red needles and high temperature (HT) large yellow platelets. Single crystal X-ray crystallography confirms packing structures where the LT crystals form a 1D slipped-stack structure, while the HT crystals adopt a 2D brickwork motif. These polymorphs also represent a rare example where both are extremely stable and do not interconvert to the other crystal structure upon solvent or thermal annealing. Single crystal organic field-effect transistors of the LT and HT crystals show that the HT 2D brickwork motif produces hole mobilities as high as 2.1 cm2 V-1 s-1, while the mobility of the 1D structure is significantly lower, at 0.028 cm2 V-1 s-1. Electronic-structure calculations indicate that the superior charge transport in the brickwork polymorph in comparison to the slipped-stack polymorph is due to the presence of an increased dimensionality of the charge migration pathways.

  13. Temperature-mediated polymorphism in molecular crystals: The impact on crystal packing and charge transport

    KAUST Repository

    Stevens, Loah A.

    2015-01-13

    We report a novel synthesis to ultra high purity 7,14-bis((trimethylsilyl)ethynyl)dibenzo[b,def]-chrysene (TMS-DBC) and the use of this material in the growth of single crystals by solution and vapor deposition techniques. We observe that the substrate temperature has a dramatic impact on the crystal growth, producing two distinct polymorphs of TMS-DBC; low temperature (LT) fine red needles and high temperature (HT) large yellow platelets. Single crystal X-ray crystallography confirms packing structures where the LT crystals form a 1D slipped-stack structure, while the HT crystals adopt a 2D brickwork motif. These polymorphs also represent a rare example where both are extremely stable and do not interconvert to the other crystal structure upon solvent or thermal annealing. Single crystal organic field-effect transistors of the LT and HT crystals show that the HT 2D brickwork motif produces hole mobilities as high as 2.1 cm2 V-1 s-1, while the mobility of the 1D structure is significantly lower, at 0.028 cm2 V-1 s-1. Electronic-structure calculations indicate that the superior charge transport in the brickwork polymorph in comparison to the slipped-stack polymorph is due to the presence of an increased dimensionality of the charge migration pathways.

  14. Large three-dimensional photonic crystals based on monocrystalline liquid crystal blue phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Wei; Hou, Chien-Tsung; Li, Cheng-Chang; Jau, Hung-Chang; Wang, Chun-Ta; Hong, Ching-Lang; Guo, Duan-Yi; Wang, Cheng-Yu; Chiang, Sheng-Ping; Bunning, Timothy J; Khoo, Iam-Choon; Lin, Tsung-Hsien

    2017-09-28

    Although there have been intense efforts to fabricate large three-dimensional photonic crystals in order to realize their full potential, the technologies developed so far are still beset with various material processing and cost issues. Conventional top-down fabrications are costly and time-consuming, whereas natural self-assembly and bottom-up fabrications often result in high defect density and limited dimensions. Here we report the fabrication of extraordinarily large monocrystalline photonic crystals by controlling the self-assembly processes which occur in unique phases of liquid crystals that exhibit three-dimensional photonic-crystalline properties called liquid-crystal blue phases. In particular, we have developed a gradient-temperature technique that enables three-dimensional photonic crystals to grow to lateral dimensions of ~1 cm (~30,000 of unit cells) and thickness of ~100 μm (~ 300 unit cells). These giant single crystals exhibit extraordinarily sharp photonic bandgaps with high reflectivity, long-range periodicity in all dimensions and well-defined lattice orientation.Conventional fabrication approaches for large-size three-dimensional photonic crystals are problematic. By properly controlling the self-assembly processes, the authors report the fabrication of monocrystalline blue phase liquid crystals that exhibit three-dimensional photonic-crystalline properties.

  15. Characterising laser beams with liquid crystal displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Angela; Naidoo, Darryl; Forbes, Andrew

    2016-02-01

    We show how one can determine the various properties of light, from the modal content of laser beams to decoding the information stored in optical fields carrying orbital angular momentum, by performing a modal decomposition. Although the modal decomposition of light has been known for a long time, applied mostly to pattern recognition, we illustrate how this technique can be implemented with the use of liquid-crystal displays. We show experimentally how liquid crystal displays can be used to infer the intensity, phase, wavefront, Poynting vector, and orbital angular momentum density of unknown optical fields. This measurement technique makes use of a single spatial light modulator (liquid crystal display), a Fourier transforming lens and detector (CCD or photo-diode). Such a diagnostic tool is extremely relevant to the real-time analysis of solid-state and fibre laser systems as well as mode division multiplexing as an emerging technology in optical communication.

  16. Domains in Ferroic Crystals and Thin Films

    CERN Document Server

    Tagantsev, Alexander K; Fousek, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Domains in Ferroic Crystals and Thin Films presents experimental findings and theoretical understanding of ferroic (non-magnetic) domains developed during the past 60 years. It addresses the situation by looking specifically at bulk crystals and thin films, with a particular focus on recently-developed microelectronic applications and methods for observation of domains with techniques such as scanning force microscopy, polarized light microscopy, scanning optical microscopy, electron microscopy, and surface decorating techniques. Domains in Ferroic Crystals and Thin Films covers a large area of material properties and effects connected with static and dynamic properties of domains, which are extremely relevant to materials referred to as ferroics. In most solid state physics books, one large group of ferroics is customarily covered: those in which magnetic properties play a dominant role. Numerous books are specifically devoted to magnetic ferroics and cover a wide spectrum of magnetic domain phenomena. In co...

  17. Electrically modulated transparent liquid crystal-optical grating projection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buss, Thomas; Smith, Cameron; Kristensen, Anders

    2013-01-01

    A transparent, fully integrated electrically modulated projection technique is presented based on light guiding through a thin liquid crystal layer covering sub-wavelength gratings. The reported device operates at 10 V with response times of 4.5 ms. Analysis of the liquid crystal alignment shows...

  18. Polarization-independent nematic liquid crystal waveguides for optofluidic applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    d'Alessandro, A.; Martini, L.; Gilardi, G.; Beccherelli, R.; Asquini, R.

    2015-01-01

    We present the fabrication and the characterization of waveguides made of a nematic liquid crystal infiltrated in poly(dimethylsiloxane) channels. They are made by means of cast and molding technique and patterned using soft photolithography. The orientation of the nematic liquid crystal molecules

  19. Active Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ek, Sara

    This thesis deals with the fabrication and characterization of active photonic crystal waveguides, realized in III-V semiconductor material with embedded active layers. The platform offering active photonic crystal waveguides has many potential applications. One of these is a compact photonic...... due to photonic crystal dispersion. The observations are explained by the enhancement of net gain by light slow down. Another application based on active photonic crystal waveguides is micro lasers. Measurements on quantum dot micro laser cavities with different mirror configurations and photonic...

  20. A crystal barrel

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The production of crystals for the barrel of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter has been completed. This is an important milestone for the experiment, which received the last of its 62,960 crystals on 9 March. The members of the team responsible for the crystal acceptance testing at CERN display the last crystal for the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter barrel. From left to right: Igor Tarasov, Etiennette Auffray and Hervé Cornet.One of the six machines specially developed to measure 67 different parameters on each crystal. Igor Tarasov is seen inserting the last batch of crystals into the machine. The last of the 62,960 CMS barrel crystals arrived at CERN on 9 March. Once removed from its polystyrene protection, this delicate crystal, like thousands of its predecessors, will be inserted into the last of the 36 supermodules of the barrel electromagnetic calorimeter in a few days' time. This marks the end of an important chapter in an almost 15-year-long journey by the CMS crystals team, some of whose member...

  1. Automation in biological crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Patrick Shaw; Mueller-Dieckmann, Jochen

    2014-06-01

    Crystallization remains the bottleneck in the crystallographic process leading from a gene to a three-dimensional model of the encoded protein or RNA. Automation of the individual steps of a crystallization experiment, from the preparation of crystallization cocktails for initial or optimization screens to the imaging of the experiments, has been the response to address this issue. Today, large high-throughput crystallization facilities, many of them open to the general user community, are capable of setting up thousands of crystallization trials per day. It is thus possible to test multiple constructs of each target for their ability to form crystals on a production-line basis. This has improved success rates and made crystallization much more convenient. High-throughput crystallization, however, cannot relieve users of the task of producing samples of high quality. Moreover, the time gained from eliminating manual preparations must now be invested in the careful evaluation of the increased number of experiments. The latter requires a sophisticated data and laboratory information-management system. A review of the current state of automation at the individual steps of crystallization with specific attention to the automation of optimization is given.

  2. Crystallization Formulation Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Crystallization Formulation Lab fills a critical need in the process development and optimization of current and new explosives and energetic formulations. The...

  3. Synthesis, crystal structure, physicochemical properties of hydrogen bonded supramolecular assembly of N,N-diethylanilinium-3, 5-dinitrosalicylate crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, M.; Chandramohan, A.

    2017-12-01

    An organic salt, N,N-diethylanilinium 3,5-dinitrosalicylate was synthesized and single crystals grown by employing the slow solvent evaporation solution growth technique in methanol-acetone (1:1) mixture. The electronic transitions of the salt crystal were studied by UV-Visible spectrum. The optical transmittance window and lower wavelength cut-off of grown crystal have been identified by UV-Vis-NIR studies. The FT-IR spectrum was recorded to confirm the presence of various functional groups in the grown crystal. 1H and 13C NMR spectrum were recorded to establish the molecular structure of the title crystal. Single crystal X-ray diffraction data indicated that the crystal belongs to monoclinic crystal system with P21/n space group. The thermal stability of the crystal was established by TG/DTA studies. The mechanical properties of the grown crystal were studied by Vickers' microhardness technique. The dielectric studies indicated that the dielectric constant and dielectric loss decrease exponentially with frequency at different temperatures.

  4. Development of the mercury iodide semiconductor crystal for application as a radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Joao Francisco Trencher

    2011-01-01

    In this work, the establishment of a technique for HgI growth and preparation of crystals, for use as room temperature radiation semiconductor detectors is described. Three methods of crystal growth were studied while developing this work: physical vapor transport (PVT); saturated solution of HgI 2 , using two different solvents; (a) dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and (b) acetone, and the Bridgman method. In order to evaluate the obtained crystals by the three methods, systematic measurements were carried out for determining the stoichiometry, structure, orientation, surface morphology and impurity of the crystal. The influence of these physical chemical properties on the crystals development was studied, evaluating their performance as radiation detectors. The X-ray diffractograms indicated that the crystals were, preferentially, oriented in the (001) e (101) directions with tetragonal structure for all crystals. Nevertheless, morphology with a smaller deformation level was observed for the crystal obtained by the PVT technique, comparing to other methods. Uniformity on the surface layer of the PVT crystal was detected, while clear incrustations of elements distinct from the crystal could be viewed on the DMSO crystal surface. The best results as to radiation response were found for the crystal grown by physical vapor transport. Significant improvement in the HgI z2 radiation detector performance was achieved for purer crystals, growing the crystal twice by PVT technique. (author)

  5. Growth of single crystals from solutions using semi-permeable membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varkey, A. J.; Okeke, C. E.

    1983-05-01

    A technique suitable for growth of single crystals from solutions using semi-preamble membranes is described. Using this technique single crystals of copper sulphate, potassium bromide and ammonium dihydrogen phosphate have been successfully grown. Advantages of this technique over other methods are discussed.

  6. Large-area photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhl, Tilmann; Spahn, Peter; Hellmann, Gotz P.; Winkler, Holger

    2004-09-01

    Materials with a periodically modulated refractive index, with periods on the scale of light wavelengths, are currently attracting much attention because of their unique optical properties which are caused by Bragg scattering of the visible light. In nature, 3d structures of this kind are found in the form of opals in which monodisperse silica spheres with submicron diameters form a face-centered-cubic (fcc) lattice. Artificial opals, with the same colloidal-crystalline fcc structure, have meanwhile been prepared by crystallizing spherical colloidal particles via sedimentation or drying of dispersions. In this report, colloidal crystalline films are introduced that were produced by a novel technique based on shear flow in the melts of specially designed submicroscopic silica-polymer core-shell hybrid spheres: when the melt of these spheres flows between the plates of a press, the spheres crystallize along the plates, layer by layer, and the silica cores assume the hexagonal order corresponding to the (111) plane of the fcc lattice. This process is fast and yields large-area films, thin or thick. To enhance the refractive index contrast in these films, the colloidal crystalline structure was inverted by etching out the silica cores with hydrofluoric acid. This type of an inverse opal, in which the fcc lattice is formed by mesopores, is referred to as a polymer-air photonic crystal.

  7. Screening for templates that promote crystallization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urbanus, J.; Roelands, C.P.M.; Horst, J.H. ter; Verdoes, D.; Jansens, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    In Situ Product Recovery (ISPR) applied in fermentation processes leads to improved yield and productivity of these processes. In principle, ISPR can be achieved using Template Induced Crystallization (TIC), which is one possible ISPR technique. With TIC, templates are added to the solution as a

  8. Fabrication of Nanoimprint stamps for photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouba, J; Kubenz, M; Mai, A; Ropers, G; Eberhardt, W; Loechel, B

    2006-01-01

    We report on fabrication of nanoimprint stamps for fabrication of two dimensional photonic crystals in visible range of spectra. Nanoimprint stamps made of silicon and/or nickel were successfully fabricated using electron beam lithography and advanced dry etching techniques. The quality of the stamps was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy. The fabricated stamps were also evaluated by imprinting them into suitable polymer materials

  9. Semiconductor monolayer assemblies with oriented crystal faces

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Guijun; Takata, Tsuyoshi; Katayama, Masao; Zhang, Fuxiang; Moriya, Yosuke; Takanabe, Kazuhiro; Kubota, Jun; Domen, Kazunari

    2012-01-01

    Fabrication of two-dimensional monolayers of crystalline oxide and oxynitride particles was attempted on glass plate substrates. X-Ray diffraction patterns of the assemblies show only specific crystal facets, indicative of the uniform orientation of the particles on the substrate. The selectivity afforded by this immobilization technique enables the organization of randomly distributed polycrystalline powders in a controlled manner.

  10. Supramolecular Liquid Crystal Displays Construction and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Hoogboom, J.T.V.

    2004-01-01

    This thesis describes chemical methodologies, which can be ued to construct alignment layers for liquid crystal display purposes in a non-clean room environment, by making use of supramolecular chemistry. These techniques are subsequently used to attain control over LCD-properties, both pre- and post-LCD construction. In addition, the thesis describes the application of LCD technology in biosensors.

  11. Experimental techniques; Techniques experimentales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roussel-Chomaz, P. [GANIL CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/DSM, 14 - Caen (France)

    2007-07-01

    This lecture presents the experimental techniques, developed in the last 10 or 15 years, in order to perform a new class of experiments with exotic nuclei, where the reactions induced by these nuclei allow to get information on their structure. A brief review of the secondary beams production methods will be given, with some examples of facilities in operation or under project. The important developments performed recently on cryogenic targets will be presented. The different detection systems will be reviewed, both the beam detectors before the targets, and the many kind of detectors necessary to detect all outgoing particles after the reaction: magnetic spectrometer for the heavy fragment, detection systems for the target recoil nucleus, {gamma} detectors. Finally, several typical examples of experiments will be detailed, in order to illustrate the use of each detector either alone, or in coincidence with others. (author)

  12. Crystallization of ornithine acetyltransferase from yeast by counter-diffusion and preliminary X-ray study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maes, Dominique, E-mail: dominique.maes@vub.ac.be; Crabeel, Marjolaine [Laboratorium voor Ultrastructuur, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB) and Vlaams Interuniversitair Instituut voor Biotechnologie (VIB), Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Van de Weerdt, Cécile; Martial, Joseph [Laboratoire de Biologie Moléculaire et de Génie Génétique, Université de Liège, Allée de la Chimie 3, B-4000 Liège (Belgium); Peeters, Eveline; Charlier, Daniël [Erfelijkheidsleer en Microbiologie, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Decanniere, Klaas; Vanhee, Celine; Wyns, Lode; Zegers, Ingrid [Laboratorium voor Ultrastructuur, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB) and Vlaams Interuniversitair Instituut voor Biotechnologie (VIB), Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2006-12-01

    A study on the crystallization of ornithine acetyltransferase from yeast, catalysing the fifth step in microbial arginine synthesis, is presented. The use of the counter-diffusion technique removes the disorder present in one dimension in crystals grown by either batch or hanging-drop techniques. A study is presented on the crystallization of ornithine acetyltransferase from yeast, which catalyzes the fifth step in microbial arginine synthesis. The use of the counter-diffusion technique removes the disorder present in one dimension in crystals grown by either the batch or hanging-drop techniques. This makes the difference between useless crystals and crystals that allow successful determination of the structure of the protein. The crystals belong to space group P4, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 66.98, c = 427.09 Å, and a data set was collected to 2.76 Å.

  13. Preparation and characterization of PTFE coating in new polymer quartz piezoelectric crystal sensor for testing liquor products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Yu; Li Qiang

    2015-01-01

    A new method was developed based on the electron beam vacuum dispersion (EBVD) technology to prepare the PTFE polymer coating of the new polymer quartz piezoelectric crystal sensor for testing liquor products. The new method was applied in the new EBVD equipment which we designed. A real-time system monitoring the polymer coating’s thickness was designed for the new EBVD equipment according to the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) principle, playing an important role in preparing stable and uniform PTFE polymer coatings of the same thickness. 30 pieces of PTFE polymer coatings on the surface of the quartz crystal basis were prepared with the PTFE polymer ultrafine powder (purity ≥ 99.99%) as the starting material. We obtained 30 pieces of new PTFE polymer sensors. By using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the structure of the PTFE polymer coating’s column clusters was studied. One sample from the 30 pieces of new PTFE polymer sensors was analysed by SEM in four scales, i.e., 400×, 1000×, 10000×, and 25000×. It was shown that under the condition of high bias voltage and low bias current, uniformly PTFE polymer coating could be achieved, which indicates that the new EBVD equipment is suitable for mass production of stable and uniform polymer coating. (paper)

  14. Influence of solvent evaporation rate on crystallization of poly ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the crystallization process. The in-situ substrate temperature is manipulated to control the rate of evaporation of. 2-butanone ..... Thickness measurement using AFM technique. A sec- .... Central Instrumentation Facility (CIF) at Pondicherry Uni-.

  15. Dissolution enhancement of Deflazacort using hollow crystals prepared by antisolvent crystallization process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulino, A S; Rauber, G; Campos, C E M; Maurício, M H P; de Avillez, R R; Capobianco, G; Cardoso, S G; Cuffini, S L

    2013-05-13

    Deflazacort (DFZ), a derivate of prednisolone, is a poorly soluble drug which has been proposed to have major advantages over other corticosteroids. Poorly soluble drugs present limited bioavailability due to their low solubility and dissolution rate and several strategies have been developed in order to find ways to improve them. In general, pharmaceutical laboratories use a micronized process to reduce the particle size in order to increase the dissolution of the drugs. However, this process causes changes such as polymorphic transitions, particle agglomeration and a reduction in fluidity and wettability. These solid-state properties affect the dissolution behavior and stability performance of drugs. Crystallization techniques are widely used in the pharmaceutical industry and antisolvent crystallization has been used to obtain ultrafine particles. In this study, DFZ was investigated in terms of its antisolvent crystallization in different solvents and under various preparation conditions (methanol/water ratio, stirring and evaporation rate, etc.), in order to compare the physicochemical properties between crystallized samples and raw materials available on the Brazilian market with and without micronization. Crystalline structure, morphology, and particle size, and their correlation with the Intrinsic Dissolution Rate (IDR) and dissolution profile as relevant biopharmaceutical properties were studied. Crystallization conditions were achieved which provided crystalline samples of hollow-shaped crystals with internal channels, which increased the dissolution rate of DFZ. The antisolvent crystallization process allowed the formation of hollow crystals, which demonstrated a better dissolution profile than the raw material (crystalline and micronized), making this a promising technique as a crystallization strategy for improving the dissolution and thus the bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Thermotropic Ionic Liquid Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axenov, Kirill V.; Laschat, Sabine

    2011-01-01

    The last five years’ achievements in the synthesis and investigation of thermotropic ionic liquid crystals are reviewed. The present review describes the mesomorphic properties displayed by organic, as well as metal-containing ionic mesogens. In addition, a short overview on the ionic polymer and self-assembled liquid crystals is given. Potential and actual applications of ionic mesogens are also discussed. PMID:28879986

  17. Thermotropic Ionic Liquid Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axenov, Kirill V; Laschat, Sabine

    2011-01-14

    The last five years' achievements in the synthesis and investigation of thermotropic ionic liquid crystals are reviewed. The present review describes the mesomorphic properties displayed by organic, as well as metal-containing ionic mesogens. In addition, a short overview on the ionic polymer and self-assembled liquid crystals is given. Potential and actual applications of ionic mesogens are also discussed.

  18. Thermotropic Ionic Liquid Crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Axenov, Kirill V.; Laschat, Sabine

    2011-01-01

    The last five years’ achievements in the synthesis and investigation of thermotropic ionic liquid crystals are reviewed. The present review describes the mesomorphic properties displayed by organic, as well as metal-containing ionic mesogens. In addition, a short overview on the ionic polymer and self-assembled liquid crystals is given. Potential and actual applications of ionic mesogens are also discussed.

  19. Photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægsgaard, Jesper; Hansen, K P; Nielsen, M D

    2003-01-01

    Photonic crystal fibers having a complex microstructure in the transverse plane constitute a new and promising class of optical fibers. Such fibers can either guide light through total internal reflection or the photonic bandgap effect, In this paper, we review the different types and applications...... of photonic crystal fibers with particular emphasis on recent advances in the field....

  20. Tactical Miniature Crystal Oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    manufactured by this process are expected to require 30 days to achieve minimum aging rates. (4) FUNDEMENTAL CRYSTAL RETRACE MEASUREMENT. An important crystal...considerable measurement time to detect differences and characterize components. Before investing considerable time in a candidate reactive element, a

  1. Crystals in the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    Bent crystals can be used to deflect charged particle beams. Their use in high-energy accelerators has been investigated for almost 40 years. Recently, a bent crystal was irradiated for the first time in the HiRadMat facility with an extreme particle flux, which crystals would have to withstand in the LHC. The results were very encouraging and confirmed that this technology could play a major role in increasing the beam collimation performance in future upgrades of the machine.   UA9 bent crystal tested with a laser. Charged particles interacting with a bent crystal can be trapped in channelling states and deflected by the atomic planes of the crystal lattice (see box). The use of bent crystals for beam manipulation in particle accelerators is a concept that has been well-assessed. Over the last three decades, a large number of experimental findings have contributed to furthering our knowledge and improving our ability to control crystal-particle interactions. In modern hadron colliders, su...

  2. A new technique for infrared scintillation measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiossi, F., E-mail: federico.chiossi@studenti.unipd.it [Dip. di Fisica e Astronomia and INFN, University of Padua, Via F. Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Brylew, K. [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Informatics, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Grudziadzka 5, 87-100 Torun (Poland); Borghesani, A.F. [CNISM Unit and Dip. di Fisica e Astronomia, University of Padua, Via F. Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Braggio, C.; Carugno, G. [Dip. di Fisica e Astronomia and INFN, University of Padua, Via F. Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Drozdowski, W. [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Informatics, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Grudziadzka 5, 87-100 Torun (Poland); Guarise, M. [Dip. di Fisica e Astronomia and INFN, University of Padua, Via F. Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy)

    2017-05-21

    We propose a new technique to measure the infrared scintillation light yield of rare earth doped crystals by comparing it to near UV–visible scintillation of a calibrated Pr:(Lu{sub 0.75}Y{sub 0.25}){sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12} sample. As an example, we apply this technique to provide the light yield in visible and infrared range up to 1700 nm of this crystal.

  3. A new technique for infrared scintillation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiossi, F.; Brylew, K.; Borghesani, A.F.; Braggio, C.; Carugno, G.; Drozdowski, W.; Guarise, M.

    2017-01-01

    We propose a new technique to measure the infrared scintillation light yield of rare earth doped crystals by comparing it to near UV–visible scintillation of a calibrated Pr:(Lu_0_._7_5Y_0_._2_5)_3Al_5O_1_2 sample. As an example, we apply this technique to provide the light yield in visible and infrared range up to 1700 nm of this crystal.

  4. Optically Anomalous Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Shtukenberg, Alexander; Kahr, Bart

    2007-01-01

    Optical anomalies in crystals are puzzles that collectively constituted the greatest unsolved problems in crystallography in the 19th Century. The most common anomaly is a discrepancy between a crystal’s symmetry as determined by its shape or by X-ray analysis, and that determined by monitoring the polarization state of traversing light. These discrepancies were perceived as a great impediment to the development of the sciences of crystals on the basis of Curie’s Symmetry Principle, the grand organizing idea in the physical sciences to emerge in the latter half of the 19th Century. Optically Anomalous Crystals begins with an historical introduction covering the contributions of Brewster, Biot, Mallard, Brauns, Tamman, and many other distinguished crystallographers. From this follows a tutorial in crystal optics. Further chapters discuss the two main mechanisms of optical dissymmetry: 1. the piezo-optic effect, and 2. the kinetic ordering of atoms. The text then tackles complex, inhomogeneous crystals, and...

  5. Progress on photonic crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Lecoq, P; Gundacker, S; Hillemanns, H; Jarron, P; Knapitsch, A; Leclercq, J L; Letartre, X; Meyer, T; Pauwels, K; Powolny, F; Seassal, C

    2010-01-01

    The renewal of interest for Time of Flight Positron Emission Tomography (TOF PET) has highlighted the need for increasing the light output of scintillating crystals and in particular for improving the light extraction from materials with a high index of refraction. One possible solution to overcome the problem of total internal reflection and light losses resulting from multiple bouncing within the crystal is to improve the light extraction efficiency at the crystal/photodetector interface by means of photonic crystals, i.e. media with a periodic modulation of the dielectric constant at the wavelength scale. After a short reminder of the underlying principles this contribution proposes to present the very encouraging results we have recently obtained on LYSO pixels and the perspectives on other crystals such as BGO, LuYAP and LuAG. These results confirm the impressive predictions from our previously published Monte Carlo simulations. A detailed description of the sample preparation procedure is given as well ...

  6. Organic semiconductor crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengliang; Dong, Huanli; Jiang, Lang; Hu, Wenping

    2018-01-22

    Organic semiconductors have attracted a lot of attention since the discovery of highly doped conductive polymers, due to the potential application in field-effect transistors (OFETs), light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and photovoltaic cells (OPVs). Single crystals of organic semiconductors are particularly intriguing because they are free of grain boundaries and have long-range periodic order as well as minimal traps and defects. Hence, organic semiconductor crystals provide a powerful tool for revealing the intrinsic properties, examining the structure-property relationships, demonstrating the important factors for high performance devices and uncovering fundamental physics in organic semiconductors. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the molecular packing, morphology and charge transport features of organic semiconductor crystals, the control of crystallization for achieving high quality crystals and the device physics in the three main applications. We hope that this comprehensive summary can give a clear picture of the state-of-art status and guide future work in this area.

  7. Oxide nano crystals for in vivo imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinrich, E.

    2005-01-01

    For small animal, fluorescence imaging is complementary with other techniques such as nuclear imaging (PET, SPECT). In vivo imaging studies imply the development of new luminescent probes, with a better sensitivity and a better biological targeting. These markers must filled biological and optical conditions. Our goal is to study new doped lanthanides oxide nano-crystals, their properties, their functionalization and their ability to target biological molecules. Characterizations of Y 2 O 3 :Eu and Y 2 SiO 5 :Eu nano-crystals (light diffusion, spectrometry, microscopy) allowed the determination of their size, their fluorescence properties but also their photo-bleaching. Means of stabilization of the nanoparticles were also studied in order to decrease their aggregation. Gd 2 O 3 :Eu nano-crystals were as well excited by X rays. Nano-crystals of Y 2 SiO 5 :Eu were functionalized, and organic ligands grafting evidenced by fluorescence and NMR. The functionalized nano-crystals could then recognized biological targets (streptavidin-biotin) and be incubated in the presence of HeLa cells. This report deals with the properties of these nano-crystals and their ability to meet the optical and biological conditions required for the application of in vivo imaging. (author)

  8. The contribution of polystyrene nanospheres towards the crystallization of proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna M Kallio

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Protein crystallization is a slow process of trial and error and limits the amount of solved protein structures. Search of a universal heterogeneous nucleant is an effort to facilitate crystallizability of proteins. METHODOLOGY: The effect of polystyrene nanospheres on protein crystallization were tested with three commercial proteins: lysozyme, xylanase, xylose isomerase, and with five research target proteins: hydrophobins HFBI and HFBII, laccase, sarcosine dimethylglycine N-methyltransferase (SDMT, and anti-testosterone Fab fragment 5F2. The use of nanospheres both in screening and as an additive for known crystallization conditions was studied. In screening, the addition of an aqueous solution of nanosphere to the crystallization drop had a significant positive effect on crystallization success in comparison to the control screen. As an additive in hydrophobin crystallization, the nanospheres altered the crystal packing, most likely due to the amphiphilic nature of hydrophobins. In the case of laccase, nanospheres could be used as an alternative for streak-seeding, which insofar had remained the only technique to produce high-diffracting crystals. With methyltransferase SDMT the nanospheres, used also as an additive, produced fewer, larger crystals in less time. Nanospheres, combined with the streak-seeding method, produced single 5F2 Fab crystals in shorter equilibration times. CONCLUSIONS: All in all, the use of nanospheres in protein crystallization proved to be beneficial, both when screening new crystallization conditions to promote nucleation and when used as an additive to produce better quality crystals, faster. The polystyrene nanospheres are easy to use, commercially available and close to being inert, as even with amphiphilic proteins only the crystal packing is altered and the nanospheres do not interfere with the structure and function of the protein.

  9. Patterning of Perovskite Single Crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Corzo, Daniel

    2017-06-12

    As the internet-of-things hardware integration continues to develop and the requirements for electronics keep diversifying and expanding, the necessity for specialized properties other than the classical semiconductor performance becomes apparent. The success of emerging semiconductor materials depends on the manufacturability and cost as much as on the properties and performance they offer. Solution-based semiconductors are an emerging concept that offers the advantage of being compatible with large-scale manufacturing techniques and have the potential to yield high-quality electronic devices at a lower cost than currently available solutions. In this work, patterns of high-quality MAPbBr3 perovskite single crystals in specific locations are achieved through the modification of the substrate properties and solvent engineering. The fabrication of the substrates involved modifying the surface adhesion forces through functionalization with self-assembled monolayers and patterning them by photolithography processes. Spin coating and blade coating were used to deposit the perovskite solution on the modified silicon substrates. While single crystal perovskites were obtained with the modification of substrates alone, solvent engineering helped with improving the Marangoni flows in the deposited droplets by increasing the contact angle and lowering the evaporation rate, therefore controlling and improving the shape of the grown perovskite crystals. The methodology is extended to other types of perovskites such as the transparent MAPbCl3 and the lead-free MABi2I9, demonstrating the adaptability of the process. Adapting the process to electrode arrays opened up the path towards the fabrication of optoelectronic devices including photodetectors and field-effect transistors, for which the first iterations are demonstrated. Overall, manufacturing and integration techniques permitting the fabrication of single crystalline devices, such as the method in this thesis work, are

  10. The 1993 annual conference of the Israeli Association for Crystal Growth. Program and abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-11-01

    Papers presented in oral and poster sessions of one day conference, organized by Israeli Association for Crystal Growth, are compiled in this document. Main topics covered in this document can be classified as: (i) Fundamental and numerical analysis of crystal growth. (ii) Techniques of crystal growth and structural analysis. (iii) Thin film growth and characterization

  11. Investigations on the optical, thermal and surface modifications of electron irradiated L-threonine single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramesh Kumar, G.; Gokul Raj, S. [Department of Physics, Presidency College, Chepauk, Chennai 600005 (India); Bogle, K.A.; Dhole, S.D.; Bhoraskar, V.N. [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411007 (India); Mohan, R. [Department of Physics, Presidency College, Chepauk, Chennai 600005 (India)], E-mail: professormohan@yahoo.co.in

    2008-06-15

    L-Threonine single crystals have been irradiated by 6 MeV electrons. Irradiated crystals at various electron fluences were subjected to various techniques such as UV-vis-NIR, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and thermomechanical analyses. Thermal strength of the irradiated crystals has also been studied through differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements. The results have been discussed in detail.

  12. Resistivity distribution of silicon single crystals using codoping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jong Hoe

    2005-07-01

    Numerous studies including continuous Czochralski method and double crucible technique have been reported on the control of macroscopic axial resistivity distribution in bulk crystal growth. The simple codoping method for improving the productivity of silicon single-crystal growth by controlling axial specific resistivity distribution was proposed by Wang [Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43 (2004) 4079]. Wang [J. Crystal Growth 275 (2005) e73] demonstrated using numerical analysis and by experimental results that the axial specific resistivity distribution can be modified in melt growth of silicon crystals and relatively uniform profile is possible by B-P codoping method. In this work, the basic characteristic of 8 in silicon single crystal grown using codoping method is studied and whether proposed method has advantage for the silicon crystal growth is discussed.

  13. Growth and characterization of heavily doped silicon crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scala, R.; Porrini, M. [MEMC Electronic Materials SpA, via Nazionale 59, 39012 Merano (Italy); Borionetti, G. [MEMC Electronic Materials SpA, viale Gherzi 31, Novara (Italy)

    2011-08-15

    Silicon crystals grown with the Czochralski method are still the most common material used for the production of electronic devices. In recent years, a growing need of large diameter crystals with increasingly higher doping levels is observed, especially to support the expanding market of discrete devices and its trend towards lower and lower resistivity levels for the silicon substrate. The growth of such heavily doped, large-diameter crystals poses several new challenges to the crystal grower, and the presence of a high dopant concentration in the crystal affects significantly its main properties, requiring also the development of dedicated characterization techniques. This paper illustrates the recent advances in the growth and characterization of silicon crystals heavily doped with antimony, arsenic, phosphorus and boron. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  14. Structural Color Patterns by Electrohydrodynamic Jet Printed Photonic Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Haibo; Zhu, Cun; Tian, Lei; Liu, Cihui; Fu, Guangbin; Shang, Luoran; Gu, Zhongze

    2017-04-05

    In this work, we demonstrate the fabrication of photonic crystal patterns with controllable morphologies and structural colors utilizing electrohydrodynamic jet (E-jet) printing with colloidal crystal inks. The final shape of photonic crystal units is controlled by the applied voltage signal and wettability of the substrate. Optical properties of the structural color patterns are tuned by the self-assembly of the silica nanoparticle building blocks. Using this direct printing technique, it is feasible to print customized functional patterns composed of photonic crystal dots or photonic crystal lines according to relevant printing mode and predesigned tracks. This is the first report for E-jet printing with colloidal crystal inks. Our results exhibit promising applications in displays, biosensors, and other functional devices.

  15. Control of liquid crystal molecular orientation using ultrasound vibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taniguchi, Satoki [Faculty of Life and Medical Sciences, Doshisha University, 1-3 Tataramiyakodani, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan); Wave Electronics Research Center, Doshisha University, 1-3 Tataramiyakodani, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan); Koyama, Daisuke; Matsukawa, Mami [Wave Electronics Research Center, Doshisha University, 1-3 Tataramiyakodani, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan); Faculty of Science and Engineering, Doshisha University, 1-3 Tataramiyakodani, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan); Shimizu, Yuki; Emoto, Akira [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Doshisha University, 1-3 Tataramiyakodani, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan); Nakamura, Kentaro [Precision and Intelligence Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259-R2-26, Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan)

    2016-03-07

    We propose a technique to control the orientation of nematic liquid crystals using ultrasound and investigate the optical characteristics of the oriented samples. An ultrasonic liquid crystal cell with a thickness of 5–25 μm and two ultrasonic lead zirconate titanate transducers was fabricated. By exciting the ultrasonic transducers, the flexural vibration modes were generated on the cell. An acoustic radiation force to the liquid crystal layer was generated, changing the molecular orientation and thus the light transmission. By modulating the ultrasonic driving frequency and voltage, the spatial distribution of the molecular orientation of the liquid crystals could be controlled. The distribution of the transmitted light intensity depends on the thickness of the liquid crystal layer because the acoustic field in the liquid crystal layer is changed by the orientational film.

  16. A novel organic nonlinear optical crystal: Creatininium succinate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thirumurugan, R.; Anitha, K., E-mail: singlecerystalxrd@gmail.ciom [School of Physics, Madurai Kamraj University, Madurai 625021 (India)

    2015-06-24

    A novel organic material complex of creatininium succinate (CS) has been synthesized and single crystals were grown by the reaction of creatinine and succinic acid from aqueous solution by employing the technique of slow evaporation at room temperature. The structure of the grown crystal has been elucidated using single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis and the structure was refined by least-squares method to R = 0.027 for 1840 reflections. FT-IR spectral investigation has been carried out to identify the various functional groups in the title compound. UV–Vis transmission was carried out which shows the crystal has a good optical transmittance in the visible region with lower cutoff wavelength around 220 nm. Nonlinear optical property of the crystal was confirmed by Kurtz-Perry powder technique.

  17. Bulk crystal growth and their effective third order nonlinear optical properties of 2-(4-fluorobenzylidene) malononitrile (FBM) single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyadharshini, A.; Kalainathan, S.

    2018-04-01

    2-(4-fluorobenzylidene) malononitrile (FBM), an organic third order nonlinear (TONLO) single crystal with the dimensions of 32 × 7 × 11 mm3, has been successfully grown in acetone solution by slow evaporation technique at 35 °C. The crystal system (triclinic), space group (P-1) and crystalline purity of the titular crystal were measured by single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction, respectively. The molecular weight and the multiple functional groups of the FBM material were confirmed through the mass and FT-IR spectral analysis. UV-Vis-NIR spectral study enroles that the FBM crystal exhibits excellent transparency (83%) in the entire visible and near infra-red region with a wide bandgap 2.90 eV. The low dielectric constant (εr) value of FBM crystal is appreciable for microelectronics industry applications. Thermal stability and melting point (130.09 °C) were ascertained by TGA-DSC analysis. The laser-induced surface damage threshold (LDT) value of FBM specimen is found to be 2.14 GW/cm2, it is fairly good compared to other reported NLO crystals. The third - order nonlinear optical character of the FBM crystal was confirmed through the typical single beam Z-scan technique. All these finding authorized that the organic crystal of FBM is favorably suitable for NLO applications.

  18. Structural, mechanical, electrical and optical properties of a new lithium boro phthalate NLO crystal synthesized by a slow evaporation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanraj, K.; Balasubramanian, D.; Jhansi, N.

    2017-11-01

    A new non-linear optical (NLO) single crystal of lithium boro phthalate (LiBP) was grown by slow solvent evaporation technique. The powder sample was subjected to powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) to find its crystalline nature and the crystal structure of the grown crystal was determined using single crystal X-ray (SXRD) diffraction analysis. The Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrum was recorded for grown crystal to identify the various functional groups present in the compound. The mechanical property of the LiBP single crystal was studied using Vickers microhardness tester. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss measurements were carried out for the grown crystal at various temperatures. The grown crystal was subjected to UV-Visible Spectral Studies to analyze the linear optical behavior of the grown crystal. The Kurtz-Perry Powder technique was employed to measure the Second Harmonic Generation efficiency of the grown crystal.

  19. Modification of the crystal habit of celecoxib for improved processability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banga, Sheere; Chawla, Garima; Varandani, Deepak; Mehta, B R; Bansal, Arvind K

    2007-01-01

    Crystallization is often used in the pharmaceutical industry for purification and isolation of drugs, and also as a means of generating polymorphs or isomorphs. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of extrinsic crystallization parameters on the crystallized product, with special emphasis on improving the mechanical properties of acicular celecoxib. Celecoxib isomorphs were prepared using different techniques (solvent crystallization and vapour diffusion) and crystallization conditions (solvents, stirring, degree of supersaturation, crystallization temperature and seeding). Powder X-ray diffractometry, spectroscopic and thermal methods were used to investigate physical characteristics of crystals. Growth kinetics and aggregation dynamics of crystallization in polar and non-polar solvents were simulated using a dynamic light scattering method. The quick appearance of broad peaks over the range of 10-8000 nm in chloroform during crystallization simulation studies indicated faster aggregation in non-polar solvents. Aspect ratio, flow, compressibility and surface area of recrystallized products were also determined. Surface topography was determined by atomic force microscopy and the lath-shaped crystals (aspect ratio of 2-4) exhibited a roughness index of 1.79 in comparison with 2.92 for needles. Overall, the lath-shaped isomorphs exhibited improved flow and better compressibility.

  20. Crystallization of modified hydroxyapatite on titanium implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovanova, O A; Izmailov, R R; Zaits, A V; Ghyngazov, S A

    2016-01-01

    Carbonated-hydroxyapatite (CHA) and Si-hydroxyapatite (Si-HA) precipitation have been synthesized from the model bioliquid solutions (synovial fluid and SBF). It is found that all the samples synthesized from the model solutions are single-phase and represent hydroxyapatite. The crystallization of the modified hydroxyapatite on alloys of different composition, roughness and subjected to different treatment techniques was investigated. Irradiation of the titanium substrates with the deposited biomimetic coating can facilitate further growth of the crystal and regeneration of the surface. (paper)

  1. Disorder in Protein Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarage, James Braun, II

    1990-01-01

    Methods have been developed for analyzing the diffuse x-ray scattering in the halos about a crystal's Bragg reflections as a means of determining correlations in atomic displacements in protein crystals. The diffuse intensity distribution for rhombohedral insulin, tetragonal lysozyme, and triclinic lysozyme crystals was best simulated in terms of exponential displacement correlation functions. About 90% of the disorder can be accounted for by internal movements correlated with a decay distance of about 6A; the remaining 10% corresponds to intermolecular movements that decay in a distance the order of size of the protein molecule. The results demonstrate that protein crystals fit into neither the Einstein nor the Debye paradigms for thermally fluctuating crystalline solids. Unlike the Einstein model, there are correlations in the atomic displacements, but these correlations decay more steeply with distance than predicted by the Debye-Waller model for an elastic solid. The observed displacement correlations are liquid -like in the sense that they decay exponentially with the distance between atoms, just as positional correlations in a liquid. This liquid-like disorder is similar to the disorder observed in 2-D crystals of polystyrene latex spheres, and similar systems where repulsive interactions dominate; hence, these colloidal crystals appear to provide a better analogy for the dynamics of protein crystals than perfectly elastic lattices.

  2. Growth, structural, optical, thermal and mechanical studies on 4-Aminopyridinium monophthalate: A novel nonlinear optical crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marudhu, G.; Krishnan, S.; Palanichamy, M.

    2016-03-01

    A novel nonlinear optical crystal of 4-Aminopyridinium monophthalate (4-APMP) was grown by slow evaporation technique using methanol as solvent. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis confirms that the grown crystal belongs to orthorhombic system. The presence of functional groups was qualitatively determined by FTIR analysis. The optical absorption studies reveal very low absorption in the entire visible region. The fluorescence emission spectrum shows the emission is in blue region. The thermal stability of the grown crystal is found to be around 197.2 °C. The SHG efficiency of the grown crystal is found to be 1.1 times than that of KDP crystals.

  3. Solid-state reaction kinetics and optical studies of cadmium doped magnesium hydrogen phosphate crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Madhu; Gupta, Rashmi; Singh, Harjinder; Bamzai, K. K.

    2018-04-01

    The growth of cadmium doped magnesium hydrogen phosphate was successfully carried out by using room temperature solution technique i.e., gel encapsulation technique. Grown crystals were confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD). The structure of the grown crystal belongs to orthorhombic crystal system and crystallizes in centrosymmetric space group. Kinetics of the decomposition of the grown crystals were studied by non-isothermal analysis. Thermo gravimetric / differential thermo analytical (TG/DTA) studies revealed that the grown crystal is stable upto 119 °C. The various steps involved in the thermal decomposition of the material have been analysed using Horowitz-Metzger, Coats-Redfern and Piloyan-Novikova equations for evaluating various kinetic parameters. The optical studies shows that the grown crystals possess wide transmittance in the visible region and significant optical band gap of 5.5ev with cut off wavelength of 260 nm.

  4. The performance studies of DKDP crystals grown by a rapid horizontal growth method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiaoyi; Qi, Hongji; Wang, Bin; Wang, Hu; Chen, Duanyang; Shao, Jianda

    2018-04-01

    A deuterated potassium dihydrogen phosphate (DKDP) crystal with about 70% deuterium level was grown by a rapid horizontal growth method with independent design equipment, which includes a continuous filtration system. The cooling program during crystal growth was designed according to a self-developed software to catch the size of growing crystal in real time. The crystal structure, optical performance and laser induced damage threshold (LIDT) of this DKDP crystal were investigated in this paper. The deuterium concentration of the crystal was confirmed by the neutron diffraction technique, which was effective and available in determining a complete range of deuteration level. The dielectric property was measured to evaluate the perfection of the lattice. The transmittance and LIDT were carried out further to evaluate the optical and functional properties of this DKDP crystal grown in the rapid horizontal growth technique. All of the detailed characterization for DKDP figured out that the 70% deuterated KDP crystal grown in this way had relatively good qualities.

  5. Growth and microtopographic study of CuInSe{sub 2} single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauhan, Sanjaysinh M.; Chaki, Sunil, E-mail: sunilchaki@yahoo.co.in; Deshpande, M. P. [Department of Physics, Sardar Patel University, Vallabh Vidyanagar, Gujarat - 388120 (India); Tailor, J. P. [Applied Physics Department, S.V.N.I.T., Surat, Gujarat - 395007 (India)

    2016-05-23

    The CuInSe{sub 2} single crystals were grown by chemical vapour transport (CVT) technique using iodine as transporting agent. The elemental composition of the as-grown CuInSe{sub 2} single crystals was determined by energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (EDAX). The unit cell crystal structure and lattice parameters were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. The surface microtopographic study of the as-grown CuInSe{sub 2} single crystals surfaces were done to study the defects, growth mechanism, etc. of the CVT grown crystals.

  6. Crystal growth, spectral properties, and laser demonstration of laser crystal Nd:LYSO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, D Z; Xu, X D; Zhou, D H; Xia, C T; Wu, F; Zhuang, S D; Wang, Z P; Xu, J

    2010-01-01

    A Nd:LYSO crystal has been grown by the Czochralski technique. The cell parameters were analyzed with X-ray diffraction (XRD). The Judd-Ofelt intense parameters Ω 2,4,6 were obtained to be 2.65, 5.75, and 7.37×10 -20 cm 2 , respectively. The absorption and emission cross sections and the branching ratios were calculated. The large absorption cross section (6.14×10 -20 cm 2 ) and broad absorption band (5 nm) around 811 nm indicate that this crystal can be pumped efficiently by laser diodes. The broad emission band from the 4 F 3/2 multiplet shows that the crystal is a promising medium for ultrashort pulse lasers. Pumped by a laser diode, the maximum 814 mW continuous-wave laser output has been obtained with a slope efficiency of 28.9%. All the results show that this crystal is a promising laser material

  7. Crystals in light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahr, Bart; Freudenthal, John; Gunn, Erica

    2010-05-18

    We have made images of crystals illuminated with polarized light for almost two decades. Early on, we abandoned photosensitive chemicals in favor of digital electrophotometry with all of the attendant advantages of quantitative intensity data. Accurate intensities are a boon because they can be used to analytically discriminate small effects in the presence of larger ones. The change in the form of our data followed camera technology that transformed picture taking the world over. Ironically, exposures in early photographs were presumed to correlate simply with light intensity, raising the hope that photography would replace sensorial interpretation with mechanical objectivity and supplant the art of visual photometry. This was only true in part. Quantitative imaging accurate enough to render the separation of crystalloptical quantities had to await the invention of the solid-state camera. Many pioneers in crystal optics were also major figures in the early history of photography. We draw out the union of optical crystallography and photography because the tree that connects the inventors of photography is a structure unmatched for organizing our work during the past 20 years, not to mention that silver halide crystallites used in chemical photography are among the most consequential "crystals in light", underscoring our title. We emphasize crystals that have acquired optical properties such as linear birefringence, linear dichroism, circular birefringence, and circular dichroism, during growth from solution. Other crystalloptical effects were discovered that are unique to curiously dissymmetric crystals containing embedded oscillators. In the aggregate, dyed crystals constitute a generalization of single crystal matrix isolation. Simple crystals provided kinetic stability to include guests such as proteins or molecules in excited states. Molecular lifetimes were extended for the preparation of laser gain media and for the study of the photodynamics of single

  8. Magnetic ions in crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Stevens, K W

    2014-01-01

    There have been many demonstrations, particularly for magnetic impurity ions in crystals, that spin-Hamiltonians are able to account for a wide range of experimental results in terms of much smaller numbers of parameters. Yet they were originally derived from crystal field theory, which contains a logical flaw; electrons on the magnetic ions are distinguished from those on the ligands. Thus there is a challenge: to replace crystal field theory with one of equal or greater predictive power that is based on a surer footing. The theory developed in this book begins with a generic Hamiltonian, on

  9. Silumins alloy crystallization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pietrowski

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of research, by ATD method, of hypo-, near- and hyperutectic silumins crystallization containing the following alloying additives: Mg, Ni, Cu, Cr, Mo, W, V. It has been shown that, depending on their concentration may crystallize pre-eutectic or eutectic multicomponent phases containing these alloy additives. It has been revealed that any subsequent crystallizable phase nucleate and grows near the liquid/former crystallized phase interface. In multiphases compound also falls the silicon, resulting in a reduction in its quantity and the fragmentation in the eutectic mixture. As a result, it gets a high hardness of silumins in terms of 110-220HB.

  10. Hypersonic phononic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorishnyy, T; Ullal, C K; Maldovan, M; Fytas, G; Thomas, E L

    2005-03-25

    In this Letter we propose the use of hypersonic phononic crystals to control the emission and propagation of high frequency phonons. We report the fabrication of high quality, single crystalline hypersonic crystals using interference lithography and show that direct measurement of their phononic band structure is possible with Brillouin light scattering. Numerical calculations are employed to explain the nature of the observed propagation modes. This work lays the foundation for experimental studies of hypersonic crystals and, more generally, phonon-dependent processes in nanostructures.

  11. Welcome to Crystals: A New Open-Access, Multidisciplinary Forum for Growth, Structures and Properties of Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerd Meyer

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The majority of the earth’s crust is made up of crystalline material. The research areas of mineralogy, petrology, chimie minerále (inorganic chemistry and, of course, crystallography outgrew from the fascination of mankind with the color and symmetry of crystals. Crystals have translational symmetry in two or three dimensions, quasicrystals have translational symmetry in higher spaces. Further symmetries may be observed by the eye, by microscopic techniques or by the diffraction of X-ray, electron, or neutron beams. Diffraction techniques are also used, due to Max von Laue’s eminent discovery a century ago, to determine crystal structures. [...

  12. Synthesis, growth, structural, optical, thermal, electrical and mechanical properties of hydrogen bonded organic salt crystal: Triethylammonium-3, 5-dinitrosalicylate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Madhu; Chandramohan, Angannan

    2017-04-01

    Triethylammonium-3, 5-dinitrosalicylate, an organic salt was synthesized and single crystals grown by slow solvent evaporation solution growth technique using methanol as a solvent. The presence of various functional groups and mode of vibrations has been confirmed by FT-IR spectroscopic technique. The UV-vis-NIR Spectrum was recorded in the range 200-1200 nm to find optical transmittance window and lower cut off wavelength of the title crystal. The formation of the salt and the molecular structure was confirmed by NMR spectroscopic technique. Crystal system, crystalline nature, cell parameters and hydrogen bonding interactions of the grown crystal were determined by single crystal x-ray diffraction analysis. The thermal characteristics of grown crystal were analyzed by thermo gravimetric and differential thermal analyses. Dielectric studies were carried out to study the distribution of charges within the crystal. The mechanical properties of the title crystal were studied by Vicker's microhardness technique.

  13. Physicochemical properties of dimethylammonium p-nitrophenolate– p-nitrophenol: A nonlinear optical crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathika, A. [Department of Physics, Noorul Islam Centre for Higher Education, Noorul Islam University, Kumaracoil 629 180 (India); Prasad, L. Guru [Departemnt of Science & Humanities, M. Kumarasamy College of Engineering, Karur (India); Raman, R. Ganapathi, E-mail: ganapathiraman83@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Noorul Islam Centre for Higher Education, Noorul Islam University, Kumaracoil 629 180 (India)

    2016-03-15

    Single crystals of Dimethylammonium p-nitrophenolate–p-nitrophenol have been grown from aqueous solution by slow evaporation solution growth technique. Unit cell parameters of the grown crystal were confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis and the synthesized compound is crystallized in monoclinic system. Various functional groups and their vibrational frequencies were recognized from the FT-IR and FT-Raman spectrum. Thermal stability of the crystal was examined by recording the TGA/DTA curve. The grown crystal has wider transparency nature in the visible region and the lower cut-off wavelength is found at 465 nm. Mechanical property of the crystal was studied by analyzing the Vicker's microhardness measurements. The fluorescence emission from the crystal is observed at 350 nm which arise due to the presence of aromatic ring. Relative SHG conversion efficiency of the grown crystal is about 0.59 times that of KDP.

  14. Physicochemical properties of dimethylammonium p-nitrophenolate– p-nitrophenol: A nonlinear optical crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathika, A.; Prasad, L. Guru; Raman, R. Ganapathi

    2016-01-01

    Single crystals of Dimethylammonium p-nitrophenolate–p-nitrophenol have been grown from aqueous solution by slow evaporation solution growth technique. Unit cell parameters of the grown crystal were confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis and the synthesized compound is crystallized in monoclinic system. Various functional groups and their vibrational frequencies were recognized from the FT-IR and FT-Raman spectrum. Thermal stability of the crystal was examined by recording the TGA/DTA curve. The grown crystal has wider transparency nature in the visible region and the lower cut-off wavelength is found at 465 nm. Mechanical property of the crystal was studied by analyzing the Vicker's microhardness measurements. The fluorescence emission from the crystal is observed at 350 nm which arise due to the presence of aromatic ring. Relative SHG conversion efficiency of the grown crystal is about 0.59 times that of KDP.

  15. Thermal, mechanical, optical and dielectric properties of piperazinium hydrogen phosphite monohydrate NLO single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, R.; Praveen Kumar, P.

    2018-05-01

    Optical transparent crystal of piperazinium hydrogen phosphite monohydrate (PHPM) was grown by slow evaporation method. The grown crystal was characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis and the crystal belongs to monoclinic system. The functional groups present in PHPM crystal were confirmed by FTIR analysis. UV-Visible spectrum shows that the PHPM crystal is transparent in the visible region. The mechanical behavior of PHPM crystal was characterized by Vickers hardness test. Thermal stability of PHPM crystal was analyzed by thermogravimetric analysis. Dielectric studies were also carried out for the grown crystal. The third-order nonlinear parameters such as nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear absorption coefficient have been calculated using Z scan technique.

  16. Crystal Genetics, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermani, Bahram G

    2016-07-01

    Crystal Genetics, Inc. is an early-stage genetic test company, focused on achieving the highest possible clinical-grade accuracy and comprehensiveness for detecting germline (e.g., in hereditary cancer) and somatic (e.g., in early cancer detection) mutations. Crystal's mission is to significantly improve the health status of the population, by providing high accuracy, comprehensive, flexible and affordable genetic tests, primarily in cancer. Crystal's philosophy is that when it comes to detecting mutations that are strongly correlated with life-threatening diseases, the detection accuracy of every single mutation counts: a single false-positive error could cause severe anxiety for the patient. And, more importantly, a single false-negative error could potentially cost the patient's life. Crystal's objective is to eliminate both of these error types.

  17. Diffusion in Coulomb crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughto, J; Schneider, A S; Horowitz, C J; Berry, D K

    2011-07-01

    Diffusion in Coulomb crystals can be important for the structure of neutron star crusts. We determine diffusion constants D from molecular dynamics simulations. We find that D for Coulomb crystals with relatively soft-core 1/r interactions may be larger than D for Lennard-Jones or other solids with harder-core interactions. Diffusion, for simulations of nearly perfect body-centered-cubic lattices, involves the exchange of ions in ringlike configurations. Here ions "hop" in unison without the formation of long lived vacancies. Diffusion, for imperfect crystals, involves the motion of defects. Finally, we find that diffusion, for an amorphous system rapidly quenched from Coulomb parameter Γ=175 to Coulomb parameters up to Γ=1750, is fast enough that the system starts to crystalize during long simulation runs. These results strongly suggest that Coulomb solids in cold white dwarf stars, and the crust of neutron stars, will be crystalline and not amorphous.

  18. Bipolarons in nonmetallic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinetskii, V.L.; Pashitskii, E.A.; Yanchuk, V.A.

    1987-01-01

    The binding energy of a bipolaron in an ionic crystal increases substantially in the case of strong anisotropy of the effective masses of the free carriers of the easy plane type or easy axis type. In the second case the polaron is cigar-like in shape and the coaxial configuration of bipolarons is energetically favorable. In this case a significant gain in the binding energy and in the width of the region of existence of the bipolaron, with respect to the dielectric constant and the magnitude of the electron-phonon interaction constant, compared with an isotropic crystal, is obtained only for quasi-two-dimensional, or layered, and quasi-one-dimensional, or chainlike, crystals. This work shows that a significant gain in the binding energy can be obtained by taking into account the anisotropy of the dielectric constant of the crystal and localization of the electron wave functions in directions perpendicular to the layers and chains of atoms

  19. Liquid Crystal Colloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalyukh, Ivan I.

    2018-03-01

    Colloids are abundant in nature, science, and technology, with examples ranging from milk to quantum dots and the colloidal atom paradigm. Similarly, liquid crystal ordering is important in contexts ranging from biological membranes to laboratory models of cosmic strings and liquid crystal displays in consumer devices. Some of the most exciting recent developments in both of these soft matter fields emerge at their interface, in the fast-growing research arena of liquid crystal colloids. Mesoscale self-assembly in such systems may lead to artificial materials and to structures with emergent physical behavior arising from patterning of molecular order and nano- or microparticles into precisely controlled configurations. Liquid crystal colloids show exceptional promise for new discovery that may impinge on composite material fabrication, low-dimensional topology, photonics, and so on. Starting from physical underpinnings, I review the state of the art in this fast-growing field, with a focus on its scientific and technological potential.

  20. Creep of crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, J.-P.

    1988-01-01

    Creep mechanisms for metals, ceramics and rocks, effect of pressure and temperature on deformation processes are considered. The role of crystal defects is analysed, different models of creep are described. Deformation mechanisms maps for different materials are presented

  1. The growth of crystals of erbium hydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimshaw, J.A.; Spooner, F.J.; Wilson, C.G.; McQuillan, A.D.

    1981-01-01

    Crystals of the rare-earth hydride ErH 2 have been produced with face areas greater than a square millimetre and corresponding volumes exceeding those of earlier crystals by orders of magnitude. The hydride, which was produced in bulk polycrystalline form by hydriding erbium metal at 950 0 C, has been examined by optical and X-ray techniques. For material of composition ErH 2 and ErHsub(1.8) the size of the grains and their degree of strain appears to depend more on oxygen contamination during formation and on the subsequent cooling procedure, than on the size of erbium metal crystals in the starting material. (author)

  2. Thermotropic Ionic Liquid Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Laschat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The last five years’ achievements in the synthesis and investigation of thermotropic ionic liquid crystals are reviewed. The present review describes the mesomorphic properties displayed by organic, as well as metal-containing ionic mesogens. In addition, a short overview on the ionic polymer and self-assembled liquid crystals is given. Potential and actual applications of ionic mesogens are also discussed.

  3. Building a crystal palace

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The end-caps of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) take shape as the first quadrant was completed on Wednesday 3 October. 1831 crystals, organised into five by five blocks named ‘supercrystals’, make up the first quadrant of Dee 1.With the 61,200-crystal barrel of its electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) complete, CMS is now building the endcaps, on the tenth anniversary of their initial design. Crystals for the endcaps were the last to be made, so the race is now on to have them all in place and ready for the turn-on of the LHC next year. Assembly of the first of eight quadrants began in June and crystal mounting was completed on Wednesday 3 October. Each crystal is transparent, has a volume just larger than a CERN coffee cup yet weighs a huge 1.5kg. 1831 of these lead tungstate crystals went into the first quadrant from a total 14,648 in the endcaps. The lead and tungsten account for 86% of each crystal’s weight, but as project leader Dave Cockerill expl...

  4. Inkjet printing of single-crystal films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minemawari, Hiromi; Yamada, Toshikazu; Matsui, Hiroyuki; Tsutsumi, Jun'ya; Haas, Simon; Chiba, Ryosuke; Kumai, Reiji; Hasegawa, Tatsuo

    2011-07-13

    The use of single crystals has been fundamental to the development of semiconductor microelectronics and solid-state science. Whether based on inorganic or organic materials, the devices that show the highest performance rely on single-crystal interfaces, with their nearly perfect translational symmetry and exceptionally high chemical purity. Attention has recently been focused on developing simple ways of producing electronic devices by means of printing technologies. 'Printed electronics' is being explored for the manufacture of large-area and flexible electronic devices by the patterned application of functional inks containing soluble or dispersed semiconducting materials. However, because of the strong self-organizing tendency of the deposited materials, the production of semiconducting thin films of high crystallinity (indispensable for realizing high carrier mobility) may be incompatible with conventional printing processes. Here we develop a method that combines the technique of antisolvent crystallization with inkjet printing to produce organic semiconducting thin films of high crystallinity. Specifically, we show that mixing fine droplets of an antisolvent and a solution of an active semiconducting component within a confined area on an amorphous substrate can trigger the controlled formation of exceptionally uniform single-crystal or polycrystalline thin films that grow at the liquid-air interfaces. Using this approach, we have printed single crystals of the organic semiconductor 2,7-dioctyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (C(8)-BTBT) (ref. 15), yielding thin-film transistors with average carrier mobilities as high as 16.4 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). This printing technique constitutes a major step towards the use of high-performance single-crystal semiconductor devices for large-area and flexible electronics applications.

  5. Synthesis and binding affinity analysis of α1-2- and α1-6-O/S-linked dimannosides for the elucidation of sulfur in glycosidic bonds using quartz crystal microbalance sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norberg, Oscar; Wu, Bin; Thota, Niranjan

    2017-01-01

    with the cognate lectin concanavalin A. Mannose-presenting QCM sensors were produced using photoinitiated, nitrene-mediated immobilization methods, and the subsequent binding study was performed in an automated flow-through instrumentation, and correlated with data from isothermal titration calorimetry...

  6. Phonon manipulation with phononic crystals.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim Bongsang; Hopkins, Patrick Edward; Leseman, Zayd C.; Goettler, Drew F.; Su, Mehmet F. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); El-Kady, Ihab Fathy; Reinke, Charles M.; Olsson, Roy H., III

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we demonstrated engineered modification of propagation of thermal phonons, i.e. at THz frequencies, using phononic crystals. This work combined theoretical work at Sandia National Laboratories, the University of New Mexico, the University of Colorado Boulder, and Carnegie Mellon University; the MESA fabrication facilities at Sandia; and the microfabrication facilities at UNM to produce world-leading control of phonon propagation in silicon at frequencies up to 3 THz. These efforts culminated in a dramatic reduction in the thermal conductivity of silicon using phononic crystals by a factor of almost 30 as compared with the bulk value, and about 6 as compared with an unpatterned slab of the same thickness. This work represents a revolutionary advance in the engineering of thermoelectric materials for optimal, high-ZT performance. We have demonstrated the significant reduction of the thermal conductivity of silicon using phononic crystal structuring using MEMS-compatible fabrication techniques and in a planar platform that is amenable to integration with typical microelectronic systems. The measured reduction in thermal conductivity as compared to bulk silicon was about a factor of 20 in the cross-plane direction [26], and a factor of 6 in the in-plane direction. Since the electrical conductivity was only reduced by a corresponding factor of about 3 due to the removal of conductive material (i.e., porosity), and the Seebeck coefficient should remain constant as an intrinsic material property, this corresponds to an effective enhancement in ZT by a factor of 2. Given the number of papers in literature devoted to only a small, incremental change in ZT, the ability to boost the ZT of a material by a factor of 2 simply by reducing thermal conductivity is groundbreaking. The results in this work were obtained using silicon, a material that has benefitted from enormous interest in the microelectronics industry and that has a fairly large thermoelectric power

  7. Radiation induced color in topaz crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castagnet, A.C.; Rocca, H.C.C.; Rostilato, M.E.C.M.

    1989-08-01

    The presence of defects and impurities in the crystal lattice alters the eletric field distribution within the crystal, allowing the electrons to occupy energy levels in the forbbiden band. Ionizing radiation supply the required energy to permit the electrons originaly bound to lattice atoms, to occupy effectively those intermediate levels, forming color centers. Dependig upon the nature and energy of the radiation, it is possible to produce defects in regions of the crystal, generating color centers. Based on these premises, a technique to induce color in originally colorless topaz, by using the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor, was developed at Engineering and Industrial Application Department (TE). Samples were irradiated inside iron capsules coated with cadmium foils. The iron, and principaly the cadmium, absorb the thermal neutrons that could activate crystal impurities generating long-lived radioisotopes. The epithermal neutrons that overpass the iron and cadmium barriers interact with the crystal atoms, causing lattice defects which give rise to color center, by subsequent ionization processes. The procedure used at TE induces permanent blue color, in natural colorless topaz. (author) [pt

  8. Liquid crystal interfaces: Experiments, simulations and biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Piotr

    Interfacial phenomena are ubiquitous and extremely important in various aspects of biological and industrial processes. For example, many liquid crystal applications start by alignment with a surface. The underlying mechanisms of the molecular organization of liquid crystals at an interface are still under intensive study and continue to be important to the display industry in order to develop better and/or new display technology. My dissertation research has been devoted to studying how complex liquid crystals can be guided to organize at an interface, and to using my findings to develop practical applications. Specifically, I have been working on developing biosensors using liquid-crystal/surfactant/lipid/protein interactions as well as the alignment of low-symmetry liquid crystals for potential new display and optomechanical applications. The biotechnology industry needs better ways of sensing biomaterials and identifying various nanoscale events at biological interfaces and in aqueous solutions. Sensors in which the recognition material is a liquid crystal naturally connects the existing knowledge and experience of the display and biotechnology industries together with surface and soft matter sciences. This dissertation thus mainly focuses on the delicate phenomena that happen at liquid interfaces. In the introduction, I start by defining the interface and discuss its structure and the relevant interfacial forces. I then introduce the general characteristics of biosensors and, in particular, describe the design of biosensors that employ liquid crystal/aqueous solution interfaces. I further describe the basic properties of liquid crystal materials that are relevant for liquid crystal-based biosensing applications. In CHAPTER 2, I describe the simulation methods and experimental techniques used in this dissertation. In CHAPTER 3 and CHAPTER 4, I present my computer simulation work. CHAPTER 3 presents insight of how liquid crystal molecules are aligned by

  9. Lab-on-a-Chip Based Protein Crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    vanderWoerd, Mark J.; Brasseur, Michael M.; Spearing, Scott F.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We are developing a novel technique with which we will grow protein crystals in very small volumes, utilizing chip-based, microfluidic ("LabChip") technology. This development, which is a collaborative effort between NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center and Caliper Technologies Corporation, promises a breakthrough in the field of protein crystal growth. Our initial results obtained from two model proteins, Lysozyme and Thaumatin, show that it is feasible to dispense and adequately mix protein and precipitant solutions on a nano-liter scale. The mixtures have shown crystal growth in volumes in the range of 10 nanoliters to 5 microliters. In addition, large diffraction quality crystals were obtained by this method. X-ray data from these crystals were shown to be of excellent quality. Our future efforts will include the further development of protein crystal growth with LabChip(trademark) technology for more complex systems. We will initially address the batch growth method, followed by the vapor diffusion method and the liquid-liquid diffusion method. The culmination of these chip developments is to lead to an on orbit protein crystallization facility on the International Space Station. Structural biologists will be invited to utilize the on orbit Iterative Biological Crystallization facility to grow high quality macromolecular crystals in microgravity.

  10. Photonic Crystals: Physics and Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Sibilia, Concita; Marciniak, Marian; Szoplik, Tomasz

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the work is give an overview of the activity in the field of Photonic Crystal developed in the frame of COST P11 action . The main objective of the COST P11 action was to unify and coordinate national efforts aimed at studying linear and nonlinear optical interactions with Photonic Crystals (PCs), without neglecting an important aspect related to the material research as idea and methods of realizations of 3D PC, together with the development and implementation of measurement techniques for the experimental evaluation of their potential applications in different area, as for example telecommunication with novel optical fibers, lasers, nonlinear multi-functionality, display devices , opto-electronics, sensors. The book contain contributions from authors who gave their lecture at the Cost P11 Training School. Training School was held at the Warsaw University (2007) and National Institute of Telecommunications (May 23), Warsaw. It was attended by 23 students. The focus of the School was on the work of...

  11. Dismantling techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiese, E.

    1998-01-01

    Most of the dismantling techniques used in a Decontamination and Dismantlement (D and D) project are taken from conventional demolition practices. Some modifications to the techniques are made to limit exposure to the workers or to lessen the spread of contamination to the work area. When working on a D and D project, it is best to keep the dismantling techniques and tools as simple as possible. The workers will be more efficient and safer using techniques that are familiar to them. Prior experience with the technique or use of mock-ups is the best way to keep workers safe and to keep the project on schedule

  12. Dismantling techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiese, E.

    1998-03-13

    Most of the dismantling techniques used in a Decontamination and Dismantlement (D and D) project are taken from conventional demolition practices. Some modifications to the techniques are made to limit exposure to the workers or to lessen the spread of contamination to the work area. When working on a D and D project, it is best to keep the dismantling techniques and tools as simple as possible. The workers will be more efficient and safer using techniques that are familiar to them. Prior experience with the technique or use of mock-ups is the best way to keep workers safe and to keep the project on schedule.

  13. Molecular Weight and Crystallization Temperature Effects on Poly(ethylene terephthalate (PET Homopolymers, an Isothermal Crystallization Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo A. Baldenegro-Perez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The isothermal crystallization of poly(ethylene terephthalate (PET homopolymers with different molecular weight was studied in a wide temperature range (140–230 °C using different experimental techniques. Three different morphological regions, labeled r1, r2 and r3, were distinguished as a function of crystallization temperature (Tc. In r1 (low Tc crystallized samples were characterized by a low crystalline degree with a small spherulite texture containing thin crystals. In r2 (intermediate Tc samples showed medium size spherulites composed of two distinct crystalline families (thin and thick crystals. In this temperature range, the crystallization exhibited a maximum value and it was associated with a high content of secondary crystals. In r3 (high Tc, samples presented considerable amorphous zones and regions consisting of oversized spherulites containing only thick crystals. Time-resolved wide-angle X-ray diffraction measurements, using synchrotron radiation, indicated a rapid evolution of the crystalline degree within the second region, in contrast with the quite slow evolution observed in the third region. On the other hand, by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS and time-resolved SAXS experiment, it was found that the long period (L as well as the lamellar thickness (lc increase as a function of Tc, corroborating the formation of the thickest crystals in the third region. From all these observations, a morphological model was proposed for each region.

  14. Ambient air contamination: Characterization and detection techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nulton, C. P.; Silvus, H. S.

    1985-01-01

    Techniques to characterize and detect sources of ambient air contamination are described. Chemical techniques to identify indoor contaminants are outlined, they include gas chromatography, or colorimetric detection. Organics generated from indoor materials at ambient conditions and upon combustion are characterized. Piezoelectric quartz crystals are used as precision frequency determining elements in electronic oscillators.

  15. Corelli: Efficient single crystal diffraction with elastic discrimination

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Here, we discuss the potential of the cross-correlation technique for efficient measurement of single crystal diffuse scattering with energy discrimination, as will be implemented in a novel instrument, Corelli. Utilizing full experiment simulations, we show that this technique readily leads up to a fifty-fold gain in efficiency, ...

  16. The Stonehenge technique. A method for aligning coherent bremsstrahlung radiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livingston, Ken

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a technique for the alignment of crystal radiators used to produce high energy, linearly polarized photons via coherent bremsstrahlung scattering at electron beam facilities. In these experiments the crystal is mounted on a goniometer which is used to adjust its orientation relative to the electron beam. The angles and equations which relate the crystal lattice, goniometer and electron beam direction are presented here, and the method of alignment is illustrated with data taken at MAMI (the Mainz microtron). A practical guide to setting up a coherent bremsstrahlung facility and installing new crystals using this technique is also included.

  17. The Stonehenge technique. A method for aligning coherent bremsstrahlung radiators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livingston, Ken [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: k.livingston@physics.gla.ac.uk

    2009-05-21

    This paper describes a technique for the alignment of crystal radiators used to produce high energy, linearly polarized photons via coherent bremsstrahlung scattering at electron beam facilities. In these experiments the crystal is mounted on a goniometer which is used to adjust its orientation relative to the electron beam. The angles and equations which relate the crystal lattice, goniometer and electron beam direction are presented here, and the method of alignment is illustrated with data taken at MAMI (the Mainz microtron). A practical guide to setting up a coherent bremsstrahlung facility and installing new crystals using this technique is also included.

  18. The Stonehenge technique. A method for aligning coherent bremsstrahlung radiators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Ken

    2009-05-01

    This paper describes a technique for the alignment of crystal radiators used to produce high energy, linearly polarized photons via coherent bremsstrahlung scattering at electron beam facilities. In these experiments the crystal is mounted on a goniometer which is used to adjust its orientation relative to the electron beam. The angles and equations which relate the crystal lattice, goniometer and electron beam direction are presented here, and the method of alignment is illustrated with data taken at MAMI (the Mainz microtron). A practical guide to setting up a coherent bremsstrahlung facility and installing new crystals using this technique is also included.

  19. Simulation of diffusion time of small molecules in protein crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geremia, Silvano; Campagnolo, Mara; Demitri, Nicola; Johnson, Louise N

    2006-03-01

    A simple model for evaluation of diffusion times of small molecule into protein crystals has been developed, which takes into account the physical and chemical properties both of protein crystal and the diffusing molecules. The model also includes consideration of binding and the binding affinity of a ligand to the protein. The model has been validated by simulation of experimental set-ups of several examples found in the literature. These experiments cover a wide range of situations: from small to relatively large diffusing molecules, crystals having low, medium, or high protein density, and different size. The reproduced experiments include ligand exchange in protein crystals by soaking techniques. Despite the simplifying assumptions of the model, theoretical and experimental data are in agreement with available data, with experimental diffusion times ranging from a few seconds to several hours. The method has been used successfully for planning intermediate cryotrapping experiments in maltodextrin phosphorylase crystals.

  20. Quality evaluation of resistivity-controlled silicon crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jong Hoe

    2006-01-01

    The segregation phenomenon of dopants causes a low production yield of silicon crystal that meets the resistivity tolerance required by device manufacturers. In order to control the macroscopic axial resistivity distribution in bulk crystal growth, numerous studies including continuous Czochralski method and double crucible technique have been studied. The simple B-P codoping method for improving the productivity of p-type silicon single-crystal growth by controlling axial specific resistivity distribution was proposed by Wang [Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43 (2004) 4079]. In this work, the quality of Czochralski-grown silicon single crystals with a diameter 200 mm using B-P codoping method was studied from the chemical and structural points of view. It was found that the characteristics of B-P codoped wafers including the oxygen precipitation behavior and the grown-in defects are same as that of conventional B-doped Czochralski crystals.

  1. Magnetic, electrical and optical properties of liquid crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florea, S.C.

    1980-01-01

    This thesis lays stress on the study of thermotrop nematic liquid crystals. But the crystals whose mesomorphism is achieved by an increase and decrease in temperature and the crystal category exhibiting a mesomorphism in a deep freezing phase are also studied. The results of the research carried out in the laboratory of ''active media, lasers and matter-radiation interactions'' of the Institute for Physics and Technology of Radiation Apparata as well as in the laboratories of liquid crystals and nuclear magnetic resonance of the Polytechnical Institute of Bucharest during seven years have had in view two main objectives: to elucidate and prove experimentally a new mechanism of nuclear relaxation in liquid crystals, proposed by the author; to use the current experimental techniques and methods applied in the above-mentioned laboratories to characterize and test some foreign mesomorphic media which are synthesized locally, providing a wide range of applications, such as colour television. (author)

  2. Signature of crystal symmetry in positron annihilation data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, G.; Adam, S.

    1994-12-01

    While the technique of two-dimensional angular correlation of the electron-positron annihilation radiation (2D-ACAR) yields data in a reference frame related to detectors, data interpretation is made in a reference frame related to the crystal. The paper shows that consistent reformulation of the 2D-ACAR data in the crystal frame can be obtained from the knowledge of the signature of crystal symmetry (SCS) in the data. Derivation of the SCS over variations M-Umklapp areas of the reciprocal lattice from a rigorous definition also results in an improved a posteriori criterion concerning the twinned or untwinned nature of the crystal under investigation. The analysis of a c-projected 2D-ACAR spectrum on Y Ba 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ , accurately establishes the untwinned nature of the used crystals and yields better resolved Fermi surface ridge signatures at 2- and 3- Umklapp processes. (author). 32 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  3. Introduction to the crystallization phenomenon in nuclear glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquet Francillon, N.

    1997-01-01

    Crystallization is a subject for concern because of its potentially detrimental effects on the technological feasibility of high-temperature melting, and on the chemical durability of the material at intermediate and low temperatures during interim storage or after disposal. The tendency of glass to crystallize depends to a large extent on the composition of the frit and/or of the waste to be solidified. It depends too of the thermal history of the glass generally, the knowledge is mainly upon determination of the time-temperature-transition (TTT) curves, crystal identification and quantification techniques, and their effects on the durability of the glass matrix. French experience is presented. Only a few authors addressed the long-term development of crystalline phases, notably at temperatures below the vitreous transition temperature Tg. Some recommendations for glass crystallization studies are made but glass crystallization after disposal is acceptable provided some conditions are met. (author)

  4. Controlled Growth of Rubrene Nanowires by Eutectic Melt Crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jeyon; Hyon, Jinho; Park, Kyung-Sun; Cho, Boram; Baek, Jangmi; Kim, Jueun; Lee, Sang Uck; Sung, Myung Mo; Kang, Youngjong

    2016-03-01

    Organic semiconductors including rubrene, Alq3, copper phthalocyanine and pentacene are crystallized by the eutectic melt crystallization. Those organic semiconductors form good eutectic systems with the various volatile crystallizable additives such as benzoic acid, salicylic acid, naphthalene and 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene. Due to the formation of the eutectic system, organic semiconductors having originally high melting point (Tm > 300 °C) are melted and crystallized at low temperature (Te = 40.8-133 °C). The volatile crystallizable additives are easily removed by sublimation. For a model system using rubrene, single crystalline rubrene nanowires are prepared by the eutectic melt crystallization and the eutectic-melt-assisted nanoimpinting (EMAN) technique. It is demonstrated that crystal structure and the growth direction of rubrene can be controlled by using different volatile crystallizable additives. The field effect mobility of rubrene nanowires prepared using several different crystallizable additives are measured and compared.

  5. Monte Carlo Modeling of Crystal Channeling at High Energies

    CERN Document Server

    Schoofs, Philippe; Cerutti, Francesco

    Charged particles entering a crystal close to some preferred direction can be trapped in the electromagnetic potential well existing between consecutive planes or strings of atoms. This channeling effect can be used to extract beam particles if the crystal is bent beforehand. Crystal channeling is becoming a reliable and efficient technique for collimating beams and removing halo particles. At CERN, the installation of silicon crystals in the LHC is under scrutiny by the UA9 collaboration with the goal of investigating if they are a viable option for the collimation system upgrade. This thesis describes a new Monte Carlo model of planar channeling which has been developed from scratch in order to be implemented in the FLUKA code simulating particle transport and interactions. Crystal channels are described through the concept of continuous potential taking into account thermal motion of the lattice atoms and using Moliere screening function. The energy of the particle transverse motion determines whether or n...

  6. Optical microfiber-based photonic crystal cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Yang; Sun, Yi-zhi; Li, Zhi-yuan; Ding, Wei; Andrews, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Using a focused ion beam milling technique, we fabricate broad stop band (∼10% wide) photonic crystal (PhC) cavities in adiabatically-tapered silica fibers. Abrupt structural design of PhC mirrors efficiently reduces radiation loss, increasing the cavity finesse to ∼7.5. Further experiments and simulations verify that the remaining loss is mainly due to Ga ion implantation. Such a microfiber PhC cavity probably has potentials in many light-matter interaction applications. (paper)

  7. Familial pyrophosphate arthropathy. Occurrence and Crystal Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjelle, A

    1981-01-01

    Hereditary pyrophosphate arthropathy has been observed in three Swedish families and in a few other caucasian populations. The inheritance is most probably autosomal dominant with a variable penetrance. The most severe cases have been found in homozygotes among isolates of immigrants in Slovakia and Chile. Studies on genetic and etio-pathogenetic factors in hereditary pyrophosphate arthropathy, and the utilization of new diagnostic techniques for crystal identification, are important approaches towards a further understanding of the disease.

  8. Humidity control and hydrophilic glue coating applied to mounted protein crystals improves X-ray diffraction experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Seiki; Hoshino, Takeshi; Ito, Len; Kumasaka, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Protein crystals are fragile, and it is sometimes difficult to find conditions suitable for handling and cryocooling the crystals before conducting X-ray diffraction experiments. To overcome this issue, a protein crystal-mounting method has been developed that involves a water-soluble polymer and controlled humid air that can adjust the moisture content of a mounted crystal. By coating crystals with polymer glue and exposing them to controlled humid air, the crystals were stable at room temperature and were cryocooled under optimized humidity. Moreover, the glue-coated crystals reproducibly showed gradual transformations of their lattice constants in response to a change in humidity; thus, using this method, a series of isomorphous crystals can be prepared. This technique is valuable when working on fragile protein crystals, including membrane proteins, and will also be useful for multi-crystal data collection. PMID:23999307

  9. Time crystals: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacha, Krzysztof; Zakrzewski, Jakub

    2018-01-01

    Time crystals are time-periodic self-organized structures postulated by Frank Wilczek in 2012. While the original concept was strongly criticized, it stimulated at the same time an intensive research leading to propositions and experimental verifications of discrete (or Floquet) time crystals—the structures that appear in the time domain due to spontaneous breaking of discrete time translation symmetry. The struggle to observe discrete time crystals is reviewed here together with propositions that generalize this concept introducing condensed matter like physics in the time domain. We shall also revisit the original Wilczek’s idea and review strategies aimed at spontaneous breaking of continuous time translation symmetry.

  10. Thermodynamics of Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navrotsky, Alexandra

    Thermodynamics of Crystals is a gold mine of a references bargain with more derivations of useful equations per dollar, or per page, than almost any other book I know. Useful to whom? To the solid state physicist, the solid state chemist working the geophysicist, the rock mechanic, the mineral physicist. Useful for what? For lattice dynamics, crystal potentials, band structure. For elegant, rigorous, and concise derivations of fundamental equations. For comparison of levels of approximation. For some data and physical insights, especially for metals and simple halides. This book is a reissue, with some changes and additions, of a 1970 treatise. It ages well, since the fundamentals do not change.

  11. Photonic Crystal Fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard; Broeng, Jes; Sanchez Bjarklev, Araceli

    Photonic crystal fibres represent one of the most active research areas today in the field of optics. The diversity of applications that may be addressed by these fibres and their fundamental appeal, by opening up the possibility of guiding light in a radically new way compared to conventional...... optical fibres, have spun an interest from almost all areas of optics and photonics. The aim of this book is to provide an understanding of the different types of photonic crystal fibres and to outline some of the many new and exciting applications that these fibres offer. The book is intended for both...

  12. Development and melt growth of novel scintillating halide crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Akira; Yokota, Yuui; Shoji, Yasuhiro; Kral, Robert; Kamada, Kei; Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Ohashi, Yuji; Arakawa, Mototaka; Chani, Valery I.; Kochurikhin, Vladimir V.; Yamaji, Akihiro; Andrey, Medvedev; Nikl, Martin

    2017-12-01

    Melt growth of scintillating halide crystals is reviewed. The vertical Bridgman growth technique is still considered as very popular method that enables production of relatively large and commercially attractive crystals. On the other hand, the micro-pulling-down method is preferable when fabrication of small samples, sufficient for preliminary characterization of their optical and/or scintillation performance, is required. Moreover, bulk crystal growth is also available using the micro-pulling-down furnace. The examples of growths of various halide crystals by industrially friendly melt growth techniques including Czochralski and edge-defined film-fed growth methods are also discussed. Finally, traveling molten zone growth that in some degree corresponds to horizontal zone melting is briefly overviewed.

  13. Mercuric iodide crystals obtained by solvent evaporation using ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugucioni, J.C.; Ghilardi Netto, T.; Mulato, M.

    2010-01-01

    Millimeter-sized mercuric iodide crystals were fabricated by the solvent evaporation technique using pure ethanol as a solvent. Three different conditions for solution evaporation were tested: (i) in the dark at room temperature; (ii) in the presence of light at room temperature and (iii) in an oven at 40 deg. C. Morphology, structure, optical and electrical properties were investigated using several techniques. Crystals fabricated in the dark show better properties and stability than others, possibly because the larger the energy of the system, the larger the number of induced growth defects. The crystals fabricated in the dark have adequate structure for higher resistivity and activation energy close to half the optical band-gap, as desired. With proper encapsulation these crystals might be good candidates for the development of ionizing radiation sensors.

  14. Translation Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Marcia Pinheiro

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss three translation techniques: literal, cultural, and artistic. Literal translation is a well-known technique, which means that it is quite easy to find sources on the topic. Cultural and artistic translation may be new terms. Whilst cultural translation focuses on matching contexts, artistic translation focuses on matching reactions. Because literal translation matches only words, it is not hard to find situations in which we should not use this technique.  Because a...

  15. Liquid Crystal Microlenses for Autostereoscopic Displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco Algorri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional vision has acquired great importance in the audiovisual industry in the past ten years. Despite this, the first generation of autostereoscopic displays failed to generate enough consumer excitement. Some reasons are little 3D content and performance issues. For this reason, an exponential increase in three-dimensional vision research has occurred in the last few years. In this review, a study of the historical impact of the most important technologies has been performed. This study is carried out in terms of research manuscripts per year. The results reveal that research on spatial multiplexing technique is increasing considerably and today is the most studied. For this reason, the state of the art of this technique is presented. The use of microlenses seems to be the most successful method to obtain autostereoscopic vision. When they are fabricated with liquid crystal materials, extended capabilities are produced. Among the numerous techniques for manufacturing liquid crystal microlenses, this review covers the most viable designs for its use in autostereoscopic displays. For this reason, some of the most important topologies and their relation with autostereoscopic displays are presented. Finally, the challenges in some recent applications, such as portable devices, and the future of three-dimensional displays based on liquid crystal microlenses are outlined.

  16. Computation of LACBED images from bi-crystals using reciprocity. Part 1 Rigid-body displacements between parallel crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kube, D.; Goodman, P.; Forwood, C.; Rossouw, C.

    1997-01-01

    A new method for the rapid generation of high resolution bicrystal LACBED images is described, which uses reciprocity to generate the second-crystal transmission function for a specific doubly-transmitted beam. As a result, sets of bright-field or specific dark-field LACBED images can readily be generated for sets inter-crystal displacements, to allow comparison with experimental results. In Part I we describe results obtained for pure translations between bi-crystals pairs, while in Part II we describe the method for bi-crystals incorporating relative rotations as well as translations. It is envisaged that this technique will be useful for the body semi-conductor crystal pair interfaces, and metal-alloy grain boundaries, in particular. (authors). 16 refs., 6 figs

  17. Influence of impurities on the surface morphology of the TIBr crystal semiconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Robinson A. dos; Silva, Julio B. Rodrigues da; Martins, Joao F.T.; Ferraz, Caue de M.; Costa, Fabio E. da; Mesquita, Carlos H. de; Hamada, Margarida M.; Gennari, Roseli F.

    2013-01-01

    The impurity effect in the surface morphology quality of TlBr crystals was evaluated, aiming a future application of these crystals as room temperature radiation semiconductor detectors. The crystals were purified and grown by the Repeated Bridgman technique. Systematic measurements were carried out for determining the stoichiometry, structure orientation, surface morphology and impurity of the crystal. A significant difference in the crystals impurity concentration was observed for almost all impurities, compared to those found in the raw material. The crystals wafer grown twice showed a surface roughness and grains which may be due to the presence of impurities on the surface, while those obtained with crystals grown three times presented a more uniform surface: even though, a smaller roughness was still observed. It was demonstrated that the impurities affect strongly the surface morphology quality of crystals. (author)

  18. Growth and characterization of magnesium chloride and lanthanum chloride doped strontium tartrate crystals - gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalaiarasi, S.; Jaikumar, D.

    2014-01-01

    Growth of single crystals of doped strontium tartrate by controlled diffusion of strontium chloride into the silica gel charged with tartaric acid at room temperature is narrated. In this study, we synthesized magnesium chloride (5% and 10%) doped strontium tartrate crystals and Lanthanum chloride (5%, 10% and 15%) doped strontium tartrate crystals are grown. The crystal structure of the compound crystals was confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The Fourier transform infrared spectrum of pure and doped crystals are recorded and analyzed. The UV-Vis-NIR spectrum analysis reveals that the optical study of the grown crystals. The second harmonic generation efficiency was measured by using Kurtz powder technique with Nd:YAG laser of wavelength 1064 nm. (author)

  19. Radiation damage in the alkali halide crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diller, K.M.

    1975-10-01

    A general review is given of the experimental data on radiation damage in the alkali halide crystals. A report is presented of an experimental investigation of irradiation produced interstitial dislocation loops in NaCl. These loops are found to exhibit the usual growth and coarsening behaviour during thermal annealing which operates by a glide and self-climb mechanism. It is shown that the recombination of defects in these crystals is a two stage process, and that the loss of interstitials stabilized at the loops is caused by extrinsic vacancies. The theoretical techniques used in simulating point defects in ionic crystals are described. Shell model potentials are derived for all the alkali halide crystals by fitting to bulk crystal data. The fitting is supplemented by calculations of the repulsive second neighbour interactions using methods based on the simple electron gas model. The properties of intrinsic and substitutional impurity defects are calculated. The HADES computer program is used in all the defect calculations. Finally the report returns to the problems of irradiation produced interstitial defects. The properties of H centres are discussed; their structure, formation energies, trapping at impurities and dimerization. The structure, formation energies and mobility of the intermediate and final molecular defects are then discussed. The thermodynamics of interstitial loop formation is considered for all the alklai halide crystals. The nucleation of interstitial loops in NaCl and NaBr is discussed, and the recombination of interstitial and vacancy defects. The models are found to account for all the main features of the experimental data. (author)

  20. The Crystal Hotel: A Microfluidic Approach to Biomimetic Crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiuqing; Wang, Yun-Wei; Ihli, Johannes; Kim, Yi-Yeoun; Li, Shunbo; Walshaw, Richard; Chen, Li; Meldrum, Fiona C

    2015-12-02

    A "crystal hotel" microfluidic device that allows crystal growth in confined volumes to be studied in situ is used to produce large calcite single crystals with predefined crystallographic orientation, microstructure, and shape by control of the detailed physical environment, flow, and surface chemistry. This general approach can be extended to form technologically important, nanopatterned single crystals. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.