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Sample records for crystal geyser-ten mile

  1. Colorado River Mile System, Tenths of Miles

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage contains points representing tenth of miles in the GCMRC river mile system. The points fall along the centerline of the Colorado River from Glen Canyon...

  2. First mile, first inch

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Morris, C

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available and the computer (First Inch). This will include a range of First mile technologies including WiFi, power line communications (PLCs) and mesh networks and Fist Inch technologies such as IVR, Voice messaging and HLT. 2 1. Objectives The aim of this paper...

  3. Diabetes MILES--The Netherlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nefs, Giesje; Bot, Mariska; Browne, Jessica L

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As the number of people with diabetes is increasing rapidly worldwide, a more thorough understanding of the psychosocial aspects of living with this condition has become an important health care priority. While our knowledge has grown substantially over the past two decades with respect...... to the physical, emotional and social difficulties that people with diabetes may encounter, many important issues remain to be elucidated. Under the umbrella of the Diabetes MILES (Management and Impact for Long-term Empowerment and Success) Study International Collaborative, Diabetes MILES--The Netherlands aims...... to examine how Dutch adults with diabetes manage their condition and how it affects their lives. Topics of special interest in Diabetes MILES--The Netherlands include subtypes of depression, Type D personality, mindfulness, sleep and sexual functioning. METHODS/DESIGN: Diabetes MILES--The Netherlands...

  4. Three Mile Island Accident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Three Mile Island Accident Data consists of mostly upper air and wind observations immediately following the nuclear meltdown occurring on March 28, 1979, near...

  5. REACTIVE MULTIPHASE BEHAVIOR OF CO2 IN SALINE AQUIFERS BENEATH THE COLORADO PLATEAU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.G. Allis; J. Moore; S. White

    2005-05-16

    Soil CO{sub 2} flux surveys have been conducted over known CO{sub 2} reservoirs at Farnham Dome, Utah, Crystal Geyser-Ten Mile Graben in Utah and Springerville-St. Johns, Arizona. No anomalous CO{sub 2} flux was detected at the Farnham Dome and Springerville-St. Johns. At Crystal Geyser-Ten Mile Graben, localized areas of anomalously high CO{sub 2} flux ({approx}100 g m{sup -2} day{sup -1}) occur along a fault zone near visibly degassing features. Isotopic measurements on CO{sub 2} collected from nearby springs indicate that it originated at depth. Evidence of widespread vein calcite at the surface (Farnham Dome) and travertine deposits at the other two areas suggests that discharge of CO{sub 2}-rich fluids has occurred in the past. Despite the lack of evidence for significant present day leakage of CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere at Springerville-St. Johns and Crystal Geyser-Ten Mile Graben, there are significant outflows of high-bicarbonate water in both areas suggesting continuous migration of CO{sub 2} in the aqueous phase from depth. The very localized nature of the CO{sub 2} flux anomalies, and the outflow of ground water containing dissolved CO{sub 2} present challenges for effective, long term monitoring of CO{sub 2} leakage.

  6. Food miles to assess sustainability: A revision

    OpenAIRE

    VAN PASSEL, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Sustainability assessment is an essential process in our aim to reach a more sustainable production and consumption pattern. This research revises the food miles concept as a guiding tool to assess sustainability. Food miles measure the distance that food travels from where it is grown or raised to where it is consumed. Three different concepts to assess sustainability are described: (i) food miles, (ii) enhanced food miles, (iii) food chain sustainability. An illustrative case study shows th...

  7. Diabetes MILES Youth-Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagger, Virginia; Trawley, Steven; Hendrieckx, Christel

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Type 1 diabetes is a complex and demanding condition, which places a substantial behavioural and psychological burden on young people and their families. Around one-third of adolescents with type 1 diabetes need mental health support. Parents of a child with type 1 diabetes are also...... at increased risk of psychological distress. A better understanding of the motivators, behaviours and psychological well-being of young people with diabetes and their parents will inform improvement of resources for supporting self-management and reducing the burden of diabetes. The Diabetes MILES (Management...... and Impact for Long-term Empowerment and Success) Youth-Australia Study is the first large-scale, national survey of the impact of diabetes on the psychosocial outcomes of Australian adolescents with type 1 diabetes and their parents. METHODS/DESIGN: The survey was web-based to enable a large-scale, national...

  8. Miles In Trail (MIT) Restrictions: A Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopardekar, Parimal; Green, Steven; Roherty, Tom; Aston, John

    2003-01-01

    Miles-in-trail restrictions are issued to meet the airport and/or airspace capacity. The purpose of this paper is to review the currently practiced miles-in-trail operations for traffic flow management at a typical en route Air Traffic Control Center. The paper describes roles and considerations of both traffic management coordinators and the controllers in planning, coordination, execution, and monitoring of miles-in-trail restrictions. The paper addresses the type of decisions that traffic management coordinators must make and the different information required to plan and monitor miles-in-trail restrictions. The implications of miles-in-trail restrictions on controller workload are also addressed. Using the Cleveland center as an example, the paper also identified some challenging traffic situations that required miles-in-trail restrictions on a regular basis. The paper is expected to benefit the research and development community as it provides the current challenges in traffic flow management and strengths and weakness of miles-in-trail operations.

  9. A Chemistry Lesson at Three Mile Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammano, Nicholas J.

    1980-01-01

    Details the procedures used in utilizing the hydrogen bubble incident at Three Mile Island to relate these basic chemical principles to nuclear chemistry: gas laws, Le Chatelier's principle and equilibrium, and stoichiometry. (CS)

  10. Four square mile survey pair count instructions

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This standard operating procedure (SOP) provides guidance for conducting bird pair count measurements on wetlands for the HAPETs Four-Square-Mile survey. This set of...

  11. Émile Durkheims politiske teori

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    2009-01-01

    Émile Durkheim skabte en af de mest koherænte teorier om moderne samfunds udvikling og ikke mindst om udviklinger i stat og demokrati. Demokrati defineres som deliberativt demokrati, dvs. at demokrati ikke skal forstås blot som flertalsstyre, men som kommunikationen i forhandlingerne om samfundets...

  12. Émile Durkheims politiske teori

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    2009-01-01

    Émile Durkheim skabte en af de mest koherænte teorier om moderne samfunds udvikling og ikke mindst om udviklinger i stat og demokrati. Demokrati defineres som deliberativt demokrati, dvs. at demokrati ikke skal forstås blot som flertalsstyre, men som kommunikationen i forhandlingerne om samfundets...

  13. Good Engineering + Poor Communication = Three Mile Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathes, J. C.

    The accident at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant resulted from a communication failure. Following an incident at an Ohio plant a year and a half earlier, B. M. Dunn, manager of Emergency Core Cooling Systems Analysis at Babcock and Wilcox (engineers), wrote a memorandum making specific recommendations on written instructions for nuclear…

  14. Optical networks, last mile access and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitgeb, E.; Gebhart, M.; Birnbacher, U.

    Free Space Optical (FSO) links can be used to setup FSO communication networks or to supplement radio and optical fiber networks. Hence, it is the broadband wireless solution for closing the "last mile" connectivity gap throughout metropolitan networks. Optical wireless fits well into dense urban areas and is ideally suited for urban applications. This paper gives an overview of free-space laser communications. Different network architectures will be described and investigated regarding reliability. The usage of "Optical Repeaters", Point-to-Point and Point-to-Multipoint solutions will be explained for setting up different network architectures. After having explained the different networking topologies and technologies, FSO applications will be discussed in section 2, including terrestrial applications for short and long ranges, and space applications. Terrestrial applications for short ranges cover the links between buildings on campus or different buildings of a company, which can be established with low-cost technology. For using FSO for long-range applications, more sophisticated systems have to be used. Hence, different techniques regarding emitted optical power, beam divergence, number of beams and tracking will be examined. Space applications have to be divided into FSO links through the troposphere, for example up- and downlinks between the Earth and satellites, and FSO links above the troposphere (e.g., optical inter-satellite links). The difference is that links through the troposphere are mainly influenced by weather conditions similar but not equal to terrestrial FSO links. Satellite orbits are above the atmosphere and therefore, optical inter-satellite links are not influenced by weather conditions. In section 3 the use of optical wireless for the last mile will be investigated and described in more detail. Therefore important design criteria for connecting the user to the "backbone" by FSO techniques will be covered, e.g., line of sight, network

  15. Motor Carrier Cost Per Mile Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    are out of line when compared with the other defense depots. DDMT, DDCO, DDTC and DDMP’s LTL GTP appears to be 15 working properly. DDNP has an...MILE Ni leage Nileage Group ODTC 00U D0T DOCO DDNP DDRV 50 to 100 1 0.08249 0.09097 0.07149 0.00091 0.08676 100 to 150 2 0.05236 0.05775 0.05767 0.06452

  16. Miles Technicon H.2 automated hematology analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-01

    Automated hematology analyzers are used in all large hospitals and most commercial laboratories, as well as in most smaller hospitals and laboratories, to perform complete blood counts (including white blood cell, red blood cell, and platelet counts; hemoglobin concentration; and RBC indices) and white blood cell differential counts. Our objectives in this study are to provide user guidance for selecting, purchasing, and using an automated hematology analyzer, as well as to present an overview of the technology used in an automated five-part differential unit. Specifications for additional automated units are available in ECRI's Clinical Laboratory Product Comparison System. We evaluated the Miles Technicon H.2 unit and rated it Acceptable. The information in this Single Product Evaluation is also useful for purchasing other models; our criteria will guide users in assessing components, and our findings and discussions on some aspects of automated hematology testing are common to many available systems. We caution readers not to base purchasing decisions on our rating of the Miles unit alone, but on a thorough understanding of the issues surrounding automated hematology analyzers, which can be gained only by reading this report in its entirety. The willingness of manufacturers to cooperate in our studies and the knowledge they gain through participating lead to the development of better products. Readers should refer to the Guidance Section, "Selecting and Purchasing an Automated Hematology Analyzer," where we discuss factors such as standardization, training, human factors, manufacturer support, patient population, and special features that the laboratory must consider before obtaining any automated unit; we also provide an in-depth review of cost issues, including life-cycle cost analyses, acquisition methods and costs of hardware and supplies, and we describe the Hemacost and Hemexmpt cost worksheets for use with our PresValu and PSV Manager CAHDModel software

  17. Fair Miles? The concept of 'food miles' through a sustainable development lens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacGregor, James; Vorley, Bill

    2006-10-15

    The concept of 'food miles' presents an argument to buy goods which have travelled the shortest distance from farm to table, and to discriminate against long-haul transportation, especially air-freighted goods. The long-distance transport of food is associated with additional emissions due to increased transportation coupled with greater packaging, as well as a disconnection between the public and local farming. Furthermore, 'food miles' encapsulates (and is at the vanguard of) the climate change debate in the UK. In light of growing international concern over the speed and scale of climate change, the concept of 'food miles' has captured public attention and apparently is changing some consumers' behaviour, although only around one-third of shoppers know of the concept.

  18. Entiat 4Mile WELLs Completion Report, 2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malinowksi, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The Entiat 4-mile Wells (Entiat 4-mile) project is located in the Entiat subbasin and will benefit Upper Columbia steelhead, spring Chinook and bull trout. The goal of this project is to prevent juvenile fish from being diverted into an out-of-stream irrigation system and to eliminate impacts due to the annual maintenance of an instream pushup dam. The objectives include eliminating a surface irrigation diversion and replacing it with two wells, which will provide Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) with a Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) BiOp metric credit of one. Wells were chosen over a new fish screen based on biological benefits and costs. Long-term biological benefits are provided by completely eliminating the surface diversion and the potential for fish entrainment in a fish screen. Construction costs for a new fish screen were estimated at $150,000, which does not include other costs associated with implementing and maintaining a fish screening project. Construction costs for a well were estimated at $20,000 each. The diversion consisted of a pushup dam that diverted water into an off-channel pond. Water was then pumped into a pressurized system for irrigation. There are 3 different irrigators who used water from this surface diversion, and each has multiple water right claims totaling approximately 5 cfs. Current use was estimated at 300 gallons per minute (approximately 0.641 cfs). Some irrigated acreage was taken out of orchard production less than 5 years ago. Therefore, approximately 6.8 acre-feet will be put into the State of Washington Trust Water Right program. No water will be set aside for conservation savings. The construction of the two irrigation wells for three landowners was completed in September 2006. The Lower Well (Tippen/Wick) will produce up to 175 gpm while the Upper Well (Griffith) will produce up to 275 gpm during the irrigation season. The eight inch diameter wells were

  19. Memories of MilesMiles Blackwell and his contribution to South African librarianship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S.C. Hooper

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of BH Blackwell (BHB, and specifically of Miles Blackwell, to the development of libraries and librarians in South Africa is explored based on available literature sources and personal reminiscences. This article tells how Miles was true to his personal values and how he demonstrated his integrity in the exercise of his office. Miles integrated in his mind the history of the “firm” of BHB and the times that it lived though with his sense of his responsibility to his customers. He was prepared to stand up against enormous political pressure from his peers in Europe and North America, and perhaps his fellow board members in BHB, to make sure that the channels of published information flow remained open to his customers in South Africa. The value of books and information was what he believed in. His service to his customers in South Africa reflected the self-sacrificing service ethic that he understood to be the essence of the family firm of which he had the great privilege of leading. He contributed to the development of the new, post-apartheid South Africa by ensuring that the people who needed the enlightened word to become part of the global society, benefited by what he had done.

  20. Miles better? how 'fair miles' stack up in the sustainable supermarket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garside, Ben; MacGregor, James; Vorley, Bill

    2007-12-15

    In 2007, 'food miles' shot to the top of consumer concerns in the UK. Buying goods that took the shortest route from farm to table was widely seen as a way of shrinking carbon footprints. This left airfreighted produce singled out as the epitome of unsustainable consumption, and some UK retailers began to label flown items such as green beans from Kenya. Yet looking at the bigger picture, fresh produce airfreighted from Africa accounts for less than 0.1 per cent of UK emissions, and per capita emissions from sub-Saharan Africa are minuscule compared to those in industrialised countries. Against this background are the million-plus African livelihoods supported by growing the produce. Within the grocery supply chain the time is ripe for 'fair miles' — a working idea that puts development in the South on the environmental agenda, and allows UK retailers a more balanced response on behalf of their millions of customers.

  1. Four Square Mile Survey breeding population report for 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Production report of Four Square Mile Survey breeding population estimates for 13 species of ducks. Data includes summaries of breeding population estimates...

  2. 2012 Four Square Mile survey plots : Kulm WMD

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Map of survey plots for the annual Four-Square-Mile survey conducted on the Kulm Wetland Management District (WMD) as part of a national effort to annually estimate...

  3. Health effects of the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1980-05-01

    Between March 28 and April 15, 1979 the collective dose resulting from the radioactivity released to the population living within a 50-mile radius of the Three Mile Island nuclear plant was about 2000 person-rems, less than 1% of the annual natural background level. The average dose to a person living within 5 miles of the nuclear plant was less than 10% of annual background radiation. The maximum estimated radiation dose received by any one individual in the general population (excluding the nuclear plant workers) during the accident was 70 mrem. The doses received by the general population as a result of the accident were so small that there will be no detectable additional cases of cancer, developmental abnormalities, or genetic ill-health. Three Three Mile Island nuclear workers received radiation doses of about 3 to 4 rem, exceeding maximum permissible quarterly dose of 3 rem. The major health effect of the accident at Three Mile Island was that of a pronounced demoralizing effect on the general population in the Three Mile Island area, including teenagers and mothers of preschool children and the nuclear plant workers. However, this effect proved transient in all groups studied except the nuclear workers.

  4. Premiere of Film Nine-Mile Fragrance Held in Kenya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>The United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) and the United Nations Human Settlement Program (UN-HABITAT) in Kenya staged the premiere of the film Nine-Mile Fragrance depicting the Wenchuan earthquake relief efforts. The film, showing the unique culture of the Qiang ethnic group and the great spirit of love of the Chinese people in their earthquake relief work, left a deep impression on the African audience.

  5. Analysis of Three Mile Island-Unit 2 accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-01

    The Nuclear Safety Analysis Center (NSAC) of the Electric Power Research Institute has analyzed the Three Mile Island-2 accident. Early results of this analysis were a brief narrative summary, issued in mid-May 1979 and an initial version of this report issued later in 1979 as noted in the Foreword. The present report is a revised version of the 1979 report, containing summaries, a highly detailed sequence of events, a comparison of that sequence of events with those from other sources, 25 appendices, references and a list of abbreviations and acronyms. A matrix of equipment and system actions is included as a folded insert.

  6. Émile Durkheim: ¿un fundador sin seguidores?

    OpenAIRE

    Otonello , Rodrigo Oscar

    2012-01-01

    Al analizar el debate a fines de siglo XIX entre Gabriel Tarde y Émile Durkheim, así como sus posteriores derivas, Bruno Latour —como buena parte de la actual sociología pragmática— considera a Tarde como la parte derrotada y como un autor olvidado por el siglo XX, mientras Durkheim aparece como el triunfador que influyó decisivamente sobre las ciencias sociales. Nuestra ponencia problematizará esta lectura a través de un recorrido por los modos en que Durkheim ha sido tratado por dos autores...

  7. Émile Durkheim: ¿un fundador sin seguidores?

    OpenAIRE

    Otonello , Rodrigo Oscar

    2012-01-01

    Al analizar el debate a fines de siglo XIX entre Gabriel Tarde y Émile Durkheim, así como sus posteriores derivas, Bruno Latour —como buena parte de la actual sociología pragmática— considera a Tarde como la parte derrotada y como un autor olvidado por el siglo XX, mientras Durkheim aparece como el triunfador que influyó decisivamente sobre las ciencias sociales. Nuestra ponencia problematizará esta lectura a través de un recorrido por los modos en que Durkheim ha sido tratado por dos autores...

  8. 33 CFR 110.55a - Five Mile River, Norwalk and Darien, Conn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... easterly along the southerly side of the highway bridge to the easterly side of Five Mile River; thence following the shoreline southerly along the easterly side of Five Mile River to a point on the...

  9. How to choose "last mile" delivery modes for e-fulfillment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Xuping; Zhan, Linmin; Ruan, Junhu; Zhang, Jun

    2014-01-01

      "Last mile" delivery has become one of the bottlenecks of e-logistics. This paper aims to explore the competitiveness of three "Last mile" delivery modes--attended home delivery (AHD), reception box (RB...

  10. Vegetation survey of Pen Branch and Four Mile Creek wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    One hundred-fifty plots were recently sampled (vegetational sampling study) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). An extensive characterization of the vascular flora, in four predetermined strata (overstory, Understory, shrub layer, and ground cover), was undertaken to determine dominance, co-dominance, and the importance value (I.V.) of each species. These results will be used by the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) to evaluate the environmental status of Four Mile Creek, Pen Branch, and two upland pine stands. Objectives of this study were to: Describe in detail the plant communities previously mapped with reference to the topography and drainage, including species of plants present: Examine the successional trends within each sampling area and describe the extent to which current vegetation communities have resulted from specific earlier vegetation disturbances (e.g., logging and grazing); describe in detail the botanical field techniques used to sample the flora; describe the habitat and location of protected and/or rare species of plants; and collect and prepare plant species as herbarium quality specimens. Sampling was conducted at Four Mile Creek and Pen Branch, and in two upland pine plantations of different age growth.

  11. Vegetation survey of Pen Branch and Four Mile Creek wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    One hundred-fifty plots were recently sampled (vegetational sampling study) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). An extensive characterization of the vascular flora, in four predetermined strata (overstory, Understory, shrub layer, and ground cover), was undertaken to determine dominance, co-dominance, and the importance value (I.V.) of each species. These results will be used by the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) to evaluate the environmental status of Four Mile Creek, Pen Branch, and two upland pine stands. Objectives of this study were to: Describe in detail the plant communities previously mapped with reference to the topography and drainage, including species of plants present: Examine the successional trends within each sampling area and describe the extent to which current vegetation communities have resulted from specific earlier vegetation disturbances (e.g., logging and grazing); describe in detail the botanical field techniques used to sample the flora; describe the habitat and location of protected and/or rare species of plants; and collect and prepare plant species as herbarium quality specimens. Sampling was conducted at Four Mile Creek and Pen Branch, and in two upland pine plantations of different age growth.

  12. 40 CFR 81.170 - Miles City Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Regions § 81.170 Miles City Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Miles City Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Montana) consists of the territorial area encompassed by the... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Miles City Intrastate Air...

  13. 76 FR 36314 - Safety Zone; Mile Marker 98.5 West of Harvey Lock Gulf Intracoastal Waterway to Mile Marker 108.5...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Mile Marker 98.5 West of Harvey Lock Gulf Intracoastal Waterway to Mile Marker 108.5 West of Harvey Lock Gulf Intracoastal Waterway AGENCY: Coast Guard... imposing restrictions on the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway (GIWW) between West Harvey Lock Gulf West...

  14. 33 CFR 207.249 - Ouachita and Black Rivers, Ark. and La., Mile 0.0 to Mile 338.0 (Camden, Ark.) above the mouth of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... other lockages, then separate lockages shall be made. Dangerous cargoes are described in 46 CFR part 146... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ouachita and Black Rivers, Ark. and La., Mile 0.0 to Mile 338.0 (Camden, Ark.) above the mouth of the Black River; the Red River,...

  15. First Mile Challenges for Large-Scale IoT

    KAUST Repository

    Bader, Ahmed

    2017-03-16

    The Internet of Things is large-scale by nature. This is not only manifested by the large number of connected devices, but also by the sheer scale of spatial traffic intensity that must be accommodated, primarily in the uplink direction. To that end, cellular networks are indeed a strong first mile candidate to accommodate the data tsunami to be generated by the IoT. However, IoT devices are required in the cellular paradigm to undergo random access procedures as a precursor to resource allocation. Such procedures impose a major bottleneck that hinders cellular networks\\' ability to support large-scale IoT. In this article, we shed light on the random access dilemma and present a case study based on experimental data as well as system-level simulations. Accordingly, a case is built for the latent need to revisit random access procedures. A call for action is motivated by listing a few potential remedies and recommendations.

  16. Sociologismo e individualismo em Émile Durkheim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidnei Ferreira de Vares

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho pretende analisar o tema do individualismo na teoria sociológica de Émile Durkheim com vistas a compreender a validade das críticas direcionadas por seus principais comentadores à primazia do campo social, à preocupação com a ordem e à adoção de uma postura anti-individualista que permearia toda a extensão de sua obra. Para tanto, promovemos um diálogo entre as abordagens mais recentes da obra durkheimiana e as interpretações consagradas pela tradição sociológica, com o objetivo de verificar o peso que o sociólogo francês atribuía ao indivíduo e à sociedade em sua teoria.

  17. Effects of static stretching on 1-mile uphill run performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, Ryan P; Joy, Jordan M; Brown, Lee E; Oliveira de Souza, Eduardo; Wistocki, David R; Davis, Gregory S; Naimo, Marshall A; Zito, Gina A; Wilson, Jacob M

    2014-01-01

    It is previously demonstrated that static stretching was associated with a decrease in running economy and distance run during a 30-minute time trial in trained runners. Recently, the detrimental effects of static stretching on economy were found to be limited to the first few minutes of an endurance bout. However, economy remains to be studied for its direct effects on performance during shorter endurance events. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of static stretching on 1-mile uphill run performance, electromyography (EMG), ground contact time (GCT), and flexibility. Ten trained male distance runners aged 24 ± 5 years with an average VO2max of 64.9 ± 6.5 mL·kg-1·min-1 were recruited. Subjects reported to the laboratory on 3 separate days interspersed by 72 hours. On day 1, anthropometrics and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max were determined on a motor-driven treadmill. On days 2 and 3, subjects performed a 5-minute treadmill warm-up and either performed a series of 6 lower-body stretches for three 30-second repetitions or sat still for 10 minutes. Time to complete a 1-mile run under stretching and nonstretching conditions took place in randomized order. For the performance run, subjects were instructed to run as fast as possible at a set incline of 5% until a distance of 1 mile was completed. Flexibility from the sit and reach test, EMG, GCT, and performance, determined by time to complete the 1-mile run, were recorded after each condition. Time to complete the run was significantly less (6:51 ± 0:28 minutes) in the nonstretching condition as compared with the stretching condition (7:04 ± 0:32 minutes). A significant condition-by-time interaction for muscle activation existed, with no change in the nonstretching condition (pre 91.3 ± 11.6 mV to post 92.2 ± 12.9 mV) but increased in the stretching condition (pre 91.0 ± 11.6 mV to post 105.3 ± 12.9 mV). A significant condition-by-time interaction for GCT was also present, with no changes in

  18. Oraciones de Relativo Circunnominales en Miles Gloriosus de Plauto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Daniel Merlo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Las oraciones de relativo circunnominales son un modelo especial de subordinadas que se incrustan en el sintagma nominal y actúan como modificadores del sustantivo. Su particularidad es que el elemento al que se refieren –denominado en algunas tradiciones gramaticales como “antecedente”- sigue al pronombre relativo que encabeza la construcción. Esta investigación procura examinar las oraciones de relativo circunnominales en Miles Gloriosus de Plauto desde el punto de vista tipológico-funcional. La metodología base de este trabajo es el análisis de este sintagma postulado como una unidad que aparece motivado por su función comunicativa.

  19. Mile Markers and Road Signs, Mile marker locations at MDTA, MDTA Mile marker on I 95, I 695 and US 50., Published in 2011, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Maryland Transportation Authority.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Mile Markers and Road Signs dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2011. It is...

  20. Environmental Knowledge and Marginalized Communities: The Last Mile Connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Chester

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Expanding globalization implies, among other things, growing interdependence among peoples of the world. The convergence of information and communication technologies (ICTs is enabling almost seamless access to a vast and varied range of information and knowledge sources from anywhere at any time. These are features of the emerging knowledge society. However, a substantial proportion of the marginalized communities in most developing countries and even in some of the technologically advanced countries do not appear to be benefiting from these developments. They do not feel participating in and contributing to the society at large. Yet they possess valuable knowledge about nature and its offerings, ethnic, cultural, and spiritual values that can benefit societies beyond their own communities. These communities suffer from several types of handicaps - low literacy, multiplicity of dialects, vulnerability to external exploitation, etc. There are also several impediments to communicating and introducing new ideas, innovations, and technologies into these communities. All these need to be examined and necessary measures and strategies adopted at local, national and international levels to overcome these barriers. Extending ICTs per se to these communities is not a solution. Human intervention is necessary to solve the last mile problem. Illustrative case studies of problems and issues and initiatives undertaken in different countries are briefly described.

  1. MILES FORMULAE FOR BOOLEAN MODELS OBSERVED ON LATTICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Ohser

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The densities of the intrinsic volumes – in 3D the volume density, surface density, the density of the integral of the mean curvature and the density of the Euler number – are a very useful collection of geometric characteristics of random sets. Combining integral and digital geometry we develop a method for efficient and simultaneous calculation of the intrinsic volumes of random sets observed in binary images in arbitrary dimensions. We consider isotropic and reflection invariant Boolean models sampled on homogeneous lattices and compute the expectations of the estimators of the intrinsic volumes. It turns out that the estimator for the surface density is proved to be asymptotically unbiased and thusmultigrid convergent for Boolean models with convex grains. The asymptotic bias of the estimators for the densities of the integral of the mean curvature and of the Euler number is assessed for Boolean models of balls of random diameters. Miles formulae with corresponding correction terms are derived for the 3D case.

  2. Vegetation survey of Four Mile Creek wetlands. [Savannah River Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loehle, C.

    1990-11-01

    A survey of forested wetlands along upper Four Mile Creek was conducted. The region from Road 3 to the creek headwaters was sampled to evaluate the composition of woody and herbaceons plant communities. All sites were found to fall into either the Nyssa sylvatica (Black Gum) -- Persea borbonia (Red Bay) or Nyssa sylvatica -- Acer rubrum (Red Maple) types. These community types are generally species-rich and diverse. Previous studies (Greenwood et al., 1990; Mackey, 1988) demonstrated contaminant stress in areas downslope from the F- and H-Area seepage basins. In the present study there were some indications of contaminant stress. In the wetland near H-Area, shrub basal area, ground cover stratum species richness, and diversity were low. In the area surrounding the F-Area tree kill zone, ground cover stratum cover and shrub basal area were low and ground cover stratum species richness was low. The moderately stressed site at F-Area also showed reduced overstory richness and diversity and reduced ground cover stratum richness. These results could, however, be due to the very high basal area of overstory trees in both stressed F-Area sites that would reduce light availability to understory plants. No threatened or endangered plant species were found in the areas sampled. 40 refs., 4 figs., 8 tabs.

  3. 100mile/gal轿车用内燃机

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Heitland H; Rinne G; Willmann M

    2003-01-01

    2000年8月3日成功地完成了"用1 000L燃油在80天内环绕地球一圈"的任务,大众汽车公司以其世界上首辆装有Lupo 3L增压直喷式柴油机的3L轿车创造了一项艰难的记录.该车仅使用792.57 L燃油(每百公里2.38L,等于98.9 mile/gal),以平均85.6 km/h的速度,在80天内横穿五大洲,行驶了33 333 km,这是前所未有的.除了该轿车和传动系统的不同特点外,成绩还归功于装有泵喷嘴的1.2L柴油机.利用本文讨论的象柴油机和象汽油机的分层充气发动机可进一步改善燃油耗和排放.

  4. Four Mile Creek bottomland restoration program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLeod, K.W.

    1995-12-31

    On the Savannah River Site (SRS), nuclear production reactors were cooled by a once-through cooling cycle, using water from the Savannah River and discharging the effluent to small tributaries of the Savannah River. Four Mile Creek (also known as Fourmile Branch) is a third order tributary of the Savannah River on the upper coastal plain of South Carolina. It received thermal effluent from C Reactor from 1955 to 1985, which increased the flow rate, water depth and water temperature. Prior to 1955, the base flow was approximately one cubic meter per second, but increased, with the reactor effluent, to approximately 11 cubic meters per second, raising the water depth in the channel by 15 to 30 cm. Effluent temperature at the outfall was approximately 60 C and at the delta was 40 to 45 C, depending on the operation level of the reactor, the season of the year and the specific meteorological conditions. The increased flow rate also increased erosion in the upper reaches of the stream with deposition of this eroded material occurring in the delta averaging 60 cm of newly deposited sand on top of the former substrate.

  5. Tribulations of the Last Mile: Sides from a Regional Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rio Vilas, Victor J.; Freire de Carvalho, Mary J.; Vigilato, Marco A. N.; Rocha, Felipe; Vokaty, Alexandra; Pompei, Julio A.; Molina Flores, Baldomero; Fenelon, Natael; Cosivi, Ottorino

    2017-01-01

    In Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) countries, the number of cases of dog-mediated human rabies is at its lowest since the onset of the Regional Program for Rabies Elimination in 1983, a commitment from LAC countries to eliminate dog-mediated rabies coordinated by the Pan American Health Organization. Despite minor setbacks, the decline in the number of human cases has been constant since 1983. While many LAC countries have significantly reduced rabies to a level where it is no longer significant public health concern, elimination has proven elusive and pockets of the disease remain across the region. In the 33-year period since 1983, the region has set and committed to four dates for elimination (1990, 2000, 2012, and 2015). In this paper, we ponder on the multiple causes behind the elusive goal of rabies elimination, such as blanket regional goals oblivious to the large heterogeneity in national rabies capacities. Looking ahead to the elimination of dog-mediated rabies in the region, now established for 2022, we also review the many challenges and questions that the region faces in the last mile of the epidemic. Given the advanced position of the Americas in the race toward elimination, our considerations could provide valuable knowledge to other regions pursuing elimination goals. PMID:28197407

  6. Investigating last mile distribution challenges of wine suppliers in Lagos, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    M.Com. (Business Management) The last mile distribution is the final link of successful supply chain operations. The high demand for products, lead time uncertainties and replenishment time complicate the distribution task. In order to achieve a competitive business edge, suppliers need to work at developing and improving their last mile distribution link. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the last mile wine distribution in Lagos Island, Nigeria, and to determin...

  7. U.S. Navigated Waterway Mile Marker Locations from USCOE source data, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (2000) [river_mile_markers_USACE_1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a point dataset representing 10,044 sequential mile positions of navigable inland waterways and the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway. These data were developed as...

  8. Attenuation in the dubbing and subtitling of The Green Mile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Rodríguez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is part of the doctoral thesis entitled “Critique of translation for film dubbing and subtitling from the perspective of discourse analysis. A study applied to "The Green Mile”, written by Ph.D. student Gabriela Saturnina Alanís Uresti, directed by Ph.D. Lidia Rodríguez. It is a qualitative and descriptive study where we contrasted The Green Mile - a 1999 Hollywood film, original in American English - with its translated versions: dubbed and subtitled into Spanish of Mexico. We start from the presupposition that in film translation, some references such as the ones related to sexual behaviors and offensive language are attenuated in order to be strategically polite. Specifically, we analyzed two mechanisms of attenuation: lexical selection whereby a euphemism is used, and discursive modalization. These mechanisms constitute strategies of linguistic, pragmatic and semiotic nature as they appear in original (OV, dubbed (DV and subtitled (SV versions; both in acoustic and visual channels. Therefore, we examine these occurrences on verbal, para-verbal, and non-verbal codes. The theoretical basis includes studies of attenuation, politeness, euphemisms, and linguistic taboos. This paper is based on methodological proposals by Gutiérrez (2008, Nájar (2009, Brown y Levinson (1987, Goffman (1967, Leech (1983, Fraser (1980 Haverkate (1994, Bravo (2001, Albelda (2010, (2005, Albelda y Briz (2010, Briz (2002a; 2002b, Allan y Burridge (2006, Chamizo (2008, Foucault (1987, Seiciuc (2010, Dubois (1969, Dubois et al (1973, and Rodríguez (2004.

  9. "Last mile" challenges to in situ volcanic data transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. B. D. Fonseca

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Scientists play a key role in volcanic risk mitigation, but rely heavily on fast access to data acquired in the vicinity of an active volcano. Hazardous volcanoes are often located in remote areas were telecommunications infrastructure is fragile. Besides being exposed directly to the volcanic hazard, the infrastructure in such remote areas can suffer also from "last mile" limitations derived from lack of market demand for data transmission services. In this paper, we report on the findings of FP7 MIAVITA project in the topic of volcanic data transmission. We draw on the contribution of partners from emergent or developing countries to identify the main bottlenecks and fragilities. We present also the results of an experiment conducted in Fogo island, Cape Verde, to test the availability of VSAT services adequate for volcanic monitoring. We warn against the false sense of security resulting from increasingly ubiquitous connectivity, and point out the lack of reliability of many consumer-type services, particularly during emergencies when such services are likely to crash due to excess of demand from the public. Finally, we propose guidelines and recommend best practices for the design of volcanic monitoring networks in what concerns data transmission. In particular, we advise that the data transmission equipment close to the exposed area should be owned, operated and maintained by the volcanic monitoring institution. We exemplify with the setup of the Fogo telemetric interface, which uses low-power licence-free radio modems to reach a robust point of entry into the public network at a suitable distance from the volcano.

  10. "Last mile" challenges to in situ volcanic data transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, J. F. B. D.; Faria, B. V. E.; Trindade, J.; Cruz, G.; Chambel, A.; Silva, F. M.; Pereira, R. L.; Vazão, T.

    2013-12-01

    Scientists play a key role in volcanic risk management, but rely heavily on fast access to data acquired in the vicinity of an active volcano. Hazardous volcanoes are often located in remote areas were telecommunications infrastructure is fragile. Besides being exposed directly to the volcanic hazard, the infrastructure in such remote areas can also suffer from "last mile" limitations derived from lack of market demand for data transmission services. In this paper, we report on the findings of the FP7 MIAVITA project in the topic of volcanic data transmission. We draw on the contribution of partners from emergent or developing countries to identify the main bottlenecks and fragilities. We also present the results of an experiment conducted on Fogo Island, Cape Verde, to test the availability of VSAT services adequate for volcanic monitoring. We warn against the false sense of security resulting from increasingly ubiquitous connectivity, and point out the lack of reliability of many consumer-type services, particularly during emergencies when such services are likely to crash due to excess of demand from the public. Finally, we propose guidelines and recommend best practices for the design of volcanic monitoring networks in what concerns data transmission. In particular, we advise that the data transmission equipment close to the exposed area should be owned, operated and maintained by the volcanic monitoring institution. We exemplify with the set-up of the Fogo telemetric interface, which uses low-power licence-free radio modems to reach a robust point of entry into the public network at a suitable distance from the volcano.

  11. 49 CFR 232.207 - Class IA brake tests-1,000-mile inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class IA brake tests-1,000-mile inspection. 232... Class IA brake tests—1,000-mile inspection. (a) Except as provided in § 232.213, each train shall receive a Class IA brake test performed by a qualified person, as defined in § 232.5, at a location...

  12. 76 FR 41725 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Miles City, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... within a 34.5-mile radius of Frank Wiley Field. Issued in Seattle, Washington, on July 7, 2011. John... rulemaking (NPRM). SUMMARY: This action proposes to modify Class E airspace at Frank Wiley Field, Miles City... instrument approach procedures at Frank Wiley Field. Additionally, the geographic coordinates for Frank...

  13. Revisiting Miles-Snow typology of strategic orientation using stakeholder theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, Børge; Gurkov, Igor B.

    Miles-Snow strategic typology has been successfully used in research in strategy and organizational design. The key dimension underlying Miles-Snow typology is the organizational response to changing environmental conditions. In this paper a new model is proposed based on the type of relationship...

  14. 77 FR 19937 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Mile 21.6, Illinois Waterway, Hardin, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Mile 21.6, Illinois Waterway, Hardin... Coast Guard has issued a temporary deviation from the operating schedule that governs the Hardin Drawbridge across the Illinois Waterway, mile 21.6, at Hardin, Illinois. The deviation is necessary...

  15. Mental health effects of the Three Mile Island nuclear reactor restart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dew, M.A.; Bromet, E.J.; Schulberg, H.C.; Dunn, L.O.; Parkinson, D.K.

    1987-08-01

    Controversy over potential mental health effects of the Three Mile Island Unit-1 restart led the authors to examine prospectively the pattern of psychiatric symptoms in a sample of Three Mile Island area mothers of young children. Symptom levels after restart were elevated over previous levels; a sizable subcohort of the sample reported relatively serious degrees of postrestart distress. History of diagnosable major depression and generalized anxiety following the Three Mile Island accident, plus symptoms and beliefs about personal risk prior to the restart, best predicted postrestart symptoms.

  16. Walter Miles, Pop Warner, B. C. Graves, and the psychology of football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baugh, Frank G; Benjamin, Ludy T

    2006-01-01

    In 1926-1927, a graduate student, B. C. Graves, working with Stanford University psychologist Walter Miles and legendary football coach Pop Warner, conducted an investigation of variations in signal calling as they affected the charging times of football players. The study was one of two that involved Miles and the ingenious multiple chronograph that he had invented to time the reactions of seven players simultaneously. These studies represented a brief digression in the career of Miles, who certainly was no sport psychologist. They tell of an interesting collaboration between scientist and coaches that produced one of the richest studies in sport psychology in the first half of the twentieth century.

  17. Crystals in crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus H.; Schmidt, I.; Carlsson, A.;

    2005-01-01

    A major factor governing the performance of catalytically active particles supported on a zeolite carrier is the degree of dispersion. It is shown that the introduction of noncrystallographic mesopores into zeolite single crystals (silicalite-1, ZSM-5) may increase the degree of particle dispersion...... of the zeolite particles, particularly after thermal treatment. When using mesoporous zeolites, the particles were evenly distributed throughout the mesopore system of the zeolitic support, even after calcination, leading to nanocrystals within mesoporous zeolite single crystals....

  18. National Emissions Inventory Vehicle Miles Traveled, U.S., 2014, EPA/OAR/OAQPS/AQAD

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This web service contains layers that depict gridded Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT) for 2014 from the National Emission Inventory (NEI). The default 2014 National...

  19. Police Districts, Law, Published in 2012, 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, Taylor County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Police Districts dataset, published at 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2012. It is described as...

  20. EAARL Topography--Three Mile Creek and Mobile-Tensaw Delta, Alabama, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A digital elevation model (DEM) of a portion of the Mobile-Tensaw Delta region and Three Mile Creek in Alabama was produced from remotely sensed, geographically...

  1. EAARL Topography--Three Mile Creek and Mobile-Tensaw Delta, Alabama, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A digital elevation model (DEM) of a portion of the Mobile-Tensaw Delta region and Three Mile Creek in Alabama was produced from remotely sensed, geographically...

  2. NASA Green Flight Challenge: Conceptual Design Approaches and Technologies to Enable 200 Passenger Miles per Gallon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Douglas P.

    2011-01-01

    The Green Flight Challenge is one of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Centennial Challenges designed to push technology and make passenger aircraft more efficient. Airliners currently average around 50 passenger-miles per gallon and this competition will push teams to greater than 200 passenger-miles per gallon. The aircraft must also fly at least 100 miles per hour for 200 miles. The total prize money for this competition is $1.65 Million. The Green Flight Challenge will be run by the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation September 25 October 1, 2011 at Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in California. Thirteen custom aircraft were developed with electric, bio-diesel, and other bio-fuel engines. The aircraft are using various technologies to improve aerodynamic, propulsion, and structural efficiency. This paper will explore the feasibility of the rule set, competitor vehicles, design approaches, and technologies used.

  3. Malheur National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative Report: 1936: Camp Five Mile BF-1: 1: October

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report from the Civilian Conservation Corps summarizes activities done for Five Mile on Malheur Migratory Waterfowl Refuge. Topics include...

  4. Water Well Locations - MO 2010 Public Water System Wells Half-Mile Radius (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This shapefile represents a one-half mile radius around public water system (PWS) wells. This data set does not include wells classified as plugged, observation,...

  5. Cheat Mountain Salamander search - Three Mile Trail 7/21/10

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — On July 21, 2010 two survey transects were established along Three mile trail on the Kelly Elkins tract of Canaan Valley N.W.R. Both of these transects were...

  6. National Emissions Inventory Vehicle Miles Traveled, U.S., 2011, EPA/OAR/OAQPS/AQAD

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This web service layer depicts gridded Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT) for 2011 from the National Emission Inventory (NEI). The default 2011 National Emissions...

  7. Malheur National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative Report: 1937: Camp Five Mile BF-1: 2: February

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report from the Civilian Conservation Corps summarizes activities done for Five Mile on Malheur Migratory Waterfowl Refuge. Topics include...

  8. Malheur National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative Report: 1937: Camp Five Mile BF-1: 1: January

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report from the Civilian Conservation Corps summarizes activities done for Five Mile on Malheur Migratory Waterfowl Refuge. Topics include...

  9. Malheur National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative Report: 1937: Camp Five Mile BF-1: 4: April

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report from the Civilian Conservation Corps summarizes activities done for Five Mile on Malheur Migratory Waterfowl Refuge. Topics include...

  10. Malheur National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative Report: 1938: Camp Five Mile BF-1: 1: March-April

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report from the Civilian Conservation Corps summarizes activities done for Five Mile on Malheur Migratory Waterfowl Refuge. Topics include...

  11. Malheur National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative Report: 1937: Camp Five Mile BF-1: 5: May

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report from the Civilian Conservation Corps summarizes activities done for Five Mile on Malheur Migratory Waterfowl Refuge. Topics include...

  12. Malheur National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative Report: 1936: Camp Five Mile BF-1: 3: December

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report from the Civilian Conservation Corps summarizes activities done for Five Mile on Malheur Migratory Waterfowl Refuge. Topics include...

  13. Malheur National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative Report: 1937: Camp Five Mile BF-1: 6: June

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report from the Civilian Conservation Corps summarizes activities done for Five Mile on Malheur Migratory Waterfowl Refuge. Topics include...

  14. Malheur National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative Report: 1936: Camp Five Mile BF-1: 2: November

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report from the Civilian Conservation Corps summarizes activities done for Five Mile on Malheur Migratory Waterfowl Refuge. Topics include...

  15. 76 FR 16294 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Buffalo Bayou, Mile 4.3, Houston, Harris County, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... Property Rights. Civil Justice Reform This rule meets applicable standards in sections 3(a) and 3(b)(2) of... Bridge, mile 3.1, need not be opened to the passage of vessels. Dated: March 10, 2011. Mary E. Landry...

  16. Crystal science fundamentals

    OpenAIRE

    Ramachandran, V.; Halfpenny, PJ; Roberts, KJ

    2017-01-01

    The fundamentals of crystal science notably crystallography, crystal chemistry, crystal defects, crystal morphology and the surface chemistry of crystals are introduced with particular emphasis on organic crystals.

  17. EVIDENCIA DE UN TIPO INVESTIGACIÓN QUE ABORDE DE MILES Y SNOW EN BRASIL

    OpenAIRE

    Vanderlei Vieira; Roberto Klosowski Machado; Nathanael Kusch Brey; Carlos Ricardo Rossetto

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar las referencias utilizadas en las publicaciones de las conferencias nacionales que las tipologías actuales de gestión desarrolladas por Miles y Snow. El método utilizado en el estudio fue de tipo descriptivo, con abordaje cuantitativo, y el estudio bibliométrico tipo. En la selección de artículos, se tomó como base la existencia del término "Miles y Snow" en el título, resumen o palabras clave, la observación de la literatura mencionada en los artículos...

  18. [Reducing occupational burnout and enhancing job performance in new nurses: the efficacy of "last mile" programs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsiu-Mei; Liu, Pei-Fen; Ho, Hsueh-Hua; Chen, Ping-Ling; Chao, Hui-Lin; Chen, Hsiao-Lien

    2012-08-01

    New nurses undergo a stressful and challenging transition process in the nursing workplace. Lack of patient care knowledge and skills and work adaption difficulties lead to a high turnover rate that drains essential new talent away from the nursing profession and further exacerbates professional staffing shortages in the healthcare sector. The "last mile" program is a program developed jointly by a nursing school and hospital as a mechanism to bridge classroom learning to clinical practice and smooth the transition of nursing students into nursing professionals. The purpose of this study was to understand the effect of the "last mile" program on job performance and occupational burnout among new nurses. We conducted a quasi-experimental study in 2009 on a convenience sample of new nurses in a medical center. Participants were assigned into two groups, namely those enrolled in the last mile program (n = 29) and those not enrolled in the program (n = 94). Research team members and several collaborative universities developed the last mile program used in this study; Seven experts established content validity; The last mile program included 84 hours of lecture courses and 160 hours of clinical practice. Data was collected using the nursing job performance scale developed in 2007 by Greenslade and Jimmieson and translated ÷ back translated into an equivalent Chinese version. Exploratory factor analysis showed all items aggraded into 8 factors, which could be divided into task performance and contextual performance concept categories. Task performance concepts included: social support, information, coordination of care, and technical care; Contextual performance concepts included: interpersonal support, job-task support, volunteering for additional duties and compliance. The Cronbach's α for the 8 factors were .70-.95. The occupational burnout inventory included the 4 subscales of personal burnout, work-related burnout, client-related burnout, and over

  19. Evaluation of Lower Umatilla River Channel Modifications Below Three Mile Dam, 1984 Annual Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigro, Anthony A.; Ward, David L.

    1985-05-01

    This report summarizes results of the first year of a study initiated in September 1984 to evaluate the adequacy of channel modifications made in the lower Umatilla River to improve adult anadromous salmonid passage to Three Mile Dam (RKm 5.6), determine if fish passage or delay problems exist at Three Mile Dam and recommend site specific corrective measures if needed. Movements of steelhead (Salmo gairdneri) were monitored using mark and recapture and radio telemetry techniques. Thirty-four steelhead were marked with T-anchor tags and released in the lower river. Fifteen of those marked were also fitted with radio transmitters. Three radiotagged steelhead migrated through channel modifications to Three Mile Dam. Two of these fish migrated to the dam in less than 26 hours, but held just below the dam for 7 and 10 days before entering the ladders. The third steelhead delayed for 30 days and entered the west ladder within 24 hours of arrival at the dam. Two other radiotagged steelhead moved upstream through some of the channel modifications but did not migrate to the dam. Only one of 19 marked steelhead not fitted with transmitters was recovered at Three Mile Dam. 14 refs., 18 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. An updated MILES stellar library and stellar population models (Research Note)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falcon-Barroso, J.; Sanchez-Blazquez, P.; Vazdekis, A.; Ricciardelli, E.; Cardiel, N.; Cenarro, A. J.; Gorgas, J.; Peletier, R. F.

    Aims: We present a number of improvements to the MILES library and stellar population models. We correct some small errors in the radial velocities of the stars, measure the spectral resolution of the library and models more accurately, and give a better absolute flux calibration of the models.

  1. Gridded bathymetry of Galvez Bank, S. Galvez Bank, and 11-Mile Reef, Territory of Guam, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry (5m) of the bank environment of Galvez Bank, and 2 small nearby banks S. Galvez Bank (~ 3 nmi south of Galvez) and 11-mile Reef (~ 5 nmi north of...

  2. Integrating management techniques to restore sites invaded by mile-a-minute weed, Persicaria perfoliata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellen C. Lake; Judith Hough-Goldstein; Vincent. D' Amico

    2014-01-01

    Efforts to suppress an invasive weed are often undertaken with the goal of facilitating the recovery of a diverse native plant community. In some cases, however, reduction in the abundance of the target weed results in an increase in other exotic weeds. Mile-a-minute weed (Persicaria perfoliata (L.) H. Gross (Polygonaceae)) is an annual vine from...

  3. Metacognition Lab at Miles College Takes Peer Mentoring to a Higher Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekwa, Emmanuel; Dorius, Tina

    2016-01-01

    Albert Einstein famously said, "I never teach my students. I only attempt to provide the conditions in which they can learn." At the Miles College Metacognition Lab, we follow a similar philosophy. In the Metacognition Lab, we teach our students to think about how they are thinking. We have created a system of student interactions that…

  4. A Content Analysis of News Media Coverage of the Accident at Three Mile Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Mitchell; Edison, Nadyne G.

    A study was conducted for the President's Commission on the Accident at Three Mile Island to analyze coverage of the accident by ten news organizations: two wire services, three commercial television networks, and five daily newspapers. Copies of all stories and transcripts of news programs during the first week of the accident were examined from…

  5. 76 FR 70348 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Doullut Canal, Mile 0.2, Plaquemines Parish, Empire, LA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ...The Commander, Eighth Coast Guard District, has issued a temporary deviation from the regulation governing the operation of the SR 11 Bridge over Doullut Canal, mile 0.2, Plaquemines Parish, Empire, LA. This deviation will allow the draw to remain in the closed-to- navigation position for the duration of the 2011 Orange King Festival Bicycle...

  6. SOLIDARIEDADE SOCIAL : as ponderações de Émile Durkheim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta do Socorro Sousa de Araujo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the forms of social solidarity pointed by Émile Durkheim as a part of the principle of the social integration through as the balance and of t he social cohesion, indispensable considered aspects to the good operation of the society.

  7. Leveraging socially networked mobile ICT platforms for the last-mile delivery problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Kyo; Smith, Timothy; Linhoff, Michelle

    2012-09-01

    Increasing numbers of people are managing their social networks on mobile information and communication technology (ICT) platforms. This study materializes these social relationships by leveraging spatial and networked information for sharing excess capacity to reduce the environmental impacts associated with "last-mile" package delivery systems from online purchases, particularly in low population density settings. Alternative package pickup location systems (PLS), such as a kiosk on a public transit platform or in a grocery store, have been suggested as effective strategies for reducing package travel miles and greenhouse gas emissions, compared to current door-to-door delivery models (CDS). However, our results suggest that a pickup location delivery system operating in a suburban setting may actually increase travel miles and emissions. Only once a social network is employed to assist in package pickup (SPLS) are significant reductions in the last-mile delivery distance and carbon emissions observed across both urban and suburban settings. Implications for logistics management's decades-long focus on improving efficiencies of dedicated distribution systems through specialization, as well as for public policy targeting carbon emissions of the transport sector are discussed.

  8. 76 FR 57633 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Miles City, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... within a 34.5-mile radius of Frank Wiley Field. Issued in Seattle, Washington, on September 7, 2011. John... System (GPS) standard instrument approach procedures at Frank Wiley Field. Additionally, the geographic coordinates for Frank Wiley Field are being adjusted. This improves the safety ] and management of...

  9. 29 CFR 825.111 - Determining whether 50 employees are employed within 75 miles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... with no fixed worksite, e.g., construction workers, transportation workers (e.g., truck drivers, seamen... miles. 825.111 Section 825.111 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION..., from which their work is assigned, or to which they report. For example, if a construction...

  10. The linkages between business strategies and compensation policies using miles and snow's framework

    OpenAIRE

    Saura, M. D.; Gómez-Mejía, Luis R.

    1996-01-01

    This study links a multidimensional measure of compensatíon strategy to Miles and Snow's (1978) business strategies, and examines their interactive impact on firm performance. The results reported here indicate that a more mechanistic compensation strategy makes a greater contribution to firm performance among defenders, while a more organic compensation strategy makes a greater contribution to firm performance among prospectors

  11. Extending Miles & Snow's strategy choice typology to the German hospital sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmig, Bernd; Hinz, Vera; Ingerfurth, Stefan

    2014-12-01

    Hospitals' strategy choices represent highly relevant factors that affect organizational performance and survival. This study assesses the differences among hospitals' strategic choices. This strategy definition and assessment reflects the typology proposed by Miles and Snow, who distinguish four strategy types: defender, analyzer, prospector, and reactor. Synthesis of empirical evidence from previous studies that have applied Miles and Snow's typology in the hospital sector using various methodological approaches and measures provides hints for industry-specific patterns and avenues for further research. Taking an extended view of strategic choice, the authors conduct an empirical survey of a sample of 178 German hospitals. The authors apply a multi-item measure of the Miles and Snow strategy types in the hospital sector and identify hybrid strategy types that deviate from the four strategy types defined by Miles and Snow. Overall, seven distinct strategy types emerge from this analysis. There exist three distinct hybrid types in particular. Strategy choice is systematically related to hospital size and teaching status but not to ownership and location. The significant variance in performance for the seven different strategy types justifies the distinction between them. The results support the idea of industry-specific strategy choices. Policy makers should analyze the structural context in which hospitals operate and intervene through political and regulatory means.

  12. MILES extended : Stellar population synthesis models from the optical to the infrared

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rock, B.; Vazdekis, A.; Ricciardelli, E.; Peletier, R. F.; Knapen, J. H.; Falcon-Barroso, J.

    2016-01-01

    We present the first single-burst stellar population models, which covers the optical and the infrared wavelength range between 3500 and 50 000 angstrom and which are exclusively based on empirical stellar spectra. To obtain these joint models, we combined the extended MILES models in the optical wi

  13. A Conceptual Study of Spirituality in Selected Writings of Émile Jaques-Dalcroze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habron, John; van der Merwe, Liesl

    2017-01-01

    Several authors have noted that one of Émile Jaques-Dalcroze's aims was to dissolve the mind-body dualism, typical of Cartesianism. However, there has been little research on the spirit-body connection, as it appears in Jaques-Dalcroze's writings. The purpose of this document analysis is to understand how a hermeneutic phenomenological model for…

  14. Crisis contained, The Department of Energy at Three Mile Island: a history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantelon, P L; Williams, R C

    1980-12-01

    An account is given of the response of US DOE to the Three Mile Island-2 accident on March 28, 1979. The accident is treated as though it was a military battle. A synoptic chronologgy of the accident events and of DOE and other responses is included. (DLC)

  15. Methodology for Calculating Cost-per-Mile for Current and Future Vehicle Powertrain Technologies, with Projections to 2024: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, M.; Timbario, T. A.; Timbario, T. J.; Laffen, M.

    2011-01-01

    Currently, several cost-per-mile calculators exist that can provide estimates of acquisition and operating costs for consumers and fleets. However, these calculators are limited in their ability to determine the difference in cost per mile for consumer versus fleet ownership, to calculate the costs beyond one ownership period, to show the sensitivity of the cost per mile to the annual vehicle miles traveled (VMT), and to estimate future increases in operating and ownership costs. Oftentimes, these tools apply a constant percentage increase over the time period of vehicle operation, or in some cases, no increase in direct costs at all over time. A more accurate cost-per-mile calculator has been developed that allows the user to analyze these costs for both consumers and fleets. The calculator was developed to allow simultaneous comparisons of conventional light-duty internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, mild and full hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and fuel cell vehicles (FCVs). This paper is a summary of the development by the authors of a more accurate cost-per-mile calculator that allows the user to analyze vehicle acquisition and operating costs for both consumer and fleets. Cost-per-mile results are reported for consumer-operated vehicles travelling 15,000 miles per year and for fleets travelling 25,000 miles per year.

  16. Axion Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Ozaki, Sho

    2016-01-01

    The low-energy effective theories for gapped insulators are classified by three parameters: permittivity $\\epsilon$, permeability $\\mu$, and theta angle $\\theta$. Crystals with periodic $\\epsilon$ are known as photonic crystals. We here study the band structure of photons in a new type of crystals with periodic $\\theta$ (modulo $2\\pi$) in space, which we call the axion crystals. We find that the axion crystals have a number of new properties that the usual photonic crystals do not possess, such as the helicity-dependent photonic band gaps and the nonrelativistic gapless dispersion relation at small momentum. We briefly discuss possible realizations of axion crystals in condensed matter systems as well as high-energy physics.

  17. Answers to frequently asked questions about cleanup activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2. Public information report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    The document presents answers to frequently asked questions about plans for cleanup and decontamination activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2. Answers to the questions asked are based on information in the NRC 'Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement related to decontamination and disposal of radioactive wastes resulting from March 28, 1979, accident, Three Mile Island Nuclear Station, Unit 2,' NUREG-0683.

  18. 77 FR 11168 - In the Matter of Exelon Corporation; Constellation Energy Group, Inc.; Nine Mile Nuclear Station...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... Exelon Corporation; Constellation Energy Group, Inc.; Nine Mile Nuclear Station, LLC; Nine Mile Point... Ventures), and Constellation Energy Nuclear Group, LLC (CENG), acting on behalf of itself, and the licensee... Committee of Constellation Energy Nuclear Group, LLC, shall prepare an Annual Report regarding the status of...

  19. 77 FR 29254 - Safety Zones, Large Cruise Ships; Lower Mississippi River, Southwest Pass Sea Buoy to Mile Marker...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ... extends from bank to bank encompassing one-mile ahead and one-mile astern of each large cruise ship. This... ship as it transits the Lower Mississippi River between the Port of New Orleans Cruise Ship Terminal.... For the purpose of this rule, the term ``large cruise ship'' is defined as a vessel over 100 feet...

  20. Theoretical modeling of the MILES hit profiles in military weapon low-data rate simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, L. C.; Phillips, R. L.; Smith, C. A.; Belichki, S. B.; Crabbs, R.; Cofarro, J. T.; Fountain, W.; Tucker, F. M.; Parrish, B. J.

    2016-09-01

    Math modeling of a low-data-rate optical communication system is presented and compared with recent testing results over ranges up to 100 m in an indoor tunnel at Kennedy Space Center. Additional modeling of outdoor testing results at longer ranges in the open atmosphere is also presented. The system modeled is the Army's Multiple Integrated Laser Engagement System (MILES) that has been used as a tactical training system since the early 1980s. The objective of the current modeling and testing is to obtain target hit zone profiles for the M16A2/M4 rifles and establish a data baseline for MILES that will aid in its upgrade using more recently developed lasers and detectors.

  1. New atmospheric parameters and spectral interpolator for the MILES cool stars

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Kaushal; Singh, Harinder P

    2015-01-01

    Context: The full spectrum fitting of stellar spectra against a library of empirical spectra is a well-established approach to measure the atmospheric parameters of FGK stars with a high internal consistency. Extending it towards cooler stars still remains a challenge. Aims: We address this question by improving the interpolator of the MILES (Medium-resolution INT Library of Empirical Spectra) library in the low effective temperature regime (Tefff < 4800 K), and we refine the determination of the parameters of the cool MILES stars. Methods: We use the ULySS package to determine the atmospheric parameters (Teff, logg and [Fe/H]), and measure the biases of the results with respect to our updated compilation of parameters calibrated against theoretical spectra. After correcting some systematic effects, we compute a new interpolator that we finally use to redetermine the atmospheric parameters homogeneously and assess the biases. Results: Based on an updated literature compilation, we determine Teff in a more ...

  2. SMART PLATFORM FOR SUPPORT ISSUES AT THE FIRST AND LAST MILE IN THE SUPPLY CHAIN - THE CONCEPT OF THE S-MILE PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin STANIEK

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The concept of an innovative support tool for freight transport used in planning, organization and realization is presented in this paper. In addition to the basic functions of a fleet management tool, the educative approach towards environmentally friendly behaviour will be based on promoting ecological solutions, such as unconventionally powered cars, e.g., electric vehicles (EVs. The suggested criteria for a routing algorithm, which will be implemented in the freight transport planner tool, not only allows routing in relation to time and cost criteria, but also the criterion regarding the limitation of emissions of harmful factors. The implementation of innovative the S-mile platform gives rise to environmentally friendly cognition behaviour in the freight transport sector. This is a fundamental aspect to its application, which could help to move the planning, organization and realization of freight transport in the direction of more environmental friendly solutions

  3. Business and magic: Émile Zola, Au Bonheur des Dames and modern consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everardo Rocha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This work examines the emergence of grand magazines and how this new commerce was crucial in establishing the phenomenon of consumption in modernity. In particular, it has been investigated through Émile Zola’s novel, Au Bonheur des Dames, how the social values and sales models of grand magazines appear as “cathedrals of modern consumption”, creating, at once, a world of business and magic.

  4. Albert Edwin William (LOMA) Miles (1912-2008) extracts from personal letters on dental matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, W A Barry; Liversidge, Helen M

    2015-01-01

    Professor Miles (1912-2008) was a key player establishing dentistry as an academic subject. In the many letters he wrote to Helen Liversidge and me, he describes his involvement as Hon. Curator of the Odontological Museum, Editor Archives of Oral Biology, Assistant scientific editor of the BDJ. He writes about his association with Robert Maxwell and the Pergamon Press and his interests and friendships.

  5. Broadband for all: Connecting people from the ground up – one last mile at a time

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Matthee, K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available : Connecting people from the ground up ? one last mile at a time 4th Biennial Conference Presented by: Karel Matthee Date: 9 October 2012 Overview ? South African broadband context ? The need for broadband in rural areas ? ICT as an enabler (of socio... South Africa Information and Communication Technology as an enabler ? Broadband is recognised as a strategic tool in building a knowledge economy. ? The World Bank found that increasing broadband penetration by 10 percent generates an additional 1...

  6. Using the Crowd of Taxis to Last Mile Delivery in E-commerce: a Methodological Research

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Chao; Pan, Shenle

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Crowdsourcing is garnering increased attention in freight transport area, mainly applied in internet-based services to city logistics. However, scientific research, especially methodology for application is still rare in the literature. This paper aims to fill this gap and to propose a methodological approach of applying crowdsourcing solution to Last Mile Delivery in E-commerce environment. The proposed solution is based on taxi fleet in city and a transport network c...

  7. Digital Divides and the 'First Mile': Framing First Nations Broadband Development in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob McMahon

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Across Canada, rural and remote First Nations face a significant 'digital divide'. As self-determining autonomous nations in Canada, these communities are building broadband systems to deliver public services to their members and residents. To address this challenge, First Nations are working towards a variety of innovative, locally driven broadband development initiatives. This paper contributes a theoretical discussion that frames our understanding of these initiatives by drawing on the paradigm of the 'First Mile' (Paisley & Richardson, 1998. We argue that broadband development policy in Canada must be re-framed to address the specific needs of First Nations. The First Mile position foregrounds community-based involvement, control, and ownership: a consideration we suggest has particular resonance for First Nations. This is because it holds potential to move beyond the historical context of paternalistic, colonial-derived development policies, in the context of broadband systems development. We argue First Nations broadband projects offer on-the-ground examples of a First Mile approach, and call for more research in this area.

  8. Oogenesis and spawn formation in the invasive lionfish, Pterois miles and Pterois volitans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Morris, Jr

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The Indo-Pacific lionfish, Pterois miles and P. volitans, have recently invaded the U.S. east coast and the Caribbean and pose a significant threat to native reef fish communities. Few studies have documented reproduction in pteroines from the Indo-Pacific. This study provides a description of oogenesis and spawn formation in P. miles and P. volitans collected from offshore waters of North Carolina, U.S.A and the Bahamas. Using histological and laboratory observations, we found no differences in reproductive biology between P. miles and P. volitans. These lionfish spawn buoyant eggs that are encased in a hollow mass of mucus produced by specialized secretory cells of the ovarian wall complex. Oocytes develop on highly vascularized peduncles with all oocyte stages present in the ovary of spawning females and the most mature oocytes placed terminally, near the ovarian lumen. Given these ovarian characteristics, these lionfish are asynchronous, indeterminate batch spawners and are thus capable of sustained reproduction throughout the year when conditions are suitable. This mode of reproduction could have contributed to the recent and rapid establishment of these lionfish in the northwestern Atlantic and Caribbean.

  9. RNA Crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Barbara L.; Kundrot, Craig E.

    2003-01-01

    RNA molecules may be crystallized using variations of the methods developed for protein crystallography. As the technology has become available to syntheisize and purify RNA molecules in the quantities and with the quality that is required for crystallography, the field of RNA structure has exploded. The first consideration when crystallizing an RNA is the sequence, which may be varied in a rational way to enhance crystallizability or prevent formation of alternate structures. Once a sequence has been designed, the RNA may be synthesized chemically by solid-state synthesis, or it may be produced enzymatically using RNA polymerase and an appropriate DNA template. Purification of milligram quantities of RNA can be accomplished by HPLC or gel electrophoresis. As with proteins, crystallization of RNA is usually accomplished by vapor diffusion techniques. There are several considerations that are either unique to RNA crystallization or more important for RNA crystallization. Techniques for design, synthesis, purification, and crystallization of RNAs will be reviewed here.

  10. Protein Crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernov, Alexander A.

    2005-01-01

    Nucleation, growth and perfection of protein crystals will be overviewed along with crystal mechanical properties. The knowledge is based on experiments using optical and force crystals behave similar to inorganic crystals, though with a difference in orders of magnitude in growing parameters. For example, the low incorporation rate of large biomolecules requires up to 100 times larger supersaturation to grow protein, rather than inorganic crystals. Nucleation is often poorly reproducible, partly because of turbulence accompanying the mixing of precipitant with protein solution. Light scattering reveals fluctuations of molecular cluster size, its growth, surface energies and increased clustering as protein ages. Growth most often occurs layer-by-layer resulting in faceted crystals. New molecular layer on crystal face is terminated by a step where molecular incorporation occurs. Quantitative data on the incorporation rate will be discussed. Rounded crystals with molecularly disordered interfaces will be explained. Defects in crystals compromise the x-ray diffraction resolution crucially needed to find the 3D atomic structure of biomolecules. The defects are immobile so that birth defects stay forever. All lattice defects known for inorganics are revealed in protein crystals. Contribution of molecular conformations to lattice disorder is important, but not studied. This contribution may be enhanced by stress field from other defects. Homologous impurities (e.g., dimers, acetylated molecules) are trapped more willingly by a growing crystal than foreign protein impurities. The trapped impurities induce internal stress eliminated in crystals exceeding a critical size (part of mni for ferritin, lysozyme). Lesser impurities are trapped from stagnant, as compared to the flowing, solution. Freezing may induce much more defects unless quickly amorphysizing intracrystalline water.

  11. Computational crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altan, Irem; Charbonneau, Patrick; Snell, Edward H

    2016-07-15

    Crystallization is a key step in macromolecular structure determination by crystallography. While a robust theoretical treatment of the process is available, due to the complexity of the system, the experimental process is still largely one of trial and error. In this article, efforts in the field are discussed together with a theoretical underpinning using a solubility phase diagram. Prior knowledge has been used to develop tools that computationally predict the crystallization outcome and define mutational approaches that enhance the likelihood of crystallization. For the most part these tools are based on binary outcomes (crystal or no crystal), and the full information contained in an assembly of crystallization screening experiments is lost. The potential of this additional information is illustrated by examples where new biological knowledge can be obtained and where a target can be sub-categorized to predict which class of reagents provides the crystallization driving force. Computational analysis of crystallization requires complete and correctly formatted data. While massive crystallization screening efforts are under way, the data available from many of these studies are sparse. The potential for this data and the steps needed to realize this potential are discussed.

  12. Crystal Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 3 NIST Crystal Data (PC database for purchase)   NIST Crystal Data contains chemical, physical, and crystallographic information useful to characterize more than 237,671 inorganic and organic crystalline materials. The data include the standard cell parameters, cell volume, space group number and symbol, calculated density, chemical formula, chemical name, and classification by chemical type.

  13. Questões sobre a frase na obra de Émile Benveniste Questões sobre a frase na obra de Émile Benveniste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verônica Pasqualin MACHADO

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to demonstrate which notions can be related for a better understanding of the term phrase in Émile Benveniste’s work (1974/2006,1966/2005. In order to do so, we investigated how this term is treated in two texts by this author, in which he gives major emphasis to this theme: Os níveis de análise linguística and A forma e o sentido na linguagem. In the analysis of these texts, we highlighted excerpts that deal with the term phrase and point the notions which are attached to it. Thereby, we can conclude that the term phrase is connected to the notions of form and meaning, of semantic domain and of reference.O objetivo desse artigo é mostrar que noções podem estar imbricadas para que se entenda o termo frase na obra de Émile Benveniste (1974/2006, 1966/2005. Para isso, investigou-se como esse termo é tratado em dois textos do autor, nos quais ele dá maior ênfase ao tema, a saber, Os níveis de análise linguística e A forma e o sentido na linguagem. Na análise desses textos, foram destacados excertos que versam sobre o termo frase e evidenciam as noções que estão vinculadas a esse termo. Por meio da análise, pode-se concluir que o termo frase está ligado às noções de forma e sentido, de domínio semântico e de referência.

  14. Analysis of performance and age of the fastest 100-mile ultra-marathoners worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Alexander Rüst

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The performance and age of peak ultra-endurance performance have been investigated in single races and single race series but not using worldwide participation data. The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in running performance and the age of peak running performance of the best 100-mile ultra-marathoners worldwide. METHOD: The race times and ages of the annual ten fastest women and men were analyzed among a total of 35,956 finishes (6,862 for women and 29,094 for men competing between 1998 and 2011 in 100-mile ultra-marathons. RESULTS: The annual top ten performances improved by 13.7% from 1,132±61.8 min in 1998 to 977.6±77.1 min in 2011 for women and by 14.5% from 959.2±36.4 min in 1998 to 820.6±25.7 min in 2011 for men. The mean ages of the annual top ten fastest runners were 39.2±6.2 years for women and 37.2±6.1 years for men. The age of peak running performance was not different between women and men (p>0.05 and showed no changes across the years. CONCLUSION: These findings indicated that the fastest female and male 100-mile ultra-marathoners improved their race time by ∼14% across the 1998-2011 period at an age when they had to be classified as master athletes. Future studies should analyze longer running distances (>200 km to investigate whether the age of peak performance increases with increased distance in ultra-marathon running.

  15. Macromolecular crystallization and crystal perfection

    CERN Document Server

    Chayen, Naomi E; Snell, Edward H

    2010-01-01

    Structural biology is key to our understanding of the mechanisms of biological processes. This text describes current methods and future frontiers in crystal growth and use of X-ray and neutron crystallography, in the context of automation of crystallization and generation of synchrotron X-ray and neutron beams.

  16. L'écriture de l'entre-deux dans Passages d'Émile Ollivier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Albert

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The novel Passages by Émile Ollivier is representative of the migrant writings that build up a true poetics of wandering. This one is quite different from former exile literary representations and characterizes by questioning migration as far as writing is concerned. It reveals itself through a creolized language, magic realism peculiar to Latin American baroque and by building up a postcolonial framework caused by colonial turmoil and then globalization. So, the novel involves interstitial immigration spaces and implies new writing modes that reveal an ever changing world.

  17. Émile Meyerson, de la chimie à la philosophie des sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Telkes-Klein

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cet article suit le chemin, atypique, qu’emprunte Émile Meyerson pour passer de la profession de chimiste à la pratique de la philosophie et de la philosophie des sciences. Son parcours est atypique puisque Meyerson ne bénéficie d’aucune position académique qui lui permette de vivre de sa science. Cependant ce chemin, qui le fait changer de statut, le mène à une position de figure importante dans le champ de la tradition française de la philosophie des sciences. Ainsi, Dominique Parodi donne ...

  18. Conversatorio sobre Las formas elementales de la vida religiosa (1912 de Émile Durkheim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Alberto Reyes Morris

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Edición del texto del conversatorio público sostenido el día 23 de noviembre de 2012, en el contexto del Ciclo de conferencias conmemorativas de los cien años de la publicación de Las formas elementales de la vida religiosa de Émile Durkheim, evento realizado por la Sección de Teorías, Departamento de Sociología, desde el viernes 16 de noviembre hasta elviernes 23 de noviembre de 2012 en la Universidad Nacional de Colombia

  19. Compilation of Earthquakes from 1850-2007 within 200 miles of the Idaho National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. Seth Carpenter

    2010-07-01

    An updated earthquake compilation was created for the years 1850 through 2007 within 200 miles of the Idaho National Laboratory. To generate this compilation, earthquake catalogs were collected from several contributing sources and searched for redundant events using the search criteria established for this effort. For all sets of duplicate events, a preferred event was selected, largely based on epicenter-network proximity. All unique magnitude information for each event was added to the preferred event records and these records were used to create the compilation referred to as “INL1850-2007”.

  20. The New Product Development Improvement Motives and Practices of Miles and Snow's Prospectors, Analysers and Defenders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugen, Bjørge Timenes; Boer, Harry; Acur, Nuran

    2006-01-01

    Marketing, strategic management and contingency theory suggest that different strategies require different practices. The new product development (NPD) literature, however, hardly addresses the product development practices needed to support different strategies. An analysis of eight prospectors......, twenty-seven analysers and seven defenders (Miles and Snow, 1978) suggests that the NPD improvement motives and practices of these three types of strategies are less different than we expected. Our explanation for this finding is that the three strategic types are growing towards each other, forced...

  1. Discurso: em busca da essência do pensamento de Émile Benveniste

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Esta dissertação investiga a noção de discurso na obra de Émile Benveniste. Partindo da declaração de Gérard Dessons (2006), que diz que Benveniste é o "inventor do discurso", este estudo tem como objetivo elucidar o lugar ocupado por esse conceito na obra benvenistiana. Para isso, empreende-se uma busca por referências a Benveniste no Dicionário de Análise do Discurso (CHARAUDEAU; MAINGUENEAU, 2008), assim como uma discussão acerca de pontos da sua Teoria da Enunciação que podem induzir o le...

  2. Liquid crystal tunable photonic crystal dye laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buss, Thomas; Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Smith, Cameron

    2010-01-01

    We present a dye-doped liquid crystal laser using a photonic crystal cavity. An applied electric field to the liquid crystal provides wavelength tunability. The photonic crystal enhances resonant interaction with the gain medium....

  3. Crystal Dislocations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald W. Armstrong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Crystal dislocations were invisible until the mid-20th century although their presence had been inferred; the atomic and molecular scale dimensions had prevented earlier discovery. Now they are normally known to be just about everywhere, for example, in the softest molecularly-bonded crystals as well as within the hardest covalently-bonded diamonds. The advent of advanced techniques of atomic-scale probing has facilitated modern observations of dislocations in every crystal structure-type, particularly by X-ray diffraction topography and transmission electron microscopy. The present Special Issue provides a flavor of their ubiquitous presences, their characterizations and, especially, their influence on mechanical and electrical properties.

  4. Gathering Places, Large Crowds, cruical infrastructures, Published in 2007, 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, Marion County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Gathering Places, Large Crowds dataset, published at 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2007. It is...

  5. Zip Codes, zipcode, Published in 2000, 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, Door County, Wisconsin.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Zip Codes dataset, published at 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale as of 2000. It is described as 'zipcode'. Data by this publisher are often provided in State Plane...

  6. Avian Distribution and Habitat, Published in 1997, 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, Off.of Admin - ITSD.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Avian Distribution and Habitat dataset, published at 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 1997. Data by this...

  7. School Districts, School Districts, Published in 2000, 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, Taylor County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This School Districts dataset, published at 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2000. It is described as...

  8. Fire and EMS Districts, ESZ, Published in 2012, 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, Taylor County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Fire and EMS Districts dataset, published at 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2012. It is described...

  9. Road and Street Centerlines, Eight Mile, Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — , published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. It is described as 'Eight Mile'. The extent of these data...

  10. Doctor Offices, Published in 2009, 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, City of Americus & Sumter County, GA GIS.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Doctor Offices dataset, published at 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2009. Data by this publisher...

  11. Indian Reservations, mydata, Published in Not Provided, 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, App St Energy Center.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Indian Reservations dataset, published at 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, was produced all or in part from Road Centerline Files information as of Not Provided. It...

  12. Aquaculture, Fresh Water, AGR, Published in 2006, 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, Massachusetts Emergency Managment Agency.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Aquaculture, Fresh Water dataset, published at 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2006. It is described...

  13. Turtle Distribution and Habitat, Published in 1997, 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, Off.of Admin - ITSD.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Turtle Distribution and Habitat dataset, published at 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 1997. Data by this...

  14. Tourism Areas, Published in 2007, 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, City of Americus & Sumter County, GA GIS.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Tourism Areas dataset, published at 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2007. Data by this publisher...

  15. Road and Street Centerlines, mile markers, Published in 2009, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Washington County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — , published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2009. It is described as 'mile markers'. Data by this publisher...

  16. Fire and EMS Districts, EMS Districts, Published in 2009, 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, Iredell County GIS.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Fire and EMS Districts dataset, published at 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2009. It is described...

  17. Voting Places, Published in 2006, 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, City of Americus & Sumter County, GA GIS.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Voting Places dataset, published at 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2006. Data by this publisher...

  18. Neighborhoods, Published in 2002, 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, City of Americus & Sumter County, GA GIS.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Neighborhoods dataset, published at 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2002. Data by this publisher...

  19. Fire Hydrants, Published in 2000, 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, City of Americus & Sumter County, GA GIS.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Fire Hydrants dataset, published at 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2000. Data by this publisher...

  20. Human responses to the threat of or exposure to ionizing radiation at Three Mile Island, Pennsylvania, and Goiania, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Daniel L

    2002-02-01

    The psychological stressors and their aftereffects associated with the Three Mile Island accident, the Goiania, Brazil, cesium-137 accident, and the Abadia, Brazil, storage location are summarized and compared. Cross-cultural comparisons of human responses to ionizing radiation are rare. A multidisciplinary methodological approach to examining the psychological responses to ionizing radiation is even more rare. The psychological, behavioral, neuroendocrine, and cardiovascular results are summarized for Three Mile Island, Goiania, and Abadia.

  1. Evolutionary stellar population synthesis with MILES - II. Scaled-solar and \\alpha-enhanced models

    CERN Document Server

    Vazdekis, A; Cassisi, S; Ricciardelli, E; Falcón-Barroso, J; Sánchez-Blázquez, P; La Barbera, F; Beasley, M A; Pietrinferni, A

    2015-01-01

    We present models that predict spectra of old- and intermediate-aged stellar populations at 2.51\\AA\\ (FWHM) with varying [\\alpha/Fe] abundance. The models are based on the MILES library and on corrections from theoretical stellar spectra. The models employ recent [Mg/Fe] determinations for the MILES stars and BaSTI scaled-solar and \\alpha-enhanced isochrones. We compute models for a suite of IMF shapes and slopes, covering a wide age/metallicity range. Using BaSTI, we also compute "base models" matching The Galactic abundance pattern. We confirm that the \\alpha-enhanced models show a flux excess with respect to the scaled-solar models blue-ward $\\sim$4500\\AA, which increases with age and metallicity. We also confirm that both [MgFe] and [MgFe]' indices are [\\alpha/Fe]-insensitive. We show that the sensitivity of the higher order Balmer lines to [\\alpha/Fe] resides in their pseudo-continua, with narrower index definitions yielding lower sensitivity. We confirm that the \\alpha-enhanced models yield bluer (redde...

  2. Lessons Learned from Three Mile Island Packaging, Transportation and Disposition that Apply to Fukushima Daiichi Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layne Pincock; Wendell Hintze; Dr. Koji Shirai

    2012-07-01

    Following the massive earthquake and resulting tsunami damage in March of 2011 at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan, interest was amplified for what was done for recovery at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) in the United States following its meltdown in 1979. Many parallels could be drawn between to two accidents. This paper presents the results of research done into the TMI-2 recovery effort and its applicability to the Fukushima Daiichi cleanup. This research focused on three topics: packaging, transportation, and disposition. This research work was performed as a collaboration between Japan’s Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) and the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Hundreds of TMI-2 related documents were searched and pertinent information was gleaned from these documents. Other important information was also obtained by interviewing employees who were involved first hand in various aspects of the TMI-2 cleanup effort. This paper is organized into three main sections: (1) Transport from Three Mile Island to Central Facilities Area at INL, (2) Transport from INL Central Receiving Facility to INL Test Area North (TAN) and wet storage at TAN, and (3) Transport from TAN to INL Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) and Dry Storage at INTEC. Within each of these sections, lessons learned from performing recovery activities are presented and their applicability to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant cleanup are outlined.

  3. MILES extended: Stellar population synthesis models from the optical to the infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röck, B.; Vazdekis, A.; Ricciardelli, E.; Peletier, R. F.; Knapen, J. H.; Falcón-Barroso, J.

    2016-05-01

    We present the first single-burst stellar population models, which covers the optical and the infrared wavelength range between 3500 and 50 000 Å and which are exclusively based on empirical stellar spectra. To obtain these joint models, we combined the extended MILES models in the optical with our new infrared models that are based on the IRTF (Infrared Telescope Facility) library. The latter are available only for a limited range in terms of both age and metallicity. Our combined single-burst stellar population models were calculated for ages larger than 1 Gyr, for metallicities between [ Fe / H ] = - 0.40 and 0.26, for initial mass functions of various types and slopes, and on the basis of two different sets of isochrones. They are available to the scientific community on the MILES web page. We checked the internal consistency of our models and compared their colour predictions to those of other models that are available in the literature. Optical and near infrared colours that are measured from our models are found to reproduce the colours well that were observed for various samples of early-type galaxies. Our models will enable a detailed analysis of the stellar populations of observed galaxies.

  4. MILES extended: Stellar population synthesis models from the optical to the infrared

    CERN Document Server

    Röck, B; Ricciardelli, E; Peletier, R F; Knapen, J H; Falcon-Barroso, J

    2016-01-01

    We present the first single-burst stellar population models which covers the optical and the infrared wavelength range between 3500 and 50000 Angstrom and which are exclusively based on empirical stellar spectra. To obtain these joint models, we combined the extended MILES models in the optical with our new infrared models that are based on the IRTF (Infrared Telescope Facility) library. The latter are available only for a limited range in terms of both age and metallicity. Our combined single-burst stellar population models were calculated for ages larger than 1 Gyr, for metallicities between [Fe/H] = -0.40 and 0.26, for initial mass functions of various types and slopes, and on the basis of two different sets of isochrones. They are available to the scientific community on the MILES web page. We checked the internal consistency of our models and compared their colour predictions to those of other models that are available in the literature. Optical and near infrared colours that are measured from our models...

  5. Methods and procedures to determine the outer limits of the continental shelf beyond 200 nautical miles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Ziyin; LI Jiabiao; JIN Xianglong; FANG Yinxia; SHANG Jihong; LI Shoujun

    2013-01-01

    This paper establishes techniques and methods to determine a variety of boundaries associated with 200 nautical miles beyond the continental shelf. The methods, based on topography, slope and second-deriv-ative profile integrated analysis, are now able to identify automatically the foot of the continental slope (FOS). By analyzing the sedimentary profile, the points of 1%sediment thickness are recognized. Through the intersection, cut, deletion and mergence calculation of the extrapolated data set of fixed-point series, the method succeeds in generating automatically the extrapolated boundaries, including the FOS+60 M line, the 350 M line, and the 2500 m+100 M line. In addition, based on the automatic analysis of the topographic profile, it can be applied to determine rapidly the points of maximum water depth. Taking the northern Okinawa Trough (OT) as an example, these methods are used to calculate and examine the boundaries in-cluded in the Submission by the People's Republic of China Concerning the Outer Limits of the Continental Shelf beyond 200 Nautical miles in Part of the East China Sea (ECS);the boundaries thus derived have a solid scientific and rational basis.

  6. Laboratory measurement verification of laser hazard analysis for miles weapon simulators used in force on force exercises.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augustoni, Arnold L.

    2006-08-01

    Due to the change in the batteries used with the Small Arm Laser Transmitters (SALT) from 3-volts dc to 3.6-volts dc and changes to SNL MILES operating conditions, the associated laser hazards of these units required re-evaluation to ensure that the hazard classification of the laser emitters had not changed as well. The output laser emissions of the SNL MILES, weapon simulators and empire guns, used in Force-On-Force (FOF) training exercises, was measured in accordance to the ANSI Standard Z136.4-2005, ''Recommended Practice for Laser Safety Measurements for Hazard Evaluation''. The laser hazard class was evaluated in accordance with the ANSI Standard Z136.1-2000, ''Safe Use of Lasers'', using ''worst'' case conditions associated with these MILES units. Laser safety assessment was conducted in accordance with the ANSI Standard Z136.6-2005, ''Safe Use of Lasers Outdoors''. The laser hazard evaluation of these MILES laser emitters was compared to and supersedes SAND Report SAND2002-0246, ''Laser Safety Evaluation of the MILES and Mini MILES Laser Emitting Components'', which used ''actual'' operating conditions of the laser emitters at the time of its issuance.

  7. Liquid Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Thermochromic liquid crystals, or TLCs, are a type of liquid crystals that react to changes in temperature by changing color. The Hallcrest/NASA collaboration involved development of a new way to visualize boundary layer transition in flight and in wind tunnel testing of aircraft wing and body surfaces. TLCs offered a new and potentially better method of visualizing the boundary layer transition in flight. Hallcrest provided a liquid crystal formulation technique that afforded great control over the sensitivity of the liquid crystals to varying conditions. Method is of great use to industry, government and universities for aerodynamic and hydrodynamic testing. Company's principal line is temperature indicating devices for industrial use, such as non-destructive testing and flaw detection in electric/electronic systems, medical application, such as diagnostic systems, for retail sale, such as room, refrigerator, baby bath and aquarium thermometers, and for advertising and promotion specials. Additionally, Hallcrest manufactures TLC mixtures for cosmetic applications, and liquid crystal battery tester for Duracell batteries.

  8. VO2max estimation from a submaximal 1-mile track jog for fit college-age individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, J D; Vehrs, P R; Allsen, P E; Fellingham, G W; Fisher, A G

    1993-03-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to develop a submaximal field test for the estimation of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) using a 1-mile track jog. A second purpose was to determine the accuracy of the 1.5-mile run in estimating VO2max for both male and female subjects. VO2max was measured in 149 relatively fit college students (males = 88, females = 61) 18-29 yr using a treadmill protocol (mean +/- SD; VO2max = 47.7 +/- 6.3 ml.kg-1 x min-1). Multiple regression analysis (N = 54) to estimate VO2max from the submaximal, steady-state 1-mile track jog yielded the following validation (V) model (r(adi) = 0.87, SEE = 3.0 ml.kg-1 x min-1): VO2max = 100.5 + 8.344* GENDER (0 = female; 1 = male) - 0.1636* BODY MASS (kg) - 1.438* JOG TIME (min.mile-1) - 0.1928* HEART RATE (bpm). To help ensure that a submaximal level of exertion was realized for the 1-mile track jog, elapsed jog time was restricted to > or = 8.0 min for males and > or = 9.0 min for females and exercise HR to < or = 180 bpm. Cross-validation (CV) of the 1-mile track jog comparing observed and estimated VO2max (N = 52) resulted in radj = 0.84, SEE = 3.1 ml.kg-1 x min-1. Multiple regression analysis (N = 50) to estimate VO2max from the 1.5-mile run (V:N = 49, radj = 0.90, SEE = 2.8 ml.kg-1 x min-1; CV: N = 47, radj = 0.82, SEE = 3.9 ml.kg-1 x min-1), used elapsed run time, body mass, and gender as independent variables.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Diabetes MILES--Australia (management and impact for long-term empowerment and success)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Speight, Jane; Browne, Jessica L; Holmes-Truscott, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    . Cognitive debriefing interviews with 20 participants ensured the survey content was relevant and easily understood. In July 2011, the survey was posted to 15,000 adults (aged 18-70 years) with type 1 or type 2 diabetes selected randomly from the National Diabetes Services Scheme (NDSS) database. An online...... in metropolitan areas. DISCUSSION: A potential limitation of the study is the under-representation of respondents from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds (including Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander origin). Diabetes MILES--Australia represents a major achievement in the study of diabetes...... in Australia, where for the first time, the focus is on psychosocial and behavioural aspects of this condition at a national level....

  10. Reactions of psychiatric patients to the Three Mile Island nuclear accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bromet, E.; Schulberg, H.C.; Dunn, L.

    1982-06-01

    The reaction of patients in the community mental health system to the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island (TMI), Middletown, Pa, were assessed. The sample was composed of 151 patients from the TMI area and 64 patients from a comparison site where a similar nuclear plant is located. Mental health status was determined for the period immediately after the accident, nine to ten months later, and one year later. No significant differences were found between the TMI group and the comparison group. To isolate risk factors within the TMI group, patients who were most distressed were compared with patients with the least distress. The results showed that quality of network support and viewing TMI as dangerous were significantly associated with mental health.

  11. An Analytical Framework for Miles and Snow Typology and Dynamic Capabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Sparano Martins

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The literature on dynamic capabilities is confusing, full of overlapping definitions, and contradictions. The theoretical and practical importance of developing and applying dynamic capabilities to sustain competitive advantage in complex external environment is central in studies about strategy nowadays. In this paper, we offer a definition of dynamic capabilities under two aspects: first, it refers to the shifting character of the environment; second, it emphasizes the key role of strategic management in appropriately adapting, integrating, and re-configuring internal and external organizational skills, resources, and functional competences towards a changing environment. This paper aims to clarify the concept of dynamic capabilities, propose an analytical framework that connects this “new” concept to a well known and recognized generic strategic model (Miles and Snow, 1978 and to the concept of sustainable competitive advantage and evolutionary fit. DOI:10.5585/riae.v13i1.1934

  12. La double croyance dans le jeu littéraire d’Émile Zola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédérique Giraud

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available À l’occasion du centenaire de la mort d’Émile Zola en 2002 s’est tenu un colloque « Lire/Dé-lire Zola » qui avait pour ambition de suggérer de nouvelles approches de l’œuvre zolienne. La question qui fonde le présent dossier et la perspective sociologique que nous proposons pour y répondre sont selon nous un moyen de prendre cette invitation au mot. Cet article, qui prend appui sur notre travail de thèse, cherche à rendre raison d’un point de vue sociologique des modes d’investissements litté...

  13. The United States Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program - Over 151 Million Miles Safely Steamed on Nuclear Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-03-01

    NNSA’s third mission pillar is supporting the U.S. Navy’s ability to protect and defend American interests across the globe. The Naval Reactors Program remains at the forefront of technological developments in naval nuclear propulsion and ensures a commanding edge in warfighting capabilities by advancing new technologies and improvements in naval reactor performance and reliability. In 2015, the Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program pioneered advances in nuclear reactor and warship design – such as increasing reactor lifetimes, improving submarine operational effectiveness, and reducing propulsion plant crewing. The Naval Reactors Program continued its record of operational excellence by providing the technical expertise required to resolve emergent issues in the Nation’s nuclear-powered fleet, enabling the Fleet to safely steam more than two million miles. Naval Reactors safely maintains, operates, and oversees the reactors on the Navy’s 82 nuclear-powered warships, constituting more than 45 percent of the Navy’s major combatants.

  14. Answers to frequently asked questions about cleanup activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-03-01

    This question-and-answer report provides answers in nontechnical language to frequently asked questions about the status of cleanup activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2. The answers update information first prepared in 1981, shortly after the cleanup got under way. Since then, a variety of important developments in the cleanup has occurred. The information in the report should be read in conjunction with NUREG 1060, a discussion of increased occupational exposure estimates for the cleanup. The questions and answers in this report cover purpose and community involvement, decontamination of water and reactor, fuel removal, radwaste transport, environmental impact, social and economic effects, worker exposures and safety, radiation monitoring, potential for accidents, and schedule and funding.

  15. CURRENT APPLICATIONS OF THREE MILE ISLAND-2 CORE AND DEBRIS HANDLING AT THE IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmack, William Jonathan [Idaho National Laboratory; Braase, Lori Ann [Idaho National Laboratory

    2015-09-01

    Fuel recovery from severe accidents requires careful planning and execution. The Idaho National Laboratory played a key role in the Three Mile Island (TMI) fuel and core recovery. This involved technology development to locate and handle the damaged fuel; characterization of fuel and debris; analysis of fuel interaction with structural components and materials; development of fuel drying technology for long-term storage. However, one of the critical activities from the TMI project was the extensive effort document all the activities and archive the reports and photos. A historical review of the TMI project at the INL leads to the identification of current applications and considerations for facility designs, fuel handling, robotic applications, material characterization, etc.

  16. ‘Turpe senex miles, turpe senilis amor’ (Amores 1, 9, 4: Ovid, Cranach and Cervantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Gómez Moreno

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aristotle and Flora, Virgil in the basket, Susanna and the elders… These are different samples of a theme which enjoyed a notorious success in Europe from the last decades of the Fifteenth-century onwards. More than a simple mockery or moral lesson, the topic appears related to decorum as a basic principle in both art and life. In his paintings, Cranach paid special attention to ill-matched couples, as shown in a series of erotic scenes where a young damsel has an old man for lover; in his Quixote, guided by the Ovidian saying ‘Turpe senex miles, turpe senilis amor’ (Amores, 1, 9, 4, Cervantes transforms the traditional Perceval pattern in a new one. Contrary to expectations, it is an old man, not a youngster who undertakes the double adventure of war and love.

  17. Methods and equations for estimating peak streamflow per square mile in Virginia’s urban basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Samuel H.

    2014-01-01

    Models are presented that describe Virginia urban area annual peak streamflow per square mile based on basin percent urban area and basin drainage area. Equations are provided to estimate Virginia urban peak flow per square mile of basin drainage area in each of the following annual exceedance probability categories: 0.995, 0.99, 0.95, 0.9, 0.8, 0.67, 0.5, 0.43, 0.2, 0.1, 0.04, 0.02, 0.01, 0.005, and 0.002 (recurrence intervals of 1.005, 1.01, 1.05, 1.11, 1.25, 1.49, 2.0, 2.3, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, 200, and 500 years, respectively). Equations apply to Virginia drainage basins ranging in size from no less than 1.2 mi2 to no more than 2,400 mi2 containing at least 10 percent urban area, and not more than 96 percent urban area. A total of 115 Virginia drainage basins were analyzed. Actual-by-predicted plots and leverage plots for response variables and explanatory variables in each peak-flow annual exceedance probability category indicate robust model fits and significant explanatory power. Equations for 8 of 15 urban peak-flow response surface models yield R-square values greater than 0.8. Relations identified in statistical models, describing significant increases in urban peak stream discharges as basin urban area increases, affirm empirical relations reported in past studies of change in stream discharge, lag times, and physical streamflow processes, most notably those detailed for urban areas in northern Virginia.

  18. Photonic crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Busch, Kurt; Wehrspohn, Ralf B; Föll, Helmut

    2006-01-01

    The majority of the contributions in this topically edited book stems from the priority program SPP 1113 ""Photonische Kristalle"" run by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), resulting in a survey of the current state of photonic crystal research in Germany. The first part of the book describes methods for the theoretical analysis of their optical properties as well as the results. The main part is dedicated to the fabrication, characterization and modeling of two- and three-dimensional photonic crystals, while the final section presents a wide spectrum of applications: gas sensors, micr

  19. 腹腔镜直肠癌 ISR 和 Miles 术后患者生活质量对比研究%Clinical comparison of quality of life following laparoscopic ISR and Miles on rectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李振军; 应晓江; 陈洪亮; 叶平江

    2014-01-01

    目的:评价腹腔镜直肠癌经括约肌间切除技术(ISR)和腹会阴联合切除术(Miles)术后患者的生活质量。方法2009年6月至2011年12月共有57例直肠癌患者进入本研究,其中 ISR 手术组21例,Miles 手术组36例。以 EORTC QLQ-C30、QLQ-CR38量表评估患者术前、术后9个月和术后18个月的生活质量。结果术前,ISR 手术组患者排便问题少于 Miles 手术组患者,差异有统计学意义(P <0.05);两组患者其余各领域评分差异均无统计学意义(P >0.05)。术后两组患者各领域评分大致相当,仅在术后角色功能方面,ISR 手术组患者优于 Miles 手术组(P <0.05);术后9个月,ISR 手术组患者性功能优于 Miles 手术组(P <0.05);但 Miles 手术组患者术后未来期望优于 ISR 手术组(P <0.05)。结论与腹腔镜 Miles 手术比较,腹腔镜 ISR 手术对患者术后生活质量的影响仅显现有限优势,腹腔镜 ISR 手术对直肠癌患者生活质量的影响有待于进一步研究。%Objective To compare quality of life following laparoscopic intersphincteric resection (ISR)and Miles on rectal cancer. Methods From June 2009 to December 2011,57 patients with rectal cancer were recruited in this study.21 patients underwent laparoscopic ISR,36 patients had laparoscopic Miles. EORTC QLQ-C30 and QLQ- CR38 questionnaire were applied to evaluate quality of life baseline,9 months and 18 months after operation. Results Before operation,the median score of problems with defaecation in ISR group was lower.The median scores of other function domains and symptom domains were similar between two groups (P > 0.05).Postoperatively,the most median scores of function domains and symptom domains between two groups were similar (P > 0.05).The median postoperative score of role functioning in ISR group was higher than that in Miles group (P < 0.05).The postoperative score of sexual functioning in ISR group was

  20. Ribbon Crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Jakob; Markvorsen, Steen

    2013-01-01

    A repetitive crystal-like pattern is spontaneously formed upon the twisting of straight ribbons. The pattern is akin to a tessellation with isosceles triangles, and it can easily be demonstrated with ribbons cut from an overhead transparency. We give a general description of developable ribbons...

  1. Therapeutic Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Charles S.

    2014-01-01

    Some readers might not fully know what the difference is between crystallography, and the "new age" practice of dangling crystals around the body to capitalise on their healing energy. The latter is often considered to be superstition, while ironically, the former has actually resulted in real rationally-based healing of human diseases…

  2. Photonic crystals principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, Qihuang

    2013-01-01

    IntroductionPrimary Properties of Photonic CrystalsFabrication of Photonic CrystalsPhotonic Crystal All-Optical SwitchingTunable Photonic Crystal FilterPhotonic Crystal LaserPhotonic Crystal Logic DevicesPhotonic Crystal Sensors

  3. THE IMPACT OF ECONOMIC POLICY UNCERTAINTY ON THE VEHICLE MILES TRAVELED (VMT IN THE U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ender Demir

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of the economic policy uncertainty (EPU on the vehicle miles traveled (VMT in the United States (U.S. over the period of January 1978 to October 2014. We estimate an empirical model based on a travel demand-analysis. It is found that an increase in economic policy uncertainty leads to a decrease in vehicle miles traveled. This negative relationship is also observed when different model types, various control variables, and the subindexes of the EPU are considered in the model.

  4. Lessons learned from the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Advisory Panel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lach, D.; Bolton, P.; Durbin, N. [Battelle Seattle Research Center, WA (United States); Harty, R. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-08-01

    In response to public concern about the cleanup of the Three Mile Island, Unit 2 (TMI-2) facility after an accident on March 28, 1979 involving a loss of reactor coolant and subsequent damage to the reactor fuel, twelve citizens were asked to serve on an independent Advisory Panel to consult with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on the decontamination and cleanup of the facility. The panel met 78 times over a period of thirteen years, holding public meetings in the vicinity of TMI-2 and meeting regularly with NRC Commissioners in Washington, DC. This report describes the results of a project designed to identify and describe the lessons learned from the Advisory Panel and place those lessons in the context of what we generally know about citizen advisory groups. A summary of the empirical literature on citizen advisory panels is followed by a brief history of the TMI-2 Advisory Panel. The body of the report contains the analysis of the lessons learned, preliminary conclusions about the effectiveness of the Panel, and implications for the NRC in the use of advisory panels. Data for the report include meeting transcripts and interviews with past and present Panel participants.

  5. Revisiting the Miles and Snow Typology: Strategic Path Mediates Business Strategy and Resource Configuration for Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmina Zubaedah

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article provides the results of an exploratory study that investigated the effect of Capabil- ity Lifecycle Path on attaining effective adaptation through innovation. Based on Miles and Snow (1978, an empirical study was conducted to explore whether performing firms are those that indi- cate consistency within the strategy, process, structure and Capability Lifecycle Path arrangement. The basic premise of this study is adaptability for sustainability, where firms go through adapta- tion cycles through Business Model Innovation would perform well when they are able to consis- tently create value and effectively manage adopted business models, or denoted as Business Mod- el Effectiveness. Using data obtained from seven Indonesian firms in various industries, PLS Analy- sis was conducted to investigate the relationships between Business Strategy, Firm Resource Con- figuration, Capability Lifecycle Path and Business Model Effectiveness. Findings indicated that Ca- pability Lifecycle Path, or decisions made on the development of capabilities at the mature stage, is an important part of the series of decisions made during adaptation to ensure performance.

  6. Identity versus determinism: Émile Meyerson's neo-Kantian interpretation of the quantum theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, M. Anthony

    2014-08-01

    Despite the praise his writing garnered during his lifetime, e.g., from readers such as Einstein and de Broglie, Émile Meyerson has been largely forgotten. The rich tradition of French épistémologie has recently been taken up in some Anglo-American scholarship, but Meyerson-who popularized the term épistémologie through his historical method of analyzing science, and criticized positivism long before Quine and Kuhn-remains overlooked. If Meyerson is remembered at all, it is as a historian of classical science. This paper attempts to rectify both states of affairs by explicating one of Meyerson's last and untranslated works, Réel et déterminisme dans la théorie quantique, an opuscule on quantum physics. I provide an overview of Meyerson's philosophy, his critique of Max Planck's interpretation of quantum physics, and then outline and evaluate Meyerson's neo-Kantian alternative. I then compare and contrast this interpretation with Cassirer's neo-Kantian program. Finally I show that, while Meyerson believes the revolutionary new physics requires "profoundly" modifying our conception of reality, ultimately, he thinks, it secures the legitimacy of his thesis: that science seeks explanations in the form of what he calls "identification." I hope my research will enable a more general and systematic engagement with Meyerson's work, especially with a view to assessing its viability as a philosophical method today.

  7. Spontaneous decline in exercise-induced proteinuria during a 100-mile triathlon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edes, T E; Shah, J H; Thornton, W H

    1990-09-01

    To study the effect of prolonged exercise on glomerular permeability and proteinuria, we collected serial urine samples from six athletes during a 100-mile triathlon. Urine collected just before, at the midpoint of, and immediately after the race was analyzed for creatinine by an automated chemistry analyzer, pack method, and for microalbumin by radioimmunoassay. By midrace, the urinary albumin-creatinine ratio increased from the prerace mean +/- SEM of 3.5 +/- 0.5 to 38.3 +/- 11.7 mg/g. The ratio then declined to 12.5 +/- 2.7 mg/g by the end of the race (P less than .04). Similarly, the urinary albumin level increased significantly from 5.9 +/- 0.7 to 80.5 +/- 26.8 micrograms/mL by midrace, followed by a decline to 39.2 +/- 12.9 micrograms/mL. The initial increase in albuminuria was expected and reflects the increase in exercise-induced cardiac output and glomerular permeability. The subsequent decline in albuminuria and albumin-creatinine ratio, despite continued exercise, was unexpected and indicates a decrease in glomerular permeability. Further study is warranted to determine the mechanism of this apparently protective renal response to prolonged exercise.

  8. Characterization of an aerosol sample from the auxiliary building of the Three Mile Island reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanapilly, G M; Stanley, J A; Newton, G J; Wong, B A; DeNee, P B

    1983-11-01

    Analyses for radioisotopic composition and dissolution characteristics were performed on an aerosol filter sample collected for a week by an air sampler located in the auxiliary building of the Three Mile Island nuclear reactor. The major radioisotopes found on the filter were 89Sr, 90Sr, 134Cs and 137Cs. Greater than 90% of both 89-90Sr and 134-137Cs dissolved within 48 hr in an in vitro test system. Scanning electron microscopic analyses showed the presence of respirable size particles as well as larger particles ranging up to 10 micron in diameter. The major matrix components were Fe, Ca, S, Mg, Al and Si. Although the radionuclides were present in a heterogeneous matrix, they were in a soluble form. This information enables a better evaluation of bioassay data and predictions of dose distribution resulting from an inhalation exposure to this aerosol. Further, the combination of techniques used in this study may be applicable to the characterization of other aerosols of unknown composition.

  9. A comparison between conventional and LANDSAT based hydrologic modeling: The Four Mile Run case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragan, R. M.; Jackson, T. J.; Fitch, W. N.; Shubinski, R. P.

    1976-01-01

    Models designed to support the hydrologic studies associated with urban water resources planning require input parameters that are defined in terms of land cover. Estimating the land cover is a difficult and expensive task when drainage areas larger than a few sq. km are involved. Conventional and LANDSAT based methods for estimating the land cover based input parameters required by hydrologic planning models were compared in a case study of the 50.5 sq. km (19.5 sq. mi) Four Mile Run Watershed in Virginia. Results of the study indicate that the LANDSAT based approach is highly cost effective for planning model studies. The conventional approach to define inputs was based on 1:3600 aerial photos, required 110 man-days and a total cost of $14,000. The LANDSAT based approach required 6.9 man-days and cost $2,350. The conventional and LANDSAT based models gave similar results relative to discharges and estimated annual damages expected from no flood control, channelization, and detention storage alternatives.

  10. PROFISSÕES, CORPORAÇÕES E MORAL NA SOCIOLOGIA DE ÉMILE DURKHEIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonis Manhães Sales Felippe

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta uma revisão das discussões elaboradas por Émile Durkheim, um dos autores mais importantes da sociologia clássica, acerca do papel desempenhado pelas profissões e suas corporações nas sociedades modernas. Assim, resgata-se a função a elas atribuída na reconstrução da moral, numa era em que a divisão do trabalho ganha uma dimensão jamais experimentada anteriormente, produzindo um novo tipo de solidariedade social entre os indivíduos. Para tanto, recorre-se às obras clássicas do autor e de alguns comentaristas sobre a temática em questão, as quais demonstram o caráter conservador das formulações de Durkheim ao apontar a reconstrução das corporações como uma saída para os conflitos e embates de sua época, negando, por conseguinte, a possibilidade de mudanças substanciais nesta ordem social. No entanto, embora seus textos tenham retratado a realidade de seu tempo, muitas de suas formulações ainda oferecem contribuições importantes para se pensar a estrutura organizativa das profissões na contemporaneidade.

  11. Understanding the Role of Built Environment in Reducing Vehicle Miles Traveled Accounting for Spatial Heterogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Ding

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, increasing concerns over climate change and transportation energy consumption have sparked research into the influences of urban form and land use patterns on motorized travel, notably vehicle miles traveled (VMT. However, empirical studies provide mixed evidence of the influence of the built environment on travel. In particular, the role of density after controlling for the confounding factors (e.g., land use mix, average block size, and distance from CBD still remains unclear. The object of this study is twofold. First, this research provides additional insights into the effects of built environment factors on the work-related VMT, considering urban form measurements at both the home location and workplace simultaneously. Second, a cross-classified multilevel model using Bayesian approach is applied to account for the spatial heterogeneity across spatial units. Using Washington DC as our study area, the home-based work tour in the AM peak hours is used as the analysis unit. Estimation results confirmed the important role that the built environment at both home and workplace plays in affecting work-related VMT. In particular, the results reveal that densities at the workplace have more important roles than that at home location. These findings confirm that urban planning and city design should be part of the solution in stabilizing global climate and energy consumption.

  12. Strategic Orientation and Organisational Culture in Polish Public Organisations: Insights from the Miles and Snow Typology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wronka-Pośpiech Martyna

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Polish public organisations are often perceived as having strong bureaucratic orientation, avoiding both change and risk. However, in the last decade a distinct change in the management model of public organisations can be noticed. Public sector becomes an open ground for mergers and partnerships, entrepreneurial leadership, diversified services and commercialization (Golensky and DeRuiter 1999; Zimmerman and Dart, 1998; Pollitt and Bouckaert, 2004; Walker, 2013]. Public organisations embrace these strategies from the for-profit sector in order to manage change and to be effective. Most importantly, public organisations are adopting these frameworks in order to survive the changing operating environment, including changes in the level of government funding. Our paper draws on the Miles and Snow (1978 typology of generic strategies - prospectors, defenders, analysers, and reactors - to identify different organisational strategies within public organisations providing social services in Poland. In order to assess organisational culture we used the most widespread and used in many empirical studies Cameron and Quinn’s model (2003, the Competing Values Framework (CVF, from which four cultures - adhocracy, clan, market and hierarchy - emerge. The choice of these two providers of social services was dictated by our conviction, that these organisations are critical both for the national economy and for mitigating, counteracting and preventing social exclusion.

  13. Mile Nedeljković as a social, cultural and ethnic issues researcher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćupurdija Branko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mile Nedeljković published about a hundred titles in ethnology, literature, folklore studies and journalism, focusing especially on Šumadija, the traditional culture of the Serbian and other South-Slavic peoples, as well as peoples and their cultures worldwide. This contribution makes an attempt to look at his major ethnological works, which address social, cultural and ethnic issues. As it turns out, they deal with some of the most intricate, most sensitive and most important issues of national history and culture, such as Kosovo and Metohija as the cradle of Serbian spirituality, Islamization in the South-Slavic areas, Šumadija as the pivot of Serbia’s restored statehood, or the gloomy destiny of the Serbs the Frontiersmen and their expulsion from Croatia in the 1990s. As it also turns out, their author has a fundamental and diverse work, the ability to make sweeping syntheses and significant scholarly discoveries, the culture of chronicle keeping, and the simplicity and beauty of narrative expression, and, as such, he belongs to the very top of contemporary Serbian ethnology.

  14. Assessing the Contribution of Urban Freight Terminals in Last Mile Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathanail Eftihia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a multi-stakeholder multi-criteria evaluation framework, which can be used for the assessment of the last mile distribution performance of urban freight terminals. To this end, a comparative analysis is conducted addressing two Greek urban intermodal freight terminals located at the port of Thessaloniki (ThPA and Kuehne+Nagel (K+N’s premises. The assessment of the terminals’ performance relies on a tailored multi-criteria Key Performance Indicator (KPI-based evaluation framework, whereas the selection and significance of the incorporated criteria and KPIs is predetermined by the relevant responsible stakeholders, who imposed their viewpoint through an analytic hierarchy process. Results showed that ThPA was ranked first according to its performance pertaining to the role of an intermodal interchange; still, K+N’s performance index was only 8.5% lower than ThPA’s, while in specific KPIs it seems that it performs in a better way.

  15. Historical summary of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 core debris transportation campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, R.C.; Tyacke, M.J. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Quinn, G.J. [Wastren, Inc., Germantown, MD (United States)

    1993-03-01

    Transport of the damaged core materials from the Unit 2 reactor of the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station (TMI-2) to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for examination and storage presented many technical and institutional challenges, including assessing the ability to transport the damaged core; removing and packaging core debris in ways suitable for transport; developing a transport package that could both meet Federal regulations and interface with the facilities at TMI-2 and the INEL; and developing a transport plan, support logistics, and public communications channels suited to the task. This report is a historical summary of how the US Department of Energy addressed those challenges and transported, received, and stored the TMI-2 core debris at the INEL. Subjects discussed include preparations for transport, loading at TMI-2, institutional issues, transport operations, receipt and storage at the INEL, governmental inquiries/investigations, and lessons learned. Because of public attention focused on the TMI-2 Core Debris Transport Program, the exchange of information between the program and public was extensive. This exchange is a focus for parts of this report to explain why various operations were conducted as they were and why certain technical approaches were employed. And, because of that exchange, the program may have contributed to a better public understanding of such actions and may contribute to planning and execution of similar future actions.

  16. Title list, publicly available documents: Three Mile Island Unit 1, Docket 50-289 - cumulated to November 16, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    This title list of publicly available documents pertaining to Three Mile Island Unit 1, Docket 50-289, includes all documents pertaining to this Docket that had been filed in the NRC Public Document Room as of November 16, 1979. The categories used for filing and searching in the NRC Public Document Room are used to catalog the entries.

  17. Incidence and risk factors of running-related injuries during preparation for a 4-mile recreational running event

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buist, I.; Bredeweg, S. W.; Bessem, B.; van Mechelen, W.; Lemmink, K. A. P. M.; Diercks, R. L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective In this study, the incidence and the sex-specific predictors of running-related injury (RRI) among a group of recreational runners training for a 4-mile running event were determined and identified, respectively. Design Prospective cohort study. Methods Several potential risk factors were

  18. 77 FR 6013 - Moving Security Zone Around Escorted Vessels On the Lower Mississippi River Between Mile Marker...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-07

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Moving Security Zone Around Escorted Vessels On the... Orleans (COTP New Orleans) has established moving security zones on the Mississippi River, from mile... identifiable by lights, vessel markings, or with agency insignia. This moving security zone regulation...

  19. Population estimates for the areas within a 50-mile radius of four reference points on the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer, D.J.; Rau, R.G.; Robinson, D.C.

    1981-11-01

    This report presents population distributions within a 50-mile radius of four locations on the Hanford Site. The results are based on the US Bureau of Census 1980 population counts for Washington and Oregon. These results are documented in Tables 2 to 13 and 15 to 18 of this report.

  20. Definitional Hegemony as a Public Relations Strategy: The Rhetoric of the Nuclear Power Industry after Three Mile Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionisopoulos, George N.; Crable, Richard E.

    1988-01-01

    Examines (1) definitional hegemony as one of several rhetorical options available to issue managers; (2) the post-accident rhetorical context of the Three Mile Island nuclear crisis; and (3) the specific strategies utilized to deal with this crisis. Assesses the nuclear industry's public relations efforts. (MS)

  1. 77 FR 26575 - Notice of the Establishment of the Ten Mile (Utah) Known Potash Leasing Area (KPLA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of the Establishment of the Ten Mile (Utah) Known Potash Leasing Area... leasing and may instead be available through a competitive leasing process. This action does not commit... permits may not be issued, and any leasing must be done on a competitive basis. In 1983, under...

  2. 77 FR 39393 - Special Local Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Mile 842.0 to 840.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ... sponsor, Optum Health Performance, on March 13, 2012 stating they will be holding a triathlon on the Upper... Performance will hold the Optum Health Performance Twin Cities Triathlon between mile 842.0 and 840.0 on the Upper Mississippi River. There are expected to be at least 700 athletes participating in the...

  3. An alternative approach to the Army Physical Fitness Test two-mile run using critical velocity and isoperformance curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, David H; Smith, Abbie E; Kendall, Kristina L; Cramer, Joel T; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of critical velocity (CV) and isoperformance curves as an alternative to the Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) two-mile running test. Seventy-eight men and women (mean +/- SE; age: 22.1 +/- 0.34 years; VO2(MAX): 46.1 +/- 0.82 mL/kg/min) volunteered to participate in this study. A VO2(MAX) test and four treadmill running bouts to exhaustion at varying intensities were completed. The relationship between total distance and time-to-exhaustion was tracked for each exhaustive run to determine CV and anaerobic running capacity. A VO2(MAX) prediction equation (Coefficient of determination: 0.805; Standard error of the estimate: 3.2377 mL/kg/min) was developed using these variables. Isoperformance curves were constructed for men and women to correspond with two-mile run times from APFT standards. Individual CV and anaerobic running capacity values were plotted and compared to isoperformance curves for APFT 2-mile run scores. Fifty-four individuals were determined to receive passing scores from this assessment. Physiological profiles identified from this procedure can be used to assess specific aerobic or anaerobic training needs. With the use of time-to-exhaustion as opposed to a time-trial format used in the two-mile run test, pacing strategies may be limited. The combination of variables from the CV test and isoperformance curves provides an alternative to standardized time-trial testing.

  4. Emulation of Equal Open Access and Competition Creation in the Wireline Telecommunications Local and Last Mile Market Segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Epps, Daniel L.

    2013-01-01

    Expanded telecommunications was deemed a serious need for end users. The "Local Market" and "Last Mile" market segments have largely consolidated into "natural utilities". Competition and access problems occur if new providers enter the local market and desire competitive access and service to end users. Local and…

  5. Advances in Large-Scale Mudflat Surveying: The Roebuck Bay and Eighty Mile Beach, Western Australia Examples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hickey, R.J.; Pearson, G.B.; Piersma, T.

    2015-01-01

    The shores of Roebuck Bay and Eighty Mile Beach in northwestern Australia are amongst the richest known intertidal mudflats worldwide. They are both listed as Wetlands of International Importance under the Ramsar Convention, primarily because of the high numbers of shorebirds that migrate to and

  6. Advances in large-scale mudflat surveying : The Roebuck Bay and Eighty Mile Beach, Western Australia examples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hickey, Robert J.; Pearson, Grant B.; Piersma, Theunis; Finkl, Charles W.; Makowski, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The shores of Roebuck Bay and Eighty Mile Beach in northwestern Australia are amongst the richest known intertidal mudflats worldwide. They are both listed as Wetlands of International Importance under the Ramsar Convention, primarily because of the high numbers of shorebirds that migrate to and

  7. Percolation cooling of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 lower head by way of thermal cracking and gap formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, K.L.

    2002-01-01

    Two partial models have been developed to elucidate the Three Mile Island Unit 2 lower head coolability by water percolation from above into the thermally cracking debris bed and into a gap between the debris and the wall The bulk permeability of the cracked top crust is estimated based on simple...

  8. Radiation hazards in children - lessons from Chernobyl, Three Mile Island and Fukushima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fushiki, Shinji

    2013-03-01

    On March 11, 2011, Japan was hit by the Great East Japan Earthquake followed by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Disaster. Firstly, this review focuses on what happened after the accidents at the Three Mile Island nuclear power station in 1979 and the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986, in terms of the effects of these incidents on health. The most critical issue when considering the effects of radiation on the health of children was the increase of thyroid cancer, as clearly demonstrated among people who were children or adolescence at the time of the Chernobyl accident. Therefore, in the early days after a nuclear accident, the primary concern should be efforts to prevent the exposure of children to radioactive iodine through inhalation and ingestion, because radioactive iodine preferentially accumulates in the thyroid. In the longer term, another concern is exposure to radionuclides with long half-lives, including cesium137 and cesium134, with physical half-lives of 30 and 2 years, respectively. Secondly, fetal radiation risks and radiobiological studies on low-level radiation are briefly reviewed, with reference to the effects upon the developing brain. A fetal dose of 100 mSv may increase the risk of an effect on brain development, especially neuronal migration, based upon the results of experiments with rodents. Finally, this review proposes that research on the health effects of low level radiation should be prioritized so that accurate information on the effects of radiation can be disseminated and prevent the prevalence of unnecessary fear lacking scientific justification. Copyright © 2012 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Peer review of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Vessel Investigation Project metallurgical examinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohl, R.W.; Gaydos, R.G.; Vander Voort, G.F.; Diercks, D.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1994-07-01

    Fifteen samples recovered from the lower head of the Three Mile Island (TMI) Unit 2 nuclear reactor pressure vessel were subjected to detailed metallurgical examinations by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), with supporting work carried out by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and several of the European participants. These examinations determined that a portion of the lower head, a so-called elliptical ``hot spot`` measuring {approx}0.8 {times} 1 m, reached temperatures as high as 1100{degrees}C during the accident and cooled from these temperatures at {approx}10--100{degrees}C/min. The remainder of the lower head was found to have remained below the ferrite-toaustenite transformation temperature of 727{degrees}C during the accident. Because of the significance of these results and their importance to the overall analysis of the TMI accident, a panel of three outside peer reviewers, Dr. Robert W. Bohl, Mr. Richard G. Gaydos, and Mr. George F. Vander Voort, was formed to conduct an independent review of the metallurgical analyses. After a thorough review of the previous analyses and examination of photo-micrographs and actual lower head specimens, the panel determined that the conclusions resulting from the INEL study were fundamentally correct. In particular, the panel reaffirmed that four lower head samples attained temperatures as high as 1100{degrees}C, and perhaps as high as 1150--1200{degrees}C in one case, during the accident. They concluded that these samples subsequently cooled at a rate of {approx}50--125{degrees}C/min in the temperature range of 600--400{degrees}C, in good agreement with the original analysis. The reviewers also agreed that the remainder of the lower head samples had not exceeded the ferrite-to-austenite transformation temperature during the accident and suggested several refinements and alternative procedures that could have been employed in the original analysis.

  10. Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 21 Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database (Web, free access)   The Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database and NASA Archive for Protein Crystal Growth Data (BMCD) contains the conditions reported for the crystallization of proteins and nucleic acids used in X-ray structure determinations and archives the results of microgravity macromolecule crystallization studies.

  11. Estudio de la intercara de uniones entre metales disímiles por medio de ultrasonido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López, G. A.

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the associated problems to evaluate bonding characteristics of interfaces between dissimilar metals, mainly those cladded, it has been propposed the use of ultrasonic methods. Acoustic impedance methods had been tested succesfully in the study of plastic-aluminium (glued and babbit-steel (bearing interfaces. Preliminary results on explosively bonded aluminium-steel and aluminium-lead interfaces are presented. A digital ultrasonic device with a 5 Mhz transducer was used in this study. So far, results have shown that "VID" signal gives an acceptance criterion based on the ratio of amplitudes coming from interface and bottom surface, meanwhile "RF" signal gives the same criterion based on wave form. It is concluded that VID and RF signals could be used to achieve characteristics of the bonded interfaces.

    Como resultado de las dificultades encontradas para determinar las características de la intercara entre uniones de materiales disímiles, sobre todo aquellas empleadas en los recubrimientos, surge la posibilidad de emplear las técnicas de ultrasonido. Las técnicas basadas en la diferencia de impedancia acústica se han usado de manera exitosa para caracterizar las intercaras plástico-aluminio (adheridas y metal babbit-acero (en cojinetes. En este estudio se analizan, de manera preliminar, las intercaras de pares aluminio-acero y aluminio-plomo obtenidos por medio de soldadura por explosivos. Se utilizó un sistema de adquisición de señales digitales ultrasónicas y un transductor de 5 MHz. Los resultados obtenidos hasta el momento indican que la representación de la señal en forma de "VID" proporciona un criterio de aceptación basado en la relación entre las amplitudes de la intercara y la superficie posterior, mientras que la señal de "RF" proporciona un criterio de aceptación basado en la forma de la onda. Se concluye que es posible emplear las señales VID y RF para establecer criterios de aceptación de la uni

  12. Sex Offender Registration: Balancing the Rights of the Individual with the Public Good--A Commentary on Comartin, Kernsmith, and Miles (2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Carol D.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the author's comments on the article "Family Experiences of Young Adult Sex Offender Registration" by E. B. Comartin, P. D. Kernsmith, & P. W. Miles (2010). In the article "Family Experiences of Young Adult Sex Offender Registration", Comartin, Kernsmith, and Miles (2010) put forth a telling argument about the impact of the…

  13. Ribbon crystals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Bohr

    Full Text Available A repetitive crystal-like pattern is spontaneously formed upon the twisting of straight ribbons. The pattern is akin to a tessellation with isosceles triangles, and it can easily be demonstrated with ribbons cut from an overhead transparency. We give a general description of developable ribbons using a ruled procedure where ribbons are uniquely described by two generating functions. This construction defines a differentiable frame, the ribbon frame, which does not have singular points, whereby we avoid the shortcomings of the Frenet-Serret frame. The observed spontaneous pattern is modeled using planar triangles and cylindrical arcs, and the ribbon structure is shown to arise from a maximization of the end-to-end length of the ribbon, i.e. from an optimal use of ribbon length. The phenomenon is discussed in the perspectives of incompatible intrinsic geometries and of the emergence of long-range order.

  14. Crystallization process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Robert J.; Brown, William R.; Auyang, Lun; Liu, Yin-Chang; Cook, W. Jeffrey

    1986-01-01

    An improved crystallization process is disclosed for separating a crystallizable material and an excluded material which is at least partially excluded from the solid phase of the crystallizable material obtained upon freezing a liquid phase of the materials. The solid phase is more dense than the liquid phase, and it is separated therefrom by relative movement with the formation of a packed bed of solid phase. The packed bed is continuously formed adjacent its lower end and passed from the liquid phase into a countercurrent flow of backwash liquid. The packed bed extends through the level of the backwash liquid to provide a drained bed of solid phase adjacent its upper end which is melted by a condensing vapor.

  15. Effects of the accident at Three Mile Island on the mental health and behavior responses of the general population and the nuclear workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1982-02-01

    A main conclusion drawn from the investigation by the President's Commission was that the most serious health effect of the Three Mile Island nuclear accident was severe mental stress, which was short-lived. The highest levels of psychological distress were found among those living within 5 miles of Three Mile Island, in families with preschool children, and among the Three Mile Island nuclear workers. This report provides some understanding of how these conclusions were drawn, the methods used to obtain information of the experiences of mental stress and the behavioral effects and responses of the general population and the nuclear workers to the accident at Three Mile Island. In order to limit the scope of the discussion, information is taken from the Behavioral Effects Task Group Report (TMI79c) to the President's Commission, and thus from the labors of the many behavioral scientists.

  16. Publicly available documents Three Mile Island Unit 2, Docket 50-320. Title list, July 1-October 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    This supplemental title list of publicly available documents pertaining to Three Mile Island Unit 2, Docket 50-320, includes those preincident and postincident documents filed in the NRC Public Document Room between July 1, 1979 and October 31, 1979. It is divided into preincident and postincident listings, with both listings sub-divided into the categories used for filing and searching in the NRC Public Document Room.

  17. NMT as Green Mobility Solution for First/Last Mile Connectivity to Mass Transit Stations for Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chidambara Chidambara

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to examine the role of non-motorized transport (NMT as green mobility solutions in improving the last mile connectivity (LMC to mass transit systems. There are evidences of its growing significance, which is established through various international experiences, and case studies. The paper discusses transport policies for Indian cities with respect to LMC, NMT and transit systems and their interface. The paper also presents the empirical findings of a study on NMT usage as first/last mile options for a few metro stations in Delhi, India. It analyses metro user characteristics and choices for the selected stations with a lens on NMT usage for covering the last mile. It is observed that NMT comes out as the most preferred option for covering the first/last mile to transit systems, despite the challenging situations under which NMTs operate. The study further points out that the type of NMT mode availed by commuters varies with varying situational context and depends on locational and user attributes. It is interesting to note that while introduction of “bicycles on hire” worked very well at a particular station, the same had no takers at another. The paper contends that resorting to standard solutions for LMC may not be the right approach; rather it must be based on user and other contextual analysis. The paper concludes with outlining a holistic policy approach that treats NMT planning as a non-negotiable component of transit planning to achieve higher ridership (for the transit operator, better journey experience (for the commuter and larger sustainability goals.

  18. Utilization of the atmospheric release advisory capability (ARAC) services during and after the Three Mile Island accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, J.B.; Dickerson, M.H.; Greenly, G.D.; Gudiksen, P.H.; Sullivan, T.J.

    1980-07-01

    At 0820 PST on 28 March 1979, the Department of Energy's Emergency Operations Center advised the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) that the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, had experienced an accident some four hours earlier, resulting in the atmospheric release of xenon-133 and krypton-88. This report describes ARAC's response to the Three Mile Island accident, including the role ARAC played throughout the 20 days that real-time assessments were made available to the Department of Energy on-scene commander. It also describes the follow-up population-dose calculations performed for the President's Commission on Three Mile Island. At the request of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, a questionnaire addressing the usefulness of ARAC products during the accident was sent to ARAC-product users. A summary of the findings from this questionnaire, along with recommendations for improving ARAC service, is also presented. The accident at Mississauga, Ontario, Canada, is discussed in the context of a well-planned emergency response by local and Federal officials.

  19. The life and legacy of William Ernest Miles (1869-1947: a tribute to an admirable surgeon William Ernest Miles (1869-1947: tributo a um cirurgião admirável

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Guilherme Campos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present article aimed to review some important aspects regarding the work and life of the legendary English surgeon William Ernest Miles. His masterwork began at the beginning of the 20th century, when he devised the first radical procedure that aimed to control rectal cancer, after analyzing the poor outcomes of perineal resections for the disease. The famous 1908 publication, focusing on the technique and early results of abdominoperineal excision influenced numerous surgeons for decades, at a time when most rectal tumors were managed through rectal amputation, regardless of their location. Miles was recognized as a brilliant, fast, and skilled surgeon, and his fame attracted many surgeons to watch him at work in London at that time. He was also recognized as a gentle and kind man who became a trusted leader in coloproctology. In this context, he also made various contributions in the field of anorectal diseases, such as hemorrhoids, anal fistula, anal fissure, and rectal procidentia. Thus, he deserves the honors as the pioneer in the elaboration and refinement of a surgical technique that allowed a significant decrease in tumor recurrence and mortality. Furthermore, the Miles operation shifted the perspectives of rectal cancer, and for that his name will always be regarded as one of the giants in the history of colorectal surgery.O presente artigo teve como objetivo rever alguns dos aspectos importantes referentes ao trabalho e à vida do legendário cirurgião inglês William Ernest Miles. Sua obra-prima teve início no começo do século XX, quando ele concebeu o primeiro procedimento radical para controlar o câncer retal, após analisar os pobres resultados das ressecções perineais para a doença. Sua famosa publicação em 1908, focalizando a técnica e os resultados preliminares da chamada excisão abdômino-perineal do reto, influenciou muitos cirurgiões durante décadas, quando a maioria dos tumores retais era tratada por

  20. Binary colloidal crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christova-Zdravkova, C.G.

    2005-01-01

    Binary crystals are crystals composed of two types of particles having different properties like size, mass density, charge etc. In this thesis several new approaches to make binary crystals of colloidal particles that differ in size, material and charge are reported We found a variety of crystal st

  1. Mixed crystal organic scintillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitseva, Natalia P; Carman, M Leslie; Glenn, Andrew M; Hamel, Sebastien; Hatarik, Robert; Payne, Stephen A; Stoeffl, Wolfgang

    2014-09-16

    A mixed organic crystal according to one embodiment includes a single mixed crystal having two compounds with different bandgap energies, the organic crystal having a physical property of exhibiting a signal response signature for neutrons from a radioactive source, wherein the signal response signature does not include a significantly-delayed luminescence characteristic of neutrons interacting with the organic crystal relative to a luminescence characteristic of gamma rays interacting with the organic crystal. According to one embodiment, an organic crystal includes bibenzyl and stilbene or a stilbene derivative, the organic crystal having a physical property of exhibiting a signal response signature for neutrons from a radioactive source.

  2. Pressure cryocooling protein crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chae Un; Gruner, Sol M.

    2011-10-04

    Preparation of cryocooled protein crystal is provided by use of helium pressurizing and cryocooling to obtain cryocooled protein crystal allowing collection of high resolution data and by heavier noble gas (krypton or xenon) binding followed by helium pressurizing and cryocooling to obtain cryocooled protein crystal for collection of high resolution data and SAD phasing simultaneously. The helium pressurizing is carried out on crystal coated to prevent dehydration or on crystal grown in aqueous solution in a capillary.

  3. Measuring Micro-Level Effects of a New Supermarket: Do Residents Within 0.5 Mile Have Improved Dietary Behaviors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogus, Stephanie; Athens, Jessica; Cantor, Jonathan; Elbel, Brian

    2017-08-08

    Local and national policies to encourage supermarket opening or expansion are popular strategies for improving access to healthy food for residents in neighborhoods lacking these types of stores, yet few evaluations of such initiatives exist. Our aim was to test whether a newly opened supermarket in the Bronx, NY, changed household availability of healthy and unhealthy food items and reported daily consumption of these items among respondents residing in close proximity (≤0.5 mile) to the new supermarket. This quasi-experimental study evaluated changes in purchasing and consumption habits of residents within 0.5 mile of the new supermarket as compared to residents living more than 0.5 mile from the supermarket. Data were collected through street intercept surveys at three different times: once before the store opened (March to August 2011) and in two follow-up periods (1 to 5 months and 13 to 17 months after the store opened). This study analyzed a subset of successfully geocoded resident intersections from the larger study. We surveyed 3,998 residents older than the age of 18 years in two Bronx neighborhoods about their food-purchasing behaviors before the store opened and in two follow-up periods. Responses from residents whose intersections were successfully geocoded (N=3,378) were analyzed to examine the consumption and purchasing behaviors of those in close proximity to the new store. A new supermarket opened in a low-access neighborhood in the Bronx with the help of financial incentives through New York City's Food Retail Expansion to Support Health (FRESH) program. The primary outcome evaluated was the change in percent of respondents reporting that the following food items were "always available" in the home: milk, fruit juice, soda, pastries, packaged snacks, fruits, and vegetables. As a secondary outcome, we explored changes in self-reported daily servings of these items. A difference-in-difference analysis was performed, controlling for age, education

  4. Photographer : JPL Range : 4.2 million km. ( 2.6 million miles ) Jupiter's moon Europa, the size of

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Photographer : JPL Range : 4.2 million km. ( 2.6 million miles ) Jupiter's moon Europa, the size of earth's moon, is apparently covered by water ice, as indicated by ground spectrometers and its brightness. In this view, global scale dark sreaks discovered by Voyager 1 that criss-cross the the satelite are becoming visible. Bright rayed impact craters, which are abundant on Ganymede and Callisto, would be easily visible at this range, suggesting that Europa's surface is young and that the streaks are reflections of currently active internal dynamic processes.

  5. Rousseau vivant: en aktualisering af Émile med fokus på det lidenskabelige fænomenfelt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla Thøgersen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on Rousseau’s understanding of passionate life and especially his interpretation of erotic desire in Émile. The main argument presented is that Rousseau by his studies of erotic desire gives us at present day the possibility of radicalizing our understanding of human being in pedagogy. Firstly, by allowing us to rethink passions as important phenomena in human life and secondly, by understanding pedagogical practice as an arena which is part of forming passions, including erotic desire.

  6. Design and Investigation of Photonic Remote Antenna Units for Bidirectional Transmission in the Last Mile Wireless over Fiber System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Łysiuk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article three different photonic Remote Antenna Units (RAU in the last mile Wireless over Fiber links are presented. For construction of RAU commercially available optoelectronic devices were used. The solutions differ from each other by the method of ensuring isolation between transmitting and receiving modes of operation. All RAUs were designed, realized and measured in various scenarios. The results prove that all propositions can be successfully applied to uplink and downlink IEEE 802.11b/g wireless LAN systems, employing Wireless over Fiber technique.

  7. Review of Destructive Assay Methods for Nuclear Materials Characterization from the Three Mile Island (TMI) Fuel Debris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carla J. Miller

    2013-09-01

    This report provides a summary of the literature review that was performed and based on previous work performed at the Idaho National Laboratory studying the Three Mile Island 2 (TMI-2) nuclear reactor accident, specifically the melted fuel debris. The purpose of the literature review was to document prior published work that supports the feasibility of the analytical techniques that were developed to provide quantitative results of the make-up of the fuel and reactor component debris located inside and outside the containment. The quantitative analysis provides a technique to perform nuclear fuel accountancy measurements

  8. Émile Zola: a formação de um militante * Emile Zola: the making of a militant

    OpenAIRE

    RILTON FERREIRA BORGES

    2014-01-01

    Resumo: Este artigo tem como objetivo traçar uma biografia de Émile Zola do ponto de vista intelectual, buscando em sua formação, trajetória pessoal e profissional, os caracteres que possam ter contribuído para que sua obra, sobretudo a partir de Germinal, passasse a ser reconhecida por seus contemporâneos, e também posteriormente, como uma espécie de “militância”, termo que será utilizado em sentido amplo, como defesa de uma ideia ou causa. A partir de documentações de diferentes ordens, ten...

  9. NTC Scorpions’: SAWE/MILES II, (Simulated Area Weapons Effects/Multiple-Integrated Laser Engagement System II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    leaf sight up. Shift gun until target man receives " Near Miss " signal (Target man has a MWLD w/o HALO and a green key in the reset position...left until there is no near miss tone. Have him mark the spot and move to the center of both marks. 8. THIS IS THE MEAN POINT OF IMPACT. Move your...m DRAGON MILES MESSAGE COMPONENTS MESSAGE H ARMOR HIT WORDS PI MICROSEC DELAY- M MAN HIT WORDS - D2 MICROSEC DELAY ■ N NEAR MISS ] . [ {LIKE

  10. Photographer : JPL Range : 1.5 million km ( 930,000 miles ) This high resolution view of Jupitor's

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Photographer : JPL Range : 1.5 million km ( 930,000 miles ) This high resolution view of Jupitor's ring, part of a set obtained by Voyager 2 (A79-7101), suggests that it may be divided into several components, as are the rings of Saturn. Seen within the inner edge of the brighter ring is a fainter ring, which may extend all the way down to Jupiter's cloud tops. The ring was unexpectedly bright, due to forward scattering of sunlight by small ring particles. The rings were discovered in March 1979 by Voyager 1.

  11. La comprensión clásica del suicidio. De Émile Durkheim a nuestros días. // The classic understanding of suicide. From Émile Durkheim to the present day.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Felipe Palacio.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This text is an approach to several ideas stated by the sociologist Émile Durkheim dealing with suicide, especially the question about how his idea of suicidogenic societies and anomic suicide has probably contributed to the psychoanalytical conception of suicide. The objective is to clarify, at the same time, the usefulness of a broad concept like discourse, from a critical point of view of contemporary cognitive sciences, as well as how they define and tackle the issue of suicide in general terms. // El siguiente texto aborda algunas de las ideas expuestas por el sociólogo Émile Durkheim con respecto al suicidio, pero sobre todo, cuál podría ser el aporte que su idea de las sociedades suicidógenas y del suicidio anómico haría a la concepción misma del suicidio para el psicoanálisis. Todo ello con el objetivo de aclarar, de paso, cuál podría ser la utilidad de un concepto amplio como el de discurso, desde una posición crítica de las ciencias cognitivas contemporáneas y su definición y abordaje del fenómeno del suicidio en general.

  12. Land Use and Land Cover, Impervious Surface Raster National Land Cover Database from USGS, Published in 2001, 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, Iredell County GIS.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Land Use and Land Cover dataset, published at 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2001. It is described...

  13. Postconstruction water velocity arrays collected at selected transects on the Missouri River downstream from Gavins Point Dam near River Mile 769.8

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set contains arrays of water velocity collected on selected transects of the Missouri River below Gavin's Point Dam near River Mile 769.8.

  14. County and Parish Boundaries, Published in 2006, 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, S-RCAA, Inc. Head Start/Early Head Start.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This County and Parish Boundaries dataset, published at 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2006. Data by...

  15. Archaeology and Anthropology Sites, community development cultural resource data; per sq. mi., Published in 2004, 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, Washoe County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Archaeology and Anthropology Sites dataset, published at 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of...

  16. Postconstruction water velocity data collected at selected points on the Missouri River downstream from Gavins Point Dam near River Mile 769.8

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set contains water velocity and flow direction data collected in shallow areas on selected transects near River Mile 769.8 of the Missouri River below...

  17. Breweries and Distilleries, Published in 2009, 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, City of Americus & Sumter County, GA GIS.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Breweries and Distilleries dataset, published at 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2009. Data by...

  18. Assisted Living Facilities, Burke County Family Care Homes, Published in 2005, 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, City of Morganton.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Assisted Living Facilities dataset, published at 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2005. It...

  19. Results of the Four Square Mile waterfowl populations survey in the Prairie Pothole Joint Venture area of North Dakota, South Dakota and northeast Montana

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Summary of the Four Square Mile Survey in the Prairie Pothole Joint Venture from 1989-2006. Information presented in this report is a summary of the survey results...

  20. Child Day Care Centers, Published in 2007, 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, S-RCAA, Inc. Head Start/Early Head Start.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Child Day Care Centers dataset, published at 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2007. Data by this...

  1. Assisted Living Facilities, Published in 2009, 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, City of Americus & Sumter County, GA GIS.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Assisted Living Facilities dataset, published at 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2009. Data by...

  2. Water Treatment Plants, Published in 2004, 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, City of Americus & Sumter County, GA GIS.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Water Treatment Plants dataset, published at 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2004. Data by this...

  3. Sewerage Treatment Plants, Published in 2004, 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, City of Americus & Sumter County, GA GIS.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Sewerage Treatment Plants dataset, published at 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2004. Data by...

  4. Sewerage Treatment Plants, City of Morganton Sewage Treatment Plants, Published in 2007, 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, City of Morganton.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Sewerage Treatment Plants dataset, published at 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. It is described as...

  5. Water Treatment Plants, City of Morganton Water Treatment Plants, Published in 2007, 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, City of Morganton.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Water Treatment Plants dataset, published at 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. It is described as 'City...

  6. Election Districts and Precincts, Published in 2002, 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, City of Americus & Sumter County, GA GIS.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Election Districts and Precincts dataset, published at 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2002. Data by...

  7. Cellular Phone Towers, Cell Tower buffer sectors divided into N, S, E and W, Published in 2008, 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, Graham County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, was produced all or in part from Not Provided information as of 2008. It is described as...

  8. Cellular Phone Towers, Published in 2007, 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, City of Americus & Sumter County, GA GIS.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2007. Data by this...

  9. Cellular Phone Towers, Wireless Towers data layer - not sure of the tower type included, Published in 2008, 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, Graham County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, was produced all or in part from Not Provided information as of 2008. It is described as...

  10. Water Pipelines, Major, Published in 2004, 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, City of Americus & Sumter County, GA GIS.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Water Pipelines, Major dataset, published at 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2004. Data by this...

  11. Broadcast Service Areas, Cable, Published in 2005, 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, City of Americus & Sumter County, GA GIS.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Broadcast Service Areas, Cable dataset, published at 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2005. Data by...

  12. Cable Provider Facilities, Published in 2005, 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, City of Americus & Sumter County, GA GIS.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cable Provider Facilities dataset, published at 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2005. Data by this...

  13. Banks and Financial Services, Published in 2009, 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, City of Americus & Sumter County, GA GIS.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Banks and Financial Services dataset, published at 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2009. Data by...

  14. Business and Commerce, Published in 2006, 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, City of Americus & Sumter County, GA GIS.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Business and Commerce dataset, published at 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2006. Data by this...

  15. Banks and Financial Services, Published in 2006, 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, S-RCAA, Inc. Head Start/Early Head Start.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Banks and Financial Services dataset, published at 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2006. Data by...

  16. Road and Street Centerlines, sr 112 mile markers, Published in 2008, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Tooele County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — , published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is described as 'sr 112 mile markers'. Data by this...

  17. Influence of Consumer Demographics on the Demand for Locally Grown Ethnic Greens and Herbs Because of Food Miles Concerns: A Logit Model Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Govindasamy, Ramu; Purduri, Venkata; Kelley, Kathleen; Simon, James E.

    2012-01-01

    This project was supported by the Specialty Crop Research Initiative of the National Institute of Food and Agriculture, USDA, Grant # 2009-51181-06035. Trade in fresh fruits and vegetables has raised concerns about the distance food travels, food cost, freshness, and climate change associated with the transport. The term food mile refers to the distance or the number of miles that food travels from producer to consumer through its supply chain. Purchasing directly from local farmers may reduc...

  18. Give me refuge : transforming the most contaminated square mile on earth into a premier urban wildlife refuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, L. [Environmental Protection Agency Region 8, Denver, CO (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) was a United States chemical weapons manufacturing center located in the Colorado, Denver area. This presentation described the transformation of this highly contaminated site into a premier urban wildlife refuge. It included background information on the RMA and described the manufacturing and disposal history, including munition storage, liquid waste disposal and an overview of groundwater contamination. Soil remedies were summarized with particular reference to the timeline of the reclamation; wildlife-remedy/refuge interaction; innovative technologies such as hex pits and a dioxin study; and nuisance odour projects. The RMA was described as a nationwide clean-up success as it was a winner of the 2007 revitalization award from the Environmental Protection Agency. The RMA was originally about 27 square miles in the greater Denver area, of which 1 square mile was transformed into the wildlife refuge. The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) process was demonstrated in chart format. The presentation concluded with a discussion of lessons learned, such as sharing a mutual goal, and assuming that a mutually acceptable solution is possible. tabs., figs.

  19. Evolutionary Stellar Population Synthesis with MILES. Part I: The Base Models and a New Line Index System

    CERN Document Server

    Vazdekis, A; Falcón-Barroso, J; Cenarro, A J; Beasley, M A; Cardiel, N; Gorgas, J; Peletier, R F; 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2010.16407.x

    2010-01-01

    [Abridged]. We present SEDs for single-age, single-metallicity stellar populations (SSPs) covering the optical range at resolution 2.3A (FWHM). These SEDs constitute our base models, as they combine scaled-solar isochrones with MILES empirical stellar library, which follows the chemical evolution pattern of the solar neighbourhood. The models rely as much as possible on empirical ingredients, not just on the stellar spectra, but also on extensive photometric libraries. The unprecedented stellar parameter coverage of MILES allowed us to safely extend our optical SSP SED predictions from intermediate- to very-old age regimes, and the metallicity coverage of the SSPs from super-solar to [M/H]=-2.3. SSPs with such low metallicities are particularly useful for globular cluster studies. Observed spectra can be studied by means of full spectrum fitting or line-strengths. For the latter we propose a new Line Index System (LIS) to avoid the intrinsic uncertainties associated with the popular Lick/IDS system and provid...

  20. Fitness Assessment Comparison Between the "Jackie Chan Action Run" Videogame, 1-Mile Run/Walk, and the PACER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddock, Bryan; Siegel, Shannon; Costa, Pablo; Jarvis, Sarah; Klug, Nicholas; Medina, Ernie; Wilkin, Linda

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether a correlation existed among the scores of the "Jackie Chan Studio Fitness(™) Action Run" active videogame (XaviX(®), SSD Company, Ltd., Kusatsu, Japan), the 1-mile run/walk, and Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) aerobic fitness tests of the FITNESSGRAM(®) (The Cooper Institute, Dallas, TX) in order to provide a potential alternative testing method for days that are not environmentally desirable for outdoor testing. Participants were a convenience sample from physical education classes of students between the ages of 10 and 15 years. Participants (n=108) were randomly assigned to one of three groups with the only difference being the order of testing. The tests included the "Jackie Chan Action Run" active videogame, the 1-mile run/walk, and the PACER. Testing occurred on three different days during the physical education class. Rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was reported. Significant correlations (r=-0.598 to 0.312) were found among the three aerobic fitness tests administered (Peducation teachers to perform aerobic fitness testing in an indoor setting that requires less space. Also, children may be more willing to participate in the "Jackie Chan Action Run" based on the lower RPE.

  1. An Econometric Analysis of the Elasticity of Vehicle Travel with Respect to Fuel Cost per Mile Using RTEC Survey Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, D.L.; Kahn, J.; Gibson, R.

    1999-03-01

    This paper presents the results of econometric estimation of the ''rebound effect'' for household vehicle travel in the United States based on a comprehensive analysis of survey data collected by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) at approximately three-year intervals over a 15-year period. The rebound effect is defined as the percent change in vehicle travel for a percent change in fuel economy. It summarizes the tendency to ''take back'' potential energy savings due to fuel economy improvements in the form of increased vehicle travel. Separate vehicles use models were estimated for one-, two-, three-, four-, and five-vehicle households. The results are consistent with the consensus of recently published estimates based on national or state-level data, which show a long-run rebound effect of about +0.2 (a ten percent increase in fuel economy, all else equal, would produce roughly a two percent increase in vehicle travel and an eight percent reduction in fuel use). The hypothesis that vehicle travel responds equally to changes in fuel cost-per-mile whether caused by changes in fuel economy or fuel price per gallon could not be rejected. Recognizing the interdependency in survey data among miles of travel, fuel economy and price paid for fuel for a particular vehicle turns out to be crucial to obtaining meaningful results.

  2. Flood-inundation maps for a 12.5-mile reach of Big Papillion Creek at Omaha, Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauch, Kellan R.; Dietsch, Benjamin J.; Anderson, Kayla J.

    2016-03-22

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 12.5-mile reach of the Big Papillion Creek from 0.6 mile upstream from the State Street Bridge to the 72nd Street Bridge in Omaha, Nebraska, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Papio-Missouri River Natural Resources District. The flood-inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage on the Big Papillion Creek at Fort Street at Omaha, Nebraska (station 06610732). Near-real-time stages at this streamgage may be obtained on the Internet from the USGS National Water Information System at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/ or the National Weather Service Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service at http:/water.weather.gov/ahps/, which also forecasts flood hydrographs at this site.

  3. Geochemistry of high-potassium rocks from the mid-Tertiary Guffey volcanic center, Thirtynine Mile volcanic field, central Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wobus, Reinhard A.; Mochel, David W.; Mertzman, Stanley A.; Eide, Elizabeth A.; Rothwarf, Miriam T.; Loeffler, Bruce M.; Johnson, David A.; Keating, Gordon N.; Sultze, Kimberly; Benjamin, Anne E.; Venzke, Edward A.; Filson, Tammy

    1990-07-01

    The Guffey volcanic center is the largest within the 2000 km2 mid-Tertiary Thirtynine Mile volcanic field of central Colorado. This study is the first to provide extensive chemical data for these alkalic volcanic and subvolcanic rocks, which represent the eroded remnants of a large stratovolcano of Oligocene age. Formation of early domes and flows of latite and trachyte within the Guffey center was followed by extrusion of a thick series of basalt, trachybasalt, and shoshonite flows and lahars. Plugs, dikes, and vents ranging from basalt to rhyolite cut the thick mafic deposits, and felsic tuffs and tuff breccias chemically identical to the small rhyolitic plutons are locally preserved. Whole-rock major and trace element analyses of 80 samples, ranging almost continuously from 47% to 78%SiO2, indicate that the rocks of the Guffey center are among the most highly enriched in K2O (up to 6%) and rare earth elements (typically 200-300 ppm) of any volcanic rocks in Colorado. These observations, along with the relatively high concentrations of Ba and Rb and the depletion of Cr and Ni, suggest an appreciable contribution of lower crustal material to the magmas that produced the Thirtynine Mile volcanic rocks.

  4. CRYSTALLIZATION IN MULTICOMPONENT GLASSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRUGER AA; HRMA PR

    2009-10-08

    In glass processing situations involving glass crystallization, various crystalline forms nucleate, grow, and dissolve, typically in a nonuniform temperature field of molten glass subjected to convection. Nuclear waste glasses are remarkable examples of multicomponent vitrified mixtures involving partial crystallization. In the glass melter, crystals form and dissolve during batch-to-glass conversion, melter processing, and product cooling. Crystals often agglomerate and sink, and they may settle at the melter bottom. Within the body of cooling glass, multiple phases crystallize in a non-uniform time-dependent temperature field. Self-organizing periodic distribution (the Liesegnang effect) is common. Various crystallization phenomena that occur in glass making are reviewed.

  5. 舒适护理在直肠癌 Miles 术患者中的应用%The effect of comfort care intervention on the rectal cancer patients with miles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙彩霞; 余丽丽; 杨金芝; 施琳

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of comfort care intervention on the rectal cancer patients with miles approach.Meth-ods A total of 46 cases rectal cancer patients with miles surgical approach in our department between April 2009 and February 2012 were selected, according to the random number table, 46 cases Patients were randomly divided into observation group (23 cases) and control group (23 cases) , the control group received routine care, the observation group were treated with comfort care model.Pain situation, psy-chological comfort and care satisfaction of two groups were compared.Results Postoperative pain of observation group was significantly light-er than that of the control group, care satisfaction and psychological comfort were significantly ligher than those of the control group.Conclu-sions Comfort care is a patient-centered, personalized care model, it has important clinical significance in reducing postoperative pain of rectal cancer patients with miles surgical approach and improving satisfaction with nursing and psychological comfort.%目的:探讨舒适护理干预对直肠癌Miles术患者的影响。方法选择2010年4月至2012年2月在本科接受治疗的直肠癌miles术患者46例,按照随机数字表法将患者随机分为观察组和对照组各23例,对照组接受常规护理,观察组采用舒适护理模式。对两组的疼痛情况、心理舒适度和护理满意度进行比较。结果观察组患者的术后疼痛程度轻于对照组( P<0.05),而对护理工作的满意度、心理舒适度高于对照组(P<0.05)。结论舒适护理是一种以患者为中心、人性化的护理模式,在减轻直肠癌miles术患者术后疼痛和提高患者对护理工作的满意度、心理舒适度方面有着重要的临床意义。

  6. Crystal structure and prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Tejender S; Dubey, Ritesh; Desiraju, Gautam R

    2015-04-01

    The notion of structure is central to the subject of chemistry. This review traces the development of the idea of crystal structure since the time when a crystal structure could be determined from a three-dimensional diffraction pattern and assesses the feasibility of computationally predicting an unknown crystal structure of a given molecule. Crystal structure prediction is of considerable fundamental and applied importance, and its successful execution is by no means a solved problem. The ease of crystal structure determination today has resulted in the availability of large numbers of crystal structures of higher-energy polymorphs and pseudopolymorphs. These structural libraries lead to the concept of a crystal structure landscape. A crystal structure of a compound may accordingly be taken as a data point in such a landscape.

  7. Growth of dopamine crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, Vidya, E-mail: vidya.patil@ruparel.edu; Patki, Mugdha, E-mail: mugdha.patki@ruparel.edu [D. G. Ruparel College, Senapati Bapat Marg, Mahim, Mumbai – 400 016 (India)

    2016-05-06

    Many nonlinear optical (NLO) crystals have been identified as potential candidates in optical and electro-optical devices. Use of NLO organic crystals is expected in photonic applications. Hence organic nonlinear optical materials have been intensely investigated due to their potentially high nonlinearities, and rapid response in electro-optic effect compared to inorganic NLO materials. There are many methods to grow organic crystals such as vapor growth method, melt growth method and solution growth method. Out of these methods, solution growth method is useful in providing constraint free crystal. Single crystals of Dopamine have been grown by evaporating the solvents from aqueous solution. Crystals obtained were of the size of orders of mm. The crystal structure of dopamine was determined using XRD technique. Images of crystals were obtained using FEG SEM Quanta Series under high vacuum and low KV.

  8. Growth of dopamine crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Vidya; Patki, Mugdha

    2016-05-01

    Many nonlinear optical (NLO) crystals have been identified as potential candidates in optical and electro-optical devices. Use of NLO organic crystals is expected in photonic applications. Hence organic nonlinear optical materials have been intensely investigated due to their potentially high nonlinearities, and rapid response in electro-optic effect compared to inorganic NLO materials. There are many methods to grow organic crystals such as vapor growth method, melt growth method and solution growth method. Out of these methods, solution growth method is useful in providing constraint free crystal. Single crystals of Dopamine have been grown by evaporating the solvents from aqueous solution. Crystals obtained were of the size of orders of mm. The crystal structure of dopamine was determined using XRD technique. Images of crystals were obtained using FEG SEM Quanta Series under high vacuum and low KV.

  9. A human reliability analysis of the Three Mile power plant accident considering the THERP and ATHEANA methodologies; Uma analise da confiabilidade humana do acidente na Usina de Three Mile Island II considerando as metodologias Therp e Atheana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Renato Alves da

    2004-03-15

    The main purpose of this work is the study of human reliability using the THERP (Technique for Human Error Prediction) and ATHEANA methods (A Technique for Human Error Analysis), and some tables and also, from case studies presented on the THERP Handbook to develop a qualitative and quantitative study of nuclear power plant accident. This accident occurred in the TMI (Three Mile Island Unit 2) power plant, PWR type plant, on March 28th, 1979. The accident analysis has revealed a series of incorrect actions, which resulted in the Unit 2 shut down and permanent loss of the reactor. This study also aims at enhancing the understanding of the THERP method and ATHEANA, and of its practical applications. In addition, it is possible to understand the influence of plant operational status on human failures and of these on equipment of a system, in this case, a nuclear power plant. (author)

  10. ALICE photon spectrometer crystals

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    Members of the mechanical assembly team insert the last few crystals into the first module of ALICE's photon spectrometer. These crystals are made from lead-tungstate, a crystal as clear as glass but with nearly four times the density. When a high-energy particle passes through one of these crystals it will scintillate, emitting a flash of light allowing the energy of photons, electrons and positrons to be measured.

  11. Crystallization from Gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayana Kalkura, S.; Natarajan, Subramanian

    Among the various crystallization techniques, crystallization in gels has found wide applications in the fields of biomineralization and macromolecular crystallization in addition to crystallizing materials having nonlinear optical, ferroelectric, ferromagnetic, and other properties. Furthermore, by using this method it is possible to grow single crystals with very high perfection that are difficult to grow by other techniques. The gel method of crystallization provides an ideal technique to study crystal deposition diseases, which could lead to better understanding of their etiology. This chapter focuses on crystallization in gels of compounds that are responsible for crystal deposition diseases. The introduction is followed by a description of the various gels used, the mechanism of gelling, and the fascinating phenomenon of Liesegang ring formation, along with various gel growth techniques. The importance and scope of study on crystal deposition diseases and the need for crystal growth experiments using gel media are stressed. The various crystal deposition diseases, viz. (1) urolithiasis, (2) gout or arthritis, (3) cholelithiasis and atherosclerosis, and (4) pancreatitis and details regarding the constituents of the crystal deposits responsible for the pathological mineralization are discussed. Brief accounts of the theories of the formation of urinary stones and gallstones and the role of trace elements in urinary stone formation are also given. The crystallization in gels of (1) the urinary stone constituents, viz. calcium oxalate, calcium phosphates, uric acid, cystine, etc., (2) the constituents of the gallstones, viz. cholesterol, calcium carbonate, etc., (3) the major constituent of the pancreatic calculi, viz., calcium carbonate, and (4) cholic acid, a steroidal hormone are presented. The effect of various organic and inorganic ions, trace elements, and extracts from cereals, herbs, and fruits on the crystallization of major urinary stone and gallstone

  12. CRYSTAL FILTER TEST SET

    Science.gov (United States)

    CRYSTAL FILTERS, *HIGH FREQUENCY, *RADIOFREQUENCY FILTERS, AMPLIFIERS, ELECTRIC POTENTIAL, FREQUENCY, IMPEDANCE MATCHING , INSTRUMENTATION, RADIOFREQUENCY, RADIOFREQUENCY AMPLIFIERS, TEST EQUIPMENT, TEST METHODS

  13. Artistic Crystal Creations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    In this inquiry-based, integrative art and science activity, Grade 5-8 students use multicolored Epsom salt (magnesium sulfate) crystallizing solutions to reveal beautiful, cylindrical, 3-dimensional, needle-shaped structures. Through observations of the crystal art, students analyze factors that contribute to crystal size and formation, compare…

  14. Protein Crystal Based Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Jeffrey A.; VanRoey, Patrick

    2001-01-01

    This is the final report on a NASA Grant. It concerns a description of work done, which includes: (1) Protein crystals cross-linked to form fibers; (2) Engineering of protein to favor crystallization; (3) Better knowledge-based potentials for protein-protein contacts; (4) Simulation of protein crystallization.

  15. Analysis of liquid crystal properties for photonic crystal fiber devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weirich, Johannes; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Wei, Lei

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the bandgap structure of Liquid Crystal infiltrated Photonic Crystal Fibers depending on the parameters of the Liquid Crystals by means of finite element simulations. For a biased Liquid Crystal Photonic Crystal Fiber, we show how the tunability of the bandgap position depends...... on the Liquid Crystal parameters....

  16. Evaluation of nuclear facility decommissioning projects: Summary status report: Three Mile Island Unit 2. Radioactive waste and laundry shipments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerge, D. H.; Haffner, D. R.

    1988-06-01

    This document summarizes information concerning radioactive waste and laundry shipments from the Three Mile Island Nuclear Station Unit 2 to radioactive waste disposal sites and to protective clothing decontamination facilities (laundries) since the loss of coolant accident experienced on March 28, 1979. Data were collected from radioactive shipment records, summarized, and placed in a computerized data information retrieval/manipulation system which permits extraction of specific information. This report covers the period of April 9, 1979 through April 19, 1987. Included in this report are: waste disposal site locations, dose rates, curie content, waste description, container type and number, volumes and weights. This information is presented in two major categories: protective clothing (laundry) and radioactive waste. Each of the waste shipment reports is in chronological order.

  17. Convergent Validity of the One-Mile Run and PACER VO2MAX Prediction Models in Middle School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan D. Burns

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available FITNESSGRAM uses an equating method to convert Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER laps to One-mile run/walk (1MRW times to estimate aerobic fitness (VO2MAX in children. However, other prediction models can more directly estimate VO2MAX from PACER performance. The purpose of this study was to examine the convergent validity and relative accuracy between 1MRW and various PACER models for predicting VO2MAX in middle school students. Aerobic fitness was assessed on 134 students utilizing the 1MRW and PACER on separate testing days. Pearson correlations, Bland–Altman plots, kappa statistics, proportion of agreement, and prediction error were used to assess associations and agreement among models. Correlation coefficients were strong (r ≥ .80, p .40 and agreement > .90. The results support that PACER models contain convergent validity and strong relative accuracy with the 1MRW model.

  18. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 34 (CONCTH00110034) on Town Highway 11, crossing Miles Stream, Concord, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Ronda L.; Hammond, Robert E.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure CONCTH00110034 on Town Highway 11 crossing Miles Stream, Concord, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.

  19. Transformer failure and common-mode loss of instrument power at Nine Mile Point Unit 2 on August 13, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    On August 13, 1991, at Nine Mile Point Unit 2 nuclear power plant, located near Scriba, New York, on Lake Ontario, the main transformer experienced an internal failure that resulted in degraded voltage which caused the simultaneous loss of five uninterruptible power supplies, which in turn caused the loss of several nonsafety systems, including reactor control rod position indication, some reactor power and water indication, control room annunciators, the plant communications system, the plant process computer, and lighting at some locations. The reactor was subsequently brought to a safe shutdown. Following this event, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission dispatched an Incident Investigation Team to the site to determine what happened, to identify the probable causes, and to make appropriate findings and conclusions. This report describes the incident, the methodology used by the team in its investigation, and presents and the team's findings and conclusions. 59 figs., 14 tabs.

  20. Combined effects of compact cevelopment, transportation investments, and road user pricing on vehicle miles traveled in urbanized areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Reid; Hamidi, Shima; Gallivan, Frank; Nelson, Arthur C.; Grace, James B.

    2014-01-01

    Vehicle miles traveled (VMT) is the primary determinant of traffic congestion, vehicle crashes, greenhouse gas emissions, and other effects of transportation. Two previous studies have sought to explain VMT levels in urbanized areas. This study updates and expands on previous work with more recent data, additional metrics, and structural equation modeling (SEM) to explain VMT levels in 315 urbanized areas. According to SEM, population, income, and gasoline prices are primary exogenous drivers of VMT. Development density is a primary endogenous driver. Urbanized areas with more freeway capacity are significantly less dense and have significantly higher VMT per capita. Areas with more transit service coverage and service frequency have higher development densities and per capita transit use, which leads to lower VMT per capita. The indirect effect of transit on VMT through land use, the so-called land use multiplier, is more than three times greater than the direct effect through transit ridership.

  1. Lectures from a Special Semester at the Centre Émile Borel, Institut H. Poincaré

    CERN Document Server

    Olla, Stefano

    2008-01-01

    Entropy and entropy production have recently become mathematical tools for kinetic and hydrodynamic limits, when deriving the macroscopic behaviour of systems from the interaction dynamics of their many microscopic elementary constituents at the atomic or molecular level. During a special semester on Hydrodynamic Limits at the Centre Émile Borel in Paris, 2001 two of the research courses were held by C. Villani and F. Rezakhanlou. Both illustrate the major role of entropy and entropy production in a mutual and complementary manner and have been written up and updated for joint publication. Villani describes the mathematical theory of convergence to equilibrium for the Boltzmann equation and its relation to various problems and fields, including information theory, logarithmic Sobolev inequalities and fluid mechanics. Rezakhanlou discusses four conjectures for the kinetic behaviour of the hard sphere models and formulates four stochastic variations of this model, also reviewing known results for these.

  2. Observations of HDL components in female probands following an ultra-long distance run of 100 miles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schriewer, H; Jung, K; Emke, F; Assmann, G

    1985-01-01

    The serum concentrations of total cholesterol and triglycerides as well as the cholesterol, phosphatidyl choline, and apolipoprotein components of HDL were tested in 19 participants immediately before and immediately after a 100-mile run. After the run, taking into account any alterations in total protein, the following changes were observed: a decrease in total cholesterol (p less than 0.001), as well as in triglycerides (p less than 0.05), and an increase in HDL cholesterol (p less than 0.05), and HDL phosphatidyl choline (p less than 0.01). The concentrations of HDL apolipoprotein A-I and HDL apolipoprotein A-II were not affected. The results indicate a change in composition of HDL following extreme prolonged physical exercise in women.

  3. Anisotropic seismic-waveform inversion: Application to a seismic velocity model from Eleven-Mile Canyon in Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yu [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gao, Kai [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Huang, Lianjie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sabin, Andrew [Geothermal Program Office, China Lake, CA (United States)

    2016-03-31

    Accurate imaging and characterization of fracture zones is crucial for geothermal energy exploration. Aligned fractures within fracture zones behave as anisotropic media for seismic-wave propagation. The anisotropic properties in fracture zones introduce extra difficulties for seismic imaging and waveform inversion. We have recently developed a new anisotropic elastic-waveform inversion method using a modified total-variation regularization scheme and a wave-energy-base preconditioning technique. Our new inversion method uses the parameterization of elasticity constants to describe anisotropic media, and hence it can properly handle arbitrary anisotropy. We apply our new inversion method to a seismic velocity model along a 2D-line seismic data acquired at Eleven-Mile Canyon located at the Southern Dixie Valley in Nevada for geothermal energy exploration. Our inversion results show that anisotropic elastic-waveform inversion has potential to reconstruct subsurface anisotropic elastic parameters for imaging and characterization of fracture zones.

  4. The association between types of eating behaviour and dispositional mindfulness in adults with diabetes. Results from Diabetes MILES. The Netherlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tak, Sanne R; Hendrieckx, Christel; Nefs, Giesje

    2015-01-01

    high levels of dispositional mindfulness have been associated with greater awareness of healthy dietary practices in students and in the general population, it is relevant to study the association between dispositional mindfulness and eating behaviour in people with type 1 or 2 diabetes. We analysed...... data from Diabetes MILES - The Netherlands, a national observational survey in which 634 adults with type 1 or 2 diabetes completed the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (to assess restrained, external and emotional eating behaviour) and the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire-Short Form (to assess...... dispositional mindfulness), in addition to other psychosocial measures. After controlling for potential confounders, including demographics, clinical variables and emotional distress, hierarchical linear regression analyses showed that higher levels of dispositional mindfulness were associated with eating...

  5. Protein crystallization with paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Miki; Kakinouchi, Keisuke; Adachi, Hiroaki; Maruyama, Mihoko; Sugiyama, Shigeru; Sano, Satoshi; Yoshikawa, Hiroshi Y.; Takahashi, Yoshinori; Yoshimura, Masashi; Matsumura, Hiroyoshi; Murakami, Satoshi; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Mori, Yusuke; Takano, Kazufumi

    2016-05-01

    We developed a new protein crystallization method that incorporates paper. A small piece of paper, such as facial tissue or KimWipes, was added to a drop of protein solution in the traditional sitting drop vapor diffusion technique, and protein crystals grew by incorporating paper. By this method, we achieved the growth of protein crystals with reducing osmotic shock. Because the technique is very simple and the materials are easy to obtain, this method will come into wide use for protein crystallization. In the future, it could be applied to nanoliter-scale crystallization screening on a paper sheet such as in inkjet printing.

  6. UV-extended E-MILES stellar population models: young components in massive early-type galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazdekis, A.; Koleva, M.; Ricciardelli, E.; Röck, B.; Falcón-Barroso, J.

    2016-12-01

    We present UV-extended E-MILES stellar population synthesis models covering the spectral range λλ 1680-50 000 Å at moderately high resolution. We employ the NGSL space-based stellar library to compute spectra of single-age, single-metallicity stellar populations in the wavelength range from 1680 to 3540 Å. These models represent a significant improvement in resolution and age/metallicity coverage over previous studies based on earlier space-based libraries. These model spectra were joined with those we computed in the visible using MILES, and other empirical libraries for redder wavelengths. The models span the metallicity range -1.79≤ [M/H]≤ +0.26 and ages above 30 Myr, for a suite of initial mass function types with varying slopes. We focus on the behaviour of colours, spectra and line-strength indices in the UV range as a function of relevant stellar population parameters. Whereas some indices strengthen with increasing age and metallicity, as most metallicity indicators in the visible, other indices peak around 3 Gyr for metal-rich stellar populations, such as Mg at 2800 Å. Our models provide reasonably good fits to the integrated colours and most line strengths of the stellar clusters of the Milky Way and Large Magellanic Cloud. Our full spectrum fits in the UV range for a representative set of early-type galaxies (ETGs) of varying mass yield age and metallicity estimates in very good agreement with those obtained in the optical range. The comparison of UV colours and line strengths of massive ETGs with our models reveals the presence of young stellar components, with ages in the range 0.1-0.5 Gyr and mass fractions 0.1-0.5 per cent, on the top of an old stellar population.

  7. The Social And Economic Impacts Of The Mile 1 Rumuwoji Market In Port Harcourt On Its Immediate Environs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibama Brown

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In recent years the development of standard markets and its impact on the environs has become a burning issue in the minds of many governments and people alike. Consequently this paper is poised to take a comprehensive look at the location of the Rumuwoji Mile 1 Market in Port Harcourt with respect to the social and economic impacts on the environs. The State Government has shown considerable interest in the location of the market and other ancillary activities and facilities around it. This led to considerable emphasis being placed on the relationship between the various land-uses viz residential commercial recreational transportation etc in most urban centers in like Port Harcourt. This has become imperative as there seem to be palpable hazards and effects being exacted on the environs daily by different socio-economic activities within and around the market. In the same vein this paper has taken special interest in identifying different hazards and the real and potential effects the Mile 1 Rumuwoji market has on its immediate environs as a segment of an urban city of Port Harcourt. The methodology employed in conducting the research was the Hazard and Effect Management Process HEMP to ascertain the hazards and effects posed by the market. From the research it was discovered that the market serves as a central place because it attracts people from different origin to the area and that properties in the area are of mixed uses. The market provides employment in the area. Noise and unhealthy sanitary practices are allowed to thrive there and inadequate parking spaces. To mitigate these challenges some of the recommendations includes the adoption of the social impact mitigation and enhancement framework provision of basic facilities and services the creation of more parking spaces. Sanitary laws and effective refuse collection and disposal should be put in place. If these are done the living conditions of the people living in the area

  8. Macromolecular Crystallization in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Edward H.; Helliwell, John R.

    2004-01-01

    The key concepts that attracted crystal growers, macromolecular or solid state, to microgravity research is that density difference fluid flows and sedimentation of the growing crystals are greatly reduced. Thus, defects and flaws in the crystals can be reduced, even eliminated, and crystal volume can be increased. Macromolecular crystallography differs from the field of crystalline semiconductors. For the latter, crystals are harnessed for their electrical behaviors. A crystal of a biological macromolecule is used instead for diffraction experiments (X-ray or neutron) to determine the three-dimensional structure of the macromolecule. The better the internal order of the crystal of a biological macromolecule then the more molecular structure detail that can be extracted. This structural information that enables an understanding of how the molecule functions. This knowledge is changing the biological and chemical sciences with major potential in understanding disease pathologies. Macromolecular structural crystallography in general is a remarkable field where physics, biology, chemistry, and mathematics meet to enable insight to the basic fundamentals of life. In this review, we examine the use of microgravity as an environment to grow macromolecular crystals. We describe the crystallization procedures used on the ground, how the resulting crystals are studied and the knowledge obtained from those crystals. We address the features desired in an ordered crystal and the techniques used to evaluate those features in detail. We then introduce the microgravity environment, the techniques to access that environment, and the theory and evidence behind the use of microgravity for crystallization experiments. We describe how ground-based laboratory techniques have been adapted to microgravity flights and look at some of the methods used to analyze the resulting data. Several case studies illustrate the physical crystal quality improvements and the macromolecular structural

  9. A study of post-thermal recovery of the macroinvertebrate community of Four Mile Creek, June 1985--September 1987. [Savannah River Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritsen, D.; Starkel, W.; Specht, W.

    1989-11-01

    Four Mile Creek is one of several streams at the Savannah River Site which has received thermal effluents ({le}70{degrees}C water) from nuclear production operations. From 1955--mid-1985, Four Mile Creek received thermal effluent from C-Reactor as well as non-thermal discharges from F and H Separation Areas. Total discharges from all of these facilities was about ten times higher than the natural flow of the creek (Firth et al. 1986). All water being discharged into Four Mile Creek was originally pumped from the Savannah River. This study reports the results of the artificial substrate sampling of macroinvertebrate communities of Four Mile Creek from June 1985 through September 1987, when sampling was terminated. Macroinvertebrate taxa richness, densities, and biomass data from this study are compared to Four Mile data collected prior to the shutdown of C-Reactor (Kondratieff and Kondratieff 1985 and Firth et al. 1986), and to comparable macroinvertebrate data from other Savannah River Site streams. 29 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Evaluation of Juvenile Fish Bypass and Adult Fish Passage Facilities at Three-Mile Falls Dam; Umatilla River, Oregon, 1989 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigro, Anthony A.

    1990-09-01

    We report on our progress from October 1989 through September 1990 on evaluating juvenile fish bypass and adult fish passage facilities at Three Mile Falls Dam on the Umatilla River. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) and the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR). Study objectives addressed by ODFW and CTUIR are: (1) ODFW (Report A): Operate and evaluate the juvenile fish bypass system in the West Extension Irrigation District canal at Three Mile Falls Dam; and (2) CTUIR (Report 8): Examine the passage of adult salmonids at Three Mile Falls Dam. The study is part of a program to rehabilitate anadromous fish stocks in the Umatilla River Basin that includes restorations of coho salmon Oncorhynchus Wsutch and chinook salmon 0. tshawytscha and enhancement of summer steelhead 0. mytiss.

  11. Effects of the accident at Three Mile Island on the mental health and behavioral responses of the general population and nuclear workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1983-02-01

    On March 28, 1979, an accident occurred at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant Unit No. 2 near Middletown, PA. A Presidential Commission was established to investigate the incident and was given the responsibility to evaluate the actual and potential impact of the events on the health and safety of the workers and the public. A main conclusion of the investigation was that the most serious health effect was severe, short-lived mental stress. This paper describes the study and the findings for four different study groups: (1) the general population of heads of households located within 20 miles of the plant; (2) mothers of preschool children from the same area; (3) teenagers in the 7th, 9th, and 11th grades from the area; and (4) nuclear workers employed at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant. (ACR)

  12. Polymer semiconductor crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Ah Lim

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the long-standing challenges in the field of polymer semiconductors is to figure out how long interpenetrating and entangled polymer chains self-assemble into single crystals from the solution phase or melt. The ability to produce these crystalline solids has fascinated scientists from a broad range of backgrounds including physicists, chemists, and engineers. Scientists are still on the hunt for determining the mechanism of crystallization in these information-rich materials. Understanding the theory and concept of crystallization of polymer semiconductors will undoubtedly transform this area from an art to an area that will host a bandwagon of scientists and engineers. In this article we describe the basic concept of crystallization and highlight some of the advances in polymer crystallization from crystals to nanocrystalline fibers.

  13. Supplement Analysis for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program FEIS (DOE/EIS-0285/SA-128 - Olympia-Satsop #3 [Mile 1-6])

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahn, Oden W. [Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR (United States)

    2003-03-06

    BPA proposes to remove unwanted vegetation along the right-of-way, access roads and around tower structures along the subject transmission line corridors. Approximately 5 miles of right-of-way will be treated using selective and non-selective methods that include hand cutting, mowing and herbicide treatments. Approximately 0.5 mile of access road will be cleared using selective and non-selective methods that include hand cutting, mowing and herbicide treatments. Tower sites will be treated using selective and non-selective methods that include hand cutting, mowing and herbicide treatments. Vegetation management is required for unimpeded operation and maintenance of the subject transmission line.

  14. CMS lead tungstate crystals

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2000-01-01

    These crystals are made from lead tungstate, a crystal that is as clear as glass yet with nearly four times the density. They have been produced in Russia to be used as scintillators in the electromagnetic calorimeter on the CMS experiment, part of the LHC project at CERN. When an electron, positron or photon passes through the calorimeter it will cause a cascade of particles that will then be absorbed by these scintillating crystals, allowing the particle's energy to be measured.

  15. Macromolecular crystallization in microgravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snell, Edward H [Biophysics Group, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Code XD42, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Helliwell, John R [Department of Chemistry, The University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2005-04-01

    Density difference fluid flows and sedimentation of growing crystals are greatly reduced when crystallization takes place in a reduced gravity environment. In the case of macromolecular crystallography a crystal of a biological macromolecule is used for diffraction experiments (x-ray or neutron) so as to determine the three-dimensional structure of the macromolecule. The better the internal order of the crystal then the greater the molecular structure detail that can be extracted. It is this structural information that enables an understanding of how the molecule functions. This knowledge is changing the biological and chemical sciences, with major potential in understanding disease pathologies. In this review, we examine the use of microgravity as an environment to grow macromolecular crystals. We describe the crystallization procedures used on the ground, how the resulting crystals are studied and the knowledge obtained from those crystals. We address the features desired in an ordered crystal and the techniques used to evaluate those features in detail. We then introduce the microgravity environment, the techniques to access that environment and the theory and evidence behind the use of microgravity for crystallization experiments. We describe how ground-based laboratory techniques have been adapted to microgravity flights and look at some of the methods used to analyse the resulting data. Several case studies illustrate the physical crystal quality improvements and the macromolecular structural advances. Finally, limitations and alternatives to microgravity and future directions for this research are covered. Macromolecular structural crystallography in general is a remarkable field where physics, biology, chemistry and mathematics meet to enable insight to the fundamentals of life. As the reader will see, there is a great deal of physics involved when the microgravity environment is applied to crystallization, some of it known, and undoubtedly much yet to

  16. Analysis of liquid crystal properties for photonic crystal fiber devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weirich, Johannes; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Wei, Lei;

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the bandgap structure of Liquid Crystal infiltrated Photonic Crystal Fibers depending on the parameters of the Liquid Crystals by means of finite element simulations. For a biased Liquid Crystal Photonic Crystal Fiber, we show how the tunability of the bandgap position depends on the L...

  17. Multi-level examination of correlates of active transportation to school among youth living within 1 mile of their school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gropp Kathleen M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Active transportation to school is a method by which youth can build physical activity into their daily routines. We examined correlates of active transportation to school at both individual- (characteristics of the individual and family and area- (school and neighborhood levels amongst youth living within 1 mile (1.6 km of their school. Methods Using the 2009/10 Canadian Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC survey, we selected records of students (n = 3 997 from 161 schools that resided in an urban setting and lived within 1 mile from their school. Student records were compiled from: (1 individual-level HBSC student questionnaires; (2 area-level administrator (school questionnaires; and (3 area-level geographic information system data sources. The outcome, active transportation to school, was determined via a questionnaire item describing the method of transportation that individual students normally use to get to school. Analyses focused on factors at multiple levels that potentially contribute to student decisions to engage in active transportation. Multi-level logistic regression analyses were employed. Results Approximately 18% of the variance in active transportation was accounted for at the area-level. Several individual and family characteristics were associated with engagement in active transportation to school including female gender (RR vs. males = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.80-0.91, having ≥2 cars in the household (RR vs. no cars = 0.87, 0.74-0.97, and family socioeconomic status (RR for ‘not well off’ vs. ‘very well off’ = 1.14, 1.01-1.26. Neighborhood characteristics most strongly related to active transportation were: the length of roads in the 1 km buffer (RR in quartile 4 vs. quartile 1 = 1.23, 1.00-1.42, the amount of litter in the neighborhood (RR for ‘major problem’ vs. ‘no problem’ = 1.47, 1.16-1.57, and relatively hot climates (RR in quartile 4 vs. quartile 1

  18. Émile Zola: a formação de um militante * Emile Zola: the making of a militant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RILTON FERREIRA BORGES

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Este artigo tem como objetivo traçar uma biografia de Émile Zola do ponto de vista intelectual, buscando em sua formação, trajetória pessoal e profissional, os caracteres que possam ter contribuído para que sua obra, sobretudo a partir de Germinal, passasse a ser reconhecida por seus contemporâneos, e também posteriormente, como uma espécie de “militância”, termo que será utilizado em sentido amplo, como defesa de uma ideia ou causa. A partir de documentações de diferentes ordens, tentaremos demonstrar alguns itinerários possíveis para compreender esta questão, relacionando Émile Zola, o contexto histórico, social e intelectual em que viveu, e alguns traços de sua obra, sobretudo a série Os Rougon-Macquart. Para tanto, a trajetória de Zola será dividida em três momentos: a militância na arte, a militância pelo Naturalismo e a militância política.Palavras-chave: Zola – Militante – Intelectual. Abstract: This article aims to draw a biography of Emile Zola by an intellectual point of view, investigating his formation, personal and professional trajectory, the features that may contributed to his work, mainly from Germinal, started to be known by his contemporaries, and lately, as a kind of “militance”, term used meaning “the defense of an idea or a cause”. From distinct kinds of documents, we will try to demonstrate some possible ways to understand this point, relating Emile Zola's historical, social and intellectual context with some marks of his books, especially The Rougon-Macquart series. Therefore, the trajectory of Zola will be divided in three stages: militancy in art, militancy in the Naturalism and political militancy.Keywords: Zola – Militant – Intellectual.

  19. Phononic crystal devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kady, Ihab F.; Olsson, Roy H.

    2012-01-10

    Phononic crystals that have the ability to modify and control the thermal black body phonon distribution and the phonon component of heat transport in a solid. In particular, the thermal conductivity and heat capacity can be modified by altering the phonon density of states in a phononic crystal. The present invention is directed to phononic crystal devices and materials such as radio frequency (RF) tags powered from ambient heat, dielectrics with extremely low thermal conductivity, thermoelectric materials with a higher ratio of electrical-to-thermal conductivity, materials with phononically engineered heat capacity, phononic crystal waveguides that enable accelerated cooling, and a variety of low temperature application devices.

  20. Heroin crystal nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Josef Edrik Keith; Merhi, Basma; Gregory, Oliver; Hu, Susie; Henriksen, Kammi; Gohh, Reginald

    2015-06-01

    In this paper we present an interesting case of acute kidney injury and severe metabolic alkalosis in a patient with a history of heavy heroin abuse. Urine microscopy showed numerous broomstick-like crystals. These crystals are also identified in light and electron microscopy. We hypothesize that heroin crystalizes in an alkaline pH, resulting in tubular obstruction and acute kidney injury. Management is mainly supportive as there is no known specific therapy for this condition. This paper highlights the utility of urine microscopy in diagnosing the etiology of acute kidney injury and proposes a novel disease called heroin crystal nephropathy.

  1. Geometric and unipotent crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Berenstein, Arkady; Kazhdan, David

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we introduce geometric crystals and unipotent crystals which are algebro-geometric analogues of Kashiwara's crystal bases. Given a reductive group G, let I be the set of vertices of the Dynkin diagram of G and T be the maximal torus of G. The structure of a geometric G-crystal on an algebraic variety X consists of a rational morphism \\gamma:X-->T and a compatible family e_i:G_m\\times X-->X, i\\in I of rational actions of the multiplicative group G_m satisfying certain braid-like ...

  2. Automation in biological crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw Stewart, Patrick; Mueller-Dieckmann, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    Crystallization remains the bottleneck in the crystallographic process leading from a gene to a three-dimensional model of the encoded protein or RNA. Automation of the individual steps of a crystallization experiment, from the preparation of crystallization cocktails for initial or optimization screens to the imaging of the experiments, has been the response to address this issue. Today, large high-throughput crystallization facilities, many of them open to the general user community, are capable of setting up thousands of crystallization trials per day. It is thus possible to test multiple constructs of each target for their ability to form crystals on a production-line basis. This has improved success rates and made crystallization much more convenient. High-throughput crystallization, however, cannot relieve users of the task of producing samples of high quality. Moreover, the time gained from eliminating manual preparations must now be invested in the careful evaluation of the increased number of experiments. The latter requires a sophisticated data and laboratory information-management system. A review of the current state of automation at the individual steps of crystallization with specific attention to the automation of optimization is given. PMID:24915074

  3. Tunable plasmonic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Gregory Conrad; Shaner, Eric A.; Reno, John L.; Aizin, Gregory

    2015-08-11

    A tunable plasmonic crystal comprises several periods in a two-dimensional electron or hole gas plasmonic medium that is both extremely subwavelength (.about..lamda./100) and tunable through the application of voltages to metal electrodes. Tuning of the plasmonic crystal band edges can be realized in materials such as semiconductors and graphene to actively control the plasmonic crystal dispersion in the terahertz and infrared spectral regions. The tunable plasmonic crystal provides a useful degree of freedom for applications in slow light devices, voltage-tunable waveguides, filters, ultra-sensitive direct and heterodyne THz detectors, and THz oscillators.

  4. Automation in biological crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Patrick Shaw; Mueller-Dieckmann, Jochen

    2014-06-01

    Crystallization remains the bottleneck in the crystallographic process leading from a gene to a three-dimensional model of the encoded protein or RNA. Automation of the individual steps of a crystallization experiment, from the preparation of crystallization cocktails for initial or optimization screens to the imaging of the experiments, has been the response to address this issue. Today, large high-throughput crystallization facilities, many of them open to the general user community, are capable of setting up thousands of crystallization trials per day. It is thus possible to test multiple constructs of each target for their ability to form crystals on a production-line basis. This has improved success rates and made crystallization much more convenient. High-throughput crystallization, however, cannot relieve users of the task of producing samples of high quality. Moreover, the time gained from eliminating manual preparations must now be invested in the careful evaluation of the increased number of experiments. The latter requires a sophisticated data and laboratory information-management system. A review of the current state of automation at the individual steps of crystallization with specific attention to the automation of optimization is given.

  5. Crystallization Formulation Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Crystallization Formulation Lab fills a critical need in the process development and optimization of current and new explosives and energetic formulations. The...

  6. Tunable plasmonic crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyer, Gregory Conrad; Shaner, Eric A.; Reno, John L.; Aizin, Gregory

    2015-08-11

    A tunable plasmonic crystal comprises several periods in a two-dimensional electron or hole gas plasmonic medium that is both extremely subwavelength (.about..lamda./100) and tunable through the application of voltages to metal electrodes. Tuning of the plasmonic crystal band edges can be realized in materials such as semiconductors and graphene to actively control the plasmonic crystal dispersion in the terahertz and infrared spectral regions. The tunable plasmonic crystal provides a useful degree of freedom for applications in slow light devices, voltage-tunable waveguides, filters, ultra-sensitive direct and heterodyne THz detectors, and THz oscillators.

  7. A crystal barrel

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The production of crystals for the barrel of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter has been completed. This is an important milestone for the experiment, which received the last of its 62,960 crystals on 9 March. The members of the team responsible for the crystal acceptance testing at CERN display the last crystal for the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter barrel. From left to right: Igor Tarasov, Etiennette Auffray and Hervé Cornet.One of the six machines specially developed to measure 67 different parameters on each crystal. Igor Tarasov is seen inserting the last batch of crystals into the machine. The last of the 62,960 CMS barrel crystals arrived at CERN on 9 March. Once removed from its polystyrene protection, this delicate crystal, like thousands of its predecessors, will be inserted into the last of the 36 supermodules of the barrel electromagnetic calorimeter in a few days' time. This marks the end of an important chapter in an almost 15-year-long journey by the CMS crystals team, some of whose member...

  8. Going the Extra Mile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    CPC members in foreign companies bring a‘can do’ attitude to the work place CONFINED to the special circumstances in foreign companies, the Communist Party of China(CPC) members are regarded to be isolated from the organization even if they don’t want so.However,Li Muzi,a CPC member working in KPMG,a Chinese member firm of a Swiss entity providing audit,tax and advisory services,tells people it is

  9. Advanced Protein Crystallization Facility (APCF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This section of the Life and Microgravity Spacelab (LMS) publication contains articles entitled: (1) Crystallization of EGFR-EGF; (2) Crystallization of Apocrustacyanin C1; (3) Crystallization and X-ray Analysis of 5S rRNA and the 5S rRNA Domain A; (4) Growth of Lysozyme Crystals at Low Nucleation Density; (5) Comparative Analysis of Aspartyl tRNA-synthetase and Thaumatin Crystals Grown on Earth and In Microgravity; (6) Lysosome Crystal Growth in the Advanced Protein Crystallization Facility Monitored via Mach-Zehnder Interferometry and CCD Video; (7) Analysis of Thaumatin Crystals Grown on Earth and in Microgravity; (8) Crystallization of the Nucleosome Core Particle; (9) Crystallization of Photosystem I; (10) Mechanism of Membrane Protein Crystal Growth: Bacteriorhodopsin-mixed Micelle Packing at the Consolution Boundary, Stabilized in Microgravity; (11) Crystallization in a Microgravity Environment of CcdB, a Protein Involved in the Control of Cell Death; and (12) Crystallization of Sulfolobus Solfataricus

  10. LA METÁFORA DEL LAZO SOCIAL EN JEAN-JACQUES ROUSSEAU Y ÉMILE DURKHEIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Alvaro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo es un aporte teórico para la comprensión de la metáfora del lazo social. En sentido amplio, esta remite a la unión entre los individuos y a las diferentes formas que asume la identidad colectiva (“Estado”, “nación”, “pueblo”, etc. en el seno de una sociedad determinada. En las últimas décadas ha llegado a convertirse en un tropo central en el ámbito de las ciencias sociales y las humanidades, aunque sus primeras apariciones se remontan a varios siglos atrás. En el artículo nos proponemos los siguientes objetivos: por un lado, analizar comparativamente los distintos usos y significados de esta metáfora en los discursos pioneros de Jean-Jacques Rousseau y Émile Durkheim —dos autores que además de haberla utilizado con frecuencia, le asignaron un papel fundamental en sus respectivas teorías—; y por otro lado, indagar en las implicaciones más generales de esta metáfora en tres planos de análisis diferenciados: el axiológico o valorativo, el epistemológico y el ontológico.

  11. An analysis of the hydrogen bubble concerns in the three-mile island unit-2 reactor vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, S.; Schmidt, K. H.; Honekamp, J. R.

    On 30 March 1979, two days after the accident at the Three-Mile Island Reactor near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, press reports appeared about a non-condensable bubble in the reactor vessel. This bubble was said to consist mainly of hydrogen, and to grow rapidly, possibly due to the development of oxygen. Danger of explosion was reported to be imminent. We analyzed all possible sources of non-condensable gases, including radiolysis, and determined that a continuing growth of the bubble during several days after the accident was not possible. Our main conclusions were the following: (1) Most of the initial hydrogen in the bubble was produced by the reaction of the Zircalloy cladding with the super-heated water. (2) During the first 16 hr after shutdown, when boiling of the primary coolant water took place, in the worst case stoichiometric amounts of hydrogen and oxygen could have been produced by radiolysis, leading to a maximum amount of oxygen in the bubble, of 0.7% of the hydrogen, which is well below the explosion limit. (3) After this 16 hr period, when boiling had totally ceased, no further oxygen could have been produced by radiolysis of the primary cooling water. On the contrary, oxygen was recombined with hydrogen due to radiolysis at such a rate that the oxygen in the water was completely removed in less than five minutes. The subsequent rate of removal of oxygen from the bubble by dissolution and radiolysis depended essentially on the rate of dissolution.

  12. Channel mapping river miles 29–62 of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona, May 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplinski, Matt; Hazel, Joseph E.; Grams, Paul E.; Kohl, Keith; Buscombe, Daniel D.; Tusso, Robert B.

    2017-03-23

    Bathymetric, topographic, and grain-size data were collected in May 2009 along a 33-mi reach of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona. The study reach is located from river miles 29 to 62 at the confluence of the Colorado and Little Colorado Rivers. Channel bathymetry was mapped using multibeam and singlebeam echosounders, subaerial topography was mapped using ground-based total-stations, and bed-sediment grain-size data were collected using an underwater digital microscope system. These data were combined to produce digital elevation models, spatially variable estimates of digital elevation model uncertainty, georeferenced grain-size data, and bed-sediment distribution maps. This project is a component of a larger effort to monitor the status and trends of sand storage along the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park. This report documents the survey methods and post-processing procedures, digital elevation model production and uncertainty assessment, and procedures for bed-sediment classification, and presents the datasets resulting from this study.

  13. Feasibility Study of a Building-Integrated PV Manager to Power a Last-Mile Electric Vehicle Sharing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Fuentes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Transportation is one of the largest single sources of air pollution in urban areas. This paper analyzes a model of solar-powered vehicle sharing system using building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV, resulting in a zero-emission and zero-energy mobility system for last-mile employee transportation. As a case study, an electric bicycle sharing system between a public transportation hub and a work center is modeled mathematically and optimized in order to minimize the number of pickup trips to satisfy the demand, while minimizing the total energy consumption of the system. The whole mobility system is fully powered with BIPV-generated energy. Results show a positive energy balance in e-bike batteries and pickup vehicle batteries in the worst day of the year regarding solar radiation. Even in this worst-case scenario, we achieve reuse rates of 3.8 people per bike, using actual data. The proposed system manages PV energy using only the batteries from the electric vehicles, without requiring supportive energy storage devices. Energy requirements and PV generation have been analyzed in detail to ensure the feasibility of this approach.

  14. Barge loading facilities in conjunction with wood chipping and sawlog mill, Tennessee River Mile 145. 9R: Environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-08-01

    The purpose of this Environmental Assessment (EA) is to evaluate the environmental consequences of approving, denying, or adopting reasonable alternatives to a request for barge loading facilities. These facilities would serve a proposed wood chipping and sawlog products operation at Tennessee River Mile (TRM) 145.9, right descending bank, (Kentucky Lake), in Perry County, Tennessee. The site is located between Short Creek and Peters Landing. The applicant is Southeastern Forest Products, L.P. (SFP), Box 73, Linden, Tennessee and the proposed facilities would be constructed on or adjacent to company owned land. Portions of the barge terminal would be constructed on land over which flood easement rights are held by the United States of America and administered by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). The US Army Corps of Engineers (CE) and TVA have regulatory control over the proposed barge terminal facilities since the action would involve construction in the Tennessee River which is a navigable water of the United States. The wood chipping and sawlog products facilities proposed on the upland property are not regulated by the CE or TVA. On the basis of the analysis which follows, it has been determined that a modified proposal (as described herein) would not significantly affect the quality of the human environment, and does not require the preparation of an environmental impact statement. 8 refs.

  15. Stealing a ride on a comet to the sun: spaceship's 10-year, 4bn mile odyssey: European craft's audacious trip will give insight into our origins

    CERN Multimedia

    Radford, T

    2003-01-01

    "Some time in the next two weeks, European scientists hope to launch a spaceship the size of a delivery van and lob it across more than 4 billion miles of space to rendezvous 10 years from now with a dark lump of rock and ice the size of a city block" (1 page).

  16. Tourism Impacts of Three Mile Island and Other Adverse Events: Implications for Lincoln County and Other Rural Counties Bisected by Radioactive Wastes Intended for Yucca Mountain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmelberger, Jeffery J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Summarizes key research implications of Three Mile Island and other major hazard events as related to tourism. Examines how the proposed Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository system will impact tourism in southern Nevada and other visitor-oriented rural counties bisected by planned waste transportation corridors. (AIM)

  17. Negative appraisals of insulin therapy are common among adults with Type 2 diabetes using insulin : Results from Diabetes MILES - Australia cross-sectional survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holmes-Truscott, E.; Skinner, T.C.; Pouwer, F.; Speight, J.

    2015-01-01

    Aim To identify insulin therapy appraisals among adults with Type 2 diabetes using insulin and how negative appraisals relate to clinical, self-care and psychosocial outcomes. Methods Diabetes MILES – Australia 2011 was a national survey of adults with diabetes, focused on behavioural and

  18. 75 FR 71543 - Safety Zone; Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, Mile Marker 49.0 to 50.0, west of Harvey Locks, Bank to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ....0 to 50.0, west of Harvey Locks, Bank to Bank, Bayou Blue Pontoon Bridge, Lafourche Parish, LA..., bank to bank, West of Harvey Locks, Lafourche Parish, LA. This Safety Zone is needed to protect the... repairs of the Bayou Blue Pontoon Bridge, Mile Marker 49.8, Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, West of...

  19. Cross-Validation of a Recently Published Equation Predicting Energy Expenditure to Run or Walk a Mile in Normal-Weight and Overweight Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Cody E.; Owens, Scott G.; Waddell, Dwight E.; Bass, Martha A.; Bentley, John P.; Loftin, Mark

    2014-01-01

    An equation published by Loftin, Waddell, Robinson, and Owens (2010) was cross-validated using ten normal-weight walkers, ten overweight walkers, and ten distance runners. Energy expenditure was measured at preferred walking (normal-weight walker and overweight walkers) or running pace (distance runners) for 5 min and corrected to a mile. Energy…

  20. Photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægsgaard, Jesper; Hansen, K P; Nielsen, M D;

    2003-01-01

    Photonic crystal fibers having a complex microstructure in the transverse plane constitute a new and promising class of optical fibers. Such fibers can either guide light through total internal reflection or the photonic bandgap effect, In this paper, we review the different types and applications...... of photonic crystal fibers with particular emphasis on recent advances in the field....

  1. Demonstration of Crystal Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, Joseph P.

    1985-01-01

    Describes an experiment where equal parts of copper and aluminum are heated then cooled to show extremely large crystals. Suggestions are given for changing the orientation of crystals by varying cooling rates. Students are more receptive to concepts of microstructure after seeing this experiment. (DH)

  2. Walkout in Crystal City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Greg

    2009-01-01

    When students take action, they create change that extends far beyond the classroom. In this article, the author, who was a former teacher from Crystal City, Texas, remembers the student walkout that helped launch the Latino civil rights movement 40 years ago. The Crystal City student walkout remains a high point in the history of student activism…

  3. Manipulation of colloidal crystallization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermolen, E.C.M.

    2008-01-01

    Colloidal particles (approximately a micrometer in diameter) that are dispersed in a fluid, behave thermodynamically similar to atoms and molecules: at low concentrations they form a fluid, while at high concentrations they can crystallize into a colloidal crystal to gain entropy. The analogy with m

  4. Crystal growth and crystallography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernov, A. A.

    1998-01-01

    Selected topics that may be of interest for both crystal-structure and crystal-growth communities are overviewed. The growth of protein crystals, along with that of some other compounds, is one of the topics, and recent insights into related phenomena are considered as examples of applications of general principles. The relationship between crystal growth shape and structure is reviewed and an attempt to introduce semiquantitative characterization of binding for proteins is made. The concept of kinks for complex structures is briefly discussed. Even at sufficiently low supersaturations, the fluctuation of steps may not be sufficient to implement the Gibbs-Thomson law if the kink density is low enough. Subsurface ordering of liquids and growth of rough interfaces from melts is discussed. Crystals growing in microgravity from solution should be more perfect if they preferentially trap stress-inducing impurities, thus creating an impurity-depleted zone around themselves. Evidently, such a zone is developed only around the crystals growing in the absence of convection. Under terrestrial conditions, the self-purified depleted zone is destroyed by convection, the crystal traps more impurity and grows stressed. The stress relief causes mosaicity. In systems containing stress-inducing but poorly trapped impurities, the crystals grown in the absence of convection should be worse than those of their terrestrial counterparts.

  5. Crystals in the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    Bent crystals can be used to deflect charged particle beams. Their use in high-energy accelerators has been investigated for almost 40 years. Recently, a bent crystal was irradiated for the first time in the HiRadMat facility with an extreme particle flux, which crystals would have to withstand in the LHC. The results were very encouraging and confirmed that this technology could play a major role in increasing the beam collimation performance in future upgrades of the machine.   UA9 bent crystal tested with a laser. Charged particles interacting with a bent crystal can be trapped in channelling states and deflected by the atomic planes of the crystal lattice (see box). The use of bent crystals for beam manipulation in particle accelerators is a concept that has been well-assessed. Over the last three decades, a large number of experimental findings have contributed to furthering our knowledge and improving our ability to control crystal-particle interactions. In modern hadron colliders, su...

  6. Photonic Crystal Fiber Attenuator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joo; Beom; Eom; Hokyung; Kim; Jinchae; Kim; Un-Chul; Paek; Byeong; Ha; Lee

    2003-01-01

    We propose a novel fiber attenuator based on photonic crystal fibers. The difference in the modal field diameters of a conventional single mode fiber and a photonic crystal fiber was used. A variable optical attenuator was also achieved by applying macro-bending on the PCF part of the proposed attenuator

  7. Active Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ek, Sara

    This thesis deals with the fabrication and characterization of active photonic crystal waveguides, realized in III-V semiconductor material with embedded active layers. The platform offering active photonic crystal waveguides has many potential applications. One of these is a compact photonic...... crystal semiconductor optical amplier. As a step towards such a component, photonic crystal waveguides with a single quantum well, 10 quantum wells and three layers of quantum dots are fabricated and characterized. An experimental study of the amplied spontaneous emission and a implied transmission...... are presented in this thesis. A variation of photonic crystal design parameters are used leading to a spectral shift of the dispersion, it is veried that the observed effects shift accordingly. An enhancement of the amplified spontaneous emission was observed close to the band edge, where light is slowed down...

  8. Function Photonic Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Xiang-Yao; Yang, Jing-Hai; Liu, Xiao-Jing; Ba, Nuo; Wu, Yi-Heng; Wang, Qing-Cai; Li, Jing-Wu

    2010-01-01

    In the paper, we present a new kind of function photonic crystals, which refractive index is a function of space position. Unlike conventional PCs, which structure grow from two materials, A and B, with different dielectric constants $\\epsilon_{A}$ and $\\epsilon_{B}$. By Fermat principle, we give the motion equations of light in one-dimensional, two-dimensional and three-dimensional function photonic crystals. For one-dimensional function photonic crystals, we study the dispersion relation, band gap structure and transmissivity, and compare them with conventional photonic crystals. By choosing various refractive index distribution function $n(z)$, we can obtain more width or more narrow band gap structure than conventional photonic crystals.

  9. Progress on photonic crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Lecoq, P; Gundacker, S; Hillemanns, H; Jarron, P; Knapitsch, A; Leclercq, J L; Letartre, X; Meyer, T; Pauwels, K; Powolny, F; Seassal, C

    2010-01-01

    The renewal of interest for Time of Flight Positron Emission Tomography (TOF PET) has highlighted the need for increasing the light output of scintillating crystals and in particular for improving the light extraction from materials with a high index of refraction. One possible solution to overcome the problem of total internal reflection and light losses resulting from multiple bouncing within the crystal is to improve the light extraction efficiency at the crystal/photodetector interface by means of photonic crystals, i.e. media with a periodic modulation of the dielectric constant at the wavelength scale. After a short reminder of the underlying principles this contribution proposes to present the very encouraging results we have recently obtained on LYSO pixels and the perspectives on other crystals such as BGO, LuYAP and LuAG. These results confirm the impressive predictions from our previously published Monte Carlo simulations. A detailed description of the sample preparation procedure is given as well ...

  10. Optically Anomalous Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Shtukenberg, Alexander; Kahr, Bart

    2007-01-01

    Optical anomalies in crystals are puzzles that collectively constituted the greatest unsolved problems in crystallography in the 19th Century. The most common anomaly is a discrepancy between a crystal’s symmetry as determined by its shape or by X-ray analysis, and that determined by monitoring the polarization state of traversing light. These discrepancies were perceived as a great impediment to the development of the sciences of crystals on the basis of Curie’s Symmetry Principle, the grand organizing idea in the physical sciences to emerge in the latter half of the 19th Century. Optically Anomalous Crystals begins with an historical introduction covering the contributions of Brewster, Biot, Mallard, Brauns, Tamman, and many other distinguished crystallographers. From this follows a tutorial in crystal optics. Further chapters discuss the two main mechanisms of optical dissymmetry: 1. the piezo-optic effect, and 2. the kinetic ordering of atoms. The text then tackles complex, inhomogeneous crystals, and...

  11. Crystallization phenomena of isotactic polystyrene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemstra, Peter Jan

    1975-01-01

    In this thesis the crystallization behavior of isotactic polystyrene has been described. The kinetics of the crystallization process and the crystalline structure were studied both for crystallization in the bulk and from dilute solutions. ... Zie Summary

  12. Exploring the use of automated vehicles as last mile connection of train trips through an agent-based simulation model: An application to Delft, Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Scheltes

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The last mile in a public transport trip is known to bring a large disutility for passengers, because the conventional transport modes for this stage of the trip can, in many cases, be rather slow, inflexible and not provide a seamless experience to passengers. Fully automated vehicles (AVs, that is, those which do not need a driver, could act as a first mile/last mile connection to mass public transport modes. In this paper, we study a system that we call Automated Last-Mile Transport (ALMT, which consists of a fleet of small, fully automated, electric vehicles to improve the last mile performance of a trip done in a train. An agent-based simulation model was proposed for the ALMT whereby a dispatching algorithm distributes travel requests amongst the available vehicles using a FIFO sequence and selects a vehicle based on a set of specified control conditions (e.g. travel time to reach a requesting passenger. The model was applied to the case-study of the connection between the train station Delft Zuid and the Technological Innovation Campus (Delft, The Netherlands in order to test the methodology and understand the performance of the system in function of several operational parameters and demand scenarios. The most important conclusion from the baseline scenario was that the ALMT system was only able to compete with the walking mode and that additional measures were needed to increase the performance of the ALMT system in order to be competitive with cycling. Relocating empty vehicles or allowing pre-booking of vehicles led to a significant reduction in average waiting time, whilst allowing passengers to drive at a higher speed led to a large reduction in average travel time, whilst simultaneously reducing system capacity as energy use is increased.

  13. Shaped Crystal Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatartchenko, Vitali A.

    Crystals of specified shape and size (shaped crystals) with controlled crystal growth (SCG) defect and impurity structure have to be grown for the successful development of modern engineering. Since the 1950s many hundreds of papers and patents concerned with shaped growth have been published. In this chapter, we do not try to enumerate the successful applications of shaped growth to different materials but rather to carry out a fundamental physical and mathematical analysis of shaping as well as the peculiarities of shaped crystal structures. Four main techniques, based on which the lateral surface can be shaped without contact with the container walls, are analyzed: the Czochralski technique (CZT), the Verneuil technique (VT), the floating zone technique (FZT), and technique of pulling from shaper (TPS). Modifications of these techniques are analyzed as well. In all these techniques the shape of the melt meniscus is controlled by surface tension forces, i.e., capillary forces, and here they are classified as capillary shaping techniques (CST). We look for conditions under which the crystal growth process in each CST is dynamically stable. Only in this case are all perturbations attenuated and a crystal of constant cross section shaping technique (CST) grown without any special regulation. The dynamic stability theory of the crystal growth process for all CST is developed on the basis of Lyapunov's dynamic stability theory. Lyapunov's equations for the crystal growth processes follow from fundamental laws. The results of the theory allow the choice of stable regimes for crystal growth by all CST as well as special designs of shapers in TPS. SCG experiments by CZT, VT, and FZT are discussed but the main consideration is given to TPS. Shapers not only allow crystal of very complicated cross section to be grown but provide a special distribution of impurities. A history of TPS is provided later in the chapter, because it can only be described after explanation of the

  14. [Spherical crystallization in pharmaceutical technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabóné, R P; Pintyéné, H K; Kása, P; Erös, I; Hasznosné, N M; Farkas, B

    1998-03-01

    Physical properties of crystals, such as size, crystal size distribution and morphology, may predetermine the usefulness of crystalline materials in many pharmaceutical application. The above properties can be regulated with the crystallization process. The spherical crystals are suitable for direct tablet-making because of their better flowability and compressibility properties. These crystals can be used in the filling of the capsule. In this work, the spherical crystals such as "single crystal", "poly-crystals" and agglomerates with other excipients are collected from the literature and the experimental results of the authors. A close cooperation between chemists and the pharmaceutical technologists can help for doing steps in this field.

  15. Modal shifts in short-haul passenger travel and the consequent energy impacts. [Intercity travel under 500 miles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-01

    A study was performed to evaluate the impacts of strategies to effect modal shifts in short-haul passenger travel (defined herein as intercity travel under 500 miles) from energy-intensive modes to those modes that are less energy-intensive. A series of individual strategies, ranging from incentives to the less energy-intensive modes (bus, rail) to penalties to the more energy-intensive modes (auto, air) was examined to determine energy saved and policy implications relative to strategy implementation. The most effective of the individual strategies were then combined in all permutations, and the analysis was repeated. As part of the analytical process, effects of factors other than energy (user cost and time, emissions, government subsidy, and travel fatailities) were examined in a benefit/cost analysis. Finally, energy savings, benefit/cost impacts, implementation considerations, and policy implications were evaluated to arrive at conclusions as to the effectiveness of the more-influential strategies and to the overall effectiveness of induced modal shifts. The principal conclusion of the study is that the maximum 1980 energy saving that might be realized by modal shifts, discounting the concurrent effects of demand suppression and improvement of mode efficiency, is approximately 83 x 10/sup 12/ Btu (46,500 bbl gasoline per day), 3.8% of the total projected 1980 energy consumption in the short-haul transportation sector and 0.23% of the total US petroleum use. It was also concluded that strategies to achieve these small savings by modal shifts would result in significant economic, social, and business disruptions.

  16. Flood-inundation maps for a 15-mile reach of the Kalamazoo River from Marshall to Battle Creek, Michigan, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoard, C.J.; Fowler, K.K.; Kim, M.H.; Menke, C.D.; Morlock, S.E.; Peppler, M.C.; Rachol, C.M.; Whitehead, M.T.

    2010-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 15-mile reach of the Kalamazoo River from Marshall to Battle Creek, Michigan, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to help guide remediation efforts following a crude-oil spill on July 25, 2010. The spill happened on Talmadge Creek, a tributary of the Kalamazoo River near Marshall, during a flood. The floodwaters transported the spilled oil down the Kalamazoo River and deposited oil in impoundments and on the surfaces of islands and flood plains. Six flood-inundation maps were constructed corresponding to the flood stage (884.09 feet) coincident with the oil spill on July 25, 2010, as well as for floods with annual exceedance probabilities of 0.2, 1, 2, 4, and 10 percent. Streamflow at the USGS streamgage at Marshall, Michigan (USGS site ID 04103500), was used to calculate the flood probabilities. From August 13 to 18, 2010, 35 channel cross sections, 17 bridges and 1 dam were surveyed. These data were used to construct a water-surface profile for the July 25, 2010, flood by use of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The calibrated model was used to estimate water-surface profiles for other flood probabilities. The resulting six flood-inundation maps were created with a geographic information system by combining flood profiles with a 1.2-foot vertical and 10-foot horizontal resolution digital elevation model derived from Light Detection and Ranging data.

  17. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 33 (CONCTH00580033) on Town Highway 58, crossing Miles Stream, Concord, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Ronda L.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure CONCTH00580033 on Town Highway 58 crossing Miles Stream, Concord, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the New England Upland section of the New England physiographic province in northeastern Vermont. The 17.9-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is pasture upstream of the bridge while the immediate banks have dense woody vegetation. Downstream of the bridge, the right bank is forested and the left bank has shrubs and brush. In the study area, Miles Stream has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.01 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 91 ft and an average bank height of 7 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to boulder with a median grain size (D50) of 61.6 mm (0.188 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on August 15, 1995, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 58 crossing of Miles Stream is a 44-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of one 39-foot steel-beam span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 24, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 37.4 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with stone fill in front creating spillthrough embankments. The channel is skewed approximately 20 degrees

  18. Quartz crystal growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baughman, Richard J.

    1992-01-01

    A process for growing single crystals from an amorphous substance that can undergo phase transformation to the crystalline state in an appropriate solvent. The process is carried out in an autoclave having a lower dissolution zone and an upper crystallization zone between which a temperature differential (.DELTA.T) is maintained at all times. The apparatus loaded with the substance, solvent, and seed crystals is heated slowly maintaining a very low .DELTA.T between the warmer lower zone and cooler upper zone until the amorphous substance is transformed to the crystalline state in the lower zone. The heating rate is then increased to maintain a large .DELTA.T sufficient to increase material transport between the zones and rapid crystallization. .alpha.-Quartz single crystal can thus be made from fused quartz in caustic solvent by heating to 350.degree. C. stepwise with a .DELTA.T of 0.25.degree.-3.degree. C., increasing the .DELTA.T to about 50.degree. C. after the fused quartz has crystallized, and maintaining these conditions until crystal growth in the upper zone is completed.

  19. Crystals in light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahr, Bart; Freudenthal, John; Gunn, Erica

    2010-05-18

    We have made images of crystals illuminated with polarized light for almost two decades. Early on, we abandoned photosensitive chemicals in favor of digital electrophotometry with all of the attendant advantages of quantitative intensity data. Accurate intensities are a boon because they can be used to analytically discriminate small effects in the presence of larger ones. The change in the form of our data followed camera technology that transformed picture taking the world over. Ironically, exposures in early photographs were presumed to correlate simply with light intensity, raising the hope that photography would replace sensorial interpretation with mechanical objectivity and supplant the art of visual photometry. This was only true in part. Quantitative imaging accurate enough to render the separation of crystalloptical quantities had to await the invention of the solid-state camera. Many pioneers in crystal optics were also major figures in the early history of photography. We draw out the union of optical crystallography and photography because the tree that connects the inventors of photography is a structure unmatched for organizing our work during the past 20 years, not to mention that silver halide crystallites used in chemical photography are among the most consequential "crystals in light", underscoring our title. We emphasize crystals that have acquired optical properties such as linear birefringence, linear dichroism, circular birefringence, and circular dichroism, during growth from solution. Other crystalloptical effects were discovered that are unique to curiously dissymmetric crystals containing embedded oscillators. In the aggregate, dyed crystals constitute a generalization of single crystal matrix isolation. Simple crystals provided kinetic stability to include guests such as proteins or molecules in excited states. Molecular lifetimes were extended for the preparation of laser gain media and for the study of the photodynamics of single

  20. Time Crystals: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacha, Krzysztof; Zakrzewski, Jakub

    2017-09-08

    Time crystals are time-periodic self-organized structures postulated by Frank Wilczek in 2012. While the original concept was strongly criticized, it stimulated at the same time an intensive research leading to propositions and experimental verifications of discrete (or Floquet) time crystals -- the structures that appear in the time domain due to spontaneous breaking of discrete time translation symmetry. The struggle to observe discrete time crystals is reviewed here together with propositions that generalize this concept introducing condensed matter like physics in the time domain. We shall also revisit the original Wilczek's idea and review strategies aimed at spontaneous breaking of continuous time translation symmetry. . © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  1. Raman scattering in crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, D.F.

    1988-09-30

    A tutorial presentation is given of Raman scattering in crystals. The physical concepts are emphasized rather than the detailed mathematical formalism. Starting with an introduction to the concepts of phonons and conservation laws, the effects of photon-phonon interactions are presented. This interaction concept is shown for a simple cubic crystal and is extended to a uniaxial crystal. The correlation table method is used for determining the number and symmetry of the Raman active modes. Finally, examples are given to illustrate the relative ease of using this group theoretical method and the predictions are compared with measured Raman spectra. 37 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Crystallization on prestructured seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungblut, Swetlana; Dellago, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    The crystallization transition of an undercooled monodisperse Lennard-Jones fluid in the presence of small prestructured seeds is studied with transition path sampling combined with molecular dynamics simulations. Compared to the homogeneous crystallization, clusters of a few particles arranged into a face- and body-centered cubic structure enhance the crystallization, while icosahedrally ordered seeds do not change the reaction rate. We identify two distinct nucleation regimes-close to the seed and in the bulk. Crystallites form close to the face- and body-centered structures and tend to stay away from the icosahedrally ordered seeds.

  3. Molecules in crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spackman, Mark A.

    2013-04-01

    Hirshfeld surface analysis has developed from the serendipitous discovery of a novel partitioning of the crystal electron density into discrete molecular fragments, to a suite of computational tools used widely for the identification, analysis and discussion of intermolecular interactions in molecular crystals. The relationship between the Hirshfeld surface and very early ideas on the internal structure of crystals is outlined, and applications of Hirshfeld surface analysis are presented for three molecules of historical importance in the development of modern x-ray crystallography: hexamethylbenzene, hexamethylenetetramine and diketopiperazine.

  4. Hypersonic phononic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorishnyy, T; Ullal, C K; Maldovan, M; Fytas, G; Thomas, E L

    2005-03-25

    In this Letter we propose the use of hypersonic phononic crystals to control the emission and propagation of high frequency phonons. We report the fabrication of high quality, single crystalline hypersonic crystals using interference lithography and show that direct measurement of their phononic band structure is possible with Brillouin light scattering. Numerical calculations are employed to explain the nature of the observed propagation modes. This work lays the foundation for experimental studies of hypersonic crystals and, more generally, phonon-dependent processes in nanostructures.

  5. The Crystal Hotel: A Microfluidic Approach to Biomimetic Crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiuqing; Wang, Yun-Wei; Ihli, Johannes; Kim, Yi-Yeoun; Li, Shunbo; Walshaw, Richard; Chen, Li; Meldrum, Fiona C

    2015-12-02

    A "crystal hotel" microfluidic device that allows crystal growth in confined volumes to be studied in situ is used to produce large calcite single crystals with predefined crystallographic orientation, microstructure, and shape by control of the detailed physical environment, flow, and surface chemistry. This general approach can be extended to form technologically important, nanopatterned single crystals.

  6. Diabetes MILES – The Netherlands: rationale, design and sample characteristics of a national survey examining the psychosocial aspects of living with diabetes in Dutch adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nefs Giesje

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As the number of people with diabetes is increasing rapidly worldwide, a more thorough understanding of the psychosocial aspects of living with this condition has become an important health care priority. While our knowledge has grown substantially over the past two decades with respect to the physical, emotional and social difficulties that people with diabetes may encounter, many important issues remain to be elucidated. Under the umbrella of the Diabetes MILES (Management and Impact for Long-term Empowerment and Success Study International Collaborative, Diabetes MILES – The Netherlands aims to examine how Dutch adults with diabetes manage their condition and how it affects their lives. Topics of special interest in Diabetes MILES - The Netherlands include subtypes of depression, Type D personality, mindfulness, sleep and sexual functioning. Methods/design Diabetes MILES – The Netherlands was designed as a national online observational study among adults with diabetes. In addition to a main set of self-report measures, the survey consisted of five complementary modules to which participants were allocated randomly. From September to October 2011, a total of 3,960 individuals with diabetes (40% type 1, 53% type 2 completed the battery of questionnaires covering a broad range of topics, including general health, self-management, emotional well-being and contact with health care providers. People with self-reported type 1 diabetes (specifically those on insulin pump therapy were over-represented, as were those using insulin among respondents with self-reported type 2 diabetes. People from ethnic minorities were under-represented. The sex distribution was fairly equal in the total sample, participants spanned a broad age range (19–90 years, and diabetes duration ranged from recent diagnosis to living with the condition for over fifty years. Discussion The Diabetes MILES Study enables detailed investigation of the

  7. Crystallization Growth of Single Crystal Cu by ContinuousCasting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Crystallization growth of single-crystal Cu by continuous casting has been investigated using selfdesigned horizontal continuous casting equipment and XRD. Experimental results showed that the crystallization plane of (311), (220) and (111) were eliminated sequentially in evolutionary process. The final growth plane of crystal was (200), the direction of crystallization was [100],the growth direction of both sides of the rod inclined to axis, and the degree of deviation of direction [100] from the crystal axis was less than 10. In order to produce high quality single crystal, the solid-liquid interface morphology must be smooth, even be planar.

  8. Deformations of crystal frameworks

    CERN Document Server

    Borcea, Ciprian S

    2011-01-01

    We apply our deformation theory of periodic bar-and-joint frameworks to tetrahedral crystal structures. The deformation space is investigated in detail for frameworks modelled on quartz, cristobalite and tridymite.

  9. Crystal Electrostatic Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanchin, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    It has been shown that to calculate the parameters of the electrostatic field of the ion crystal lattice it sufficient to take into account ions located at a distance of 1-2 lattice spacings. More distant ions make insignificant contribution. As a result, the electrostatic energy of the ion lattice in the alkaline halide crystal produced by both positive and negative ions is in good agreement with experiment when the melting temperature and the shear modulus are calculated. For fcc and bcc metals the ion lattice electrostatic energy is not sufficient to obtain the observed values of these parameters. It is possible to resolve the contradiction if one assumes that the electron density is strongly localized and has a crystal structure described by the lattice delta - function. As a result, positive charges alternate with negative ones as in the alkaline halide crystal. Such delta-like localization of the electron density is known as a model of nearly free electrons.

  10. Shaping Crystals using Electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacci, Jeremie; Mackiewicz, Kristian

    2016-11-01

    Electrophoresis is size and shape independent as stressed by Morrison in his seminal paper. Here we present an original approach to reshape colloidal crystals using an electric field as a carving tool.

  11. Inclusions in DKDP crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The shape and the size of inclusions in DKDP crystal have been observed and measured microscopically.Three kinds of inclusions were found and the components of the inclusions were measured. The formation mechanisms were proposed and discussed.``

  12. Liquid Crystal Airborne Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-08-01

    81/2X 11- 10 -9 .8 display using a large advertising alphanimeric ( TCI ) has been added to the front of the optical box used in the F-4 aircraft for HUD...properties over a wide range of tempera - tures, including normal room temperature. What are Liquid Crystals? Liquid crystals have been classified in three...natic fanctions and to present data needed for the semi- automatic and manual control of system functions. Existing aircraft using CRT display

  13. Crystal Structures of Furazanes

    OpenAIRE

    Klapötke, Thomas; Schmid, Philipp; Stierstorfer, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Several nitrogen-rich salts of 3-nitramino-4-nitrofurazane and dinitraminoazoxyfurazane were synthesized and characterized by various spectroscopic methods. The crystal structures were determined by low temperature single crystal X-ray diffraction. Moreover the sensitivities toward thermal and mechanical stimuli were determined by differential thermal analysis (DTA) and BAM (Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung) methods. The standard enthalpies of formation were calculated for all...

  14. SINGLE CRYSTAL NEUTRON DIFFRACTION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KOETZLE,T.F.

    2001-03-13

    Single-crystal neutron diffraction measures the elastic Bragg reflection intensities from crystals of a material, the structure of which is the subject of investigation. A single crystal is placed in a beam of neutrons produced at a nuclear reactor or at a proton accelerator-based spallation source. Single-crystal diffraction measurements are commonly made at thermal neutron beam energies, which correspond to neutron wavelengths in the neighborhood of 1 Angstrom. For high-resolution studies requiring shorter wavelengths (ca. 0.3-0.8 Angstroms), a pulsed spallation source or a high-temperature moderator (a ''hot source'') at a reactor may be used. When complex structures with large unit-cell repeats are under investigation, as is the case in structural biology, a cryogenic-temperature moderator (a ''cold source'') may be employed to obtain longer neutron wavelengths (ca. 4-10 Angstroms). A single-crystal neutron diffraction analysis will determine the crystal structure of the material, typically including its unit cell and space group, the positions of the atomic nuclei and their mean-square displacements, and relevant site occupancies. Because the neutron possesses a magnetic moment, the magnetic structure of the material can be determined as well, from the magnetic contribution to the Bragg intensities. This latter aspect falls beyond the scope of the present unit; for information on magnetic scattering of neutrons see Unit 14.3. Instruments for single-crystal diffraction (single-crystal diffractometers or SCDs) are generally available at the major neutron scattering center facilities. Beam time on many of these instruments is available through a proposal mechanism. A listing of neutron SCD instruments and their corresponding facility contacts is included in an appendix accompanying this unit.

  15. Building a crystal palace

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The end-caps of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) take shape as the first quadrant was completed on Wednesday 3 October. 1831 crystals, organised into five by five blocks named ‘supercrystals’, make up the first quadrant of Dee 1.With the 61,200-crystal barrel of its electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) complete, CMS is now building the endcaps, on the tenth anniversary of their initial design. Crystals for the endcaps were the last to be made, so the race is now on to have them all in place and ready for the turn-on of the LHC next year. Assembly of the first of eight quadrants began in June and crystal mounting was completed on Wednesday 3 October. Each crystal is transparent, has a volume just larger than a CERN coffee cup yet weighs a huge 1.5kg. 1831 of these lead tungstate crystals went into the first quadrant from a total 14,648 in the endcaps. The lead and tungsten account for 86% of each crystal’s weight, but as project leader Dave Cockerill expl...

  16. Scale-4 Analysis of Pressurized Water Reactor Critical Configurations: Volume 4-Three Mile Island Unit 1 Cycle 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeHart, M.D.

    1995-01-01

    The requirements of ANSI/ANS-8.1 specify that calculational methods for away-from-reactor criticality safety analyses be validated against experimental measurements. If credit is to be taken for the reduced reactivity of burned or spent fuel relative to its original ''fresh'' composition, it is necessary to benchmark computational methods used in determining such reactivity worth against spent fuel reactivity measurements. This report summarizes a portion of the ongoing effort to benchmark away-from-reactor criticality analysis methods using relevant and well-documented critical configurations from commercial pressurized water reactors. The analysis methodology utilized for all calculations in this report is based on the modules and data associated with the SCALE-4 code system. Isotopic densities for spent fuel assemblies in the core were calculated using the SCALE-4 SAS2H analytical sequence. The sources of data and the procedures for deriving SAS2H input parameters are described in detail. The SNIKR code family was used to extract the necessary isotopic densities from SAS2H results and to provide the data in the format required for SCALE criticality analysis modules. The CSASN analytical sequence in SCALE-4 was used to perform resonance processing of cross sections. The KENO V.a module of SCALE-4 was used to calculate the effective multiplication factor (k{sub eff}) for the critical configuration. The SCALE-4 27-group burnup library containing ENDF/B-IV (actinides) and ENDF/B-V (fission products) data was used for all calculations. This volume of the report documents a reactor critical calculation for GPU Nuclear Corporation's Three Mile Island Unit 1 (TMI-1) during hot, zero-power startup testing for the beginning of cycle 5. This unit and cycle were selected because of their relevance in spent fuel benchmark applications: (1) cycle 5 startup occurred after an especially long downtime of 6.6 years; and (2) the core consisted primarily

  17. Ecology and management of the invasive lionfish Pterois volitans/miles complex (Perciformes: Scorpaenidae in Southern Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Sandel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Invasive species alter ecosystem integrity and functioning and are considered one of the major threats to biodiversity on a global scale. The indopacific lionfish (Pterois volitans [Linnaeus, 1758] / miles [Bennet, 1882] complex is the first non-native marine fish that has established itself in the Western Atlantic. It was first reported in Florida in the 1980s and then spread across the entire Caribbean in subsequent years. In Costa Rica, lionfish were first sighted by the end of 2008 and are now present in all South Caribbean reefs. Lionfish are a major problem for local fisherman by displacing native fish species. The aim of this study was to determine population density, size and diet of lionfish populations at four study sites along the Southern Caribbean coast of Costa Rica. Two of the sites were located inside the National Park Cahuita where regular lionfish removal occurs, whereas the other two study sides do not experiment this kind of management. Total length and wet weight of >450 lionfish individuals were determined between March and June 2011. Three relative metrics of prey quantity (percent number, percent frequency, and percent weight were compared from ~300 lionfish caught with the polespear in shallow waters (<7m depth. Population density was assessed weekly through visual transect surveys. Our results showed that lionfish preyed mostly upon teleosts and crustaceans. Teleosts dominated lionfish diet in percent frequency (71% and percent weight (85%, whereas crustaceans had the highest percent number (58%. The top five teleost families of dietary importance were Pomacentridae, Acanthuridae, Blennidae, Labridae and Serranidae. The average total length (±SD of lionfish was 18.7(±5.7cm and varied significantly between sites (p<0.001. Mean density of lionfish was 92fish/ha with no significant differences between sites. Smallest fish and lowest densities were found at the two sites inside the National Park Cahuita. Despite

  18. Flood-inundation maps for a 6.5-mile reach of the Kentucky River at Frankfort, Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lant, Jeremiah G.

    2013-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 6.5-mile reach of Kentucky River at Frankfort, Kentucky, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the City of Frankfort Office of Emergency Management. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage Kentucky River at Lock 4 at Frankfort, Kentucky (station no. 03287500). Current conditions for the USGS streamgage may be obtained online at the USGS National Water Information System site (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis/inventory?agency_code=USGS&site_no=03287500). In addition, the information has been provided to the National Weather Service (NWS) for incorporation into their Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) flood warning system (http:/water.weather.gov/ahps/). The NWS forecasts flood hydrographs at many places that are often colocated at USGS streamgages. The forecasted peak-stage information, also available on the Internet, may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation. In this study, flood profiles were computed for the Kentucky River reach by using HEC–RAS, a one-dimensional step-backwater model developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The hydraulic model was calibrated by using the most current (2013) stage-discharge relation for the Kentucky River at Lock 4 at Frankfort, Kentucky, in combination with streamgage and high-water-mark measurements collected for a flood event in May 2010. The calibrated model was then used to calculate 26 water-surface profiles for a sequence of flood stages, at 1-foot intervals, referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from a stage near bankfull to the elevation that breached the levees protecting the City of Frankfort. To delineate the flooded area at

  19. Flood-inundation maps for an 8.9-mile reach of the South Fork Little River at Hopkinsville, Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lant, Jeremiah G.

    2013-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for an 8.9-mile reach of South Fork Little River at Hopkinsville, Kentucky, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the City of Hopkinsville Community Development Services. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/ depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage at South Fork Little River at Highway 68 By-Pass at Hopkinsville, Kentucky (station no. 03437495). Current conditions for the USGS streamgage may be obtained online at the USGS National Water Information System site (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis/inventory?agency_code=USGS&site_no=03437495). In addition, the information has been provided to the National Weather Service (NWS) for incorporation into their Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service flood warning system (http://water.weather.gov/ahps/). The NWS forecasts flood hydrographs at many places that are often co-located at USGS streamgages. The forecasted peak-stage information, also available on the Internet, may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation. In this study, flood profiles were computed for the South Fork Little River reach by using HEC-RAS, a one-dimensional step-backwater model developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The hydraulic model was calibrated by using the most current (2012) stage-discharge relation at the South Fork Little River at Highway 68 By-Pass at Hopkinsville, Kentucky, streamgage and measurements collected during recent flood events. The calibrated model was then used to calculate 13 water-surface profiles for a sequence of flood stages, most at 1-foot intervals, referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from a stage near bank full to the estimated elevation of the 1.0-percent annual exceedance

  20. High-throughput crystallization screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarina, Tatiana; Xu, Xiaohui; Evdokimova, Elena; Savchenko, Alexei

    2014-01-01

    Protein structure determination by X-ray crystallography is dependent on obtaining a single protein crystal suitable for diffraction data collection. Due to this requirement, protein crystallization represents a key step in protein structure determination. The conditions for protein crystallization have to be determined empirically for each protein, making this step also a bottleneck in the structure determination process. Typical protein crystallization practice involves parallel setup and monitoring of a considerable number of individual protein crystallization experiments (also called crystallization trials). In these trials the aliquots of purified protein are mixed with a range of solutions composed of a precipitating agent, buffer, and sometimes an additive that have been previously successful in prompting protein crystallization. The individual chemical conditions in which a particular protein shows signs of crystallization are used as a starting point for further crystallization experiments. The goal is optimizing the formation of individual protein crystals of sufficient size and quality to make them suitable for diffraction data collection. Thus the composition of the primary crystallization screen is critical for successful crystallization.Systematic analysis of crystallization experiments carried out on several hundred proteins as part of large-scale structural genomics efforts allowed the optimization of the protein crystallization protocol and identification of a minimal set of 96 crystallization solutions (the "TRAP" screen) that, in our experience, led to crystallization of the maximum number of proteins.

  1. Laboratory screening of potential predators of the poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) and assessment of Hypoaspis miles performance under varying biotic and abiotic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, W; George, D R; Shiel, R S; Sparagano, O A E; Guy, J H

    2012-06-08

    The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer), is the most important ectoparasitic pest of layer hens worldwide and difficult to control through 'conventional' synthetic acaricides. The present study aimed to identify a suitable predator of D. gallinae that could potentially form the basis of biological control in commercial poultry systems. From four selected predatory mite species (Hypoaspis miles (Berlese), Hypoaspis aculeifer (Canestrini), Amblyseius degenerans (Berlese) and Phytoseiulus persimilis (Athias-Henriot)), Hypoaspis mites demonstrated the greatest potential as predators of D. gallinae. Experiments were also conducted to assess the effect of environmental (temperature and dust), physical (presence of harbourages) and biological (presence of alternative prey) factors on the predatory efficacy of H. miles. Predation of D. gallinae per se was observed under all conditions tested, though was found to be temperature-dependent and reduced by the presence of alternative prey.

  2. 新型改良Bacon术与Mile's直肠癌根治术对免疫功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏树生; 檀碧波; 吕炳蓉

    2008-01-01

    目的 评价新型改良Bacon术治疗对低位直肠癌患者免疫功能的影响.方法 对28例低位直肠癌采用新型改良Bacon术,取同期行Mile's手术28例作对照,了解手术前后免疫功能的情况.结果 2组患者各项围手术期指标差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);新型改良Bacon术所造成的应激和免疫抑制状态比Mile's手术轻,且恢复快(P<0.05).结论 新型改良Bacon术作为保肛手术效果良好.

  3. Human Adaptation Along the Columbia River 4700 - 1600 BP. A Report of Test Excavation at River Mile 590, North Central Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Explorations many miles up Rhe Fort Colvile told the miners that chances were better farther up the Columbia a suggestion not without fruit in the...increased moisture between 4700 and 2500 BP and the return of dryer conditions after 2500 BP. Environmental Reconstruction: A Summary Palynolozical...shelter from or exposure to wind and solar energy, and protection from or access to other human populations are the major classes of variables that

  4. Comparative analysis of the 1-mile run test evaluation formulae: Assessment of aerobic capacity in male law enforcement officers aged 20–23 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gürhan Kayihan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare values of aerobic performance in the 1-mile run test (1-MRT using different formulae. Material and Methods: Aerobic capacities of 351 male volunteers working for the Turkish National Police within the age range of 20-23 years were evaluated by the 1-MRT and the 20-metre shuttle run (20-MST. VO2max values were estimated by the prediction equations developed by George et al. (1993, Cureton et al. (1995 and Kline et al. (1987 for the 1-MRT and by Leger and Lambert (1982 for the 20-MST. Results: The difference between the results of the different formulae was significant (p = 0.000. The correlation coefficient between the estimated VO2max using Cureton's equation, George's equation, Kline's equation and the 20-MST were 0.691 (p < 0.001, 0.486 (p < 0.001 and 0.608 (p < 0.001, respectively. The highest correlation coefficient was between the VO2max estimated by the 20-MST and Cureton's equation. Similarly, the highest correlation coefficient (r = -0.779 was between the 1-mile run time and the VO2max estimated by Cureton's equation. Conclusions: When analysing more vigorous exercise than sub-maximal exercise, we suggest that Cureton's equation be used to predict the VO2max from 1-mile run/walk performance in large numbers of healthy individuals with high VO2max. This research compares the use of 3 different formulae to estimate VO2max from 1-mile run/ walk performance in male law enforcement officers aged 20-23 years for the first time and reports the most accurate formula to use when evaluating aerobic capacities of large numbers of healthy individuals.

  5. Evaluation of the Submerged Demineralizer System (SDS) flowsheet for decontamination of high-activity-level water at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Nuclear Power Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, D. O.; Collins, E. D.; King, L. J.; Knauer, J. B.

    1980-07-01

    This report discusses the Submerged Demineralizer System (SDS) flowsheet for decontamination of the high-activity-level water at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Nuclear Power Station was evaluated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in a study that included filtration tests, ion exchange column tests, and ion exchange distribution tests. The contaminated waters, the SDS flowsheet, and the experiments made are described. The experimental results were used to predict the SDS performance and to indicate potential improvements.

  6. Negativ opdragelse og negation af opdragelse. Émiles aktualitet i forhold til en kritisk teori om pædagogik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Gruschka

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Rousseau's exposition of negative education in Émile is explored through its relation to the concept of a negative theory of education developed by the author as a continuation of some crucial insights of early critical theory. Thus, the essay elaborates different aspects of negation and negativity in relation to educational theory and practice. The author defends thereby the actuality of Rousseau's philosophy of education for a critical understanding of the modern phenomenon of educationalization. 

  7. Negativ opdragelse og negation af opdragelse. Émiles aktualitet i forhold til en kritisk teori om pædagogik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Gruschka

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Rousseau's exposition of negative education in Émile is explored through its relation to the concept of a negative theory of education developed by the author as a continuation of some crucial insights of early critical theory. Thus, the essay elaborates different aspects of negation and negativity in relation to educational theory and practice. The author defends thereby the actuality of Rousseau's philosophy of education for a critical understanding of the modern phenomenon of educationalization.

  8. The Effect of Recent Trends in Vehicle Design on U.S. Societal Fatality Risk per Vehicle Mile Traveled, and Their Projected Future Relationship with Vehicle Mass

    OpenAIRE

    T. Wenzel

    2014-01-01

    The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) recently updated its 2003 and 2010 logistic regression analyses of the effect of a reduction in light-duty vehicle mass on US fatality risk per vehicle mile traveled (VMT). The current NHTSA analysis is the most thorough investigation of this issue to date. LBNL's assessment of the analysis indicates that the estimated effect of mass reduction on risk is smaller than in the previous studies, and statistically non-significant for all b...

  9. Advanced Crystal Growth Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Land, T A; Hawley-Fedder, R A

    2005-03-01

    Although the fundamental mechanism of crystal growth has received and continues to receive deserved attention as a research activity, similar research efforts addressing the need for advanced materials and processing technology required to grow future high quality crystals has been sorely lacking. The purpose of this research effort is to develop advanced rapid growth processing technologies and materials suitable for providing the quality of products needed for advanced laser and photonics applications. In particular we are interested in developing a methodology for growing high quality KDP crystals based on an understanding of the fundamental mechanisms affecting growth. One problem in particular is the issue of control of impurities during the growth process. Many unwanted impurities are derived from the growth system containers and can adversely affect the optical quality and aspect ratio (shape) of the crystals. Previous studies have shown that even trace concentrations ({approx}10{sup -9} M) of impurities affect growth and even 'insignificant' species can have a large impact. It is also known that impurities affect the two growth faces of KDP very differently. Traces of trivalent metal impurities such as Fe{sup 3+}, Cr{sup 3+}, and Al{sup 3+} in solution are known to inhibit growth of the prismatic {l_brace}100{r_brace} faces of KDP while having little effect on the growth of the pyramidal {l_brace}101{r_brace} faces. This differentiation opens the possibility of intentionally adding select ions to control the aspect ratio of the crystal to obtain a more advantageous shape. This document summarizes our research efforts to improve KDP crystal growth. The first step was to control unwanted impurity addition from the growth vessel by developing an FEP liner to act as a barrier to the glass container. The other focus to develop an understanding of select impurities on growth rates in order to be able to use them to control the habit or shape of the

  10. Introduction to protein crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Alexander; Gavira, Jose A

    2014-01-01

    Protein crystallization was discovered by chance about 150 years ago and was developed in the late 19th century as a powerful purification tool and as a demonstration of chemical purity. The crystallization of proteins, nucleic acids and large biological complexes, such as viruses, depends on the creation of a solution that is supersaturated in the macromolecule but exhibits conditions that do not significantly perturb its natural state. Supersaturation is produced through the addition of mild precipitating agents such as neutral salts or polymers, and by the manipulation of various parameters that include temperature, ionic strength and pH. Also important in the crystallization process are factors that can affect the structural state of the macromolecule, such as metal ions, inhibitors, cofactors or other conventional small molecules. A variety of approaches have been developed that combine the spectrum of factors that effect and promote crystallization, and among the most widely used are vapor diffusion, dialysis, batch and liquid-liquid diffusion. Successes in macromolecular crystallization have multiplied rapidly in recent years owing to the advent of practical, easy-to-use screening kits and the application of laboratory robotics. A brief review will be given here of the most popular methods, some guiding principles and an overview of current technologies.

  11. Crystal Ball Functional Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnick, David

    2016-09-01

    The A2 collaboration of the MAinz MIkrotron is dedicated to studying meson production and nucleon structure and behavior via photon scattering. The photons are made via bremsstrahlung process and energy-tagged using the Glasgow Photon tagger. The photon beam then interacts in a variety of targets: cryogenic, polarized or solid state, and scattered particles deposit their energy within the NaI crystals. Scintillators are able to give results on particles energy and time. Events are reconstructed by combining information from the Tagging spectrometer, the Crystal Ball detector, the TAPS forward wall spectrometer, a Cherenkov detector, and multi-wire proportional chambers. To better understand the detector and experimental events, a live display was built to show energies deposited in crystals in real-time. In order to show a range of energies and particles, addressable LEDs that are individually programmable were used. To best replicate the Crystal Ball, 3D printing technology was employed to build a similar highly segmented icosahedron that can hold each LED, creating a 3D representation of what photons see during experiments. The LEDs were controlled via Arduino microcontroller. Finally, we implemented the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System to grab live event data, and a simple program converts this data in to color and crystal number data that is able to communicate with the Arduino. Using these simple parts, we can better visualize and understand the tools used in nuclear physics. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Grant No. IIA-1358175.

  12. GENES Y EVOLUCION EL DELGADO HILO QUE NOS CONECTA POR MILES DE MILLONES DE AÑOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia Luis Fernando

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La escala temporal en nuestra cotidianidad refleja una pequeña fracción de la historia evolutiva de los organismos, incluidos los humanos. La edad del planeta se estima en 4,500 millones de años, en los cuales profundos cambios en la posición de los continentes y grandes transformaciones en el clima de la tierra ocurrieron, aunque los cambios más drásticos surgen tan sólo en los últimos 500 millones de años. La genética ha sido herramienta fundamental para evidenciar el cambio de los organismos a lo largo de miles y millones de años. El material genético, elemento históricamente compartido por los seres vivos es una huella molecular para estudiar y rastrear cambios en el pasado. Así, los científicos logran estudiar en las secuencias de ADN o proteínas cómo evolucionaron los grandes grupos de animales, cuando surgieron importantes novedades evolutivas, cómo interaccionan los genes, y determinar las relaciones evolutivas entre las formas del pasado y las contemporáneas. Las relaciones entre organismos se explican por simple similaridad, por compartir características únicas o mediante modelos matemáticos que describen como evolucionan las secuencias de ADN y las proteínas. La genética también evidencia lo dinámico de los genomas, pues hay ganancia y perdida de genes, nuevas funciones, y transferencia horizontal de genes, mecanismos que incrementan la diversidad orgánica existente hoy. Aunque el ambiente es determinante en la evolución de los organismos, es imprescindible reconocer que hay un hilo conductor muy fino y fuerte que nos une inevitablemente a esas primeras moléculas que se formaron hace 4,500 millones de años. Palabras clave: Evolución, genoma, genética, transferencia horizontal de genes, mutación. ABSTRACT The temporal scale in our daily life is a small fraction of the evolutionary history of organisms, included the humans. The planet age is estimated in 4,5 billion years, in which profound

  13. Flexible ferroelectric organic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owczarek, Magdalena; Hujsak, Karl A.; Ferris, Daniel P.; Prokofjevs, Aleksandrs; Majerz, Irena; Szklarz, Przemysław; Zhang, Huacheng; Sarjeant, Amy A.; Stern, Charlotte L.; Jakubas, Ryszard; Hong, Seungbum; Dravid, Vinayak P.; Stoddart, J. Fraser

    2016-10-01

    Flexible organic materials possessing useful electrical properties, such as ferroelectricity, are of crucial importance in the engineering of electronic devices. Up until now, however, only ferroelectric polymers have intrinsically met this flexibility requirement, leaving small-molecule organic ferroelectrics with room for improvement. Since both flexibility and ferroelectricity are rare properties on their own, combining them in one crystalline organic material is challenging. Herein, we report that trisubstituted haloimidazoles not only display ferroelectricity and piezoelectricity--the properties that originate from their non-centrosymmetric crystal lattice--but also lend their crystalline mechanical properties to fine-tuning in a controllable manner by disrupting the weak halogen bonds between the molecules. This element of control makes it possible to deliver another unique and highly desirable property, namely crystal flexibility. Moreover, the electrical properties are maintained in the flexible crystals.

  14. Flexible ferroelectric organic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owczarek, Magdalena; Hujsak, Karl A.; Ferris, Daniel P.; Prokofjevs, Aleksandrs; Majerz, Irena; Szklarz, Przemysław; Zhang, Huacheng; Sarjeant, Amy A.; Stern, Charlotte L.; Jakubas, Ryszard; Hong, Seungbum; Dravid, Vinayak P.; Stoddart, J. Fraser

    2016-01-01

    Flexible organic materials possessing useful electrical properties, such as ferroelectricity, are of crucial importance in the engineering of electronic devices. Up until now, however, only ferroelectric polymers have intrinsically met this flexibility requirement, leaving small-molecule organic ferroelectrics with room for improvement. Since both flexibility and ferroelectricity are rare properties on their own, combining them in one crystalline organic material is challenging. Herein, we report that trisubstituted haloimidazoles not only display ferroelectricity and piezoelectricity—the properties that originate from their non-centrosymmetric crystal lattice—but also lend their crystalline mechanical properties to fine-tuning in a controllable manner by disrupting the weak halogen bonds between the molecules. This element of control makes it possible to deliver another unique and highly desirable property, namely crystal flexibility. Moreover, the electrical properties are maintained in the flexible crystals. PMID:27734829

  15. Frequency doubling crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Francis; Velsko, Stephan P.

    1989-01-01

    A systematic approach to the production of frequency conversion crystals is described in which a chiral molecule has attached to it a "harmonic generating unit" which contributes to the noncentrosymmetry of the molecule. Certain preferred embodiments of such harmonic generating units include carboxylate, guanadyly and imidazolyl units. Certain preferred crystals include L-arginine fluoride, deuterated L-arginine fluoride, L-arginine chloride monohydrate, L-arginine acetate, dithallium tartrate, ammonium N-acetyl valine, N-acetyl tyrosine and N-acetyl hydroxyproline. Chemical modifications of the chiral molecule, such as deuteration, halogenation and controlled counterion substitution are available to adapt the dispersive properties of a crystal in a particular wavelength region.

  16. Photonic Crystal Microchip Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gailevicius, Darius; Koliadenko, Volodymyr; Purlys, Vytautas; Peckus, Martynas; Taranenko, Victor; Staliunas, Kestutis

    2016-09-01

    The microchip lasers, being very compact and efficient sources of coherent light, suffer from one serious drawback: low spatial quality of the beam strongly reducing the brightness of emitted radiation. Attempts to improve the beam quality, such as pump-beam guiding, external feedback, either strongly reduce the emission power, or drastically increase the size and complexity of the lasers. Here it is proposed that specially designed photonic crystal in the cavity of a microchip laser, can significantly improve the beam quality. Experiments show that a microchip laser, due to spatial filtering functionality of intracavity photonic crystal, improves the beam quality factor M2 reducing it by a factor of 2, and increase the brightness of radiation by a factor of 3. This comprises a new kind of laser, the “photonic crystal microchip laser”, a very compact and efficient light source emitting high spatial quality high brightness radiation.

  17. Photonic Crystal Fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard; Broeng, Jes; Sanchez Bjarklev, Araceli

    Photonic crystal fibres represent one of the most active research areas today in the field of optics. The diversity of applications that may be addressed by these fibres and their fundamental appeal, by opening up the possibility of guiding light in a radically new way compared to conventional...... optical fibres, have spun an interest from almost all areas of optics and photonics. The aim of this book is to provide an understanding of the different types of photonic crystal fibres and to outline some of the many new and exciting applications that these fibres offer. The book is intended for both...... readers with a general interest in photonic crystals, as well as for scientists who are entering the field and desire a broad overview as well as a solid starting point for further specialized stuides. Teh book, therefore, covers bothe general aspects such as the link from classical optics to photonic...

  18. Photonic Crystal Fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard; Broeng, Jes; Sanchez Bjarklev, Araceli

    Photonic crystal fibres represent one of the most active research areas today in the field of optics. The diversity of applications that may be addressed by these fibres and their fundamental appeal, by opening up the possibility of guiding light in a radically new way compared to conventional...... optical fibres, have spun an interest from almost all areas of optics and photonics. The aim of this book is to provide an understanding of the different types of photonic crystal fibres and to outline some of the many new and exciting applications that these fibres offer. The book is intended for both...... readers with a general interest in photonic crystals, as well as for scientists who are entering the field and desire a broad overview as well as a solid starting point for further specialized stuides. Teh book, therefore, covers bothe general aspects such as the link from classical optics to photonic...

  19. Photonic crystals as metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foteinopoulou, S.

    2012-10-01

    The visionary work of Veselago had inspired intensive research efforts over the last decade, towards the realization of man-made structures with unprecedented electromagnetic (EM) properties. These structures, known as metamaterials, are typically periodic metallic-based resonant structures demonstrating effective constitutive parameters beyond the possibilities of natural material. For example they can exhibit optical magnetism or simultaneously negative effective permeability and permittivity which implies the existence of a negative refractive index. However, also periodic dielectric and polar material, known as photonic crystals, can exhibit EM capabilities beyond natural materials. This paper reviews the conditions and manifestations of metamaterial capabilities of photonic crystal systems.

  20. Crystal Structures of Furazanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M. Klapötke

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Several nitrogen-rich salts of 3-nitramino-4-nitrofurazane and dinitraminoazoxyfurazane were synthesized and characterized by various spectroscopic methods. The crystal structures were determined by low temperature single crystal X-ray diffraction. Moreover the sensitivities toward thermal and mechanical stimuli were determined by differential thermal analysis (DTA and BAM (Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung methods. The standard enthalpies of formation were calculated for all compounds at the CBS-4M level of theory, and the energetic performance was predicted with the EXPLO5 V6.02 computer code.

  1. Liquid crystals fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Shri

    2001-01-01

    Liquid crystals are partially ordered systems without a rigid, long-range structure. The study of these materials covers a wide area: chemical structure, physical properties and technical applications. Due to their dual nature - anisotropic physical properties of solids and rheological behavior of liquids - and easy response to externally applied electric, magnetic, optical and surface fields liquid crystals are of greatest potential for scientific and technological applications. The subject has come of age and has achieved the status of being a very exciting interdisciplinary field of scienti

  2. Cirrus Crystal Terminal Velocities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Iaquinta, Jean

    2000-04-01

    Cirrus crystal terminal velocities are of primary importance in determining the rate of transport of condensate from upper- to middle-tropospheric levels and profoundly influence the earth's radiation balance through their effect on the rate of buildup or decay of cirrus clouds. In this study, laboratory and field-based cirrus crystal drag coefficient data, as well as analytical descriptions of cirrus crystal shapes, are used to derive more physically based expressions for the velocities of cirrus crystals than have been available in the past.Polycrystals-often bullet rosettes-are shown to be the dominant crystal types in synoptically generated cirrus, with columns present in varying but relatively large percentages, depending on the cloud. The two critical parameters needed to calculate terminal velocity are the drag coefficient and the ratio of mass to cross-sectional area normal to their fall direction. Using measurements and calculations, it is shown that drag coefficients from theory and laboratory studies are applicable to crystals of the types found in cirrus. The ratio of the mass to area, which is shown to be relatively independent of the number of bullets in the rosette, is derived from an analytic model that represents bullet rosettes containing one to eight bullets in 19 primary geometric configurations. The ratio is also derived for columns. Using this information, a general set of equations is developed to calculate the terminal velocities and masses in terms of the aspect ratio (width divided by length), ice density, and rosette maximum dimension. Simple expressions for terminal velocity and mass as a function of bullet rosette maximum dimension are developed by incorporating new information on bullet aspect ratios.The general terminal velocity and mass relations are then applied to a case from the First International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) Research Experiment (FIRE) 2, when size spectra from a balloon-borne ice crystal

  3. High Birefringence Liquid Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Herman

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Liquid crystals, compounds and mixtures with positive dielectric anisotropies are reviewed. The mesogenic properties and physical chemical properties (viscosity, birefringence, refractive indices, dielectric anisotropy and elastic constants of compounds being cyano, fluoro, isothiocyanato derivatives of biphenyl, terphenyl, quaterphenyl, tolane, phenyl tolane, phenyl ethynyl tolane, and biphenyl tolane are compared. The question of how to obtain liquid crystal with a broad range of nematic phases is discussed in detail. Influence of lateral substituent of different kinds of mesogenic and physicochemical properties is presented (demonstrated. Examples of mixtures with birefringence ∆n in the range of 0.2–0.5 are given.

  4. Functionalizing Designer DNA Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Arun Richard

    Three-dimensional crystals have been self-assembled from a DNA tensegrity triangle via sticky end interaction. The tensegrity triangle is a rigid DNA motif containing three double helical edges connected pair-wise by three four-arm junctions. The symmetric triangle contains 3 unique strands combined in a 3:3:1 ratio: 3 crossover, 3 helical and 1 central. The length of the sticky end reported previously was two nucleotides (nt) (GA:TC) and the motif with 2-helical turns of DNA per edge diffracted to 4.9 A at beam line NSLS-X25 and to 4 A at beam line ID19 at APS. The purpose of these self-assembled DNA crystals is that they can be used as a framework for hosting external guests for use in crystallographic structure solving or the periodic positioning of molecules for nanoelectronics. This thesis describes strategies to improve the resolution and to incorporate guests into the 3D lattice. The first chapter describes the effect of varying sticky end lengths and the influence of 5'-phosphate addition on crystal formation and resolution. X-ray diffraction data from beam line NSLS-X25 revealed that the crystal resolution for 1-nt (G:C) sticky end was 3.4 A. Motifs with every possible combination of 1-nt and 2-nt sticky-ended phosphorylated strands were crystallized and X-ray data were collected. The position of the 5'-phosphate on either the crossover (strand 1), helical (strand 2), or central strand (3) had an impact on the resolution of the self-assembled crystals with the 1-nt 1P-2-3 system diffracting to 2.62 A at APS and 3.1 A at NSLS-X25. The second chapter describes the sequence-specific recognition of DNA motifs with triplex-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs). This study examined the feasibility of using TFOs to bind to specific locations within a 3-turn DNA tensegrity triangle motif. The TFO 5'-TTCTTTCTTCTCT was used to target the tensegrity motif containing an appropriately embedded oligopurine.oligopyrimidine binding site. As triplex formation involving cytidine

  5. REFINEMENT OF THE CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF GUANIDINIUM ALUMINUM SULFATE HEXAHYDRATE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FERROELECTRIC CRYSTALS, * CRYSTAL STRUCTURE ), (*GUANIDINES, CRYSTAL STRUCTURE ), (*ALUMINUM COMPOUNDS, CRYSTAL STRUCTURE ), SULFATES, HYDRATES, X RAY DIFFRACTION, CHROMIUM COMPOUNDS, CRYSTAL LATTICES, CHEMICAL BONDS

  6. Electrospray crystallization for high-quality submicron-sized crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radacsi, N.; Stankiewicz, A.I.; Creyghton, Y.L.M.; Heijden, A.E.D.M. van der; Horst, J.H. ter

    2011-01-01

    Nano- and submicron-sized crystals are too small to contain inclusions and are, therefore, expected to have a higher internal quality compared to conventionally sized particles (several tens to hundreds of microns). Using electrospray crystallization, nano- and submicron-sized crystals can be easily

  7. Liquid crystal colloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This special issue of "Condensed Matter Physics" focuses on the most recent developments in the study of a fascinating soft matter system, representing colloidal particles in a liquid crystalline environment. Furthermore, some articles address pioneering steps in the discovery of liquid crystals going back to 1861 paper by Julius Planer.

  8. Crystal Ball Replica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajamian, John

    2016-09-01

    The A2 collaboration of the Institute for Nuclear Physics of Johannes Gutenberg University performs research on (multiple) meson photoproduction and nucleon structure and dynamics using a high energy polarized photon beam at specific targets. Particles scattered from the target are detected in the Crystal Ball, or CB. The CB is composed of 672 NaI crystals that surround the target and can analyze particle type and energy of ejected particles. Our project was to create a replica of the CB that could display what was happening in real time on a 3 Dimensional scale replica. Our replica was constructed to help explain the physics to the general public, be used as a tool when calibrating each of the 672 NaI crystals, and to better analyze the electron showering of particles coming from the target. This poster will focus on the hardware steps necessary to construct the replica and wire the 672 programmable LEDS in such a way that they can be mapped to correspond to the Crystal Ball elements. George Washington NSF Grant.

  9. Poet Lake Crystal Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    This September 19, 2016 letter from EPA approves the petition from Poet Biorefining-Lake Crystal, regarding non-grandfathered ethanol produced through a dry mill process, qualifying under the Clean Air Act for renewable fuel (D-code 6) RINs under the RFS

  10. The Crystal Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    In past issues of this journal, the late H. R. Crane wrote a long series of articles under the running title of "How Things Work." In them, Dick dealt with many questions that physics teachers asked themselves, but did not have the time to answer. This article is my attempt to work through the physics of the crystal set, which I thought…

  11. Computer-assisted Crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semeister, Joseph J., Jr.; Dowden, Edward

    1989-01-01

    To avoid a tedious task for recording temperature, a computer was used for calculating the heat of crystallization for the compound sodium thiosulfate. Described are the computer-interfacing procedures. Provides pictures of laboratory equipment and typical graphs from experiments. (YP)

  12. The CMS crystal calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Lustermann, W

    2004-01-01

    The measurement of the energy of electrons and photons with very high accuracy is of primary importance far the study of many physics processes at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), in particular for the search of the Higgs Boson. The CMS experiment will use a crystal calorimeter with pointing geometry, almost covering 4p, as it offers a very good energy resolution. It is divided into a barrel composed of 61200 lead tungstate crystals, two end-caps with 14648 crystals and a pre-shower detector in front of the end-cap. The challenges of the calorimeter design arise from the high radiation environment, the 4 Tesla magnetic eld, the high bunch crossing rate of 40 MHz and the large dynamic range, requiring the development of fast, radiation hard crystals, photo-detectors and readout electronics. An overview of the construction and design of the calorimeter will be presented, with emphasis on some of the details required to meet the demanding performance goals. 19 Refs.

  13. The Crystal Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    In past issues of this journal, the late H. R. Crane wrote a long series of articles under the running title of "How Things Work." In them, Dick dealt with many questions that physics teachers asked themselves, but did not have the time to answer. This article is my attempt to work through the physics of the crystal set, which I thought…

  14. DIFFRACTION FROM MODEL CRYSTALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although calculating X-ray diffraction patterns from atomic coordinates of a crystal structure is a widely available capability, calculation from non-periodic arrays of atoms has not been widely applied to cellulose. Non-periodic arrays result from modeling studies that, even though started with at...

  15. Simulating polymer liquid crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bladon, P.; Frenkel, D.

    1996-01-01

    A model suitable for simulating lyotropic polymer liquid crystals (PLCs) is described. By varying the persistence length between infinity and 25, the effect of increasing flexibility on the nematic - smectic transition of a PLC with a length-to-width ratio L/D = 6 is investigated. It is found that

  16. Ultrafast photonic crystal optical switching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Qi-huang; HU Xiao-yong

    2006-01-01

    Photonic crystal,a novel and artificial photonic material with periodic dielectric distribution,possesses photonic bandgap and can control the propagation states of photons.Photonic crystal has been considered to be a promising candidate for the future integrated photonic devices.The properties and the fabrication method of photonic crystal are expounded.The progresses of the study of ultrafast photonic crystal optical switching are discussed in detail.

  17. Subcutaneous crystal deposition in pseudogout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, B M; Round, M J

    1980-11-07

    Aspiration of inflamed periarticular tissues in seven patients suspected of having gout on clinical examination revealed positively birefringent calcium pyrophosphate crystals. The identification of calcium pyrophosphate crystals within articular structures and in the surrounding soft tissues and radiologic findings of chondrocalcinosis, in the absence of identifiable uric acid crystals, emphasize the importance of crystal identification in all cases of probable gout and stress the diagnostic role of soft-tissue aspiration in cases of soft-tissue inflammation, especially when arthrocentesis is unsuccessful.

  18. Intensified crystallization in complex media: heuristics for crystallization of platform chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urbanus, J.; Roelands, C.P.M.; Verdoes, D.; Horst, J.H. ter

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents heuristics for the integration of fermentation with the appropriate crystallization based in-situ product recovery (ISPR) technique. Here techniques, such as co-crystallization (CC), evaporative crystallization (EC), template induced crystallization (TIC), cooling crystallization

  19. Intensified crystallization in complex media: heuristics for crystallization of platform chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urbanus, J.; Roelands, C.P.M.; Verdoes, D.; Horst, J.H. ter

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents heuristics for the integration of fermentation with the appropriate crystallization based in-situ product recovery (ISPR) technique. Here techniques, such as co-crystallization (CC), evaporative crystallization (EC), template induced crystallization (TIC), cooling crystallization

  20. Cohort profiles of the cross-sectional and prospective participant groups in the second Diabetes MILES—Australia (MILES-2) study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Jessica L; Holmes-Truscott, Elizabeth; Ventura, Adriana D; Hendrieckx, Christel; Pouwer, Frans; Speight, Jane

    2017-01-01

    Purpose More research into the psychosocial aspects of diabetes is needed so that the health and quality of life of people with the condition can be improved. To fill this gap, we conducted the second Diabetes MILES—Australia study (MILES-2), a survey focused on psychological, behavioural and social aspects of diabetes. The aim of the MILES-2 study was to provide a (1) longitudinal follow-up of the original MILES 2011 study cohort; (2) cross-sectional assessment of a new cohort. Participants Eligible participants were English-speaking Australians with type 1 or type 2 diabetes, aged 18–75 years. Longitudinal cohort participants were mailed/emailed study invitations directly by researchers. Random sampling (stratified by diabetes type, insulin use, state) of the National Diabetes Services Scheme (NDSS) database and nationwide advertisements were used to recruit new cohort participants. The final sample included N=2342 eligible respondents (longitudinal cohort: n=504; 2015 new cohort: n=1838); 54% had type 2 diabetes. Findings to date Survey respondents were from an advantaged socioeconomic background compared to the general population. Respondents with type 1 diabetes were over-represented in the new cohort (45%) relative to the planned stratification (40% type 1 diabetes, 60% type 2 diabetes). Respondents with insulin-treated type 2 diabetes were under-represented in the new cohort relative to the stratified sampling (42% invited vs 50% response). Participants who completed both the 2011 and 2015 surveys were more likely than those completing the 2011 survey only to have type 1 diabetes, report a higher education and annual income, and live in metropolitan areas. Participant feedback indicated that the survey was perceived as relevant and valuable. Future plans The depth and breadth of the data available in this large sample will highlight unmet needs and priority areas for future investigation and, crucially, will inform policy, programme and intervention

  1. The link between obesity and the built environment. Evidence from an ecological analysis of obesity and vehicle miles of travel in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Zetina, Javier; Lee, Howard; Friis, Robert

    2006-12-01

    Obesity and physical inactivity are known to be risk factors for many chronic diseases including hypertension, coronary artery disease, diabetes, and cancer. We sought to explore the association between an indicator of transportation data (Vehicle Miles of Travel, VMT) at the county level as it relates to obesity and physical inactivity in California. Data from the California Health Interview Survey 2001 (CHIS 2001), the US 2000 Census, and the California Department of Transportation were merged to examine ecological correlations between vehicle miles of travel, population density, commute time, and county indicators of obesity and physical inactivity. Obesity was measured by body mass index (BMI). Physical inactivity was based on self-reported behaviors including walking, bicycling, and moderate to vigorous activity. The unit of analysis was the county. Thirty-three counties in California with population size greater than 100,000 persons per county were retained in the analyses. CHIS 2001 statewide obesity prevalence ranged from 11.2% to 28.5% by county. Physical inactivity ranged from 13.4% to 35.7%. Daily vehicle miles of travel ranged from 3.3 million to 183.8 million per county. By rank bivariate correlation, obesity and physical inactivity were significantly associated (prank analysis of variance, the highest mean rank obesity was associated with the highest rank of VMT (prank patterns were observed between obesity and physical inactivity and commute time. Associations between VMT and physical inactivity were examined but failed to reach statistical significance. This analysis adds to the growing evidence supporting the association between VMT (a measure of automobile transportation) and obesity. An urban design characterized by over dependence on motorized transportation may be related to adverse health effects.

  2. Focus on the Middle Mile of P2P-CDN%多媒体服务中间一公里资源优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁小群; 喻莉; 朱光喜; 史佩昌

    2012-01-01

    重点关注如何实现中间一公里处的多媒体有效分发.为此,文章首先利用博弈论分析了多媒体分发网络的内容分发与底层基础网络流量间的相互影响关系,提出一种中间一公里资源优化分配策略.在此基础上,文章提出一种新的动态资源分配算法并利用Matlab实验验证该算法的有效性.实验结果表明,与传统的冗余路由策略相比,动态资源分配算法能够将资源均匀有效的分配到整个网络中去,不仅能够优化多媒体分发网络中间一公里传输效率,还能优化底层基础网络资源分配.%This paper focused on how to deliver Multimedia in the middle mile effectively. Firstly, analyzing the interaction between content delivery and traffic engineering with the Game Theory. Proposed a resource allocation strategy for the Multimedia delivery in the middle mile, which takes into account the physical background traffic and the work state of Multimedia delivery networks, delivers streaming effectively, and has a good adaptability. At last, we verify our strategy with considered designed experience, our proposed algorithm can effectively deliver multimedia to the destination nodes through the " middle mile" of Multimedia delivery networks.

  3. Optimization of photonic crystal cavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Fengwen; Sigmund, Ole

    2017-01-01

    We present optimization of photonic crystal cavities. The optimization problem is formulated to maximize the Purcell factor of a photonic crystal cavity. Both topology optimization and air-hole-based shape optimization are utilized for the design process. Numerical results demonstrate...... that the Purcell factor of the photonic crystal cavity can be significantly improved through optimization....

  4. Classical and quantum Coulomb crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Bonitz, M; Baumgartner, H; Henning, C; Filinov, A; Block, D; Arp, O; Piel, A; Kading, S; Ivanov, Y; Melzer, A; Fehske, H; Filinov, V

    2008-01-01

    Strong correlation effects in classical and quantum plasmas are discussed. In particular, Coulomb (Wigner) crystallization phenomena are reviewed focusing on one-component non-neutral plasmas in traps and on macroscopic two-component neutral plasmas. The conditions for crystal formation in terms of critical values of the coupling parameters and the distance fluctuations and the phase diagram of Coulomb crystals are discussed.

  5. Surface properties of HMX crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, R. Y.; Adicoff, A.; Dibble, E. J.

    1980-01-01

    The surface properties of Beta-HMX crystals were studied. The surface energies of three principal crystal faces were obtained by measuring contact angles with several reference liquids. The surface energies and polarity of the three crystal faces are found to be different.

  6. Computational strain gradient crystal plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Kysar, Jeffrey W.

    2014-01-01

    of plane crystal plasticity are studied: pure shear of a single crystal between rigid platens as well as plastic deformation around cylindrical voids in hexagonal close packed and face centered cubic crystals. Effective in-plane constitutive slip parameters for plane strain deformation of specifically...

  7. A Few Good Crystals Please

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Russell A.; Snell, Edward H.

    1999-01-01

    Part of the challenge of macromolecular crystal growth for structure determination is obtaining an appropriate number of crystals with a crystal volume suitable for X-ray analysis. In this respect an understanding of the effect of solution conditions on macromolecule nucleation rates is advantageous. This study investigated the effects of solution conditions on the nucleation rate and final crystal size of two crystal systems; tetragonal lysozyme and glucose isomerase. Batch crystallization plates were prepared at given solution concentration and incubated at set temperatures over one week. The number of crystals per well with their size and axial ratios were recorded and correlated with solution conditions. Duplicate experiments indicate the reproducibility of the technique. Results for each system showing the effect of supersaturation, incubation temperature and solution pH on nucleation rates will be presented and discussed. In the case of lysozyme, having optimized solution conditions to produce an appropriate number of crystals of a suitable size, a batch of crystals were prepared under exactly the same conditions. Fifty of these crystals were analyzed by x-ray techniques. The results indicate that even under the same crystallization conditions, a marked variation in crystal properties exists.

  8. Supplement Analysis for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program FEIS (DOE/EIS-0285/SA-133 Hanford-Ostrander [Mile 126/1-146/4])

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walasavage, Frederick J. [Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR (United States)

    2003-03-20

    Vegetation Management for the Hanford-Ostrander Corridor from structure 126/1 through structure 146/4. Right of way width averages 312 feet. BPA proposes to remove unwanted vegetation along the right-of-way, access roads, and around tower structures along the subject transmission line corridors. Approximately 20 miles of right-of-way will be treated using selective and non-selective methods that include hand cutting, mowing and herbicide treatments. Access roads and tower sites will be cleared using selective and non-selective methods that include hand cutting, mowing and herbicide treatments. Vegetation management is required for unimpeded operation and maintenance of the subject transmission line.

  9. La temprana recepción de Émile Durkheim en la sociología argentina : Apropiaciones y reelaboraciones en los escritos de Leopoldo Maupas

    OpenAIRE

    Vila, Esteban Ezequiel

    2014-01-01

    El presente trabajo aborda la temprana recepción de la obra de uno de los clásicos de la Sociología, Émile Durkheim, en el ámbito local. En una primera instancia, se realiza un recorrido sobre las menciones que de la obra del sociólogo alsaciano se realizaron durante la primera etapa institucional de la disciplina sociológica en la Argentina (1898- 1921), para luego avanzar, con especial énfasis, en la apropiación que Leopoldo Maupas, principal receptor de la teoría durkheimniana en el país e...

  10. Traducción y reescritura ideológica bajo el franquismo: La Faute de l’ abbé Mouret de Émile Zola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purificación Meseguer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to unravel the impact of Francoist censorship in the translation into Spanish of ÉmileZola’s La Faute de l’abbé Mouret. The novel was published in 1967, immediately after the Press Law of 1966, a time at which the coercive measures adopted certainly encouraged self-censor-ship by translators, but also by publishers. The analysis reveals that Zola’s La Faute de l’abbé Mouret was submitted to internal censorship and was published with a number of suppressions and substitutions which did not only transform the novel but alsocreated a discourse favorable to Franco’s interests.

  11. Miles Davis, La Niña de los Peines y Alan Lomax: una nueva perspectiva de la “Saeta” de Sketches of Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Zagalaz, Juan

    2016-01-01

    El jazz y el flamenco han mostrado su magnetismo en multitud de ocasiones a lo largo de la historia. Así, el acercamiento producido entre el maestro Paco de Lucía y el gran pianista Chick Corea desembocó en la aparición de figuras como Jorge Pardo y Carles Benavent, estandartes de lo que en la actualidad se conoce como jazz – flamenco. Sin embargo, uno de los acercamientos que más ha llamado la atención de músicos e investigadores fue el que realizaron Miles Davis y Gil Evans a la cultura...

  12. Effects of High Intensity and Sprint Interval Training Frequency on 1.5 Mile Run Times in Air Force ROTC Cadets

    OpenAIRE

    Dahle, Jared Hill

    2016-01-01

    The effects of varying high intensity interval training (HIIT) and sprint interval training (SIT) frequency on 1.5 mile (2.4km) run performance in Air Force ROTC cadets were studied. Twenty-seven cadets (21.6 ± 2.8 years) were stratified then randomly assigned to 3 groups: a high frequency group (HF) that performed HIIT/SIT 3x week, a low frequency group (LF) that performed HIIT/SIT 2x week, and a continuous training group (CG) that performed moderate intensity training 3x week. HIIT workou...

  13. Generation of Absolute Controlled Crystal Chirality by the Removal of Crystal Water from Achiral Crystal of Nucleobase Cytosine

    OpenAIRE

    Kawasaki, Tsuneomi; Hakoda, Yuko; Mineki, Hiroko; Suzuki, Kenta; Soai, Kenso

    2010-01-01

    The enantioselective formation of chiral crystal of achiral nucleobase cytosine was achieved mediated by the crystal direction selective dehydration of crystal water in the achiral crystal of cytosine monohydrate (P21/c). Heat transfer from the enantiotopic face of the single crystal of cytosine monohydrate afforded the enantiomorphous crystal of anhydrous cytosine.

  14. Clinical efficacy of laparoscopic Mile's operation and modified Bacon's operation in the treatment of rectum cancer%腹腔镜下Mile's手术和改良Bacon's手术治疗直肠癌的临床疗效比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白东林

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical efficacy of laparoscopic Mile's operation and modified Bacon's operation in the treatment of rectum cancer. Methods The clinica data of 64 patients with rectum cancer from June 2007 to June 2012 in our hospital were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were divided into the control group and the study group. Patients in the control group (n=31) were treated with laparoscopic Mile's operation, while those in the study group (n=33) were treated with laparoscopic modified Bacon's operation. The perioperative indicators, postoperative defecation function and survival situation were analyzed. Results The mean operation time, the mean blood loss, the number of lymph nodes, the length of hospital stay, and the incidence of complications showed no statistically significant difference between the two groups (P>0.05). The time of recovering defecation function in the study group was significantly shorter than that in the control group (P0.05). Conclusion Laparoscopic Mile's operation and modified Bacon's operation have similar clinical efficacy for treating rectum cancer, but modified Bacon's operation result in better defecate function.%目的 观察腹腔镜下Mile's 手术和改良Bacon's 手术治疗直肠癌的临床疗效.方法 回顾性分析 我院2007 年6 月至2012 年6 月收治的64 例直肠癌患者的临床资料,根据手术方式分为对照组和观察组,对照组 31 例行腹腔镜辅助Mile's 手术,观察组33 例行腹腔镜辅助Bacon's 手术.分别对两组围手术期指标、术后排便功 能及生存情况进行比较分析.结果 对照组和观察组手术时间、术中出血量、并发症发生率、住院时间及淋巴结 清扫数量比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).观察组排便功能恢复的时间显著低于对照组,差异具有统计学意义 (P0.05).结论 腹腔镜 下Mile's手术和改良Bacon's 手术疗效相当,但改良Bacon's 手术患者术后排便功能恢复快.

  15. Mile Markers and Road Signs, Signs layer created for all signs in rural Scott County that are maintained by the Secondary Roads Dept., Published in 2011, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Scott County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Mile Markers and Road Signs dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2011. It is...

  16. Bathymetry data for the pre-construction survey of the Emergent Sandbar Habitat project at river mile 769.8 downstream from Gavins Point Dam on the Missouri River.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This geospatial data set contains the points collected by the echosounder on transects in the upstream project reach surrounding the construction area at River Mile...

  17. Transects used for pre- and postconstruction data collection at constructed emergent sandbar habitats downstream from Gavins Point Dam near River Miles 761.4 and 769.8 on the Missouri River

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset represents the transects used for hydrographic surveys of Emergent Sandbar Habitat at two sites near river miles 761.4 and 769.8 downstream of Gavins...

  18. Bathymetry data for the post-construction survey of the Emergent Sandbar Habitat project at river mile 769.8 downstream from Gavins Point Dam on the Missouri River.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This geospatial data set contains the points collected by the echosounder on transects in the upstream project reach surrounding the construction area at River Mile...

  19. Weather, One km grid GHCN interpolated temperature and precipitation by ANUSPLIN - covers western North America., Published in 2003, 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, Northern Arizona University.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Weather dataset, published at 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2003. It is described as 'One km grid GHCN...

  20. Crystallization-induced properties from morphology-controlled organic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chibeom; Park, Ji Eun; Choi, Hee Cheul

    2014-08-19

    During the past two decades, many materials chemists have focused on the development of organic molecules that can serve as the basis of cost-effective and flexible electronic, optical, and energy conversion devices. Among the potential candidate molecules, metal-free or metal-containing conjugated organic molecules offer high-order electronic conjugation levels that can directly support fast charge carrier transport, rapid optoelectric responses, and reliable exciton manipulation. Early studies of these molecules focused on the design and synthesis of organic unit molecules that exhibit active electrical and optical properties when produced in the form of thin film devices. Since then, researchers have worked to enhance the properties upon crystallization of the unit molecules as single crystals provide higher carrier mobilities and exciton recombination yields. Most recently, researchers have conducted in-depth studies to understand how crystallization induces property changes, especially those that depend on specific crystal surfaces. The different properties that depend on the crystal facets have been of particular interest. Most unit molecules have anisotropic structures, and therefore produce crystals with several unique crystal facets with dissimilar molecular arrangements. These structural differences would also lead to diverse electrical conductance, optical absorption/emission, and even chemical interaction properties depending on the crystal facet investigated. To study the effects of crystallization and crystal facet-dependent property changes, researchers must grow or synthesize crystals of highly conjugated molecules that have both a variety of morphologies and high crystallinity. Morphologically well-defined organic crystals, that form structures such as wires, rods, disks, and cubes, provide objects that researchers can use to evaluate these material properties. Such structures typically occur as single crystals with well-developed facets with

  1. Surrogate Seeds For Growth Of Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlichta, Paul J.

    1989-01-01

    Larger crystals of higher quality grown. Alternative method for starting growth of crystal involves use of seed crystal of different material instead of same material as solution. Intended for growing single-crystal proteins for experiments but applicable in general to growth of crystals from solutions and to growth of semiconductor or other crystals from melts.

  2. Twisted aspirin crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiaoyan; Rohl, Andrew L; Shtukenberg, Alexander; Kahr, Bart

    2013-03-06

    Banded spherulites of aspirin have been crystallized from the melt in the presence of salicylic acid either generated from aspirin decomposition or added deliberately (2.6-35.9 mol %). Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, and optical polarimetry show that the spherulites are composed of helicoidal crystallites twisted along the growth directions. Mueller matrix imaging reveals radial oscillations in not only linear birefringence, but also circular birefringence, whose origin is explained through slight (∼1.3°) but systematic splaying of individual lamellae in the film. Strain associated with the replacement of aspirin molecules by salicylic acid molecules in the crystal structure is computed to be large enough to work as the driving force for the twisting of crystallites.

  3. Nonlinear Photonic Crystal Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Per

    2004-01-01

    Despite the general recession in the global economy and the collapse of the optical telecommunication market, research within specialty fibers is thriving. This is, more than anything else, due to the technology transition from standard all-glass fibers to photonic crystal fibers, which, instead...... of doping, use a microstructure of air and glass to obtain a refractive index difference between the core and the cladding. This air/glass microstructure lends the photonic crystal fibers a range of unique and highly usable properties, which are very different from those found in solid standard fibers....... The freedom to design the dispersion profile of the fibers is much larger and it is possible to create fibers, which support only a single spatial mode, regardless of wavelength. In comparison, the standard dispersion-shifted fibers are limited by a much lower index-contrast between the core and the cladding...

  4. Nonlinear Photonic Crystal Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Per

    2004-01-01

    , leading to reduced mode confinement and dispersion flexibility. In this thesis, we treat the nonlinear photonic crystal fiber – a special sub-class of photonic crystal fibers, the core of which has a diameter comparable to the wavelength of the light guided in the fiber. The small core results in a large...... nonlinear coefficient and in various applications, it is therefore possible to reduce the required fiber lengths quite dramatically, leading to increased stability and efficiency. Furthermore, it is possible to design these fibers with zero-dispersion at previously unreachable wavelengths, paving the way...... for completely new applications, especially in and near the visible wavelength region. One such application is supercontinuum generation. Supercontinuum generation is extreme broadening of pulses in a nonlinear medium (in this case a small-core fiber), and depending on the dispersion of the fiber, it is possible...

  5. Liquid crystal dimers

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar Pal, Santanu

    2017-01-01

    This book covers in-depth discussion of design principles, synthesis and thermal behavior of all types of liquid crystal (LC) dimers. The text presents recent advances in the field of LC dimers consisting of different mesogenic units such as calamitic, discotic and bent-core molecules. It starts with a chapter on the introduction of liquid crystal dimers, including their odd-even behavior, basic classification of dimers and common mesophases in dimers. The text shows how the molecular architectures are being used to develop new materials to study a range of interesting phenomena such as the biaxial nematic phase containing rod-like and disc-like mesogenic units. Finally, the text presents perspectives related to technological relevance of these dimers such as dopants in LC display mixtures exhibiting faster relaxation time, strong flexoelectric coupling and others to effect control over the properties of these materials.

  6. Liquid crystal colloids

    CERN Document Server

    Muševič, Igor

    2017-01-01

    This book brings together the many concepts and discoveries in liquid crystal colloids contributed over the last twenty years and scattered across numerous articles and book chapters. It provides both a historical overview of the development of the field and a clear perspective on the future applications in photonics. The book covers all phenomena observed in liquid crystal colloids with an emphasis on experimental tools and applications of topology in condensed matter, as well as practical micro-photonics applications. It includes a number of spectacular manifestations of new topological phenomena not found or difficult to observe in other systems. Starting from the early works on nematic colloids, it explains the basics of topological defects in ordered media, charge and winding, and the elastic forces between colloidal particles in nematics. Following a detailed description of experimental methods, such as optical tweezing and particle tracking, the book eases the reader into the theoretical part, which de...

  7. Liquid crystals in tribology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrión, Francisco-José; Martínez-Nicolás, Ginés; Iglesias, Patricia; Sanes, José; Bermúdez, María-Dolores

    2009-09-18

    Two decades ago, the literature dealing with the possible applications of low molar mass liquid crystals, also called monomer liquid crystals (MLCs), only included about 50 references. Today, thousands of papers, conference reports, books or book chapters and patents refer to the study and applications of MLCs as lubricants and lubricant additives and efforts are made to develop new commercial applications. The development of more efficient lubricants is of paramount technological and economic relevance as it is estimated that half the energy consumption is dissipated as friction. MLCs have shown their ability to form ordered boundary layers with good load-carrying capacity and to lower the friction coefficients, wear rates and contact temperature of sliding surfaces, thus contributing to increase the components service life and to save energy. This review includes the use of MLCs in lubrication, and dispersions of MLCs in conventional polymers (PDMLCs). Finally, new lubricating system composed of MLC blends with surfactants, ionic liquids or nanophases are considered.

  8. Liquid Crystal Motion Picture Projector①

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHIYongji

    1997-01-01

    A liquid crystal moving picture projector and method are described.Light incident on a liquid crystal display-type device is selectively scattered or transmitted by respective portions of liquid crystal display,and a projection mechanism projects an image formed by either such scattered light or such transmitted light.A liquid cystal moving picture projector includes a liquid crystal display for creating characteristics of an image,and projecttion optics for projecting images sequentially created by the display.The display includes a liquid crystal material capable of temporary storing information at respective areas.The temporary storage may be a function of charge storing directly on liquid crystal material.A method of projecting plural images in sequence includes:creating an image or characteristics of an image in a liquid crystal material,storing such image in such liquid crystal material,directing light at such liquid crystal material,projecting such image as a function of light transmitted through or scattered by such liquid crystal material,and creating a further image in such liquid crystal material for subsequent projection.

  9. Phononic crystals fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Adibi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an in-depth analysis as well as an overview of phononic crystals. This book discusses numerous techniques for the analysis of phononic crystals and covers, among other material, sonic and ultrasonic structures, hypersonic planar structures and their characterization, and novel applications of phononic crystals. This is an ideal book for those working with micro and nanotechnology, MEMS (microelectromechanical systems), and acoustic devices. This book also: Presents an introduction to the fundamentals and properties of phononic crystals Covers simulation techniques for the analysis of phononic crystals Discusses sonic and ultrasonic, hypersonic and planar, and three-dimensional phononic crystal structures Illustrates how phononic crystal structures are being deployed in communication systems and sensing systems.

  10. Modern trends in technical crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matz, G.

    1980-04-01

    Interesting and significant developments have occurred in the last decade in both crystallization equipment and in the theory of crystallization process. In the field of technical crystallization new crystallizers have been developed and computer modelling has become important in scaling up and in the achievement of increased performance. The DP-Kristaller developed by Escher-Wyss-Tsukishima, the Brodie purifier, the sieve tray column having dancing balls, the automated multiple crystallization process due to Mützenberg and Saxer and the double belt cooler, all of which represent technical developments, are described in the first section. The second part of the paper reviews computer modelling of the fluidized bed crystallizer, chemical precipitation, flaking and prilling. Finally, there is a brief discussion of the impact of technical crystallization processes on environmental protection.

  11. Crystallization of undercooled liquid fenofibrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amstad, Esther; Spaepen, Frans; Weitz, David A

    2015-11-28

    Formulation of hydrophobic drugs as amorphous materials is highly advantageous as this increases their solubility in water and therefore their bioavailability. However, many drugs have a high propensity to crystallize during production and storage, limiting the usefulness of amorphous drugs. We study the crystallization of undercooled liquid fenofibrate, a model hydrophobic drug. Nucleation is the rate-limiting step; once seeded with a fenofibrate crystal, the crystal rapidly grows by consuming the undercooled liquid fenofibrate. Crystal growth is limited by the incorporation of molecules into its surface. As nucleation and growth both entail incorporation of molecules into the surface, this process likely also limits the formation of nuclei and thus the crystallization of undercooled liquid fenofibrate, contributing to the good stability of undercooled liquid fenofibrate against crystallization.

  12. Crystalizing the Spinon Basis

    OpenAIRE

    Nakayashiki, Atsushi; Yamada, Yasuhiko

    1995-01-01

    The quasi-particle structure of the higher spin XXZ model is studied. We obtained a new description of crystals associated with the level $k$ integrable highest weight $U_q(\\widehat{sl_2})$ modules in terms of the creation operators at $q=0$ (the crystaline spinon basis). The fermionic character formulas and the Yangian structure of those integrable modules naturally follow from this description. We have also derived the conjectural formulas for the multi quasi-particle states at $q=0$.

  13. Photonic crystal optical memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, A. Wirth; Sombra, A. S. B.

    2011-06-01

    After several decades pushing the technology and the development of the world, the electronics is giving space for technologies that use light. We propose and analyze an optical memory embedded in a nonlinear photonic crystal (PhC), whose system of writing and reading data is controlled by an external command signal. This optical memory is based on optical directional couplers connected to a shared optical ring. Such a device can work over the C-Band of ITU (International Telecommunication Union).

  14. Textures of liquid crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Dierking, Ingo

    2006-01-01

    A unique compendium of knowledge on all aspects of the texture of liquid crystals, providing not just detailed information on texture formation and determination, but also an in-depth discussion of different characterization methods. Experts as well as graduates entering the field will find all the information they need in this handbook, while the magnitude of the color images make it valuable hands-on-reference.

  15. Slotted photonic crystal biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scullion, Mark Gerard

    Optical biosensors are increasingly being considered for lab-on-a-chip applications due to their benefits such as small size, biocompatibility, passive behaviour and lack of the need for fluorescent labels. The light guiding mechanisms used by many of them result in poor overlap of the optical field with the target molecules, reducing the maximum sensitivity achievable. This thesis presents a new platform for optical biosensors, namely slotted photonic crystals, which engender higher sensitivities due to their ability to confine, spatially and temporally, the peak of optical mode within the analyte itself. Loss measurements showed values comparable to standard photonic crystals, confirming their ability to be used in real devices. A novel resonant coupler was designed, simulated, and experimentally tested, and was found to perform better than other solutions within the literature. Combining with cavities, microfluidics and biological functionalization allowed proof-of-principle demonstrations of protein binding to be carried out. High sensitivities were observed in smaller structures than most competing devices in the literature. Initial tests with cellular material for real applications was also performed, and shown to be of promise. In addition, groundwork to make an integrated device that includes the spectrometer function was also carried out showing that slotted photonic crystals themselves can be used for on-chip wavelength specific filtering and spectroscopy, whilst gas-free microvalves for automation were also developed. This body of work presents slotted photonic crystals as a realistic platform for complete on-chip biosensing; addressing key design, performance and application issues, whilst also opening up exciting new ideas for future study.

  16. Crystals against cancer

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    This is a remarkable example of direct technology transfer from particle physics to medicine. Clinical trials have begun in Portugal on a new medical imaging system for the diagnosis of breast cancer, which uses positron emission tomography (PET). The system, developed by a Portuguese consortium in collaboration with CERN and laboratories participating in the Crystal Clear collaboration, will detect even the smallest tumours and thus help avoid unnecessary biopsies.

  17. Variability of Compet itive Factors in Air Transportation and Improving Customer Satisfaction with Service Innovation: A New "Mile + Time Score" Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Can Yıldırır

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available As in all the world, airlines transportation in our country is increasing every day. Rapid transport, reasonable price and high quality service is the reaso n for this increase. Both local and foreign airline companies have accelerated their activities as result of this rapid growth in air transportation sector. Over the time, these enterprises reached a level to go head to head with each other about the quality, price, transport network and they have begun to use similar applications as element of competition. The aim of this study is; to determinate the factors that influence to the customer’s preferences about airline companies and to be a source for enter prises to increase customer satisfaction. For this reason, in addition to “bonus miles” application which is used of almost all airline companies, example of “miles+time score” application was made and evaluated the impact of eliminating in terms of custom er victimization. As a result of the survey applied to 444 people; it is also identified that the impact of the “miles + time” application at the preferences of customers as well as positive and negative factors affecting the enterprises of preferences.

  18. Quartz Crystal Microbalance Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxamusa, S H

    2011-11-16

    We are using a Qpod quartz crystal microbalance (manufactured by Inficon) for use as a low-volume non-volatile residue analysis tool. Inficon has agreed to help troubleshoot some of our measurements and are requesting to view some sample data, which are attached. The basic principle of an NVR analysis is to evaporate a known volume of solvent, and weigh the remaining residue to determine the purity of the solvent. A typical NVR analysis uses 60 g of solvent and can measure residue with an accuracy of +/- 0.01 mg. The detection limit is thus (0.01 mg)/(60 g) = 0.17 ppm. We are attempting to use a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) to make a similar measurement. The attached data show the response of the QCM as a 5-20 mg drop of solvent evaporates on its surface. The change in mass registered by the QCM after the drop evaporates is the residue that deposits on the crystal. On some measurements, the change in mass in less than zero, which is aphysical since the drop will leave behind {>=}0 mass of residue. The vendor, Inficon, has agreed to look at these data as a means to help troubleshoot the cause.

  19. Cholesterol crystal embolism (atheroembolism)

    Science.gov (United States)

    VENTURELLI, CHIARA; JEANNIN, GUIDO; SOTTINI, LAURA; DALLERA, NADIA; SCOLARI, FRANCESCO

    2006-01-01

    Cholesterol crystal embolism, known as atheroembolic disease, is caused by showers of cholesterol crystals from an atherosclerotic plaque that occludes small arteries. Embolization can occur spontaneously or as an iatrogenic complication from an invasive vascular procedure (angiography or vascular surgery) and after anticoagulant therapy. The atheroembolism can give rise to different degrees of renal impairment. Some patients show a moderate loss of renal function, others severe renal failure requiring dialysis. Renal outcome can be variable: some patients deteriorate or remain on dialysis, some improve and some remain with chronic renal impairment. Clinically, three types of atheroembolic renal disease have been described: acute, subacute or chronic. More frequently a progressive loss of renal function occurs over weeks. Atheroembolization can involve the skin, gastrointestinal system and central nervous system. The diagnosis is difficult and controversial for the protean extrarenal manifestations. In the past, the diagnosis was often made post-mortem. In the last 10 yrs, awareness of atheroembolic renal disease has improved. The correct diagnosis requires the clinician to be alert. The typical patient is a white male aged >60 yrs with a history of hypertension, smoking and arterial disease. The presence of a classic triad (precipitating event, renal failure and peripheral cholesterol crystal embolization) suggests the diagnosis. This can be confirmed by a biopsy of the target organs. A specific treatment is lacking; however, it is an important diagnosis to make because an aggressive therapeutic approach can be associated with a more favorable clinical outcome. PMID:21977265

  20. Slotted Photonic Crystal Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scullion, Mark G.; Krauss, Thomas F.; Di Falco, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Optical biosensors are increasingly being considered for lab-on-a-chip applications due to their benefits such as small size, biocompatibility, passive behaviour and lack of the need for fluorescent labels. The light guiding mechanisms used by many of them results in poor overlap of the optical field with the target molecules, reducing the maximum sensitivity achievable. This review article presents a new platform for optical biosensors, namely slotted photonic crystals, which provide higher sensitivities due to their ability to confine, spatially and temporally, the optical mode peak within the analyte itself. Loss measurements showed values comparable to standard photonic crystals, confirming their ability to be used in real devices. A novel resonant coupler was designed, simulated, and experimentally tested, and was found to perform better than other solutions within the literature. Combining with cavities, microfluidics and biological functionalization allowed proof-of-principle demonstrations of protein binding to be carried out. Higher sensitivities were observed in smaller structures than possible with most competing devices reported in the literature. This body of work presents slotted photonic crystals as a realistic platform for complete on-chip biosensing; addressing key design, performance and application issues, whilst also opening up exciting new ideas for future study. PMID:23503295

  1. Slotted Photonic Crystal Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Di Falco

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Optical biosensors are increasingly being considered for lab-on-a-chip applications due to their benefits such as small size, biocompatibility, passive behaviour and lack of the need for fluorescent labels. The light guiding mechanisms used by many of them results in poor overlap of the optical field with the target molecules, reducing the maximum sensitivity achievable. This review article presents a new platform for optical biosensors, namely slotted photonic crystals, which provide higher sensitivities due to their ability to confine, spatially and temporally, the optical mode peak within the analyte itself. Loss measurements showed values comparable to standard photonic crystals, confirming their ability to be used in real devices. A novel resonant coupler was designed, simulated, and experimentally tested, and was found to perform better than other solutions within the literature. Combining with cavities, microfluidics and biological functionalization allowed proof-of-principle demonstrations of protein binding to be carried out. Higher sensitivities were observed in smaller structures than possible with most competing devices reported in the literature. This body of work presents slotted photonic crystals as a realistic platform for complete on-chip biosensing; addressing key design, performance and application issues, whilst also opening up exciting new ideas for future study.

  2. Living liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shuang; Sokolov, Andrey; Lavrentovich, Oleg D.; Aranson, Igor S.

    2014-01-01

    Collective motion of self-propelled organisms or synthetic particles, often termed “active fluid,” has attracted enormous attention in the broad scientific community because of its fundamentally nonequilibrium nature. Energy input and interactions among the moving units and the medium lead to complex dynamics. Here, we introduce a class of active matter––living liquid crystals (LLCs)––that combines living swimming bacteria with a lyotropic liquid crystal. The physical properties of LLCs can be controlled by the amount of oxygen available to bacteria, by concentration of ingredients, or by temperature. Our studies reveal a wealth of intriguing dynamic phenomena, caused by the coupling between the activity-triggered flow and long-range orientational order of the medium. Among these are (i) nonlinear trajectories of bacterial motion guided by nonuniform director, (ii) local melting of the liquid crystal caused by the bacteria-produced shear flows, (iii) activity-triggered transition from a nonflowing uniform state into a flowing one-dimensional periodic pattern and its evolution into a turbulent array of topological defects, and (iv) birefringence-enabled visualization of microflow generated by the nanometers-thick bacterial flagella. Unlike their isotropic counterpart, the LLCs show collective dynamic effects at very low volume fraction of bacteria, on the order of 0.2%. Our work suggests an unorthodox design concept to control and manipulate the dynamic behavior of soft active matter and opens the door for potential biosensing and biomedical applications. PMID:24474746

  3. Instabilities in liquid crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Barclay, G J

    1998-01-01

    and we examine the differences which occur for differing dielectric anisotropies. Finally, in Chapter 7 we study how a sample of smectic C liquid crystal behaves when it is subjected to a uniform shear flow within the smectic plane. We find travelling wave solutions for the behaviour of the c-director and adapt these solutions to incorporate the effects of an applied field. This thesis contains theoretical work dealing with the effects of magnetic and electric fields on samples of nematic, smectic A and smectic C liquid crystals. Some background material along with the continuum theory is introduced in Chapter 2. In Chapter 3 we consider the effect on the director within an infinite sample of nematic liquid crystal which is subjected to crossed electric and magnetic fields. In particular we examine the stability of the travelling waves which describe the director motion by considering the behaviour of the stable perturbations as time increases. The work of Chapter 4 examines a bounded sample of smectic A liqu...

  4. The fluid phenomena in the crystallization of the protein crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duan Li; Kang Qi

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports that an optical diagnostic system consisting of Maeh-Zehnder interferometer with a phase shift device and image processor has been used for study of the kinetics of protein crystal growing process. The crystallization process of protein crystal by vapour diffusion is investigated. The interference fringes are observed in real time. The present experiment demonstrates that the diffusion and the sedimentation influence the crystallization of protein crystal which grows in solution, and the concentration capillary convection associated with surface tension occurs at the vicinity of free surface of the protein mother liquor, and directly affects on the outcome of protein crystallization. So far the detailed analysis and the important role of the fluid phenomena in protein crystallization have been discussed a little in both space- and ground-based crystal growth experiments. It is also found that these fluid phenomena affect theoutcome of protein crystallization, regular growth, and crystal quality. This may explain the fact that many results of space-based investigation do not show overall improvement.

  5. On dewetting of thin films due to crystallization (crystallization dewetting).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Mehran; Rahimzadeh, Amin; Eslamian, Morteza

    2016-03-01

    Drying and crystallization of a thin liquid film of an ionic or a similar solution can cause dewetting in the resulting thin solid film. This paper aims at investigating this type of dewetting, herein termed "crystallization dewetting", using PbI2 dissolved in organic solvents as the model solution. PbI2 solid films are usually used in X-ray detection and lead halide perovskite solar cells. In this work, PbI2 films are fabricated using spin coating and the effect of major parameters influencing the crystallization dewetting, including the type of the solvent, solution concentration, drying temperature, spin speed, as well as imposed vibration on the substrate are studied on dewetting, surface profile and coverage, using confocal scanning laser microscopy. Simplified hydrodynamic governing equations of crystallization in thin films are presented and using a mathematical representation of the process, it is phenomenologically demonstrated that crystallization dewetting occurs due to the absorption and consumption of the solution surrounding a growing crystal. Among the results, it is found that a low spin speed (high thickness), a high solution concentration and a low drying temperature promote crystal growth, and therefore crystallization dewetting. It is also shown that imposed vibration on the substrate can affect the crystal size and crystallization dewetting.

  6. Discrete breathers in crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitriev, S. V.; Korznikova, E. A.; Baimova, Yu A.; Velarde, M. G.

    2016-05-01

    It is well known that periodic discrete defect-containing systems, in addition to traveling waves, support vibrational defect-localized modes. It turned out that if a periodic discrete system is nonlinear, it can support spatially localized vibrational modes as exact solutions even in the absence of defects. Since the nodes of the system are all on equal footing, it is only through the special choice of initial conditions that a group of nodes can be found on which such a mode, called a discrete breather (DB), will be excited. The DB frequency must be outside the frequency range of the small-amplitude traveling waves. Not resonating with and expending no energy on the excitation of traveling waves, a DB can theoretically conserve its vibrational energy forever provided no thermal vibrations or other perturbations are present. Crystals are nonlinear discrete systems, and the discovery in them of DBs was only a matter of time. It is well known that periodic discrete defect-containing systems support both traveling waves and vibrational defect-localized modes. It turns out that if a periodic discrete system is nonlinear, it can support spatially localized vibrational modes as exact solutions even in the absence of defects. Because the nodes of the system are all on equal footing, only a special choice of the initial conditions allows selecting a group of nodes on which such a mode, called a discrete breather (DB), can be excited. The DB frequency must be outside the frequency range of small-amplitude traveling waves. Not resonating with and expending no energy on the excitation of traveling waves, a DB can theoretically preserve its vibrational energy forever if no thermal vibrations or other perturbations are present. Crystals are nonlinear discrete systems, and the discovery of DBs in them was only a matter of time. Experimental studies of DBs encounter major technical difficulties, leaving atomistic computer simulations as the primary investigation tool. Despite

  7. Additive manufacturing of micrometric crystallization vessels and single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halevi, Oded; Jiang, Hui; Kloc, Christian; Magdassi, Shlomo

    2016-11-01

    We present an all-additive manufacturing method that is performed at mild conditions, for the formation of organic single crystals at specific locations, without any photolithography prefabrication process. The method is composed of two steps; inkjet printing of a confinement frame, composed of a water soluble electrolyte. Then, an organic semiconductor solution is printed within the confinement to form a nucleus at a specific location, followed by additional printing, which led to the growth of a single crystal. The specific geometry of the confinement enables control of the specific locations of the single crystals, while separating the nucleation and crystal growth processes. By this method, we printed single crystals of perylene, which are suitable for the formation of OFETs. Moreover, since this method is based on a simple and controllable wet deposition process, it enables formation of arrays of single crystals at specific locations, which is a prerequisite for mass production of active organic elements on flexible substrates.

  8. Crystal growth in salt efflorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehnder, Konrad; Arnold, Andreas

    1989-09-01

    Salt efflorescences strongly affect wall paintings and other monuments. The external factors governing the crystal habits and aggregate forms are studied phenomenologically in laboratory experiments. As salt contaminated materials dry, slats crystallize forming distinct sequences of crystal habits and aggregate forms on and underneath the surfaces. Four phases may be distinguished: (1) Large individual crystals with equilibrium forms grow immersed in a thick solution film; (2) granular crusts of small isometric crystals grow covered by a thin solution film; (3) fibrous crusts of columnar crystals grow from a coherent but thin solution film so that the crystals are in contact with solution only at their base; (4) whiskers grow from isolated spots of very thin solution films into the air. The main factor governing these morphologies is the humidity of the substrate. A porous material cracks while granular crystals (approaching their equilibrium forms) grow within the large pores. As the fissures widen, the habits pass into columnar crystals and then into whiskers. Because this succession corresponds to the crystallization sequence on the substrate surface it can be traced back to the same growth conditions.

  9. DDA Computations of Porous Aggregates with Forsterite Crystals: Effects of Crystal Shape and Crystal Mass Fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooden, Diane H.; Lindsay, Sean S.; Harker, David; Woodward, Charles; Kelley, Michael S.; Kolokolova, Ludmilla

    2015-01-01

    Porous aggregate grains are commonly found in cometary dust samples and are needed to model cometary IR spectral energy distributions (SEDs). Models for thermal emissions from comets require two forms of silicates: amorphous and crystalline. The dominant crystal resonances observed in comet SEDs are from Forsterite (Mg2SiO4). The mass fractions that are crystalline span a large range from 0.0 25 AU at 1E6 yr) by inner disk materials (crystals) are challenged to yield the highend-range of cometary crystal mass fractions. However, in current thermal models, Forsterite crystals are not incorporated into larger aggregate grains but instead only are considered as discrete crystals. A complicating factor is that Forsterite crystals with rectangular shapes better fit the observed spectral resonances in wavelength (11.0-11.15 microns, 16, 19, 23.5, 27, and 33 microns), feature asymmetry and relative height (Lindley et al. 2013) than spherically or elliptically shaped crystals. We present DDA-DDSCAT computations of IR absorptivities (Qabs) of 3 micron-radii porous aggregates with 0.13 crystals. We can produce crystal resonances with similar appearance to the observed resonances of comet Hale- Bopp. Also, a lower mass fraction of crystals in aggregates can produce the same spectral contrast as a higher mass fraction of discrete crystals; the 11micron and 23 micron crystalline resonances appear amplified when crystals are incorporated into aggregates composed otherwise of spherically shaped amorphous Fe-Mg olivines and pyroxenes. We show that the optical properties of a porous aggregate is not linear combination of its monomers, so aggregates need to be computed. We discuss the consequence of lowering comet crystal mass fractions by modeling IR SEDs with aggregates with crystals, and the implications for radial transport models of our protoplanetary disk.

  10. Crystal growth and structural analysis of zirconium sulphoselenide single crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K R Patel; R D Vaidya; M S Dave; S G Patel

    2008-08-01

    A series of zirconium sulphoselenide (ZrSSe3–, where = 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3) single crystals have been grown by chemical vapour transport technique using iodine as a transporting agent. The optimum condition for the growth of these crystals is given. The stoichiometry of the grown crystals were confirmed on the basis of energy dispersive analysis by X-ray (EDAX) and the structural characterization was accomplished by X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. The crystals are found to possess monoclinic structure. The lattice parameters, volume, particle size and X-ray density have been carried out for these crystals. The effect of sulphur proportion on the lattice parameter, unit cell volume and X-ray density in the series of ZrSSe3– single crystals have been studied and found to decrease in all these parameters with rise in sulphur proportion. The grown crystals were examined under optical zoom microscope for their surface topography study. Hall effect measurements were carried out on grown crystals at room temperature. The negative value of Hall coefficient implies that these crystals are -type in nature. The conductivity is found to decrease with increase of sulphur content in the ZrSSe3– series. The electrical resistivity parallel to c-axis as well as perpendicular to -axis have been carried out in the temperature range 303–423 K. The results obtained are discussed in detail.

  11. Adhesion of single crystals on modified surfaces in crystallization fouling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Moriz; Augustin, Wolfgang; Scholl, Stephan

    2012-12-01

    In crystallization fouling it has been observed that during a certain initial phase the fouling is formed by a non-uniform layer consisting of a population of single crystals. These single crystals are frequently formed by inverse soluble salts such as CaCO3. During heterogeneous nucleation and heterogeneous growth an interfacial area between the crystal and the heat transfer surface occurs. The development of this interfacial area is the reason for the adhesion of each single crystal and of all individual crystals, once a uniform layer has been built up. The emerging interfacial area is intrinsic to the heterogeneous nucleation of crystals and can be explained by the thermodynamic principle of the minimum of the Gibbs free energy. In this study CaCO3 crystals were grown heterogeneously on untreated and on modified surfaces inside a flow channel. An untreated stainless steel (AISI 304) surface was used as a reference. Following surface modifications were investigated: enameled and electropolished stainless steel as well as diamond-like-carbon based coatings on stainless steel substrate. The adhesion was measured through a novel measurement technique using a micromanipulator to shear off single crystals from the substrate which was fixed to a spring table inside a SEM.

  12. Couette-Taylor crystallizer: Effective control of crystal size distribution and recovery of L-lysine in cooling crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Anh-Tuan; Yu, Taekyung; Kim, Woo-Sik

    2017-07-01

    A Couette-Taylor crystallizer is developed to enhance the L-Lysine crystal size distribution and recovery in the case of continuous cooling crystallization. When using the proposed Couette-Taylor (CT) crystallizer, the size distribution and crystal product recovery were much narrower and higher, respectively, than those from a conventional stirred tank (ST) crystallizer. Here, the coefficient of the size distribution for the crystal product from the CT crystallizer was only 0.45, while it was 0.78 in the case of the conventional ST crystallizer at an agitation speed of 700 rpm, mean residence time of 20 min, and feed concentration of 900 (g/L). Furthermore, when using the CT crystallizer, the crystal product recovery was remarkably enhanced up to 100%wt with a mean residence time of only 20 min, while it required a mean residence time of at least 60 min when using the conventional ST crystallizer. This result indicates that the CT crystallizer was much more effective than the conventional ST crystallizer in terms of controlling a narrower size distribution and achieving a 100%wt L-lysine crystal product recovery from continuous cooling crystallization. The advantage of the CT crystallizer over the conventional ST crystallizer was explained based on the higher energy dissipation of the Taylor vortex flow and larger surface area for heat transfer of the CT crystallizer. Here, the energy dissipation of the Taylor vortex flow in the CT crystallizer was 13.6 times higher than that of the random fluid motion in the conventional ST crystallizer, while the surface area per unit volume for heat transfer of the CT crystallizer was 8.0 times higher than that of the conventional ST crystallizer. As a result, the mixing condition and heat transfer of the CT crystallizer were much more effective than those of the conventional ST crystallizer for the cooling crystallization of L-lysine, thereby enhancing the L-lysine crystal size distribution and product recovery.

  13. Dissipation by a crystallization process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorosz, Sven; Voigtmann, Thomas; Schilling, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    We discuss crystallization as a non-equilibrium process. In a system of hard spheres under compression at a constant rate, we quantify the amount of heat that is dissipated during the crystallization process. We interpret the dissipation as arising from the resistance of the system against phase transformation. An intrinsic compression rate is identified that separates a quasi-static regime from one of rapidly driven crystallization. In the latter regime the system crystallizes more easily, because new relaxation channels are opened, at the cost of forming a higher fraction of non-equilibrium crystal structures. We rationalize the change in the crystallization mechanism by analogy with shear thinning, in terms of a kinetic competition between near-equilibrium relaxation and external driving.

  14. Lasing from fluorescent protein crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Heon Jeong; Gather, Malte C; Song, Ji-Joon; Yun, Seok Hyun

    2014-12-15

    We investigated fluorescent protein crystals for potential photonic applications, for the first time to our knowledge. Rod-shaped crystals of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) were synthesized, with diameters of 0.5-2 μm and lengths of 100-200 μm. The crystals exhibit minimal light scattering due to their ordered structure and generate substantially higher fluorescence intensity than EGFP or dye molecules in solutions. The magnitude of concentration quenching in EGFP crystals was measured to be about 7-10 dB. Upon optical pumping at 485 nm, individual EGFP crystals located between dichroic mirrors generated laser emission with a single-mode spectral line at 513 nm. Our results demonstrate the potential of protein crystals as novel optical elements for self-assembled, micro- or nano-lasers and amplifiers in aqueous environment.

  15. Photonic crystal optofluidic biolaser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffari, Mohammad Hazhir; Ebnali-Heidari, Majid; Abaeiani, Gholamreza; Moravvej-Farshi, Mohammad Kazem

    2017-09-01

    Optofluidic biolasers are recently being considered in bioanalytical applications due to their advantages over the conventional biosensing methods Exploiting a photonic crystal slab with selectively dye-infiltrated air holes, we propose a new optofluidic heterostructure biolaser, with a power conversion efficiency of 25% and the spectral linewidth of 0.24 nm. Simulations show that in addition to these satisfactory lasing characteristics, the proposed lab-on-a-chip biolaser is highly sensitive to the minute biological changes that may occur in its cavity and can detect a single virus with a radius as small as 13 nm.

  16. Hardness of metallic crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wuhui Li; Fengzhang Ren; Juanhua Su; Zhanhong Ma; Ke Cao; Baohong Tian

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents a new formula for calculating the hardness of metallic crystals, resulted from the research on the critical grain size with stable dislocations. The formula is = 6 /[(1 – )], where is the hardness, the coefficient, the shear modulus, the Poisson’s ratio, a function of the radius of an atom () and the electron density at the atom interface (). The formula will not only be used to testify the critical grain size with stable dislocations, but also play an important role in the understanding of mechanical properties of nanocrystalline metals.

  17. Crystal structure of cafenstrole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gihaeng Kang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The title compound (systematic name: N,N-diethyl-3-mesitylsulfonyl-1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-carboxamide, C16H22N4O3S, is a triazole herbicide. The dihedral angle between the planes of the triazole and benzene ring planes is 88.14 (10°. In the crystal, C—H...O hydrogen bonds and weak C—H...π interactions link adjacent molecules, forming one-dimensional chains along the a axis.

  18. Crystallization Behavior of Waxes

    OpenAIRE

    Jana, Sarbojeet

    2016-01-01

    Partially hydrogenated oil (PHO) has no longer GRAS status. However, PHO is one of the important ingredients in bakery and confectionary industry and therefore the food industry is seeking for an alternative fat to replace PHO. Waxes have shown promise to fulfill that demand because of its easy availability and cheap in price. Waxes with high melting points (> 40 °C) help in the crystallization process when mixed with low melting point oils. A crystalline network is formed in this wax/oil cry...

  19. Crystal structure of pseudoguainolide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noureddine Beghidja

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The lactone ring in the title molecule, C15H22O3 (systematic name: 3,4a,8-trimethyldodecahydroazuleno[6,5-b]furan-2,5-dione, assumes an envelope conformation with the methine C atom adjacent to the the methine C atom carrying the methyl substituent being the flap atom. The other five-membered ring adopts a twisted conformation with the twist being about the methine–methylene C—C bond. The seven-membered ring is based on a twisted boat conformation. No specific interactions are noted in the the crystal packing.

  20. Inorganic Crystal Structure Database (ICSD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 84 FIZ/NIST Inorganic Crystal Structure Database (ICSD) (PC database for purchase)   The Inorganic Crystal Structure Database (ICSD) is produced cooperatively by the Fachinformationszentrum Karlsruhe(FIZ) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The ICSD is a comprehensive collection of crystal structure data of inorganic compounds containing more than 140,000 entries and covering the literature from 1915 to the present.

  1. Radiating dipoles in photonic crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Busch, Kurt; Vats, Nipun; John, Sajeev; Sanders, Barry C.

    2000-01-01

    The radiation dynamics of a dipole antenna embedded in a Photonic Crystal are modeled by an initially excited harmonic oscillator coupled to a non--Markovian bath of harmonic oscillators representing the colored electromagnetic vacuum within the crystal. Realistic coupling constants based on the natural modes of the Photonic Crystal, i.e., Bloch waves and their associated dispersion relation, are derived. For simple model systems, well-known results such as decay times and emission spectra ar...

  2. Negative refraction in photonic crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Baba, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Asatsuma, T.

    2008-01-01

    Photonic crystals are multidimensional periodic gratings, in which the light propagation is dominated by Bragg diffraction that appears to be refraction at the flat surfaces of the crystals. The refraction angle from positive to negative, perfectly or only partially obeying Snell’s law, can be tailored based on photonic band theory. Negative refraction enables novel prism, collimation, and lens effects. Because photonic crystals usually consist of two transparent media, these effects occur at...

  3. Photonic crystal fibers in biophotonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuchin, Valery V.; Skibina, Julia S.; Malinin, Anton V.

    2011-12-01

    We observed recent experimental results in area of photonic crystal fibers appliance. Possibility of creation of fiberbased broadband light sources for high resolution optical coherence tomography is discussed. Using of femtosecond pulse laser allows for generation of optical radiation with large spectral width in highly nonlinear solid core photonic crystal fibers. Concept of exploitation of hollow core photonic crystal fibers in optical sensing is demonstrated. The use of photonic crystal fibers as "smart cuvette" gives rise to efficiency of modern optical biomedical analysis methods.

  4. Crystallization and Polymorphism of Felodipine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Surov, A. O.; Solanko, K. A.; Bond, A. D.

    2012-01-01

    . The crystal structures of the new forms III and IV were determined using single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Forms I, II, and III were obtained in bulk form and characterized by a variety of analytical methods, including thermal analysis, solution calorimetry, intrinsic dissolution rate measurement......, and solubility measurement. Form IV could be obtained only as a few isolated single crystals, and its crystallization could not be reproduced. On the basis of the measured thermochemical data and solubility studies, form I appears to be the thermodynamically most stable phase at ambient conditions, although...

  5. Photonic Crystal Laser Accelerator Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowan, Benjamin M

    2003-05-21

    Photonic crystals have great potential for use as laser-driven accelerator structures. A photonic crystal is a dielectric structure arranged in a periodic geometry. Like a crystalline solid with its electronic band structure, the modes of a photonic crystal lie in a set of allowed photonic bands. Similarly, it is possible for a photonic crystal to exhibit one or more photonic band gaps, with frequencies in the gap unable to propagate in the crystal. Thus photonic crystals can confine an optical mode in an all-dielectric structure, eliminating the need for metals and their characteristic losses at optical frequencies. We discuss several geometries of photonic crystal accelerator structures. Photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) are optical fibers which can confine a speed-of-light optical mode in vacuum. Planar structures, both two- and three-dimensional, can also confine such a mode, and have the additional advantage that they can be manufactured using common microfabrication techniques such as those used for integrated circuits. This allows for a variety of possible materials, so that dielectrics with desirable optical and radiation-hardness properties can be chosen. We discuss examples of simulated photonic crystal structures to demonstrate the scaling laws and trade-offs involved, and touch on potential fabrication processes.

  6. Crystal engineering: A brief overview

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gautam R Desiraju

    2010-09-01

    Crystal structures of organic and metal-organic compounds have been determined in enormous numbers over the past century, and at the time of writing this review, the Cambridge Structural Database has just crossed the half million mark. The possibility of designing a particular crystal packing is, however, of more recent origin and the subject of crystal engineering has addressed this possibility, more or less systematically, during the past 30 years. Crystal engineering demands a detailed and thorough knowledge of intermolecular interactions, which act as the supramolecular glue that binds molecules into crystals. It also requires systematic strategies for the design of a crystal, the architectural blueprint as it were. Finally, this enterprise needs to be geared towards a useful property in that the crystal that is being designed is a functional one. All these features of the subject are directly or indirectly connected with the fact that there is a very large database of known crystal structures that is available to the crystal engineer. This review attempts to briefly survey the current scenario in this expanding subject.

  7. Evaluation of nuclear facility decommissioning projects. Three Mile Island Unit 2. Radioactive waste and laundry shipments. Volume 9. Summary status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerge, D. H.; Miller, R. L.; Scotti, K. S.

    1986-05-01

    This document summarizes information concerning radioactive waste and laundry shipments from the Three Mile Island Nuclear Station Unit 2 to radioactive waste disposal sites and to protective clothing decontamination facilities (laundries) since the loss of coolant accident experienced on March 28, 1979. Data were collected from radioactive shipment records, summarized, and placed in a computerized data information retrieval/manipulation system which permits extraction of specific information. This report covers the period of April 9, 1979 to May 5, 1985. Included in this report are: waste disposal site locations, dose rates, curie content, waste description, container type and number, volumes and weights. This information is presented in two major categories: protective clothing (laundry) and radioactive waste. Each of the waste shipment reports is in chronological order.

  8. El suicidio como indicador: integración y moral en la sociología de Émile Durkheim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Angel Minetti

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Émile Durkheim es uno de los padres de la sociología. Su obra El suicidio aporta herramientas conceptuales y analíticas para conocer la arquitectura moral de la sociedad. En este artículo se revisan esos artefactos de la teoría social, en su época contrastados científicamente, capaces de medir la fuerza integradora de las agrupaciones humanas y de detectar las variables que determinan su funcionamiento. A pesar del imparable individualismo que define nuestras sociedades, sigue vigente el análisis sociológico que da cuenta del carácter colectivo de muchas de nuestras decisiones y comportamientos.

  9. Modeling of the TMI-2 (Three Mile Island Unit-2) accident with MELPROG/TRAC and calculation results for Phases 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motley, F.E.; Jenks, R.P.

    1988-01-01

    Work has been performed to develop a Three Mile Island Unit-2 (TMI-2) simulation model for MELPROG/TRAC capable of predicting the observed plant behavior that took place during the accident of March 1979. A description of the TMI-2 plant model is presented and calculation results through 174 min of the accident are discussed. Using the ICBC boundary conditions, the calculation predicts pressurizer draining and core recovering prior to fuel-rod damage. A parametric calculation (reduced makeup flow) is currently underway and is in better agreement with the observed plant behavior. Efforts are underway to resolve current discrepancies and proceed with an accurate simulation through Phases 3 and 4 of the accident (174-227 min and 227-300 min, respectively). 13 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Structures et pratiques économiques dans l’œuvre d’Émile Zola, l’exemple de Germinal

    OpenAIRE

    Missemer, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    Fer de lance du naturalisme, Émile Zola a construit chacun de ses romans avec un souci remarquable du détail. Germinal (1885), treizième opus des Rougon-Macquart, n’échappe pas à cette règle. La description que Zola réalise des mines de Montsou et de ses habitants se fonde sur un vaste travail préparatoire mené sur le terrain, et à travers de nombreuses lectures, dont certaines de nature économique. Bien que Zola n’ait pas cherché à inscrire son travail dans le champ de l’économie politique, ...

  11. Frustrated polymer crystal structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotz, B.; Strasbourg, 67083

    1997-03-01

    Several crystal structures or polymorphs of chiral or achiral polymers and biopolymers with three fold conformation of the helix have been found to conform to a common and -with one exception(Puterman, M. et al, J. Pol. Sci., Pol. Phys. Ed., 15, 805 (1977))- hitherto unsuspected packing scheme. The trigonal unit-cell contains three isochiral helices; the azimuthal setting of one helix differs significantly from that of the other two, leading to a so-called frustrated packing scheme, in which the environment of conformationally identical helices differs. Two variants of the frustrated scheme are analyzed. Similarities with frustrated two dimensional magnetic systems are underlined. Various examples of frustration in polymer crystallography are illustrated via the elucidation or reinterpretation of crystal phases or polymorphs of polyolefins, polyesters, cellulose derivatives and polypeptides. Structural manifestations (including AFM evidence) and morphological consequences of frustration are presented, which help diagnose the existence of this original packing of polymers.(Work done with L. Cartier, D. Dorset, S. Kopp, T. Okihara, M. Schumacher, W. Stocker.)

  12. Tunable Topological Phononic Crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Ze-Guo

    2016-05-27

    Topological insulators first observed in electronic systems have inspired many analogues in photonic and phononic crystals in which remarkable one-way propagation edge states are supported by topologically nontrivial band gaps. Such band gaps can be achieved by breaking the time-reversal symmetry to lift the degeneracy associated with Dirac cones at the corners of the Brillouin zone. Here, we report on our construction of a phononic crystal exhibiting a Dirac-like cone in the Brillouin zone center. We demonstrate that simultaneously breaking the time-reversal symmetry and altering the geometric size of the unit cell result in a topological transition that we verify by the Chern number calculation and edge-mode analysis. We develop a complete model based on the tight binding to uncover the physical mechanisms of the topological transition. Both the model and numerical simulations show that the topology of the band gap is tunable by varying both the velocity field and the geometric size; such tunability may dramatically enrich the design and use of acoustic topological insulators.

  13. Crystal Compton Camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziock, Klaus-Peter [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Braverman, Joshua B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Harrison, Mark J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hornback, Donald Eric [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Fabris, Lorenzo [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Newby, Jason [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2013-09-26

    Stand-off detection is one of the most important radiation detection capabilities for arms control and the control of illicit nuclear materials. For long range passive detection one requires a large detector and a means of “seeing through” the naturally occurring and varying background radiation, i.e. imaging. Arguably, Compton imaging is the best approach over much of the emission band suitable for long range detection. It provides not only imaging, but more information about the direction of incidence of each detected gamma-ray than the alternate approach of coded-aperture imaging. The directional information allows one to reduce the background and hence improve the sensitivity of a measurement. However, to make an efficient Compton imager requires localizing and measuring the simultaneous energy depositions when gamma-rays Compton scatter and are subsequently captured within a single, large detector volume. This concept has been demonstrated in semi-conductor detectors (HPGe, CZT, Si) but at ~ $1k/cm3 these materials are too expensive to build the large systems needed for standoff detection. Scintillator detectors, such as NaI(Tl), are two orders of magnitude less expensive and possess the energy resolution required to make such an imager. However, they do not currently have the ability to localize closely spaced, simultaneous energy depositions in a single large crystal. In this project we are applying a new technique that should, for the first time ever, allow cubic-millimeter event localization in a bulk scintillator crystal.

  14. Electron spectroscopy of crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Nemoshkalenko, V V

    1979-01-01

    This book is conceived as a monograph, and represents an up-to-date collection of information concerning the use of the method of X-ray photoelectron spec­ troscopy in the study of the electron structure of crystals, as well as a personal interpretation of the subject by the authors. In a natural way, the book starts in Chapter 1 with a recapitulation of the fundamentals of the method, basic relations, principles of operation, and a com­ parative presentation of the characteristics and performances of the most com­ monly used ESCA instruments (from the classical ones-Varian, McPherson, Hewlett Packard, and IEEE-up to the latest model developed by Professor Siegbahn in Uppsala), and continues with a discussion of some of the difficult problems the experimentalist must face such as calibration of spectra, prepara­ tion of samples, and evaluation of the escape depth of electrons. The second chapter is devoted to the theory of photoemission from crystal­ line solids. A discussion of the methods of Hartree-Fo...

  15. Photonic Crystal Optical Tweezers

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Benjamin K; Bachar, Stephanie; Knouf, Emily; Bendoraite, Ausra; Tewari, Muneesh; Pun, Suzie H; Lin, Lih Y

    2009-01-01

    Non-invasive optical manipulation of particles has emerged as a powerful and versatile tool for biological study and nanotechnology. In particular, trapping and rotation of cells, cell nuclei and sub-micron particles enables unique functionality for various applications such as tissue engineering, cancer research and nanofabrication. We propose and demonstrate a purely optical approach to rotate and align particles using the interaction of polarized light with photonic crystal nanostructures to generate enhanced trapping force. With a weakly focused laser beam we observed efficient trapping and transportation of polystyrene beads with sizes ranging from 10 um down to 190 nm as well as cancer cell nuclei. In addition, we demonstrated alignment of non-spherical particles using a 1-D photonic crystal structure. Bacterial cells were trapped, rotated and aligned with optical intensity as low as 17 uW/um^2. Finite-difference time domain (FDTD) simulations of the optical near-field and far-field above the photonic c...

  16. Crystallization and crystal manipulation of the Pterocarpus angolensis seed lectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loris, Remy; Garcia-Pino, Abel; Buts, Lieven; Bouckaert, Julie; Beeckmans, Sonia; De Greve, Henri; Wyns, Lode

    2005-06-01

    The Man/Glc-specific legume lectin from the seeds of the African bloodwood tree (Pterocarpus angolensis) was crystallized in the presence of the disaccharide ligand Man(alpha1-3)ManMe. Small crystals initially appeared from a preliminary screen, but proved difficult to reproduce. The initial crystals were used to prepare microseeds, leading to a reproducible crystallization protocol. All attempts to obtain crystals directly of the ligand-free protein or of other carbohydrate complexes failed. However, the Man(alpha1-3)ManMe co-crystals withstand soaking with ten other carbohydrates known to bind to the lectin. Soaking for 15 min in 100 mM carbohydrate typically resulted in complete replacement of Man(alpha1-3)ManMe by the desired carbohydrate despite the involvement of lattice contacts at the binding site. Transferring the crystals for two weeks in carbohydrate-free artificial mother liquor resulted in the complete removal of the sugar from one of the two monomers in the asymmetric unit. Additional treatment of these crystals with 100 mM EDTA for two weeks resulted in removal of the structural calcium and manganese ions, which is accompanied by significant structural rearrangements of the loops that constitute the carbohydrate-binding site.

  17. Handbook of nonlinear optical crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Dmitriev, Valentin G; Nikogosyan, David N

    1991-01-01

    This Handbook of Nonlinear Optical Crystals provides a complete description of the properties and applications of nonlinear crystals In addition, it presents the most important equations for calculating the main parameters of nonlinear frequency converters This comprehensive reference work will be of great value to all scientists and engineers working in nonlinear optics, quantum electronics and laser physics

  18. Czochralski crystal growth: Modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudukovic, M. P.; Ramachandran, P. A.; Srivastava, R. K.; Dorsey, D.

    1986-01-01

    The modeling study of Czochralski (Cz) crystal growth is reported. The approach was to relate in a quantitative manner, using models based on first priniciples, crystal quality to operating conditions and geometric variables. The finite element method is used for all calculations.

  19. THEORY OF INCOMMENSURATE CRYSTAL FACETS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANSMAALEN, S

    1993-01-01

    The morphology of incommensurately modulated crystals is considered. A surface free energy model is constructed which interprets the stabilization of the incommensurate facets as due to surface pinning of the phase of the modulation wave. The stepped nature of the true crystal surface restricts the

  20. Protein Crystal Growth in Microgravity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕汝昌; 桂璐璐; 师珂; 王耀萍; 陈世芝; 韩青; 胡永林; 沈福苓; 牛秀田; 华子谦; 卢光莹; 张健; 李松林; 龚为民; 牛立文; 黄其辰

    1994-01-01

    Protein crystal growth is quite important for the determination of protein structureswhich are essential to the understanding of life at molecular level as well as to the development of molecu-lar biotechnology.The microgravity environment of space is an ideal place to study the complicated pro-tein crystallization and to grow good-quality protein crystals.A number of crystal-growth experiments of10 different proteins were carried out in August,1992 on the Chinese re-entry satellite FSW-2 in spaceusing a tube crystallization equipment made in China.A total of 25 samples from 6 proteins producedcrystals,and the effects of microgravity on protein crystal growth were observed,especially for an acidicphospholipase A2 and henegg-white lysozyme which gave better crystals in space than earth-grown crys-tals in ground control experiments.The results have shown that the microgravity in space favors the im-provement of the size,perfection,morphology and internal order of the grown protein crytals.

  1. THEORY OF INCOMMENSURATE CRYSTAL FACETS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANSMAALEN, S

    1993-01-01

    The morphology of incommensurately modulated crystals is considered. A surface free energy model is constructed which interprets the stabilization of the incommensurate facets as due to surface pinning of the phase of the modulation wave. The stepped nature of the true crystal surface restricts the

  2. Photonic-crystal fibers gyroscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Muse Haider

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we proposed to use of a photonic crystal fiber with an inner hollow defect. The use of such fibers is not affected by a material medium on the propagation of optical radiation. Photonic crystal fibers present special properties and capabilities that lead to an outstanding potential for sensing applications

  3. Photoelastic sphenoscopic analysis of crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montalto, L. [DIISM, Dip. Di Ingegneria Industriale e Scienze Matematiche—Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona (Italy); SIMAU, Dip. Di Scienze e Ingegneria della Materia, dell’ambiente ed Urbanistica—Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona (Italy); Rinaldi, D. [SIMAU, Dip. Di Scienze e Ingegneria della Materia, dell’ambiente ed Urbanistica—Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona (Italy); Scalise, L.; Paone, N. [DIISM, Dip. Di Ingegneria Industriale e Scienze Matematiche—Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona (Italy); Davì, F. [DICEA, Dip. Di Ingegneria Civile, Edile e Architettura—Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona (Italy)

    2016-01-15

    Birefringent crystals are at the basis of various devices used in many fields, from high energy physics to biomedical imaging for cancer detection. Since crystals are the main elements of those devices, a great attention is paid on their quality and properties. Here, we present a methodology for the photoelastic analysis of birefringent crystals, based on a modified polariscope. Polariscopes using conoscopic observation are used to evaluate crystals residual stresses in a precise but time consuming way; in our methodology, the light beam shape, which impinges on the crystal surface, has been changed from a solid cone (conoscopy) to a wedge (sphenoscopy). Since the polarized and coherent light is focused on a line rather than on a spot, this allows a faster analysis which leads to the observation, at a glance, of a spatial distribution of stress along a line. Three samples of lead tungstate crystals have been observed using this technique, and the obtained results are compared with the conoscopic observation. The samples have been tested both in unloaded condition and in a loaded configuration induced by means of a four points bending device, which allows to induce a known stress distribution in the crystal. The obtained results confirm, in a reliable manner, the sensitivity of the methodology to the crystal structure and stress.

  4. MyCrystals - a simple visual data management program for laboratory-scale crystallization experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvgreen, Monika Nøhr; Løvgreen, Mikkel; Christensen, Hans Erik Mølager

    2009-01-01

    MyCrystals is designed as a user-friendly program to display crystal images and list crystallization conditions. The crystallization conditions entry fields can be customized to suit the experiments. MyCrystals is also able to sort the images by the entered crystallization conditions, which...

  5. Natural photonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigneron, Jean Pol, E-mail: jean-pol.vigneron@fundp.ac.be [Research Center in Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR), University of Namur (FUNDP), rue de Bruxelles, 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Simonis, Priscilla [Research Center in Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR), University of Namur (FUNDP), rue de Bruxelles, 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium)

    2012-10-15

    Photonic structures appeared in nature several hundred millions years ago. In the living world, color is used for communication and this important function strongly impacts the individual chances of survival as well as the chances to reproduce. This has a statistical influence on species populations. Therefore, because they are involved in evolution, natural color-generating structures are - from some point of view - highly optimized. In this short review, a survey is presented of the development of natural photonic crystal-type structures occurring in insects, spiders, birds, fishes and other marine animals, in plants and more, from the standpoint of light-waves propagation. One-, two-, and three-dimensional structures will be reviewed with selected examples.

  6. Frequency mixing crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbers, Christopher A.; Davis, Laura E.; Webb, Mark

    1992-01-01

    In a laser system for converting infrared laser light waves to visible light comprising a source of infrared laser light waves and means of harmoic generation associated therewith for production of light waves at integral multiples of the frequency of the original wave, the improvement of said means of harmonic generation comprising a crystal having the chemical formula X.sub.2 Y(NO.sub.3).sub.5 .multidot.2 nZ.sub.2 o wherein X is selected from the group consisting of Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, and Tl; Y is selected from the group consisting of Sc, Y, La, Ce, Nd, Pr, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Al, Ga, and In; Z is selected from the group consisting of H and D; and n ranges from 0 to 4.

  7. Crystal structure of nuarimol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gihaeng Kang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The title compound [systematic name: (RS-(2-chlorophenyl(4-fluorophenyl(pyrimidin-5-ylmethanol], C17H12ClFN2O, is a pyrimidine fungicide. The asymmetric unit comprises two independent molecules, A and B, in which the dihedral angles between the plane of the pyrimidine ring and those of the chlorophenyl and fluorophenyl rings are 71.10 (6 and 70.04 (5° in molecule A, and 73.24 (5 and 89.30 (5° in molecule B. In the crystal, O—H...N hydrogen bonds link the components into [010] chains of alternating A and B molecules. The chains are cross-linked by C—H...F hydrogen bonds and weak C—H...π and C—Cl...π [Cl...ring centroid = 3.7630 (8 Å] interactions, generating a three-dimensional network.

  8. Crystal structure of ruthenocenecarbonitrile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Strehler

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The molecular structure of ruthenocenecarbonitrile, [Ru(η5-C5H4C[triple-bond]N(η5-C5H5], exhibits point group symmetry m, with the mirror plane bisecting the molecule through the C[triple-bond]N substituent. The RuII atom is slightly shifted from the η5-C5H4 centroid towards the C[triple-bond]N substituent. In the crystal, molecules are arranged in columns parallel to [100]. One-dimensional intermolecular π–π interactions [3.363 (3 Å] between the C[triple-bond]N carbon atom and one carbon of the cyclopentadienyl ring of the overlaying molecule are present.

  9. Crystal structure of propaquizafop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngeun Jeon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C22H22ClN3O5 {systematic name: 2-(propan-2-ylideneaminooxyethyl (R-2-[4-(6-chloroquinoxalin-2-yloxyphenoxy]propionate}, is a herbicide. The asymmetric unit comprises two independent molecules in which the dihedral angles between the phenyl ring and the quinoxaline ring plane are 75.93 (7 and 82.77 (8°. The crystal structure features C—H...O, C—H...N, and C—H...Cl hydrogen bonds, as well as weak π–π interactions [ring-centroid separation = 3.782 (2 and 3.5952 (19 Å], resulting in a three-dimensional architecture.

  10. Lamella settler crystallizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimoni, Arturo

    1990-01-01

    A crystallizer which incorporates a lamella settler and which is particularly applicable for use in batteries and power cells for electric vehicles or stationary applications. The lamella settler can be utilized for coarse particle separation or for agglomeration, and is particularly applicable to aluminum-air batteries or power cells for solving the hydrargillite (aluminum-hydroxide) removal problems from such batteries. This invention provides the advantages of very low energy consumption, turbulence, shear, cost and maintenance. Thus, due to the low shear and low turbulence of this invention, it is particularly effective in the control of aluminum hydroxide particle size distribution in the various sections of an aluminum-air system, as well as in other electrochemical systems requiring separation for phases of different densities.

  11. Modeling liquid crystal polymeric devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenez Pinto, Vianney Karina

    The main focus of this work is the theoretical and numerical study of materials that combine liquid crystal and polymer. Liquid crystal elastomers are polymeric materials that exhibit both the ordered properties of the liquid crystals and the elastic properties of rubbers. Changing the order of the liquid crystal molecules within the polymer network can induce shape change. These materials are very valuable for applications such as actuators, sensors, artificial muscles, haptic displays, etc. In this work we apply finite element elastodynamics simulations to study the temperature induced shape deformation in nematic elastomers with complex director microstructure. In another topic, we propose a novel numerical method to model the director dynamics and microstructural evolution of three dimensional nematic and cholesteric liquid crystals. Numerical studies presented in this work are in agreement with experimental observations and provide insight into the design of application devices.

  12. Springer Handbook of Crystal Growth

    CERN Document Server

    Dhanaraj, Govindhan; Prasad, Vishwanath; Dudley, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Over the years, many successful attempts have been made to describe the art and science of crystal growth. Most modern advances in semiconductor and optical devices would not have been possible without the development of many elemental, binary, ternary, and other compound crystals of varying properties and large sizes. The objective of the Springer Handbook of Crystal Growth is to present state-of-the-art knowledge of both bulk and thin-film crystal growth. The goal is to make readers understand the basics of the commonly employed growth processes, materials produced, and defects generated. Almost 100 leading scientists, researchers, and engineers from 22 different countries from academia and industry have been selected to write chapters on the topics of their expertise. They have written 52 chapters on the fundamentals of bulk crystal growth from the melt, solution, and vapor, epitaxial growth, modeling of growth processes and defects, techniques of defect characterization as well as some contemporary specia...

  13. Photonic crystals in epitaxial semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    La Rue, R M de

    1998-01-01

    The title of the paper uses the expression "photonic crystals". By photonic crystals, we mean regular periodic structures with a substantial refractive index variation in one-, two- or three- dimensional space. Such crystals can $9 exist naturally, for example natural opal, but are more typically fabricated by people. Under sufficiently strong conditions, i.e., sufficiently large refractive index modulation, correct size of structural components, and $9 appropriate rotational and translational symmetry, these crystals exhibit the characteristics of a photonic bandgap (PBG) structure. In a full photonic bandgap structure there is a spectral stop band for electromagnetic waves $9 propagating in any direction through the structure and with an arbitrary state of polarization. This behavior is of interest both from a fundamental viewpoint and from the point of view of novel applications in photonic devices. The $9 paper gives an outline review of work on photonic crystals carried out by the Optoelectronics Researc...

  14. Prediction of molecular crystal structures

    CERN Document Server

    Beyer, T

    2001-01-01

    The ab initio prediction of molecular crystal structures is a scientific challenge. Reliability of first-principle prediction calculations would show a fundamental understanding of crystallisation. Crystal structure prediction is also of considerable practical importance as different crystalline arrangements of the same molecule in the solid state (polymorphs)are likely to have different physical properties. A method of crystal structure prediction based on lattice energy minimisation has been developed in this work. The choice of the intermolecular potential and of the molecular model is crucial for the results of such studies and both of these criteria have been investigated. An empirical atom-atom repulsion-dispersion potential for carboxylic acids has been derived and applied in a crystal structure prediction study of formic, benzoic and the polymorphic system of tetrolic acid. As many experimental crystal structure determinations at different temperatures are available for the polymorphic system of parac...

  15. Growth habit of polar crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Using coordination polyhedron rule, growth habit of polar crystals such as ZnO, ZnS and SiO2 is investigated. It shows that the growth rates in the positive and negative polar axis directions are different. The theoretical growth habit of ZnO crystal is hexagonal prism and the growth rates of its various faces are:V{0001}>V{0111}-->V{0110}->V{0111}->V{0001}-. The growth habit of ZnS crystal is tetrahedron and its growth rates of different crystal faces are: V{111}>V{001}>V{001} =V{100} =. The growth rate relationship between positive and negative polar axis directions of SiO2 crystal V[1120]-->V[1120]-.is These results are in agreement with the growth habits observed under hydrothermal conditions. The different growth rates between positive and negative polar axis directions cannot be explained by PBC theory.

  16. Bacterial Ice Crystal Controlling Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet S. H. Lorv

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Across the world, many ice active bacteria utilize ice crystal controlling proteins for aid in freezing tolerance at subzero temperatures. Ice crystal controlling proteins include both antifreeze and ice nucleation proteins. Antifreeze proteins minimize freezing damage by inhibiting growth of large ice crystals, while ice nucleation proteins induce formation of embryonic ice crystals. Although both protein classes have differing functions, these proteins use the same ice binding mechanisms. Rather than direct binding, it is probable that these protein classes create an ice surface prior to ice crystal surface adsorption. Function is differentiated by molecular size of the protein. This paper reviews the similar and different aspects of bacterial antifreeze and ice nucleation proteins, the role of these proteins in freezing tolerance, prevalence of these proteins in psychrophiles, and current mechanisms of protein-ice interactions.

  17. Crystallization of Biological Macromolecules in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Edward H.; Chayen, N. E.; Helliwell, J. R.

    2000-01-01

    An overview of microgravity crystallization explaining why microgravity is used, factors which affect crystallization, the method of crystallization and the environment itself. Also covered is how best to make use of microgravity and what the future might hold.

  18. Crystallization of Biological Macromolecules in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Edward H.; Chayen, N. E.; Helliwell, J. R.

    2000-01-01

    An overview of microgravity crystallization explaining why microgravity is used, factors which affect crystallization, the method of crystallization and the environment itself. Also covered is how best to make use of microgravity and what the future might hold.

  19. Effects of impurities on crystal growth in fructose crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Y. D.; Shiau, L. D.; Berglund, K. A.

    1989-10-01

    The influence of impurities on the crystallization of anhydrous fructose from aqueous solution was studied. The growth kinetics of fructose crystals in the fructose-water-glucose and fructose-water-difructose dianhydrides systems were investigated using photomicroscopic contact nucleation techniques. Glucose is the major impurity likely to be present in fructose syrup formed during corn wet milling, while several difructose dianhydrides are formed in situ under crystallization conditions and have been proposed as a cause in the decrease of overall yields. Both sets of impurities were found to cause inhibition of crystal growth, but the mechanisms responsible in each case are different. It was found that the presence of glucose increases the solubility of fructose in water and thus lowers the supersaturation of the solution. This is probably the main effect responsible for the decrease of crystal growth. Since the molecular structures of difructose dianhydrides are similar to that of fructose, they are probably "tailor-made" impurities. The decrease of crystal growth is probably caused by the incorporation of these impurities into or adsorption to the crystal surface which would accept fructose molecules in the orientation that existed in the difructose dianhydride.

  20. 90-miles is Only Half of a 100-mile Journey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Tao

    2010-01-01

    @@ How to enioy the tariff preference under the China-ASEAN Free Trade Area? On January 1,2010,China-ASEAN Free Trade Area ("China-ASEAN FTA")became effective.Nearly ten years have passed since the China-ASEAN Summit held on November 6,2001 in Bandar Seri Begawan,Brunei Darussalam.At such summit,an Important decision was made to create the framework on economic cooperation between China and the ASEAN and to further establish an China-ASEAN FTA in ten years.

  1. Influence of crystallizing and non-crystallizing cosolutes on trehalose crystallization during freeze-drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaramurthi, Prakash; Suryanarayanan, Raj

    2010-11-01

    To study the influence of crystallizing and non-crystallizing cosolutes on the crystallization behavior of trehalose in frozen solutions and to monitor the phase behavior of trehalose dihydrate and mannitol hemihydrate during drying. Trehalose (a lyoprotectant) and mannitol (a bulking agent) are widely used as excipients in freeze-dried formulations. Using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD), the crystallization behavior of trehalose in the presence of (i) a crystallizing (mannitol), (ii) a non-crystallizing (sucrose) solute and (iii) a combination of mannitol and a model protein (lactose dehydrogenase, catalase, or lysozyme) was evaluated. By performing the entire freeze-drying cycle in the sample chamber of the XRD, the phase behavior of trehalose and mannitol were simultaneously monitored. When an aqueous solution containing trehalose (4% w/v) and mannitol (2% w/v) was cooled to -40°C at 0.5°C/min, hexagonal ice was the only crystalline phase. However, upon warming the sample to the annealing temperature (-18°C), crystallization of mannitol hemihydrate was readily evident. After 3 h of annealing, the characteristic XRD peaks of trehalose dihydrate were also observed. The DSC heating curve of frozen and annealed solution showed two overlapping endotherms, attributed by XRD to the sequential melting of trehalose dihydrate-ice and mannitol hemihydrate-ice eutectics, followed by ice melting. While mannitol facilitated trehalose dihydrate crystallization, sucrose completely inhibited it. In the presence of protein (2 mg/ml), trehalose crystallization required a longer annealing time. When the freeze-drying was performed in the sample chamber of the diffractometer, drying induced the dehydration of trehalose dihydrate to amorphous anhydrate. However, the final lyophiles prepared in the laboratory lyophilizer contained trehalose dihydrate and mannitol hemihydrate. Using XRD and DSC, the sequential crystallization of ice, mannitol

  2. Capacitively coupled and direct-current resistivity surveys of selected reaches of Cozad, Thirty-Mile, Orchard-Alfalfa, Kearney, and Outlet Canals in Nebraska, 2012-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobza, Christopher M.; Burton, Bethany L.; Lucius, Jeffrey E.; Tompkins, Ryan E.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the spatial characteristics of leakage from canals is critical to effectively managing and utilizing water resources for irrigation and hydroelectric purposes. Canal leakage in some parts of Nebraska is the primary source of water for groundwater recharge and helps maintain the base flow of streams. Because surface-water supplies depend on the streamflow of the Platte River and the available water stored in upstream reservoirs, water managers seek to minimize conveyance losses, which can include canal leakage. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Central Platte Natural Resources District and Nebraska Public Power District, used capacitively coupled (CC) and direct-current (DC) resistivity techniques for continuous resistivity profiling to map near-surface lithologies near and underlying the Cozad, Thirty-Mile, Orchard-Alfalfa, Kearney, and Outlet Canals. Approximately 84 kilometers (km) of CC-resistivity data were collected along the five canals. The CC-resistivity data were compared with results from continuous sediment cores and electrical conductivity logs. Generally, the highest resistivities were recorded at the upstream reaches of the Cozad, Thirty-Mile, and Orchard-Alfalfa canals where flood-plain deposits of silt and clay mantle coarser channel deposits of sand and gravel. The finer grained deposits gradually thicken with increasing distance away from the Platte River. Consequently, for many surveyed reaches the thickness of fine-grained deposits exceeded the 8-meter depth of investigation. A detailed geophysical investigation along a 5-km reach of the Outlet Canal southwest of North Platte, Nebraska, used CC and DC resistivity to examine the condition of a compacted-core bank structure and characterized other potential controls on areas of focused seepage. CC-resistivity data, collected along the 5-km study reach, were compared with continuous sediment cores and DC-resistivity data collected near a selected seep near Outlet

  3. THE CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF DIPHENYLTELLURIUM DIBROMIDE,

    Science.gov (United States)

    TELLURIUM COMPOUNDS, *ORGANOMETALLIC COMPOUNDS, CRYSTAL STRUCTURE , CRYSTAL STRUCTURE , BROMIDES, SYMMETRY(CRYSTALLOGRAPHY), X RAY DIFFRACTION, FOURIER ANALYSIS, LEAST SQUARES METHOD, MOLECULAR STRUCTURE, CHEMICAL BONDS.

  4. Crystallization of lactose from carbopol gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, X M; Martin, G P; Marriott, C; Pritchard, J

    2000-07-01

    To crystallize lactose under static conditions with a view to preparing crystals of well-defined morphology. et-Lactose monohydrate was crystallized from neutralized Carbopol 934 gels. When the majority of crystals had grown to maturity, the gels were acidified using diluted hydrochloric acid and the crystals were harvested by filtration or centrifugation and washed with ethanol-water mixtures. Crystals prepared from the gel had a consistently narrower size distribution than control crystals, prepared from solution under constant stirring. If crystallization was effected in the gel without sedimentation of the crystals, then the resultant crystals had smooth surfaces without visually detectable surface roughness or asperities viewed by optical microscopy. The crystals from Carbopol gels also exhibited the uniform shape of an elongated tomahawk regardless of the crystallization conditions, in contrast to crystallization under constant stirring, where the crystal shape of lactose changed with crystallization conditions especially as a function of the initial concentration of lactose. All batches of lactose crystals prepared from Carbopol gels existed as alpha-lactose monohydrate, which showed better flowability than the controls of a similar particle size. Crystallization from Carbopol gel produces lactose crystals of uniform size, regular shape, smooth surface, and improved flowability.

  5. Crystal-field effects in fluoride crystals for optical refrigeration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hehlen, Markus P [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    The field of optical refrigeration of rare-earth-doped solids has recently seen an important breakthrough. The cooling of a YLiF{sub 4} (YLF) crystal doped with 5 mol% Yb3+ to 155 K by Seletskiy et al [NPhot] has surpassed the lowest temperatures ({approx}170 K for {approx}100 mW cooling capacity) that are practical with commercial multi-stage thermoelectric coolers (TEC) [Glaister]. This record performance has advanced laser cooling into an application relevant regime and has put first practical optical cryocoolers within reach. The result is also relevant from a material perspective since for the first time, an Yb3+-doped crystal has outperformed an Yb3+-doped glass. The record temperature of 208 K was held by the Yb3+-doped fluorozirconate glass ZBLAN. Advanced purification and glass fabrication methods currently under development are expected to also advance ZBLAN:Yb3+ to sub-TEC temperatures. However, recent achievements with YLF:Yb3+ illustrate that crystalline materials may have two potentially game-changing advantajes over glassy materials. First, the crystalline environment reduces the inhomogeneous broadening of the Yb3+ electronic transitions as compared to a glassy matrix. The respective sharpening of the crystal-field transitions increases the peak absorption cross section at the laser excitation wavelength and allows for more efficient pumping of the Yb3+ ions, particularly at low temperatures. Second, many detrimental impurities present in the starting materials tend to be excluded from the crystal during its slow growth process, in contrast to a glass where all impurities present in the starting materials are included in the glass when it is formed by temperature quenching a melt. The ultra high purity required for laser cooling materials [PRB] therefore may be easier to realize in crystals than in glasses. Laser cooling occurs by laser excitation of a rare-earth ion followed by anti-Stokes luminescence. Each such laser-cooling cycle extracts

  6. Crystal packing in two pH-dependent crystal forms of rhamnogalacturonan acetylesterase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Anne; Larsen, S.

    2004-01-01

    The glycoprotein rhamnogalacturonan acetylesterase from Aspergillus aculeatus has been crystallized in two crystal forms, an orthorhombic and a trigonal crystal form. In the orthorhombic crystal form, the covalently bound carbohydrate at one of the two N-glycosylation sites is involved in crystal...... contacts. The orthorhombic crystal form was obtained at pH 5.0 and the trigonal crystal form at pH 4.5. In one case, the two crystal forms were found in the same drop at pH 4.7. The differences in crystal packing in the two crystal forms can be explained by the pH-dependent variation in the protonation...

  7. 原住民護生在最後一哩的學習歷程 The Last-Mile Learning of Aboriginal Nursing Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    劉杏元 Hsing-Yuan Liu

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available 本研究目的在探討原住民護生在最後一哩的學習歷程,以北部某技術學院護理科五專原住民護生完成最後一哩「臨床護理選習課程」共48人為研究對象,以參與觀察、半結構式問卷、深度訪談與焦點團體訪談進行資料蒐集,並透過長期投入、三角檢證、同儕審視、參與者檢核、反例個案分析、厚實敘寫等方式,做為提高研究信實度的方式,最後歸納其於最後一哩之學習歷程為:一、護生與原住民身分的原罪與束縛;二、護生與新手護士間角色轉換;三、在挑戰與支持間尋找情緒的出口;四、在最後一哩中探索生涯。將可做為原住民教育及護理教育之重要參酌。 This study explored the last-mile learning process of aboriginal nursing students. The participants were 48 aboriginal students from the Department of Nursing, who hadfinished their clinical practicums. Data were collected by observation, semi-structured questionnaire survey, in-depth interviews, and focus group interviews. The strategy of data analysis was based on grounded theory. To enhance the trustworthiness of this study, trust relationship was established with the participants, and different research methodologies including triangulation, peer review, member check, negative cases analysis, and thick description were used. Our results revealed that the subjects’ last-mile learning process included: (1 seeking freedom from constraints as an aboriginal nursing student, (2 switching roles from a nursing student to a novice nurse, (3 searching for emotional outlets in face of challenges, and (4 career exploration. Findings of this study not only shed light on aboriginal students’ learning process during clinical practicums, but also serve as useful references for both aboriginal education and nursing education.

  8. Crystallization of copper metaphosphate glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Byeong-Soo; Weinberg, Michael C.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of the valence state of copper in copper metaphosphate glass on the crystallization behavior and glass transition temperature has been investigated. The crystallization of copper metaphosphate is initiated from the surface and its main crystalline phase is copper metaphosphate (Cu(PO)3),independent of the (Cu sup 2+)/(Cu(total)). However, the crystal morphology, the relative crystallization rates, and their temperature dependences are affected by the (Cu sup 2+)/(Cu (total)) ratio in the glass. On the other hand, the totally oxidized glass crystallizes from all over the surface. The relative crystallization rate of the reduced glass to the totally oxidized glass is large at low temperature, but small at high temperature. The glass transition temperature of the glass increases as the (Cu sup 2+)/(Cu(total)) ratio is raised. It is also found that the atmosphere used during heat treatment does not influence the crystallization of the reduced glass, except for the formation of a very thin CuO surface layer when heated in air.

  9. Spatial filtering with photonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maigyte, Lina [Departament de Física i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Rambla Sant Nebridi 22, Terrassa 08222 (Spain); Staliunas, Kestutis [Departament de Física i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Rambla Sant Nebridi 22, Terrassa 08222 (Spain); Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), Pg. Lluís Companys 23, Barcelona 08010 (Spain)

    2015-03-15

    Photonic crystals are well known for their celebrated photonic band-gaps—the forbidden frequency ranges, for which the light waves cannot propagate through the structure. The frequency (or chromatic) band-gaps of photonic crystals can be utilized for frequency filtering. In analogy to the chromatic band-gaps and the frequency filtering, the angular band-gaps and the angular (spatial) filtering are also possible in photonic crystals. In this article, we review the recent advances of the spatial filtering using the photonic crystals in different propagation regimes and for different geometries. We review the most evident configuration of filtering in Bragg regime (with the back-reflection—i.e., in the configuration with band-gaps) as well as in Laue regime (with forward deflection—i.e., in the configuration without band-gaps). We explore the spatial filtering in crystals with different symmetries, including axisymmetric crystals; we discuss the role of chirping, i.e., the dependence of the longitudinal period along the structure. We also review the experimental techniques to fabricate the photonic crystals and numerical techniques to explore the spatial filtering. Finally, we discuss several implementations of such filters for intracavity spatial filtering.

  10. Photonic crystal enhanced cytokine immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Patrick C; Ganesh, Nikhil; Cunningham, Brian T

    2009-01-01

    Photonic crystal surfaces are demonstrated as a means for enhancing the detection sensitivity and resolution for assays that use a fluorescent tag to quantify the concentration of an analyte protein molecule in a liquid test sample. Computer modeling of the spatial distribution of resonantly coupled electromagnetic fields on the photonic crystal surface are used to estimate the magnitude of enhancement factor compared to performing the same fluorescent assay on a plain glass surface, and the photonic crystal structure is fabricated and tested to experimentally verify the performance using a sandwich immunoassay for the protein Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). The demonstrated photonic crystal fabrication method utilizes a nanoreplica molding technique that allows for large-area inexpensive fabrication of the structure in a format that is compatible with confocal microarray laser scanners. The signal-to-noise ratio for fluorescent spots on the photonic crystal is increased by at least five-fold relative to the glass slide, allowing a TNF-alpha concentration of 1.6 pg/ml to be distinguished from noise on a photonic crystal surface. In addition, the minimum quantitative limit of detection on the photonic crystal surface is one-third the limit on the glass slide - a decrease from 18 pg/ml to 6 pg/ml. The increased performance of the immunoassay allows for more accurate quantitation of physiologically relevant concentrations of TNF-alpha in a protein microarray format that can be expanded to multiple cytokines.

  11. Crystal ball single event display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosnick, D.; Gibson, A. [Valparaiso Univ., IN (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Allgower, C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). High Energy Physics Div.; Alyea, J. [Valparaiso Univ., IN (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy]|[Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). High Energy Physics Div.

    1997-10-15

    The Single Event Display (SED) is a routine that is designed to provide information graphically about a triggered event within the Crystal Ball. The SED is written entirely in FORTRAN and uses the CERN-based HICZ graphing package. The primary display shows the amount of energy deposited in each of the NaI crystals on a Mercator-like projection of the crystals. Ten different shades and colors correspond to varying amounts of energy deposited within a crystal. Information about energy clusters is displayed on the crystal map by outlining in red the thirteen (or twelve) crystals contained within a cluster and assigning each cluster a number. Additional information about energy clusters is provided in a series of boxes containing useful data about the energy distribution among the crystals within the cluster. Other information shown on the event display include the event trigger type and data about {pi}{sup o}`s and {eta}`s formed from pairs of clusters as found by the analyzer. A description of the major features is given, along with some information on how to install the SED into the analyzer.

  12. Radiation generation with pyroelectric crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geuther, Jeffrey A.

    2007-12-01

    Pyroelectric crystals heated or cooled in vacuum have been used to produce low-energy x-ray devices since 1992. In the course of this thesis, experiments with lithium tantalate (LiTaO3) and lithium niobate (LiNbO 3) were performed to extend the usefulness of pyroelectric radiation sources. Paired-crystal x-ray generators were shown to double the x-ray energy and yield, and allow the k-shell fluorescence of any metal up to thorium (Z = 90). It was demonstrated that the electron emission from a single pyroelectric crystal could be transmitted through a beryllium window to allow the electron beam to be extracted from the vacuum chamber. The electron emission current and energy were measured, and a mathematical model was developed to predict emission current and energy. Magnetic deflection experiments were used to verify that the electric field produced by the pyroelectric effect in lithium tantalate was sufficient to ionize gas. Finally, a paired-crystal system was used to ionize a deuterium fill gas near a metallic tip mounted to a pyroelectric crystal, and accelerate these ions into a deuterated target mounted to the opposing crystal. This technique was used to produce a compact, low-power fusion neutron source driven by pyroelectric crystals.

  13. Spherical colloidal photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuanjin; Shang, Luoran; Cheng, Yao; Gu, Zhongze

    2014-12-16

    CONSPECTUS: Colloidal photonic crystals (PhCs), periodically arranged monodisperse nanoparticles, have emerged as one of the most promising materials for light manipulation because of their photonic band gaps (PBGs), which affect photons in a manner similar to the effect of semiconductor energy band gaps on electrons. The PBGs arise due to the periodic modulation of the refractive index between the building nanoparticles and the surrounding medium in space with subwavelength period. This leads to light with certain wavelengths or frequencies located in the PBG being prohibited from propagating. Because of this special property, the fabrication and application of colloidal PhCs have attracted increasing interest from researchers. The most simple and economical method for fabrication of colloidal PhCs is the bottom-up approach of nanoparticle self-assembly. Common colloidal PhCs from this approach in nature are gem opals, which are made from the ordered assembly and deposition of spherical silica nanoparticles after years of siliceous sedimentation and compression. Besides naturally occurring opals, a variety of manmade colloidal PhCs with thin film or bulk morphology have also been developed. In principle, because of the effect of Bragg diffraction, these PhC materials show different structural colors when observed from different angles, resulting in brilliant colors and important applications. However, this angle dependence is disadvantageous for the construction of some optical materials and devices in which wide viewing angles are desired. Recently, a series of colloidal PhC materials with spherical macroscopic morphology have been created. Because of their spherical symmetry, the PBGs of spherical colloidal PhCs are independent of rotation under illumination of the surface at a fixed incident angle of the light, broadening the perspective of their applications. Based on droplet templates containing colloidal nanoparticles, these spherical colloidal PhCs can be

  14. Another mile has been walked

    CERN Multimedia

    Gokhan Unel

    2007-01-01

    While much work continues on the individual sub-subsystems, the global commissioning of ATLAS is now gathering speed. In early June (4-18) the third milestone run (M3) was dedicated to operating the experiment as a whole. Keeping each of the incomplete sub-systems running stably over many days is no small challenge. Multiply this by the number of sub-detectors involved (see below), and add the infrastructure (computing, power and cooling), DCS and safety systems, and you might well wonder if it can work at all. But work it did! Week-1 In the first week the calorimeters and the barrel muons were triggered via the Central Trigger Processor (CTP) and read out by the central DAQ. As these detectors had been used in the previous milestone run (M2), the emphasis was on monitoring and exercising the formal shift procedures. Each detector was initialized and monitored from their dedicated sub-system desk in the ATLAS control room, and the global run was controlled from the run-control desk. Thanks to all of the pr...

  15. Diabetes MILES Youth-Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagger, Virginia; Trawley, Steven; Hendrieckx, Christel;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Type 1 diabetes is a complex and demanding condition, which places a substantial behavioural and psychological burden on young people and their families. Around one-third of adolescents with type 1 diabetes need mental health support. Parents of a child with type 1 diabetes are also a...

  16. Multicolor photonic crystal laser array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jeremy B; Brener, Igal; Subramania, Ganapathi S; Wang, George T; Li, Qiming

    2015-04-28

    A multicolor photonic crystal laser array comprises pixels of monolithically grown gain sections each with a different emission center wavelength. As an example, two-dimensional surface-emitting photonic crystal lasers comprising broad gain-bandwidth III-nitride multiple quantum well axial heterostructures were fabricated using a novel top-down nanowire fabrication method. Single-mode lasing was obtained in the blue-violet spectral region with 60 nm of tuning (or 16% of the nominal center wavelength) that was determined purely by the photonic crystal geometry. This approach can be extended to cover the entire visible spectrum.

  17. Reduction of precursor decay anomaly in single crystal lithium fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Yukio

    2000-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to reveal that the precursor decay anomaly in single crystal lithium fluoride is reduced by Sano's decay curve [Y. Sano, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 7616 (1999)], which is much smaller in slope than Asay's decay curve [J. R. Asay, G. R. Fowles, G. E. Duvall, M. H. Miles, and R. F. Tinder, J. Appl. Phys. 43, 2132 (1972)]. To this end, strain, particle, velocity, and stress in a precursor and near the leading edge of the follower changing with time along Sano's decay curve are first analyzed quantitatively. The analysis verified the existence of degenerate contraction waves I and II and a subrarefaction wave R', and the decay process [Y. Sano, J. Appl. Phys. 77, 3746 (1995)] caused in sequence by evolving followers C, I, II, R', Rb. Next, inequalities relating decay rates qualitatively to plastic strain rates at the leading edge of the follower, which are derived using the properties of the followers, are incorporated into the analysis. Calculation results showed that the plastic strain rates were reduced by low decay rates. This indicates that the precursor decay anomaly might be greatly reduced by Sano's decay curve.

  18. Single Crystal Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Santillan, Joaquin

    2014-06-01

    The present work studies (0001) Al2O3 and (111) Al2MgO4 wetting with pure molten Al by the sessile drop technique from 1073 K to 1473 K (800 °C to 1200 °C) under Ar at PO2 10-15 Pa. Al pure liquid wets a smooth and chemically homogeneous surface of an inert solid, the wetting driving force ( t, T) can be readily studied when surface solid roughness increases in the system. Both crystals planes (0001) Al2O3 and (111) Al2MgO4 have crystallographic surfaces with identical O-2 crystalline positions however considering Mg2+ content in Al2MgO4 structure may influence a reactive mode. Kinetic models results under similar experimental conditions show that Al wetting on (0001) Al2O3 is less reactive than (111) Al2MgO4, however at >1273 K (1000 °C) (0001) Al2O3 transformation occurs and a transition of wetting improves. The (111) Al2MgO4 and Al system promotes interface formations that slow its wetting process.

  19. Crystal structure of fipronil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunjin Park

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C12H4Cl2F6N4OS {systematic name: 5-amino-1-[2,6-dichloro-4-(trifluoromethylphenyl]-4-[(trifluoromethanesulfinyl]-1H-pyrazole-3-carbonitrile}, is a member of the phenylpyrazole group of acaricides, and one of the phenylpyrazole group of insecticides. The dihedral angle between the planes of the pyrazole and benzene rings is 89.03 (9°. The fluorine atoms of the trifluoromethyl substituent on the benzene ring are disordered over two sets of sites, with occupancy ratios 0.620 (15:0.380 (15. In the crystal, C—N...π interactions [N...ring centroid = 3.607 (4 Å] together with N—H...N and C—H...F hydrogen bonds form a looped chain structure along [10\\overline{1}]. Finally, N—H...O hydrogen bonds and C—Cl...π interactions [Cl...ring centroid = 3.5159 (16 Å] generate a three-dimensional structure. Additionally, there are a short intermolecular F... F contacts present.

  20. Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Nanobalance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inzelt, György

    The method of piezoelectric microgravimetry (nanogravimetry) using an electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) or nanobalance (EQCN) can be considered as a novel and much more sensitive version of electrogravimetry. The EQCN technique has become a widely used technique in several areas of electrochemistry, electroanalytical chemistry, bioelectrochemistry, etc. [1-10]. Obviously, mass changes occurring during adsorption, sorption, electrosorption, electrodeposition, or spontaneous deposition can be followed, which is very helpful for the elucidation of reaction mechanism via identification of the species accumulated on the surface. These investigations include metal and alloy deposition, underpotential deposition, electroplating, synthesis of conducting polymers by electropolymerization, adsorption of biologically active materials, and analytical determination of small ions and biomolecules. Of course, the opposite processes, i.e., spontaneous dissolution, electrodissolution, corrosion, can also be studied. Electrochemical oscillations, in which the formation and oxidation of chemisorbed molecular fragments play a determining role, have been studied, too. The majority of the investigations have been devoted to ion and solvent transport associated with the redox transformations of electrochemically active polymers. Similar studies have been carried out regarding polynuclear surface layers such as metal hexacyanometalates as well as inorganic and organic microcrystals of different compositions.